WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon isotope evidence

  1. Textural and isotopic evidence for Ca-Mg carbonate pedogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Hernandez, J. L.; Sánchez-Navas, A.; Delgado, A.; Yepes, J.; Garcia-Casco, A.

    2018-02-01

    Models for evaluating the terrestrial carbon cycle must take into account not only soil organic carbon, represented by a mixture of plant and animal remains, but also soil inorganic carbon, contained in minerals, mainly in calcite and dolomite. Thick soil caliches derived from weathering of mafic and ultramafic rocks must be considered as sinks for carbon storage in soils. The formation of calcite and dolomite from pedogenic alteration of volcanic tephras under an aridic moisture regime is studied in an unusually thick 3-m soil profile on Gran Canaria island (Canary Islands, Spain). The biological activity of the pedogenic environment (soil respiration) releases CO2 incorporated as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in waters. It drives the formation of low-magnesian calcite and calcian dolomite over basaltic substrates, with a δ13C negative signature (-8 to -6‰ vs. V-PDB). Precipitation of authigenic carbonates in the soil is accompanied by the formation of Mg-rich clay minerals and quartz after the weathering of basalts. Mineralogical, textural, compositional, and isotopic variations throughout the soil profile studied indicate that dolomite formed at greater depths and earlier than the calcite. The isotopic signatures of the surficial calcite and deeper dolomite crusts are primary and resulted from the dissolution-precipitation cycles that led to the formation of both types of caliches under different physicochemical conditions. Dolomite formed within a clay-rich matrix through diffusive transport of reactants. It is precipitated from water with more negative δ18O values (-1.5 to -3.5‰ vs. V-SMOW) in the subsoil compared to those of water in equilibrium with surficial calcite. Thus, calcite precipitated after dolomite, and directly from percolating solutions in equilibrium with vadose water enriched in δ18O (-0.5 to +1.5‰) due to the evaporation processes. The accumulation of inorganic carbon reaches 586.1 kg m-2 in the soil studied, which means that the

  2. Thallium isotope evidence for a permanent increase in marine organic carbon export in the early Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S.G.; Mar-Gerrison, S.; Gannoun, A.; LaRowe, D.; Klemm, V.; Halliday, A.N.; Burton, K.W.; Hein, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The first high resolution thallium (Tl) isotope records in two ferromanganese crusts (Fe-Mn crusts), CD29 and D11 from the Pacific Ocean are presented. The crusts record pronounced but systematic changes in 205Tl/203Tl that are unlikely to reflect diagenetic overprinting or changes in isotope fractionation between seawater and Fe-Mn crusts. It appears more likely that the Fe-Mn crusts track the Tl isotope composition of seawater over time. The present-day oceanic residence time of Tl is estimated to be about 20,000??yr, such that the isotopic composition should reflect ocean-wide events. New and published Os isotope data are used to construct age models for these crusts that are consistent with each other and significantly different from previous age models. Application of these age models reveals that the Tl isotope composition of seawater changed systematically between ~ 55??Ma and ~ 45??Ma. Using a simple box model it is shown that the present day Tl isotope composition of seawater depends almost exclusively on the ratio between the two principal output fluxes of marine Tl. These fluxes are the rate of removal of Tl from seawater via scavenging by authigenic Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide precipitation and the uptake rate of Tl during low temperature alteration of oceanic crust. It is highly unlikely that the latter has changed greatly. Therefore, assuming that the marine Tl budget has also not changed significantly during the Cenozoic, the low 205Tl/203Tl during the Paleocene is best explained by a more than four-fold higher sequestration of Tl by Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides compared with at the present day. The calculated Cenozoic Tl isotopic seawater curve displays a striking similarity to that of S, providing evidence that both systems may have responded to the same change in the marine environment. A plausible explanation is a marked and permanent increase in organic carbon export from ~ 55??Ma to ~ 45??Ma, which led to higher pyrite burial rates and a significantly reduced

  3. Carbon Retention and Isotopic Evolution in Deeply Subducted Sediments: Evidence from the Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Kollars, J.; Bebout, G. E.; Agard, P.; Angiboust, S.

    2012-12-01

    Subduction-zone metamorphism of oceanic crust and carbonate-rich seafloor sediments plays an important regulatory role in the global C cycle by controlling the fraction of subducting C entering long-term storage in the mantle and the fraction of subducting C emitted into the atmosphere in arc volcanic gases. Modeling studies suggest that the extent of decarbonation of subducting sediments could be strongly affected by extents of infiltration by external H2O-rich fluids and that, in cool subduction zones, the dehydration of subducting oceanic slabs may not release sufficient H2O to cause significant decarbonation of overlying sediments [Gorman et al. (2006), G-cubed; Hacker (2008), G-cubed]. Metasedimentary suites in the Western Alps (sampled from the Schistes Lustres, Zermatt-Saas ophiolite, and at Lago di Cignana) were subducted to depths corresponding to 1.5-3.2 GPa, over a range of peak temperatures of 350-600°C, and are associated with HP/UHP-metamorphosed Jurassic ophiolitic rocks [Agard et al. (2001), Bull. soc. geol. France; Frezzotti et al. (2011), Nature Geoscience]. These metasedimentary suites are composed of interlayered metapelites and metacarbonates and represent a range of peak P-T conditions experienced in modern, relatively cool subduction zones. Integrated petrologic and isotopic study of these rocks allows an analysis of decarbonation and isotopic exchange among oxidized and reduced C reservoirs along prograde subduction-zone P-T paths. Petrographic work on Schistes Lustres metacarbonates indicates only minor occurrences of calc-silicate phases, consistent with the rocks having experienced only very minor decarbonation during prograde metamorphism. Carbonate δ13CVPDB values (-1.5 to 1‰) are similar to values typical of marine carbonates. Higher grade, UHP-metamorphosed carbonates at Cignana show mineralogic evidence of decarbonation; however, the δ13C of the calcite in these samples remains similar to that of marine carbonate. With

  4. Carbon isotope fractionation by thermophilic phototrophic sulfur bacteria: evidence for autotrophic growth in natural populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, M. T.; Takigiku, R.; Lee, R. G.; Gest, H.; Hayes, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Purple phototrophic bacteria of the genus Chromatium can grow as either photoautotrophs or photoheterotrophs. To determine the growth mode of the thermophilic Chromatium species, Chromatium tepidum, under in situ conditions, we have examined the carbon isotope fractionation patterns in laboratory cultures of this organism and in mats of C. tepidum which develop in sulfide thermal springs in Yellowstone National Park. Isotopic analysis (13C/12C) of total carbon, carotenoid pigments, and bacteriochlorophyll from photoautotrophically grown cultures of C. tepidum yielded 13C fractionation factors near -20%. Cells of C. tepidum grown on excess acetate, wherein synthesis of the Calvin cycle enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase) was greatly repressed, were isotopically heavier, fractionation factors of ca. -7% being observed. Fractionation factors determined by isotopic analyses of cells and pigment fractions of natural populations of C. tepidum growing in three different sulfide thermal springs in Yellowstone National Park were approximately -20%, indicating that this purple sulfur bacterium grows as a photoautotroph in nature.

  5. Variation in dietary histories among the immigrants of Machu Picchu: Carbon and nitrogen isotope evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Bethany L; Kingston, John D; Armelagos, George J

    2010-01-01

    This study estimates dietary composition during infancy and childhood among 71 adults interred at the site of Machu Picchu, a royal Inca estate in the southern highlands of Peru. Recent research suggests that the majority of individuals were members of the cosmopolitan yana and aclla servant classes, and immigrated to the site from different regions; individual dietary histories may have been similarly varied. Diet was estimated at multiple points in early life through characterization of carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in tooth enamel and dentin, which preserve isotopic values from the first years of life. These data were compared to isotopic data from modern food samples, and analyzed using recently-published statistical models. A subset of individuals also has existing bone collagen isotopic data, which reflects diet from the last decade of life and thus permits comparison over the life course. Results indicate significant variation in enamel δ 13 C (approximately 12% o ), dentin δ 13 C (approximately 9% o ) and δ 15 N (approximately 8% o ) between individuals across the study population. These findings suggest substantial variability in diet during infancy and childhood, and support interpretations that this population was primarily yanacona or mixed yanaconalacllacona. This study also highlights the utility of multi-tissue isotopic analysis in more nuanced reconstruction of diet in the ancient Andes

  6. Atmospheric evidence for a global secular increase in carbon isotopic discrimination of land photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Ralph F.; Graven, Heather D.; Welp, Lisa R.; Resplandy, Laure; Bi, Jian; Piper, Stephen C.; Sun, Ying; Bollenbacher, Alane; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2017-09-01

    A decrease in the 13C/12C ratio of atmospheric CO2 has been documented by direct observations since 1978 and from ice core measurements since the industrial revolution. This decrease, known as the 13C-Suess effect, is driven primarily by the input of fossil fuel-derived CO2 but is also sensitive to land and ocean carbon cycling and uptake. Using updated records, we show that no plausible combination of sources and sinks of CO2 from fossil fuel, land, and oceans can explain the observed 13C-Suess effect unless an increase has occurred in the 13C/12C isotopic discrimination of land photosynthesis. A trend toward greater discrimination under higher CO2 levels is broadly consistent with tree ring studies over the past century, with field and chamber experiments, and with geological records of C3 plants at times of altered atmospheric CO2, but increasing discrimination has not previously been included in studies of long-term atmospheric 13C/12C measurements. We further show that the inferred discrimination increase of 0.014 ± 0.007‰ ppm-1 is largely explained by photorespiratory and mesophyll effects. This result implies that, at the global scale, land plants have regulated their stomatal conductance so as to allow the CO2 partial pressure within stomatal cavities and their intrinsic water use efficiency to increase in nearly constant proportion to the rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration.

  7. Intercontinental correlation of organic carbon and carbonate stable isotope records: evidence of climate and sea-evel change during the Turonian (Cretaceous)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jarvis, I.; Trabucho-Alexandre, J.; Gröcke, D. R.; Uličný, David; Laurin, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2015), s. 53-90 ISSN 2055-4877 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/10/1991; GA MŠk LH12041 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : carbon isotopes * chemostratigraphy * climate change * Cretaceous * oxygen isotopes Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  8. Sources of CO{sub 2} in the Gulf of Trieste (N. Adriatic). Stable Carbon Isotope Evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogrinc, N.; Zavadlav, S. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Turk, D. [Department of Oceanography, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Earth Institute at Columbia University, Palisades, NY (United States); Faganeli, J. [Marine Biological Station National Institute of Biology, Piran (Slovenia)

    2013-07-15

    In the present study the influence of freshwater intrusions on the net carbon dynamics in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea) were investigated. Carbonate mineral weathering dominates the inorganic carbon geochemical flux of the N Adriatic rivers and thus the origin of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the gulf seawater. Based on {delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC} values and isotopic mass balance it was estimated that rivers represents about 20% of DIC in spring, while the riverine contribution in autumn is less pronounced probably due to intensive water mixing. The results, therefore, suggest that river inputs play a significant role in the carbon cycling in the Gulf of Trieste due to mixing of higher DIC riverine water with lower seawater DIC. The observed higher summer {delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC} values were due to more pronounced photosynthetic carbon fractionation. (author)

  9. Pedogenic carbonate stable isotopic evidence for wooded habitat preference of early Pleistocene tool makers in the Turkana Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Rhonda L; Lepre, Christopher J; Feibel, Craig S; Wright, James D; Mortlock, Richard A; Harmand, Sonia; Brugal, Jean-Philip; Roche, Hélène

    2013-07-01

    The origin and evolution of early Pleistocene hominin lithic technologies in Africa occurred within the context of savanna grassland ecosystems. The Nachukui Formation of the Turkana Basin in northern Kenya, containing Oldowan and Acheulean tool assemblages and fossil evidence for early members of Homo and Paranthropus, provides an extensive spatial and temporal paleosol record of early Pleistocene savanna flora. Here we present new carbon isotopic (δ(13)CVPDB) values of pedogenic carbonates (68 nodules, 193 analyses) from the Nachukui Formation in order to characterize past vegetation structure and change through time. We compared three members (Kalochoro, Kaitio, and Natoo) at five locations spanning 2.4-1.4Ma and sampled in proximity to hominin archaeological and paleontological sites. Our results indicate diverse habitats showing a mosaic pattern of vegetation cover at each location yet demonstrate grassland expansion through time influenced by paleogeography. Kalochoro floodplains occurred adjacent to large river systems, and paleosols show evidence of C3 woodlands averaging 46-50% woody cover. Kaitio habitats were located along smaller rivers and lake margins. Paleosols yielded evidence for reduced portions of woody vegetation averaging 34-37% woody cover. Natoo environments had the highest percentage of grasslands averaging 21% woody cover near a diminishing Lake Turkana precursor. We also compared paleosol δ(13)CVPDB values of lithic archaeological sites with paleosol δ(13)CVPDB values of all environments available to hominins at 2.4-1.4Ma in the Nachukui and Koobi Fora Formations. Grassy environments became more widespread during this interval; woody canopy cover mean percentages steadily decreased by 12%. However, significantly more wooded savanna habitats were present in the vicinity of lithic archaeological sites and did not mirror the basin-wide trend of grassland spread. Hominin lithic archaeological sites consistently demonstrated woody cover

  10. What drove the methane cycle in the past - evidence from carbon isotopic data of methane enclosed in polar ice cores

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, Lars

    2013-01-01

    During the last glacial cycle, greenhouse gas concentrations fluctuated on decadal and longer timescales. Concentrations of methane, as measured in polar ice cores, show a close connection with Northern Hemisphere temperature variability, but the contribution of the various methane sources and sinks to changes in concentration is still a matter of debate. This thesis assess changes in methane cycling over the past 160,000 years by measurements of the carbon isotopic composition d13C of methan...

  11. Carbon isotopic evidence for the associations of decreasing atmospheric CO2 level with the Frasnian-Famennian mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Gu, Zhaoyan; Wang, Chengyuan; Hao, Qingzhen; Han, Jingtai; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Luo; Lu, Yanwu

    2012-03-01

    A perturbation of the global carbon cycle has often been used for interpreting the Frasnian-Famennian (F-F) mass extinction. However, the changes of atmospheric CO2 level (pCO2) during this interval are much debatable. To illustrate the carbon cycle during F-F transition, paired inorganic (δ13Ccarb) and organic (δ13Corg) carbon isotope analyses were carried out on two late Devonian carbonate sequences (Dongcun and Yangdi) from south China. The larger amplitude shift of δ13Corg compared to δ13Ccarb and its resultant Δ13C (Δ13C = δ13Ccarb - δ13Corg) decrease indicate decreased atmospheric CO2level around the F-F boundary. The onset ofpCO2 level decrease predates that of marine regressions, which coincide with the beginning of conodont extinctions, suggesting that temperature decrease induced by decreased greenhouse effect of atmospheric CO2might have contributed to the F-F mass extinction.

  12. Evidence for prevalent Z = 6 magic number in neutron-rich carbon isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, D T; Ong, H J; Hagen, G; Morris, T D; Aoi, N; Suzuki, T; Kanada-En'yo, Y; Geng, L S; Terashima, S; Tanihata, I; Nguyen, T T; Ayyad, Y; Chan, P Y; Fukuda, M; Geissel, H; Harakeh, M N; Hashimoto, T; Hoang, T H; Ideguchi, E; Inoue, A; Jansen, G R; Kanungo, R; Kawabata, T; Khiem, L H; Lin, W P; Matsuta, K; Mihara, M; Momota, S; Nagae, D; Nguyen, N D; Nishimura, D; Otsuka, T; Ozawa, A; Ren, P P; Sakaguchi, H; Scheidenberger, C; Tanaka, J; Takechi, M; Wada, R; Yamamoto, T

    2018-04-23

    The nuclear shell structure, which originates in the nearly independent motion of nucleons in an average potential, provides an important guide for our understanding of nuclear structure and the underlying nuclear forces. Its most remarkable fingerprint is the existence of the so-called magic numbers of protons and neutrons associated with extra stability. Although the introduction of a phenomenological spin-orbit (SO) coupling force in 1949 helped in explaining the magic numbers, its origins are still open questions. Here, we present experimental evidence for the smallest SO-originated magic number (subshell closure) at the proton number six in 13-20 C obtained from systematic analysis of point-proton distribution radii, electromagnetic transition rates and atomic masses of light nuclei. Performing ab initio calculations on 14,15 C, we show that the observed proton distribution radii and subshell closure can be explained by the state-of-the-art nuclear theory with chiral nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon forces, which are rooted in the quantum chromodynamics.

  13. Carbon isotopes in mollusk shell carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnaughey, Ted A.; Gillikin, David Paul

    2008-10-01

    Mollusk shells contain many isotopic clues about calcification physiology and environmental conditions at the time of shell formation. In this review, we use both published and unpublished data to discuss carbon isotopes in both bivalve and gastropod shell carbonates. Land snails construct their shells mainly from respired CO2, and shell δ13C reflects the local mix of C3 and C4 plants consumed. Shell δ13C is typically >10‰ heavier than diet, probably because respiratory gas exchange discards CO2, and retains the isotopically heavier HCO3 -. Respired CO2 contributes less to the shells of aquatic mollusks, because CO2/O2 ratios are usually higher in water than in air, leading to more replacement of respired CO2 by environmental CO2. Fluid exchange with the environment also brings additional dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) into the calcification site. Shell δ13C is typically a few ‰ lower than ambient DIC, and often decreases with age. Shell δ13C retains clues about processes such as ecosystem metabolism and estuarine mixing. Ca2+ ATPase-based models of calcification physiology developed for corals and algae likely apply to mollusks, too, but lower pH and carbonic anhydrase at the calcification site probably suppress kinetic isotope effects. Carbon isotopes in biogenic carbonates are clearly complex, but cautious interpretation can provide a wealth of information, especially after vital effects are better understood.

  14. Evidence for Late Permian-Upper Triassic ocean acidification from calcium isotopes in carbonate of the Kamura section in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, F.; Zhao, L., Sr.; Chen, Z. Q.; Wang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Calcium and carbon cycles are tightly related in the ocean, for example, through continental weathering and deposition of carbonate, thus, very important for exploring evolutions of marine environment during the earth history. The end-Permian mass extinction is the biggest biological disaster in the Phanerozoic and there are several studies talking about variations of calcium isotopes across the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB). However, these studies are all from the Tethys regions (Payne et al., 2010; Hinojosa et al., 2012), while the Panthalassic Ocean is still unknown to people. Moreover, evolutions of the calcium isotopes during the Early to Late Triassic is also poorly studied (Blattler et al., 2012). Here, we studied an Uppermost Permian to Upper Triassic shallow water successions (Kamura section, Southwest Japan) in the Central Panthalassic Ocean. The Kamura section is far away from the continent without any clastic pollution, therefore, could preserved reliable δ44/40Cacarb signals. Conodont zonation and carbonate carbon isotope also provide precious time framework which is necessary for the explaining of the δ44/40Cacarb profile. In Kamura, δ44/40Cacarb and δ13Ccarb both exhibit negative excursions across the PTB, the δ44/40Cacarb value in the end-Permian is 1.0398‰ then abrupt decrease to the minimum value of 0.1524‰. CO2-driven global ocean acidification best explains the coincidence of the δ44/40Cacarb excursion with negative excursions in the δ13Ccarb of carbonates until the Early Smithian(N1a, N1b, N1c, P1, N2, P2). In the Middle and the Late Triassic, the δ44/40 Cacarb average approximately 1.1‰. During the Middle and Late Triassic, strong relationships between δ44/40Cacarb and δ13Ccarb are collapsed, indicating a normal pH values of the seawater in those time. The Siberian Trap volcanism probably played a significant role on the δ44/40Cacarb until the late Early Triassic. After that, δ44/40Cacarb was mostly controlled by carbonate

  15. Carbon isotope evidence for a vigorous biological pump in the wake of end-Permian mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K. M.; Yu, M.; Jost, A. B.; Payne, J.

    2009-12-01

    Ocean anoxia and euxinia have long been linked to the end-Permian mass extinction and the subsequent Early Triassic interval of delayed biotic recovery. This anoxic, sulfidic episode has been ascribed to both low- and high-productivity states in the marine water column, leaving the causes of euxinia and the mechanisms underlying delayed recovery poorly understood. To examine the nature of the end-Permian and Early Triassic biological production, we measured the carbon isotopic composition of carbonates from an exceptionally preserved carbonate platform in the Nanpanjiang Basin of south China. 13C of limestones from 5 stratigraphic sections displays a gradient of approximately 4‰ from shallow to deep water within the Lower Triassic. The limestones are systematically enriched in the platform interior relative to coeval slope and basin margin deposits by 2-4‰ at the peaks of correlative positive and negative δ13C excursions. This gradient subsequently collapses to less than 1‰ in the Middle Triassic, coincident with accelerated biotic recovery and cessation of δ13C excursions. Based on the relationship between δ18O and δ13C, trace metal analyses, and lithostratigraphic context, we conclude that the carbon isotope gradient is unlikely to reflect meteoric diagenesis, organic matter remineralization, or changes in the mixing ratio of sediment sources and minerals across the platform. Instead, we interpret the relatively depleted δ13C values toward the basin as reflecting DIC input from 13C-depleted deep waters during early diagenesis in a nutrient-rich, euxinic ocean. These observations suggest that a vigorous prokaryote-driven biological pump sustained Early Triassic ocean anoxia and inhibited recovery of animal ecosystems.

  16. Contribution of deep sourced carbon from hydrocarbon seeps to sedimentary organic carbon: Evidence from Δ14C and δ13C isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, D.; Peckmann, J.; Peng, Y.; Liang, Q.; Roberts, H. H.; Chen, D.

    2017-12-01

    Sulfate-driven anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) limits the release of methane from marine sediments and promotes the formation of carbonates close to the seafloor along continental margins. It has been established that hydrocarbon seeps are a source of dissolved inorganic and organic carbon to marine environments. However, questions remain about the contribution of deep sourced carbon from hydrocarbon seeps to the sedimentary organic carbon pool. For a number of hydrocarbon seeps from the South China Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, the portion of modern carbon was determined based on natural radiocarbon abundances (Δ14C) and stable carbon isotope (δ13Corganic carbon) compositions of the non-carbonate fractions extracted from authigenic carbonates. Samples from both areas show a mixing trend between ideal planktonic organic carbon (δ13C = -22‰ VPDB and 90% modern carbon) and the ambient methane. The δ13Corganic carbon values of non-carbonate fractions from three ancient seep deposits (northern Italy, Miocene; western Washington State, USA, Eocene to Oligocene) confirm that the proxy can be used to constrain the record of sulfate-driven AOM through most of Earth history by measuring the δ13C values of organic carbon. This study reveals the potential of using δ13C values of organic carbon to discern seep and non-seep environments. This new approach is particularly promising when authigenic carbonate is not present in ancient sedimentary environments. Acknowledgments: The authors thank BOEM and NOAA for their years' support of the deep-sea dives. Funding was provided by the NSF of China (Grants: 41422602 and 41373085).

  17. Wildfire Activity Across the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary in the Polish Basin: Evidence from New Fossil Charcoal & Carbon-isotope Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointer, R.; Belcher, C.; Hesselbo, S. P.; Hodbod, M.; Pieńkowski, G.

    2017-12-01

    New fossil charcoal abundance and carbon-isotope data from two sedimentary cores provide new evidence of extreme environmental conditions in the Polish Basin during the Latest Triassic to Earliest Jurassic. Sedimentary cores from the Polish Basin provide an excellent record of terrestrial environmental conditions across the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary, a time of climatic extremes. Previous work has shown that the marine realm was affected by a large perturbation to the carbon cycle across the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary (manifested by large negative and positive carbon-isotope excursions) and limited records of charcoal abundance and organic geochemistry have indicated important changes in fire regime in the coeval ecosystems. Here we present two new carbon-isotope records generated from fossil plant matter across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary, and present new charcoal records. The charcoal abundance data confirm that there was variation in wildfire activity during the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic in the Polish Basin. Peaks in the number of fossil charcoal fragments present occur in both sedimentary cores, and increases in fossil charcoal abundance are linked to wildfires, signalling a short-lived rise in wildfire activity. Fossil charcoal abundance does not appear to be fully controlled by total organic matter content, depositional environment or bioturbation. We argue that increased wildfire activity is likely caused by an increase in ignition of plant material as a result of an elevated number of lightning strikes. Global warming (caused by a massive input of carbon into the atmosphere, as indicated by carbon-isotope data) can increase storm activity, leading to increased numbers of lightning strikes. Previous Triassic-Jurassic Boundary wildfire studies have found fossil charcoal abundance peaks at other northern hemisphere sites (Denmark & Greenland), and concluded that they represent increases in wildfire activity in the earliest Jurassic. Our new charcoal and

  18. Marine subsidies of island communities in the Gulf of California: evidence from stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, W.B.; Polis, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Coastal sites support larger (2 to > 100 x) populations of many consumers than inland sites on islands in the Gulf of California. Previous data suggested that subsidies of energy and nutrients from the ocean allowed large coastal populations. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes are frequently used to analyse diet composition of organisms: they are particularly useful to distinguish between diet sources with distinct isotopic signatures, such as marine and terrestrial diets. We analyzed the 13 C and 15 N concentrations of coastal versus inland spiders and scorpions to test the hypothesis that coastal individuals exhibited more strongly marine-based diets than inland individuals. Coastal spiders and scorpions were significantly more enriched in 13 C and 15 N than inland spiders and scorpions, suggesting that the coastal individuals consumed more marine-based foods than their inland counterparts. These patterns existed in both drought years and wet El Nino years. However, the marine influence was stronger in drought years when terrestrial productivity was nearly non-existent, than in wet years when terrestrial productivity increased by an order of magnitude. (au)

  19. Paleoecologies and paleoclimates of late cenozoic mammals from Southwest China: Evidence from stable carbon and oxygen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasatti, Dana; Wang, Yang; Gao, Feng; Xu, Yingfeng; Flynn, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    To examine paleodiets and habitats of extinct taxa and to understand long-term regional climate change, we determined the carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of fossil herbivore teeth and soil samples from six localities in Yunnan Province, Southwest China, ranging in age from ˜10 Ma to the present. Although limited in spatial and temporal coverage, these initial results reveal significant changes in the environments and diets of mammalian taxa over the last 10 million years. Prior to 2-3 Ma, while most mammals examined had pure or nearly pure C 3 diets, some individuals consumed a small amount of C 4 grasses (up to 20% C 4). Since then, C 4 grasses became a significant dietary component for most herbivores as indicated by higher enamel-δ 13C values in the Pleistocene Yuanmou Formation and at Shangri-La, most likely reflecting an increased C 4 biomass in the region. The carbon isotope results show that the diets of mammals of ˜2.5-1.75 Ma from Shangri-La ranged from pure C 3 to pure C 4 while 1.7 Ma horses from Yuanmou had 0-70% C 4 grasses in their diets. Mammals living at ˜8-7 Ma in the Yuanmou and Lufeng region had very similar diets and habitats, with similar climatic conditions. Increased C 4 biomass after ˜3-4 Ma suggests a significant change in certain aspects of regional climate, such as increased seasonality of rainfall or an increase in seasonal drought and fires as these factors are important to modern grasslands. The data also show that unlike the Siwalik fauna in the Indian subcontinent, mammals in Yunnan on the southeast side of the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau lived in an environment dominated by dense forests until ˜3-4 Ma. Nonetheless, both δ 13C values of paleosol carbonates and fossil enamels indicate that C 4 grasses were present in the Yuanmou region in the latest Miocene and Pliocene (˜8-3.5 Ma), likely in greatly dispersed, small patches of open habitats where the forest canopy was broken or on flood plains, and the C 4 biomass

  20. Origin of enormous trace metal enrichments in weathering mantles of Jurassic carbonates: evidence from Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hissler, C.; Stille, P.; Juilleret, J.; Iffly, J.; Perrone, T.; Morvan, G.

    2013-12-01

    Weathering mantels are widespread worldwide and include lateritic, sandy and kaolinite-rich saprolites and residuals of partially dissolved carbonate rocks. These old regolith systems have a complex history of formation and may present a polycyclic evolution due to successive geological and pedogenetic processes that affected the profile. Until now, only few studies highlighted the unusual content of associated trace elements in this type of weathering mantle. For instance, these enrichments can represent about five times the content of the underlying Bajocian to Oxfordian limestone/marl complexes, which have been relatively poorly studied compared to weathering mantle developed on magmatic bedrocks. Up to now, neither soil, nor saprolite formation has to our knowledge been geochemically elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine more closely the soil forming dynamics and the relationship of the chemical soil composition to potential sources (saprolite, Bajocian silty marls and limestones, atmospheric particles deposition...). Of special interest has also been the origin of trace metals and the processes causing their enrichments. Especially Rare Earth Element (REE) distribution patterns and Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratios are particularly well suited to identify trace element migration, to recognize origin and mixing processes and, in addition, to decipher possible anthropogenic and/or "natural" atmosphere-derived contributions to the soil. Moreover, leaching experiments shall help to identify mobile phases in the soil system. This may inform on the stability of trace elements and especially on their behaviour in these Fe-enriched carbonate systems. Trace metal migration and enrichments were studied on a cambisol developing on an underlying Jurassic limestone. The base is strongly enriched among others in rare earth elements (ΣREE: 2640ppm) or redox-sensitive elements such as Fe (44 wt.%), V (920ppm), Cr (700ppm), Zn (550ppm), As (260ppm), Co (45ppm

  1. Petro-structural, geochemical and carbon and oxygen isotopic study on carbonates crosscuting the Oman Ophiolite peridotites: evidence of polygenic CO2 trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, J.; Godard, M.; Martinez, I.; Oliot, E.; Williams, M. J.; Rodriguez, O.; Chaduteau, C.; Gouze, P.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon trapping in ophiolitic peridotites contributes to the global carbon cycle between solid Earth and its outer envelopes (through subduction and/or modern alteration). To investigate this process, we performed petro-structural (microtomography, EBSD, EPMA) and geochemical studies (LA-ICP-MS, carbon and oxygen isotopes on bulk and minerals using SHRIMP) of harzburgites cored in the Oman Ophiolite. Studied harzburgites are highly serpentinized (> 90 %) and crosscut by 3 generations of carbonates (> 20 Vol%) with compositions from calcite to dolomite (Mg/Ca = 0-0.85). Type 1 carbonates are fine penetrative veinlets and mesh core after olivine. They have low REE (e.g., Yb = 0.08-0.23 x CI-chondrite) and negative Ce anomalies. They have δ13CPDB = -15.2 to 1.10‰ and δ18OSMOW = 17.5 to 33.7‰, suggesting precipitation temperatures up to 110°C. Type 2 carbonates are pluri-mm veins bounded by cm-thick serpentinized vein selvages, oriented dominantly parallel to mantle foliation. Dynamic recrystallization is observed, indicating polygenetic formation: well crystallized calcite with REE abundances similar to Type 1 carbonates are locally replaced by small dolomite and calcite grains with higher REE (e.g., Yb = 0.35-1.0 x CI-chondrite) and positive Gd anomaly. Type 2 carbonates have δ13CPDB = -12.6 to -4.1‰ and δ18OSMOW = 25.0 to 32.7‰, suggesting precipitation temperatures from 10 to 60°C. Type 3 carbonates are late pluri-mm to cm veins reactivating Type 2 veins. They consist of small grains of dolomite and calcite with REE abundances similar to recrystallized Type 2 carbonates. Type 3 carbonates have δ13CPDB = -8.3 to -5.8‰ and δ18OSMOW = 28.8 to 32.7‰, suggesting precipitation temperatures 100°C). Formation of carbonate veins (Type 2) indicates localization of fluid flux, while serpentinization remains the dominant alteration process. Low T carbonate veins (Type 3) remain the main flow path through ophiolitic peridotites. Our study suggests that

  2. Carbon Isotope Chemistry in Molecular Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Amy N.; Willacy, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Few details of carbon isotope chemistry are known, especially the chemical processes that occur in astronomical environments like molecular clouds. Observational evidence shows that the C-12/C-13 abundance ratios vary due to the location of the C-13 atom within the molecular structure. The different abundances are a result of the diverse formation pathways that can occur. Modeling can be used to explore the production pathways of carbon molecules in an effort to understand and explain the chemical evolution of molecular clouds.

  3. Carbon isotope ratios of atmospheric carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Hitoshi; Kishima, Noriaki; Tsutaki, Yasuhiro.

    1982-01-01

    The delta 13 C values relative to PDB were measured for carbon dioxide in air samples collected at various parts of Japan and at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii in the periods of 1977 and 1978. The delta 13 C values of the ''clean air'' are -7.6 % at Hawaii and -8.1 per mille Oki and Hachijo-jima islands. These values are definitely lighter than the carbon isotope ratios (-6.9 per mille) obtained by Keeling for clean airs collected at Southern California in 1955 to 1956. The increase in 12 C in atmospheric carbon dioxide is attributed to the input of the anthropogenic light carbon dioxides (combustion of fossil fuels etc.) Taking -7.6 per mille to be the isotope ratio of CO 2 in the present clean air, a simple three box model predicts that the biosphere has decreased rather than increased since 1955, implying that it is acting as the doner of carbon rather than the sink. (author)

  4. Evolution and variation of the Tsushima warm current during the late Quaternary: Evidence from planktonic foraminifera, oxygen and carbon isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The evolution and variation history of the Tsushima warm current during the late Quaternary was reconstructed based on the quantitative census data of planktonic foraminiferal fauna, together with oxygen and carbon isotope records of mixed layer dweller G. ruber and thermocline dweller N. dutertrei in piston core CSH1 and core DGKS9603 collected separately from the Tsushima warm current and the Kuroshio dominated area. The result showed that the Tsushima warm current vanished in the lowstand period during 40―24 cal ka BP, while the Kuroshio still flowed across the Okinawa Trough, arousing strong upwelling in the northern Trough. Meanwhile, the influence of freshwater greatly increased in the northern Okinawa Trough, as the broad East China Sea continental shelf emerged. The freshwater reached its maximum during the last glacial maximum (LGM), when the upwelling obviously weakened for the lowest sea-level and the depression of the Kuroshio. The modern Tsushima warm current began its development since 16 cal ka BP, and the impact of the Kuroshio increased in the middle and north- ern Okinawa Trough synchronously during the deglaciation and gradually evolved as the main water source of the Tsushima current. The modern Tsushima current finally formed at about 8.5 cal ka BP, since then the circulation structure has been relatively stable. The water of the modern Tsushima cur- rent primarily came from the Kuroshio axis. A short-term wiggle of the current occurred at about 3 cal ka BP, probably for the influences from the enhancement of the winter monsoon and the depression of the Kuroshio. The cold water masses greatly strengthened during the wiggle.

  5. Strong evidence for terrestrial support of zooplankton in small lakes based on stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J.J.; Carpenter, S.R.; Kitchell, J.; Pace, M.L.; Solomon, C.T.; Weidel, B.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-ecosystem subsidies to food webs can alter metabolic balances in the receiving (subsidized) system and free the food web, or particular consumers, from the energetic constraints of local primary production. Although cross-ecosystem subsidies between terrestrial and aquatic systems have been well recognized for benthic organisms in streams, rivers, and the littoral zones of lakes, terrestrial subsidies to pelagic consumers are more difficult to demonstrate and remain controversial. Here, we adopt a unique approach by using stable isotopes of H, C, and N to estimate terrestrial support to zooplankton in two contrasting lakes. Zooplankton (Holopedium, Daphnia, and Leptodiaptomus) are comprised of ???20-40% of organic material of terrestrial origin. These estimates are as high as, or higher than, prior measures obtained by experimentally manipulating the inorganic 13C content of these lakes to augment the small, natural contrast in 13C between terrestrial and algal photosynthesis. Our study gives credence to a growing literature, which we review here, suggesting that significant terrestrial support of pelagic crustaceans (zooplankton) is widespread.

  6. Following Carbon Isotopes from Methane to Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    Continuous-flow methods introduced by Hayes (Matthews and Hayes, 1978; Freeman et al., 1990; Hayes et al., 1990) for compound-specific isotope analyses (CSIA) transformed how we study the origins and fates of organic compounds. This analytical revolution launched several decades of research in which researchers connect individual molecular structures to diverse environmental and climate processes affecting their isotopic profiles. Among the first applications, and one of the more dramatic isotopically, was tracing the flow of natural methane into cellular carbon and cellular biochemical constituents. Microbial oxidation of methane can be tracked by strongly 13C-depleted organic carbon in early Earth sedimentary environments, in marine and lake-derived biomarkers in oils, and in modern organisms and their environments. These signatures constrain microbial carbon cycling and inform our understanding of ocean redox. The measurement of molecular isotopes has jumped forward once again, and it is now possible to determine isotope abundances at specific positions within increasingly complex organic structures. In addition, recent analytical developments have lowered sample sensitivity limits of CSIA to picomole levels. These new tools have opened new ways to measure methane carbon in the natural environment and within biochemical pathways. This talk will highlight how molecular isotope methods enable us to follow the fate of methane carbon in complex environments and along diverse metabolic pathways, from trace fluids to specific carbon positions within microbial biomarkers.

  7. Isotopic evidence for the influence of typhoons and submarine canyons on the sourcing and transport behavior of biospheric organic carbon to the deep sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li-Wei; Ding, Xiaodong; Liu, James T.; Li, Dawei; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Zheng, Xufeng; Zheng, Zhenzhen; Xu, Min Nina; Dai, Minhan; Kao, Shuh-Ji

    2017-05-01

    Export of biospheric organic carbon from land masses to the ocean plays an important role in regulating the global carbon cycle. High-relief islands in the western Pacific are hotspots for such land-to-ocean carbon transport due to frequent floods and active tectonics. Submarine canyon systems serve as a major conduit to convey terrestrial organics into the deep sea, particularly during episodic floods, though the nature of ephemeral sediment transportation through such canyons remains unclear. In this study, we deployed a sediment trap in southwestern Taiwan's Gaoping submarine canyon during summer 2008, during which Typhoon Kalmaegi impacted the study area. We investigated sources of particulate organic carbon and quantified the content of fossil organic carbon (OCf) and biospheric non-fossil carbon (OCnf) during typhoon and non-typhoon periods, based on relations between total organic carbon (TOC), isotopic composition (δ13 C, 14C), and nitrogen to carbon ratios (N/C) of newly and previously reported source materials. During typhoons, flooding connected terrestrial rivers to the submarine canyon. Fresh plant debris was not found in the trap except in the hyperpycnal layer, suggesting that only hyperpycnal flow is capable of entraining plant debris, while segregation had occurred during non-hyperpycnal periods. The OCnf components in typhoon flood and trapped samples were likely sourced from aged organics buried in ancient landslides. During non-typhoon periods, the canyon is more connected to the shelf, where waves and tides cause reworking, thus allowing abiotic and biotic processes to generate isotopically uniform and similarly aged OCnf for transport into the canyon. Therefore, extreme events coupled with the submarine canyon system created an efficient method for deep-sea burial of freshly produced organic-rich material. Our results shed light on the ephemeral transport of organics within a submarine canyon system on an active tectonic margin.

  8. Gluconeogenesis from labeled carbon: estimating isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelleher, J.K.

    1986-01-01

    To estimate the rate of gluconeogenesis from steady-state incorporation of labeled 3-carbon precursors into glucose, isotope dilution must be considered so that the rate of labeling of glucose can be quantitatively converted to the rate of gluconeogenesis. An expression for the value of this isotope dilution can be derived using mathematical techniques and a model of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The present investigation employs a more complex model than that used in previous studies. This model includes the following pathways that may affect the correction for isotope dilution: 1) flux of 3-carbon precursor to the oxaloacetate pool via acetyl-CoA and the TCA cycle; 2) flux of 4- or 5-carbon compounds into the TCA cycle; 3) reversible flux between oxaloacetate (OAA) and pyruvate and between OAA and fumarate; 4) incomplete equilibrium between OAA pools; and 5) isotope dilution of 3-carbon tracers between the experimentally measured pool and the precursor for the TCA-cycle OAA pool. Experimental tests are outlined which investigators can use to determine whether these pathways are significant in a specific steady-state system. The study indicated that flux through these five pathways can significantly affect the correction for isotope dilution. To correct for the effects of these pathways an alternative method for calculating isotope dilution is proposed using citrate to relate the specific activities of acetyl-CoA and OAA

  9. Latest Permian carbonate carbon isotope variability traces heterogeneous organic carbon accumulation and authigenic carbonate formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schobben, Martin; van de Velde, Sebastiaan; Gliwa, Jana; Leda, Lucyna; Korn, Dieter; Struck, Ulrich; Vinzenz Ullmann, Clemens; Hairapetian, Vachik; Ghaderi, Abbas; Korte, Christoph; Newton, Robert J.; Poulton, Simon W.; Wignall, Paul B.

    2017-11-01

    Bulk-carbonate carbon isotope ratios are a widely applied proxy for investigating the ancient biogeochemical carbon cycle. Temporal carbon isotope trends serve as a prime stratigraphic tool, with the inherent assumption that bulk micritic carbonate rock is a faithful geochemical recorder of the isotopic composition of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon. However, bulk-carbonate rock is also prone to incorporate diagenetic signals. The aim of the present study is to disentangle primary trends from diagenetic signals in carbon isotope records which traverse the Permian-Triassic boundary in the marine carbonate-bearing sequences of Iran and South China. By pooling newly produced and published carbon isotope data, we confirm that a global first-order trend towards depleted values exists. However, a large amount of scatter is superimposed on this geochemical record. In addition, we observe a temporal trend in the amplitude of this residual δ13C variability, which is reproducible for the two studied regions. We suggest that (sub-)sea-floor microbial communities and their control on calcite nucleation and ambient porewater dissolved inorganic carbon δ13C pose a viable mechanism to induce bulk-rock δ13C variability. Numerical model calculations highlight that early diagenetic carbonate rock stabilization and linked carbon isotope alteration can be controlled by organic matter supply and subsequent microbial remineralization. A major biotic decline among Late Permian bottom-dwelling organisms facilitated a spatial increase in heterogeneous organic carbon accumulation. Combined with low marine sulfate, this resulted in varying degrees of carbon isotope overprinting. A simulated time series suggests that a 50 % increase in the spatial scatter of organic carbon relative to the average, in addition to an imposed increase in the likelihood of sampling cements formed by microbial calcite nucleation to 1 out of 10 samples, is sufficient to induce the observed signal of carbon

  10. Latest Permian carbonate carbon isotope variability traces heterogeneous organic carbon accumulation and authigenic carbonate formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schobben

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bulk-carbonate carbon isotope ratios are a widely applied proxy for investigating the ancient biogeochemical carbon cycle. Temporal carbon isotope trends serve as a prime stratigraphic tool, with the inherent assumption that bulk micritic carbonate rock is a faithful geochemical recorder of the isotopic composition of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon. However, bulk-carbonate rock is also prone to incorporate diagenetic signals. The aim of the present study is to disentangle primary trends from diagenetic signals in carbon isotope records which traverse the Permian–Triassic boundary in the marine carbonate-bearing sequences of Iran and South China. By pooling newly produced and published carbon isotope data, we confirm that a global first-order trend towards depleted values exists. However, a large amount of scatter is superimposed on this geochemical record. In addition, we observe a temporal trend in the amplitude of this residual δ13C variability, which is reproducible for the two studied regions. We suggest that (sub-sea-floor microbial communities and their control on calcite nucleation and ambient porewater dissolved inorganic carbon δ13C pose a viable mechanism to induce bulk-rock δ13C variability. Numerical model calculations highlight that early diagenetic carbonate rock stabilization and linked carbon isotope alteration can be controlled by organic matter supply and subsequent microbial remineralization. A major biotic decline among Late Permian bottom-dwelling organisms facilitated a spatial increase in heterogeneous organic carbon accumulation. Combined with low marine sulfate, this resulted in varying degrees of carbon isotope overprinting. A simulated time series suggests that a 50 % increase in the spatial scatter of organic carbon relative to the average, in addition to an imposed increase in the likelihood of sampling cements formed by microbial calcite nucleation to 1 out of 10 samples, is sufficient to induce the

  11. Fire suppression has led to greater drought-sensitivity in dry conifer forests: tree-ring carbon isotope evidence from Central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, S.; Merschel, A. G.; Meinzer, F. C.; Spies, T. A.; Still, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    Mortality events of economically and ecologically important conifers have been widespread across Western North America over recent decades. Many of these events have been linked to "global change-type droughts" characterized by greater temperatures and evaporative demand. In parallel, since the early to mid- 20th century, increasing atmospheric [CO2] has been shown to increase the water use efficiency (WUE) of trees worldwide while conifer forests in western North America have become denser after the advent of modern fire suppression efforts. Therefore, competing hypotheses include that conifer forests have experienced 1) less drought stress due to water savings from increased WUE, 2) more drought stress due to increased demand for water in dense forests with greater leaf area index, or 3) unchanging stress because these two factors have cancelled each other out. To provide a test of these hypotheses we used inter-annual latewood carbon isotope discrimination, Δ13C, across a dry mixed-conifer forest landscape of central Oregon in the rain shadow of the Cascade Mountains. The forests are dominated by old-growth ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa) and younger and fire-intolerant grand firs (Abies grandis). Dendrochronological dating of tree establishment and fires scars established sharp declines in fire frequency and associated increases in the densities of grand fir since the early 1900s. Δ13C data for ponderosa pine and grand fir spanned 1830-2013 and 1900-2013, respectively. For our analyses these years were split into periods of high fire frequency (1830-1900), moderate fire frequency (1901-1956) and fire-exclusion (1957-2013). Comparisons of Δ13C to reconstructed Palmer Drought Severity Index values for the same years revealed that leaf gas exchange of both species has been more sensitive to drought during the recent fire-exclusion period compared to previous periods when surface fires kept tree densities much lower. Similar research is needed elsewhere to

  12. Carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of the carbonate facies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Vindhyan sedimentary succession in central India spans a wide time bracket from the Paleopro- terozoic to the Neoproterozoic period.Chronostratigraphic significance of stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of the carbonate phase in Vindhyan sediments has been discussed in some recent studies.However,the ...

  13. Soil Carbon: Compositional and Isotopic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, James J.; Alexander, M. L.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    This is a short chapter to be included in the next edition of the Encyclopedia of Soil Science. The work here describes techniques being developed at PNNL for investigating organic carbon in soils. Techniques discussed include: laser ablation isotope ratio mass spectrometry, laser ablation aerosol mass spectrometry, and nanospray desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

  14. Carbon isotopes in biological carbonates: Respiration and photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnaughey, Ted A.; Burdett, Jim; Whelan, Joseph F.; Paull, Charles K.

    1997-02-01

    Respired carbon dioxide is an important constituent in the carbonates of most air breathing animals but is much less important in the carbonates of most aquatic animals. This difference is illustrated using carbon isotope data from freshwater and terrestrial snails, ahermatypic corals, and chemoautotrophic and methanotrophic pelecypods. Literature data from fish otoliths and bird and mammal shell and bone carbonates are also considered. Environmental CO 2/O 2 ratios appear to be the major controlling variable. Atmospheric CO 2/O 2 ratios are about thirty times lower than in most natural waters, hence air breathing animals absorb less environmental CO 2 in the course of obtaining 0 2. Tissue CO 2 therefore, does not isotopically equilibrate with environmental CO 2 as thoroughly in air breathers as in aquatic animals, and this is reflected in skeletal carbonates. Animals having efficient oxygen transport systems, such as vertebrates, also accumulate more respired CO 2 in their tissues. Photosynthetic corals calcify mainly during the daytime when photosynthetic CO 2 uptake is several times faster than respiratory CO 2 release. Photosynthesis, therefore, affects skeletal δ13C more strongly than does respiration. Corals also illustrate how "metabolic" effects on skeletal isotopic composition can be estimated, despite the presence of much larger "kinetic" isotope effects.

  15. Fractionation behavior of chromium isotopes during coprecipitation with calcium carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodler, Alexandra; Sánchez-Pastor, Nuria; Fernández-Díaz, Lurdes

    2015-01-01

    Interest in chromium (Cr) isotope incorporation into carbonates arises from the observation that Cr isotopic composition of carbonates could be used as a paleoclimate proxy to elucidate past fluctuations of oxygen contents in atmosphere and hydrosphere. The use of Cr isotopes to track paleoenviro......Interest in chromium (Cr) isotope incorporation into carbonates arises from the observation that Cr isotopic composition of carbonates could be used as a paleoclimate proxy to elucidate past fluctuations of oxygen contents in atmosphere and hydrosphere. The use of Cr isotopes to track...

  16. Biomineralization and the carbon isotope record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degens, E.T.; Ittekkot, V.; Kazmierczak, J.

    1986-01-01

    The advent of biomineralization at the turn of the Precambrian/Cambrian boundary has been a major event in the Earth's evolutionary history. With this there has been a major shift from abiotic to biotic formation of minerals such as phosphates and carbonates and, subsequently, silica. The dominant factor which effected this shift is a change in ocean's chemistry with respect to its Ca 2+ and mineral nutrient contents. Mechanism controlling the biotic mineral formation is different from that controlling the abiotic one in that the former is enzymically controlled. It is suggested that this difference is also manifested in the stable carbon isotope fractionation between the two processes and has implication for the interpretation of stable carbon isotope record. (Author)

  17. Biosynthetic effects on the stable carbon isotopic compositions of agal lipids: Implications for deciphering the carbon isotopic biomarker record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.; Klein Breteler, W.C.M.; Blokker, P.; Schogt, N.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Grice, K.; Baas, M.

    1998-01-01

    Thirteen species of algae covering an extensive range of classes were cultured and stable carbon isotopic compositions of their lipids were analysed in order to assess carbon isotopic fractionation effects during their biosynthesis. The fatty acids were found to have similar stable carbon isotopic

  18. Chromium isotope uptake in carbonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodler, Alexandra

    related to the rise of oxygen and the evolution of the biosphere. However, before the Cr isotopesystem can be applied to faithfully delineate paleo-environmental changes, careful assessment of the signal robustness and a thorough understanding of the Cr cycle in Earth system processes is necessary...... composition of contemporaneous seawater. Marine carbonates are ubiquitous throughout Earth’s rock record rendering them a particularly interesting archive for constraining past changes in ocean chemistry. This thesis includes an investigation of the fractionation behavior of Cr isotopesduring coprecipitation...

  19. Carbon and its isotopes in mid-oceanic basaltic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Marais, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Three carbon components are evident in eleven analyzed mid-oceanic basalts: carbon on sample surfaces (resembling adsorbed gases, organic matter, or other non-magmatic carbon species acquired by the glasses subsequent to their eruption), mantle carbon dioxide in vesicles, and mantle carbon dissolved in the glasses. The combustion technique employed recovered only reduced sulfur, all of which appears to be indigenous to the glasses. The dissolved carbon concentration (measured in vesicle-free glass) increases with the eruption depth of the spreading ridge, and is consistent with earlier data which show that magma carbon solubility increases with pressure. The total glass carbon content (dissolved plus vesicular carbon) may be controlled by the depth of the shallowest ridge magma chamber. Carbon isotopic fractionation accompanies magma degassing; vesicle CO 2 is about 3.8per mille enriched in 13 C, relative to dissolved carbon. Despite this fractionation, delta 13 Csub(PDB) values for all spreading ridge glasses lie within the range -5.6 and -7.5, and the delta 13 Csub(PDB) of mantle carbon likely lies between -5 and -7. The carbon abundances and delta 13 Csub(PDB) values of Kilauea East Rift glasses apparently are influences by the differentiation and movement of magma within that Hawaiian volcano. Using 3 He and carbon data for submarine hydrothermal fluids, the present-day mid-oceanic ridge mantle carbon flux is estimated very roughly to be about 1.0 x 10 13 g C/yr. Such a flux requires 8 Gyr to accumulate the earth's present crustal carbon inventory. (orig.)

  20. Carbon Isotope Chemostratigraphy, the Baby and the Bathwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    Secular variations in the carbon isotopic values of carbonate sediments and rocks and their individual components have been applied successfully to problems of stratigraphic correlation and for interpretation of past changes in the global carbon cycle. However, this methodology is not without problems. A major tenet of stable isotope chemostratigraphy involves sampling and analyzing multiple, widely separated sequences, and, if possible, multiple carbon-bearing components (e.g., carbonate and organic carbon) in order to demonstrate a global signal. In some cases, this methodology has been short-circuited in the zeal to reveal a new event or excursion, particularly for time intervals for which adequate sequences are somewhat rare. Likewise, although most carbonate researchers are quite aware of the possible importance of diagenesis, particularly in organic-carbon rich sequences or in shoal-water carbonate sequences with longer-term subaerial exposure events, such overprints commonly go unrecognized or are considered of minor impact. Studies of stable isotope variations in carbonate sequences should always employ textural and geochemical methodologies for detecting and even quantifying diagenesis, if possible. Although some diagenetically overprinted or misinterpreted geochemical data have undoubtedly appeared in the literature, there are many excellent examples of global carbon isotope variations in records expressed in pelagic biogenic carbonate, marine organic carbon, platform carbonates, and terrestrial organic matter. Arguably, one of the best-documented examples is the Cenomanian-Turonian (ca. 93 Ma) positive carbon isotope excursion. The amplitude of the Cenomanian-Turonian carbon isotope excursion is similar among all types of records, but there are subtle pattern differences that arise from differences in sedimentation rate among and within sequences. Organic carbon and carbonate carbon isotope signals also may differ in phasing and amplitude for certain

  1. Bringing organic carbon isotopes and phytoliths to the table as additional constraints on paleoelevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, N. D.; Cotton, J. M.; Hren, M. T.; Hyland, E. G.; Smith, S. Y.; Strömberg, C. A. E.

    2015-12-01

    A commonly used tool in paleotectonic and paleoaltimetry studies is the oxygen isotopic composition of authigenic carbonates formed that formed in lakes or soils, with both spatial (e.g., shoreline to mountain top) or temporally resolved records potentially providing constraints. However, in many cases there is a substantial spread in the oxygen isotope data for a given time period, often to the point of allowing for essentially any interpretation of the data depending upon how they have been used by the investigator. One potential way of distinguishing between different potential paleotectonic or paleoaltimetric interpretations is to use carbon isotope and plant microfossil (phytolith) analyses from the same paleosols to screen the oxygen isotope data by looking for evidence of evaporative enrichment. For example, if both inorganic (carbonate) and organic carbon isotopes are measured from the same paleosol, then in it possible to determine if the two isotope record equilibrium conditions or if they record disequilibrium driven by kinetic effects. In the former case, the oxygen isotope results can be considered reliable whereas in the latter case, the oxygen isotope results can be considered unreliable and could be culled from the interpretation. Similarly, because the distribution of C4 plants varies as a function of temperature and elevation, the presence/absence or abundance of C4 plant phytoliths, or of carbon isotope compositions that require a component of C4 vegetation can also be used to constrain paleoelevation by providing a maximum elevation constraint. Worked examples will include the late Miocene-Pliocene of Catamarca, Argentina, where phytoliths and organic carbon isotopes provide a maximum elevation constraint and can be used to demonstrate that oxygen isotopes do not provide a locally useful constraint on paleoelevation, and Eocene-Miocene of southwestern Montana where organic matter and phytoliths can be used to select between different potential

  2. Assimilation of carbonate country rock by the parent magma of the Panzhihua Fe-Ti-V deposit (SW China: Evidence from stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Ganino

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Panzhihua intrusion in southwest China is part of the Emeishan Large Igneous Province and host of a large Fe-Ti-V ore deposit. During emplacement of the main intrusion, multiple generations of mafic dykes invaded carbonate wall rocks, producing a large contact aureole. We measured the oxygen-isotope composition of the intrusions, their constituent minerals, and samples of the country rock. Magnetite and plagioclase from Panzhihua intrusion have δ18O values that are consistent with magmatic equilibrium, and formed from magmas with δ18O values that were 1–2‰ higher than expected in a mantle-derived magma. The unmetamorphosed country rock has high δ18O values, ranging from 13.2‰ (sandstone to 24.6–28.6‰ (dolomite. The skarns and marbles from the aureole have lower δ18O and δ13C values than their protolith suggesting interaction with fluids that were in exchange equilibrium with the adjacent mafic magmas and especially the numerous mafic dykes that intruded the aureole. This would explain the alteration of δ18O of the dykes which have significantly higher values than expected for a mantle-derived magma. Depending on the exact δ18O values assumed for the magma and contaminant, the amount of assimilation required to produce the elevated δ18O value of the Panzhihua intrusion was between 8 and 13.7 wt.%, assuming simple mixing. The exact mechanism of contamination is unclear but may involve a combination of assimilation of bulk country rock, mixing with a melt of the country rock and exchange with CO2-rich fluid derived from decarbonation of the marls and dolomites. These mechanisms, particularly the latter, were probably involved in the formation of the Fe-Ti-V ores.

  3. Carbon isotope fractionation between amorphous calcium carbonate and calcite in earthworm-produced calcium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Versteegh, E.A.A.; Black, S.; Hodson, M.E.

    2017-01-01

    and various CaCO_3 polymorphs, this is the first documented evidence for C isotope fractionation between ACC and the calcite it recrystallizes to. This phenomenon may prove important for the interpretation of CaCO_3-based C isotope environmental proxies. - Highlights: • Earthworms produce granules of calcium carbonate that form from an amorphous calcium carbonate suspension. • The microspherulites of amorphous calcium carbonate coalesce and recrystallize. • Fractionation of C isotopes occurs as the ACC recrystallizes with ε_c_a_l_c_i_t_e_-_A_C_C = −1.20 ± 0.52%. • This is consistent with a dissolution-reprecipitation pathway rather than solid state rearrangement. • This may be important for the interpretation of CaCO_3-based C isotope environmental proxies.

  4. Environmental forcing of terrestrial carbon isotope excursion amplification across five Eocene hyperthermals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, G. J.; Abels, H.

    2015-12-01

    Abrupt changes in the isotope composition of exogenic carbon pools accompany many major episodes of global change in the geologic record. The global expression of this change in substrates that reflect multiple carbon pools provides important evidence that many events reflect persistent, global redistribution of carbon between reduced and oxidized stocks. As the diversity of records documenting any event grows, however, discrepancies in the expression of carbon isotope change among substrates are almost always revealed. These differences in magnitude, pace, and pattern of change can complicate interpretations of global carbon redistribution, but under ideal circumstances can also provide additional information on changes in specific environmental and biogeochemical systems that accompanied the global events. Here we evaluate possible environmental influences on new terrestrial records of the negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) associated with multiple hyperthermals of the Early Eocene, which show a common pattern of amplified carbon isotope change in terrestrial paleosol carbonate records relative to that recorded in marine substrates. Scaling relationships between climate and carbon-cycle proxies suggest that that the climatic (temperature) impact of each event scaled proportionally with the magnitude of its marine CIE, likely implying that all events involved release of reduced carbon with a similar isotopic composition. Amplification of the terrestrial CIEs, however, does not scale with event magnitude, being proportionally less for the first, largest event (the PETM). We conduct a sensitivity test of a coupled plant-soil carbon isotope model to identify conditions that could account for the observed CIE scaling. At least two possibilities consistent with independent lines of evidence emerge: first, varying effects of pCO2 change on photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination under changing background pCO2, and second, contrasting changes in regional

  5. Strontium isotopes in carbonate deposits at Crater Flat, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, B.D.; Futa, K.; Peterman, Z.E.; Stuckless, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Strontium isotope studies of carbonates from soils, veins, eolian dust and Paleozoic basement sampled near Crater Flat, southwest of Yucca Mountain, provide evidence for the origins of these materials. Vein and soil carbonates have nearly identical ranges of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr, and eolian material has 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios at the lower end of the pedogenic range. The average 87 Sr/ 86 Sr of Paleozoic basement from Black Marble Hill is similar to the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr in the eolian dust, perhaps indicating a local source for this material. Possible spring deposits have generally higher 87 Sr/ 86 Sr than the other carbonates. These data are compared with similar data from areas east of Yucca Mountain

  6. Strontium isotopes in carbonate deposits at Crater Flat, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, B.D.; Futa, K.; Peterman, Z.E.; Stuckless, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Strontium isotope studies of carbonates from soils, veins, eolian dust and Paleozoic basement samples near Crater Flat, southwest of Yucca Mountain, provide evidence for the origins of these materials. Vein and soil carbonates have nearly identical ranges of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios at the lower end of the pedogenic range. The average 87 Sr/ 86 Sr of Paleozoic basement from Black Marble Hill is similar to the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr in the eolian dust, perhaps indicating a local source for this material. Possible spring deposits have generally higher 87 Sr/ 86 Sr than the other carbonates. These data are compared with similar data from areas east of Yucca Mountain. 7 refs., 5 figs

  7. Fatty Acid and Carbon Isotopic Evidence for type I Methanotrophs in Microbial Mats from a Shallow Marine Gas Seep, Coal Oil Point, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, H.; Valentine, D.

    2005-12-01

    To study the microbial community in a Southern California seep field, sediment and bacterial mat samples were collected from natural gas-bearing and gas-free surfaces at two distinct seeps in the Coal Oil Point seep field, offshore Santa Barbara. Fatty acids in these samples were extracted, analyzed and identified. Using gas chromatography (GC), more than 30 different fatty acids were separated. Generally, fatty acid concentrations in natural gas-bearing samples were about 5-fold higher compared to gas-free samples. Using gas chromatography mass sepctrometry (GC-MS), all separated fatty acids were identified in each sample. The major constituents included saturated 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, branched i-15, a-15 and unsaturated 16:1 and 18:1 series fatty acids. GC-IRMS (isotope ratio mass spectrometry) analysis provided the 13C of all major fatty acids and some 16:1 series fatty acids were found to be more depleted than -40% in samples associated with gas seepage. After treatment with dimethyl disufide (DMDS), the 16:1 series fatty acids were resolved into five distinct components, including common composition 16:1(7), bacterial specific i-16:1(7) and typical biomarkers of type I methnotrophs 16:1(8), 16(6) and 16:1(5), suggesting an important role for methnotrophs in seep sediments and microbial mats. These results provide evidence for the activity of type I methanotrophic bacteria in microbial mats and surficial sediments at the Coal Oil Point seep field, and have implications for methane cycling in this and other seep

  8. Robust optical carbon dioxide isotope analyzer, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Isotopic analysis of carbon dioxide is an important tool for characterization of the exchange and transformation of carbon between the biosphere and the atmosphere....

  9. Organic chemistry of Murchison meteorite: Carbon isotopic fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, G. U.; Blair, N. E.; Desmarais, D. J.; Cronin, J. R.; Chang, S.

    1986-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of individual organic compounds of meteoritic origin remains unknown, as most reported carbon isotopic ratios are for bulk carbon or solvent extractable fractions. The researchers managed to determine the carbon isotopic ratios for individual hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids isolated from a Murchison sample by a freeze-thaw-ultrasonication technique. The abundances of monocarboxylic acids and saturated hydrocarbons decreased with increasing carbon number and the acids are more abundant than the hydrocarbon with the same carbon number. For both classes of compounds, the C-13 to C-12 ratios decreased with increasing carbon number in a roughly parallel manner, and each carboxylic acid exhibits a higher isotopic number than the hydrocarbon containing the same number of carbon atoms. These trends are consistent with a kinetically controlled synthesis of higher homologues for lower ones.

  10. Carbon isotope analysis in apple nectar beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Figueira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to use the isotope analysis method to quantify the carbon of C3 photosynthetic cycle in commercial apple nectars and to determine the legal limit to identify the beverages that do not conform to the safety standards established by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. These beverages (apple nectars were produced in the laboratory according to the Brazilian legislation. Adulterated nectars were also produced with an amount of pulp juice below the permitted threshold limit value. The δ13C values of the apple nectars and their fractions (pulp and purified sugar were measured to quantify the C3 source percentage. In order to demonstrate the existence of adulteration, the values found were compared to the limit values established by the Brazilian Law. All commercial apple nectars analyzed were within the legal limits, which enabled to identify the nectars that were in conformity with the Brazilian Law. The isotopic methodology developed proved efficient to quantify the carbon of C3 origin in commercial apple nectars.

  11. CARBON ISOTOPE FRACTIONATION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, Paul M.; Willacy, Karen

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the gas-phase and grain-surface chemistry in the inner 30 AU of a typical protoplanetary disk (PPD) using a new model which calculates the gas temperature by solving the gas heating and cooling balance and which has an improved treatment of the UV radiation field. We discuss inner-disk chemistry in general, obtaining excellent agreement with recent observations which have probed the material in the inner regions of PPDs. We also apply our model to study the isotopic fractionation of carbon. Results show that the fractionation ratio, 12 C/ 13 C, of the system varies with radius and height in the disk. Different behavior is seen in the fractionation of different species. We compare our results with 12 C/ 13 C ratios in the solar system comets, and find a stark contrast, indicative of reprocessing.

  12. A carbon isotope budget for an anoxic marine sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehme, S.E.; Blair, N.E.

    1991-01-01

    A carbon isotope budget has been determined for the coastal marine site, Cape Lookout Bight, NC. Isotope measurements of methane and σCO 2 fluxing out and buried in these sediments were applied to previously measured flux data (Martens et al., in press) to predict the isotopic composition of the incoming metabolizable organic matter. Methane leaves the sediment predominantly via ebullition with an isotopic composition of -60 per mil. Less than 2% of the methane produced is buried with an average diffusional flux value of -17 per mil and a burial value of +11 per mil. The isotope budget predicts a metabolizable organic carbon isotope signature of -19.3 per mil which is in excellent agreement with the measured total organic carbon value of -19.2 ± 0.3 per mil implying that the dominant remineralization processes have been identified

  13. Diamond carbon sources: a comparison of carbon isotope models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkley, M.B.; Otter, M.L.; Gurney, J.J.; Hill, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    The carbon isotope compositions of approximately 500 inclusion-bearing diamonds have been determined in the past decade. 98 percent of these diamonds readily fall into two broad categories on the basis of their inclusion mineralogies and compositions. These categories are peridotitic diamonds and eclogitic diamonds. Most peridotitic diamonds have δ 13 C values between -10 and -1 permil, whereas eclogitic diamonds have δ 13 C values between -28 and +2 permil. Peridotitic diamonds may represent primordial carbon, however, it is proposed that initially inhomogeneous δ 13 C values were subsequently homogenized, e.g. during melting and convection that is postulated to have occurred during the first billion years of the earth's existence. If this is the case, then the wider range of δ 13 C values exhibited by eclogitic diamonds requires a different explanation. Both the fractionation model and the subduction model can account for the range of observed δ 13 C values in eclogitic diamonds. 16 refs., 2 figs

  14. Isotopic studies of Yucca Mountain soil fluids and carbonate pedogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnaughey, T.A.; Whelan, J.F.; Wickland, K.P.; Moscati, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    Secondary carbonates occurring within the soils, faults, and subsurface fractures of Yucca Mountain contain some of the best available records of paleoclimate and palehydrology for the potential radioactive waste repository site. This article discusses conceptual and analytical advances being made with regard to the interpretation of stable isotope data from pedogenic carbonates, specifically related to the 13 C content of soil CO 2 , CaCO 3 , precipitation mechanisms, and isotopic fractionations between parent fluids and precipitating carbonates. The 13 C content of soil carbon dioxide from Yucca Mountain and vicinity shows most of the usual patterns expected in such contexts: Decreasing 13 C content with depth decreasing 13 C with altitude and reduced 13 C during spring. These patterns exist within the domain of a noisy data set; soil and vegetational heterogeneities, weather, and other factors apparently contribute to isotopic variability in the system. Several soil calcification mechanisms appear to be important, involving characteristic physical and chemical environments and isotopic fractionations. When CO 2 loss from thin soil solutions is an important driving factor, carbonates may contain excess heavy isotopes, compared to equilibrium precipitation with soil fluids. When root calcification serves as a proton generator for plant absorption of soil nutrients, heavy isotope deficiencies are likely. Successive cycles of dissolution and reprecipitation mix and redistribute pedogenic carbonates, and tend to isotopically homogenize and equilibrate pedogenic carbonates with soil fluids

  15. Stable carbon isotope response to oceanic anoxic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xiumian; Wang Chengshan; Li Xianghui

    2001-01-01

    Based on discussion of isotope compositions and fractionation of marine carbonate and organic carbon, the author studies the relationship between oceanic anoxic events and changes in the carbon isotope fractionation of both carbonate and organic matter. During the oceanic anoxic events, a great number of organisms were rapidly buried, which caused a kind of anoxic conditions by their decomposition consuming dissolved oxygen. Since 12 C-rich organism preserved, atmosphere-ocean system will enrich relatively of 13 C. As a result, simultaneous marine carbonate will record the positive excursion of carbon isotope. There is a distinctive δ 13 C excursion during oceanic anoxic events in the world throughout the geological time. In the Cenomanian-Turonian anoxic event. this positive excursion arrived at ∼0.2% of marine carbonate and at ∼0.4% of organic matter, respectively. Variations in the carbon isotopic compositions of marine carbonate and organic carbon record the changes in the fraction of organic carbon buried throughout the geological time and may provide clues to the changes in rates of weathering and burial of organic carbon. This will provide a possibility of interpreting not only the changes in the global carbon cycle throughout the geological time, but also that in atmospheric p CO 2

  16. Stabilization of recent soil carbon in the humid tropics following land use changes: evidence from aggregate fractionation and stable isotope analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Sonja; Flessa, Heiner; Veldkamp, Edzo; López-Ulloa, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Carbon sequestration - Ecuador - Mean residence time - Pasture - Secondary forest - Soil type - Texture - Water-stable aggregates Quantitative knowledge of stabilization- and decomposition processes is necessary to understand, assess and predict effects of land use changes on storage and stability of soil organic carbon (soil C) in the tropics. Although it is well documented that different soil types have different soil C stocks, it is presently unknown how different soil types a...

  17. Late Carboniferous to Late Permian carbon isotope stratigraphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggisch, Werner; Krainer, Karl; Schaffhauser, Maria

    2015-01-01

    An integrated study of the litho-, bio-, and isotope stratigraphy of carbonates in the Southern Alps was undertaken in order to better constrain δ13C variations during the Late Carboniferous to Late Permian. The presented high resolution isotope curves are based on 1299 δ13Ccarb and 396 δ13Corg...

  18. Carbon isotopic composition of fossil leaves from the Early ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    considerable variation in carbon isotopic composition. The Trambau ... One of the most significant changes in the ocean atmosphere .... cryogenic separation of water, CO2 was dynami- .... light condition, nutrients and temperature are low,.

  19. Lipid Biomarkers and Molecular Carbon Isotopes for Elucidating Carbon Cycling Pathways in Hydrothermal Vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C. L.; Dai, J.; Campbell, B.; Cary, C.; Sun, M.

    2003-12-01

    Increasing molecular evidence suggests that hydrothermal vents in mid-ocean ridges harbor large populations of free-living bacteria, particularly the epsilon Proteobacteria. However, pathways for carbon metabolism by these bacteria are poorly known. We are addressing this question by analyzing the lipid biomarkers and their isotope signatures in environments where the epsilon Proteobacteria are likely predominant. Solid materials were collected from hydrothermal vents in the East Pacific Rise and at the Guaymas Basin in the Gulf of California. Fatty acids extracted from these samples are dominated by 16:0 (27-41%), 18:0 (16-48%), 18:1 (11-42%), 16:1 (7-12%), and 14:0 (5-28%). In addition, 15:0 and anteiso-15:0 are significantly present (2-3%) in samples from the Guaymas Basin. The isotopic compositions of these fatty acids range from -15.0\\permil to -33.1\\permil with the most positive values occurring only in monounsaturated fatty acids (16:1 and 18:1). We are currently unable to assign these biomarkers to any of the epsilon Proteobacteria because biomarkers are poorly known for these organisms isolated from the vents. However, no polyunsaturated fatty acids were detected in these samples, which are consistent with the absence of vent animals at the sampling sites. Signature biomarkers of 20:1 and cy21:0, which are characteristic of the thermophilic chemolithoautotrophs such as Aquificales, are also absent in these samples. These results imply that the deeply branched Aquificales species do not constitute the major microbial community in these vent environments. The large range of molecular isotopic compositions suggests that these lipids are synthesized from various carbon sources with different isotopic compositions or through different biosynthetic pathways, or both. We are currently measuring the isotopic compositions of the total organic carbon in the bulk samples and will determine the fractionations between lipid biomarkers and the total organic carbon

  20. Isotope dependence of chemical erosion of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhold, C.O.; Krstic, P.S.; Stuart, S.J.; Zhang, H.; Harris, P.R.; Meyer, F.W.

    2010-01-01

    We study the chemical erosion of hydrogen-supersaturated carbon due to bombardment by hydrogen isotopes H, D, and T at energies of 1-30 eV using classical molecular dynamics simulations. The chemical structure at the hydrogen-saturated interface (the distribution of terminal hydrocarbon moieties, in particular) shows a weak dependence on the mass of the impinging atoms. However, the sputtering yields increase considerably with increasing projectile mass. We analyze the threshold energies of chemical sputtering reaction channels and show that they are nearly mass independent, as expected from elementary bond-breaking chemical reactions involving hydrocarbons. Chemical sputtering yields for D impact are compared with new experimental data. Good agreement is found for small hydrocarbons but the simulations overestimate the production of large hydrocarbons for energies larger than 15 eV. We present a thorough analysis of the dependence of our simulations on the parameters of the bombardment schemes and discuss open questions and possible avenues for development.

  1. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic evidence for the origin of combustible gases in water-supply wells in north-central Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Révész, K. M.; Breen, K.J.; Baldassare, A.J.; Burruss, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    The origin of the combustible gases in groundwater from glacial-outwash and fractured-bedrock aquifers was investigated in northern Tioga County, Pennsylvania. Thermogenic methane (CH4) and ethane (C2H6) and microbial CH4 were found. Microbial CH4 is from natural in situ processes in the shale bedrock and occurs chiefly in the bedrock aquifer. The δ13C values of CH4 and C2H6 for the majority of thermogenic gases from water wells either matched or were between values for the samples of non-native storage-field gas from injection wells and the samples of gas from storage-field observation wells. Traces of C2H6 with microbial CH4 and a range of C and H isotopic compositions of CH4 indicate gases of different origins are mixing in sub-surface pathways; gas mixtures are present in groundwater. Pathways for gas migration and a specific source of the gases were not identified. Processes responsible for the presence of microbial gases in groundwater could be elucidated with further geochemical study.

  2. Isotopic exchange of carbon-bound hydrogen over geologic timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessions, Alex L.; Sylva, Sean P.; Summons, Roger E.; Hayes, John M.

    2004-04-01

    The increasing popularity of compound-specific hydrogen isotope (D/H) analyses for investigating sedimentary organic matter raises numerous questions about the exchange of carbon-bound hydrogen over geologic timescales. Important questions include the rates of isotopic exchange, methods for diagnosing exchange in ancient samples, and the isotopic consequences of that exchange. This article provides a review of relevant literature data along with new data from several pilot studies to investigate such issues. Published experimental estimates of exchange rates between organic hydrogen and water indicate that at warm temperatures (50-100°C) exchange likely occurs on timescales of 104 to 108 yr. Incubation experiments using organic compounds and D-enriched water, combined with compound-specific D/H analyses, provide a new and highly sensitive method for measuring exchange at low temperatures. Comparison of δD values for isoprenoid and n-alkyl carbon skeletons in sedimentary organic matter provides no evidence for exchange in young (exchange in ancient (>350 Ma) rocks. Specific rates of exchange are probably influenced by the nature and abundance of organic matter, pore-water chemistry, the presence of catalytic mineral surfaces, and perhaps even enzymatic activity. Estimates of equilibrium fractionation factors between organic H and water indicate that typical lipids will be depleted in D relative to water by ∼75 to 140‰ at equilibrium (30°C). Thus large differences in δD between organic molecules and water cannot be unambiguously interpreted as evidence against hydrogen exchange. A better approach may be to use changes in stereochemistry as a proxy for hydrogen exchange. For example, estimated rates of H exchange in pristane are similar to predicted rates for stereochemical inversion in steranes and hopanes. The isotopic consequences of this exchange remain in question. Incubations of cholestene with D2O indicate that the number of D atoms incorporated during

  3. Fractionation between inorganic and organic carbon during the Lomagundi (2.22 2.1 Ga) carbon isotope excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, A.; Holmden, C.; Beukes, N. J.; Kenig, F.; Eglinton, B.; Patterson, W. P.

    2008-07-01

    isotope fractionation as large as ~ 37‰ appears to characterize the production of bulk organic matter in the deeper part of the Pretoria Basin at that time. This enhanced fractionation relative to that observed in shallow-water environments likely reflects heterotrophic (secondary) and chemotrophic productivity at and below a pronounced redoxcline, consistent with the euxinic conditions inferred from independent evidence for the deeper part of the Pretoria Basin. Greater variability in organic carbon vs. carbonate carbon isotopic values on the shallow-marine carbonate platform suggests that the carbon cycling was dominated by a large dissolved inorganic carbon reservoir during the Lomagundi excursion. Our study suggests that in contrast to the Late Neoproterozoic and Phanerozoic, when carbon isotope fractionation between carbonate and organic carbon in the open ocean was mostly controlled by primary producers, in the Paleoproterozoic redox-stratified ocean heterotrophic and chemotrophic productivity overprinted a signal of primary productivity below the redoxcline. This strong imprint of heterotrophic and chemotrophic productivity on organic carbon isotope records complicates the reconstruction of spatial patterns and secular trends in the δ13C values of dissolved inorganic carbon in the Paleoproterozoic seawater.

  4. Carbon Isotopic tests on the Origins of the Shuram Anomaly from the San Juan Fm., Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgin, E. B.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon isotope anomalies are associated with perturbations to the carbon cycle that offer insight into the geochemical evolution of the Earth. The largest Carbon isotope anomaly in earth history is the Shuram, which remains poorly understood in spite of being linked to the oxygenation of earth, the rise of metazoans, and a complete reorganization of the carbon cycle. From a basin transect of the carbonate-dominated San Juan Formation in southern Peru, we present evidence for the first clear example of the Shuram isotope anomaly in South America. Unique to this succession are ~140 meters of organic-rich black shale within the anomaly, containing as much as 4% TOC. Preliminary data from the organic-rich black shales of the San Juan Fm. confirm that δ13Corg is relatively invariant and does not covary with δ13Ccarb. These observations are consistent with other Shuram sections and support various models: an exogenous carbon source, an enlarged dissolved organic carbon pool, as well as authigenic carbonate production in organic-rich anoxic sediments. Critical tests of these models have been complicated by a paucity of organics in Shuram facies worldwide. Further analyses of the robust organics from the Shuram facies of the San Juan Fm. therefore hold promise in shedding light on the origin of the Shuram isotope anomaly and critical earth history events to which it has been linked.

  5. Influence of chemical structure on carbon isotope composition of lignite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdenetsogt, Bat-Orshikh; Lee, Insung; Ko, Yoon-Joo; Mungunchimeg, Batsaikhan

    2017-04-01

    During the last two decades, a number of studies on carbon isotopes in terrestrial organic matter (OM) have been carried out and used to determine changes in paleoatmospheric δ13C value as well as assisting in paleoclimate analysis. Coal is abundant terrestrial OM. However, application of its δ13C value is very limited, because the understanding of changes in isotopic composition during coalification is relatively insufficient. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the chemical structure on the carbon isotope composition of lignite. Generally, lignite has more complex chemical structures than other higher rank coal because of the existence of various types of oxygen-containing functional groups that are eliminated at higher rank level. A total of sixteen Lower Cretaceous lignite samples from Baganuur mine (Mongolia) were studied by ultimate, stable carbon isotope and solid-state 13C CP/MAS NMR analyses. The carbon contents of the samples increase with increase in depth, whereas oxygen content decreases continuously. This is undoubtedly due to normal coalification process and also consistent with solid state NMR results. The δ13C values of the samples range from -23.54‰ to -21.34‰ and are enriched in 13C towards the lowermost samples. Based on the deconvolution of the NMR spectra, the ratios between carbons bonded to oxygen (60-90 ppm and 135-220 ppm) over carbons bonded to carbon and hydrogen (0-50 ppm and 90-135 ppm) were calculated for the samples. These correlate well with δ13C values (R2 0.88). The results indicate that the δ13C values of lignite are controlled by two mechanisms: (i) depletion in 13C as a result of loss of isotopically heavy oxygen-bounded carbons and (ii) enrichment in 13C caused by a loss of isotopically light methane from aliphatic and aromatic carbons. At the rank of lignite, coal is enriched in 13C because the amount of isotopically heavy CO2 and CO, released from coal as a result of changes in the chemical

  6. Stable-carbon isotope variability in tree foliage and wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leavitt, S.W.; Long, A.

    1986-01-01

    This study documents variation of stable-carbon isotope ratios ( 13 C/ 12 C) in trees of genera Juniperus and Pinus under field conditions. Results are from cellulose analysis on leaves, twigs, and wood from a number of localities in the southwestern US. Substantial variability, typically 1-3%, exists among leaves, within wood (radially, vertically, circumferentially), and between individuals at a site. These results may help guide sampling in tracer-type studies with stable-carbon isotope ratios and aid in the interpretation of isotopic results from such studies

  7. Modeling the carbon isotope composition of bivalve shells (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanek, C.

    2010-12-01

    The stable carbon isotope composition of bivalve shells is a valuable archive of paleobiological and paleoenvironmental information. Previous work has shown that the carbon isotope composition of the shell is related to the carbon isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the ambient water in which a bivalve lives, as well as metabolic carbon derived from bivalve respiration. The contribution of metabolic carbon varies among organisms, but it is generally thought to be relatively low (e.g., 90%) in the shells from terrestrial organisms. Because metabolic carbon contains significantly more C-12 than DIC, negative excursions from the expected environmental (DIC) signal are interpreted to reflect an increased contribution of metabolic carbon in the shell. This observation contrasts sharply with modeled carbon isotope compositions for shell layers deposited from the inner extrapallial fluid (EPF). Previous studies have shown that growth lines within the inner shell layer of bivalves are produced during periods of anaerobiosis when acidic metabolic byproducts (e.g., succinic acid) are neutralized (or buffered) by shell dissolution. This requires the pH of EPF to decrease below ambient levels (~7.5) until a state of undersaturation is achieved that promotes shell dissolution. This condition may occur when aquatic bivalves are subjected to external stressors originating from ecological (predation) or environmental (exposure to atm; low dissolved oxygen; contaminant release) pressures; normal physiological processes will restore the pH of EPF when the pressure is removed. As a consequence of this process, a temporal window should also exist in EPF at relatively low pH where shell carbonate is deposited at a reduced saturation state and precipitation rate. For example, EPF chemistry should remain slightly supersaturated with respect to aragonite given a drop of one pH unit (6.5), but under closed conditions, equilibrium carbon isotope fractionation

  8. Isotopes of carbon and oxygen in the carbonate impurities of coal have potential as palaeoenvironmental indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.T.; Falcon, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    The nature and systematics of impurities such as carbonates need to be established in order to understand their provenance in coal seams with reference to mining, beneficiation and ultimately their elimination or reduction. To this end, mineralogical and carbon-13 and oxygen-18 isotopic studies were undertaken on carbonate occurrences in coal from the eastern Transvaal highveld. Isotopic variations of considerable amplitude and individual values of extreme ''lightness'' are to be found in the carbonates in coal of the Witbank and adjacent basins. The observed isotopic ratios have a clear bearing on the nature and origins of the carbonates. 1 tab., 1 fig

  9. Carbon and Oxygen isotopic composition in paleoenvironmental determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.R.M. da.

    1978-01-01

    This work reports that the carbon and oxygen isotopic composition separate the mollusks from marine environment of the mollusks from continental environment in two groups isotopically different, making the biological control outdone by environment control, in the isotopic fragmentation mechanisms. The patterns from the continental environment are more rich in O 16 than the patterns from marine environments. The C 12 is also more frequent in the mollusks from continental environments. The carbon isotopic composition in paterns from continental environments is situated betwen - 10.31 and - 4,05% and the oxygen isotopic composition is situated between - 6,95 and - 2,41%. To the marine environment patterns the carbon isotopic composition is between - 2,08 and + 2,65% and the oxigen isotopic composition is between - 2,08 and + 0,45%. Was also analysed fossil marine mollusks shells and their isotopic composition permit the formulation of hypothesis about the environment which they lived. (C.D.G.) [pt

  10. Chromium isotope fractionation during coprecipitation with calcium carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodler, Alexandra; Sánchez-Pastor, Nuria; Fernández-Díaz, Lurdes

    The chromium (Cr) isotopic composition of carbonates can potentially be used as a paleoclimate proxy to elucidate past fluctuations of oxygen contents in atmosphere and hydrosphere. The use of Cr isotopes to track paleoenvironmental changes, for example related to the rise of oxygen during the Ar...... et al., 2007, Water Air Soil Poll. 179, 381-390. [2] Sánchez-Pastor et al., 2011, Cryst. Growth Des. 11, 3081-3089.......The chromium (Cr) isotopic composition of carbonates can potentially be used as a paleoclimate proxy to elucidate past fluctuations of oxygen contents in atmosphere and hydrosphere. The use of Cr isotopes to track paleoenvironmental changes, for example related to the rise of oxygen during...... the Archaean and Protoerozoic, needs careful assessment of the signal robustness and necessitates a thorough understanding of the Cr cycle in Earth system processes. We conducted experiments testing the incorporation and isotopic fractionation of chromate into the calcite lattice. Our experiments indicate...

  11. Short-term measurement of carbon isotope fractionation in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Leary, M.H.; Treichel, I.; Rooney, M.

    1986-01-01

    Combustion-based studies of the carbon-13 content of plants give only an integrated, long-term value for the isotope fractionation associated with photosynthesis. A method is described here which permits determination of this isotope fractionation in 2 to 3 hours. To accomplish this, the plant is enclosed in a glass chamber, and the quantity and isotopic content of the CO 2 remaining in the atmosphere are monitored during photosynthesis. Isotope fractionation studies by this method give results consistent with what is expected from combustion studies of C 3 , C 4 , and Crassulacean acid metabolism plants. This method will make possible a variety of new studies of environmental and species effects in carbon isotope fractionation

  12. ANALYTICAL EMPLOYMENT OF STABLE ISOTOPES OF CARBON, NITROGEN, OXYGEN AND HYDROGEN FOR FOOD AUTHENTICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Novelli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen were used for analytical purposes for the discrimination of the type of production (farming vs. fishing in the case of sea bass and for geographical origin in the case of milk. These results corroborate similar experimental evidences and confirm the potential of this analytical tool to support of food traceability.

  13. Stable carbon isotope biogeochemistry of lakes along a trophic gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kluijver, A.; Schoon, P.L.; Downing, J.A.; Schouten, S.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The stable carbon (C) isotope variability of dissolved inorganic and organic C (DIC and DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), glucose and polar-lipid derived fatty acids (PLFAs) was studied in a survey of 22 North American oligotrophic to eutrophic lakes. The d13C of different PLFAs were used as

  14. Relationships between tree height and carbon isotope discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nate G. McDowell; Barbara J. Bond; Lee T. Dickman; Michael G. Ryan; David Whitehead

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how tree size impacts leaf- and crown-level gas exchange is essential to predicting forest yields and carbon and water budgets. The stable carbon isotope ratio of organic matter has been used to examine the relationship of gas exchange to tree size for a host of species because it carries a temporally integrated signature of foliar photosynthesis and...

  15. Carbon Monoxide Stable Isotopes: Extraction Technique Development and Urban Atmospheric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimont, Isaac Josef

    We have developed an extraction system to analyze isotopes of carbon monoxide (CO). We then analyzed CO isotopes for two years at Indianapolis, IN, USA. These measurements were done at three towers, one of which measured incoming, background air into the city. We quantitatively removed the background signal and determined the urban CO mole fraction and isotopic enhancements. During the winter months, we constrained the isotopic signature and concluded that the majority of CO produced during the winter was produced by fossil fuel combustion. We found that the Indianapolis fossil fuel signature differed from that of studies done in Europe. Further, we performed a limited traffic study to look at CO isotopes from traffic. While this was not conclusive, it did support our hypothesis that a larger fraction of the Indianapolis vehicle fleet may have malfunctioning catalytic systems, which biases the isotopic results, particularly for delta18O. We used the wintertime fossil fuel isotopic signature to help constrain the summertime budget. It was hypothesized that a second source of CO was significant during the summer months. Oxidation of biogenically produced volatile organic compounds (BVOC's) was one possible source. Oxidized BVOC's were consistent with the changes between our winter and summer isotopic source signatures. We then used the isotopic signatures to determine that between zero and sixty percent of the summertime CO budget was produced from oxidized VOC's. This provided the first direct evidence of a larger percentage of urban CO being produced by oxidized VOC's.

  16. Modeling of the global carbon cycle - isotopic data requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciais, P.

    1994-01-01

    Isotopes are powerful tools to constrain carbon cycle models. For example, the combinations of the CO 2 and the 13 C budget allows to calculate the net-carbon fluxes between atmosphere, ocean, and biosphere. Observations of natural and bomb-produced radiocarbon allow to estimate gross carbon exchange fluxes between different reservoirs and to deduce time scales of carbon overturning in important reservoirs. 18 O in CO 2 is potentially a tool to make the deconvolution of C fluxes within the land biosphere (assimilation vs respirations). The scope of this article is to identify gaps in our present knowledge about isotopes in the light of their use as constraint for the global carbon cycle. In the following we will present a list of some future data requirements for carbon cycle models. (authors)

  17. Isotopic labelling with carbon-14 and tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper general methods of isotopic labelling with 14 C and with 3 H are briefly reviewed with special attention to examples of compounds likely to be of wide interest in biological research. (author)

  18. Characteristics of stable carbon isotopic composition of shale gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenya Qu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A type Ⅱ kerogen with low thermal maturity was adopted to perform hydrocarbon generation pyrolysis experiments in a vacuum (Micro-Scale Sealed Vessel system at the heating rates of 2 °C/h and 20 °C/h. The stable carbon isotopic compositions of gas hydrocarbons were measured to investigate their evolving characteristics and the possible reasons for isotope reversal. The δ13C values of methane became more negative with the increasing pyrolysis temperatures until it reached the lightest point, after which they became more positive. Meanwhile, the δ13C values of ethane and propane showed a positive trend with elevating pyrolysis temperatures. The carbon isotopic compositions of shale gasses were mainly determined by the type of parent organic matter, thermal evolutionary extent, and gas migration in shale systems. Our experiments and study proved that the isotope reversal shouldn't occur in a pure thermogenic gas reservoir, it must be involved with some other geochemical process/es; although mechanisms responsible for the reversal are still vague. Carbon isotopic composition of the Fayetteville and Barnett shale gas demonstrated that the isotope reversal was likely involved with water–gas reaction and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis during its generation.

  19. Temperature dependence of carbon isotope fractionation in CAM plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleens, E.; Treichel, I.; O'Leary, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The carbon isotope fractionation associated with nocturnal malic acid synthesis in Kalanchoë daigremontiana and Bryophyllum tubiflorum was calculated from the isotopic composition of carbon-4 of malic acid, after appropriate corrections. In the lowest temperature treatment (17 degrees C nights, 23 degrees C days), the isotope fractionation for both plants is -4 per thousand (that is, malate is enriched in (13)C relative to the atmosphere). For K. daigremontiana, the isotope fractionation decreases with increasing temperature, becoming approximately 0 per thousand at 27 degrees C/33 degrees C. Detailed analysis of temperature effects on the isotope fractionation indicates that stomatal aperture decreases with increasing temperature and carboxylation capacity increases. For B. tubiflorum, the temperature dependence of the isotope fractionation is smaller and is principally attributed to the normal temperature dependences of the rates of diffusion and carboxylation steps. The small change in the isotopic composition of remaining malic acid in both species which is observed during deacidification indicates that malate release, rather than decarboxylation, is rate limiting in the deacidification process

  20. Temperature dependence of carbon isotope fractionation in CAM plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deleens, E.; Treichel, I.; O' Leary, M.H.

    1985-09-01

    The carbon isotope fractionation associated with nocturnal malic acid synthesis in Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Bryophyllum tubiflorum was calculated from the isotopic composition of carbon-4 of malic acid, after appropriate corrections. In the lowest temperature treatment (17/sup 0/C nights, 23/sup 0/C days), the isotope fractionation for both plants is -4% per thousand (that is, malate is enriched in /sup 13/C relative to the atmosphere). For K. daigremontiana, the isotope fractionation decreases with increasing temperature, becoming approximately 0% per thousand at 27/sup 0/C/33/sup 0/C. Detailed analysis of temperature effects on the isotope fractionation indicates that stomatal aperture decreases with increasing temperature and carboxylation capacity increases. For B. tubiflorum, the temperature dependence of the isotope fractionation is smaller and is principally attributed to the normal temperature dependences of the rates of diffusion and carboxylation steps. The small change in the isotopic composition of remaining malic acid in both species which is observed during deacidification indicates that malate release, rather than decarboxylation, is rate limiting in the deacidification process. 28 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  1. Could a secular increase in organic burial explain the rise of oxygen? Insights from a geological carbon cycle model constrained by the carbon isotope record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krissansen-Totton, J.; Kipp, M.; Catling, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    The stable isotopes of carbon in marine sedimentary rock provide a window into the evolution of the Earth system. Conventionally, a relatively constant carbon isotope ratio in marine sedimentary rocks has been interpreted as implying constant organic carbon burial relative to total carbon burial. Because organic carbon burial corresponds to net oxygen production from photosynthesis, it follows that secular changes in the oxygen source flux cannot explain the dramatic rise of oxygen over Earth history. Instead, secular declines in oxygen sink fluxes are often invoked as causes for the rise of oxygen. However, constant fractional organic burial is difficult to reconcile with tentative evidence for low phosphate concentrations in the Archean ocean, which would imply lower marine productivity and—all else being equal—less organic carbon burial than today. The conventional interpretation of the carbon isotope record rests on the untested assumption that the isotopic ratio of carbon inputs into the ocean reflect mantle isotopic values throughout Earth history. In practice, differing rates of carbonate and organic weathering will allow for changes in isotopic inputs, as suggested by [1] and [2]. However, these inputs can not vary freely because large changes in isotopic inputs would induce secular trends in carbon reservoirs, which are not observed in the isotope record. We apply a geological carbon cycle model to all Earth history, tracking carbon isotopes in crustal, mantle, and ocean reservoirs. Our model is constrained by the carbon isotope record such that we can determine the extent to which large changes in organic burial are permitted. We find both constant organic burial and 3-5 fold increases in organic burial since 4.0 Ga can be reconciled with the carbon isotope record. Changes in the oxygen source flux thus need to be reconsidered as a possible contributor to Earth's oxygenation. [1] L. A. Derry, Organic carbon cycling and the lithosphere, in Treatise on

  2. Carbon allocation and carbon isotope fluxes in the plant-soil-atmosphere continuum: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Brüggemann

    2011-11-01

    CO2 diffusion and dissolution processes within the soil profile. Finally, we highlight state-of-the-art stable isotope methodologies and their latest developments. From the presented evidence we conclude that there exists a tight coupling of physical, chemical and biological processes involved in C cycling and C isotope fluxes in the plant-soil-atmosphere system. Generally, research using information from C isotopes allows an integrated view of the different processes involved. However, complex interactions among the range of processes complicate or currently impede the interpretation of isotopic signals in CO2 or organic compounds at the plant and ecosystem level. This review tries to identify present knowledge gaps in correctly interpreting carbon stable isotope signals in the plant-soil-atmosphere system and how future research approaches could contribute to closing these gaps.

  3. Biometrics from the carbon isotope ratio analysis of amino acids in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Glen P; An, Yan; Konstantynova, Kateryna I; Rashaid, Ayat H B

    2015-01-01

    This study compares and contrasts the ability to classify individuals into different grouping factors through either bulk isotope ratio analysis or amino-acid-specific isotope ratio analysis of human hair. Using LC-IRMS, we measured the isotope ratios of 14 amino acids in hair proteins independently, and leucine/isoleucine as a co-eluting pair, to provide 15 variables for classification. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the essential amino acids and non-essential amino acids were mostly independent variables in the classification rules, thereby enabling the separation of dietary factors of isotope intake from intrinsic or phenotypic factors of isotope fractionation. Multivariate analysis revealed at least two potential sources of non-dietary factors influencing the carbon isotope ratio values of the amino acids in human hair: body mass index (BMI) and age. These results provide evidence that compound-specific isotope ratio analysis has the potential to go beyond region-of-origin or geospatial movements of individuals-obtainable through bulk isotope measurements-to the provision of physical and characteristic traits about the individuals, such as age and BMI. Further development and refinement, for example to genetic, metabolic, disease and hormonal factors could ultimately be of great assistance in forensic and clinical casework. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Testing Urey's carbonate-silicate cycle using the calcium isotopic composition of sedimentary carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blättler, Clara L.; Higgins, John A.

    2017-12-01

    Carbonate minerals constitute a major component of the sedimentary geological record and an archive of a fraction of the carbon and calcium cycled through the Earth's surface reservoirs for over three billion years. For calcium, carbonate minerals constitute the ultimate sink for almost all calcium liberated during continental and submarine weathering of silicate minerals. This study presents >500 stable isotope ratios of calcium in Precambrian carbonate sediments, both limestones and dolomites, in an attempt to characterize the isotope mass balance of the sedimentary carbonate reservoir through time. The mean of the dataset is indistinguishable from estimates of the calcium isotope ratio of bulk silicate Earth, consistent with the Urey cycle being the dominant mechanism exchanging calcium among surface reservoirs. The variability in bulk sediment calcium isotope ratios within each geological unit does not reflect changes in the global calcium cycle, but rather highlights the importance of local mineralogical and/or diagenetic effects in the carbonate record. This dataset demonstrates the potential for calcium isotope ratios to help assess these local effects, such as the former presence of aragonite, even in rocks with a history of neomorphism and recrystallization. Additionally, 29 calcium isotope measurements are presented from ODP (Ocean Drilling Program) Site 801 that contribute to the characterization of altered oceanic crust as an additional sink for calcium, and whose distinct isotopic signature places a limit on the importance of this subduction flux over Earth history.

  5. Stable isotope analysis of Dacryoconarid carbonate microfossils: a new tool for Devonian oxygen and carbon isotope stratigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frappier, Amy Benoit; Lindemann, Richard H; Frappier, Brian R

    2015-04-30

    Dacryoconarids are extinct marine zooplankton known from abundant, globally distributed calcite microfossils in the Devonian, but their shell stable isotope composition has not been previously explored. Devonian stable isotope stratigraphy is currently limited to less common invertebrates or bulk rock analyses of uncertain provenance. As with Cenozoic planktonic foraminifera, isotopic analysis of dacryoconarid shells could facilitate higher-resolution, geographically widespread stable isotope records of paleoenvironmental change, including marine hypoxia events, climate changes, and biocrises. We explored the use of Dacryoconarid isotope stratigraphy as a viable method in interpreting paleoenvironments. We applied an established method for determining stable isotope ratios (δ(13) C, δ(18) O values) of small carbonate microfossils to very well-preserved dacryoconarid shells. We analyzed individual calcite shells representing five common genera using a Kiel carbonate device coupled to a MAT 253 isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Calcite shell δ(13) C and δ(18) O values were compared by taxonomic group, rock unit, and locality. Single dacryoconarid calcite shells are suitable for stable isotope analysis using a Kiel-IRMS setup. The dacryoconarid shell δ(13) C values (-4.7 to 2.3‰) and δ(18) O values (-10.3 to -4.8‰) were consistent across taxa, independent of shell size or part, but varied systematically through time. Lower fossil δ(18) O values were associated with warmer water temperature and more variable δ(13) C values were associated with major bioevents. Dacryoconarid δ(13) C and δ(18) O values differed from bulk rock carbonate values. Dacryoconarid individual microfossil δ(13) C and δ(18) O values are highly sensitive to paleoenvironmental changes, thus providing a promising avenue for stable isotope chemostratigraphy to better resolve regional to global paleoceanographic changes throughout the upper Silurian to the upper Devonian. Our results

  6. Quantification of the carbonaceous matter origin in submicron marine aerosol particles by dual carbon isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceburnis, D.; Garbaras, A.; Szidat, S.; Rinaldi, M.; Fahrni, S.; Perron, N.; Wacker, L.; Leinert, S.; Remeikis, V.; Facchini, M. C.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Jennings, S. G.; O'Dowd, C. D.

    2011-01-01

    Dual carbon isotope analysis has been performed for the first time demonstrating a potential in organic matter apportionment between three principal sources: marine, terrestrial (non-fossil) and fossil fuel due to unique isotopic signatures. The results presented here, utilising combinations of dual carbon isotope analysis, provides a conclusive evidence of a dominant biogenic organic fraction to organic aerosol over biologically active oceans. In particular, the NE Atlantic, which is also subjected to notable anthropogenic influences via pollution transport processes, was found to contain 80% organic aerosol matter of biogenic origin directly linked to plankton emissions. The remaining carbonaceous aerosol was of fossil-fuel origin. By contrast, for polluted air advecting out from Europe into the NE Atlantic, the source apportionment is 30% marine biogenic, 40% fossil fuel, and 30% continental non-fossil fuel. The dominant marine organic aerosol source in the atmosphere has significant implications for climate change feedback processes.

  7. CARBON ISOTOPE DISCRIMINATION AND GROWTH RESPONSE TO STAND DENSITY REDUCTIONS IN OLD PINUS PONDEROSA TREES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon isotope ratios ( 13C) of tree rings are commonly used for paleoclimatic reconstruction and for inferring canopy water-use efficiency (WUE). However, the responsiveness of carbon isotope discrimination ( ) to site disturbance and resource availability has only rarely been ...

  8. New Carbonate Standard Reference Materials for Boron Isotope Geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J.; Christopher, S. J.; Day, R. D.

    2015-12-01

    The isotopic composition of boron (δ11B) in marine carbonates is well established as a proxy for past ocean pH. Yet, before palaeoceanographic interpretation can be made, rigorous assessment of analytical uncertainty of δ11B data is required; particularly in light of recent interlaboratory comparison studies that reported significant measurement disagreement between laboratories [1]. Well characterised boron standard reference materials (SRMs) in a carbonate matrix are needed to assess the accuracy and precision of carbonate δ11B measurements throughout the entire procedural chemistry; from sample cleaning, to ionic separation of boron from the carbonate matrix, and final δ11B measurement by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. To date only two carbonate reference materials exist that have been value-assigned by the boron isotope measurement community [2]; JCp-1 (porites coral) and JCt-1 (Giant Clam) [3]. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) will supplement these existing standards with new solution based inorganic carbonate boron SRMs that replicate typical foraminiferal and coral B/Ca ratios and δ11B values. These new SRMs will not only ensure quality control of full procedural chemistry between laboratories, but have the added benefits of being both in abundant supply and free from any restrictions associated with shipment of biogenic samples derived from protected species. Here we present in-house δ11B measurements of these new boron carbonate SRM solutions. These preliminary data will feed into an interlaboratory comparison study to establish certified values for these new NIST SRMs. 1. Foster, G.L., et al., Chemical Geology, 2013. 358(0): p. 1-14. 2. Gutjahr, M., et al., Boron Isotope Intercomparison Project (BIIP): Development of a new carbonate standard for stable isotopic analyses. Geophysical Research Abstracts, EGU General Assembly 2014, 2014. 16(EGU2014-5028-1). 3. Inoue, M., et al., Geostandards and

  9. Organic carbon isotope systematics of coastal marshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelburg, J.J.; Nieuwenhuize, J.; Lubberts, R.K.; Van de Plassche, O.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of nitrogen, organic carbon and delta(13)C are presented for Spartina-dominated marsh sediments from a mineral marsh in SW Netherlands and from a peaty marsh in Massachusetts, U.S.A. delta(13)C Of organic carbon in the peaty marsh sediments is similar to that of Spartina material,

  10. How the oxygen isotope ratio of rain water influences the isotope ratio of chicken eggshell carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gregory; Grimes, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    The stable oxygen isotope ratio of chicken eggshell carbonate was analysed from chicken eggs laid under free range, and organic farming regimes from across the UK. The eggshell carbonate oxygen isotope data shows a clear depletion in delta18O distribution from the southwest to the northeast. Although consistently offset by around 1 permil, the same isotopic distribution as that seen in eggshell carbonate is observed in the delta18O ratio of rainfall and groundwater from across the UK. This distribution is related to the Rayleigh distillation of rainfall driven by westerly winds across the UK landmass. The clear relationship observed between eggshell delta18O values and that of rainwater presumably reflects the nature of free range chickens which must be drinking locally derived rainwater and supplementing their diet and water intake with locally derived food. These results suggest that the oxygen isotope value of chicken eggshells can be used as a forensic tool to identify the locality that free range and organic eggs were laid within the UK. Furthermore, if suitable material is preserved in the archaeological and geological record then such a relationship can potentially be used to establish the oxygen isotope value of rainwater from which ancient and / or ancestral birds lived.

  11. Isotopic fractionation between organic carbon and carbonate carbon in Precambrian banded ironstone series from Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schidlowski, M.; Eichmann, R.; Fiebiger, W.

    1976-01-01

    37 delta 13 Csub(org) and 9 delta 13 Csub(carb) values furnished by argillaceous and carbonate sediments from the Rio das Velhas and Minas Series (Minas Gerais, Brazil) have yielded means of -24.3 +- 3.9 promille [PDB] and -0.9 +- 1.4 promille [PDB], respectively. These results, obtained from a major sedimentary banded ironstone province with an age between 2 and 3 x 10 9 yr, support previous assumptions that isotopic fractionation between inorganic and organic carbon in Precambrian sediments is about the same as in Phanerozoic rocks. This is consistent with a theoretically expected constancy of the kinetic fractionation factor governing biological carbon fixation and, likewise, with a photosynthetic pedigree of the reduced carbon fraction of Precambrian rocks. (orig.) [de

  12. Control strategies for laser separation of carbon isotopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laser isotope separation (LIS) by infrared laser chemistry of polyatomic molecules has come a long way since its discovery. The last decade has seen considerable efforts in scaling up of the process for light elements like carbon, oxygen and silicon. These efforts aim at ways to improve both the enrichment factor and the ...

  13. Stable isotope compositions of organic carbon and contents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stable isotope compositions of organic carbon (OC), and contents of OC and nitrogen for four sediment cores recovered from lakes Makat (located in the Ngorongoro Crater), Ndutu and Masek (located in the Serengeti Plains) are used to document sources of organic matter (OM) and climatic changes in sub-arid ...

  14. Control strategies for laser separation of carbon isotopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Control strategies for laser separation of carbon isotopes. V PARTHASARATHY*, A K ... The emerging market for medical applications of C-13 is projected to be in the range of hundreds of ..... thermal effects during irradiation. In the absence of ...

  15. Yucca Mountain Area Saturated Zone Dissolved Organic Carbon Isotopic Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, James; Decker, David; Patterson, Gary; Peterman, Zell; Mihevc, Todd; Larsen, Jessica; Hershey, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Groundwater samples in the Yucca Mountain area were collected for chemical and isotopic analyses and measurements of water temperature, pH, specific conductivity, and alkalinity were obtained at the well or spring at the time of sampling. For this project, groundwater samples were analyzed for major-ion chemistry, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) performed all the fieldwork on this project including measurement of water chemistry field parameters and sample collection. The major ions dissolved in the groundwater, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were analyzed by the USGS. All preparation and processing of samples for DOC carbon isotopic analyses and geochemical modeling were performed by the Desert Research Institute (DRI). Analysis of the DOC carbon dioxide gas produced at DRI to obtain carbon-13 and carbon-14 values was conducted at the University of Arizona Accelerator Facility (a NSHE Yucca Mountain project QA qualified contract facility). The major-ion chemistry, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of DIC were used in geochemical modeling (NETPATH) to determine groundwater sources, f ow paths, mixing, and ages. The carbon isotopes of DOC were used to calculate groundwater ages that are independent of DIC model corrected carbon-14 ages. The DIC model corrected carbon-14 calculated ages were used to evaluate groundwater travel times for mixtures of water including water beneath Yucca Mountain. When possible, groundwater travel times were calculated for groundwater flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient sample sites. DOC carbon-14 groundwater ages were also calculated for groundwaters in the Yucca Mountain area. When possible, groundwater travel times were estimated for groundwater flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient groundwater sample sites using the DOC calculated

  16. Global Cr-isotope distributions in surface seawater and incorporation of Cr isotopes into carbonate shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulukat, Cora Stefanie; Frei, Robert; Vögelin, Andrea Regula

    produced carbonate shells (bivalves, gastropods) and corals. Our preliminary data set ranges approximately from d53Cr = -0.2 to +0.7‰. They are isotopically lighter than local seawater. This is in good agreement with [6], who measured a negative offset from seawater in corals. These offsets indicate some...

  17. Spatially-resolved isotopic study of carbon trapped in ∼3.43 Ga Strelley Pool Formation stromatolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, David T.; Allwood, Abigail C.; Summons, Roger E.; Williford, Kenneth H.; Abbey, William; Matys, Emily D.; Ferralis, Nicola

    2018-02-01

    The large isotopic fractionation of carbon associated with enzymatic carbon assimilation allows evidence for life's antiquity, and potentially the early operation of several extant metabolic pathways, to be derived from the stable carbon isotope record of sedimentary rocks. Earth's organic carbon isotope record extends to the Late Eoarchean-Early Paleoarchean: the age of the oldest known sedimentary rocks. However, complementary inorganic carbon reservoirs are poorly represented in the oldest units, and commonly reported bulk organic carbon isotope measurements do not capture the micro-scale isotopic heterogeneities that are increasingly reported from younger rocks. Here, we investigated the isotopic composition of the oldest paired occurrences of sedimentary carbonate and organic matter, which are preserved as dolomite and kerogen within textural biosignatures of the ∼3.43 Ga Strelley Pool Formation. We targeted least-altered carbonate phases in situ using microsampling techniques guided by non-destructive elemental mapping. Organic carbon isotope values were measured by spatially-resolved bulk analyses, and in situ using secondary ion mass spectrometry to target microscale domains of organic material trapped within inorganic carbon matrixes. Total observed fractionation of 13C ranges from -29 to -45‰. Our data are consistent with studies of younger Archean rocks that host biogenic stromatolites and organic-inorganic carbon pairs showing greater fractionation than expected for Rubisco fixation alone. We conclude that organic matter was fixed and/or remobilized by at least one metabolism in addition to the CBB cycle, possibly by the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway or methanogenesis-methanotrophy, in a shallow-water marine environment during the Paleoarchean.

  18. Carbonate Mineral Formation on Mars: Clues from Stable Isotope Variation Seen in Cryogenic Laboratory Studies of Carbonate Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, Richard; Niles, Paul B.; Sun, Tao; Fu, Qi; Romanek, Christopher S.; Gibson, Everett K.

    2013-01-01

    The geologic history of water on the planet Mars is intimately connected to the formation of carbonate minerals through atmospheric CO2 and its control of the climate history of Mars. Carbonate mineral formation under modern martian atmospheric conditions could be a critical factor in controlling the martian climate in a means similar to the rock weathering cycle on Earth. The combination of evidence for liquid water on the martian surface and cold surface conditions suggest fluid freezing could be very common on the surface of Mars. Cryogenic calcite forms readily when a rise in pH occurs as a result of carbon dioxide degassing quickly from freezing Ca-bicarbonate-rich water solutions. This is a process that has been observed in some terrestrial settings such as arctic permafrost cave deposits, lakebeds of the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, and in aufeis (river icings) from rivers of N.E. Alaska. We report here the results of a series of laboratory experiments that were conducted to simulate potential cryogenic carbonate formation on the planet Mars. These results indicate that carbonates grown under martian conditions (controlled atmospheric pressure and temperature) show enrichments from starting bicarbonate fluids in both carbon and oxygen isotopes beyond equilibrium values with average delta13C(DIC-CARB) values of 20.5%0 which exceed the expected equilibrium fractionation factor of [10(sup 3) ln alpha = 13%0] at 0 degC. Oxygen isotopes showed a smaller enrichment with delta18O(H2O-CARB) values of 35.5%0, slightly exceeding the equilibrium fractionation factor of [10(sup 3) ln alpha = 34%0 ] at 0degC. Large kinetic carbon isotope effects during carbonate precipitation could substantially affect the carbon isotope evolution of CO2 on Mars allowing for more efficient removal of 13C from the Noachian atmosphere enriched by atmospheric loss. This mechanism would be consistent with the observations of large carbon isotope variations in martian materials despite the

  19. A carbon isotope challenge to the snowball Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansjofre, P; Ader, M; Trindade, R I F; Elie, M; Lyons, J; Cartigny, P; Nogueira, A C R

    2011-10-05

    The snowball Earth hypothesis postulates that the planet was entirely covered by ice for millions of years in the Neoproterozoic era, in a self-enhanced glaciation caused by the high albedo of the ice-covered planet. In a hard-snowball picture, the subsequent rapid unfreezing resulted from an ultra-greenhouse event attributed to the buildup of volcanic carbon dioxide (CO(2)) during glaciation. High partial pressures of atmospheric CO(2) (pCO2; from 20,000 to 90,000 p.p.m.v.) in the aftermath of the Marinoan glaciation (∼635 Myr ago) have been inferred from both boron and triple oxygen isotopes. These pCO2 values are 50 to 225 times higher than present-day levels. Here, we re-evaluate these estimates using paired carbon isotopic data for carbonate layers that cap Neoproterozoic glacial deposits and are considered to record post-glacial sea level rise. The new data reported here for Brazilian cap carbonates, together with previous ones for time-equivalent units, provide estimates lower than 3,200 p.p.m.v.--and possibly as low as the current value of ∼400 p.p.m.v. Our new constraint, and our re-interpretation of the boron and triple oxygen isotope data, provide a completely different picture of the late Neoproterozoic environment, with low atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and oxygen that are inconsistent with a hard-snowball Earth.

  20. Magnesium isotope fractionation in bacterial mediated carbonate precipitation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, I. J.; Pearce, C. R.; Polacskek, T.; Cockell, C.; Hammond, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Magnesium is an essential component of life, with pivotal roles in the generation of cellular energy as well as in plant chlorophyll [1]. The bio-geochemical cycling of Mg is associated with mass dependant fractionation (MDF) of the three stable Mg isotopes [1]. The largest MDF of Mg isotopes has been recorded in carbonates, with foraminiferal tests having δ26Mg compositions up to 5 ‰ lighter than modern seawater [2]. Magnesium isotopes may also be fractionated during bacterially mediated carbonate precipitation and such carbonates are known to have formed in both modern and ancient Earth surface environments [3, 4], with cyanobacteria having a dominant role in carbonate formation during the Archean. In this study, we aim to better constrain the extent to which Mg isotope fractionation occurs during cellular processes, and to identify when, and how, this signal is transferred to carbonates. To this end we have undertaken biologically-mediated carbonate precipitation experiments that were performed in artificial seawater, but with the molar Mg/Ca ratio set to 0.6 and with the solution spiked with 0.4% yeast extract. The bacterial strain used was marine isolate Halomonas sp. (gram-negative). Experiments were run in the dark at 21 degree C for two to three months and produced carbonate spheres of various sizes up to 300 μm in diameter, but with the majority have diameters of ~100 μm. Control experiments run in sterile controls (`empty` medium without bacteria) yielded no precipitates, indicating a bacterial control on the precipitation. The carbonate spheres are produced are amenable to SEM, EMP and Mg isotopic analysis by MC-ICP-MS. Our new data will shed light on tracing bacterial signals in carbonates from the geological record. [1] Young & Galy (2004). Rev. Min. Geochem. 55, p197-230. [2] Pogge von Strandmann (2008). Geochem. Geophys. Geosys. 9 DOI:10.1029/2008GC002209. [3] Castanier, et al. (1999). Sed. Geol. 126, 9-23. [4] Cacchio, et al. (2003

  1. [Carbon isotope fractionation in plants]: Annual technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Leary, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    Plants fractionate carbon isotopes during photosynthesis in ways which reflect photosynthetic pathway and environment. The fractionation is product of contributions from diffusion, carboxylation and other factors which can be understood using models which have been developed in our work. The object of our work is to use this fractionation to learn about the factors which control the efficiency of photosynthesis. Unlike previous studies, we do not rely principally on combustion methods, but instead develop more specific methods with substantially higher resolving power. We have recently developed a new short-term method for studying carbon isotope fractionation which promises to provide a level of detail about temperature, species, and light intensity effects on photosynthesis which has not been available until now. We are studying the isotopic compositions of metabolites (particularly aspartic acid) in C 3 plants in order to determine the role of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in C 3 photosynthesis. We are studying the relative roles of diffusion and carboxylation in nocturnal CO 2 fixation in CAM plants. We are studying the use of isotopic content as an index of water-use efficiency in C 3 plants. We are developing new methods for studying carbon metabolism in plants. 3 refs

  2. What Drives Carbon Isotope Fractionation by the Terrestrial Biosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, Christopher; Rastogi, Bharat

    2017-11-01

    During photosynthesis, terrestrial plants preferentially assimilate the lighter and much more abundant form of carbon, 12C, which accounts for roughly 99% of naturally occurring forms of this element. This photosynthetic preference for lighter carbon is driven principally by differences in molecular diffusion of carbon dioxide with differing 13C/12C across stomatal pores on leaves, followed by differences in carboxylation rates by the Rubisco enzyme that is central to the process of photosynthesis. As a result of these slight preferences, which work out to about a 2% difference in the fixation rates of 12CO2 versus 13CO2 by C3 vegetation, plant tissues are depleted in the heavier form of carbon (13C) relative to atmospheric CO2. This difference has been exploited in a wide range of scientific applications, as the photosynthetic isotope signature is passed to ecosystem carbon pools and through ecological food webs. What is less appreciated is the signature that terrestrial carbon exchanges leave on atmospheric CO2, as the net uptake of carbon by land plants during their growing season not only draws down the local CO2 concentration, it also leaves behind relatively more CO2 molecules containing 13C. The converse happens outside the growing season, when autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration predominate. During these periods, atmospheric CO2 concentration increases and its corresponding carbon isotope composition becomes relatively depleted in 13C as the products of photosynthesis are respired, along with some small isotope fractionation that happen downstream of the initial photosynthetic assimilation. Similar phenomena were first observed at shorter time scales by the eminent carbon cycle scientist, Charles (Dave) Keeling. Keeling collected samples of air in glass flasks from sites along the Big Sur coast that he later measured for CO2 concentration and carbon isotope composition (δ13C) in his lab (Keeling, 1998). From these samples, Keeling observed increasing

  3. Isotopic Hg in an Allende carbon-rich residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. W., Jr.; Jovanovic, S.

    1990-01-01

    A carbon-rich residue from Allende subjected to stepwise heating yielded two isotopically resolvable types of Hg: one with an (Hg-196)/(Hg-202) concentration ratio the same as terrestrial (monitor) Hg; the other enriched in Hg-196 relative to Hg-202 by about 60 percent. Hg with the 202 isotope enriched relative to 196, as is found in bulk Allende, was not observed. Whether the result of mass fractionation or nucleosynthesis, the distinct types of Hg entered different carrier phases and were not thermally mobilized since the accretion of the Allende parent body.

  4. Isotopic Hg in an Allende carbon-rich residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, G.W. Jr.; Jovanovic, S.

    1990-01-01

    A carbon-rich residue from Allende subjected to stepwise heating yielded two isotopically resolvable types of Hg: one with an (Hg-196)/(Hg-202) concentration ratio the same as terrestrial (monitor) Hg; the other enriched in Hg-196 relative to Hg-202 by about 60 percent. Hg with the 202 isotope enriched relative to 196, as is found in bulk Allende, was not observed. Whether the result of mass fractionation or nucleosynthesis, the distinct types of Hg entered different carrier phases and were not thermally mobilized since the accretion of the Allende parent body. 9 refs

  5. Clumped-isotope geochemistry of carbonates: A new tool for the reconstruction of temperature and oxygen isotope composition of seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernasconi, Stefano M., E-mail: Stefano.bernasconi@erdw.ethz.ch [Geological Institute, ETH Zuerich, Sonneggstrasse 5, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Schmid, Thomas W.; Grauel, Anna-Lena [Geological Institute, ETH Zuerich, Sonneggstrasse 5, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Mutterlose, Joerg [Institut fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Geophysik, Ruhr Universitaet Bochum, Universitaetsstr. 150, 44801 Bochum (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Clumped-isotope thermometry of carbonates is discussed. > Clumped isotopes of Belemnites show higher sea surface temperatures than commonly assumed for the lower Cretaceous. > The potential of clumped-isotope measurement on foraminifera is discussed. - Abstract: Clumped-isotope geochemistry deals with State of ordering of rare isotopes in molecules, in particular with their tendency to form bonds with other rare isotopes rather than with the most abundant ones. Among its possible applications, carbonate clumped-isotope thermometry is the one that has gained most attention because of the wide potential of applications in many disciplines of the earth sciences. In particular, it allows reconstructing the temperature of formation of carbonate minerals without knowledge of the isotopic composition of the water from which they were formed. In addition, the O isotope composition of the waters from which they were formed can be calculated using the {delta}{sup 18}O of the same carbonate sample. This feature offers new approaches in paleoclimatology for reconstructing past global geochemical cycles. In this contribution two applications of this method are presented. First the potential of a new analytical method of measurement of clumped isotopes on small samples of foraminifera, for high-resolution SST and seawater {delta}{sup 18}O reconstructions from marine sediments is shown. Furthermore the potential of clumped isotope analysis of belemnites, for reconstructing seawater {delta}{sup 18}O and temperatures in the Cretaceous is shown.

  6. CARBON AND OXYGEN ISOTOPIC RATIOS FOR NEARBY MIRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, Kenneth H. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Lebzelter, Thomas [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna Türkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Straniero, Oscar, E-mail: khinkle@noao.edu, E-mail: thomas.lebzelter@univie.ac.at, E-mail: straniero@oa-teramo.inaf.it [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania I-64100 Teramo (Italy)

    2016-07-01

    Carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios are reported for a sample of 46 Mira and SRa-type variable asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Vibration–rotation first and second-overtone CO lines in 1.5–2.5 μ m spectra were measured to derive isotopic ratios for {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C, {sup 16}O/{sup 17}O, and {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O. Comparisons with previous measurements for individual stars and with various samples of evolved stars, as available in the extant literature, are discussed. Models for solar composition AGB stars of different initial masses are used to interpret our results. We find that the majority of M-stars have main sequence masses ≤2 M {sub ⊙} and have not experienced sizable third dredge-up (TDU) episodes. The progenitors of the four S-type stars in our sample are slightly more massive. Of the six C-stars in the sample three have clear evidence relating their origin to the occurrence of TDU. Comparisons with O-rich presolar grains from AGB stars that lived before the formation of the solar system reveal variations in the interstellar medium chemical composition. The present generation of low-mass AGB stars, as represented by our sample of long period variables (LPVs), shows a large spread of {sup 16}O/{sup 17}O ratios, similar to that of group 1 presolar grains and in agreement with theoretical expectations for the composition of mass 1.2–2 M {sub ⊙} stars after the first dredge-up. In contrast, the {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratios of present-day LPVs are definitely smaller than those of group 1 grains. This is most probably a consequence of the the decrease with time of the {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratio in the interstellar medium due to the chemical evolution of the Milky Way. One star in our sample has an O composition similar to that of group 2 presolar grains originating in an AGB star undergoing extra-mixing. This may indicate that the extra-mixing process is hampered at high metallicity, or, equivalently, favored at low metallicity. Similarly to O

  7. Cavity Ring-down Spectroscopy for Carbon Isotope Analysis with 2 μm Diode Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiromoto, K.; Tomita, H.; Watanabe, K.; Kawarabayashi, J.; Iguchi, T.

    2009-01-01

    We have made a prototype based on CRDS with 2 μm diode laser for carbon isotope analysis of CO 2 in air. The carbon isotope ratio was obtained to be (1.085±0.012)x10 -2 which shows good agreement with the isotope ratio measured by the magnetic sector-type mass spectrometer within uncertainty. Hence, we demonstrated the carbon isotope analysis based on CRDS with 2 μm tunable diode laser.

  8. Cl and C isotope analysis to assess the effectiveness of chlorinated ethene degradation by zero-valent iron: Evidence from dual element and product isotope values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audí-Miró, Carme; Cretnik, Stefan; Otero, Neus; Palau, Jordi; Shouakar-Stash, Orfan; Soler, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► TCE and cis-DCE Cl isotope fractionation was investigated for the first time with ZVI. ► A C–Cl bond is broken in the rate-limiting step during ethylene ZVI dechlorination. ► Dual C/Cl isotope plot is a promising tool to discriminate abiotic degradation. ► Product-related carbon isotopic fractionation gives evidence of abiotic degradation. ► Hydrogenolysis and β-dichloroelimination pathways occur simultaneously. - Abstract: This study investigated C and, for the first time, Cl isotope fractionation of trichloroethene (TCE) and cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) during reductive dechlorination by cast zero-valent iron (ZVI). Hydrogenolysis and β-dichloroelimination pathways occurred as parallel reactions, with ethene and ethane deriving from the β-dichloroelimination pathway. Carbon isotope fractionation of TCE and cis-DCE was consistent for different batches of Fe studied. Transformation of TCE and cis-DCE showed Cl isotopic enrichment factors (ε Cl ) of −2.6‰ ± 0.1‰ (TCE) and −6.2‰ ± 0.8‰ (cis-DCE), with Apparent Kinetic Isotope Effects (AKIE Cl ) for Cl of 1.008 ± 0.001 (TCE) and 1.013 ± 0.002 (cis-DCE). This indicates that a C–Cl bond breakage is rate-determining in TCE and cis-DCE transformation by ZVI. Two approaches were investigated to evaluate if isotope fractionation analysis can distinguish the effectiveness of transformation by ZVI as opposed to natural biodegradation. (i) Dual isotope plots. This study reports the first dual (C, Cl) element isotope plots for TCE and cis-DCE degradation by ZVI. The pattern for cis-DCE differs markedly from that reported for biodegradation of the same compound by KB-1, a commercially available Dehalococcoides-containing culture. The different trends suggest an expedient approach to distinguish abiotic and biotic transformation, but this needs to be confirmed in future studies. (ii) Product-related isotope fractionation. Carbon isotope ratios of the hydrogenolysis product cis

  9. Triple oxygen isotopes in biogenic and sedimentary carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Benjamin H.; Hu, Huanting; Ji, Haoyuan; Montanari, Shaena; Li, Shuning; Henkes, Gregory A.; Levin, Naomi E.

    2014-09-01

    The 17O anomaly (Δ17O) of natural waters has been shown to be sensitive to evaporation in a way analogous to deuterium excess, with evaporated bodies of water (e.g., leaf waters, lake waters, animal body waters) tending to have lower Δ17O than primary meteoric waters. In animal body water, Δ17O relates to the intake of evaporated waters, evaporative effluxes of water, and the Δ17O value of atmospheric O2, which itself carries signatures of global carbon cycling and photochemical reactions in the stratosphere. Carbonates have the potential to record the triple oxygen isotope compositions of parent waters, allowing reconstruction of past water compositions, but such investigations have awaited development of methods for high-precision measurement of Δ17O of carbonate. We describe optimized methods based on a sequential acid digestion/reduction/fluorination approach that yield Δ17O data with the high precision (∼0.010‰, 1σ) needed to resolve subtle environmental signals. We report the first high-precision Δ17O dataset for terrestrial carbonates, focusing on vertebrate biogenic carbonates and soil carbonates, but also including marine invertebrates and high-temperature carbonates. We determine apparent three-isotope fractionation factors between the O2 analyte derived from carbonate and the parent waters of the carbonate. These in combination with appropriate temperature estimates (from clumped isotope thermometry, or known or estimated body temperatures) are used to calculate the δ18O and Δ17O of parent waters. The clearest pattern to emerge is the strong 17O-depletion in avian, dinosaurian, and mammalian body water (from analyses of eggshell and tooth enamel) relative to meteoric waters, following expected influences of evaporated water (e.g., leaf water) and atmospheric O2 on vertebrate body water. Parent waters of the soil carbonates studied here have Δ17O values that are similar to or slightly lower than global precipitation. Our results suggest

  10. Fluid heterogeneity during granulite facies metamorphism in the Adirondacks: stable isotope evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, J.W.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The preservation of premetamorphic, whole-rock oxygen isotope ratios in Adirondack metasediments shows that neither these rocks nor adjacent anorthosites and gneisses have been penetrated by large amounts of externally derived, hot CO2-H2O fluids during granulite facies metamorphism. This conclusion is supported by calculations of the effect of fluid volatilization and exchange and is also independently supported by petrologic and phase equilibria considerations. The data suggest that these rocks were not an open system during metamorphism; that fluid/rock ratios were in many instances between 0.0 and 0.1; that externally derived fluids, as well as fluids derived by metamorphic volatilization, rose along localized channels and were not pervasive; and thus that no single generalization can be applied to metamorphic fluid conditions in the Adirondacks. Analyses of 3 to 4 coexisting minerals from Adirondack marbles show that isotopic equilibrium was attained at the peak of granulite and upper amphibolite facies metamorphism. Thus the isotopic compositions of metamorphic fluids can be inferred from analyses of carbonates and fluid budgets can be constructed. Carbonates from the granulite facies are on average, isotopically similar to those from lower grade or unmetamorphosed limestones of the same age showing that no large isotopic shifts accompanied high grade metamorphism. Equilibrium calculations indicate that small decreases in ??18O, averaging 1 permil, result from volatilization reactions for Adirondack rock compositions. Additional small differences between amphibolite and granulite facies marbles are due to systematic lithologie differences. The range of Adirondack carbonate ??18O values (12.3 to 27.2) can be explained by the highly variable isotopic compositions of unmetamorphosed limestones in conjunction with minor 18O and 13C depletions caused by metamorphic volatilization suggesting that many (and possibly most) marbles have closely preserved their

  11. Boron isotope fractionation in magma via crustal carbonate dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Frances M; Troll, Valentin R; Whitehouse, Martin J; Jolis, Ester M; Freda, Carmela

    2016-08-04

    Carbon dioxide released by arc volcanoes is widely considered to originate from the mantle and from subducted sediments. Fluids released from upper arc carbonates, however, have recently been proposed to help modulate arc CO2 fluxes. Here we use boron as a tracer, which substitutes for carbon in limestone, to further investigate crustal carbonate degassing in volcanic arcs. We performed laboratory experiments replicating limestone assimilation into magma at crustal pressure-temperature conditions and analysed boron isotope ratios in the resulting experimental glasses. Limestone dissolution and assimilation generates CaO-enriched glass near the reaction site and a CO2-dominated vapour phase. The CaO-rich glasses have extremely low δ(11)B values down to -41.5‰, reflecting preferential partitioning of (10)B into the assimilating melt. Loss of (11)B from the reaction site occurs via the CO2 vapour phase generated during carbonate dissolution, which transports (11)B away from the reaction site as a boron-rich fluid phase. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of boron isotope fractionation during crustal carbonate assimilation and suggest that low δ(11)B melt values in arc magmas could flag shallow-level additions to the subduction cycle.

  12. Boron isotope fractionation in magma via crustal carbonate dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Frances M.; Troll, Valentin R.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Jolis, Ester M.; Freda, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    Carbon dioxide released by arc volcanoes is widely considered to originate from the mantle and from subducted sediments. Fluids released from upper arc carbonates, however, have recently been proposed to help modulate arc CO2 fluxes. Here we use boron as a tracer, which substitutes for carbon in limestone, to further investigate crustal carbonate degassing in volcanic arcs. We performed laboratory experiments replicating limestone assimilation into magma at crustal pressure-temperature conditions and analysed boron isotope ratios in the resulting experimental glasses. Limestone dissolution and assimilation generates CaO-enriched glass near the reaction site and a CO2-dominated vapour phase. The CaO-rich glasses have extremely low δ11B values down to -41.5‰, reflecting preferential partitioning of 10B into the assimilating melt. Loss of 11B from the reaction site occurs via the CO2 vapour phase generated during carbonate dissolution, which transports 11B away from the reaction site as a boron-rich fluid phase. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of boron isotope fractionation during crustal carbonate assimilation and suggest that low δ11B melt values in arc magmas could flag shallow-level additions to the subduction cycle.

  13. A carbon isotope survey of South African honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorp, J.A.L.; Lanham, J.L.; Wenner, D.B.; Van der Merwe, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope analysis has been successfully employed in various fields, including botany, geochemistry, archaeology and, more recently, as an analytical tool in the food industry. In the analysis of food, it has been primarily directed at quality control and the detection of cheap adulterants to 'natural' foods. The method is based on the known characteristic of differences in the 13 C to 12 C ratios produced by two groups of plants with different photosynthetic mechanisms, known as C 3 and C 4 . This patterning is useful because the cheapest sources of alcohol, sweeteners and flavourings are derived from C 4 plants, maize and sugar cane, whereas traditional Old World sources such as grapes, nectar and fruit are derived from C 3 plants. The results of an informal isotopic survey of South African honeys are reported. This isotopic method is particularly useful in that it is not possible to circumvent it by manipulation of the sugars or any of the other constituents

  14. Diet and diversity at later medieval Fishergate: the isotopic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müldner, Gundula; Richards, Michael P

    2007-10-01

    We present the results of stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of bone collagen for 155 individuals buried at the Later Medieval (13th to early 16th century AD) Gilbertine priory of St. Andrew, Fishergate in the city of York (UK). The data show significant variation in the consumption of marine foods between males and females as well as between individuals buried in different areas of the priory. Specifically, individuals from the crossing of the church and the cloister garth had consumed significantly less marine protein than those from other locations. Isotope data for four individuals diagnosed with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) are consistent with a diet rich in animal protein. We also observe that isotopic signals of individuals with perimortem sharp force trauma are unusual in the context of the Fishergate dataset. We discuss possible explanations for these patterns and suggest that there may have been a specialist hospital or a local tradition of burying victims of violent conflict at the priory. The results demonstrate how the integration of archaeological, osteological, and isotopic data can provide novel information about Medieval burial and society. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Patterns in Stable Isotope Values of Nitrogen and Carbon in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotope measurements of nitrogen and carbon (15N, 13ddC) are often used to characterize estuarine, nearshore, and open ocean ecosystems. Reliable information about the spatial distribution of base-level stable isotope values, often represented by primary producers, is critical to interpreting values in these ecosystems. While base-level isotope data are generally readily available for estuaries, nearshore coastal waters, and the open ocean, the continental shelf is less studied. To address this, and as a first step toward developing a surrogate for base-level isotopic signature in this region, we collected surface and deep water samples from the United States’ eastern continental shelf in the Western Atlantic Ocean, from the Gulf of Maine to Cape Hatteras, periodically between 2000 and 2013. During the study, particulate matter 15dN values ranged from 0.8 to 17.4‰, and 13dC values from −26.4 to −15.6‰over the region. We used spatial autocorrelation analysis and random forest modeling to examine the spatial trends and potential environmental drivers of the stable isotope values. We observed general trends toward lower values for both nitrogen and carbon isotopes at the seaward edge of the shelf. Conversely, higher 15dN and 13dC values were observed on the landward edge of the shelf, in particular in the southern portion of the sampling area. Across all sites, the magnitude of the difference between the 15dN of subsurface and surface particulate m

  16. Carbon isotopes and concentrations in mid-oceanic ridge basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineau, F.; Javoy, M.

    1983-01-01

    In order to estimate carbon fluxes at mid-ocean ridges and carbon isotopic compositions in the convective mantle, we have studied carbon concentrations and isotopic compositions in tholeiitic glasses from the FAMOUS zone (Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 36 0 N) and East Pacific Rise from 21 0 N (RITA zone) to 20 0 S. These samples correspond essentially to the whole spectrum of spreading rates (2-16 cm/yr). The contain: -CO 2 vesicles in various quantities (3-220 ppm C) with delta 13 C between -4 and -9per mille relative to PDB, in the range of carbonatites and diamonds. - Carbonate carbon (3-100 ppm C) with delta 13 C between -2.6 and -20.0per mille relative to PDB. - Dissolved carbon at a concentration of 170+-10 ppm under 250 bar pressure with delta 13 C from -9 to -21per mille relative to PDB. This dissolved carbon, not contained in large CO 2 vesicles, corresponds to a variety of chemical forms among which part of the above carbonates, microscopic CO 2 bubbles and graphite. The lightest portions of this dissolved carbon are extracted at low temperatures (400-600 0 C) whereas the CO 2 from the vesicles is extracted near fusion temperature. These features can be explained by outgassing processes in two steps from the source region of the magma: (1) equilibrium outgassing before the second percolation threshold, where micron size bubbles are continuously reequilibrated with the magma; (2) distillation after the second percolation threshold when larger bubbles travel faster than magma concentrations to the surface. The second step may begin at different depths apparently related to the spreading rate, shallower for fast-spreading ridges than for slow-spreading ridges. (orig./WL)

  17. Descriptions of carbon isotopes within the energy density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Atef [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia and Department of Physics, Al-Azhar University, 71524 Assiut (Egypt); Cheong, Lee Yen; Yahya, Noorhana [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Tammam, M. [Department of Physics, Al-Azhar University, 71524 Assiut (Egypt)

    2014-10-24

    Within the energy density functional (EDF) theory, the structure properties of Carbon isotopes are systematically studied. The shell model calculations are done for both even-A and odd-A nuclei, to study the structure of rich-neutron Carbon isotopes. The EDF theory indicates the single-neutron halo structures in {sup 15}C, {sup 17}C and {sup 19}C, and the two-neutron halo structures in {sup 16}C and {sup 22}C nuclei. It is also found that close to the neutron drip-line, there exist amazing increase in the neutron radii and decrease on the binding energies BE, which are tightly related with the blocking effect and correspondingly the blocking effect plays a significant role in the shell model configurations.

  18. Descriptions of carbon isotopes within the energy density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, Atef; Cheong, Lee Yen; Yahya, Noorhana; Tammam, M.

    2014-01-01

    Within the energy density functional (EDF) theory, the structure properties of Carbon isotopes are systematically studied. The shell model calculations are done for both even-A and odd-A nuclei, to study the structure of rich-neutron Carbon isotopes. The EDF theory indicates the single-neutron halo structures in 15 C, 17 C and 19 C, and the two-neutron halo structures in 16 C and 22 C nuclei. It is also found that close to the neutron drip-line, there exist amazing increase in the neutron radii and decrease on the binding energies BE, which are tightly related with the blocking effect and correspondingly the blocking effect plays a significant role in the shell model configurations

  19. Effect of Different Carbon Substrates on Nitrate Stable Isotope Fractionation During Microbial Denitrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wunderlich, Anja; Meckenstock, Rainer; Einsiedl, Florian

    2012-01-01

    -labeled water and 18O-labeled nitrite were added to the microcosm experiments to study the effect of putative backward reactions of nitrite to nitrate on the stable isotope fractionation. We found no evidence for a reverse reaction. Significant variations of the stable isotope enrichment factor ε were observed......In batch experiments, we studied the isotope fractionation in N and O of dissolved nitrate during dentrification. Denitrifying strains Thauera aromatica and “Aromatoleum aromaticum strain EbN1” were grown under strictly anaerobic conditions with acetate, benzoate, and toluene as carbon sources. 18O...... of nitrate transport across the cell wall compared to the kinetics of the intracellular nitrate reduction step of microbial denitrification....

  20. The use of carbon stable isotope ratios in drugs characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magdas, D. A., E-mail: gabriela.cristea@itim-cj.ro; Cristea, G., E-mail: gabriela.cristea@itim-cj.ro; Bot, A., E-mail: gabriela.cristea@itim-cj.ro; Mirel, V., E-mail: gabriela.cristea@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Str., 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) is an effective toll to be used for drug product authentication. The isotopic composition could be used to assist in the differentiation between batches of drugs and assist in the identification of counterfeit materials on the market. Only two factors affect the isotopic ratios in pharmaceutical components: the isotopic composition of the raw materials and the synthetic processes performed upon them. Counterfeiting of pharmaceutical drugs threatens consumer confidence in drug products companies' economical well-being. In this preliminary study, the analyzed samples consist in two types of commercially available analgesics, which were purchases from Romanian pharmacies. Differences in δ{sup 13}C between batches from −29.7 to −31.6% were observed, demonstrating that this method can be used to differentiate among individual drug batches and subsequently identify counterfeits on the market. On the other hand, carbon isotopic ratios differences among producers were recorded, the variations being between −31.3 to −34.9% for the same type of analgesic, but from different manufactures.

  1. Tests of intestinal absorption using carbon-14-labeled isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromm, H.; Sarva, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    Beta radiation-emitting isotopes are being used increasingly in diagnostic gastroenterology for the study of absorption. The major reason for the popularity of radioisotopes is that their use is convenient for patient and physician alike. They often obviate naso- or orointestinal intubation and the collection, storage, and analysis of stool. The radioactivity used for the studies of digestive and absorptive processes is small and is not hazardous. In spite of the safety of the radiolabeled compounds, their use is restricted in children and pregnant women. Therefore, for most tests, promising alternative methods that make use of the stable isotope of carbon, /sup 13/C, instead of the radioactive /sup 14/C have been developed. The analysis of stable isotopes requires more sophisticated technology than that of radioactive compounds, however. Only a few centers presently are equipped and staffed to analyze stable isotopes on a routine basis. In contrast, the analysis of radioactive isotopes has become a routine procedure in almost ever major laboratory. The last decade has brought the development of several radioactive absorption tests. The clinically most useful tests relate to the study of bile acid, fat, lactose, and xylose absorption. All of these tests utilize the excretion rate of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ in breath after ingestion of a /sup 14/C-labeled compound as a measure of the rate of its absorption or malabsorption

  2. Stable carbon, nitrogen and sulfur isotopes in non-carbonate fractions of cold-seep carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dong; Peng, Yongbo; Peckmann, Jörn; Roberts, Harry; Chen, Duofu

    2017-04-01

    Sulfate-driven anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) supports chemosynthesis-based communities and limits the release of methane from marine sediments. This process promotes the formation of carbonates close to the seafloor along continental margins. The geochemical characteristics of the carbonate minerals of these rocks are increasingly understood, questions remain about the geochemical characteristics of the non-carbonate fractions. Here, we report stable carbon, nitrogen and sulfur isotope patterns in non-carbonate fractions of seep carbonates. The authigenic carbonates were collected from three modern seep provinces (Black Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and South China Sea) and three ancient seep deposits (Marmorito, northern Italy, Miocene; SR4 deposit of the Lincoln Creek Formation and Whiskey Creek, western Washington, USA, Eocene to Oligocene). The δ13C values of non-carbonate fractions range from ˜-25‰ to -80‰ VPDB. These values indicate that fossil methane mixed with varying amounts of pelagic organic matter is the dominant source of carbon in these fractions. The relatively small offset between the δ34S signatures of the non-carbonate fractions and the respective sulfide minerals suggests that locally produced hydrogen sulfide is the main source of sulfur in seep environments. The δ15N values of the non-carbonate fractions are generally lower than the corresponding values of deep-sea sediments, suggesting that organic nitrogen is mostly of a local origin. This study reveals the potential of using δ13C, δ15N, δ34S values to discern seep and non-seep deposits. In cases where δ13Ccarbonate values are only moderately low due to mixing processes and lipid biomarkers have been erased in the course of burial, it is difficult to trace back AOM owing to the lack of other records. This problem is even more pronounced when authigenic carbonate is not available in ancient seep environments. Acknowledgments: The authors thank BOEM and NOAA for their years' support

  3. Carbon isotope ratios in field Population II giant stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneden, C.; Pilachowski, C.A.; Vandenberg, D.A.; Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ; Victoria Univ., Canada)

    1986-01-01

    Carbon isotope ratios have been derived from high-resolution spectra of the CH G-band in 15 very metal-poor Population II giant stars and two similar dwarf stars. Many of the giants possess very low C-12/C-13 ratios, some approaching the CN cycle equilibrium value. The metal-poor dwarfs do not have detectable CH-13 features; thus the low carbon isotope ratios in the giants probably are due to their internal evolutions. These results strongly support the idea that at least part of the anomalously low C/N values in Population II giants arises from very efficient mixing of their envelopes into the CN cycle burning layers. Detailed calculations of the expected CNO surface abundances in Population II giants in different evolutionary states have been performed. These computations demonstrate that the observed carbon isotope ratios cannot be produced during the first dredge-up mixing phases in low-mass, low metal abundance stars. Numerical experiments show that theoretical and observational results can be brought into agreement with artificially induced extra mixing. An agent to provoke this additional mixing has not been identified with certainty yet, although internal stellar rotation is a promising candidate. 63 references

  4. C isotope fractionation during heterotrophic activity driven carbonate precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Nurgul; Demirel, Cansu

    2016-04-01

    Stable carbon isotopic fractionation during carbonate precipitation induced by environmentally enriched heterotrophic halophilic microorganims was experimentally investigated under various salinity (% 4.5, %8, %15) conditions at 30 °C. Halophilic heterotrophic microorganims were enriched from a hypersaline Lake Acigöl located in SW Turkey (Balci et al.,2015) and later used for the precipitation experiments (solid and liquid medium). The carbonate precipitates had relatively high δ13C values (-4.3 to -16.9 ‰) compared to the δ13C values of the organic compounds that ranged from -27.5 to -25.4 ‰. At salinity of 4.5 % δ13C values of carbonate ranged from -4.9 ‰ to -10.9 ‰ with a 13C-enrichment factor of +20 to +16 ‰ higher than the δ13C values of the associated DOC (-27.5) . At salinity 8 % δ13C values of carbonate ranged from -16.3 ‰ to -11.7 ‰ with a 13C-enrichment factor of+11.3 to+15.9 ‰ higher than the δ13C values of the associated DOC. The respected values for 15 % salinity ranged from -12.3 ‰ to -9.7 ‰ with a 13C-enrichment factor of +15.2 to+16.8 ‰ higher than the δ13C values of the associated DOC. The carbonate precipitates produced in the solid medium are more enriched in 13C relative to liquid culture experiments. These results suggest that the carbon in the solid was derived from both the bacterial oxidation of organic compounds in the medium and from the atmospheric CO2. A solid medium used in the experiments may have suppressed convective and advective mass transport favouring diffusion-controlled system. This determination suggests that the rate and equilibration of CO2 exchange with the atmosphere is the major control on C isotope composition of carbonate minerals precipitated in the experiments. Key words: Lake Acıgöl, halophilic bacteria, carbonate biomineralization, C isotopes References Nurgul Balci, Meryem Menekşe, Nevin Gül Karagüler, M. Şeref Sönmez,Patrick Meister 2015.Reproducing authigenic carbonate

  5. Age and isotope evidence for the evolution of continental crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorbath, S.

    1978-01-01

    Irreversible chemical differentiation of the mantle's essentially infinite reservoir for at least the past 3800 Ma has produced new continental, sialic crust during several relatively short (ca. 100-300 Ma) episodes which were widely separated in time and may have been of global extent. During each episode (termed 'accretion-differentiation superevent'), juvenile sial underwent profound igneous, metamorphic and geochemical differentiation, resulting in thick (ca. 25-40 km), stable, compositionally gradational, largely indestructible, continental crust exhibiting close grouping of isotopic ages of rock formation, as well as mantle-type initial Sr and Pb isotopic ratios for all major constituents. Isotopic evidence suggests that within most accretion-differentiation superevents - and especially during the earlier ones - continental growth predominated over reworking of older sialic crust. Reworking of older sialic crust can occur in several types of geological environment and appears to have become more prevalent with the passage of geological time. It is usually clearly distinguishable from continental growth, by application of appropriate age and isotope data. (author)

  6. A new record of the Paleocene Carbon Isotope Maximum from the Mississippi Embayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, B. F.; Gerweck, E. D.

    2017-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene interval is well known as a time of climatic transitions, especially hyperthermals associated with disturbances in the carbon cycle that are used as proxies for impacts of projected anthropogenic global climate change. A recent roadcut in Benton County, Mississippi exposes a disconformity between the Paleocene Naheola Formation and the Eocene Meridian Sand. The disconformity is developed on a thick, kaolinitic paleosol, which we interpret as a mature Oxisol that supported tropical rainforest vegetation (as evidenced by associated well preserved leaf fossils). The nature of the paleosol at the disconformity led us to hypothesize that the strata might contain evidence of the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). We sampled two Mississippi Mineral Resources Institute (MMRI) cores from the equivalent stratigraphic interval from Benton and Tippah Counties, Mississippi, for bulk organic carbon stable isotopes at 25-cm intervals. Results showed no evidence of the negative excursion characteristic of the PETM. Instead, we found a gradual upsection enrichment that we interpret as the positive trend characteristic of the lower Paleocene Carbon Isotope Maximum (PCIM). This is reasonable based on published biostratigraphy and absolute ages from elsewhere in the Naheola Formation. Further analyses will be performed to determine whether the PCIM trend continues throughout the remainder of the core. The identification of the PCIM in Mississippi Embayment (ME) sediments is important because stable carbon isotope data may be useful for improving chronostratigraphy in the ME. Also, the PCIM is associated with a gradual warming trend as indicated by previously published stable oxygen isotopes from benthic foraminifera. Studying successive ME paleosols throughout the PCIM may yield information about the impacts of gradual atmospheric warming on soils and associated terrestrial systems.

  7. Martian Cryogenic Carbonate Formation: Stable Isotope Variations Observed in Laboratory Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Sun, Tao; Fu, Qi; Romanek, Christopher S.; Gibson, Everett K. Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The history of water on Mars is tied to the formation of carbonates through atmospheric CO2 and its control of the climate history of the planet. Carbonate mineral formation under modern martian atmospheric conditions could be a critical factor in controlling the martian climate in a means similar to the rock weathering cycle on Earth. The combination of evidence for liquid water on the martian surface and cold surface conditions suggest fluid freezing could be very common on the surface of Mars. Cryogenic calcite forms easily from freezing solutions when carbon dioxide degasses quickly from Ca-bicarbonate-rich water, a process that has been observed in some terrestrial settings such as arctic permafrost cave deposits, lake beds of the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, and in aufeis (river icings) from rivers of N.E. Alaska. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted that simulated cryogenic carbonate formation on Mars in order to understand their isotopic systematics. The results indicate that carbonates grown under martian conditions show variable enrichments from starting bicarbonate fluids in both carbon and oxygen isotopes beyond equilibrium values.

  8. Absorption of carbon dioxide and isotope exchange rate of carbon in a reaction system between carbon dioxide and carbamic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Kenji; Kitamoto, Asashi

    1985-01-01

    The performance of isotope separation of carbon-13 by chemical exchange between carbon dioxide and carbamic acid was studied. The working fluid used in the study was a solution of DNBA, (C 4 H 9 ) 2 NH and n-octane mixture. Factors related to the isotope exchange rate were measured, such as the absorption rate of carbon dioxide into the solution of DNBA and n-octane, the isotope exchange rate and the separation factor in the reaction between CO 2 and carbamic acid. The absorption of CO 2 into the working fluid was the sum of chemical absorption by DNBA and physical absorption by n-octane. The absorption of carbon dioxide into the working fluid was negligible at temperatures over 90 0 C, but increased gradually at lower temperatures. Carbon dioxide was absorbed into DNBA by chemical absorption, and DNBA was converted to carbamic acid by the reaction. The reaction for synthesis and decomposition of carbamic acid was reversible. The separation factor in equilibrium reached a large value at lower temperatures. The isotope exchange rate between gas and liquid was proportional to the product of the concentration of carbamic acid and the concentration of CO 2 by physical absorption. The isotope separation of carbon by chemical exchange reaction is better operated under the conditions of lower temperature and higher pressure. (author)

  9. Measurements of flux and isotopic composition of soil carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorczyca, Z.; Rozanski, K.; Kuc, T.

    2002-01-01

    The flux and isotope composition of soil CO 2 has been regularly measured at three sites located in the southern Poland, during the time period: January 1998 - October 2000. They represent typical ecosystems appearing in central Europe: (i) mixed forest; (ii) cultivated agricultural field; (iii) grassland. To monitor the flux and isotopic composition of soil CO 2 , a method based on the inverted cup principle was adopted. The flux of soil CO 2 reveals distinct seasonal fluctuations, with maximum values up to ca. 25 mmol/m 2 /h during sommer months and around ten times lower values during winter time. Also significant differences among the monitored sites were detected, the flux density of this gas being highest for the mixed forest site and ca. two times lower for the cultivated grassland. Carbon-13 content of the soil CO 2 reveals little seasonal variability, with δ 13 C values essentially reflecting the isotopic composition of the soil organic matter and the vegetation type. The carbon-14 content of soil CO 2 flux also reveals slight seasonality, with lower δ 14 C values recorded during winter time. Significantly lower δ 14 C values recorded during winter time. Significantly lower δ 14 C values were recorded at depth. (author)

  10. Carbon isotopic composition of deep carbon gases in an ombrogenous peatland, northwestern Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravena, R.; Dinel, H.

    1993-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating and carbon isotope analyses of deep peat and gases in a small ombrogenous peatland in northwestern Ontario reveals the presence of old gases at depth that are 1000-2000 yr younger than the enclosing peat. The authors suggest that the most likely explanation to account for this age discrepancy is the downward movement by advection of younger dissolved organic carbon for use by fermentation and methanogens bacteria. This study identifies a potentially large supply of old carbon gases in peatlands that should be considered in global carbon models of the terrestrial biosphere

  11. Stable carbon isotopic composition of gasolines determined by isotope ratio monitoring gas chromatography mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallwood, B.J.; Philp, R.P.; Allen, J.D. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics

    2002-07-01

    A large number of underground gasoline storage facilities in the United States continuously leak gasoline into the subsurface, which makes gasoline a major groundwater contaminant. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are used currently to characterize contaminated groundwater and soils. Correlations of contaminants with suspected source(s) are extremely difficult by these techniques because many gasolines have similar hydrocarbon distributions. The present study applied the technique of isotope ratio monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (irmGC-MS) to 19 gasoline samples from different areas of the USA. This allows a much better correlation of gasoline contaminants to source. Data obtained indicate a wide range of {sup {delta}}{sup 13}C values for 16 ubiquitous compounds in the gasolines. The majority of samples could be distinguished from each other on the basis of {sup {delta}}{sup 13}C hydrocarbon composition. The oxygenated additive methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) was present in ten of the gasolines analyzed, and had a relatively narrow range of {sup {delta}}{sup 13}C values (-30.4 to -28.3 per mille). Preliminary investigations were also made to determine the extent of carbon isotopic fractionation after simple water washing and evaporation experiments. Results indicate that the majority of compounds did not undergo significant carbon isotopic fractionation as a result of these processes. (author)

  12. Testing the ``Wildfire Hypothesis:'' Terrestrial Organic Carbon Burning as the Cause of the Paleocene-Eocene Boundary Carbon Isotope Excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, E. A.; Kurtz, A. C.

    2005-12-01

    The 3‰ negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary has generally been attributed to dissociation of seafloor methane hydrates. We are testing the alternative hypothesis that the carbon cycle perturbation resulted from wildfires affecting the extensive peatlands and coal swamps formed in the Paleocene. Accounting for the CIE with terrestrial organic carbon rather than methane requires a significantly larger net release of fossil carbon to the ocean-atmosphere, which may be more consistent with the extreme global warming and ocean acidification characteristic of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). While other researchers have noted evidence of fires at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary in individual locations, the research presented here is designed to test the "wildfire hypothesis" for the Paleocene-Eocene boundary by examining marine sediments for evidence of a global increase in wildfire activity. Such fires would produce massive amounts of soot, widely distributed by wind and well preserved in marine sediments as refractory black carbon. We expect that global wildfires occurring at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary would produce a peak in black carbon abundance at the PETM horizon. We are using the method of Gelinas et al. (2001) to produce high-resolution concentration profiles of black carbon across the Paleocene-Eocene boundary using seafloor sediments from ODP cores, beginning with the Bass River core from ODP leg 174AX and site 1209 from ODP leg 198. This method involves the chemical and thermal extraction of non-refractory carbon followed by combustion of the residual black carbon and measurement as CO2. Measurement of the δ 13C of the black carbon will put additional constraints on the source of the organic material combusted, and will allow us to determine if this organic material was formed prior to or during the CIE.

  13. Stable isotope composition of atmospheric carbon monoxide. A modelling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromov, Sergey S.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at an improved understanding of the stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of the carbon monoxide (CO) in the global atmosphere by means of numerical simulations. At first, a new kinetic chemistry tagging technique for the most complete parameterisation of isotope effects has been introduced into the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) framework. Incorporated into the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) general circulation model, an explicit treatment of the isotope effects on the global scale is now possible. The expanded model system has been applied to simulate the chemical system containing up to five isotopologues of all carbon- and oxygen-bearing species, which ultimately determine the δ 13 C, δ 18 O and Δ 17 O isotopic signatures of atmospheric CO. As model input, a new stable isotope-inclusive emission inventory for the relevant trace gases has been compiled. The uncertainties of the emission estimates and of the resulting simulated mixing and isotope ratios have been analysed. The simulated CO mixing and stable isotope ratios have been compared to in-situ measurements from ground-based observatories and from the civil-aircraft-mounted CARIBIC-1 measurement platform. The systematically underestimated 13 CO/ 12 CO ratios of earlier, simplified modelling studies can now be partly explained. The EMAC simulations do not support the inferences of those studies, which suggest for CO a reduced input of the highly depleted in 13 C methane oxidation source. In particular, a high average yield of 0.94 CO per reacted methane (CH 4 ) molecule is simulated in the troposphere, to a large extent due to the competition between the deposition and convective transport processes affecting the CH 4 to CO reaction chain intermediates. None of the other factors, assumed or disregarded in previous studies, however hypothesised to have the potential in enriching tropospheric CO in 13 C, were found significant when explicitly simulated. The

  14. STRONTIUM ISOTOPE STRATIGRAPHY AS A CONTRIBUTION FOR DATING MIOCENE SHELF CARBONATES (S. MARINO FM., NORTHERN APENNINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIO ARGENTINO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides new data on strontium isotope stratigraphy applied to the Miocene heterozoan shelfal carbonates of the S. Marino Fm. (Marecchia Valley, northern Apennines. Sr isotopic analyses were carried out on oyster shells, bryozoans and bulk-rocks from the lower-middle carbonate portion of the section. In the upper part of the succession that shows evidence of detrital influx,87Sr/86Sr analyses were performed on foraminifera tests, separating planktonic and benthic forms. Results were compared with calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphic data from the same levels, in order to test the reliability of Sr dating in mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sediments. Mean ages obtained from oysters range between 16.9 Ma and 16.3 Ma. Very similar results are obtained using bryozoans (16.5 Ma to 16.1 Ma and bulk-rocks (16.8 Ma to 16.2 Ma. These results allow to better constrain the age of the massive carbonate shelf, referable to the upper Burdigalian. In the upper carbonate-siliciclastic portion of the shelf, numerical ages obtained from planktonic and benthic foraminifera are in good agreement with nannofossil biozones (mean ages respectively around 15.3 Ma and 14.5 Ma although they display wide confidence intervals. These wide age uncertainties depend on the slow rate of change of marine 87Sr/86Sr through time that characterizes the interval between ~15 and ~13.5 Ma.

  15. Culture of microalgae Spirulina platensis with isotope stable Carbon-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronemberger, Luiz C.A.; Costa, Vladimir E.

    2017-01-01

    Gastric emptying time abnormalities cause complications that affect the quality of life in humans and scintigraphy is the gold standard for this diagnosis. However its application has restrictions due to the use of the radiopharmaceutical 99m Tc. An alternative to this method is the stable carbon isotope respiratory test. This is a non-radioactive, noninvasive technique with no contraindications. Its application varies according to the substrate used. For evaluation of gastric emptying time one of the substrates that can be used in the respiratory test is Spirulina platensis labeled at 97% carbon atoms with the stable isotope carbon-13 ( 13 C). In Brazil, there is no production of this substrate and its high cost (US$475.00/g, excluding import taxes) makes it difficult to apply the test. Thus, the objective of the work is to cultivate labeled S. platensis at 97% of 13 C for use in the respiratory test for gastric emptying and to establish optimization parameters for the best cost-benefit of this culture. In the cultivation process the microalgae will be kept in a closed sterilized glass volumetric flask, with deionized water and a pure 13 C source. The light (photoperiod 12h light / dark), pH (∼ 9.5) and temperature (30 deg C) will be controlled and after 35-40 days of growth, the cyanobacteria will be lyophilized and ground for the acquisition of a powder that will be analyzed by IRMS and compared to S. platensis, which will be our reference standard

  16. Carbon isotope effects in carbohydrates and amino acids of photosynthesizing organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivlev, A.A.; Kaloshin, A.G.; Koroleva, M.Ya.

    1982-01-01

    The analysis of the carbon isotope distribution in carbohydrates and amino acids of some photosynthesizing organisms revealed the close relationship between distribution and the pathways of biosynthesis of the molecules. This relationship is explained on the basis of the previously proposed mechanism of carbon isotope fractionation in a cell, in which the chief part is played by kinetic isotope effects in the pyruvate decarboxylation reaction progressively increased in the conjugated processes of gluconeogenesis. Isotope differences of C 2 and C 3 fragments arising in decarboxylation of pyruvate, as well as isotope differences of biogenic acceptor and environmental CO 2 appearing in assimilation are the main reasons of the observed intramolecular isotopic heterogeneity of biomolecules. The heterogeneity is preserved in metabolites owing to an incomplete mixing of carbon atoms in biochemical reactions. The probable existence of two pools of carbohydrates in photosynthesizing organisms different in isotopic composition is predicted. Two types of intramolecular isotope distribution in amino acids are shown. (author)

  17. Aragonite-Calcite Inversion During Biogenic Carbonate Sampling: Considerations for Interpreting Isotopic Measurements in Paleoclimate Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, A. J.; Swart, P. K.

    2011-12-01

    As aragonite is the metastable polymorph of calcium carbonate, it lends itself to monotropic inversion to the more stable polymorph, calcite. This inversion is possible through an increase in the temperature and pressure conditions to which the sample is exposed and, although first noted nearly a century ago, has been primarily discussed in the context of sample roasting prior to analyses in paleoclimatological studies. Over the last several decades, however, researchers have found evidence to suggest that the friction associated with the sampling of biogenic carbonates via milling/drilling also induces inversion. Furthermore, this inversion may be associated with a shift in measured oxygen isotopic values and ultimately have significant implications for the interpretation of paleoclimatic reconstructions. Despite this, the isotopic heterogeneity of biogenic aragonite skeletons makes the effects of inversion challenging to test and the subject remains underrepresented in the literature. Here we present a first order study into the effects of milling on both the mineralogy and isotopic compositions measured in sclerosponges, corals, and molluscs. X-Ray diffraction analysis of samples hand ground with a mortar and pestle reveal 100% aragonitic skeletons. Conversely, samples milled with a computerized micromill show measurable inversion to calcite. On average, percent inversion of aragonite to calcite for individual specimens was 15% for sclerosponges, 16% for corals, and 9% for molluscs. Isotopic data from these specimens show that the higher the percentage of aragonite inverted to calcite, the more depleted the measured oxygen isotopic values. In the largest of the datasets (sclerosponges), it is evident that the range of oxygen isotope values from milled samples (-0.02 to +0.84%) exceeds the range in values for those samples which were hand ground and showed no inversion (+0.53 to +0.90%). This, coupled with the strong correlation between the two variables

  18. Radiogenic isotope evidence for transatlantic atmospheric dust transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwini; Abouchami, Wafa; Garrison, Virginia H.; Galer, Stephen J. G.; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2013-04-01

    Early studies by Prospero and colleagues [1] have shown that African dust reaches all across the Atlantic and into the Caribbean. It may contribute to fertilizing the Amazon rainforest [2,3,4], in addition to enhancing the ocean biological productivity via delivery of iron, a key nutrient element[5]. Radiogenic isotope ratios (Sr, Nd, Pb) are robust tracers of dust sources and can thus provide information on provenance and pathways of dust transport. Here we report Sr, Nd and Pb isotope data on atmospheric aerosols, collected in 2008 on quartz filters, from three different locations in Mali (12.6° N, 8.0° W; 555 m a.s.l.), Tobago (11.3° N, 60.5° W; 329 m a.s.l.) and the U.S. Virgin Islands (17.7° N, 64.6° W; 27 m a.s.l.) to investigate the hypothesis of dust transport across the Atlantic. About 2 cm2 of filter were acid-leached in 0.5 N HBr for selective removal of the anthropogenic labile Pb component (leachate) and possibly the fine soluble particle fraction. The remainder of the filter was subsequently dissolved using a mixture of HF and HNO3 acids, and should be representative of the silicate fraction. Isotopic compositions were measured by TIMS on a ThermoFisher Triton at MPIC, with Pb isotope ratios determined using the triple-spike method. Significant Pb isotope differences between leachates and residues were observed. The variability in Pb isotopic composition among leachates may be attributed to variable and distinct anthropogenic local Pb sources from Africa and South America [6], however, residues are imprinted by filter blank contribution suggesting to avoid the quartz fiber filter for isotopic study of aerosols. The Nd and Sr isotope ratios of aerosol leachates show similar signatures at all three locations investigated. The nearly identical Nd and Sr isotopic compositions in the Mali, Tobago and Virgin islands leachates are comparable to those obtained on samples from the Bodélé depression, Northern Chad [7] and suggest a possible common

  19. Keratin decomposition by trogid beetles: evidence from a feeding experiment and stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Shinji; Ikeda, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    The decomposition of vertebrate carcasses is an important ecosystem function. Soft tissues of dead vertebrates are rapidly decomposed by diverse animals. However, decomposition of hard tissues such as hairs and feathers is much slower because only a few animals can digest keratin, a protein that is concentrated in hairs and feathers. Although beetles of the family Trogidae are considered keratin feeders, their ecological function has rarely been explored. Here, we investigated the keratin-decomposition function of trogid beetles in heron-breeding colonies where keratin was frequently supplied as feathers. Three trogid species were collected from the colonies and observed feeding on heron feathers under laboratory conditions. We also measured the nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) stable isotope ratios of two trogid species that were maintained on a constant diet (feathers from one heron individual) during 70 days under laboratory conditions. We compared the isotopic signatures of the trogids with the feathers to investigate isotopic shifts from the feathers to the consumers for δ15N and δ13C. We used mixing models (MixSIR and SIAR) to estimate the main diets of individual field-collected trogid beetles. The analysis indicated that heron feathers were more important as food for trogid beetles than were soft tissues under field conditions. Together, the feeding experiment and stable isotope analysis provided strong evidence of keratin decomposition by trogid beetles.

  20. Methodologies for extraction of dissolved inorganic carbon for stable carbon isotope studies : evaluation and alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Afifa Afifi

    1982-01-01

    The gas evolution and the strontium carbonate precipitation techniques to extract dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) for stable carbon isotope analysis were investigated. Theoretical considerations, involving thermodynamic calculations and computer simulation pointed out several possible sources of error in delta carbon-13 measurements of the DIC and demonstrated the need for experimental evaluation of the magnitude of the error. An alternative analytical technique, equilibration with out-gassed vapor phase, is proposed. The experimental studies revealed that delta carbon-13 of the DIC extracted from a 0.01 molar NaHC03 solution by both techniques agreed within 0.1 per mil with the delta carbon-13 of the DIC extracted by the precipitation technique, and an increase of only 0.27 per mil in that extracted by the gas evolution technique. The efficiency of extraction of DIC decreased with sulfate concentration in the precipitation technique but was independent of sulfate concentration in the gas evolution technique. Both the precipitation and gas evolution technique were found to be satisfactory for extraction of DIC from different kinds of natural water for stable carbon isotope analysis, provided appropriate precautions are observed in handling the samples. For example, it was found that diffusion of atmospheric carbon dioxide does alter the delta carbon-13 of the samples contained in polyethylene bottles; filtration and drying in the air change the delta carbon-13 of the samples contained in polyethylene bottles; filtration and drying in the air change the delta carbon-13 of the precipitation technique; hot manganese dioxide purification changes the delta carbon-13 of carbon dioxide. (USGS)

  1. Carbon isotope effects associated with Fenton-like degradation of toluene: Potential for differentiation of abiotic and biotic degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahad, Jason M.E.; Slater, Greg F.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-mediated oxygenation to enhance subsurface aerobic biodegradation is a frequently employed remediation technique. However, it may be unclear whether observed organic contaminant mass loss is caused by biodegradation or chemical oxidation via hydroxyl radicals generated during catalyzed Fenton-like reactions. Compound-specific carbon isotope analysis has the potential to discriminate between these processes. Here we report laboratory experiments demonstrating no significant carbon isotope fractionation during Fenton-like hydroxyl radical oxidation of toluene. This implies that observation of significant isotopic fractionation of toluene at a site undergoing H 2 O 2 -mediated remediation would provide direct evidence of biodegradation. We applied this approach at a field site that had undergone 27 months of H 2 O 2 -mediated subsurface oxygenation. Despite substantial decreases (> 68%) in groundwater toluene concentrations carbon isotope signatures of toluene (δ 13 C tol ) showed no significant variation (mean = - 27.5 ±0.3 per mille, n = 13) over a range of concentrations from 11.1 to 669.0 mg L -1 . Given that aerobic degradation by ring attack has also been shown to result in no significant isotopic fractionation during degradation, at this site we were unable to discern the mechanism of degradation. However, such differentiation is possible at sites where aerobic degradation by methyl group attack results in significant isotopic fractionation

  2. Application of carbon isotope analyses in food technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szanto, Zsuzsa; Svingor, E.; Futo, I.; Palcsu, L.; Molnar, M.

    2001-01-01

    The vast economic size of the food market offers great temptations for the production and sale of fraudulent products, adulterated products and synthetic products that are labeled as natural ones. Conventional techniques of chemical analyses have served the food industry well for many years but are limited in their ability to detect certain types of fraudulent or mislabelled products. The aversion to added sugar and the demand for 'all natural' food products among consumers has led to a great deal of mislabelling on the part of food processors in order to achieve greater economic gain. The nature of deceptions detectable by carbon Stable Isotope Ratio Analysis (SIRA) in food technology falls into three broad categories. The most common is the adulteration of an expensive natural product, such as apple juice, with a much cheaper natural product such as cane sugar or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). The second is outright falsification of a food. An example is maple syrup produced by simple addition of maple flavoring to a sugar syrup or HFCS. The third general category is the sale of synthetic materials as natural ones or the addition of synthetic materials to natural ones in order to increase the volume of the product. The procedure for using carbon SIRA in monitoring food products involves two stages. It must first be established that the product to be analyzed, or some specific component of it, has a particular isotopic composition that can be distinguished from that of the materials that might be used to adulterate it. Potential adulterating components are then analyzed to establish their isotopic identity. The carbon SIRA method cannot, in general, be used to establish purity unequivocally but it can be used to establish impurity or adulteration with a high degree of success. The overall process of carbon SIRA consists of three stages: selection of the sample or the isolation of the particular compound to be analyzed, conversion of this compound into CO 2 gas

  3. Covalently bound molecular states in beryllium and carbon isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram von, Oertzen; Hans-Gerhard, Bohlen; Wolfram von, Oertzen

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear clustering in N=Z nuclei has been studied since many decades. States close to the decay thresholds, as described by the Ikeda diagram, are of particular interest. Recent studies in loosely bound systems, as observed with neutron-rich nuclei has revived the interest in cluster structures in nuclei, with additional valence neutrons, which give rise to pronounced covalent molecular structures. The Beryllium isotopes represent the first example of such unique states in nuclear physics with extreme deformations. In the deformed shell model these are referred to as super- and hyper-deformation. These states can be described explicitly by molecular concepts, with neutrons in covalent binding orbits. Examples of recent experiments performed at the HMI-Berlin demonstrating the molecular structure of the rotational bands in Beryllium isotopes are presented. Further work on chain states (nuclear polymers) in the carbon isotopes is in progress, these are the first examples of deformed structures in nuclei with an axis ratio of 3:1. A threshold diagram with clusters bound via neutrons in covalent molecular configurations can be established, which can serve as a guideline for future work. (authors)

  4. Fractionation of carbon isotopes by thermophilic methanogenic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, M.V.; Belyaev, S.S.; Zyakun, A.M.; Bondar, V.A.; Shipin, O.P.; Laurinavichus, K.S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors investigated the pattern of fractionation of stable carbon isotopes by the thermophilic methane-forming bacteria under different growth conditions and at various rates of formation of methane. A pure culture of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum was used in the experiments under the following growth conditions: temperature 65-70 0 C; pH 7.2-7.6; NaCl content 0-0.9 g/liter. The methanogenic bacteria were cultivated in 0.15 liter flasks in mineral medium. A mixture of CO 2 and H 2 in a 1:4 ratio by volume served as the sole carbon and energy source. In all experiments, not more than 5% of the initial CO 2 level was utilized. The rate of methane generation was altered by adjusting the physicochemical growth parameters (temperature from 45-70 0 C, salinity from 0.9 to 40 g/liter NaCl, pH from 6.3 to 7.2). Methane in the samples was quantitatively determined in a chromatograph which had a flame-ionization detector and a column containing Porapak Q sorbent at T = 120 0 C. The carrier gas was CO 2 . The average specific rate of methane formation was calculated as ml CH 4 per mg dry biomass of bacteria per h. Soluble mineral carbon was isolated form the acidified culture liquid in the form of CO 2 and was quantitatively determined in a Chrom-4 chromatography provided with a katharometer and a column containing activated charcoal at T = 150 0 . The gas carrier was helium. The isotopic composition of carbon was determined in a CH-7 mass-spectrometer and was expressed in 13 C values (per thousand) with respect to the international PDB standard

  5. A dynamic leaf gas-exchange strategy is conserved in woody plants under changing ambient CO2: evidence from carbon isotope discrimination in paleo and CO2 enrichment studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Steven L.; Brooks, J. Renée; Meinzer, Frederick C.; Anderson, Rebecca D.; Bader, Martin K.-F.; Battipaglia, Giovanna; Becklin, Katie M.; Beerling, David; Bert, Didier; Betancourt, Julio L.; Dawson, Todd E.; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Guyette, Richard P.; Körner, Christian; Leavitt, Steven W.; Linder, Sune; Marshall, John D.; Mildner, Manuel; Ogée, Jérôme; Panyushkina, Irina P.; Plumpton, Heather J.; Pregitzer, Kurt S.; Saurer, Matthias; Smith, Andrew R.; Siegwolf, Rolf T.W.; Stambaugh, Michael C.; Talhelm, Alan F.; Tardif, Jacques C.; Van De Water, Peter K.; Ward, Joy K.; Wingate, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric [CO2], ca, is expected to affect stomatal regulation of leaf gas-exchange of woody plants, thus influencing energy fluxes as well as carbon (C), water, and nutrient cycling of forests. Researchers have proposed various strategies for stomatal regulation of leaf gas-exchange that include maintaining a constant leaf internal [CO2], ci, a constant drawdown in CO2(ca − ci), and a constant ci/ca. These strategies can result in drastically different consequences for leaf gas-exchange. The accuracy of Earth systems models depends in part on assumptions about generalizable patterns in leaf gas-exchange responses to varying ca. The concept of optimal stomatal behavior, exemplified by woody plants shifting along a continuum of these strategies, provides a unifying framework for understanding leaf gas-exchange responses to ca. To assess leaf gas-exchange regulation strategies, we analyzed patterns in ci inferred from studies reporting C stable isotope ratios (δ13C) or photosynthetic discrimination (∆) in woody angiosperms and gymnosperms that grew across a range of ca spanning at least 100 ppm. Our results suggest that much of the ca-induced changes in ci/ca occurred across ca spanning 200 to 400 ppm. These patterns imply that ca − ci will eventually approach a constant level at high ca because assimilation rates will reach a maximum and stomatal conductance of each species should be constrained to some minimum level. These analyses are not consistent with canalization toward any single strategy, particularly maintaining a constant ci. Rather, the results are consistent with the existence of a broadly conserved pattern of stomatal optimization in woody angiosperms and gymnosperms. This results in trees being profligate water users at low ca, when additional water loss is small for each unit of C gain, and increasingly water-conservative at high ca, when photosystems are saturated and water loss is large for each unit C gain.

  6. Isotopic evidence for the past climates and vegetation of southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Vogel

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available The stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen and carbon can potentially provide evidence of past climates. The most detailed information has been obtained from variations in the oxygen-18 content of foraminifera from ocean floor cores, the analysis of which has produced a record of ocean temperature changes through the Quaternary and beyond. The use of isotope analysis of continental materials to reveal climatic change is more limited, but some advances have been made in recent years. One approach has been to utilize the variations in the isotopic composition of precipitation as recorded in ancient groundwater. Thus groundwater samples from a confined aquifer on the southern Cape coast show a marked rise in temperature since the Last Glacial maximum. The temperature changes during the Upper Pleistocene and Holocene are also reflected in the oxygen-18 content of stalagmites from the Cango caves in the same region. The widespread occurrence of C4 grasses in the warmer summer rainfall areas of southern Africa provides a novel possibility of observing temporal shifts of climatic boundaries. The distinctly high carbon-13 content of C4 plants is clearly reflected in the skeletons of grazers so that faunal material from suitably situated archaeological sites can be used to observe changes in the composition of the local grass-cover. The evidence thus far accumulated suggests only minor changes since the Upper Pleistocene. The combined evidence to date indicates that temperatures and also precipitation in southern Africa have changed since the Last Glacial maximum, about 18 000 years ago, but that shifts in the boundaries of the various veld-types were probably not very extensive.

  7. Seasonality of Leaf Carbon Isotopic Composition and Leaf Water Isotopic Enrichment in a Mixed Evergreen Forest in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, L. S.; Sickman, J. O.; Goulden, M.; DeVan, C.; Pasquini, S. C.; Pivovaroff, A. L.

    2011-12-01

    Leaf carbon isotopic composition and leaf water isotopic enrichment reflect physiological processes and are important for linking local and regional scale processes to global patterns. We investigated how seasonality affects the isotopic composition of bulk leaf carbon, leaf sugar carbon, and leaf water hydrogen under a Mediterranean climate. Leaf and stem samples were collected monthly from four tree species (Calocedrus decurrens, Pinus lambertiana, Pinus ponderosa, and Quercus chrysolepis) at the James San Jacinto Mountain Reserve in southern California. Mean monthly bulk leaf carbon isotopic composition varied from -34.5 % in P. ponderosa to -24.7 % in P. lambertiana and became more depleted in 13C from the spring to the summer. Mean monthly leaf sugar varied from -29.3 % in P. ponderosa to -21.8 % in P. lambertiana and was enriched in 13C during the winter, spring and autumn, but depleted during the mid-summer. Leaf water hydrogen isotopic composition was 28.4 to 68.8 % more enriched in deuterium than source water and this enrichment was greater as seasonal drought progressed. These data indicate that leaf carbon and leaf water hydrogen isotopic composition provide sensitive measures that connect plant physiological processes to short-term climatic variability.

  8. Carbonate and carbon isotopic evolution of groundwater contaminated by produced water brine with hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atekwana, Eliot A.; Seeger, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    The major ionic and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations and the stable carbon isotope composition of DIC (δ"1"3C_D_I_C) were measured in a freshwater aquifer contaminated by produced water brine with petroleum hydrocarbons. Our aim was to determine the effects of produced water brine contamination on the carbonate evolution of groundwater. The groundwater was characterized by three distinct anion facies: HCO_3"−-rich, SO_4"2"−-rich and Cl"−-rich. The HCO_3"−-rich groundwater is undergoing closed system carbonate evolution from soil CO_2_(_g_) and weathering of aquifer carbonates. The SO_4"2"−-rich groundwater evolves from gypsum induced dedolomitization and pyrite oxidation. The Cl"−-rich groundwater is contaminated by produced water brine and undergoes common ion induced carbonate precipitation. The δ"1"3C_D_I_C of the HCO_3"−-rich groundwater was controlled by nearly equal contribution of carbon from soil CO_2_(_g_) and the aquifer carbonates, such that the δ"1"3C of carbon added to the groundwater was −11.6‰. In the SO_4"2"−-rich groundwater, gypsum induced dedolomitization increased the "1"3C such that the δ"1"3C of carbon added to the groundwater was −9.4‰. In the produced water brine contaminated Cl"−-rich groundwater, common ion induced precipitation of calcite depleted the "1"3C such that the δ"1"3C of carbon added to the groundwater was −12.7‰. The results of this study demonstrate that produced water brine contamination of fresh groundwater in carbonate aquifers alters the carbonate and carbon isotopic evolution. - Highlights: • We studied carbonate and δ"1"3C evolution in groundwater contaminated by produced water brine. • Multiple processes affect the carbonate and δ"1"3C evolution of the groundwater. • The processes are carbonate weathering, dedolomitization and common ion induce calcite precipitation. • The δ"1"3C added to DIC was −11.6‰ for weathering, −9.4‰ for dedolomitization

  9. Temperature evolution and the oxygen isotope composition of Phanerozoic oceans from carbonate clumped isotope thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkes, Gregory A.; Passey, Benjamin H.; Grossman, Ethan L.; Shenton, Brock J.; Yancey, Thomas E.; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto

    2018-05-01

    Surface temperature is among the most important parameters describing planetary climate and habitability, and yet there remains considerable debate about the temperature evolution of the Earth's oceans during the Phanerozoic Eon (541 million years ago to present), the time during which complex metazoan life radiated on Earth. Here we critically assess the emerging record of Phanerozoic ocean temperatures based on carbonate clumped isotope thermometry of fossil brachiopod and mollusk shells, and we present new data that fill important gaps in the Late Paleozoic record. We evaluate and reject the hypothesis that solid-state reordering of 13C-18O bonds has destroyed the primary clumped isotope temperature signal of most fossils during sedimentary burial at elevated temperatures. The resulting Phanerozoic record, which shows a general coupling between tropical seawater temperatures and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels since the Paleozoic, indicates that tropical temperatures during the icehouse climate of the Carboniferous period were broadly similar to present (∼25-30 °C), and suggests that benthic metazoans were able to thrive at temperatures of 35-40 °C during intervals of the early and possibly the latest Paleozoic when CO2 levels were likely 5-10× higher than present-day values. Equally important, there is no resolvable trend in seawater oxygen isotope ratios (δ18 O) over the past ∼500 million years, indicating that the average temperature of oxygen exchange between seawater and the oceanic crust has been high (∼270 °C) since at least the early Paleozoic, which points to mid-ocean ridges as the dominant locus of water-rock interaction over the past half-billion years.

  10. Simulation of carbon isotope discrimination of the terrestrial biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suits, N. S.; Denning, A. S.; Berry, J. A.; Still, C. J.; Kaduk, J.; Miller, J. B.; Baker, I. T.

    2005-03-01

    We introduce a multistage model of carbon isotope discrimination during C3 photosynthesis and global maps of C3/C4 plant ratios to an ecophysiological model of the terrestrial biosphere (SiB2) in order to predict the carbon isotope ratios of terrestrial plant carbon globally at a 1° resolution. The model is driven by observed meteorology from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), constrained by satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and run for the years 1983-1993. Modeled mean annual C3 discrimination during this period is 19.2‰; total mean annual discrimination by the terrestrial biosphere (C3 and C4 plants) is 15.9‰. We test simulation results in three ways. First, we compare the modeled response of C3 discrimination to changes in physiological stress, including daily variations in vapor pressure deficit (vpd) and monthly variations in precipitation, to observed changes in discrimination inferred from Keeling plot intercepts. Second, we compare mean δ13C ratios from selected biomes (Broadleaf, Temperate Broadleaf, Temperate Conifer, and Boreal) to the observed values from Keeling plots at these biomes. Third, we compare simulated zonal δ13C ratios in the Northern Hemisphere (20°N to 60°N) to values predicted from high-frequency variations in measured atmospheric CO2 and δ13C from terrestrially dominated sites within the NOAA-Globalview flask network. The modeled response to changes in vapor pressure deficit compares favorably to observations. Simulated discrimination in tropical forests of the Amazon basin is less sensitive to changes in monthly precipitation than is suggested by some observations. Mean model δ13C ratios for Broadleaf, Temperate Broadleaf, Temperate Conifer, and Boreal biomes compare well with the few measurements available; however, there is more variability in observations than in the simulation, and modeled δ13C values for tropical forests are heavy relative to observations

  11. Stable carbon isotope ratios: implications for the source of sediment carbon and for phytoplankton carbon assimilation in Lake Memphremagog, Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaZerte, B.D.

    1983-01-01

    The stable carbon isotope (SCI) ratio of the sediment of Lake Memphremagog, Quebec is compared with that ot terrestrial sources and the phytoplankton to determine the relative proportion of allochthonous carbon incorporated into the sediments. Approximately 40-50% of the organic carbon in the main basins' pelagic sediment was terrestrial in origin, whereas up to 100% was terrestrial in littoral areas. The SCI method of determining the organic carbon source of sediments appears more reliable than the C/N method. A comparison of the SCI fractionation of the phytoplankton with laboratory cultures under different degrees of carbon limitation indicates that the phytoplankton of Lake Memphremagog are not carbon limited and fix carbon primarily by the C 3 pathway

  12. Diet and mobility in Early Medieval Bavaria: a study of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakenbeck, Susanne; McManus, Ellen; Geisler, Hans; Grupe, Gisela; O'Connell, Tamsin

    2010-10-01

    This study investigates patterns of mobility in Early Medieval Bavaria through a combined study of diet and associated burial practice. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were analyzed in human bone samples from the Late Roman cemetery of Klettham and from the Early Medieval cemeteries of Altenerding and Straubing-Bajuwarenstrasse. For dietary comparison, samples of faunal bone from one Late Roman and three Early Medieval settlement sites were also analyzed. The results indicate that the average diet was in keeping with a landlocked environment and fairly limited availability of freshwater or marine resources. The diet appears not to have changed significantly from the Late Roman to the Early Medieval period. However, in the population of Altenerding, there were significant differences in the diet of men and women, supporting a hypothesis of greater mobility among women. Furthermore, the isotopic evidence from dietary outliers is supported by "foreign" grave goods and practices, such as artificial skull modification. These results reveal the potential of carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis for questions regarding migration and mobility. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Tracing organic matter sources of estuarine tidal flat nematodes with stable carbon isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moens, T.; Luyten, C.; Middelburg, J.J.; Herman, P.M.J.; Vincx, M.

    2002-01-01

    The present study explores the use of stable carbon isotopes to trace organic matter sources of intertidal nematodes in the Schelde estuary (SW Netherlands). Stable carbon isotope signatures of nematodes from a saltmarsh and 4 tidal flat stations were determined in spring and winter situations, and

  14. Improving crop water use efficiency using carbon isotope discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serraj, R.

    2006-01-01

    Water scarcity, drought and salinity are among the most important environmental constraints challenging crop productivity in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world, especially the rain-fed production systems. The current challenge is to enhance food security in water-limited and/or salt-affected areas for the benefit of resource-poor farmers in developing countries. There is also an increasing need that water use in agriculture should focus on improvement in the management of existing water resources and enhancing crop water productivity. The method based on carbon-13 discrimination in plant tissues has a potentially important role in the selection and breeding of some crop species for increased water use efficiency in some specific environments. Under various water-limited environments, low delta in the plants, indicating low carbon isotope discrimination has been generally associated with high transpiration efficiency (TE). In contrast, for well-watered environments many positive genotypic correlations have been reported between delta and grain yield indicating potential value in selecting for greater delta in these environments. Few studies have been reported on the impact of selection for delta on adaptation and grain yield in saline environments. Studies of the impact of genetic selection for greater and lower delta are currently coordinated by the Soil and water Management and Crop Nutrition Section (SWMCN) of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division. A Coordinated Research Project (CRP) is currently on-going on the Selection for Greater Agronomic Water-Use Efficiency in Wheat and Rice using Carbon Isotope Discrimination (D1-20 08). The overall objective of this project is to contribute to increasing the agronomic water-use efficiency of wheat and rice production, where agronomic water-use efficiency is defined as grain yield/total water use including both transpiration and evaporation. The CRP is also aiming at increasing wheat productivity under drought and rice

  15. Spectral isotopic methods of determining nitrogen and carbon in plant specimens with laser volatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazeeva, G.S.

    1986-01-01

    Methods have been devised for the local determination of nitrogen and carbon isotope compositions in plant specimens, which provide separate and joint determination. Local laser evaporation has been combined with spectroscopic determination of the isotope compositions in the gas phase. A continuous-wave CO 2 laser is preferable for the local evaporation; the carbon isotope composition may be determined directly on the sum of the evaporation products, whereas nitrogen must first be separated as N 2 . Methods have also been developed for the local determination of total nitrogen and carbon in a sample with isotope dilution on the basis of laser evaporation. In order to eliminate systematic errors in determining total carbon in plant material, an evaporation method free from a rim has been devised. These methods have been used in determining isotope concentration profiles in plant specimens grown in experiments employing labeled nitrogen and carbon

  16. In Situ Carbon Isotope Analysis by Laser Ablation MC-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Lu, Jue; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Zhao, Kui-Dong; Duan, Deng-Fei

    2017-12-19

    Carbon isotopes have been widely used in tracing a wide variety of geological and environmental processes. The carbon isotope composition of bulk rocks and minerals was conventionally analyzed by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), and, more recently, secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) has been widely used to determine carbon isotope composition of carbon-bearing solid materials with good spatial resolution. Here, we present a new method that couples a RESOlution S155 193 nm laser ablation system with a Nu Plasma II MC-ICP-MS, with the aim of measuring carbon isotopes in situ in carbonate minerals (i.e., calcite and aragonite). Under routine operating conditions for δ 13 C analysis, instrumental bias generally drifts by 0.8‰-2.0‰ in a typical analytical session of 2-3 h. Using a magmatic calcite as the standard, the carbon isotopic composition was determined for a suite of calcite samples with δ 13 C values in the range of -6.94‰ to 1.48‰. The obtained δ 13 C data are comparable to IRMS values. The combined standard uncertainty for magmatic calcite is ICP-MS can serve as an appropriate method to analyze carbon isotopes of carbonate minerals in situ.

  17. Cryogenic Calcite: A Morphologic and Isotopic Analog to the ALH84001 Carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, P. B.; Leshin, L. A.; Socki, R. A.; Guan, Y.; Ming, D. W.; Gibson, E. K.

    2004-01-01

    Martian meteorite ALH84001 carbonates preserve large and variable microscale isotopic compositions, which in some way reflect their formation environment. These measurements show large variations (>20%) in the carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of the carbonates on a 10-20 micron scale that are correlated with chemical composition. However, the utilization of these data sets for interpreting the formation conditions of the carbonates is complex due to lack of suitable terrestrial analogs and the difficulty of modeling under non-equilibrium conditions. Thus, the mechanisms and processes are largely unknown that create and preserve large microscale isotopic variations in carbonate minerals. Experimental tests of the possible environments and mechanisms that lead to large microscale isotopic variations can help address these concerns. One possible mechanism for creating large carbon isotopic variations in carbonates involves the freezing of water. Carbonates precipitate during extensive CO2 degassing that occurs during the freezing process as the fluid s decreasing volume drives CO2 out. This rapid CO2 degassing results in a kinetic isotopic fractionation where the CO2 gas has a much lighter isotopic composition causing an enrichment of 13C in the remaining dissolved bicarbonate. This study seeks to determine the suitability of cryogenically formed carbonates as analogs to ALH84001 carbonates. Specifically, our objective is to determine how accurately models using equilibrium fractionation factors approximate the isotopic compositions of cryogenically precipitated carbonates. This includes determining the accuracy of applying equilibrium fractionation factors during a kinetic process, and determining how isotopic variations in the fluid are preserved in microscale variations in the precipitated carbonates.

  18. Nitrogen Isotope Evidence for a Shift in Eastern Beringian Nitrogen Cycle after the Terminal Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, F.; Longstaffe, F. J.; Zazula, G.

    2016-12-01

    The loess deposits of eastern Beringia, a region in North America between 60° and 70°N latitude and bounded by Chukchi Sea to the west and the Mackenzie River to the east, are a magnificent repository of Late Pleistocene megafauna fossils. The stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of these fossils are measured to determine the paleodiet of these animals, and hence the paleoenvironment of this ecosystem during the Quaternary. For this approach to be most successful, however, requires consideration of possible changes in nutrient cycling and hence the carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of vegetation in this ecosystem. To test for such a shift following the terminal Pleistocene, we analyzed the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of modern plants and bone collagen of Arctic ground squirrels from Yukon Territory, and fossil plants and bones recovered from Late Pleistocene fossil Arctic ground squirrel nests. The data for modern samples provided a measure of the isotopic fractionation between ground squirrel bone collagen and their diet. The over-wintering isotopic effect of decay on typical forage grasses was also measured to evaluate its role in determining fossil plant isotopic compositions. The grasses showed only a minor change ( 0-1 ‰) in carbon isotope composition, but a major change ( 2-10 ‰) in nitrogen isotope composition over the 317-day experiment. Based on the modern carbon isotope fractionation between ground squirrel bone collagen and their diet, the modern vegetation carbon isotopic baseline provides a suitable proxy for the Late Pleistocene of eastern Beringia, after accounting for the Suess effect. However, the predicted nitrogen isotope composition of vegetation comprising the diet of fossil ground squirrels remains 2.5 ‰ higher than modern grasslands in this area, even after accounting for possible N-15 enrichment during decay. This result suggests a change in N cycling in this region since the Late Pleistocene.

  19. Carbon abundance and isotopic studies of Shergotty and other shergottite meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, I.P.; Carr, R.H.; Pillinger, C.T.

    1986-01-01

    Consortium samples of the Shergotty meteorite have been measured for C abundance and isotopic composition by stepped combustion and the results compared to different samples of the same meteorite and the other known shergottites. Clearly, the shergottite meteorites have a complex C chemistry and contain components of both low and high thermal stability. Two components labile at low temperature can be tentatively identified, one which is enriched in 13 C and may be related to the carbonate thought to be produced by pre-terrestrial weathering in Nakhla. The other, which is isotopically light, is presently of unknown origin but we speculate that it may be related to shock effects. At high temperatures, two of the samples examined show evidence for a component of CO 2 trapped from the martian atmosphere, possibly indicating that shock-produced glass is heterogeneously distributed throughout the shergottite group. This interpretation is corroborated by N isotope measurements made on one of the specimens. All samples appear to contain evidence of a high temperature magmatic component of C. (author)

  20. Stable isotopic constraints on global soil organic carbon turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Houlton, Benjamin Z.; Liu, Dongwei; Hou, Jianfeng; Cheng, Weixin; Bai, Edith

    2018-02-01

    Carbon dioxide release during soil organic carbon (SOC) turnover is a pivotal component of atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global climate change. However, reliably measuring SOC turnover rates on large spatial and temporal scales remains challenging. Here we use a natural carbon isotope approach, defined as beta (β), which was quantified from the δ13C of vegetation and soil reported in the literature (176 separate soil profiles), to examine large-scale controls of climate, soil physical properties and nutrients over patterns of SOC turnover across terrestrial biomes worldwide. We report a significant relationship between β and calculated soil C turnover rates (k), which were estimated by dividing soil heterotrophic respiration rates by SOC pools. ln( - β) exhibits a significant linear relationship with mean annual temperature, but a more complex polynomial relationship with mean annual precipitation, implying strong-feedbacks of SOC turnover to climate changes. Soil nitrogen (N) and clay content correlate strongly and positively with ln( - β), revealing the additional influence of nutrients and physical soil properties on SOC decomposition rates. Furthermore, a strong (R2 = 0.76; p turnover and thereby improving predictions of multiple global change influences over terrestrial C-climate feedback.

  1. Factors controlling shell carbon isotopic composition of land snail Acusta despecta sieboldiana estimated from lab culturing experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Yamada, K.; Suzuki, N.; Yoshida, N.

    2014-05-01

    The carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of land snail shell carbonate derives from three potential sources: diet, atmospheric CO2, and ingested carbonate (limestone). However, their relative contributions remain unclear. Under various environmental conditions, we cultured one land snail species, Acusta despecta sieboldiana collected from Yokohama, Japan, and confirmed that all of these sources affect shell carbonate δ13C values. Herein, we consider the influences of metabolic rates and temperature on the carbon isotopic composition of the shell carbonate. Based on previous works and on results obtained in this study, a simple but credible framework is presented for discussion of how each source and environmental parameter can affect shell carbonate δ13C values. According to this framework and some reasonable assumptions, we have estimated the contributions of different carbon sources for each snail individual: for cabbage (C3 plant) fed groups, the contributions of diet, atmospheric CO2 and ingested limestone respectively vary as 66-80%, 16-24%, and 0-13%. For corn (C4 plant) fed groups, because of the possible food stress (lower consumption ability of C4 plant), the values vary respectively as 56-64%, 18-20%, and 16-26%. Moreover, we present new evidence that snails have discrimination to choose C3 and C4 plants as food. Therefore, we suggest that food preferences must be considered adequately when applying δ13C in paleo-environment studies. Finally, we inferred that, during egg laying and hatching of our cultured snails, carbon isotope fractionation is controlled only by the isotopic exchange of the calcite-HCO3--aragonite equilibrium.

  2. The magnesium isotope record of cave carbonate archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechelmann, S.; Buhl, D.; Schröder-Ritzrau, A.; Riechelmann, D. F. C.; Richter, D. K.; Vonhof, H. B.; Wassenburg, J. A.; Geske, A.; Spötl, C.; Immenhauser, A.

    2012-11-01

    Here we explore the potential of magnesium (δ26Mg) isotope time-series data as continental climate proxies in speleothem calcite archives. For this purpose, a total of six Pleistocene and Holocene stalagmites from caves in Germany, Morocco and Peru and two flowstones from a cave in Austria were investigated. These caves represent the semi-arid to arid (Morocco), the warm-temperate (Germany), the equatorial-humid (Peru) and the cold-humid (Austria) climate zones. Changes in the calcite magnesium isotope signature with time are compared against carbon and oxygen isotope records from these speleothems. Similar to other proxies, the non-trivial interaction of a number of environmental, equilibrium and disequilibrium processes governs the δ26Mg fractionation in continental settings. These include the different sources of magnesium isotopes such as rainwater or snow as well as soil and host rock, soil zone biogenic activity, shifts in silicate versus carbonate weathering ratios and residence time of water in the soil and karst zone. Pleistocene stalagmites from Morocco show the lowest mean δ26Mg values (GDA: -4.26 ± 0.07‰ and HK3: -4.17 ± 0.15‰), and the data are well explained in terms of changes in aridity over time. The Pleistocene to Holocene stalagmites from Peru show the highest mean value of all stalagmites (NC-A and NC-B δ26Mg: -3.96 ± 0.04‰) but only minor variations in Mg-isotope composition, which is consistent with the rather stable equatorial climate at this site. Holocene stalagmites from Germany (AH-1 mean δ26Mg: -4.01 ± 0.07‰; BU 4 mean δ26Mg: -4.20 ± 0.10‰) suggest changes in outside air temperature was the principal driver rather than rainfall amount. The alpine Pleistocene flowstones from Austria (SPA 52: -3.00 ± 0.73‰; SPA 59: -3.70 ± 0.43‰) are affected by glacial versus interglacial climate change with outside air temperature affecting soil zone activity and weathering balance. Several δ26Mg values of the Austrian and two

  3. The magnesium isotope record of cave carbonate archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Riechelmann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we explore the potential of magnesium (δ26Mg isotope time-series data as continental climate proxies in speleothem calcite archives. For this purpose, a total of six Pleistocene and Holocene stalagmites from caves in Germany, Morocco and Peru and two flowstones from a cave in Austria were investigated. These caves represent the semi-arid to arid (Morocco, the warm-temperate (Germany, the equatorial-humid (Peru and the cold-humid (Austria climate zones. Changes in the calcite magnesium isotope signature with time are compared against carbon and oxygen isotope records from these speleothems. Similar to other proxies, the non-trivial interaction of a number of environmental, equilibrium and disequilibrium processes governs the δ26Mg fractionation in continental settings. These include the different sources of magnesium isotopes such as rainwater or snow as well as soil and host rock, soil zone biogenic activity, shifts in silicate versus carbonate weathering ratios and residence time of water in the soil and karst zone. Pleistocene stalagmites from Morocco show the lowest mean δ26Mg values (GDA: −4.26 ± 0.07‰ and HK3: −4.17 ± 0.15‰, and the data are well explained in terms of changes in aridity over time. The Pleistocene to Holocene stalagmites from Peru show the highest mean value of all stalagmites (NC-A and NC-B δ26Mg: −3.96 ± 0.04‰ but only minor variations in Mg-isotope composition, which is consistent with the rather stable equatorial climate at this site. Holocene stalagmites from Germany (AH-1 mean δ26Mg: −4.01 ± 0.07‰; BU 4 mean δ26Mg: −4.20 ± 0.10‰ suggest changes in outside air temperature was the principal driver rather than rainfall amount. The alpine Pleistocene flowstones from Austria (SPA 52: −3.00 ± 0.73‰; SPA 59: −3.70 ± 0.43‰ are affected by glacial versus interglacial climate change with outside air temperature

  4. Carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon reflect utilization of different carbon sources by microbial communities in two limestone aquifer assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Nowak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC are used to indicate both transit times and biogeochemical evolution of groundwaters. These signals can be complicated in carbonate aquifers, as both abiotic (i.e., carbonate equilibria and biotic factors influence the δ13C and 14C of DIC. We applied a novel graphical method for tracking changes in the δ13C and 14C of DIC in two distinct aquifer complexes identified in the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (CZE, a platform to study how water transport links surface and shallow groundwaters in limestone and marlstone rocks in central Germany. For more quantitative estimates of contributions of different biotic and abiotic carbon sources to the DIC pool, we used the NETPATH geochemical modeling program, which accounts for changes in dissolved ions in addition to C isotopes. Although water residence times in the Hainich CZE aquifers based on hydrogeology are relatively short (years or less, DIC isotopes in the shallow, mostly anoxic, aquifer assemblage (HTU were depleted in 14C compared to a deeper, oxic, aquifer complex (HTL. Carbon isotopes and chemical changes in the deeper HTL wells could be explained by interaction of recharge waters equilibrated with post-bomb 14C sources with carbonates. However, oxygen depletion and δ13C and 14C values of DIC below those expected from the processes of carbonate equilibrium alone indicate considerably different biogeochemical evolution of waters in the upper aquifer assemblage (HTU wells. Changes in 14C and 13C in the upper aquifer complexes result from a number of biotic and abiotic processes, including oxidation of 14C-depleted OM derived from recycled microbial carbon and sedimentary organic matter as well as water–rock interactions. The microbial pathways inferred from DIC isotope shifts and changes in water chemistry in the HTU wells were supported by comparison with in situ microbial community structure based on 16S rRNA analyses. Our findings

  5. Stable carbon isotope composition of organic material and carbonate in sediment of a swamp and lakes in Honshu island, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Toshio

    1978-01-01

    Recent sediments from a swamp and lakes in Honshu were analyzed for organic carbon and carbonate contents, and stable isotope ratios of carbon in the organic materials and carbonate. delta C 13 values of the carbonate tend to be distinctly larger than those of organic carbon in reducing condition as natural gas field, whereas in oxidizing SO 4 -reducing conditions, they are slightly larger than those of organic carbon within the limited range of a few per mil. Carbon isotopic compositions of organic carbon in sediment of the swamp, Obuchi-numa, were analyzed and compared with habitat analysis of associated fossil diatoms. deltaC 13 values of organic carbon in the sediment vary in correlation with the species abundance in habitat of the associated fossil diatoms, ranging from fresh-water (-0.0282) to coastal marine (-0.0236) via brackish. (auth.)

  6. Stable-carbon isotopic composition of maple sap and foliage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leavitt, S.W.; Long, A.

    1985-01-01

    The 13 C/ 12 C ratios of Acer grandidentatum sap sugar collected during the dormant period are compared to those of buds, leaves, and wood developed over the following growing season. As the primary carbon source for cellulose manufacture at initiation of annual growth in deciduous trees, sap sucrose would be expected to have an isotopic composition similar to first-formed cellulose. Although constancy in concentration and 13 C/ 12 C ratios of the maple sap sugar suggests any gains or losses (e.g. to maintenance metabolism) do not appreciably alter composition, the 13 C/ 12 C ratios of cellulose of the enlarging buds in the spring are quite distinct from those of the sap sugar, seemingly precluding a simple direct biochemical pathway of sap sucrose→glucose→cellulose in favor of a more complex pathway with greater likelihood of isotopic fractionation. The 13 C/ 12 C ratios of the leaves and in the growth ring were initially similar to the sap sugar but decreased steadily over the growing season. (author)

  7. Carbon-13 and oxygen-18 isotope effects in the decarboxylation of nicotinic acid of natural isotopic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, M.; Zielinska, A.; Papiernik-Zielinska, H.; McKenzie, J.A.; Bernasconi, S.; Paul, H.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon-13 and oxygen-18 isotope effects in the decarboxylation of nicotinic acid of natural isotopic composition above and below its melting temperature have been studied and compared with the primary (PKIE) and secondary kinetic isotope effects (SKIE) of 13 C and 18 O, respectively, in the decarboxylation of other heterocyclic acids. The temperature dependence of the secondary oxygen-18 isotope effects is negative in the total 221-255 deg C temperature interval investigated initially. The 13 C KIE measured above melting point of N.A. (temperature interval 235-270 deg C) are located in the range 1.007-1.009. Below melting point of nicotinic acid the 13 C KIE are larger and reveal the negative temperature dependence ( 13 C KIE decreases with decreasing the reaction temperature from 1.013/at 230 deg C to 1.0114/at 221 deg C). A discussion of the above isotopic results is presented. (author)

  8. Kalahari groundwaters: Their hydrogen, carbon and oxygen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazor, E.; Verhagen, B.T.; Sellschop, J.P.F.; Robins, N.S.; Hutton, L.G.

    1974-01-01

    Tritium and 14 C measurements have revealed several cases of post-nuclear bomb-test rain recharge of local groundwaters, along with values indicating recharge over larger, yet hydrologically active, time scales. In general, recharge seems to follow rain distribution in being more intense in the northern rather than in the southern Kalahari. Initial δ 13 C values vary over a wide range and reveal some correlation to pH and chemical composition of the water. They cannot be used to correct for fossil carbon dilution in 14 C-age calculations. Radiocarbon-deduced ages range from recent to 30,000 years. Stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes indicate recharge from direct rain infiltration. (author)

  9. The Strontium Isotope Record of Zavkhan Terrane Carbonates: Strontium Isotope Stability Through the Ediacaran-Cambrian Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Petach, Tanya N.

    2015-01-01

    First order trends in the strontium isotopic (87Sr/86Sr) composition of seawater are controlled by radiogenic inputs from the continent and non-radiogenic inputs from exchange at mid-ocean ridges. Carbonates precipitated in seawater preserve trace amounts of strontium that record this isotope ratio and therefore record the relative importance of mid-ocean ridge and weathering chemical inputs to sea water composition. It has been proposed that environmental changes during the Ediacaran-Cambria...

  10. Elemental and stable isotopic approaches for studying the organic and inorganic carbon components in natural samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helie, J-F

    2009-01-01

    The carbon cycle is an important part of major biogeochemical cycles. Many techniques may be used to characterize carbon amounts and sources in the environment. Here we first review the most popular techniques for the determination of organic and inorganic carbon concentrations. Decarbonatation techniques are also reviewed in details since it is often an important part of organic carbon analysis. The second part of this paper addresses the use of carbon stable isotopes to characterize organic carbon sources and processes in the environment. An overview of general stable isotopes background and terminology is given as well as the most popular analytical techniques.

  11. Combined simulation of carbon and water isotopes in a global ocean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, André; Krandick, Annegret; Gebbie, Jake; Marchal, Olivier; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Losch, Martin; Kurahashi-Nakamura, Takasumi; Tharammal, Thejna

    2013-04-01

    Carbon and water isotopes are included as passive tracers in the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm). The implementation of the carbon isotopes is based on the existing MITgcm carbon cycle component and involves the fractionation processes during photosynthesis and air-sea gas exchange. Special care is given to the use of a real freshwater flux boundary condition in conjunction with the nonlinear free surface of the ocean model. The isotopic content of precipitation and water vapor is obtained from an atmospheric GCM (the NCAR CAM3) and mapped onto the MITgcm grid system, but the kinetic fractionation during evaporation is treated explicitly in the ocean model. In a number of simulations, we test the sensitivity of the carbon isotope distributions to the formulation of fractionation during photosynthesis and compare the results to modern observations of δ13C and Δ14C from GEOSECS, WOCE and CLIVAR. Similarly, we compare the resulting distribution of oxygen isotopes to modern δ18O data from the NASA GISS Global Seawater Oxygen-18 Database. The overall agreement is good, but there are discrepancies in the carbon isotope composition of the surface water and the oxygen isotope composition of the intermediate and deep waters. The combined simulation of carbon and water isotopes in a global ocean model will provide a framework for studying present and past states of ocean circulation such as postulated from deep-sea sediment records.

  12. Application of carbon and oxygen stable isotopes to the study of Brazilian precambrian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torquato, J.R.F.

    1980-01-01

    Samples of carbonated rocks of precambrian age are studied. The stable carbon and oxygen isotopes are applied to the study of terrestrial materials considering the variations of some element isotopic composition in function of the environment of sedimentation. The isotopic analysis was done using mass spectrometers. The analytical results and the description of region geology of the site of each sample are presented. The isotopic data are interpreted aiming to the environment of sedimentation. New techniques for better improvement of carbon and oxygen ratios, are proposed, such as: to use the analysis of surface trend and the isotopic logging in mapping of surface and subsurface. A new method for approximated determination of the ages of precambrian carbonated rocks, considering the limitations of their new technique, is also presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  13. Mobility and diet in Neolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age Germany : evidence from multiple isotope analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oelze, Viktoria Martha

    2012-01-01

    Prehistoric human diet can be reconstructed by the analysis of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) stable isotopes in bone, whereas ancient mobility and provenance can be studied using the isotopes of strontium (Sr) and oxygen (O) in tooth enamel, and of sulphur in bone. Although thirty years

  14. Release of hydrogen isotopes from carbon based fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainonen-Ahlgren, E.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the annealing behavior of hydrogen isotopes in carbon based materials. Also, the density of the material and structural changes after thermal treatment and ion irradiation are examined. The study of hydrogen diffusion in diamondlike carbon films revealed an activation energy of 2.0 eV, while the deuterium diffusion, due to better measuring sensitivity, is found to be concentration dependent with the effective diffusion coefficient becoming smaller with decreasing deuterium concentration. To explain the experimentally observed profiles, a model according to which atomic deuterium diffuses and deuterium in clusters is immobile is developed. The concentration of immobile D was assumed to be an analytical function of the total D concentration. To describe the annealing behavior of D incorporated in diamondlike carbon films during the deposition process, a model taking into account diffusion of free D and thermal detrapping and trapping of D was developed. The difference in the analysis explains the disagreement of activation energy (1.5 ± 0.2 eV) with the value of 2,9± 0.1 eV obtained for D implanted samples earlier. The same model was applied to describe the experimental profiles in Si doped diamondlike carbon films. Si affects the retention of D in diamondlike carbon films. The amount of D depends on Si content in the co-deposited but not implanted samples. Besides, Si incorporation into carbon coating decreases to some extent the graphitization of the films and leads to formation of a structure which is stable under thermal treatment and ion irradiation. Hydrogen migration in the hydrogen and methane co-deposited films was also studied. In samples produced in methane atmosphere and annealed at different temperatures, the hydrogen concentration level decreases in the bulk, with more pronounced release at the surface region. In the case of coatings deposited by a methane ion beam, the H level also decreases with increasing

  15. Inorganic carbon uptake during photosynthesis. II. Uptake by isolated Asparagus mesophyll cells during isotopic disequilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espie, G.S.; Owttrim, G.W.; Colman, B.

    1986-01-01

    The species of inorganic carbon (CO 2 or HCO 3 - ) taken up as a source of substrate for photosynthetic fixation by isolated Asparagus sprengeri mesophyll cells is investigated. Discrimination between CO 2 or HCO 3 - transport, during steady state photosynthesis, is achieved by monitoring the changes (by 14 C fixation) which occur in the specific activity of the intracellular pool of inorganic carbon when the inorganic carbon present in the suspending medium is in a state of isotopic disequilibrium. Quantitative comparisons between theoretical (CO 2 or HCO 3 - transport) and experimental time-courses of 14 C incorporation, over the pH range of 5.2 to 7.5, indicate that the specific activity of extracellular CO 2 , rather than HCO 3 - , is the appropriate predictor of the intracellular specific activity. It is concluded, therefore, that CO 2 is the major source of exogenous inorganic carbon taken up by Asparagus cells. However, at high pH (8.5), a component of net DIC uptake may be attributable to HCO 3 - transport, as the incorporation of 14 C during isotopic disequilibrium exceeds the maximum possible incorporation predicted on the basis of CO 2 uptake alone. The contribution of HCO 3 - to net inorganic carbon uptake (pH 8.5) is variable, ranging from 5 to 16%, but is independent of the extracellular HCO 3 - concentration. The evidence for direct HCO 3 - transport is subject to alternative explanations and must, therefore, be regarded as equivocal. Nonlinear regression analysis of the rate of 14 C incorporation as a function of time indicates the presence of a small extracellular resistance to the diffusion of CO 2 , which is partially alleviated by a high extracellular concentration of HCO 3 -

  16. Short-term carbon isotopic fractionation in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooney, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    A system was developed for measuring carbon isotopic fractionation in plants over a time interval of 1-3 hours, in contrast to leaf combustion studies which give long-term, integrated discrimination measurements. The system was used to study environmental effects on soybean (Glycine max) and corn (Zea mays) discrimination. Changes in leaf temperature, photon flux density (PFD), O 2 concentration, and CO 2 concentration produced little or no change in measured discrimination (Δ). For soybean, Δ increased with decreasing PFD. For corn, Δ decreased with decreasing O 2 concentration. For both soybean and corn, Δ increased with increasing CO 2 concentration. These changes in Δ were interpreted as environmental effects on stomatal conductance and photosynthetic capacity, which indirectly affect Δ by altering C i /C a . Respiratory discrimination in the dark and light was also investigated. Respired CO 2 was 5 per-thousand and 0-1 per-thousand more positive than leaf carbon for soybean and corn, respectively. Photorespiratory discrimination was 6-7 per-thousand for soybean, supporting the contention that glycine decarboxylase may be the source of discrimination in the photorespiratory pathway

  17. Stable carbon isotope fractionation of chlorinated ethenes by a microbial consortium containing multiple dechlorinating genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Ding, Longzhen; Li, Haijun; Zhang, Pengpeng; Zheng, Jixing; Weng, Chih-Huang

    2018-08-01

    The study aimed to determine the possible contribution of specific growth conditions and community structures to variable carbon enrichment factors (Ɛ- carbon ) values for the degradation of chlorinated ethenes (CEs) by a bacterial consortium with multiple dechlorinating genes. Ɛ- carbon values for trichloroethylene, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride were -7.24% ± 0.59%, -14.6% ± 1.71%, and -21.1% ± 1.14%, respectively, during their degradation by a microbial consortium containing multiple dechlorinating genes including tceA and vcrA. The Ɛ- carbon values of all CEs were not greatly affected by changes in growth conditions and community structures, which directly or indirectly affected reductive dechlorination of CEs by this consortium. Stability analysis provided evidence that the presence of multiple dechlorinating genes within a microbial consortium had little effect on carbon isotope fractionation, as long as the genes have definite, non-overlapping functions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Morphology, molecular structure, and stable carbon isotopic composition of black carbon (BC) in urban topsoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yutong; Xiao, Qing; Lu, Shenggao

    2018-02-01

    Urban soils contain significant amounts of black carbon (BC) from biomass and fossil fuel combustion and regard to be a pool of BC. BC in urban soils has multiple effects on environmental processes in urban system, such as global climate change, air quality, and public health. Urban topsoil samples (0-10 cm) were collected from Anshan, Liaoning Province, northeast China, which is one of the most important old steel industrial bases in China. The BC in urban topsoils was extracted using the density method. Their chemical composition, morphology, molecular structure, and stable carbon isotopic composition were examined using elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and stable carbon isotope (δ 13 C). Elemental analysis shows that carbon content in the BC of studied soils ranged from 64.5 to 78.4%, with the average more than 70%. The O/C atomic ratio of BC is on average 0.18. The BC particle displays different morphology, including porous spherical, irregular porous fragmentary, and blocky shapes. The porous spherical BC particles has atomic molar O/C ratio determined by SEM-EDS ranging from 0.04 to 0.37. XRD indicates that BC exists in mainly combining with mineral phases hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ), kaolinite (Al 2 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 ), quartz (SiO 2 ), and calcite (CaCO 3 ). The FTIR spectra of BC particles show major bands at approximately 3400 cm -1 (O-H), 2920 cm -1 (C = H), 1600 cm -1 (C = C), 1230 cm -1 (C = O), and 1070 cm -1 (C = O). The stable carbon isotope (δ 13 C) of BC ranges from -24.48 to -23.18‰ with the average of -23.79 ± 0.39‰. The concentration of BC in the industrial area is significantly (p fuel combustion. Results indicated that a combination of atomic O/C ratio, porous structure, and stable carbon isotopic (δ 13 C) of BC could reflect effectively the origin of BC

  19. Inheritance of carbon isotope discrimination and water-use efficiency in cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, A.M.; Hall, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    Theory has been developed predicting an association between water-use efficiency (WUE = total biomass/transpiration) and leaf discrimination against 13C carbon isotope discrimination which could be used to indirectly select for WUE in C3 plants. Previous studies indicated variation in WUE and carbon isotope discrimination among genotypes of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and due to drought. Moreover, a highly significant negative correlation between WUE and carbon isotope discrimination was observed for both genotypic and drought effects, as expected based on theory. Present studies were conducted to investigate whether the inheritance of WUE and carbon isotope discrimination is nuclear or maternal, and whether any dominance is present. Contrasting cowpea accessions and hybrids were grown over 2 yr in two outdoor pot experiments, subjected to wet or dry treatments, and under full irrigation in natural soil conditions in 1 yr. Highly significant differences in WUE were observed among cowpea parents and hybrids, and due to drought, which were strongly and negatively correlated with carbon isotope discrimination as expected based on theory. Data from reciprocal crosses indicated that both WUE and carbon isotope discrimination are controlled by nuclear genes. High WUE and low carbon isotope discrimination exhibited partial dominance under pot conditions. In contrast, high carbon isotope discrimination was partially dominant for plants grown under natural soil conditions but in a similar aerial environment as in the pot studies. We speculate that differences in rooting conditions were responsible for the differences in extent of dominance for carbon isotope discrimination of plants growing under pot conditions compared with natural soil conditions in a similar field aerial environment

  20. Calcium Isotope Systematics of Diagenetically Altered Carbonates: Example from the Proterozoic Carbonates of Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, J.; Jacobsen, S.; Frauenstein, F.; Veizer, J.

    2008-12-01

    We analyzed mass-dependent (δ44/40Ca) and radiogenic (ɛCa) calcium isotope variations of diagenetically altered carbonates collected from the Duitschland Formation (~2.45 Ga) of the Transvaal Supergroup in a vicinity of the younger Bushveld Igneous Complex (Frauenstein, 2005, PhD Thesis, Ruhr Univ. Bochum). Textural, trace element and isotope data measured on these samples provide convincing evidence for extensive post-depositional alteration and diagenetic resetting. Samples selected for the Ca isotope study have Mn/Sr ratios from 0.8 to 33, 87Sr/86Sr from 0.704 to 0.719 and their δ18O and δ18C scatter from -20 to -2.8‰ and from 9.7 to -1.1‰, respectively. The δ44/40Ca (NIST) of carbonates range from 0.3 to 1.3‰ and their ɛCa indicate no radiogenic 40Ca excesses larger than the analytical uncertainty of ~1.5 ɛ-unit, confirming that the δ44/40Ca variation is exclusively due to mass-dependent fractionation. There is a difference between δ44/40Ca of limestones and dolostones, the former range from ~0.3 to 1.2‰ and the latter cluster tightly around 1.1. Using Mn/Sr as an index for diagenetic alteration (Brand and Veizer, 1980, J. Sed. Petrol., 50, 1219-1236) the δ44/40Ca of limestones becomes progressively heavier with an increasing degree of alteration (δ44/40Ca vs. Mn/Sr, r = .84, p element data. Finally, we propose that in a suite of coeval marine limestones, samples with the lowest δ44/40Ca, Mn/Sr and 87Sr/86Sr should, in most cases, represent the least altered components.

  1. Isotopic Evidence of Unaccounted for Fe and Cu Erythropoietic Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarede, F.; Telouk, P.; Lamboux, A.; Jaouen, K.; Balter, V.

    2011-12-01

    Despite its potential importance for understanding perturbations in the Fe-Cu homeostatic pathways, the natural isotopic variability of these metals in the human body remains unexplored. We measured the Fe, Cu, and Zn isotope compositions of total blood, serum, and red blood cells of ~50 young blood donors by multiple-collector ICP-MS after separation and purification by anion exchange chromatography. Zn is on average 0.2 permil heavier in erythrocytes (δ 66Zn=0.44±0.33 permil) with respect to serum but shows much less overall isotopic variability than Fe and Cu, which indicates that isotope fractionation depends more on redox conditions than on ligand coordination. On average, Fe in erythrocytes (δ 56Fe=-2.59±0.47 permil) is isotopically light by 1-2 permil with respect to serum, whereas Cu in erythrocytes (δ 65Cu=0.56±0.50 permil) is 0.8 percent heavier. Fe and Cu isotope compositions clearly separate erythrocytes of men and women. Fe and Cu from B-type men erythrocytes are visibly more fractionated than all the other blood types. Isotope compositions provide an original method for evaluating metal mass balance and homeostasis. Natural isotope variability shows that the current models of Fe and Cu erythropoiesis, which assume that erythropoiesis is restricted to bone marrow, violate mass balance requirements. It unveils unsuspected major pathways for Fe, with erythropoietic production of isotopically heavy ferritin and hemosiderin, and for Cu, with isotopically light Cu being largely channeled into blood and lymphatic circulation rather than into superoxide dismutase-laden erythrocytes. Iron isotopes provide an intrinsic measuring rod of the erythropoietic yield, while Cu isotopes seem to gauge the relative activity of erythropoiesis and lymphatics.

  2. Light hydrogen isotopes in the single - walled carbon nano tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khugaev, A.V.; Sultanov, R.A.; Guster, D.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Progress of our understanding of the molecular hydrogen behavior in the nano tube interior open an intriguing possibility for the applications of these knowledge's to the solution of the hydrogen storage problem and light isotopes gas selectivity. That can strongly change the situation at the energy production in the world and completely change our civil life. These investigations underline the influence of the quantum effects on the properties of molecular hydrogen in the nano tube interior and it leads to the pure quantum-mechanical reformulation of the problem for the hydrogen behavior inside carbon nano tube as a problem of molecular quantum system behavior in the external field induced by the regular nano tube surface. In the present paper the molecular hydrogen behavior in the carbon nano tube was considered in the simple quantum mechanical manner. The main attention was paid to the investigation of the quantum sieving selectivity in the dependence of nano tube composition, radius and symmetry properties. For the interaction potential between hydrogen and nano tube surface was taken some phenomenological LJ(12,6) - (Lennard - Jones) potential and the external field induced by the nano tube in its interior is considered as a simple sum over the all nano tube carbon atoms. Influence of the structure of rotation (vibration) spectrum of the energy levels of diatomic molecules, such as H 2 , HD and D 2 on the final results and finite size of the nano tube along the axis of symmetry, its boundary effects is discussed in details. Thermal oscillations of nano tube surface were considered separately in the dependence of the temperature gradient along of the axis of symmetry

  3. Use of Carbon Isotopic Tracers in Investigating Soil Carbon Sequestration and Stabilization in Agroecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The global surface temperatures have been reported to increase at an average rate of 0.06 C (0.11 F) per decade. This observed climate change known as the greenhouse effect is attributed to the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs), including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere, resulting in trapping the heat near the earth’s surface causing global warming. World soils are the largest reservoir of terrestrial carbon and that soils are a source or sink of GHGs depending on land use management. Recognizing the urgent need to address the soil organic matter constraints for a sustainable agricultural production to ensure food security, this publication provides an integrated view on conventional and isotopic methods of measuring and modelling soil carbon dynamics, and the use nuclear and radioisotope tracer techniques in in-situ glasshouse and field labelling techniques to assess soil organic matter turnover and sequestration.

  4. Peatland Microbial Carbon Use Under Warming using Isotopic Fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutknecht, J.

    2016-12-01

    Peatlands are a critical natural resource, especially in their role as carbon sinks. Most of the world's peatlands are located in Northern ecosystems where the climate is changing at a rapid pace, and there is great interest and concern with how climate change will influence them. Although studies regarding the response of peatlands to climate change have emerged, the microbial mediation of C cycling in these systems is still less well understood. In this study, 13CPLFA analysis was used to characterize the microbial community and it's carbon use at the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change (SPRUCE) Project. The SPRUCE project is an extensive study of the response of peatlands to climatic manipulation in the Marcell Experimental Forest in northern Minnesota. Heating rods were installed in peatland plots where peat is being warmed at several levels including ambient, +2.5, +4.5, +6.75, and +9 degrees Celsius, at a depth of 3 meters, beginning July of 2014. Samples were taken June 2014, September 2014, and June 2015, throughout the depth profile. We found very high microbial, and especially fungal growth at shallow depths, owing in part to the influence of fungal-like lipids present in Sphagnum stems, and in part to dense mycorrhizal colonization in shrub and tree species. Isotopic data shows that microbial biomass has an enriched δ13C lower in the peat profile, indicating as expected that microbes at depth utilize older carbon or carbon more enriched in 13C. The increase over depth in the δ13C signature may also reflect the increased dominance of pre-industrial carbon that is more enriched in 13C. In this early period of warming we did not see clear effects of warming, either due to the highly heterogeneous microbial growth across the bog, or to the short term deep warming only. We expect that with the initiation of aboveground warming in July 2016, warming will begin to show stronger effects on microbial C cycling.

  5. Carbon-13 kinetic isotope effects in the decarbonylation of lactic acid of natural isotopic composition in phosphoric acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, M.; Czarnota, G.; Papiernik-Zielinska, H.; Kasprzyk, G.; Gumolka, L.; Staedter, W.

    1993-01-01

    The 13 C kinetic isotope effect fractionation in the decarbonylation of lactic acid (LA) of natural isotopic composition by concentrated phosphoric acids (PA) and by 85% H 3 PO 4 has been studied in the temperature interval of 60-150 deg C. The values of the 13 C (1) isotope effects in the decarbonylation of lactic acid in 100% H 3 PO 4 , in pyrophosphoric acid and in more concentrated phosphoric acids are intermediate between the values calculated assuming that the C (1)- OH bond is broken in the rate-controlling step of dehydration and those calculated for rupture of the carbon-carbon bond in the transition state. In the temperature interval of 90-130 deg C the experimental 13 C fractionation factors determined in concentrated PA approach quite closely the 13 C fractionation corresponding to C (2)- C (1) bond scission. The 13 C (1) kinetic isotope effects in the decarbonylation of LA in 85% orthophosphoric acid in the temperature range of 110-150 deg C coincide with the 13 C isotope effects calculated assuming that the frequency corresponding to the C (1) -OH vibration is lost in the transition state of decarbonylation. A change of the mechanism of decarbonylation of LA in going from concentrated PA medium to 85% H 3 PO 4 has been suggested. A possible secondary 18 O and a primary 18 O kinetic isotope effect in decarbonylation of lactic acid in phosphoric acids media have been discussed, too. (author) 21 refs.; 3 tabs

  6. Deciphering Complex Carbon Cycle Changes Across the K-Pg Boundary Using Compound-Specific Carbon Isotopic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancost, R. D.; Taylor, K. W.; Hollis, C. J.; Crouch, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    The consequences of the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary event on the Earth system have been the subject of much scrutiny. Postulated climate events include a brief (10 - 2000 yr) period of global cooling induced by sulphate aerosols (the so-called 'impact winter'), an interval of warming caused by impact-induced CO2release, as well as longer-term climatic oscillations during the subsequent 1 to 3Myr. Associated with these were putative changes in the biogeochemical cycle, manifested as carbon isotope excursions on both short- and long-term timescales. In this study we develop new biomarker-based climate and biogeochemical records for the mid-Waipara River and Branch Stream sections, NZ. At Branch Stream, a pronounced negative (ca 6 to 8 permil) carbon isotope excursion occurs at the K/Pg; the excursion is recorded by higher plant biomarkers, consistent with some terrestrial records and suggesting that the immediate aftermath of the K/Pg boundary event was characterised by the massive release of 13C-depleted reduced carbon into the ocean-atmosphere reservoir. Mixing across the K/Pg boundary at the Waipara section precludes a similar high-resolution investigation. Lower-resolution, longer-term records, however, also reveal a negative carbon istope excursion documented by both algal and higher plant biomarkers. This event appears to be distinct from that recorded at Branch Stream, being of lower magnitude and longer duration. It coincided with a transient terrestrial and marine warming and appears to have lasted at least 100 kyr and perhaps longer. We argue that this protracted negative CIE reflects a secondary and longer-term consequence of the K/Pg on the global carbon cycle. There is little evidence for an algal extinction as a range of C27 to C30 sterols continued to be deposited throughout the entire section, but changes in GDGT distributions do suggest a change in carbon export dynamics which could have impacted burial of 13C-depleted marine organic matter

  7. Carbon isotopes in the ocean model of the Community Earth System Model (CESM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jahn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon isotopes in the ocean are frequently used as paleoclimate proxies and as present-day geochemical ocean tracers. In order to allow a more direct comparison of climate model results with this large and currently underutilized data set, we added a carbon isotope module to the ocean model of the Community Earth System Model (CESM, containing the cycling of the stable isotope 13C and the radioactive isotope 14C. We implemented the 14C tracer in two ways: in the "abiotic" case, the 14C tracer is only subject to air–sea gas exchange, physical transport, and radioactive decay, while in the "biotic" version, the 14C additionally follows the 13C tracer through all biogeochemical and ecological processes. Thus, the abiotic 14C tracer can be run without the ecosystem module, requiring significantly fewer computational resources. The carbon isotope module calculates the carbon isotopic fractionation during gas exchange, photosynthesis, and calcium carbonate formation, while any subsequent biological process such as remineralization as well as any external inputs are assumed to occur without fractionation. Given the uncertainty associated with the biological fractionation during photosynthesis, we implemented and tested three parameterizations of different complexity. Compared to present-day observations, the model is able to simulate the oceanic 14C bomb uptake and the 13C Suess effect reasonably well compared to observations and other model studies. At the same time, the carbon isotopes reveal biases in the physical model, for example, too sluggish ventilation of the deep Pacific Ocean.

  8. Carbon isotopes in the ocean model of the Community Earth System Model (CESM1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, A.; Lindsay, K.; Giraud, X.; Gruber, N.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Liu, Z.; Brady, E. C.

    2015-08-01

    Carbon isotopes in the ocean are frequently used as paleoclimate proxies and as present-day geochemical ocean tracers. In order to allow a more direct comparison of climate model results with this large and currently underutilized data set, we added a carbon isotope module to the ocean model of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), containing the cycling of the stable isotope 13C and the radioactive isotope 14C. We implemented the 14C tracer in two ways: in the "abiotic" case, the 14C tracer is only subject to air-sea gas exchange, physical transport, and radioactive decay, while in the "biotic" version, the 14C additionally follows the 13C tracer through all biogeochemical and ecological processes. Thus, the abiotic 14C tracer can be run without the ecosystem module, requiring significantly fewer computational resources. The carbon isotope module calculates the carbon isotopic fractionation during gas exchange, photosynthesis, and calcium carbonate formation, while any subsequent biological process such as remineralization as well as any external inputs are assumed to occur without fractionation. Given the uncertainty associated with the biological fractionation during photosynthesis, we implemented and tested three parameterizations of different complexity. Compared to present-day observations, the model is able to simulate the oceanic 14C bomb uptake and the 13C Suess effect reasonably well compared to observations and other model studies. At the same time, the carbon isotopes reveal biases in the physical model, for example, too sluggish ventilation of the deep Pacific Ocean.

  9. Constraining the cause of the end-Guadalupian extinction with coupled records of carbon and calcium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, A. B.; Mundil, R.; He, B.; Brown, S. T.; Altiner, D.; Sun, Y.; DePaolo, D. J.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    A negative δ13C excursion in carbonate sediments from Guadalupian (Middle Permian) and Lopingian (Late Permian) stratigraphic sections has been interpreted to result from a large carbon cycle disturbance during end-Guadalupian extinction event (ca. 260 Ma). However, the carbon isotope data alone are insufficient to uniquely determine the type and magnitude of perturbations to the global carbon cycle. The carbon and calcium cycles are coupled via CaCO3 burial, so changes in calcium isotopes can be used to constrain the cause of a carbon isotope excursion. In this study, we present coupled carbon and calcium isotope records from three Guadalupian-Lopingian (G/L) sections in China and Turkey. Isotope records among our studied sections are inconsistent in both their δ13C and δ44/40Ca records. Similar inconsistencies in δ13C among sections occur across previously published datasets. Sections with large (>3‰) changes in δ13C either show evidence for diagenetic alteration or do not show δ13C and δ44/40Ca changes consistent with severe volcanic degassing from Emeishan or methane clathrate destabilization. We conclude that the large isotopic changes are more likely the result of local burial conditions or diagenetic effects, rather than a large carbon cycle disturbance. Perturbations to the global carbon and calcium cycles appear to have been much smaller across the G/L transition than across the subsequent Permian-Triassic boundary. This finding is consistent with recent paleobiological data showing that the end-Guadalupian extinction was much less severe than previously believed, and was indistinguishable in magnitude from background intervals. However, selective extinction of marine animals with passive respiratory physiology indicates that the G/L extinction cannot simply be due to background extinction or sampling failure, and that it was triggered by some environmental event. Therefore, any environmental event must have been small enough to not generate large

  10. Observations of Carbon Isotopic Fractionation in Interstellar Formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirstrom, E. S.; Charnley, S. B.; Geppert, W. D.; Persson, C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Primitive Solar System materials (e.g. chondrites. IDPs, the Stardust sample) show large variations in isotopic composition of the major volatiles (H, C, N, and O ) even within samples, witnessing to various degrees of processing in the protosolar nebula. For ex ample. the very pronounced D enhancements observed in IDPs [I] . are only generated in the cold. dense component of the interstellar medium (ISM), or protoplanetary disks, through ion-molecule reactions in the presence of interstellar dust. If this isotopic anomaly has an interstellar origin, this leaves open the possibility for preservation of other isotopic signatures throughout the form ation of the Solar System. The most common form of carbon in the ISM is CO molecules, and there are two potential sources of C-13 fractionation in this reservoir: low temperature chemistry and selective photodissociation. While gas-phase chemistry in cold interstellar clouds preferentially incorporates C-13 into CO [2], the effect of self-shielding in the presence of UV radiation instead leads to a relative enhancement of the more abundant isotopologue, 12CO. Solar System organic material exhibit rather small fluctuations in delta C-13 as compared to delta N-15 and delta D [3][1], the reason for which is still unclear. However, the fact that both C-13 depleted and enhanced material exists could indicate an interstellar origin where the two fractionation processes have both played a part. Formaldehyde (H2CO) is observed in the gas-phase in a wide range of interstellar environments, as well as in cometary comae. It is proposed as an important reactant in the formation of more complex organic molecules in the heated environments around young stars, and formaldehyde polymers have been suggested as the common origin of chondritic insoluable organic matter (IOM) and cometary refractory organic solids [4]. The relatively high gas-phase abundance of H2CO observed in molecular clouds (10(exp- 9) - 10(exp- 8) relative to H2) makes

  11. Bicarbonate adsorption band of the chromatography for carbon isotope separation using anion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kunihiko; Obanawa, Heiichiro; Hata, Masahisa; Sato, Katsuya

    1985-01-01

    The equilibria of bicarbonate ion between two phases were studied for the carbon isotope separation using anion exchangers. The condition of the formation of a bicarbonate adsorption band was quantitatively discussed. The formation of the adsorption band depends on the difference of S-potential which is the sum of the standard redection chemical potentials and L-potential which is the sum of the reduction chemical potential. The isotopic separation factor observed was about 1.012, independent of the concentrations of acid and alkali in the solutions. The isotopic separation factor was considered to be determined by the reaction of bicarbonate ion on anion exchangers and carbon dioxide dissolved in solutions. The enriched carbon isotope whose isotopic abundance ratio ( 13 C/ 12 C) was 1.258 was obtained with the column packed with anion exchangers. (author)

  12. Dissolution of barite for the analysis of strontium isotopes and other chemical and isotopic variations using aqueous sodium carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, G.N.; Simmons, E.C.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    A simple procedure for preparing barite samples for chemical and isotopic analysis is described. Sulfate ion, in barite, in the presence of high concentrations of aqueous sodium carbonate, is replaced by carbonate. This replacement forms insoluble carbonates with the cations commonly in barite: Ba, Sr, Ca and Pb. Sulfate is released into the solution by the carbonate replacement and is separated by filtration. The aqueous sulfate can then be reprecipitated for analysis of the sulfur and oxygen isotopes. The cations in the carbonate phase can be dissolved by acidifying the solid residue. Sr can be separated from the solution for Sr isotope analysis by ion-exchange chromatography. The sodium carbonate used contains amounts of Sr which will affect almost all barite 87Sr 86Sr ratios by less than 0.00001 at 1.95?? of the mean. The procedure is preferred over other techniques used for preparing barite samples for the determination of 87Sr 86Sr ratios because it is simple, rapid and enables simultaneous determination of many compositional parameters on the same material. ?? 1985.

  13. Carbon Isotope Systematics in Mineral-Catalyzed Hydrothermal Organic Synthesis Processes at High Temperature and Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, R. A.; Niles, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    Observation of methane in the Martian atmosphere has been reported by different detection techniques. Reduction of CO2 and/or CO during serpentization by mineral surface catalyzed Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) synthesis may be one possible process responsible for methane generation on Mars. With the evidence a recent study has discovered for serpentinization in deeply buried carbon rich sediments, and more showing extensive water-rock interaction in Martian history, it seems likely that abiotic methane generation via serpentinization reactions may have been common on Mars. Experiments involving mineral-catalyzed hydrothermal organic synthesis processes were conducted at 750 C and 5.5 Kbars. Alkanes, alcohols and carboxylic acids were identified as organic compounds. No "isotopic reversal" of delta C-13 values was observed for alkanes or carboxylic acids, suggesting a different reaction pathway than polymerization. Alcohols were proposed as intermediaries formed on mineral surfaces at experimental conditions. Carbon isotope data were used in this study to unravel the reaction pathways of abiotic formation of organic compounds in hydrothermal systems at high temperatures and pressures. They are instrumental in constraining the origin and evolution history of organic compounds on Mars and other planets.

  14. Search for correlatable, isotopically light carbon and nitrogen components in Lunar soils and breccias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, S.J.; Swart, P.K.; Wright, I.P.; Grady, M.M.; Pillinger, C.T.

    1983-01-01

    Using stepped heating extraction techniques, determinations of carbon and nitrogen content and delta 13 C and delta 15 N values have been obtained for selected lunar soils and breccias. Only nitrogen data have been gathered for representative splits separated by size, density and magnetic properties from 12023. A plot of the total delta 13 C (after terrestrial contamination is removed) versus delta 15 N values for the bulk samples reveals little evidence for a correlation between isotopically light carbon and isotopically light nitrogen of putative ancient solar wind origin. Soil 12023 is used to examine the current interpretation for the stepped release profile of nitrogen from bulk lunar samples. Mature agglutinates, postulated by previous workers to be the host of the light nitrogen, are shown to have a very constant delta 15 N value which is heavy rather than light. The actual host of the light nitrogen in 12023 has not been identified. The lowest values encountered during the study were found associated with the finest soil, but none of these was as low as for some temperature steps of the bulk soil. Interpretations regarding the origin of light nitrogen, if it is not present in agglutinates, await the results of more definitive efforts to identify the host phase

  15. A sorghum (Sorghum bicolor mutant with altered carbon isotope ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govinda Rizal

    Full Text Available Recent efforts to engineer C4 photosynthetic traits into C3 plants such as rice demand an understanding of the genetic elements that enable C4 plants to outperform C3 plants. As a part of the C4 Rice Consortium's efforts to identify genes needed to support C4 photosynthesis, EMS mutagenized sorghum populations were generated and screened to identify genes that cause a loss of C4 function. Stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C of leaf dry matter has been used to distinguishspecies with C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways. Here, we report the identification of a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor mutant with a low δ13C characteristic. A mutant (named Mut33 with a pale phenotype and stunted growth was identified from an EMS treated sorghum M2 population. The stable carbon isotope analysis of the mutants showed a decrease of 13C uptake capacity. The noise of random mutation was reduced by crossing the mutant and its wildtype (WT. The back-cross (BC1F1 progenies were like the WT parent in terms of 13C values and plant phenotypes. All the BC1F2 plants with low δ13C died before they produced their 6th leaf. Gas exchange measurements of the low δ13C sorghum mutants showed a higher CO2 compensation point (25.24 μmol CO2.mol-1air and the maximum rate of photosynthesis was less than 5μmol.m-2.s-1. To identify the genetic determinant of this trait, four DNA pools were isolated; two each from normal and low δ13C BC1F2 mutant plants. These were sequenced using an Illumina platform. Comparison of allele frequency of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs between the pools with contrasting phenotype showed that a locus in Chromosome 10 between 57,941,104 and 59,985,708 bps had an allele frequency of 1. There were 211 mutations and 37 genes in the locus, out of which mutations in 9 genes showed non-synonymous changes. This finding is expected to contribute to future research on the identification of the causal factor differentiating C4 from C3 species that can be used

  16. Carbon isotopic changes in benthic foraminifera from the western South Atlantic: Reconstruction of glacial abyssal circulation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, W. B.; Lohmann, G. P.

    1982-09-01

    Oxygen- and carbon-isotopic analyses have been performed on the benthic foraminifer Planulina wuellerstorfi in seven Late Quaternary cores from the Vema Channel-Rio Grande Rise region. The cores are distributed over the water-depth interval of 2340 to 3939 m, which includes the present transition from North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) to Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). The carbon-isotopic records in the cores vary as a function of water depth. The shallowest and deepest cores show no significant glacial-interglacial difference in δ 13C. Four of the five cores presently located in the NADW have benthic foraminiferal δ 13C that is lower during glacial isotopic stages. Based on bathymetric gradients in δ 13C, we conclude that, like today, there were two water masses present in the Vema Channel during glacial intervals: a water mass enriched in 13C overlying another water mass depleted in 13C. The largest gradient of change of δ 13C with depth, however, occurred at 2.7 km, ˜ 1 km shallower than the present position of this gradient. On the basis of paleontologic and sedimentologic evidence, we consider it unlikely that the NADW:AABW transition shallowed to this level. Reduced carbon-isotopic gradients between the deep basins of the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans during the last glaciation suggest that production of NADW was reduced. Lower production of NADW may have modified the local abyssal circulation pattern in the Vema Channel region.

  17. Carbon, Chlorine, and Hydrogen Isotope Fractionation in Transformation of TCE to Ethene by a Dehalococcoides Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuder, T.; van Breukelen, B.M.; Vanderford, M.; Philip, P.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon (C), chlorine (Cl), and hydrogen (H) isotope effects were determined during dechlorination of TCE to ethene by a mixed Dehalococcoides (Dhc) culture. The C isotope effects for the dechlorination steps were consistent with data published in the past for reductive dechlorination (RD) by Dhc.

  18. Soil drying effects on the carbon isotope composition of soil respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotopes are used widely as a tool for determining sources of carbon (C) fluxes in ecosystem C studies. Environmental factors that change over time, such as moisture, can create dynamic changes in the isotopic composition of C assimilated by plants, and offers a unique opp...

  19. LBA-ECO CD-02 Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen Stable Isotopes in Organic Material, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports the measurement of stable carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope ratios in organic material (plant, litter and soil samples) in forest canopy...

  20. LBA-ECO CD-02 Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen Stable Isotopes in Organic Material, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports the measurement of stable carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope ratios in organic material (plant, litter and soil samples) in forest...

  1. Carbon and oxygen isotopes in carbonatites from Puna, Jujuy and Salta, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Rubiolo, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    δ 13 and δ 18 O data from carbonatites indicate that bodies formed by crystallization of carbonate magma with subsequent formation of metasomatic and hydrothermal carbonatitic veins. The isotopic data are consistent with the available geochemical and petrologic information. (author)

  2. Elemental geochemistry and strontium-isotope stratigraphy of Cenomanian to Santonian neritic carbonates in the Zagros Basin, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidtalab, Amin; Rahimpour-Bonab, Hossain; Huck, Stefan; Heimhofer, Ulrich

    2016-12-01

    A Neo-Tethyan upper Cenomanian-Santonian neritic carbonate ramp succession (Sarvak and Ilam formations), drilled in the Zagros Basin in southwest Iran, was investigated via detailed sedimentology, microfacies analysis, elemental geochemistry and Sr-isotope stratigraphy (SIS). The succession contains two exposure surfaces, which are known as the CT-ES and mT-ES (Cenomanian-Turonian and middle Turonian, respectively), and associated prominent negative carbon-isotope excursions that represent important regional stratigraphic marker horizons. Precise knowledge about the onset of platform exposure and the duration of the exposure-related hiatus, however, is currently lacking due to a rather low-resolved shallow-water biostratigraphic framework and a bulk carbonate carbon-isotope pattern that clearly differs from global Late Cretaceous reference curves. Therefore, the existing bio-chemostratigraphic framework was complemented by bulk carbonate strontium-isotope stratigraphy (SIS). As bulk carbonate material is in particular prone to diagenetic alteration, a careful selection of least altered samples has been carried out by means of elemental geochemistry and petrography. In contrast to what could be expected, the meteoric alteration of limestones beneath both exposure surfaces is not clearly expressed by increasing iron and manganese and coeval decreasing strontium contents. On the contrary, the impact of meteoric diagenesis is well illustrated via pronounced increases in Rb concentrations and concomitant prominent positive shifts to radiogenic strontium-isotope values, an observation that clearly reflects the decay of continentally derived 87Rb into 87Sr. Rubidium corrected strontium-isotope values place the CT-ES around the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary and point to an exposure duration of less than 0.4 Myr. This rather short-term CT-ES related hiatus is supported by petrographic evidence, which indicates a youth karstification stage of strata beneath the CT

  3. Carbon isotopic record from Upper Devonian carbonates at Dongcun in Guilin, southern China, supporting the world-wide pattern of carbon isotope excursions during Frasnian-Famennian transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Two positive δ13C excursions are presented in records from the Frasnian-Famennian (F-F) marine carbonate sediments in Europe, America, Africa, and Australia, having been considered as a worldwide pattern, and attributed to enhanced organic carbon burial during the F-F biological mass extinction. However, this worldwide pattern has not been revealed from the well-deposited Late Devonian sequences in southern China. In this paper, a detailed investigation has been made on the Late Devonian section at Dongcun, Guilin, southern China to constrain perturbations in δ13C of carbonates in the F-F deposited sequence. The result from this section also indicates two positive δ13C excursions during the F-F transition. The first excursion with an amplitude of 1.5‰ occurred at the bottom of linguiformis Zone, later than the early excursion existing in the Late rhenana Zone of the Late Devonian profiles in other continents, especially, in central Europe. This difference has been expected to be a result as conodont Palmatolepis linguiformis occurred earlier in southern China than other sites. The second excursion with an amplitude of 2.1‰ is located at the F-F boundary, same as the records from other continents. This result strongly supports the view that two carbon isotope positive excursions during the F-F transition are common in carbonate sediments, resulting from worldwide increases of organic carbon burial intensity.

  4. Sulfur and carbon isotope biogeochemistry of a rewetted brackish fen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebsch, Franziska; Gehre, Matthias; Winkel, Matthias; Koehler, Stefan; Koch, Marian; Jurasinski, Gerald; Spitzy, Alejandro; Liebner, Susanne; Sachs, Torsten; Schmiedinger, Iris; Kretzschmann, Lisett; Saborowski, Anke; Böttcher, Michael E.

    2015-04-01

    Coastal wetlands are at the interface between terrestrial freshwater and marine and exhibit very specific biogeochemical conditions. Intermittent sea water intrusion affects metabolic pathways, i. e. anaerobic carbon metabolism is progressively dominated by sulfate reduction with lower contribution of methanogenesis whilst methane production is increasingly shifted from acetoclastic to hydrogenotrophic. Due to expanding anthropogenic impact a large proportion of coastal ecosystems is degraded with severe implications for the biogeochemical processes. We use concentration patterns and stable isotope signatures of water, sulfate, dissolved carbonate, and methane (δ2H, δ13C, δ18O, δ34S) to investigate the S and C metabolic cycle in a rewetted fen close to the southern Baltic Sea border. Such studies are crucial to better predict dynamic ecosystem feedback to global change like organic matter (OM) decomposition or greenhouse gas emissions. Yet, little is known about the metabolic pathways in such environments. The study site is part of the TERENO Observatory "Northeastern German Lowlands' and measurements of methane emissions have run since 2009. High methane fluxes up to 800 mg m-2 hr-1 indicate that methanogenesis is the dominant C metabolism pathway despite of high sulfate concentrations (up to 37 mM). The presented data are part of a comprehensive biogeochemical investigation that we conducted in autumn 2014 and that comprises 4 pore water profiles and sediment samples within a transect of 300-1500 m distance to the Baltic Sea. Depth of organic layers ranged from 25 to 140 cm with high OM contents (up to 90 dwt.%). Sulfate/chloride ratios in the pore waters were lower than in the Baltic Sea for most sites and sediment depths indicated a substantial net sulfate loss. Sulfide concentrations were negligible at the top and increased parallel to the sulfate concentrations with depth to values of up to 0.3 mM. One pore water profiles situated 1150 m from the Baltic

  5. Preliminary study of lead isotopes in the carbonate-silica veins of Trench 14, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zartman, R.E.; Kwak, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    The sub-vertical carbonate-silica veins filling the Bow Ridge Fault, where exposed in Trench 14 on the east side of Yucca Mountain, carry a lead isotopic signature that can be explained in terms of local sources. Two isotopically distinguishable--silicate and carbonate--fractions of lead are recognized within the vein system as well as in overlying surficial calcrete deposits. The acid-insoluble silicate fraction is contributed largely from the decomposing Miocene volcanic tuff, which forms the wall rock of the fault zone and is a ubiquitous component of the overlying soil. Lead contained in the silicate fraction approaches in isotopic composition that of the Miocene volcanic rocks of Yucca Mountain, but diverges from it in some samples by being more enriched in uranogenic isotopes. The carbonate fraction of lead in both vein and calcrete samples resides dominantly in the HCl- and CH 3 COOH-soluble calcite. HCl evidently also attacks and removes lead from silicate phases, but the milder CH 3 COOH dissolution procedure oftentimes identifies a significantly more radiogenic lead in the calcite. Wind-blown particulate matter brought to the area from Paleozoic and Late Proterozoic limestones in surrounding mountains may be the ultimate source of the calcite. Isotopically more uniform samples suggest that locally the basaltic ash and other volcanic rock have contributed most of the lead to both fractions of the vein system. An important finding of this study is that the data does not require the more exotic mechanisms or origins that have been proposed for the veins. Instead, the remarkably similar lead isotopic properties of the veins to those of the soil calcretes support their interpretation as a surficial, pedogenic phenomenon

  6. Stable carbon isotope discrimination in the smut fungus Ustilago violacea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Will, O.H. III; Tieszen, L.L.; Kellen, M.; Gerlach, T.

    1986-01-01

    Haploid strains 15.10, I.C429, and I.C2y and diploid strain JK2 of Ustilago Piolacea were grown on one or more of the following carbon sources: glucose, sucrose, maltose, inulin, starch, inositol, glycerol, casein, and yeast extract. The media, both before and after fungal growth, and the fungal cells were analyzed for 13 C/ 12 C content (δ 13 values) using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer after combustion to CO 2 . In all cases, the used and unused media had identical δ 13 C values. Strain 15.10 had significantly less 13 C than the media when grown on glucose, sucrose, maltose, and inositol; significantly more 13 C when grown on inulin, starch, and glycerol; and no significant difference in δ 13 C values when grown on casein and yeast extract media. Other haploid strains responded similarly to 15.10. Diploid strain JK2 was also depleted in 13 C when grown on glucose and enriched in 13 C when grown on glycerol; however, JK2 was slightly depleted in 13 C when grown on casein, whereas all the tested haploid strains were enriched in 13 C

  7. Distinguishing feral and managed honeybees (Apis mellifera) using stable carbon isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson , Lucy; Dynes , Travis; Berry , Jennifer; Delaplane , Keith; McCormick , Lydia; Brosi , Berry

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The ability to distinguish feral and managed honeybees (Apis mellifera) has applications in studies of population genetics, parasite transmission, pollination, interspecific interactions, and bee breeding. We evaluated a diagnostic test based on theoretical differences in stable carbon isotope ratios generated by supplemental feeding. We evaluated (1) if carbon isotope ratios can distinguish feral and managed honeybees and (2) the temporal persistence of the signal aft...

  8. Some carbonates from Lagoa Real uranium province, State of Bahia: studies on fluid inclusion and stable isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuzikawa, K.

    1982-01-01

    The geochemical conditions of the uraniferous carbonates of Lagoa Real province were studied using the fluid inclusions method and the isotopic determinations of the carbon and oxygen of these carbonates. (A.B.) [pt

  9. Hf isotope evidence for a hidden mantle reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizzarro, Martin; Simonetti, A.; Stevenson, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    High-precision Hf isotopic analyses and U-Pb ages of carbonatites and kimberlites from Greenland and eastern North America, including Earth's oldest known carbonatite (3 Ga), indicate derivation from an enriched mantle source. This previously unidentified mantle reservoir-marked by an unradiogenic...... Hf isotopic composition and preserved in the deep mantle for at least 3 b.y.-may account for the mass imbalance in Earth's Hf-Nd budget. The Hf isotopic data presented here support a common mantle source region and genetic link between carbonatite and some oceanic-island basalt volcanoes....

  10. Carbon allocation belowground in Pinus pinaster using stable carbon isotope pulse labeling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannoura, M.; Bosc, A.; Chipeaux, C.; Sartore, M.; Lambrot, C.; Trichet, P.; Bakker, M.; Loustau, D.; Epron, D.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon allocation belowground competes with aboveground growth and biomass production. In the other hand, it contributes to resource acquisition such as nutrient, water and carbon sequestration in soil. Thus, a better characterization of carbon flow from plant to soil and its residence time within each compartment is an important issue for understanding and modeling forest ecosystem carbon budget. 13C pulse labeling of whole crown was conducted at 4 seasons to study the fate of assimilated carbon by photosynthesis into the root on 12 year old Pinus pinaster planted in the INRA domain of Pierroton. Maritime pine is the most widely planted species in South-West Europe. Stem, root and soil CO2 effluxes and their isotope composition were measured continuously by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy with a trace gas analyzer (TGA 100A; Campbell Scientific) coupled to flow-through chambers. 13CO2 recovery and peak were observed in respiration of each compartment after labeling. It appeared sequentially from top of stem to bottom, and to coarse root. The maximum velocity of carbon transfer was calculated as the difference in time lag of recovery between two positions on the trunk or on the root. It ranged between 0.08-0.2 m h-1 in stem and between 0.04-0.12 m h-1 in coarse root. This velocity was higher in warmer season, and the difference between time lag of recovery and peak increased after first frost. Photosynthates arrived underground 1.5 to 5 days after labeling, at similar time in soil CO2 effluxes and coarse root respiration. 0.08-1.4 g of carbon was respired per tree during first 20 days following labeling. It presented 0.6 -10% of 13C used for labeling and it is strongly related to seasons. The isotope signal was detected in fine root organs and microbial biomass by periodical core sampling. The peak was observed 6 days after labeling in early summer while it was delayed more than 10 days in autumn and winter with less amount of carbon allocated

  11. GasBench/isotope ratio mass spectrometry: a carbon isotope approach to detect exogenous CO(2) in sparkling drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabañero, Ana I; San-Hipólito, Tamar; Rupérez, Mercedes

    2007-01-01

    A new procedure for the determination of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) (13)C/(12)C isotope ratios, using direct injection into a GasBench/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GasBench/IRMS) system, has been developed to improve isotopic methods devoted to the study of the authenticity of sparkling drinks. Thirty-nine commercial sparkling drink samples from various origins were analyzed. Values of delta(13)C(cava) ranged from -20.30 per thousand to -23.63 per thousand, when C3 sugar addition was performed for a second alcoholic fermentation. Values of delta(13)C(water) ranged from -5.59 per thousand to -6.87 per thousand in the case of naturally carbonated water or water fortified with gas from the spring, and delta(13)C(water) ranged from -29.36 per thousand to -42.09 per thousand when industrial CO(2) was added. It has been demonstrated that the addition of C4 sugar to semi-sparkling wine (aguja) and industrial CO(2) addition to sparkling wine (cava) or water can be detected. The new procedure has advantages over existing methods in terms of analysis time and sample treatment. In addition, it is the first isotopic method developed that allows (13)C/(12)C determination directly from a liquid sample without previous CO(2) extraction. No significant isotopic fractionation was observed nor any influence by secondary compounds present in the liquid phase. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Isotopic composition of carbon of natural gases in the sedimentary basins of Kamchatka and Chukotka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobkov, V.A.; Kudriavtseva, E.I.

    1981-01-01

    A study was carried out on the chemical and isotopic compositions of carbon of natural gases, which are prospective for oil and gas structures. An isotopic composition of the carbon of gases, covered by wells in possible oil and gas bearing basins (Eastern Kamchatka Central Kamchatka, Western Kamchatka, Anadyrsk, and Khatyrsk), created by terrigenic rock of the cretaceous, paleogenic, and neogenic ages, with dimensions of three to six kilometers, is presented. Investigation is made of the isotopic carbon of methane, ethane, and propane in 36 gas specimens. The plan of the distribution of the tested structures is shown, and an analysis is given of the chemical and isotopic composition of carbon of the prospected areas of Kamchatka and Chukotka and the interconnection of the isotopic composition of the carbon of methane with ethane and propane. A supposition is made concerning the existence of a single equilibrious volumetric system of CH/sub 4/--C/sub 2/H/sub 6/--C/sub 3/H/sub 8/--CO/sub 2/, in which ethane and propane are by-products, and owing to this, equilibrium establish according to this more slowly. The study of the isotopic composition of carbon of methane shows, that at various areas of depth formation of hydrocarbon gases is different. A conclusion is made that the gases formed at high temperatures. This points to a significant distance in the vertical migration of gases in the given region.

  13. Effects of inorganic anions on carbon isotope fractionation during Fenton-like degradation of trichloroethene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yunde [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Laboratory of Basin Hydrology and Wetland Eco-restoration, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhou, Aiguo, E-mail: aiguozhou@cug.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Gan, Yiqun; Li, Xiaoqian [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • The effect of inorganic anions on carbon isotope fractionation was evaluated. • The enrichment factors was independent concentration of NO{sub 3}{sup −}, or SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}. • Cl{sup −} significantly influenced the carbon isotope fractionation. - Abstract: Understanding the magnitude and variability in isotope fractionation with respect to specific processes is crucial to the application of stable isotopic analysis as a tool to infer and quantify transformation processes. The variability of carbon isotope fractionation during Fenton-like degradation of trichloroethene (TCE) in the presence of different inorganic ions (nitrate, sulfate, and chloride), was investigated to evaluate the potential effects of inorganic anions on carbon isotope enrichment factor (ε value). A comparison of ε values obtained in deionized water, nitrate solution, and sulfate solution demonstrated that the ε values were identical and not affected by the presence of nitrate and sulfate. In the presence of chloride, however, the ε values (ranging from −6.3 ± 0.8 to 10 ± 1.3‰) were variable and depended on the chloride concentration, indicating that chloride could significantly affect carbon isotope fractionation during Fenton-like degradation of TCE. Thus, caution should be exercised in selecting appropriate ε values for the field application of stable isotope analysis, as various chloride concentrations may be present due to naturally present or introduced with pH adjustment and iron salts during Fenton-like remediation. Furthermore, the effects of chloride on carbon isotope fractionation may be able to provide new insights about reaction mechanisms of Fenton-like processes.

  14. Effects of inorganic anions on carbon isotope fractionation during Fenton-like degradation of trichloroethene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yunde; Zhou, Aiguo; Gan, Yiqun; Li, Xiaoqian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of inorganic anions on carbon isotope fractionation was evaluated. • The enrichment factors was independent concentration of NO_3"−, or SO_4"2"−. • Cl"− significantly influenced the carbon isotope fractionation. - Abstract: Understanding the magnitude and variability in isotope fractionation with respect to specific processes is crucial to the application of stable isotopic analysis as a tool to infer and quantify transformation processes. The variability of carbon isotope fractionation during Fenton-like degradation of trichloroethene (TCE) in the presence of different inorganic ions (nitrate, sulfate, and chloride), was investigated to evaluate the potential effects of inorganic anions on carbon isotope enrichment factor (ε value). A comparison of ε values obtained in deionized water, nitrate solution, and sulfate solution demonstrated that the ε values were identical and not affected by the presence of nitrate and sulfate. In the presence of chloride, however, the ε values (ranging from −6.3 ± 0.8 to 10 ± 1.3‰) were variable and depended on the chloride concentration, indicating that chloride could significantly affect carbon isotope fractionation during Fenton-like degradation of TCE. Thus, caution should be exercised in selecting appropriate ε values for the field application of stable isotope analysis, as various chloride concentrations may be present due to naturally present or introduced with pH adjustment and iron salts during Fenton-like remediation. Furthermore, the effects of chloride on carbon isotope fractionation may be able to provide new insights about reaction mechanisms of Fenton-like processes.

  15. Isotopic evidences of past upwelling intensity in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.

    and understand the history of upwelling as it is recorded in deep-sea sediments. The southwest (SW) monsoon strongly influences the climatic conditions in South and Southeast Asia and biological productivity in the Arabian Sea. ability at the ODP Site 728... climatic change and ocean history (McCrea, 1950; Epstein et al., 1953; Emiliani, 1955). The isotopic role of planktic forami- nifera expanded, it was recognized that foraminifera did not secret their shells in isotopic equilibrium with ambient water (Be...

  16. Simultaneous determination of stable carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen isotopes in cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loader, N J; Street-Perrott, F A; Daley, T J; Hughes, P D M; Kimak, A; Levanič, T; Mallon, G; Mauquoy, D; Robertson, I; Roland, T P; van Bellen, S; Ziehmer, M M; Leuenberger, M

    2015-01-06

    A technological development is described through which the stable carbon-, oxygen-, and nonexchangeable hydrogen-isotopic ratios (δ(13)C, δ(18)O, δ(2)H) are determined on a single carbohydrate (cellulose) sample with precision equivalent to conventional techniques (δ(13)C 0.15‰, δ(18)O 0.30‰, δ(2)H 3.0‰). This triple-isotope approach offers significant new research opportunities, most notably in physiology and medicine, isotope biogeochemistry, forensic science, and palaeoclimatology, when isotopic analysis of a common sample is desirable or when sample material is limited.

  17. A Novel Airborne Carbon Isotope Analyzer for Methane and Carbon Dioxide Source Fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, E. S.; Huang, Y. W.; Owano, T. G.; Leifer, I.

    2014-12-01

    Recent field studies on major sources of the important greenhouse gas methane (CH4) indicate significant underestimation of methane release from fossil fuel industrial (FFI) and animal husbandry sources, among others. In addition, uncertainties still exist with respect to carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements, especially source fingerprinting. CO2 isotopic analysis provides a valuable in situ measurement approach to fingerprint CH4 and CO2as associated with combustion sources, leakage from geologic reservoirs, or biogenic sources. As a result, these measurements can characterize strong combustion source plumes, such as power plant emissions, and discriminate these emissions from other sources. As part of the COMEX (CO2 and MEthane eXperiment) campaign, a novel CO2 isotopic analyzer was installed and collected data aboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft. Developing methods to derive CH4 and CO2 budgets from remote sensing data is the goal of the summer 2014 COMEX campaign, which combines hyperspectral imaging (HSI) and non-imaging spectroscopy (NIS) with in situ airborne and surface data. COMEX leverages the synergy between high spatial resolution HSI and moderate spatial resolution NIS. The carbon dioxide isotope analyzer developed by Los Gatos Research (LGR) uses LGR's patented Off-Axis ICOS (Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy) technology and incorporates proprietary internal thermal control for high sensitivity and optimal instrument stability. This analyzer measures CO2 concentration as well as δ13C, δ18O, and δ17O from CO2 at natural abundance (100-3000 ppm). The laboratory accuracy is ±1.2 ppm (1σ) in CO2 from 370-1000 ppm, with a long-term (1000 s) precision of ±0.012 ppm. The long-term precision for both δ13C and δ18O is 0.04 ‰, and for δ17O is 0.06 ‰. The analyzer was field-tested as part of the COWGAS campaign, a pre-cursor campaign to COMEX in March 2014, where it successfully discriminated plumes related to combustion processes associated with

  18. A dynamic leaf gas-exchange strategy is conserved in woody plants under changing ambient CO2: evidence from carbon isotope discrimination in paleo and CO2 enrichment studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising atmospheric [CO2], ca, is expected to affect stomatal regulation of leaf gas-exchange of woody plants, thus influencing energy fluxes as well as carbon (C), water and nutrient cycling of forests. Researchers have reported that stomata regulate leaf gas-exchange around “set...

  19. Geological factors of the isotopic distribution of carbon of organic matter in sedimentary rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maass, J.

    1981-01-01

    The isotope ratio of carbon of fossile organic matter can be regarded as a definite criterion of its genetic origin. As the biofacial character of organic matter, especially the chemical composition (H/C-ratio), decisively influences the mode and quantity of the potential hydrocarbon production, isotopic analysis is an essential method for the prognostic evaluation of sedimentary basins with regard to their oil and gas perspectives. The genetic relations to the parent substance continue in the bituminization and coalification products and make it possible to apply the isotopic analysis of carbon to prospection work for hydrocarbons. (author)

  20. The synthesis of a tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotope-labeled cathepsin C inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Paul; Bragg, Ryan A; Caffrey, Moya; Ericsson, Cecilia; Hickey, Michael J; Kingston, Lee P; Elmore, Charles S

    2017-02-01

    As part of a medicinal chemistry program aimed at developing a highly potent and selective cathepsin C inhibitor, tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotope-labeled materials were required. The synthesis of tritium-labeled methanesulfonate 5 was achieved via catalytic tritiolysis of a chloro precursor, albeit at a low radiochemical purity of 67%. Tritium-labeled AZD5248 was prepared via a 3-stage synthesis, utilizing amide-directed hydrogen isotope exchange. Carbon-14 and stable isotope-labeled AZD5248 were successfully prepared through modifications of the medicinal chemistry synthetic route, enabling the use of available labeled intermediates. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Textural and Isotopic Evidence for Silica Cementation in 1.88 GA Granular Iron Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brengman, L. A.; Fedo, C.; Martin, W.

    2016-12-01

    Controls on quartz precipitation mechanisms and silicon isotope fractionation during diagenesis of Precambrian iron formation (IF) are not well constrained. The goal of this study is to identify textural evidence for the relative timing of silica cementation of granular units from the near un-metamorphosed 1.88 Ga Biwabik IF and determine the silicon isotope composition for such a silicification event. The lowermost IF (lower cherty, LC) consists of granular units associated with high-energy sedimentary structures interpreted to represent shallow-marine shelf deposition. Up-section is marked by an abrupt shift to banded units interpreted as a transition to quiescent (deeper) water, followed by a return to granular textures and shallower conditions (upper cherty, UC). We first surveyed granular samples of the lower stromatolitic (LC) and upper oncolitic facies (UC) to identify sedimentary textures and cement. LC units consist of microquartz (chert), megaquartz, hematite, carbonate, and detrital quartz, chert, and quartz/Fe-oxide intraclastic material. In UC samples, space between granular material (hematite, magnetite, quartz ooids/intraclasts) is filled by mega-quartz cement, and cross-cutting mega-quartz veins. We targeted mega-quartz cement, and veins for δ30Si analysis via secondary ion mass spectrometry. The average measured δ30Si value of cement (δ30Siavg. cement UC6b = -3.11 ± 0.21 ‰) is significantly different than associated veins (δ30Siavg. vein UC6b = 0.21 ± 0.21 ‰; δ30Siavg. vein LC4 = 0.39 ± 0.21 ‰), both within and between samples. We interpret the relative difference between cement and veins to represent quartz precipitation under different geochemical conditions, and therefore at different times. Combining isotopic and textural evidence, we interpret silica cementation to pre-date veins, and represent quartz precipitation that either varied in rate, or occurred under closed-system conditions affected by Rayleigh distillation. Both

  2. Carbon isotope effects in carbohydrates and amino acids of photosynthesizing organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivlev, A.A.; Kaloshin, A.G.; Koroleva, M.Ya. (Ministerstvo Geologii SSR, Moscow)

    1982-02-10

    The analysis of the carbon isotope distribution in carbohydrates and amino acids of some photosynthesizing organisms revealed the close relationship between distribution and the pathways of biosynthesis of the molecules. This relationship is explained on the basis of the previously proposed mechanism of carbon isotope fractionation in a cell, in which the chief part is played by kinetic isotope effects in the pyruvate decarboxylation reaction progressively increased in the conjugated processes of gluconeogenesis. Isotope differences of C/sub 2/ and C/sub 3/ fragments arising in decarboxylation of pyruvate, as well as isotope differences of biogenic acceptor and environmental CO/sub 2/ appearing in assimilation are the main reasons of the observed intramolecular isotopic heterogeneity of biomolecules. The heterogeneity is preserved in metabolites owing to an incomplete mixing of carbon atoms in biochemical reactions. The probable existence of two pools of carbohydrates in photosynthesizing organisms different in isotopic composition is predicted. Two types of intramolecular isotope distribution in amino acids are shown.

  3. Changes of stable isotopes carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 in different tissues of cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Fengmei; Yu Hongxia; Wu Wei; Yang Shuming

    2009-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis is a potential tool for tracing food origin. The stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition in different tissues of two varieties of cattle under the same culture condition were investigated. δ 13 C and δ 15 N values of different defatted muscle and crude fat, cattle tail hair, blood, liver and feed were determined by isotope ratio mass spectrometry, and statistical analysis was carried out. The results showed that stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen composition was not affected by cattle variety; the δ 13 C values between different defatted muscle, blood, liver and cattle hair were not significantly different, but δ 15 N value in the liver was much higher than other muscle and the δ 13 C values didn't show difference among all the crude fat samples. So these results indicated that isotope fractionation in the various tissue was discrepant. (authors)

  4. Carbon Isotope Characterization of Organic Intermediaries in Hydrothermal Hydrocarbon Synthesis by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-C-IRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    We report results of experiments designed to characterize the carbon isotope composition of intermediate organic compounds produced as a result of mineral surface catalyzed reactions. The impetus for this work stems from recently reported detection of methane in the Martian atmosphere coupled with evidence showing extensive water-rock interaction during Martian history. Abiotic formation by Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) synthesis during serpentinization reactions may be one possible process responsible for methane generation on Mars, and measurement of carbon and hydrogen isotopes of intermediary organic compounds can help constrain the origin of this methane. Of particular interest within the context of this work is the isotopic composition of organic intermediaries produced on the surfaces of mineral catalysts (i.e. magnetite) during hydrothermal experiments, and the ability to make meaningful and reproducible isotope measurements. Our isotope measurements utilize a unique analytical technique combining Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry-Combustion-Isotope Ratio Mass Specrometry (Py-GC-MS-C-IRMS). Others have conducted similar pyrolysis-IRMS experiments on low molecular weight organic acids (Dias, et al, Organic Geochemistry, 33 [2002]). Our technique differs in that it carries a split of the pyrolyzed GC-separated product to a Thermo DSQ-II quadrupole mass spectrometer as a means of making qualitative and semi-quantitative compositional measurements of the organic compounds. A sample of carboxylic acid (mixture of C1 through C6) was pyrolyzed at 100 XC and passed through the GC-MS-C-IRMS (combusted at 940 XC). In order to test the reliability of our technique we compared the _13C composition of different molecular weight organic acids (from C1 through C6) extracted individually by the traditional sealed-tube cupric oxide combustion (940 XC) method with the _13C produced by our pyrolysis technique. Our data indicate that an average 4.3. +/-0.5. (V

  5. Growth versus metabolic tissue replacement in mouse tissues determined by stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macavoy, S. E.; Jamil, T.; Macko, S. A.; Arneson, L. S.

    2003-12-01

    Stable isotope analysis is becoming an extensively used tool in animal ecology. The isotopes most commonly used for analysis in terrestrial systems are those of carbon and nitrogen, due to differential carbon fractionation in C3 and C4 plants, and the approximately 3‰ enrichment in 15N per trophic level. Although isotope signatures in animal tissues presumably reflect the local food web, analysis is often complicated by differential nutrient routing and fractionation by tissues, and by the possibility that large organisms are not in isotopic equilibrium with the foods available in their immediate environment. Additionally, the rate at which organisms incorporate the isotope signature of a food through both growth and metabolic tissue replacement is largely unknown. In this study we have assessed the rate of carbon and nitrogen isotopic turnover in liver, muscle and blood in mice following a diet change. By determining growth rates, we were able to determine the proportion of tissue turnover caused by growth versus that caused by metabolic tissue replacement. Growth was found to account for approximately 10% of observed tissue turnover in sexually mature mice (Mus musculus). Blood carbon was found to have the shortest half-life (16.9 days), followed by muscle (24.7 days). Liver carbon turnover was not as well described by the exponential decay equations as other tissues. However, substantial liver carbon turnover was observed by the 28th day after diet switch. Surprisingly, these tissues primarily reflect the carbon signature of the protein, rather than carbohydrate, source in their diet. The nitrogen signature in all tissues was enriched by 3 - 5‰ over their dietary protein source, depending on tissue type, and the isotopic turnover rates were comparable to those observed in carbon.

  6. Grasland Stable Isotope Flux Measurements: Three Isotopomers of Carbon Dioxide Measured by QCL Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeman, M. J.; Tuzson, B.; Eugster, W.; Werner, R. A.; Buchmann, N.; Emmenegger, L.

    2007-12-01

    To improve our understanding of greenhouse gas dynamics of managed ecosystems such as grasslands, we not only need to investigate the effects of management (e.g., grass cuts) and weather events (e.g., rainy days) on carbon dioxide fluxes, but also need to increase the time resolution of our measurements. Thus, for the first time, we assessed respiration and assimilation fluxes with high time resolution (5Hz) stable isotope measurements at an intensively managed farmland in Switzerland (Chamau, 400m ASL). Two different methods were used to quantify fluxes of carbon dioxide and associated fluxes of stable carbon isotopes: (1) the flux gradient method, and (2) the eddy covariance method. During a week long intensive measurement campaign, we (1) measured mixing ratios of carbon dioxide isotopomers (12C16O2, 12C16O18O, 13C16O2) with a Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL, Aerodyne Inc.) spectroscope and (2) collected air samples for isotope analyses (13C/12C) and (18O/16O) of carbon dioxide by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS, Finnigan) every two hours, concurrently along a height profile (z = 0.05; 0.10; 0.31; 2.15m). In the following week, the QCL setup was used for closed-path eddy covariance flux measurement of the carbon dioxide isotopomers, with the air inlet located next to an open-path Infra Red Gas Analyzers (IRGA, LiCor 7500) used simultaneously for carbon dioxide measurements. During this second week, an area of grass inside the footprint was cut and harvested after several days. The first results of in-field continuous QCL measurements of carbon dioxide mixing ratios and their stable isotopic ratios show good agreement with IRGA measurements and isotope analysis of flask samples by IRMS. Thus, QCL spectroscopy is a very promising tool for stable isotope flux investigations.

  7. Biological fractionation of oxygen and carbon isotopes by recent benthic foraminifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, F.; Douglas, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    Recent deep-sea benthic foraminifera from five East Pacific Rise box core tops have been analyzed for oxygen and carbon isotopic composition. The five equatorial stations, with water depths of between 3200 and 4600 m, yielded fourteen specific and generic taxonomic groups. Of the taxa analyzed, Uvigerina spp. most closely approaches oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient sea water. Pyrgo spp. was next closest to isotopic equilibrium, being on the average 0.59 per thousand depleted in 18 O relative to Uvigerina spp. Oridorsalis umbonatus also has relatively high delta 18 O values. Most other taxa were depleted in 18 O by large amounts. In no taxa was the carbon in the CaCO 3 secreted in carbon isotopic equilibrium with the dissolved HCO 3 - of ambient sea water. (Auth.)

  8. Measurement of natural carbon isotopic composition of acetone in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Keita; Ohishi, Kazuki; Gilbert, Alexis; Akasaka, Mai; Yoshida, Naohiro; Yoshimura, Ryoko

    2016-02-01

    The natural carbon isotopic composition of acetone in urine was measured in healthy subjects using gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry combined with headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME-GC-C-IRMS). Before applying the technique to a urine sample, we optimized the measurement conditions of HS-SPME-GC-C-IRMS using aqueous solutions of commercial acetone reagents. The optimization enabled us to determine the carbon isotopic compositions within ±0.2 ‰ of precision and ±0.3‰ of error using 0.05 or 0.2 mL of aqueous solutions with acetone concentrations of 0.3-121 mg/L. For several days, we monitored the carbon isotopic compositions and concentrations of acetone in urine from three subjects who lived a daily life with no restrictions. We also monitored one subject for 3 days including a fasting period of 24 h. These results suggest that changes in the availability of glucose in the liver are reflected in changes in the carbon isotopic compositions of urine acetone. Results demonstrate that carbon isotopic measurement of metabolites in human biological samples at natural abundance levels has great potential as a tool for detecting metabolic changes caused by changes in physiological states and disease.

  9. Isotopic coherence of refractory inclusions from CV and CK meteorites: Evidence from multiple isotope systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shollenberger, Quinn R.; Borg, Lars E.; Render, Jan; Ebert, Samuel; Bischoff, Addi; Russell, Sara S.; Brennecka, Gregory A.

    2018-05-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the oldest dated materials in the Solar System and numerous previous studies have revealed nucleosynthetic anomalies relative to terrestrial rock standards in many isotopic systems. However, most of the isotopic data from CAIs has been limited to the Allende meteorite and a handful of other CV3 chondrites. To better constrain the isotopic composition of the CAI-forming region, we report the first Sr, Mo, Ba, Nd, and Sm isotopic compositions of two CAIs hosted in the CK3 desert meteorites NWA 4964 and NWA 6254 along with two CAIs from the CV3 desert meteorites NWA 6619 and NWA 6991. After consideration of neutron capture processes and the effects of hot-desert weathering, the Sr, Mo, Ba, Nd, and Sm stable isotopic compositions of the samples show clearly resolvable nucleosynthetic anomalies that are in agreement with previous results from Allende and other CV meteorites. The extent of neutron capture, as manifested by shifts in the observed 149Sm-150Sm isotopic composition of the CAIs is used to estimate the neutron fluence experienced by some of these samples and ranges from 8.40 × 1013 to 2.11 × 1015 n/cm2. Overall, regardless of CAI type or host meteorite, CAIs from CV and CK chondrites have similar nucleosynthetic anomalies within analytical uncertainty. We suggest the region that CV and CK CAIs formed was largely uniform with respect to Sr, Mo, Ba, Nd, and Sm isotopes when CAIs condensed and that CAIs hosted in CV and CK meteorites are derived from the same isotopic reservoir.

  10. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic effects of stomatal density in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyejung; Feakins, Sarah J.; Sternberg, Leonel da S. L.

    2016-04-01

    Stomata are key gateways mediating carbon uptake and water loss from plants. Varied stomatal densities in fossil leaves raise the possibility that isotope effects associated with the openness of exchange may have mediated plant wax biomarker isotopic proxies for paleovegetation and paleoclimate in the geological record. Here we use Arabidopsis thaliana, a widely used model organism, to provide the first controlled tests of stomatal density on carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions of cuticular waxes. Laboratory grown wildtype and mutants with suppressed and overexpressed stomatal densities allow us to directly test the isotope effects of stomatal densities independent of most other environmental or biological variables. Hydrogen isotope (D/H) measurements of both plant waters and plant wax n-alkanes allow us to directly constrain the isotopic effects of leaf water isotopic enrichment via transpiration and biosynthetic fractionations, which together determine the net fractionation between irrigation water and n-alkane hydrogen isotopic composition. We also measure carbon isotopic fractionations of n-alkanes and bulk leaf tissue associated with different stomatal densities. We find offsets of +15‰ for δD and -3‰ for δ13C for the overexpressed mutant compared to the suppressed mutant. Since the range of stomatal densities expressed is comparable to that found in extant plants and the Cenozoic fossil record, the results allow us to consider the magnitude of isotope effects that may be incurred by these plant adaptive responses. This study highlights the potential of genetic mutants to isolate individual isotope effects and add to our fundamental understanding of how genetics and physiology influence plant biochemicals including plant wax biomarkers.

  11. Isotopic-spectral determination of hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and carbon in semiconductor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudich, G.K.; Eremeev, V.A.; Li, V.N.; Nemets, V.M.

    1981-01-01

    Techniques of low-temperature isotopic-spectral determination of impurities of hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and carbon in semiconductor materials Bi, Ge, Pb tellurides are developed. The techniques include selection into special vessel with the known volume (exchanger) of sample analyzed, dosed introduction into exchanger of rare isotope of the element determined ( 2 H, 15 N, 18 O, 13 C) in the form of isotope-containing gas, balancing of the determined element isotopes in the system sample-isotope, containing gas, spectroscopic, determination of its isotope composition in gaseous phase of the system and calculation of the amount of the element determined in the sample. The lower boundaries of the amounts determined constitute 10 -7 , 10 -7 , 10 -6 and 10 -5 mass % respectively when sample of 20 g are used [ru

  12. Stable carbon isotope analyses of nanogram quantities of particulate organic carbon (pollen) with laser ablation nano combustion gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roij, Linda; Sluijs, Appy; Laks, Jelmer J.; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Analyses of stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C values) of organic and inorganic matter remains have been instrumental for much of our understanding of present and past environmental and biological processes. Until recently, the analytical window of such analyses has been limited to

  13. Barium isotopes in Allende meteorite - Evidence against an extinct superheavy element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R. S.; Anders, E.; Shimamura, T.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    Carbon and chromite fractions from the Allende meteorite that contain isotopically anomalous xenon-131 to xenon-136 (carbonaceous chondrite fission or CCF xenon) at up to 5 x 10 to the 11th atoms per gram show no detectable isotopic anomalies in barium-130 to barium-138. This rules out the possibility that the CCF xenon was formed by in situ fission of an extinct superheavy element. Apparently the CCF xenon and its carbonaceous carrier are relics from stellar nucleosynthesis.

  14. Quasimolecular states in a reaction with carbon isotopes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Torilov, S. Yu.; Maltsev, N. A.; Goldberg, V. Z.; Gridnev, K. A.; Zherebchevsky, V. I.; Lönnroth, T.; Novatskii, B. G.; Slotte, J. M. K.; Sobolev, Yuri, G.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tyurin, G. P.; Khlebnikov, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 2 (2015), s. 69-72 ISSN 0021-3640 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14004 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : rich Be isotope * C isotope * C-14+C-12 Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.172, year: 2015

  15. Isotopic evidence for multiple contributions to felsic magma chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waight, Tod Earle; Wiebe, R.A.; Krogstad, E.J.

    2007-01-01

    The Gouldsboro Granite forms part of the Coastal Maine Magmatic Province, a region characterized by granitic plutons that are intimately linked temporally and petrogenetically with abundant co-existing mafic magmas. The pluton is complex and preserves a felsic magma chamber underlain...... with identical isotopic compositions to more mafic dikes suggest that closed system fractionation may be occurring in deeper level chambers prior to injection to shallower levels. The granitic portion of the pluton has the highest Nd isotopic composition (eNd=+3.0) of plutons in the region whereas the mafic...

  16. Soil moisture effects on the carbon isotopic composition of soil respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The carbon isotopic composition ( 13C) of recently assimilated plant carbon is known to depend on water-stress, caused either by low soil moisture or by low atmospheric humidity. Air humidity has also been shown to correlate with the 13C of soil respiration, which suggests indir...

  17. Soil moisture effects on the carbon isotope composition of soil respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claire L. Phillips; Nick Nickerson; David Risk; Zachary E. Kayler; Chris Andersen; Alan Mix; Barbara J. Bond

    2010-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of recently assimilated plant carbon is known to depend on water-stress, caused either by low soil moisture or by low atmospheric humidity. Air humidity has also been shown to correlate with the δ13C of soil respiration, which suggests indirectly that recently fixed photosynthates...

  18. Measurement of stable isotope ratio of organic carbon in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Toshihiro; Otsuki, Akira

    1977-01-01

    A new method for the measurement of stable isotope ratios was investigated and applied to organic carbon's isotope ratio measurements in water samples. A few river water samples from Tsuchiura city were tested. After the wet oxidation of organic carbons to carbon dioxide in a sealed ampoule, the isotope ratios were determined with the gas chromatograph-quadrupole mass spectrometer combined with a total organic carbon analyser, under the dynamic conditions. The GC-MS had been equipped with the multiple ion detector-digital integrator system. The ion intensities at m/e 44 and 45 were simultaneously measured at a switching rate of 1 ms. The measurements with carbon dioxide acquired from sodium carbonate (53 μg) gave the isotope ratios with the variation coefficient of 0.62%. However, the variation coefficients obtained from organic carbons in natural water samples were 2 to 3 times as high as that from sodium carbonate. This method is simple and rapid and may be applied to various fields especially in biology and medicine. (auth.)

  19. Seasonal variation in kangaroo tooth enamel oxygen and carbon isotopes in southern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman, Tom H.; Ambrose, Stanley H.

    2012-09-01

    Serial sampling of tooth enamel growth increments for carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses of Macropus (kangaroo) teeth was performed to assess the potential for reconstructing paleoseasonality. The carbon isotope composition of tooth enamel apatite carbonate reflects the proportional intake of C3 and C4 vegetation. The oxygen isotopic composition of enamel reflects that of ingested and metabolic water. Tooth enamel forms sequentially from the tip of the crown to the base, so dietary and environmental changes during the tooth's formation can be detected. δ13C and δ18O values were determined for a series of enamel samples drilled from the 3rd and 4th molars of kangaroos that were collected along a 900 km north-south transect in southern Australia. The serial sampling method did not yield pronounced seasonal isotopic variation patterns in Macropus enamel. The full extent of dietary isotopic variation may be obscured by attenuation of the isotopic signal during enamel mineralisation. Brachydont (low-crowned) Macropus teeth may be less sensitive to seasonal variation in isotopic composition due to time-averaging during mineralisation. However, geographic variations observed suggest that there may be potential for tracking latitudinal shifts in vegetation zones and seasonal environmental patterns in response to climate change.

  20. Response of carbon isotopic compositions of Early-Middle Permian coals in North China to palaeo-climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dianshi; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Xiaohui; Sun, Ruoyu

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the magnitude to which the carbon isotopic ratio (δ13C) varies in coals in response to their contemporary terrestrial environment, the Early-Middle Permian Huainan coals (including coals from the Shanxi Formation, Lower Shihezi Formation and Upper Shihezi Formation) in North China were systematically sampled. A 2.5‰ variation range of δ13C values (-25.15‰ to -22.65‰) was observed in Huainan coals, with an average value of -24.06‰. As coal diagenesis exerts little influence on carbon isotope fractionation, δ13C values in coals were mainly imparted by those of coal-forming flora assemblages which were linked to the contemporary climate. The δ13C values in coals from the Shanxi and Lower Shihezi Formations are variable, reflecting unstable climatic oscillations. Heavy carbon isotope is enriched in coals of the Capitanian Upper Shihezi Formation, implying a shift to high positive δ13C values of coeval atmospheric CO2. Notably, our study provides evidence of the Kamura event in the terrestrial environment for the first time.

  1. Carbon isotope variations in the upper Carboniferous - Permian Mallemuk Mountain Group, eastern North Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stemmerik, L.; Magaritz, M.

    1989-01-01

    Isotope data from Late Palaeozoic limestones of the Wandel Sea Basin in eastern North Greenland show a variation of δ 13 C from 0.0 0/00 to 5.7 0/00 vs PDB. Carbonates depleted in 13 C occur in the basal part of lower Moscovian, upper Moscovian and middle Gzhelian transgressive sequences. 13 C enriched limestones occur later in the cycles. The most 13 C enriched limestones occur in the youngest (late Early Permian-early Late Permian) part of the sequence in Amdrup Land. The isotopic data is believed to represent changes in the global carbon cycle. Thus 13 C enriched carbonates correlate to periods of burial of organic carbon mostly as coal, while 13 C depleted carbonates formed as the result of erosion and oxidation of organic carbon during sea-level low stands. (author)

  2. Lithium-isotope evidence for enhanced silicate weathering during OAE 1a (Early Aptian Selli event)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechler, Maria; Pogge von Strandmann, Philip A. E.; Jenkyns, Hugh C.; Prosser, Giacomo; Parente, Mariano

    2015-12-01

    An abrupt rise in temperature, forced by a massive input of CO2 into the atmosphere, is commonly invoked as the main trigger for Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs). Global warming initiated a cascade of palaeoenvironmental perturbations starting with increased continental weathering and an accelerated hydrological cycle that delivered higher loads of nutrients to coastal areas, stimulating biological productivity. The end-result was widespread anoxia and deposition of black shales: the hallmarks of OAEs. In order to assess the role of weathering as both an OAE initiator and terminator (via CO2 sequestration) during the Early Aptian OAE 1a (Selli Event, ∼120 Ma) the isotopic ratio of lithium isotopes was analysed in three sections of shallow-marine carbonates from the Pacific and Tethyan realms and one basinal pelagic section from the Tethyan domain. Because the isotopic composition of lithium in seawater is largely controlled by continental silicate weathering and high- and low-temperature alteration of basaltic material, a shift to lighter δ7Li values is expected to characterize OAEs. The studied sections illustrate this phenomenon: δ7Li values decrease to a minimum coincident with the negative carbon-isotope excursion that effectively records the onset of OAE 1a. A second negative δ7Li excursion occurs coeval with the minimum in strontium isotopes after the event. The striking similarity to the strontium-isotope record argues for a common driver. The formation and destruction (weathering) of an oceanic LIP could account for the parallel trend in both isotope systems. The double-spike in lithium isotopes is probably related to a change in weathering congruencies. Such a chemostratigraphy is consistent with the hypothesis that an increase in silicate weathering, in conjunction with organic-carbon burial, led to drawdown of atmospheric CO2 during the early Aptian OAE 1a.

  3. Carbon price volatility: Evidence from EU ETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Zhen-Hua; Zou, Le-Le; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines carbon price volatility using data from the European Union Emission Trading Scheme from a nonlinear dynamics point of view. First, we use a random walk model, including serial correlation and variance ratio tests, to determine whether carbon price history information is fully reflected in current carbon price. The empirical research results show that carbon price is not a random walk: the price history information is not fully reflected in current carbon price. Second, use R/S, modified R/S and ARFIMA to analyse the memory of carbon price history. For the period April 2005-December 2008, the modified Hurst index of the carbon price is 0.4859 and the d value of ARFIMA is -0.1191, indicating short-term memory of the carbon price. Third, we use chaos theory to analyse the influence of the carbon market internal mechanism on carbon price, i.e., the market's positive and negative feedback mechanism and the heterogeneous environment. Chaos theory proves that the correlation dimension of carbon price increases. The maximal Lyapunov exponent is positive and large. There is no obvious complex endogenous phenomenon of nonlinear dynamics the carbon price fluctuation. The carbon market is mildly chaotic, showing both market and fractal market characteristics. Price fluctuation is not only influenced by the internal market mechanism, but is also impacted by the heterogeneous environment. Finally, we provide suggestions for regulation and development of carbon market.

  4. The atmospheric signal of terrestrial carbon isotopic discrimination and its implication for partitioning carbon fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, John B.; Tans, Pieter P.; Conway, Thomas J.; White, James W.C.; Vaughn, Bruce W.

    2003-01-01

    The 13 C/ 12 C ratio in atmospheric carbon dioxide has been measured in samples taken in the NOAA/CMDL network since 1991. By examining the relationship between weekly anomalies in 13 C and CO 2 at continental sites in the network, we infer temporal and spatial values for the isotopic signature of terrestrial CO 2 fluxes. We can convert these isotopic signatures to values of discrimination if we assume the atmospheric starting point for photosynthesis. The average discrimination in the Northern Hemisphere between 30 and 50 deg N is calculated to be 16.6 ± 0.2 per mil. In contrast to some earlier modeling studies, we find no strong latitudinal gradient in discrimination. However, we do observe that discrimination in Eurasia is larger than in North America, which is consistent with two modeling studies. We also observe a possible trend in the North American average of discrimination toward less discrimination. There is no apparent trend in the Eurasian average or at any individual sites. However, there is interannual variability on the order of 2 per mil at several sites and regions. Finally, we calculate the northern temperate terrestrial CO 2 flux replacing our previous discrimination values of about 18 per mil with the average value of 16.6 calculated in this study. We find this enhances the terrestrial sink by about 0.4 GtC/yr

  5. About the variation mechanism of the isotopic composition of oxygen and carbon through the geological ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torquato, J.R.F.; Frischkorn, H.

    1982-01-01

    The variations of the Δ 180 ratio found in the carbonates are shown as being of the primary origin. In addition it is shown that these values can be preserved, through the geological ages, even it one considers the carbonates to be worked over again. Are given some subsidies about the study of the paleoenvironments through the analysis of the isotopic composition of the carbon. (A.B.) [pt

  6. Carbon fixation and isotope discrimination by a crassulacean plant: dependence on the photoperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, J C; Queiroz, O

    1974-03-22

    Variations of more than 1 percent are observed in the carbon-13 to carbon-12 ratio of extracts of leaves of the succulent Kalanchoe blossfeldiana when the photoperiod is changed from long to short days. This indicates that the mechanism of carbon fixation switches from the Calvin (C(3)) pathway to the Hatch-Slack (C(4)) pathway of primary enzymic operation. The variations observed in the isotope compositions are tentatively explained by a model.

  7. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope study on benthic foraminifera ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ajoy K Bhaumik

    2017-07-24

    Jul 24, 2017 ... of a species for isotopic analysis has forced us to select multiple species from down-core samples. Thus ... microhabitat, climatic variability, bottom and pore ...... Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma.

  8. Measurement of organic carbon stable isotope composition of different soil types by EA-IRMS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Biao; Ding Lingling; Cui Jiehua; Wang Yanhong

    2009-01-01

    Element analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometers (EA-IRMS) is a rapid and precise method for measuring stable carbon isotope. Pure CO 2 reference gas was calibrated via international standard-Urea, and the δ 13 C us PDB value of pure CO 2 is (-29.523 ± 0.0181)%. Stability and linearity of the EA-IRMS system, precision of δ 13 C measurement for samples were tested through experimental comparison. Moreover, determination method of organic carbon stable isotope in soil was based on the system. The EA-IRMS system had well linearity when ion intensity ranged from 1.0 to 7.0V, and it excelled the total linearity when the ion intensity was from 1.5 to 5.0V, and the accurate result of δ 13 C for sample analysis could be obtained with precision of 0.015%. If carbon content in sample is more than 5μg, the requirement for analyzing accurate result of δ 13 C could be achieved. The organic carbon stable isotope was measured in 18 different types soil samples, the average natural abundance of 13 C was 1.082%, and the organic carbon stable isotope composition was significantly different among different type soils. (authors)

  9. Carbon and hydrogen isotope fractionation during aerobic biodegradation of quinoline and 3-methylquinoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Mingchao; Zhang, Wenbing; Fang, Jun; Liang, Qianqiong; Liu, Dongxuan

    2017-08-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis has been used extensively to investigate the biodegradation of various organic pollutants. To date, little isotope fractionation information is available for the biodegradation of quinolinic compounds. In this study, we report on the carbon and hydrogen isotope fractionation during quinoline and 3-methylquinoline aerobic microbial degradation by a Comamonas sp. strain Q10. Degradation of quinoline and 3-methylquinoline was accompanied by isotope fractionation. Large hydrogen and small carbon isotope fractionation was observed for quinoline while minor carbon and hydrogen isotope fractionation effects occurred for 3-methylquinoline. Bulk carbon and hydrogen enrichment factors (ε bulk ) for quinoline biodegradation were -1.2 ± 0.1 and -38 ± 1‰, respectively, while -0.7 ± 0.1 and -5 ± 1‰ for 3-methylquinoline, respectively. This reveals a potential advantage for employing quinoline as the model compound and hydrogen isotope analysis for assessing aerobic biodegradation of quinolinic compounds. The apparent kinetic isotope effects (AKIE C ) values of carbon were 1.008 ± 0.0005 for quinoline and 1.0048 ± 0.0005 for 3-methylquinoline while AKIE H values of hydrogen of 1.264 ± 0.011 for quinoline and 1.0356 ± 0.0103 for 3-methylquinoline were obtained. The combined evaluation of carbon and hydrogen isotope fractionation yields Λ values (Λ = Δδ 2 H/Δδ 13 C ≈ εH bulk /εC bulk ) of 29 ± 2 for quinoline and 8 ± 2 for 3-methylquinoline. The results indicate that the substrate specificity may have a significant influence on the isotope fractionation for the biodegradation of quinolinic compounds. The substrate-specific isotope enrichment factors would be important for assessing the behavior and fate of quinolinic compounds in the environment.

  10. Isotopic evidences for provenances of east asian dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jiedong; Chen Jun; Li Gaojun; Ji Junfeng; Rao Wenbo

    2007-01-01

    Based on systematical investigations on Nd-Sr isotopes of both the <75μm and <5μm silicate fractions of loess, sand, river and lacustrine sediment samples for ten major deserts, gobi, the Loess Plateau, and the northeast part of the Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau, the following results are obtained. (1) Three isotopic regions of Chinese deserts are identified. Region A (Aland A2), which is the deserts on the northern boundary of China with the highest ε Nd (0)>-7.0. Region B, which is the deserts on the northern margin of Tibetan Plateau with ε Nd (0) ranges form -11.9 to -7.4. Region C, which is the deserts on the Ordos Plateau with the lowest ε nd (0)<-11.5. The distribution of the three isotopic regions is controlled by the tectonic setting in North China. (2) The reliable isotope ranges of the Loess Plateau are 87 Sr/ 86 Sr from 0.71784 to 0.71944, ε Nd (0) from -9.2 to -11.3, which fall in Region B of the Qaiham Desert, Badain Jaran Desert and Tengger Desert. This indicates that the possibility of the Gurbantunggut Desert, Hunlun Buir sandy land, Onqin Daga sandy land, Horqin sandy land, the Hobq Desert and Mu Us Desert, as provenances for the loess are excluded. The isotopic range of the northeast part of the Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau coincides with those of the Badain Jaran Desert and Tengger Desert, and loess in the Loess Plateau, suggesting that the predominant source area of the Loess Plateau is most likely to be the northeast part of the Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau, and the Qaidam Desert, Badain Jaran Desert and Tengger Desert are middle transport stations of loess materials. (3) The comparison with isotopic data of dust extracted from snow deposits at Greenland and sediments of North Pacific confirms the Badain Jaran Desert, Tengger Desert and the Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau to be main source. (4) The analyzed results for dust samples in Beijing region demonstrate that aeolian dust in normal time in 2006 is mostly derived from mixing of Region B and bed rock soil

  11. Monitoring of carbon isotope composition of snow cover for Tomsk region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akulov, P. A.; Volkov, Y. V.; Kalashnikova, D. A.; Markelova, A. N.; Melkov, V. N.; Simonova, G. V.; Tartakovskiy, V. A.

    2016-11-01

    This article shows the potential of using δ13C values of pollutants in snow pack to study the human impact on the environment of Tomsk and its surroundings. We believe that it is possible to use a relation between the isotope compositions of a fuel and black carbon for establishing the origin of the latter. The main object of our investigation was dust accumulated by the snow pack in the winter of 2015-2016. The study of dust samples included the following steps: determination of the total carbon content in snow pack samples of Tomsk and its surroundings, extraction of black carbon from the dust, as well as the determination of δ13C values of the total and black carbon accumulated in the snow pack. A snow survey was carried out on the 26th of January and on the 18th of March. The relative carbon content in the dust samples was determined by using an EA Flash 2000 element analyzer. It varied from 3 to 24%. The maximum carbon content was in the dust samples from areas of cottage building with individual heating systems. The δ13C values of the total and black carbon were determined by using a DELTA V Advantage isotope mass spectrometer (TomTsKP SB RAS). The isotope composition of black carbon corresponded to that of the original fuel. This fact allowed identifying the origin of black carbon in some areas of Tomsk.

  12. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in vertical peat profiles of natural and drained boreal peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykänen, Hannu; Mpamah, Promise; Rissanen, Antti; Pitkänen, Aki; Turunen, Jukka; Simola, Heikki

    2015-04-01

    Peatlands form a significant carbon pool in the global carbon cycle. Change in peat hydrology, due to global warming is projected to change microbiological processes and peat carbon pool. We tested if bulk stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes serve as indicators of severe long term drying in peatlands drained for forestry. Depth profile analysis of peat, for their carbon and nitrogen content as well as their carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures, were conducted for peatlands in southern and eastern Finland, having ombrotrophic and minerotrophic natural and corresponding drained pairs or separate drained sites. The selection of sites allowed us to compare changes due to different fertility and changes due to long term artificial drying. Drainage lasting over 40 years has led to changes in hydrology, vegetation, nutrient mineralization and respiration. Furthermore, increased nutrient uptake and possible recycling of peat nitrogen and carbon trough vegetation back to the peat surface, also possibly has an effect on the stable isotopic composition of peat carbon and nitrogen. We think that drainage induced changes somehow correspond to those caused by changed hydrology due to climate change. We will present data from these measurements and discuss their implications for carbon and nitrogen flows in peatlands.

  13. Stable carbon isotope analysis reveals widespread drought stress in boreal black spruce forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Xanthe J; Mack, Michelle C; Johnstone, Jill F

    2015-08-01

    Unprecedented rates of climate warming over the past century have resulted in increased forest stress and mortality worldwide. Decreased tree growth in association with increasing temperatures is generally accepted as a signal of temperature-induced drought stress. However, variations in tree growth alone do not reveal the physiological mechanisms behind recent changes in tree growth. Examining stable carbon isotope composition of tree rings in addition to tree growth can provide a secondary line of evidence for physiological drought stress. In this study, we examined patterns of black spruce growth and carbon isotopic composition in tree rings in response to climate warming and drying in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. We examined trees at three nested scales: landscape, toposequence, and a subsample of trees within the toposequence. At each scale, we studied the potential effects of differences in microclimate and moisture availability by sampling on northern and southern aspects. We found that black spruce radial growth responded negatively to monthly metrics of temperature at all examined scales, and we examined ∆(13)C responses on a subsample of trees as representative of the wider region. The negative ∆(13)C responses to temperature reveal that black spruce trees are experiencing moisture stress on both northern and southern aspects. Contrary to our expectations, ∆(13)C from trees on the northern aspect exhibited the strongest drought signal. Our results highlight the prominence of drought stress in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. We conclude that if temperatures continue to warm, we can expect drought-induced productivity declines across large regions of the boreal forest, even for trees located in cool and moist landscape positions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Simulation of dual carbon-bromine stable isotope fractionation during 1,2-dibromoethane degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Biao; Nijenhuis, Ivonne; Rolle, Massimo

    2018-06-01

    We performed a model-based investigation to simultaneously predict the evolution of concentration, as well as stable carbon and bromine isotope fractionation during 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB, ethylene dibromide) transformation in a closed system. The modelling approach considers bond-cleavage mechanisms during different reactions and allows evaluating dual carbon-bromine isotopic signals for chemical and biotic reactions, including aerobic and anaerobic biological transformation, dibromoelimination by Zn(0) and alkaline hydrolysis. The proposed model allowed us to accurately simulate the evolution of concentrations and isotope data observed in a previous laboratory study and to successfully identify different reaction pathways. Furthermore, we illustrated the model capabilities in degradation scenarios involving complex reaction systems. Specifically, we examined (i) the case of sequential multistep transformation of EDB and the isotopic evolution of the parent compound, the intermediate and the reaction product and (ii) the case of parallel competing abiotic pathways of EDB transformation in alkaline solution.

  15. Empirical High-Temperature Calibration for the Carbonate Clumped Isotopes Paleothermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, T.; John, C. M.; Jourdan, A.; Davis, S.; Crawshaw, J.

    2013-12-01

    The clumped isotope paleothermometer is being used in a wide range of applications related to carbonate mineral formation, focusing on temperature and fluid δ18O reconstruction. Whereas the range of typical Earth surface temperatures has been the focus of several studies based on laboratory experiments and biogenic carbonates of known growth temperatures, the clumped isotope-temperature relationship above 70 °C has not been assessed by direct precipitation of carbonates. We investigated the clumped isotope-temperature relationship by precipitating carbonates between 20 and 200°C in the laboratory. The setup consists of a pressurized vessel in which carbonate minerals are precipitated from the mixture of two solutions (CaCl2, NaHCO3). Both solutions are thermally and isotopically equilibrated before injection in the pressure vessel. Minerals precipitated in this setup generally consist of calcite. Samples were reacted with 105% orthophosphoric acid for 10 min at 90°C. The evolved CO2 was continuously collected and subsequently purified with a Porapak trap held at -35°C. Measurements were performed on a MAT 253 using the protocol of Huntington et al. (2009) and Dennis et al. (2011). Clumped isotope values from 20-90°C are consistent with carbonates that were precipitated from a CaCO3 super-saturated solution using the method of McCrea (1950). This demonstrates that the experimental setup does not induce any kinetic fractionation, and can be used for high-temperature carbonate precipitation. The new clumped isotope calibration at high temperature follows the theoretical calculations of Schauble et al. (2006) adjusted for phosphoric acid digestion at 90°C. We gratefully acknowledge funding from Qatar Petroleum, Shell and the Qatar Science and Technology Park.

  16. Carbon isotope ratios and isotopic correlations between components in fruit juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzchnicki, Ryszard

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays food products are defined by geographical origin, method of production and by some regulations concerning terms of their authenticity. Important data for confirm the authenticity of product are providing by isotopic methods of food control. The method checks crucial criteria which characterize the authenticity of inspected product. The European Union Regulations clearly show the tendency for application of the isotopic methods for food authenticity control (wine, honey, juice). The aim of the legislation steps is the protection of European market from possibility of the commercial frauds. Method of isotope ratio mass spectrometry is very effective tool for the use distinguishably the food products of various geographical origin. The basic problem for identification of the sample origin is the lack of databases of isotopic composition of components and information about the correlations of the data. The subject of the work was study the isotopic correlations existing between components of fruits. The chemical and instrumental methods of separation: water, sugars, organic acids and pulp from fruit were implemented. IRMS technique was used to measure isotopic composition of samples. The final results for original samples of fruits (apple, strawberry etc.) will be presented and discussed. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education under grant NR12-0043-10/2010.

  17. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of sodium and potassium cyanide as a forensic signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, Helen W; Horita, Juske; Moran, James J; Tomkins, Bruce A; Janszen, Derek B; Carman, April

    2012-01-01

    Sodium and potassium cyanide are highly toxic, produced in large amounts by the chemical industry, and linked to numerous high-profile crimes. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified cyanide as one of the most probable agents to be used in a chemical terrorism event. We investigated whether stable C and N isotopic content of sodium and potassium cyanide could serve as a forensic signature for sample matching, using a collection of 65 cyanide samples. Upon analysis, a few of the cyanide samples displayed nonhomogeneous isotopic content associated with degradation to a carbonate salt and loss of hydrogen cyanide. Most samples had highly reproducible isotope content. Of the 65 cyanide samples, >95% could be properly matched based on C and N isotope ratios, with a false match rate <3%. These results suggest that stable C and N isotope ratios are a useful forensic signature for matching cyanide samples. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Intraspecific carbon and nitrogen isotopic variability in foxtail millet (Setaria italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Emma; Przelomska, Natalia; Craven, Martha; O Connell, Tamsin C; He, Lu; Hunt, Harriet V; Jones, Martin K

    2016-07-15

    Isotopic palaeodietary studies generally focus on bone collagen from human and/or animal remains. While plant remains are rarely analysed, it is known that plant isotope values can vary as a result of numerous factors, including soil conditions, the environment and type of plant. The millets were important food crops in prehistoric Eurasia, yet little is known about the isotopic differences within millet species. Here we compare the stable isotope ratios within and between Setaria italica plants grown in a controlled environment chamber. Using homogenised samples, we compare carbon isotope ratios of leaves and grains, and nitrogen isotope ratios of grains, from 29 accessions of Setaria italica. We find significant isotopic variability within single leaves and panicles, and between leaves and panicles within the same plant, which must be considered when undertaking plant isotope studies. We find that the leaves and grains from the different accessions have a ca 2‰ range in δ(13) C values, while the nitrogen isotope values in the grains have a ca 6‰ range. We also find an average offset of 0.9‰ between leaves and grains in their δ(13) C values. The variation found is large enough to have archaeological implications and within- and between-plant isotope variability should be considered in isotope studies. The range in δ(15) N values is particularly significant as it is larger than the typical values quoted for a trophic level enrichment, and as such may lead to erroneous interpretations of the amount of animal protein in human or animal diets. It is therefore necessary to account for the variability in plant stable isotope values during palaeodietary reconstructions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Determination of carbon isotope ratios in plant starch via selective enzymatic hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmelmann, A.; DeNiro, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    A method for the determination of the carbon isotope ratios in bipolymers hydrolyzed by enzymatic action consists of separating the monomer by passage through a dialysis membrane and then combusting the monomer prior to isotopic analysis. The method is described for application to the analysis of starch, but it should find application for polymers than can be degraded quantitatively to monomers and/or oligomers using specific hydrolytic enzymes

  20. Discrimination factors of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in meerkat feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaena Montanari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis of feces can provide a non-invasive method for tracking the dietary habits of nearly any mammalian species. While fecal samples are often collected for macroscopic and genetic study, stable isotope analysis can also be applied to expand the knowledge of species-specific dietary ecology. It is somewhat unclear how digestion changes the isotope ratios of animals’ diets, so more controlled diet studies are needed. To date, most diet-to-feces controlled stable isotope experiments have been performed on herbivores, so in this study I analyzed the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in the diet and feces of the meerkat (Suricata suricatta, a small omnivorous mammal. The carbon trophic discrimination factor between diet and feces (Δ13Cfeces is calculated to be 0.1 ± 1.5‰, which is not significantly different from zero, and in turn, not different than the dietary input. On the other hand, the nitrogen trophic discrimination factor (Δ15Nfeces is 1.5 ± 1.1‰, which is significantly different from zero, meaning it is different than the average dietary input. Based on data generated in this experiment and a review of the published literature, carbon isotopes of feces characterize diet, while nitrogen isotope ratios of feces are consistently higher than dietary inputs, meaning a discrimination factor needs to be taken into account. The carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values of feces are an excellent snapshot of diet that can be used in concert with other analytical methods to better understand ecology, diets, and habitat use of mammals.

  1. Carbon Isotope Measurements of Experimentally-Derived Hydrothermal Mineral-Catalyzed Organic Products by Pyrolysis-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    We report results of experiments to measure the C isotope composition of mineral catalyzed organic compounds derived from high temperature and high pressure synthesis. These experiments make use of an innovative pyrolysis technique designed to extract and measure C isotopes. To date, our experiments have focused on the pyrolysis and C isotope ratio measurements of low-molecular weight intermediary hydrocarbons (organic acids and alcohols) and serve as a proof of concept for making C and H isotope measurements on more complicated mixtures of solid-phase hydrocarbons and intermediary products produced during high temperature and high pressure synthesis on mineral-catalyzed surfaces. The impetus for this work stems from recently reported observations of methane detected within the Martian atmosphere [1-4], coupled with evidence showing extensive water-rock interaction during Martian history [5-7]. Methane production on Mars could be the result of synthesis by mineral surface-catalyzed reduction of CO2 and/or CO by Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) reactions during serpentization reactions [8,9]. Others have conducted experimental studies to show that FTT reactions are plausible mechanisms for low-molecular weight hydrocarbon formation in hydrothermal systems at mid-ocean ridges [10-12]. Further, recent experiments by Fu et al. [13] focus on examining detailed C isotope measurements of hydrocarbons produced by surface-catalyzed mineral reactions. Work described in this paper details the experimental techniques used to measure intermediary organic reaction products (alcohols and organic acids).

  2. Water relations link carbon and oxygen isotope discrimination to phloem sap sugar concentration in eucalyptus globulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernusak, L.A.; Farquhar, G.D.; Arthur, D.J; Pate, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The carbon isotope ratio of phloem sap sugars has been previously observed to correlate strongly with the phloem sap sugar concentration in Eucalyptus globulus. We hypothesized that the correspondence between these two parameters results from co-linearity in their responses to variation in plant water potential. Carbon isotope discrimination is expected to decrease with decreasing plant water potential due to the influence of stomatal conductance on the ratio of intercellular to ambient CO 2 , concentrations (c 1 /c a ). Conversely, we expected the phloem sap sugar concentration to increase with decreasing plant water potential, thereby maintaining positive turgor pressure within the sieve tubes. The study comprised 40 individual Eucalyptus globulus trees growing in three plantations situated on opposing ends of a rainfall gradient in southwestern Australia. A strong correlation was observed between the carbon isotope ratio in phloem sap sugars and phloem sap sugar concentration. Carbon isotope discrimination correlated positively with shoot water potential, whereas phloem sap sugar concentration correlated negatively with shoot water potential. The relationship between carbon isotope discrimination measured in phloem sap sugars collected from the stem and c 1 /c a measured instantaneously on subtending leaves was close to that theoretically predicted. Accordingly, a strong, negative relationship was observed between instantaneous c 1 /c a and the phloem sap sugar concentration. Oxygen isotope discrimination in phloem sap sugars also correlated strongly with phloem sap sugar concentration. A theoretical model suggested that the observed variation in stomatal conductance was sufficient to account for the variation observed in oxygen isotope discrimination across the study. Results strongly support the contention that water relations form a mechanistic link between phloem sap sugar concentration and both instantaneous and integrated measures of the

  3. Determination of the origin of dissolved inorganic carbon in groundwater around a reclaimed landfill in Otwock using stable carbon isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porowska, Dorota, E-mail: dorotap@uw.edu.pl

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Research showed the origin of DIC in the groundwater around a reclaimed landfill. • Carbon isotope was used to evaluate the contributions of carbon from different sources. • The leachate-contaminated water was isotopically distinct from the natural groundwater. • DIC in the natural groundwater comes from organic matter and dissolution of carbonates. • In the contaminated water, DIC comes from organic matter in the aquifer and landfill. - Abstract: Chemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater from piezometers located around a reclaimed landfill in Otwock (Poland) were performed in order to trace the origin of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the groundwater. Due to differences in the isotopic composition of carbon from different sources, an analysis of stable carbon isotopes in the groundwater, together with the Keeling plot approach and a two-component mixing model allow us to evaluate the relative contributions of carbon from these sources in the groundwater. In the natural (background) groundwater, DIC concentrations and the isotopic composition of DIC (δ{sup 13}C{sub DIC}) comes from two sources: decomposition of organic matter and carbonate dissolution within the aquifer sediments, whereas in the leachate-contaminated groundwater, DIC concentrations and δ{sup 13}C{sub DIC} values depend on the degradation of organic matter within the aquifer sediments and biodegradation of organic matter stored in the landfill. From the mixing model, about 4–54% of the DIC pool is derived from organic matter degradation and 96–46% from carbonate dissolution in natural conditions. In the leachate-contaminated groundwater, about 20–53% of the DIC is derived from organic matter degradation of natural origin and 80–47% from biodegradation of organic matter stored in the landfill. Partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (P CO{sub 2}) was generally above the atmospheric, hence atmospheric CO{sub 2} as a source of carbon in DIC pool was negligible in the

  4. The thermal history of char as disclosed by carbon isotope ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Helge; Ambus, Per; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper

    In laboratory experiments, biomass char was produced under controlled conditions using wood chips from French pinewood. Different char qualities were obtained by pyrolysing the biomass at similar heating rates with end-temperatures ranging from 250 to 1000 o C. The char was analysed by flash...... pyrolysis and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The results demonstrate that the temperature history of the char is reflected in the fine variation of carbon isotopes. The compound classes responsible for the variation were identified. Key words: Isotope ratio, flash pyrolysis, hot gas cleaning...

  5. Combined oxygen- and carbon-isotope records through the Early Jurassic: multiple global events and two modes of carbon-cycle/temperature coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselbo, Stephen P.; Korte, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    , to the extent that meaningful comparisons between these events can begin to be made. Here we present new carbon and oxygen isotope data from mollusks (bivalves and belemnites) and brachiopods collected through the marine Early Jurassic succession of NE England, including the Sinemurian-Plienbachian boundary...... GSSP. All materials have been screened by chemical analysis and scanning electron microscopy to check for diagenetic alteration. Analysis of carbon isotopes from marine calcite is supplemented by analysis of carbon-isotope values from fossil wood collected through the same section. It is demonstrated...... that both long-term and short-term carbon-isotope shifts from the UK Early Jurassic represent global changes in carbon cycle balances. The Sinemurian-Pliensbachian boundary event is an event of global significance and shows several similarities to the Toarcian OAE (relative sea-level change, carbon-isotope...

  6. Forensic utility of the carbon isotope ratio of PVC tape backings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, L. A.; Thompson, A. H.; Mehltretter, A. H.; McLaskey, V.; Parish, A.; Aranda, R.

    2008-12-01

    Forensic interest in adhesive tapes with PVC-backings (polyvinyl chloride, electrical tapes) derives from their use in construction of improvised explosive devices, drug packaging and in a variety of other illicit activities. Due to the range of physical characteristics and chemical compositions of such tapes, traditional microscopic and chemical analysis of the tape backings and adhesives offer a high degree of discrimination between tapes from different manufacturers and products. To evaluate whether carbon isotope ratios may be able to increase discrimination of electrical tapes, particularly with regards to different tapes of the same product, we assessed the PVC-backings of 87 rolls of black electrical tape for their δ13C values. The adhesive on these tapes was physically removed with hexane, and plasticizers within the PVC tape backings were removed by three-20 minute extractions with chloroform. The δ13C values of the PVC tape backings ranged between -23.8 and -41.5 (‰ V-PDB). The carbon isotopic variation within a product (identical brand and product identification) is significant, based on five products with at least 3 rolls (ranges of 7.4‰ (n=3), 10.0‰ (n=6), 4.2‰ (n=16), 3.8‰ (n=6), and 11.5‰ (n=8), respectively). There was no measurable carbon isotope variation in regards to the following: a) along the length of a roll (4 samples from 1 roll); b) between the center and edge of a strip of tape (1 pair); c) between rolls assumed to be from the same lot of tape (2 pairs); d) between different rolls from the same batch of tape (same product purchased at the same time and place; 5 pairs); and e) between samples of a tape at room temperature, heated to 50° C and 80° C for 1 week. For each sample within the population of 87 tapes, carbon isotopes alone exclude 80 to 100% of the tapes as a potential match, with an average exclusion power of 92.5%, using a window of ± 0.4‰. Carbon isotope variations originate from variations in starting

  7. Chromium isotopes in carbonates — A tracer for climate change and for reconstructing the redox state of ancient seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Robert; Gaucher, Claudio; Døssing, Lasse Nørbye

    2011-01-01

    Strontium and carbon isotopes of marine carbonates are routinely applied for chemostratigraphic cross correlations of time-equivalent sedimentary sequences and for calibration of the compositional evolution of seawater throughout Earth's history, mainly for the purpose of reconstructing ancient c...

  8. Isotopic evidence for induced river recharge to the Dupi Tila aquifer in the Dhaka urban area, Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darling, W.G.; Burgess, W.G.; Hasan, M.K.

    2002-01-01

    The population of the greater Dhaka metropolitan area is over 8 million and growing at a rate of six percent per year. Much of the water supply for the area is obtained from the underlying Dupi Tila sand aquifer. Intensive exploitation of the aquifer has led to a progressive decline in water levels beneath the parts of the city. The resulting cone of depression is thought likely to be causing the infiltration of surface water, largely from the polluted Buriganga waterway. The use of oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes in unravelling the subsurface hydrology of the Dhaka area is hindered by the lack of data regarding 'baseline' conditions. Nevertheless it is clear from the evidence obtained from tubewells across the city that there is leakage from the Buriganga river extending several kilometres beneath parts of the urban area, possibly as far as the centre of the city. Carbon stable isotopes and major ion chemistry confirm this general picture; though appear to indicate that polluted river water has not penetrated quite so far towards the city centre. The Dupi Tila is regarded as a multi-layer aquifer on the basis of its hydrogeology and water quality variations with depth. Since there is little stable isotopic evidence for stratification, future investigations should include sensitive recent age indicators to investigate this, and the rates of groundwater movement in general. (author)

  9. Carbon-isotope stratigraphy from terrestrial organic matter through the Monterey event, Miocene, New Jersey margin (IODP Expedition 313)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Linhao; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Hesselbo, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    documented from oceanic settings (i.e., lack of positive excursion of carbon-isotope values in terrestrial organic matter through the Langhian Stage). Factors that may potentially bias local terrestrial carbon-isotope records include reworking from older deposits, degradation and diagenesis, as well....../or reworking of older woody phytoclasts, but where such processes have occurred they do not readily explain the observed carbon-isotope values. It is concluded that the overall carbon-isotope signature for the exchangeable carbon reservoir is distorted, to the extent that the Monterey event excursion...... is not easily identifiable. The most likely explanation is that phytoclast reworking has indeed occurred in clinoform toe-of-slope facies, but the reason for the resulting relatively heavy carbon-isotope values in the Burdigalian remains obscure....

  10. Use of carbon isotopes in studies of environmental contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravena, R.; Olave, S.; Ortiz, J.

    1986-01-01

    This report informs the preliminary results of a study on tree leaves undertaken in various areas of Santiago, aired at evaluating the pollution levels reached by combustion of fossil fuels, using carbon - 14 and carbon - 13 as natural tracers. (Author)

  11. Stable isotope evidence of food web connectivity by a top predatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, food web connectivity within the Kowie Estuary on the south-east coast of South Africa was evidenced by the trophic behaviour of the predominantly piscivorous Argyrosomus japonicus. We examined stable isotopes of carbon (δ 13C) and nitrogen (δ 15N) in the dominant consumers (zooplankton, invertebrates ...

  12. Compiled records of carbon isotopes in atmospheric CO2 for historical simulations in CMIP6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Graven

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The isotopic composition of carbon (Δ14C and δ13C in atmospheric CO2 and in oceanic and terrestrial carbon reservoirs is influenced by anthropogenic emissions and by natural carbon exchanges, which can respond to and drive changes in climate. Simulations of 14C and 13C in the ocean and terrestrial components of Earth system models (ESMs present opportunities for model evaluation and for investigation of carbon cycling, including anthropogenic CO2 emissions and uptake. The use of carbon isotopes in novel evaluation of the ESMs' component ocean and terrestrial biosphere models and in new analyses of historical changes may improve predictions of future changes in the carbon cycle and climate system. We compile existing data to produce records of Δ14C and δ13C in atmospheric CO2 for the historical period 1850–2015. The primary motivation for this compilation is to provide the atmospheric boundary condition for historical simulations in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 6 (CMIP6 for models simulating carbon isotopes in the ocean or terrestrial biosphere. The data may also be useful for other carbon cycle modelling activities.

  13. Compiled records of carbon isotopes in atmospheric CO2 for historical simulations in CMIP6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graven, Heather; Allison, Colin E.; Etheridge, David M.; Hammer, Samuel; Keeling, Ralph F.; Levin, Ingeborg; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Rubino, Mauro; Tans, Pieter P.; Trudinger, Cathy M.; Vaughn, Bruce H.; White, James W. C.

    2017-12-01

    The isotopic composition of carbon (Δ14C and δ13C) in atmospheric CO2 and in oceanic and terrestrial carbon reservoirs is influenced by anthropogenic emissions and by natural carbon exchanges, which can respond to and drive changes in climate. Simulations of 14C and 13C in the ocean and terrestrial components of Earth system models (ESMs) present opportunities for model evaluation and for investigation of carbon cycling, including anthropogenic CO2 emissions and uptake. The use of carbon isotopes in novel evaluation of the ESMs' component ocean and terrestrial biosphere models and in new analyses of historical changes may improve predictions of future changes in the carbon cycle and climate system. We compile existing data to produce records of Δ14C and δ13C in atmospheric CO2 for the historical period 1850-2015. The primary motivation for this compilation is to provide the atmospheric boundary condition for historical simulations in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 6 (CMIP6) for models simulating carbon isotopes in the ocean or terrestrial biosphere. The data may also be useful for other carbon cycle modelling activities.

  14. POSSIBILITY OF USING CARBON ISOTOPES IN THE ASSESSMENT OF THE POLLUTION OF GAS PHASE IN ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Porowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon isotope analyses can be used for knowledge and practical purpose. They can be used to assess the genesis of carbon in geochemical environment, and may also be used to indicate environmental contamination by carbon-containing compounds. The aim of the paper is to indicate the possibilities of using carbon isotope composition for interpretation concerning the following elements of the natural environment: atmospheric air, subsurface zone (gases in soils and aeration zone in terms of natural and anthropogenic factors influencing on their quality. This method can be applied universally, when carbon sources are different in isotopic composition.

  15. Isotopic evidence for prehistoric subsistence change at Parmana, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merwe, N.J. van der; Roosevelt, A.C.; Vogel, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Results of 13 C/ 12 C ratio measurements on human skeletons from Parmana, Venezuela are reported which show that there was a dramatic shift in the prehistoric diet from dependence on C 3 plants, in which carbon dioxide is initially fixed as phosphoglyceric acid, to C 4 plants, which include maize, in which the carbon dioxide is fixed as a C 4 carboxylic acid. (U.K.)

  16. Carbon isotope fractionation of chlorinated ethenes during oxidation by Fe{sup 2+} activated persulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesi, Massimo, E-mail: m2marche@uwaterloo.ca [Departament de Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalunya 08028 (Spain); Earth and Environmental Department, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Aravena, Ramon [Earth and Environmental Department, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Sra, Kanwartej S. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Golder Associates Inc, Toronto, Ontario, Canada L5N 5Z7 (Canada); Thomson, Neil R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert [Departament de Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalunya 08028 (Spain); Mancini, Silvia [Golder Associates Inc, Toronto, Ontario, Canada L5N 5Z7 (Canada)

    2012-09-01

    The increased use of persulfate (S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2-}) for in situ chemical oxidation to treat groundwater and soils contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds (CHCs) requires unbiased methods to assess treatment performance. Stable carbon isotope analysis offers a potential tool for assessing the in situ treatment performance of persulfate at sites contaminated with CHCs. This study investigated the extent of C isotope fractionation during oxidation of tetrachloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE) and cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) by persulfate activated by ferrous ion (Fe{sup 2+}). An average carbon isotope enrichment factor {epsilon}{sub bulk} of - 4.9 Per-Mille-Sign for PCE, - 3.6 Per-Mille-Sign for TCE and - 7.6 Per-Mille-Sign for cis-DCE were obtained in batch experiments. Variations in the initial S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2-}/Fe{sup 2+}/CHC molar ratios did not result in any significant differences in carbon isotope fractionation. The occurrence of carbon isotope fractionation during oxidation and the lack of dependence of enrichment factors upon the S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2-}/Fe{sup 2+}/CHC molar ratio demonstrate that carbon isotope analysis can potentially be used at contaminated sites as an additional technique to estimate treatment efficacy during oxidation of CHCs by Fe{sup 2+} activated persulfate. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The performance of in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is still difficult to assess. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the potential of carbon isotope analysis as a new assessing tool. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C isotope of PCE, TCE and DCE oxidized by persulfate activated by Fe{sup 2+} was measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enrichment factors of - 4.9 Per-Mille-Sign for PCE, - 3.6 Per-Mille-Sign for TCE and - 7.6 Per-Mille-Sign for cisDCE were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon isotope can potentially be used to estimate the ISCO treatment efficacy.

  17. Thermodynamics of calcium-isotope-exchange reactions. 1. Exchange between isotopic calcium carbonates and aqueous calcium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, R.S.; Nash, C.P.; Rock, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports the authors results for the direct experimental determination of the equilibrium constant for the calcium-isotope-exchange reaction 40 CaCO 3 (s) + 44 CaCl 2 (aq) reversible 44 CaCO 2 (s) + 40 CaCl 2 (aq). The reaction was studied in electrochemical double cells without liquid junction of the type shown in eq 2. The experimental value of the equilibrium constant at 295 +/- 2 K is K = 1.08 +/- 0.02. The experimental value for K is compared with the values of K calculated for various model reactions according to the statistical thermodynamic theory of isotope effects. The isotopic solid carbonates were modeled according to both the Debye and Kieffer theories. No structured models of solvated isotopic aqueous calcium ions yield calculated equilibrium constants in agreement with their experimental results. This conclusion is in agreement with published molecular dynamics calculations which show that the aqueous solvation of Ca 2 =(aq) is essentially unstructured

  18. Asymptotic giant branch stars as producers of carbon and of neutron-rich isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iben, I. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon stars are thought to be in the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase of evolution, alternately burning hydrogen and helium in shells above an electron-degenerate carbon-oxygen (CO) core. The excess of carbon relative to oxygen at the surfaces of these stars is thought to be due to convective dredge-up which occurs following a thermal pulse. During a thermal pulse, carbon and neutron-rich isotopes are made in a convective helium-burning zone. In model stars of large CO core mass, the source of neutrons for producing the neutron-rich isotopes is the 22 Ne(α,n) 25 Mg reaction and the isotopes are produced in the solar system s-process distribution. In models of small core mass, the 13 C(α,n) 16 reaction is thought to be responsible for the release of neutrons, and the resultant distribution of neutron-rich isotopes is expected to vary considerably from one star to the next, with the distribution in isolated instances possibly resembling the solar system distribution of r-process isotopes

  19. Carbon isotope fractionation by sulfate-reducing bacteria using different pathways for the oxidation of acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goevert, Dennis; Conrad, Ralf

    2008-11-01

    Acetate is a key intermediate in the anaerobic degradation of organic matter. In anoxic environments, available acetate is a competitive substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methane-producing archaea. Little is known about the fractionation of carbon isotopes by sulfate reducers. Therefore, we determined carbon isotope compositions in cultures of three acetate-utilizing SRB, Desulfobacter postgatei, Desulfobacter hydrogenophilus, and Desulfobacca acetoxidans. We found that these species showed strong differences in their isotope enrichment factors (epsilon) of acetate. During the consumption of acetate and sulfate, acetate was enriched in 13C by 19.3% per hundred in Desulfobacca acetoxidans. By contrast, both D. postgatei and D. hydrogenophilus showed a slight depletion of 13C resulting in epsilon(ac)-values of 1.8 and 1.5% per hundred, respectively. We suggest that the different isotope fractionation is due to the different metabolic pathways for acetate oxidation. The strongly fractionating Desulfobacca acetoxidans uses the acetyl-CoA/carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway, which is also used by acetoclastic methanogens that show a similar fractionation of acetate (epsilon(ac) = -21 to -27% per hundred). In contrast, Desulfobacter spp. oxidize acetate to CO2 via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and apparently did not discriminate against 13C. Our results suggestthat carbon isotope fractionation in environments with sulfate reduction will strongly depend on the composition of the sulfate-reducing bacterial community oxidizing acetate.

  20. Isotope aided studies of atmospheric carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    The substantial increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and their role in global warming have become major concerns of world governments. Application of isotope techniques to label sources and sinks of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases has emerged as a potentially powerful method for reducing uncertainties in the global CO{sub 2} budgets and for tracing pathways and interaction of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric pools of carbon. As with CO{sub 2} concentration measurements, meaningful integration of isotopes in global models requires careful attention to quality assurance, quality control and inter-comparability of measurements made by a number of networks and laboratories. To support improvements in isotope measurement capabilities, the IAEA began implementing Co-ordinated Research Projects (CRPs) in 1992. The first project, entitled Isotope Variations of Carbon Dioxide and other Trace Gases in the Atmosphere, was implemented from 1992 to 1994. A significant contribution was made towards a better understanding of the global carbon cycle and especially of the sources and sinks of carbon with data on the {sup 14}C and {sup 13}C content of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, pointing to a better understanding of the problem of the 'missing sink' in the global carbon cycle. Important methodological developments in the field of high precision stable isotope mass spectrometry and improved data acquisition procedures emerged from work carried out within the framework of this programme. The development of pressurized gas standards and planning for an associated interlaboratory calibration were initiated. Due to the good progress and long standing nature of the required work a second CRP was initiated and implemented from 1996 to 1999. It was entitled Isotope aided Studies of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Other Trace Gases - Phase II, to document the close relationship of both programmes. This publication provides an overview of the scientific outcomes of the

  1. Isotope aided studies of atmospheric carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The substantial increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and their role in global warming have become major concerns of world governments. Application of isotope techniques to label sources and sinks of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases has emerged as a potentially powerful method for reducing uncertainties in the global CO 2 budgets and for tracing pathways and interaction of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric pools of carbon. As with CO 2 concentration measurements, meaningful integration of isotopes in global models requires careful attention to quality assurance, quality control and inter-comparability of measurements made by a number of networks and laboratories. To support improvements in isotope measurement capabilities, the IAEA began implementing Co-ordinated Research Projects (CRPs) in 1992. The first project, entitled Isotope Variations of Carbon Dioxide and other Trace Gases in the Atmosphere, was implemented from 1992 to 1994. A significant contribution was made towards a better understanding of the global carbon cycle and especially of the sources and sinks of carbon with data on the 14 C and 13 C content of atmospheric CO 2 , pointing to a better understanding of the problem of the 'missing sink' in the global carbon cycle. Important methodological developments in the field of high precision stable isotope mass spectrometry and improved data acquisition procedures emerged from work carried out within the framework of this programme. The development of pressurized gas standards and planning for an associated interlaboratory calibration were initiated. Due to the good progress and long standing nature of the required work a second CRP was initiated and implemented from 1996 to 1999. It was entitled Isotope aided Studies of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Other Trace Gases - Phase II, to document the close relationship of both programmes. This publication provides an overview of the scientific outcomes of the studies conducted within Phase

  2. Carbon isotopic patterns of amino acids associated with various microbial metabolic pathways and physiological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P. L.; Hsiao, K. T.; Lin, L. H.

    2017-12-01

    Amino acids represent one of the most important categories of biomolecule. Their abundance and isotopic patterns have been broadly used to address issues related to biochemical processes and elemental cycling in natural environments. Previous studies have shown that various carbon assimilative pathways of microorganisms (e.g. autotrophy, heterotrophy and acetotrophy) could be distinguished by carbon isotopic patterns of amino acids. However, the taxonomic and catabolic coverage are limited in previous examination. This study aims to uncover the carbon isotopic patterns of amino acids for microorganisms remaining uncharacterized but bearing biogeochemical and ecological significance in anoxic environments. To fulfill the purpose, two anaerobic strains were isolated from riverine wetland and mud volcano in Taiwan. One strain is a sulfate reducing bacterium (related to Desulfovibrio marrakechensis), which is capable of utilizing either H2 or lactate, and the other is a methanogen (related to Methanolobus profundi), which grows solely with methyl-group compounds. Carbon isotope analyses of amino acids were performed on cells grown in exponential and stationary phase. The isotopic patterns were similar for all examined cultures, showing successive 13C depletion along synthetic pathways. No significant difference was observed for the methanogen and lactate-utilizing sulfate reducer harvested in exponential and stationary phases. In contrast, the H2-utilizing sulfate reducer harvested in stationary phase depleted and enriched 13C in aspartic acid and glycine, respectively when compared with that harvested in exponential phase. Such variations might infer the change of carbon flux during synthesis of these two amino acids in the reverse TCA cycle. In addition, the discriminant function analysis for all available data from culture studies further attests the capability of using carbon isotope patterns of amino acids in identifying microbial metabolisms.

  3. Carbon and nitrogen isotope variations in tree-rings as records of perturbations in regional carbon and nitrogen cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukata, Andrew R; Kyser, T Kurtis

    2007-02-15

    Increasing anthropogenic pollution from urban centers and fossil fuel combustion can impact the carbon and nitrogen cycles in forests. To assess the impact of twentieth century anthropogenic pollution on forested system carbon and nitrogen cycles, variations in the carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of tree-rings were measured. Individual annual growth rings in trees from six sites across Ontario and one in New Brunswick, Canada were used to develop site chronologies of tree-ring delta 15N and delta 13C values. Tree-ring 615N values were approximately 0.5% per hundred higher and correlated with contemporaneous foliar samples from the same tree, but not with delta 15N values of soil samples. Temporal trends in carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of these tree-rings are consistent with increasing anthropogenic influence on both the carbon and nitrogen cycles since 1945. Tree-ring delta 13C values and delta 15N values are correlated at both remote and urban-proximal sites, with delta 15N values decreasing since 1945 and converging on 1% per hundred at urban-proximal sites and decreasing but not converging on a single delta 15N value in remote sites. These results indicate that temporal trends in tree-ring nitrogen and carbon isotopic compositions record the regional extent of pollution.

  4. Analysis of carbon stable isotope to determine the origin and migration of gaseous hydrocarbon in the Brazilian sedimentary basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, T.; Rodrigues, R.

    1986-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of natural gases to determine the origin and gaseous hydrocarbon migration of Brazilian sedimentar basins is analysed. The carbon isotopic ratio of methane from natural gases depends on the process of gas formation and stage of organic matter maturation. In the geochemical surface exploration the biogenic gases are differentiated from thermogenic gases, because the last one is isotopically heavier. As the isotopic composition of methane has not changed during migration, the migrated gases from deeper and more mature source rocks are identified by its relative 13 C enrichment. The methane was separated from chromatography and and the isotopic analysis was done with mass spectrometer. (M.C.K.) [pt

  5. Assessment of primary production in a eutrophic lake from carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of a carnivorous fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Takahito

    1991-01-01

    The carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of Hypomesus transpacificus (a pond smelt) in a eutrophic lake, Lake Suwa, were measured from April to September in 1986 and 1987. The differences in the isotope ratios between these two years were observed. The stable isotopes were transferred from phytoplankton to zooplankton and pond smelt, associated with organic matters. Therefore, the difference in the isotope ratios in two years seemed to reflect the differences of the proceeding of primary production. It was suggested that the carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of animal, whose trophic level is far from primary producer, can be the qualitative indicators for assessing the primary production in a lake ecosystem. (author)

  6. Biogenic processes in crystalline bedrock fractures indicated by carbon isotope signatures of secondary calcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahlstedt, Elina; Karhu, Juha A.; Pitkänen, Petteri; Whitehouse, Martin

    2016-01-01

    34–54 m showed evidence of localized methanotrophic activity seen as anomalously 13 C depleted calcite, having δ 13 C values as low as −53.8‰. At depths of ∼60–400 m, positive δ 13 C values of up to +31.6‰ in late-stage calcite of Group 1–2 indicated methanogenesis. In comparison, high CH 4 concentrations in present day groundwaters are found at depths of >300 m. One sample at a depth of 111 m showed a transition from methanogenetic conditions (calcite bearing methanogenetic signature) to sulfate reducing (precipitation of pyrite on calcite surface), however, the timing of this transition is so far unclear. The results from this study gives indications of the complex nature of sulfur and carbon cycling in fractured crystalline environments and highlights the usefulness of in situ stable isotope analysis. - Highlights: • The carbon isotope variation in fracture calcite was measured in situ. • The δ 13 C values were used to investigate carbon sources and cycling in fractured rock. • Information on biogenic processes in the paleogroundwaters was gained.

  7. Carbon Stable Isotope Values in Plankton and Mussels Reflect Changes in Carbonate Chemistry Associated with Nutrient Enhanced Net Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal ecosystems are inherently complex and potentially adaptive as they respond to changes in nutrient loads and climate. We documented the role that carbon stable isotope (δ13C) measurements could play in understanding that adaptation with a series of three Ecostat (i.e...

  8. Isotopic mixing in carbon monoxide catalyzed by zinc oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnisio, G.; Garbassi, F.; Petrini, G.; Parravano, G.

    1978-01-01

    The rate of the isotopic mixing in CO has been studied at 300 0 C, for CO partial pressures from 6 to 100 Torr and a total pressure of 250 Torr on ZnO catalysts. Significant deviations from a first-order rate in p/sub co/ were found. The rate of oxygen exchange between ZnO and gas-phase CO was also measured and the results were employed to calculate the fraction of surface sites active for the CO isotopic mixing. Values on the order of 0.001 were found. The turnover rate and surface collision efficiency varied between 0.7 and 107 min -1 and 0.13 and 2.24 x 10 -8 , respectively. H 2 additions to CO increased the rate of isotopic mixing, whereas the rate of H 2 + D 2 was decreased by the presence of CO. The H 2 + D 2 rate was faster than that of isotopic mixing in CO, but as the ratio p/sub H 2 //p/sub co/ decreased the rates became about equal. It is argued that on ZnO samples, in which the rate of CO isotopic mixing and the rate of ZnO--CO oxygen exchange were influenced in a similar manner by the CO pressure, the isotopic mixing in CO took place via the ZnO oxygen, while oxide oxygen participation was not kinetically significant for ZnO samples in which the two reactions had different kinetics. The crucial factor controlling the path followed by the isotopic mixing in CO seems to be the surface Zn/O ratio, since a close correlation was found between the former and the reaction kinetics of the CO isotopic mixing reaction. Solid-state conditions which may vary the Zn/O surface ratio (foreign additions) are indicated. The implications of these findings to the problem of product selectivity from CO-H 2 mixtures reacting on metal oxide surfaces are discussed

  9. Molecular and stable carbon isotopic characterization of PAH contaminants at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Moonkoo . E-mail moonkoo.kim@wmich.edu; Kennicutt, Mahlon C.; Qian Yaorong

    2006-01-01

    The molecular and stable carbon isotopic compositions of contaminant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at McMurdo Station, Antarctica were analyzed in samples collected from land and sub-tidal area. PAHs in the study areas were characterized by high amounts of naphthalene and alkylated naphthalenes from petroleum products introduced by human activities in the area. Principal component analysis (PCA) of PAH composition data identified multiple sources of PAH contamination in the study area. Compositional assignments of origins were confirmed using compound specific stable carbon isotopic analysis

  10. Preliminary assessment of the grading of Eucalyptus clones using carbon isotope discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, W.J.; Stock, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    Stable carbon isotopes were analysed in leaf material of nine Eucalyptus clones grown in field trials in the eastern Transvaal. Carbon isotope ratios, measured as d 13 C, differed within tree canopies, between replicate trees and between clones. Values from both north and south canopy positions were correlated with tree height after 13 months. Unexplained variation in the correlation may be interpreted, theoretically, as an indication that some clones use less water for the same level of productivity. With further testing, the method may have promise for early screening of clones in genotype/environment interaction trials and in selecting water-efficient trees. 3 figs., 3 tabs., 7 refs

  11. A versatile method for simultaneous stable carbon isotope analysis of DNA and RNA nucleotides by liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerdijk-Poortvliet, T.C.W.; Brasser, J.; de Ruiter, G.; Houtekamer, M.; Bolhuis, H.; Stal, L.J.; Boschker, H.T.S.

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALELiquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) is currently the most accurate and precise technique for the measurement of compound-specific stable carbon isotope ratios (C-13/C-12) in biological metabolites, at their natural abundance. However, until now this technique

  12. On the interference of Kr during carbon isotope analysis of methane using continuous-flow combustion–isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, J.; Seth, B.; Bock, M; van der Veen, C.; Möller, L.; Sapart, C.J.; Prokopiou, M.; Sowers, T.; Röckmann, T.; Fischer, H

    2013-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope analysis of methane ( 13C of CH4) on atmospheric samples is one key method to constrain the current and past atmospheric CH4 budget. A frequently applied measurement technique is gas chromatography (GC) isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) coupled to a

  13. Stable carbon isotope depth profiles and soil organic carbon dynamics in the lower Mississippi Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, J.G.; Harden, J.W.; Fries, T.L.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of depth trends of 13C abundance in soil organic matter and of 13C abundance from soil-respired CO2 provides useful indications of the dynamics of the terrestrial carbon cycle and of paleoecological change. We measured depth trends of 13C abundance from cropland and control pairs of soils in the lower Mississippi Basin, as well as the 13C abundance of soil-respired CO2 produced during approximately 1-year soil incubation, to determine the role of several candidate processes on the 13C depth profile of soil organic matter. Depth profiles of 13C from uncultivated control soils show a strong relationship between the natural logarithm of soil organic carbon concentration and its isotopic composition, consistent with a model Rayleigh distillation of 13C in decomposing soil due to kinetic fractionation during decomposition. Laboratory incubations showed that initially respired CO 2 had a relatively constant 13C content, despite large differences in the 13C content of bulk soil organic matter. Initially respired CO2 was consistently 13C-depleted with respect to bulk soil and became increasingly 13C-depleted during 1-year, consistent with the hypothesis of accumulation of 13C in the products of microbial decomposition, but showing increasing decomposition of 13C-depleted stable organic components during decomposition without input of fresh biomass. We use the difference between 13C / 12C ratios (calculated as ??-values) between respired CO 2 and bulk soil organic carbon as an index of the degree of decomposition of soil, showing trends which are consistent with trends of 14C activity, and with results of a two-pooled kinetic decomposition rate model describing CO2 production data recorded during 1 year of incubation. We also observed inconsistencies with the Rayleigh distillation model in paired cropland soils and reasons for these inconsistencies are discussed. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Stable carbon isotope analyses of nanogram quantities of particulate organic carbon (pollen) with laser ablation nano combustion gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluijs, Appy; Laks, Jelmer J.; Reichart, Gert‐Jan

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Analyses of stable carbon isotope ratios (δ 13C values) of organic and inorganic matter remains have been instrumental for much of our understanding of present and past environmental and biological processes. Until recently, the analytical window of such analyses has been limited to samples containing at least several μg of carbon. Methods Here we present a setup combining laser ablation, nano combustion gas chromatography and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LA/nC/GC/IRMS). A deep UV (193 nm) laser is used for optimal fragmentation of organic matter with minimum fractionation effects and an exceptionally small ablation chamber and combustion oven are used to reduce the minimum sample mass requirement compared with previous studies. Results Analyses of the international IAEA CH‐7 polyethylene standard show optimal accuracy, and precision better than 0.5‰, when measuring at least 42 ng C. Application to untreated modern Eucalyptus globulus (C3 plant) and Zea mays (C4 plant) pollen grains shows a ~ 16‰ offset between these species. Within each single Z. mays pollen grain, replicate analyses show almost identical δ 13C values. Conclusions Isotopic offsets between individual pollen grains exceed analytical uncertainties, therefore probably reflecting interspecimen variability of ~0.5–0.9‰. These promising results set the stage for investigating both δ 13C values and natural carbon isotopic variability between single specimens of a single population of all kinds of organic particles yielding tens of nanograms of carbon. © 2016 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27766694

  15. Evidence From Hydrogen Isotopes in Meteorites for a Martian Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, T.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Wang, J.; Simon, J. I.; Jones, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Fluvial landforms on Mars suggest that it was once warm enough to maintain persistent liquid water on its surface. The transition to the present cold and dry Mars is closely linked to the history of surface water, yet the evolution of surficial water is poorly constrained. We have investigated the evolution of surface water/ ice and its interaction with the atmosphere by measurements of hydrogen isotope ratios (D/H: deuterium/ hydrogen) of martian meteorites. Hydrogen is a major component of water (H2O) and its isotopes fractionate significantly during hydrological cycling between the atmosphere, surface waters, ground ice, and polar cap ice. Based on in situ ion microprobe analyses of three geochemically different shergottites, we reported that there is a water/ice reservoir with an intermediate D/H ratio (delta D = 1,000?2500 %) on Mars. Here we present the possibility that this water/ice reservoir represents a ground-ice/permafrost that has existed relatively intact over geologic time.

  16. Theoretical isotopic fractionation between structural boron in carbonates and aqueous boric acid and borate ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Etienne; Noireaux, Johanna; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Saldi, Giuseppe D.; Montouillout, Valérie; Blanchard, Marc; Pietrucci, Fabio; Gervais, Christel; Rustad, James R.; Schott, Jacques; Gaillardet, Jérôme

    2018-02-01

    The 11B/10B ratio in calcite and aragonite is an important proxy of oceanic water pH. However, the physico-chemical mechanisms underpinning this approach are still poorly known. In the present study, we theoretically determine the equilibrium isotopic fractionation properties of structural boron species in calcium carbonates, BO33-, BO2(OH)2- and B(OH)4- anions substituted for carbonate groups, as well as those of B(OH)4- and B(OH)3 species in vacuum. Significant variability of equilibrium isotopic fractionation properties is observed among these structural species which is related to their contrasted coordination state, Bsbnd O bond lengths and atomic-scale environment. The isotopic composition of structural boron does not only depend on its coordination number but also on its medium range environment, i.e. farther than its first coordination shell. The isotopic fractionation between aqueous species and their counterparts in vacuum are assessed using previous investigations based on similar quantum-mechanical modeling approaches. At 300 K, the equilibrium isotope composition of structural trigonal species is 7-15‰ lighter than that of aqueous boric acid molecules, whereas substituted tetrahedral borate ions are heavier than their aqueous counterparts by 10-13‰. Although significant uncertainties are known to affect the theoretical prediction of fractionation factors between solids and solutions, the usually assumed lack of isotopic fractionation during borate incorporation in carbonates is challenged by these theoretical results. The present theoretical equilibrium fractionation factors between structural boron and aqueous species differ from those inferred from experiments which may indicate that isotopic equilibrium, unlike chemical equilibrium, was not reached in most experiments. Further research into the isotopic fractionation processes at the interface between calcium carbonates and aqueous solution as well as long duration experiments aimed at

  17. Determination of the origin of dissolved inorganic carbon in groundwater around a reclaimed landfill in Otwock using stable carbon isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porowska, Dorota

    2015-05-01

    Chemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater from piezometers located around a reclaimed landfill in Otwock (Poland) were performed in order to trace the origin of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the groundwater. Due to differences in the isotopic composition of carbon from different sources, an analysis of stable carbon isotopes in the groundwater, together with the Keeling plot approach and a two-component mixing model allow us to evaluate the relative contributions of carbon from these sources in the groundwater. In the natural (background) groundwater, DIC concentrations and the isotopic composition of DIC (δ(13)CDIC) comes from two sources: decomposition of organic matter and carbonate dissolution within the aquifer sediments, whereas in the leachate-contaminated groundwater, DIC concentrations and δ(13)CDIC values depend on the degradation of organic matter within the aquifer sediments and biodegradation of organic matter stored in the landfill. From the mixing model, about 4-54% of the DIC pool is derived from organic matter degradation and 96-46% from carbonate dissolution in natural conditions. In the leachate-contaminated groundwater, about 20-53% of the DIC is derived from organic matter degradation of natural origin and 80-47% from biodegradation of organic matter stored in the landfill. Partial pressure of CO2 (P CO2) was generally above the atmospheric, hence atmospheric CO2 as a source of carbon in DIC pool was negligible in the aquifer. P CO2 values in the aquifer in Otwock were always one to two orders of magnitude above the atmospheric P CO2, and thus CO2 escaped directly into the vadose zone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Beyond temperature: Clumped isotope signatures in dissolved inorganic carbon species and the influence of solution chemistry on carbonate mineral composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripati, Aradhna K.; Hill, Pamela S.; Eagle, Robert A.; Mosenfelder, Jed L.; Tang, Jianwu; Schauble, Edwin A.; Eiler, John M.; Zeebe, Richard E.; Uchikawa, Joji; Coplen, Tyler B.; Ries, Justin B.; Henry, Drew

    2015-10-01

    ;Clumped-isotope; thermometry is an emerging tool to probe the temperature history of surface and subsurface environments based on measurements of the proportion of 13C and 18O isotopes bound to each other within carbonate minerals in 13C18O16O22- groups (heavy isotope ;clumps;). Although most clumped isotope geothermometry implicitly presumes carbonate crystals have attained lattice equilibrium (i.e., thermodynamic equilibrium for a mineral, which is independent of solution chemistry), several factors other than temperature, including dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) speciation may influence mineral isotopic signatures. Therefore we used a combination of approaches to understand the potential influence of different variables on the clumped isotope (and oxygen isotope) composition of minerals. We conducted witherite precipitation experiments at a single temperature and at varied pH to empirically determine 13C-18O bond ordering (Δ47) and δ18O of CO32- and HCO3- molecules at a 25 °C equilibrium. Ab initio cluster models based on density functional theory were used to predict equilibrium 13C-18O bond abundances and δ18O of different DIC species and minerals as a function of temperature. Experiments and theory indicate Δ47 and δ18O compositions of CO32- and HCO3- ions are significantly different from each other. Experiments constrain the Δ47-δ18O slope for a pH effect (0.011 ± 0.001; 12 ⩾ pH ⩾ 7). Rapidly-growing temperate corals exhibit disequilibrium mineral isotopic signatures with a Δ47-δ18O slope of 0.011 ± 0.003, consistent with a pH effect. Our theoretical calculations for carbonate minerals indicate equilibrium lattice calcite values for Δ47 and δ18O are intermediate between HCO3- and CO32-. We analyzed synthetic calcites grown at temperatures ranging from 0.5 to 50 °C with and without the enzyme carbonic anhydrase present. This enzyme catalyzes oxygen isotopic exchange between DIC species and is present in many natural systems. The two

  19. Isotopic evidence for enhanced fossil fuel sources of aerosol ammonium in the urban atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuepeng; Tian, Shili; Liu, Dongwei; Fang, Yunting; Zhu, Xiaying; Gao, Meng; Gao, Jian; Michalski, Greg; Wang, Yuesi

    2018-04-20

    The sources of aerosol ammonium (NH 4 + ) are of interest because of the potential of NH 4 + to impact the Earth's radiative balance, as well as human health and biological diversity. Isotopic source apportionment of aerosol NH 4 + is challenging in the urban atmosphere, which has excess ammonia (NH 3 ) and where nitrogen isotopic fractionation commonly occurs. Based on year-round isotopic measurements in urban Beijing, we show the source dependence of the isotopic abundance of aerosol NH 4 + , with isotopically light (-33.8‰) and heavy (0 to +12.0‰) NH 4 + associated with strong northerly winds and sustained southerly winds, respectively. On an annual basis, 37-52% of the initial NH 3 concentrations in urban Beijing arises from fossil fuel emissions, which are episodically enhanced by air mass stagnation preceding the passage of cold fronts. These results provide strong evidence for the contribution of non-agricultural sources to NH 3 in urban regions and suggest that priority should be given to controlling these emissions for haze regulation. This study presents a carefully executed application of existing stable nitrogen isotope measurement and mass-balance techniques to a very important problem: understanding source contributions to atmospheric NH 3 in Beijing. This question is crucial to informing environmental policy on reducing particulate matter concentrations, which are some of the highest in the world. However, the isotopic source attribution results presented here still involve a number of uncertain assumptions and they are limited by the incomplete set of chemical and isotopic measurements of gas NH 3 and aerosol NH 4 + . Further field work and lab experiments are required to adequately characterize endmember isotopic signatures and the subsequent isotopic fractionation process under different air pollution and meteorological conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Separation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish for compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Yan-Hong [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049 (China); Luo, Xiao-Jun, E-mail: luoxiaoj@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen, Hua-Shan; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2012-05-15

    A separation and isotopic analysis method was developed to accurately measure the stable carbon isotope ratios of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) with three to six substituted bromine atoms in fish samples. Sample extracts were treated with concentrated sulfuric acid to remove lipids, purified using complex silica gel column chromatography, and finally processed using alumina/silica (Al/Si) gel column chromatography. The purities of extracts were verified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the full-scan mode. The average recoveries of all compounds across the purification method were between 60% and 110%, with the exception of BDE-154. The stable carbon isotopic compositions of PBDEs can be measured with a standard deviation of less than 0.5 Per-Mille-Sign . No significant isotopic fraction was found during the purification of the main PBDE congeners. A significant change in the stable carbon isotope ratio of BDE-47 was observed in fish carcasses compared to the original isotopic signatures, implying that PBDE stable carbon isotopic compositions can be used to trace the biotransformation of PBDEs in biota. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for the purification of PBDEs for CSIA was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The {delta}{sup 13}C of PBDE congeners can be measured with a standard deviation of less than 0.5 Per-Mille-Sign . Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Common carp were exposed to a PBDE mixture to investigate debromination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ratios of the {delta}{sup 13}C values can be used to trace the debromination of PBDE in fish.

  1. Trophic relationships and habitat preferences of delphinids from the southeastern Brazilian coast determined by carbon and nitrogen stable isotope composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Lemos Bisi

    Full Text Available To investigate the foraging habitats of delphinids in southeastern Brazil, we analyzed stable carbon (δ(13C and nitrogen (δ(15N isotopes in muscle samples of the following 10 delphinid species: Sotalia guianensis, Stenella frontalis, Tursiops truncatus, Steno bredanensis, Pseudorca crassidens, Delphinus sp., Lagenodelphis hosei, Stenella attenuata, Stenella longirostris and Grampus griseus. We also compared the δ(13C and δ(15N values among four populations of S. guianensis. Variation in carbon isotope results from coast to ocean indicated that there was a significant decrease in δ(13C values from estuarine dolphins to oceanic species. S. guianensis from Guanabara Bay had the highest mean δ(13C value, while oceanic species showed significantly lower δ(13C values. The highest δ(15N values were observed for P. crassidens and T. truncatus, suggesting that these species occupy the highest trophic position among the delphinids studied here. The oceanic species S. attenuata, G. griseus and L. hosei had the lowest δ(15N values. Stable isotope analysis showed that the three populations of S. guianensis in coastal bays had different δ(13C values, but similar δ(15N results. Guiana dolphins from Sepetiba and Ilha Grande bays had different foraging habitat, with specimens from Ilha Grande showing more negative δ(13C values. This study provides further information on the feeding ecology of delphinids occurring in southeastern Brazil, with evidence of distinctive foraging habitats and the occupation of different ecological niches by these species in the study area.

  2. Monitoring in situ biodegradation of hydrocarbons by using stable carbon isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, P.K.; Hinchee, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Spilled or leaked nonhalogenated petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil can generally be metabolized by indigenous, aerobic bacteria. In situ biological degradation of hydrocarbons may be accelerated by supplying inorganic nutrients and/or oxygen. Approaches to monitoring and verifying enhanced in situ biodegradation have included measurements of changes over time in the (a) concentration of hydrocarbons, (b) temperature, (c) number of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms, (d) ratio of fast-degrading hydrocarbons (e.g., pristanes or phytanes), and (e) metabolic intermediates. Measurements of oxygen consumption over time and elevated carbon dioxide concentrations in soil gas also have been used as indicators of hydrocarbon degradation. An alternative approach that may help substantiate biodegradation is to measure stable carbon isotope ratios in soil gas CO 2 . Stable carbon isotope ratio analysis is inexpensive and commercially available at many laboratories. Carbon dioxide produced by hydrocarbon degradation may be distinguished from that produced by other processes based on the carbon isotopic compositions characteristic of the source material and/or fractionation accompanying microbial metabolism. Here the authors demonstrate the applicability of the stable isotope technique for monitoring enhanced. aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons using data from three locations in the United States

  3. C, Sr and Sr isotopic composition on probable vendian- tommotian carbonate sequences in Nw Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sial, A. N.; Ferreira, V.P; Toselli, A.J.; Acenolaza, F.G; Pimentel, M.M; Parada, M.A; Alonso, R.N

    2001-01-01

    C-isotope stratigraphy is one of the most powerfool tools in Precambrian chronostratigraphy, especially when sediments lack recognizable animal fossils. The δ 13 C secular variation curves for marine carbonates in the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian interval show strong positive-negative excursions, several of them interpreted as the stratigraphic position of ancient ice ages (Hoffman et al. 1998). The Sr isotope composition of the seawater for this age interval is characterized by a continuous increase of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr that is interrupted, several times, by sharp rises, which represent important changes in the Earth history (Montanez et al. 2000). Only limited data on the behavior of C and Sr isotopes in carbonates are available in South America. We examine here carbonate sequences from the Argentine Precordillera, San Juan province, and from other carbonate sequences in NW Argentina that could be, potentially, proxies for the Precambrian-Cambrian transition. We have studied their δ 13 C and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr chemostratigraphy and compare it to global C and Sr isotope secular variation curves for this time span. This study aims to improve the relatively coarse stratigraphic resolution provided only by the study of the fossil record in some of the carbonate successions under consideration (au)

  4. Stable carbon isotopes as an indicator for soil degradation in an alpine environment (Urseren Valley, Switzerland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Monika; Alewell, Christine

    2009-05-01

    Analyses of soil organic carbon (SOC) content and stable carbon isotope signatures (delta(13)C) of soils were assessed for their suitability to detect early stage soil erosion. We investigated the soils in the alpine Urseren Valley (southern central Switzerland) which are highly impacted by soil erosion. Hill slope transects from uplands (cambisols) to adjacent wetlands (histosols and histic to mollic gleysols) differing in their intensity of visible soil erosion, and reference wetlands without erosion influence were sampled. Carbon isotopic signature and SOC content of soil depth profiles were determined. A close correlation of delta(13)C and carbon content (r > 0.80) is found for upland soils not affected by soil erosion, indicating that depth profiles of delta(13)C of these upland soils mainly reflect decomposition of SOC. Long-term disturbance of an upland soil is indicated by decreasing correlation of delta(13)C and SOC (r soil erosion in hill slope transects from uplands to adjacent wetlands is documented as an intermediate delta(13)C value (-27.5 per thousand) for affected wetland soil horizons (0-12 cm) between upland (aerobic metabolism, relatively heavier delta(13)C of -26.6 per thousand) and wetland isotopic signatures (anaerobic metabolism, relatively lighter delta(13)C of -28.6 per thousand). Carbon isotopic signature and SOC content are found to be sensitive indicators of short- and long-term soil erosion processes. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The relationship between carbon stable isotope ratios of hatchling down and egg yolk in Black-headed Gulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.R.J.; Baarspul, T.; Dekkers, T.; Van Tienen, P.

    2004-01-01

    We reconstructed the nutrient source for egg synthesis by sampling Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus) eggs for yolk, analyzing their carbon stable isotope ratio, and comparing that to hatchling down. Most of the variation in carbon stable isotope ratio was explained by differences between nests,

  6. 61 stable isotope compositions of organic carbon and contents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    isotope record from Lake Ndutu shows a general downcore decrease in δ. 13C values ... in bulk δ13C of the terrestrial biomass in the tropics may ... CO2, temperature, moisture conditions and ... A map showing location of sampling sites of Ngorongoro Crater, Lake Ndutu and .... the Lakes Makat and Masek records cannot.

  7. Uranium isotopes in carbonate aquifers of arid region setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alshamsi, Dalal M.; Murad, Ahmed A.; Aldahan, Ala

    2013-01-01

    in the southern Arabian peninsula, namely at two locations within the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and two locations in Oman are discussed. The analyses of the uranium isotopes were performed using ICP-MS and the results indicated a range of concentrations for 235U and 238 U at 3–39 ng L-1 (average: 18 ng L-1...

  8. Cellulose and Lignin Carbon Isotope Signatures in Sphagnum Moss Reveal Complementary Environmental Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loisel, J.; Nichols, J. E.; Kaiser, K.; Beilman, D. W.; Yu, Z.

    2016-12-01

    The carbon isotope signature (δ13C) of Sphagnum moss is increasingly used as a proxy for past surface wetness in peatlands. However, conflicting interpretations of these carbon isotope records have recently been published. While the water film hypothesis suggests that the presence of a thick (thin) water film around hollow (hummock) mosses leads to less (more) negative δ13C values, the carbon source hypothesis poses that a significant (insignificant) amount of CH4 assimilation by hollow (hummock) mosses leads to more (less) negative δ13C values. To evaluate these competing mechanisms and their impact on moss δ13C, we gathered 30 moss samples from 6 peatlands in southern Patagonia. Samples were collected along a strong hydrological gradient, from very dry hummocks (80 cm above water table depth) to submerged hollows (5 cm below water surface). These peat bogs have the advantage of being colonized by a single cosmopolitan moss species, Sphagnum magellanicum, limiting potential biases introduced by species-specific carbon discrimination. We measured δ13C from stem cellulose and leaf waxes on the same samples to quantify compound-specific carbon signatures. We found that stem cellulose and leaf-wax lipids were both strongly negatively correlated with moss water content, suggesting a primary role of water film thickness on carbon assimilation. In addition, isotopic fractionation during wax synthesis was greater than for cellulose. This offset decreases as conditions get drier, due to (i) a more effective carbon assimilation, or (ii) CH4 uptake through symbiosis with methanotrophic bacteria within the leaves of wet mosses. Biochemical analysis (carbohydrates, amino acids, hydrophenols, cutin acids) of surface moss are currently being conducted to characterize moss carbon allocation under different hydrological conditions. Overall, this modern calibration work should be of use for interpreting carbon isotope records from peatlands.

  9. Early African Diaspora in colonial Campeche, Mexico: strontium isotopic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, T Douglas; Tiesler, Vera; Burton, James H

    2006-08-01

    Construction activities around Campeche's central park led to the discovery of an early colonial church and an associated burial ground, in use from the mid-16th century AD to the late 17th century. Remains of some individuals revealed dental mutilations characteristic of West Africa. Analyses of strontium isotopes of dental enamel from these individuals yielded unusually high (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios, inconsistent with an origin in Mesoamerica, but consistent with an origin in West Africa in terrain underlain by the West Africa Craton, perhaps near the port of Elmina, a principal source of slaves for the New World during the 16th century. These individuals likely represent some of the earliest representatives of the African Diaspora in the Americas.

  10. The stable carbon isotope ratios in benthic food webs of the gulf of Calvi, Corsica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauby, Patrick

    1989-02-01

    The Gulf of Calvi, Corsica, presents a wide diversity of biocoenoses, amongst which the seagrass Posidonia meadow is prevalent. More than 100 plant, animal and sediment samples from various biotopes were analysed for their stable carbon isotope ratios, to assess carbon flows within the food chains. Marine plants display a wide range of δ 13C values, from -6 to -32‰ but with three relatively well distinct peaks for Posidonia, brown algae and phytoplankton (-9, -19 and -23‰, respectively), which are the main carbon sources. The range of isotopic values of animals is narrower, from -14 to -24‰, suggesting that they feed mainly on algae and plankton. Computations based on simple equations show the proportion of each carbon source in the diet of the animals. Posidonia, notwithstanding their important biomass, appear to be a minor food source; this is possibly because of the transfer of their dead leaves, towards the shorelines, in winter.

  11. Beyond temperature: Clumped isotope signatures in dissolved inorganic carbon species and the influence of solution chemistry on carbonate mineral composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripati, Aradhna K.; Hill, Pamela S.; Eagle, Robert A.; Mosenfelder, Jed L.; Tang, Jianwu; Schauble, Edwin A.; Eiler, John M.; Zeebe, Richard E.; Uchikawa, Joji; Coplen, Tyler B.; Ries, Justin B.; Henry, Drew

    2015-01-01

    “Clumped-isotope” thermometry is an emerging tool to probe the temperature history of surface and subsurface environments based on measurements of the proportion of 13C and 18O isotopes bound to each other within carbonate minerals in 13C18O16O22- groups (heavy isotope “clumps”). Although most clumped isotope geothermometry implicitly presumes carbonate crystals have attained lattice equilibrium (i.e., thermodynamic equilibrium for a mineral, which is independent of solution chemistry), several factors other than temperature, including dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) speciation may influence mineral isotopic signatures. Therefore we used a combination of approaches to understand the potential influence of different variables on the clumped isotope (and oxygen isotope) composition of minerals.We conducted witherite precipitation experiments at a single temperature and at varied pH to empirically determine 13C-18O bond ordering (Δ47) and δ18O of CO32- and HCO3- molecules at a 25 °C equilibrium. Ab initio cluster models based on density functional theory were used to predict equilibrium 13C-18O bond abundances and δ18O of different DIC species and minerals as a function of temperature. Experiments and theory indicate Δ47 and δ18O compositions of CO32- and HCO3- ions are significantly different from each other. Experiments constrain the Δ47-δ18O slope for a pH effect (0.011 ± 0.001; 12 ⩾ pH ⩾ 7). Rapidly-growing temperate corals exhibit disequilibrium mineral isotopic signatures with a Δ47-δ18O slope of 0.011 ± 0.003, consistent with a pH effect.Our theoretical calculations for carbonate minerals indicate equilibrium lattice calcite values for Δ47 and δ18O are intermediate between HCO3− and CO32−. We analyzed synthetic calcites grown at temperatures ranging from 0.5 to 50 °C with and without the enzyme carbonic anhydrase present. This enzyme catalyzes oxygen isotopic exchange between DIC species and is present in many

  12. Calculation of Site-specific Carbon-isotope Fractionation in Pedogenic Oxide Minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustad, James R.; Zarzycki, Piotr

    2008-07-29

    Ab initio molecular dynamics and quantum chemistry techniques are used to calculate the structure, vibrational frequencies, and carbon-isotope fractionation factors of the carbon dioxide component [CO2(m)] of soil (oxy)hydroxide minerals goethite, diaspore, and gibbsite. We have identified two possible pathways of incorporation of CO2(m) into (oxy)hydroxide crystal structures: one in which the C4+ substitutes for four H+ [CO2(m)A] and another in which C4+ substitutes for (Al3+,Fe3+) + H+ [CO2(m)B]. Calculations of isotope fractionation factors give large differences between the two structures, with the CO2(m)A being isotopically lighter than CO2(m)B by ≈10 per mil in the case of gibbsite and nearly 20 per mil in the case of goethite. The reduced partition function ratio of CO2(m)B structure in goethite differs from CO2(g) by <1 per mil. The predicted fractionation for gibbsite is >10 per mil higher, close to those measured for calcite and aragonite. The surprisingly large difference in the carbon-isotope fractionation factor between the CO2(m)A and CO2(m)B structures within a given mineral suggests that the isotopic signatures of soil (oxy)hydroxide could be heterogeneous.

  13. Late Glacial Tropical Savannas in Sundaland Inferred From Stable Carbon Isotope Records of Cave Guano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, C. M.; Bird, M. I.; Bull, I.; Dungait, J.; Bryant, C. L.; Ertunç, T.; Hunt, C.; Lewis, H. A.; Paz, V.

    2008-12-01

    During the Last Glacial Period (LGP), reduced global sea level exposed the continental shelf south of Thailand to Sumatra, Java, and Borneo to form the contiguous continent of Sundaland. However, the type and extent of vegetation that existed on much of this exposed landmass during the LGP remains speculative. Extensive bird and bat guano deposits in caves throughout this region span beyond 40,000 yr BP, and contain a wealth of untapped stratigraphic palaeoenvironmental information. Stable carbon isotope ratios of insectivorous bird and bat guano contain a reliable record of the animal's diet and, through non-specific insect predation, reflect the relative abundance of major physiological pathways in plants. Various physiological pathways of carbon fixation in plants yield differing stable carbon isotope ratios. Stable carbon isotope values of C3 plants are lower than C4 vegetation due to different enzymatic discriminations of the heavy isotope through the carbon fixing pathways. In tropical locales, grasses nearly always follow the C4 photosynthetic pathway, whereas tropical rainforest uses C3 photosynthesis, providing a proxy for vegetation and therefore climate change in the past. Here we discuss four guano stable-isotope records, based on insect cuticle and n-alkane analysis, supplemented by pollen analysis. All sites suggest a C3 dominated ecosystem for the Holocene, consistent with the wet tropical forest vegetation present at all locations. Two sites from Palawan Island, Philippines, record stable carbon isotope values of guano that document a drastic change from C3 (forest) to C4 (savanna) dominated ecosystems during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). A third location, at Niah Great Cave, Malaysia, indicates C3-dominant vegetation throughout the record, but does display variation in stable carbon isotope values likely linked to humidity changes. A fourth location, Batu Caves in Peninsular Malaysia, also indicates open vegetation during the LGM. Vegetation

  14. CO2-dependent carbon isotope fractionation in the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Elise B.; Carter, Susan J.; Pearson, Ann

    2017-09-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of marine sedimentary organic matter is used to resolve long-term histories of pCO2 based on studies indicating a CO2-dependence of photosynthetic carbon isotope fractionation (εP). It recently was proposed that the δ13C values of dinoflagellates, as recorded in fossil dinocysts, might be used as a proxy for pCO2. However, significant questions remain regarding carbon isotope fractionation in dinoflagellates and how such fractionation may impact sedimentary records throughout the Phanerozoic. Here we investigate εP as a function of CO2 concentration and growth rate in the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense. Experiments were conducted in nitrate-limited chemostat cultures. Values of εP were measured on cells having growth rates (μ) of 0.14-0.35 d-1 and aqueous carbon dioxide concentrations of 10.2-63 μmol kg-1 and were found to correlate linearly with μ/[CO2(aq)] (r2 = 0.94) in accord with prior, analogous chemostat investigations with eukaryotic phytoplankton. A maximum fractionation (εf) value of 27‰ was characterized from the intercept of the experiments, representing the first value of εf determined for an algal species employing Form II RubisCO-a structurally and catalytically distinct form of the carbon-fixing enzyme. This value is larger than theoretical predictions for Form II RubisCO and not significantly different from the ∼25‰ εf values observed for taxa employing Form ID RubisCO. We also measured the carbon isotope contents of dinosterol, hexadecanoic acid, and phytol from each experiment, finding that each class of biomarker exhibits different isotopic behavior. The apparent CO2-dependence of εP values in our experiments strengthens the proposal to use dinocyst δ13C values as a pCO2 proxy. Moreover, the similarity between the εf value for A. tamarense and the consensus value of ∼25‰ indicates that the CO2-sensitivity of carbon isotope fractionation saturates at similar CO2 levels across all three

  15. Preliminary Study: Application of Off-Axis ICOS to Determine Stable Carbon Isotope in Dissolved Inorganic Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. T.; Lee, J. M.; Hwang, J. H.; Piao, J.; Woo, N. C.

    2015-12-01

    CO2 is one of the major causes for global climate change. Because stable carbon isotope ratio is used to trace carbon source, several analytical techniques likes IRMS (Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry) and LAS (Laser Absorption Spectrometry) were extensively used. Off-axis ICOS, a kind of LAS, has merits on long-term stability and field application, therefore it is widely being used in CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) field. The aim of this study is to extend the application scope of OA-ICOS to determine dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Because OA-ICOS showed dependence of δ13C on CO2 concentration, data processing is required. We tested CO2 Carbon Isotope Analyzer (CCIA-36-EP, Los Gatos Research) with both reference gas (δ13C= -28.28‰) and aqueous solutions prepared by dissolving sodium bicarbonate standards (δ13C= -12.26‰ and +3.96‰). The differences of δ13C between reference and measurement values are plotted by CO2 concentrations, then compared. At first, we checked the similarity between our curve pattern for reference gas and Guillon's research (δ13C= -43.99‰) by other Analyzer. To analyze aqueous samples, more errors can be caused than gas analysis. The carbon isotope fractionation occurs during dissolving standard reagents and extracting DIC as CO2 gas form. This effect is mixed with CO2 concentration dependence effect, therefore the curve patterns are different with that for reference gas. Our experiments are done for various δ13C values. It could be an important point to use OA-ICOS to analyze DIC, too.

  16. Mass spectrometric analysis of stable carbon isotopes in abiogenic and biogenic natural compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajjad, M.I.; Ahmed, M.; Tasneem, M.A.; Khan, I.A.; Latif, Z.

    1989-07-01

    This report describes the general methodology of sup/13/ carbon analysis on mass spectrometer and various preparation systems developed for conversion of samples into isotopically non-fractionated and purified carbon dioxide. Laboratory standards required for sup/13/ C analysis have been calibrated against international standards. The reproducibility/accuracy of sample preparation and analysis on mass spectrometer for sup/13/ C or sup/12/ C measurement is well within the internationally acceptable limits. (author)

  17. Food sources for the mangrove tree crab aratus pisonii: a carbon isotopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, L.D.; Silva, C.A.R.; Rezende, C.E.; Martinelli, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    Muscle tissues from the mangrove tree crab Aratus pisonii was analysed for carbon isotopic composition, in order to trace its major food sources. Potential food sources: mangrove leaves epi phytic green algae, mangrove sediments and open water and mangrove suspended matter; were also analysed. The results show that A. pisonii is basically omnivorous, with major food sources from marine origin. However, mangrove carbon can contribute with 16% to 42% in the crab's diet. (author)

  18. Ion beam trajectory simulation of carbon isotopes in cyclotron DECY-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramudita Anggraita

    2014-01-01

    A simulation on the ion beam trajectories of various carbon isotopes "1"2C, "1"3C, and "1"4C in DECY-13 cyclotron has been carried out using Scilab 5.4.1 software. Calculations in the simulation were carried out in 3 dimensions. The simulation shows trajectory separations, which provide possibility for "1"4C measurement such as in carbon dating at accelerating voltage frequency of about 72 MHz. (author)

  19. Online stable carbon isotope ratio measurement in formic acid, acetic acid, methanol and ethanol in water by high performance liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2008-01-01

    A suitable analysis condition was determined for high performance liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (HPLC-IRMS) while making sequential measurements of stable carbon isotope ratios of δ 13 C in formic acid, acetic acid, methanol and ethanol dissolved in water. For this online column separation method, organic reagents are not applicable due to carbon contamination; thus, water and KH 2 PO 4 at low concentrations were tested as mobile phase in combination with a HyPURITY AQUASTAR TM column. Formic acid, acetic acid, methanol and ethanol were separated when 2 mM KH 2 PO 4 aqueous solution was used. Under the determined analysis condition for HPLC-IRMS, carbon concentrations could be measured quantitatively as well as carbon isotope ratio when carbon concentration was higher than 0.4 mM L for each chemical

  20. Carbon-13 isotope effects on 199Hg nuclear shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebald, Angelika; Wrackmeyer, Bernd

    1985-01-01

    Secondary 13 C/ 12 C isotope effects on 199 Hg nuclear shielding (Δdeltasup(i)( 199 Hg)) are of interest because of the unusual shift to high frequency which has been observed for a few alkyl mercury compounds. Continuing interest in the NMR parameters of mercury compounds prompted a search for the values Δdeltasup(i)( 199 Hg) in a greater variety of organomercurials. This should help to find out about the range of Δdeltasup(i)( 199 Hg) and to obtain a firmer basis for the discussion of the high-frequency shifts. The data and experimental conditions are given for chemical shifts delta 199 Hg, coupling constants sup(n)J( 199 Hg 13 C) and 13 C/ 12 C isotope shifts Δdeltasup(i)( 199 Hg) of fourteen 199 Hg organomercury compounds. The results are discussed. (author)

  1. Assessing diet in savanna herbivores using stable carbon isotope ratios of faeces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Codron

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In African savannas, browse-based resources (@3 plants are isotopically distinct from grasses (@4 plants. The carbon isotopic composition of the basic plant diet is recorded in animal tissues. Mammal faeces are a readily accessible, non-invasive, sample material for temporally resolved dietary reconstructions. Faeces, however, include both undigested plant matter and waste, hence accuracy of dietary calculations could potentially be compromised by shifts in plant isotopic values related to seasonal or spatial differences, or by variability in the isotopic differences between faeces and diet. A controlled feeding study of four ungulate species showed a small, consistent difference between diet and faeces of-0.9 o, irrespective of whether the diet was @3 or C4-based. Results from faeces oftaxa known to be pure grazers, pure browsers, and mixed-feeders from the Kruger National Park were entirely consistent with their diets, but the accuracy of dietary reconstructions is enhanced with data from local plant communities.

  2. Ancient feeding ecology inferred from stable isotopic evidence from fossil horses in South America over the past 3 Ma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberdi María T

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stable isotope ratios (13C/12C and 18O/16O in fossil teeth and bone provide key archives for understanding the ecology of extinct horses during the Plio-Pleistocene in South America; however, what happened in areas of sympatry between Equus (Amerhippus and Hippidion is less understood. Results Here, we use stable carbon and oxygen isotopes preserved in 67 fossil tooth and bone samples for seven species of horses from 25 different localities to document the magnitude of the dietary shifts of horses and ancient floral change during the Plio-Pleistocene. Dietary reconstructions inferred from stable isotopes of both genera of horses present in South America document dietary separation and environmental changes in ancient ecosystems, including C3/C4 transitions. Stable isotope data demonstrate changes in C4 grass consumption, inter-species dietary partitioning and variation in isotopic niche breadth of mixed feeders with latitudinal gradient. Conclusions The data for Hippidion indicate a preference varying from C3 plants to mixed C3-C4 plants in their diet. Equus (Amerhippus shows three different patterns of dietary partitioning Equus (A. neogeus from the province of Buenos Aires indicate a preference for C3 plants in the diet. Equus (A. andium from Ecuador and Equus (A. insulatus from Bolivia show a preference for to a diet of mixed C3-C4 plants, while Equus (A. santaeelenae from La Carolina (sea level of Ecuador and Brazil are mostly C4 feeders. These results confirm that ancient feeding ecology cannot always be inferred from dental morphology. While the carbon isotope composition of horses skeletal material decreased as latitude increased, we found evidence of boundary between a mixed C3/C4 diet signal and a pure C4 signal around 32° S and a change from a mixed diet signal to an exclusively C3 signal around 35°S. We found that the horses living at high altitudes and at low to middle latitude still have a C4 component in their

  3. Uranium Isotopes in Calcium Carbonate: A Possible Proxy for Paleo-pH and Carbonate Ion Concentration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Romaniello, S. J.; Herrmann, A. D.; Wasylenki, L. E.; Anbar, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Natural variations of 238U/235U in marine carbonates are being explored as a paleoredox proxy. However, in order for this proxy to be robust, it is important to understand how pH and alkalinity affect the fractionation of 238U/235U during coprecipitation with calcite and aragonite. Recent work suggests that the U/Ca ratio of foraminiferal calcite may vary with seawater [CO32-] concentration due to changes in U speciation[1]. Here we explore analogous isotopic consequences in inorganic laboratory co-precipitation experiments. Uranium coprecipitation experiments with calcite and aragonite were performed at pH 8.5 ± 0.1 and 7.5 ± 0.1 using a constant addition method [2]. Dissolved U in the remaining solution was periodically collected throughout the experiments. Samples were purified with UTEVA resin and 238U/235U was determined using a 233U-236U double-spike and MC-ICP-MS, attaining a precision of ± 0.10 ‰ [3]. Small but resolvable U isotope fractionation was observed in aragonite experiments at pH ~8.5, preferentially enriching heavier U isotopes in the solid phase. 238U/235U of the dissolved U in these experiments can be fit by Rayleigh fractionation curves with fractionation factors of 1.00002 - 1.00009. In contrast, no resolvable U isotope fractionation was detected in an aragonite experiment at pH ~7.5 or in calcite experiments at either pH. Equilibrium isotope fractionation among dissolved U species is the most likely mechanism driving these isotope effects. Our quantitative model of this process assumes that charged U species are preferentially incorporated into CaCO3 relative to the neutral U species Ca2UO2(CO3)3(aq), which we hypothesize to have a lighter equilibrium U isotope composition than the charged U species. According to this model, the magnitude of U isotope fractionation should scale with the fraction of the neutral U species in the solution, in agreement with our experimental results. These findings suggest that U isotope variations in

  4. Experimental evidence for Mo isotope fractionation between metal and silicate liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hin, Remco C.; Burkhardt, Christoph; Schmidt, Max W.; Bourdon, Bernard; Kleine, Thorsten

    2013-10-01

    Stable isotope fractionation of siderophile elements may inform on the conditions and chemical consequences of core-mantle differentiation in planetary objects. The extent to which Mo isotopes fractionate during such metal-silicate segregation, however, is so far unexplored. We have therefore investigated equilibrium fractionation of Mo isotopes between liquid metal and liquid silicate to evaluate the potential of Mo isotopes as a new tool to study core formation. We have performed experiments at 1400 and 1600 °C in a centrifuging piston cylinder. Tin was used to lower the melting temperature of the Fe-based metal alloys to double spike technique. In experiments performed at 1400 °C, the 98Mo/95Mo ratio of silicate is 0.19±0.03‰ (95% confidence interval) heavier than that of metal. This fractionation is not significantly affected by the presence or absence of carbon. Molybdenum isotope fractionation is furthermore independent of oxygen fugacity in the range IW -1.79 to IW +0.47, which are plausible values for core formation. Experiments at 1600 °C show that, at equilibrium, the 98Mo/95Mo ratio of silicate is 0.12±0.02‰ heavier than that of metal and that the presence or absence of Sn does not affect this fractionation. Equilibrium Mo isotope fractionation between liquid metal and liquid silicate as a function of temperature can therefore be described as ΔMoMetal-Silicate98/95=-4.70(±0.59)×105/T2. Our experiments show that Mo isotope fractionation may be resolvable up to metal-silicate equilibration temperatures of about 2500 °C, rendering Mo isotopes a novel tool to investigate the conditions of core formation in objects ranging from planetesimals to Earth sized bodies.

  5. Climatic signals registered as Carbon isotopic values in Metasequoia leaf tissues: A statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H.; Blais, B.; Perez, G.; Pagani, M.

    2006-12-01

    To examine climatic signals registered as carbon isotopic values in leaf tissues of C3 plants, we collected mature leaf tissues from sun and shade leaves of Metasequoia trees germinated from the 1947 batch of seeds from China and planted along a latitudinal gradient of the United States. Samples from 40 individual trees, along with fossilized material from the early Tertiary of the Canadian Arctic, were analyzed for C and concentration and isotopic values using EA-IRMS after the removal of free lipids. The generated datasets were then merged with climate data compiled from each tree site recorded as average values over the past thirty years (1971-2002, NOAA database). When the isotope data were cross plotted against each geographic and climatic indicator, Latitude, Mean Annual Temperature (MAT), Average Summer Mean Temperature (ASMT)(June-August), Mean Annual Precipitation (MAP), and Average Summer Mean Precipitation (ASMP) respectively correlation patterns were revealed. The best correlating trend was obtained between temperature parameters and C isotopic values, and this correlation is stronger in the northern leaf samples than the southern samples. We discovered a strong positive correlation between latitude and the offset of C isotopic values between shade and sun leaves. This investigation represents a comprehensive examination on climatic signals registered as C isotopic values on a single species that is marked by single genetic source. The results bear implications on paleoclimatic interpretations of C isotopic signals obtained from fossil plant tissues.

  6. Electromagnetic moments and electric dipole transitions in carbon isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshio; Sagawa, Hiroyuki; Hagino, Kouichi

    2003-01-01

    We carry out shell model calculations to study electromagnetic moments and electric dipole transitions of C isotopes. We point out the configuration dependence of the quadrupole and magnetic moments of the odd C isotopes, which will be useful to find out the deformations and the spin parities of the ground states of these nuclei. We also study the electric dipole states of C isotopes, focusing on the interplay between low energy pigmy strength and giant dipole resonances. As far as the energies of the resonances are concerned, reasonable agreement is obtained with available experimental data for the photoreaction cross sections in 12 C, 13 C, and 14 C, both in the low energy region below (ℎ/2π)ω=14 MeV and in the high energy giant resonance region (14 MeV 15 C is found to exhaust about 12-16 % of the classical Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule value and 50-80 % of the cluster sum rule value

  7. Studies of carbon--isotope fractionation. Annual progress report, December 1, 1974--November 30, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1975-01-01

    The vapor pressure isotope effect of 13 C/ 12 C-substitution in CClF 3 was measured at temperatures between 169 0 and 206 0 K by means of cryogenic distillation. The 13 C/ 12 C-vapor pressure isotope effect in CHF 3 was also studied at temperatures between 161 0 and 205 0 K by a similar method. The construction of a cryostat has progressed as scheduled. The investigation of carbon isotope exchange equilibria between carbon dioxide and various carbamates dissolved in various organic solvents has continued. The five-stage system of Taylor-Ghate design was improved to shorten the transient time. A single stage apparatus was designed, built, and tested. These systems are used to measure the equilibrium constants and various phase equilibria involved in the carbon dioxide--carbamate system. The investigation of the explicit method of total isotope effect has made progress. A satisfactory approximation was found for the classical partition function of a Morse oscillator. The method gives a reasonable result at rho identical with 1 / 2 √(u/sub e//x/sub e/) greater than 1.5. The medium cluster approach was applied to isotopic methanes to investigate the effects of intermolecular distance and mutual orientations of molecules in the liquid upon vapor pressure isotope effect. It was found that all geometrical effects studied tend to vanish as the size of clusters is increased. Isotope effect in the zero-point energy shifts on condensation was calculated on the basis of London dispersion forces in liquid and a semi-empirical molecular orbital theory, and was favorably compared with experimental results

  8. Influence of diet on the distribution of carbon isotopes in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNiro, M.J.; Epstein, S.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of diet on the distribution of carbon isotopes in animals was investigated by analyzing animals grown in the laboratory on diets of constant carbon isotopic composition. The isotopic composition of the whole body of an animal reflects the isotopic composition of its diet, but the animal is on average enriched in delta 13 C by about 1 part per thousand relative to the diet. In three of the four cases examined the 13 C enrichment of the whole body relative to the diet is balanced by a 13 C depletion of the respired CO 2 . The isotopic relationships between the whole bodies of animals and their diets are similar for different species raised on the same diet and for the same species raised on different diets. However, the delta 13 C values of whole bodies of individuals of a species raised on the same diet may differ by up to 2 parts per thousand. The relationship between the 13 C/ 12 C ratio of a tissue and the 13 C/ 12 C ratio of the diet depends both on the type of tissue and on the nature of the diet. Many of the isotopic relationships among the major biochemical fractions, namely the lipid, carbohydrate and protein fractions, are qualitatively preserved as diet carbon is incorporated into the animal. However, the difference between the delta 13 C values of a biochemical fraction in an animal and in its diet may be as large as 3 parts per thousand. The delta 13 C values of the biochemical components collagen chitin and the insoluble organic fraction of shells, all of which are often preserved in fossil material, are related to the isotopic composition of the diet. (author)

  9. FATTY ACID STABLE ISOTOPE INDICATORS OF MICROBIAL CARBON SOURCE IN TROPICAL SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soil microbial community plays an important role in tropical ecosystem functioning because of its importance in the soil organic matter (SOM) cycle. We have measured the stable carbon isotopic ratio (delta13C) of individual phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in a variety of tr...

  10. Isotopic studies of beach rock carbonates from Konkan, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, B.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Gujar, A.R.

    .7% (PDB) and delta sup(18)O signatures lie in a narrow range of +27.5 to +28.6% (SMOW), respectively. Isotopic data obtained in this study show that cementation of beach rock carbonates might have taken place in a shallow vadose zone. The large variations...

  11. Reconstruction of prehistoric pottery use from fatty acid carbon isotope signatures using Bayesian inference

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fernandes, R.; Eley, Y.; Brabec, Marek; Lucquin, A.; Millard, A.; Craig, O.E.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 117, March (2018), s. 31-42 ISSN 0146-6380 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Fatty acids * carbon isotopes * pottery use * Bayesian mixing models * FRUITS Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 3.081, year: 2016

  12. The relationship of uranium isotopes to oxidation/reduction in the Edwards carbonate aquifer of Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowart, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    The concentration of dissolved uranium and 234 U/ 238 U alpha activity ratio ( A.R. ) were determined in water samples from 23 locations in the Edwards carbonate aquifer of south central Texas by isotope dilution methods and alpha spectrometry. (orig./ME)

  13. Orbital calibration of the late Campanian carbon isotope event in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perdiou, Anastasios; Thibault, Nicolas; Anderskouv, Kresten

    2016-01-01

    A new record of carbon isotopes, nannofossil biostratigraphy, gamma-ray and Fe content variations is presented for the upper Campanian of the Adda-3 core, Danish Central Graben, North Sea. The studied interval provides a revision of previously assigned late Coniacian to early Santonian ages. New...

  14. Variation in stable carbon isotopes in organic matter from the Gunflint Iron Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barghoorn, E.S.; Knoll, A.H.; Dembicki, H. Jr.; Meinschein, W.G.

    1977-01-01

    In order to examine possible variations in organic carbon isotopic ratios within a single Precambrian formation, the kerogen separated from 15 samples of the approximately 2000 m.y. old Gunflint Iron Formation and the conformably overlying Rove Formation, representing a wide range of lithologies and geographic localities, was isotopically analyzed. From the resulting data, four conclusions can be drawn: (1) delta 13 C values of the shallow water algal chert facies are significantly more negative (-25 to -30 parts per thousand) than those of the deeper water chert-carbonate and taconite facies (-15 to -20 parts per thousand). Comparative data for modern marine algal mats shows a range of delta 13 C values from -8.4 to -19 parts per thousand PDB. Values obtained for fresh water mats were slightly more negative. (2) These differences in isotopic ratios can be correlated with similar differences in preserved microbiotas. (3) Anthraxolite lenses are depleted in 13 C relative to the reduced carbon in surrounding sediments. (4) The effect of Keweenawan diabase intrusions upon the carbon isotopic composition is pronounced, but limited to the immediate vicinity of the contact. (author)

  15. Normalization of stable isotope data for carbonate minerals: implementation of IUPAC guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Tae; Coplen, Tyler B.; Horita, Juske

    2015-01-01

    Carbonate minerals provide a rich source of geochemical information because their δ13C and δ18O values provide information about surface and subsurface Earth processes. However, a significant problem is that the same δ18O value is not reported for the identical carbonate sample when analyzed in different isotope laboratories in spite of the fact that the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has provided reporting guidelines for two decades. This issue arises because (1) the δ18O measurements are performed on CO2 evolved by reaction of carbonates with phosphoric acid, (2) the acid-liberated CO2 is isotopically fractionated (enriched in 18O) because it contains only two-thirds of the oxygen from the solid carbonate, (3) this oxygen isotopic fractionation factor is a function of mineralogy, temperature, concentration of the phosphoric acid, and δ18O value of water in the phosphoric acid, (4) researchers may use any one of an assortment of oxygen isotopic fractionation factors that have been published for various minerals at various reaction temperatures, and (5) it sometimes is not clear how one should calculate δ18OVPDB values on a scale normalized such that the δ18O value of SLAP reference water is −55.5 ‰ relative to VSMOW reference water.

  16. Natural carbon isotopes used to study methane consumption and production in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, Per; Andersen, Bertel Lohmann; Kemner, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    Changes in the isotopic composition of carbon can be used to reveal simultaneous occurrence of methane production and oxidation in soil. The method is conducted in laboratory jar experiments as well as in the field by using flux chambers. Simultaneous occurrence of production and oxidation of met...

  17. Oxygen and carbon isotope analyses of a Late Quaternary core in the Zaire (Congo) fan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olausson, E.

    1984-01-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotope analyses have been carried out on samples from a core of the Angola Basin (6 0 50'S, 10 0 45'E, depth 2100 m). The pelagic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber, a species with a shallow water habitat, and two benthic species Uvigerina peregrina and Bulimina aculeata have been analysed. The data are given relative to PDB. (Auth.)

  18. Production of exotic, short lived carbon isotopes in ISOL-type facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Franberg, Hanna; Köster, Ulli; Ammann, Markus

    2008-01-01

    The beam intensities of short-lived carbon isotopes at Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) facilities have been limited in the past for technical reasons. The production of radioactive ion beams of carbon isotopes is currently of high interest for fundamental nuclear physics research. To produce radioactive ions a target station consisting of a target in a container connected to an ion source via a transfer line is commonly used. The target is heated to vaporize the product for transport. Carbon in elementary form is a very reactive element and react strongly with hot metal surfaces. Due to the strong chemisorption interaction, in the target and ion source unit, the atoms undergo significant retention on their way from the target to the ion source. Due to this the short lived isotopes decays and are lost leading to low ion yields. A first approach to tackle these limitations consists of incorporating the carbon atoms into less reactive molecules and to use materials for the target housing and the transfer line ...

  19. A review of volatile compounds in tektites, and carbon content and isotopic composition of moldavite glass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žák, Karel; Skála, Roman; Řanda, Zdeněk; Mizera, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2012), s. 1010-1028 ISSN 1086-9379 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/0991 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516; CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : moldavites * geochemistry * ries * carbon stable isotopes * moldavites (Germany) Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.800, year: 2012

  20. The isotopic composition of soil organic carbon on a north - south transect in western Canada

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bird, M.; Šantrůčková, Hana; Lloyd, J.; Lawson, E.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 53, - (2002), s. 393-403 ISSN 1351-0754 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : isotopic composition * soil organic carbon * western Canada Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.452, year: 2002

  1. Suitability of selected free-gas and dissolved-gas sampling containers for carbon isotopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, P; Gibson, J J; Yi, Y

    2015-07-15

    Storage trials were conducted for 2 to 3 months using a hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide gas mixture with known carbon isotopic composition to simulate typical hold times for gas samples prior to isotopic analysis. A range of containers (both pierced and unpierced) was periodically sampled to test for δ(13)C isotopic fractionation. Seventeen containers were tested for free-gas storage (20°C, 1 atm pressure) and 7 containers were tested for dissolved-gas storage, the latter prepared by bubbling free gas through tap water until saturated (20°C, 1 atm) and then preserved to avoid biological activity by acidifying to pH 2 with phosphoric acid and stored in the dark at 5°C. Samples were extracted using valves or by piercing septa, and then introduced into an isotope ratio mass spectrometer for compound-specific δ(13)C measurements. For free gas, stainless steel canisters and crimp-top glass serum bottles with butyl septa were most effective at preventing isotopic fractionation (pierced and unpierced), whereas silicone and PTFE-butyl septa allowed significant isotopic fractionation. FlexFoil and Tedlar bags were found to be effective only for storage of up to 1 month. For dissolved gas, crimp-top glass serum bottles with butyl septa were again effective, whereas silicone and PTFE-butyl were not. FlexFoil bags were reliable for up to 2 months. Our results suggest a range of preferred containers as well as several that did not perform very well for isotopic analysis. Overall, the results help establish better QA/QC procedures to avoid isotopic fractionation when storing environmental gas samples. Recommended containers for air transportation include steel canisters and glass serum bottles with butyl septa (pierced and unpierced). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Factors that control the stable carbon isotopic composition of methane produced in an anoxic marine sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperin, M. J.; Blair, Neal E.; Albert, D. B.; Hoehler, T. M.; Martens, C. S.

    1993-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of methane produced in anoxic marine sediment is controlled by four factors: (1) the pathway of methane formation, (2) the isotopic composition of the methanogenic precursors, (3) the isotope fractionation factors for methane production, and (4) the isotope fractionation associated with methane oxidation. The importance of each factor was evaluated by monitoring stable carbon isotope ratios in methane produced by a sediment microcosm. Methane did not accumulate during the initial 42-day period when sediment contained sulfate, indicating little methane production from 'noncompetitive' substrates. Following sulfate depletion, methane accumulation proceeded in three distinct phases. First, CO2 reduction was the dominant methanogenic pathway and the isotopic composition of the methane produced ranged from -80 to -94 per thousand. The acetate concentration increased during this phase, suggesting that acetoclastic methanogenic bacteria were unable to keep pace with acetate production. Second, acetate fermentation became the dominant methanogenic pathway as bacteria responded to elevated acetate concentrations. The methane produced during this phase was progressively enriched in C-13, reaching a maximum delta(C-13) value of -42 per thousand. Third, the acetate pool experienced a precipitous decline from greater than 5 mM to less than 20 micro-M and methane production was again dominated by CO2 reduction. The delta(C-13) of methane produced during this final phase ranged from -46 to -58 per thousand. Methane oxidation concurrent with methane production was detected throughout the period of methane accumulation, at rates equivalent to 1 to 8 percent of the gross methane production rate. Thus methane oxidation was too slow to have significantly modified the isotopic signature of methane. A comparison of microcosm and field data suggests that similar microbial interactions may control seasonal variability in the isotopic composition of methane

  3. The puzzle of the CNO isotope ratios in asymptotic giant branch carbon stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abia, C.; Hedrosa, R. P.; Domínguez, I.; Straniero, O.

    2017-03-01

    Context. The abundance ratios of the main isotopes of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen are modified by the CNO-cycle in the stellar interiors. When the different dredge-up events mix the burning material with the envelope, valuable information on the nucleosynthesis and mixing processes can be extracted by measuring these isotope ratios. Aims: Previous determinations of the oxygen isotopic ratios in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) carbon stars were at odds with the existing theoretical predictions. We aim to redetermine the oxygen ratios in these stars using new spectral analysis tools and further develop discussions on the carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios in order to elucidate this problem. Methods: Oxygen isotopic ratios were derived from spectra in the K-band in a sample of galactic AGB carbon stars of different spectral types and near solar metallicity. Synthetic spectra calculated in local thermodynamic equillibrium (LTE) with spherical carbon-rich atmosphere models and updated molecular line lists were used. The CNO isotope ratios derived in a homogeneous way, were compared with theoretical predictions for low-mass (1.5-3 M⊙) AGB stars computed with the FUNS code assuming extra mixing both during the RGB and AGB phases. Results: For most of the stars the 16O/17O/18O ratios derived are in good agreement with theoretical predictions confirming that, for AGB stars, are established using the values reached after the first dredge-up (FDU) according to the initial stellar mass. This fact, as far as the oxygen isotopic ratios are concerned, leaves little space for the operation of any extra mixing mechanism during the AGB phase. Nevertheless, for a few stars with large 16O/17O/18O, the operation of such a mechanism might be required, although their observed 12C/13C and 14N/15N ratios would be difficult to reconcile within this scenario. Furthermore, J-type stars tend to have lower 16O/17O ratios than the normal carbon stars, as already indicated in previous studies

  4. Isotopic evidence for the diverse origins of nitrate minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, T.H.E.

    1987-01-01

    Nitrate minerals are rare and, apart from their occasional value as economic deposits of fertilizer, not of general importance in geology. The mechanisms by which they are formed, however, are still the subject of considerable debate. This brief discussion indicates that the study of the 15 N/ 14 N ratios of nitrate minerals can yield useful information on their origins. The low 15 N/ 14 N ratios for nitrate in desert environments indicate that soil or animal waste sources of nitrogen are unlikely. Derivation from atmospheric precipitation is consistent with the presently limited knowledge of the isotopic characteristics of atmospheric compounds, but can only be confirmed when data for these compounds in desert areas become available. For nitrates in wetter environments the 15 N/ 14 N ratios indicate that atmospheric sources are not important, and that the formation of nitrate from gaseous ammonia emanating from animal waste is probably not a significant mechanism. The nitrate appears to be chiefly derived either by direct solution of animal waste nitrate (Lydenburg cave and Prieskapoort) or from soil-derived nitrate brought in by groundwater (Autana and possibly Abjaterskop caves). In the case of Sveite special conditions involving bacterial processes are also implied

  5. Arctic herbivore diet can be inferred from stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in C3 plants, faeces and wool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ditte; Kristensen, Erik; Forchhammer, Mads C.

    2011-01-01

    The use of stable isotopes in diet analysis usually relies on the different photosynthetic pathways of C3 and C4 plants, and the resulting difference in carbon isotope signature. In the Arctic, however, plant species are exclusively C3, and carbon isotopes alone are therefore not suitable......% graminoids and up to 20% willows. In conclusion, the diet composition of an arctic herbivore can indeed be inferred from stable isotopes in arctic areas, despite the lack of C4 plants...... for studying arctic herbivore diets. In this study, we examined the potential of both stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes to reconstruct the diet of an arctic herbivore, here the muskox (Ovibos moschatus (Zimmermann, 1780)), in northeast Greenland. The isotope composition of plant communities and functional...

  6. Ca, Sr, Mo and U isotopes evidence ocean acidification and deoxygenation during the Late Permian mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Tamayo, Juan Carlos; Payne, Jon; Wignall, Paul; Newton, Rob; Eisenhauer, Anton; Weyer, Stenfan; Neubert, Nadja; Lau, Kim; Maher, Kate; Paytan, Adina; Lehrmann, Dan; Altiner, Demir; Yu, Meiyi

    2014-05-01

    The most catastrophic extinction event in the history of animal life occurred at the end of the Permian Period, ca. 252 Mya. Ocean acidification and global oceanic euxinia have each been proposed as causes of this biotic crisis, but the magnitude and timing of change in global ocean chemistry remains poorly constrained. Here we use multiple isotope systems - Ca, Sr, Mo and U - measured from well dated Upper Permian- Lower Triassic sedimentary sections to better constrain the magnitude and timing of change in ocean chemistry and the effects of ocean acidification and de-oxygenation through this interval. All the investigated carbonate successions (Turkey, Italy and China) exhibit decreasing δ44/40Ca compositions, from ~-1.4‰ to -2.0‰ in the interval preceding the main extinction. These values remain low during most of the Griesbachian, to finally return to -1.4‰ in the middle Dienerian. The limestone succession from southern Turkey also displays a major decrease in the δ88/86Sr values from 0.45‰ to 0.3‰ before the extinction. These values remain low during the Griesbachian and finally increase to 0.55‰ by the middle Dienerian. The paired negative anomalies on the carbonate δ44/40Ca and δ88/86Sr suggest a decrease in the carbonate precipitation and thus an episode of ocean acidification coincident with the major biotic crisis. The Mo and U isotope records also exhibit significant rapid negative anomalies at the onset of the main extinction interval, suggesting rapid expansion of anoxic and euxinic marine bottom waters during the extinction interval. The rapidity of the isotope excursions in Mo and U suggests substantially reduced residence times of these elements in seawater relative to the modern, consistent with expectations for a time of widespread anoxia. The large C-isotope variability within Lower Triassic rocks, which is similar to that of the Lower-Middle Cambrian, may reflect biologically controlled perturbations of the oceanic carbon cycle

  7. Modelling carbon membranes for gas and isotope separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yan; Du, Aijun; Hankel, Marlies; Smith, Sean C

    2013-04-14

    Molecular modelling has become a useful and widely applied tool to investigate separation and diffusion behavior of gas molecules through nano-porous low dimensional carbon materials, including quasi-1D carbon nanotubes and 2D graphene-like carbon allotropes. These simulations provide detailed, molecular level information about the carbon framework structure as well as dynamics and mechanistic insights, i.e. size sieving, quantum sieving, and chemical affinity sieving. In this perspective, we revisit recent advances in this field and summarize separation mechanisms for multicomponent systems from kinetic and equilibrium molecular simulations, elucidating also anomalous diffusion effects induced by the confining pore structure and outlining perspectives for future directions in this field.

  8. Carbon isotope fractionation of 1,1,1-trichloroethane during base-catalyzed persulfate treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchesi, Massimo; Thomson, Neil R.; Aravena, Ramon; Sra, Kanwartej S.; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Treatability and C fractionation of 1,1,1-TCA by base-catalyzed S 2 O 8 2− was studied. • The rate of degradation of 1,1,1-TCA increased with a higher OH − :S 2 O 8 2− ratio. •Base-catalyzed S 2 O 8 2− can potentially treat recalcitrant compound like 1,1,1-TCA. • An enrichment factor of −7.0‰ independent of the OH − :S 2 O 8 2− ratio was obtained. • Carbon isotope can potentially be used to estimate the ISCO treatment efficacy. -- Abstract: The extent of carbon isotope fractionation during degradation of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) by a base-catalyzed persulfate (S 2 O 8 2− ) treatment system was investigated. Significant destruction of 1,1,1-TCA was observed at a pH of ∼12. An increase in the NaOH:S 2 O 8 2− molar ratio from 0.2:1 to 8:1 enhanced the reaction rate of 1,1,1-TCA by a factor of ∼5 to yield complete (>99.9%) destruction. An average carbon isotope enrichment fractionation factor which was independent of the NaOH:S 2 O 8 2− molar ratio of −7.0 ± 0.2‰ was obtained. This significant carbon isotope fractionation and the lack of dependence on changes in the NaOH:S 2 O 8 2− molar ratio demonstrates that carbon isotope analysis can potentially be used in situ as a performance assessment tool to estimate the degradation effectiveness of 1,1,1-TCA by a base-catalyzed persulfate system

  9. Trans-Atlantic slavery: isotopic evidence for forced migration to Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Hannes; O'Connell, Tamsin C; Evans, Jane A; Shuler, Kristrina A; Hedges, Robert E M

    2009-08-01

    The question of the ultimate origin of African slaves is one of the most perplexing in the history of trans-Atlantic slavery. Here we present the results of a small, preliminary isotopic study that was conducted in order to determine the geographical origin of 25 enslaved Africans who were buried at the Newton plantation, Barbados, sometime between the late 17th and early 19th century. In order to gain a more nuanced understanding of the slaves' origin, we used a combination of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and strontium isotope analyses. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were determined in bone and dentinal collagen; oxygen and strontium isotopes were measured in tooth enamel. Results suggest that the majority of individuals were born on the island, if not the estate itself. Seven individuals, however, yielded enamel oxygen and strontium ratios that are inconsistent with a Barbadian origin, which strongly suggests that we are dealing with first-generation captives who were brought to the island with the slave trade. This idea is also supported by the fact that their carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values differ markedly between their teeth and bones. These intra-skeletal shifts reflect major dietary changes that probably coincided with their enslavement and forced migration to Barbados. While it is impossible to determine their exact origins, the results clearly demonstrate that the slaves did not all grow up in the same part of Africa. Instead, the data seem to suggest that they originated from at least three different areas, possibly including the Gold Coast and the Senegambia.

  10. Strontium geochemistry and carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of Lower Proterozoic dolomite and calcite marbles from the Marmorilik Formation, West Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garde, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Marmorilik Formation, Rinkian mobile belt, West Greenland, is a large, Lower Proterozoic carbonate-rock sequence, deformed and metamorphosed under greenschist to amphibolite facies conditions. The pre-deformation thickness of the sequence is at least 2000 m, with about 1400 m of dolomite marble and 350 m of calcite marble. Strontium contents of forty-two dolomite and calcite marbles range from 30 to 100 ppm and 300 to 800 ppm, respectively, whereas samples with calcite of secondary origin have strontium contents between 80 ppm and 200 ppm. Carbon and oxygen isotope ratios were determined for forty calcite and dolomite marbles as -0.2+-1.0 per 1000 delta 13 C and -9.9+-1.5 per 1000 delta 18 O (vs. PDB) and are compatible with the isotopic compositions of unmetamorphosed carbonates of similar age. Calcite from eight calciumsilicate rocks, breccias and calcite veins is significantly more negative in delta 13 C and delta 18 O. Five 13 C analyses of graphite in marble range from -9.6 to -14 per 1000. Possible post-depositional changes in the strontium content and carbon and oxygen isotope compositions are discussed. It is concluded that (a) the calcite marbles are not dedolomites and are therefore of primary origin, (b) the delta 13 C and delta 18 O values of the marbles are primary or diagenetic (i.e., pre-metamorphic), and (c) the isotopic composition of the graphite is compatible with, though not necessarily evidence for, a biogenic origin. (Auth.)

  11. The Origin of Carbon-bearing Volatiles in Surprise Valley Hot Springs in the Great Basin: Carbon Isotope and Water Chemistry Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Romanek, Christopher; Datta, Saugata; Darnell, Mike; Bissada, Adry K.

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous hydrothermal fields within the Great Basin of North America, some of which have been exploited for geothermal resources. With methane and other carbon-bearing compounds being observed, in some cases with high concentrations, however, their origins and formation conditions remain unknown. Thus, studying hydrothermal springs in this area provides us an opportunity to expand our knowledge of subsurface (bio)chemical processes that generate organic compounds in hydrothermal systems, and aid in future development and exploration of potential energy resources as well. While isotope measurement has long been used for recognition of their origins, there are several secondary processes that may generate variations in isotopic compositions: oxidation, re-equilibration of methane and other alkanes with CO2, mixing with compounds of other sources, etc. Therefore, in addition to isotopic analysis, other evidence, including water chemistry and rock compositions, are necessary to identify volatile compounds of different sources. Surprise Valley Hot Springs (SVHS, 41 deg 32'N, 120 deg 5'W), located in a typical basin and range province valley in northeastern California, is a terrestrial hydrothermal spring system of the Great Basin. Previous geophysical studies indicated the presence of clay-rich volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age beneath the lava flows in late Tertiary and Quaternary. Water and gas samples were collected for a variety of chemical and isotope composition analyses, including in-situ pH, alkalinity, conductivity, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), major and trace elements, and C and H isotope measurements. Fluids issuing from SVHS can be classified as Na-(Cl)-SO4 type, with the major cation and anion being Na+ and SO4(2-), respectively. Thermodynamic calculation using ORP and major element data indicated that sulfate is the most dominant sulfur species, which is consistent with anion analysis results. Aquifer temperatures at depth

  12. The Origin of Carbon-bearing Volatiles in Surprise Valley Hot Springs in the Great Basin: Carbon Isotope aud Water Chemistry Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Romanek, Christopher; Datta, Saugata; Darnell, Mike; Bissada, Adry K.

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous hydrothermal fields within the Great Basin of North America, some of which have been exploited for geothermal resources. With methane and other carbon-bearing compounds being observed, in some cases with high concentrations, however, their origins and formation conditions remain unknown. Thus, studying hydrothermal springs in this area provides us an opportunity to expand our knowledge of subsurface (bio)chemical processes that generate organic compounds in hydrothermal systems, and aid in future development and exploration of potential energy resources as well. While isotope measurement has long been used for recognition of their origins, there are several secondary processes that may generate variations in isotopic compositions: oxidation, re-equilibration of methane and other alkanes with CO2, mixing with compounds of other sources, etc. Therefore, in addition to isotopic analysis, other evidence, including water chemistry and rock compositions, are necessary to identify volatile compounds of different sources. Surprise Valley Hot Springs (SVHS, 41º32'N, 120º5'W), located in a typical basin and range province valley in northeastern California, is a terrestrial hydrothermal spring system of the Great Basin. Previous geophysical studies indicated the presence of clay-rich volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age beneath the lava flows in late Tertiary and Quaternary. Water and gas samples were collected for a variety of chemical and isotope composition analyses, including in-situ pH, alkalinity, conductivity, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), major and trace elements, and C and H isotope measurements. Fluids issuing from SVHS can be classified as Na-(Cl)-SO4 type, with the major cation and anion being Na+ and SO4 2-, respectively. Thermodynamic calculation using ORP and major element data indicated that sulfate is the most dominant sulfur species, which is consistent with anion analysis results. Aquifer temperatures at depth estimated

  13. Oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of gases respired by humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, S.; Zeiri, L.

    1988-01-01

    Oxygen-isotope fractionation associated with respiration in human individuals at rest is linearly related to the fraction of the O 2 utilized in the respiration process. The slope of this relationship is affected by a history of smoking, by vigorous exercise, and by the N 2 /O 2 ratio of the inhaled gas. For patients who suffer anemia-related diseases, the slope of this relationship is directly proportional to their level of hemoglobin. These results introduce a new approach for studying the mechanisms of O 2 consumption in human respiration and how they are affected by related diseases

  14. Syntheses with isotopically labelled carbon. Methyl iodide, formaldehyde and cyanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, R.D.; Boothe, T.E.; Vora, M.M.; Hildner, J.C.; Emran, A.M.; Kothari, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    Many of the uniquely labelled synthetic precursors currently employed in the design of sophisticated radiolabelled compounds have their origins in the field of hot atom chemistry. Particularly, the development during the past few years of automated, on-line synthetic procedures which combine the nuclear reaction, hot atom and classical chemistry, and rapid purification methods has allowed the incorporation of useful radionuclides into suitable compounds of chemical and biochemical interest. The application of isotopically labelled methyl iodide, formaldehyde, and cyanide anion as synthetic intermediates in research involving human physiology and nuclear medicine, as well as their contributions to other scientific methodology, is reviewed. (author)

  15. Application of carbon isotope stratigraphy to late miocene shallow marine sediments, new zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutit, T S; Kennett, J P

    1979-06-15

    A distinct (0.5 per mil) carbon-13/carbon-12 isotopic shift in the light direction has been identified in a shallow marine sedimentary sequence of Late Miocene age at Blind River, New Zealand, and correlated with a similar shift in Late Miocene Deep Sea Drilling Project sequences throughout the Indo-Pacific. A dated piston core provides an age for the shift of 6.2 +/- 0.1 million years. Correlations based on the carbon isotopic change require a revision of the previously established magnetostratigraphy at Blind River. The carbon shift at Blind River occurs between 6.2 and 6.3 +/- 0.1 million years before present. A new chronology provides an age for the evolutionary first appearance datum of Globorotalia conomiozea at 6.1 +/- 0.1 million years, the beginning of a distinct latest Miocene cooling event associated with the Kapitean stage at 6.2 +/- 0.1 million years, and the beginning of a distinct shallowing of water depths at 6.1 +/- 0.1 million years. The Miocene-Pliocene boundary as recognized in New Zealand is now dated at 5.3 +/- 0.1 million years. Extension of carbon isotope stratigraphy to other shallow Late Miocene sequences should provide an important datum for international correlation of Late Miocene shallow and deep marine sequences.

  16. Stable isotopic investigations of early development in extant and fossil chambered cephalopods I. Oxygen isotopic composition of eggwater and carbon isotopic composition of siphuncle organic matter in Nautilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Kimberley C.; DeNiro, Michael J.; Ward, Peter D.

    1985-12-01

    Eggwaters from the chambered cephalopod Nautilus are depleted in both 18O and deuterium relative to ambient seawater. Eggwaters from six other species, including the related chambered cephalopod Sepia, do not show such depletion. These observations indicate that the previously observed step towards more positive δ 18O values in calcium carbonate laid down after Nautilus hatches, relative to carbonate precipitated prior to hatching, can be explained by equilibration of the carbonate with water in the egg before hatching and with seawater after hatching. The presence of an oxygen isotope difference between eggwater and seawater for Nautilus and its absence for Sepia suggest that hatching will be recorded in the δ 18O values of shell carbonates for some but not all extinct and extant chambered cephalopods. The δ 13C values of the organic fraction of the siphuncle in Nautilus do not show any consistent pattern with regard to the time of formation before or after hatching. This observation suggests that the minimum in δ 13C values previously observed for calcium carbonate precipitated after Nautilus hatches is not caused by a change in food sources once the animal becomes free-swimming, as has been suggested.

  17. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen as markers of dietary variation among sociocultural subgroups of Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Larsen, Christina V L; Dahl-Petersen, Inger K

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We assessed the use of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen as biomarkers for traditional versus store-bought food among the Inuit. Furthermore, we compared the isotope patterns among sociocultural population groups. METHODS: As a part of a country-wide health survey in Greenland...... food in the diet was estimated at 21% from the mean δ(13) C value, 25% from the mean δ(15) N value, and 23% from the FFQ. CONCLUSION: Nail samples for analysis of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were convenient to collect during a large population health survey among the Inuit. Isotope...

  18. A study on the isotope effects in the reduction of carbon dioxide by zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senegacnik, M.

    1957-06-01

    We have determined the isotope effects which occur in the reduction of carbon dioxide by zinc. It has been shown that in the case of irreversible surface reactions, Bernstein's equation which permits the calculation of the fractionation factor is still valid. These experimental factors are in good agreement with those obtained by calculating the partition functions of the adsorbed activated complexes. In the reaction mechanism used, the model of the activated complex corresponds to the dissociation of one of the carbon oxygen bonds CO 2 → CO + O. Perturbations arising from the slight reversibility of the reaction Zn + CO 2 ↔ ZnO + CO on the isotope effects on the carbon and oxygen atoms have also been calculated. (author) [fr

  19. Methane Carbon Isotopic Composition Reveals Changing Production Pathways Across a Gradient of Permafrost Thaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocci, K.; Burke, S. A.; Clariza, P.; Malhotra, A.; McCalley, C. K.; Verbeke, B. A.; Werner, S. L.; Roulet, N. T.; Varner, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    Methane (CH4) emission in areas of discontinuous permafrost may increase with warming temperatures resulting in a positive feedback to climate change. Characterizing the production pathways of CH4, which may be inferred by measuring carbon isotopes, can help determine underlying mechanistic changes. We studied CH4 flux and isotopic composition of porewater (δ13C-CH4) in a sub-arctic peatland in Abisko, Sweden to understand controls on these factors across a thaw gradient during four growing seasons. Methane chamber flux measurements and porewater samples were collected in July 2013, and over the growing seasons of 2014 to 2016. Samples were analyzed on a Gas Chromatograph with a Flame Ionization Detector for CH4 concentrations and a Quantum Cascade Laser for carbon isotopes. Increased emission rates and changing isotopic signatures were observed across the thaw gradient throughout the growing season. While CH4 flux increased with increases in temperature and shallower water table, δ13C-CH4 exhibited a seasonal pattern that did not correlate with measured environmental variables, suggesting dependence on other factors. The most significant controlling factor for both flux and isotopic signature was plant community composition, specifically, the presence of graminoid species. Graminoid cover increases with thaw stage so both CH4 emissions and δ13C-CH4 are likely to increase in a warmer world, suggesting a shift toward the acetoclastic pathway of methane production.

  20. Isotopic evidence for identifying the mechanism of salinization of groundwater in Bacolod City,Negros Occidental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, Soledad S.; Almoneda, Rosalinda V.; Sucgang, Raymond J.; Desengano, Daisy; Lim, Fatima

    2008-01-01

    Saline water is easily identified by measurement of the conductivity of the ionic species in the water. In groundwater, it is important to identify the mechanism of salinization for proper management of the resource. Salinization may come from: a) leaching of salts by percolating water, b) intrusion of modern saltwater bodies of connate water, and c) concentration of dissolved salts due to evaporation. The salinity and isotopic concentrations of 18 O, 2 H, and 3 H of the water sources were used to assess the processes which lead to the salinization of groundwater in Bacolod City, Negros Occidental. The isotopic composition of deep groundwater, river water, and springs cluster along the LMWL with δ 18 O ranging from -7.9 ''promille'' to -6.5 ''promille'' and δ 2 H ranging from -52.6 ''promille'' to -39.1''promille''. Two isotopically distinct groups of deep groundwater were deleated; the higher elevation wells yielding isotopically depleted waters while the lowland wells yielding relatively enriched water with higher conductivity. The shallow coastal wells exhibited more enriched isotope values with δ 18 O values from 6.10 ''promille''-5.61''promille'' and δ 2 H from -43.1''promille'' to -38.8''promille'' and highest conductivity. The relative enrichment in the isotopic composition of the deep groundwater in the lowland and the shallow groundwater along the coast is attributed to saltwater intrusion. The process of salinization in these waters is differentiated based on the relationship between their isotopic compositions and the chlorine concentrations. The high salinity of the isotopically enriched and old deep groundwater inland is attributed to mixing with connate water. On the other hand , mixing with modern sea water is evident in the deep and shallow coastal wells. (author)

  1. Uranium isotopes in carbonate aquifers of arid region setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alshamsi, D.M.; Murad, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater in arid and semiarid regions is vital resource for many uses and therefore information about concentrations of uranium isotopes among other chemical parameters are necessary. In the study presented here, distribution of 238 U and 235 U in groundwater of four selected locations in the southern Arabian peninsula, namely at two locations within the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and two locations in Oman are discussed. The analyses of the uranium isotopes were performed using ICP-MS and the results indicated a range of concentrations for 235 U and 238 U at 3-39 ng L -1 (average: 18 ng L -1 ) and 429-5,293 ng L -1 (average: 2,508 ng L -1 ) respectively. These uranium concentrations are below the higher permissible WHO limit for drinking water and also comparable to averages found in groundwater from similar aquifers in Florida and Tunisia. Negative correlation between rainfall and uranium concentrations suggests that in lithologically comparable aquifers, climate may influence the concentration of uranium in subtropical to arid regions. (author)

  2. Noble gas and carbon isotopes in Mariana Trough basalt glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, M.; Jambon, A.; Gamo, T.; Nishio, Y.; Sano, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Noble gas elemental and isotopic compositions have been measured as well as the abundance of C and its isotopic ratios in 11 glasses from submarine pillow basalts collected from the Mariana Trough. The 3 He/ 4 He ratios of 8.22 and 8.51 R atm of samples dredged from the central Mariana Trough (similar18N) agree well with that of the Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB) glasses (8.4±0.3 R atm ), whereas a mean ratio of 8.06±0.35 R atm in samples from the northern Mariana Trough (similar20N) is slightly lower than those of MORB. One sample shows apparent excess of 20 Ne and 21 Ne relative to atmospheric Ne, suggesting incorporation of solar-type Ne in the magma source. There is a positive correlation between 3 He/ 4 He and 40 Ar/ 36 Ar ratios, which may be explained by mixing between MORB-type and atmospheric noble gases. Excess 129 Xe is observed in the sample which also shows 20 Ne and 21 Ne excesses. Observed δ 13 C values of similar20N samples vary from -3.76 per thousand to -2.80 per thousand, and appear higher than those of MORB, and the corresponding CO 2 / 3 He ratios are higher than those of MARA samples at similar18N, suggesting C contribution from the subducted slab. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. Oxygen and Carbon Isotopic Composition of Carbonate Rocks of the Permian Qixia Formation, Sichuan Basin: Thermal Effects of Emeishan Basalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keke Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The late Permian thermal events related to Emeishan Basalt has made a great impact on the underlying carbonate rock properties in the western margin of the Yangtze Platform. In this paper, we investigate the carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of the Qixia Formation carbonates from two sections: the Qiaoting Section in the northeastern part of the Sichuan Basin and the Changjianggou Section at the northwestern edge of the Basin. The data reveal that: (i Samples from Qiaoting section show a relatively narrow range of δ13C and δ18O, varying from 2.7‰ to 5.2‰ with an average of 4.2‰, and -3.8‰ to -7.8‰ with an average of -5.4‰, respectively. In contrast, Samples from Changjianggou section exhibit larger magnitude of variation in δ13C and δ18O, ranging from -1‰ to 3.8‰ with an average of 1.5‰, and -2.1 to -9.2‰, with an average of -6.0‰ respectively; (ii δ13C and δ18O records in carbonates from Qiaoting section are similar to those of Middle Permian seawater whereas carbonates from the Changjianggou section are depleted in 13C and 18O compared to contemporary seawater; (iii On the basis of combined petrographic and paleo-heat flow evidence, the lower carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of the carbonates from the Changjianggou section are interpreted to be the results of thermal effects of Emeishan Basalt because of its proximity to the eruption center of the basalt. The high temperature reduced the δ18O values of the carbonates and forced the organic matter to mature at an early stage, thus producing 13C-enriched carbon dioxide to participate in the formation of carbonates.     Composición Isotópica de Oxígeno y Carbón en Rocas de Carbonato de la Formación de Edad Pérmica Qixia, en la Cuenca de Sichuan: Efectos Térmicos del Basalto Emeishan   Resumen Los eventos térmicos del Pérmico tardío relacionados con el Basalto Emeishan han tenido un gran impacto en las propiedades de las rocas de carbonato

  4. Stable carbon isotope signals in particulate organic and inorganic carbon of coccolithophores - A numerical model study for Emiliania huxleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Lena-Maria; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Thoms, Silke

    2017-05-07

    A recent numerical cell model, which explains observed light and carbonate system effects on particulate organic and inorganic carbon (POC and PIC) production rates under the assumption of internal pH homeostasis, is extended for stable carbon isotopes ( 12 C, 13 C). Aim of the present study is to mechanistically understand the stable carbon isotopic fractionation signal (ε) in POC and PIC and furthermore the vital effect(s) included in measured ε PIC values. The virtual cell is divided into four compartments, for each of which the 12 C as well as the 13 C carbonate system kinetics are implemented. The compartments are connected to each other via trans-membrane fluxes. In contrast to existing carbon fractionation models, the presented model calculates the disequilibrium state for both carbonate systems and for each compartment. It furthermore calculates POC and PIC production rates as well as ε POC and ε PIC as a function of given light conditions and the compositions of the external carbonate system. Measured POC and PIC production rates as well as ε PIC values are reproduced well by the model (comparison with literature data). The observed light effect on ε POC (increase of ε POC with increasing light intensities), however, is not reproduced by the basic model set-up, which is solely based on RubisCO fractionation. When extending the latter set-up by assuming that biological fractionation includes further carbon fractionation steps besides the one of RubisCO, the observed light effect on ε POC is also reproduced. By means of the extended model version, four different vital effects that superimpose each other in a real cell can be detected. Finally, we discuss potential limitations of the ε PIC proxy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Stratigraphy and stable isotope geochemistry of the carbonate sequence from the Paraguay belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Roberto Ventura.; Alvarenga, Carlos Jose Souza de; Dantas, Elton Luiz

    2001-01-01

    Two main Neoproterozoic carbonate sequences occur central Brazil both of which are stratiphicaly above glacial derived sediments. An older carbonate sequence occurs over the Sao Francisco Craton and in the surrounding folded belts (Rio Preto, Aracuai Ribeira and Brasilia). These carbonates overlie glacial diamictites that were related to the 'Sturtian' event dated between 0.7 and 0.9 Ga (Toulkeridis et al. 1999, Santos et al., 2000). A second carbonate sequence is described in the Paraguay Belt and postdated Vendian/Varegian glaciation sediments from the end of the Neoproterozoic. This glacial event has been reported in many studies concerning the Gondwana and the Laurentia supercontinent (Trompette, 1996; Condon and Prave, 2000; Myrow and Kaufman, 1999). In the Paraguay Belt the Vendian- Varangian glaciation rocks are characterized by a glaciomarine sequence, that occur at the border of the basin, and by glacial derived turbidites deposits, that occur in the deeper parts of the basin (Alvarenga and Trompette, 1992). Near the city of Corumba this glaciomarine sequence is overlaid by carbonate rocks containing Ediacaran-like fauna in which has been described Corumbella werneri and Cloudina Lucianoi (Hahn et al., 1982; Walde et al., 1982; Zaine and Fairchild, 1985; 1987). These carbonates have been interpreted as cap carbonates and the age of their fossils have been attributed to the Vendian Superior (590-545 MA) (Alvarenga and Trompette, 1992, Trompette 1996). Isotope stratigraphy studies have been widely used to study cap carbonate rocks that overlie Sturtian and Vendian- Varagian glaciogenic rocks. Stratigraphic correlation of these units is usually difficult because their lack fossils and there is no precise dating method that could be applied to these rocks. Hence, most studies concerning Neoproterozoic carbonates have concentrated on their stromatilites and microfossils content as well as on carbon isotope variations. In the present study, we present new carbon

  6. Stable carbon isotope fractionation during the biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoli; Xu, Zemin; Zhang, Xichang; Yang, Fangxing

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the microbial degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in soil was investigated using compound-specific stable isotope analysis. The results revealed that lambda-cyhalothrin was biodegraded in soil under laboratory conditions. The half-lives of lambda-cyhalothrin were determined to be 49 and 161 days in non-sterile and sterile soils spiked with 2mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin and 84 and 154 days in non-sterile and sterile soils spiked with 10mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively. The biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin resulted in carbon isotope fractionation, which shifted from -29.0‰ to -26.5‰ in soil spiked with 2mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin, and to -27.5‰ with 10mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin. A relationship was established between the stable carbon isotope fraction and the residual concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin by the Rayleigh equation in which the carbon isotope enrichment factor ε of the microbial degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in the soil was calculated as -2.53‰. This study provides an approach to quantitatively evaluate the biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in soil in field studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sm-Nd in marine carbonates and phosphates: implications for Nd isotopes in seawater and crustal ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, H.F.; Wasserburg, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    This study explores the possibility of establishing Nd isotopic variations in seawater over geologic time. Calcite, aragonite and apatite are examined as possible phases recording seawater values of epsilonsubNd. Modern, biogenic and inorganically precipitated calcite and aragonite from marine environments were found to have Nd concentrations of from 0.2 to 70 ppb, showing that primary marine CaCO 3 contains little REE and that Nd/Ca is not greatly enhanced relative to seawater during carbonate precipitation. Very young marine limestone and dolomite containing no continental detritus have approx. 200 ppb Nd. All the carbonates are LREE enriched. Modern and very young Atlantic and Pacific carbonates have epsilonsub(Nd) in the range of shallow Atlantic and Pacific seawater respectively, implying that they derive their REE from local seawater. The Nd in well preserved carbonate fossils is 4 ppb, much greater than in their modern counterparts but like the high values found for carbonates in other studies. Results are also reported for apatite. They suggest that sedimentary apatite can be used to determine epsilonsub(Nd)(T) in ancient seawater. The seawater values so inferred range between -1.7 and -8.9 over the last 700 my and lie in the range of modern seawater, showing no evidence for drastic changes. (U.K.)

  8. Regeneration of the iodine isotope-exchange efficiency for nuclear-grade activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitz, V.R.

    1985-01-01

    The removal of radioactive iodine from air flows passing through impregnated activated carbons depends on a minimum of three distinguishable reactions: (1) adsorption on the carbon networks of the activated carbons, (2) iodine isotope exchange with impregnated iodine-127, and (3) chemical combination with impregnated tertiary amines when present. When a carbon is new, all three mechanisms are at peak performance and it is not possible to distinguish among the three reactions by a single measurement; the retention of methyl iodide-127 is usually equal to the retention of methyl iodide-131. After the carbon is placed in service, the three mechanisms of iodine removal are degraded by the contaminants of the air at different rates; the adsorption process degrades faster than the other two. This behavior will be shown by comparisons of methyl iodide-127 and methyl iodide-131 penetration tests. It was found possible to regenerate the iodine isotope-exchange efficiency by reaction with airborne chemical reducing agents with little or no improvement in methyl iodine-127 retention. Examples will be given of the chemical regeneration of carbons after exhaustion with known contaminants as well as for many carbons removed from nuclear power operations. The depth profile of methyl iodide-131 penetration was determined in 2-inch deep layers before and after chemical treatments

  9. Soil organic carbon assessments in cropping systems using isotopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín De Dios Herrero, Juan; Cruz Colazo, Juan; Guzman, María Laura; Saenz, Claudio; Sager, Ricardo; Sakadevan, Karuppan

    2016-04-01

    Introduction of improved farming practices are important to address the challenges of agricultural production, food security, climate change and resource use efficiency. The integration of livestock with crops provides many benefits including: (1) resource conservation, (2) ecosystem services, (3) soil quality improvements, and (4) risk reduction through diversification of enterprises. Integrated crop livestock systems (ICLS) with the combination of no-tillage and pastures are useful practices to enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) compared with continuous cropping systems (CCS). In this study, the SOC and its fractions in two cropping systems namely (1) ICLS, and (2) CCS were evaluated in Southern Santa Fe Province in Argentina, and the use of delta carbon-13 technique and soil physical fractionation were evaluated to identify sources of SOC in these systems. Two farms inside the same soil cartographic unit and landscape position in the region were compared. The ICLS farm produces lucerne (Medicago sativa Merrill) and oat (Avena sativa L.) grazed by cattle alternatively with grain summer crops sequence of soybean (Glicine max L.) and corn (Zea mays L.), and the farm under continuous cropping system (CCS) produces soybean and corn in a continuous sequence. The soil in the area is predominantly a Typic Hapludoll. Soil samples from 0-5 and 0-20 cm depths (n=4) after the harvest of grain crops were collected in each system and analyzed for total organic carbon (SOC, 0-2000 μm), particulate organic carbon (POC, 50-100 μm) and mineral organic carbon (MOC, is probably due to the presence of deep roots under pastures in ICLS. Delta carbon-13 values for 0-5 cm were -22.9, -21.2 and -19.9 per mil for REF, ICLS and CCS, respectively (Pis explained by the presence of tree species with high lignin content in natural vegetation. Lignin has lower delta carbon-13 compared to cellulose (dominating in crops and pastures), which is present in greater proportion in plant residues of

  10. Carbon isotopic analysis of atmospheric methane by isotope-ratio-monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Dawn A.; Hayes, J. M.; Des Marais, David J.

    1995-01-01

    Less than 15 min are required for the determination of delta C(sub PDB)-13 with a precision of 0.2 ppt(1 sigma, single measurement) in 5-mL samples of air containing CH4 at natural levels (1.7 ppm). An analytical system including a sample-introduction unit incorporating a preparative gas chromatograph (GC) column for separation of CH4 from N2, O2, and Ar is described. The 15-min procedure includes time for operation of that system, high-resolution chromatographic separation of the CH4, on-line combustion and purification of the products, and isotopic calibration. Analyses of standards demonstrate that systematic errors are absent and that there is no dependence of observed values of delta on sample size. For samples containing 100 ppm or more CH4, preconcentration is not required and the analysis time is less than 5 min. The system utilizes a commercially available, high-sensitivity isotope-ratio mass spectrometer. For optimal conditions of smaple handling and combustion, performance of the system is within a factor of 2 of the shot-noise limit. The potential exists therefore for analysis of samples as small as 15 pmol CH4 with a standard deviation of less than 1 ppt.

  11. Carbon Isotopic Ratios of Amino Acids in Stardust-Returned Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned to Earth samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 in January 2006. Preliminary examinations revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds could not be identified. Here. we present the carbon isotopic ratios of glycine and E-aminocaproic acid (EACH), the two most abundant amino acids observed, in Stardust-returned foil samples measured by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio crass spectrometry coupled with quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QMS/IRMS).

  12. Carbon, cesium and iodine isotopes in Japanese cedar leaves from Iwaki, Fukushima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Sheng; Cook, Gordon T.; Cresswell, Alan J.

    2016-01-01

    Japanese cedar leaves from Iwaki, Fukushima were analyzed for carbon, cesium and iodine isotopic compositions before and after the 2011 nuclear accident. The Δ14C values reflect ambient atmospheric 14C concentrations during the year the leaves were sampled/defoliated, and also previous year......(s). The elevated 129I and 134,137Cs concentrations are attributed to direct exposure to the radioactive fallout for the pre-fallout-expended leaves and to internal translocation from older parts of the tree for post-fallout-expended leaves. 134Cs/137Cs and 129I/137Cs activity ratios suggest insignificant isotopic...

  13. Measurement of the isotopic composition of galactic cosmic ray carbon, nitrogen and oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedenbeck, M.E.; Greiner, D.E.; Bieser, F.S.; Crawford, H.J.; Heckman, H.H.; Lindstrom, P.J.

    1979-06-01

    The results of an investigation of the isotopic composition of galactic cosmic ray carbon, nitrogen and oxygen (E approx. 80 to 230 MeV/amu) made using the U.C. Berkeley HKH instrument aboard the ISEE-3 spacecraft are reported. The combination of high mass resolution and a large statistical sample makes possible a precise determination of the relative isotopic abundances for these elements. In local interplanetary space we find: 13 C/C = 0.067 +- 0.008, 15 N/N = 0.54 +- 0.03, 17 O/O 18 O/O = 0.019 +- 0.003

  14. Reconstruction of limnology and microbialite formation conditions from carbonate clumped isotope thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petryshyn, V A; Lim, D; Laval, B L; Brady, A; Slater, G; Tripati, A K

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative tools for deciphering the environment of microbialite formation are relatively limited. For example, the oxygen isotope carbonate-water geothermometer requires assumptions about the isotopic composition of the water of formation. We explored the utility of using 'clumped' isotope thermometry as a tool to study the temperatures of microbialite formation. We studied microbialites recovered from water depths of 10-55 m in Pavilion Lake, and 10-25 m in Kelly Lake, spanning the thermocline in both lakes. We determined the temperature of carbonate growth and the (18)O/(16)O ratio of the waters that microbialites grew in. Results were then compared to current limnological data from the lakes to reconstruct the history of microbialite formation. Modern microbialites collected at shallow depths (11.7 m) in both lakes yield clumped isotope-based temperatures of formation that are within error of summer water temperatures, suggesting that clumped isotope analyses may be used to reconstruct past climates and to probe the environments in which microbialites formed. The deepest microbialites (21.7-55 m) were recovered from below the present-day thermoclines in both lakes and yield radioisotope ages indicating they primarily formed earlier in the Holocene. During this time, pollen data and our reconstructed water (18)O/(16)O ratios indicate a period of aridity, with lower lake levels. At present, there is a close association between both photosynthetic and heterotrophic communities, and carbonate precipitation/microbialite formation, with biosignatures of photosynthetic influences on carbonate detected in microbialites from the photic zone and above the thermocline (i.e., depths of generally <20 m). Given the deeper microbialites are receiving <1% of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), it is likely these microbialites primarily formed when lower lake levels resulted in microbialites being located higher in the photic zone, in warm surface waters. © 2014 John

  15. Stable carbon isotope fractionation during the biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Xiaoli [MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Quzhou University, Quzhou 324000 (China); Xu, Zemin [MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhang, Xichang [Laboratory for Teaching in Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yang, Fangxing, E-mail: fxyang@zju.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Leipzig 04318 (Germany)

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the microbial degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in soil was investigated using compound-specific stable isotope analysis. The results revealed that lambda-cyhalothrin was biodegraded in soil under laboratory conditions. The half-lives of lambda-cyhalothrin were determined to be 49 and 161 days in non-sterile and sterile soils spiked with 2 mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin and 84 and 154 days in non-sterile and sterile soils spiked with 10 mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively. The biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin resulted in carbon isotope fractionation, which shifted from − 29.0‰ to − 26.5‰ in soil spiked with 2 mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin, and to − 27.5‰ with 10 mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin. A relationship was established between the stable carbon isotope fraction and the residual concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin by the Rayleigh equation in which the carbon isotope enrichment factor ε of the microbial degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in the soil was calculated as − 2.53‰. This study provides an approach to quantitatively evaluate the biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in soil in field studies. - Highlights: • Abiotic and biotic degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin were observed in soil. • Biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin was evaluated by CSIA. • Biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin leads to carbon isotope fractionation. • An enrichment factor ε of lambda-cyhalothrin was determined as − 2.53‰.

  16. Stable carbon isotope fractionation during the biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Xiaoli; Xu, Zemin; Zhang, Xichang; Yang, Fangxing

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the microbial degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in soil was investigated using compound-specific stable isotope analysis. The results revealed that lambda-cyhalothrin was biodegraded in soil under laboratory conditions. The half-lives of lambda-cyhalothrin were determined to be 49 and 161 days in non-sterile and sterile soils spiked with 2 mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin and 84 and 154 days in non-sterile and sterile soils spiked with 10 mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively. The biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin resulted in carbon isotope fractionation, which shifted from − 29.0‰ to − 26.5‰ in soil spiked with 2 mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin, and to − 27.5‰ with 10 mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin. A relationship was established between the stable carbon isotope fraction and the residual concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin by the Rayleigh equation in which the carbon isotope enrichment factor ε of the microbial degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in the soil was calculated as − 2.53‰. This study provides an approach to quantitatively evaluate the biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in soil in field studies. - Highlights: • Abiotic and biotic degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin were observed in soil. • Biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin was evaluated by CSIA. • Biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin leads to carbon isotope fractionation. • An enrichment factor ε of lambda-cyhalothrin was determined as − 2.53‰

  17. Sr isotopic evidence on the spilitic degradation of the Deccan basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbarao, K.V.

    2000-01-01

    Similar Sr isotopic ratios (∼0.7055) for the tholeiite-spilite flow unit and the associated mineral phases, of Bombay (Deccan Traps) provide a direct evidence for the spilitic degradation of tholeiite. In contrast, a dramatic increase in the rare earth elements (REE) from basalt to spilite is rather puzzling as rare earths are considered to be relatively immobile. The geochemistry thus suggests that the process of spilitization is due to the reaction with a complex fluid having identical Sr-isotopic composition as that of the basaltic magma-thereby masking the details of the mixing process. (author)

  18. Isotope hydrological evidence of geomorphological changes in North-Eastern Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertelendi, E.; Marton, L.; Miko, L.

    1991-01-01

    Stable isotope and radiocarbon data of groundwater stored in Quaternary aquifers in North-Eastern Hungary can not be explained by climatic changes alone. More than two hundred δD, δ 18 O and radiocarbon ages of waters from 79 wells show that the recharge are changed during the time of upper pleniglacial and late glacial. Groundwaters of the studied are can be divided into three categories, which can explain their origin. The data are consistent with geomorphological results giving isotope evidence of hydrology for a geodynamical event during the mentioned periods. (R.P.) 3 refs.; 2 figs

  19. Isotopic evidence bearing on Late Triassic extinction events, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, and implications for the duration and cause of the Triassic/Jurassic mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, P.D.; Garrison, G.H.; Haggart, J.W.; Kring, D.A.; Beattie, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Stable isotope analyses of Late Triassic to earliest Jurassic strata from Kennecott Point in the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada shows the presence of two distinct and different organic carbon isotope anomalies at the Norian/Rhaetian and Rhaetian/Hettangian (=Triassic/Jurassic) stage boundaries. At the older of these boundaries, which is marked by the disappearance of the bivalve Monotis, the isotope record shows a series of short-lived positive excursions toward heavier values. Strata approaching this boundary show evidence of increasing anoxia. At the higher boundary, marked by the disappearance of the last remaining Triassic ammonites and over 50 species of radiolarians, the isotopic pattern consists of a series of short duration negative anomalies. The two events, separated by the duration of the Rhaetian age, comprise the end-Triassic mass extinction. While there is no definitive evidence as to cause, the isotopic record does not appear similar to that of the impact-caused Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary extinction. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Effects of acid mine drainage on dissolved inorganic carbon and stable carbon isotopes in receiving streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonyuy, Ernest W.; Atekwana, Eliot A.

    2008-01-01

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) constitutes a significant fraction of a stream's carbon budget, yet the role of acid mine drainage (AMD) in DIC dynamics in receiving streams remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate spatial and temporal effects of AMD and its chemical evolution on DIC and stable isotope ratio of DIC (δ 13 C DIC ) in receiving streams. We examined spatial and seasonal variations in physical and chemical parameters, DIC, and δ 13 C DIC in a stream receiving AMD. In addition, we mixed different proportions of AMD and tap water in a laboratory experiment to investigate AMD dilution and variable bicarbonate concentrations to simulate downstream and seasonal hydrologic conditions in the stream. Field and laboratory samples showed variable pH, overall decreases in Fe 2+ , alkalinity, and DIC, and variable increase in δ 13 C DIC . We attribute the decrease in alkalinity, DIC loss, and enrichment of 13 C of DIC in stream water to protons produced from oxidation of Fe 2+ followed by Fe 3+ hydrolysis and precipitation of Fe(OH) 3(s) . The extent of DIC decrease and 13 C enrichment of DIC was related to the amount of HCO 3 - dehydrated by protons. The laboratory experiment showed that lower 13 C enrichment occurred in unmixed AMD (2.7 per mille ) when the amount of protons produced was in excess of HCO 3 - or in tap water (3.2 per mille ) where no protons were produced from Fe 3+ hydrolysis for HCO 3 - dehydration. The 13 C enrichment increased and was highest for AMD-tap water mixture (8.0 per mille ) where Fe 2+ was proportional to HCO 3 - concentration. Thus, the variable downstream and seasonal 13 C enrichment in stream water was due in part to: (1) variations in the volume of stream water initially mixed with AMD and (2) to HCO 3 - input from groundwater and seepage in the downstream direction. Protons produced during the chemical evolution of AMD caused seasonal losses of 50 to >98% of stream water DIC. This loss of DIC

  1. Carbon isotope fractionation in the mangrove Avicennia marina has implications for food web and blue carbon research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleway, Jeffrey J.; Mazumder, Debashish; Baldock, Jeffrey A.; Saintilan, Neil

    2018-05-01

    The ratio of stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) is commonly used to track the flow of energy among individuals and ecosystems, including in mangrove forests. Effective use of this technique requires understanding of the spatial variability in δ13C among primary producer(s) as well as quantification of the isotopic fractionations that occur as C moves within and among ecosystem components. In this experiment, we assessed δ13C variation in the cosmopolitan mangrove Avicennia marina across four sites of varying physico-chemical conditions across two estuaries. We also compared the isotopic values of five distinct tissue types (leaves, woody stems, cable roots, pneumatophores and fine roots) in individual plants. We found a significant site effect (F3, 36 = 15.78; P 3.0‰) means that it may now be possible to partition the individual contributions of various mangrove tissues to estuarine food webs. Similarly, the contributions of mangrove leaves, woody debris and belowground sources to blue carbon stocks might also be quantified. Above all, however, our results emphasize the importance of considering appropriate mangrove tissue types when using δ13C to trace carbon cycling in estuarine systems.

  2. Geochemistry of carbon stable isotopes in the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplessy, Jean-Claude

    1972-01-01

    This paper describes geochemical process which affect the distribution in the sea of the 13 C/ 12 C ratio of total inorganic dissolved CO 2 ; synthesis of the biomass and respiratory phenomena; oxidation of organic matter; dissolution of carbonates; run off waters; exchange of CO 2 between sea and atmosphere. Some applications to the paleoclimatology are presented. (author) [fr

  3. Stable isotopes of pedogenic carbonates from the Somma-Vesuvius area, southern Italy, over the past 18 kyr: palaeoclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchetta, G.; di Vito, M.; Fallick, A. E.; Sulpizio, R.

    2000-12-01

    Stable isotopes were measured in the carbonate and organic matter of palaeosols in the Somma-Vesuvius area, southern Italy in order to test whether they are suitable proxy records for climatic and ecological changes in this area during the past 18000 yr. The ages of the soils span from ca. 18 to ca. 3 kyr BP. Surprisingly, the Last Glacial to Holocene climate transition was not accompanied by significant change in 18O of pedogenic carbonate. This could be explained by changes in evaporation rate and in isotope fractionation between water and precipitated carbonate with temperature, which counterbalanced the expected change in isotope composition of meteoric water. Because of the rise in temperature and humidity and the progressive increase in tree cover during the Holocene, the Holocene soil carbonates closely reflect the isotopic composition of meteoric water. A cooling of about 2°C after the Avellino eruption (3.8 ka) accounts for a sudden decrease of about 1 in 18O of pedogenic carbonate recorded after this eruption. The 13C values of organic matter and pedogenic carbonate covary, indicating an effective isotope equilibrium between the organic matter, as the source of CO2, and the pedogenic carbonate. Carbon isotopes suggest prevailing C3 vegetation and negligible mixing with volcanogenic or atmospheric CO2.

  4. Carbon isotope ratios of great plains soils and in wheat-fallow systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follett, R.F.; Paul, E.A.; Leavitt, S.W.; Halvorson, A.D.; Lyon, D.; Peterson, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to improve knowledge of regional vegetation patterns of C3 and C4 plants in the North American Great Plains and to use delta 13C methodology and long-term research sites to determine contributions of small-grain crops to total soil organic carbon (SOC) now present. Archived and recent soil samples were used. Detailed soil sampling was in 1993 at long-term sites near Akron, CO, and Sidney, NE. After soil sieving, drying, and deliming, SOC and delta 13C were determined using an automated C/N analyzer interfaced to an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer. Yield records from long-term experimental sites were used to estimate the amount of C3 plant residue C returned to the soil. Results from delta 13C analyses of soils from near Waldheim, Saskatchewan, to Big Springs, TX, showed a strong north to south decrease in SOC derived from C3 plants and a corresponding increase from C4 plants. The delta 13C analyses gave evidence that C3 plant residue C (possibly from shrubs) is increasing at the Big Springs, TX, and Lawton, OK, sites. Also, delta 13C analyses of subsoil and topsoil layers shows evidence of a regional shift to more C3 species, possibly because of a cooler climate during the past few hundreds to thousands of years. Data from long-term research sites indicate that the efficiency of incorporation of small-grain crop residue C was about 5.4% during 84 yr at Akron, CO, and about 10.5% during 20 yr at Sidney, NE. The 14C age of the SOC at 0- to 10-cm depth was 193 yr and at 30 to 45 cm was 4000 yr; 14C age of nonhydrolyzable C was 2000 and 7000 yr for these same two respective depths. Natural partitioning of the 13C isotope by the photosynthetic pathways of C3 and C4 plants provides a potentially powerful tool to study SOC dynamics at both regional and local scales

  5. Distinguishing ectomycorrhizal and saprophytic fungi using carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Hou

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ectomycorrhizal fungi, a group of widespread symbiotic fungi with plant, obtain carbon source from trees and improve plant mineral nutrient uptake with their widespread hyphal network. Ectomycorrhizal fungi can be used as inoculants to improve the survival rates of plantation. Saprophytic fungi use the nutrition from the debris of plant or animals, and it is difficult to distinguish the saprophytic and ectomycorrhizal fungi by morphological and anatomic methods. In this research, the differences of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of these fungi were analyzed. The results showed that the abundances of 13C of were higher than those of ectomycorrhizal fungi and the abundances of 15N of saprophytic fungi were lower than those of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Such differences of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions between ectomycorrhizal fungi and saprophytic fungi can be ascribed to their different nutrition sources and ecological functions. These results collectively indicate that stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions are an effective proxy for distinguishing between ectomycorrhizal and saprophytic fungi.

  6. Carbon isotope geochemistry of the Cretaceous-Tertiary section of the Wasserfallgraben, Lattengebirge, southeast Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arneth, J.D.; Matzigkeit, U.; Boos, A.

    1985-01-01

    Carbonates and organic matter in sediments of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (C/T) section of the Wasserfallgraben, Lattengebirge (Bavaria) have been investigated. All parameters - the carbonate content (Csub(carb)), its isotopic composition (delta 13 Csub(carb),delta 18 Osub(carb)) as well as the organic carbon content (Csub(org)), its isotopic composition (delta 13 Csub(org)) and the H/C ratio of the sedimentary organic matter - display systematic variations across the C/T boundary which cannot be attributed to a single cause. The boundary zone as a whole is tectonically disturbed and shows significant features of detrital contaminations. Unidirectional shift in delta 13 Csub(carb) and delta 13 Csub(org) are observed when directly comparing Maastrichtian (latest Cretaceous) and Danian (earliest Tertiary) sediments. These synchronous isotope displacements towards more negative readings are interpreted to reflect the reduced photosynthetic activity as consequence of the mass extinction at the C/T boundary. The results may have some bearings on other C/T profiles investigated where measurements on the reduced carbon species are still lacking. (orig.)

  7. On the relations between the oceanic uptake of CO2 and its carbon isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimann, M.; Maier-Reimer, E.

    1994-01-01

    The recent proposals to estimate the oceanic uptake of CO 2 by monitoring the oceanic change in 13 C/ 12 C isotope ratio or the air-sea 13 C/ 12 C isotopic disequilibrium is reviewed. Because the history of atmospheric CO 2 and 13 CO 2 since preindustrial times is almost the same, the oceanic penetration depth of both tracers must be the same. This dynamic constraint permits the establishment of yet a third method to estimate the global ocean uptake of CO 2 from 13 C measurements. Using available observations in conjunction with canonical values for the global carbon cycle parameters the three methods yield inconsistent oceanic CO 2 uptake rates for the time period 1970-1990, ranging from 0 to over 3 GtC year -1 . However, uncertainties in the available carbon cycle data must be taken into account. Using a non-linear estimation procedure, a consistent scenario with an oceanic CO 2 uptake rate of 2.2±0.8 GtC year -1 can be established. The method also permits an investigation of the sensitivities of the different approaches. An analysis of the results of two three-dimensional simulations with the Hamburg Model of the Oceanic Carbon Cycle shows that the 13 C isotope indeed tracks the oceanic penetration of anthropogenic CO 2 . Because of its different time history, bomb produced radiocarbon, as measured at the time of GEOSECS, correlates much less well to excess carbon. (orig.)

  8. Agricultural technologies and carbon emissions: evidence from Jordanian economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismael, Mohanad; Srouji, Fathi; Boutabba, Mohamed Amine

    2018-04-01

    Theoretically, agriculture can be the victim and the cause of climate change. Using annual data for the period of 1970-2014, this study examines the interaction between agriculture technology factors and the environment in terms of carbon emissions in Jordan. The results provide evidence for unidirectional causality running from machinery, subsidies, and other transfers, rural access to an improved water source and fertilizers to carbon emissions. The results also reveal the existence of bidirectional causality between the real income and carbon emissions. The variance error decompositions highlight the importance of subsidies and machinery in explaining carbon emissions. They also show that fertilizers, the crop and livestock production, the land under cereal production, the water access, the agricultural value added, and the real income have an increasing effect on carbon emissions over the forecast period. These results are important so that policy-makers can build up strategies and take in considerations the indicators in order to reduce carbon emissions in Jordan.

  9. Variation of uranium isotopes in some carbonate aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowart, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    The 234 U/ 238 U alpha activity ratio (AR) and uranium concentrations are reported for 83 springs that issue from carbonate aquifers in Florida, Texas, Nevada-California, and Israel. Data for each aquifer fall within more or less mutually exclusive fields. In general, the spring in a humid climate have AR's approaching secular equilibrium, whereas those in more arid climates have AR's differing greatly from equilibrium

  10. Spontaneous oxygen isotope exchange between carbon dioxide and\

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knížek, Antonín; Zukalová, Markéta; Kavan, Ladislav; Zukal, Arnošt; Kubelík, Petr; Rojík, P.; Skřehot, P.; Ferus, Martin; Civiš, Svatopluk

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 137, MAR 2017 (2017), s. 6-10 ISSN 0169-1317 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD14115; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12010S; GA ČR GA13-07724S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015073 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : clay * carbon dioxide * FTIR spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 3.101, year: 2016

  11. Rapid-swept CW cavity ring-down laser spectroscopy for carbon isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Hideki; Watanabe, Kenichi; Takiguchi, Yu; Kawarabayashi, Jun; Iguchi, Tetsuo

    2006-01-01

    With the aim of developing a portable system for an in field isotope analysis, we investigate an isotope analysis based on rapid-swept CW cavity ring-down laser spectroscopy, in which the concentration of a chemical species is derived from its photo absorbance. Such a system can identify the isotopomer and still be constructed as a quite compact system. We have made some basic experimental measurements of the overtone absorption lines of carbon dioxide ( 12 C 16 O 2 , 13 C 16 O 2 ) by rapid-swept cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a CW infrared diode laser at 6,200 cm -1 (1.6 μm). The isotopic ratio has been obtained as (1.07±0.13)x10 -2 , in good agreement with the natural abundance within experimental uncertainty. The detection sensitivity in absorbance has been estimated to be 3x10 -8 cm -1 . (author)

  12. Isotopic and Chemical Evidence for Primitive Aqueous Alteration in the Tagish Lake Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Keisuke; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Yoneda, Shigekazu

    2018-01-01

    Aqueous alteration is one of the primitive activities that occurred on meteorite parent bodies in the early solar system. The Tagish Lake meteorite is known to show an intense parent body aqueous alteration signature. In this study, quantitative analyses of the alkaline elements and isotopic analyses of Sr and Ba from acid leachates of TL (C2-ungrouped) were performed to investigate effects of aqueous alteration. The main purpose of this study is to search for isotopic evidence of extinct 135Cs from the Ba isotopic analyses in the chemical separates from the Tagish Lake meteorite. Barium isotopic data from the leachates show variable 135Ba isotopic anomalies (ε = ‑2.6 ∼ +3.6) which correlatewith 137Ba and 138Ba suggesting a heterogeneous distribution of s- and r-rich nucleosynthetic components in the early solar system. The 87Rb–87Sr and 135Cs–135Ba decay systems on TL in this study do not provide any chronological information. The disturbance of the TL chronometers is likely a reflection of the selective dissolution of Cs and Rb given the relatively higher mobility of Cs and Rb compared to Ba and Sr, respectively, during fluid mineral interactions.

  13. The carbon stable isotope biogeochemistry of streams, Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, W.B.; Leslie, D.L.; Harmon, R.S.; Neumann, K.; Welch, K.A.; Bisson, K.M.; McKnight, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► δ 13 C-DIC reported from McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, streams. ► Stream water δ 13 C PDB values range −9.4‰ to +5.1‰, largely inorganic in character. ► Atmospheric exchange is the dominant control on δ 13 C-DIC. - Abstract: The McMurdo Dry Valleys region of Antarctica is the largest ice-free region on the continent. This study reports the first C stable isotope measurements for dissolved inorganic C present in ephemeral streams in four dry valleys that flow for four to twelve weeks during the austral summer. One of these valleys, Taylor Valley, has been the focus of the McMurdo Dry Valleys Long-Term Ecological Research (MCM-LTER) program since 1993. Within Taylor Valley, numerous ephemeral streams deliver water to three perennially ice-covered, closed-basin lakes: Lake Fryxell, Lake Hoare, and Lake Bonney. The Onyx River in the Wright Valley, the longest river in Antarctica, flows for 40 km from the Wright Lower Glacier and Lake Brownworth at the foot of the glacier to Lake Vanda. Streamflow in the McMurdo Dry Valley streams is produced primarily from glacial melt, as there is no overland flow. However, hyporheic zone exchange can be a major hydrogeochemical process in these streams. Depending on landscape position, these streams vary in gradient, channel substrate, biomass abundance, and hyporheic zone extent. This study sampled streams from Taylor, Wright, Garwood, and Miers Valleys and conducted diurnal sampling of two streams of different character in Taylor Valley. In addition, transect sampling was undertaken of the Onyx River in Wright Valley. The δ 13 C PDB values from these streams span a range of greater than 14‰, from −9.4‰ to +5.1‰, with the majority of samples falling between −3‰ and +2‰, suggesting that the C stable isotope composition of dissolved C in McMurdo Dry Valley streams is largely inorganic in character. Because there are no vascular plants on this landscape and no groundwater input to these

  14. Isotopic determinations of carbon and oxygen in the metasedimentary rocks of the Rio Pardo group-Bahia State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Pinto, N.M.A.C.

    1977-01-01

    Determination of the carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions were made on approximately 100 samples of Late Precambrian metasedimentary rocks of the Rio Pardo Group from Southern Bahia. The results obtained show that carbon varies from δ 13 =C=5,73 per mille to δ 13 C=+9,00 per mille, and oxygen from δ 18 O=-1,87 per mille to δ 18 O=-19,67 per mille relative to PBD. The interpretations lead to some conclusions which confirm the validity the isotopic technique as auxiliary instrument in the study of geological problems. These include: 1) the evidence of a marine transgression during the Camaca sedimentation; 2) the probability that the dolomitic metalimestones of the Agua Preta formation belong to the Serra do Paraiso formation; 3) the assignment of the dolomitic metalismestones, which occur in Itiroro and which had been previously grouped with the crystalline basement rocks, to the Serra do Paraiso formation; 4) the removal of the marble from Serra do Paraiso formation and re-signment to the basement rocks, and finally; 5) the sedimentary evolution of the Rio Pardo Group from a typical fresh-water to a marine environment. (Author) [pt

  15. Isotopic evidence for hydrothermal discharge into anoxic seawater, Sudbury basin, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, R.E.S.; Davies, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Errington and Vermilion sedex Zn-Cu-Pb deposits occur within hydrothermal carbonate and chert that form part of a carbonaceous slate unit, the contact unit, at the base of the Onwatin formation. Within the underlying Onaping formation sulphur and organic carbon increase upward but maintain S/C org ratios near 0.36, indicative of diagenetic sulphide formed by biogenic sulphate reduction, a process that also accounts for 13 C-depleted carbonates in these rocks. δ 34 S-values in pyrite are close to + 7 0/00 throughout the Onaping but decrease abruptly to +3 0/00 in the contact unit; this decrease coincides with the first appearance of S/C org >> 0.36. Both the decrease in δ 34 S and increase in S/C org ratios result from venting of hydrothermal sulphur into the water column. Fluid-inclusion homogenization temperatures average 170 deg C at the proposed vent site and 125 deg C in the distal contact unit sediment. The isotopic compositions of water, calculated using these temperatures and the isotopic compositions of carbonates, are - 1 0/00 for the sedex deposits at the vent site and - 3 0/00 in the distal sediments. (author). 56 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  16. Effects of diagenesis on strontium, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen concentration and isotopic composition of bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bruce K.; Deniro, Michael J.; Schoeninger, Margaret J.; De Paolo, Donald J.; Hare, P. E.

    1986-09-01

    Paleodietary analysis based on variations in the trace element and stable isotopic composition of inorganic and organic phases in fossil bone depends on the assumption that measured values reflect in vivo values. To test for postmortem alteration, we measured 87Sr /86Sr , 13C /12C , 18O /16O and 15N /14N ratios and Sr concentrations in modern and prehistoric (610 to 5470 yr old) bones of animals with marine or terrestrial diets from Greenland. Bones from modern terrestrial feeders have substantially lower Sr concentrations and more radiogenic 87Sr /86Sr ratios than those from modern marine feeders. This contrast was not preserved in the prehistoric samples, which showed almost complete overlap for both Sr concentration and isotopic composition in bones from the two types of animals. Leaching experiments, X-ray diffraction analysis and infrared spectroscopy indicate that alteration of the Sr concentration and isotopic composition in prehistoric bone probably results from nearly complete exchange with groundwater. Oxygen isotope ratios in fossil apatite carbonate also failed to preserve the original discrimination between modern terrestrial and marine feeders. The C isotope ratio of apatite carbonate did not discriminate between animals with marine or terrestrial diets in the modern samples. Even so, the ranges of apatite δ 13C values in prehistoric bone are more scattered than in modern samples for both groups, suggesting alteration had occurred. δ 13C and δ 15N values of collagen in modern bone are distinctly different for the two feeding types, and this distinction is preserved in most of the prehistoric samples. Our results suggest that postmortem alteration of dietary tracers in the inorganic phases of bone may be a problem at all archaeological sites and must be evaluated in each case. While collagen analyzed in this study was resistant to alteration, evaluation of the possibility of diagenetic alteration of its isotopic composition in bones from other

  17. Carbonate stable isotope constraints on sources of arsenic contamination in Neogene tufas and travertines of Attica, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampouroglou, Evdokia E.; Tsikos, Harilaos; Economou-Eliopoulos, Maria

    2017-11-01

    We presented new C and O isotope data of rockforming calcite in terrestrial carbonate deposits from Neogene basins of Attica (Greece), coupled with standard mineralogical and bulk geochemical results. Whereas both isotope datasets [δ18O from -8.99 to -3.20‰(VPDB); δ13C from -8.17 to +1.40‰(VPDB)] could be interpreted in principle as indicative of a meteoric origin, the clear lack of a statistical correlation between them suggests diverse sources for the isotopic variation of the two elements. On the basis of broad correlations between lower carbon isotope data with increasing Fe and bulk organic carbon, we interpreted the light carbon isotope signatures and As enrichments as both derived mainly from a depositional process involving increased supply of metals and organic carbon to the original basins. Periodically augmented biological production and aerobic cycling of organic matter in the ambient lake waters, would have led to the precipitation of isotopically light calcite in concert with elevated fluxes of As-bearing iron oxy-hydroxide and organic matter to the initial terrestrial carbonate sediment. The terrestrial carbonate deposits of Attica therefore represented effective secondary storage reservoirs of elevated As from the adjacent mineralized hinterland; hence these and similar deposits in the region ought to be regarded as key geological candidates for anomalous supply of As to local soils, groundwater and related human activities.

  18. Using a laser-based CO2 carbon isotope analyser to investigate gas transfer in geological media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillon, S.; Pili, E.; Agrinier, P.

    2012-01-01

    CO 2 stable carbon isotopes are very attractive in environmental research to investigate both natural and anthropogenic carbon sources. Laser-based CO 2 carbon isotope analysis provides continuous measurement at high temporal resolution and is a promising alternative to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). We performed a thorough assessment of a commercially available CO 2 Carbon Isotope Analyser (CCIA DLT-100, Los Gatos Research) that allows in situ measurement of C-13 in CO 2 . Using a set of reference gases of known CO 2 concentration and carbon isotopic composition, we evaluated the precision, long-term stability, temperature sensitivity and concentration dependence of the analyser. Despite good precision calculated from Allan variance (5.0 ppm for CO 2 concentration, and 0.05 per thousand for δC-13 at 60 s averaging), real performances are altered by two main sources of error: temperature sensitivity and dependence of C-13 on CO 2 concentration. Data processing is required to correct for these errors. Following application of these corrections, we achieve an accuracy of 8.7 ppm for CO 2 concentration and 1.3 per thousand for δC-13, which is worse compared to mass spectrometry performance, but still allowing field applications. With this portable analyser we measured CO 2 flux degassed from rock in an underground tunnel. The obtained carbon isotopic composition agrees with IRMS measurement, and can be used to identify the carbon source. (authors)

  19. Analytical Method for Carbon and Oxygen Isotope of Small Carbonate Samples with the GasBench Ⅱ-IRMS Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG Cui-cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical method for measuring carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of trace amount carbonate (>15 μg was established by Delta V Advantage isotope Ratio MS coupled with GasBench Ⅱ. Different trace amount (5-50 μg carbonate standard samples (IAEA-CO-1 were measured by GasBench Ⅱ with 12 mL and 3.7 mL vials. When the weight of samples was less than 40 μg and it was acidified in 12 mL vials, most standard deviations of the δ13C and δ18O were more than 0.1‰, which couldn’t satisfied high-precision measurements. When the weight of samples was greater than 15 μg and it was acidified in 3.7 mL vials, standard deviations for the δ13C and δ18O were 0.01‰-0.07‰ and 0.01‰-0.08‰ respectively, which satisfied high-precision measurements. Therefore, small 3.7 mL vials were used to increase the concentration of carbon dioxide in headspace, carbonate samples even less as 15 μg can be analyzed routinely by a GasBench Ⅱ continuous-flow IRMS. Meanwhile, the linear relationship between sample’s weight and peak’s area was strong (R2>0.993 2 and it can be used to determine the carbon content of carbonate samples.

  20. Carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of coal and carbon dioxide derived from laboratory coal combustion: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Ruppert, Leslie F.

    2016-01-01

    The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere has dramatically increased from the start of the industrial revolution in the mid-1700s to present levels exceeding 400 ppm. Carbon dioxide derived from fossil fuel combustion is a greenhouse gas and a major contributor to on-going climate change. Carbon and oxygen stable isotope geochemistry is a useful tool to help model and predict the contributions of anthropogenic sources of CO2 in the global carbon cycle. Surprisingly few studies have addressed the carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of CO2 derived from coal combustion. The goal of this study is to document the relationships between the carbon and oxygen isotope signatures of coal and signatures of the CO2 produced from laboratory coal combustion in atmospheric conditions.Six coal samples were selected that represent various geologic ages (Carboniferous to Tertiary) and coal ranks (lignite to bituminous). Duplicate splits of the six coal samples were ignited and partially combusted in the laboratory at atmospheric conditions. The resulting coal-combustion gases were collected and the molecular composition of the collected gases and isotopic analyses of δ13C of CO2, δ13C of CH4, and δ18O of CO2 were analysed by a commercial laboratory. Splits (~ 1 g) of the un-combusted dried ground coal samples were analyzed for δ13C and δ18O by the U.S. Geological Survey Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory.The major findings of this preliminary work indicate that the isotopic signatures of δ13C (relative to the Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite scale, VPDB) of CO2 resulting from coal combustion are similar to the δ13CVPDB signature of the bulk coal (− 28.46 to − 23.86 ‰) and are not similar to atmospheric δ13CVPDB of CO2 (~ − 8 ‰, see http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/outreach/isotopes/c13tellsus.html). The δ18O values of bulk coal are strongly correlated to the coal dry ash yields and appear to have little or no influence on the δ18O values of CO2

  1. A STUDY ON CARBON ISOTOPE OF CO2 AND CH4 IN WESTERN DIENG PLATEU BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY- ISOTOPE RATIO MASS SPECTROMETER (GC-IRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanik Humaida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The carbon isotope can be used to evaluate volcanism phenomenon of volcano. The study of carbon isotope of CO2 and CH4 was carried out in western Dieng Plateau by mass-spectrometer. Before analysis, sampel was separated by gas chromatography using a Porapak-Q column and a FID (Flame Ionization Detector detector. The gas was oxidized by copper oxide at 850oC before being ionized in mass-spectrometer for isotope analysis. The CO2 content in Candradimuka crater (-4.10 O/OO, indicated that the gas may be as volcanic gas. The other CO2 from Sumber and western Gua Jimat, had isotope value  of -10.05 and -12.07 O/OO, respectively, indicating contamination from crustal and subduction material. The carbon isotope of CH4 gas from Pancasan village was -63.42 O/OO, that may be categorized as biogenic gas.   Keywords: isotope, CO2, CH4, Dieng.

  2. Hydrogen and carbon isotopes of petroleum and related organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.W.; Epstein, S.

    1981-01-01

    D/H and 13 C/ 12 C ratios were measured for 114 petroleum samples and for several samples of related organic matter. DeltaD of crude oil ranges from -85 to -181 per thousand except for one distillate (-250 per thousand) from the Kenai gas field; delta 13 C of crude oil ranges from -23.3 to -32.5 per thousand. Variation in deltaD and delta 13 C values of compound-grouped fractions of a crude oil is small, 3 and 1.1 per thousand, respectively, and the difference in deltaD and delta 13 C between oil and coeval wax is slight. Gas fractions are 53 to 70 and 22.6 to 23.2 per thousand depleted in D and 13 C, respectively, relative to the coexisting oil fractions. The deltaD and delta 13 C values of the crude oils appear to be largely determined by the isotopic compositions of their organic precursors. The contribution of terrestrial organic debris to the organic precursors of most marine crude oils may be significant. (author)

  3. Biomarkers, carbon isotopic composition and source rock potentials of Awgu coals, middle Benue trough, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedosu, Taofik A.; Sonibare, Oluwadayo O.; Tuo, Jincai; Ekundayo, Olusegun

    2012-05-01

    Coal and carbonaceous shale samples were collected from two boreholes (BH 94 and BH 120) in Awgu formation of Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria. Source rock potentials of the samples were studied using biomarkers and carbon isotopic composition. Biomarkers in the aliphatic fractions in the samples were studied using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The Carbon isotope analysis of individual n-alkanes in the aliphatic fraction was performed using Gas Chromatography-Combustion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (GC-IRMS). The abundance of hopanes, homohopanes (C31-C35), and C29 steranes in the samples indicate terrestrial plant, phytoplankton and cyanobacteria contributions to the organic matter that formed the coal. High (Pr/Ph) ratio (3.04-11.07) and isotopic distribution of individual alkanes showed that the samples consisted of mixed terrestrial/marine organic matter deposited under oxic condition in lacustrine-fluvial/deltaic depositional environment. The maturity parameters derived from biomarker distributions showed that the samples are in the main phase of oil window.

  4. Organic carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in the intertidal sediments from the Yangtze Estuary, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, M. . E-mail mliu@geo.ecnu.edu.cn; Hou, L.J.; Xu, S.Y.; Ou, D.N.; Yang, Y.; Yu, J.; Wang, Q.

    2006-01-01

    The natural isotopic compositions and C/N elemental ratios of sedimentary organic matter were determined in the intertidal flat of the Yangtze Estuary. The results showed that the ratios of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes were respectively -29.8 per mille to - 26.0 per mille and 1.6 per mille -5.5 per mille in the flood season (July), while they were -27.3 per mille to - 25.6 per mille and 1.7 per mille -7.8 per mille in the dry season (February), respectively. The δ 13 C signatures were remarkably higher in July than in February, and gradually increased from the freshwater areas to the brackish areas. In contrast, there were relatively complex seasonal and spatial changes in stable nitrogen isotopes. It was also reflected that δ 15 N and C/N compositions had been obviously modified by organic matter diagenesis and biological processing, and could not be used to trace the sources of organic matter at the study area. In addition, it was considered that the mixing inputs of terrigenous and marine materials generally dominated sedimentary organic matter in the intertidal flat. The contribution of terrigenous inputs to sedimentary organic matter was roughly estimated according to the mixing balance model of stable carbon isotopes

  5. Diagenetic evolution and stable isotopes of Lower Permian platform marginal carbonates (Trogkofel Limestone, Carnic Alps, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Maria; Krainer, Karl; Sanders, Diethard Gerald; Spötl, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    and filling of fractures. Closely below the erosional surface at the top of the Trogkofel Limestone, the dolomite is characterized by vuggy porosity. The Tarvis Breccia, which represents coarse alluvial fan deposits, in turn, is thick-bedded, poorly sorted, typically clast-supported, and consists of angular lithoclasts embedded in a matrix of former lime mudstone. Both, matrix as well as lithoclasts, are dolomitized. Various types of cement (isopachous, botryoidal, microbialite, calcite spar), karstic cavity fills (isopachous cements, internal sediments), and replacement dolomites of the Trogkofel section, as well as of the Tarvis Breccia were analysed for their stable isotopic composition. δ18O and δ13C data produced so far allow to differentiate between replacement dolomites and saddle dolomite of the Trogkofel Limestone and the Tarvis Breccia. Saddle dolomite shows the most depleted oxygen isotope values, suggesting formation during relatively high temperatures. Carbon isotope values are invariably positive in all dolomite types indicating lacking influence of organic diagenesis on the alkalinity of the deep-burial pore water. Matrix dolomite from the Tarvis Breccia shows slightly positive δ18O values. Calcite cements show a wide range in δ18O values (ca. -1 to -7 permil VPDB), which overlaps the composition of unaltered brachiopod shells (ca. -3 permil VPDB). Oxygen isotope values of calcite cements reveal a trend towards depleted δ18O values. This trend is reflecting most likely increasing temperature.

  6. Diagenetic fractionation of carbon isotopes in particulate and dissolved organic matter in sediments from Skan Bay, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alperin, M.J.; Reeburgh, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Isotope fractionation during organic matter diagenesis was investigated by measuring detailed depth distributions of stable carbon isotope ratios in sediment particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reservoirs. The δ 13 C value of the POC shifted systematically from -19 per-thousand at the surface to -21 per-thousand at 10 cm. Significant trends were also apparent in the δ 13 C-DOC profile. Proceeding down-core, DOC became isotopically heavier between 0 and 5 cm and isotopically lighter at greater depths. Two mechanisms could account for the observed down-core shift in δ 13 C-POC: (a) temporal changes in the isotope ratios of deposited organic matter and (b) isotope fractionation associated with diagenesis. The δ 15 C-DOC depth distribution is sensitive to which mechanism controls the isotopic composition of the POC reservoir. A diagenetic model that couples POC and DOC reservoirs was used to discriminate between temporal changes and diagenetic alteration of the POC isotopic composition. The model indicated that observed trends in δ 13 C-POC and δ 13 C-DOC depth distributions are consistent with isotopic fractionation of POC during diagenesis

  7. A free-air system for long-term stable carbon isotope labeling of adult forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable carbon (C) isotopes, in particular employed in labeling experiments, are an ideal tool to broaden our understanding of C dynamics in trees and forest ecosystems. Here, we present a free-air exposure system, named isoFACE, designed for long-term stable C isotope labeling in...

  8. USE OF GC-MS/COMBUSTION/IRMS TO IDENTIFY AND DETERMINE THE STABLE CARBON ISOTOPIC RATIO OF INDIVIDUAL LIPIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A system that couples a gas chromatograph (GC) via a split to a quadrapole mass spectrometer (MS) and, through a combustion interface, to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) allows the simultaneous detection of electron impact mass spectra and stable carbon isotope ratio an...

  9. Upper Campanian–Maastrichtian nannofossil biostratigraphy and high-resolution carbon-isotope stratigraphy of the Danish Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Harlou, Rikke; Schovsbo, Niels

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution carbon isotope stratigraphy of the upper Campanian – Maastrichtian is recorded in the Boreal Realm from a total of 1968 bulk chalk samples of the Stevns-1 core, eastern Denmark. Isotopic trends are calibrated by calcareous nannofossil bio-events and are correlated with a lower...

  10. Variation of carbon isotope fractionation in hydrogenotrophic methanogenic microbial cultures and environmental samples at different energy status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning, H.; Plugge, C.M.; Galand, P.E.; Conrad, R.

    2005-01-01

    Methane is a major product of anaerobic degradation of organic matter and an important greenhouse gas. Its stable carbon isotope composition can be used to reveal active methanogenic pathways, if associated isotope fractionation factors are known. To clarify the causes that lead to the wide

  11. Carbon isotope ratios of organic matter in Bering Sea settling particles. Extremely high remineralization of organic carbon derived from diatoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Saki; Akagi, Tasuku; Naraoka, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Fumio; Takahashi, Kozo

    2016-01-01

    The carbon isotope ratios of organic carbon in settling particles collected in the highly-diatom-productive Bering Sea were determined. Wet decomposition was employed to oxidize relatively fresh organic matter. The amount of unoxidised organic carbon in the residue following wet decomposition was negligible. The δ 13 C of organic carbon in the settling particles showed a clear relationship against SiO 2 /CaCO 3 ratio of settling particles: approximately -26‰ and -19‰ at lower and higher SiO 2 /CaCO 3 ratios, respectively. The δ 13 C values were largely interpreted in terms of mixing of two major plankton sources. Both δ 13 C and compositional data can be explained consistently only by assuming that more than 98% of diatomaceous organic matter decays and that organic matter derived from carbonate-shelled plankton may remain much less remineralized. A greater amount of diatom-derived organic matter is discovered to be trapped with the increase of SiO 2 /CaCO 3 ratio of the settling particles. The ratio of organic carbon to inorganic carbon, known as the rain ratio, therefore, tends to increase proportionally with the SiO 2 /CaCO 3 ratio under an extremely diatom-productive condition. (author)

  12. Multiscale Organization and Isotopic Composition of Carbons in Acapulco and Lodran as Fingerprints of Their Parent Body Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon, E.; Aléon, J.; Rouzaud, J. N.

    2012-09-01

    New structural and isotopic data recorded on carbon components of Acapulco and Lodran meteorites allow to propose a scenario of their parent body thermal story, with an impact induced introduction of CI-CM like IOM.

  13. The features of the isotope composition of carbon in the Paleozoic and Mesozoic oils of Western Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golyshev, S.I.; Lebedena, L.V.

    1984-01-01

    The isotope composition of the carbon in the oils from the Mesozoic and Paleozoic deposits is measured. The variations in the isotope composition of carbon for the Paleozoic oils is between 27.5 and 30.8 percent, while for the oils from the lower Jurassic and Triassic levels it is between 27.7 and 31.2 percent and for the upper Jurassic oils it is between 30.1 and 34.5 percent. The dependence of the isotope composition of the carbon in the oils on the type of original organic matter and its metamorphosis conditions during lithogenesis is analyzed. A softening in the isotope composition of the carbon in the oils from the oceanic deposits relative to continental deposits is found, together with a genetic individualism of the oils from the Paleozoic deposits and their difference from the oils in the Mesozoic deposits.

  14. Using stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen as in-situ tracers for monitoring the natural attenuation of explosives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miyares, Paul H

    1999-01-01

    The use of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope measurements from TNT was examined as a possible tool for monitoring the natural attenuation of TNT incubation studies of spiked soil samples were conducted...

  15. Disentangling drought-induced variation in ecosystem and soil respiration using stable carbon isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Stephan; Máguas, Cristina; Pereira, João S; Aires, Luis M; David, Teresa S; Werner, Christiane

    2010-08-01

    Combining C flux measurements with information on their isotopic composition can yield a process-based understanding of ecosystem C dynamics. We studied the variations in both respiratory fluxes and their stable C isotopic compositions (delta(13)C) for all major components (trees, understory, roots and soil microorganisms) in a Mediterranean oak savannah during a period with increasing drought. We found large drought-induced and diurnal dynamics in isotopic compositions of soil, root and foliage respiration (delta(13)C(res)). Soil respiration was the largest contributor to ecosystem respiration (R (eco)), exhibiting a depleted isotopic signature and no marked variations with increasing drought, similar to ecosystem respired delta(13)CO(2), providing evidence for a stable C-source and minor influence of recent photosynthate from plants. Short-term and diurnal variations in delta(13)C(res) of foliage and roots (up to 8 and 4 per thousand, respectively) were in agreement with: (1) recent hypotheses on post-photosynthetic fractionation processes, (2) substrate changes with decreasing assimilation rates in combination with increased respiratory demand, and (3) decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity in drying roots, while altered photosynthetic discrimination was not responsible for the observed changes in delta(13)C(res). We applied a flux-based and an isotopic flux-based mass balance, yielding good agreement at the soil scale, while the isotopic mass balance at the ecosystem scale was not conserved. This was mainly caused by uncertainties in Keeling plot intercepts at the ecosystem scale due to small CO(2) gradients and large differences in delta(13)C(res) of the different component fluxes. Overall, stable isotopes provided valuable new insights into the drought-related variations of ecosystem C dynamics, encouraging future studies but also highlighting the need of improved methodology to disentangle short-term dynamics of isotopic composition of R (eco).

  16. Stable isotope geochemistry and evidence for meteoric diagenesis in Kudankulam formation, Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong Altrin Sam, J.; Ramasamy, S.; Makhnach, A.

    2001-01-01

    The results obtained from stable isotope study of Neogene carbonates of Kudankulam, Tamil Nadu show negative values for δ 13c arbon, which range from -2.6% to -9.7% PDB. The δ 18O values range from -4.5% to -11.4% PDB. The depleted nature of the δ 18O and δ 13C values suggests the strong effect of meteoric diagenesis in the Kudankulam carbonates. Standard bivariate plots of δ 18O versus δ 13C for carbonate materials/rocks helped to identify their depositional and diagenetic environments. Petrographic study points out large-scale emplacement of ferroan sparry calcite cement into vugs and other leached cavities. (author)

  17. Magnesium Isotopic Evidence for Ancient Subducted Oceanic Crust in LOMU-Like Potassium-Rich Volcanic Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yang; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Ying, Ji-Feng; Su, Ben-Xun; Hu, Yan; Fan, Qi-Cheng; Zhou, Xin-Hua

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the role of subducted oceanic crust in the genesis of potassium-rich magmas, we report high-precision Mg isotopic data for a set of Cenozoic volcanic rocks from Northeast China. These rocks overall are lighter in Mg isotopic composition than the normal mantle and display considerable Mg isotopic variations, with δ26Mg ranging from -0.61 to -0.23. The covariation of δ26Mg with TiO2 in these rocks suggests that their light Mg isotopic compositions were derived from recycled oceanic crust in the form of carbonated eclogite in the source region. The strong correlations between δ26Mg and (Gd/Yb)N ratio as well as Sr-Pb isotopes further indicate a multicomponent and multistage origin of these rocks. Magnesium isotopes may thus be used as a novel tracer of recycled oceanic crust in the source region of mantle-derived magmas.

  18. Can environmental innovation facilitate carbon emissions reduction? Evidence from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yue-Jun; Peng, Yu-Lu; Ma, Chao-Qun; Shen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Environmental innovation has been recognized as an efficient way of addressing environmental problems. However, how environmental innovation may affect carbon emissions in China and whether the effect may differ among various environmental innovation variables remain to be investigated. Therefore, based on the panel data of China’s 30 provinces during 2000–2013, we use a system generalized method of moments (SGMM) technique to estimate the effect of environmental innovation on carbon emissions in China. Also, we evaluate the effect on carbon emission reduction of China’s initial carbon emissions trading (CET) scheme. Empirical results indicate that, most environmental innovation measures in China reduce carbon emissions effectively. Among the various environmental innovation factors, energy efficiency exerts the most evident effect on carbon emissions abatement in China; meanwhile, resources for innovation and knowledge innovation also play prominent roles in this regard. However, the impact of governmental environmental policies on curbing carbon emissions reduction suffers from a lag effect, which mainly occurred during 2006–2013. Finally, despite the short time of operation and incomplete market mechanism, the pilot CET in China has appeared relatively promising with regard to carbon emissions reduction. - Highlights: • The SGMM is used for the effect of environmental innovation on carbon emissions. • Energy efficiency proves the most effective way to reduce China’s carbon emissions. • Innovation resources and knowledge innovation are conducive for carbon reduction. • The governmental environmental policies have lag effect on carbon reduction. • The effect of China’s initial CET on carbon emissions reduction has appeared.

  19. Cerium anomaly across the mid-Tournaisian carbon isotope excursion (TICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, G.; Morales, D. C.; Maharjan, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Early Mississippian (ca. 359-345 Ma) represents one of the most important greenhouse-icehouse climate transitions in Earth history. Closely associated with this critical transition is a prominent positive carbon isotope excursion (δ13C ≥ +5‰) that has been documented from numerous stratigraphic successions across the globe. This δ13C excursion, informally referred to as the TICE (mid-Tournaisian carbon isotope excursion) event, has been interpreted as resulting from enhanced organic carbon burial, with anticipated outcomes including the lowering of atmospheric CO2 and global cooling, the growth of continental ice sheets and sea-level fall, and the increase of ocean oxygenation and ocean redox changes. The casual relationship between these events has been addressed from various perspectives but not yet clearly demonstrated. To document the potential redox change associated with the perturbation of the carbon cycle, we have analyzed rare earth elements (REE) and trace elements across the TICE in two sections across a shallow-to-deep water transect in the southern Great Basin (Utah and Nevada), USA. In both sections, the REE data show a significant positive cerium (Ce) anomaly (Ce/Ce* = Ce/(0.5La+0.5Pr)). Prior to the positive δ13C shift, most Ce/Ce* values are around 0.3 (between 0.2 and 0.4). Across the δ13C peak, Ce/Ce* values increase up to 0.87, followed by a decrease back to 0.2~0.3 after the δ13C excursion (Figure 1). The positive Ce anomaly is best interpreted as recording expansion of oxygen minimum zone and anoxia resulted from increased primary production. This is consistent with a significant increase of nitrogen isotopes (δ15N) across the δ13C peak. Integration of the carbon, nitrogen, and REE data demonstrates a responsive earth systems change linked to the perturbation of the Early Mississippian carbon cycle.

  20. Carbon, hydrogen oxygen isotope studies on imbedded old tree ring and paleoclimate reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yanrong; Mu Zhiguo; Cui Haiting

    2002-01-01

    Tree ring is a kind of natural archives, on which the isotopic analysis is important to study global climate and environmental change. The authors mainly provide a comprehensive introduction to the fractionation models of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen isotope in plants, their research technique and the extract methods from cellulose. That results show isotopic tracer can record the message of climatic variation and has become a powerful tool for paleoclimate reconstruction and for the modern environment changing research. Especially studying on PAGES. the cellulose isotopic analyses of imbedded old tree ring have become the mainly quantitative means of environmental evolvement. In addition, China is a typical monsoon country, research in tree ring stable isotope seasonal variation can give a lot of important information on that. Up to now, the research techniques and works on tree ring in China are still in its earlier stage, and remain many limitations. It needs further accumulate basic research materials, intensity regional contrast and intercross studies on relative subjects

  1. The carbon isotopic compositions of individual compounds from ancient and modern depositional environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, K.H.

    1991-01-01

    This work examines factors influencing the isotopic compositions of individual compounds and, consequently, that of preserved sedimentary organic matter. Specifically, isotope effects associated with reactions resulting in the production and degradation of organic matter in the water column and reactions affecting preservation during diagenesis are considered in three projects. The first documents the preservation of the isotopic compositions of hydrocarbons altered by diagenetic reaction. Isotopic compositions of structurally-related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the Messel Shale show little variation with increased unsaturation. The influence of environmental conditions on the isotopic composition of sedimentary organic carbon is documented by a comparison of the {delta}{sup 13}C of hydrocarbons in the marine Julia Creek Oil Shale and the lacustrine Condor Oil Shale. A model is proposed for identifying relative degrees of oxygenation and productivity within a paleoenvironment based on the observed {sup 13}C contents of biomarkers. Effects of processes proposed in the environmental model are documented by an examination of hydrocarbons from the waters and sediments of the Black Sea and of the Cariaco Trench. Sources of individual compounds are identified by comparison of their {sup 13}C content with that predicted for autotrophic biomass calculated from the concentration and {sup 13}C content of CO{sub 2}(aq) in the surface waters.

  2. Paleocene-Eocene carbon isotopic excursion (CIE) from the shallow ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    36

    Methodology. 117. Excellent .... system (~40-80 m water depth; Hottinger, 1997; Zhang et al., 2017) as evident from the. 190 presence .... presence of this stepped CIE profile has been put forward in support for the complete and. 298 ... generated. The paper is a result of a pre-decision effort in connection with a prospective.

  3. A measurement of the carbon isotopic composition in primary cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjarle, C.; Herrstroem, N.Y.; Jacobsson, L.; Joensson, G.; Kristiansson, K.

    1975-01-01

    The isotopic composition is measured in a stack of nuclear emulsions exposed in a balloon flight from Fort Churchill. The masses of the carbon nuclei have been determined from photometric track width measurements in the residual range interval 1 13 C/( 12 C + 13 C) = 0.10 +- 0.04 at the measuring point. The result indicates that 13 C will only be present in the cosmic ray source matter in small amounts. (orig./BJ) [de

  4. A universal carbonate ion effect on stable oxygen isotope ratios in unicellular planktonic calcifying organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Ziveri, P.; Thoms, S.; Probert, I.; Geisen, M.; Langer, H.

    2012-01-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of calcium carbonate of planktonic calcifying organisms is a key tool for reconstructing both past seawater temperature and salinity. The calibration of paloeceanographic proxies relies in general on empirical relationships derived from field experiments on extant species. Laboratory experiments have more often than not revealed that variables other than the target parameter influence the proxy signal, which makes proxy c...

  5. Stable carbon isotope fractionation in the search for life on early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, L. J.; Desmarais, D.

    1989-01-01

    The utility of measurements of C-13/C-12 ratios in organic vs inorganic deposits for searching for signs of life on early Mars is considered. It is suggested that three assumptions are necessary. First, if there was life on Mars, it caused the fractionation of carbon isotopes in analogy with past biological activity on earth. Second, the fractionation would be detectable. Third, if a fractionation would be observed, there exist no abiotic explanations for the observed fractionation pattern.

  6. The synthesis of tritium, carbon-14 and stable isotope labelled selective estrogen receptor degraders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Ryan A; Bushby, Nick; Ericsson, Cecilia; Kingston, Lee P; Ji, Hailong; Elmore, Charles S

    2016-09-01

    As part of a Medicinal Chemistry program aimed at developing an orally bioavailable selective estrogen receptor degrader, a number of tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotope labelled (E)-3-[4-(2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-1-yl)phenyl]prop-2-enoic acids were required. This paper discusses 5 synthetic approaches to this compound class. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Evaluation of salt tolerance in wheat genotypes using growth and carbon isotopes discrimination technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, M.U.; Khan, M.A.; Mujtaba, S.M.; Shereen, A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies were conducted in green house to select suitable salt tolerant wheat genotypes on the basis of growth performance and carbon isotopes discrimination (CID) technique. Nine newly developed double haploids (DH) wheat genotypes were tested under gravel culture, along with salt tolerant (LU-26s) and high yielding (Sarsabz) checks. The crop was irrigated by non-saline (control) and saline (12dS/m) water and raised up to maturity, growth parameters (i.e. plant height, plant biomass, productive tillers, spike length, number of spiklets/spike, number of grains / spike, grain weight/ spike and grain yield/ 15 plants) were recorded after harvesting. Plant samples (straw) were collected and were analyzed for carbon isotopic ratio (C12/ C13) from IAEA laboratories Vienna Austria. The data showed that there was significant decrease in all the growth parameters due to salinity. On the basis of performance in different growth parameters it was found that wheat genotypes V3-DH, V9-DH, V10-DH, V13-DH, and LU-26s had good response at 12dSm-1, thus can be categorized as better performing genotypes. Studies on carbon isotopes discrimination (CID) showed a decreasing trend under salinity. Mean CID values were 20.86 and 17.49 under two environments (non saline and saline, respectively), showing an overall 19% decrease under salinity. Generally the wheat genotypes having higher grain yield also had high carbon isotopes discrimination (CID). The relationship between grain yield and CID was positive (R2 = 0.695). The genotypes V10-DH, V13-DH with lower decrease in CID (i.e. 1.2 and 11.0%, respectively), also had high grain yield under salinity. Therefore the studies suggest that we can include CID technique as one of the selection criteria for salt tolerance. (author)

  8. Investigating Pathways of Nutrient and Energy Flows Through Aquatic Food Webs Using Stable Isotopes of Carbon and Nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadwen, W. L.; Bunn, S. E. [Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Nathan Campus, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2013-05-15

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes can provide valuable insights into pathways of nutrient and energy flows in aquatic ecosystems. Carbon stable isotopes are principally used to trace pathways of organic matter transfer through aquatic food webs, particularly with regard to identifying the dominant sources of nutrition for aquatic biota. Stable isotopes of carbon have been widely used to answer one of the most pressing questions in aquatic food web ecology - to what degree do in-stream (autochthonous) and riparian (allochthonous) sources of energy fuel riverine food webs? In conjunction with carbon stable isotopes, nitrogen stable isotopes have been used to determine the trophic position of consumers and to identify the number of trophic levels in aquatic food webs. More recently, stable nitrogen isotopes have been recommended as indicators of anthropogenic disturbances. Specifically, agricultural land uses and/or sewage effluent discharge have been shown to significantly increase {delta}{sup 15}N signatures in primary producers and higher order consumers in freshwater, estuarine and marine environments. Together, carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes can be used to examine natural food web functions as well as the degree to which human modifications to catchments and aquatic environments can influence aquatic ecosystem function. (author)

  9. Carnivore specific bone bioapatite and collagen carbon isotope fractionations: Case studies of modern and fossil grey wolf populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Dobbs, K.; Wheatley, P. V.; Koch, P. L.

    2006-12-01

    Stable isotope analyses of modern and fossil biogenic tissues are routinely used to reconstruct present and past vertebrate foodwebs. Accurate isotopic dietary reconstructions require a consumer and tissue specific understanding of how isotopes are sorted, or fractionated, between trophic levels. In this project we address the need for carnivore specific isotope variables derived from populations that are ecologically well- characterized. Specifically, we investigate the trophic difference in carbon isotope values between mammalian carnivore (wolf) bone bioapatite and herbivore (prey) bone bioapatite. We also compare bone bioapatite and collagen carbon isotope values collected from the same individuals. We analyzed bone specimens from two modern North American grey wolf (Canis lupus) populations (Isle Royale National Park, Michigan and Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming), and the ungulate herbivores that are their primary prey (moose and elk, respectively). Because the diets of both wolf populations are essentially restricted to a single prey species, there were no confounding effects due to carnivore diet variability. We measured a trophic difference of approximately -1.3 permil between carnivore (lower value) and herbivore (higher value) bone bioapatite carbon isotope values, and an average inter-tissue difference of 5.1 permil between carnivore bone collagen (lower value) and bioapatite (higher value) carbon isotope values. Both of these isotopic differences differ from previous estimates derived from a suite of African carnivores; our carnivore-herbivore bone bioapatite carbon isotope spacing is smaller (-1.3 vs. -4.0 permil), and our carnivore collagen-bioapatite carbon difference is larger (5.1 vs. 3.0 permil). These discrepancies likely result from comparing values measured from a single hypercarnivore (wolf) to average values calculated from several carnivore species, some of which are insectivorous or partly omnivorous. The trophic and inter

  10. Carbon-13 isotopic composition of distillation fractions of some Egyptian crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, A.I.M.; Hamza, M.S.; Abd Elsamie, S.G.

    1991-01-01

    13 C/ 13 C ratios were determined for some crude oil fields in the Gulf of Suez and Western Desert provinces. The crude oil was subjected to distillation at atmospheric pressure and subsequently under vacuum. Distillation fractions were collected at 25 degree C intervals. Carbon-13 content of these distillation fractions showed some differences in the degree of isotopic fractionation. The results were interpreted in view of the age of the source rocks and the degree of maturation process. The carbon-13 content of distillation fractions may be helpful in revealing petroleum mechanisms which can be exploited in exploration.4 fig

  11. Carbon isotopic composition of legumes with photosynthetic stems from Mediterranean and desert habitats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, E.T.; Sharifi, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    The carbon isotopic compositions of leaves and stems of woody legumes growing in coastal mediterranean and inland desert sites in California were compared. The overall goal was to determine what factors were most associated with the carbon isotope composition of photosynthetic stems in these habitats. The carbon isotope signature (delta 13C) of photosynthetic stems was less negative than that of leaves on the same plants by an average of 1.51 +/- 0.42 per thousand. The delta 13C of bark (cortical chlorenchyma and epidermis) was more negative than that of wood (vascular tissue and pith) from the same plant for all species studied on all dates. Desert woody legumes had a higher delta 13C (less negative) and a lower intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) (for both photosynthetic tissues) than that of woody legumes from mediterranean climate sites. Differences in the delta 13C of stems among sites could be entirely accounted for by differences among site air temperatures. Thus, the delta 13C composition of stems did not indicate a difference in whole-plant integrated water use efficiency (WUE) among sites. In contrast, stems on all plants had a lower stem Ci and a higher delta 13C than leaves on the same plant, indicating that photosynthetic stems improve long-term, whole-plant water use efficiency in a diversity of species

  12. Associated chemical and carbon isotopic composition variations in diamonds from Finsch and Premier kimberlite, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deines, P.

    1984-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of 66 inclusion-containing diamonds from the Premier kimberlite, South Africa, 93 inclusion-containing diamonds and four diamonds of two diamond-bearing peridotite xenoliths from the Finsch kimberlite, South Africa was measured. The data suggest a relationship between the carbon isotopic composition of the diamonds and the chemical composition of the associated silicates. For both kimberlites similar trends are noted for diamonds containing peridotite-suite inclusions (P-type) and for diamonds containing eclogite-suite inclusions (E-type): Higher delta 13 C P-type diamonds tend to have inclusions lower in SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O 3 , MgO, Mg/(Mg + Fe) and higher in FeO and CaO. Higher delta 13 C E-type diamonds tend to have inclusions lower in SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , MgO, Mg/(Mg + Fe), Na 2 O, K 2 O, TiO 2 and higher in CaO, Ca/(Ca + Mg). Consideration of a number of different models that have been proposed for the genesis of kimberlites, their zenoliths and diamonds shows that they are all consistent with the conclusion that in the mantle, regions exist that are characterized by different mean carbon isotopic compositions. (author)

  13. Carbon isotopic fractionation in live benthic foraminifera -comparison with inorganic precipitate studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossmann, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses have been performed on live-stained aragonitic and calcitic benthic foraminifera and dissolved inorganic carbon from the Southern California Borderland to examine carbon isotopic fractionation in foraminifera. Temperature, salinity and pH data have also been collected to permit accurate determination of the delta 13 C of bicarbonate ion and thus aragonite-HCO 3 - and calcite-HCO 3 - isotopic enrichment factors (epsilonsub(ar-b) and epsilonsub(cl-b), respectively). Only species which precipitate in 18 O equilibrium have been considered. epsilonsub (ar-b) values based on Hoeglundina elegans range from 1.9 per mille at 2.7 deg C to 1.1 per mille at 9.5 deg C. The temperature dependence of epsilonsub(ar-b) is considerably greater than the equilibrium equation would predict and may be due to a vital effect. The calcitic foraminifera Cassidulina tortuosa, Cassidulina braziliensis, and Cassidulina limbata, Bank and Terrace dwellers, have similar delta 13 C values and yield an average epsilonsub(cl-b) value of -0.2 +- 0.1 per mille between 8 deg and 10 deg C. Calcitic Uvigerina curticosta, Uvigerina peregrina, and megalospheric B, argentea, Slope and Basin dwellers, are -0.7 +- 0.1 per mille enriched relative to ambient bicarbonate for 3 to 9 deg C. (author)

  14. Carbonate Chemistry and Isotope Characteristics of Groundwater of Ljubljansko Polje and Ljubljansko Barje Aquifers in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Cerar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ljubljansko polje and Ljubljansko Barje aquifers are the main groundwater resources for the needs of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia. Carbonate chemistry and isotope analysis of the groundwater were performed to acquire new hydrogeological data, which should serve as a base for improvement of hydrogeological conceptual models of both aquifers. A total of 138 groundwater samples were collected at 69 sampling locations from both aquifers. Major carbonate ions and the stable isotope of oxygen were used to identify differences in the recharging areas of aquifers. Four groups of groundwater were identified: (1 Ljubljansko polje aquifer, with higher Ca2+ values, as limestone predominates in its recharge area, (2 northern part of Ljubljansko Barje aquifer, with prevailing dolomite in its recharge area, (3 central part of Ljubljansko Barje aquifer, which lies below surface cover of impermeable clay and is poor in carbonate, and (4 Brest and Iški vršaj aquifer in the southern part of Ljubljansko Barje with higher Mg2+ in groundwater and dolomite prevailing in its recharge area. The radioactive isotope tritium was also used to estimate the age of groundwater. Sampled groundwater is recent with tritium activity between 4 and 8 TU and residence time of up to 10 years.

  15. Tracing carbon sources through aquatic and terrestrial food webs using amino acid stable isotope fingerprinting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Larsen

    Full Text Available Tracing the origin of nutrients is a fundamental goal of food web research but methodological issues associated with current research techniques such as using stable isotope ratios of bulk tissue can lead to confounding results. We investigated whether naturally occurring δ(13C patterns among amino acids (δ(13CAA could distinguish between multiple aquatic and terrestrial primary production sources. We found that δ(13CAA patterns in contrast to bulk δ(13C values distinguished between carbon derived from algae, seagrass, terrestrial plants, bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, we showed for two aquatic producers that their δ(13CAA patterns were largely unaffected by different environmental conditions despite substantial shifts in bulk δ(13C values. The potential of assessing the major carbon sources at the base of the food web was demonstrated for freshwater, pelagic, and estuarine consumers; consumer δ(13C patterns of essential amino acids largely matched those of the dominant primary producers in each system. Since amino acids make up about half of organismal carbon, source diagnostic isotope fingerprints can be used as a new complementary approach to overcome some of the limitations of variable source bulk isotope values commonly encountered in estuarine areas and other complex environments with mixed aquatic and terrestrial inputs.

  16. Tracing carbon sources through aquatic and terrestrial food webs using amino acid stable isotope fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Thomas; Ventura, Marc; Andersen, Nils; O'Brien, Diane M; Piatkowski, Uwe; McCarthy, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    Tracing the origin of nutrients is a fundamental goal of food web research but methodological issues associated with current research techniques such as using stable isotope ratios of bulk tissue can lead to confounding results. We investigated whether naturally occurring δ(13)C patterns among amino acids (δ(13)CAA) could distinguish between multiple aquatic and terrestrial primary production sources. We found that δ(13)CAA patterns in contrast to bulk δ(13)C values distinguished between carbon derived from algae, seagrass, terrestrial plants, bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, we showed for two aquatic producers that their δ(13)CAA patterns were largely unaffected by different environmental conditions despite substantial shifts in bulk δ(13)C values. The potential of assessing the major carbon sources at the base of the food web was demonstrated for freshwater, pelagic, and estuarine consumers; consumer δ(13)C patterns of essential amino acids largely matched those of the dominant primary producers in each system. Since amino acids make up about half of organismal carbon, source diagnostic isotope fingerprints can be used as a new complementary approach to overcome some of the limitations of variable source bulk isotope values commonly encountered in estuarine areas and other complex environments with mixed aquatic and terrestrial inputs.

  17. Carbon isotopic fractionation in live benthic foraminifera -comparison with inorganic precipitate studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossmann, E L [University of Southern California, Los Angeles (USA). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1984-07-01

    Carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses have been performed on live-stained aragonitic and calcitic benthic foraminifera and dissolved inorganic carbon from the Southern California Borderland to examine carbon isotopic fractionation in foraminifera. Temperature, salinity and pH data have also been collected to permit accurate determination of the delta/sup 13/C of bicarbonate ion and thus aragonite-HCO/sub 3//sup -/ and calcite-HCO/sub 3//sup -/ isotopic enrichment factors (epsilonsub(ar-b) and epsilonsub(cl-b), respectively). Only species which precipitate in /sup 18/O equilibrium have been considered. epsilonsub (ar-b) values based on Hoeglundina elegans range from 1.9 per mille at 2.7 deg C to 1.1 per mille at 9.5 deg C. The temperature dependence of epsilonsub(ar-b) is considerably greater than the equilibrium equation would predict and may be due to a vital effect. The calcitic foraminifera Cassidulina tortuosa, Cassidulina braziliensis, and Cassidulina limbata, Bank and Terrace dwellers, have s

  18. River under anthropogenic stress: An isotope study of carbon cycling in the Vistula, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachniew, P.; Rozanski, K.

    2002-01-01

    Rivers play an important role in global carbon cycling as they transform and transport substantial amounts of carbon derived from the terrestrial systems to the oceans. Riverine carbon cycling is affected by anthropogenic influences on hydrology, chemistry and biology of the river and its catchment. The Vistula, one of the most mineralized rivers of the world, drains industrialized and agriculturally-used areas populated by almost 23 million inhabitants. Moreover, much of the industrial and domestic wastewaters discharged into the Vistula river are untreated or insufficiently treated. High levels of pollution have serious environmental and economical consequences. For example, they limit use of Vistula waters as a source of drinking water and for industrial purposes. Pollutants transported by the Vistula river significantly influence water quality far into the open Baltic Sea. The aim of the paper is to show how stable isotope techniques can be used to assess human impact on sources, fluxes and fate of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and other pollutants in rivers, taking the Vistula river as an example. Vistula waters were sampled over a one-year period at Krakow (upper reaches), where the anthropogenic influences are at the extreme, and at the river mouth. Two campaigns were undertaken to sample the Vistula river along its course in summer and in autumn. Analyses of river water included temperature, pH, alkalinity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, δ 13 C of dissolved inorganic carbon and stable isotope composition of water (δ 18 O and δ 2 H)

  19. Springtime carbon emission episodes at the Gosan background site revealed by total carbon, stable carbon isotopic composition, and thermal characteristics of carbonaceous particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jung

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the emission of carbonaceous aerosols at the Gosan background super-site (33.17° N, 126.10° E in East Asia, total suspended particles (TSP were collected during spring of 2007 and 2008 and analyzed for particulate organic carbon, elemental carbon, total carbon (TC, total nitrogen (TN, and stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C of TC. The stable carbon isotopic composition of TC (δ13CTC was found to be lowest during pollen emission episodes (range: −26.2‰ to −23.5‰, avg. −25.2 ± 0.9‰, approaching those of the airborne pollen (−28.0‰ collected at the Gosan site. Based on a carbon isotope mass balance equation, we found that ~42% of TC in the TSP samples during the pollen episodes was attributed to airborne pollen from Japanese cedar trees planted around tangerine farms in Jeju Island. A negative correlation between the citric acid-carbon/TC ratios and δ13CTC was obtained during the pollen episodes. These results suggest that citric acid emitted from tangerine fruit may be adsorbed on the airborne pollen and then transported to the Gosan site. Thermal evolution patterns of organic carbon during the pollen episodes were characterized by high OC evolution in the OC2 temperature step (450 °C. Since thermal evolution patterns of organic aerosols are highly influenced by their molecular weight, they can be used as additional information on the formation of secondary organic aerosols and the effect of aging of organic aerosols during the long-range atmospheric transport and sources of organic aerosols.

  20. Elemental and isotopic (C, O, Sr, Nd) compositions of Late Paleozoic carbonated eclogite and marble from the SW Tianshan UHP belt, NW China: Implications for deep carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianjiang; Zhang, Lifei; Lü, Zeng; Bader, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Subduction zones are important for understanding of the global carbon cycle from the surface to deep part of the mantle. The processes involved the metamorphism of carbonate-bearing rocks largely control the fate of carbon and contribute to local carbon isotopic heterogeneities of the mantle. In this study, we present petrological and geochemical results for marbles and carbonated eclogites in the Southwestern Tianshan UHP belt, NW China. Marbles are interlayered with coesite-bearing pelitic schists, and have Sr-Nd isotopic values (εNd (T=320Ma) = -3.7 to -8.9, 87Sr/86Sr (i) = 0.7084-0.7089), typical of marine carbonates. The marbles have dispersed low δ18OVSMOW values (ranging from 14 to 29‰) and unaffected carbon isotope (δ13CVPDB = -0.2-3.6‰), possibly due to infiltration of external H2O-rich fluids. Recycling of these marbles into mantle may play a key role in the carbon budget and contributed to the mantle carbon isotope heterogeneity. The carbonated eclogites have high Sr isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr (i) = 0.7077-0.7082) and positive εNd (T = 320 Ma) values (from 7.6 to 8.2), indicative of strong seafloor alteration of their protolith. The carbonates in the carbonated eclogites are mainly dolomite (Fe# = 12-43, Fe# = Fe2+/(Fe2+ + Mg)) that were added into oceanic basalts during seafloor alteration and experienced calcite - dolomite - magnesite transformation during the subduction metamorphic process. The uniformly low δ18O values (∼11.44‰) of carbonates in the carbontaed eclogites can be explained by closed-system equilibrium between carbonate and silicate minerals. The low δ13C values (from -3.3 to -7.7‰) of the carbonated eclogites most likely reflect contribution from organic carbon. Recycling of these carbonated eclogites with C isotope similar to typical mantle reservoirs into mantle may have little effect on the mantle carbon isotope heterogeneity.

  1. Isotopic Evidence for Microbial Activity in Crystalline Bedrock Fractures - a Case Study from Olkiluoto, SW Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlstedt, E. K.; Karhu, J.; Pitkänen, P.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in the geochemical environment in crystalline bedrock fractures were investigated using the stable isotopes of C, O and S in fracture filling minerals as tracers. Of special interest were the possible changes which may occur in the subsurface at low temperatures. Especially, the influence of microbial activity was recognized as a catalyst for inducing changes in the geochemical environment. The study site is the Olkiluoto island located on the western coast of Finland, planned to host a geological repository for nuclear waste. Fracture surfaces were investigated to recognize the latest mineralizations at the site. These fillings were comprised of thin plates or small euhedral crystals of calcite and pyrite. The carbon and sulfur isotope compositions of calcite and pyrite were measured from bulk material by conventional IRMS, and in situ by secondary ion mass spectrometry. A notable feature of the late-stage fillings was high variabilities in the δ13C values of calcite and the δ34S values of pyrite, which ranged from -53.8 ‰ to +31.6 ‰ and from -50.4 ‰ to +77.7 ‰, respectively. Based on the isotopic compositions of the fillings, several features in the past hydrogeochemical environment could be recognized. The isotopic composition of the fracture fillings indicate an environment which was stratified with respect to depth. Characteristic features include bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) occurring at depths 50 m. It appears that methanic conditions were replaced by sulfate reduction at depths >50 m likely due to infiltration of SO42--rich brackish waters. Sulfate reducing bacteria used mainly surface derived organic carbon as electron donors. Some indication of minor methanotrophic activity was recognized in anomalously low δ13C values of calcite, down to -53.8 ‰, at the depth range of 34-54 m. This methanotrophic activity may have been related to bacteria using CH4 as an electron donor in BSR.

  2. Titan's Carbon Isotopic Ratio: A Clue To Atmospheric Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Romani, P. N.; Jolly, A.; Teanby, N. A.; Irwin, P. G.; Bézard, B.; Vinatier, S.; Coustenis, A.; Flasar, F. M.

    2009-12-01

    In this presentation we describe the latest results to come from Cassini CIRS and ground-based telescopic measurements of Titan's 12C/13C ratio in atmospheric molecules, focusing on hydrocarbons. Previously, the Huygens GCMS instrument measured 12CH4/13CH4 to be 82±1 (Niemann et al., Nature, 438, 779-784, 2005), substantially and significantly lower than the VPDB inorganic Earth standard of 89.4. It is also at odds with measurements for the giant planets. Cassini CIRS infrared spectra have confirmed this enhancement in 13CH4, but also revealed that the ratio in ethane, the major photochemical product of methane photolysis, does not appear enhanced (90±7) (Nixon et al.. Icarus, 195, 778-791, 2008) and is compatible with the terrestrial and combined giant planet value (88±7, Sada et al., Ap. J., 472, p. 903-907, 1996). Recently-published results from spectroscopy using the McMath-Pierce telescope at Kitt Pitt (Jennings et al., JCP, 2009, in press) have confirmed this deviation between methane and ethane, and an explanation has been proposed. This invokes a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) in the abstraction of methane by ethynyl, a major ethane formation pathway, to preferentially partition 12C into ethane and leave an enhancement in atmospheric 13CH4 relative to the incoming flux from the reservoir. Modeling shows that a steady-state solution exists where the 12C/13C methane is decreased from the reservoir value by exactly the KIE factor (the ratio of 12CH4 to 13CH4 abstraction reaction rates): which is plausibly around 1.08, very close to the observed amount. However, a second solution exists in which we are observing Titan about ~1 methane lifetime after a major injection of methane into the atmosphere which is rapidly being eliminated. Updated measurements by Cassini CIRS of both the methane and ethane 12C/13C ratios will be presented, along with progress in interpreting this ratio. In addition, we summarize the 12C/13C measurements by CIRS in multiple other Titan

  3. Diversity of management strategies in Mesoamerican turkeys: archaeological, isotopic and genetic evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manin, Aurelie; Corona-M, Eduardo; Craig, Abigail; Thornton, Erin Kennedy; Yang, Dongya Y.; Richards, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) represents one of the few domestic animals of the New World. While current research points to distinct domestication centres in the Southwest USA and Mesoamerica, several questions regarding the number of progenitor populations, and the timing and intensity of turkey husbandry remain unanswered. This study applied ancient mitochondrial DNA and stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N) analysis to 55 archaeological turkey remains from Mexico to investigate pre-contact turkey exploitation in Mesoamerica. Three different (sub)species of turkeys were identified in the archaeological record (M. g. mexicana, M. g. gallopavo and M. ocellata), indicating the exploitation of diverse local populations, as well as the trade of captively reared birds into the Maya area. No evidence of shared maternal haplotypes was observed between Mesoamerica and the Southwest USA, in contrast with archaeological evidence for trade of other domestic products. Isotopic analysis indicates a range of feeding behaviours in ancient Mesoamerican turkeys, including wild foraging, human provisioning and mixed feeding ecologies. This variability in turkey diet decreases through time, with archaeological, genetic and isotopic evidence all pointing to the intensification of domestic turkey management and husbandry, culminating in the Postclassic period. PMID:29410864

  4. Diversity of management strategies in Mesoamerican turkeys: archaeological, isotopic and genetic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manin, Aurelie; Corona-M, Eduardo; Alexander, Michelle; Craig, Abigail; Thornton, Erin Kennedy; Yang, Dongya Y; Richards, Michael; Speller, Camilla F

    2018-01-01

    The turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo ) represents one of the few domestic animals of the New World. While current research points to distinct domestication centres in the Southwest USA and Mesoamerica, several questions regarding the number of progenitor populations, and the timing and intensity of turkey husbandry remain unanswered. This study applied ancient mitochondrial DNA and stable isotope ( δ 13 C, δ 15 N) analysis to 55 archaeological turkey remains from Mexico to investigate pre-contact turkey exploitation in Mesoamerica. Three different (sub)species of turkeys were identified in the archaeological record ( M. g. mexicana , M. g. gallopavo and M. ocellata ), indicating the exploitation of diverse local populations, as well as the trade of captively reared birds into the Maya area. No evidence of shared maternal haplotypes was observed between Mesoamerica and the Southwest USA, in contrast with archaeological evidence for trade of other domestic products. Isotopic analysis indicates a range of feeding behaviours in ancient Mesoamerican turkeys, including wild foraging, human provisioning and mixed feeding ecologies. This variability in turkey diet decreases through time, with archaeological, genetic and isotopic evidence all pointing to the intensification of domestic turkey management and husbandry, culminating in the Postclassic period.

  5. Dietary shift after 3600 cal yr BP and its influencing factors in northwestern China: Evidence from stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Minmin; Dong, Guanghui; Jia, Xin; Wang, Hui; Cui, Yifu; Chen, Fahu

    2017-04-01

    :Human diets rely on natural resource availability and can reflect social and cultural values. When environments, societies, and cultures change, diets may also shift. This study traced the extent of dietary change and the factors influencing such change. Through stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic analysis of late Neolithic and early Bronze Age human and animal bone collagen, we found that significant shifts in human diets were closely associated with intercontinental cultural exchanges in Eurasia and climate change in northwestern China. The isotopic evidence indicated that human diets mainly consisted of C4 foodstuffs (presumably millet and/or animals fed with C4 foods) around 4000 calibrated years before the present (cal yr BP), corresponding to the flourishing of millet agriculture in the context of the optimal climate conditions of the mid-Holocene. Subsequently, more C3 foods (probably wheat, barley, and animals fed with C3 foods) were added to human diets post-3600 cal yr BP when the climate became cooler and drier. Such dietary variation is also consistent with the increasing intensity of long-distance exchange after 4000 cal yr BP. While many factors can lead to human dietary shifts (e.g. climate change, population growth, cultural factors, and human migration), climate may have been a key factor in Gansu and Qinghai.

  6. Source apportionment of organic pollutants of a highway-traffic-influenced urban area in Bayreuth (Germany) using biomarker and stable carbon isotope signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Bruno; Dreyer, Annekatrin; Bock, Michael; Fiedler, Stefan; Mehring, Marion; Heitmann, Tobias

    2005-06-01

    Traffic- and urban-influenced areas are prone to enhanced pollution with products of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass such as black carbon or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Black carbon is composed of aromatic and graphitic structures and may act as a carrier for pollutants such as PAHs and heavy metals. However, little is known about possible contributions of traffic-derived black carbon to the black carbon inventory in soils. Similar uncertainties exist regarding the contribution of different pollutant sources to total PAH and black carbon contents. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantify the importance of traffic pollution to black carbon and PAH inventories in soils. PAH contamination of soils adjacent to a major German highway in the urban area of Bayreuth with about 50,000 vehicles per day was in the same order of magnitude compared to highway-close soils reported in other studies. Using molecular (black carbon and PAHs) and compound-specific stable carbon isotope evidence (PAHs) it was demonstrated that this contamination originated not only from automobile exhausts, here primarily diesel, but also from tire abrasion and tailpipe soot which significantly contributed to the traffic-caused black carbon and PAH contamination. Low molecular weight PAHs were more widely transported than their heavy molecular counterparts (local distillation), whereas highway-traffic-caused black carbon contamination was distributed to at least 30 m from the highway. On the other hand, urban fire exhausts were distributed more homogeneously among the urban area.

  7. Carbon isotopes in otolith amino acids identify residency of juvenile snapper (Family: Lutjanidae) in coastal nurseries

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Kelton

    2011-08-26

    This study explored the potential for otolith geochemistry in snapper (Family: Lutjanidae) to identify residency in juvenile nursery habitats with distinctive carbon isotope values. Conventional bulk otolith and muscle stable isotope analyses (SIA) and essential amino acid (AA) SIA were conducted on snapper collected from seagrass beds, mangroves, and coral reefs in the Red Sea, Caribbean Sea, and Pacific coast of Panama. While bulk stable isotope values in otoliths showed regional differences, they failed to distinguish nursery residence on local scales. Essential AA δ13C values in otoliths, on the other hand, varied as a function of habitat type and provided a better tracer of residence in different juvenile nursery habitats than conventional bulk otolith SIA alone. A strong linear relationship was found between paired otolith and muscle essential AA δ13C values regardless of species, geographic region, or habitat type, indicating that otolith AAs recorded the same dietary information as muscle AAs. Juvenile snapper in the Red Sea sheltered in mangroves but fed in seagrass beds, while snapper from the Caribbean Sea and Pacific coast of Panama showed greater reliance on mangrove-derived carbon. Furthermore, compound-specific SIA revealed that microbially recycled detrital carbon, not water-column-based new phytoplankton carbon, was the primary carbon source supporting snapper production on coastal reefs of the Red Sea. This study presented robust tracers of juvenile nursery residence that will be crucial for reconstructing ontogenetic migration patterns of fishes among coastal wetlands and coral reefs. This information is key to determining the importance of nursery habitats to coral reef fish populations and will provide valuable scientific support for the design of networked marine-protected areas. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Carbon isotopes in otolith amino acids identify residency of juvenile snapper (Family: Lutjanidae) in coastal nurseries

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Kelton; Berumen, Michael L.; Mateo, Ivan; Elsdon, Travis S.; Thorrold, Simon R.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the potential for otolith geochemistry in snapper (Family: Lutjanidae) to identify residency in juvenile nursery habitats with distinctive carbon isotope values. Conventional bulk otolith and muscle stable isotope analyses (SIA) and essential amino acid (AA) SIA were conducted on snapper collected from seagrass beds, mangroves, and coral reefs in the Red Sea, Caribbean Sea, and Pacific coast of Panama. While bulk stable isotope values in otoliths showed regional differences, they failed to distinguish nursery residence on local scales. Essential AA δ13C values in otoliths, on the other hand, varied as a function of habitat type and provided a better tracer of residence in different juvenile nursery habitats than conventional bulk otolith SIA alone. A strong linear relationship was found between paired otolith and muscle essential AA δ13C values regardless of species, geographic region, or habitat type, indicating that otolith AAs recorded the same dietary information as muscle AAs. Juvenile snapper in the Red Sea sheltered in mangroves but fed in seagrass beds, while snapper from the Caribbean Sea and Pacific coast of Panama showed greater reliance on mangrove-derived carbon. Furthermore, compound-specific SIA revealed that microbially recycled detrital carbon, not water-column-based new phytoplankton carbon, was the primary carbon source supporting snapper production on coastal reefs of the Red Sea. This study presented robust tracers of juvenile nursery residence that will be crucial for reconstructing ontogenetic migration patterns of fishes among coastal wetlands and coral reefs. This information is key to determining the importance of nursery habitats to coral reef fish populations and will provide valuable scientific support for the design of networked marine-protected areas. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  9. A reconstruction of atmospheric carbon dioxide and its stable carbon isotopic composition from the penultimate glacial maximum to the last glacial inception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schneider

    2013-11-01

    δ13Catm level in the Penultimate (~ 140 000 yr BP and Last Glacial Maximum (~ 22 000 yr BP, which can be explained by either (i changes in the isotopic composition or (ii intensity of the carbon input fluxes to the combined ocean/atmosphere carbon reservoir or (iii by long-term peat buildup. Our isotopic data suggest that the carbon cycle evolution along Termination II and the subsequent interglacial was controlled by essentially the same processes as during the last 24 000 yr, but with different phasing and magnitudes. Furthermore, a 5000 yr lag in the CO2 decline relative to EDC temperatures is confirmed during the glacial inception at the end of MIS5.5 (120 000 yr BP. Based on our isotopic data this lag can be explained by terrestrial carbon release and carbonate compensation.

  10. Carbon isotope fractionation of 1,1,1-trichloroethane during base-catalyzed persulfate treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesi, Massimo, E-mail: m2marche@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Thomson, Neil R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Aravena, Ramon [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Sra, Kanwartej S. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Golder Associates Inc, Toronto, Ontario, Canada L5N 5Z7 (Canada); Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert [Departament de Cristal.lographia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain 08028 (Spain)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Treatability and C fractionation of 1,1,1-TCA by base-catalyzed S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−} was studied. • The rate of degradation of 1,1,1-TCA increased with a higher OH{sup −}:S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−} ratio. •Base-catalyzed S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−} can potentially treat recalcitrant compound like 1,1,1-TCA. • An enrichment factor of −7.0‰ independent of the OH{sup −}:S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−} ratio was obtained. • Carbon isotope can potentially be used to estimate the ISCO treatment efficacy. -- Abstract: The extent of carbon isotope fractionation during degradation of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) by a base-catalyzed persulfate (S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−}) treatment system was investigated. Significant destruction of 1,1,1-TCA was observed at a pH of ∼12. An increase in the NaOH:S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−} molar ratio from 0.2:1 to 8:1 enhanced the reaction rate of 1,1,1-TCA by a factor of ∼5 to yield complete (>99.9%) destruction. An average carbon isotope enrichment fractionation factor which was independent of the NaOH:S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−} molar ratio of −7.0 ± 0.2‰ was obtained. This significant carbon isotope fractionation and the lack of dependence on changes in the NaOH:S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−} molar ratio demonstrates that carbon isotope analysis can potentially be used in situ as a performance assessment tool to estimate the degradation effectiveness of 1,1,1-TCA by a base-catalyzed persulfate system.

  11. Uranium isotopes and dissolved organic carbon in loess permafrost: Modeling the age of ancient ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Stephanie A.; Paces, James B.; O'Donnell, J.A.; Jorgenson, M.T.; Kanevskiy, M.Z.; Aiken, George R.; Shur, Y.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    The residence time of ice in permafrost is an indicator of past climate history, and of the resilience and vulnerability of high-latitude ecosystems to global change. Development of geochemical indicators of ground-ice residence times in permafrost will advance understanding of the circumstances and evidence of permafrost formation, preservation, and thaw in response to climate warming and other disturbance. We used uranium isotopes to evaluate the residence time of segregated ground ice from ice-rich loess permafrost cores in central Alaska. Activity ratios of 234U vs. 238U (234U/238U) in water from thawed core sections ranged between 1.163 and 1.904 due to contact of ice and associated liquid water with mineral surfaces over time. Measured (234U/238U) values in ground ice showed an overall increase with depth in a series of five neighboring cores up to 21 m deep. This is consistent with increasing residence time of ice with depth as a result of accumulation of loess over time, as well as characteristic ice morphologies, high segregated ice content, and wedge ice, all of which support an interpretation of syngenetic permafrost formation associated with loess deposition. At the same time, stratigraphic evidence indicates some past sediment redistribution and possibly shallow thaw among cores, with local mixing of aged thaw waters. Using measures of surface area and a leaching experiment to determine U distribution, a geometric model of (234U/238U) evolution suggests mean ages of up to ∼200 ky BP in the deepest core, with estimated uncertainties of up to an order of magnitude. Evidence of secondary coatings on loess grains with elevated (234U/238U) values and U concentrations suggests that refinement of the geometric model to account for weathering processes is needed to reduce uncertainty. We suggest that in this area of deep ice-rich loess permafrost, ice bodies have been preserved from the last glacial period (10–100 ky BP), despite subsequent

  12. Isotopic Evidence for Early Trade in Animals between Old Kingdom Egypt and Canaan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Elizabeth R; Hartman, Gideon; Greenfield, Haskel J; Shai, Itzhaq; Babcock, Lindsay E; Maeir, Aren M

    2016-01-01

    Isotope data from a sacrificial ass and several ovicaprines (sheep/goat) from Early Bronze Age household deposits at Tell es-Safi/Gath, Israel provide direct evidence for the movement of domestic draught/draft and husbandry animals between Old Kingdom Egypt (during the time of the Pyramids) and Early Bronze Age III Canaan (ca. 2900-2500 BCE). Vacillating, bi-directional connections between Egypt and Canaan are known throughout the Early Bronze Age, but here we provide the first concrete evidence of early trade in animals from Egypt to Canaan.

  13. Isotopic Evidence for Early Trade in Animals between Old Kingdom Egypt and Canaan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth R Arnold

    Full Text Available Isotope data from a sacrificial ass and several ovicaprines (sheep/goat from Early Bronze Age household deposits at Tell es-Safi/Gath, Israel provide direct evidence for the movement of domestic draught/draft and husbandry animals between Old Kingdom Egypt (during the time of the Pyramids and Early Bronze Age III Canaan (ca. 2900-2500 BCE. Vacillating, bi-directional connections between Egypt and Canaan are known throughout the Early Bronze Age, but here we provide the first concrete evidence of early trade in animals from Egypt to Canaan.

  14. Isotopic Evidence for Early Trade in Animals between Old Kingdom Egypt and Canaan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Haskel J.; Shai, Itzhaq; Babcock, Lindsay E.; Maeir, Aren M.

    2016-01-01

    Isotope data from a sacrificial ass and several ovicaprines (sheep/goat) from Early Bronze Age household deposits at Tell es-Safi/Gath, Israel provide direct evidence for the movement of domestic draught/draft and husbandry animals between Old Kingdom Egypt (during the time of the Pyramids) and Early Bronze Age III Canaan (ca. 2900–2500 BCE). Vacillating, bi-directional connections between Egypt and Canaan are known throughout the Early Bronze Age, but here we provide the first concrete evidence of early trade in animals from Egypt to Canaan. PMID:27322197

  15. Oxygen isotopic composition of carbonate concretions from the lower Cretaceous of Victoria, Australia: Implications for the evolution of meteoric waters on the Australian continent in a paleopolar environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    Oxygen isotopic data from carbonate cements in concretions have been used to infer the isotopic composition of meteoric fluids present at the time of concretion growth in terrestrial sediments that were deposited within the early Cretaceous South Polar Circle at 75-80 0 S. Carbon and oxygen isotope compositions have been determined on over 135 samples of carbonate from 45 concretions taken from 24 localities (Aptian-Albian in age) in the terrestrial sedimentary basins associated with the Otway and Strzelecki groups, southeastern Australia. The carbonate cements include calcite having -26.4≤δ 13 C≤19.6 and 3.6≤δ 18 O≤29.6 or siderite having 17.6≤δ 18 O≤30.8. Calcite-cemented concretions are more abundant and are interpreted to represent early near-surface cementation events on the basis of textural evidence such as high (>30%) porosities at the time of cementation and mineralogical evidence such as the preferential preservation within concretions of labile detrital grains including plagioclase, pyroxene, and amphibole. The oxygen isotopic data indicate that meteoric fluids with very low δ 18 O, certainly less than -15per mille and probably on the order of -20per mille, were involved in the precipitation of the early calcites. The extremely low δ 18 O values of the fluids involved in the early diagenesis of both the Otway and Strzelecki groups suggest that the catchment area of the river system that carried sediments to these basins had a cold high-latitude climate (with mean annual temperatures less than 5 0 C and quite possibly below freezing). By analogy with the relationship between modern 18 O distribution of meteoric fluids and climate, these new data suggest that the early Cretaceous polar regions may not have been ice-free. (orig.)

  16. Intrapopulation variability shaping isotope discrimination and turnover: experimental evidence in arctic foxes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Lecomte

    Full Text Available Tissue-specific stable isotope signatures can provide insights into the trophic ecology of consumers and their roles in food webs. Two parameters are central for making valid inferences based on stable isotopes, isotopic discrimination (difference in isotopic ratio between consumer and its diet and turnover time (renewal process of molecules in a given tissue usually measured when half of the tissue composition has changed. We investigated simultaneously the effects of age, sex, and diet types on the variation of discrimination and half-life in nitrogen and carbon stable isotopes (δ¹⁵N and δ¹³C, respectively in five tissues (blood cells, plasma, muscle, liver, nail, and hair of a top predator, the arctic fox Vulpes lagopus.We fed 40 farmed foxes (equal numbers of adults and yearlings of both sexes with diet capturing the range of resources used by their wild counterparts. We found that, for a single species, six tissues, and three diet types, the range of discrimination values can be almost as large as what is known at the scale of the whole mammalian or avian class. Discrimination varied depending on sex, age, tissue, and diet types, ranging from 0.3‰ to 5.3‰ (mean  = 2.6‰ for δ¹⁵N and from 0.2‰ to 2.9‰ (mean  = 0.9‰ for δ¹³C. We also found an impact of population structure on δ¹⁵N half-life in blood cells. Varying across individuals, δ¹⁵N half-life in plasma (6 to 10 days was also shorter than for δ¹³C (14 to 22 days, though δ¹⁵N and δ¹³C half-lives are usually considered as equal.Overall, our multi-factorial experiment revealed that at least six levels of isotopic variations could co-occur in the same population. Our experimental analysis provides a framework for quantifying multiple sources of variation in isotopic discrimination and half-life that needs to be taken into account when designing and analysing ecological field studies.

  17. Comparison of gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry for carbon stable-isotope analysis of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerdijk-Poortvliet, Tanja C W; Schierbeek, Henk; Houtekamer, Marco; van Engeland, Tom; Derrien, Delphine; Stal, Lucas J; Boschker, Henricus T S

    2015-07-15

    We compared gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) for the measurement of δ(13)C values in carbohydrates. Contrary to GC/IRMS, no derivatisation is needed for LC/IRMS analysis of carbohydrates. Hence, although LC/IRMS is expected to be more accurate and precise, no direct comparison has been reported. GC/IRMS with the aldonitrile penta-acetate (ANPA) derivatisation method was compared with LC/IRMS without derivatisation. A large number of glucose standards and a variety of natural samples were analysed for five neutral carbohydrates at natural abundance as well as at (13)C-enriched levels. Gas chromatography/chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (GC/CIMS) was applied to check for incomplete derivatisation of the carbohydrate, which would impair the accuracy of the GC/IRMS method. The LC/IRMS technique provided excellent precision (±0.08‰ and ±3.1‰ at natural abundance and enrichment levels, respectively) for the glucose standards and this technique proved to be superior to GC/IRMS (±0.62‰ and ±19.8‰ at natural abundance and enrichment levels, respectively). For GC/IRMS measurements the derivatisation correction and the conversion of carbohydrates into CO2 had a considerable effect on the measured δ(13)C values. However, we did not find any significant differences in the accuracy of the two techniques over the full range of natural δ(13)C abundances and (13)C-labelled glucose. The difference in the performance of GC/IRMS and LC/IRMS diminished when the δ(13)C values were measured in natural samples, because the chromatographic performance and background correction became critical factors, particularly for LC/IRMS. The derivatisation of carbohydrates for the GC/IRMS method was complete. Although both LC/IRMS and GC/IRMS are reliable techniques for compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis of carbohydrates (provided that derivatisation is complete and the

  18. Carbon isotope characterization of vegetation and soil organic matter in subtropical forests in Luquillo, Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.C. von; Tieszen, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    We examined natural abundances of 13 C in vegetation and soil organic maner (SOM) of subtropical wet and rain forests to characterize the isotopic enrichment through decomposition that has been reported for temperate forests. Soil cores and vegetative samples from the decomposition continuum (leaves, new litter, old liner, wood, and roots) were taken from each of four forest types in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. SOM δ 13 C was enriched 1.60/00 relative to aboveground litter. We found no further enrichment within the soil profile. The carbon isotope ratios of vegetation varied among forests, ranging from -28.20/00 in the Colorado forest to -26.90/00 in the Palm forest. Isotope ratios of SOM differed between forests primarily in the top 20 em where the Colorado forest was again most negative at -28.00/00, and the Palm forest was most positive at -26.50/00. The isotopic differences between forests are likely attributable to differences in light regimes due to canopy density variation, soil moisture regimes, and/or recycling of CO 2 . Our data suggest that recalcitrant SOM is not derived directly from plant lignin since plant lignin is even more 13 C depleted than the bulk vegetation. We hypothesize that the anthropogenic isotopic depletion of atmospheric CO 2 , (ca 1.50/00 in the last 150 years) accounts for some of the enrichment observed in the SOM relative to the more modern vegetation in this study and others. This study also supports other observations that under wet or anaerobic soil environments there is no isotopic enrichment during decomposition or with depth in the active profile. (author)

  19. Carbon isotope characterization of vegetation and soil organic matter in subtropical forests in Luquillo, Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, J.C. von [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Tieszen, L. L.

    1995-06-15

    We examined natural abundances of {sup 13}C in vegetation and soil organic maner (SOM) of subtropical wet and rain forests to characterize the isotopic enrichment through decomposition that has been reported for temperate forests. Soil cores and vegetative samples from the decomposition continuum (leaves, new litter, old liner, wood, and roots) were taken from each of four forest types in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. SOM δ{sup 13}C was enriched 1.60/00 relative to aboveground litter. We found no further enrichment within the soil profile. The carbon isotope ratios of vegetation varied among forests, ranging from -28.20/00 in the Colorado forest to -26.90/00 in the Palm forest. Isotope ratios of SOM differed between forests primarily in the top 20 em where the Colorado forest was again most negative at -28.00/00, and the Palm forest was most positive at -26.50/00. The isotopic differences between forests are likely attributable to differences in light regimes due to canopy density variation, soil moisture regimes, and/or recycling of CO{sub 2}. Our data suggest that recalcitrant SOM is not derived directly from plant lignin since plant lignin is even more {sup 13}C depleted than the bulk vegetation. We hypothesize that the anthropogenic isotopic depletion of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, (ca 1.50/00 in the last 150 years) accounts for some of the enrichment observed in the SOM relative to the more modern vegetation in this study and others. This study also supports other observations that under wet or anaerobic soil environments there is no isotopic enrichment during decomposition or with depth in the active profile. (author)

  20. Carbon and Hydrogen Isotope Measurements of Alcohols and Organic Acids by Online Pyroprobe-GC-IRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The detection of methane in the atmosphere of Mars, combined with evidence showing widespread water-rock interaction during martian history, suggests that the production of methane on Mars may be the result of mineral surface-catalyzed CO2 and or CO reduction during Fisher-Tropsch Type (FTT) reactions. A better understanding of these reaction pathways and corresponding C and H isotope fractionations is critical to deciphering the synthesis of organic compounds produced under abiotic hydrothermal conditions. Described here is a technique for the extraction and analysis of both C and H isotopes from alcohols (C1-C4) and organic acids (C1-C6). This work is meant to provide a "proof of concept" for making meaningful isotope measurements on complex mixtures of solid-phase hydrocarbons and other intermediary products produced during high-temperature and high-pressure synthesis on mineral-catalyzed surfaces. These analyses are conducted entirely "on-line" utilizing a CDS model 5000 Pyroprobe connected to a Thermo Trace GC Ultra that is interfaced with a Thermo MAT 253 isotope ratio mass spectrometer operating in continuous flow mode. Also, this technique is designed to carry a split of the GC-separated product to a DSQ II quadrupole mass spectrometer as a means of making semi-quantitative compositional measurements. Therefore, both chemical and isotopic measurements can be carried out on the same sample.