WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon injection system

  1. Near-frictionless carbon coatings for spark-ignited direct-injected fuel systems. Final report, January 2002.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes an investigation by the Tribology Section of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) into the use of near-frictionless carbon (NFC) coatings for spark-ignited, direct-injected (SIDI) engine fuel systems. Direct injection is being pursued in order to improve fuel efficiency and enhance control over, and flexibility of, spark-ignited engines. SIDI technology is being investigated by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) as one route towards meeting both efficiency goals and more stringent emissions standards. Friction and wear of fuel injector and pump parts were identified as issues impeding adoption of SIDI by the OTT workshop on ''Research Needs Related to CIDI and SIDI Fuel Systems'' and the resulting report, Research Needs Related to Fuel Injection Systems in CIDI and SIDI Engines. The following conclusions were reached: (1) Argonne's NFC coatings consistently reduced friction and wear in existing and reformulated gasolines. (2) Compared to three commercial DLC coatings, NFC provided the best friction reduction and protection from wear in gasoline and alternative fuels. (3) NFC was successfully deposited on production fuel injectors. (4) Customized wear tests were performed to simulate the operating environment of fuel injectors. (5) Industry standard lubricity test results were consistent with customized wear tests in showing the friction and wear reduction of NFC and the lubricity of fuels. (6) Failure of NFC coatings by tensile crack opening or spallation did not occur, and issues with adhesion to steel substrates were eliminated. (7) This work addressed several of the current research needs of the OAAT SIDI program, as defined by the OTT report Research Needs Related to Fuel Injection Systems in CIDI and SIDI Engines

  2. The RHIC Injection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RHIC injection system has to transport beam from the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line onto the closed orbits of the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings. This task can be divided into three problems. First, the beam has to be injected into either ring. Second, once injected the beam needs to be transported around the ring for one turn. Third, the orbit must be closed and coherent beam oscillations around the closed orbit should be minimized. They describe their solutions for these problems and report on system tests conducted during the RHIC Sextant test performed in 1997. The system will be fully commissioned in 1999

  3. Injection and Dump Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Barnes, M J; Carlier, E; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Performance and failures of the LHC injection and ex- traction systems are presented. In particular, a comparison with the 2010 run, lessons learnt during operation with high intensity beams and foreseen upgrades are described. UFOs, vacuum and impedance problems related to the injection and extraction equipment are analysed together with possible improvements and solutions. New implemented features, diagnostics, critical issues of XPOC and IQC applications are addressed.

  4. Predicting mercury retention in utility gas cleaning systems with SCR/ESP/FGD combinations or activated carbon injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnakumar, Balaji; Naik, Chitralkumar V.; Niksa, Stephen [Niksa Energy Associates LLC, Belmont, CA (United States); Fujiwara, Naoki [Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd, Chiba (Japan). Coal and Environment Research Lab.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents validations of the Hg speciation predicted by NEA's MercuRator trademark package with an American field test database for 28 full-scale utility gas cleaning systems. It emphasizes SCR/ESP/FGD combinations and activated carbon injection because these two applications present the best long- term prospects for Hg control by coal-burning utilities. Validations of the extents of Hg{sup 0} oxidation across SCRs and of Hg retention in wet FGDs gave correlation coefficients greater than 0.9 for both units. A transport-based FGD analysis correctly assessed the potential for Hg{sup 0} re-emission in one limestone wet FGD. Among the ten stations in the SCR/ESP/FGD validations, the simulations correctly identified 3 of 4 of the relatively high Hg emissions rates; all four of the sites with moderate emissions rates; and both sites with the lowest emission rates. The validations for ACI applications demonstrated that Hg removals can be accurately estimated for the full domain of coal quality, LOI, and ACI rates for both untreated and brominated carbon sorbents. The predictions for ACI depict the test-to-test variations in most cases, and accurately describe the impact of ACI configuration and sorbent type. ACI into FFs is the most effective configuration, although ACI into ESPs often removes 90% or more Hg, provided that there is sufficient residence time and Cl in the flue gas. Brominated sorbents perform better than untreated carbons, unless SO{sub 3} condensation inhibits Hg adsorption.

  5. Hydrogen injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a BWR type reactor, a corrosion potential of materials on a bottom of the reactor is measured. A developing rate of cracks of the material is determined based on the measured value. A dose rate of a main steam system is measured, and the hydrogen concentration of a feedwater system is controlled so that the corrosion potential and the dose rate of the main steam system are within predetermined ranges respectively. In addition, the concentration of oxidant in the reactor is determined based on the hydrogen concentration of the feedwater system, and the corrosion potential of the materials on the bottom of the reactor is determined based on the value. The dose rate of the main steam system is measured, and the hydrogen concentration of the feedwater system is controlled so that the corrosion potential and the dose rate are within predetermined ranges respectively. The amount of hydrogen injected to the feedwater system is determined based on the previously obtained correlation, whereby the corrosion circumference on the bottom of the reactor is directly improved within a predetermined range. Accordingly, the water quality can be controlled appropriately for the equipments on the bottom of the reactor, and the developing rate of the cracks of the material can be lowered without increasing the dose rate of the main steam system thereby enabling to extend the working life. (N.H.)

  6. Photoelectrochemical investigation of methylene blue immobilised on zirconium phosphate modified carbon paste electrode in flow injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adsorption of methylene blue (MB) onto zirconium phosphate (ZrP) was studied and the adsorption capacity value and isotherms were determined. The adsorption capacity of ZrP was increased after being exposed to gas phase n-butyl amine. The adsorbed MB on ZrP was used as a modifier material in carbon paste electrode (MCPE), which in turn was used in voltammetric investigations and flow injection (FI) amperometric determination of ascorbic acid (AA). A quasi-reversible electrode reaction of adsorbed MB was exhibited. A home made flow-through electrochemical cell with a suitable transparent window for irradiation of the electrode surface was constructed and used for amperometric FI studies. The photoamperometric-FI conditions were optimised as 1.5 mL min-1 flow rate, a 25 cm transmission tubing length, a 100 μL injection volume, and a constant applied potential of +100 mV versus SCE. The calibration curve for AA was linear over the concentration range from 1.0 x 10-6 to 4.0 x 10-5 M. The relative standard deviation of four replicate injections of 3.0 x 10-5 M AA was 1.2%. The results obtained for AA determination in pharmaceutical products are in good agreement with those obtained using the procedure involving the reaction between triiodide and AA

  7. Reductant injection and mixing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Matt; Henry, Cary A.; Ruth, Michael J.

    2016-02-16

    A gaseous reductant injection and mixing system is described herein. The system includes an injector for injecting a gaseous reductant into an exhaust gas stream, and a mixer attached to a surface of the injector. The injector includes a plurality of apertures through which the gaseous reductant is injected into an exhaust gas stream. The mixer includes a plurality of fluid deflecting elements.

  8. Urine Pretreat Injection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate

  9. Kinetics of functionalised carbon nanotube distribution in mouse brain after systemic injection: Spatial to ultra-structural analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Julie T.-W.; Rubio, Noelia; Kafa, Houmam; Venturelli, Enrica; Fabbro, Chiara; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Da Ros, Tatiana; Sosabowski, Jane K.; Lawson, Alastair D.; Robinson, Martyn K.; Prato, Maurizio; Bianco, Alberto; Festy, Frederic; Preston, Jane E.; Kostarelos, Kostas; Al-Jamal, Khuloud T.

    2016-01-01

    Earlier studies proved the success of using chemically functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWNTs) as nanocarriers to the brain. Little insight into the kinetics of brain distribution of f-MWNTs in vivo has been reported. This study employed a wide range of qualitative and quantitative techniques with the aim of shedding the light on f-MWNT's brain distribution following intravenous injection. γ-Scintigraphy quantified the uptake of studied radiolabelled f-MWNT in the whole brain parenchyma and capillaries while 3D-single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging and autoradiography illustrated spatial distribution within various brain regions. Raman and multiphoton luminescence together with transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of intact f-MWNT in mouse brain, in a label-free manner. The results evidenced the presence of f-MWNT in mice brain parenchyma, in addition to brain endothelium. Such information on the rate and extent of regional and cellular brain distribution is needed before further implementation into neurological therapeutics can be made. PMID:26742944

  10. ITER Neutral Beam Injection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Japanese design proposal of the ITER Neutral Beam Injection System (NBS) which is consistent with the ITER common design requirements is described. The injection system is required to deliver a neutral deuterium beam of 75MW at 1.3MeV to the reactor plasma and utilized not only for plasma heating but also for current drive and current profile control. The injection system is composed of 9 modules, each of which is designed so as to inject a 1.3MeV, 10MW neutral beam. The most important point in the design is that the injection system is based on the utilization of a cesium-seeded volume negative ion source which can produce an intense negative ion beam with high current density at a low source operating pressure. The design value of the source is based on the experimental values achieved at JAERI. The utilization of the cesium-seeded volume source is essential to the design of an efficient and compact neutral beam injection system which satisfies the ITER common design requirements. The critical components to realize this design are the 1.3MeV, 17A electrostatic accelerator and the high voltage DC acceleration power supply, whose performances must be demonstrated prior to the construction of ITER NBI system. (author)

  11. A flow injection analyser conductometric coupled system for the field analysis of free dissolved CO2 and total dissolved inorganic carbon in natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinotti, Valter; Balordi, Marcella; Ciceri, Giovanni

    2012-05-01

    A flow injection analyser coupled with a gas diffusion membrane and a conductometric microdetector was adapted for the field analysis of natural concentrations of free dissolved CO2 and dissolved inorganic carbon in natural waters and used in a number of field campaigns for marine water monitoring. The dissolved gaseous CO2 presents naturally, or that generated by acidification of the sample, is separated by diffusion using a hydrophobic semipermeable gas porous membrane, and the permeating gas is incorporated into a stream of deionised water and measured by means of an electrical conductometric microdetector. In order to make the system suitable and easy to use for in-field measurements aboard oceanographic ships, the single components of the analyser were compacted into a robust and easy to use system. The calibration of the system is carried out by using standard solutions of potassium bicarbonate at two concentration ranges. Calibration and sample measurements are carried out inside a temperature-constant chamber at 25 °C and in an inert atmosphere (N2). The detection and quantification limits of the method, evaluated as 3 and 10 times the standard deviation of a series of measurements of the matrix solution were 2.9 and 9.6 μmol/kg of CO2, respectively. Data quality for dissolved inorganic carbon was checked with replicate measurements of a certified reference material (A. Dickson, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego), both accuracy and repeatability were -3.3% and 10%, respectively. Optimization, performance qualification of the system and its application in various natural water samples are reported and discussed. In the future, the calibration step will be operated automatically in order to improve the analytical performance and the applicability will be increased in the course of experimental surveys carried out both in marine and freshwater ecosystems. Considering the present stage of development of the method, it

  12. Preparation of Carbon-Doped TiO2 Nanopowder Synthesized by Droplet Injection of Solution Precursor in a DC-RF Hybrid Plasma Flow System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Juyong; Takana, Hidemasa; Ando, Yasutaka; Solonenko, Oleg P.; Nishiyama, Hideya

    2013-08-01

    Carbon-doped titanium dioxide nanopowder has received much attention because of its higher photocatalytic performance, which is practically activated not only by UV, but also by visible light irradiation. In the present study, C-TiO2 nanopowder was synthesized by droplet injection of solution precursor in a DC-RF hybrid plasma flow system, resulting in higher photocatalytic performance even under visible light irradiation. In-flight C-TiO2 nanoparticles reacted with the high concentration of carbon in plasma flow and were then deposited on the surfaces of two quartz tubes in the upstream and downstream regions of this system. The collected C-TiO2 nanopowder contained anatase-rutile mixed-phase TiO2 and TiC, the contents of which depended on the location of the powder collection, the temperature, and the duration of plasma treatment. Highly functional C-TiO2 nanopowder collected in the downstream region exhibited a higher degradation rate of methylene blue than that of single-phase anatase TiO2, even under visible light irradiation, in spite of being TiC.

  13. ATF neutral beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility is a stellarator torsatron being built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to investigate improved plasma confinement schemes. Plasmas heating will be carried out predominantly by means of neutral beam injection. This paper describes the basic parameters of the injection system. Numerical calculations were done to optimize the aiming of the injectors. The results of these calculations and their implications on the neutral power to the machine are elaborated. The effects of improving the beam optics and altering the focal length on the power transmitted to the plasma are discussed

  14. Determination of Diclofenac on a Dysprosium Nanowire- Modified Carbon Paste Electrode Accomplished in a Flow Injection System by Advanced Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Moosavi-Movahedi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A new detection technique called Fast Fourier Transform Square-Wave Voltammetry (FFT SWV is based on measurements of electrode admittance as a function of potential. The response of the detector (microelectrode, which is generated by a redox processes, is fast, which makes the method suitable for most applications involving flowing electrolytes. The carbon paste electrode was modified by nanostructures to improve sensitivity. Synthesized dysprosium nanowires provide a more effective nanotube-like surface [1-4] so they are good candidates for use as a modifier for electrochemical reactions. The redox properties of diclofenac were used for its determination in human serum and urine samples. The support electrolyte that provided a more defined and intense peak current for diclofenac determination was a 0.05 mol L−1 acetate buffer pH = 4.0. The drug presented an irreversible oxidation peak at 850 mV vs. Ag/AgCl on a modified nanowire carbon paste electrode which produced high current and reduced the oxidation potential by about 100 mV. Furthermore, the signal-to-noise ratio was significantly increased by application of a discrete Fast Fourier Transform (FFT method, background subtraction and two-dimensional integration of the electrode response over a selected potential range and time window. To obtain the much sensivity the effective parameters such as frequency, amplitude and pH was optimized. As a result, CDL of 2.0 × 10−9 M and an LOQ of 5.0 × 10−9 M were found for the determination for diclofenac. A good recovery was obtained for assay spiked urine samples and a good quantification of diclofenac was achieved in a commercial formulation.

  15. A flow injection analyser conductometric coupled system for the field analysis of free dissolved CO{sub 2} and total dissolved inorganic carbon in natural waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinotti, Valter; Balordi, Marcella; Ciceri, Giovanni [RSE SpA - Environment and Sustainable Development Department, Milan (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    A flow injection analyser coupled with a gas diffusion membrane and a conductometric microdetector was adapted for the field analysis of natural concentrations of free dissolved CO{sub 2} and dissolved inorganic carbon in natural waters and used in a number of field campaigns for marine water monitoring. The dissolved gaseous CO{sub 2} presents naturally, or that generated by acidification of the sample, is separated by diffusion using a hydrophobic semipermeable gas porous membrane, and the permeating gas is incorporated into a stream of deionised water and measured by means of an electrical conductometric microdetector. In order to make the system suitable and easy to use for in-field measurements aboard oceanographic ships, the single components of the analyser were compacted into a robust and easy to use system. The calibration of the system is carried out by using standard solutions of potassium bicarbonate at two concentration ranges. Calibration and sample measurements are carried out inside a temperature-constant chamber at 25 C and in an inert atmosphere (N{sub 2}). The detection and quantification limits of the method, evaluated as 3 and 10 times the standard deviation of a series of measurements of the matrix solution were 2.9 and 9.6 {mu}mol/kg of CO{sub 2}, respectively. Data quality for dissolved inorganic carbon was checked with replicate measurements of a certified reference material (A. Dickson, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego), both accuracy and repeatability were -3.3% and 10%, respectively. Optimization, performance qualification of the system and its application in various natural water samples are reported and discussed. In the future, the calibration step will be operated automatically in order to improve the analytical performance and the applicability will be increased in the course of experimental surveys carried out both in marine and freshwater ecosystems. Considering the present stage of

  16. Fault injection system for automatic testing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王胜文; 洪炳熔

    2003-01-01

    Considering the deficiency of the means for confirming the attribution of fault redundancy in the re-search of Automatic Testing System(ATS) , a fault-injection system has been proposed to study fault redundancyof automatic testing system through compurison. By means of a fault-imbeded environmental simulation, thefaults injected at the input level of the software are under test. These faults may induce inherent failure mode,thus bringing about unexpected output, and the anticipated goal of the test is attained. The fault injection con-sists of voltage signal generator, current signal generator and rear drive circuit which are specially developed,and the ATS can work regularly by means of software simulation. The experimental results indicate that the faultinjection system can find the deficiency of the automatic testing software, and identify the preference of fault re-dundancy. On the other hand, some soft deficiency never exposed before can be identified by analyzing the tes-ting results.

  17. Experience with a carbon injection system at a spray dryer/electrostatic precipitator equipped waste-to-energy facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honeycheck, T.S.; Gesell, G. [American Ref-Fuel Co., Houston, TX (United States); Armellino, K.E. [American Ref-Fuel Co., Uniondale, NY (United States); Kozlowski, J. [American Ref-Fuel Co. of Essex County, Newark, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-01

    American Ref-Fuel Company of Essex County obtained an air permit to construct the Essex County Resource Recovery Facility (ECRRF), a municipal solid waste resource recovery facility, in December 1985 from the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP). Permit condition A.9.a. states that the emission rate of mercury from each unit shall not exceed 0.053 pounds per hour, based on the average value of three runs using EPA Method 101A. Testing for mercury was required to be performed on a quarterly basis during the facility`s first year of operation. This emission requirement was met by the spray dryer adsorber (SDA)/electrostatic precipitator (ESP) equipped facility. Subsequently, the NJDEP chartered a task force to investigate the setting of a new statewide mercury emission standard for municipal solid waste (MSW) combustors. The task force in July of 1993 recommended a more stringent two phase emission standard requiring all facilities to achieve 65 {mu}g/dscm at 7% oxygen dry volume or 80 % reduction by January, 1996, and to achieve 28 {mu}g/dscm at 7% oxygen dry volume or 80% reduction by January 1, 2000. These recommendations and a requirement for installing a mercury control system were codified into a regulation in November 22, 1994. In order to comply with the new regulation the facility proceeded with a retrofit mercury control system.

  18. Carbon nanopipettes for cell probes and intracellular injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrlau, Michael G [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Falls, Erica M [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Ziober, Barry L [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Bau, Haim H [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2008-01-09

    We developed integrated, carbon-based pipettes with nanoscale dimensions (CNP) that can probe cells with minimal intrusion, inject fluids into the cells, and concurrently carry out electrical measurements. Our manufacturing technique does not require cumbersome nanoassembly and is amenable to mass production. Using CNPs, we demonstrate the injection of reagents into cells with minimal intrusion and without inhibiting cell growth.

  19. The effect of coal rank on the wettability behavior of wet coal system with injection of carbon dioxide and flue gas

    OpenAIRE

    Shojaikaveh, N.; Rudolph, E.S.J.; Wolf, K.H.A.A.; Ashrafizadeh, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    The injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) or flue gas into coal layers enhances the coal bed methane production (ECBM) and is also an option for CO2-storage. The success of this combined process depends strongly on the wetting behavior of the coal, which is a function of coal rank, ash content, pressure, temperature and composition of the gas. Two coal samples have been used for this study representing different ranks: hvBb and semi-anthracite rank. The wettability behaviour of the wet coal sampl...

  20. Carbon dioxide fluid-flow modeling and injectivity calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lauri

    2011-01-01

    At present, the literature lacks a geologic-based assessment methodology for numerically estimating injectivity, lateral migration, and subsequent long-term containment of supercritical carbon dioxide that has undergone geologic sequestration into subsurface formations. This study provides a method for and quantification of first-order approximations for the time scale of supercritical carbon dioxide lateral migration over a one-kilometer distance through a representative volume of rock. These calculations provide a quantified foundation for estimating injectivity and geologic storage of carbon dioxide.

  1. Microbial Response to Carbon Dioxide Injection in a Shallow Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, A.; Faehndrich, D.; O'Mullan, G.; Mailloux, B.; Matter, J.; Stute, M.; Goldberg, D.

    2007-12-01

    Extensive research is underway to investigate the geophysical and geochemical dynamics of subsurface carbon sequestration, but there has been only theoretical consideration of the microbial response. Microbial dynamics are capable of altering the range and rates of geochemical reactions in the subsurface. The goal of this field experiment is to link geochemical changes due to CO2 injection to alterations in the microbial community and to provide an initial characterization of the microbial response. A seven week push-pull experiment was conducted at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory Test Well. 200L of groundwater was extracted, bubbled with carbon dioxide, augmented with a bromide tracer, and injected to 230m depth below ground surface. The hydraulically isolated injection zone marked the contact area between dolerite sill and sedimentary rock. Samples were taken on a weekly basis. Geochemically, a drop in pH from 9.4 to 4.5 at injection was coupled with a release of Fe2+ from the formation. As neutralization and mixing caused pH to return toward background levels, Fe2+ concentrations decreased. The aquifer remained anoxic throughout the experiment. DNA was successfully extracted and the gene encoding 16S ribosomal RNA was amplified from all samples with the exception of the injection fluid. Sequencing from clone libraries and tRFLP analyses were used to characterize microbial dynamics during the seven week study. Whereas the number of microbial groups detected remained relatively constant over the course of the experiment, changes were observed in both the dominant microbes phylogenetic identity and relative abundance. Methane concentrations increased from background levels (below 50 nM) to 4.2 nM after injection, but initial attempts to amplify archaeal and methanogen-specific genes were unsuccessful, bringing into question the presence of a significant methanogenic population. These results confirm that there is a microbial response to carbon dioxide

  2. Injection system of the minicyclotron accelerator massspectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The existing injection system of the SMCAMS (super-sensitiveminicyclotron accelerator mass spectrometer) is described togetherwith the discussion of its disadvantages exposed after having beenoperating for fiveyears, which provides a basis for consideration ofimprovements to the injectionsystem. An optimized injection system with an analyticalmagnet added prior to theminicyclotron has been proposed and calculated.

  3. Dimethyl Ether in Diesel Fuel Injection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, M.; Abata, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    A study of the behaviour of DME in diesel injection systems. A discussion of the effects of compressibility of DME on compression work and wave propagation.DME spray shapes and penetration rates......A study of the behaviour of DME in diesel injection systems. A discussion of the effects of compressibility of DME on compression work and wave propagation.DME spray shapes and penetration rates...

  4. Performance of the ALS injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors started commissioning the Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring on January 11, 1993. The stored beam reached 60 mA on March 24, 1993 and 407 mA on April 9, 1993. The fast pace of storage ring commissioning can be attributed partially to the robust injection system. In this paper they describe the operating characteristics of the ALS injection system

  5. TFTR neutral beam injection system conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three subsystems are described in the following chapters: (1) Neutral Beam Injection Line; (2) Power Supplies; and (3) Controls. Each chapter contains two sections: (1) Functions and Design Requirements; this is a brief listing of the requirements of components of the subsystem. (2) Design Description; this section describes the design and cost estimates. The overall performance requirements of the neutral beam injection system are summarized. (MOW)

  6. SQL Injection Test System for Students

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatkovski, Dragi; Suteva, Natasa; Mileva, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    We present a new web application as a vulnerable testing system for SQL injection attacks. Its purpose is to give opportunity to students of Computer security courses, to explore the nature of these modern attacks, to see how hackers exploit them and to learn how to protect their databases from them. Deployment of SQL injection attack on real web applications is illegal and it is subject to prosecution by law. With this software, we protect our students, and in the same time...

  7. Construction of tangential injection NBI system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Upgrading of the JT-60, the vacuum vessel has been modified to a larger bore. This larger bore vacuum vessel yields a larger toroidal field ripple in the vicinity of a plasma surface because of closing the toroidal field coils and plasmas. A ripple loss of injected neutral beams, then, estimated to be 30-40% through ripple field in the beam injection with the present NBI system that injects the beam perpendicularly to the plasma. An effective way to decrease the ripple loss in the plasma is to inject the beam tangentially. Meanwhile, it has been determined possible with the JT-60 upgrading to use a horizontal port as a tangential beam injection, because of eliminating a group of outer horizontal poloidal coils which are used as a divertor coil in the former JT-60. The modification from perpendicular beamline to tangential one has been executed in four beamlines out of 14 units. Four tangential beamlines are installed in two beamline tanks which are newly fabricated and positioned co- and counter-injection, respectively. Most of the beamline components are reused except a couple of cancellation coils. The modification to the tangential beamline completed in 1993, and the beam injection experiments with the tangential have been conducted successfully since 1993. (author)

  8. Testing Distributed ABS System with Fault Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trawczyński, Dawid; Sosnowski, Janusz; Gawkowski, Piotr

    The paper deals with the problem of adapting software implemented fault injection technique (SWIFI) to evaluate dependability of reactive microcontroller systems. We present an original methodology of disturbing controller operation and analyzing fault effects taking into account reactions of the controlled object and the impact of the system environment. Faults can be injected randomly (in space and time) or targeted at the most sensitive elements of the controller to check it at high stresses. This approach allows identifying rarely encountered problems, usually missed in classical approaches. The developed methodology has been used successfully to verify dependability of ABS system. Experimental results are commented in the paper.

  9. Calculating the probability of injected carbon dioxide plumes encountering faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, P.D.

    2011-04-01

    One of the main concerns of storage in saline aquifers is leakage via faults. In the early stages of site selection, site-specific fault coverages are often not available for these aquifers. This necessitates a method using available fault data to estimate the probability of injected carbon dioxide encountering and migrating up a fault. The probability of encounter can be calculated from areal fault density statistics from available data, and carbon dioxide plume dimensions from numerical simulation. Given a number of assumptions, the dimension of the plume perpendicular to a fault times the areal density of faults with offsets greater than some threshold of interest provides probability of the plume encountering such a fault. Application of this result to a previously planned large-scale pilot injection in the southern portion of the San Joaquin Basin yielded a 3% and 7% chance of the plume encountering a fully and half seal offsetting fault, respectively. Subsequently available data indicated a half seal-offsetting fault at a distance from the injection well that implied a 20% probability of encounter for a plume sufficiently large to reach it.

  10. The MINOS light-injection calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of the light-injection calibration system that has been developed for the MINOS long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. The system is based upon pulsed blue LEDs monitored by PIN photodiodes. It is designed to measure non-linearities in the PMT gain curves, as well as monitoring any drifts in PMT gain, at the 1% level

  11. On-line preconcentration/determination of cadmium in drinking water on activated carbon using 8-hydroxyquinoline in a flow injection system coupled to an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An on-line cadmium preconcentration and determination system implemented with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry associated to flow injection was studied. Cadmium was retained as Cd-8-hydroxyquinoline complex at pH 10.0. The cadmium complex was removed from the conical minicolumn packed with activated carbon with 20% (v/v) nitric acid. An enrichment factor of 80-fold for a sample volume of 50 ml was obtained. The detection limit (DL) value for the preconcentration of 50 ml of sample was 18 ng l-1. The relative standard deviation was 2.5%, calculated from the peak heights obtained. The calibration graph using the preconcentration system for cadmium was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9995 at levels near the DLs up to at least 100 ng ml-1. The method was successfully applied to the determination of total cadmium in drinking water samples

  12. Modeling of Carbon Migration During JET Injection Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JET has performed two dedicated carbon migration experiments on the final run day of separate campaigns (2001 and 2004) using 13CH4 methane injected into repeated discharges. The EDGE2D/NIMBUS code modelled the carbon migration in both experiments. This paper describes this modelling and identifies a number of important migration pathways: (1) deposition and erosion near the injection location, (2) migration through the main chamber SOL, (3) migration through the private flux region aided by E x B drifts, and (4) neutral migration originating near the strike points. In H-Mode, type I ELMs are calculated to influence the migration by enhancing erosion during the ELM peak and increasing the long-range migration immediately following the ELM. The erosion/re-deposition cycle along the outer target leads to a multistep migration of 13C towards the separatrix which is called 'walking'. This walking created carbon neutrals at the outer strike point and led to 13C deposition in the private flux region. Although several migration pathways have been identified, quantitative analyses are hindered by experimental uncertainty in divertor leakage, and the lack of measurements at locations such as gaps and shadowed regions

  13. Modeling of Carbon Migration During JET Injection Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, J. D.; Likonen, J.; Coad, P.; Rubel, M.; Widdowson, A.; Airila, M.; Andrew, P.; Brezinsek, S.; Corrigan, G.; Esser, H. G.; Jachmich, S.; Kallenbach, A.; Kirschner, A.; Kreter, A.; Matthews, G. F.; Philipps, V.; Pitts, R. A.; Spence, J.; Stamp, M.; Wiesen, S.

    2008-10-15

    JET has performed two dedicated carbon migration experiments on the final run day of separate campaigns (2001 and 2004) using {sup 13}CH{sub 4} methane injected into repeated discharges. The EDGE2D/NIMBUS code modelled the carbon migration in both experiments. This paper describes this modelling and identifies a number of important migration pathways: (1) deposition and erosion near the injection location, (2) migration through the main chamber SOL, (3) migration through the private flux region aided by E x B drifts, and (4) neutral migration originating near the strike points. In H-Mode, type I ELMs are calculated to influence the migration by enhancing erosion during the ELM peak and increasing the long-range migration immediately following the ELM. The erosion/re-deposition cycle along the outer target leads to a multistep migration of {sup 13}C towards the separatrix which is called 'walking'. This walking created carbon neutrals at the outer strike point and led to {sup 13}C deposition in the private flux region. Although several migration pathways have been identified, quantitative analyses are hindered by experimental uncertainty in divertor leakage, and the lack of measurements at locations such as gaps and shadowed regions.

  14. Atmospheric carbon injection linked to end-Triassic mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Micha; Bonis, Nina R; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Kürschner, Wolfram M

    2011-07-22

    The end-Triassic mass extinction (~201.4 million years ago), marked by terrestrial ecosystem turnover and up to ~50% loss in marine biodiversity, has been attributed to intensified volcanic activity during the break-up of Pangaea. Here, we present compound-specific carbon-isotope data of long-chain n-alkanes derived from waxes of land plants, showing a ~8.5 per mil negative excursion, coincident with the extinction interval. These data indicate strong carbon-13 depletion of the end-Triassic atmosphere, within only 10,000 to 20,000 years. The magnitude and rate of this carbon-cycle disruption can be explained by the injection of at least ~12 × 10(3) gigatons of isotopically depleted carbon as methane into the atmosphere. Concurrent vegetation changes reflect strong warming and an enhanced hydrological cycle. Hence, end-Triassic events are robustly linked to methane-derived massive carbon release and associated climate change. PMID:21778394

  15. An injection system for a linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An injection system for the Linear Accelerator is developed using the parameters of machines at the Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas and the Instituto Militar de Engenharia. The proposed system consists basically of a prebuncher and a chopper. The pre-buncher is used to improve the energy resolution and also to increase the accelerator target current. The chopper is used to remove from the beam the electrons that have no possibility of attaining the desired energy and that are usually lost in the walls and the cavity tube, thus producing undesirable background. Theoretical development of the chopper is performed in order to obtain its dimensions for future construction. The complete design the pre-buncher and its feed supply system and the experimental verication of its performance are also presented. It is intended to give the necessary information for the design and construction of the complete injection system proposed. (Author)

  16. Injection System To Damping Ring Of An Electron-positron Injection Complex Vepp5

    CERN Document Server

    Butakov, A I; Podgorny, F V

    2004-01-01

    In this paper elements of an injection system to a damping ring of an injection complex VEPP-5, and a status of work for today also are briefly described. For last year the large work on assembly of the injection system has been done: trial switching on and tests of the system element wise, and work of all elements in common also are made.

  17. Injection Control System of HLS Storage Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, G; Li, W; Li Chuan; Li, K; Shang, L; Liu, Gongfa; Li, Jingyi; Li, Weimin; Li, Chuan; Li, Kaihong; Shang, Lei

    2001-01-01

    The injection control system of Hefei Light Source (HLS) storage ring is a subsystem of the upgraded HLS control system, which is based upon EPICS. Three programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are used as device controllers, which control one septum modulator and four kicker modulators of HLS storage ring. An Industrial PC is used as Input/Output Controller (IOC) and it connects the PLCs with serial communication (RS232 mode) over fibre. A PC with Linux is used as operator interface (OPI), operator application are running on it. The control system was completed in July 2000. The commissioning shows that the control system is reliable and easy operational.

  18. Electrical and dielectric properties of foam injection-molded polypropylene/multiwalled carbon nanotube composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combination of high dielectric permittivity (ε′) and low dielectric loss (tan δ) is required for charge storage applications. In percolative systems such as conductive polymer composites, however, obtaining high ε′ and low tan δ is very challenging due to the sharp insulation-conduction transition near the threshold region. Due to the particular arrangement of conductive fillers induced by both foaming and injection molding processes, they may address this issue. Therefore, this work evaluates the application of foam injection molding process in fabricating polymer nanocomposites for energy storage. Polypropylene-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PP-MWCNT) composites were prepared by melt mixing and foamed in an injection molding process. Electrical conductivity (σ), ε′ and tan δ were then characterized. Also, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) was used to investigate the carbon nanotube’s arrangement as well as cellular morphology. The results showed that foam injection-molded composites exhibited highly superior dielectric properties to those of solid counterparts. For instance, foamed samples had ε′=68.3 and tan δ =0.05 (at 1.25 vol.% MWCNT), as opposed to ε′=17.8 and tan δ=0.04 in solid samples (at 2.56 vol.% MWCNT). The results of this work reveal that high performance dielectric nanocomposites can be developed using foam injection molding technologies for charge storage applications

  19. Electrical and dielectric properties of foam injection-molded polypropylene/multiwalled carbon nanotube composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameli, A.; Nofar, M.; Saniei, M.; Hossieny, N.; Park, C. B. [Microcellular Plastics Manufacturing Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King’s College Road, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3G8 (Canada); Pötschke, P. [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V. (IPF), Hohe Strasse 6, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-05-22

    A combination of high dielectric permittivity (ε′) and low dielectric loss (tan δ) is required for charge storage applications. In percolative systems such as conductive polymer composites, however, obtaining high ε′ and low tan δ is very challenging due to the sharp insulation-conduction transition near the threshold region. Due to the particular arrangement of conductive fillers induced by both foaming and injection molding processes, they may address this issue. Therefore, this work evaluates the application of foam injection molding process in fabricating polymer nanocomposites for energy storage. Polypropylene-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PP-MWCNT) composites were prepared by melt mixing and foamed in an injection molding process. Electrical conductivity (σ), ε′ and tan δ were then characterized. Also, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) was used to investigate the carbon nanotube’s arrangement as well as cellular morphology. The results showed that foam injection-molded composites exhibited highly superior dielectric properties to those of solid counterparts. For instance, foamed samples had ε′=68.3 and tan δ =0.05 (at 1.25 vol.% MWCNT), as opposed to ε′=17.8 and tan δ=0.04 in solid samples (at 2.56 vol.% MWCNT). The results of this work reveal that high performance dielectric nanocomposites can be developed using foam injection molding technologies for charge storage applications.

  20. Automated Detection System for SQL Injection Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr K.V.N.Sunitha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many software systems have evolved to include a Web-based component that makes them available to the public via the Internet and can expose them to a variety of Web-based attacks. One of these attacks is SQL Injection vulnerability (SQLIV, which can give attackers unrestricted access to the databases that underlie Web applications and has become increasingly frequent and serious. The intent is that Web applications will limit the kinds of queries that can be generated to a safe subset of all possible queries, regardless of what input users provide. SQL Injection attacks are possible due to the design drawbacks of the web sites, which interact with back-end databases. Successful attacks may damage more. We introduce a system that deals with new automated technique for preventing SQLIA based on the novel concept of regular expressions is to detect SQL Injection attacks. The proposed system can detect the attacks that are from Internet and Insider Attacks, by analyzing the packets of the network servers.

  1. Applications of thin carbon coatings and films in injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Eusebio Duarte

    In this research, the technical feasibility of two novel applications of thin carbon coatings is demonstrated. The first application consists of using thin carbon coatings on molds for molding ultra-thin plastic parts (EMI) shielding for plastic parts using in mold coated nanoparticle thin films or nanopapers to create a conductive top layer. During this research, the technical feasibility of a new approach was proven which provides injection molding of ultra-thin parts at lower pressures, without the need of fast heating/fast cooling or other expensive mold modification. An in-house developed procedure by other members of our group, was employed for coating the mold surface using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) resulting in a graphene coating with carbide bonding to the mold surface. The coating resulted in a significant decrease of surface friction and consequently easiness of flow when compared to their uncoated counterparts. Thermoplastic polymers and their composites are a very attractive alternative but are hindered by the non-conductive nature of polymers. There are two general approaches used to date to achieve EMI shielding for plastic products. One is to spray a conductive metal coating onto the plastic surface forming a layer that must maintain its shielding effectiveness (SE), and its adhesion to the plastic throughout the expected life of the product. However, metal coatings add undesirable weight and tend to corrode over time. Furthermore, scratching the coating may create shielding failure; therefore, a protective topcoat may be required. The other approach is to use polymer composites filled with conductive fillers such as carbon black (CB), carbon nanofiber (CNF), and carbon nanotube (CNT). While conductive fillers may increase the electrical conductivity of polymer composites, the loading of such fillers often cannot reach a high level (EMI shielding of plastic parts was proven using in mold coated nanoparticle thin films or nanopapers to create a

  2. BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998

  3. Numerical Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Injection in the Western Section of the Farnsworth Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Mark D.; McPherson, Brian J.; Grigg, Reid B.; Ampomah, William; Appold, Martin S.

    2014-05-05

    Numerical simulation is an invaluable analytical tool for scientists and engineers in making predictions about of the fate of carbon dioxide injected into deep geologic formations for long-term storage. Current numerical simulators for assessing storage in deep saline formations have capabilities for modeling strongly coupled processes involving multifluid flow, heat transfer, chemistry, and rock mechanics in geologic media. Except for moderate pressure conditions, numerical simulators for deep saline formations only require the tracking of two immiscible phases and a limited number of phase components, beyond those comprising the geochemical reactive system. The requirements for numerically simulating the utilization and storage of carbon dioxide in partially depleted petroleum reservoirs are more numerous than those for deep saline formations. The minimum number of immiscible phases increases to three, the number of phase components may easily increase fourfold, and the coupled processes of heat transfer, geochemistry, and geomechanics remain. Public and scientific confidence in the ability of numerical simulators used for carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline formations has advanced via a natural progression of the simulators being proven against benchmark problems, code comparisons, laboratory-scale experiments, pilot-scale injections, and commercial-scale injections. This paper describes a new numerical simulator for the scientific investigation of carbon dioxide utilization and storage in partially depleted petroleum reservoirs, with an emphasis on its unique features for scientific investigations; and documents the numerical simulation of the utilization of carbon dioxide for enhanced oil recovery in the western section of the Farnsworth Unit and represents an early stage in the progression of numerical simulators for carbon utilization and storage in depleted oil reservoirs.

  4. Permeability variation characteristics of coal after injecting carbon dioxide into a coal seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Xiaoming; Li Quanzhong; Wang Yanbin; Gao Shasha

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical basis for the optimization of carbon dioxide injection parameters and the development of the drainage system can be provided by identifying the permeability change characteristic of coal and rock after injection of carbon dioxide into the coal seam. Sihe, Yuwu, and Changcun mines were used as research sites. Scanning electron microscopy and permeability instruments were used to measure coal properties such as permeability and surface structure of the coal samples at different pH values of carbon dioxide solution and over different timescales. The results show that the reaction between minerals in coal and carbonate solution exhibit positive and negative aspects of permeability-the dissolution reaction between carbonate minerals in coal and acid solution improves the conductivity of coal whilst, on the other hand, the clay minerals in the coal (mainly including montmorillonite, illite and kaolinite) exhibit expansion as a result of ion exchange with the H+in acid solution, which has a negative effect on the per-meability of the coal. The permeability of coal samples increased at first and then decreased with immer-sion time, and when the soaking time is 2–3 months the permeability of the coal reached a maximum. In general, for coals with permeabilities less than 0.2 mD or greater than 2 mD, the effect on the permeabil-ity is low;when the permeability of the coal is in the range 0.2–2 mD, the effect on the permeability is highest. Research into permeability change characteristics can provide a theoretical basis for carbon diox-ide injection under different reservoir permeability conditions and subsequent drainage.

  5. 75 FR 75059 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Injection and Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 230 / Wednesday, December 1... sequestration of carbon dioxide and all other facilities that conduct injection of carbon dioxide. This rule... may determine''). These regulations will affect owners or operators of carbon dioxide (CO...

  6. Enhanced electronic injection in organic light-emitting diodes by incorporating silver nanoclusters and cesium carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying-Chung; Gao, Chia-Yuan [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kan-Lin [Department of Electronic Engineering, Fortune Institute of Technology, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Sze, Po-Wen [Department of Electro-Optical Science and Engineering, Kao Yuan University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chien-Jung, E-mail: chien@nuk.edu.tw [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • The localized electric field around SNCs is enhanced. • When the cesium carbonate/silver nanoclusters/cesium carbonate electron-injection structure replaces the cesium carbonate electron-injection structure, higher electron-injection ability is obtained. • The structure for efficient electron injection is critical to characteristics of the device. - Abstract: The influence of the cesium carbonate/silver nanoclusters/cesium carbonate electron-injection structure (CSC-EIS) on the performance of organic light-emitting diodes is investigated in this study. The silver nanoclusters (SNCs) are introduced between the electron-injection layers by means of thermal evaporation. When the CSC-EIS replaces the cesium carbonate electron-injection structure, higher electron-injection ability is obtained because the electron-injection barrier between the cathode and the electron-transport layer is remarkably reduced from 1.2 to 0 eV. In addition, surface plasmon resonance effect will cause the enhanced localized electric field around the SNCs, resulting that electron-injection ability is further enhanced from the cathode to the emitting layer.

  7. A flow injection system, comprising a biosensor based on a screen-printed carbon electrode containing Meldola's Blue-Reinecke salt coated with glucose dehydrogenase, for the measurement of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, M; Serban, S; Biddle, N; Pittson, R; Drago, G A; Hart, J P

    2010-01-15

    A biosensor for the measurement of glucose in serum has been developed, based on a screen-printed carbon electrode modified with Meldola's Blue-Reinecke salt, coated with the enzyme glucose dehydrogenase (from Bacillus sp.), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide coenzyme (NAD+). A cellulose acetate layer was deposited on top of the device to act as a permselective membrane. The biosensor was incorporated into a commercially available, thin-layer, amperometric flow cell operated at a potential of only +0.05 V versus Ag/AgCl. The mobile phase consisted of 0.2 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 0.1 M potassium chloride solution, and a flow rate of 0.8 ml min(-1) was used throughout the investigation. The biosensor response was linear over the range of 0.075-30 mM glucose, with the former representing the detection limit. The precision of the system was determined by carrying out 20 repeat injections of a 5-mM glucose standard, and the calculated coefficient of variation was 3.9%. It was demonstrated that this biosensor system could be applied to the direct measurement of glucose in serum without pretreatment. Therefore, this would allow high-throughput analysis, at low cost, for this clinically important analyte. PMID:19766585

  8. Development of pellet injection systems for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing innovative pellet injection systems for plasma fueling experiments on magnetic fusion confinement devices for about 20 years. Recently, the ORNL development has focused on meeting the complex fueling needs of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). In this paper, we describe the ongoing research and development activities that will lead to a ITER prototype pellet injector test stand. The present effort addresses three main areas: (1) an improved pellet feed and delivery system for centrifuge injectors, (2) a long-pulse (up to steady-state) hydrogen extruder system, and (3) tritium extruder technology. The final prototype system must be fully tritium compatible and will be used to demonstrate the operating parameters and the reliability required for the ITER fueling application

  9. Performance Analysis of Cold Energy Recovery from CO2 Injection in Ship-Based Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwalong You

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon capture and storage (CCS technology is one of the practical solutions for mitigating the effects of global warming. When captured CO2 is injected into storage sites, the CO2 is subjected to a heating process. In a conventional CO2 injection system, CO2 cold energy is wasted during this heating process. This study proposes a new CO2 injection system that takes advantage of the cold energy using the Rankine cycle. The study compared the conventional system with the new CO2 injection system in terms of specific net power consumption, exergy efficiency, and life-cycle cost (LCC to estimate the economic effects. The results showed that the new system reduced specific net power consumption and yielded higher exergy efficiency. The LCC of the new system was more economical. Several cases were examined corresponding to different conditions, specifically, discharge pressure and seawater temperature. This information may affect decision-making when CCS projects are implemented.

  10. Injection System design for a hadron therapy Synchrotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-Quan; SONG Ming-Tao; WEI Bao-Wen

    2008-01-01

    A synchrotron is designed for tumour therapy with C6+ ions or proton.Its injector is a cyclotron, which delivers C5+or H+2 ions to the synchrotron.After comparing the methods of the single-turn injection, the multi-turn injection and the stripping injection,this paper chooses the stripping injection method.In addition,the concept design of the injection system is presented,in which the synchrotron lattice is optimized.

  11. Secondary air injection system and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ko-Jen; Walter, Darrell J.

    2014-08-19

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a secondary air injection system includes a first conduit in fluid communication with at least one first exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine and a second conduit in fluid communication with at least one second exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine, wherein the at least one first and second exhaust passages are in fluid communication with a turbocharger. The system also includes an air supply in fluid communication with the first and second conduits and a flow control device that controls fluid communication between the air supply and the first conduit and the second conduit and thereby controls fluid communication to the first and second exhaust passages of the internal combustion engine.

  12. Monitoring system of ECCS injection system upon periodical inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ECCS reactor injection system is automatically monitored upon periodical inspection. That is, a memory device stores information of the stand-by state of the ECCS reactor injection system upon periodical inspection. A data input means inputs monitoring item data in the present state. A required monitoring target is designated by the input means. A judging means compares the data of the monitoring target with the stand-by state information successively, to judge whether or not the monitoring target is in a predetermined stand-by state. A display means displays the result of the judgment. In the present system thus constituted, since it can be automatically judged whether or not the ECCS reactor injection system, as a monitoring target, is in the predetermined stand-by state, it is possible to reduce the operator's burden and improve the safety. (I.S.)

  13. Effect of ethanolamine injection on wall thinning rate of PWR carbon steel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For pH control of PWR secondary system water chemistry, some plants have changed to ethanolamine injection. The purpose of this work was to understand the effect of changing water chemistry on wall thinning rate of the PWR secondary system due to flow accelerated corrosion. For that purpose, evaluations of water chemistry were carried out by a mass balance calculation, wall thinning rate measurement by a rotary disk test and wall thinning rate evaluation based on calculated magnetite solubility. As a result, it was found to be effective to inhibit the wall thinning rate of the PWR secondary system due to flow accelerated corrosion by ethanolamine injection, but it was not sufficiently effect to neglect wall thinning rate due to flow accelerated corrosion. The effect of the wall thinning rate inhibition also varied greatly for each component of the PWR secondary system. It was found that maintenance of the carbon steel used for the PWR secondary system was still required under ethanolamine injection condition. (author)

  14. Texas Experimental Tokamak impurity injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary investigation of impurity transport and measurements of ion temperature are facilitated by injecting controlled quantities of selected impurities into tokamaks as diagnostic probes. The impurity injector now in use on the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) was designed for reliable, automatic operation. In this system, a thin film of the desired impurity is placed near the edge of the plasma. The light pulse from a Q-switched ruby laser is directed to a preselected point on the target. A small part of the impurity film evaporates and drifts into the plasma. The laser beam may be scanned to many points on the target so that enough impurity pulses can be obtained from a single target to allow a full day's operation. The scanning assembly and associated electronics are designed to operate with minimum intervention and to facilitate rapid repair and modification. The system is fully automatic but also incorporates both remote and local manual control capabilities to permit system calibration and troubleshooting. In the event of component failure, its self-diagnostic capability can indicate the area for repair. The system is demonstrating its effectiveness and reliability in the support of three different experimental programs. Engineering aspects of the system are discussed in this paper

  15. Beam shaping element for compact fiber injection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichman, L.S.; Dickey, F.M.; Shagam, R.N.

    2000-01-05

    Injection of high power, multi-mode laser profiles into a fiber optic delivery system requires controlling a number of injection parameters to maximize throughput and minimize concerns for optical damage both at the entrance and exit faces of the fiber optic. A simple method for simultaneously achieving a compact fiber injection geometry and control of these injection parameters, independent of the input source characteristics, is provided by a refractive lenslet array and simple injection lens configuration. Design criteria together with analytical and experimental results for the refractive lenslet array and short focal length injection lens are presented. This arrangement provides a uniform spatial intensity distribution at the fiber injection plane to a large degree independent of the source mode structure, spatial profile, divergence, size, and/or alignment to the injection system. This technique has application to a number of laser systems where uniform illumination of a target or remote delivery of high peak power is desired.

  16. Experimental study of enhancing coalbed methane recovery by carbon dioxide injection driving methane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Dao-cheng; LIU Jun-feng

    2010-01-01

    In order to enhance coalbed methane recovery, taking a self-developed largecale simulation system for the platform, a modeling experiment of driving CH4 by CO2 gas injection was studied. The results of experiment indicates that there is a significant lag effect of adsorption and desorption on gas, the gas pressure is changed more rapidly in the process of carbon dioxide adsorption of coal than methane adsorption of coal; After the injection of carbon dioxide, compare with methane single desorption. In an early stage,speed and amount of methane single desorption are greater than the speed and amount of displacement desorption, the speed and amount of displacement desorption became greater. In the process of replacement, CH4 concentration constantly declined, while CO2concentration constantly rose. In the process of CO2 gas injection, the temperature of coal have been significantly increased, it is more beneficial to make CH4 gas molecules become free from the adsorbed state when temperature is increased. Under the pressure step-down at the same rate, using the method of CO2 driving CH4, compared with the method of conventional pressure step-down, the desorption rate of CH4 in coal can be raised about 2.13 times, at the same time, a lot of greenhouse gas CO2 will also be buried in the ground, there is a very significant environmental benefit.

  17. Orientation of Carbon Fibers in Copper matrix Produced by Powder Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Shirazi M.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fiber orientation is a big challenge in short fiber reinforced composites. Powder injection molding (PIM process has some intrinsic fiber alignment associated with it. During PIM process fibers in skin region of moldings are aligned as these regions experience higher shear flow caused by the mold walls. Fibers in the core region remain randomly aligned as these regions are far from mold walls and experience lesser shear flow. In this study short carbon fiber (CF reinforced copper matrix composite was developed by PIM process. Two copper composite feedstock formulations were prepared having 5 vol% and 10 vol% CFs and a wax based binder system. Fiber orientation was controlled during injection molding by using a modified mold that has a diverging sprue. The sprue creates converging flow when feedstock enters into the mold cavity. Fiber orientation was analysed after molding using FESEM. The orientation of fibers can be controlled by controlling flow of feedstock into the mold.

  18. Postoperative Systemic Dissemination of Injected Elemental Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Suk-Hyung; Park, Seung Won; Moon, Kyung-Yoon

    2011-01-01

    There were only a few reports of mercury on pulmonary artery. However, there is no data on surgery related mercury dissemination. The objective of the present article is to describe one case of postoperative injected mercury dissemination. A 19-year-old man presented severe neck pain including meningeal irritation sign and abdominal pain after injection of mercury for the purpose of suicide. Radiologic study showed injected mercury in the neck involving high cervical epidural space and subcut...

  19. A seasonality trigger for carbon injection at the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Eldrett

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM represents a ~170 kyr episode of anomalous global warmth ~56 Ma ago. The PETM is associated with rapid and massive injections of 13C-depleted carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system reflected as a prominent negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE in sedimentary components. Earth's surface and deep ocean waters warmed by ~5 °C, of which part may have occurred prior to the CIE. However, few records document continental climatic trends and changes in seasonality have not been documented. Here we present the first high-resolution vegetation reconstructions for the PETM, based on bioclimatic analysis of terrestrially-derived spore and pollen assemblages preserved in an expanded section from the Central North Sea. Our data indicate reductions in boreal conifers and an increase in mesothermal to megathermal taxa, reflecting a shift towards wetter and warmer climate. We also record an increase in summer temperatures, greater in magnitude than the rise in mean annual temperature changes. Within the CIE, vegetation varies significantly with initial increases in epiphytic and climbing ferns, and development of extensive wetlands, followed by abundance of Carya spp. indicative of broadleaf forest colonization. Critically, the change in vegetation we report occurs prior to the CIE, and is concomitant with anomalous marine ecological change, as represented by the occurrence of Apectodinium augustum. This suggests that amplifications of seasonal extremes triggered carbon injection.

  20. The Injection Bumper System for LEIR

    CERN Document Server

    Fowler, A

    2004-01-01

    To satisfy the ion beam luminosity requirements for CERN's future Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a small accumulator, the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR), is being built in the injector chain of accelerators. LEIR will use a combined longitudinal and transverse multi-turn injection scheme which requires a bumper system comprising four individually pulsed dipole magnets. The paper discusses the bumper system, in particular the power supplies which will produce a pulsed current linearly decreasing from 1.2kA to zero in a time variable between 120µs and 300µs. Each power supply employs a primary discharge circuit, comprising a storage capacitor, an IGBT switch and the magnet load inductance, to establish the peak current, and a free-wheel circuit in parallel with the magnet, comprising a diode and capacitor, to produce the linear current slope. A novel feature of the circuit is the use of a variable bias voltage on the free-wheel capacitor, allowing continuous variation of the slope duration.

  1. Carbon migration during methane injection experiments under ITER divertor-relevant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bystrov, K., E-mail: k.bystrov@differ.nl [FOM Institute DIFFER – Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Vegt, L.B. van der; Swaaij, G.A. van [FOM Institute DIFFER – Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Zaharia, T. [FOM Institute DIFFER – Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Plasma and Material Processing, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kuang, Y. [Utrecht University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nanophotonics – Physics of Devices, P.O. Box 80 000, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Goedheer, W.J.; De Temmerman, G. [FOM Institute DIFFER – Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    Methane was injected into a high density low temperature hydrogen plasma beam (n{sub e} ⩽ 10{sup 21} m{sup −3}, T{sub e} ∼ 1 eV) in Pilot-PSI to study carbon transport and provide a benchmark case for modeling. Gas injection was performed through molybdenum samples that acted as collectors of redeposits. The CH A–X band emission plumes are localized near the injection hole with a typical width of ∼3 mm and a decay length of ∼1.5 mm. The geometry of the emission profile is not influenced by the electron temperature. The redeposition efficiency and codeposit structure depend on the surface temperature. Surface temperatures below 500 K promote growth of a-C:H films across the surface and lead to redeposition of up to 38% of injected carbon. Above 800 K the redeposition efficiency decreases strongly and carbon microparticles are found near the injection hole.

  2. Carbon migration during methane injection experiments under ITER divertor-relevant conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methane was injected into a high density low temperature hydrogen plasma beam (ne ⩽ 1021 m−3, Te ∼ 1 eV) in Pilot-PSI to study carbon transport and provide a benchmark case for modeling. Gas injection was performed through molybdenum samples that acted as collectors of redeposits. The CH A–X band emission plumes are localized near the injection hole with a typical width of ∼3 mm and a decay length of ∼1.5 mm. The geometry of the emission profile is not influenced by the electron temperature. The redeposition efficiency and codeposit structure depend on the surface temperature. Surface temperatures below 500 K promote growth of a-C:H films across the surface and lead to redeposition of up to 38% of injected carbon. Above 800 K the redeposition efficiency decreases strongly and carbon microparticles are found near the injection hole

  3. Design of H- injection system for FFAG accelerator at KURRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI), a neutron source based on the accelerator driven subcritical reactor (ADSR) concept has been proposed in 1996. Aiming to demonstrate the basic feasibility of ADSR, proton Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) accelerator complex as a neutron production driver has been constructed and the ADSR experiment has been started in March 2009. In order to upgrade beam intensity, multi-turn charge exchange injection system for scaling FFAG accelerator is being studied. The injection scheme is converted from orbit shift single-turn injection to H- multi-turn injection. The method to escape the stripping foil is orbit shift by rf acceleration. The 11 MeV H- beam is injected from linac and is accelerated up to 100MeV in FFAG main ring. In this paper, the detail of injection system is described and feasibility of such a low energy H- injection system is discussed. (author)

  4. 75 FR 18575 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Injection and Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ...EPA is proposing a rule to require reporting on carbon dioxide (CO2) injection and geologic sequestration (GS). The proposed rulemaking does not require control of greenhouse gases (GHGs), rather it requires only monitoring and reporting of CO2 injection and geologic sequestration. EPA first proposed that suppliers of CO2 be subject to mandatory GHG reporting......

  5. Injection and extraction computer control system HIRFL-SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The injection and extraction computer control system of HIRFL-SSC (Heavy Ion Research Facility of Lanzhou-Separated Sector Cyclotron) have been introduced. Software is described briefly. Hardware structure is mainly presented. The computer control system realize that the adjustment of injection and extraction can done by PC and operate interface is Windows style. The system can make the adjustment convenient and veracious

  6. Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) injection deflector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a pulsed magnetic deflector system planned for the injection system of the PSR. Two sets of magnets, appropriately placed in the optical systems of both the ring and the injection transport line, provide control of the rate at which particles are injected into a given portion of transverse phase space and limit the interaction of stored beam with the injection stripping foil. High-current modulators that produce relatively complex waveforms are required for this purpose. Solid-state drivers using direct feedback to produce the necessary waveforms are discussed as replacements for the more conventional high-voltage tube technology

  7. Selection of alternative material for common rail direct injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Senguttuvan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Common rail direct fuel injection is a modern variant of direct fuel injection system for petrol and diesel engines. The common rail system prototype was developed in the late 1960s by Robert Huber of Switzerland and the technology further developed by Dr. Marco. In petrol engine MPFI technology was developed and implemented in earlier days. Basically common rail tube was fabricated by steel for petrol engines. In the current study Steel, Brass, Aluminum alloy a356 and ABS materials were analyzed separately and aluminum is found the best material among the steel, brass and ABS material for common rail injection tube. Keywords: Common Rail Injection System, Alternate Material.

  8. An optimization of injecting system in die casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    After many years of development, die casting technology of metallic materials has been matured. In this paper,the lower-support and its injecting system were created with commercial software. And then the simulation software FLOW3D was applied to study the flow behavior of the melt during injection filling process. Both temperature field and defect distribution were simulated. Based on these results, the better injecting system with two additional overflows was adopted.

  9. Flow injection based microfluidic device with carbon nanotube electrode for rapid salbutamol detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuwan, Chanpen; Wisitsoraat, Anurat; Maturos, Thitima; Phokharatkul, Disayut; Sappat, Assawapong; Jaruwongrungsee, Kata; Lomas, Tanom; Tuantranont, Adisorn

    2009-09-15

    A microfabicated flow injection device has been developed for in-channel electrochemical detection (ECD) of a beta-agonist, namely salbutamol. The microfluidic system consists of PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) microchannel and electrochemical electrodes formed on glass substrate. The carbon nanotube (CNT) on gold layer as working electrode, silver as reference electrode and platinum as auxiliary electrode were deposited on a glass substrate. Silver, platinum, gold and stainless steel catalyst layers were coated by DC-sputtering. CNTs were then grown on the glass substance by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with gravity effect and water-assisted etching. 100-microm-deep and 500-microm-wide PDMS microchannels fabricated by SU-8 molding and casting were then bonded on glass substrate by oxygen plasma treatment. Flow injection and ECD of salbutamol was performed with the amperometric detection mode for in-channel detection of salbutamol. The influences of flow rate, injection volume, and detection potential on the response of current signal were optimized. Analytical characteristics, such as sensitivity, repeatability and dynamic range have been evaluated. Fast and highly sensitive detection of salbutamol have been achieved. Thus, the proposed combination of the efficient CNT electrode and miniaturized lab-on-a-chip is a powerful platform for beta-agonists detection. PMID:19615498

  10. Activated carbon injection in spray dryer/ESP/FF for mercury and toxics control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felsvang, K.; Gleiser, R.; Juip, G.; Nielsen, K.K. (Niro USA, Columbia, MD (United States))

    1994-08-01

    In the last decade, dry scrubbing by spray dryer absorption (SDA) has been applied to more than 17 000 MW of coal-fired boilers, and several hundred municipal solid waste (MSW) and hazardous waste plants. The paper describes the recent development in the air toxics removal capability of dry scrubbing for coal-fired utility plants. Results of a study characterizing the inherent mercury removal efficiency of full-scale dry scrubbers in Europe and the United States are presented, as well as results of activated carbon injection tests performed at one full-scale installation. The paper further reports results of two pilot plant research programs. One pilot plant was equipped with an electrostatic precipitator, the other pilot plant with a baghouse. The paper reports results of activated carbon injection and identifies the parameters and conditions important for achieving high mercury removal in a dry FGD system. Options for control of mercury on eastern and western US coals are suggested. Results of mercury speciation are also given. Removal results of other vapor phase toxic trace metals, such as boron and selenium, are presented. Finally, the paper makes reference to the results of two mercury revolatilization studies. 24 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Predicting and Evaluating the Effectiveness of Ocean Carbon Sequestration by Direct Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldeira, K; Herzog, H J; Wickett, M E

    2001-04-24

    Direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the ocean is a potentially effective carbon sequestration strategy. Therefore, we want to understand the effectiveness of oceanic injection and develop the appropriate analytic framework to allow us to compare the effectiveness of this strategy with other carbon management options. Here, after a brief review of direct oceanic injection, we estimate the effectiveness of ocean carbon sequestration using one dimensional and three dimensional ocean models. We discuss a new measure of effectiveness of carbon sequestration in a leaky reservoir, which we denote sequestration potential. The sequestration potential is the fraction of global warning cost avoided by sequestration in a reservoir. We show how these measures apply to permanent sequestration and sequestration in leaky reservoirs, such as the oceans, terrestrial biosphere, and some geologic formations. Under the assumptions of a constant cost of carbon emission and a 4% discount rate, injecting 900 m deep in the ocean avoids {approx}90% of the global warming cost associated with atmospheric emission; an injection 1700 m deep would avoid > 99 % of the global warming cost. Hence, for discount rates in the range commonly used by commercial enterprises, oceanic direct injection may be nearly as economically effective as permanent sequestration at avoiding global warming costs.

  12. A volumetric flow sensor for automotive injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For further optimization of the automotive power train of diesel engines, advanced combustion processes require a highly flexible injection system, provided e.g. by the common rail (CR) injection technique. In the past, the feasibility to implement injection nozzle volumetric flow sensors based on the thermo-resistive measurement principle has been demonstrated up to injection pressures of 135 MPa (1350 bar). To evaluate the transient behaviour of the system-integrated flow sensors as well as an injection amount indicator used as a reference method, hydraulic simulations on the system level are performed for a CR injection system. Experimentally determined injection timings were found to be in good agreement with calculated values, especially for the novel sensing element which is directly implemented into the hydraulic system. For the first time pressure oscillations occurring after termination of the injection pulse, predicted theoretically, could be verified directly in the nozzle. In addition, the injected amount of fuel is monitored with the highest resolution ever reported in the literature

  13. Variable volume combustor with pre-nozzle fuel injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keener, Christopher Paul; Johnson, Thomas Edward; McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2016-09-06

    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of fuel nozzles, a pre-nozzle fuel injection system supporting the fuel nozzles, and a linear actuator to maneuver the fuel nozzles and the pre-nozzle fuel injection system.

  14. Optimization of refrigeration system with gas-injected scroll compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Baolong; Shi, Wenxing; Han, Linjun; Li, Xianting [Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Gas refrigerant injection has been proven as an effective method to improve the performance of the scroll compressor and its refrigeration system under high compression ratio working conditions. Much research on the injected scroll compressor and its system has been conducted, but the universal control and design method is still lacking. A model of the refrigeration system with a gas-injected scroll compressor is developed in this paper. With this model, the effects of gas injection on the system and component parameters are investigated. Based on the identified evaporator characteristics and thermodynamic analysis, a set of general principles for the design and operation of the refrigeration or heat pump system with a gas-injected scroll compressor is proposed. (author)

  15. Performance Enhancement of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Electron-Injection Materials of Metal Carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jong-Yeol; Kim, Tae Wan; Kim, Gwi-Yeol; Lee, Su-Min; Shrestha, Bhanu; Hong, Jin-Woong

    2016-05-01

    Performance of organic light-emitting diodes was investigated depending on the electron-injection materials of metal carbonates (Li2CO3 and Cs2CO3 ); and number of layers. In order to improve the device efficiency, two types of devices were manufactured by using the hole-injection material (Teflon-amorphous fluoropolymer -AF) and electron-injection materials; one is a two-layer reference device ( ITO/Teflon-AF/Alq3/Al ) and the other is a three-layer device (ITO/Teflon-AF/Alq3/metal carbonate/Al). From the results of the efficiency for the devices with hole-injection layer and electron-injection layer, it was found that the electron-injection layer affects the electrical properties of the device more than the hole-injection layer. The external-quantum efficiency for the three-layer device with Li2CO3 and Cs2CO3 layer is improved by approximately six and eight times, respectively, compared with that of the two-layer reference device. It is thought that a use of electron-injection layer increases recombination rate of charge carriers by the active injection of electrons and the blocking of holes.

  16. Influence of ph on corrosion control of carbon steel by peroxide injection in sour water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Martins Magda; Baptista, Walmar; Joia, Carlos Jose Bandeira de Mello [PROTEMP - PETROBRAS/CENPES, Cidade Universitaria, Quadra 7, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 21949-900 (Brazil); Ponciano, Gomes Jose Antonio da Cunha [Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais-COPPE/UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Sour hydrogen damage is considered the most important corrosive process in the light-ends recovery section of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Units (FCCU). Corrosion in this condition is due to heavy gas oil that originates great amount of contaminants, such as H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3} and HCN. Hydrogen absorption is promoted by the presence of free cyanides in the environment. The attenuation of this process requires the use of some inhibitors, such as oxygen, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) or commercial polysulfides. The effect of these compounds is to neutralize free cyanides (CN{sup -}) into thio-sulfides (SCN{sup -}). When peroxide injection is selected, cyanide concentration in sour water has been used as key parameter to start the peroxide introduction. However, the importance of pH in this system has been pointed out by many authors. The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of pH when peroxide injection is carried out in less alkaline conditions of sour water. Electrochemical techniques - like anodic polarization and hydrogen permeation tests - and weight loss measurements were used to evaluate the effectiveness of corrosion control of carbon steel. It was concluded that at pH 7.5 peroxide injection can drive to an increment of the corrosion rate. Besides that, it was concluded that hydrogen permeation into the metal is promoted. Both detrimental effects were due to elemental sulfur generation in this pH range. The adoption of pH as a key parameter for peroxide injection is then suggested. (authors)

  17. Study on Software Fault Injection Based on Onboard System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENGJunjie; HONGBingrong; YUANChengjun; LIAiguo; WEIZhenhua; QIAOYongqiang

    2005-01-01

    Fault injection techniques are the effective methods to evaluate the dependability and validate the fault tolerance mechanisms of computer systems. Among the different fault injection techniques, software implemented fault injection technique is regarded as one of the most promising technique for evaluation of the dependability of computer systems. In this paper, combined the advantages of software fault injection and the particularity of onboard system, a new software fault injection model, which can be used to evaluate the dependability and validate the fault tolerance mechanisms of the onboard system, is put forward. To evaluate the dependability of on boardsystem effectively, the application algorithm on how to use the model is presented. The experimental results show that using the fault injection model and algorithm put forward in this paper, not only most of low-level faults such as processor register faults, memory faults and so on can be injected, but also some high-level faults such as code faults, branch faults etc. can be injected, which can be used to evaluate the dependability of the onboard systems.

  18. Simulation of carbon dioxide injection scenarios in the Illinois Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.; Person, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration through injection of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) into the subsurface is one option to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Widespread industrial-scale deployment, on the order of giga-tonnes of CO2 injected per year, will be necessary for carbon sequestration to make a significant contribution to solving the CO2 problem. Deep saline formations are suitable targets for CO2 sequestration due to their large storage capacity, high injectivity, and favorable pressure and temperature regimes. Due to the large areal extent of saline formations, multiple sequestration operations may inject CO2 into the same formation. The injection-induced migration of both CO2 and resident formation fluids (brine) needs to be studied to predict the feasibility of industrial-scale deployment of carbon sequestration. In this presentation we discuss the impact of different CO2 injection scenarios on the CO2 migration and pressure response. The Illinois Basin in the central US is chosen as the test case, because a large number of stationary CO2 sources lie within the basin. A vertically-integrated numerical model is used to simulate two-phase flow in the Mount Simon Sandstone and several overlying formations. Two approaches for injection site selection are compared. For the first approach, CO2 is injected at the site of the emission sources (i.e., on-site), thus eliminating the need for pipelines and reducing issues related to surface and subsurface access rights. However, the northern section of the injection formation is not deep enough to ensure that CO2 is in the super-critical state, while the most southern section has very low injectivity, thus eliminating approximately one third of the possible stationary source sites. Also, some of the largest sources are located in areas where the Mount Simon Sandstone is comparatively thin, leading to low injectivity. Therefore, for the second approach a set of regional injection sites are determined based on

  19. Physical and chemical changes during carbon dioxide injection and storage (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, D. R.; Armitage, P. J.; Blake, O. O.; Worden, R.

    2013-12-01

    Many of the lessons learnt from carbon capture and storage projects can be instructive for other applications, such as geothermal energy. More than 3M tonnes of carbon dioxide was injected at In Salah, Algeria between 2004 to 2011. We have tested rocks from this field to investigate the change in properties resulting from geomechanical and geochemical changes produced by injection and storage. Injection produced inflation of the reservoir that was recorded at the surface by satellite measurements. The uplift was asymmetrical around the injection wells indicating an inherent permeability anisotropy of around 15. Laboratory measurements of permeability indicate that a maximum horizontal permeability anisotropy of a factor of 2 is possible from the differential stress field alone. The permeability anisotropy can be explained by fracture damage produced by sub-failure stresses, as shown in laboratory experiments. The base of the caprock to the storage reservoir shows significant increases in permeability during flow of carbon dioxide-saturated water. The acidic fluid rapidly dissolves siderite and chlorite within the pore throats. Precipitation of the dissolved material is likely where lower carbon dioxide concentrations are present and may produce a lower permeability caprock at some distance from the injection well. Identifying changes that occur within carbon dioxide storage sites not only helps with future planning of these sites but can also provide valuable insights into likely processes in geothermal fields.

  20. 75 FR 77229 - Federal Requirements Under the Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program for Carbon Dioxide (CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... Control (UIC) Program for Carbon Dioxide (CO ) Geologic Sequestration (GS) Wells; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal... Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program for Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) Geologic Sequestration (GS) Wells... Federal requirements under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) for underground injection of carbon...

  1. Development of the IHEP booster beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief description of the IHEP synchrotron booster injection system equipment is given and results of experiments on two-turn injection are presented. The circuit of kicker-magnet switching is provided. At linear accelerator current of 80 mA the two-turn injection ensured the accumulation of 1.3 x 1012 proton/booster cycle; the total (per 29 injection cycles into the main accelerator) intensity of the accelerated beam in the booster bunch exceeded 2 X 1013, which is far in excess of the needs of the U-70 accelerator presently

  2. Economics of water injected air screw compressor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venu Madhav, K.; Kovačević, A.

    2015-08-01

    There is a growing need for compressed air free of entrained oil to be used in industry. In many cases it can be supplied by oil flooded screw compressors with multi stage filtration systems, or by oil free screw compressors. However, if water injected screw compressors can be made to operate reliably, they could be more efficient and therefore cheaper to operate. Unfortunately, to date, such machines have proved to be insufficiently reliable and not cost effective. This paper describes an investigation carried out to determine the current limitations of water injected screw compressor systems and how these could be overcome in the 15-315 kW power range and delivery pressures of 6-10 bar. Modern rotor profiles and approach to sealing and cooling allow reasonably inexpensive air end design. The prototype of the water injected screw compressor air system was built and tested for performance and reliability. The water injected compressor system was compared with the oil injected and oil free compressor systems of the equivalent size including the economic analysis based on the lifecycle costs. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that water injected screw compressor systems could be designed to deliver clean air free of oil contamination with a better user value proposition than the oil injected or oil free screw compressor systems over the considered range of operations.

  3. Research on machine vision system of monitoring injection molding processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fan; Zheng, Huifeng; Wang, Yuebing; Wang, Cheng; Liao, Si'an

    2016-01-01

    With the wide development of injection molding process, the embedded monitoring system based on machine vision has been developed to automatically monitoring abnormality of injection molding processing. First, the construction of hardware system and embedded software system were designed. Then camera calibration was carried on to establish the accurate model of the camera to correct distortion. Next the segmentation algorithm was applied to extract the monitored objects of the injection molding process system. The realization procedure of system included the initialization, process monitoring and product detail detection. Finally the experiment results were analyzed including the detection rate of kinds of the abnormality. The system could realize the multi-zone monitoring and product detail detection of injection molding process with high accuracy and good stability.

  4. Flow injection amperometric detection of insulin at cobalt hydroxide nanoparticles modified carbon ceramic electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Esmaeil; Omidinia, Eskandar; Heidari, Hassan; Fazli, Maryam

    2016-02-15

    Cobalt hydroxide nanoparticles were prepared onto a carbon ceramic electrode (CHN|CCE) using the cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique. The modified electrode was characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that CHN with a single-layer structure was uniformly electrodeposited on the surface of CCE. The electrocatalytic activity of the modified electrode toward the oxidation of insulin was studied by CV. CHN|CCE was also used in a homemade flow injection analysis system for insulin determination. The limit of detection (signal/noise [S/N] = 3) and sensitivity were found to be 0.11 nM and 11.8 nA/nM, respectively. Moreover, the sensor was used for detection of insulin in human serum samples. This sensor showed attractive properties such as high stability, reproducibility, and high selectivity. PMID:26686031

  5. The kicker magnet system for TRISTAN Accumulation Ring injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The injection of electron beams to TRISTAN Accumulation Ring (AR) was started in November 1983 and the positron injection started in November 1985. For the injection of electron and positron beams to AR, the unique kicker system was developed. In the kicker power supply the charging to the main capacitor was done with the resonant charge system together with the auxiliary charging unit. The impedance matching circuit was added to the kicker magnet for getting the required current form with least reflecting oscillation. In this paper we report the performance of this kicker system. (author)

  6. Atmospheric Carbon Injection Linked to End-Triassic Mass Extinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruhl, M.; Bonis, N.R.; Reichart, G.J.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kürschner, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The end-Triassic mass extinction (similar to 201.4 million years ago), marked by terrestrial ecosystem turnover and up to similar to 50% loss in marine biodiversity, has been attributed to intensified volcanic activity during the break-up of Pangaea. Here, we present compound-specific carbon-isotope

  7. Chemical species injection system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sample preparation device is disposed to injection pipelines of each system of a BWR type power plant, and a control device is connected to an electrolysis device and the sample preparation device respectively. An injection water analyzing device is connected to the exit of the sample preparation device, a sampling pipeline is connected to a reactor coolant cleanup system or a reactor recycling system, and a reactor water analyzing rack is connected to the sampling pipeline. The reactor water analyzing rack is connected to a signal processing system from a radiation concentration measuring device in reactor water, and the output of the signal processing system is connected to the control device. Chemical species for controlling water quality are formed from metal or metal compounds in a water solution by electrolysis. The concentration of each of the products is controlled and injected from a primary system or accompanied sampling systems of a reactor to the reactor. Parameters such as injection system concentration, reactor primary system concentration, radiation concentration in reactor water and corrosion potential are measured, to control injection, an amount of electrolysis or an injection concentration for the species. (N.H.)

  8. Screw Extruder for Pellet Injection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharadkumar K. Chhantbar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Solid hydrogenic pellets are used as fuel for fusion energy reactor. A technique for continuous production of solid hydrogen and its isotopes by a screw extruder is suggested for the production of an unlimited number of pellets. The idea was developed and patented by PELIN laboratories, Inc. (Canada. A Gifford McMahon cryocooler is used for the generation of solid hydrogenic fluid pellets. Requirements of the pellets is depends upon the energy to be produced by tokamak. This review paper focuses on the model for the screw extruder for solidification of hydrogen ice having high injection reliability.

  9. Feasibility study on steam injector water injection system for JSBWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A feasibility study has been conducted respecting a steam injector driven system (SIS) for low pressure core injection system (SI-LPCI) for a Japanese-type simplified BWR (JSBWR). The steam injector (SI) is a simple, compact passive pump driven by supersonic steam jet condensation. The feasibility and demonstration tests were conducted and water was successfully injected into the simulated injection line. The steam injector could operate under the condition of very low steam pressure, such as near atmospheric pressure (0.3 MPa), and it discharged water at 0.6 MPa by the time the gravity driven core injection system (GDCS) started operation. The system simplified the core depressurization system using large depressurization valves (DPV). 8 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Carbon migration during methane injection experiments under ITER divertor-relevant conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bystrov, K.; van der Vegt, L. B.; van Swaaij, G. A.; Zaharia, T.; Kuang, Y.; Goedheer, W. J.; De Temmerman, G.

    2013-01-01

    Methane was injected into a high density low temperature hydrogen plasma beam (ne ⩽ 1021 m−3, Te ∼ 1 eV) in Pilot-PSI to study carbon transport and provide a benchmark case for modeling. Gas injection was performed through molybdenum samples that acted as collectors of redeposits. The \\{CH\\} A–X band emission plumes are localized near the injection hole with a typical width of ∼3 mm and a decay length of ∼1.5 mm. The geometry of ...

  11. Determination of Phenol and Chlorophenols at Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes/Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode Using Flow Injection Amperometry

    OpenAIRE

    Negussie Negash; Hailemichael Alemu; Merid Tessema

    2014-01-01

    Phenol and chlorophenols were investigated using single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) composite modified glassy carbon electrode (SWCNT/PEDOT/GCE) as a detector in flow injection system. Optimization of experimental variables such as the detection potential, flow rate, and pH of the carrier solution (0.1 M sodium acetate) for the determination of phenol (P), 4-chlorophenol (CP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP), and pentachloro...

  12. Estimation of Injected Carbon Longevity and Re-oxidation Times at Enhanced Reductive Bioremediation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillotson, J.; Borden, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Addition of an organic substrate to provide an electron donor and carbon source can be very effective at stimulating enhanced reductive bioremediation (ERB) of chlorinated solvents, energetics, and other groundwater contaminants. However, the quantity of electron donor added is usually based on an individual's or company's "rule of thumb" rather than considering site-specific conditions such as groundwater velocity, carbon source, and upgradient electron acceptor concentrations, potentially leading to unnecessarily large amounts of carbon injected. Mass balance estimates indicate that over 99% of electrons donated go to electron acceptors other than the primary contaminants. Thus, injecting excessive amounts of organic carbon can lead to a persistent reducing zone, releasing elevated levels of dissolved manganese, iron, methane, and sometimes arsenic. Monitoring data on carbon injections and electron acceptors were collected from 33 ERB sites. Two approaches were then used to evaluate carbon longevity and the time required to return to near-oxic conditions at an ERB site. The first method employed a simple mass balance approach, using such input parameters as groundwater velocity, upgradient electron acceptors, and amount of carbon injected. In the second approach, a combined flow, transport and geochemical model was developed using PHT3D to estimate the impact of ERB on secondary water quality impacts (SWQIs; e.g., methane production, iron mobilization and transport, etc.) The model was originally developed for use in estimating SWQIs released from petroleum sites, but has since been modified for use at ERB sites. The ERB site to be studied is a perchlorate release site in Elkton, Maryland where 840 lbs of an emulsified vegetable oil was injected. The results from the simple mass balance approach and PHT3D model will be compared and used to identify conditions where the simplified approach may be appropriate.

  13. Enhancement of neutral beam deposition in hydrogen discharge using carbon pellet injection in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central ion temperature in the large helical device (LHD), as measured by charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy, has been improved to a record 5.6 keV by combining 21 MW of neutral beam heating with the injection of a carbon pellet. The intensity of the neutral beam emission of the hydrogen Balmer line (Hα: n=3 → 2) was observed to weaken along the beam injection axis following the carbon pellet injection due to the increased beam attenuation. The beam-emission intensity was reconstructed by calculating the density distribution, and the beam-stopping coefficients, along a beam injection axis and was found to fit well to the measured beam-emission for a mixed hydrogen and carbon target plasma. The dynamics of the neutral beam deposition power and the carbon fraction were estimated from the beam-emission measurements using data from ADAS. We conclude that the beam deposition power in a carbon pellet discharge is enhanced over that of a pure hydrogen discharge. (author)

  14. Development of Integrated Simulation System for Plastic Injection Molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENGXue-wen; LIDe-qun; ZHOUHua-min

    2005-01-01

    Numerical simulation of injection molding have had success in predicting the behavior of polymer melt in extremely complicated geometries. Most of the current numerical solutions are based on finite-element/finite-difference/boundary-element/volume-control methods and the surface model. This paper discusses the development of an integrated CAE system for injection molding in detail, and presents the mathematics for numerical simulation of filling, packing,cooling, stress and warpage in injection molding. The developed system named as HsCAE3D is introduced at the end.

  15. Closed-Loop Control of Chemical Injection Rate for a Direct Nozzle Injection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To realize site-specific and variable-rate application of agricultural pesticides, accurately metering and controlling the chemical injection rate is necessary. This study presents a prototype of a direct nozzle injection system (DNIS by which chemical concentration transport lag was greatly reduced. In this system, a rapid-reacting solenoid valve (RRV was utilized for injecting chemicals, driven by a pulse-width modulation (PWM signal at 100 Hz, so with varying pulse width the chemical injection rate could be adjusted. Meanwhile, a closed-loop control strategy, proportional-integral-derivative (PID method, was applied for metering and stabilizing the chemical injection rate. In order to measure chemical flow rates and input them into the controller as a feedback in real-time, a thermodynamic flowmeter that was independent of chemical viscosity was used. Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the performance of DNIS and PID control strategy. Due to the nonlinear input–output characteristics of the RRV, a two-phase PID control process obtained better effects as compared with single PID control strategy. Test results also indicated that the set-point chemical flow rate could be achieved within less than 4 s, and the output stability was improved compared to the case without control strategy.

  16. Closed-Loop Control of Chemical Injection Rate for a Direct Nozzle Injection System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiang; Walgenbach, Martin; Doerpmond, Malte; Schulze Lammers, Peter; Sun, Yurui

    2016-01-01

    To realize site-specific and variable-rate application of agricultural pesticides, accurately metering and controlling the chemical injection rate is necessary. This study presents a prototype of a direct nozzle injection system (DNIS) by which chemical concentration transport lag was greatly reduced. In this system, a rapid-reacting solenoid valve (RRV) was utilized for injecting chemicals, driven by a pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal at 100 Hz, so with varying pulse width the chemical injection rate could be adjusted. Meanwhile, a closed-loop control strategy, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) method, was applied for metering and stabilizing the chemical injection rate. In order to measure chemical flow rates and input them into the controller as a feedback in real-time, a thermodynamic flowmeter that was independent of chemical viscosity was used. Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the performance of DNIS and PID control strategy. Due to the nonlinear input-output characteristics of the RRV, a two-phase PID control process obtained better effects as compared with single PID control strategy. Test results also indicated that the set-point chemical flow rate could be achieved within less than 4 s, and the output stability was improved compared to the case without control strategy. PMID:26805833

  17. Conceptual Design of Neutral Beam Injection System for EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chundong; NBI Team

    2012-06-01

    Neutral beam injection (NBI) system with two neutral beam injections will be constructed on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) in two stages for high power auxiliary plasmas heating and non-inductive current drive. Each NBI can deliver 2~4 MW beam power with 50~80 keV beam energy in 10~100 s pulse length. Each elements of the NBI system are presented in this contribution.

  18. Selection of alternative material for common rail direct injection system

    OpenAIRE

    Senguttuvan, N.; Raja, S; R. Sasidharan

    2014-01-01

    Common rail direct fuel injection is a modern variant of direct fuel injection system for petrol and diesel engines. The common rail system prototype was developed in the late 1960s by Robert Huber of Switzerland and the technology further developed by Dr. Marco. In petrol engine MPFI technology was developed and implemented in earlier days. Basically common rail tube was fabricated by steel for petrol engines. In the current study Steel, Brass, Aluminum alloy a356 and ABS materials were anal...

  19. The dynamics simulation of Ne atom injected into single-wall carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamical processes of Ne atom injected into single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) are modeled with molecular dynamics simulations. The threshold energies to encapsulate rare-gas atoms in SWCNT are presented. The range of tube radius for stable oscillation is revealed, which is independent of the type of carbon nanotubes. And the oscillatory frequency is sensitive to the change in the diameter, the length and chirality of the tube

  20. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M [LBNL Earth Sciences Division

    2009-07-21

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  1. Carbonation on ternary cement systems

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Ramírez, Sagrario; Fernández Carrasco, Lucía

    2012-01-01

    The main hydration reaction product in the ternary system fly ash, calcium sulphate and calcium aluminate cement (40/20/40) at 20°C is a hydrated calcium sulfoaluminate compound, an AFt phase slightly different from “traditional ettringite”. The carbonation of ettringite develops gypsum but in this case rapidcreekite is formed. For the first time it has been observed that carbonation of the mentioned calcium sulfoaluminate compound (AFt), an hydrated calcium sulphate carbonated phase (Ca2(SO4...

  2. STRATEGY FOR DIESEL ROTARY ENGINE WITH COMMON RAIL INJECTION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jinjun; HAI Jingtao; SHI Jianzhong; LI Xuesong; YANG Qing; WANG Shangyong

    2006-01-01

    A direct injection low compression ratios diesel rotary engine is designed and studied to find the appropriate application of the electronic controlled high pressure common rail injection system. Current development focuses on the applied fuel injection and ignition strategies, especially concerning the combustion configurations of injectors, ignition source, and combustion chamber. The prototype engine, equipped with Bosch common rail system and high performance electronic control unit (ECU), is designed correspondingly. Studies show that the integration of a common rail injection system and the main and pilot duel injectors configurations, assisted with glow plug ignition device and flexible ECU, represents a promising approach to improve the potential of the low compression ratios diesel rotary engine. Currently the engine can run at 6 kr · min-1 steadily and the power is about 68 kW/(4 kr · min-1).

  3. EMISSION TEST REPORT- FIELD TEST OF CARBON INJECTION FOR MERCURY CONTROL, CAMDEN COUNTY MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of parametric test to evaluate the injection powdered activated carbon to control volatile pollutants in municipal waste combustor (MWC) flue gas. he tests were conducted at a spray dryer absorber/electrostatic precipitator (SD/ESP)-equipped MWC in Camden...

  4. Beam injection system into an electron ring compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for three-turn injection of the beam into the electronic ring compressor is elaborated. The electron beam is rejected from the linear accelerator at an average energy of 1.5 MeV through the screening nozzle at a radius of 26 cm into the growing magnetic field. The energy of the injected electrons and the strength of the magnetic field are varied so that injection is always performed onto the equilibrium radius. In this case, the ring will feature an electron pulse spread of +-3.5% which makes it possible to accumulate up to 1013 particles in the ring, never exceeding the threshold of the azimuthal coherent non-stability. From the point of view of its design and technology, the injection system provides for creating superhigh vacuum of about 10-9 mm Hg in the compressor chamber which ensures the life of the ring of up to 2 ms

  5. Pre-injection Comparison of Methods for Sampling Formation Water and Associated Gas from a Monitoring Well at a Carbon Dioxide Injection Site, Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, C.; Thordsen, J. J.; Manning, M. A.; Cook, P. J.; Abedini, A. A.; Trautz, R. C.; Thomas, B.; Kharaka, Y. K.

    2012-12-01

    The chemical composition of formation water and associated gases from the lower Cretaceous Paluxy Formation was determined using four different sampling methods at a well in the Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama, a site that will be used for a carbon dioxide injection experiment. Prior to each of the two sampling periods, the well was cleaned from the drilling fluids and KCl solutions by producing at least three pore volumes of formation water. Accurate measurements of the chemical composition of groundwater or formation water, including dissolved gasses, and gas samples is essential in understanding subsurface geochemical processes occurring as a result of geologic carbon dioxide injection, which is used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and has been proposed as a means of carbon sequestration. In this study, formation water and gas samples for geochemical analyses were obtained from well D-9-8 #2 at Citronelle using nitrogen lift, submersible pump, U-Tube, and a downhole (Kuster) sampler. Field chemical analyses included electrical conductivity, hydrogen sulfide, alkalinity, and pH, and laboratory analyses included major, minor and trace elements by mass spectrometry and ion chromatography, dissolved carbon, organic acid anions, free and dissolved gas species. The formation water obtained from this well is a Na-Ca-Cl brine with a salinity of 160,000 and 200,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS). Differences were evident between sampling methodologies, particularly in pH, Fe and alkalinity measurements. The results of the comparison demonstrate the difficulty and importance of preserving volatile analytes in samples, with the downhole sampler and U-Tube system performing most favorably in this aspect.

  6. Optomechatronic System For Automated Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulev Assen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a complex optomechatronic system for In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF, offering almost complete automation of the Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI procedure. The compound parts and sub-systems, as well as some of the computer vision algorithms, are described below. System capabilities for ICSI have been demonstrated on infertile oocyte cells.

  7. Optomechatronic System For Automated Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulev, Assen; Tiankov, Tihomir; Ignatova, Detelina; Kostadinov, Kostadin; Roussev, Ilia; Trifonov, Dimitar; Penchev, Valentin

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a complex optomechatronic system for In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF), offering almost complete automation of the Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) procedure. The compound parts and sub-systems, as well as some of the computer vision algorithms, are described below. System capabilities for ICSI have been demonstrated on infertile oocyte cells.

  8. Investigation and Demonstration of Dry Carbon-Based Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jim Butz; Terry Hunt

    2005-11-01

    Public Service Company of Colorado and ADA Technologies, Inc. have performed a study of the injection of activated carbon for the removal of vapor-phase mercury from coal-fired flue gas streams. The project was completed under contract to the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, with contributions from EPRI and Public Service Company. The prime contractor for the project was Public Service Company, with ADA Technologies as the major subcontractor providing technical support to all aspects of the project. The research and development effort was conducted in two phases. In Phase I a pilot facility was fabricated and tests were performed using dry carbon-based sorbent injection for mercury control on a coal-fired flue gas slipstream extracted from an operating power plant. Phase II was designed to move carbon injection technology towards commercial application on coal-fired power plants by addressing key reliability and operability concerns. Phase II field work included further development work with the Phase I pilot and mercury measurements on several of PSCo's coal-fired generating units. In addition, tests were run on collected sorbent plus fly ash to evaluate the impact of the activated carbon sorbent on the disposal of fly ash. An economic analysis was performed where pilot plant test data was used to develop a model to predict estimated costs of mercury removal from plants burning western coals. Testing in the pilot plant was undertaken to quantify the effects of plant configuration, flue gas temperature, and activated carbon injection rate on mercury removal. All three variables were found to significantly impact the mercury removal efficiency in the pilot. The trends were clear: mercury removal rates increased with decreasing flue gas temperature and with increasing carbon injection rates. Mercury removal was much more efficient with reverse-gas and pulse-jet baghouse configurations than with an ESP as the particulate

  9. 76 FR 56982 - Announcement of Federal Underground Injection Control (UIC) Class VI Program for Carbon Dioxide (CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... (UIC) Class VI Program for Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) Geologic Sequestration (GS) Wells AGENCY... establishment of a Federal Underground Injection Control (UIC) Class VI Program for Carbon Dioxide (CO 2... Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) for underground injection of CO 2 for the purpose of GS (75 FR...

  10. Impact of carbon dioxide co-injection on the performance of SAGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, I.D.; Wang, J. [Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Calgary (Canada); Bunio, G.; Robinson, B. [Paramount Resources (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the oil industry, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is used as an effective method to recover bitumen from oil sands. However, development of alternative methods is needed since SAGD is a heavy consumer of energy and emits considerable amounts of CO2. A new method consists of using carbon dioxide as a solvent along with SAGD. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of the addition of carbon dioxide on SAGD performance. Thermal reservoir simulations were carried out using the CMG simulator on a Grand Rapids oil sands reservoir. Results showed that this new method permits a large fraction of CO2 to sequestered within the reservoir and moderate carbon dioxide content does not harm SAGD performance. A steam carbon dioxide co-injection method to recover bitumen from oil sands was presented herein and it was proved to be effective at moderate carbon dioxide content.

  11. FPGA-Based Multiprocessor System for Injection Molding Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque A. Osornio-Rios

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The plastic industry is a very important manufacturing sector and injection molding is a widely used forming method in that industry. The contribution of this work is the development of a strategy to retrofit control of an injection molding machine based on an embedded system microprocessors sensor network on a field programmable gate array (FPGA device. Six types of embedded processors are included in the system: a smart-sensor processor, a micro fuzzy logic controller, a programmable logic controller, a system manager, an IO processor and a communication processor. Temperature, pressure and position are controlled by the proposed system and experimentation results show its feasibility and robustness. As validation of the present work, a particular sample was successfully injected.

  12. Computer aided engineering for injection mould cooling system design

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Niall

    1998-01-01

    The time taken in the cooling stage, of a typical injection moulding cycle, is a large factor in the productivity and efficiency of a plastic manufacturing process, and for this reason, must be minimised. In order to do this a cooling system is employed throughout the mould core. This thesis describes the development and implementation of a PC based analysis system that can be used to optimise the size and position of injection mould cooling systems. The software is fully ‘32-Bit’, operat...

  13. Water injected fuel cell system compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepierski, James S.; Moore, Barbara S.; Hoch, Martin Monroe

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

  14. Study of fault injection system based on software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A software fault injection system SFIS is designed, which consists of the target system plus a fault injector, fault library, workload, data collector, and data analyzer. A serial communication mechanism is adopted to simulate the factual work environment. Then a fault model is built for single particle event, which can be denoted as FM = (FL, FT). FL stands for fault location, and FT stands for fault type. The fault model supports three temporal faults: transient, intermittent, and permanent. During the experiments implemented by SFIS,the software interruption method is adopted to inject transient faults, and step trace method is adopted to inject permanent faults into the target system. The experiment results indicate that for the injected transient code segment faults, 2.8% of them do not affect the program output, 80.1% of them are detected by the built-in error detection in the system, and 17.1% of them are not detected by fault detection mechanism. The experiment results verify the validity of the fault injection method.

  15. Basin-scale Modeling of Geological Carbon Sequestration: Model Complexity, Injection Scenario and Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.; Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.; Bachu, S.

    2013-12-01

    Geological carbon sequestration can significantly contribute to climate-change mitigation only if it is deployed at a very large scale. This means that injection scenarios must occur, and be analyzed, at the basin scale. Various mathematical models of different complexity may be used to assess the fate of injected CO2 and/or resident brine. These models span the range from multi-dimensional, multi-phase numerical simulators to simple single-phase analytical solutions. In this study, we consider a range of models, all based on vertically-integrated governing equations, to predict the basin-scale pressure response to specific injection scenarios. The Canadian section of the Basal Aquifer is used as a test site to compare the different modeling approaches. The model domain covers an area of approximately 811,000 km2, and the total injection rate is 63 Mt/yr, corresponding to 9 locations where large point sources have been identified. Predicted areas of critical pressure exceedance are used as a comparison metric among the different modeling approaches. Comparison of the results shows that single-phase numerical models may be good enough to predict the pressure response over a large aquifer; however, a simple superposition of semi-analytical or analytical solutions is not sufficiently accurate because spatial variability of formation properties plays an important role in the problem, and these variations are not captured properly with simple superposition. We consider two different injection scenarios: injection at the source locations and injection at locations with more suitable aquifer properties. Results indicate that in formations with significant spatial variability of properties, strong variations in injectivity among the different source locations can be expected, leading to the need to transport the captured CO2 to suitable injection locations, thereby necessitating development of a pipeline network. We also consider the sensitivity of porosity and

  16. Safety Injection System Filling Using Dynamic Venting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Je; Kim, Wong Bae; Huh, Jin; Lee, Joo Hee; Im, In Young; Kim, Eun kee [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In the APR+, the water-level elevation of the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST) is lower than the highest piping of the SIS. Since the gravity filling of water from IRWST cannot fill all SIS piping, an SIP or an SCP test line is newly provided in order to allow the dynamic venting of the SIS. NEI 09-10 Revision 1a-A has concluded that use of dynamic venting is an effective means to remove gas from local high points and traps in piping when correctly based on the dynamic flow rate, void volume, Floude number, and the system water volume. In this study, feasibility of the dynamic vent is investigated. The work presented in this study evaluates the SIS and the SCS filling using the dynamic venting which is supposed to be applied to the APR+. The main ideas are as follows; 1. Dynamic venting using SIPs for the APR+ is not appropriate on the basis of 12 inches in diameter and with the flow rate, 1,460 gpm. 2. Because the high point of the SIS and the SCS is located at the piping that the two systems are sharing, the accumulated gas at the highest point can be removed by using the SCPs, and the dimension of the new piping will be determined by its length of them and the number of elbows. The calculated results are shown in Table 2. 3. The applicability of the dynamic venting methods using the SCPs that are mentioned above should be evaluated in the aspect of the system operation after the piping arrangements are settled in the APR+. The assessments to determine the pump operation time are also required.

  17. Injection accelerator for proton therapy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed the magnet-free alternating phase focusing (APF) linac for proton cancer therapy facilities. This new linac enhances the reliability and serviceability of such facilities. The newly developed linac uses radio-frequency electric field to accelerate as well as focus a beam of protons (hydrogen nuclei). The electric field is designed with 'sawtooth-shaped phase modulation technology', which can generate high-quality beam. The elimination of magnets has resulted in a simplified linac structure that requires very few adjustments, resulting in improved reliability and serviceability. The system uses a resonant coupler to distribute radio-frequency power, the first such commercial application in the world. The ratio-frequency power supply has been integrated into a single unit, simplifying the structure of the facility. There is no need to adjust the ratio-frequency power phase, for easy servicing. (author)

  18. Fiber-Based, Injection-Molded Optofluidic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteucci, Marco; Triches, Marco; Nava, Giovanni;

    2015-01-01

    We present a method to fabricate polymer optofluidic systems by means of injection molding that allow the insertion of standard optical fibers. The chip fabrication and assembly methods produce large numbers of robust optofluidic systems that can be easily assembled and disposed of, yet allow...... optical fibers in a quick and precise manner, with a lateral alignment accuracy of 2.7 ± 1.8 μm. We report the production, assembly methods, and the characterization of the resulting injection-molded chips for Lab-on-Chip (LoC) applications. We demonstrate the versatility of this technology by carrying...

  19. Developing a Carbon Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B., III

    2015-12-01

    There is a clear need to better understand and predict future climate change, so that science can more confidently inform climate policy, including adaptation planning and future mitigation strategies. Understanding carbon cycle feedbacks, and the relationship between emissions (fossil and land use) and the resulting atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations in a changing climate has been recognized as an important goal by the IPCC. The existing surface greenhouse gas observing networks provide accurate and precise measurements of background values, but they are not configured to target the extended, complex and dynamic regions of the carbon budget. Space Agencies around the globe are committed to CO2 and CH4 observations: GOSAT-1/2, OCO-2/3, MERLin, TanSat, and CarbonSat. In addition to these Low Earth Orbit (LEO) missions, a new mission in Geostationary Orbit (GEO), geoCARB, which would provide mapping-like measurements of carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide concentrations over major land areas, has been recently proposed to the NASA Venture Program. These pioneering missions do not provide the spatial/temporal coverage to answer the key carbon-climate questions at process relevant scales nor do they address the distribution and quantification of anthropogenic sources at urban scales. They do demonstrate, however, that a well-planned future system of system integrating space-based LEO and GEO missions with extensive in situ observations could provide the accuracy, spatial resolution, and coverage needed to address critical open issues in the carbon-climate system. Dr. Diana Wickland devoted enormous energy in developing a comprehensive apprioach to understand the global carbon cycle; she understood well that an integrated, coordinated, international approach is needed. This shines through in her recent contribution in co-chairing the team that produced the "CEOS Strategy for Carbon Observations from Space." A NASA-funded community

  20. Climatic impacts of stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate, black carbon and titania injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anthony C.; Haywood, James M.; Jones, Andy

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we examine the potential climatic effects of geoengineering by sulfate, black carbon and titania injection against a baseline RCP8.5 scenario. We use the HadGEM2-CCS model to simulate scenarios in which the top-of-the-atmosphere radiative imbalance due to rising greenhouse gas concentrations is offset by sufficient aerosol injection throughout the 2020-2100 period. We find that the global-mean temperature is effectively maintained at historical levels for the entirety of the period for all three aerosol-injection scenarios, though there is a wide range of side-effects which are discussed in detail. The most prominent conclusion is that although the BC injection rate necessary to produce an equivalent global mean temperature response is much lower, the severity of stratospheric temperature changes (> +70 °C) and precipitation impacts effectively exclude BC from being a viable option for geoengineering. Additionally, while it has been suggested that titania would be an effective particle because of its high scattering efficiency, it also efficiently absorbs solar ultraviolet radiation producing a significant stratospheric warming (> +20 °C). As injection rates and climatic impacts for titania are close to those for sulfate, there appears to be little benefit in terms of climatic influence of using titania when compared to the injection of sulfur dioxide, which has the added benefit of being well-modeled through extensive research that has been carried out on naturally occurring explosive volcanic eruptions.

  1. Toward transformational carbon capture systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States); Litynski, John T. [Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington DC (United States); Brickett, Lynn A. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States); Morreale, Bryan D. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States)

    2015-10-28

    This paper will briefly review the history and current state of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) research and development and describe the technical barriers to carbon capture. it will argue forcefully for a new approach to R&D, which leverages both simulation and physical systems at the laboratory and pilot scales to more rapidly move the best technoogies forward, prune less advantageous approaches, and simultaneously develop materials and processes.

  2. INJECTION VOLUME CONTROL BY THERMAL WAY IN TRANSGENIC DNA MICRO-INJECTION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ling; Zhang Yun; Yang Yimin; Chen Jinghua

    2004-01-01

    Nowdays there are several manual or half-automatic methods developed to drive the DNA micro-fluid of transgenic micro-injection and they often fail to control precisely the injection volume at picolitres level.Micro-size of the injector tip and viscosity of the DNA liquid also lead to dead area of volume control.An adequate way is presented utilizing temperature gradients to direct liquid flow in the pipette from the warmer to the cooler.Compared with the previous ones, this way is helpful in decreasing the dead area of controlling through decreasing the viscous rate of DNA liquid, which changes as the temperature varies.The DNA liquid is pushed by a sheer stress at the liquid-pipette interface, which emerges when viscous rate of the liquid changes.Preliminary experimenting results show the efficiency and convenience of this way in improving the system's characteristics.

  3. Electrochemical study and flow injection analysis of paracetamol in pharmaceutical formulations based on screen-printed electrodes and carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acetaminophenol or paracetamol is one of the most commonly used analgesics in pharmaceutical formulations. Acetaminophen is electroactive and voltammetric mechanistic studies for the electrode processes of the acetaminophenol/N-acetyl-p-quinoneimine redox system are presented. Carbon nanotubes modified screen-printed electrodes with enhanced electron transfer properties are used for the study of the electrochemical-chemical oxidation mechanism of paracetamol at pH 2.0. Quantitative analysis of paracetamol by using its oxidation process (in a Britton-Robinson buffer solution pH 10.0) at +0.20 V (vs. an Ag pseudoreference electrode) on an untreated screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was carried out. Thus, a cyclic voltammetric based reproducible determination of acetaminophen (R.S.D., 2.2%) in the range 2.5 x 10-6 M to 1 x 10-3 M, was obtained. However, when SPCEs are used as amperometric detectors coupled to a flow injection analysis (FIA) system, the detection limit achieved for paracetamol was 1 x 10-7 M, one order of magnitude lower than that obtained by voltammetric analysis. The repeatability of the amperometric detection with the same SPCE is 2% for 15 successive injections of 10-5 M acetaminophen and do not present any memory effect. Finally, the applicability of using screen-printed carbon electrodes for the electrochemical detection of paracetamol (i.e. for quality control analysis) was demonstrated by using two commercial pharmaceutical products.

  4. Electrochemical study and flow injection analysis of paracetamol in pharmaceutical formulations based on screen-printed electrodes and carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanjul-Bolado, Pablo [DropSens, S.L., Edificio Severo Ochoa, Campus El Cristo, 33006 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Lamas-Ardisana, Pedro Jose [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Analitica, Universidad de Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Hernandez-Santos, David [DropSens, S.L., Edificio Severo Ochoa, Campus El Cristo, 33006 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Costa-Garcia, Agustin, E-mail: costa@fq.uniovi.es [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Analitica, Universidad de Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain)

    2009-04-13

    Acetaminophenol or paracetamol is one of the most commonly used analgesics in pharmaceutical formulations. Acetaminophen is electroactive and voltammetric mechanistic studies for the electrode processes of the acetaminophenol/N-acetyl-p-quinoneimine redox system are presented. Carbon nanotubes modified screen-printed electrodes with enhanced electron transfer properties are used for the study of the electrochemical-chemical oxidation mechanism of paracetamol at pH 2.0. Quantitative analysis of paracetamol by using its oxidation process (in a Britton-Robinson buffer solution pH 10.0) at +0.20 V (vs. an Ag pseudoreference electrode) on an untreated screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was carried out. Thus, a cyclic voltammetric based reproducible determination of acetaminophen (R.S.D., 2.2%) in the range 2.5 x 10{sup -6} M to 1 x 10{sup -3} M, was obtained. However, when SPCEs are used as amperometric detectors coupled to a flow injection analysis (FIA) system, the detection limit achieved for paracetamol was 1 x 10{sup -7} M, one order of magnitude lower than that obtained by voltammetric analysis. The repeatability of the amperometric detection with the same SPCE is 2% for 15 successive injections of 10{sup -5} M acetaminophen and do not present any memory effect. Finally, the applicability of using screen-printed carbon electrodes for the electrochemical detection of paracetamol (i.e. for quality control analysis) was demonstrated by using two commercial pharmaceutical products.

  5. Injection Molding of Polystyrene Matrix Composites Filled with Vapor Grown Carbon Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Kazuki; Yasuhara, Toshiyuki; Ohtake, Naoto; Kato, Kazunori

    Vapor grown carbon fiber (VGCF) is a kind of carbon nanotube (CNT), which has outstanding properties such as high mechanical strength and high electrical conductivity. In this study, injection molding properties of polystyrene (PS) filled with VGCF and evaluation of mechanical and electrical properties are discussed in comparison with composites in which conventional carbon fillers were filled. As a result, volume resistivity of VGCF/PS composites dropped significantly between VGCF concentration of 3 and 4vol.%. Resistivity of the composites filled with VGCF was 1.2×102Ω·cm when VGCF concentration was 11.6vol.%. The resistivity was significantly lower than that of composites which were filled with conventional carbon fillers. The elastic modulus slightly increases with increasing VGCF concentration, whereas the tensile strength slightly decreases in the VGCF concentration in the range from 0 to 12vol.%.

  6. Modeling Study on Injection of Supercritical CO2 Into a Deep Saline Carbonate Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.; Taberner, C.; Xu, T.; Cartwright, L.

    2008-12-01

    A modeling study on injection of supercritical CO2 into a deep saline carbonate formation was performed using TOUGHREACT Pitzer ion-interaction model. The carbonate formation consists of calcite (72.5%), dolomite (21.5%) and anhydrite (<6%). The brine of the formation is known as NaCl-dominant with salinity at about 250,000 ppm (NaCl equivalent), temperature at 102° C and pressure at 225 bars. The detailed chemical composition of the brine was unknown. It was reconstructed according to the salinity and the known detailed composition of a brine from a similar formation with slightly lower salinity (about 190,000 ppm). The reconstructed formation brine has an ionic strength ~5 molal and pH 5.4 with considerable concentrations of Ca+2, Mg+2, HCO3- and SO4-2. CO2 injection was considered at a constant rate and for a period of 1 year, through a vertical well in a 2D radial model domain, and a horizontal well in a 3D model domain, respectively. The preliminary simulations found that: (1) at the end of the injection, a dryout zone is developed within a few meters from the injection well due to displacement by the injected supercritical CO2 and the evaporation of water from brine into CO2; (2) at the front of the dryout zone, brine is further concentrated (ionic strength up 20 molal) due to water evaporation, pH is lowered to 3.1, halite (NaCl) and anhydrite (CaSO4) precipitate, and the brine is converted into CaCl2-dominant; (3) precipitation of halite in the dryout zone reduces the formation porosity by about 5%-10%; (4) HCl gas is generated from the dryout front; (5) calcite dissolves close to the injection well and precipitates at areas far from the well, however, the overall mineral trapping is not significant in hundreds of years for this carbonate formation. These findings are valuable for the assessment of the potentials of this carbonate formation for CO2 sequestration, injectivity changes, and well degradation by potential corrosion.

  7. Enhancement of minority carrier injection in ambipolar carbon nanotube transistors using double-gate structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bongjun; Liang, Kelly; Geier, Michael L.; Hersam, Mark C.; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2016-07-01

    We show that double-gate ambipolar thin-film transistors can be operated to enhance minority carrier injection. The two gate potentials need to be significantly different for enhanced injection to be observed. This enhancement is highly beneficial in devices such as light-emitting transistors where balanced electron and hole injections lead to optimal performance. With ambipolar single-walled carbon nanotube semiconductors, we demonstrate that higher ambipolar currents are attained at lower source-drain voltages, which is desired for portable electronic applications, by employing double-gate structures. In addition, when the two gates are held at the same potential, the expected advantages of the double-gate transistors such as enhanced on-current are also observed.

  8. CO{sub 2} injection for enhanced gas production and carbon sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Benson, Sally M.

    2001-11-15

    Analyses suggest that carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) can be injected into depleted gas reservoirs to enhance methane (CH{sub 4}) recovery for periods on the order of 10 years, while simultaneously sequestering large amounts of CO{sub 2}. Simulations applicable to the Rio Vista Gas Field in California show that mixing between CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} is slow relative to repressurization, and that vertical density stratification favors enhanced gas recovery.

  9. CO(sub 2) injection for enhanced gas production and carbon sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyses suggest that carbon dioxide (CO(sub 2)) can be injected into depleted gas reservoirs to enhance methane (CH(sub 4)) recovery for periods on the order of 10 years, while simultaneously sequestering large amounts of CO(sub 2). Simulations applicable to the Rio Vista Gas Field in California show that mixing between CO(sub 2) and CH(sub 4) is slow relative to repressurization, and that vertical density stratification favors enhanced gas recovery

  10. Computer simulation of rare-gas atoms injection into single-wall carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of rare-gas atoms (He, Ne, Ar) injected into single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) was modeled with molecular-dynamics simulations. The site dependence of the threshold energy of rare-gas atoms forming endohedral complexes was investigated, and the formation mechanism of some defects was revealed. The hole on the sidewall of the SWNT induced by incident rare-gas atoms can be healed by annealing at a certain temperature

  11. Modelling and Simulation of Structural Deformation of Isothermal Subsurface Flow and Carbon Dioxide Injection

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, M.F.

    2011-05-15

    Injection of CO2 in hydrocarbon reservoir has double benefit. On the one hand, it is a profitable method due to issues related to global warming, and on the other hand it is an effective mechanism to enhance hydrocarbon recovery. Such injection associates complex processes involving, e.g., solute transport of dissolved materials, in addition to local changes in density of the phases. Also, increasing carbon dioxide injection may cause a structural deformation of the medium, so it is important to include such effect into the model. The structural deformation modelling in carbon sequestration is important to evaluate the medium stability to avoid CO2 leakage to the atmosphere. On the other hand, geologic formation of the medium is usually heterogeneous and consists of several layers of different permeability. In this work we conduct numerical simulation of two-phase flow in a heterogeneous porous medium domain with dissolved solute transport as well as structural deformation effects. The solute transport of the dissolved component is described by concentration equation. The structural deformation for geomechanics is derived from a general local differential balance equation with neglecting the local mass balance of solid phase and the inertial force term. The flux continuity condition is used at interfaces between different permeability layers of the heterogeneous medium. We analyze the vertical migration of a CO2 plume injected into a 2D layered reservoir. Analysis of distribution of flow field components such as saturation, pressures, velocities, and CO2 concentration are presented.

  12. Radiation analysis of the ITER pellet injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of neutronics calculations for the pellet injection system of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are described. Hands-on maintenance of components in the pellet injection room results in a considerable simplification of maintenance support equipment and in greater system availability. The basic configuration of the pellet injection system includes small-diameter guide tubes with which the pellet may have several small-angle collisions before reaching the plasma. The pellet injector port through which the guide tubes pass will be shared with ITER plasma diagnostics, so the calculation takes into account penetrations to accommodate numerous channels for a neutron spectrometer and neutron and gamma-ray cameras. The conservative assumption of steady-state operation of ITER for 1000 days was taken as the baseline for calculating the activation of components in the pellet injection room. The plasma configuration is based on the current ITER guidelines, the first wall configuration is based on the most recently updated configuration, and the blanket configuration is based on the US proposal for the blanket. The plasma, coils, and blanket regions were analyzed with the Monte Carlo code MCNP. The transport of neutrons through the penetrations was also performed with MCNP. The pellet injection room was modeled with the two-dimensional discrete ordinates code DORT, which was also used for the transport of neutrons during operation and of gamma rays caused by activation. The activation calculations were carried out with the REBATE code. Results from this study indicate that restricted personnel access to the pellet injection room is possible, so limited hands-on maintenance can be performed on the majority of the components in the room

  13. Convection and diffusion in a micro-flow injection system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, van E.B.; Bos, M.; Linden, van der W.E.

    1998-01-01

    Five micro-structures were used to study the effect of the convection and diffusion behavior (dispersion) of a dye in a micro-flow system. Besides a straight manifold, manifolds with curved bends and manifolds with rectangular bends were constructed. The dispersion resulting from hydrodynamic inject

  14. Analytical solution of geological carbon sequestration under constant pressure injection into a horizontal radial reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhang, R.; Liou, T.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is believed to be an economically feasible technology to mitigate global warming by capturing carbon dioxide (CO2), the major component of greenhouse gases, from the atmosphere and injecting it into deep geological formations.Several mechanisms can help trap CO2 in the pore space of a geological reservoir, stratigraphic and structural trapping, hydrodynamic trapping, and geochemical trapping.Besides these trapping mechanisms, another important issue that deserves careful attention is the risk of CO2 leakage. The common ';constant injection rate' scenario may induce high pressure buildup that will endanger the mechanical integrity as well as the sealing capability of the cap rock. Instead of injecting CO2 at a constant mass rate, CO2 can be injected into the reservoir by fixing the pressure (usually the bottom-hole pressure) in the injection borehole. By doing so, the inevitable pressure buildup associated with the constant injection scheme can be completely eliminated in the constant pressure injection scheme. In this paper, a semi-analytical solution for CO2 injection with constant pressure was developed. For simplicity, structural and geochemical trapping mechanisms were not considered. Therefore, a horizontal reservoir with infinite radial extent was considered. Prior to injection, the reservoir is fully saturated with the formation brine. It is assumed that CO2 does not mix with brine such that a sharp interface is formed once CO2 invades the brine-saturated pores. Because of the density difference between CO2 and brine, CO2 resides above the interface. Additional assumptions were also made when building up the brine and CO2 mass balance equations: (1) both of the fluids and the geological formations are incompressible, (2) capillary pressure is neglected, (3)there is no fluid flow in the vertical direction, and the horizontal flow satisfies the Darcy's law.In order to solve for the height of brine-CO2 interface, the two

  15. The fate of carbon dioxide injected into a coal-bearing formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, J.; McIntosh, J. C.; Warwick, P. D.; Vinson, D. S.; Lee Zhi Yi, A.

    2012-12-01

    One proposed approach to mitigate increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations from fossil fuel combustion is geologic sequestration, which involves injecting anthropogenic CO2 into subsurface traps. This study seeks to determine the ultimate fate(s) of an injected CO2 plume in the Wilcox Group (Paleocene-Eocene) "2800 foot sand" (2800' sd) of the Olla oil field of north-central Louisiana, USA, and includes testing a previous hypothesis that this CO2 injection stimulated a microbial "hotspot" in the injected sandstone and adjacent coals. Forty-four samples of formation water, gas, and oil were collected from five main locations along a 90-km northwest to southeast transect: the 2800' sd in the Olla field (CO2 flooded), the 2800' sd outside of the Olla field, formations located stratigraphically above the 2800' sd within the Olla field, formations located stratigraphically below the 2800' sd within the Olla field, and formations located stratigraphically above the 2800' sd outside of the Olla field. Comparable samples from sandstones that would have not been affected by the CO2 flood were collected as a surrogate for pre-injection conditions for the Olla 2800' sd, as well as to look for evidence of CO2 migration and to examine the geochemical trends in the Wilcox Group to help determine other possible causes (besides the CO2 injection) of an Olla microbial "hotspot." Initial results show high alkalinity "hotspot" concentrations (mean 38.0 meq/kg, range 26.8-57.7 meq/kg) for waters in the Olla 2800' sd, compared to 2800' sd samples collected outside the Olla field (mean 9.9 meq/kg, range 4.6-22.7 meq/kg). Carbon dioxide in gas samples from the 2800' sd is consistent with two-component mixing of native and injected CO2, as indicated by its δ13CCO2 signature. A preliminary fractionation model for 2800' sd δ13CCH4 suggests up to 60% of injected CO2 was converted to methane (Olla 2800' sd methane is isotopically enriched compared to non-Olla 2800' sd methane), suggesting

  16. Gravity injection experiments and direct-contact condensation regime map for passive high-pressure injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gravity injection experiment in a passive high-pressure injection system with a pressurizer pressure balance line is conducted by using a small-scale test facility to identify the parameters having the effects on the gravity injection and the major condensation modes. It turns out that the larger the water subcooling is, the more the initiation of injection is delayed, and the sparger and the natural circulation of the hot water from the steam generator accelerate the gravity injection. The condensation modes identified through the experiments are divided into three modes: sonic jet, subsonic jet, steam cavity. The steam cavity is the unique mode of downward injection with the present geometry not previously observed in other experiments. The condensation regime map associated with the injection of steam into water through the steam pipe is constructed using Froude number and Jacob number

  17. Injection and acceleration system of pulsed racetrack microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper describes a pulsed racetrack microtron (RM) with 70 MeV beam maximal power. For this project one designed rare-earth permanent magnet base bending magnets, pattern to inject a bunched electron bean through a compact α-magnet and prismatic biperiodic accelerating structure (PBAS) characterized by compact transverse dimensions ensuring bar-free passing of electron beam through the first orbit. Besides, the PBAS has a high-frequency quadrupole focusing. These features facilitate essentially RM design and adjustment. Paper describes tests, technique of adjustment and of measuring of systems to inject and to accelerate a pulsed racetrack microtron

  18. Injection and acceleration system of pulsed racetrack microtron

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakov, A N; Ishkhanov, B S

    2002-01-01

    Paper describes a pulsed racetrack microtron (RM) with 70 MeV beam maximal power. For this project one designed rare-earth permanent magnet base bending magnets, pattern to inject a bunched electron bean through a compact alpha-magnet and prismatic biperiodic accelerating structure (PBAS) characterized by compact transverse dimensions ensuring bar-free passing of electron beam through the first orbit. Besides, the PBAS has a high-frequency quadrupole focusing. These features facilitate essentially RM design and adjustment. Paper describes tests, technique of adjustment and of measuring of systems to inject and to accelerate a pulsed racetrack microtron

  19. A study on the carbon-based sorbents injection for gas phase mercury removal from flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.; Rhim, Y.; Kim, S.; Park, Y. (and others) [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejoen (Republic of Korea). Clean Energy Research Department

    2003-07-01

    To develop carbon-based sorbents to be used in gas-phase mercury removal, the performance of virgin activated carbons (AC) and that of chemically treated activated carbons were compared. Virgin activated carbons (ACs) were made of bituminous coal, lignite, anthracite and NSH4X10. Chemical treated ACs used were those impregnated with sulphuric acid, nitric acid, 1% sulfur, and with mixed sulphuric and nitric acid. Pre-oxidation of activated carbons with acids was also investigated and adsorption performances were compared. Injection of activated carbons has been investigated and the influential factors such as temperature, carbon dose were also discussed. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. The Injection Laser System on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, M; Burkhart, S; Cohen, S; Erbert, G; Heebner, J; Hermann, M; Jedlovec, D

    2006-12-13

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is currently the largest and most energetic laser system in the world. The main amplifiers are driven by the Injection Laser System comprised of the master oscillators, optical preamplifiers, temporal pulse shaping and spatial beam formatting elements and injection diagnostics. Starting with two fiber oscillators separated by up to a few angstroms, the pulse is phase modulated to suppress SBS and enhance spatial smoothing, amplified, split into 48 individual fibers, and then temporally shaped by an arbitrary waveform generator. Residual amplitude modulation induced in the preamplifiers from the phase modulation is also precompensated in the fiber portion of the system before it is injected into the 48 pre-amplifier modules (PAMs). Each of the PAMs amplifies the light from the 1 nJ fiber injection up to the multi-joule level in two stages. Between the two stages the pre-pulse is suppressed by 60 dB and the beam is spatially formatted to a square aperture with precompensation for the nonuniform gain profile of the main laser. The input sensor package is used to align the output of each PAM to the main laser and acquire energy, power, and spatial profiles for all shots. The beam transport sections split the beam from each PAM into four main laser beams (with optical isolation) forming the 192 beams of the NIF. Optical, electrical, and mechanical design considerations for long term reliability and availability will be discussed.

  1. Advanced information processing system: Fault injection study and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Laura F.; Masotto, Thomas K.; Lala, Jaynarayan H.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the AIPS program is to achieve a validated fault tolerant distributed computer system. The goals of the AIPS fault injection study were: (1) to present the fault injection study components addressing the AIPS validation objective; (2) to obtain feedback for fault removal from the design implementation; (3) to obtain statistical data regarding fault detection, isolation, and reconfiguration responses; and (4) to obtain data regarding the effects of faults on system performance. The parameters are described that must be varied to create a comprehensive set of fault injection tests, the subset of test cases selected, the test case measurements, and the test case execution. Both pin level hardware faults using a hardware fault injector and software injected memory mutations were used to test the system. An overview is provided of the hardware fault injector and the associated software used to carry out the experiments. Detailed specifications are given of fault and test results for the I/O Network and the AIPS Fault Tolerant Processor, respectively. The results are summarized and conclusions are given.

  2. Railgun pellet injection system for fusion experimental devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Adv. Tech. Dev. Dept.; Oda, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Adv. Tech. Dev. Dept.; Azuma, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Adv. Tech. Dev. Dept.; Satake, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Adv. Tech. Dev. Dept.; Kasai, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun 319-11 (Japan); Hasegawa, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun 319-11 (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    A railgun pellet injection system has been developed for fusion experimental devices. Using a low electric energy railgun system, hydrogen pellet acceleration tests have been conducted to investigate the application of the electromagnetic railgun system for high speed pellet injection into fusion plasmas. In the system, the pellet is pre-accelerated before railgun acceleration. A laser beam is used to induce plasma armature. The ignited plasma armature is accelerated by an electromagnetic force that accelerates the pellet. Under the same operational conditions, the energy conversion coefficient for the dummy pellets was around 0.4%, while that for the hydrogen pellets was around 0.12%. The highest hydrogen pellet velocity was 1.4 km s{sup -1} using a 1 m long railgun. Based on the findings, it is estimated that the hydrogen pellet has the potential to be accelerated to 5 km s{sup -1} using a 3 m long railgun. (orig.).

  3. Cost and carbon burden of long-acting injections: a sustainable evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Daniel L; Lillywhite, Rob; Cooke, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Aims and method This study explores the economic cost and carbon footprint associated with current patterns of prescribing long-term flupentixol decanoate long-acting injections. We conducted an analysis of prescription data from a mental health trust followed by economic and carbon cost projections using local and national data. Results A reduction of £300 000 could be achieved across England by improving prescribing behaviour, which equates to £250 per patient per year and 170 000 kg CO2e. These savings are unlikely to be released as cash from the service, but will lead to higher-value service provision at the same or lower cost. Most of these carbon emissions are attributable to the carbon footprint of the appointment - 88 000 kg CO2e (including energy use and materials used) and the overprescribing of medication - 66 000 kg CO2e. Clinical implications Psychiatrists need to review their prescribing practice of long-acting injections to reduce their impact on the National Health Service financial budget and the environment. PMID:27280033

  4. Geophysical numerical modeling approach for characterizing and monitoring potential carbon sequestration injection sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalek, Kyle James

    Geological sequestration has been proposed as a viable option for mitigating the vast amount of CO2 being released into the atmosphere daily. Test sites for CO2 injection have been appearing across the world to ascertain the feasibility of capturing and sequestering carbon dioxide. A major concern with full scale implementation is monitoring and verifying the permanence of injected CO2. Geophysical methods, an exploration industry standard, are non-invasive imaging techniques that can be implemented to address that concern. Geophysical methods, seismic and electromagnetic, play a crucial role in monitoring the subsurface pre- and post-injection. Seismic techniques have been the most popular but electromagnetic methods are gaining interest. The primary goal of this project was to develop a new geophysical tool, a software program called GphyzCO2, to investigate the implementation of geophysical monitoring for detecting injected CO2 at test sites. The GphyzCO2 software consists of interconnected programs that encompass well logging, seismic, and electromagnetic methods. The software enables users to design and execute 3D surface-to-surface (conventional surface seismic) and borehole-to-borehole (cross-hole seismic and electromagnetic methods) numerical modeling surveys. The generalized flow of the program begins with building a complex 3D subsurface geological model, assigning properties to the models that mimic a potential CO2 injection site, numerically forward model a geophysical survey, and analyze the results. A test site located in Warren County, Ohio was selected as the test site for the full implementation of GphyzCO2. Specific interest was placed on a potential reservoir target, the Mount Simon Sandstone, and cap rock, the Eau Claire Formation. Analysis of the test site included well log data, physical property measurements (porosity), core sample resistivity measurements, calculating electrical permittivity values, seismic data collection, and seismic

  5. The injection system of the stretcher ring ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the stretcher ring ELSA in the framwork of this thesis an injection system has been concipated and constructed which should allow all projected operational modes of this stretcher ring, the stretcher, the post-acceleration, and the accumulation mode. The proof could be performed that the realized concept allows all these operational modes. Furthermore it could be shown that the injection shifted from the equilibrium orbit has no disadvantageous effects on a uniform extraction and by this on a high touching ratio. In fact it is even possible to apply the decay of the coherent betatron oscillations around the equilibrium orbit, caused by injection of the incident beam shifted from the equilibrium orbit, to diagnosis purposes: By reproduction of this damping process in a simulation model statements on nonlinearities present in the ring and by this statements on the actual phase-space structure are possible. It has so been shown that the concept presented in this thesis and realized for this thesis represents a suited injection system for the stretcher ring ELSA. (orig.)

  6. CENTRAL CONVEYING & AUTO FEEDING SYSTEMS FOR AN INJECTION MOLDING SHOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays injection molding is probably the most important method of Processing of consumer and industrial goods, and is performed everywhere in the world. The developing of injection molding becomes a competition from day to day. This Process now integrated with computer control make the production better in quality and Better quantity. The trends of producing a plastics product in injection molding industries are recently changing from traditional method to using the FEA analysis. For injection molding industries, time and cost is very important aspects to consider because these two aspectswill directly related to the profits at a company. The next issue toconsider, to get the best parameter for the injection molding process, plastics has been waste. Through the experiment, operator will use large amount of plastics material to get the possibly parameters to setup the machine.To produce the parts with better quality and quantity these molding defects are the major obstacles in achieving the targets with quality & quantity. Various defects like Short shot, colour streaks and low productivity rates are associated with the material mixing and feeding as molded plastics are often a blend of two or more materials. Colors (master batch and other additives are often mixed (blended with the raw plastic material prior to the molding process in molding plants. So it is very necessary to work out auto blending and auto feeding of plasticgranules to the machine hopper. This paper will cover the studyof automatic blending unit & central conveying system for plasticgranule feeding to machine & will help in optimizing the injection molding process.

  7. Psa study of ETRR-2 Gadolinium injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    one of the main safety feature of ETRR-2, egypt test and reactor 3 2 (new reactor), is the use of a redundant and diverse shutdown systems, called second shutdown system SSS. This system operates through injection of a high absorbing material, gadolinium Gd solution, into four rectangular chambers surrounding the reactor core. In view of the fact that the core is super-moderated, the injected neutron poison between the core and the reflector will cause an immediate reactor shutdown. The SSS triggers due to: manual, seismic, fails of actuation of the first shutdown system FSS, or high power neutron flux signal. Because of safety importance of this new system design, the present probabilistic safety assessment PDA study is initiated. The study carried ou in view of the system acceptable unavailability together with the effects of failure probabilities of relevant parameters and basic events. The effect of system design modifications (remove of high power signal and addition of nitrogen filtering line) on reactor safety and system unavailability is analyzed. A new proposed PSA model which take into consideration all possible failure modes of the system components is developed. The results show that the modification done on the system improves its unavailability while increases the minimal cut sets. The proposed model unavailability is greater (bad) than the designer model (That contains many hypothesis). human error contribution on system unavailability is reflected on failure type of gadolinium concentration. The IAEA psa pack IV code is utilized for calculation purposes

  8. Monitoring carbon dioxide injection and storage in aquifers and depleted oilfields using carbon and sulfur isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluid and gas monitoring can be used to confirm the security and integrity of geological CO2 storage. The distinct carbon isotopic composition of CO2 from many industrial sources that process or combust hydrocarbons allows the use of isotopic and chemical analyses of produced fluids and gases to trace the injected CO2 and quantify CO2 storage processes in the subsurface. Our four year monitoring programme at the International Energy Agency Weyburn CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project in Saskatchewan, Canada, featured frequent chemical and isotopic measurements of produced fluids and gases from around forty wells. Over the four year period, over four million tonnes of CO2 were injected for storage and enhanced hydrocarbon recovery in the Weyburn oilfield. CO2 concentration and carbon isotopic measurements of produced fluids and gases trace CO2, and confirm that the order of magnitude increase in the amount of CO2 in the subsurface resulted from CO2 injection. The amount of CO2 stored as HCO3- can be quantified using HCO3- concentration and carbon isotopic measurements, while concentration and isotope data for SO42- and H2S indicate that bacterial sulfate reduction was not a major source of HCO3- . To allow widespread application of geological CO2 storage, reliable, cost effective monitoring of storage integrity will be essential. The produced fluid and gas monitoring techniques described here are based on chemical and isotopic techniques that are already widely employed and well understood by environmental isotope hydrologists, and have the potential to play an essential role in future geological CO2 storage monitoring programmes. (author)

  9. Monitoring carbon dioxide injection and storage in aquifers and depleted oilfields using carbon and sulfur isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluid and gas monitoring can be used to confirm the security and integrity of geological CO2 storage. The distinct carbon isotopic composition of CO2 from many industrial sources that process or combust hydrocarbons allows the use of isotopic and chemical analyses of produced fluids and gases to trace the injected CO2 and quantify CO2 storage processes in the subsurface. Our four year monitoring programme at the International Energy Agency Weyburn CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project in Saskatchewan, Canada, featured frequent chemical and isotopic measurements of produced fluids and gases from around forty wells. Over the four year period, over four million tonnes of CO2 were injected for storage and enhanced hydrocarbon recovery in the Weyburn Oilfield. CO2 concentration and carbon isotopic measurements of produced fluids and gases trace CO2, and confirm that the order of magnitude increase in the amount of CO2 in the subsurface resulted from CO2 injection. The amount of CO2 stored as HCO3- can be quantified using HCO3- concentration and carbon isotopic measurements, while concentration and isotope data for SO42- and H2S indicate that bacterial sulfate reduction was not a major source of HCO3-. To allow widespread application of geological CO2 storage, reliable, cost effective monitoring of storage integrity will be essential. The produced fluid and gas monitoring techniques described here are based on chemical and isotopic techniques that are already widely employed and well understood by environmental isotope hydrologists, and have the potential to play an essential role in future geological CO2 storage monitoring programmes. (author)

  10. An experimental study of injection and spray characteristics of diesel and gasoline blends on a common rail injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The injection and spray characteristics of diesel and gasoline blends are investigated on a common rail injection system. The injection rate, fuel spray evolution process (tip penetration distance, spray cone angle, projected spray area and relative brightness intensity contour) and microscopic droplet features are analyzed. The results show that diesel and gasoline blends have higher volumetric injection rates, earlier starts of injection and shorter injection delays, but little variances are observed in the mass injection rates for different test fuels. Increased gasoline proportion in the test blends causes slightly decreased spray tip penetration distance but increased spray cone angle. Also, more smaller-size droplets are observed in the fuel jet of the diesel and gasoline blends, indicating that the spray breakup and atomization processes are promoted. - Highlights: • Injection rate and spray characteristics of diesel and gasoline blends are studied. • Diesel and gasoline blends have higher volumetric injection rates. • Earlier starts of injection are found when using diesel and gasoline blends. • Diesel and gasoline blends produce shorter spray penetration but higher cone angle. • The number of small droplets increases in the spray of diesel and gasoline blends

  11. Sensitivity of Stratospheric Geoengineering with Black Carbon to Aerosol Size and Altitude of Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Ben; Robock, Alan; Shindell, Drew T.; Miller, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Simulations of stratospheric geoengineering with black carbon (BC) aerosols using a general circulation model with fixed sea surface temperatures show that the climate effects strongly depend on aerosol size and altitude of injection. 1 Tg BC/a injected into the lower stratosphere would cause little surface cooling for large radii but a large amount of surface cooling for small radii and stratospheric warming of over 60 C. With the exception of small particles, increasing the altitude of injection increases surface cooling and stratospheric warming. Stratospheric warming causes global ozone loss by up to 50% in the small radius case. The Antarctic shows less ozone loss due to reduction of polar stratospheric clouds, but strong circumpolar winds would enhance the Arctic ozone hole. Using diesel fuel to produce the aerosols is likely prohibitively expensive and infeasible. Although studying an absorbing aerosol is a useful counterpart to previous studies involving sulfate aerosols, black carbon geoengineering likely carries too many risks to make it a viable option for deployment.

  12. Impact of idealized future stratospheric aerosol injection on the large-scale ocean and land carbon cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjiputra, J. F.; Grini, A.; Lee, H.

    2016-01-01

    Using an Earth system model, we simulate stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI) on top of the Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 future scenario. Our idealized method prescribes aerosol concentration, linearly increasing from 2020 to 2100, and thereafter remaining constant until 2200. In the aggressive scenario, the model projects a cooling trend toward 2100 despite warming that persists in the high latitudes. Following SAI termination in 2100, a rapid global warming of 0.35 K yr-1 is simulated in the subsequent 10 years, and the global mean temperature returns to levels close to the reference state, though roughly 0.5 K cooler. In contrast to earlier findings, we show a weak response in the terrestrial carbon sink during SAI implementation in the 21st century, which we attribute to nitrogen limitation. The SAI increases the land carbon uptake in the temperate forest-, grassland-, and shrub-dominated regions. The resultant lower temperatures lead to a reduction in the heterotrophic respiration rate and increase soil carbon retention. Changes in precipitation patterns are key drivers for variability in vegetation carbon. Upon SAI termination, the level of vegetation carbon storage returns to the reference case, whereas the soil carbon remains high. The ocean absorbs nearly 10% more carbon in the geoengineered simulation than in the reference simulation, leading to a ˜15 ppm lower atmospheric CO2 concentration in 2100. The largest enhancement in uptake occurs in the North Atlantic. In both hemispheres' polar regions, SAI delays the sea ice melting and, consequently, export production remains low. In the deep water of North Atlantic, SAI-induced circulation changes accelerate the ocean acidification rate and broaden the affected area.

  13. Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200 degrees C (2,200 degrees F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed

  14. Anisotropic injection molding of strontium ferrite powder using a PP/PEG binder system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.; Jeung, W.Y. E-mail: wyjeung@kistmail.kist.re.kr

    2001-05-01

    In this study, new binder system for anisotropic injection molding of Sr-ferrite was developed and a process for injection molding of Sr-ferrite was optimized. The developed binder system is composed of 30 vol% PP, 60 vol% PEG-20 000 and 10 vol% PEG-4000. The extraction by water was applied to remove the major binder components PEGs and the minor binder component, PP, was subsequently burned out in air. Behaviors of extraction and thermal debinding with time and debinding atmosphere and variations of the magnetic properties with sintering temperature were studied. The sintered magnets made by PIM process showed residual carbon content of 230 ppm and a maximum energy product of 4.2 MGOe.

  15. Conceptual design for the ZEPHYR neutral-beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 1980, the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory began a conceptual design study for a neutral beam injection system for the ZEPHYR ignition tokamak proposed by the Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik in Garching, Germany. The ZEPHYR project was cancelled, and the LBL design effort concluded prematurely in January 1981. This report describes the conceptual design as it existed at that time, and gives brief consideration to a schedule, but does not deal with costs

  16. An Innovative Injection and Mixing System for Diesel Fuel Reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer Pack

    2007-12-31

    This project focused on fuel stream preparation improvements prior to injection into a solid oxide fuel cell reformer. Each milestone and the results from each milestone are discussed in detail in this report. The first two milestones were the creation of a coking formation test rig and various testing performed on this rig. Initial tests indicated that three anti-carbon coatings showed improvement over an uncoated (bare metal) baseline. However, in follow-up 70 hour tests of the down selected coatings, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that no carbon was generated on the test specimens. These follow-up tests were intended to enable a down selection to a single best anti-carbon coating. Without the formation of carbon it was impossible to draw conclusions as to which anti-carbon coating showed the best performance. The final 70 hour tests did show that AMCX AMC26 demonstrated the lowest discoloration of the metal out of the three down selected anti-carbon coatings. This discoloration did not relate to carbon but could be a useful result when carbon growth rate is not the only concern. Unplanned variations in the series of tests must be considered and may have altered the results. Reliable conclusions could only be drawn from consistent, repeatable testing beyond the allotted time and funding for this project. Milestones 3 and 4 focused on the creation of a preheating pressure atomizer and mixing chamber. A design of experiment test helped identify a configuration of the preheating injector, Build 1, which showed a very uniform fuel spray flow field. This injector was improved upon by the creation of a Build 2 injector. Build 2 of the preheating injector demonstrated promising SMD results with only 22psi fuel pressure and 0.7 in H2O of Air. It was apparent from testing and CFD that this Build 2 has flow field recirculation zones. These recirculation zones may suggest that this Build 2 atomizer and mixer would require steam injection to reduce the

  17. Water injection system for turbine driven BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a water injection system of a turbine driven nuclear reactor for maintaining the function thereof even upon occurrence of a severe accident in a BWR type nuclear reactor. That is, the system comprises a differential pressure detection means for measuring a pressure difference between the downstream of a the turbine and a reactor container and an interrupting means for stopping the supply of steams to the turbine when the differential pressure exceeds a predetermined value. With such a constitution, when the pressure in the turbine driven water injection system is locally increased, the differential pressure detection means detects the differential pressure, to interrupt the supply of the steams to the turbine. Further, upon occurrence of a severe accident that a pressure in the reactor container is abnormally elevated, differential pressure is not caused between the downstream of the turbine and the reactor container. Accordingly, a protection function is not operated by the differential pressure detection means. Accordingly, injection of coolants to the reactor can be continued even upon loss of AC power source. (I.S.)

  18. LIGHT SOURCE: Conceptual design of Hefei Advanced Light Source (HALS) injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shan-Cai; Wang, Lin; Feng, Guang-Yao; Wu, Cong-Feng; Li, Wei-Min; Xu, Hong-Liang; Liu, Zu-Ping

    2009-06-01

    The Hefei Advanced Light Source(HALS) is a super low emittance storage ring and has a very short beam life time. In order to run the ring stablely, top-up injection will be necessary. The injection system will greatly affect the quality of beam. This article first gives a physics design of the injecting system. Then the injecting system is tracked under different errors. The responses of storage beam and injecting beam are given in the article.

  19. Injection repair of carbon fiber/bismaleimide composite panels with bisphenol E cyanate ester resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thunga, Mahendra [Ames Laboratory; Bauer, Amy [Iowa State University; Obusek, Kristine [Fleet Readiness Center East; Meilunas, Ray [Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division; Akinc, Mufit [Ames Laboratory; Kessler, Michael R [Ames Laboratory

    2014-08-01

    Resin injection of bisphenol E cyanate ester, a low viscosity resin that cures into a high temperature thermoset polymer, is investigated as a reliable repair method to restore strength and stiffness in delaminated carbon fiber/bismaleimide composites used in aircraft panels. The influence of temperature on the viscosity of the uncured resin was measured to optimize the injection conditions for high resin infiltration into the delaminations. The repair efficiency of the resin was evaluated by varying the panel thickness and the method by which the delamination damage was created in the composite specimens. Ultrasonic scanning (C-scan), flash thermography images, and cross-section analysis of repaired panels revealed excellent resin infiltration into the damaged region. Evaluation of mechanical repair efficiency using both bending stiffness and in-plain compressive strength of the composite panels as the repair metrics showed values exceeding 100%.

  20. Biodegradation of VOCs: a unique oxygen-injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In light of increased interest in methyl tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) remediation, a biodegradation test was carried out by Orchard Park, New York-based Matrix Environmental Technologies Inc. While a pilot project by others had shown MTBE remediation, this site was the first full-scale remediation process that successfully removed MTBE from groundwater. Matrix Technologies has remediated VOC-contaminated groundwater at a variety of petroleum release sites through the use of its novel biodegradation-enhancing oxygen injection system. The system features an AirSep Pressure Swing oxygen generator. At a site contaminated with less than one ppm enzene/toluene/ethlybenzene/xylene (BTEX) and 0.5-2.8 ppm MTBE, oxygen was injected at 80 standard cubic feet per hour at seven points directly down-gradient of the former source area. After approximately one year of oxygen injection, MTBE decreased to below 50 ppb state drinking water standard in groundwater from monitoring wells that did not contain BTEX. In another monitoring well, MTBE decreased by two orders of magnitude in groundwater, after BTEX was biodegraded to low levels

  1. Upgrading of the SPS injection kicker system for LHC requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Ducimetière, L; Uythoven, J; Vossenberg, Eugène B; Han, Q

    1998-01-01

    The present SPS injection kicker system is composed of 12 travelling wave magnets connected in pairs to six pulse generators. The eight most upstream magnets ('S'-type) have a kick rise time (2-98%) o f 145 ns and the remaining four ('L'-type) of 215 ns. The flat top ripple of the kick is ±1%. In the future, this system will also inject protons and ions for the LHC, with a bunch spacing of respect ively 220 ns and 125 ns, and a flat top ripple requirement of at most ±0.5%. Important modifications, concerning both magnets and generators, are then required to meet these goals. For ion injection only 'S'-type magnets will be used. The reduction of the kick rise time will be achieved by shortening the magnet length and increasing the characteristic impedance. To compensate for the loss in tota l kick strength, four new magnets and two new pulse generators will be added. At the moment it is not intended to modify the 'L'-type magnets. Most of the pulse forming networks (PFN's) must be adapt ed to the higher char...

  2. An emergency water injection system (EWIS) for future CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Andre L.F. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil). E-mail: momarques@uol.com.br; Todreas, Neil E.; Driscoll, Michael J. [Massachusetts Inst.of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    2000-07-01

    This paper deals with the investigation of the feasibility and effectiveness of water injection into the annulus between the calandria tubes and the pressure tubes of CANDU reactors. The purpose is to provide an efficient decay heat removal process that avoids permanent deformation of pressure tubes severe accident conditions, such as loss of coolant accident (LOCA). The water injection may present the benefit of cost reduction and better actuation of other related safety systems. The experimental work was conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), in a setup that simulated, as close as possible, a CANDU bundle annular configuration, with heat fluxes on the order of 90 kW/m{sup 2}: the inner cylinder simulates the pressure tube and the outer tube represents the calandria tube. The experimental matrix had three dimensions: power level, annulus water level and boundary conditions. The results achieved overall heat transfer coefficients (U), which are comparable to those required (for nominal accident progression) to avoid pressure tube permanent deformation, considering current CANDU reactor data. Nonetheless, future work should be carried out to investigate the fluid dynamics such as blowdown behavior, in the peak bundle, and the system lay-out inside the containment to provide fast water injection. (author)

  3. Indian single pellet injection system for plasma fuelling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single barrel hydrogen pellet injection system is developed at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), India. The injector is able to produce 1.6 mm length × 1.8 mm diameter pellets. The achieved velocity of pellet is in the range of 700 to 900 m/s and is controlled by regulating the propellant pressure. The size and speed of pellet are decided by considering the neutral gas shielding model (NGS) based calculations. The injector is an in-situ pipe gun type injector, in which, a solid hydrogen pellet is formed at the freezing zone maintained at a temperature < 10 K and is accelerated to high speed using high pressure propellant gas. A GM cycle based cryocooler is used to maintain temperature at freezing zone. Proper care has been taken to minimize heat load on freezing zon using MLI. Pellet formed at the freezing zone is dislodged and accelerated to higher speed by using high pressure helium propellant gas through a fast opening valve of (opening duration < 2 millisecond). A three-stage differential pumping system is employed to remove propellant gas from injection line. Appropriate diagnostics is used to measure pellet parameters. Speed of pellet is measured by time of flight measurement using light gate diagnostic system. Pellet quality and its size, and also speed are measured using fast camera based imaging system. A Labview based GUI is used to communicate between control system and Pellet injector. The reliability of pellet formation and injection in present experimental system is greater than 95 %. (author)

  4. The fast beam interlock system for JET neutral injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JET Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) system poses severe interlock problems with the possibility of unsafe conditions arising on a fast timescale. In order to cope with this the high-security Fast Beam Interlock System (FBIS) has been developed. It is used to turn off the beams in a failsafe manner when a condition arises which could damage the beam line or torus on a timescale too short to be dealt with by the JET Central Interlock and Safety System (CISS). FBIS interfaces signals from many JET safety systems and processes them to act directly on the Neutral Beam power supplies. The interfaces and the fail safety operation of FBIS are described. It is presently planned to upgrade the system to include a real-time comparison of the ion beam deflection magnet currents and the beam extraction voltage and a system which will compensate for the effects of the Tokamak stray fields on the NBI beamlines

  5. Injection control at SuperKEKB with event timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SuperKEKB is the next generation project of KEKB and is started its operation in early 2015. Linac plays important roles in this luminosity upgrade project. The stored beam current in the main ring is doubled from that of KEKB. The top-up injection is performed to keep the maximum beam current during the operation. The injection control becomes complicated because of newly constructed Damping Ring. We designed the new Main Trigger Station. The performance tests of Event Timing System are implemented since it becomes more essential in this new design. The accuracy of delivering timing is determined to be 10ps. The long term stability of operation is confirmed. We conclude the new Main Trigger Station is satisfactory for SuperKEKB. (author)

  6. System Study: High-Pressure Coolant Injection 1998-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) at 25 U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCI results.

  7. System Study: High-Pressure Coolant Injection 1998–2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-01-31

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) at 25 U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCI results.

  8. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998–2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-02-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  9. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  10. Direct steam generation using a water injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One way to reduce plant price is by an increase in efficiency. About 3/4 of the energy in the Rankine cycle is used to evaporate water. By allowing the evaporation to take place directly in the collector tube, most of the tube temperature would be around the saturation temperature. Another advantage is the high amount of energy that can be store in the water-to-steam phase change. This reduces the required mass flow (tubing cost, (parasitics) in the solar field. At the moment there are two Direct Steam Generator systems which show promise. Luz developed the once-through boiler, BII developed the injection system

  11. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998–2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  12. Theoretical analysis of the interfacial phenomena during the injection of carbon particles into EAF slags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, H.H.; Morales, R.D. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico City (Mexico). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering; Conejo, A.N. [Inst. Tecnologico de Morelia (Mexico)

    2001-08-01

    A theoretical analysis of FeO reduction through the injection of carbon fines in electric arc furnace slags, involving the interfacial phenomena at the liquid-gas-solid interface, has been performed using basic principles of transport phenomena and physical chemistry of steelmaking. It was found that small angle contacts between slag and carbon favour FeO reduction. Moreover, FeO in basic slags are more prone to be reduced because the interfacial liquid-gas interface has more free reaction places. In acid slags FeO reduction is difficult because the gas-liquid interface is partially filled by polymeric silicates. When the particle size is smaller than 100 {mu}m the influence of slag basicity is considerably decreased. Practical applications of these results can be found in electric arc furnace shops aiming at the mastering of slag foaming practices and energy saving. (orig.)

  13. Migration rates and formation injectivity to determine containment time scales of sequestered carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide exhibits highly variable behavior over a range of reservoir pressure and temperature conditions. Because geologic sequestration of supercritical carbon dioxide is targeted for subsurface injection and containment at depths ranging from approximately 3,000 to 13,000 feet, the investigation into the physical properties of this fluid can be restricted to the pressure and temperature conditions likely encountered in the sedimentary strata within this depth interval. A petrophysical based approach was developed to study the widest range of formation properties potentially encountered in sedimentary strata. Fractional porosities were varied from 5 to 95 percent, in 5-percent increments, and permeability values were varied over thirteen orders of magnitude, from 10.0 darcys down to 1.0 picodarcy.

  14. Simple flow injection for determination of sulfite by amperometric detection using glassy carbon electrode modified with carbon nanotubes-PDDA-gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatatongchai, Maliwan; Sroysee, Wongduan; Chairam, Sanoe; Nacapricha, Duangjai

    2015-02-01

    A new approach is presented for sensitive and selective measurement of sulfite (SO3(2-)) in beverages based on a simple flow injection system with amperometric detection. In this work, the sulfite sensor was a glassy carbon electrode modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes-poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-gold nanoparticles composites (CNTs-PDDA-AuNPs/GC). Electrochemical oxidation of sulfite with this electrode was first studied in 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) using cyclic voltammetry. The results indicated that the CNTs-PDDA-AuNPs/GC electrode possesses electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of sulfite with high sensitivity and selectivity. Sulfite was quantified using amperometric measurement with the new sensor at +0.4V vs Ag/AgCl in conjunction with flow injection. The linear working range for the quantitation of sulfite was 2-200 mg L(-1) (r(2)=0.998) with a detection limit of 0.03 mg L(-1) (3σ of blank) and an estimated precision of 1.5%.The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of sulfite in fruit juices and wines with a sample throughput of 23 samples per hour. PMID:25435239

  15. Active ultrasound pattern injection system (AUSPIS for interventional tool guidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Guo

    Full Text Available Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking.

  16. Methodology for surge pressure evaluation in a water injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meliande, Patricia; Nascimento, Elson A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil; Mascarenhas, Flavio C.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Hidraulica Computacional; Dandoulakis, Joao P. [SHELL of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Predicting transient effects, known as surge pressures, is of high importance for offshore industry. It involves detailed computer modeling that attempts to simulate the complex interaction between flow line and fluid in order to ensure efficient system integrity. Platform process operators normally raise concerns whether the water injection system is adequately designed or not to be protected against possible surge pressures during sudden valve closure. This report aims to evaluate the surge pressures in Bijupira and Salema water injection systems due to valve closure, through a computer model simulation. Comparisons among the results from empirical formulations are discussed and supplementary analysis for Salema system were performed in order to define the maximum volumetric flow rate for which the design pressure was able to withstand. Maximum surge pressure values of 287.76 bar and 318.58 bar, obtained in Salema and Bijupira respectively, using empirical formulations have surpassed the operating pressure design, while the computer model results have pointed the greatest surge pressure value of 282 bar in Salema system. (author)

  17. Manufacture of modified milk protein concentrate utilizing injection of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, Chenchaiah; Salunke, P; Biswas, A C; Kommineni, A; Metzger, L E

    2015-06-01

    Dried milk protein concentrate is produced from skim milk using a combination of processes such as ultrafiltration (UF), evaporation or nanofiltration, and spray drying. It is well established that dried milk protein concentrate (MPC) that contains 80% (MPC80) and greater protein content (relative to dry matter) can lose solubility during storage as a result of protein-protein interactions and formation of insoluble complexes. Previous studies have shown that partial replacement of calcium with sodium improves MPC80 functionality and prevents the loss in solubility during storage. Those studies have used pH adjustment with the addition of acids, addition of monovalent salts, or ion exchange treatment of UF retentate. The objective of this study was to use carbon dioxide to produce MPC80 with improved functionality. In this study, reduced-calcium MPC80 (RCMPC) was produced from skim milk that was subjected to injection of 2,200 ppm of CO2 before UF, along with additional CO2 injection at a flow rate of 1.5 to 2 L/min during UF. A control MPC80 (CtrlMPC) was also produced from the same lot of skim milk without injection of CO2. The above processes were replicated 3 times, using different lots of skim milk for each replication. All the UF retentates were spray dried using a pilot-scale dryer. Skim milk and UF retentates were tested for ζ-potential (net negative charge), particle size, and viscosity. All the MPC were stored at room (22±1°C) and elevated (40°C) temperatures for 6 mo. Solubility was measured by dissolving the dried MPC in water at 22°C and at 10°C (cold solubility). Injection of CO2 and the resultant solubilization of calcium phosphate had a significant effect on UF performance, resulting in 10 and 20% loss in initial and average flux, respectively. Processing of skim milk with injection of CO2 also resulted in higher irreversible fouling resistances. Compared with control, the reduced-calcium MPC had 28 and 34% less ash and calcium, respectively

  18. Carbon isotope effects in carbonate systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deines, Peter

    2004-06-01

    Global carbon cycle models require a complete understanding of the δ 13C variability of the Earth's C reservoirs as well as the C isotope effects in the transfer of the element among them. An assessment of δ 13C changes during CO 2 loss from degassing magmas requires knowledge of the melt-CO 2 carbon isotope fractionation. In order to examine the potential size of this effect for silicate melts of varying composition, 13C reduced partition functions were computed in the temperature range 275 to 4000 K for carbonates of varying bond strengths (Mg, Fe, Mn, Sr, Ba, Pb, Zn, Cd, Li, and Na) and the polymorphs of calcite. For a given cation and a given pressure the 13C content increases with the density of the carbonate structure. For a given structure the tendency to concentrate 13C increases with pressure. The effect of pressure (‰/10 kbar) on the size of the reduced partition function of aragonite varies with temperature; in the pressure range 1 to 10 5 bars the change is given by: Δ 13C p average=-0.01796+0.06635∗ 10 3/T+0.006875∗ 10 6/T2 For calcite III the pressure effect is on average 1.4× larger than that for aragonite at all temperatures. The nature of the cation in a given structure type has a significant effect on the carbon isotope fractionation properties. The tendency to concentrate 13C declines in the series magnesite, aragonite, dolomite, strontianite, siderite, calcite, smithonite, witherite, rhodochrosite, otavite, cerrusite. For divalent cations a general expression for an estimation of the reduced partition function (β) from the reduced mass (μ = [M Cation × M Carbonate]/[M Cation + M Carbonate]) is: 1000 lnβ=(0.032367-0.072563∗ 10 3/T-0.01073∗ 10 6/T2)∗μ-14.003+29.953∗ 10 3/T+9.4610∗ 10 6/T2 For Mg-calcite the 13C content varies with the Mg concentration. The fractionation between Mg-calcite (X = mole fraction of MgCO 3) and calcite is given by: 1000 ln(α MgCalite- Calcite)=[0.013702-0.10957× 10 3/T+1.35940× 10 6/T2

  19. JET neutral beam injection system, construction and component tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two neutral injection systems for JET are each determined by 40 mw beam power extracted from eight sources during 10 s pulses. Under the existing spatial restrictions, this has led to a complex beam-line system design. The applied manufacturing techniques and the approach to quality assurance are discussed. The beam sources have been operated at 80 kv, 60 a, 5 s in hydrogen. Plasma source development has increased the H+ yield to approximately 84%. Beamlet steering by aperture offset has experimentally been adjusted to the values required for the restricted tokamak entrance geometry. A beam source has also been operated at 160 kv, 37 a in deuterium. At the tokamak the 7 m high injector vacuum box has been installed incorporating a fast shutter and a cryopump. This LHE cooled pump with 40 m2 entrance area and 45% pumping efficiency has successfully been tested as well as the flexible cryoliquid transfer-lines. The bakeable valve between injector box and tokamak vacuum (1.1 m x 0.5 m gate cross-section) has been operated with leak rates <10-9 mbar1/s. The sub-system commissioning is completed by short-pulse operation of the beam sources with their final power supplies in situ at the tokamak and, in parallel to this, testing of the beam-line system in the neutral injection testbed

  20. Injection transition analysis of PLGS MP/LP ECC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze the transition from MP ECC to LP ECC injection, a RELAP5 model has been developed for the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS) MP/LP ECC system. By using this model, some transition analyses have been performed with emphasis on stroke times of the dousing tank suction test isolating valves and the recovery sump isolating valves. The results indicate that if either in-line valve pair of the dousing tank isolation valves fails to close, air could be ingested by the ECC pumps shortly after the dousing tank is empty. (author)

  1. Flow velocity effect on the corrosion/erosion in water injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main causes of fails at water injection lines on the secondary petroleum recovery systems are related with corrosion/erosion problems which are influenced by the flow velocity, the presence of dissolved oxygen, solids in the medium and the microorganisms proliferation. So too, this corrosion process promotes the suspended solids generation which affects the water quality injected, causing wells tamponage and loss of injectivity, with the consequent decrease in the crude production. This situation has been impacted in meaning order at the production processes of an exploration enterprise which utilizes the Maracaibo lake as water resource for their injection by pattern projects. Stating that, it was developed a study for determining in experimental order the effect of flow velocity on the corrosion/erosion process joined to the presence of dissolved oxygen which allows to determine the optimum range of the said working velocity for the water injection systems. This range is defined by critical velocities of bio layers deposition and erosion. They were realized simulation pilot tests of the corrosion standard variables, concentration of dissolved oxygen and fluid velocity in the injection systems with filtered and non filtered water. For the development of these tests it was constructed a device which allows to install and expose cylindrical manometers of carbon steel according to predetermined conditions which was obtained the necessary information to make correlations the results of these variables. Additionally, they were determined the mathematical models that adjusts to dynamical behavior of the corrosion/erosion process, finding the optimum range of the flow velocity for the control of this process, being necessary to utilize the following techniques: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray dispersion analysis (EDX) for encourage the surface studies. They were effected morphological analysis of the surfaces studies and the values were determined of

  2. Control of Surge in Centrifugal Compressor by Using a Nozzle Injection System: Universality in Optimal Position of Injection Nozzle

    OpenAIRE

    Toshiyuki Hirano; Takanori Uchida; Hoshio Tsujita

    2012-01-01

    The passive control method for surge and rotating stall in centrifugal compressors by using a nozzle injection system was proposed to extend the stable operating range to the low flow rate. A part of the flow at the scroll outlet of a compressor was recirculated to an injection nozzle installed on the inner wall of the suction pipe of the compressor through the bypass pipe and injected to the impeller inlet. Two types of compressors were tested at the rotational speeds of 50,000 rpm and 60,0...

  3. Improving pulverized coal injection systems for operating with higher injection rates; Amelioration des performances d'installations d'injection de charbon en vue d'une augmentation du taux d'injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, K. [Thyssen Krupp Stahl (Germany); Kroemmer, Y.; Goedert, P.; Schmit, L. [Arcelor Paul Wurth (Luxembourg)

    2004-10-01

    Complete text of publication follows: The latest developments in injection technology allow reaching injection rates of 200 kg/t{sub HM} and more. The new technology can be applied directly to green field plants but also to existing injection plants. Two innovative solutions for upgrading simple distributor systems with respect to flow control and distribution accuracy are presented. The installation of oxy-coal lances and of a preheating system for pulverized coal upstream of the injection improves the combustion conditions at the lance tip.

  4. Characterization of formation damage system from well injectivity decline data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedrikovetsky, Pavel; Silva, Marcos J. da [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Macae, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia e Exploracao do Petroleo (LENEP); Silva, Maylton F. da [PETROBRAS, Macae, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio da Bacia de Campos; Siqueira, Alexandre G.; Souza, Antonio L.S. de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    The problem of characterization of formation damage system from well injectivity history have been discussed in the literature with regards to well behavior prediction and decision making on possible well stimulation. The formation damage system is characterized by four parameters: filtration ({lambda}) and formation damage ({beta}) coefficients, critical porosity ratio ({proportional_to}) and filter cake permeability (K{sub c}). Nevertheless, just three constants can be extracted from well injectivity decline curve: impedance slope during deep bed filtration, transition time and impedance slope during external cake formation. So, one equation is missing. A correlation between the formation damage coefficient and the critical porosity ratio has been derived by da Silva, M.F. et alii (2003) based on the analysis of several laboratory tests on core flood by poor quality water. In the current paper, we assume this correlation to be valid for reservoir conditions also, and use it as an additional equation for characterizing the formation damage system. Seven well data have been treated, and values for four parameters of formation damage have been calculated. (author)

  5. Control of Surge in Centrifugal Compressor by Using a Nozzle Injection System: Universality in Optimal Position of Injection Nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Hirano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The passive control method for surge and rotating stall in centrifugal compressors by using a nozzle injection system was proposed to extend the stable operating range to the low flow rate. A part of the flow at the scroll outlet of a compressor was recirculated to an injection nozzle installed on the inner wall of the suction pipe of the compressor through the bypass pipe and injected to the impeller inlet. Two types of compressors were tested at the rotational speeds of 50,000 rpm and 60,000 rpm with the parameter of the circumferential position of the injection nozzle. The present experimental results revealed that the optimum circumferential position, which most effectively reduced the flow rate for the surge inception, existed at the opposite side of the tongue of the scroll against the rotational axis and did not depend on the compressor system and the rotational speeds.

  6. The Determination of Several Spray Characteristics of a High-Speed Oil Engine Injection System with an Oscilloscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Chester W; Moore, Charles S

    1928-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the injection lag, duration of injection, and spray start and cut-off characteristics of a fuel injection system operated on an engine and injecting fuel into the atmosphere.

  7. INJECTION PAINTING OPTIMIZATION WITH FUZZY LOGIC EXPERT SYSTEM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEEBE-WANG,J.; TANG,J.

    2001-06-18

    Optimizing transverse particle distributions in the accumulator ring is one of most important factors to the future performance of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) [l]. This can only be achieved by optimizing the injection bumps that paint the beam in phase space. The process is complex due to the vague distribution inputs and the multiple optimization goals. Furthermore, the priority of the optimization criteria could change at different operational stages. We propose optimizing transverse phase space painting with fuzzy logic and present our initial studies toward that end. The focus of this paper is on how the problem can be solved with a Fuzzy Logic (FL) expert system through the creation of a set of rules that can be applied by the system. Various particle distributions, from computer simulations, are analyzed with FL and the results are compared and discussed. Finally, a run-time optimization control system is proposed.

  8. INJECTION PAINTING OPTIMIZATION WITH FUZZY LOGIC EXPERT SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimizing transverse particle distributions in the accumulator ring is one of most important factors to the future performance of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) [l]. This can only be achieved by optimizing the injection bumps that paint the beam in phase space. The process is complex due to the vague distribution inputs and the multiple optimization goals. Furthermore, the priority of the optimization criteria could change at different operational stages. We propose optimizing transverse phase space painting with fuzzy logic and present our initial studies toward that end. The focus of this paper is on how the problem can be solved with a Fuzzy Logic (FL) expert system through the creation of a set of rules that can be applied by the system. Various particle distributions, from computer simulations, are analyzed with FL and the results are compared and discussed. Finally, a run-time optimization control system is proposed

  9. Linearisation via input-output injection of time delay systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramírez, Eduardo; Moog, Claude H.; Califano, Claudia; Alejandro Márquez-Martínez, Luis

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the problem of linearisation of systems with constant commensurable delays by input-output injection using algebraic control tools based on the theory of non-commutative rings. Solutions for the problem of linearisation free of delays, and with delays of an observable nonlinear time-delay systems are presented based on the analysis of the input-output equation. These results are achieved by means of constructive algorithms that use the nth derivative of the output expressed in terms of the state-space variables instead of the explicit computation of the input-output representation of the system. Necessary and sufficient conditions are established in both cases by means of an invertible change of coordinates.

  10. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is an innovative method that for the first time uses the strong reductant carbon monoxide to both reduce iron...

  11. Synthesis of highly fluorescent hydrophobic carbon dots by hot injection method using Paraplast as precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have reported synthesis of bright blue colored hydrophobic carbon dots (hC-dots) using highly pure blend of polymers called Paraplast. We developed a hot injection method for making nearly monodispersed hC-dots with a diameter in a range: 5–30 nm as confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The involvement of various functional groups was confirmed by Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. These hC-dots were incubated with breast cancer stem cells in order to check the entry as well as biological imaging. The cells were analyzed using epifluorescent microscopy. hC-dots showed concentration dependent cytotoxicity (LD50: 50 mg/ml) and could be used for bioimaging even at lower concentration (0.5 mg/ml). hC-dots were found to be versatile agents for peeping inside the cells which could also be used for delivery of water insoluble chemotherapeutic agents to variety of solid tumors. - Highlights: • Synthesis of hydrophobic carbon dots from polymer based Paraplast • Deep blue color under the influence of UV light • Typical optical properties used for biological imaging • Biological imaging of breast cancer stem cells revealing potential of carbon dots

  12. Synthesis of highly fluorescent hydrophobic carbon dots by hot injection method using Paraplast as precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talib, Abou [Doctoral Degree Program in Marine Biotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Pandey, Sunil [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70, Lien-Hai Road, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70, Lien-Hai Road, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Thakur, Mukeshchand [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70, Lien-Hai Road, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Wu, Hui-Fen, E-mail: hui@faculty.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70, Lien-Hai Road, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70, Lien-Hai Road, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Doctoral Degree Program in Marine Biotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 800, Taiwan (China); Institute of Medical Science and Technology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, 80424, Taiwan (China)

    2015-03-01

    We have reported synthesis of bright blue colored hydrophobic carbon dots (hC-dots) using highly pure blend of polymers called Paraplast. We developed a hot injection method for making nearly monodispersed hC-dots with a diameter in a range: 5–30 nm as confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The involvement of various functional groups was confirmed by Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. These hC-dots were incubated with breast cancer stem cells in order to check the entry as well as biological imaging. The cells were analyzed using epifluorescent microscopy. hC-dots showed concentration dependent cytotoxicity (LD{sub 50}: 50 mg/ml) and could be used for bioimaging even at lower concentration (0.5 mg/ml). hC-dots were found to be versatile agents for peeping inside the cells which could also be used for delivery of water insoluble chemotherapeutic agents to variety of solid tumors. - Highlights: • Synthesis of hydrophobic carbon dots from polymer based Paraplast • Deep blue color under the influence of UV light • Typical optical properties used for biological imaging • Biological imaging of breast cancer stem cells revealing potential of carbon dots.

  13. Research on properties of carbon black/polypropylene composites by dynamic injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Chun; He, Guang-Jian; Huang, Zhao-Xia; Zhou, Li-Ying; He, He-Zhi

    2016-03-01

    Polymer composites filled with conductive carbon black (CB) are gaining popularity for electromagnetic shielding applications. Dynamic injection molding method was adopted to study the influences of vibration force field on electrical properties of polypropylene/CB composites. The results showed that the percolation phenomenon of conductivity of composites occurred at 15wt% and the calculated SE was positive correlated with the variation trend of conductivity. The calculated SE of composite was more than 30dB at a CB concentration of 30wt%, which could obtain good shielding effects. The result could offer optimum vibration parameters for producing electromagnetic shielding composites by respectively changing the amplitudes and frequencies of the vibration force field.

  14. Injectable systems and implantable conduits for peripheral nerve repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute sensory problems following peripheral nerve injury include pain and loss of sensation. Approximately 360 000 people in the United States suffer from upper extremity paralytic syndromes every year. Restoration of sufficient functional recovery after long-gap peripheral nerve damage remains a clinical challenge. Potential nerve repair therapies have increased in the past decade as the field of tissue engineering expands. The following review describes the use of biomaterials in nerve tissue engineering. Namely, the use of both synthetic and natural biomaterials, including non-degradable and degradable nerve grafts, is addressed. The enhancement of axonal regeneration can be achieved by further modification of the nerve guides. These approaches include injectable hydrogel fillers, controlled drug delivery systems, and cell incorporation. Hydrogels are a class of liquid–gel biomaterials with high water content. Injectable and gelling hydrogels can serve as growth factor delivery vehicles and cell carriers for tissue engineering applications. While natural hydrogels and polymers are suitable for short gap nerve repair, the use of polymers for relatively long gaps remains a clinical challenge. (paper)

  15. Hot electrons injection in carbon nanotubes under the influence of quasi-static ac-field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amekpewu, M.; Mensah, S. Y.; Musah, R.; Mensah, N. G.; Abukari, S. S.; Dompreh, K. A.

    2016-07-01

    The theory of hot electrons injection in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) where both dc electric field (Ez), and a quasi-static ac field exist simultaneously (i.e. when the frequency ω of ac field is much less than the scattering frequency v (ω ≪ v or ωτ ≪ 1, v =τ-1) where τ is relaxation time) is studied. The investigation is done theoretically by solving semi-classical Boltzmann transport equation with and without the presence of the hot electrons source to derive the current densities. Plots of the normalized current density versus dc field (Ez) applied along the axis of the CNTs in the presence and absence of hot electrons reveal ohmic conductivity initially and finally negative differential conductivity (NDC) provided ωτ ≪ 1 (i.e. quasi- static case). With strong enough axial injection of the hot electrons, there is a switch from NDC to positive differential conductivity (PDC) about Ez ≥ 75 kV / cm and Ez ≥ 140 kV / cm for a zigzag CNT and an armchair CNT respectively. Thus, the most important tough problem for NDC region which is the space charge instabilities can be suppressed due to the switch from the NDC behaviour to the PDC behaviour predicting a potential generation of terahertz radiations whose applications are relevance in current-day technology, industry, and research.

  16. Carbon Sequestration Potential of Agricultural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Through proper management, agricultural systems (cropland, pasture, and forest) have the ability to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and sequester it in soils and wood products. The carbon thus sequestered can help slow the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide currently occurring as a res...

  17. Gravity-driven injection experiments and direct-contact condensation regime map for passive high-pressure injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gravity-driven injection experiment of a passive high-pressure injection system with a pressurizer pressure balance line (PRZ PBL) is conducted by using a small-scale test facility to identify the parameters affecting the gravity-driven injection and the major condensation regimes. It turns out that the larger the water subcooling is, the more the injection initiation is delayed. A sparger and natural circulation of the hot water from the steam generator accelerate the gravity-driven injection. The condensation regimes identified through the experiments are divided into three distinct ones: sonic jet, subsonic jet, and steam cavity. The steam cavity regime is a unique regime of downward injection with the present geometry not previously observed in other experiments. The condensation regime map is constructed using Froude number and Jacob number. It turns out that the buoyancy force has a larger influence on the regime map transition because the regime map using the Froude number better fits data with different geometries than other dimensionless parameters. Simple correlations for the regime boundaries are proposed using the Froude number and the Jacob number. (orig.)

  18. Clinical Application of the Sapphire Unfolder Lens Injection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiai Guo; Danying Zheng; Zhenyu Li; Yiyong Qian; Zhenping Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To summarize the clinical experience of 300 cases using the Sapphire unfloder intraocular lens (IOL) injection system.Methods: After the standard phacoemulsification, an AR40e IOL was implanted using the Sapphire Unfolder. The involved problems during and after the operation were observed and analyzed.Results:The complications occurred during the operation including the crack at the haptic-optic junction in 2 cases, slight kink in the haptic in 5 cases, IOL clamp into the cartridge in 2 cases, posterior capsular rupture in 2 cases and endothelium damage in the central small area in 4 cases. All the patients recovered successfully with IOLs in good position.Conclusion: IOL implantation with the Sapphire Unfolder led to no serious complications and got the satisfactory results.

  19. Porous media investigation before and after hydrochloric acid injection on a pre-salt carbonate coquinas sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, A C; Teles, A P; Pepin, A; Bize-Forest, N; Lima, I; Lopes, R T

    2016-04-01

    Porous space characterization of carbonate rocks is an important aid in petroleum exploration from carbonate reservoir. In this study, X-ray microtomography technique was applied to evaluate total porosity of a coquina sample extracted from pre-salt reservoir, in Brazil, before and after acid injection. Two image processing program were used in order to assess performance. The results showed that microtomography has potential to compute porosity of coquina samples and provides information about rock porous network. PMID:26794261

  20. Development and optimization of a secure injection CVD process to grow aligned carbon nanotubes on large substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S.; Magga, Y.; Belkady, L.; Hibert, E.; Porterat, D.; Boulanger, P.; Pinault, M.; Mayne-L'Hermite, M.

    2013-04-01

    Growth of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT) by a secure injection CVD process on large quartz substrates and carbon fiber (CF) cloths has been reported in this study. Adjustments of CVD setup and synthesis parameters have been achieved to control the CNT growth in terms of homogeneous covering of the substrates and to tailor the length of CNT. Two parameters have been optimized such as the precursor feeding rate per reactor surface unit and the carrier gas flow rate.

  1. Ubiquitous healthy diatoms in the deep sea confirm deep carbon injection by the biological pump

    KAUST Repository

    Agusti, Susana

    2015-07-09

    The role of the ocean as a sink for CO2 is partially dependent on the downward transport of phytoplankton cells packaged within fast-sinking particles. However, whether such fast-sinking mechanisms deliver fresh organic carbon down to the deep bathypelagic sea and whether this mechanism is prevalent across the ocean requires confirmation. Here we report the ubiquitous presence of healthy photosynthetic cells, dominated by diatoms, down to 4,000 m in the deep dark ocean. Decay experiments with surface phytoplankton suggested that the large proportion (18%) of healthy photosynthetic cells observed, on average, in the dark ocean, requires transport times from a few days to a few weeks, corresponding to sinking rates (124–732 m d−1) comparable to those of fast-sinking aggregates and faecal pellets. These results confirm the expectation that fast-sinking mechanisms inject fresh organic carbon into the deep sea and that this is a prevalent process operating across the global oligotrophic ocean.

  2. Uniform Dispersion of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes in Copper Matrix Nanocomposites Using Metal Injection Molding Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Samer Muhsan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel fabrication approach of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs reinforced copper (Cu matrix nanocomposites. A combination of nanoscale dispersion of functionalized MWNTs in low viscose media of dissolved paraffin wax under sonication treatment followed by metal injection molding (MIM technique was adopted. MWNTs contents were varied from 0 to 10 vol.%. Information about the degree of purification and functionalization processes, evidences on the existence of the functional groups, effect of sonication time on the treated MWNTs, and microstructural analysis of the fabricated Cu/MWNTs nanocomposites were determined using TEM, EDX, FESEM, and Raman spectroscopy analysis. The results showed that the impurities of the pristine MWNTs such as Fe, Ni catalyst, and the amorphous carbon have been significantly removed after purification process. Meanwhile, FESEM and TEM observations showed high stability of MWNTs at elevated temperatures and uniform dispersion of MWNTs in Cu matrix at different volume fractions and sintering temperatures (950, 1000 & 1050°C. The experimentally measured thermal conductivities of Cu/MWNTs nanocomposites showed remarkable increase (11.25% higher than sintered pure Cu with addition of 1 vol.% MWNTs, and slight decrease below the value of sintered Cu at 5 and 10 vol.% MWNTs.

  3. Experimental and Theoretical Characterization of Artificial Muscles Based on Charge Injection in Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, Ray

    2002-03-01

    We theoretically predicted that carbon nanotubes have the potential of providing at least an order of magnitude higher work capacity per cycle and stress generation capability, as compared with any prior-art material for directly converting electrical energy to mechanical energy. Experimental and theoretical results expand understanding of the nanotube actuation mechanism, and demonstrate that improvements in nanotube sheet and macrofiber properties correspondingly increase actuator performance. The actuation mechanism is electrochemical double-layer charge injection, which we show is dominated by band structure effects for low degrees of charge transfer and by intra-tube electrostatic repulsion when charge transfer is large. Measurements indicate that charge transfer is limited to the outer nanotubes in a nanotube bundle, which limits present performance (as does creep, nanotube misalignment, and poor inter-bundle stress transfer). Nevertheless, measured actuation stresses are 100 times that of natural muscle, and the measured gravimetric work-per-cycle (fixed load condition) is already much higher than for the hard ferroelectrics. Efforts to eliminate these problems (via debundling, nanotube welding, and improvements in nanotube spinning methods) will be described, together with the initial demonstration and analysis of chemically powered carbon nanotube muscles.

  4. Experimental investigations of a single cylinder genset engine with common rail fuel injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Paras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance and emissions characteristics of compression ignition (CI engines are strongly dependent on quality of fuel injection. In an attempt to improve engine combustion, engine performance and reduce the exhaust emissions from a single cylinder constant speed genset engine, a common rail direct injection (CRDI fuel injection system was deployed and its injection timings were optimized. Results showed that 34°CA BTDC start of injection (SOI timings result in lowest brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC and smoke opacity. Advanced injection timings showed higher cylinder peak pressure, pressure rise rate, and heat release rate due to relatively longer ignition delay experienced.

  5. Different types of cryogenics Pellet injection systems (PIS for fusion reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devarshi Patel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fusion reactor is the one of the most capable option for generating the large amount of energy in future. Fusion means joining smaller nuclei (the plural of nucleus to make a larger nucleus and release energy in the form of neutrons.The sun uses nuclear fusion of hydrogen atoms into helium atoms. This gives off heat and light and other radiation. Hydrogen is used as the fuel in the fusion reactor. We have to inject the solid hydrogen pellet into the tokamak as per the requirement. For injecting the pellet we use the pellet injection system. Pellet injection system (PIS is the fuel injection system of the fusion reactor.

  6. Photoamperometric flow injection analysis of glucose based on dehydrogenase modified quantum dots-carbon nanotube nanocomposite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertek, Bensu; Dilgin, Yusuf

    2016-12-01

    In this work, a core-shell quantum dot (QD, ZnS-CdS) was electrodeposited onto multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode (ZnS-CdS/MWCNT/GCE) and following glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) was immobilized onto QD modified electrode. The proposed electrode (GDH/ZnS-CdS/MWCNT/GCE) was effectively used for the photoelectrochemical biosensing of glucose in flow injection analysis (FIA) system using a home-made flow cell. Results from cyclic voltammetric and FI amperometric measurements have revealed that GDH/ZnS-CdS/MWCNT/GCE is capable of signaling photoelectrocatalytic activity toward NADH when the surface of enzyme modified electrode was irradiated with a light source (250W Halogen lamp). Thus, photoelectrochemical biosensing of glucose was monitored by recording current-time curve of enzymatically produced NADH at optimized conditions. The biosensor response was found linear over the range 0.010-2.0mM glucose with detection limits of 6.0 and 4.0μM for amperometric and photoamperometric methods, respectively. The relative standard deviations (n=5) for 0.5mM glucose were 5.8% and 3.8% for photoamperometric and amperometric results, respectively. The photoelectrochemical biosensor was successfully applied to the real samples. The results with this biosensor showed good selectivity, repeatability and sensitivity for monitoring glucose in amperometric and photoamperometric FIA studies. PMID:26944347

  7. A scriptable DSP-based system for dynamic conductance injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Hugh P C

    2008-04-30

    A variety of software and hardware systems have been developed to inject controlled electrical conductances into excitable cells, to investigate the physiological mechanisms of action potential generation. These systems face several challenges: the need to model complex conductances, including voltage-gated ion channels, synaptic conductances controlled by electrical models of entire cells or even networks of cells, to do so rapidly and stably, with precisely controlled update intervals of 20micros or less, and to present an easy and flexible interface to the user, allowing new experiments to be designed and executed easily. In this paper I describe a new software system (SM-2) which is designed to meet these requirements, and which runs on the current generation of digital-signal-processing (DSP) analog input-output I/O boards, hosted in Windows PCs. Its key innovation is its configurability by simple user-written text scripts, or "scriptability", which gives it a high flexibility of purpose, and allows non-programmers the capacity to rapidly design and use new Hodgkin-Huxley-type active conductances, conductances with arbitrary current-voltage relationships, Markov process conductance mechanisms with user-specified rate matrices, and hybrid networks of virtual cells. At the same time, the hardware platform allows this to be achieved with a fast and accurately timed input-computation-output cycle. PMID:18076997

  8. Feasibility study of carbon particles injection by laser ablation to calibrate spectroscopic erosion measurements in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naiim Habib, M., E-mail: marie.naiim-habib@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Mercadier, L. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Laboratoire Lasers, Plasmas et Procedes Photoniques, 163 Av de Luminy, 13288 Marseille (France); Marandet, Y. [PIIM, CNRS-Universite de Provence, Marseille (France); Delaporte, Ph. [Laboratoire Lasers, Plasmas et Procedes Photoniques, 163 Av de Luminy, 13288 Marseille (France); Hernandez, C.; Grisolia, C.; Monier-Garbet, P. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2011-08-01

    To check if spectroscopic measurements can be used for erosion determination, we propose to inject in the line of sight of the diagnostic, during plasma operation, a known carbon particle source, produced by laser ablation. A first assessment of this technique will be presented in the context of the Tore Supra tokamak.

  9. Flow Injection/Sequential Injection Analysis Systems: Potential Use as Tools for Rapid Liver Diseases Biomarker Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Kradtap Hartwell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow injection/sequential injection analysis (FIA/SIA systems are suitable for carrying out automatic wet chemical/biochemical reactions with reduced volume and time consumption. Various parts of the system such as pump, valve, and reactor may be built or adapted from available materials. Therefore the systems can be at lower cost as compared to other instrumentation-based analysis systems. Their applications for determination of biomarkers for liver diseases have been demonstrated in various formats of operation but only a few and limited types of biomarkers have been used as model analytes. This paper summarizes these applications for different types of reactions as a guide for using flow-based systems in more biomarker and/or multibiomarker studies.

  10. An Experimental Investigation of Swelling and Elastic Property Changes Resulting from Carbon Dioxide Injection into Prismatic Coal Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlamini, Bongani

    The world currently relies heavily on fossil fuels to meet its energy needs. The demand from a growing population for energy continues to increase and cannot be met solely by renewable sources of energy. As a result of this high dependence on fossil fuels, various methods of reducing emissions are under investigation. Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) has been identified as a potential technique that can be employed to reduce emissions. Unmineable coal seams have been identified as a possible carbon dioxide geologic storage formation. The behavior of coal in response to CO 2 injection is not yet fully understood or well documented. There is a need to understand and quantify the physical changes of coal in response to CO2 injection. These physical changes include properties such as strain (swelling), sonic velocity (compressional and shear velocity), and elastic moduli. Understanding the physical changes undergone by coal during CO2 injection is crucial in evaluating the efficiency and integrity of coal as a potential geologic storage formation. To study and quantify the effect of CO2 injection on adsorption induced strain (swelling) and coal elastic properties, specifically ultrasonic velocity (compressional and shear velocity) and elastic moduli, an experimental approach was followed. Two prismatic coal samples with approximate dimensions of 25cm (9.8 inches) x 17cm (6.7 inches) x 6cm (2.4 inches) were prepared. The coal samples used were from the Lower Sunnyside Coal Seam of the Books Cliffs Coalfields in Utah. A specially designed steel frame was used to contain the samples. Two extreme cases were tested using the samples. For case one, a high (4 MPa) injection pressure and high confining pressure (12 MPa) was used and in case two, both injection pressure and confining pressure were dramatically decreased. The conventional pulse transmission method was used to determine sonic velocities. This method uses transducers to send an ultrasonic wave through the

  11. Experiments on Plasma Injection into a Centrifugally Confined System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, S.; Bomgardner, R.; Brockington, S.; Case, A.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Uzun-Kaymak, I.; Elton, R.; Young, W.; Teodorescu, C.; Morales, C. H.; Ellis, R. F.

    2009-11-01

    We describe the cross-field injection of plasma into a centrifugally-confined system. Two different types of plasma railgun have been installed on the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment (MCX) in an attempt to drive that plasma's rotation. The initial gun was a coaxial device designed to mitigate the blowby instability. The second one was a MiniRailgun with a rectangular bore oriented so that the MCX magnetic field augments the railgun's internal magnetic field. Tests at HyperV indicate this MiniRailgun reaches much higher densities than the original gun, although muzzle velocity is slightly reduced. We discuss the impact of these guns on MCX for various conditions. Initial results show that even for a 2 kG field, firing the MiniRailgun modifies oscillations of the MCX diamagnetic loops and can impact the core current and voltage. The gun also has a noticeable impact on MCX microwave emissions. These observations suggest plasma enters the MCX system. We also compare diagnostic data collected separately from MCX for these and other guns, focussing primarily on magnetic measurements.

  12. The new control system of the SPS injection kicker

    CERN Document Server

    Antoine, A; Marchand, A; Verhagen, H

    2002-01-01

    The SPS accelerator will be used as injector for the LHC and has to be adapted to the LHC requirements. The tight specification on beam blow-up and bunch spacing in the SPS has required an upgrade program of the SPS injection kicker in order to obtain a reduction of the magnetic field ripple to less than ± 0.5% and of the magnet current rise time to less than 145 ns. In this context, the slow control part has been entirely rebuilt on the basis of off-the-shelf industrial components. A hierarchical architecture based on a SIEMENS S7-400 master programmable logic controller interconnected through PROFIBUS-DP to S7-300 deported and decentralised I/Os has been implemented. Integration of in-house specific G-64 hardware systems inside this industrial environment has been done through a PROFIBUS-DP to G-64 intelligent interface based on an OEM fieldbus mezzanine board on one side and an FPGA implementing the required functionality on the other. Simultaneously, the fast timing system has been completely reshuffled ...

  13. Porous plug gas injection systems for studies of hydrocarbon dissociation and transport in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A probe has been designed, constructed, and successfully used to inject methane into the DIII-D lower divertor in a manner imitating natural release by chemical erosion. This porous plug injector (PPI) probe consists of a self-contained gas reservoir with an integrated pressure gauge and a 3 cm diameter porous surface through which gas is injected into the lower divertor of the tokamak. The probe is positioned flush with the divertor target surface by means of the divertor materials evaluation system. Two gas delivery systems were developed: in the first, gas flow is regulated by a remotely controlled microvalve and in the second by a fixed micro-orifice flow restrictor. Because of the large area of the porous surface through which gas is admitted, the injected hydrocarbon molecules see a local carbon surface (>90% carbon) similar to that seen by hydrocarbons being emitted by chemical sputtering from surrounding carbon tiles. The distributed gas source also reduces the disturbance to the local plasma while providing sufficient signal for spectroscopic detection. In situ spectroscopic measurements with the PPI in DIII-D allow the direct calibration of response for measured plasma conditions from a known influx of gas.

  14. Determination of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in freshwaters by sequential injection spectrophotometry with on-line UV photo-oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated sequential injection (SI) method for the determination of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in freshwaters is presented. For DIC measurement on-line sample acidification (sulphuric acid, pH 2 which subsequently diffused through a PTFE membrane into a basic, cresol red acceptor stream. The CO2 increased the concentration of the acidic form of the cresol red indicator, with a resultant decrease in absorbance at 570 nm being directly proportional to DIC concentration. DIC + DOC was determined after on-line sample irradiation (15 W low power UV lamp) coupled with acid-peroxydisulfate digestion, with the subsequent detection of CO2 as described above. DOC was determined by subtraction of DIC from (DIC + DOC). Analytical figures of merit were linear ranges of 0.05-5.0 mg C L-1 for both DIC and DIC + DOC, with typical R.S.D.s of less than 7% (0.05 mg C L-1-5.3% for DIC and 6.6% for DIC + DOC; 4.0 mg C L-1-2.6% for DIC and 2.4% for DIC + DOC, n = 3) and an LOD (blank + 3S.D.) of 0.05 mg C L-1. Sample throughput for the automated system was 8 h-1 for DIC and DOC with low reagent consumption (acid/peroxydisulfate 200 μL per DIC + DOC analysis). A range of model carbon compounds and Tamar River (Plymouth, UK) samples were analysed for DIC and DOC and the results showed good agreement with a high temperature catalytic oxidation (HTCO) reference method (t-test, P = 0.05)

  15. Photoelectrocatalytic determination of NADH in a flow injection system with electropolymerized methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was firstly described that a glassy carbon electrode electropolymerized with methylene blue shows an efficient photoelectrocatalytic activity towards NADH oxidation in a phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.0). In order to perform the photoelectrocatalytic determination of NADH in a flow injection analysis (FIA) system, a home-made flow electrochemical cell with a suitable transparent window for the irradiation of the electrode surface was constructed. The currents obtained from the photoamperometric measurements in the FIA system at optimum conditions (flow rate of carrier solution, 1.3 mL min-1; transmission tubing length, 10 cm; injection volume, 100 μL; and constant applied potential, +150 mV vs. Ag/AgCl) were linearly dependent on the NADH concentration and linear calibration curves were obtained in the range of 1.0 x 10-7-2.0 x 10-4 M. The detection limit was found to be 4.0 x 10-8 M for photoamperometric determination of NADH.

  16. Upper plenum energency core coolant (ECC) injection in the semiscale Mod-1 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two different PWR plant configurations were simulated in the Semiscale Mod-1 system. The first system configuration represented a double-ended cold leg break in one loop of a four-loop PWR plant. Accumulators injected ECC into both the upper plenum and the cold legs, and two different upper plenum ECC injection rates were evaluated. For the second simulation, the Semiscale Mod-1 system was configured to represent a double-ended cold leg break in one loop of a two-loop PWR system. In this case, ECC was injected by the low pressure injection system (LPIS) into the upper plenum, and accumulator water was injected into the intact and broken loop cold legs. This injection technique is similar to that used in several American-made two-loop PWRs

  17. Injection of polyelectrolytes enhances mobility of zero-valent iron nanoparticles in carbonate-rich porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumann, Susanne; Micić, Vesna; Schmid, Doris; Hofmann, Thilo

    2013-04-01

    The application of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) for in situ groundwater remediation has received increased attention as a beneficial and novel remediation technique. A precondition for effective nZVI field applications is its delivery to the contaminated source zones. This has proved to be difficult due to the limited mobility of nZVI, which remains one major obstacle to widespread utilization of this remediation approach (O'CAROLL ET AL., 2012). One important factor that controls mobility of nZVI is physical and chemical heterogeneity within the subsurface, such as mineralogical variations (KIM ET AL., 2012). In our previous study we showed that the nZVI transport in carbonate-rich porous media is significantly reduced compared to that in quartz porous media (LAUMANN ET AL., 2012). This is caused by favorable nZVI deposition onto carbonate sand and is attributed to the less negative surface charge of carbonate compared to that of quartz sand under the range of water chemical conditions typically encountered in aquifers. New strategies are therefore required to improve nZVI mobility in carbonate-rich porous media. One approach can be the injection of polyelectrolytes in the subsurface, which are expected to adsorb onto aquifer grains and provide greater repulsion between nZVI and the porous media. In this study the effect of co-injected polyelectrolytes on the transport of polyacrylic acid (PAA) coated nZVI in two model porous media, quartz and carbonate sands was evaluated. Column experiments were carried out aiming to evaluate mobility of PAA-nZVI co-injected with four polyelectrolytes, including natural organic matter (NOM), humic acid, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and lignin sulfonate. The results demonstrated that the co-injection of the chosen polyelectrolytes does not influence mobility of PAA-nZVI in quartz sand; the breakthrough with co-injected polyelectrolytes was similar to that of the pure PAA-nZVI dispersion. This observation can be explained

  18. Enhanced Performance Assessment System (EPAS) for carbon sequestration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yifeng; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; McNeish, Jerry A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Dewers, Thomas A.; Hadgu, Teklu; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.

    2010-09-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is an option to mitigate impacts of atmospheric carbon emission. Numerous factors are important in determining the overall effectiveness of long-term geologic storage of carbon, including leakage rates, volume of storage available, and system costs. Recent efforts have been made to apply an existing probabilistic performance assessment (PA) methodology developed for deep nuclear waste geologic repositories to evaluate the effectiveness of subsurface carbon storage (Viswanathan et al., 2008; Stauffer et al., 2009). However, to address the most pressing management, regulatory, and scientific concerns with subsurface carbon storage (CS), the existing PA methodology and tools must be enhanced and upgraded. For example, in the evaluation of a nuclear waste repository, a PA model is essentially a forward model that samples input parameters and runs multiple realizations to estimate future consequences and determine important parameters driving the system performance. In the CS evaluation, however, a PA model must be able to run both forward and inverse calculations to support optimization of CO{sub 2} injection and real-time site monitoring as an integral part of the system design and operation. The monitoring data must be continually fused into the PA model through model inversion and parameter estimation. Model calculations will in turn guide the design of optimal monitoring and carbon-injection strategies (e.g., in terms of monitoring techniques, locations, and time intervals). Under the support of Laboratory-Directed Research & Development (LDRD), a late-start LDRD project was initiated in June of Fiscal Year 2010 to explore the concept of an enhanced performance assessment system (EPAS) for carbon sequestration and storage. In spite of the tight time constraints, significant progress has been made on the project: (1) Following the general PA methodology, a preliminary Feature, Event, and Process (FEP) analysis was performed for

  19. Differential topological characteristics of the DSR on injection space of electrical power system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余贻鑫; 曾沅; 冯飞

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the differential topological characteristics of the dynamic security region (DSR) on injection space of electrical power system by differential topology theories. It is shown that the boundary of the DSR on injection space has no suspension and is compact, and there are no holes inside the DSR defined based on controlling unstable equilibrium point (UEP) method. The 10-generator, 39-bus New England Test System, is taken as an example to show these characteristics of the DSR on injection space.

  20. Flow injection sorbent extraction of metals with activated carbon and its application to flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study activated carbon was used as a sorbent material for the flow injection on-line sorbent extraction of metal ions combined with atomic absorption spectrometry. On-line chelation of zinc was performed with 8-Hydroxyquinoline and the resultant metal chelate was adsorbed on the activated carbon, then adsorbed with zinc acid and on-line detected with flame AAS. Various parameters affecting the zinc enrichment were optimized and the method was applied for the determination of zinc in tap water, natural water, boiled and tea samples. The results obtained with the present method were compared with those obtained by the ICP-AES. (author)

  1. Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

    2013-12-17

    A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

  2. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is a novel technology for producing large quantities of oxygen on the Moon. Oxygen yields of 15 kilograms per...

  3. Ubiquitous healthy diatoms in the deep sea confirms deep carbon injection by the biological pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustí, Susana; González-Gordillo, Jose I.; Vaqué, Dolors; Estrada, Marta; Cerezo, Maria I.; Salazar, Guillem; Gasol, Josep M.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-04-01

    expectation that fast-sinking mechanisms inject fresh organic carbon into the deep-sea and that this is a prevalent process operating across the global oligotrophic ocean.

  4. Induced seismicity and CO2 leakage through fault zones during large-scale underground injection in a multilayered sedimentary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio Rinaldi, Antonio; Rutqvist, Jonny; Jeanne, Pierre; Cappa, Frederic; Guglielmi, Yves

    2014-05-01

    Overpressure caused by the direct injection of CO2 into a deep sedimentary system may produce changes in the state of stress, as well as, have an impact on the sealing capabilities of the targeted system. The importance of geomechanics including the potential for reactivating faults associated with large-scale geologic carbon sequestration operations has recently become more widely recognized. However, not withstanding the potential for triggering notable (felt) seismic events, the potential for buoyancy-driven CO2 to reach potable groundwater and the ground surface is more important from safety and storage-efficiency perspectives. In this context, this work extends previous studies on the geomechanical modeling of fault responses during underground carbon dioxide injection, focusing on both short- and long-term integrity of the sealing caprock, and hence of potential leakage of either brine or CO2 to shallow groundwater aquifers during active injection. The first part of this work aims to study the fault responses during underground carbon dioxide injection, focusing on the short-term (5 years) integrity of the CO2 repository, and hence on the potential leakage of CO2 to shallow groundwater aquifers. Increased pore pressure can alter the stress distribution on a fault/fracture zone, which may produce changes in the permeability related to the elastic and/or plastic strain (or stress) during single (or multiple) shear ruptures. We account for stress/strain-dependent permeability and study the leakage through the fault zone as its permeability changes along with strain and stress variations. We analyze several scenarios related to the injected amount of CO2 (and hence related to potential overpressure) involving both involving minor and major faults, and analyze the profile risks of leakage for different stress/strain permeability coupling functions, as well as increasing the complexity of the system in terms of hydromechanical heterogeneities. We conclude that

  5. Coupled numerical simulations of CO2 injection into the carbonate aquifer of the Upper Muschelkalk, N-Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt-Epping, P.; Almqvist, B. S. G.; Diamond, L. W.

    2012-04-01

    The Triassic Trigodonus Dolomite unit of Upper Muschelkalk, a saline carbonate-hosted aquifer in Northerm Switzerland, is considered a possible target for sequestering CO2. The porosity of the aquifer ranges from 4-25 %. The porosity can be divided into macropores (mm to cm scale) and micropores (µm to nm scale). Intermittent bedding-parallel layers of macroscopic pores (cm scale) are readily visible, and originate from dissolution of anhydrite nodules and bivalve shells. The porosity of the Muschelkalk therefore exhibits a moderate layered anisotropy. Lab measurements indicate correlated permeabilities with values of 5.1 to 2.7e-18 m2 for low porosity samples to larger than 1e-15 m2 for samples with a large fraction of macropores. The Upper Muschekalk is overlain by the Gipskeuper, an anhydrite-bearing clay-rich rock of low porosity and permeability. The Gipskeuper constitutes a hydraulic barrier to the rising CO2 plume. We use fully coupled reactive transport simulations to assess the implications of injecting CO2 into the Trigodonus Dolomite of the Muschelkalk aquifer. We track the movement of the plume and evaluate the efficiency of physical and chemical trapping mechanisms. Computations show that mineral trapping in the Muschelkalk aquifer is not effective. The global CO2 mass balance indicates the release of additional CO2 due to carbonate dissolution. However, while during and shortly after injection the dissolution of carbonate minerals dominates, after all free CO2 has dissolved into the brine, a rebound in pH at the injection site leads to carbonate re-precipitation. Diffusive influx of HCO3- and H+ from the Muschelkalk aquifer into the Gipskeuper dominates the alteration reactions in the lower part of the Gipskeuper. Clay minerals such as illite dissolve under acidic conditions and the release of cations causes carbonate minerals to precipitate. This in turn reduces the pore-space, enhancing the sealing capacity of the lower Gipskeuper. Thus although

  6. Adaptation of a load-inject valve for a flow injection chemiluminescence system enabling dual-reagent injection enhances understanding of environmental Fenton chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Measurement of multiple components of Fenton chemistry; Fe(II) and H2O2. •Rapid, quasi-simultaneous analysis enables calculation of environmental kinetics. •Low, nano to pico-molar detection limits with dual analyte analysis. •Able to measure complex matrix samples – organically enriched seawater. •Low cost system with appreciable sensitivity compared to single analyte analysis. -- Abstract: Environmental Fenton chemistry has been poorly constrained within the marine environment at a multi-component level. A simple, unique, reconfiguration of a flow-injection analytical system combined with luminol chemiluminescence allows quasi-simultaneously the measurement, using a single load-inject valve and a single photon multiplier tube, of reduced iron, Fe(II), and hydrogen peroxide. The system enables rapid, every 22 s, measurements with good accuracy at environmentally relevant concentrations, less than 5% relative standard deviations on both a 5 nM Fe(II) standard and a 60 nM hydrogen peroxide standard. Limits of detection were as low as 40 pM Fe(II) and 100 pM hydrogen peroxide. The system showed excellent capability by measuring from within an organic rich seawater the photochemically induced production of Fe(II) and hydrogen peroxide and their subsequent cycling and Fenton like interactions

  7. EXFI: a low cost Fault Injection System for embedded Microprocessor-based Boards

    OpenAIRE

    Benso, Alfredo; Prinetto, Paolo Ernesto; Rebaudengo, Maurizio; Sonza Reorda, Matteo

    1998-01-01

    Evaluating the faulty behavior of low-cost embedded microprocessor-based boards is an increasingly important issue, due to their adoption in many safety critical systems. The architecture of a complete Fault Injection environment is proposed, integrating a module for generating a collapsed list of faults, and another for performing their injection and gathering the results. To address this issue, the paper describes a software-implemented Fault Injection approach based on the Trace Exception ...

  8. Efficacy and safety of 10,600-nm carbon dioxide fractional laser on facial skin with previous volume injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Hélou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fractionated carbon dioxide (CO 2 lasers are a new treatment modality for skin resurfacing. The cosmetic rejuvenation market abounds with various injectable devices (poly-L-lactic acid, polymethyl-methacrylate, collagens, hyaluronic acids, silicone. The objective of this study is to examine the efficacy and safety of 10,600-nm CO 2 fractional laser on facial skin with previous volume injections. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study including 14 patients treated with fractional CO 2 laser and who have had previous facial volume restoration. The indication for the laser therapy, the age of the patients, previous facial volume restoration, and side effects were all recorded from their medical files. Objective assessments were made through clinical physician global assessment records and improvement scores records. Patients′ satisfaction rates were also recorded. Results: Review of medical records of the 14 patients show that five patients had polylactic acid injection prior to the laser session. Eight patients had hyaluronic acid injection prior to the laser session. Two patients had fat injection, two had silicone injection and one patient had facial thread lift. Side effects included pain during the laser treatment, post-treatment scaling, post-treatment erythema, hyperpigmentation which spontaneously resolved within a month. Concerning the previous facial volume restoration, no granulomatous reactions were noted, no facial shape deformation and no asymmetry were encountered whatever the facial volume product was. Conclusion: CO 2 fractional laser treatments do not seem to affect facial skin which had previous facial volume restoration with polylactic acid for more than 6 years, hyaluronic acid for more than 0.5 year, silicone for more than 6 years, or fat for more than 1.4 year. Prospective larger studies focusing on many other variables (skin phototype, injected device type are required to achieve better

  9. Consequences of plasma disruption mitigation by massive gas injection on the ITER torus cryopumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Plasma disruption mitigation by massive gas injection and consequences on the torus vacuum system are discussed. • The temperature of the torus primary vacuum cryogenic pumps is increasing significantly after massive gas injection events. • The injected quantities of neon and argon can be efficiently processed by the torus primary vacuum cryogenic pumps. • The large injected quantities of deuterium and helium have to be processed by the rough and regeneration pumping system. • The torus vacuum system turnover time is shorter after neon or argon injections than after deuterium or helium injections. - Abstract: The ITER torus exhaust pumping system is based on six primary vacuum cryogenic pumps, and a rough and regeneration pumping system that can pump the exhaust gases from the torus cryopumps to the tritium plant. Massive gas injection is a proposed concept to mitigate plasma disruptions in ITER. The present paper identifies the limitations and down-times of the ITER torus pumping system after a massive gas injection event. Deuterium, helium, neon, and argon injections are discussed. The resulting high pressure in the torus is leading to high mass flows and heat fluxes to the cryogenic pumps, resulting in a significant and rapid temperature increase of the pumping surfaces normally cooled at 5 K. However, the consequences on the torus pumping system operation depend on the gas species and quantities injected. Finally, the regeneration of the cryopumps, the rough pumping of the torus, and the overall torus pumping system turnover time until vacuum and thermal conditions for the start of the next plasma pulse are initiated again are discussed

  10. A Novel Technique of Supra Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System Hyaluronic Acid Injection for Lower Face Lifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahawatwong, Sinijchaya; Sirithanabadeekul, Punyaphat; Patanajareet, Vasiyapha; Wattanakrai, Penpun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various methods attempting to correct sagging of the lower face focus mainly on manipulation of the superficial musculoaponeurotic System. Each technique has its own limitation. The authors propose a relatively simple, conservative method utilizing hyaluronic acid injection just above the superficial musculoaponeurotic System. Objective: To address a novel hyaluronic injection technique to lift the lower face. Methods: Details of the injection techniques are described. The Position of the hyaluronic acid injected and the effect of hyaluronic acid on the superficial musculoaponeurotic System were confirmed by ultrasonography in one of the cases. Results: Sonogram images demonstrated the location of the injected hyaluronic acid and pressure effect of hyaluronic acid on the superficial musculoaponeurotic System, confirming the ability to manipulate the superficial musculoaponeurotic System by this injection technique. The lifting result of this Single injection technique was immediately visible and maintained for at least 26 weeks. Conclusion: This is a less invasive, reproducible method that provides a sustained face lifting result. The authors propose the term “supraSMAS lift” for this novel injection technique. PMID:27047633

  11. Robustness Evaluation of Software Systems through Fault Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Di Leo, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decades, software has been introduced in desperate safety domains, such as automotive, avionics and railways, just to name a few. For these domains, software is demanded to be highly robust to hardware faults and software faults since its failure may endanger human life, harm the environment, or cause economical loss. Fault injection, the deliberate inoculation of faults, is a powerful means to assess the robustness of software components that goes far beyond traditional test...

  12. Cyclosporine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used with other medications to prevent transplant rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by the immune system of the person receiving the organ) in people who have received kidney, liver, and heart transplants. Cyclosporine injection should only ...

  13. Doxycycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxycycline injection is used to treat or prevent bacterial infections, including pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections. ... certain skin, genital, intestine, and urinary system infections. Doxycycline injection may be used to treat or prevent ...

  14. Soil carbon pools in different pasture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M. Cardozo, Jr.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the carbon pools of a tropical soil where the native forest was replaced with different pasture systems. We studied five pasture production systems, including four monoculture systems with forage grasses such as Andropogon, Brachiaria, Panicum, and Cynodon, and an agroforestry system as well as a native vegetation plot. Greater availability of fulvic acid was detected in the agroforestry system as compared with that in the other systems. Higher lability of C was detected in the Andropogon system during the dry and rainy seasons and during the dry season in Cynodon. During the dry season, all pastures systems showed deficits in the net removal of atmospheric CO2. The structure and practices of the agroforestry system enables more carbon to be sequestered in the soil as compared with the monoculture pasture, suggesting that it is an important practice to mitigate climatic change and to improve soil quality.

  15. An automatic system for acidity determination based on sequential injection titration and the monosegmented flow approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Joanna; Wójtowicz, Marzena; Gawenda, Nadzieja; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2011-06-15

    An automatic sequential injection system, combining monosegmented flow analysis, sequential injection analysis and sequential injection titration is proposed for acidity determination. The system enables controllable sample dilution and generation of standards of required concentration in a monosegmented sequential injection manner, sequential injection titration of the prepared solutions, data collecting, and handling. It has been tested on spectrophotometric determination of acetic, citric and phosphoric acids with sodium hydroxide used as a titrant and phenolphthalein or thymolphthalein (in the case of phosphoric acid determination) as indicators. Accuracy better than |4.4|% (RE) and repeatability better than 2.9% (RSD) have been obtained. It has been applied to the determination of total acidity in vinegars and various soft drinks. The system provides low sample (less than 0.3 mL) consumption. On average, analysis of a sample takes several minutes. PMID:21641455

  16. Manufacturing injection-moleded Fresnel lens parquets for point-focus concentrating photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, E.M.; Masso, J.D. [AOtec, Southbridge, MA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This project involved the manufacturing of curved-faceted, injection-molded, four-element Fresnel lens parquets for concentrating photovoltaic arrays. Previous efforts showed that high-efficiency (greater than 82%) Fresnel concentrators could be injection molded. This report encompasses the mold design, molding, and physical testing of a four-lens parquet for a solar photovoltaic concentrator system.

  17. Direct observation of spin-injection in tyrosinate-functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsoufis, Theodoros; Ampoumogli, Asem; Gournis, Dimitrios; Georgakilas, Vasilios; Jankovic, Lubos; Christoforidis, Konstantinos C.; Deligiannakis, Yiannis; Mavrandonakis, Andreas; Froudakis, George E.; Maccallini, Enrico; Rudolf, Petra; Mateo-Alonso, Aurelio; Prato, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we report on the interaction of a tyrosinate radical with single wall carbon nanotubes (CNT). The tyrosinate radical was formed from tyrosine (ester) by Fenton's reagent and, reacted in situ with carbon nanotubes resulting in novel tyrosinated carbon nanotube derivatives. The covalent

  18. Preliminary research on movement regularity of fine carbon fiber powder injected into intracrania of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FEI Ke-xiang; LI Guo-wei; GONG Ti; WANG Hong; PENG Xian-gao; GAO Lin; Zhang Yan-xiang; LIU Lian-tao

    2001-01-01

    @@ The carbon fiber and carbon fiber for complex materials implanted have been applied to the clinic medicine, in which they are served as the materials for repairing tissues and organs as well as the materials of artificial tissuesand organs. The carbon fiber also acts as the surrogate of extracellular matrix in the study of tissue engineering tendon,and so on.

  19. The Streaming Potential Coupling Coefficient of Liquid Carbon Dioxide Injected Into Water Saturated Berea Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. R.; Glaser, S. D.; Morrison, H. F.

    2003-12-01

    The streaming potential coupling coefficient was determined for a liquid carbon dioxide flood of a water-saturated sample of Berea sandstone. The coupling coefficient for the rock/water case was determined both before and after each CO2 flood of three samples using a low-pressure static head method. Next, liquid CO2 was allowed to flow through each sample. As the CO2 displaced the water the coupling coefficient decreased. At longer times, when all mobile pore water was displaced, the coupling coefficient maintained a steady state, and was lower than that for water by about 10 times. The results of this testing reveal a coupling coefficient of 30 mV/0.1MPa, for 125 Ohm-m water flow through the sample, and 3.0 mV / 0.1 MPa for liquid CO2 flow. Calculated zeta potentials are -3.4 mV using water as the pore fluid and -1.7 x 10-6 mV for liquid CO2. We propose that the lower coupling coefficient for CO2 flow is primarily a result of changes in zeta potential, since changes in pore fluid resistivity and viscosity would act to increase the coupling coefficient. Zeta potential for the liquid CO2 / mineral interface is a function of the low polarity and lack of mobile ions associated with liquid CO2. We find no anomalous 2-phase liquid/gas effects, which may have augmented single-phase streaming potentials by many times. We propose that although CO2 gas may have been present for some of the higher pressure drop events, the low gas fraction (or quality) of the two-phase mixture did not lead to any significant anomalous or augmented observations. Implications of this work include spatial and temporal monitoring of CO2 injectate in subsurface reservoirs and the identification of flow paths, with the recommendation being to attempt to image the advancing CO2/water front, where the coupling coefficient is higher.

  20. Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Nanoelectromechanical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Benjamin Jose

    One-dimensional and two-dimensional forms of carbon are composed of sp 2-hybridized carbon atoms arranged in a regular hexagonal, honeycomb lattice. The two-dimensional form, called graphene, is a single atomic layer of hexagonally-bonded carbon atoms. The one-dimensional form, known as a carbon nanotube, can be conceptualized as a rectangular piece of graphene wrapped into a seamless, high-aspect-ratio cylinder or tube. This dissertation addresses the physics and applied physics of these one and two-dimensional carbon allotropes in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). First, we give a theoretical background on the electrodynamics and mechanics of carbon nanotube NEMS. We then describe basic experimental techniques, such as electron and scanning probe microscopy, that we then use to probe static and dynamic mechanical and electronic behavior of the carbon nanotube NEMS. For example, we observe and control non-linear beam bending and single-electron quantum tunneling effects in carbon nanotube resonators. We then describe parametric amplification, self-oscillation behavior, and dynamic, non-linear effects in carbon nanotube mechanical resonators. We also report a novel approach to fabricate carbon nanotube atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes, and show that they can lead to exceptional lateral resolution enhancement in AFM when imaging both hard and soft (biological) materials. Finally, we describe novel fabrication techniques for large-area, suspended graphene membranes, and utilize these membranes as TEM-transparent, AFM-compatible, NEMS resonators. Laser-driven mechanical vibrations of the graphene resonators are detected by optical interferometry and several vibration harmonics are observed. A degeneracy splitting is observed in the vibrational modes of square-geometry resonators. We then attribute the observed degeneracy splitting to local mass inhomogeneities and membrane defects, and find good overall agreement with the developed theoretical model.

  1. Control and operation of the gas injection systems for KSTAR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Ok, E-mail: yokim@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jae In; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Chu, Yong; Park, Kap Rai; Kim, Hong Tack; Kim, Hak Kun; Lee, Kun Su [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yang Mo [Chungnam National Univ., Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Three different types of gas injection systems were manufactured for KSTAR. ► They were prepared and tested for the KSTAR plasma operation. ► The test results show that they satisfied the design requirement. ► The calibration for all gas injection systems was successfully completed. -- Abstract: Several gas injection systems such as fueling, massive gas injection (MGI), supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) have been installed for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR). Piezoelectric valves with a built-in piezoelectric plate of disc-bender type were used for the precise feedback control of gas flow. The relationship between the displacement and blocking force of the piezoelectric plates is taken into account in designing and fabricating piezoelectric valves. The MGI system was installed for the mitigation of plasma disruption. The MGI valve is composed of two-volume chamber. The valve is equipped with an aluminum piston and an actuator coil of inductance 0.1 mH. The power supply unit using a capacitor discharge method has been developed in order to drive the MGI valve. The SMBI system consisting of LN{sub 2} cooling line, pulse valve, and its controller was operated for the mitigation of edge localized mode (ELM). The LN{sub 2} cooling line is used to increase the density of the injected gas. The status and specification of each gas injection system is presented and the operational characteristics are analyzed.

  2. Control and operation of the gas injection systems for KSTAR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Three different types of gas injection systems were manufactured for KSTAR. ► They were prepared and tested for the KSTAR plasma operation. ► The test results show that they satisfied the design requirement. ► The calibration for all gas injection systems was successfully completed. -- Abstract: Several gas injection systems such as fueling, massive gas injection (MGI), supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) have been installed for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR). Piezoelectric valves with a built-in piezoelectric plate of disc-bender type were used for the precise feedback control of gas flow. The relationship between the displacement and blocking force of the piezoelectric plates is taken into account in designing and fabricating piezoelectric valves. The MGI system was installed for the mitigation of plasma disruption. The MGI valve is composed of two-volume chamber. The valve is equipped with an aluminum piston and an actuator coil of inductance 0.1 mH. The power supply unit using a capacitor discharge method has been developed in order to drive the MGI valve. The SMBI system consisting of LN2 cooling line, pulse valve, and its controller was operated for the mitigation of edge localized mode (ELM). The LN2 cooling line is used to increase the density of the injected gas. The status and specification of each gas injection system is presented and the operational characteristics are analyzed

  3. Graphical Methods for Defense Against False-data Injection Attacks on Power System State Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Bi, Suzhi; Jun, Ying; Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The normal operation of power system relies on accurate state estimation that faithfully reflects the physical aspects of the electrical power grids. However, recent research shows that carefully synthesized false-data injection attacks can bypass the security system and introduce arbitrary errors to state estimates. In this paper, we use graphical methods to study defending mechanisms against false-data injection attacks on power system state estimation. By securing carefully selected meter ...

  4. Conceptual design of the JT-60 neutral beam injection system (interim report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an interim report on conceptual design of the JT-60 neutral beam injection system. Requirements for the JT-60 neutral beam injector are injection of a 20 MW neutral hydrogen beam into the plasma in the vicinity of energy 75 keV as long as 10 sec, keeping thermal gas flow rate into the torus vacuum chamber below 15% the neutral beam flux. On the basis of these requirements and recent results of research and development of ion sources and beam line components, system conceptual design is now proceeding. Scale of the JT-60 neutral beam injection system is discussed, indicating also future problems. (auth.)

  5. Advanced Thermal Protection Systems (ATPS), Aerospace Grade Carbon Bonded Carbon Fiber Material Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Carbon bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulating material is the basis for several highly successful NASA developed thermal protection systems (TPS). Among the...

  6. Advanced Thermal Protection Systems (ATPS), Aerospace Grade Carbon Bonded Carbon Fiber Material Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Carbon bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulating material is the basis for several highly successful NASA developed thermal protection systems (TPS). Included among...

  7. Effect of ethanol amine injection on flow-accelerated corrosion of PWR secondary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants have switched secondary system feed water treatment to ethanol-amine (ETA) injection from all-volatile treatment (AVT) to reduce iron transfer in the steam generator (SG). However, the effect of ETA injection on FAC rate has not been studied systematically. To assess the effect of ETA injection on FAC rate, the water chemistries in secondary systems were calculated by considering the thermal decomposition of hydrazine in SG and the vapor/liquid partition of ammonia, ETA, and hydrazine in SG and in a moisture-separator-and-reheater (MSR). Then, we measured the FAC rate experimentally by rotation tests to examine the effect of ETA injection. The high pH condition of ETA injection reduced the FAC rate more than the low pH condition of AVT. No chemical effect on the FAC rate was observed between ETA injection and AVT at 180degC. We also evaluated the FAC rate using magnetite solubility with and without ETA injection. The evaluation showed that ETA injection reduces the FAC rate of the secondary system. (author)

  8. THE COUPLING IMPEDANCE OF THE RHIC INJECTION KICKER SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IN THIS PAPER, RESULTS FROM IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENTS ON THE RHIC INJECTION KICKERS ARE REPORTED. THE KICKER IS CONFIGURED AS A ''C'' CROSS SECTION MAGNET WITH INTERLEAVED FERRITE AND HIGH-PERMITTIVITY DIELECTRIC SECTIONS TO ACHIEVE A TRAVELLING WAVE STRUCTURE. THE IMPEDANCE WAS MEASURED USING THE WIRE METHOD, AND ACCURATE RESULTS ARE OBTAINED BY INTERPRETING THE FORWARD SCATTERING COEFFICIENT VIA THE LONG-FORMULA. THE FOUR KICKERS WITH THEIR CERAMIC BEAM TUBES CONTRIBUE AT Z/N-0.22 OMEGA/RING IN THE INTERESTING FREQUENCY RANGE FROM 0.1 TO 1 BHZ, AND LESS ABOVE

  9. A System Call Randomization Based Method for Countering Code-Injection Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Liang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Code-injection attacks pose serious threat to today’s Internet. The existing code-injection attack defense methods have some deficiencies on performance overhead and effectiveness. To this end, we propose a method that uses system called randomization to counter code injection attacks based on instruction set randomization idea. System calls must be used when an injected code would perform its actions. By creating randomized system calls of the target process, an attacker who does not know the key to the randomization algorithm will inject code that isn’t randomized like as the target process and is invalid for the corresponding de-randomized module. The injected code would fail to execute without calling system calls correctly. Moreover, with extended complier, our method creates source code randomization during its compiling and implements binary executable files randomization by feature matching. Our experiments on built prototype show that our method can effectively counter variety code injection attacks with low-overhead.

  10. Development of liquid poison injection system (SDS-2) for 500 MWe PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A secondary shut-down system (SDS-2) in the form of a mecahnism for introducing poison into the moderator of the PHWR is under development in Reactor Engineering Division of BARC. The system, as conceived, consists of a tank containing pressurised helium connected to poison tanks through quick opening solenoid valves. The tanks are connected to horizontal injection tubes in the calandria. On system actuation, gadolinium nitrate solution from the tanks passes to the injection tubes which have a number of holes through which the poison enters the moderator. This report details the development work being done on this poison injection system. An experimental facility was set up to measure the poison jet growth rate and the jet spread after injection, and mathematical models were developed to convert the observed jets into reactivity worth values. A description of the work and the computed results are presented. (author). 21 graphs. , 15 tabs

  11. Injection system for the PEP II asymmetric B Factory at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The asymmetric energy B Factory proposed as an upgrade of PEP at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center will require a highly reliable and efficient injection system. The conceptual design has shown the feasibility of extracting 9 GeV electrons and 3.1 GeV positrons from the existing linac and injecting equal charges into 1658 buckets in each of the two rings of the collider. An injection study group has continued the development and study of this proposal and has generated workable designs for many related systems and subsystems

  12. Simulation study to determine the feasibility of injecting hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas injection to improve gas and oil recovery oil-rim reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mohamed El Gohary

    This study is combining two important and complicated processes; Enhanced Oil Recovery, EOR, from the oil rim and Enhanced Gas Recovery, EGR from the gas cap using nonhydrocarbon injection gases. EOR is proven technology that is continuously evolving to meet increased demand and oil production and desire to augment oil reserves. On the other hand, the rapid growth of the industrial and urban development has generated an unprecedented power demand, particularly during summer months. The required gas supplies to meet this demand are being stretched. To free up gas supply, alternative injectants to hydrocarbon gas are being reviewed to support reservoir pressure and maximize oil and gas recovery in oil rim reservoirs. In this study, a multi layered heterogeneous gas reservoir with an oil rim was selected to identify the most optimized development plan for maximum oil and gas recovery. The integrated reservoir characterization model and the pertinent transformed reservoir simulation history matched model were quality assured and quality checked. The development scheme is identified, in which the pattern and completion of the wells are optimized to best adapt to the heterogeneity of the reservoir. Lateral and maximum block contact holes will be investigated. The non-hydrocarbon gases considered for this study are hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, utilized to investigate miscible and immiscible EOR processes. In November 2010, re-vaporization study, was completed successfully, the first in the UAE, with an ultimate objective is to examine the gas and condensate production in gas reservoir using non hydrocarbon gases. Field development options and proces schemes as well as reservoir management and long term business plans including phases of implementation will be identified and assured. The development option that maximizes the ultimate recovery factor will be evaluated and selected. The study achieved satisfactory results in integrating gas and oil

  13. Calculation of the system for ion axial injection into the U-200 isochronous cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An axial injection system is calculated for injection of ion beams (A/Z=2.8-5) into the U-200 isochronous cyclotron, its basic performance characteristics are discussed. Transport channel consisting of solenoids, magnetic lenses and electrostatic mirror are calculated by TRANSPORT program. Acceptance of the system is in good agreement with the beam emittance of 313π mmxmrad. Numerical optimization of mirror parameters is presented. The calculated beam envelope in the central region agrees well the measurements

  14. Simulation study on radius dependence in rare-gas atoms injection into single-wall carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, a model was established to investigate the radius dependence of rare-gas atoms (He, Ne, Ar) injection into the sidewall of the single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The probabilities of the formation of endohedral X at SWNT complexes as a function of incident energies were carefully observed for the SWNTs with different radii. We have compared the maximal probabilities of different rare-gas atoms and different radii of SWNTs. It seems more difficult to form endohedral complexes for larger SWNTs, especially when the incident atom is bigger

  15. THE STUDY OF INTERACTION OF SOLID-LIQUID ADSORPTION SYSTEM BY USING THE FLOW INJECTION-SPECTROPHOTOMETRY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The flow injection analysis was firstly used for studying a solid-liquid adsorption system,and the dynamics process in the adsorption of dyestuff with regenerable chitin was traced by an online method of flow injection-spectrophotometry. Experimental results indicate that there is a linearization between the tested signals and the height of peaks with reciprocity coefficient 0.9999by using the flow injection-spectrophotometry system to study the dynamics adsorption process in solid-liquid system. The method shows a good stability and reproducibility. It provides a new method for the studies on adsorption dynamics in solid- liquid system.

  16. Field Testing of Activated Carbon Injection Options for Mercury Control at TXU's Big Brown Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Christopher Martin; Mark Musich; Lucinda Hamre

    2009-01-07

    The primary objective of the project was to evaluate the long-term feasibility of using activated carbon injection (ACI) options to effectively reduce mercury emissions from Texas electric generation plants in which a blend of lignite and subbituminous coal is fired. Field testing of ACI options was performed on one-quarter of Unit 2 at TXU's Big Brown Steam Electric Station. Unit 2 has a design output of 600 MW and burns a blend of 70% Texas Gulf Coast lignite and 30% subbituminous Powder River Basin coal. Big Brown employs a COHPAC configuration, i.e., high air-to-cloth baghouses following cold-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), for particulate control. When sorbent injection is added between the ESP and the baghouse, the combined technology is referred to as TOXECON{trademark} and is patented by the Electric Power Research Institute in the United States. Key benefits of the TOXECON configuration include better mass transfer characteristics of a fabric filter compared to an ESP for mercury capture and contamination of only a small percentage of the fly ash with AC. The field testing consisted of a baseline sampling period, a parametric screening of three sorbent injection options, and a month long test with a single mercury control technology. During the baseline sampling, native mercury removal was observed to be less than 10%. Parametric testing was conducted for three sorbent injection options: injection of standard AC alone; injection of an EERC sorbent enhancement additive, SEA4, with ACI; and injection of an EERC enhanced AC. Injection rates were determined for all of the options to achieve the minimum target of 55% mercury removal as well as for higher removals approaching 90%. Some of the higher injection rates were not sustainable because of increased differential pressure across the test baghouse module. After completion of the parametric testing, a month long test was conducted using the enhanced AC at a nominal rate of 1.5 lb/Macf. During

  17. Rates of fuel discharge as affected by the design of fuel-injection systems for internal-combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelalles, A G; Marsh, E T

    1933-01-01

    Using the method of weighing fuel collected in a receiver during a definite interval of the injection period, rates of discharge were determined, and the effects noted, when various changes were made in a fuel-injection system. The injection system consisted primarily of a by-pass controlled fuel pump and an automatic injection valve. The variables of the system studied were the pump speed, pump-throttle setting, discharge-orifice diameter, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, and injection-tube length and diameter.

  18. Studies of the influence of external hydrocarbon injection on local plasma conditions and resulting carbon transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A one-dimensional fluid model, which calculates the modification of density and temperature along the magnetic field and the parallel electrical field in the presence of local impurity sources, has been implemented into the ERO code. The influence of impurity source strength on the local plasma parameters and resulting changes in impurity transport and deposition has been studied. Dedicated TEXTOR experiments of 13CH4 injection through roof-like test limiters are modelled for comparison. Modelling with high injection rates (larger than about 4 x 1018 s-1) results in too localized light emission pattern near to the injection hole, and therefore indicates an underestimation of the reduction of electron temperature in the model. Besides, the preliminary results indicate that possible modification of local plasma conditions cannot significantly reduce the modelled 13C deposition and therefore cannot explain the measured low 13C deposition efficiency.

  19. Effect of Oxygen Co-Injected with Carbon Dioxide on Gothic Shale Caprock-CO2-Brine Interaction during Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hun Bok; Um, Wooyong; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2013-09-16

    Co-injection of oxygen, a significant component in CO2 streams produced by the oxyfuel combustion process, can cause a significant alteration of the redox state in deep geologic formations during geologic carbon sequestration. The potential impact of co-injected oxygen on the interaction between synthetic CO2-brine (0.1 M NaCl) and shale caprock (Gothic shale from the Aneth Unit in Utah) and mobilization of trace metals was investigated at ~10 MPa and ~75 °C. A range of relative volume percentages of O2 to CO2 (0, 1, 4 and 8%) were used in these experiments to address the effect of oxygen on shale-CO2-brine interaction under various conditions. Major mineral phases in Gothic shale are quartz, calcite, dolomite, montmorillonite, and pyrite. During Gothic shale-CO2-brine interaction in the presence of oxygen, pyrite oxidation occurred extensively and caused enhanced dissolution of calcite and dolomite. Pyrite oxidation and calcite dissolution subsequently resulted in the precipitation of Fe(III) oxides and gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O). In the presence of oxygen, dissolved Mn and Ni were elevated because of oxidative dissolution of pyrite. The mobility of dissolved Ba was controlled by barite (BaSO4) precipitation in the presence of oxygen. Dissolved U in the experimental brines increased to ~8–14 g/L, with concentrations being slightly higher in the absence of oxygen than in the presence of oxygen. Experimental and modeling results indicate the interaction between shale caprock and oxygen co-injected with CO2 during geologic carbon sequestration can exert significant impacts on brine pH, solubility of carbonate minerals, stability of sulfide minerals, and mobility of trace metals. The major impact of oxygen is most likely to occur in the zone near CO2 injection wells where impurity gases can accumulate. Oxygen in CO2-brine migrating away from the injection well will be continually consumed through the reactions with sulfide minerals in deep geologic formations.

  20. Sample and injection manifolds used to in-place test of nuclear air-cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: According to the regulations of nuclear safety rules and related standards, in-place test of the nuclear air-cleaning systems should be carried out before and during operation of the nuclear facilities, which ensure them to be in good condition. In some special conditions, the use of sample and injection manifolds is required to make the test tracer and ventilating duct air fully mixed, so as to get the on-spot typical sample. Methods: This paper introduces the technology and application of the sample and injection manifolds in nuclear air-cleaning system. Results: Multi point injection and multi point sampling technology as an effective experimental method, has been used in a of domestic and international nuclear facilities. Conclusion: The technology solved the problem of uniformly of on-spot injection and sampling,which plays an important role in objectively evaluating the function of nuclear air-cleaning system. (authors)

  1. Designing Fault-Injection Experiments for the Reliability of Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Allan L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the long-standing problem of conducting fault-injections experiments to establish the ultra-reliability of embedded systems. There have been extensive efforts in fault injection, and this paper offers a partial summary of the efforts, but these previous efforts have focused on realism and efficiency. Fault injections have been used to examine diagnostics and to test algorithms, but the literature does not contain any framework that says how to conduct fault-injection experiments to establish ultra-reliability. A solution to this problem integrates field-data, arguments-from-design, and fault-injection into a seamless whole. The solution in this paper is to derive a model reduction theorem for a class of semi-Markov models suitable for describing ultra-reliable embedded systems. The derivation shows that a tight upper bound on the probability of system failure can be obtained using only the means of system-recovery times, thus reducing the experimental effort to estimating a reasonable number of easily-observed parameters. The paper includes an example of a system subject to both permanent and transient faults. There is a discussion of integrating fault-injection with field-data and arguments-from-design.

  2. The coupling impedance of the RHIC injection kicker system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, results from impedance measurements on the RHIC injection kickers are reported. The kicker is configured as a ''C'' cross section magnet with interleaved ferrite and high-permittivity dielectric sections to achieve a travelling wave structure. The impedance was measured using the wire method in which a resistive match provides a smooth transition from the network analyzer to the reference line in the set-up. Accurate results are obtained by interpreting the forward scattering coefficient via the log-formula. The four kickers with their ceramic beam tubes contribute a Z/n=0.22 Ω/ring in the interesting frequency range from 0.1 to 1 GHz, and less above. At frequencies above ∼ 100 MHz, the impedance is ferrite dominated and not affected by the kicker terminations. Below 100 MHz, the Blumlein pulser with the ∼75 m feeding cables is visible in the impedance but makes no significant contribution to the results. The measurements show that the kicker coupling impedance is tolerable without the need for impedance reducing measures

  3. The coupling impedance of the RHIC injection kicker system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, results from impedance measurements on the RHIC injection kickers are reported. The kicker is configured as a open-quotes Cclose quotes cross section magnet with interleaved ferrite and high-permittivity dielectric sections to achieve a travelling wave structure. The impedance was measured using the wire method in which a resistive match provides a smooth transition from the network analyzer to the reference line in the set-up. Accurate results are obtained by interpreting the forward scattering coefficient via the log-formula. The four kickers with their ceramic beam tubes contribute a Z/n = 0.22 Ω/ring in the interesting frequency range from 0.1 to 1 GHz, and less above. At frequencies above ∼100 MHZ, the impedance is ferrite dominated and not affected by the kicker terminations. Below 100 MHz, the Blumlein pulser with the ∼75 m feeding cables is visible in the impedance but makes no significant contribution to the results. The measurements show that the kicker coupling impedance is tolerable without the need for impedance reducing measures

  4. Multipoint Grout Injection System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), radioactive waste contained in the 16 cylindrical Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAATs) must retrieved so the tanks can be closed. In many cases, removing the small amounts of sludge that remain in the tank after the bulk of the waste is retrieved is extremely costly and provides little benefit from site health and environmental standpoints. The Tanks Focus Area is working with ORR's M and I contractor (Bechtel-Jacobs), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Ground Environmental Services to demonstrate the application of multi-point-injection (MPI) grout emplacement technology for horizontal cylindrical tanks during a cold demonstration in FY99. GAAT TH-4 has been identified as the tank to be used for the hot demonstration in FY00. Evaluation efforts continue on the effect of slag on strength performance of the grout to be used in TH-4 tank closure. The site must find out what level of slag can be accommodated in the grout while maintaining strength performance requirements. Other efforts in support of the utilization of MPI TM technology in large-scale waste tanks will continue. Also, ORR is collaborating with SRS to evaluate the use this technology to support grouting of the Old Burial Ground tanks at SRS

  5. A CFD Model for High Pressure Liquid Poison Injection for CANDU-6 Shutdown System No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In CANDU reactor one of the two reactor shutdown systems is the liquid poison injection system which injects the highly pressurized liquid neutron poison into the moderator tank via small holes on the nozzle pipes. To ensure the safe shutdown of a reactor it is necessary for the poison curtains generated by jets provide quick, and enough negative reactivity to the reactor during the early stage of the accident. In order to produce the neutron cross section necessary to perform this work, the poison concentration distribution during the transient is necessary. In this study, a set of models for analyzing the transient poison concentration induced by this high pressure poison injection jet activated upon the reactor trip in a CANDU-6 reactor moderator tank has been developed and used to generate the poison concentration distribution of the poison curtains induced by the high pressure jets injected into the vacant region between the pressure tube banks. The poison injection rate through the jet holes drilled on the nozzle pipes is obtained by a 1-D transient hydrodynamic code called, ALITRIG, and this injection rate is used to provide the inlet boundary condition to a 3-D CFD model of the moderator tank based on CFX4.3, a CFD code, to simulate the formation of the poison jet curtain inside the moderator tank. For validation, an attempt was made to validate this model against a poison injection experiment performed at BARC. As conclusion this set of models is judged to be appropriate. (authors)

  6. Carbon pathways in the Seine river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marescaux, Audrey; Garnier, Josette; Thieu, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Many papers have recently suggested that the anthropogenic perturbations of the carbon cycle have led to a significant increase in carbon export from terrestrial ecosystems to inland waters. The quantification of the carbon cascade (including fate of CO2 emissions) in highly anthropized river systems is thus essential to understand the response of aquatic systems. The Seine Basin where Paris and its environs represent 2/3 of its population, and agriculture is particularly intensive, is a eutrophic system. The main aim of this research is to understand and quantify how an excess of anthropogenic nutrients entering the Seine River system may locally enhance primary production, C sequestration, C respiration and CO2 emissions. The development of a new CO2 module in the pre-existing biogeochemical Riverstrahler model (Billen et al., 2007) should enable a refined calculation of the carbon budget. Besides calculation of the Respiration and Production activities along the entire river continuum, it will directly associate CO2 emissions. The CO2 modelling results will be confronted to (i) direct (in-situ) measurements with a non-dispersive infrared gas analyzer and (ii) indirect measurements based on total alkalinity, carbonate and pH along the Seine river system during the last decades, and (iii) calculations of a C metabolism budget. Billen, G., Garnier, J., Némery, J., Sebilo, M., Sferratore, A., Barles, S., Benoit P., Benoît, M. (2007). A long-term view of nutrient transfers through the Seine river continuum. Science of the Total Environment, 375(1-3), 80-97. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.12.005

  7. Long-Term Carbon Injection Field Test for 90% Mercury Removal for a PRB Unit a Spray Dryer and Fabric Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjostrom, Sharon; Amrhein, Jerry

    2009-04-30

    results of this project also filled a data gap for plants firing PRB coal and configured with an SCR, SDA, and FF, as many new plants are being designed today. Another goal of the project was to evaluate, on a short-term basis, the mercury removal associated with coal additives and coal blending with western bituminous coal. The additive test showed that, at this site, the coal additive known as KNX was affective at increasing mercury removal while decreasing sorbent usage. Coal blending was conducted with two different western bituminous coals, and West Elk coal increased native capture from nominally 10% to 50%. Two additional co-benefits were discovered at this site. First, it was found that native capture increased from nominally 10% at full load to 50% at low load. The effect is believed to be due to an increase in mercury oxidation across the SCR caused by a corresponding decrease in ammonia injection when the plant reduces load. Less ammonia means more active oxidation sites in the SCR for the mercury. The second co-benefit was the finding that high ammonia concentrations can have a negative impact on mercury removal by powdered activated carbon. For a period of time, the plant operated with a high excess of ammonia injection necessitated by the plugging of one-third of the SCR. Under these conditions and at high load, the mercury control system could not maintain 90% removal even at the maximum feed rate of 3.5 lb/MMacf (pounds of mercury per million actual cubic feet). The plant was able to demonstrate that mercury removal was directly related to the ammonia injection rate in a series of tests where the ammonia rate was decreased, causing a corresponding increase in mercury removal. Also, after the SCR was refurbished and ammonia injection levels returned to normal, the mercury removal performance also returned to normal. Another goal of the project was to install a commercial-grade activated carbon injection (ACI) system and integrate it with new

  8. Combustion characteristics of a charcoal slurry in a direct injection diesel engine and the impact on the injection system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the research results pertaining to the renewable biomass charcoal-diesel slurries and their use as alternative fuels for combustion in diesel generating plants. The utilization of charcoal slurry fuel aims to reduce diesel oil consumption and would decrease fossil green house emissions into the atmosphere. The paper investigates the formulation, emulsification, sprays, combustion, injection system operation, and subsequent wear with charcoal-diesel slurries. In the research, cedar wood chips were used for the production of charcoal to be emulsified with diesel oil. The slurry's viscosity of 27 cP achieved the target (oC. Charcoal slurry displayed a high vaporization rate of 75% by wt. at 300 oC. Engine investigations showed that the top combustion pressure at 1200 rpm and 100% load (7.8 brake mean effective pressure (bmep)) was 79 bar for diesel fuel and 78 bar for the charcoal slurry fuel. From the injection and heat release history was found an ignition delay of 1.7 ms for diesel that increased to 2.1 ms for the slurry fuel. A higher net heat release for charcoal slurry was observed, up to 180 J/crank angle degrees (CAD) compared with the diesel at 145 J/CAD The maximum combustion temperature reached 2300 K for diesel and 2330 K for slurry. The heat fluxes for both fuels have similar values and trends during the entire cycle showing the good compatibility of charcoal slurry with a diesel type combustion and low soot radiation. The exhaust temperatures were about 40-50 oC higher for charcoal slurry at 19o before top dead center (BTDC) injection timing. The engine's bsfc increased as expected due to the lower heating value of the slurry fuel. The smoke Bosch no. was lower for the slurry fuel at any load, and is believed that the oxygen from the charcoal had a beneficial effect. The measured emissions of slurry fuel were better at 13o BTDC than those of diesel fuel with the original engine settings and the remaining 6-10% oxygen content in the

  9. Rubidium carbonate modified gold electrodes for efficient electron injection in n-type organic field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the performance enhancement of n-type organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) through the use of gold source and drain electrodes that are both modified with rubidium carbonate (Rb2CO3) reducing the electron injection barrier. Devices are fabricated using n-channel N, N′-ditridecyl-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylicdiimide (PTCDI-C13) and a polymeric gate dielectric with various thicknesses of Rb2CO3, and the dependence of device's electrical performance on Rb2CO3 thickness is investigated. The device with 10 Å Rb2CO3 exhibits the best performance, and its mobility is five times higher than that of the device without Rb2CO3. UV–visible, x-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy are used to investigate the interface between Rb2CO3 and PTCDI-C13, and we find that charge transfer from Rb2CO3 to PTCDI-C13 occurs, resulting in the reduction of the electron charge injection barrier from the gold electrode. The charge injection mechanism and OFET performance enhancement with Rb2CO3 are discussed in detail. (paper)

  10. Theoretical and experimental studies of water injection scroll compressor in automotive fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuanyang Zhao; Liansheng Li; Huagen Wu; Pengcheng Shu [Xian Jiaotong University (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2005-06-01

    A water injection scroll compressor to supply clean compressed air to an automotive fuel cell system is researched. The water is used as both the lubricant and coolant in the compressor. A thermodynamic model of the water injection scroll compressor considering leakage and heat exchange for use with an automotive fuel cell system was developed using the conservation of energy and mass equations and the equation of state. The results show that the scroll compressor has nearly isothermal compression when injecting water in it. Increasing the compressor rotation speed increases the discharge loss and the volumetric efficiency of the scroll compressor. The difference between the calculated power and the isothermal power increases as the compressor rotation speed rises, which means the efficiency of the compressor decreases. Increasing the flow rate of water injected increases the indicated isothermal efficiency and decreases the discharge temperature. Under the condition studied, the mass flow rate of water has the greatest effect on the discharge temperature. (author)

  11. Fuel injection and mixing systems having piezoelectric elements and methods of using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chien-Pei; Short, John; Klemm, Jim; Abbott, Royce; Overman, Nick; Pack, Spencer; Winebrenner, Audra

    2011-12-13

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided that is suitable for use with various types of fuel reformers. Preferably, the system includes a piezoelectric injector for delivering atomized fuel, a gas swirler, such as a steam swirler and/or an air swirler, a mixing chamber and a flow mixing device. The system utilizes ultrasonic vibrations to achieve fuel atomization. The fuel injection and mixing system can be used with a variety of fuel reformers and fuel cells, such as SOFC fuel cells.

  12. Development of a plastic injection molding training system using Petri nets and virtual reality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this study, Virtual Reality (VR)-based plastic injection molding training system (VPIMTS), which can be modeled as an integrated system with a task planning module, an intelligent instruction module, a simulation module, and virtual environment (VE) module, was developed. Presented in this paper are an architecture of VPIMTS, a practical knowledge modelling approach for modelling the training scenarios of the system by using Petri nets formalism and key techniques (FEM, injection molding procedure modelling) which have been developed independently. The utilization of the Petri net model realized the environment where the trainee can behave freely, and also made it possible to equip the system with the function of showing the next action of the trainee whenever he wants. The overall system is a powerful approach for highly improving the trainee's comprehension and injection molding study-efficiency by building digital, intelligent, knowledgeable, and visual aids.

  13. Designing Microporus Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan C. Cooper

    2012-05-02

    An efficient, cost-effective hydrogen storage system is a key enabling technology for the widespread introduction of hydrogen fuel cells to the domestic marketplace. Air Products, an industry leader in hydrogen energy products and systems, recognized this need and responded to the DOE 'Grand Challenge' solicitation (DOE Solicitation DE-PS36-03GO93013) under Category 1 as an industry partner and steering committee member with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their proposal for a center-of-excellence on Carbon-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials. This center was later renamed the Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE). Our proposal, entitled 'Designing Microporous Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems,' envisioned a highly synergistic 5-year program with NREL and other national laboratory and university partners.

  14. Solar hydrogen hybrid system with carbon storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete solar hydrogen hybrid system has been developed to convert, store and use energy from renewable energy sources. The theoretical model has been implemented in a dynamic model-based software environment and applied to real data to simulate its functioning over a one-year period. Results are used to study system design and performance. A photovoltaic sub-system directly drives a residential load and, if a surplus of energy is available, an electrolyzer to produce hydrogen which is stored in a cluster of nitrogen-cooled tanks filled with AX-21 activated carbons. When the power converted from the sun is not sufficient to cover load needs, hydrogen is desorbed from activated carbon tanks and sent to the fuel-cell sub-system so to obtain electrical energy. A set of sub-systems (bus-bar, buck- and boost-converters, inverter, control circuits), handle the electrical power according to a Programmable Logic Control unit so that the load can be driven with adequate Quality of Service. Hydrogen storage is achieved through physisorption (weak van der Waals interactions) between carbon atoms and hydrogen molecules occurring at low temperature (77 K) in carbon porous solids at relatively low pressures. Storage modeling has been developed using a Langmuir-Freundlich 1st type isotherm and experimental data available in literature. Physisorption storage provides safer operations along with good gravimetric (10.8% at 6 MPa) and volumetric (32.5 g/l at 6 MPa) storage capacities at costs that can be comparable to, or smaller than, ordinary storage techniques (compression or liquefaction). Several test runs have been performed on residential user data-sets: the system is capable of providing grid independence and can be designed to yield a surplus production of hydrogen which can be used to recharge electric car batteries or fill tanks for non-stationary uses. (author)

  15. Materials for High-Pressure Fuel Injection Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, P.; Shyam, A.; Hubbard, C.; Howe, J.; Trejo, R.; Yang, N. (Caterpillar, Inc. Technical Center); Pollard, M. (Caterpillar, Inc. Technical Center)

    2011-09-30

    . Compared to the smooth specimens, EDM notching led to a severe reduction in total fatigue life. A reduction in fatigue life of nearly four orders of magnitude can occur at an EDM notch the approximate size of fuel injector spray holes. Consequently, the initiation and propagation behavior of cracks from small spray holes is relevant for generation of design quality data for the next generation diesel fuel injection devices. This is especially true since the current design methodologies usually rely on the less conservative smooth specimen fatigue testing results, and since different materials can have varying levels of notch fatigue resistance.

  16. Reactive Transport Modeling of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Injection Into Mafic Rock Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorney, R.; Hull, L.; Huang, H.; McLing, T.

    2007-12-01

    Technologies to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and increase the sequestration of CO2 have received increasing attention since the development of the Kyoto protocol. One promising technology is the sequestration of CO2 in geologic formations. The suitability of a fractured basalt reservoir for CO2 sequestration is constrained by three broad categories of issues, which we refer to as physical, technical, and economic constraints. Physical constraints are beyond human control; thus, it is a requirement that a systematic method be developed by which a particular target reservoir may be evaluated to determine if it lies within the bounds required for safe and effective disposal. Technical constraints, on the other hand, are challenges to the ability to design, construct, and/or monitor a sequestration project as a result of limitations on our ability to determine the distribution of properties in the subsurface, our knowledge of the behavior of CO2 in the deep subsurface, and the current state of computational science and subsurface monitoring. Equally important are the heterogeneity of economic costs associated with sequestering CO2 at different sites and within different formations. The work presented here focuses on the technical aspects of CO2 injection, specifically examining reactive transport of CO2 in the subsurface in the vicinity of the injection well using the simulation code TOUGHREACT. Pressure distribution and propagation, kinetics of the geochemical reactions, and resultant changes in permeability/porosity are examined in order to evaluate injection scenarios that maximize the longevity of the injection well and sustainability of the reservoir.

  17. Nitrous Oxide Liquid Injection Thrust Vector Control System Testing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Nitrous Oxide-fed Liquid Thrust Vector Control system is proposed as an efficient method for vehicle attitude control during powered flight. Pulled from a N2O...

  18. Computational studies of small carbon and iron-carbon systems relevant to carbon nanotube growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Haiming; Rosén, Arne; Harutyunyan, Avetik; Curtarolo, Stefano; Bolton, Kim

    2008-11-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that dimers and longer carbon strings are more stable than individual atoms on Fe(111) surfaces. It is therefore necessary to consider the formation of these species on the metal surfaces and their effect on the mechanism of single-walled nanotube (SWNT) growth. The good agreement between the trends (energies and structures) obtained using DFT and those based on the Brenner and AIREBO models indicate that these analytic models provide adequate descriptions of the supported carbon systems needed for valid molecular dynamics simulations of SWNT growth. In contrast, the AIREBO model provides a better description of the relative energies for isolated carbon species, and this model is preferred over the Brenner potential when simulating SWNT growth in the absence of metal particles. However, the PM3 semiempirical model appears to provide an even better description for these systems and, given sufficient computer resources, direct dynamics methods based on this model may be preferred. PMID:19198360

  19. Common-rail injection systems; Common-Rail Einspritzsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehle, W.; Hammer, J.; Naber, D.; Kampmann, S.; Duernholz, M.; Dohle, U. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The diesel engine has established by the end users as the economic solution with high driving enjoyment in all passenger car classes. The success could and can only be reached by the fulfillment of the emission standards, the highest comfort efforts and a long-lived use to justifiable system costs. The modular system portfolio of Bosch enables the engine manufacturers to fulfill the compensation between the high requirements and prices corresponding to real market conditions. In the following the essential challenges and chances of the Diesel drive, characteristics and solutions of the Common rail system, in hard-and software, and solutions for the diagnosis life cycle of the vehicle are shown. (orig.)

  20. A Well-Controlled Nucleus Pulposus Tissue Culture System with Injection Port for Evaluating Regenerative Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Arkesteijn, ITM Irene; Mouser, WHM; F Mwale; van Dijk; Ito, K Keita

    2015-01-01

    In vitro evaluation of nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue regeneration would be useful, but current systems for NP culture are not ideal for injections. The aim of this study was to develop a long-term culture system for NP tissue that allows injections of regenerative agents. Bovine caudal NPs were harvested and placed in the newly designed culture system. After equilibration of the tissue to 0.3 MPa the volume was fixed and the tissue was cultured for 28 days. The cell viability and extracellular...

  1. Low emittance pre-injection system for Iranian Light Source Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghipanah, A.; Feghhi, A. H.; Rahighi, J.; Ghasem, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF) pre-injection system. The optimized parameters of its components, the related beam dynamics issues and the expected performance of the designed system have been described with detail. This paper explains fabrication procedures of some main components and gives the low power microwave measurement results of the constructed RF electron gun. The outcome bunches at the end of the ILSF pre-injection system will have the normalized emittance of 6 mm mrad, length of 1.55 ps and energy spread of 0.06%.

  2. Optimized bunching in the spiral inflector of the CYCLONE 44 injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University at Louvain-la-Neuve is building a compact cyclotron as a post-accelerator/separator for radioactive ion beams called CYCLONE-44. To achieve a high overall injection efficiency it is necessary to ensure proper 6D beam matching of the injected beam to the cyclotron central region. The key component in the cyclotron injection system is a spiral inflector that will place the beam at correct position in the median plane. This paper deals with the optimized beam bunching in the inflector. Using transfer matrix techniques the conditions for obtaining minimized bunch lengths at the inflector exit were derived. Consistent will some previous publications, the time spread of the beam at the inflector exit for the large injected emittances required in this applications is significant. It will be shown that these large pulse lengths are a direct consequence of the inflector optics. (authors)

  3. TMX-Upgrade neutral-beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TMX experiment proved that axial confinement of central-cell ions is improved ninefold by the electrostatic potential of end-cell plasmas. The TMX Upgrade task is to improve this confinement further. This paper discusses the injector system aspects of the TMX Upgrade

  4. TMX-Upgrade neutral-beam injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, B.; Kane, R.J.; Wong, R.L.; Calderon, M.O.; Moore, T.L.

    1981-10-05

    The TMX experiment proved that axial confinement of central-cell ions is improved ninefold by the electrostatic potential of end-cell plasmas. The TMX Upgrade task is to improve this confinement further. This paper discusses the injector system aspects of the TMX Upgrade.

  5. Liquid manure injection and tillage effects on carbon dioxide and water fluxes using eddy covariance techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited data on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from cropland suggest the need to understand the interaction of tillage, manure and conventional fertilization on carbon (C) sequestration and GHG emission from cropland. The objective of this work is to quantify GHG emission affected by tillage and liqu...

  6. EMISSION TEST REPORT, OMSS FIELD TEST ON CARBON INJECTION FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses results of a parametric evaluation of powdered activated carbon for control of mercury (Hg) emission from a municipal waste cornbustor (MWC) equipped with a lime spray dryer absorber/fabric filter (SD/FF). The primary test objectives were to evaluate the effe...

  7. Performance Evaluation of a Software Engineering Tool for Automated Design of Cooling Systems in Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauregui-Becker, Juan M.; Tosello, Guido; van Houten, Fred J.A.M.;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a software tool for automating the design of cooling systems for injection moulding and a validation of its performance. Cooling system designs were automatically generated by the proposed software tool and by applying a best practice tool engineering design approach. The two ...

  8. Neutral beam injection system design for KSTAR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B.H.; Lee, K.W.; Chung, K.S.; Oh, B.H.; Cho, Y.S.; Bae, Y.D.; Han, J.M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-06-01

    The NBI system for KSTAR (Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) has been designed based on conventional positive ion beam technology. One beam line consists of three ion sources, three neutralizers, one bending magnet, and one drift tube. This system will deliver 8 MW deuterium beam to KSTAR plasma in normal operation to support the advanced experiments on heating, current drive and profile control. The key technical issues in this design were high power ion source(120 kV, 65 A), long pulse operation (300 seconds; world record is 30 sec), and beam rotation from vertical to horizontal direction. The suggested important R and D points on ion source and beam line components are also included. (author). 7 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Application of Carbon Dioxide Injection Technology in Bamboo Cement Board Production

    OpenAIRE

    Bakri; Sanusi, Djamal; Muin, Musrizal; Baharuddin

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the appropriate bamboo species to be used as raw material for cement board manufacturing and (2) to determine the best phase of C O2 and the most optimum of CO2 injection time to produce the best characteristics of cement board. For the first objective, mixtures of bamboo culm particles, cement, and water on the ratio by weight of 1 : 2.5 : 1.25 were casted in iron plate mold of 25 x 25 x 1 cm3, pressed and then hold for 24 h...

  10. Biosensor Based on Self-Assembling Acetylcholinesterase on Carbon Nanotubes for Flow injection/Amperometric Detection of Organophosphate Pesticides and Nerve Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2006-02-01

    A highly sensitive flow-injection amperometric biosensor for organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents based on self-assembly of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) on carbon nanotube (CNT)-modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode is described. AChE is immobilized on the negatively-charged CNT surface by alternatively assembling a cationic polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) layer and an AChE layer. Transmission electron microscopy images confirm the formation of layer-by-layer nanostructures on carboxyl functionalized CNTs. The unique sandwich-like structure (PDDA/AChE/PDDA) on the CNT surface formed by self-assembly provides a favorable microenvironment to keep the bioactivity of AChE and to prevent enzyme molecule leakage. The electrocatalytic activity of CNT leads to a greatly improved electrochemical detection of the enzymatically generated thiocholine product, including a low oxidation overvoltage (+150 mV), higher sensitivity, and stability. The developed PDDA/AChE/PDDA/CNT/GC biosensor integrated into a flow injection system was used to monitor organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents, such as paraoxon. The sensor performance, including inhibition time and regeneration conditions, was optimized with respect to operating conditions. Under the optimal conditions, the biosensor was used to measure as low as 0.4 pM paraoxon with a 6-min inhibition time. The biosensor had excellent operational lifetime stability with no decrease in the activity of enzymes for more than 20 repeated measurements over a 1-week period. The developed biosensor system is an ideal tool for online monitoring of organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents.

  11. Computer Aided Design of The Cooling System for Plastic Injection Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan GÜRÜN

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The design of plastic injection molds and their cooling systems affect both the dimension, the shape, the quality of a plastic part and the cycle time of process and the cost of mold. In this study, the solid model design of a plastic injection mold and the design of cooling sysytem were possibly carried out without the designer interaction. Developed program permited the use of three types of the cooling system and the different cavity orientations and the multible plastic part placement into the mold cores. The program which was developed by using Visual LISP language and the VBA (Visual BASIC for Application modules, was applicated in the AutoCAD software domain. Trial studies were presented that the solid model design of plastic injection molds and the cooling systems increased the reliability, the flexibility and the speed of the design.

  12. Design of the Injection and extraction system and related machine protection for the Clic Damping Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Apsimon, Robert; Barnes, Mike; Borburgh, Jan; Goddard, Brennan; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Uythoven, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Linear machines such as CLIC have relatively low rates of collision between bunches compared to their circular counterparts. In order to achieve the required luminosity, a very small spot size is envisaged at the interaction point, thus a low emittance beam is needed. Damping rings are essential for producing the low emittances needed for the CLIC main beam. It is crucial that the beams are injected and extracted from the damping rings in a stable and repeatable fashion to minimise emittance blow-up and beam jitter at the interaction point; both of these effects will deteriorate the luminosity at the interaction point. In this paper, the parameters and constraints of the injection and extraction systems are considered and the design of these systems is optimised within this parameter space. Related machine protection is considered in order to prevent damage from potential failure modes of the injection and extraction systems.

  13. On the linearity of the MINOS light-injection calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MINOS light-injection calibration system has been fully documented in a previous article (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 492 (2002) 353). Upon commissioning in the MINOS detectors, the system was found to give a non-linear response to variations in the intensity of injected light. The source of this non-linearity has been traced to a small change in the spectrum of the injected light as a function of the current applied to the original blue LEDs, in combination with a rapidly varying spectral response function of the wavelength-shifting fibre used in the detector. Both aspects of the problem have been addressed successfully by use of LEDs with different spectral characteristics, and the system now has a linear response

  14. Treatment planning system for carbon ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the treatment planning (TP) and its peripheral system for carbon ion therapy that has been developed and in clinical use in recent two years at our institution. A new treatment planning system which is FOCUS customized to our irradiation system will be launched in clinical use soon. A new DICOM based PACS has been developed and in use. Now MRI, PET images are ready to be utilized for patient definition with image fusion functionality of radiotherapy TP. We implemented the exchange functionality of TP data specified by RTOG 3D QA Center in FOCUS, Pinnacle3 and heavy ion TP. Target volume and normal structure contours and dose distributions are exchangeable. A database system of carbon ion therapy dedicated to analysis of therapy data has been designed and implemented. All accessible planning data and treatment records of more than 1000 patients treated for seven and half years have been archived. The system has a DICOM RT sever and a database for miscellaneous text data. Limited numbers of private attributes were introduced for ion therapy specific objects. On-line as well as manual registration along with edit functionalities is prepared. Standard web browser is used to search and retrieve information. A DICOM RT viewer has been developed to view and retrieve RT images, dose distributions and structure set. These system described above are all designed to conform to the up-to-date standards of radiation therapy so as to be bases of the future development of the therapy at our institution. (author)

  15. CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biraud, S

    2011-02-23

    The main function of the CO instrument is to provide continuous accurate measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) 60-meter tower (36.607 °N, 97.489 °W, 314 meters above sea level). The essential feature of the control and data acquisition system is to record signals from a Thermo Electron 48C and periodically calibrate out zero and span drifts in the instrument using the combination of a CO scrubber and two concentrations of span gas (100 and 300 ppb CO in air). The system was deployed on May 25, 2005.

  16. Computer-aided analysis of bypass in direct vessel vertical injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in three-dimensional computer-aided design has rendered it practicable to lend itself to commercial computational fluid dynamics and structural mechanics finite element analysis codes to cross-communicate detailed geometric data. The main focus is placed on application of this powerful design tool in examining performance of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) employing the direct vessel injection (DVI) in the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe). In this work a new method of direct vessel vertical injection (DVVI) is proposed as an advanced type of DVI for the APR1400. In view of the ECCS function to efficaciously cool down the core during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), for example, the concept of DVVI is geared to increasing the downward momentum of the injected water so as to maximize penetration into the downcomer versus by pass through the break. Furthermore, one needs to pay a special attention to the structural integrity of the injection nozzle on account of the radioactive primary system environment. In particular, vibration and pressure induced by the safety injection (SI) flow will tend to exert predomination forces onto the DVVI nozzles having an elbow. Therefore, in this work, focus is placed on the flow regime at the tip of the DVVI nozzle and the structural impact caused by rapid injection of the emergency core cooling (ECC) water in the APR1400. The current work consists of a three-dimensional (3D) computer-aided design (CAD) modeling using CATIA V5R9, CFX 5.5 and ANSYS 6.1 to determine the most vulnerable spot of the DVVI nozzle, and to check on the performance efficiency of DVVI during the ECC injection period. In this study it was considered that the 3D CAD model for the DVVI nozzle was submerged in a high-velocity steam. The effect of the rebounding force of the injected water has also been simulated. The 3D CAD model for the DVVI nozzle simulates its mass, texture and constitution material. In this work the DVVI

  17. Graded Density Carbon Bonded Carbon Fiber (CBCF) Preforms for Lightweight Ablative Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FMI currently manufactures Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) material for Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) systems, such as the Stardust Sample Return...

  18. Modeling Hydrogeological and Geomenchanical Processes Related toCO2 Injection in a Faulted Multilayer System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Birkholzer, Jens; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of coupled hydrological and geomechanical processes during a deep underground injection of supercritical CO{sub 2} in a hypothetical brine aquifer. We consider a multilayer system in which the injection zone is situated below a sequence of caprock and aquifer layers that are intersected by a vertical fault zone. The fault zone consists of highly fractured shale across the first caprock layers that are located just above the injection zone. Initially, the fractured shale zones are considered sealed with minerals, but we allow fractures (and the fractured zones) to open as a result of injection induced reductions in effective stresses. Our results indicate that even when assuming a very sensitive relationship between effective stress and fractured-zone permeability, the injection-induced changes in permeability across are only moderate with largest changes occurring in the first caprock layer, just above the injection zone. As a result, the upward leakage rate remains relatively small and therefore changes in fluid pressure and hydromechanical effects in overlying zones are also relatively small for the case studied in this paper.

  19. Impact of injection system design on ISCO performance with permanganate — mathematical modeling results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Ki Young; Borden, Robert C.

    2012-02-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) using permanganate (MnO 4-) can be a very effective technique for remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents. However, many ISCO projects are less effective than desired because of poor delivery of the chemical reagents to the treatment zone. In this work, the numerical model RT3D was modified and applied to evaluate the effect of aquifer characteristics and injection system design on contact and treatment efficiency. MnO 4- consumption was simulated assuming the natural oxidant demand (NOD) is composed of a fraction that reacts instantaneously and a fraction that slowly reacts following a 2nd order relationship where NOD consumption rate increases with increasing MnO 4- concentration. MnO 4- consumption by the contaminant was simulated as an instantaneous reaction. Simulation results indicate that the mass of permanganate and volume of water injected has the greatest impact on aquifer contact efficiency and contaminant treatment efficiency. Several small injection events are not expected to increase contact efficiency compared to a single large injection event, and can increase the amount of un-reacted MnO 4- released down-gradient. High groundwater flow velocities can increase the fraction of aquifer contacted. Initial contaminant concentration and contaminant retardation factor have only a minor impact on volume contact efficiency. Aquifer heterogeneity can have both positive and negative impacts on remediation system performance, depending on the injection system design.

  20. Optimization of parameters for the inline-injection system at Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsa, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Ko, S.K. [Ulsan Univ. (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-01

    We present some of our parameter optimization results utilizing code PARMLEA, for the ATF Inline-Injection System. The new solenoid-Gun-Solenoid -- Drift-Linac Scheme would improve the beam quality needed for FEL and other experiments at ATF as compared to the beam quality of the original design injection system. To optimize the gain in the beam quality we have considered various parameters including the accelerating field gradient on the photoathode, the Solenoid field strengths, separation between the gun and entrance to the linac as well as the (type size) initial charge distributions. The effect of the changes in the parameters on the beam emittance is also given.

  1. Study on the magnetic measurement results of the injection system for CSNS/RCS

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Ming-Yang; Huang, Nan; Huo, Li-Hua; Ji, Hong-Fei; Kang, Wen; Liu, Yi-Qin; Peng, Jun; Qiu, Jing; Shen, Li; Wang, Sheng; Wu, Xi; Xu, Shou-Yan; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Guo-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    A combination of the H- stripping and phase space painting method is used to accumulate a high intensity beam in the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS). The injection system for CSNS/RCS consists of three kinds of magnets: four direct current magnets (BC1-BC4), eight alternating current magnets (BH1-BH4 and BV1-BV4), two septum magnets (ISEP1 and ISEP2). In this paper, the magnetic measurements of the injection system were introduced and the data analysis was processed. The field uniformity and magnetizing curves of these magnets were given, and then the magnetizing fitting equations were obtained.

  2. Properties of carbon nanotube-dispersed Sr-hydroxyapatite injectable material for bone defects

    OpenAIRE

    Raucci, M. G.; Alvarez-Perez, M.; Giugliano, D.; Zeppetelli, S.; Ambrosio, L.

    2016-01-01

    This study concerns the synthesis of gel materials based on carbon nanotubes dispersed strontium-modified hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) at different compositions obtained by sol–gel technology and their influence on human-bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Furthermore, an evaluation of the influence of nanotubes and Strontium on physico-chemical, morphological, rheological and biological properties of hydroxyapatite gel was also performed. Morphological analysis (scanning electron microscop...

  3. Direct current injection and thermocapillary flow for purification of aligned arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aligned arrays of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWNTs) represent ideal configurations for use of this class of material in high performance electronics. Development of means for removing the metallic SWNTs (m-SWNTs) in as-grown arrays represents an essential challenge. Here, we introduce a simple scheme that achieves this type of purification using direct, selective current injection through interdigitated electrodes into the m-SWNTs, to allow their complete removal using processes of thermocapillarity and dry etching. Experiments and numerical simulations establish the fundamental aspects that lead to selectivity in this process, thereby setting design rules for optimization. Single-step purification of arrays that include thousands of SWNTs demonstrates the effectiveness and simplicity of the procedures. The result is a practical route to large-area aligned arrays of purely s-SWNTs with low-cost experimental setups

  4. Direct current injection and thermocapillary flow for purification of aligned arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Xu; Islam, Ahmad E.; Seabron, Eric; Dunham, Simon N.; Du, Frank; Lin, Jonathan; Wilson, William L.; Rogers, John A., E-mail: jrogers@illinois.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Wahab, Muhammad A.; Alam, Muhammad A. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Li, Yuhang [Institute of Solid Mechanics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Tomic, Bojan [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Huang, Jiyuan [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Burns, Branden [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Song, Jizhou [Department of Engineering Mechanics and Soft Matter Research Center, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Huang, Yonggang [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Engineering and Health, and Skin Disease Research Center, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2015-04-07

    Aligned arrays of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWNTs) represent ideal configurations for use of this class of material in high performance electronics. Development of means for removing the metallic SWNTs (m-SWNTs) in as-grown arrays represents an essential challenge. Here, we introduce a simple scheme that achieves this type of purification using direct, selective current injection through interdigitated electrodes into the m-SWNTs, to allow their complete removal using processes of thermocapillarity and dry etching. Experiments and numerical simulations establish the fundamental aspects that lead to selectivity in this process, thereby setting design rules for optimization. Single-step purification of arrays that include thousands of SWNTs demonstrates the effectiveness and simplicity of the procedures. The result is a practical route to large-area aligned arrays of purely s-SWNTs with low-cost experimental setups.

  5. Design of an 8 GeV h transport and multi-turn injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.E.; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    An 8 GeV superconducting linear accelerator (SCL) has been proposed as a single stage H{sup -} injector into the Main Injector (MI) synchrotron. This could be a multi-use facility which would, among other things, support a 2 MW Neutrino program at Fermi National Accelerator Lab (FNAL) [1,2,3,4]. This paper describes a solution for a transport line which is capable of low loss transmission of an H{sup -} beam from the linac to the MI, transverse and momentum collimation, and provides for flexible matching into the MI lattice. The required modifications to the MI accelerator complex to accommodate the transfer line and multi-turn injection utilizing carbon foil stripping (and/or potentially laser stripping) and the injection layout are discussed.

  6. Attack methodology Analysis: SQL Injection Attacks and Their Applicability to Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bri Rolston

    2005-09-01

    Database applications have become a core component in control systems and their associated record keeping utilities. Traditional security models attempt to secure systems by isolating core software components and concentrating security efforts against threats specific to those computers or software components. Database security within control systems follows these models by using generally independent systems that rely on one another for proper functionality. The high level of reliance between the two systems creates an expanded threat surface. To understand the scope of a threat surface, all segments of the control system, with an emphasis on entry points, must be examined. The communication link between data and decision layers is the primary attack surface for SQL injection. This paper facilitates understanding what SQL injection is and why it is a significant threat to control system environments.

  7. Properties of carbon nanotube-dispersed Sr-hydroxyapatite injectable material for bone defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raucci, M. G.; Alvarez-Perez, M.; Giugliano, D.; Zeppetelli, S.; Ambrosio, L.

    2016-01-01

    This study concerns the synthesis of gel materials based on carbon nanotubes dispersed strontium-modified hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) at different compositions obtained by sol–gel technology and their influence on human-bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Furthermore, an evaluation of the influence of nanotubes and Strontium on physico-chemical, morphological, rheological and biological properties of hydroxyapatite gel was also performed. Morphological analysis (scanning electron microscopy) shows a homogeneous distribution of modified nanotubes in the ceramic matrix improving the bioactive properties of materials. The biological investigations proved that Sr-HA/carbon nanotube gel containing 0–20 mol (%) of Sr showed no toxic effect and promote the expression of early and late markers of osteogenic differentiation in cell culture performed in basal medium without osteogenic factors. Finally, the SrHA/carbon nanotube gels could have a good potential application as filler in bone repair and regeneration and may be used in the osteoporotic disease treatment. PMID:26816652

  8. Research of System Building Basing on the Low Carbon Economy About Carbon Accounting for the Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Liqiong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As global warming has become truth, is developing as a new economic model, The new economic development model has given rise to an important branch of environmental accounting, namely carbon accounting. At first, this paper discusses the carbon accounting theoretical foundation comprehensively, and then analyzes the environment of the construction of the carbon accounting system. The focus of the article is to build enterprise carbon accounting system, it covers the confirmation and measurement, record and information disclosure of the enterprise carbon accounting on the way of low carbon economy, its core is the processing of carbon emission rights, information disclosure mode and content, etc.; The purpose of this paper is to build enterprise carbon accounting system which is suitable for China’s national conditions, in order to provide certain reference and theoretical support for the low carbon economy development of our country.

  9. A Poromechanical Model for Coal Seams Injected with Carbon Dioxide: From an Isotherm of Adsorption to a Swelling of the Reservoir Un modéle poromécanique pour l’injection de dioxyde de carbone dans des veines de charbon : d’une isotherme d’adsorption à un gonflement du réservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoosokhan S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Injecting carbon dioxide into deep unminable coal seams can enhance the amount of methane recovered from the seam. This process is known as CO2-Enhanced Coal Bed Methane production (CO2-ECBM. The seam is a porous medium whose porous system is made of cleats (small natural fractures and of coal pores (whose radius can be as small as a few angström. During the injection process, the molecules of CO2 get adsorbed in the coal pores. Such an adsorption makes the coal swell, which, in the confined conditions that prevail underground, induces a closure of the cleat system of the coal bed reservoir and a loss of injectivity. In this work, we develop a poromechanical model which, starting from the knowledge of an adsorption isotherm and combined with reservoir simulations, enables to estimate the variations of injectivity of the coal bed reservoir over time during the process of injection. The model for the coal bed reservoir is based on poromechanical equations that explicitly take into account the effect of adsorption on the mechanical behavior of a microporous medium. We consider the coal bed reservoir as a dual porosity (cleats and coal porosity medium, for which we derive a set of linear constitutive equations. The model requires as an input the adsorption isotherm on coal of the fluid considered. Reversely, the model provides a way to upscale an adsorption isotherm into a meaningful swelling of the coal bed reservoir at the macroscopic scale. The parameters of the model are calibrated on data on coal samples available in the literature. Reservoir simulations of an injection of carbon dioxide in a coal seam are performed with an in-house finite volume and element code. The variations of injection rate over time during the process of injection are obtained from the simulations. The effect of the compressibility of the coal matrix on those variations is discussed. L’injection de dioxyde de carbone dans des veines de charbon profondes peut augmenter

  10. Definition, Capabilities, and Components of a Terrestrial Carbon Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Tristram O.; Brown, Molly E.; Duren, Riley M.; Ogle, Stephen M.; Moss, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    Research efforts for effectively and consistently monitoring terrestrial carbon are increasing in number. As such, there is a need to define carbon monitoring and how it relates to carbon cycle science and carbon management. There is also a need to identify capabilities of a carbon monitoring system and the system components needed to develop the capabilities. Capabilities that enable the effective application of a carbon monitoring system for monitoring and management purposes may include: reconciling carbon stocks and fluxes, developing consistency across spatial and temporal scales, tracking horizontal movement of carbon, attribution of emissions to originating sources, cross-sectoral accounting, uncertainty quantification, redundancy and policy relevance. Focused research is needed to integrate these capabilities for sustained estimates of carbon stocks and fluxes. Additionally, if monitoring is intended to inform management decisions, management priorities should be considered prior to development of a monitoring system.

  11. In Situ Raman Spectroscopic Study of the Diffusion Coefficients and Solubility:Indicates to Carbon Dioxide Injection into Hexadecane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Lu, Wanjun

    2015-04-01

    Injecting CO2 into lean-oil reservoirs is not only a way to geological storage but also enhanced oil recovery. In the secondary displacements of oil reservoir by CO2-injection, diffusion coefficients and solubility of CO2 are key parameters to calculate the volume of CO2 injected and the time to achieve the desired viscosity in the numerical simulation. Unfortunately, the experimental data on the CO2 diffusion coefficient and solubility in liquid hydrocarbons under high pressure conditions are scarce. Hexadecane has properties similar to the average properties of Brazilian heavy oil. Experimental data on the diffusion coefficients and solubility of CO2 in hexadecane were reviewed by Nieuwoudt and Rand (2002), Rincon and Trejo (2001) and Breman et al (1994), indicating that the data in the literature were limited at relatively low temperatures and/or low pressures. In this paper, the diffusion coefficients of carbon dioxide in hexadecane at different temperature and pressure were determined with in situ Raman spectroscopy. A model was established to describe relationship among diffusion coefficients, temperature, and pressure. The solubility of CO2 in hexadecane was obtained from 298.15 to 473.15 K and 10 to 45 MPa. The experimental results show that:(1) Solubility of CO2 decreases with increasing temperature.(2) Increasing pressure increases the CO2 solubility. in terms of the degree of influence,100K is similar with 10MPa.(3) Diffusion coefficients of CO2 increases with increasing temperature. (4) Increasing pressure decreases the CO2 diffusion coefficients, whereas the pressure effect on CO2 diffusion coefficients is very weak. Compared with traditional sampling and analytical methods, the advantages of our method include: (1) the use of in situ Raman signals for solubility measurements eliminates possible uncertainty caused by sampling and ex situ analysis. (2) it is simple and efficient, and (3) high-pressure data can be obtained safely.

  12. Oxidative in situ reactive zones: groundwater treatment at four petroleum sites in France/NL by sodium per-carbonate injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clementelle, L.; Burdick, J. [Arcadis, Wim Plaisier, In-Situ Technieken, Nl, Hoofddorp NL (Netherlands)

    2005-07-01

    Research in the last twenty years has shown that oxygen is typically the limiting factor in the natural biodegradation of soluble petroleum hydrocarbons present in groundwater. Natural rates of attenuation are often too slow to justify, or receive regulatory acceptance for a stand-alone monitored natural attenuation approach. Additional research at the industry and academic levels has explored different means of enhancing degradation rates by delivering oxygen to the subsurface: ranging from more active air sparging systems to more passive approaches that rely on delivery of soluble oxygen delivering substrates that will diffuse into groundwater. The purpose of this presentation is to present bench and field scale data for several sites located in France and the Netherlands where sodium per-carbonate (2 Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} 3H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) is being used as a cost effective, injectable substrate to treat hydrocarbon plumes in situ and achieve closure at these facilities. The injection of sodium per-carbonate into the subsurface is one of several techniques that can be used to increase levels of dissolved oxygen in an impacted aquifer. It is a granular per-oxygen product that releases hydrogen peroxide (about 30% by weight), but also produces a radical with oxidizing power of its own. It should be noted that reactions with per-carbonate are not as vigorous as Fenton's Reagent (for example) and are not exothermic, making it a safer compound to handle. Per-carbonate is a strong alkaline product with a pH of 10.5; therefore, some geochemical screening and evaluation of buffering capacity should be employed at potential sites. This product is used commercially as a weak oxidant in bleaching/whitening applications. When delivered into the subsurface hydrogen peroxide will be decomposed into water and oxygen. The decomposition of sodium per-carbonate in the subsurface can increase oxygen levels in groundwater to several orders of magnitude above the typical

  13. Oxidative in situ reactive zones: groundwater treatment at four petroleum sites in France/NL by sodium per-carbonate injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research in the last twenty years has shown that oxygen is typically the limiting factor in the natural biodegradation of soluble petroleum hydrocarbons present in groundwater. Natural rates of attenuation are often too slow to justify, or receive regulatory acceptance for a stand-alone monitored natural attenuation approach. Additional research at the industry and academic levels has explored different means of enhancing degradation rates by delivering oxygen to the subsurface: ranging from more active air sparging systems to more passive approaches that rely on delivery of soluble oxygen delivering substrates that will diffuse into groundwater. The purpose of this presentation is to present bench and field scale data for several sites located in France and the Netherlands where sodium per-carbonate (2 Na2CO3 3H2O2) is being used as a cost effective, injectable substrate to treat hydrocarbon plumes in situ and achieve closure at these facilities. The injection of sodium per-carbonate into the subsurface is one of several techniques that can be used to increase levels of dissolved oxygen in an impacted aquifer. It is a granular per-oxygen product that releases hydrogen peroxide (about 30% by weight), but also produces a radical with oxidizing power of its own. It should be noted that reactions with per-carbonate are not as vigorous as Fenton's Reagent (for example) and are not exothermic, making it a safer compound to handle. Per-carbonate is a strong alkaline product with a pH of 10.5; therefore, some geochemical screening and evaluation of buffering capacity should be employed at potential sites. This product is used commercially as a weak oxidant in bleaching/whitening applications. When delivered into the subsurface hydrogen peroxide will be decomposed into water and oxygen. The decomposition of sodium per-carbonate in the subsurface can increase oxygen levels in groundwater to several orders of magnitude above the typical solubility of oxygen in groundwater

  14. Monoclonal antibody imaging of human melanoma. Radioimmunodetection by subcutaneous or systemic injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fab fragments of monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) to melanoma, radiolabeled with 131I, were evaluated as diagnostic reagents to determine their ability to localize systemic--MoAb injected intravenously (IV)--or nodal metastatic disease--injected subcutaneously (SQ) at a site proximal to draining lymph nodes. Sixty-one scans were performed (40 IV, 21 SQ) in 59 patients who had injections of 0.2-50 mg of 131I coupled (0.2-12 mCi) antibody. These included 48.7, which identifies a high molecular weight antigen (HMW), or 96.5, which identifies a transferrin like molecule, p97. 125I coupled nonspecific Fab 1.4, reacting with murine leukemia virus, or the whole antibody BL3, reactive with a human B cell idiotypic determinant, was generally used in tandem with the patients injected SQ as a nonspecific control. All patients had immunohistochemical studies performed and demonstrated binding to the antibodies injected. Of the IV patients, 22/38 (58%) had (+) scans, 13 at SQ or nodal sites, four at visceral sites, and five at visceral and SQ sites. Patients with clinical stage II disease had SQ injection of MoAb, including 11 additional patients injected with the whole antibody 9.2.27 (anti-HMW) labeled with 111In (6 patients) or 131I (5 patients). Nodal dissection was performed 2-4 days later. All 111In coupled antibodies demonstrated excellent nodal delineation without specific identification of tumor deposits. Of the 21 patients injected SQ with MoAb, 17 had confirmed tumor in nodes. Of patients injected with Fab fragments, 50% had specific uptake of MoAb, although only two were successfully imaged. Increased uptake of antimelanoma antibodies was observed in some patients in lymph nodes not containing tumor. Clearance of labeled antibody from the injection site occurred with a half life of 16-50 hours. Toxicity was limited to local discomfort at the site of SQ injection

  15. Printed Carbon Nanotube Electronics and Sensor Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kevin; Gao, Wei; Emaminejad, Sam; Kiriya, Daisuke; Ota, Hiroki; Nyein, Hnin Yin Yin; Takei, Kuniharu; Javey, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Printing technologies offer large-area, high-throughput production capabilities for electronics and sensors on mechanically flexible substrates that can conformally cover different surfaces. These capabilities enable a wide range of new applications such as low-cost disposable electronics for health monitoring and wearables, extremely large format electronic displays, interactive wallpapers, and sensing arrays. Solution-processed carbon nanotubes have been shown to be a promising candidate for such printing processes, offering stable devices with high performance. Here, recent progress made in printed carbon nanotube electronics is discussed in terms of materials, processing, devices, and applications. Research challenges and opportunities moving forward from processing and system-level integration points of view are also discussed for enabling practical applications. PMID:26880046

  16. Aerosol palladium activation for electroless copper deposition and heat treatment with NO injection to fabricate Cu oxide/carbon fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces a novel method for fabricating copper (Cu) oxide/activated carbon fibre (ACF) through the aerosol palladium (Pd) activation for use in electroless Cu deposition and heat treatment of Cu deposited ACF with nitric monoxide (NO) gas injection. Electroless Cu deposition was initiated by catalytically activating the ACF surface with spark generated Pd aerosol nanoparticles. The catalytically activated ACF was placed into a solution used for the electroless Cu deposition. Subjecting the Cu deposited ACF to a heat treatment in a NO/nitrogen (N2) gas injection (1000 ppm NO) resulted in changes to the morphology of the Cu particles. As the temperature increased from 100 to 500 deg. C, the relative mass fraction of oxygen in the Cu particles increased from 3.6% to 14.2% and the fraction of Cu decreased from 41.2% to 34.1%, which was caused by the formation of Cu oxides (Cu2O and CuO). The corresponding surface area and pore volume of the ACF decreased from 1019 m2 g-1 to 401 m2 g-1 and from 0.40 cm3 g-1 to 0.18 cm3 g-1, respectively. The morphological evolution and decrease in porosity were attributed to volume expansion of Cu particles during oxidation.

  17. Aerosol palladium activation for electroless copper deposition and heat treatment with NO injection to fabricate Cu oxide/carbon fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Ryang Hwa; Hwang, Jungho

    2009-03-01

    This paper introduces a novel method for fabricating copper (Cu) oxide/activated carbon fibre (ACF) through the aerosol palladium (Pd) activation for use in electroless Cu deposition and heat treatment of Cu deposited ACF with nitric monoxide (NO) gas injection. Electroless Cu deposition was initiated by catalytically activating the ACF surface with spark generated Pd aerosol nanoparticles. The catalytically activated ACF was placed into a solution used for the electroless Cu deposition. Subjecting the Cu deposited ACF to a heat treatment in a NO/nitrogen (N2) gas injection (1000 ppm NO) resulted in changes to the morphology of the Cu particles. As the temperature increased from 100 to 500 °C, the relative mass fraction of oxygen in the Cu particles increased from 3.6% to 14.2% and the fraction of Cu decreased from 41.2% to 34.1%, which was caused by the formation of Cu oxides (Cu2O and CuO). The corresponding surface area and pore volume of the ACF decreased from 1019 m2 g-1 to 401 m2 g-1 and from 0.40 cm3 g-1 to 0.18 cm3 g-1, respectively. The morphological evolution and decrease in porosity were attributed to volume expansion of Cu particles during oxidation.

  18. Development of a Carbon Management Geographic Information System (GIS) for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard Herzog; Holly Javedan

    2009-12-31

    In this project a Carbon Management Geographical Information System (GIS) for the US was developed. The GIS stored, integrated, and manipulated information relating to the components of carbon management systems. Additionally, the GIS was used to interpret and analyze the effect of developing these systems. This report documents the key deliverables from the project: (1) Carbon Management Geographical Information System (GIS) Documentation; (2) Stationary CO{sub 2} Source Database; (3) Regulatory Data for CCS in United States; (4) CO{sub 2} Capture Cost Estimation; (5) CO{sub 2} Storage Capacity Tools; (6) CO{sub 2} Injection Cost Modeling; (7) CO{sub 2} Pipeline Transport Cost Estimation; (8) CO{sub 2} Source-Sink Matching Algorithm; and (9) CO{sub 2} Pipeline Transport and Cost Model.

  19. Hydrogen atom injection into carbon surfaces by comparison between Monte-Carlo, molecular dynamics and ab-initio calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: To understand the plasma-wall interaction on divertor plates, we investigate the interaction of hydrogen atoms and carbon materials used in the high heat flux components by the use of the following simulations. Monte-Carlo (MC) method based on binary collision approximation can calculate the sputtering process of hydrogen atoms on the carbon material quickly. Classical molecular dynamics (MD) method employs multi-body potential models and can treat realistic structures of crystal and molecule. The ab-initio method can calculate electron energy in quantum mechanics, which is regarded as realistic potential for atoms. In the present paper, the interaction of the hydrogen and the carbon material is investigated using the multi-scale (MC, MD and ab-initio) methods. The bombardment of hydrogen atoms onto the carbon material is simulated by the ACAT-code of the MC method, which cannot represent the structure of crystal, and the MD method using modified reactive empirical bond order (REBO) potential, which treats single crystal graphite and amorphous carbon. Consequently, we clarify that the sputtering yield and the reflection rate calculated by the ACAT-code agree with those on the amorphous carbon calculated by the MD. Moreover, there are many kinds of REBO potential for the MD. Adsorption, reflection and penetration rates between a hydrogen atom and a graphene surface are calculated by the MD simulations using the two kinds of potential model. For the incident energy of less than 1 eV, the MD simulation using the modified REBO potential, which is based on Brenner's REBO potential in 2002, shows that reflection is dominant, while the most popular Brenner's REBO potential in 1990 shows that adsorption is dominant. This reflection of the low energy injection is caused by a small potential barrier for the hydrogen atom in the modified REBO potential. The small potential barrier is confirmed by the ab-initio calculations, which are hybrid DFT (B3LYP/cc-pVDZ), ab

  20. Current status of the Injection Bump System in J-PARC 3-GeV RCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The injection bump system of the 3-GeV RCS (Rapid Cycling Synchrotron) in J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) consists of the pulse bending magnets for the injection bump orbit, which are four horizontal bending magnets (shift bump), four horizontal painting magnets (h-paint bump) and two vertical painting magnets (v-paint bump). The power supplies of the magnets are composed of multiple-connections of the IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) assemblies. They excite the current waveform of the trapezoid pattern with the flat top for 500 μs and the flexible decay pattern. The exciting current and magnetic field were measured. The power supplies executed the good accuracy less than 1% deviation to programmed pattern. Furthermore, the continuous long-term with stable has been performed. In this paper, the current status of the operation of the injection bump system is described. (author)

  1. A harmonic injection SPWM method for the high-responsive PMSM control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wang; Shuanghui, Hao; Minghui, Hao; Baoyu, Song

    2016-01-01

    In a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) control system, usually, the phase voltage instruction is limited independently to prevent a three-phase pulse width modulation (PWM) wave from overflowing. This method decreases the efficiency of the bus voltage and causes voltage vector direction errors. To solve these problems, we propose a harmonic injection sinusoidal pulse-width modulation (SPWM). This method uses harmonic injected sinusoidal PWM to improve the utilisation ratio of the bus voltage, and consequently improve system performance. In this paper, we analyse the problem in terms of potential difference. The simulation results show that the proposed method can increase the utilisation ratio of the bus voltage up to 15.4%, and the voltage vector mode obtained with the proposed algorithm is larger than that obtained with the conventional one. The method with harmonic injection consequently improves current response, without affecting voltage vector accuracy. The experiment results validate the proposed method.

  2. A model for analyzing CANDU-6 SDS No.2 poison injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In CANDU reactor one of the two reactor shutdown systems is the liquid poison injection system which injects the highly pressurized liquid neutron poison into the moderator tank via small holes on the nozzle pipes. To ensure the safe shutdown of a reactor it is necessary for the poison curtains generated by jets provide quick, and enough negative reactivity to the reactor during the early stage of the accident. In order to produce the neutron cross section necessary to perform this work, the poison concentration distribution during the transient is necessary. In this study, a set of models for analyzing the transient poison concentration induced by this high pressure poison injection jet activated upon the reactor trip in a CANDU-6 reactor moderator tank has been developed and used to generate the poison concentration distribution of the poison curtains induced by the high pressure jets injected into the vacant region between the pressure tube banks. The poison injection rate through the jet holes drilled on the nozzle pipes is obtained by a 1-D transient hydrodynamic code called. ALITRIG, and this injection rate is used to provide the inlet boundary condition to a 3-D CFD model of the moderator tank based on CFX4.3, a CFD code, to simulate the formation of the poison jet curtain inside the moderator tank. For the validation, an attempt was made to validate this model against a poison injection experiment performed at Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC) of India. The interim progress will be presented and the validation analysis result is discussed

  3. Geoengineering climate by stratospheric sulfur injections: Earth system vulnerability to technological failure

    OpenAIRE

    Brovkin, V.; Petoukhov, V.; M. Claussen; Bauer, E.; Archer, D; Jaeger, C

    2009-01-01

    We use a coupled climate–carbon cycle model of intermediate complexity to investigate scenarios of stratospheric sulfur injections as a measure to compensate for CO2-induced global warming. The baseline scenario includes the burning of 5,000 GtC of fossil fuels. A full compensation of CO2-induced warming requires a load of about 13 MtS in the stratosphere at the peak of atmospheric CO2 concentration. Keeping global warming below 2◦C reduces this load to 9 MtS. Compensation of CO2 forcing b...

  4. A Well-Controlled Nucleus Pulposus Tissue Culture System with Injection Port for Evaluating Regenerative Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkesteijn, Irene T M; Mouser, Vivian H M; Mwale, Fackson; van Dijk, Bart G M; Ito, Keita

    2016-05-01

    In vitro evaluation of nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue regeneration would be useful, but current systems for NP culture are not ideal for injections. The aim of this study was to develop a long-term culture system for NP tissue that allows injections of regenerative agents. Bovine caudal NPs were harvested and placed in the newly designed culture system. After equilibration of the tissue to 0.3 MPa the volume was fixed and the tissue was cultured for 28 days. The cell viability and extracellular matrix composition remained unchanged during the culture period and gene expression profiles were similar to those obtained in earlier studies. Furthermore, to test the responsiveness of bovine caudal NPs in the system, samples were cultured for 4 days and injected twice (day 1 and 3) with (1) PBS, (2) Link-N, for regeneration, and (3) TNF-α, for degeneration. It was shown that TNF-α increased COX2 gene expression, whereas no effect of Link-N was detected. In conclusion, the newly designed system allows long-term culture of NP tissue, wherein tissue reactions to injected stimulants can be observed. PMID:26294008

  5. Design of the injection kicker magnet system for CERN's 14 TeV proton collider LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two counter-rotating proton beams will be injected into LHC at an energy of 450 GeV by two kicker magnet systems, producting magnetic field pulses of approximately 750 ns rise time and 6.6 μs flat top duration. To avoid dilution of the beam emittance during injection, a stringent design requirement of the system is a flat top ripple of the magnetic field of less than ±0.5%. Both injection systems are composed of 4 travelling wave kicker magnets of 2.17 m length each, powered by pulse forming networks (PFN's) and matched to their characteristic impedance. To achieve the high required kick strength of 1.2 Tm, for a compact and cost efficient design, a comparably low characteristic impedance of 5 Ω has been chosen. The electrical circuit of the system is being designed with the help of PSpice computer modelling. Most known parasite elements are included in the model to obtain a realistic pulse response prediction. The present paper reports on design and modeling results of the LHC injection kicker magnet system that has several novel and demanding design requirements. (author)

  6. Design of the injection kicker magnet system for CERN's 14 TeV proton collider LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two counter-rotating proton beams will be injected into the LHC at an energy of 450 GeV by two kicker magnet systems, producing magnetic field pulses of approximately 750 ns rise time and 6.6 micros flat top duration. To avoid dilution of the beam emittance during injection, a stringent design requirement of the system is a flat top ripple of the magnetic field of less than ±0.5%. Both injection systems are composed of 4 travelling wave kicker magnets of 2.17 m length each, powered by pulse forming networks (PFN's) and matched to their characteristic impedance. To achieve the high required kick strength of 1.2 Tm, for a compact and cost efficient design, a comparably low characteristic impedance of 5 Ω has been chosen. The electrical circuit of the system is being designed with the help of PSpice computer modeling. Most known parasitic elements are included in the model to obtain a realistic pulse response prediction. The present paper reports on design and modeling results of the LHC injection kicker magnet system that has several novel and demanding design requirements

  7. Local Helicity Injection Systems for Non-solenoidal Startup in the PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. M.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Lewicki, B. T.; Redd, A. J.

    2013-10-01

    Local helicity injection is being developed in the PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment for non-solenoidal startup in spherical tokamaks. The effective loop voltage due to helicity injection scales with the area of the injectors, requiring the development of electron current injectors with areas much larger than the 2 cm2 plasma arc injectors used to date. Solid and gas-effused metallic electrodes were found to be unusable due to reduced injector area utilization from localized cathode spots and narrow operational regimes. An integrated array of 8 compact plasma arc sources is thus being developed for high current startup. It employs two monolithic power systems, for the plasma arc sources and the bias current extraction system. The array effectively eliminates impurity fueling from plasma-material interaction by incorporating a local scraper-limiter and conical-frustum bias electrodes to mitigate the effects of cathode spots. An energy balance model of helicity injection indicates that the resulting 20 cm2 of total injection area should provide sufficient current drive to reach 0.3 MA. At that level, helicity injection drive exceeds that from poloidal induction, which is the relevant operational regime for large-scale spherical tokamaks. Future placement of the injector array near an expanded boundary divertor region will test simultaneous optimization of helicity drive and the Taylor relaxation current limit. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  8. Development of a direct injection system without time lag for application of plant protection products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Krebs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Earlier systems for direct injection of plant protection products (PPP did not satisfy the requirements of practical farming because of time lag between dosing of PPP and its application and because of cleaning problems. To offer solutions in this respect, a prototype field sprayer with direct injection for site-specific application was conceived, constructed and tested. This prototype has three separate nozzle lines, each with its own direct injection unit capable of preloading with individual spray mixture so that no time lag occurs in application. Calculated were the theoretically achievable working widths possible with the applied direct injection dosing pumps. Test stand measurements were carried out to determine dosing precision. The results show that good dosing precision is achieved in the different settings. Hereby, attention should be paid to the working range of the dosing pumps. The results show that practically-applicable systems for direct injection without time lag based on the developed prototype are possible offering the ability to apply PPP more precisely and site-specifically.

  9. Improved performance of a hybrid radio/fiber system using a directly modulated laser transmitter with external injection

    OpenAIRE

    Kaszubowska-Anandarajah, Aleksandra; Anandarajah, Prince M.; Barry, Liam P.

    2002-01-01

    A directly modulated laser diode with external light injection is used to generate microwave optical signals for a hybrid radio/fiber system. The external light injection greatly enhances the frequency response of the laser, and thus, significantly improves the overall performance of the hybrid system. Experimental results show a 14-dB improvement in system performance for the externally injected laser in a hybrid radio/fiber communication link used for distributing 155-Mb/s data signals

  10. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US Massive Gas Injection Disruption Mitigation System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a candidate design for the ITER Disruption Mitigation System. This candidate is the Massive Gas Injection System that provides machine protection in a plasma disruption event. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data as well as some data calculated from operating facilities, and the failure events were ranked for their criticality to system operation.

  11. Fuel Pressure Modelling in a Common-Rail Direct Injection System

    OpenAIRE

    Källkvist, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    The fuel pressure is one of the central control variables of a modern common-rail injection system. It influences the generation of nitrous oxide and particulate matter emissions, the brake specific fuel consumption of the engine and the power consumption of the fuel pump. Accurate control of the fuel pressure and reliable diagnostics of the fuel system are therefore crucial components of the engine management system. In order to develop for example control or diagnostics algorithms and aid i...

  12. Understanding carbon regulation in aquatic systems - Bacteriophages as a model

    OpenAIRE

    Swapnil Sanmukh; Krishna Khairnar; Waman Paunikar; Satish Lokhande

    2015-01-01

    The bacteria and their phages are the most abundant constituents of the aquatic environment, and so represent an ideal model for studying carbon regulation in an aquatic system. The microbe-mediated interconversion of bioavailable organic carbon (OC) into dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by the microbial carbon pump (MCP) has been suggested to have the potential to revolutionize our view of carbon sequestration. It is estimated that DOC is the largest pool of organic matter in the ocean and, th...

  13. Elimination of Fuel Pressure Fluctuation and Multi-injection Fuel Mass Deviation of High Pressure Common-rail Fuel Injection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Pimao; ZHANG Youtong; LI Tieshuan; XIE Lizhe

    2015-01-01

    The influence of fuel pressure fluctuation on multi-injection fuel mass deviation has been studied a lot, but the fuel pressure fluctuation at injector inlet is still not eliminated efficiently. In this paper, a new type of hydraulic filter consisting of a damping hole and a chamber is developed for elimination of fuel pressure fluctuation and multi-injection fuel mass deviation. Linear model of the improved high pressure common-rail system(HPCRS) including injector, the pipe connecting common-rail with injector and the hydraulic filter is built. Fuel pressure fluctuation at injector inlet, on which frequency domain analysis is conducted through fast Fourier transformation, is acquired at different target pressure and different damping hole diameter experimentally. The linear model is validated and can predict the natural frequencies of the system. Influence of damping hole diameter on fuel pressure fluctuation is analyzed qualitatively based on the linear model, and it can be inferred that an optimal diameter of the damping hole for elimination of fuel pressure fluctuation exists. Fuel pressure fluctuation and fuel mass deviation under different damping hole diameters are measured experimentally, and it is testified that the amplitude of both fuel pressure fluctuation and fuel mass deviation decreases first and then increases with the increasing of damping hole diameter. The amplitude of main injection fuel mass deviation can be reduced by 73%at most under pilot-main injection mode, and the amplitude of post injection fuel mass deviation can be reduced by 92%at most under main-post injection mode. Fuel mass of a single injection increases with the increasing of the damping hole diameter. The hydraulic filter proposed by this research can be potentially used to eliminate fuel pressure fluctuation at injector inlet and improve the stability of HPCRS fuel injection.

  14. 4-D High-Resolution Seismic Reflection Monitoring of Miscible CO2 Injected into a Carbonate Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard D. Miller; Abdelmoneam E. Raef; Alan P. Byrnes; William E. Harrison

    2007-06-30

    The objective of this research project was to acquire, process, and interpret multiple high-resolution 3-D compressional wave and 2-D, 2-C shear wave seismic data in the hopes of observing changes in fluid characteristics in an oil field before, during, and after the miscible carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood that began around December 1, 2003, as part of the DOE-sponsored Class Revisit Project (DOE No.DE-AC26-00BC15124). Unique and key to this imaging activity is the high-resolution nature of the seismic data, minimal deployment design, and the temporal sampling throughout the flood. The 900-m-deep test reservoir is located in central Kansas oomoldic limestones of the Lansing-Kansas City Group, deposited on a shallow marine shelf in Pennsylvanian time. After 30 months of seismic monitoring, one baseline and eight monitor surveys clearly detected changes that appear consistent with movement of CO{sub 2} as modeled with fluid simulators and observed in production data. Attribute analysis was a very useful tool in enhancing changes in seismic character present, but difficult to interpret on time amplitude slices. Lessons learned from and tools/techniques developed during this project will allow high-resolution seismic imaging to be routinely applied to many CO{sub 2} injection programs in a large percentage of shallow carbonate oil fields in the midcontinent.

  15. Corrosion of low carbon steel by microorganisms from the 'pigging' operation debris in water injection pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Claudia; Rosas, Omar; Sztyler, Magdalena; Doma, Jemimah; Beech, Iwona; Basseguy, Régine

    2014-06-01

    Present in all environments, microorganisms develop biofilms adjacent to the metallic structures creating corrosion conditions which may cause production failures that are of great economic impact to the industry. The most common practice in the oil and gas industry to annihilate these biofilms is the mechanical cleaning known as "pigging". In the present work, microorganisms from the "pigging" operation debris are tested biologically and electrochemically to analyse their effect on the corrosion of carbon steel. Results in the presence of bacteria display the formation of black corrosion products allegedly FeS and a sudden increase (more than 400mV) of the corrosion potential of electrode immersed in artificial seawater or in field water (produced water mixed with aquifer seawater). Impedance tests provided information about the mechanisms of the interface carbon steel/bacteria depending on the medium used: mass transfer limitation in artificial seawater was observed whereas that in field water was only charge transfer phenomenon. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) results proved that bacterial diversity decreased when cultivating the debris in the media used and suggested that the bacteria involved in the whole set of results are mainly sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) and some other bacteria that make part of the taxonomic order Clostridiales. PMID:24355513

  16. 46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169.565... Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space protected must be equal to the gross volume...

  17. B and Li isotopes as intrinsic tracers for injection tests in aquifer storage and recovery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron and Li isotopes have been tested as environmental tracers of treated sewage injected into a sandy aquifer (Shafdan reclamation project, Israel). During a 38 days injection test in a newly dug injection well, a conservative artificial tracer (Br-) was monitored together with δ11B and δ7Li in the injectate, in the unsaturated soil zone (porous cup) and an observation well in the aquifer. In spite of B and Li concentrations in the injectate close to background values, significant shifts of the isotope signatures could be observed over the duration of the injection test. Boron isotope ratios show a breakthrough curve delayed with respect to Br- breakthrough due to some reversible sorption on the aquifer material. No isotope fractionation was observed in the unsaturated or the saturated zone so that B isotopes can be considered as conservative in the investigated part of the aquifer system. Lithium isotopes are strongly fractionated, probably due to sorption processes. Lithium concentrations point to a Li sink in the system, δ7Li values vary strongly with a tendency of 7Li depletion in the liquid phase over the duration of the experiment. This is opposite to the expected preferential sorption of 6Li onto clay minerals. Boron isotopes reveals a valuable tracer of artificial recharge of freshwaters derived from treated sewage, both for short term tracer tests and for long-term monitoring of artificial recharge, even if in aquifers with higher clay contents, sorption-linked isotope fractionation cannot be excluded. More data are needed on Li isotope fractionation in natural groundwater systems to assess the potential of this tracer as monitoring tool.

  18. Scale model test and analytical simulation on steam injector driven passive core injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reactor, such as ESBWR, equipped with the passive safety system by gravity-driven cooling system (GDCS) and the depressurization valves (DPVs) should be inevitable to lead to large LOCA even for the case of small LOCA by forcibly opening the DPVs to inject water from the GDCS pool due to that the DGCS water head is up to ∼0.2MPa. Meanwhile, a steam injector (SI) is a simple, compact and passive jet pump. The passive core injection system (PCIS) driven by high-efficiency SI is a system that, in an accident such as a LOCA, attains discharge pressure higher than the supply steam pressure to inject water into the reactor by operating the SI, by supplying water from a pool in a containment vessel and the steam from a reactor pressure vessel. We simulated and evaluated the core cooling and water injection performance of SI-PCIS in BWR using RETRAN-3D code for the case of small LOCA. Our simulation exhibited that SI-PCIS could save the reactors from leading to large LOCA by discharge of the water into a core for the cases of small LOCA or DPV unexpectedly open. In addition, we conducted the full-scale SI analysis using the SI characteristic analysis model. (author)

  19. Simulation of the injection damping and resonance correction systems for the HEB of the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.; Zhang, P.; Machida, S.

    1993-02-01

    An injection damping and resonance correction system for the High Energy Booster (HEB) of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) was investigated by means of multiparticle tracking. For an injection damping study, the code Simpsons is modified to utilize two Beam Position Monitors (BPM) and two dampers. ne particles of 200 Gev/c, numbered 1024 or more, with Gaussian distribution in 6-D phase space are injected into the HEB with certain injection offsets. The whole bunch of particles is then kicked in proportion to the BPM signals with some upper limit. Tracking these particles up to several hundred turn while the damping system is acting shows the turn-by-turn emittance growth, which is caused by the tune spread due to nonlinearity of the lattice and residual chromaticity with synchrotron oscillations. For a resonance correction study, the operating tune is scanned as a function of time so that a bunch goes through a resonance. The performance of the resonance correction system is demonstrated. We optimize the system parameters which satisfy the emittance budget of the HEB, taking into account the realistic hardware requirement.

  20. Simulation of the injection damping and resonance correction systems for the HEB of the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.; Zhang, P.; Machida, S. (Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory, Dallas, Texas 75237 (United States))

    1993-12-25

    An injection damping and resonance correction system for the High Energy Booster (HEB) of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) was investigated by means of multiparticle tracking. For an injection damping study, the code Simpsons is modified to utilize two Beam Position Monitors (BPM) and two dampers. The particles of 200 Gev/c, numbered 1024 or more, with Gaussian distribution in 6-D phase space are injected into the HEB with certain injection offsets. The whole bunch of particles is then kicked in proportion to the BPM signals with some upper limit. Tracking these particles up to several hundred turns while the damping system is acting shows the turn-by-turn emittance growth, which is caused by the tune spread due to nonlinearity of the lattice and residual chromaticity with synchrotron oscillations. For a resonance correction study, the operating tune is scanned as a function of time so that a bunch goes through a resonance. The performance of the resonance correction system is demonstrated. We optimize the system parameters which satisfy the emittance budget of the HEB, taking into account the realistic hardware requirement.

  1. A Traffic injection methodology with support for system-level synchronization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahadevan, Shankar; Angiolini, Federico; Sparsø, Jens; Benini, Luca; Madsen, Jan

    In highly parallel Multi-Processor System-on-Chip (MPSoC) design stages, interconnect performance is a key optimization target. To effectively achieve this objective, true-to-life IP core traffic must be injected and analyzed. However, the parallel development of MPSoC components may cause IP cor...

  2. Development and qualification of liquid poison injection system (SDS-2) for 500 MW(e) PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Shutdown System No. 2 (SDS-2) in the form of a mechanism for introducing poison into the moderator of the PHWR is under development in RED. The system, as conceived, consists of a tank containing pressurised helium connected to poison tanks through quick opening solenoid valves. The tanks are connected to horizontal perforated poison injection tubes in the calandria. On system actuation, gadolinium nitrate solution from the tanks passes to the injection tubes which have a number of holes through which the poison enters the moderator in the form of high speed sub-merged jets. This paper details the experimental studies being carried out on the development of high speed colour water (representing poison) jets into plain water (representing moderator). An experimental facility (Phase-I) was set up to measure the circular and slit jet growth rate, jet spread, discharge rate and interaction of multiple jets. Based on the results, a jet growth equation was formulated. Later a full scale mock-up for one injection unit (Phase-2) was commissioned and various experiments up to injection pressure of 100 kg/sq cm were conducted to verify predicted results and check the performance of full integrated system. A description of the work and the computed results are presented here. (author)

  3. Reactive transport modeling of carbon dioxide sequestration via bicarbonate brine injection in the Rose Run sandstone formation: A comparison with traditional CCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, P.; Kendall, T.; Seeker, R.; Constantz, B. R.

    2010-12-01

    One by-product of the Calera process to make building materials from CO2 is a bicarbonate solution that contains a variable fraction of the CO2 captured from flue gas. Injection of this fluid into the subsurface has advantages over CO2 injection in terms of technical risks, environmental issues, cost, safety, and public acceptance. With bicarbonate injection, there is no need of a cap-rock, as the solution is non-volatile, and will not be buoyant because it is of comparable density to the host fluids. Although a bicarbonate fluid has less CO2 mass per unit volume than supercritical CO2 (in our example, 34 times less), a large injection zone footprint is not a strong disadvantage because detailed site characterization, in particular of cap-rock integrity, is less critical. Moreover, the amount of CO2 that needs trapping is reduced by an amount equal to the carbon in the mineralized cement by-product. Bicarbonate injection can be carried out in relatively shallow aquifers, which reduces the pumping energy needed for emplacement. In terms of desirable long-term CO2 trapping mechanisms, bicarbonate injection greatly accelerates solubility and mineral trapping into hours and days as compared to decades or more for liquid CO2 injection. Thus, bicarbonate injection is a practical demonstration of fluid mixing at field scale. To assess the potential for geological storage of CO2 in American Electric Power’s (AEP) Mountaineer site, 1D reactive transport models have been constructed to compare bicarbonate with CO2 injection and upscale the mixing problem from batch experiments to the field. For CO2 injection, CO2 forms a completely dried-out zone near the borehole, which may result in halite efflorescence and may be a concern for well-bore injectivity. Simulations predict that after 10,000 years, the CO2 partial pressure remains above 200 bars, and the solution pH remains below 5 within a one kilometer radius of the wellbore. Consequently, the dissolved CO2 is about 1

  4. Automation of the vacuum system of 14.45 GHZ ECR ion source and injection line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 14.45 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source generates and injects the ion beam of different species and different charge states in super conducting cyclotron (SCC). The vacuum plays a major role in ECR beam generation and transportation. Large number vacuum pumps, gate valves, vacuum gauges have been used in the entire system which is quite complex. In order to enhance the operational convenience, efficiency and fail safe operation, the complete vacuum system is divided into three regions. Ion source, horizontal and vertical injection line. A new control system has been designed and developed for systematic start up and shutdown of the complete vacuum system with a single button operation from the PC. In this paper the complete automation system and its operation is described. (author)

  5. Reactive Power Injection Strategies for Single-Phase Photovoltaic Systems Considering Grid Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    . Those advanced features can be provided by next-generation PV systems, and will be enhanced in the future to ensure an even efficient and reliable utilization of PV systems. In the light of this, Reactive Power Injection (RPI) strategies for single-phase PV systems are explored in this paper. The RPI...... is demonstrated on a 3 kW single-phase PV system by simulations. The other three RPI strategies are verified experimentally on a 1 kW singe-phase system in LVRT operation mode. Those results show the effectiveness and feasibilities of the proposed strategies with reactive power control during LVRT...... like what the conventional power plants do today in the grid regulation participation. Requirements of ancillary services like Low-Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) associated with reactive current injection and voltage support through reactive power control, have been in effectiveness in some countries...

  6. Induction Heating System Applied to Injection Moulding of Micro and Nano Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano

    The present Ph.D. thesis contains a study concerning induction heating system applied to injection moulding of micro and nano structures. The overall process chain was considered and investigated during the project including part design, simulation, conventional and non-conventional tooling...... part. In fact one of the main problems in micro injection moulding is the premature freezing of the polymer flow inside the cavity and often is not possible to obtain a full replica of the nano/micro structures embed on the surfaces. Some other defects that can be avoided with the use of an additional...

  7. Development of the computer-aided process planning (CAPP system for polymer injection molds manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tepić

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Beginning of production and selling of polymer products largely depends on mold manufacturing. The costs of mold manufacturing have significant share in the final price of a product. The best way to improve and rationalize polymer injection molds production process is by doing mold design automation and manufacturing process planning automation. This paper reviews development of a dedicated process planning system for manufacturing of the mold for injection molding, which integrates computer-aided design (CAD, computer-aided process planning (CAPP and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM technologies.

  8. Power systems: Carbon negative at the regional level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Nico

    2015-03-01

    Modelling of the power system on the west coast of North America shows that including bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration technologies could enable the region to be carbon negative by 2050.

  9. Biomonitoring of Organophosphorus Agent Exposure by Reactivation of Cholinesterase Enzyme Based on Carbon Nanotube-Enhanced Flow-Injection Amperometric Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Dan; Wang, Jun; Smith, Jordan N.; Timchalk, Charles; Lin, Yuehe

    2009-11-15

    A portable, rapid, and sensitive assessment of sub-clinical organophosphorus (OPs) agent exposure based on reactivation of cholinesterase (ChE) from OP-inhibited ChE using rat saliva (in vitro) was developed using an electrochemical sensor coupled with a microflow-injection system. The sensor was based on a carbon nanotube (CNT)-modified screen printed carbon electrode (SPE), which was integrated into a flow cell. Due to the extent of inter-individual ChE activity variability, ChE biomonitoring often requires an initial base-line determination (non-inhibited) of enzyme activity which is then directly compared with activity after OP exposure. This manuscript described an alternative strategy where reactivation of the phosphorylated enzyme was exploited to enable measurement of both inhibited and baseline ChE activity (i.e. after reactivation) in the same sample. The use of CNT makes the electrochemical detection of the products from enzymatic reactions more feasible with extremely high sensitivity and at low potentials. Paraoxon was selected as a model OP compound for in vitro inhibition studies. Some experiment parameters, (e.g. inhibition and reactivation times), have been optimized such that, 92 - 95% ChE reactivation can be achieved over a broad range of ChE inhibition (5 - 94 %) with paraoxon. The extent of enzyme inhibition using this electrochemical sensor correlates well with conventional enzyme activity measurements.

  10. Systemic Weakness After Therapeutic Injections of Botulinum Toxin A: A Case Series and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowner, Beth E.; Torres-Russotto, Diego; Carter, Alexandre R.; Racette, Brad A.

    2012-01-01

    The use of intramuscular injections of Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) is common in the treatment of hypertonicity and movement disorders. While most side effects are mild, systemic effects, manifested by generalized weakness distant from the site of injection, have been reported. Previously reported occurrences are discussed, and three new cases of patients who developed systemic weakness following administration of BoNT-A (Botox®), despite having tolerated similar injections on several prior occasions, are presented. A review of the literature and reported cases indicate that risk of developing systemic effects does not appear to be related to dose based on body weight. It may be more likely that risk for systemic effects is related to total injection dose and injection frequency. The results of our three patients would indicate that injections of greater than 600 units of Botox with follow-up injections occurring every three months may lead to an increased risk. We would recommend careful consideration of re-injection frequency if injections of greater than 600 units of Botox are given. Reduction in systemic side effects may occur if re-injection frequency occurs in intervals of four months or greater in these individuals. PMID:20852412

  11. Micro Injection Molding of Thin Walled Geometries with Induction Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano;

    2014-01-01

    To eliminate defects and improve the quality of molded parts, increasing the mold temperature is one of the applicable solutions. A high mold temperature can increase the path flow of the polymer inside the cavity allowing reduction of the number of injection points, reduction of part thickness and...... moulding of smaller and more complex geometries. The last two aspects are very important in micro injection molding. In this paper a new embedded induction heating system is proposed and validated. An experimental investigation was performed based on a test geometry integrating different aspect ratios of...... small structures. ABS was used as material and different combinations of injection velocity, pressure and mold temperature were tested. The replicated test objects were measured by means of an optical CMM machine. On the basis of the experimental investigation the efficacy of the embedded induction...

  12. Theoretical and experimental investigation of diesel engine with steam injection system on performance and emission parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, a new electronically controlled steam injection method is applied to a direct injection (DI) diesel engine to control NOx emissions. This method can be also used to improve the performance and efficiency. Steam injected diesel engine is modeled by using zero-dimensional single-zone combustion model for 20% steam ratio at full load condition. The obtained results are compared with conventional diesel engine in terms of performance and NO, CO, CO2, HC emissions. The simulation results agree with experimental data quite well. In the experimental results, it is determined that the engine torque and the effective power increase up to 2.5% at 1200 rpm, specific fuel consumption (SFC) and effective efficiency improves up to 6.1% at 2400 rpm, NO emissions reduce up to 22.4% at 1200 rpm, CO2 emissions decrease up to 4.3% at 1800 rpm, smoke density increases from 44% to 46% at 2200 rpm. This paper may be a leading essential tool for the real-engine designers by considering the effects of steam injection into the engine cylinder. -- Highlights: ► Steam injection system is applied to DI diesel engine to reduce NOx emissions. ► This method improves performance and emissions as a result of experiments. ► Combustion model was used to estimate emission and performance parameters. ► Combustion model has a quite well agreement with the experimental results

  13. Assessment of PCDD/F and PBDD/F Emissions from Coal-fired Power Plants during Injection of Brominated Activated Carbon for Mercury Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of the injection of brominated powdered activated carbon (Br-PAC) on the emission of brominated and chlorinated dioxins and furans in coal combustion flue gas has been evaluated. The tests were performed at two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) demonstration sites where ...

  14. Evaluation of RCS injection strategy by normal residual heat removal system in severe accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Integrated severe accident analysis model of ALWR RCS, ESF and containment is built. • Large-break loss of coolant accident and loss of feed water accident are analyzed. • Effectiveness of RNS injection strategy and plant system response are investigated. • Impact of RNS injection on hydrogen generation and distribution is evaluated. • Negative impact induced by different RCS depressurization measures is investigated. - Abstract: Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMGs) suggests mitigating the consequence of severe accident scenarios by using the non-safety systems if the safety systems are unavailable. For 1000 MWe advanced passive pressurized water reactor (PWR), the normal residual heat removal system (RNS) is proposed to implement the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) injection strategy during severe accidents if safety systems fail. Therefore, evaluation of the effectiveness and negative impact of RNS injection strategy is performed, in which two typical severe accident sequences are selected, which are the typical low-pressure core melt accident sequence induced by Large-break Loss of Coolant Accident (LLOCA) with double-ended guillotine break at cold leg and the typical high-pressure core melt accident induced by Loss of Feed Water (LOFW), to analyze RCS response using the integrated severe accident analysis code. The plant model, including RCS, Engineering Safety Features (ESF), containment and RNS, is built to evaluate the effectiveness of RNS injection by comparing the sequences with and without RCS injection, which shows that RNS injection can terminate core melt progression and maintain core cooling in these accident sequences. However, hydrogen generated during the core reflooding is investigated for the negative impact, which shows that RNS may increase the hydrogen concentration in the containment. For the sequence induced by LOFW, two different RCS depressurization measurements are compared, which shows that opening ADS

  15. Analytical model for performance verification of liquid poison injection system of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • One-dimensional modelling of shut down system-2. • Semi-empirical correlation poison jet progression. • Validation of code. - Abstract: Shut down system-2 (SDS-2) in advanced vertical pressure tube type reactor, provides rapid reactor shutdown by high pressure injection of a neutron absorbing liquid called poison, into the moderator in the calandria. Poison inside the calandria is distributed by poison jets issued from holes provided in the injection tubes. Effectiveness of the system depends on the rate and spread of the poison in the moderator. In this study, a transient one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic code, COPJET is developed, to predict the performance of system by predicting progression of poison jet with time. Validation of the COPJET is done with the data available in literature. Thereafter, it is applied for advanced vertical pressure type reactor

  16. Reactive Power Injection Strategies for Single-Phase Photovoltaic Systems Considering Grid Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    .g. Germany and Italy. Those advanced features can be provided by next generation PV systems, and will be enhanced in the future to ensure an even efficient and reliable utilization of PV systems. In light of this, Reactive Power Injection (RPI) strategies for single-phase PV systems are explored in this...... RPI strategies are demonstrated firstly by simulations and also tested experimentally on a 1 kW singe-phase grid-connected system in LVRT operation mode. Those results show the effectiveness and feasibilities of the proposed strategies with reactive power control during LVRT operation. The design and...... like what the conventional power plants do today in the grid regulation participation. Requirements of ancillary services like Low-Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) associated with reactive current injection and voltage support through reactive power control, have been in effectiveness in some countries, e...

  17. Electrical Properties of Carbon Fiber Support Systems

    OpenAIRE

    W. Cooper; Daly, C; Demarteau, M.; Fast, J.(Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, 99352, U.S.A.); K. Hanagaki; Johnson, M.; Kuykendall, W.; Lubatti, H.; Matulik, M; Nomerotski, A.; B. Quinn; Wang, J.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon fiber support structures have become common elements of detector designs for high energy physics experiments. Carbon fiber has many mechanical advantages but it is also characterized by high conductivity, particularly at high frequency, with associated design issues. This paper discusses the elements required for sound electrical performance of silicon detectors employing carbon fiber support elements. Tests on carbon fiber structures are presented indicating that carbon fiber must be ...

  18. Carbon-Carbon Recuperators in Closed-Brayton-Cycle Nuclear Space Power Systems: A Feasibility Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Michael J.; Johnson, Paul K.

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of using carbon-carbon recuperators in closed-Brayton-cycle (CBC) nuclear space power conversion systems (PCS) was assessed. Recuperator performance expectations were forecast based on projected thermodynamic cycle state values for a planetary mission. Resulting thermal performance, mass and volume for a plate-fin carbon-carbon recuperator were estimated and quantitatively compared with values for a conventional offset-strip-fin metallic design. Material compatibility issues regarding carbon-carbon surfaces exposed to the working fluid in the CBC PCS were also discussed.

  19. Comparative efficacy and safety of local and systemic methotrexate injection in cesarean scar pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ping Peng,1 Ting Gui,1 Xinyan Liu,1 Weilin Chen,1 Zhenzhen Liu2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Department of Ultrasonography, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Objective: To investigate the efficacy of methotrexate (MTX injection in treatment of cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP. Method: A randomized controlled study was performed in 104 CSP patients receiving either local or systemic MTX injection at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital from the year 2008 to 2013. Results: Complete cure was defined as regression of ultrasonographic findings and normalization of serum β-hCG within 60 days. It was regarded as delayed cure if additional dilation and curettage (D&C was needed. The overall cure rate (complete cure plus delayed cure was 69.2% versus 67.3% for local injection versus systemic administration (P>0.05. The median time for serum β-hCG remission and uterine mass disappearance after systemic administration (42 [21–69] days and 40 [20–67] days were significantly lower than those receiving local injection (56 [24–92] days and 53 [23–88] days, with P=0.029 and 0.046, respectively. The mean pretreatment serum β-hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin level and lesion size in cured group (21,941±18,351 mIU/mL and 2.9±1.3 cm, respectively were significantly lower than those in the failed group (37,047±30,864 mIU/mL and 3.6±1.3 with P=0.038 and 0.044, respectively. Conclusion: MTX injection is effective in CSP treatment. Systemic administration shows similar overall cure rate compared to local injection, but requires shorter time for serum β-hCG remission and uterine mass disappearance. Keywords: cesarean scar pregnancy, methotrexate injection, local, systemic

  20. Systemic Weakness After Therapeutic Injections of Botulinum Toxin A: A Case Series and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Crowner, Beth E.; Torres-Russotto, Diego; Carter, Alexandre R.; Racette, Brad A.

    2010-01-01

    The use of intramuscular injections of Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) is common in the treatment of hypertonicity and movement disorders. While most side effects are mild, systemic effects, manifested by generalized weakness distant from the site of injection, have been reported. Previously reported occurrences are discussed, and three new cases of patients who developed systemic weakness following administration of BoNT-A (Botox®), despite having tolerated similar injections on several prio...

  1. Fiber-Based, Injection-Molded Optofluidic Systems: Improvements in Assembly and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Matteucci; Marco Triches; Giovanni Nava; Anders Kristensen; Mark R. Pollard; Kirstine Berg-Sørensen; Taboryski, Rafael J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a method to fabricate polymer optofluidic systems by means of injection molding that allow the insertion of standard optical fibers. The chip fabrication and assembly methods produce large numbers of robust optofluidic systems that can be easily assembled and disposed of, yet allow precise optical alignment and improve delivery of optical power. Using a multi-level chip fabrication process, complex channel designs with extremely vertical sidewalls, and dimensions that range from fe...

  2. Controllable Photovoltaic Grid Power Injection with an Assistance of Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morvaj, Boran; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Krajcar, Slavko

    This paper focuses on modeling and simulation of controllable Photovoltaic Battery Power System (PV BPS) interconnected to the electrical utility. After elaboration of modeling principles for different components appearing in the system, simulations of two types of PV plants connected to one branch...... temperature are taken into an account and PV BPS is able to inject the power to the grid in regulated manner using developed power control algorithm....

  3. Design of Control Server Application Software for Neutral Beam Injection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the remote control of a neutral beam injection (NBI) system, a software NBIcsw is developed to work on the control server. It can meet the requirements of data transmission and operation-control between the NBI measurement and control layer (MCL) and the remote monitoring layer (RML). The NBIcsw runs on a Linux system, developed with client/server (C/S) mode and multithreading technology. It is shown through application that the software is with good efficiency.

  4. Complete modelling of a piezo actuator last-generation injector for diesel injection systems

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador Rubio, Francisco Javier; PLAZAS TORRES, ALEJANDRO HERNÁN; Gimeno García, Jaime; Carreres Talens, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    An experimental and computational study of an increasingly used third-generation common-rail injection system with a piezo actuator has been carried out. A complete characterization of the different elements of the system, both geometrically and hydraulically, has been performed in order to describe its behaviour. The information obtained through the characterization has been used to create a one-dimensional model that has been implemented in the commercial software AMESim and ext...

  5. Systemic embolism produced by subcutaneous injections of liquid silicone for esthetic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even though its use is not recommended, liquid silicone is a substance that has been used illegally for esthetic purposes for a long time. A case report is presented in which a young woman was injected subcutaneously, by an uncertified practitioner, industrial fluid silicone and subsequently developed a case of systemic embolism with pulmonary, skin and ocular complications. This article explains the physiopathology and the different manifestations of systemic embolism produced by fluid silicone. TAC was used. (The author)

  6. Visualization and simulation of immiscible displacement in fractured systems using micromodels: Steam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    1995-07-01

    A study of steam and hot water injection processes in micromodel geometries that mimic a matrix-fracture system was undertaken. The followings were observed: Light components existing in the crude oil generated a very high efficient gas-drive at elevated temperatures. This gas generation in conjunction with natural surfactant existing in the crude oil, lead to the formation of a foam in the fracture and to improved displacement in the matrix. We observed that the steam enters the fracture and the matrix depending on whether the steam rate exceeds or not the critical values. The resulting condensed water also moves preferentially into the matrix or the fracture depending on the corresponding capillary number. Since steam is a non-wetting phase as a vapor, but becomes a wetting phase when condensed in a water-wet system, steam injection involves both drainage and imbibition. It was found that all of the oil trapped by the condensed water can be mobilized and recovered when in contact with steam. We also examined hot-water displacement. In comparison with cold-water experiments at the same capillary number, a higher sweep efficiency for both light and heavy oils was observed. It was found that the loam generated in the fracture during hot-water injection, is more stable than in steamflooding. Nonetheless, hot-water injection resulted into less efficient displacement in its absence.

  7. Failure to Correct a Temporary (Test) Configuration that Precludes Safety Injection System Switch to Recirculation Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During refuelling outage of PWR unit, a plant operator performed a safety injection (SI) test with the vessel open and the core unloaded. In order to perform this task, it was necessary for the operator to install a temporary shunt and disconnect two wires to simulate closure of the automatic reactor trip breakers (RTBs). One year later, during the next outage, the operator detected a malfunction while testing reactor protection system relays. The two wires that were disconnected to simulate RTB closure during the safety injection test with vessel open/core unloaded had been found to be still disconnected. The original work request contained ambiguities that resulted in a second operator who was returning the system to its initial configuration, failing to identify that the RTB wires, simulating closure, were still disconnected. This temporary configuration performed during the earlier SI test, prevented the 'RTB open' confirmation signal from being initiated as would normally occur in the safety injection sequence. Without receipt of this signal the safety injection signal will not be reset and will prevent the SI system switching to recirculation mode. During this period of disconnection, no accident requiring safety injection had occurred. The temporary configuration which was still in place had no direct impact on safety. However, a large or intermediate-break Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) or a Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) occurring during this period would have had significant impact on safety. It was identified that the probability of core damage should such a incident occur would be severe. This incident was classified level 1 on the INES scale. (author)

  8. Large injection of carbon monoxide into the upper troposphere due to intense biomass burning in 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsueda, Hidekazu; Inoue, Hisayuki Y.; Ishii, Masao; Tsutsumi, Yukitomo

    1999-11-01

    Air samples at 8-13 km were collected regularly using a commercial airliner to obtain long-term measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratio in the upper troposphere over the western Pacific between Australia and Japan during April 1993-December 1997. The measurements in 1997 clearly reveal an anomalous CO increase during September to November in the Southern Hemisphere, with a maximum of 320-380 ppb around 20°S in October. Tropical biomass burning, not urban/industrial emissions, was the main source for the enhanced CO in 1997. A similar southern-spring increase due to biomass burning was observed in previous years. The peaks showed a large interannual variation associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. The largest CO spring peak appeared during the strong El Niño event in 1997, while the weak La Niña year of 1996 was marked by a largely suppressed CO spring peak. The outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) anomaly is largest during the El Niño events indicating that the events cause a longer drought in the tropics and significantly influence the enlargement of biomass burning in tropical Southeast Asia. Thus the most likely cause for the ENSO-cycle CO variability is a year-to-year change of biomass-burning emissions mainly from Southeast Asia. The appearance of the CO spring peak in the southern subtropics is discussed on the basis of the possible long-range transport of biomass-burning CO from Southeast Asia to the upper troposphere over the western South Pacific.

  9. Net carbon flux in organic and conventional olive production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeid Mohamad, Ramez; Verrastro, Vincenzo; Bitar, Lina Al; Roma, Rocco; Moretti, Michele; Chami, Ziad Al

    2014-05-01

    Agricultural systems are considered as one of the most relevant sources of atmospheric carbon. However, agriculture has the potentiality to mitigate carbon dioxide mainly through soil carbon sequestration. Some agricultural practices, particularly fertilization and soil management, can play a dual role in the agricultural systems regarding the carbon cycle contributing to the emissions and to the sequestration process in the soil. Good soil and input managements affect positively Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) changes and consequently the carbon cycle. The present study aimed at comparing the carbon footprint of organic and conventional olive systems and to link it to the efficiency of both systems on carbon sequestration by calculating the net carbon flux. Data were collected at farm level through a specific and detailed questionnaire based on one hectare as a functional unit and a system boundary limited to olive production. Using LCA databases particularly ecoinvent one, IPCC GWP 100a impact assessment method was used to calculate carbon emissions from agricultural practices of both systems. Soil organic carbon has been measured, at 0-30 cm depth, based on soil analyses done at the IAMB laboratory and based on reference value of SOC, the annual change of SOC has been calculated. Substracting sequestrated carbon in the soil from the emitted on resulted in net carbon flux calculation. Results showed higher environmental impact of the organic system on Global Warming Potential (1.07 t CO2 eq. yr-1) comparing to 0.76 t CO2 eq. yr-1 in the conventional system due to the higher GHG emissions caused by manure fertilizers compared to the use of synthetic foliar fertilizers in the conventional system. However, manure was the main reason behind the higher SOC content and sequestration in the organic system. As a resultant, the organic system showed higher net carbon flux (-1.7 t C ha-1 yr-1 than -0.52 t C ha-1 yr-1 in the conventional system reflecting higher efficiency as a

  10. Seismic attenuation system for the external injection bench of the Advanced Virgo gravitational wave detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, M.R., E-mail: mblom@nikhef.nl [National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Nikhef Amsterdam, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Beker, M.G., E-mail: mbeker@nikhef.nl [National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Nikhef Amsterdam, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bertolini, A., E-mail: alberto@nikhef.nl [National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Nikhef Amsterdam, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Brand, J.F.J. van den, E-mail: jo@nikhef.nl [National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Nikhef Amsterdam, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bulten, H.J., E-mail: henkjan@nikhef.nl [National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Nikhef Amsterdam, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hennes, E., E-mail: ehennes@nikhef.nl [National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Nikhef Amsterdam, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mul, F.A., E-mail: fmul@nikhef.nl [National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Nikhef Amsterdam, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rabeling, D.S., E-mail: davidr@nikhef.nl [National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Nikhef Amsterdam, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schimmel, A., E-mail: freds@nikhef.nl [National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Nikhef Amsterdam, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    In November 2011 a major upgrade of the Virgo gravitational wave detector was started. After these improvements the detector's sensitivity will have increased by an order of magnitude, increasing the expected event rate by 10{sup 3} compared to its predecessor. Extensive noise studies showed that this improvement can only be accomplished if a number of optical benches, hosting ancillary optics and optical sensors for the alignment of the interferometer, are isolated from seismic ground motion to reduce the amount of beam jitter and control noise they introduce. Here we present the first of these systems: the External Injection Bench Seismic Attenuation System, or EIB-SAS, which is able to reduce seismically induced motion of the external injection bench (last bench before laser beam enters the vacuum system) by more than 40 dB above 10 Hz in 6 degrees of freedom.

  11. Seismic attenuation system for the external injection bench of the Advanced Virgo gravitational wave detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November 2011 a major upgrade of the Virgo gravitational wave detector was started. After these improvements the detector's sensitivity will have increased by an order of magnitude, increasing the expected event rate by 103 compared to its predecessor. Extensive noise studies showed that this improvement can only be accomplished if a number of optical benches, hosting ancillary optics and optical sensors for the alignment of the interferometer, are isolated from seismic ground motion to reduce the amount of beam jitter and control noise they introduce. Here we present the first of these systems: the External Injection Bench Seismic Attenuation System, or EIB-SAS, which is able to reduce seismically induced motion of the external injection bench (last bench before laser beam enters the vacuum system) by more than 40 dB above 10 Hz in 6 degrees of freedom

  12. Experiment on performance of upper head injection system with ROSA-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermo-hydraulic behavior in the primary cooling system of a pressurized water reactor with an upper head injection system (UHI) in a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) has been studied with ROSA-II test facility. Simulated UHI and internal structures of the pressure vessel were installed to the facility for the experiment. Nine maximum-sized double-ended break tests and one medium-sized split break test were performed for the cold-leg break condition. The results are as follows: (1) Fluid mixing in the upper head is not perfect. (2) Cold water injection into the steam or two-phase fluid causes violent depressurization due to the condensation. Flow pattern in the primary cooling system is largely influenced by the above two. (auth.)

  13. Understanding carbon regulation in aquatic systems - Bacteriophages as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmukh, Swapnil; Khairnar, Krishna; Paunikar, Waman; Lokhande, Satish

    2015-01-01

    The bacteria and their phages are the most abundant constituents of the aquatic environment, and so represent an ideal model for studying carbon regulation in an aquatic system. The microbe-mediated interconversion of bioavailable organic carbon (OC) into dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by the microbial carbon pump (MCP) has been suggested to have the potential to revolutionize our view of carbon sequestration. It is estimated that DOC is the largest pool of organic matter in the ocean and, though a major component of the global carbon cycle, its source is not yet well understood. A key element of the carbon cycle is the microbial conversion of DOC into inedible forms. The primary aim of this study is to understand the phage conversion from organic to inorganic carbon during phage-host interactions. Time studies of phage-host interactions under controlled conditions reveal their impact on the total carbon content of the samples and their interconversion of organic and inorganic carbon compared to control samples. A total organic carbon (TOC) analysis showed an increase in inorganic carbon content by 15-25 percent in samples with bacteria and phage compared to samples with bacteria alone. Compared to control samples, the increase in inorganic carbon content was 60-70-fold in samples with bacteria and phage, and 50-55-fold for samples with bacteria alone. This study indicates the potential impact of phages in regulating the carbon cycle of aquatic systems. PMID:26213615

  14. Basiliximab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used with other medications to prevent immediate transplant rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by the immune system of the person receiving the organ) in people who are receiving kidney transplants. Basiliximab injection is in a class of medications ...

  15. Tacrolimus Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used along with other medications to prevent rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by the transplant recipient's immune system) in people who have received kidney, liver, or heart transplants. Tacrolimus injection should only ...

  16. Belatacept Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used in combination with other medications to prevent rejection (attack of a transplanted organ by the immune system of a person receiving the organ) of kidney transplants. Belatacept injection is in a class of medications ...

  17. Carbon footprint reductions via grid energy storage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor S. Hale, Kelly Weeks, Coleman Tucker

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This effort presents a framework for reducing carbon emissions through the use of large-scale grid-energy-storage (GES systems. The specific questions under investigation herein are as follows: Is it economically sound to invest in a GES system and is the system at least carbon footprint neutral? This research will show the answer to both questions is in the affirmative. Scilicet, when utilized judiciously, grid energy storage systems can be both net present value positive as well as be total carbon footprint negative. The significant contribution herein is a necessary and sufficient condition for achieving carbon footprint reductions via grid energy storage systems.

  18. Sericin/Dextran Injectable Hydrogel as an Optically Trackable Drug Delivery System for Malignant Melanoma Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Qi, Chao; Tao, Kaixiong; Zhang, Jinxiang; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Luming; Jiang, Xulin; Zhang, Yunti; Huang, Lei; Li, Qilin; Xie, Hongjian; Gao, Jinbo; Shuai, Xiaoming; Wang, Guobin; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Lin

    2016-03-01

    Severe side effects of cancer chemotherapy prompt developing better drug delivery systems. Injectable hydrogels are an effective site-target system. For most of injectable hydrogels, once delivered in vivo, some properties including drug release and degradation, which are critical to chemotherapeutic effects and safety, are challenging to monitor. Developing a drug delivery system for effective cancer therapy with in vivo real-time noninvasive trackability is highly desired. Although fluorescence dyes are used for imaging hydrogels, the cytotoxicity limits their applications. By using sericin, a natural photoluminescent protein from silk, we successfully synthesized a hydrazone cross-linked sericin/dextran injectable hydrogel. This hydrogel is biodegradable and biocompatible. It achieves efficient drug loading and controlled release of both macromolecular and small molecular drugs. Notably, sericin's photoluminescence from this hydrogel is directly and stably correlated with its degradation, enabling long-term in vivo imaging and real-time monitoring of the remaining drug. The hydrogel loaded with Doxorubicin significantly suppresses tumor growth. Together, the work demonstrates the efficacy of this drug delivery system, and the in vivo effectiveness of this sericin-based optical monitoring strategy, providing a potential approach for improving hydrogel design toward optimal efficiency and safety of chemotherapies, which may be widely applicable to other drug delivery systems. PMID:26900631

  19. The Integrated Carbon Observation System in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsch, Werner Leo

    2013-04-01

    Due to the strong anthropogenic disturbance of the global carbon cycle, carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases increase in the atmosphere and contribute to climatic change. Currently, the ocean and the land biosphere still sequester parts of this anthropogenically emitted carbon dioxide. However, the sustainability of these sinks is not guaranteed. Measures to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases are depending on our ability to monitor atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and changes in the environment with high precision. Understanding the complex interactions between the climate system and biosphere, hydrosphere as well as atmosphere must, therefore, be based on long-term precise and internationally comparable measurements. An infrastructure that provides these observations is the best investment for reducing uncertainties and for avoiding future surprises. In order to develop a long-term perspective for a European monitoring system for greenhouse gases the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) has been approved by the European Council of Research Ministries as an important research infrastructure and will be established officially as a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC) in 2013. ICOS will be organized as a decentralized research infrastructure with the observational networks run by national programs. The German component, ICOS-D, consists currently of a consortium of 13 research institutions, contributes to all monitoring networks and will provide the Central Analytical Laboratory (CAL), consisting of a Flask and Calibration Laboratory (FCL) and a Central Radiocarbon Laboratory (CRL) in Jena and Heidelberg, respectively, as central facilities for the entire ICOS Research Infrastructure (ICOS RI). In the Atmospheric Program continuous and grab sample measurements of trace gas concentrations as well as their isotopic composition will be conducted at tall-tower stations. In combination with transport models, these measurements

  20. Simulation of chaotic synchronization communication system based on incoherent optical feedback and injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jun-shan; GU Wen-hua

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,we numerically study chaotic synchronization communication system based on incoherent optical feedback and incoherent optical injection.The characteristics of the system,such as synchronization time,synchronization error,chaos shift keying encoding/decoding and modulation rate are analyzed.The results of simulation show that the system has good synchronization quality and good abilities of robust secure.The synchronization time is 1ns and the chaos shift keying encoding can reach a high rate of 1 Gbit/s.The system has a good ability of robust secure.It proves the feasibility of the optical secure communication.

  1. Installation, maintenance and operating manual for the Lucas-type fuel injection system of the 3 B rotary engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The installation procedure, maintenance, adjustment and operation of a Lucas type fuel injection system for 13B rotary racing engine is outlined. Components of the fuel injection system and installation procedure and notes are described. Maintenance, adjustment, and operation are discussed.

  2. [Carbon monoxide poisoning by a heating system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Eric; Gehl, Axel; Friedrich, Peter; Kappus, Stefan; Petter, Franz; Maurer, Klaus; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    A case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in several occupants of two neighboring residential buildings in Hamburg-Harburg (Germany) caused by a defective gas central heating system is described. Because of leaks in one of the residential buildings and the directly adjacent wall of the neighboring house, the gas could spread and accumulated in both residential buildings, which resulted in a highly dangerous situation. Exposure to the toxic gas caused mild to severe intoxication in 15 persons. Three victims died still at the site of the accident. Measures to protect the occupants were taken only with a great delay. As symptoms were unspecific, it was not realized that the various alarms given by persons involved in the accident were related to the same cause. In order to take appropriate measures in time it is indispensible to recognize, assess and check potential risks, which can be done by using carbon monoxide warning devices and performing immediate COHb measurements with special pulse oximeters on site. Moreover, the COHb content in the blood should be routinely determined in all patients admitted to an emergency department with unspecific symptoms. PMID:27120897

  3. Analysis and optimization of subcritical two-stage vapor injection heat pump systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Thermodynamical analysis of a two stage compression cycles. • Optimization of the displacement ratio for COP in ideal two stage cycles. • Analysis of the influence of compressor efficiency in real system. • Influence of the charge in the optimum conditions of a two stage cycle. • Control in two stage systems with electronic expansion valves. - Abstract: Two of the major problems of heat pump systems working in extreme conditions are the loss of efficiency of the system and the high compressor discharge temperatures. One possibility in order to overcome these issues is to perform the compression in two stages. In this frame the use of vapor injection two stage cycles represent an economic and effective solution. This study analyzes the influence of design parameters and injection conditions for two different configurations of two stage cycles, for four refrigerants (R407C, R290, R22 and R32). Design parameters, such as the displacement ratio, are optimized in terms of COP in ideal conditions for both injection systems. A deeper analysis taking into account the efficiencies of the compressor is done finding that two stage systems could reach improvements of 30% in terms of COP compared with one stage systems and that a bad design of this type of systems could represent a loss of improvement between 6% and 10%. Finally a method to control the system at any operating point in order to make it works in its optimum is done. From all the analysis, guidelines for the optimum design and control of such systems are obtained in terms of capacity, Coefficient of Performance (COP), seasonal performance factor and discharge temperature criteria

  4. EXPERIMENTAL TARGET INJECTION AND TRACKING SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION AND SINGLE SHOT TESTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Targets must be injected into an IFE power plant at a rate of approximately 5 to 10 Hz. Targets must be tracked very accurately to allow driver beams to be aligned with defined points on the targets with accuracy ± 150 (micro)m for indirect drive and ± 20 (micro)m for direct drive. An experimental target injection and tracking system has been constructed at General Atomics. The injector system will be used as a tool for testing the survivability of various target designs and provide feedback to the target designers. Helium gas propels the targets down an 8 m gun barrel up to 400 m/s. Direct-drive targets are protected in the barrel by sabots that are spring loaded to separate into two halves after acceleration. A sabot deflector directs the sabot halves away from the target injection path. Targets will be optically tracked with laser beams and line-scan cameras. Target position and arrival time will be predicted in real time based on early target position measurements. The system installation will be described. System testing to overcome excessive projectile wear and debris in the gun barrel is presented

  5. Observing the carbon-climate system

    CERN Document Server

    Schimel, David; Moore, Berrien; Chatterjee, Abhishek; Baker, David; Berry, Joe; Bowman, Kevin; Crisp, Phillipe Ciais David; Crowell, Sean; Denning, Scott; Duren, Riley; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gierach, Michelle; Gurney, Kevin; Hibbard, Kathy; Houghton, Richard A; Huntzinger, Deborah; Hurtt, George; Jucks, Ken; Kawa, Randy; Koster, Randy; Koven, Charles; Luo, Yiqi; Masek, Jeff; McKinley, Galen; Miller, Charles; Miller, John; Moorcroft, Paul; Nassar, Ray; ODell, Chris; Ott, Leslie; Pawson, Steven; Puma, Michael; Quaife, Tristan; Riris, Haris; Romanou, Anastasia; Rousseaux, Cecile; Schuh, Andrew; Shevliakova, Elena; Tucker, Compton; Wang, Ying Ping; Williams, Christopher; Xiao, Xiangming; Yokota, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Increases in atmospheric CO2 and CH4 result from a combination of forcing from anthropogenic emissions and Earth System feedbacks that reduce or amplify the effects of those emissions on atmospheric concentrations. Despite decades of research carbon-climate feedbacks remain poorly quantified. The impact of these uncertainties on future climate are of increasing concern, especially in the wake of recent climate negotiations. Emissions, long concentrated in the developed world, are now shifting to developing countries, where the emissions inventories have larger uncertainties. The fraction of anthropogenic CO2 remaining in the atmosphere has remained remarkably constant over the last 50 years. Will this change in the future as the climate evolves? Concentrations of CH4, the 2nd most important greenhouse gas, which had apparently stabilized, have recently resumed their increase, but the exact cause for this is unknown. While greenhouse gases affect the global atmosphere, their sources and sinks are remarkably he...

  6. 21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon monoxide test system. 862.3220 Section 862.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3220 Carbon monoxide test system....

  7. Computer study of an energy recovery system for the Tore-Supra neutral beam injection lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prototype of an Energy Recovery System (ERS) has been designed for the Tore-Supra neutral beam injection lines (100 kV, 40 A deuterium beams). Our study, based on computer calculations using a 2-D charged particle trajectory program, consisted mainly in the optimisation of the components of the ERS, but it has been extended in order to draw general conclusions on some problems that might be encountered and to derive scaling laws for the suppression voltage determination. In our system, the power saving can be as large as 1 MW per injection line, i.e. about 25 % of the total power that would be spent without energy recovery. The recovery on higher energy beams has also been investigated; the power gain would be even larger in this case

  8. The CIT [compact ignition tokamak] pellet injection system: Description and supporting research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) will use an advance, high-velocity pellet injection system to achieve and maintain ignited plasmas. Two pellet injectors are provided: a moderate-velocity (1-to 1.5-km/s), single-stage pneumatic injector with high reliability and a high-velocity (4- to 5-km/s), two-stage pellet injector that uses frozen hydrogenic pellets encased in sabots. Both pellet injectors are qualified for operation with tritium feed gas. Issues such as performance, neutron activation of injector components, maintenance, design of the pellet injection vacuum line, gas loads to the reprocessing system, and equipment layout are discussed. Results and plans for supporting research and development (R and D) in the areas of tritium pellet fabrication and high-velocity, repetitive two-stage pneumatic injectors are presented. 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Experimental study on high-voltage nanosecond generators of the 'Sibir'-2' storage ring injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the investigation of operating modes of pulse generators of the injection system of the 'Sibir'-2' storage ring the synchrotron radiation source are presented. Generators are constructed as coaxial type double-shaping lines with the control via the gas-filled three-electrode spark gaps. Test results revealed, that generators meet the requirements to output voltage of up to 60 kw, pulse rise time of about 3 ns and timing stability. 1 ref., 3 figs

  10. Remote systems requirements of the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) converter concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote systems will be required in the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy Converter power plant proposed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. During inspection operations, viewing of the chamber interior and certain pumps, valve fittings and welds must be done remotely. Ideas for remote maintenance of laser beam blast baffles, optics, and target material traps are described. Radioisotope sources and their distributions, and exposure rates at various points in the reactor vicinity are presented

  11. Selecting spatio-temporal patterns by substrate injection in a reaction-diffusion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shyamolina; Ray, Deb Shankar

    2015-07-01

    We have explored the growth of patterns in chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction-diffusion system when the injection rate of the activator and inhibitor is varied over a range. The transition from spot to stripe and their mixture and finally the target wave which appears at the Hopf bifurcation boundary are observed. Our numerical simulations have been corroborated by theoretical analysis of amplitude equation for targets.

  12. Determination of Ciprofloxacin by Flow Injection Analysis Based on Chemiluminescence System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of ciprofloxacin (CPLX) was reported. The proposed method is based on luminescence produced by KMnO4-Na2S2O4-Tb3+-CPLX chemiluminescence (CL) system. The effects of some critical experimental conditions were discussed and the optimization of working condithe recoveries of real sample analyses were in the range from 110 ± 4 to 104 ± 4.

  13. Systemic barriers accessing HIV treatment among people who inject drugs in Russia: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Sarang, Anya; Rhodes, Tim; Sheon, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Achieving ‘universal access’ to antiretroviral HIV treatment (ART) in lower income and transitional settings is a global target. Yet, access to ART is shaped by local social condition and is by no means universal. Qualitative studies are ideally suited to describing how access to ART is socially situated. We explored systemic barriers to accessing ART among people who inject drugs (PWID) in a Russian city (Ekaterinburg) with a large burden of HIV treatment demand. We undertook 42 in-depth qua...

  14. Nuclear Safety Functions of ITER Gas Injection System Instrumentation and Control and the Concept Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Maruyama, S.; Fossen, A.; Villers, F.; Kiss, G.; Zhang, Bo; Li, Bo; Jiang, Tao; Huang, Xiangmei

    2016-08-01

    The ITER Gas Injection System (GIS) plays an important role on fueling, wall conditioning and distribution for plasma operation. Besides that, to support the safety function of ITER, GIS needs to implement three nuclear safety Instrumentation and Control (I&C) functions. In this paper, these three functions are introduced with the emphasis on their latest safety classifications. The nuclear I&C design concept is briefly discussed at the end.

  15. Transverse emittance blow-up from beam injection errors in synchrotrons with nonlinear feedback systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of transverse emittance blow-up from beam injection errors in synchrotrons with nonlinear feedback systems is considered. The relative emittance growth is calculated for linear and nonlinear feedback transfer functions. Effects of an increase of the damping decrement of the beam coherent oscillations and of a decrease of the coherent transverse amplitude spread of different bunches in case of the damper with positive cubic term in the feedback transfer function are discussed

  16. Chip-based amperometric enzyme sensor system for monitoring of bioprocesses by flow-injection analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Baecker, M.; Rakowski, D.; Poghossian, A.; Biselli, M; Wagner, P.; Schoening, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    A microfluidic chip integrating amperometric enzyme sensors for the detection of glucose, glutamate and glutamine in cell-culture fermentation processes has been developed. The enzymes glucose oxidase, glutamate oxidase and glutaminase were immobilized by means of cross-linking with glutaraldehyde on platinum thin-film electrodes integrated within a microfluidic channel. The biosensor chip was coupled to a flow-injection analysis system for electrochemical characterization of the sensors. The...

  17. A study of thermogelling PCL dispersion: Towards an injectable colloidal cell delivery system

    OpenAIRE

    Shahidan, Nur Nabilah

    2014-01-01

    This thesis present a study of thermo-gelling polycaprolactone (PCL) dispersion which consist of a mixture of PCL microspheres (MSs) and thermo-responsive, graft cationic copolymer. The PCL microspheres are solid or colloidosomes (hollow). This study aims toward an injectable colloidal cell delivery system. The thermo-responsive copolymer used in this study is a new family of cationic graft copolymer. The cationic graft copolymer consisted of cationic poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate)...

  18. Research on Characteristics and Precision Injection Angle Control System of Micro Particles Blaster Cleaning for Stone Material Surface Pollutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For analyzing the injection angle impact of micro particles blaster cleaning system, the numerical two-phase flow model of gas-solid is built according to the characteristics of cleaning system, and the injection processes are simulated for different injection angle and soft/hard grinding materials. The simulation results indicate that the injection angle contributes a great influence on average pressure and effective area of cleaning, especially for the soft grinding materials. And concerning the actual operation difficulties of injection angle adjustment, the system is optimized by adding an electrical servo system to control angle of nozzle, which can realize the precise and quick positioning of angle-dimension in the course of cleaning.

  19. Detecting total toxicity in water using a mediated biosensor system with flow injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Daming; Liu, Changyu; Zhu, Chengzhou; Yu, Dengbin; Liu, Ling; Zhai, Junfeng; Dong, Shaojun

    2015-11-01

    A novel total toxicity detection method based on a mediated biosensor system with flow injection (MB-FI) was developed to rapidly and reliably detect respiration inhibitors (i.e., As2O3, KCN, salicylic acid (SA), 2,4-dintirophenol (DNP)) in water. The mediated biosensor toxicity assessment using microorganisms immobilized in calcium alginate filaments can greatly simplify the testing process and save time. In the MB-FI system, ferricyanide together with a respiration inhibitor was injected into the bioreactor, inhibiting the respiration of the immobilized microorganisms. The degree of inhibition was measured by determining the ferrocyanide generated in the effluent, expressed as the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50). The IC50 values for the four respiration inhibitors obtained using this method were comparable to those obtained using the classic method, confirming that this approach is an alternative alert method. More importantly, this constructed biosensor system with flow injection will facilitate the application and commercialization of this toxicity monitoring technology. PMID:26071865

  20. Chaotic behavior of water column oscillator simulating pressure balanced injection system in passive safety reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) proposed a passive safety reactor called the System-integrated Pressurized Water Reactor (SPWR). In a loss of coolant accident, the Pressurizing Line (PL) and the Injection Line (IL) are passively opened. Vapor generated by residual heat pushes down the water level in the Reactor Vessel (RV). When the level is lower than the inlet of the PL, the vapor is ejected into the Containment Vessel (CV) through the PL. Then boronized water in the CV is injected into the RV through the IL by the static head. In an experiment using a simple apparatus, gas ejection and water injection were found to occur alternately under certain conditions. The gas ejection interval was observed to fluctuate considerably. Though stochastic noise affected the interval, the experimental results suggested that the large fluctuation was produced by an inherent character in the system. A set of piecewise linear differential equations was derived to describe the experimental result. The large fluctuation was reproduced in the analytical solution. Thus it was shown to occur even in a deterministic system without any source of stochastic noise. Though the derived equations simulated the experiment well, they had ten independent parameters governing the behavior of the solution. There appeared chaotic features and bifurcation, but the analytical model was too complicated to examine the features and mechanism of bifurcation. In this study, a new simple model is proposed which consists of a set of piecewise linear ordinary differential equations with only four independent parameters. (authors)

  1. Road Maintenance Experience Using Polyurethane (PU) Foam Injection System and Geocrete Soil Stabilization as Ground Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhar, A. M. M.; Asmaniza, A.

    2016-07-01

    There are many types of ground rehabilation and improvement that can be consider and implement in engineering construction works for soil improvement in order to prevent road profile deformation in later stage. However, when comes to road maintenance especially on operated expressways, not all method can be apply directly as it must comply to opreation's working window and lane closure basis. Key factors that considering ideal proposal for ground rehabilitation are time, cost, quality and most importantly practicality. It should provide long lifespan structure in order to reduce continuous cycle of maintenance. Thus, this paper will present two approaches for ground rehabilitation, namely Polyurethane (PU) Foam Injection System and Geocrete Soil Stabilization. The first approach is an injection system which consists two-parts chemical grout of Isocynate and Polyol when mixed together within soil structure through injection will polymerized with volume expansion. The strong expansion of grouting causes significant compression and compacting of the surrounding soil and subsequently improve ground properties and uplift sunken structure. The later is a cold in-place recyclying whereby mixture process that combines in-situ soil materials, cement, white powder (alkaline) additive and water to produce hard yet flexible and durable ground layer that act as solid foundation with improved bearing capacity. The improvement of the mechanical behaviour of soil through these two systems is investigated by an extensive testing programme which includes in-situ and laboratory test in determining properties such as strength, stiffness, compressibility, bearing capacity, differential settlement and etc.

  2. The regulatory system for diabetes mellitus: Modeling rates of glucose infusions and insulin injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A.

    2016-08-01

    Novel mathematical models with open and closed-loop control for type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus were developed to improve understanding of the glucose-insulin regulatory system. A hybrid impulsive glucose-insulin model with different frequencies of glucose infusions and insulin injections was analyzed, and the existence and uniqueness of the positive periodic solution for type 1 diabetes, which is globally asymptotically stable, was studied analytically. Moreover, permanence of the system for type 2 diabetes was demonstrated which showed that the glucose concentration level is uniformly bounded above and below. To investigate how to prevent hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia being caused by this system, we developed a model involving periodic intakes of glucose with insulin injections applied only when the blood glucose level reached a given critical glucose threshold. In addition, our numerical analysis revealed that the period, the frequency and the dose of glucose infusions and insulin injections are crucial for insulin therapies, and the results provide clinical strategies for insulin-administration practices.

  3. Humoral Dysregulation Associated with Increased Systemic Inflammation among Injection Heroin Users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Piepenbrink

    Full Text Available Injection drug use is a growing major public health concern. Injection drug users (IDUs have a higher incidence of co-morbidities including HIV, Hepatitis, and other infections. An effective humoral response is critical for optimal homeostasis and protection from infection; however, the impact of injection heroin use on humoral immunity is poorly understood. We hypothesized that IDUs have altered B cell and antibody profiles.A comprehensive systems biology-based cross-sectional assessment of 130 peripheral blood B cell flow cytometry- and plasma- based features was performed on HIV-/Hepatitis C-, active heroin IDUs who participated in a syringe exchange program (n = 19 and healthy control subjects (n = 19. The IDU group had substantial polydrug use, with 89% reporting cocaine injection within the preceding month. IDUs exhibited a significant, 2-fold increase in total B cells compared to healthy subjects, which was associated with increased activated B cell subsets. Although plasma total IgG titers were similar between groups, IDUs had significantly higher IgG3 and IgG4, suggestive of chronic B cell activation. Total IgM was also increased in IDUs, as well as HIV Envelope-specific IgM, suggestive of increased HIV exposure. IDUs exhibited numerous features suggestive of systemic inflammation, including significantly increased plasma sCD40L, TNF-α, TGF-α, IL-8, and ceramide metabolites. Machine learning multivariate analysis distilled a set of 10 features that classified samples based on group with absolute accuracy.These results demonstrate broad alterations in the steady-state humoral profile of IDUs that are associated with increased systemic inflammation. Such dysregulation may impact the ability of IDUs to generate optimal responses to vaccination and infection, or lead to increased risk for inflammation-related co-morbidities, and should be considered when developing immune-based interventions for this growing population.

  4. Humoral Dysregulation Associated with Increased Systemic Inflammation among Injection Heroin Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepenbrink, Michael S.; Samuel, Memorie; Zheng, Bo; Carter, Brittany; Fucile, Christopher; Bunce, Catherine; Kiebala, Michelle; Khan, Atif A.; Thakar, Juilee; Maggirwar, Sanjay B.; Morse, Diane; Rosenberg, Alexander F.; Haughey, Norman J.; Valenti, William; Keefer, Michael C.; Kobie, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Injection drug use is a growing major public health concern. Injection drug users (IDUs) have a higher incidence of co-morbidities including HIV, Hepatitis, and other infections. An effective humoral response is critical for optimal homeostasis and protection from infection; however, the impact of injection heroin use on humoral immunity is poorly understood. We hypothesized that IDUs have altered B cell and antibody profiles. Methods and Findings A comprehensive systems biology-based cross-sectional assessment of 130 peripheral blood B cell flow cytometry- and plasma- based features was performed on HIV-/Hepatitis C-, active heroin IDUs who participated in a syringe exchange program (n = 19) and healthy control subjects (n = 19). The IDU group had substantial polydrug use, with 89% reporting cocaine injection within the preceding month. IDUs exhibited a significant, 2-fold increase in total B cells compared to healthy subjects, which was associated with increased activated B cell subsets. Although plasma total IgG titers were similar between groups, IDUs had significantly higher IgG3 and IgG4, suggestive of chronic B cell activation. Total IgM was also increased in IDUs, as well as HIV Envelope-specific IgM, suggestive of increased HIV exposure. IDUs exhibited numerous features suggestive of systemic inflammation, including significantly increased plasma sCD40L, TNF-α, TGF-α, IL-8, and ceramide metabolites. Machine learning multivariate analysis distilled a set of 10 features that classified samples based on group with absolute accuracy. Conclusions These results demonstrate broad alterations in the steady-state humoral profile of IDUs that are associated with increased systemic inflammation. Such dysregulation may impact the ability of IDUs to generate optimal responses to vaccination and infection, or lead to increased risk for inflammation-related co-morbidities, and should be considered when developing immune-based interventions for this growing

  5. Intra-arterial injection of sclerosants: Report of three cases treated with systemic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsi, Kurosh; Hannaford, Patricia

    2016-05-01

    Intra-arterial injection of sclerosants is a significant but uncommon complication of sclerotherapy that may result in extensive tissue necrosis and in rare cases digit or limb amputation. We have managed three cases in the past 10 years. One patient was referred for immediate treatment following intra-arterial injection of liquid polidocanol. The other two had undergone foam sclerotherapy with polidocanol and sodium tetradecyl sulphate, respectively. All patients were treated with a combination of oral steroids (prednisone 0.5-1 mg/kg) and systemic anticoagulants (enoxaparin 1.5 mg/kg daily subcutaneous injection). One case progressed to skin ulceration where prednisone was started five days after the adverse event and prematurely stopped after four weeks. The other cases did not progress to necrosis or other long-term sequelae. In these patients, prednisone was commenced immediately and slowly reduced over the following 12 weeks. The inflammation that follows ischemia plays a significant role in tissue necrosis and the immediate management of this adverse event may benefit from anti-inflammatory measures and in particular systemic steroid therapy unless contraindicated. PMID:25837790

  6. Determination of mercury by multisyringe flow injection system with cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new software-controlled time-based multisyringe flow injection system for mercury determination by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry is proposed. Precise known volumes of sample, reducing agent (1.1% SnCl2 in 3% HCl) and carrier (3% HCl) are dispensed into a gas-liquid separation cell with a multisyringe burette coupled with one three-way solenoid valve. An argon flow delivers the reduced mercury to the spectrometer. The optimization of the system was carried out testing reaction coils and gas-liquid separators of different design as well as changing parameters, such as sample and reagents volumes, reagent concentrations and carrier gas flow rate, among others. The analytical curves were obtained within the range 50-5000 ng L-1. The detection limit (3σ b/S) achieved is 5 ng L-1. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) was 1.4%, evaluated from 16 successive injections of 250 ng L-1 Hg standard solution. The injection and sample throughput per hour were 44 and 11, respectively. This technique was validated by means of solid and water reference materials with good agreement with the certified values and was successfully applied to fish samples

  7. An injectable hyaluronic acid-tyramine hydrogel system for protein delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fan; Chung, Joo Eun; Kurisawa, Motoichi

    2009-03-19

    Previously, we reported the independent tuning of mechanical strength (crosslinking density) and gelation rate of an injectable hydrogel system composed of hyaluronic acid-tyramine (HA-Tyr) conjugates. The hydrogels were formed through the oxidative coupling of tyramines which was catalyzed by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Herein, we studied the encapsulation and release of model proteins using the HA-Tyr hydrogel. It was shown that the rapid gelation achieved by an optimal concentration of HRP could effectively encapsulate the proteins within the hydrogel network and thus prevented the undesired leakage of proteins into the surrounding tissues after injection. Hydrogels with different mechanical strengths were formed by changing the concentration of H(2)O(2) while maintaining the rapid gelation rate. The mechanical strength of the hydrogel controlled the release rate of proteins: stiff hydrogels released proteins slower compared to weak hydrogels. In phosphate buffer saline, alpha-amylase (negatively charged) was released sustainably from the hydrogel. Conversely, the release of lysozyme (positively charged) discontinued after the fourth hour due to electrostatic interactions with HA. In the presence of hyaluronidase, lysozymes were released continuously and completely from the hydrogel due to degradation of the hydrogel network. The activities of the released proteins were mostly retained which suggested that the HA-Tyr hydrogel is a suitable injectable and biodegradable system for the delivery of therapeutic proteins. PMID:19121348

  8. Simulation model for jet flow in liquid injection system of CANDU-6 SDS 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the performance analysis of the secondary shutdown system (SDS-2), a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for the poison jet flow is being developed to analyze the flow and poison concentration fields formed inside the moderator tank. As the ratio between Calandria shell and the nozzle hole diameter of the injection system is so big as 1055, it is impractical to develop a full size model encompassing the whole Calandria tank. To reduce the model to a manageable size, a quarter of the five-lattice-pitch length segment of the tank was modeled by using the symmetric nature of the jet and the injected jet was treated as source term to remove the limit caused by the small diameter of the injection nozzle hole, when the grid of the calculation domain was generated. A half model calculation was performed to show the symmetricity of the quarter model. For the validation of the source treatment of the inlet flow condition, the simulation result was compared with the experimental data of the gas jet. The symmetricity was confirmed by the results of simulation the half model calculation on the symmetric line and the result of simulation for the source treatment well agreed with the experiment when a fine mesh grid structure was used near the inlet

  9. Downhole fluid injection systems, CO2 sequestration methods, and hydrocarbon material recovery methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2015-07-28

    Downhole fluid injection systems are provided that can include a first well extending into a geological formation, and a fluid injector assembly located within the well. The fluid injector assembly can be configured to inject a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion into the surrounding geological formation. CO2 sequestration methods are provided that can include exposing a geological formation to a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion to sequester at least a portion of the CO2 from the emulsion within the formation. Hydrocarbon material recovery methods are provided that can include exposing a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion to a geological formation having the hydrocarbon material therein. The methods can include recovering at least a portion of the hydrocarbon material from the formation.

  10. Downhole fluid injection systems, CO2 sequestration methods, and hydrocarbon material recovery methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2015-07-28

    Downhole fluid injection systems are provided that can include a first well extending into a geological formation, and a fluid injector assembly located within the well. The fluid injector assembly can be configured to inject a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion into the surrounding geological formation. CO2 sequestration methods are provided that can include exposing a geological formation to a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion to sequester at least a portion of the CO2 from the emulsion within the formation. Hydrocarbon material recovery methods are provided that can include exposing a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion to a geological formation having the hydrocarbon material therein. The methods can include recovering at least a portion of the hydrocarbon material from the formation.

  11. BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM. Final Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-10-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998.

  12. Catalytic spectrophotometric determination of cerium by ion exchange separation coupled to a flow injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A flow injection method is described intended for the determination of cerium based on its catalytic effect on the oxidation of gallocyanine by peroxydisulfate in acidic media. The proposed flow injection manifold incorporates a ion exchange separation system in the carrier stream. The decolorisation of gallocyanine due to its oxidation was used to monitor the reaction by spectrophotometry at 524 nm. The variables which affected the reaction rate were fully investigated. By this method cerium(4) can be determined in the range of 0.30-10.0 μg with a limit of detection of 0.25 μg. The relative standard deviation for ten replicate determinations of 1.0 μg of cerium(4) was 1.8 %

  13. Carbonate fuel cell system with integrated carbon dioxide/thermal management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paetsch, L.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of the present work is to define the stack design and system requirements for a commercial-scale carbonate fuel cell with an integrated carbon dioxide management system. Significant simplification and cost reduction of the system is achieved by direct transfer of the fuel exhaust to the oxidant inlet of the fuel cell, thereby eliminating the anode exhaust converter and high temperature piping utilized in conventional system designs.

  14. Experimental investigation on the pressure response characteristic of the gravity driven boron injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gravity driven boron injection system (GDBIS), designed by the institute of nuclear energy technology (INET) of the Tsinghua University, PR China, is a new type of passive system to be applied in the 200 MW nuclear heating reactor also designed by INET. The purpose of this system is to shutdown the reactor in an emergency, in case the control rods do not operate properly. The pressure response time and the thermal hydraulic performance of the system have been investigated under different initial conditions. The research results for cold (room temperature nitrogen) and hot (mixture of hot steam and nitrogen) operating conditions are presented. Firstly, several factors, e. g. the flow resistance character of the steam and liquid lines, and the volume ratio of the upper spaces of reactor and boron injection tank, affect the pressure response time and the thermal hydraulic performance of the system. Secondly, the steam and liquid communication modes, namely, the time and sequence of the action of valves connecting steam and liquid lines, have great influence on the performance of the system. Thirdly, the limited pressure balance time (about 1.5∝2.0 s) can be achieved under cold operating conditions. This investigation shows that GDBIS can be properly used in the 200 MW nuclear heating reactor. (orig.)

  15. Fault Injection and Monitoring Capability for a Fault-Tolerant Distributed Computation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo; Yates, Amy M.; Malekpour, Mahyar R.

    2010-01-01

    The Configurable Fault-Injection and Monitoring System (CFIMS) is intended for the experimental characterization of effects caused by a variety of adverse conditions on a distributed computation system running flight control applications. A product of research collaboration between NASA Langley Research Center and Old Dominion University, the CFIMS is the main research tool for generating actual fault response data with which to develop and validate analytical performance models and design methodologies for the mitigation of fault effects in distributed flight control systems. Rather than a fixed design solution, the CFIMS is a flexible system that enables the systematic exploration of the problem space and can be adapted to meet the evolving needs of the research. The CFIMS has the capabilities of system-under-test (SUT) functional stimulus generation, fault injection and state monitoring, all of which are supported by a configuration capability for setting up the system as desired for a particular experiment. This report summarizes the work accomplished so far in the development of the CFIMS concept and documents the first design realization.

  16. Solid state generator for powerful radio frequency ion sources in neutral beam injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio frequency ion sources used in neutral beam injection systems (NBI) of fusion machines are currently supplied by self-excited RF generators. These generators have both a low power efficiency and a limited frequency stability, therefore transistorized amplifiers are being considered for the power supply of the next generation of RF sources. A 75 kW generator, originally designed for broadcasting, has been tested with a negative ion source. High operational reliability and a very good matching to the plasma load has been demonstrated. These results make this generator type a very promising candidate for future NBI systems

  17. Solid state generator for powerful radio frequency ion sources in neutral beam injection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, W.; Fantz, U.; Heinemann, B.; Franzen, P.

    2015-02-15

    Radio frequency ion sources used in neutral beam injection systems (NBI) of fusion machines are currently supplied by self-excited RF generators. These generators have both a low power efficiency and a limited frequency stability, therefore transistorized amplifiers are being considered for the power supply of the next generation of RF sources. A 75 kW generator, originally designed for broadcasting, has been tested with a negative ion source. High operational reliability and a very good matching to the plasma load has been demonstrated. These results make this generator type a very promising candidate for future NBI systems.

  18. Automatic monitoring of radial injection tracer tests using a novel multi-electrode resistivity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radial injection tracer test has been carried out in an unconfined fluvial sand and gravel aquifer underlain by low permeability clay. Sodium chloride has been used as an electrolyte tracer and breakthrough has been monitored using a newly developed automatic resistivity system (RESCAN) incorporating six fully penetrating resistivity probes each having 80 electrodes spaced at 5 cm intervals along their length. Each electrode is individually addressable under computer control to either carry current or measure potential. Any four electrodes can be selected in the traditional Wenner configuration to measure formation resistivity. Rapid measurement of changes in resistivity allows a very detailed picture of tracer migration to be obtained. The resistivity probes were placed at 1 and 2 m radii from the central fully-screened tracer injection well along three limbs at 120 degrees. Resistivity measurements were compared with adjacent multi-level samplers. An 8 x 8 m grid of 140 surface electrodes centred on the central well was also installed. The resistivity profiles measured prior to tracer injection were used to infer lithology, particularly layering. Detailed breakthrough curves were obtained at 77 positions along each of the six probes and compared with adjacent multi-level sampler breakthrough curves. The results showed that the aquifer was extremely heterogeneous even on this small scale. Because the system operates automatically without the need to extract and analyse large numbers of water samples, it opens up the possibility of carrying out lots of small scale injection tests within a larger domain likely to be invaded by a tracer or pollution plume. Such detailed information for determining aquifer properties can provide the data set necessary for characterisation of the aquifer to predict dispersion parameters appropriate to the large scale. (Author) (6 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.)

  19. Minimally invasive cell-seeded biomaterial systems for injectable/epicardial implantation in ischemic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandran R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rajeswari Ravichandran,1,2 Jayarama Reddy Venugopal,1 Subramanian Sundarrajan,1,2 Shayanti Mukherjee,1 Seeram Ramakrishna1,21Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, SingaporeAbstract: Myocardial infarction (MI is characterized by heart-wall thinning, myocyte slippage, and ventricular dilation. The injury to the heart-wall muscle after MI is permanent, as after an abundant cell loss the myocardial tissue lacks the intrinsic capability to regenerate. New therapeutics are required for functional improvement and regeneration of the infarcted myocardium, to overcome harmful diagnosis of patients with heart failure, and to overcome the shortage of heart donors. In the past few years, myocardial tissue engineering has emerged as a new and ambitious approach for treating MI. Several left ventricular assist devices and epicardial patches have been developed for MI. These devices and acellular/cellular cardiac patches are employed surgically and sutured to the epicardial surface of the heart, limiting the region of therapeutic benefit. An injectable system offers the potential benefit of minimally invasive release into the myocardium either to restore the injured extracellular matrix or to act as a scaffold for cell delivery. Furthermore, intramyocardial injection of biomaterials and cells has opened new opportunities to explore and also to augment the potentials of this technique to ease morbidity and mortality rates owing to heart failure. This review summarizes the growing body of literature in the field of myocardial tissue engineering, where biomaterial injection, with or without simultaneous cellular delivery, has been pursued to enhance functional and structural outcomes following MI. Additionally, this review also provides a complete outlook on the tissue-engineering therapies presently being used for myocardial regeneration, as well as some perceptivity into the possible

  20. Reducing Students' Carbon Footprints Using Personal Carbon Footprint Management System Based on Environmental Behavioural Theory and Persuasive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shyh-ming

    2016-01-01

    This study applied environmental behavioural theories to develop a personal carbon footprint management system and used persuasive technology to implement it. The system serves as an educational system to improve the determinants of students' low-carbon behaviours, to promote low-carbon concepts and to facilitate their carbon management. To assess…

  1. Coherent Quantum Optics Phenomena in Carbon Low-Dimensional Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dovlatova, Alla; Yerchuck, Dmitri

    2011-01-01

    Brief review of the theoretical and experimental results, based mainly on the works of authors, in the application of quantum field theory to the study of carbon low-dimensional systems - quasi-1D carbon nanotubes, carbynes and graphene with emphasis on formation of longlived coherent states of joint photon-electron and joint resonance phonon-electron systems of given materials is presented.

  2. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wier, Don R. Chimanhusky, John S.; Czirr, Kirk L.; Hallenbeck, Larry; Gerard, Matthew G.; Dollens, Kim B.; Owen, Rex; Gaddis, Maurice; Moshell, M.K.

    2002-11-18

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO2) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO2 horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields.

  3. Model predictive control of servo motor driven constant pump hydraulic system in injection molding process based on neurodynamic optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-gang PENG; Jun WANG; Wei WEI

    2014-01-01

    In view of the high energy consumption and low response speed of the traditional hydraulic system for an injection molding machine, a servo motor driven constant pump hydraulic system is designed for a precision injection molding process, which uses a servo motor, a constant pump, and a pressure sensor, instead of a common motor, a constant pump, a pressure pro-portion valve, and a flow proportion valve. A model predictive control strategy based on neurodynamic optimization is proposed to control this new hydraulic system in the injection molding process. Simulation results showed that this control method has good control precision and quick response.

  4. Reconstruction of light and polarized ion beam injection system of JINR Nuclotron-nica accelerator complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NICA ion collider project at JINR is under development at present. As a part of the project the Nuclotron injector upgrade has been started. The work is provided in cooperation of JINR, MEPhI and ITEP. Up to now the Nuclotron injection system consist of a number of proton and ion sources, the 650 keV pulsed preinjector and DTL linac LU-20 (Alvarez type). Such system provides injection into Nuclotron of 20 MeV proton and 5 MeV/u (Z/A >0.3) ion beams. The ion beam acceleration is realized at the 2nd harmonic of bunch travelling mode. The 650 kV high-voltage platform will be replaced by new RFQ structure. The R ampersand D of this system is discussed in the report. Results of beam dynamics simulation in RFQ and MEBT between RFQ and LU-20, electrodynamics simulation, construction of RFQ resonator, RF feeding system construction will be presented. The RF power system is assembled and tested at equivalent load and RFQ resonator manufacturing is started

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Cobalt-Carbon Core-Shell Microspheres in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-song Yang; Qian-wang Chen

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of cobalt-carbon core-shell microspheres in supercritical carbon dioxide system was investigated. Cobalt-carbon core-shell microspheres with diameter of about 1μm were prepared at 350℃ for 12 h in a closed vessel containing an appropriate amount of bis(cyclopentadienyl)cobalt powder and dry ice.Characterization by a variety of techniques,including X-ray powder diffraction,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,Transmission electron microscope,Fourier transform infrared spectrum and Raman spectroscopy analysis reveals that each cobalt-carbon core-shell microsphere is made up of an amorphous cobalt core with diameter less than 1 μm and an amorphous carbon shell with thickness of about 200 nm.The possible growth mechanism of cobalt-carbon core-shell microspheres is discussed,based on the pyrolysis of bis(cyclopentadienyl)cobalt in supercritical carbon dioxide and the deposition of carbon or carbon clusters with odd electrons on the surface of magnetic cobalt cores due to magnetic attraction.Magnetic measurements show 141.41 emu/g of saturation magnetization of a typical sample,which is lower than the 168 emu/g of the corresponding metal cobalt bulk material.This is attributed to the considerable mass of the carbon shell and amorphous nature of the magnetic core.Control of magnetism in the cobalt-carbon core-shell microspheres was achieved by annealing treatments.

  6. The UV signature of carbon in the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Amanda R.; Vilas, Faith; Li, Jian-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Carbon compounds are ubiquitous in the solar system but are challenging to study using remote sensing due to the mostly bland spectral nature of these species in the traditional visible-near-infrared regime. In contrast, carbonaceous species are spectrally active in the ultraviolet (UV) but have largely not been considered for studies of solar system surfaces. We compile existing UV data of carbon compounds—well-studied in contemplation of the ISM extinction "bump"—to review trends in UV spectral behavior. Thermal and/or irradiation processing of carbon species results in the loss of H and ultimately graphitization. Graphitization is shown to produce distinct spectral features in the UV, which are predicted to be more readily detected in the inner solar system, whereas outer solar system bodies are expected to be more dominated by less-processed carbon compounds. Throughout the solar system, we can thus consider a "carbon continuum" where the more evolved carbons in the inner solar system exhibit a stronger UV absorption feature and associated far-UV rise. We compare carbon spectral models with spacecraft data of two bodies from different points in the carbon continuum, Ceres and Iapetus. We find that the apparent strong far-UV upturn in Ceres' spectrum (in the 150-200 nm range) can be explained by an anthracite-like species while Iapetus' spectrum features a reflectance peak consistent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We make generalized predictions for UV spectral characteristics in other regions of the solar system.

  7. Simulation of the Two-Dimensional Gasdynamic, Temperature, and Concentration Fields in an Injection Reactor of Chemical Vapor Deposition for Synthesis of Carbon Nanotube Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futko, S. I.; Chornyi, A. D.; Shulitskii, B. G.; Labunov, V. A.

    2016-01-01

    The two-dimensional axisymmetric gasdynamic, concentration, and heat fields arising in an injection reactor of chemical vapor deposition in the process of synthesis of arrays of carbon nanotubes in it from hydrocarbons and organometallic compounds were numerically simulated for the purpose of investigating the features of these fields. It was established that, even in the case of laminar flow of a gas mixture over the surface of a substrate positioned in this reactor, in it there arise vortices introducing a significant heterogeneity into the gas flow. The influence of changes in the gasdynamic and temperature fields in the indicated reactor on the characteristics of an array of carbon nanotubes grown on the surface of the substrate was analyzed. Parametric calculations of the dependences of the velocity of the gas flow, the gas temperature, and the concentration of reagents in the reactor on the hydrocarbon flow rate, the temperature of the process, and the length of the injection needle have been performed. These calculations have shown that the regimes of heating and mixing of reagents in an injection reactor of chemical vapor deposition correspond to those of an ideal-mixing reactor. The results obtained can be used for determining the conditions necessary for the growth of homogeneous arrays of carbon nanotubes with a high rate on the surface of a substrate in a reactor of chemical vapor deposition.

  8. Development of Kinetic Interface Sensitive Tracers (KIS-Tracer) for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Injections into Deep Saline Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, M.; Maier, F.; Licha, T.; Sauter, M.

    2012-04-01

    The storage of captured CO2 into geological formations is recently one of the most promising technologies to mitigate anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions into the earth's atmosphere. Deep saline aquifers are considered as the most potential sequestration sites of CO2 due to their huge storage capacities of several thousand Gt. Ongoing research deals mainly with the investigation of relevant physico-chemical processes, the fate of CO2 and the risk assessment during and after supercritical CO2 (scCO2) injections. The occurring processes at the interface between injected scCO2 and formation brine play a major role to evaluate the fate and behavior of scCO2 in the reservoir. This is because the interface represents a reactive zone where numerous physico-chemical processes like dissolution of scCO2 in water as well as dissolution and precipitation of minerals take place. In most cases it is desired to maximize the interface size to increase the storage efficiency. Therefore, knowledge on interface size and dynamics would allow the observation of plume spreading and the detection of mixing or fingering effects. In order to gain this information innovative tracers are necessary which are able to quantify the temporal and spatial development of scCO2/water interfaces. As a result, it may be possible to assess the storage efficiency and to optimize subsequent injections. Up to now, such time-dependent tracers for reservoir studies are not available and limited to equilibrium tracers (known as partitioning and interfacial tracers, respectively). Therefore, novel reactive tracers (KIS-Tracers) are developed to overcome this gap. The idea is to find suitable molecules which allow the implementation of a defined chemical reaction at the interface. Due to the known kinetic constants the change of interface size can be characterized over time. The new tracer is injected together with the supercritical CO2 (scCO2) into a deep saline aquifer. Afterwards, the tracer adsorbs at

  9. Carbon footprint reductions via grid energy storage systems

    OpenAIRE

    Trevor S. Hale, Kelly Weeks, Coleman Tucker

    2011-01-01

    This effort presents a framework for reducing carbon emissions through the use of large-scale grid-energy-storage (GES) systems. The specific questions under investigation herein are as follows: Is it economically sound to invest in a GES system and is the system at least carbon footprint neutral? This research will show the answer to both questions is in the affirmative. Scilicet, when utilized judiciously, grid energy storage systems can be both net present value positive as well as be tota...

  10. Clinical benefit of power-injectable port systems: A prospective observational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To prospectively evaluate the clinical benefit of a central venous port system, which is approved for contrast media injection during contrast enhanced computed tomography. Materials and methods: At a university teaching hospital, 98 patients (59 female, 39 male; median age 61.7 years; range 23–83) had a power-injectable central venous port catheter system implanted. All implantations were performed under ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic guidance by interventional radiologists. Procedure related immediate (up to 24 h after implantation), early (<30 days after implantation) and late complications were documented. The frequency of port system use for contrast enhanced computed tomography scans was also considered. Any port capsule migration was assessed indirectly by determining the catheter tip position. The intended follow-up period was 180 days. Results: An overall complication rate of 0.69 for 1,000 catheter days in 78 evaluated ports was recorded (12 ports affected, 15.4%). During the observational period, 40 of 104 contrast enhanced computed tomography scans were performed utilizing the port for contrast media administration (38.5%). 30 catheter tip retractions of more than 3 cm were observed in 82 patients (36.6%). Overall, tip dislocations were statistically more frequent in the female subgroup. Conclusion: The complication rate found in this study is comparable to those, which have been published for standard port systems. The utilization of the device for contrast media injection during contrast enhanced computed tomography scans should be increased. Finally, the port capsule has to be carefully positioned and fixed to prevent migration.

  11. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2003-06-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. To date, our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. This report provides summaries of the progress toward evaluation of the viscosity impacts of lubricity additives, completion of both experimental systems and a summary of the plan for completion of the project objectives.

  12. Verification test for radiation reduction effect and material integrity on PWR primary system by zinc injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, H.; Nagata, T.; Yamada, M. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp. (Japan); Kasahara, K.; Tsuruta, T.; Nishimura, T. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (Japan); Ishigure, K. [Saitama Inst. of Tech. (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Zinc injection is known to be an effective method for the reduction of radiation source in the primary water system of a PWR. There is a need to verify the effect of Zn injection operation on radiation source reduction and materials integrity of PWR primary circuit. In order to confirm the effectiveness of Zn injection, verification test as a national program sponsored by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) was started in 1995 for 7-year program, and will be finished by the end of March in 2002. This program consists of irradiation test and material integrity test. Irradiation test as an In-Pile-Test managed by AEAT Plc(UK) was performed using the LVR-15 reactor of NRI Rez in Check Republic. Furthermore, Out-of-Pile-Test using film adding unit was also performed to obtain supplemental data for In-Pile-Test at Takasago Engineering Laboratory of NUPEC. Material Integrity test was planned to perform constant load test, constant strain test and corrosion test at the same time using large scale Loop and slow strain extension rate testing (SSRT) at Takasago Engineering Laboratory of NUPEC. In this paper, the results of the verification test for Zinc program at present are discussed. (authors)

  13. Verification test for radiation reduction effect and material integrity on PWR primary system by zinc injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc injection is known to be an effective method for the reduction of radiation source in the primary water system of a PWR. There is a need to verify the effect of Zn injection operation on radiation source reduction and materials integrity of PWR primary circuit. In order to confirm the effectiveness of Zn injection, verification test as a national program sponsored by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) was started in 1995 for 7-year program, and will be finished by the end of March in 2002. This program consists of irradiation test and material integrity test. Irradiation test as an In-Pile-Test managed by AEAT Plc(UK) was performed using the LVR-15 reactor of NRI Rez in Check Republic. Furthermore, Out-of-Pile-Test using film adding unit was also performed to obtain supplemental data for In-Pile-Test at Takasago Engineering Laboratory of NUPEC. Material Integrity test was planned to perform constant load test, constant strain test and corrosion test at the same time using large scale Loop and slow strain extension rate testing (SSRT) at Takasago Engineering Laboratory of NUPEC. In this paper, the results of the verification test for Zinc program at present are discussed. (authors)

  14. The TFTR 40 MW neutral beam injection system and DT operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since December 1993, TFTR has performed DT experiments using tritium fuel provided mainly by neutral beam injection. Significant alpha particle populations and reactor-like conditions have been achieved at the plasma core, and fusion output power has risen to a record 10.7 MW using a record 40 MW NB heating. Tritium neutral beams have injected into over 480 DT plasmas and greater than 500 kCi have been processed through the neutral beam gas, cryo, and vacuum systems. Beam tritium injections, as well as tritium feedstock delivery and disposal, have now become part of routine operations. Shot reliability with tritium is about 90% and is comparable to deuterium shot reliability. This paper describes the neutral beam DT experience including the preparations, modifications, and operating techniques that led to this high level of success, as well as the critical differences in beam operations encountered during DT operations. Also, the neutral beam maintenance and repair history during DT operations, the corrective actions taken, and procedures developed for handling tritium contaminated components are discussed in the context of supporting a continuous DT program

  15. Combining Carbon Ion Radiotherapy and Local Injection of α-Galactosylceramide-Pulsed Dendritic Cells Inhibits Lung Metastases in an In Vivo Murine Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Our previous report indicated that carbon ion beam irradiation upregulated membrane-associated immunogenic molecules, underlining the potential clinical application of radioimmunotherapy. The antimetastatic efficacy of local combination therapy of carbon ion radiotherapy and immunotherapy was examined by use of an in vivo murine model. Methods and Materials: Tumors of mouse squamous cell carcinoma (NR-S1) cells inoculated in the legs of C3H/HeSlc mice were locally irradiated with a single 6-Gy dose of carbon ions (290 MeV/nucleon, 6-cm spread-out Bragg peak). Thirty-six hours after irradiation, α-galactosylceramide-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) were injected into the leg tumor. We investigated the effects on distant lung metastases by counting the numbers of lung tumor colonies, making pathologic observations, and assessing immunohistochemistry. Results: The mice with no treatment (control) presented with 168 ± 53.8 metastatic nodules in the lungs, whereas the mice that received the combination therapy of carbon ion irradiation and DCs presented with 2.6 ± 1.9 (P = 0.009) at 2 weeks after irradiation. Immunohistochemistry showed that intracellular adhesion molecule 1, which activates DCs, increased from 6 h to 36 h after irradiation in the local tumors of the carbon ion-irradiated group. The expression of S100A8 in lung tissue, a marker of the lung pre-metastatic phase, was decreased only in the group with a combination of carbon ions and DCs. Conclusions: The combination of carbon ion radiotherapy with the injection of α-galactosylceramide-pulsed DCs into the primary tumor effectively inhibited distant lung metastases.

  16. Design of Electrical System for Inhibitor Injection Pump’s Motor PAQ 01/02/03 RSG-GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to control the water quality related to the growth of scale, corrosion and micro-organism in the PA01 BR01 and PA02 BR 02 piping system of secondary cooling system of RSG-GAS, electrical systems for motor of inhibitor injection pump PAQ 01/02/03, including motor control system circuit for inhibitor injection pump PAQ02 AP01, motor control system circuit for NaOCl injection pump PAQ01 AP01, motor control system circuit for inhibitor injection pump PAQ02 AP02 and control system circuit for stir pump RW02 have been designed. Motor control system circuit for pump PAQ02 AP01 which attached at the inhibitor tank will operate when conductivity control CQ01 indicates blow down condition and pump motor PAQ02 AP02 is not operate when level control CL02 indicates minimum level. This design is expected that, NaOCl injection pump PAQ01 AP 01 will operate continuously and inhibitor injection pump PAQ02 AP02 will operate automatically. (author)

  17. Amperometric detection of acetaminophen by an electrochemical sensor based on cobalt oxide nanoparticles in a flow injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razmi, Habib, E-mail: h.razmi@azaruniv.ed [Electrochemistry Research Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences, Azarbaijan University of Tarbiat Moallem, P.O. Box 53714-161, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Habibi, Esmaeil [Electrochemistry Research Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences, Azarbaijan University of Tarbiat Moallem, P.O. Box 53714-161, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-01

    This paper reports the use of a carbon ceramic electrode as a highly-porous substrate for the electrochemical formation of cobalt oxide nanoparticles. The electrocatalyst was characterized by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry techniques, and it was used in a homemade flow injection analysis (FIA) system for acetaminophen determination using 0.1 M KOH as the carrier solution. The rate constant (k{sub s}) and charge transfer coefficient ({alpha}) were calculated for the electron exchange reaction of the modified film. The kinetic parameters and the mechanism of acetaminophen electrooxidation at the electrode surface were studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The effects of working potential and flow rate on the performance of the FIA system were studied. Under optimized conditions, the electrode response due to the electrocatalytic oxidation of acetaminophen at 450 mV (vs. SCE) is proportional to the concentration of acetaminophen over a 5-35 {mu}M range with an associated detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.37 {mu}M and a sensitivity of 0.0296 {mu}A/{mu}M. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 1.6% for eight replicate measurements. The modified electrode was used to determine the acetaminophen content in tablet samples.

  18. Amperometric detection of acetaminophen by an electrochemical sensor based on cobalt oxide nanoparticles in a flow injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the use of a carbon ceramic electrode as a highly-porous substrate for the electrochemical formation of cobalt oxide nanoparticles. The electrocatalyst was characterized by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry techniques, and it was used in a homemade flow injection analysis (FIA) system for acetaminophen determination using 0.1 M KOH as the carrier solution. The rate constant (ks) and charge transfer coefficient (α) were calculated for the electron exchange reaction of the modified film. The kinetic parameters and the mechanism of acetaminophen electrooxidation at the electrode surface were studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The effects of working potential and flow rate on the performance of the FIA system were studied. Under optimized conditions, the electrode response due to the electrocatalytic oxidation of acetaminophen at 450 mV (vs. SCE) is proportional to the concentration of acetaminophen over a 5-35 μM range with an associated detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.37 μM and a sensitivity of 0.0296 μA/μM. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 1.6% for eight replicate measurements. The modified electrode was used to determine the acetaminophen content in tablet samples.

  19. Automated pressurized injection system for the separation of actinides by extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes a novel separation scheme developed for an automated system to efficiently separate actinides in individual fractions. The automated pressurized injection (PI) system developed allows precise collection of high-purity actinide fractions (?99 %) at elevated flow rates (15-30 mL min-1) using two extraction chromatographic TEVA and DGA resins. This system is sufficiently robust to enable the use of highly viscous acid media, limit acid corrosion, and tolerate large amount of gases generated by redox reactions by some of the reagents. The PI system was successfully applied to the separation of actinides in individual fractions (recovery yield ≥97 % for Th, U, Np, Pu, and Am) and shows the absence of cross contamination even with highly concentrated actinide solutions. The methodology was also applied to the measurement of actinides in large spiked soil samples. (author)

  20. [Study on action mechanism of Danhong injection based on computational system biology approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yan-ni; Wei, Xiao-hua; Xiao, Pin

    2015-02-01

    Danhong injection is a compound preparation of traditional Chinese medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza and Carthamus tinctorius, and has been widely applied in treating coronary heart diseases and ischemic encephalopathy in clinic. Despite the complexity of its chemical compounds and the diversity of targets, especially in system biology, there have not a report for its action mechanism as a whole regulatory biological network. In this study, protein data of S. miltiorrhiza and C. tinctorius were searched in TCMGeneDIT database and agilent literature search (ALS) system to establish the multi-component protein network of S. miltiorrhiza, C. tinctorius and Danhong injection. Besides, the protein interaction network was built based on the protein-protein interaction in Genecards, BIND, BioGRID, IntAct, MINT and other databases. According to the findings, 10 compounds of S. miltiorrhiza and 14 compounds of C. tinctorius were correlated with proteins. The 24 common compounds had interactions with 81 proteins, and formed a protein interaction network with 60 none-isolated nodes. The Cluster ONE module was applied to make an enrichment analysis on the protein interaction network and extract one sub-network with significant difference P <0.05. The sub-network contains 23 key proteins, which involved five signaling pathways, namely Nod-like receptor signaling pathway, epithelial cell signaling in helicobacter pylori infection, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway and neurotrophin signaling pathway through KEGG signaling pathway mapping. In this study, the computational system biology approach was adopted to preliminarily explain the molecular mechanism of main compounds of Danhong injection in preventing and treating diseases and provide reference for systematic studies on traditional Chinese medicine compounds. PMID:26084184

  1. Passive core injection system with steam driven jet pump for next generation nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steam driven jet pump (SDJP) is a device without moving parts, in which steam is used as an energy source to pump cold water from a pressure much lower than the steam pressure to a pressure higher than the steam pressure. In this study, a design of a passive core injection system (PCIS) with SDJP is given for application to Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). The operation range of PCIS depends on the operation characteristics of the SDJP. Thus, the operation characteristics of the SDJP has been investigated in terms of independent parameters, such as water temperature, pressure, and steam inlet pressure which is the driving force of the SDJP to obtain a wide operation range. The water tank pressure is chosen as 320 kPa to increase the maximum operation pressure of the SDJP. The supply water temperature is chosen as 15 deg. C which is about room temperature, and the steam which comes from the reactor pressure vessel is assumed as saturated. The operation range of the SDJP in terms of the steam inlet pressure is obtained from 2 to 10.5 MPa. The study shows that when the discharge pressure increases, the discharge mass flow rate and the temperature increases as well. The probabilistic reliability of the PCIS with the SDJP is assessed as well. The reliability assessment of the PCIS with SDJP is investigated using a fault tree, and compared with the core injection system with turbine-driven pump. It is found that the PCIS with SDJP is more reliable than the core injection system with turbine-driven pump

  2. Carbon-Carbon Composites as Recuperator Materials for Direct Gas Brayton Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the numerous energy conversion options available for a space nuclear power plant (SNPP), one that shows promise in attaining reliable operation and high efficiency is the direct gas Brayton (GB) system. In order to increase efficiency, the GB system incorporates a recuperator that accounts for nearly half the weight of the energy conversion system (ECS). Therefore, development of a recuperator that is lighter and provides better performance than current heat exchangers could prove to be advantageous. The feasibility of a carbon-carbon (C/C) composite recuperator core has been assessed and a mass savings of 60% and volume penalty of 20% were projected. The excellent thermal properties, high-temperature capabilities, and low density of carbon-carbon materials make them attractive in the GB system, but development issues such as material compatibility with other structural materials in the system, such as refractory metals and superalloys, permeability, corrosion, joining, and fabrication must be addressed

  3. Carbon-Carbon Composites as Recuperator Material for Direct Gas Brayton Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RA Wolf

    2006-07-19

    Of the numerous energy conversion options available for a space nuclear power plant (SNPP), one that shows promise in attaining reliable operation and high efficiency is the direct gas Brayton (GB) system. In order to increase efficiency, the GB system incorporates a recuperator that accounts for nearly half the weight of the energy conversion system (ECS). Therefore, development of a recuperator that is lighter and provides better performance than current heat exchangers could prove to be advantageous. The feasibility of a carbon-carbon (C/C) composite recuperator core has been assessed and a mass savings of 60% and volume penalty of 20% were projected. The excellent thermal properties, high-temperature capabilities, and low density of carbon-carbon materials make them attractive in the GB system, but development issues such as material compatibility with other structural materials in the system, such as refractory metals and superalloys, permeability, corrosion, joining, and fabrication must be addressed.

  4. Quality of water recovered from a municipal effluent injection well in the Floridan aquifer system, Pompano Beach, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D.J.; Irwin, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    Approximately 69 million gallons of backflow from an injection well used for the disposal of secondary treated municipal effluent in the Floridan aquifer system near Pompano Beach, Florida, was periodically sampled for inorganic quality from March 1975 through March 1977. Analyses of the backflow effluent showed a concomitant increase in dissolved solids and a change in ionic composition as a function of cumulative volume of backflow. Both the increase in dissolved solids and the change in major ionic composition were directly related to an estimated 6 to 7 percent mixing of the moderately saline water in the Florida aquifer system with the injected system with the injected effluent. Although an estimated 3.5 billion gallons of effluent was injected into the aquifer system during the 16-year operation of the Collier Manor treatment plant, only 65 to 70 million gallons was backflowed before the chloride concentration approached 250 milligrams per liter. (USGS)

  5. Multimodal interactions in a carbonated beverage system

    OpenAIRE

    Hewson, Emma Louise

    2008-01-01

    Predicting flavour perception is complicated by interactions occurring both within and across sensory modalities, but understanding these interactions and the resulting multimodal integration is crucial to the formulation of successful products. Despite the commercial appeal of carbonated soft drinks, few studies have examined the effects of tastant: aroma: carbonation interactions on sensory perception. To facilitate these investigations, a citrus flavoured model beverage was created con...

  6. Improvement of replication fidelity in injection moulding of nano structures using an induction heating system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano;

    2014-01-01

    In today’s industry, applications involving surface pattering with sub-μm scale structures have shown a high interest. The replication of these structures by injection molding leads to special requirements for the mold in order to ensure proper replication and an acceptable cycle time. A tool ins...... quantitatively characterized by atomic force microscopy comparing the measurement in the nickel insert with the corresponding polymer nano-features. The experimental results show that the use of the induction heating system is an efficient way to improve the pattern replication....

  7. A novel current injection model of PWMSC for control and analysis of power system stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safari Amin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel current injection model of Pulse width Modulation based Series Compensator (PWMSC, as new FACTS controller, for damping of low frequency oscillations. The PWMSC operates as a means of continuous control of the degree of series compensation through the variation of the duty cycle of a train of fixed frequency-pulses. The methodology is tested on the sample single machine power system including PWMSC controller by performing computer simulations for small and large distributions. MATLAB/ Simulink software package was used for the simulations.

  8. Accelerator System Design, Injection, Extraction and Beam-Material Interaction: Working Group C Summary Report

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhov, N V

    2014-01-01

    The performance of high beam power accelerators is strongly dependent on appropriate injection, acceleration and extraction system designs as well as on the way interactions of the beam with machine components are handled. The experience of the previous ICFA High -Brightness Beam workshops has proven that it is quite beneficial to combine analyses and discussion of these issues in one group. A broad range of topics was presented and discussed at the Working Group C sessions at the HB2012 Workshop. Highlights from the talks, outstanding issues along with plans and proposals for future work are briefly described in this report.

  9. An RF driven H- source and a low energy beam injection system for RFQ operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An RF driven H- source has been developed at LBL for use in the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). To date, an H- current of ∼40 mA can be obtained from a 5.6-cm-diam aperture with the source operated at a pressure of about 12 m Torr and 50 kW of RF power. In order to match the accelerated H- beam into the SSC RFQ, a low-energy H- injection system has been designed. This injector produces an outgoing H- beam free of electron contamination, with small radius, large convergent angle and small projectional emittance

  10. Experimental investigation of high voltage nanosecond generators of injection system for SIBERIA-2 storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The injection system for SIBERIA-2 storage ring (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow) has been put into commissioning. The high voltage impulse generators with double coaxial forming lines and three electrode nitrogen filled spark gaps are intended for linac electron gun and fast full-aperture kickers supply. The output impulses are up to 60 kV in amplitude, 15-20 ns in duration with front about 3 ns. A root-mean-square dispersion of time delays of gaps is 0.7-0.8 ns. The experimental results of operation of the generators are presented

  11. Comparing (semi-) analytic solutions used to model the impact of deep carbon injection on the displacement and pressurization of the resident brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandilla, K.; Kraemer, S. R.

    2009-12-01

    Injection of carbon dioxide into deep saline formations is seen as one possible technology for mitigating carbon emissions from utilities. The safety of the sequestered carbon dioxide is the focus of many studies with leakage through faults or abandoned wells as some of the main failure mechanisms. The focus of this study is on the displacement of resident brine and the resulting changes in pressure due to the injection of large volumes of super-critical phase carbon dioxide into the subsurface. The movement of brine becomes important if it travels vertically and reaches an existing or potential underground source of drinking water where an increase in salt content may threaten the viability of the drinking water source. Vertical displacement of brine may occur slowly through confining layers, or more rapidly through faults and abandoned wells. This presentation compares several (semi-) analytic solutions to determine their applicability to the problem of brine pressurization and displacement. The goal is to find ranges of formation parameters (e.g., formation seal conductivity, distance to lateral boundary, … ) for which simplifying assumption are justifiable Each simplification in the conceptual model (e.g., neglecting the lateral boundary turns a bounded domain into an infinite one) leads to a simpler (semi-) analytic solution. The process involves a solution hierarchy from the most complex solution down to the basic Theis solution. A software tool-kit implementing several (semi-) analytic solutions was developed for this study to facilitate the comparison of the solutions.

  12. Feasibility Study of the PS Injection for 2 GeV LIU Beams with an Upgraded KFA-45 Injection Kicker System Operating in Short Circuit Mode

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Thomas; Borburgh, Jan; Ducimetière, Laurent; Feliciano, Luis; Ferrero Colomo, Alvaro; Goddard, Brennan; Sermeus, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Under the scope of the LIU project the CERN PS Booster to PS beam transfer will be modified to match the requirements for the future 2 GeV beams. This paper describes the evaluation of the proposed upgrade of the PS injection kicker. Different schemes of an injection for LIU beams into the PS have been outlined in the past already under the aspect of individual transfer kicker rise and fall time performances. Homogeneous rise and fall time requirements in the whole PSB to PS transfer chain have been established which allowed to consider an upgrade option of the present injection kicker system operated in short circuit mode. The challenging pulse quality constraints require an improvement of the flat top and post pulse ripples. Both operation modes, terminated and short circuit mode are analysed and analogue circuit simulations for the present and upgraded system are outlined. Recent measurements on the installed kickers are presented and analysed together with the simulation data. First measurements verifying...

  13. Detecting Solenoid Valve Deterioration in In-Use Electronic Diesel Fuel Injection Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyuan-Yow Tseng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The diesel engine is the main power source for most agricultural vehicles. The control of diesel engine emissions is an important global issue. Fuel injection control systems directly affect fuel efficiency and emissions of diesel engines. Deterioration faults, such as rack deformation, solenoid valve failure, and rack-travel sensor malfunction, are possibly in the fuel injection module of electronic diesel control (EDC systems. Among these faults, solenoid valve failure is most likely to occur for in-use diesel engines. According to the previous studies, this failure is a result of the wear of the plunger and sleeve, based on a long period of usage, lubricant degradation, or engine overheating. Due to the difficulty in identifying solenoid valve deterioration, this study focuses on developing a sensor identification algorithm that can clearly classify the usability of the solenoid valve, without disassembling the fuel pump of an EDC system for in-use agricultural vehicles. A diagnostic algorithm is proposed, including a feedback controller, a parameter identifier, a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT sensor, and a neural network classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately identify the usability of solenoid valves.

  14. Novel vector systems optimized for injecting in vitro-synthesized mRNA into zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Hyunju; Soun, Kyungchull; Kim, Eun-Jung; Rhee, Myungchull

    2004-04-30

    Microinjection of nucleic acids or proteins is a useful way of studying embryonic development. In particular, injection of in vitro-transcribed capped RNA is commonly employed to achieve ectopic or increased expression of genes. Two vector systems, pCS2+ and pT7Ts, have been used for this purpose in zebrafish. However, they were initially optimized for Xenopus embryos not for zebrafish. Here we describe a vector, pcGlobin2, optimized for zebrafish, and its derivative, pcGlobin2-GST. This new vector system offers several advantages. First, pcGlobin 2 contains three critical elements 15' and 3' zebrafish beta-globin UTRs, and a poly(A) tail] for generating stable mRNAs and greatly improving translation efficiency. Second, subcloning and preparation of template DNA is easier because of the larger number of restriction sites. Third, protein-binding assays can be performed directly on the injected embryos with pcGlobin2-GST. Lastly, this vector system can be transfected into animal cells without additional subcloning. PMID:15179057

  15. Fiber-Based, Injection-Molded Optofluidic Systems: Improvements in Assembly and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Matteucci

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a method to fabricate polymer optofluidic systems by means of injection molding that allow the insertion of standard optical fibers. The chip fabrication and assembly methods produce large numbers of robust optofluidic systems that can be easily assembled and disposed of, yet allow precise optical alignment and improve delivery of optical power. Using a multi-level chip fabrication process, complex channel designs with extremely vertical sidewalls, and dimensions that range from few tens of nanometers to hundreds of microns can be obtained. The technology has been used to align optical fibers in a quick and precise manner, with a lateral alignment accuracy of 2.7 ± 1.8 μm. We report the production, assembly methods, and the characterization of the resulting injection-molded chips for Lab-on-Chip (LoC applications. We demonstrate the versatility of this technology by carrying out two types of experiments that benefit from the improved optical system: optical stretching of red blood cells (RBCs and Raman spectroscopy of a solution loaded into a hollow core fiber. The advantages offered by the presented technology are intended to encourage the use of LoC technology for commercialization and educational purposes.

  16. Evaluation of the radiosensitizing effects of RK28 intravenous, intraarterial, and intratumoral injections on the rabbit VX2 tumor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the differences in the radiosensitizing effects of intravenous (i.v.) injection, intraarterial (i.a.) injection, and intratumoral (i.t.) injections of the hypoxic cell radiosensitizer RK28 ([1-(4'-hydroxy-2'-butenoxy)methyl-2-nitroimidazole], a 2-nitroimidazole with an acyclic sugar analogue substituted at the N-1 position of the imidazole ring) using an animal experimental system. Methods and Materials: Rabbit VX2 tumors, which were implanted in the muscle of left hind legs and grown to 3 cm in diameter, were treated with RK28 (80 mg/kg·b.wt.) before 15 Gy of local x-ray irradiation. The auricular vein and the left saphenous artery were used for systemic injection and regional injection, respectively. For i.t. injection, a 21-gauge needle with three lateral holes was positioned in the central area of the tumor. Tumor regression was precisely evaluated by computed tomograpy (CT), and survival time was also studied. Using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), pharmacokinetic studies for RK28 and its seven major metabolites were performed in tumor and serum at 0, 10, 20, 30, and 60 min after drug injection was completed. Results: Radiosensitizing effects of RK28 were considered present after i.a. injection (p 50 (TMF50: ratio of time for tumor to decrease by 50%, radiation alone vs. radiation plus drug) was calculated to be 1.5 after i.v. injection, 1.7 after i.a. injection, and 2.3 after i.t. injection. The values of TMF50 correlated to the average concentrations of RK28 in the tumor. As to metabolites of RK28, β-glucuronated compound and cysteine conjugate were highly detected. The concentrations of cysteine conjugate were higher in the tumor than in serum via i.v. injection. Conclusions: Radiosensitizing effects of RK28 were observed on the rabbit VX-2 tumor system after i.a. or i.t. injection. Pharmacokinetic studies proved that radiosensitizing effects depended on the concentration in the tumor, though the administration routes

  17. Reliability analysis of the recirculation phase of the safety injection system of Angra-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculation of several reliability parameters-failure probability, unavailability and unreliability - of the recirculation phase of the safety injection system of Angra-1, was done. This system has two distinct modes of operation (short term and long term) which were fault tree analysed both separately and as a whole. To obtain quantitative results the computer codes SAMPLE and PRET-KITT were utilized. The former was used to consider the uncertainties in the failure data (drawn integrally from WASH-1400) and the latter to obtain time dependent unreliability values. Hardware failures and common-mode failures were considered. Altough the analysis methods employed here differ somewhat from those used in WASH-1400, the results which could be compared were found to have the order of magnitude. A viability study of some suggestions of system's modifications was performed, and it has shown that some significant reliability improvements can be achieved with reasonably simple changes. (Author)

  18. Hybrid Geo-Energy Systems for Energy Storage and Dispatchable Renewable and Low-Carbon Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscheck, Thomas; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Ogland-Hand, Jonathan; Hao, Yue; Sun, Yunwei; Randolph, Jimmy; Saar, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Three primary challenges for energy systems are to (1) reduce the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) being emitted to the atmosphere, (2) increase the penetration of renewable energy technologies, and (3) reduce the water intensity of energy production. Integrating variable renewable energy sources (wind, sunlight) into electric grids requires advances in energy storage approaches, which are currently expensive, and tend to have limited capacity and/or geographic deployment potential. Our approach uses CO2, that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere, to generate electricity from geothermal resources, to store excess energy from variable (wind, solar photovoltaic) and thermal (nuclear, fossil, concentrated solar power) sources, and to thus enable increased penetration of renewable energy technologies. We take advantage of the enormous fluid and thermal storage capacity of the subsurface to harvest, store, and dispatch energy. Our approach uses permeable geologic formations that are vertically bounded by impermeable layers to constrain pressure and the migration of buoyant CO2 and heated brine. Supercritical CO2 captured from fossil power plants is injected into these formations as a cushion gas to store pressure (bulk energy), provide an heat efficient extraction fluid for efficient power conversion in Brayton Cycle turbines, and generate artesian flow of brine -- which can be used to cool power plants and/or pre-heated (thermal storage) prior to re-injection. Concentric rings of injection and production wells create a hydraulic divide to store pressure, CO2, and thermal energy. The system is pressurized and/or heated when power supply exceeds demand and depressurized when demand exceeds supply. Time-shifting the parasitic loads from pressurizing and injecting brine and CO2 provides bulk energy storage over days to months, whereas time-shifting thermal-energy supply provides dispatchable power and addresses seasonal mismatches between supply and demand. These

  19. Utilization of HTGR on active carbon recycling energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new energy transformation concept based on carbon recycling, called as active carbon recycling energy system, ACRES, was proposed for a zero carbon dioxide emission process. The ACRES is driven availably by carbon dioxide free primary energy. High temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) is a candidate of the energy sources for ACRES. A smart ironmaking system with ACRES (iACRES) is one of application examples. The contribution of HTGR on iACRES was discussed thermodynamically in this study. A carbon material is re-used cyclically as energy carrier media in ACRES. Carbon monoxide (CO) had higher energy densities than hydrogen and was compatible with conventional process. Thus, CO was suitable recycling media for ACRES. Efficient regeneration of CO was a key technology for ACRES. A combined system of hydrogen production by water electrolysis and CO2 hydrogen reduction was candidate. CO2 direct electrolysis was also one of the candidates. HTGR was appropriate heat source for both water and CO2 electrolysises, and CO2 hydrogen reduction. Thermodynamic energy balances were calculated for both systems with HTGR for an ironmaking system. The direct system showed relatively advantage to the combined system in the stand point of enthalpy efficiency and simplicity of the process. One or two plants of HTGR are corresponding with ACRES system for one unit of conventional blast furnace. The proposed ACRES system with HTGR was expected to form the basis of a new energy industrial process that had low CO2 emission

  20. Yersinia enterocolitica targets cells of the innate and adaptive immune system by injection of Yops in a mouse infection model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Köberle

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye evades the immune system of the host by injection of Yersinia outer proteins (Yops via a type three secretion system into host cells. In this study, a reporter system comprising a YopE-beta-lactamase hybrid protein and a fluorescent staining sensitive to beta-lactamase cleavage was used to track Yop injection in cell culture and in an experimental Ye mouse infection model. Experiments with GD25, GD25-beta1A, and HeLa cells demonstrated that beta1-integrins and RhoGTPases play a role for Yop injection. As demonstrated by infection of splenocyte suspensions in vitro, injection of Yops appears to occur randomly into all types of leukocytes. In contrast, upon infection of mice, Yop injection was detected in 13% of F4/80(+, 11% of CD11c(+, 7% of CD49b(+, 5% of Gr1(+ cells, 2.3% of CD19(+, and 2.6% of CD3(+ cells. Taking the different abundance of these cell types in the spleen into account, the highest total number of Yop-injected cells represents B cells, particularly CD19(+CD21(+CD23(+ follicular B cells, followed by neutrophils, dendritic cells, and macrophages, suggesting a distinct cellular tropism of Ye. Yop-injected B cells displayed a significantly increased expression of CD69 compared to non-Yop-injected B cells, indicating activation of these cells by Ye. Infection of IFN-gammaR (receptor- and TNFRp55-deficient mice resulted in increased numbers of Yop-injected spleen cells for yet unknown reasons. The YopE-beta-lactamase hybrid protein reporter system provides new insights into the modulation of host cell and immune responses by Ye Yops.

  1. The application of sensitivity analysis on a Common Rail injection system; Empfindlichkeitsanalyse an einem Common-Rail-Einspritzsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberland, H.

    2007-07-01

    The emission as well as the fuel consumption of modern, high-speed Diesel engines with direct injection largely depend on the fuel injection course. Therefore, an ever more extensive and detailed knowledge about the injection course and the parameters influencing the internal processes in the injection system is required - particularly in context with the increasingly stringent emission legislation for passenger car engines. This study deals with a sensitivity analysis carried out by means of simulation on a Common Rail injection system for passenger cars. For this purpose, a hydraulic-mechanical 1D-simulation model was developed. The metrological verification of the model was carried out as a whole as well as individually in its essential modules. The metrology which was specifically developed for this purpose will be described. For the sensitivity analysis, the effects and interactions of a total of 46 parameters were examined. Owing to the large number, the methods of the Design of Experiments (DoE) in combination with the regression analysis were applied. They were further developed for application to process quantities (injection rate course). The analyses were carried out for four exemplary operating points in three different variation areas of each parameter. The design range (e.g. component variants), the changing range (e.g. wear) and the tolerance range (e.g. drawing tolerances) were defined. In the design range, the modifications of the diameter of the nozzle needle and control piston as well as the diameters of the control orifices produced the strongest effects on the injection rate course. In the tolerance range and in the modification range, mainly the flow tolerances of supply and discharge orifice had an effect in the case of short injections while the flow tolerances of the nozzle holes in particular had an effect on the injection rate course in the case of longer injections. The respective active mechanisms were examined and will be presented

  2. Assessment of Carbon Sequestration in German Alley Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsonkova, P. B.; Quinkenstein, A.; Böhm, C.; Freese, D.

    2012-04-01

    Alley cropping systems (ACS) are agroforestry practices in which perennial trees or shrubs are grown in wide rows and arable crops are cultivated in the alleys between the tree rows. Recently, ACS which integrate stripes of short rotation coppices into conventional agricultural sites have gained interest in Germany. These systems can be used for simultaneous production of crops and woody biomass which enables farmers to diversify the provision of market goods. Adding trees into the agricultural landscape creates additional benefits for the farmer and society also known as ecosystem services. An ecosystem service provided by land use systems is carbon sequestration. The literature indicates that ACS are able to store more carbon compared to agriculture and their implementation may lead to greater benefits for the environment and society. Moreover, carbon sequestration in ACS could be included in carbon trading schemes and farmers rewarded additionally for the provision of this ecosystem service. However, methods are required which are easy to use and provide reliable information regarding change in carbon sequestration with change of the land use practice. In this context, our aim was to develop a methodology to assess carbon sequestration benefit provided by ACS in Germany. Therefore, the change of carbon in both soil and biomass had to be considered. To predict the change in soil carbon our methodology combined the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories and the soil organic carbon balance recommended by the Association of German Agricultural Investigation and Research Centers (VDLUFA). To reflect the change in biomass carbon average annual yields were adopted. The results showed that ACS established on agricultural sites can increase the carbon stored because in the new soil-plant system carbon content is higher compared to agriculture. ACS have been recommended as suitable land use systems for marginal sites, such as post-mining areas. In

  3. Photoelectric schlieren method used to study the properties of diesel engine injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time dependence of the fuel flow rate issuing from the injector nozzle represents very important information concerning the properties of Diesel engine injection systems. By analysing the delivery rate, it is possible to judge a new design, and the modifications and adjustments of Diesel engine injection systems. A number of devices for measuring the delivery rate, frequently founded on mechanical principles, have also been constructed. Mechanical methods are laborious, require complicated measuring instruments, and the analysis of the results is quite tedious. For investigating the delivery rate, one can also use the intensity of the luminous flux of the light ray which is intersected, and consequently its intensity decreased, by the flow of the delivered fuel. The schlieren method can be used for this purpose, employing a thin beam of parallel light rays and a photoelectric sensor placed immediately beyond the cut-off slit. After adjustment and calibration, the variations of the original electric signal represent the time variation of the delivery rate by the nozzle

  4. Ultrasonic measurement of gap between calandria tube and liquid injection shutdown system tube in PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sag of CT or liquid injection shutdown system tubes in pressurized heavy water reactor is known to occur due to irradiation creep and growth during plant operation. When the sag of CT is big enough, the CT tube possibly comes in contact with liquid injection shutdown system tube (LIN) crossing beneath the CT, which subsequently may prevent the safe operation. It is therefore necessary to check the gap between the two tubes in order to confirm no contacts when using a proper measure periodically during the plant life. An ultrasonic gap measuring probe assembly which can be fed through viewing port installed on the calandria was developed and utilized to measure the sags of both tubes in a pressurized heavy water reactor in Korea. It was found that the centerlines of CT and LIN can be precisely detected by ultrasonic wave. The gaps between two tubes were easily obtained from the relative distance of the measured centerline elevations of the tubes. But the measured gap data observed at the viewing port were actually not the data at the crossing point of CT and LIN. To get the actual gap between two tubes, mathematical modeling for the deflection curves of two tubes was used. The sags of CT and LIN tubes were also obtained by comparison of the present centerlines with the initial elevations at the beginning of plant operation. The gaps between two tubes in the unmeasurable regions were calculated based on the measurement data and the channel power distribution

  5. Numerical Analysis of Pressure Pulses in the Jerk Fuel Injection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Baker

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer software has been developed and described in the present study of thorough parametric analysis and design of a mechanical diesel fuel injection system. The method is based on the numerical solution of one dimensional, unsteady, incompressible flow equations through the fuel pipe along with appropriate initial condition, pump end boundary condition and nozzle end boundary condition. Method of characteristics was used to solve the mathematical model by using a finite difference technique. The computer program has been written in Visual Fortran, which is capable of calculating pressure, velocity and other related parameters at different cam angles at any location of the fuel pipe, including pump and nozzle ends. First of all the numerical scheme was optimized and then its authenticity was verified by comparing its results with calculated and measured results available in the literature. The calculations of the present software were found to have improved agreement and acceptability. It was then used to make a thorough parametric analysis of a typical fuel injection system. The results have been presented in the form of graphs.

  6. The effects of centrally injected arachidonic acid on respiratory system: Involvement of cyclooxygenase to thromboxane signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, Leman Gizem; Guvenc, Gokcen; Altinbas, Burcin; Niaz, Nasir; Yalcin, Murat

    2016-05-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is present in the phospholipids of the cell membranes of the body and is abundant in the brain. Exogenously administered AA has been shown to affect brain metabolism and to exhibit cardiovascular and neuroendocrine actions. However, little is known regarding its respiratory actions and/or central mechanism of its respiratory effects. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the possible effects of centrally injected AA on respiratory system and the mediation of the central cyclooxygenase (COX) to thromboxane A2 (TXA2) signaling pathway on AA-induced respiratory effects in anaesthetized rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of AA induced dose- and time-dependent increase in tidal volume, respiratory rates and respiratory minute ventilation and also caused an increase in partial oxygen pressure (pO2) and decrease in partial carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2) in male anaesthetized Spraque Dawley rats. I.c.v. pretreatment with ibuprofen, a non-selective COX inhibitor, completely blocked the hyperventilation and blood gases changes induced by AA. In addition, central pretreatment with different doses of furegrelate, a TXA2 synthesis inhibitor, also partially prevented AA-evoked hyperventilation and blood gases effects. These data explicitly show that centrally administered AA induces hyperventilation with increasing pO2 and decreasing pCO2 levels which are mediated by the activation of central COX to TXA2 signaling pathway. PMID:26767978

  7. Sodium hydroxide injection passivation work for the reactor water clean-up system in a new ABWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies have identified that Co-58 and Co-60 as the primary source of radiation build up on out-of-core components in new BWR plants. The deposition rate of Co on stainless steel and carbon steel is shown to be controlled mainly by the thickness of oxide films and its morphology formed through pretreatment. The passivation treatment was implemented accordingly at Lungmen unit 1 in an ABWR plant in September 2010. It is determined that the passivation conditions should be maintained at the temperature of 180∼230 deg. C, pH of 8.0∼8.5 and dissolved oxygen content over 400 ppb. The films would provide effective protection against radioactive deposition. The application of the pre-filming process on piping before the pre-operation is done during the flow induced vibration test (FIV) period. The protectiveness of stable magnetite can be increased by the pH control under the specific condition. The pre-filming control process and evaluation of passivation effectiveness is discussed in detail based on the surface analysis of the passivated specimens. Many efforts have been devoted to sodium hydroxide injection method for pH control of the system through the filter demineralizer under smooth operation. A comparison of test specimens on the properties of oxide film formed between laboratory and in-plant tests through alkaline treatment are also shown in this report. (authors)

  8. Predictive Engineering Tools for Injection-Molded Long-Carbon-Fiber Thermoplastic Composites - Fourth FY 2015 Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Fifield, Leonard S.; Wollan, Eric J.; Roland, Dale; Gandhi, Umesh N.; Mori, Steven; Lambert, Gregory; Baird, Donald G.; Wang, Jin; Costa, Franco; Tucker III, Charles L.

    2015-11-13

    During the last quarter of FY 2015, the following technical progress has been made toward project milestones: 1) PlastiComp used the PlastiComp direct in-line (D-LFT) Pushtrusion system to injection mold 40 30wt% LCF/PP parts with ribs, 40 30wt% LCF/PP parts without ribs, 10 30wt% LCF/PA66 parts with ribs, and 35 30wt% LCF/PA66 parts without ribs. In addition, purge materials from the injection molding nozzle were obtained for fiber length analysis, and molding parameters were sent to PNNL for process modeling. 2) Magna cut samples at four selected locations (named A, B, C and D) from the non-ribbed Magna-molded parts based on a plan discussed with PNNL and the team and shipped these samples to Virginia Tech for fiber orientation and length measurements. 3) Virginia Tech started fiber orientation and length measurements for the samples taken from the complex parts using Virginia Tech’s established procedure. 4) PNNL and Autodesk built ASMI models for the complex parts with and without ribs, reviewed process datasheets and performed preliminary analyses of these complex parts using the actual molding parameters received from Magna and PlastiComp to compare predicted to experimental mold filling patterns. 5) Autodesk assisted PNNL in developing the workflow to use Moldflow fiber orientation and length results in ABAQUS® simulations. 6) Autodesk advised the team on the practicality and difficulty of material viscosity characterization from the D-LFT process. 7) PNNL developed a procedure to import fiber orientation and length results from a 3D ASMI analysis to a 3D ABAQUS® model for structural analyses of the complex part for later weight reduction study. 8) In discussion with PNNL and Magna, Toyota developed mechanical test setups and built fixtures for three-point bending and torsion tests of the complex parts. 9) Toyota built a finite element model for the complex parts subjected to torsion loading. 10) PNNL built the 3D ABAQUS® model of the complex ribbed

  9. Systemic effects of geoengineering by terrestrial carbon dioxide removal on carbon related planetary boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Vera; Donges, Jonathan; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    The planetary boundaries framework as proposed by Rockström et al. (2009) provides guidelines for ecological boundaries, the transgression of which is likely to result in a shift of Earth system functioning away from the relatively stable Holocene state. As the climate change boundary is already close to be transgressed, several geoengineering (GE) methods are discussed, aiming at a reduction of atmospheric carbon concentrations to control the Earth's energy balance. One of the proposed GE methods is carbon extraction from the atmosphere via biological carbon sequestration. In case mitigation efforts fail to substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions, this form of GE could act as potential measure to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. We here study the possible influences of human interactions in the Earth system on carbon related planetary boundaries in the form of geoengineering (terrestrial carbon dioxide removal). We use a conceptual model specifically designed to investigate fundamental carbon feedbacks between land, ocean and atmosphere (Anderies et al., 2013) and modify it to include an additional geoengineering component. With that we analyze the existence and stability of a safe operating space for humanity, which is here conceptualized in three of the 9 proposed dimensions, namely climate change, ocean acidification and land-use. References: J. M. Anderies et al., The topology of non-linear global carbon dynamics: from tipping points to planetary boundaries. Environ. Res. Lett., 8(4):044048 (2013) J. Rockström et al., A safe operating space for humanity. Nature 461 (7263), 472-475 (2009)

  10. Engineered safety in development of liquid poison injection system (shut down system-2) for 500 MWe PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The provision of shut down systems (SDS) is a mandatory requirement for safety of any nuclear reactor. The SDS shall be capable of making and holding the core adequately subcritical in the event of any anticipated operational occurrence and postulated accident conditions. The shut down function will perform as intended when its design and components are thoroughly evaluated for their reliability and effectiveness. A full scale mock up for one injection unit was designed and developed at Hall No.7, BARC. Experimental studies were carried out to qualify the design and evolve process parameters such as gas tank pressure, poison discharge rate and poison injection time. In liquid poison injection system i.e. shutdown system -2, there is no physical barrier, between the two liquids i.e. the poison and the moderator. A liquid in liquid interface, called poison moderator interface (PMI) separates these fluids. Extensive lab scale studies have been carried out on PMI movement study i.e. the interface movement due to molecular diffusion and due to process disturbances under simulated reactor condition. On the basis of lab scale results, a full-scale PMI setup has been designed and developed to generate plant data. From reactor safety consideration, the floating ball in poison tank is designed in such a way that it prevents the over pressurisation of calandria. For this purpose a non-intrusive ultrasonic ball detection system (U-BDS) has been developed. This paper covers the PMI system for 500 MWe PHWR with relevant safety aspects and describes in detail, the experimental results of PMI study. The engineered safety in design, methodology and qualification of U-BDS and its role intended in performance of SDS-2 have been also discussed in the paper

  11. A Traffic injection methodology with support for system-level synchronization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahadevan, Shankar; Angiolini, Federico; Sparsø, Jens;

    2007-01-01

    models to be still unavailable when tuning communication performance. Traditionally, synthetic traffic generators have been used to overcome such an issue. However, target applications increasingly present non-trivial execution flows and synchronization patterns, especially in presence of underlying...... operating systems and when exploiting interrupt facilities. This property makes it very difficult to generate realistic test traffic. This paper presents a selection of application flows, representative of a wide class of applications with complex interrupt-based synchronization; a reference methodology to......In highly parallel Multi-Processor System-on-Chip (MPSoC) design stages, interconnect performance is a key optimization target. To effectively achieve this objective, true-to-life IP core traffic must be injected and analyzed. However, the parallel development of MPSoC components may cause IP core...

  12. Fuel injection and mixing systems and methods of using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chien-Pei; Short, John

    2010-08-03

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided. The system includes an injector body having a fuel inlet and a fuel outlet, and defines a fuel flow path between the inlet and outlet. The fuel flow path may include a generally helical flow passage having an inlet end portion disposed proximate the fuel inlet of the injector body. The flow path also may include an expansion chamber downstream from and in fluid communication with the helical flow passage, as well as a fuel delivery device in fluid communication with the expansion chamber for delivering fuel. Heating means is also provided in thermal communication with the injector body. The heating means may be adapted and configured for maintaining the injector body at a predetermined temperature to heat fuel traversing the flow path. A method of preheating and delivering fuel is also provided.

  13. Automatic microdistillation flow-injection system for the spectrophotometric determination of fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Katsuhisa; Shimoda, Tetsuro; Kokusen, Hisao; Nakano, Shigenori

    2005-03-31

    An automatic flow-injection (FI) system including on-line separation by microdistillation and spectrophotometric detection has been developed for the determination of trace amounts of fluoride. This ion was separated from sample matrix by distillation in the presence of sulfuric and phosphoric acids, and was subsequently determined with spectrophotometry based on the mixed-ligand complex of lanthanum(III)-fluoride-alizarin complexone. The proposed FI system has high sampling frequency (20 samplesh(-1)), small sample size (600 microl) and the dynamic range of 0.05-15 mgl(-1) with relative standard deviations of below 1.2%. Interfering ions such as aluminum(III) and iron(III) was effectively eliminated. The method was successfully applied to the determination of fluoride in industrial drainage after water treatment. PMID:18969965

  14. Feed injection, riser-termination systems replaced in fast-track revamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlstrom, B.F.; Ham, K.; Becker, M.E.; Hum, T.P. [Consumers` Co-operative Refineries Ltd., Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada); Lacijan, L.; Lorsbach, T. [UOP, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1996-07-29

    In 1995, Consumers` Co-operative Refineries Ltd. (CCRL) successfully revamped the 19,500 b/sd UOP fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit at its Regina, Sask., refinery. The low-cost revamp included a new, elevated Optimix feed-injection system and the first commercial implementation of vortex separation system (VSS) riser termination. VSS is a novel application of high-containment, vortex separation technology for the rapid separation of catalyst and hydrocarbon products. This first of two articles outlines the objectives of the revamp and describes the technologies incorporated. The second article will discuss the project execution schedule and detail the economic and operational benefits realized as a result of the revamp.

  15. Voltage inverter with push-pull topology to inject energy into electrical systems with modulation SPWM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Charles M. Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposal for a voltage inverter topology based on push-pull converters, switched at high frequency to inject energy into the grid from a source of DC power. A system using two reverse voltage static converters provides the power grid; energy in the form of alternating current, that can work in conjunction with the provision of utility power. Aiming at the possible use of renewable energy sources, that can be stored in the form of voltage continuous, such as wind, solar, hydroelectric and others. The functioning of topology is presented, such as the power and control circuits, as well as sizing components, theoretical and practical results achieved with the assembly of a prototype 100W of power and switching in 40khz, which after filtering provides the frequency of 60Hz, which is compatible with the Brazilian electrical system.

  16. Spectrophotometric determination of uranium and thorium with arsenazo III in the flow injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple system for flow injection analysis (FIA) with double confluence was built using a filter photocolorimeter, an analogic potentiometer, 'plexiglass' flow cuvettes, polyethylene colls and tubes, 'plexiglass' commuter and peristaltic pump to introduce solutions and gravity as flow source. The system was dimensioned and studied using only Arsenazo III solutions. Spectrophotometric methods for uranium and thorium using Arsenazo III were studied using a scanning spectrophotometer and after chosing adequate red filter, adapted to photocolorimetry using flow cuvettes and FIA. Synthetic samples, phosphate rock, and process samples from uranium recovery of dolomites were analysed. Rocks of Morro do Ferro (MG, Brazil), Caldasite (Baddeleyte + Zirconite), Zirconite, Monazite from a program for certification and certified rocks (Dunite DC-1, CANMET) were analysed without chemical separation of Th (IV) and with ion exchange separation in semi-micro columns of cation exchange resin (Dowex 50). (Author)

  17. Miniature Carbon Dioxide Sensor for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase 1 has seen the development of a revolutionary new type of sensor for making carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements from small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) and...

  18. Design of a microscopic electrical impedance tomography system using two current injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a novel design of a microscopic electrical impedance tomography (micro-EIT) system for long-term noninvasive monitoring of cell or tissue cultures. The core of the micro-EIT system is a sample container including two pairs of current-injection electrodes and 360 voltage-sensing electrodes. In designing the container, we took advantage of a hexagonal structure with fixed dimensions and electrode configuration. This eliminated technical difficulties related to the unknown irregular boundary geometry of an imaging object in conventional medical EIT. Attaching a pair of large current-injection electrodes fully covering the left and right sides of the hexagonal container, we generated uniform parallel current density inside the container filled with saline. The 360 voltage-sensing electrodes were placed on the front, bottom and back sides of the hexagonal container in three sets of 8 × 15 arrays with equal gaps between them. We measured voltage differences between all neighboring pairs along the direction of the parallel current pathway. For the homogeneous container, all measured voltages must be the same since the voltage changes linearly along that direction. Any anomaly in the container perturbed the current pathways and therefore equipotential lines to produce different differential voltage data. For conductivity image reconstructions, we adopted a lately developed image reconstruction algorithm for this electrode configuration to first produce projected conductivity images on the front, bottom and back sides. Using a backprojection method, we reconstructed three-dimensional conductivity images from those projection images. To improve the image quality and also to meet the mathematical requirement on the uniqueness of a reconstructed image, we used a second pair of thin and long current-injection electrodes located at the middle of the front and back sides. This paper describes the design and construction of such a micro-EIT system with experimental

  19. Modeling and calculation of open carbon dioxide refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A model of open refrigeration system is developed. • The state of CO2 has great effect on Refrigeration capacity loss by heat transfer. • Refrigeration capacity loss by remaining CO2 has little relation to the state of CO2. • Calculation results are in agreement with the test results. - Abstract: Based on the analysis of the properties of carbon dioxide, an open carbon dioxide refrigeration system is proposed, which is responsible for the situation without external electricity unit. A model of open refrigeration system is developed, and the relationship between the storage environment of carbon dioxide and refrigeration capacity is conducted. Meanwhile, a test platform is developed to simulation the performance of the open carbon dioxide refrigeration system. By comparing the theoretical calculations and the experimental results, several conclusions are obtained as follows: refrigeration capacity loss by heat transfer in supercritical state is much more than that in two-phase region and the refrigeration capacity loss by remaining carbon dioxide has little relation to the state of carbon dioxide. The results will be helpful to the use of open carbon dioxide refrigeration

  20. Supervised injectable heroin treatment and fatal overdose: a system dynamics model to assess the impact of supervised injectable heroin treatment on fatal overdoses in Bergen, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasiadou, Eftychia

    2014-01-01

    The city of Bergen, Norway, is troubled by a large number of deaths caused by opioid related overdoses. The number of deaths is also an indication of drug addict suffering, close family worries, drug trade and other criminal activities, costs of policing and health care etc. While all of these are important problems, focus in this thesis is on the number of deaths and on the effects of a policy called Supervised Injectable Heroin (SIH) treatment.A system dynamics model is built in order to ex...

  1. Rheological and thermal performance of newly developed binder systems for ceramic injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Kasparkova, Vera; Hnatkova, Eva

    2016-05-01

    In a novel binder system, carnauba wax was considered to replace the synthetic backbone polymers (polyolefins) enhancing the environmental sustainability of Ceramic Injection Molding (CIM) technology. The paper presents comparison of the rheological performance and thermal behavior of the aluminum oxide CIM feedstocks based on a binder containing carnauba wax with those consisting of a commercial binder. Further, acrawax (N, N'-Ethylene Bis-stearamide) has been considered as another possible substitute of polyolefins. For both proposed substitutes there is a significant reduction in viscosity, and in case of carnauba wax based feedstock also in processing temperature, which is essential for injection molding of reactive powders. Thermal characterization comprised analyses of single neat binders, their mixtures and mixtures with aluminum oxide. The presence of powder lowered melting temperatures of all tested binders except of polyolefin. Further depression in melting point of poly(ethylene glycol) is observed in combination with polyolefin in the presence of powder, and it is related to changes in size of the crystalline domains.

  2. Kinetics of carbonate dissolution in CO2-saturated aqueous system at reservoir conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng; Crawshaw, John P.; Maitland, Geoffrey; Trusler, J. P. Martin

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, carbon capture and storage (CCS) has emerged as a key technology for limiting anthropogenic CO2 emissions while allowing the continued utilisation of fossil fuels. The most promising geological storage sites are deep saline aquifers because the capacity, integrity and injection economics are most favourable, and the environmental impact can be minimal. Many rock-fluid chemical reactions are known to occur both during and after CO2 injection in saline aquifers. The importance of rock-fluid reactions in the (CO2 + H2O) system can be understood in terms of their impact on the integrity and stability of both the formation rocks and cap rocks. The chemical interactions between CO2-acidified brines and the reservoir minerals can influence the porosity and permeability of the formations, resulting in changes in the transport processes occurring during CO2 storage. Since carbonate minerals are abundant in sedimentary rocks, one of the requirements to safely implement CO2 storage in saline aquifers is to characterise the reactivity of carbonate minerals in aqueous solutions at reservoir conditions. In this work, we reported measurements of the intrinsic rate of carbonate dissolution in CO2-saturated water under high-temperature high-pressure reservoir conditions extending up to 373 K and 14 MPa. The rate of carbonate dissolution in CO2-free HCl(aq) was also measured at ambient pressure at temperatures up to 353 K. Various pure minerals and reservoir rocks were investigated in this study, including single-crystals of calcite and magnesite, and samples of dolomite, chalks and sandstones. A specially-designed batch reactor system, implementing the rotating disc technique, was used to obtain the intrinsic reaction rate at the solid/liquid interface, free of mass transfer effects. The effective area and mineralogy of the exposed surface was determined by a combination of surface characterisation techniques including XRD, SEM, EDX and optical microscopy. The

  3. CARBON NANOTUBES: AN APPROACH TO NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Alai et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes are cylindrical carbon molecules have novel properties, making them potentially useful in many applications in nanotechnology, electronics, optics, and other fields of material science as well as potential uses in architectural fields. They have unique electronic, mechanical, optical and chemical properties that make them good candidates for a wide variety of applications, including drug transporters, new therapeutics, delivery systems and diagnostics. Their unique surface area, stiffness, strength and resilience have led to much excitement in the field of pharmacy. Nanotubes are categorized as single-walled nanotubes, multiple walled nanotubes. Various techniques have been developed to produce nanotubes in sizeable quantities, including arc discharge, laser ablation, chemical vapor deposition. They can pass through membranes, carrying therapeutic drugs, vaccines and nucleic acids deep into the cell to targets previously unreachable. Purification of the tubes can be divided into a couple of main techniques: oxidation, acid treatment, annealing, sonication, filtering and functionalization techniques. The main problem of insolubility in aqueous media has been solved by developing a synthetic protocol that allows highly water-soluble carbon NTs to be obtained. The modifications are done to improve efficiency of carbon nanotubes by formulating luminescent carbon nanotubes, ultrathin carbon nanoneedles, magnetically guided nanotubes. The application of carbon nanotube in tissue engineering, drug carrier release system, wound healing, in cancer treatment and as biosensor. Researchers have recently developed a new approach to Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in the treatment of cancer using substituted Carborane-Appended Water-Soluble single-wall carbon nanotubes.

  4. Soil-Carbon Measurement System Based on Inelastic Neutron Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increase in the atmospheric CO2 is associated with concurrent increase in the amount of carbon sequestered in the soil. For better understanding of the carbon cycle it is imperative to establish a better and extensive database of the carbon concentrations in various soil types, in order to develop improved models for changes in the global climate. Non-invasive soil carbon measurement is based on Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS). This method has been used successfully to measure total body carbon in human beings. The system consists of a pulsed neutron generator that is based on D-T reaction, which produces 14 MeV neutrons, a neutron flux monitoring detector and a couple of large NaI(Tl), 6'' diameter by 6'' high, spectrometers [4]. The threshold energy for INS reaction in carbon is 4.8 MeV. Following INS of 14 MeV neutrons in carbon 4.44 MeV photons are emitted and counted during a gate pulse period of 10 μsec. The repetition rate of the neutron generator is 104 pulses per sec. The gamma spectra are acquired only during the neutron generator gate pulses. The INS method for soil carbon content measurements provides a non-destructive, non-invasive tool, which can be optimized in order to develop a system for in field measurements

  5. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2004-04-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. Our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. The first two of these areas have resulted in valuable information about the limitations of lubricity and viscosity additives that are presently available in terms of their impact on the viscosity of DME and on wear rates on injector hardware. The third area, that of development of an injector durability test stand, has not resulted in a functioning experiment. Some information is provided in this report to identify the remaining tasks that need to be performed to make the injector stand operational. The key observations from the work are that when blended at 25 wt.% in either diesel fuel or Biodiesel fuel, DME requires more than 5 wt

  6. Recovery Act: Multi-Objective Optimization Approaches for the Design of Carbon Geological Sequestration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bau, Domenico

    2013-05-31

    The main objective of this project is to provide training opportunities for two graduate students in order to improve the human capital and skills required for implementing and deploying carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies. The graduate student effort will be geared towards the formulation and implementation of an integrated simulation-optimization framework to provide a rigorous scientific support to the design CCS systems that, for any given site: (a) maximize the amount of carbon storage; (b) minimize the total cost associated with the CCS project; (c) minimize the risk of CO2 upward leakage from injected formations. The framework will stem from a combination of data obtained from geophysical investigations, a multiphase flow model, and a stochastic multi-objective optimization algorithm. The methodology will rely on a geostatistical approach to generate ensembles of scenarios of the parameters that are expected to have large sensitivities and uncertainties on the model response and thus on the risk assessment, in particular the permeability properties of the injected formation and its cap rock. The safety theme will be addressed quantitatively by including the risk of CO2 upward leakage from the injected formations as one the objectives that should be minimized in the optimization problem. The research performed under this grant is significant to academic researchers and professionals weighing the benefits, costs, and risks of CO2 sequestration. Project managers in initial planning stages of CCS projects will be able to generate optimal tradeoff surfaces and with corresponding injection plans for potential sequestration sites leading to cost efficient preliminary project planning. In addition, uncertainties concerning CCS have been researched. Uncertainty topics included Uncertainty Analysis of Continuity of Geological Confining Units using Categorical Indicator Kriging (CIK) and the Influence of Uncertain Parameters on the Leakage of CO2 to

  7. Investigation of the heat pump water heater using economizer vapor injection system and mixture of R22/R600a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Cao; Kai, Wang; Shouguo, Wang; Ziwen, Xing; Pengcheng, Shu [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianing west road, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2009-05-15

    This paper presents the experimental study of a heat pump water heater (HPWH) using economizer vapor injection system and mixture of R22/R600a. Performances of HPWH using economizer vapor injection system are compared with that at different mixed mass ratios of R22/R600a. Study demonstrates that the heating capacity and energy efficiency ratio (EER) of the unit increased, and the discharge temperature of compressor decreased when using vapor injection and mixing refrigerant of R22/R600a. It is also found that the HPWH unit with economizer vapor injection system has a better performance for the high outlet water temperature under lower temperature conditions at 15% mass ratio of R600a for the mixing refrigerant. In addition, fundamental and practical influence of vapor injection pressure on the HPWH performance has been investigated experimentally. The simplified model is proposed for predicting the optimal vapor injection pressure of compressor using the mixing refrigerant R22/R600a. (author)

  8. Earth system responses to cumulative carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinacher, M.; Joos, F.

    2015-07-01

    Information on the relationship between cumulative fossil carbon emissions and multiple climate targets are essential to design emission mitigation and climate adaptation strategies. In this study, the transient responses in different climate variables are quantified for a large set of multi-forcing scenarios extended to year 2300 towards stabilization and in idealized experiments using the Bern3D-LPJ carbon-climate model. The model outcomes are constrained by 26 physical and biogeochemical observational data sets in a Bayesian, Monte-Carlo type framework. Cumulative fossil emissions of 1000 Gt C result in a global mean surface air temperature change of 1.88 °C (68 % confidence interval (c.i.): 1.28 to 2.69 °C), a decrease in surface ocean pH of 0.19 (0.18 to 0.22), and in steric sea level rise of 20 cm (13 to 27 cm until 2300). Linearity between cumulative emissions and transient response is high for pH and reasonably high for surface air and sea surface temperatures, but less pronounced for changes in Atlantic Meridional Overturning, Southern Ocean and tropical surface water saturation with respect to biogenic structures of calcium carbonate, and carbon stocks in soils. The slopes of the relationships change when CO2 is stabilized. The Transient Climate Response is constrained, primarily by long-term ocean heat observations, to 1.7 °C (68 % c.i.: 1.3 to 2.2 °C) and the Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity to 2.9 °C (2.0 to 4.2 °C). This is consistent with results by CMIP5 models, but inconsistent with recent studies that relied on short-term air temperature data affected by natural climate variability.

  9. Earth system responses to cumulative carbon emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Steinacher

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Information on the relationship between cumulative fossil carbon emissions and multiple climate targets are essential to design emission mitigation and climate adaptation strategies. In this study, the transient responses in different climate variables are quantified for a large set of multi-forcing scenarios extended to year 2300 towards stabilization and in idealized experiments using the Bern3D-LPJ carbon-climate model. The model outcomes are constrained by 26 physical and biogeochemical observational data sets in a Bayesian, Monte-Carlo type framework. Cumulative fossil emissions of 1000 Gt C result in a global mean surface air temperature change of 1.88 °C (68 % confidence interval (c.i.: 1.28 to 2.69 °C, a decrease in surface ocean pH of 0.19 (0.18 to 0.22, and in steric sea level rise of 20 cm (13 to 27 cm until 2300. Linearity between cumulative emissions and transient response is high for pH and reasonably high for surface air and sea surface temperatures, but less pronounced for changes in Atlantic Meridional Overturning, Southern Ocean and tropical surface water saturation with respect to biogenic structures of calcium carbonate, and carbon stocks in soils. The slopes of the relationships change when CO2 is stabilized. The Transient Climate Response is constrained, primarily by long-term ocean heat observations, to 1.7 °C (68 % c.i.: 1.3 to 2.2 °C and the Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity to 2.9 °C (2.0 to 4.2 °C. This is consistent with results by CMIP5 models, but inconsistent with recent studies that relied on short-term air temperature data affected by natural climate variability.

  10. Demonstration of efficient spin injection and detection in various systems using Fe3O4 based spin injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Shwetha G.; Anil Kumar, P. S.

    2016-05-01

    Half-metal based spin injector devices for spin injection and detection application have proven to be efficient owing to their enhanced injection and detection efficiency. In this study, we extend the all-electrical spin injection and detection studies into different systems like Si and GaAs using half-metal Fe3O4 as a spin injector in the presence and absence of tunnel barrier MgO. Injection into GaAs is verified using conventional Fe/MgO/GaAs devices. Room temperature spin injection into both p-type and n-type Si is achieved and the spin injection could be observed down to 100K. Obtained spin relaxation time for these n-type and p-type Si at different temperatures agree well with the existing reports. Further, the temperature dependent spin injection and detection is also successfully achieved in Fe3O4/GaAs (n-type) Schottky devices, and a comparison study of the results with control experiment using Fe/MgO/GaAs (n-type) devices confirm the relaxation to be similar in the GaAs substrate, as expected. Hence, even Fe3O4 material can be effectively used as an efficient spin injector as well as detector, making it an attractive candidate for the room temperature spintronics device applications.

  11. Demonstration of efficient spin injection and detection in various systems using Fe3O4 based spin injectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shwetha G. Bhat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Half-metal based spin injector devices for spin injection and detection application have proven to be efficient owing to their enhanced injection and detection efficiency. In this study, we extend the all-electrical spin injection and detection studies into different systems like Si and GaAs using half-metal Fe3O4 as a spin injector in the presence and absence of tunnel barrier MgO. Injection into GaAs is verified using conventional Fe/MgO/GaAs devices. Room temperature spin injection into both p-type and n-type Si is achieved and the spin injection could be observed down to 100K. Obtained spin relaxation time for these n-type and p-type Si at different temperatures agree well with the existing reports. Further, the temperature dependent spin injection and detection is also successfully achieved in Fe3O4/GaAs (n-type Schottky devices, and a comparison study of the results with control experiment using Fe/MgO/GaAs (n-type devices confirm the relaxation to be similar in the GaAs substrate, as expected. Hence, even Fe3O4 material can be effectively used as an efficient spin injector as well as detector, making it an attractive candidate for the room temperature spintronics device applications.

  12. Current systematic carbon cycle observations and needs for implementing a policy-relevant carbon observing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ciais

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A globally integrated carbon observation and analysis system is needed to improve the fundamental understanding of the global carbon cycle, to improve our ability to project future changes, and to verify the effectiveness of policies aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Building an integrated carbon observation system requires transformational advances from the existing sparse, exploratory framework towards a dense, robust, and sustained system in all components: anthropogenic emissions, the atmosphere, the ocean, and the terrestrial biosphere. The goal of this study is to identify the current state of carbon observations and needs for a global integrated carbon observation system that can be built in the next decade. A key conclusion is the substantial expansion (by several orders of magnitude of the ground-based observation networks required to reach the high spatial resolution for CO2 and CH4 fluxes, and for carbon stocks for addressing policy relevant objectives, and attributing flux changes to underlying processes in each region. In order to establish flux and stock diagnostics over remote areas such as the southern oceans, tropical forests and the Arctic, in situ observations will have to be complemented with remote-sensing measurements. Remote sensing offers the advantage of dense spatial coverage and frequent revisit. A key challenge is to bring remote sensing measurements to a level of long-term consistency and accuracy so that they can be efficiently combined in models to reduce uncertainties, in synergy with ground-based data. Bringing tight observational constraints on fossil fuel and land use change emissions will be the biggest challenge for deployment of a policy-relevant integrated carbon observation system. This will require in-situ and remotely sensed data at much higher resolution and density than currently achieved for natural fluxes, although over a small land area (cities, industrial

  13. Current systematic carbon cycle observations and needs for implementing a policy-relevant carbon observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciais, P.; Dolman, A. J.; Bombelli, A.; Duren, R.; Peregon, A.; Rayner, P. J.; Miller, C.; Gobron, N.; Kinderman, G.; Marland, G.; Gruber, N.; Chevallier, F.; Andres, R. J.; Balsamo, G.; Bopp, L.; Bréon, F.-M.; Broquet, G.; Dargaville, R.; Battin, T. J.; Borges, A.; Bovensmann, H.; Buchwitz, M.; Butler, J.; Canadell, J. G.; Cook, R. B.; DeFries, R.; Engelen, R.; Gurney, K. R.; Heinze, C.; Heimann, M.; Held, A.; Henry, M.; Law, B.; Luyssaert, S.; Miller, J.; Moriyama, T.; Moulin, C.; Myneni, R. B.; Nussli, C.; Obersteiner, M.; Ojima, D.; Pan, Y.; Paris, J.-D.; Piao, S. L.; Poulter, B.; Plummer, S.; Quegan, S.; Raymond, P.; Reichstein, M.; Rivier, L.; Sabine, C.; Schimel, D.; Tarasova, O.; Valentini, R.; van der Werf, G.; Wickland, D.; Williams, M.; Zehner, C.

    2013-07-01

    A globally integrated carbon observation and analysis system is needed to improve the fundamental understanding of the global carbon cycle, to improve our ability to project future changes, and to verify the effectiveness of policies aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Building an integrated carbon observation system requires transformational advances from the existing sparse, exploratory framework towards a dense, robust, and sustained system in all components: anthropogenic emissions, the atmosphere, the ocean, and the terrestrial biosphere. The goal of this study is to identify the current state of carbon observations and needs for a global integrated carbon observation system that can be built in the next decade. A key conclusion is the substantial expansion (by several orders of magnitude) of the ground-based observation networks required to reach the high spatial resolution for CO2 and CH4 fluxes, and for carbon stocks for addressing policy relevant objectives, and attributing flux changes to underlying processes in each region. In order to establish flux and stock diagnostics over remote areas such as the southern oceans, tropical forests and the Arctic, in situ observations will have to be complemented with remote-sensing measurements. Remote sensing offers the advantage of dense spatial coverage and frequent revisit. A key challenge is to bring remote sensing measurements to a level of long-term consistency and accuracy so that they can be efficiently combined in models to reduce uncertainties, in synergy with ground-based data. Bringing tight observational constraints on fossil fuel and land use change emissions will be the biggest challenge for deployment of a policy-relevant integrated carbon observation system. This will require in-situ and remotely sensed data at much higher resolution and density than currently achieved for natural fluxes, although over a small land area (cities, industrial sites, power plants

  14. Development of laser beam injection system for the Edge Thomson Scattering (ETS) in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on the design and development of the laser injection system for the ITER Edge Thomson Scattering system (ETS). The ITER ETS achieves a temporal resolution of 100 Hz by firing two 50 Hz laser beams alternatively. The use of dual lasers enables us to perform the Thomson scattering measurements at a temporal resolution of 50 Hz in case that one of the laser systems stops functioning. A new type of beam combiner was developed to obtain a single beam that is collinear and fixed linearly polarized from two laser beams using a motor-driven rotating half-wave plate. The rotating half-wave plate method does not induce misalignment even if the rotating mechanism malfunctions. The combined beam is relayed from the diagnostic hall to the plasma using mirror optics and is absorbed at the beam dump integrated on the inner blanket. The beam alignment system was designed to direct the laser beam onto the center of the beam dump head. The beam position at the beam dump is monitored by four alignment laser beams which propagate parallel to the diagnostic Nd:YAG laser beam and imaging systems installed outside the diagnostic port

  15. Development of laser beam injection system for the Edge Thomson Scattering (ETS) in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsuka, E.; Hatae, T.; Suitoh, S.; Ohara, M.; Hagita, K.; Inoue, K.; Bassan, M.; Walsh, M.; Itami, K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design and development of the laser injection system for the ITER Edge Thomson Scattering system (ETS). The ITER ETS achieves a temporal resolution of 100 Hz by firing two 50 Hz laser beams alternatively. The use of dual lasers enables us to perform the Thomson scattering measurements at a temporal resolution of 50 Hz in case that one of the laser systems stops functioning. A new type of beam combiner was developed to obtain a single beam that is collinear and fixed linearly polarized from two laser beams using a motor-driven rotating half-wave plate. The rotating half-wave plate method does not induce misalignment even if the rotating mechanism malfunctions. The combined beam is relayed from the diagnostic hall to the plasma using mirror optics and is absorbed at the beam dump integrated on the inner blanket. The beam alignment system was designed to direct the laser beam onto the center of the beam dump head. The beam position at the beam dump is monitored by four alignment laser beams which propagate parallel to the diagnostic Nd:YAG laser beam and imaging systems installed outside the diagnostic port.

  16. Full scale calcium bromide injection with subsequent mercury oxidation and removal within wet flue gas desulphurization system: Experience at a 700 MW coal-fired power facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Mark Simpson

    The Environmental Protection Agency promulgated the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule, which requires that existing power plants reduce mercury emissions to meet an emission rate of 1.2 lb/TBtu on a 30-day rolling average and that new plants meet a 0.0002 lb/GWHr emission rate. This translates to mercury removals greater than 90% for existing units and greater than 99% for new units. Current state-of-the-art technology for the control of mercury emissions uses activated carbon injected upstream of a fabric filter, a costly proposition. For example, a fabric filter, if not already available, would require a 200M capital investment for a 700 MW size unit. A lower-cost option involves the injection of activated carbon into an existing cold-side electrostatic precipitator. Both options would incur the cost of activated carbon, upwards of 3M per year. The combination of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactors and wet flue gas desulphurization (wet FGD) systems have demonstrated the ability to substantially reduce mercury emissions, especially at units that burn coals containing sufficient halogens. Halogens are necessary for transforming elemental mercury to oxidized mercury, which is water-soluble. Plants burning halogen-deficient coals such as Power River Basin (PRB) coals currently have no alternative but to install activated carbon-based approaches to control mercury emissions. This research consisted of investigating calcium bromide addition onto PRB coal as a method of increasing flue gas halogen concentration. The treated coal was combusted in a 700 MW boiler and the subsequent treated flue gas was introduced into a wet FGD. Short-term parametric and an 83-day longer-term tests were completed to determine the ability of calcium bromine to oxidize mercury and to study the removal of the mercury in a wet FGD. The research goal was to show that calcium bromine addition to PRB coal was a viable approach for meeting the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule

  17. Thermo-mechanical Analysis of Cold Helium Injection into Gas Storage Tanks made of Carbon Steel Following Resistive Transition of the LHC Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Chorowski, M

    1998-01-01

    A resistive transition (quench) of the LHC sector magnets will be followed by cold helium venting to a quench buffer volume of 2000 m3 at ambient temperature. The volume will be composed of eight medi um-pressure (2 MPa) gas storage tanks made of carbon steel, which constrains the temperature of the wall to be higher than -50oC (223 K). The aim of the analysis is the assessment of a possible spot c ooling intensity and thermo-mechanical stresses in the tank wall following helium injection.

  18. The proposed injection system for an asymmetric B Factory in the PEP tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed asymmetric energy B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel at SLAC will require a highly effective and profuse source of low emittance electron and positron bunches. The B factory will consist of two rings of equal size, a 9 GeV electron ring and a 3.1 GeV positron ring, each with 1658 bunches with total circulating currents of 1.5 and 2.1 amperes respectively. As the luminosity lifetime of the collider is expected to be about two hours, the injector should be capable of filling the rings in a small fraction of an hour. It turns out that with some simple modifications, the SLC linac with its damping rings and positron source is ideally suited to fulfill this function effectively. The overall injection system is described in this paper. 4 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Efficient, radiation-hardened, 800-keV neutral beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances and new concepts in negative ion generation, transport, acceleration, and neutrailzation make it appear likely that an efficient, radiation-hardened neutral beam injection system could be developed in time for the proposed FED-A tokamak. These new developments include the operation of steady-state H- ion sources at over 5 A per meter of source length, the concept of using strong-focussing electrostatic structures for low-gradient dc acceleration of high-current sheet beams of negative ions and the transport of these beams around corners, and the development of powerful oxygen-iodine chemical lasers which will make possible the efficient conversion of the negative ions to neutrals using a photodetachment scheme in which the ion beam passes through the laser cavity

  20. Proposed high speed pellet injection system 'HIPEL' for Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the results of the simulation study including pellet ablation and 1-D transport code, it is found that a high speed pellet injector with pellet velocity of more than 3 km/s is necessary for the penetration of the pellet with diameter of 3 mm into the core region under the expected plasma condition of Large Helical Device (LHD) of heliotron/stellarator type with superconducting coils at NIFS in Japan. Therefore, a two stage pellet injector was constructed and tested successfully in order to obtain the pellet velocity range of 3 km/s. Based upon the above results, a high speed flexible multiple-pellet injection system 'HIPEL' for LHD is proposed. HIPEL consists of independent (1) 10 two-stage gun barrels and (2) 10 single-stage gun barrels. It has multi purposes such as refueling and flexible density profile control, diagnostics and the other functions. (author)