WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon footprint standards

  1. GHG emissions of green coffee production : toward a standard methodology for carbon footprinting : report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevenster, M.; Verhagen, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this project, the scope for product specific rules for carbon footprinting of (green) coffee is investigated and a proposal is drafted for further work toward actual definition and implementation of such a standard.

  2. Emerging product carbon footprint standards and schemes and their possible trade impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Simon; Gibbon, Peter

    footprints" (PCFs). The paper reviews the rationale, context, coverage and characteristics of emerging standards and certification schemes that estimate and designate PCFs, and discusses the possible impacts on trade, particularly exports from distant and developing countries. It draws on a survey of PCF...... certification schemes carried out during 2009, on a review of evolving international and national standards, and on a review of consumer surveys. Since 2007 one public standard, and two public and 14 private certification schemes referring to standards for calculating and communicating PCFs have become...... operational. Two new international standards and several new schemes, including three public ones, are due to become operational by 2011 or earlier. The private schemes are owned by a mixture of voluntary bodies and private companies, including some large retailers. Many provide assistance for reducing carbon...

  3. Emerging product carbon footprint standards and schemes and their possible trade impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolwig, S.; Gibbon, P.

    2009-12-15

    Concern over climate change has stimulated interest in estimating the total amount of greenhouse gasses produced during the life-cycle of goods and services - i.e. during their production, transportation, sale, use and disposal. The outcome of these calculations is referred to as 'product carbon footprints' (PCFs). The paper reviews the rationale, context, coverage and characteristics of emerging standards and certification schemes that estimate and designate PCFs, and discusses the possible impacts on trade, particularly exports from distant and developing countries. It draws on a survey of PCF certification schemes carried out during 2009, on a review of evolving international and national standards, and on a review of consumer surveys. Since 2007 one public standard, and two public and 14 private certification schemes referring to standards for calculating and communicating PCFs have become operational. Two new international standards and several new schemes, including three public ones, are due to become operational by 2011 or earlier. The private schemes are owned by a mixture of voluntary bodies and private companies, including some large retailers. Many provide assistance for reducing carbon footprints or procedures for certification or labelling. Nonetheless, to date only a few thousand products have been footprinted. As PCFs are already becoming market access requirements for bio-fuels imported to the EU, and may also become EU market access requirements for all mass-produced goods within 10-15 years, there is a danger that developing country exporters will lose out as a result. This is because: they are less likely to have the resources necessary for calculating and verifying PCFs; publicly available datasets are less likely to include processes carried out mainly in developing countries; and some existing standards do not currently include production of capital goods in their definition of product life cycles, which imparts a bias against

  4. Skallerup Klit's carbon footprint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zacho, Kristina Overgaard; Ørnstrup, Niels Holm; Zimmermann, Tine Marquard;

    by offsetting and without making actual emission reductions. Therefore the purpose of this study is to present recommendations on how Skallerup Klit can build up their business strategy using Carbon Footprint (CFP) as a tool. The CPF is calculated and assessed by using financial data in an Input-output LCA...

  5. Product carbon footprint developments and gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg Jensen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - Over the last decade, multiple initiatives have been undertaken to learn how to capture the carbon footprint of a supply chain at a product level. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the process of standardization to secure consistency of product carbon footprinting (PCF...

  6. Carbon footprint: current methods of estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Divya; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Pandey, Jai Shanker

    2011-07-01

    Increasing greenhouse gaseous concentration in the atmosphere is perturbing the environment to cause grievous global warming and associated consequences. Following the rule that only measurable is manageable, mensuration of greenhouse gas intensiveness of different products, bodies, and processes is going on worldwide, expressed as their carbon footprints. The methodologies for carbon footprint calculations are still evolving and it is emerging as an important tool for greenhouse gas management. The concept of carbon footprinting has permeated and is being commercialized in all the areas of life and economy, but there is little coherence in definitions and calculations of carbon footprints among the studies. There are disagreements in the selection of gases, and the order of emissions to be covered in footprint calculations. Standards of greenhouse gas accounting are the common resources used in footprint calculations, although there is no mandatory provision of footprint verification. Carbon footprinting is intended to be a tool to guide the relevant emission cuts and verifications, its standardization at international level are therefore necessary. Present review describes the prevailing carbon footprinting methods and raises the related issues.

  7. Carbon footprint: current methods of estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Divya; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Pandey, Jai Shanker

    2011-07-01

    Increasing greenhouse gaseous concentration in the atmosphere is perturbing the environment to cause grievous global warming and associated consequences. Following the rule that only measurable is manageable, mensuration of greenhouse gas intensiveness of different products, bodies, and processes is going on worldwide, expressed as their carbon footprints. The methodologies for carbon footprint calculations are still evolving and it is emerging as an important tool for greenhouse gas management. The concept of carbon footprinting has permeated and is being commercialized in all the areas of life and economy, but there is little coherence in definitions and calculations of carbon footprints among the studies. There are disagreements in the selection of gases, and the order of emissions to be covered in footprint calculations. Standards of greenhouse gas accounting are the common resources used in footprint calculations, although there is no mandatory provision of footprint verification. Carbon footprinting is intended to be a tool to guide the relevant emission cuts and verifications, its standardization at international level are therefore necessary. Present review describes the prevailing carbon footprinting methods and raises the related issues. PMID:20848311

  8. Overview of the Carbon Footprint and Its Assessment Standards%碳足迹及其评价准则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裘晓东

    2011-01-01

    当前,为推动温室气体排放的透明化,开展积极有效的碳管理,碳足迹评价成为各国关注的一大重点,各国纷纷出台了一系列评价准则.文章从组织和产品两个层面对国际上较通用的碳足迹评价准则予以介绍,为相关企业及机构了解碳足迹评价知识、开展相关评价工作提供参考.%In order to promote the transparency of the greenhouse gas emission situation, and to carry out the effective carbon management, the carbon footprint assessment has become one of the major focus concerned by countries. Many countries have introduced a series of assessment standards. This paper introduces the general carbon footprint assessment standards in two levels of organization and product. It provides reference to understand the carbon footprint assessment and carry out the relevant evaluation for the relevant enterprises and organizations.

  9. Carbon footprinting of electronic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Challenges in adopting existing CF standards for electronic products are discussed. • Carbon footprint of electronic products is underestimated using existing standards. • Multipronged approach is presented to overcome the identified challenges. • Multipronged approach demonstrated on commercial and military grade DC–DC converter system. - Abstract: In order to mitigate the effects of global warming, companies are being compelled by governments, investors, and customers to control their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Similar to the European Union’s legislation on the airline industry, legislation is expected to require the electronics industry to assess their product’s carbon footprint before sale or use, as the electronics industry’s contribution to global GHG emissions is comparable to the airline industry’s contribution. Thus, it is necessary for members of the electronics industry to assess their current GHG emission rates and identify methods to reduce environmental impacts. Organizations use Carbon Footprint (CF) analysis methods to identify and quantify the GHG emissions associated with the life cycle stages of their product or services. This paper discusses the prevailing methods used by organizations to estimate the CF of their electronics products and identifies the challenges faced by the electronics industry when adopting these methods in an environment of decreasing product development cycles with complex and diffuse supply chains. We find that, as a result of the inconsistencies arising from the system boundary selection methods and databases, the use of outdated LCA approaches, and the lack of supplier’s emissions-related data, the CFs of electronic products are typically underestimated. To address these challenges, we present a comprehensive approach to the carbon footprinting of electronic products that involves the use of product-group-oriented standards, hybrid life cycle assessment techniques, and the

  10. Hydropower's Biogenic Carbon Footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura; Pfister, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is accelerating and the world urgently needs a shift to clean and renewable energy. Hydropower is currently the largest renewable source of electricity, but its contribution to climate change mitigation is not yet fully understood. Hydroelectric reservoirs are a source of biogenic greenhouse gases and in individual cases can reach the same emission rates as thermal power plants. Little is known about the severity of their emissions at the global scale. Here we show that the carbon footprint of hydropower is far higher than previously assumed, with a global average of 173 kg CO2 and 2.95 kg CH4 emitted per MWh of electricity produced. This results in a combined average carbon footprint of 273 kg CO2e/MWh when using the global warming potential over a time horizon of 100 years (GWP100). Nonetheless, this is still below that of fossil energy sources without the use of carbon capture and sequestration technologies. We identified the dams most promising for capturing methane for use as alternative energy source. The spread among the ~1500 hydropower plants analysed in this study is large and highlights the importance of case-by-case examinations. PMID:27626943

  11. A Better Carbon Footprint Label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Nielsen, Kristian S.

    2016-01-01

    Based on insights from behavioral economics, it is suggested to extend carbon footprint labeling with information about relative performance, using the well-known “traffic light” color scheme to communicate relative performance. To test this proposition, the impact of a carbon footprint label......, participants saw the original Carbon Trust label and in the other condition they saw the same label, but with traffic light colors added to communicate the product's relative performance in terms of carbon footprint. All included attributes were found to have a significant impact on consumer choices...... to indicate relative carbon footprint significantly increases carbon label effectiveness. Hence, a carbon footprint label is more effective if it uses traffic light colors to communicate the product's relative performance....

  12. City Carbon Footprint Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwu Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cities worldwide have demonstrated political leadership by initiating meaningful strategies and actions to tackle climate change. However, the lack of knowledge concerning embodied greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of cities has hampered effective mitigation. We analyse trans-boundary GHG emission transfers between five Australian cities and their trading partners, with embodied emission flows broken down into major economic sectors. We examine intercity carbon footprint (CF networks and disclose a hierarchy of responsibility for emissions between cities and regions. Allocations of emissions to households, businesses and government and the carbon efficiency of expenditure have been analysed to inform mitigation policies. Our findings indicate that final demand in the five largest cities in Australia accounts for more than half of the nation’s CF. City households are responsible for about two thirds of the cities’ CFs; the rest can be attributed to government and business consumption and investment. The city network flows highlight that over half of emissions embodied in imports (EEI to the five cities occur overseas. However, a hierarchy of GHG emissions reveals that overseas regions also outsource emissions to Australian cities such as Perth. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on carbon neutrality, low-carbon city concepts and strategies and allocation of subnational GHG responsibility.

  13. Carbon footprinting : a classroom exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, H.; Grimm, M. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe (United States). School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, College of Design

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on an ongoing initiative at Arizona State University (ASU) to reduce the carbon footprint of buildings on campus. The College of Design and the Global Institute of Sustainability created a graduate level class where students in the fields of architecture, building design, urban planning, and sustainability applied a methodology to determine and improve a building's carbon footprint. Launched in 2008, the project currently has 13 buildings and will be expanded up to 50 buildings by the end of 2009. ASU is initially committing to carbon reduction and eventual carbon neutrality. The project offers students an opportunity to view the impact of their daily behaviours in terms of energy consumption and carbon emissions. The carbon footprinting methodology was used in a classroom setting by graduate students at ASU College of Design and School of Sustainability to determine the carbon footprint of 3 campus buildings. The methodology included an energy consumption analysis of the existing building, the creation of an as-built energy model, and the study of carbon footprint improvement scenarios with the ultimate goal of achieving carbon neutrality. Each improvement scenario was analyzed to determine its effect on overall carbon footprint and annual energy consumption, including electricity and natural gas use. 6 refs., 10 tabs., 4 figs.

  14. Carbon Footprint Analysis for Baby Strollers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ang; Luo Yifan

    2012-01-01

    The increasing awareness of climate change has led or- ganizations to demand a standard procedure to measure and com- municate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions linked to their products or services. The publicly available specification PAS 2050 has been developed in response to broad community and industry desire for a consistent method-carbon footprint for assessing the life cycle GHG emissions of goods and services. Specifically, this paper illustrates the implementation of carbon footprint for a baby stroller in accordance with PAS 2050. A fial value of 321 kg per one stroller including package was calculated. Moreover, the study led to identify raw materials production of the stroller as the main source of GHS emissions where efforts need to focus for emission reduction opportunities. This case study is hoped to be a starting point for organizations to benefit from the increasing application of carbon footprint assessment.

  15. What Is My Carbon Footprint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; McGivney-Burelle, Jean; Wagstrom, Rikki B.

    2016-01-01

    Human beings are having a profound impact on the environment. The opportunity to investigate this timely issue during one or two class periods gives algebra and precalculus students insight into a sustainability topic of great international concern--carbon footprints. Students use mathematical thinking in matters that are pertinent to their…

  16. Carbon Footprint of Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Dyer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbon footprint of beef cattle is presented for Canada, The United States, The European Union, Australia and Brazil. The values ranged between 8 and 22 kg CO2e per kg of live weight (LW depending on the type of farming system, the location, the year, the type of management practices, the allocation, as well as the boundaries of the study. Substantial reductions have been observed for most of these countries in the last thirty years. For instance, in Canada the mean carbon footprint of beef cattle at the exit gate of the farm decreased from 18.2 kg CO2e per kg LW in 1981 to 9.5 kg CO2e per kg LW in 2006 mainly because of improved genetics, better diets, and more sustainable land management practices. Cattle production results in products other than meat, such as hides, offal and products for rendering plants; hence the environmental burden must be distributed between these useful products. In order to do this, the cattle carbon footprint needs to be reported in kg of CO2e per kg of product. For example, in Canada in 2006, on a mass basis, the carbon footprint of cattle by-products at the exit gate of the slaughterhouse was 12.9 kg CO2e per kg of product. Based on an economic allocation, the carbon footprints of meat (primal cuts, hide, offal and fat, bones and other products for rendering were 19.6, 12.3, 7 and 2 kg CO2e per kg of product, respectively.

  17. FILLERS AND THE CARBON FOOTPRINT OF PAPERMAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Shen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon footprint reduction is a global concern. For the papermaking industry, strategically effective measures of carbon footprint reduction can include many aspects such as energy efficiency improvement, use of renewable carbon-neutral energy, practicing of sustainable forestry, and development of an integrated forest products biorefinery. Filler addition in papermaking can save substantial amounts of pulp fibers, and reduce energy consumption, which can surely contribute to reduction in paper’s carbon footprint. However, the negative effect of filler addition on paper recycling, and the energy consumption associated with the production, processing, and treatment of fillers, will contribute to the carbon footprint. On balance, it can be considered that filler addition in reasonable amounts is likely to lower the paper’s carbon footprint. Certain research work is still needed to better understand the relationship between filler addition and the carbon footprint of papermaking.

  18. Double counting in supply chain carbon footprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Caro (Felipe); M.A. Corbett (Mark); T. Tan (Terence); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractCarbon footprinting is a tool for firms to determine the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with their supply chain or with a unit of final product or service. Carbon footprinting typically aims to identify where best to invest in emission reduction efforts, and/or to determ

  19. Land, carbon and water footprints in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consumer responsibility approach uses footprints as indicators of the total direct and indirect effects of a product or consumption activity. This study used a time-series analysis of three environmental pressures to quantify the total environmental pressures caused by consumption in Taiwan: land footprint, carbon footprint, and water footprint. Land footprint is the pressure from appropriation of biologically productive land and water area. Carbon footprint is the pressure from greenhouse gas emissions. Water footprint is the pressure from freshwater consumption. Conventional carbon footprint is the total CO2 emitted by a certain activity or the CO2 accumulation during a product life cycle. This definition cannot be used to convert CO2 emissions into land units. This study responds to the needs of “CO2 land” in the footprint family by applying the carbon footprint concept used by GFN. The analytical results showed that consumption by the average Taiwan citizen in 2000 required appropriation of 5.39 gha (hectares of land with global-average biological productivity) and 3.63 gha in 2011 in terms of land footprint. The average Taiwan citizen had a carbon footprint of 3.95 gha in 2000 and 5.94 gha in 2011. These results indicate that separately analyzing the land and carbon footprints enables their trends to be compared and appropriate policies and strategies for different sectors to be proposed accordingly. The average Taiwan citizen had a blue water footprint of 801 m3 in 2000 and 784 m3 in 2011. By comparison, their respective global averages were 1.23 gha, 2.36 gha and 163 m3 blue water in 2011, respectively. Overall, Taiwan revealed higher environmental pressures compared to the rest of the world, demonstrating that Taiwan has become a high footprint state and has appropriated environmental resources from other countries. That is, through its imports of products with embodied pressures and its exports, Taiwan has transferred the environmental pressures

  20. Land, carbon and water footprints in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yung-Jaan, E-mail: yungjaanlee@gmail.com

    2015-09-15

    The consumer responsibility approach uses footprints as indicators of the total direct and indirect effects of a product or consumption activity. This study used a time-series analysis of three environmental pressures to quantify the total environmental pressures caused by consumption in Taiwan: land footprint, carbon footprint, and water footprint. Land footprint is the pressure from appropriation of biologically productive land and water area. Carbon footprint is the pressure from greenhouse gas emissions. Water footprint is the pressure from freshwater consumption. Conventional carbon footprint is the total CO{sub 2} emitted by a certain activity or the CO{sub 2} accumulation during a product life cycle. This definition cannot be used to convert CO{sub 2} emissions into land units. This study responds to the needs of “CO{sub 2} land” in the footprint family by applying the carbon footprint concept used by GFN. The analytical results showed that consumption by the average Taiwan citizen in 2000 required appropriation of 5.39 gha (hectares of land with global-average biological productivity) and 3.63 gha in 2011 in terms of land footprint. The average Taiwan citizen had a carbon footprint of 3.95 gha in 2000 and 5.94 gha in 2011. These results indicate that separately analyzing the land and carbon footprints enables their trends to be compared and appropriate policies and strategies for different sectors to be proposed accordingly. The average Taiwan citizen had a blue water footprint of 801 m{sup 3} in 2000 and 784 m{sup 3} in 2011. By comparison, their respective global averages were 1.23 gha, 2.36 gha and 163 m{sup 3} blue water in 2011, respectively. Overall, Taiwan revealed higher environmental pressures compared to the rest of the world, demonstrating that Taiwan has become a high footprint state and has appropriated environmental resources from other countries. That is, through its imports of products with embodied pressures and its exports, Taiwan has

  1. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Greg; Brown, Rich; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2009-04-15

    The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 32 different supply chain fuel end uses. This level of end use detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the carbon footprint of California households. The modeling framework was applied to estimate the annual home energy and supply chain carbon footprints of a prototypical California household. A preliminary assessment of parameter uncertainty associated with key model input data was also conducted. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this modeling framework, a case study was conducted that analyzed the achievable carbon footprint reductions associated with the adoption of energy efficient household and supply chain technologies.

  2. FILLERS AND THE CARBON FOOTPRINT OF PAPERMAKING

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Shen; Zhanqian Song; Xueren Qian; Wenxia Liu; Fei Yang

    2010-01-01

    Carbon footprint reduction is a global concern. For the papermaking industry, strategically effective measures of carbon footprint reduction can include many aspects such as energy efficiency improvement, use of renewable carbon-neutral energy, practicing of sustainable forestry, and development of an integrated forest products biorefinery. Filler addition in papermaking can save substantial amounts of pulp fibers, and reduce energy consumption, which can surely contribute to reduction in pap...

  3. Carbon footprint of electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloma, Marcin

    2013-07-01

    Paper assesses the greenhouse gas emissions related to the electronic sectors including information and communication technology and media sectors. While media often presents the carbon emission problem of other industries like petroleum industry, the airlines and automobile sectors, plastics and steel manufacturers, the electronics industry must include the increasing carbon footprints caused from their applications like media and entertainment, computers and cooling devices, complex telecommunications networks, cloud computing and powerful mobile phones. In that sense greenhouse gas emission of electronics should be studied in a life cycle perspective, including regular operational electricity use. Paper presents which product groups or processes are major contributors in emission. From available data and extrapolation of existing information we know that the information and communication technology sector produced 1.3% and media sector 1.7% of global gas emissions within production cycle, using the data from 2007.In the same time global electricity use of that sectors was 3.9% and 3.2% respectively. The results indicate that for both sectors operation leads to more gas emissions than manufacture, although impacts from the manufacture is significant, especially in the supply chain. Media electronics led to more emissions than PCs (manufacture and operation). Examining the role of electronics in climate change, including disposal of its waste, will enable the industry to take internal actions, leading to lowering the impact on the climate change within the sector itself.

  4. Carbon Footprint and Order Quantity in Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Even without economic factors and government regulations, the pressure and motivation of corporation to reduce emission are still increasing. This is because the key factors for corporation to reduce emissions have become corporate social responsibility and identification of low-carbon value by consumer and society from economic trade-off and government regulations. So, the purpose of this paper is to provide quantity methods for the logistics organizations with wish of voluntary reduction and social responsibility.Design/methodology/approach: Being difference from the traditional research that takes economic value as object, this paper takes carbon footprint as object directly, order quantity as decision variable. By referring to the traditional economic order quantity model, the paper creates logistics carbon footprint model which takes transport and inventory into account. Then it solves the model by calculating the values of order quantity, carbon footprint and revenue using the method of optimization.Findings and Originality/value: By solving and comparing the two models of economic order quantity model and carbon footprint model, it gets some results, such as carbon optimization order quantity, the effects order quantity deviating from economic order quantity or carbon order quantity having on economic or carbon footprint values, which can give some meaningful insight for corporation to search out reduction opportunities by operations adjustment.Originality/value: The study takes carbon footprint as object directly and creates the corresponding quantity model. By comparing with the traditional economic order quantity model, the paper provides quantity methods and obtains some meaningful insights for the logistics organizations with wish of voluntary reduction and social responsibility to reduce emissions by operations adjustment.

  5. The conundrum of calculating carbon footprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strobel, Bjarne W.; Erichsen, Anders Christian; Gausset, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    A pre-condition for reducing global warming is to minimise the emission of greenhouse gasses (GHGs). A common approach to informing people about the link between behaviour and climate change rests on developing GHG calculators that quantify the ‘carbon footprint’ of a product, a sector or an actor....... There is, however, an abundance of GHG calculators that rely on very different premises and give very different estimates of carbon footprints. In this chapter, we compare and analyse the main principles of calculating carbon footprints, and discuss how calculators can inform (or misinform) people who wish...

  6. The carbon footprint of exported Brazilian yellow melon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brito de Figueirêdo, M.C.; Kroeze, C.; Potting, J.; Silva Barros, da V.; Sousa de Aragão, A.; Sonsol Gondim, R.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The carbon footprint of food has become important for producers worldwide as consumers and retail companies increasingly base their purchase decisions on carbon footprint labels. In this context, our objectives is to assess the carbon footprint (CF) of Brazilian yellow melon exported from the Low Ja

  7. Carbon Footprint - Application in Graphic Art Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bolanča Mirković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for more sustainable products and processes has triggered the develop-ment of a large number of environmental assessment tools. These tools measure environmental performance and identify improvement potentials from the envi-ronmental point of view. The life cycle assessment (lca methods take into ac-count all effects on the environment, direct and indirect resource inputs and/or emissions during the whole life cycle of products. The carbon footprint is a sub-set of data covered by life cycle assessment.The aim of this paper is to describe the potential environmental impacts (green-house gases, carbon footprint of printed paper and new media.

  8. Lebanese household carbon footprint: Measurements, analysis and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Rawad; Tall, Ibrahim; Nachabe, Nour; Chaaban, Farid

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to estimate the carbon footprint of a typical Lebanese household, and compare the results with international standards and trends. The estimation of this footprint will reflect the impact of the daily Lebanese household activities on the environment in terms of carbon dioxide emissions. The method used in estimating the carbon emissions is based on gathering the primary footprints from various household activities. Another proposed method that provides more accurate results is the estimation of emissions based on secondary footprint, which reflects the total emissions not only from the regular activities but also from a lifecycle perspective. Practical and feasible solutions were proposed to help reduce the amount of C02 emissions per household. This would lead to a better air quality, money savings, greenhouse gases emissions reduction and would ensure the sustainability and prosperity of future generations. A detailed survey was conducted in which the questions were focused mainly on energy, food, and transportation issues. The fourteen questions were addressed to one hundred families in different Lebanese regions coming from different social and economic backgrounds. This diversity would constitute a reflective sample of the actual Lebanese society, allowing us to extrapolate the gathered results on a national level.

  9. Type Ia Supernova Carbon Footprints

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, R C; Aragon, C; Antilogus, P; Bailey, S; Baltay, C; Bongard, S; Buton, C; Canto, A; Childress, M; Chotard, N; Copin, Y; Fakhouri, H K; Gangler, E; Hsiao, E Y; Kerschhaggl, M; Kowalski, M; Loken, S; Nugent, P; Paech, K; Pain, R; Pecontal, E; Pereira, R; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Rigault, M; Rubin, D; Runge, K; Scalzo, R; Smadja, G; Tao, C; Weaver, B A; Wu, C; Brown, P J; Milne, P A

    2011-01-01

    We present convincing evidence of unburned carbon at photospheric velocities in new observations of 5 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained by the Nearby Supernova Factory. These SNe are identified by examining 346 spectra from 124 SNe obtained before +2.5 d relative to maximum. Detections are based on the presence of relatively strong C II 6580 absorption "notches" in multiple spectra of each SN, aided by automated fitting with the SYNAPPS code. Four of the 5 SNe in question are otherwise spectroscopically unremarkable, with ions and ejection velocities typical of SNe Ia, but spectra of the fifth exhibits high-velocity (v > 20,000 km/s) Si II and Ca II features. On the other hand, the light curve properties are preferentially grouped, strongly suggesting a connection between carbon-positivity and broad band light curve/color behavior: Three of the 5 have relatively narrow light curves but also blue colors, and a fourth may be a dust-reddened member of this family. Accounting for signal-to-noise and phase, we ...

  10. Carbon footprint of SURFnet 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruithof, G.H.; Meulenhoff, P.J.

    2012-04-15

    SURFnet wants to account for its energy consumption, in a way that it can compare itself to other National Research and Education Networks (NRENs) in Europe. To that end, an assessment was held to account for the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission in 2010, according to the ISO 14064:2006 part 1 standard. The quantitative assessment is limited to Scope 1 (direct emissions) and Scope 2 (indirect emissions related to bought energy). Accounting for Scope 3 emissions (e.g. emissions related to the production of bought products, travel, waste) is not included in this assessment. Only a qualitative assessment of the GHG emissions in Scope 3 emissions was done.

  11. Carbon footprint of automotive ignition coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Huey-Ling; Chen, Chih-Ming; Sun, Chin-Huang; Lin, Hung-Di

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, environmental issues, such as climate change and global warming due to the excessive development of industry, have attracted increasing attention of citizens worldwide. It is known that CO2 accounts for the largest proportion of greenhouse gases. Therefore, how to reduce CO2 emissions during the life cycle of a product to lessen its impact on environment is an important topic in the industrial society. Furthermore, it is also of great significance to cut down the required energy so as to lower its production costs during the manufacturing process nowadays. This study presents the carbon footprint of an automotive ignition coil and its partial materials are defined to explore their carbon emissions and environmental impact. The model IPCC GWP100a calculates potential global greenhouse effect by converting them into CO2 equivalents. In this way, the overall carbon footprint of an ignition coil can be explored. By using IPCC GWP100a, the results display that the shell has the most carbon emissions. The results can help the industry reduce the carbon emissions of an ignition coil product.

  12. Carbon footprint of SURFnet 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meulenhoff, P.J.; Jansen, B.I.

    2012-05-15

    SURFnet wants to account for its energy consumption in a way that it can compare itself to other National Research and Education Networks (NRENs) in Europe. To that end, an assessment was held to account for the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission in 2011, according to the ISO 14064:2006 part 1 standard. SURFnet starting reporting on GHG emissions in 2010. The quantitative assessment is limited to Scope 1 (direct emissions) and Scope 2 (indirect emissions related to bought energy) and certain parts of Scope 3 emissions (e.g. emissions related to the production of bought products, travel, waste). The total GHG emission under Scope 1, Scope 2, and Scope 3 accounted for by SURFnet in 2011 is equal 1278 ton CO2-eq.

  13. Carbon footprint as environmental performance indicator for the manufacturing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Olsen, Stig Irving; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2010-01-01

    With the current focus on our climate change impacts, the embodied CO2 emission or "Carbon footprint" is often used as an environmental performance indicator for our products or production activities. The ability of carbon footprint to represent other types of impact like human toxicity, and hence...... the overall environmental impact is investigated based on life cycle assessments of several materials of major relevance to manufacturing industries. The dependence of the carbon footprint on the assumed scenarios for generation of thermal and electrical energy in the life cycle of the materials is analyzed......, and the appropriateness of carbon footprint as an overall indicator of the environmental performance is discussed....

  14. Analysis of the carbon footprint of coastal protection systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labrujere, A.L.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    When calculating the Carbon Footprint for a product or service, a direct link is made between the total amount of consumed energy and the produced amount of carbon dioxide during production. For that reason calculating the carbon footprint of various alternatives is a very straightforward method to

  15. Klimaregnskab og Carbon Footprint beregning for Kommunekemi a/s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leinikka Dall, Ole; Wenzel, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Klimaregnskab for anlægget i Nyborg og carbon footprint for: -forbrænding -uorganisk behandling -halmaskeanlæg Afrapporteret på tryk og indtastet i Simapro......Klimaregnskab for anlægget i Nyborg og carbon footprint for: -forbrænding -uorganisk behandling -halmaskeanlæg Afrapporteret på tryk og indtastet i Simapro...

  16. Intensification to reduce the carbon footprint of smallholder milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udo, Henk; Weiler, Viola; Modupeore, Ogun; Viets, Theo; Oosting, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Will the intensification of cattle-keeping lower the carbon footprint of milk production in resource-poor environments? The authors included the multiple functions of cattle in carbon footprint estimates of milk production in farming systems with different degrees of intensification in Kenya. The

  17. Identifying important characteristics of municipal carbon footprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hogne N.; Hertwich, Edgar G. [Industrial Ecology Programme and Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Realfagbygget E1, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2010-11-15

    Local climate action has been identified as a vital contributor to global mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper focuses on the GHG emissions resulting from the provision of local public services, illustrated through the Carbon Footprint (CF) indicator. The CF of all 429 Norwegian municipalities is calculated and compared to variables of interest. Results show that the CF changes significantly depending on size and wealth. Small and/or wealthy municipalities tend to have a much higher CF per capita compared to more populated and/or less wealthy cities. While wealth and CF relate very well linearly, increased population is only beneficial up to a certain size. Results indicate that the CF per capita increases in municipalities with more than {proportional_to}50,000 inhabitants, thus indicating a possible ideal size of municipalities to achieve the optimal municipal CF. (author)

  18. Carbon footprint of dairy goat milk production in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kimberly; Symes, Wymond; Garnham, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cradle-to-farm gate carbon footprint of indoor and outdoor dairy goat farming systems in New Zealand, identifying hotspots and discussing variability and methodology. Our study was based on the International Organization for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment, although only results for greenhouse gas emissions are presented. Two functional units were included: tonnes of CO2-equivalents (CO2e) per hectare (ha) and kilograms of CO2e per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The study covered 5 farms, 2 farming systems, and 3yr. Two methods for the calculation of enteric methane emissions were assessed. The Lassey method, as used in the New Zealand greenhouse gas inventory, provided a more robust estimate of emissions from enteric fermentation and was used in the final calculations. The alternative dry matter intake method was shown to overestimate emissions due to use of anecdotal assumptions around actual consumption of feed. Economic allocation was applied to milk and co-products. Scenario analysis was performed on the allocation method, nitrogen content of manure, manure management, and supplementary feed choice. The average carbon footprint for the indoor farms (n=3) was 11.05 t of CO2e/ha and 0.81kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. For the outdoor farms (n=2), the average was 5.38 t of CO2e/ha and 1.03kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The average for all 5 farms was 8.78 t of CO2e/ha and 0.90kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The results showed relatively high variability due to differences in management practices between farms. The 5 farms covered 10% of the total dairy goat farms but may not be representative of an average farm. Methane from enteric fermentation was a major emission source. The use of supplementary feed was highly variable but an important contributor to the carbon footprint. Nitrous oxide can contribute up to 18% of emissions. Indoor goat farming systems produced milk with a significantly higher carbon

  19. Low Carbon Footprint Routes for Bird Watching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ta Fang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bird watching is one of many recreational activities popular in ecotourism. Its popularity, therefore, prompts the need for studies on energy conservation. One such environmentally friendly approach toward minimizing bird watching’s ecological impact is ensuring a reduced carbon footprint by using an economic travel itinerary comprising a series of connected routes between tourist attractions that minimizes transit time. This study used a travel-route planning approach using geographic information systems to detect the shortest path, thereby solving the problems associated with time-consuming transport. Based on the results of road network analyses, optimal travel-route planning can be determined. These methods include simulated annealing (SA and genetic algorithms (GA. We applied two algorithms in our simulation research to detect which one is an appropriate algorithm for running carbon-routing algorithms at the regional scale. SA, which is superior to GA, is considered an excellent approach to search for the optimal path to reduce carbon dioxide and high gasoline fees, thereby controlling travel time by using the shortest travel routes.

  20. Product carbon footprints and their uncertainties in comparative decision contexts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik J G Henriksson

    Full Text Available In response to growing awareness of climate change, requests to establish product carbon footprints have been increasing. Product carbon footprints are life cycle assessments restricted to just one impact category, global warming. Product carbon footprint studies generate life cycle inventory results, listing the environmental emissions of greenhouse gases from a product's lifecycle, and characterize these by their global warming potentials, producing product carbon footprints that are commonly communicated as point values. In the present research we show that the uncertainties surrounding these point values necessitate more sophisticated ways of communicating product carbon footprints, using different sizes of catfish (Pangasius spp. farms in Vietnam as a case study. As most product carbon footprint studies only have a comparative meaning, we used dependent sampling to produce relative results in order to increase the power for identifying environmentally superior products. We therefore argue that product carbon footprints, supported by quantitative uncertainty estimates, should be used to test hypotheses, rather than to provide point value estimates or plain confidence intervals of products' environmental performance.

  1. Carbon footprint of building products and assembled constructional complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović, Klemen

    2015-01-01

    Greenhouse gases are becoming bigger and bigger polluter of our planet. Carbon dioxide represents the largest part of greenhouse gases (70 %), because of that we represent carbon footprint with CO2 equivalent (CO2-e). We will compare assembled construction complexes and their carbon footprint in this graduation thesis. At first we will explain what greenhouse gases are and how they are formed. Then we will present some of the studies that research field of materials in constructio...

  2. Including carbon emissions from deforestation in the carbon footprint of Brazilian beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, Christel; Persson, U Martin; Neovius, Kristian; Molander, Sverker; Clift, Roland

    2011-03-01

    Effects of land use changes are starting to be included in estimates of life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, so-called carbon footprints (CFs), from food production. Their omission can lead to serious underestimates, particularly for meat. Here we estimate emissions from the conversion of forest to pasture in the Legal Amazon Region (LAR) of Brazil and present a model to distribute the emissions from deforestation over products and time subsequent to the land use change. Expansion of cattle ranching for beef production is a major cause of deforestation in the LAR. The carbon footprint of beef produced on newly deforested land is estimated at more than 700 kg CO(2)-equivalents per kg carcass weight if direct land use emissions are annualized over 20 years. This is orders of magnitude larger than the figure for beef production on established pasture on non-deforested land. While Brazilian beef exports have originated mainly from areas outside the LAR, i.e. from regions not subject to recent deforestation, we argue that increased production for export has been the key driver of the pasture expansion and deforestation in the LAR during the past decade and this should be reflected in the carbon footprint attributed to beef exports. We conclude that carbon footprint standards must include the more extended effects of land use changes to avoid giving misleading information to policy makers, retailers, and consumers. PMID:21280649

  3. Concerted drive to cut carbon footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    In 2013 Peter Sellars, head of Profession for Estates & Facilities Policy at the Department of Health, successfully bid for £50 million from the Treasury to help finance a range of 'spend-to-save' energy efficiency initiatives across the NHS in England. In all 117 energy efficiency projects were initiated across 48 English NHS organisations--funded through a dedicated NHS Energy Efficiency Fund. An independent analysis for the DH, NHS Energy Efficiency Fund Final Report, Summary 2014, by Professor Alan Short of Cambridge University's Department of Architecture, says the projects are already on track to save 100.6 million kg of CO2 annually, and some 2.4% of the entire 2012 NHS building energy-related carbon footprint, delivering annual energy savings of 160.5 million kWh (equivalent to boiling 3.34 billion cups of tea a year.) The Report--reproduced in large part here--summarises the schemes' preliminary outcomes, and makes recommendations for policy-makers implementing similar energy-saving funding schemes in the future. PMID:26281424

  4. Effects of Globalisation on Carbon Footprints of Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2009-01-01

    of manufactured products when production is moved from United Kingdom or Denmark to China and uses environmental input-output analysis to calculate the carbon footprint in the bilateral trade between these countries. The results show that differences between the European and Chinese production systems can lead...... to substantial increases in the carbon footprint of the traded products, even without including the CO2 emissions from the associated transportation....

  5. Reducing Students' Carbon Footprints Using Personal Carbon Footprint Management System Based on Environmental Behavioural Theory and Persuasive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shyh-ming

    2016-01-01

    This study applied environmental behavioural theories to develop a personal carbon footprint management system and used persuasive technology to implement it. The system serves as an educational system to improve the determinants of students' low-carbon behaviours, to promote low-carbon concepts and to facilitate their carbon management. To assess…

  6. Twelve metropolitan carbon footprints. A preliminary comparative global assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dearth of available data on carbon emissions and comparative analysis between metropolitan areas make it difficult to confirm or refute best practices and policies. To help provide benchmarks and expand our understanding of urban centers and climate change, this article offers a preliminary comparison of the carbon footprints of 12 metropolitan areas. It does this by examining emissions related to vehicles, energy used in buildings, industry, agriculture, and waste. The carbon emissions from these sources - discussed here as the metro area's partial carbon footprint - provide a foundation for identifying the pricing, land use, help metropolitan areas throughout the world respond to climate change. The article begins by exploring a sample of the existing literature on urban morphology and climate change and explaining the methodology used to calculate each area's carbon footprint. The article then depicts the specific carbon footprints for Beijing, Jakarta, London, Los Angeles, Manila, Mexico City, New Delhi, New York, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Singapore, and Tokyo and compares these to respective national averages. It concludes by offering suggestions for how city planners and policymakers can reduce the carbon footprint of these and possibly other large urban areas. (author)

  7. Disagreement over carbon footprints: A comparison of electric and LPG forklifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon footprint is an increasingly popular concept: for labelling, marketing, finance and regulation. In individual cases, carbon footprints can also be contentious, for example in the case of LPG and electric forklifts. Therefore, the fuel carbon footprints of the two were investigated to see if a fair, robust comparison could be made. This investigation yielded two conclusions: (1) definitions will continue to complicate footprint comparisons and (2) fuel carbon footprints of electric and (liquefied petroleum gas) LPG forklifts are, in principle, about equal, while in actual practice, LPG's footprint is smaller than that of electricity. The paper concludes that carbon footprint definitions should be sensible and transparent, but not prescribed

  8. A carbon footprint simulation model for the cork oak sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demertzi, Martha; Paulo, Joana Amaral; Arroja, Luís; Dias, Ana Cláudia

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, a simulation model for the calculation of the carbon footprint of the cork oak sector (CCFM) is developed for the first time. A life cycle approach is adopted including the forest management, manufacturing, use and end-of-life stages. CCFM allows the user to insert the cork type used as raw material and its respective quantity and the distances in-between the various stages. The user can choose among different end-of-life destination options for the used cork products. The option of inserting different inputs, allows the use of the present simulation model for different cork oak systems, in different countries and with different conditions. CCFM allows the identification of the stages and products with the greatest carbon footprint and thus, a better management of the sector from an environmental perspective. The Portuguese cork oak sector is used as an application example of the model. The results obtained showed that the agglomeration industry is the hotspot for the carbon footprint of the cork sector mainly due to the production of the resins that are mixed with the cork granules for the production of agglomerated cork products. The consideration of the biogenic carbon emissions and sequestration of carbon at the forest in the carbon footprint, resulted to a great decrease of the sector's carbon footprint. Future actions for improvement are suggested in order to decrease the carbon footprint of the entire cork sector. It was found that by decreasing by 10% the emission factor of the agglomeration and transformation industries, substituting the transport trucks by more recent ones and by decreasing by 10% the cork products reaching the landfilling end-of-life destinations (while increasing the quantities reaching incineration and recycling), a decrease of the total CF (excluding the biogenic emissions and sequestration) of the entire cork industry by 10% can be achieved. PMID:27235900

  9. A carbon footprint simulation model for the cork oak sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demertzi, Martha; Paulo, Joana Amaral; Arroja, Luís; Dias, Ana Cláudia

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, a simulation model for the calculation of the carbon footprint of the cork oak sector (CCFM) is developed for the first time. A life cycle approach is adopted including the forest management, manufacturing, use and end-of-life stages. CCFM allows the user to insert the cork type used as raw material and its respective quantity and the distances in-between the various stages. The user can choose among different end-of-life destination options for the used cork products. The option of inserting different inputs, allows the use of the present simulation model for different cork oak systems, in different countries and with different conditions. CCFM allows the identification of the stages and products with the greatest carbon footprint and thus, a better management of the sector from an environmental perspective. The Portuguese cork oak sector is used as an application example of the model. The results obtained showed that the agglomeration industry is the hotspot for the carbon footprint of the cork sector mainly due to the production of the resins that are mixed with the cork granules for the production of agglomerated cork products. The consideration of the biogenic carbon emissions and sequestration of carbon at the forest in the carbon footprint, resulted to a great decrease of the sector's carbon footprint. Future actions for improvement are suggested in order to decrease the carbon footprint of the entire cork sector. It was found that by decreasing by 10% the emission factor of the agglomeration and transformation industries, substituting the transport trucks by more recent ones and by decreasing by 10% the cork products reaching the landfilling end-of-life destinations (while increasing the quantities reaching incineration and recycling), a decrease of the total CF (excluding the biogenic emissions and sequestration) of the entire cork industry by 10% can be achieved.

  10. The carbon footprint of reinforced concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Purnell, P

    2013-01-01

    As legislation forces significant reductions in the operational carbon dioxide emissions of the built environment, increasing attention is focused on the embodied carbon of structural materials. As the most prevalent structural material, the embodied carbon of concrete is of paramount interest. Previous direct or indirect analyses of embodied carbon in concrete have treated it either as an elemental material with a value of single embodied carbon, or calculated embodied carbon for a limited r...

  11. Management options to reduce the carbon footprint of livestock products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, John Erik; Kristensen, Troels

    2011-01-01

    Livestock products carry a large carbon footprint compared with other foods, and thus there is a need to focus on how to reduce it. The major contributing factors are emissions related to feed use and manure handling as well as the nature of the land required to produce the feed in question. We can....... Basically, it is important to make sure that all beneficial interactions in the livestock system are optimized instead of focusing only on animal productivity. There is an urgent need to arrive at a sound framework for considering the interaction between land use and carbon footprints of foods....... conclude that the most important mitigation options include - better feed conversion at the system level, - use of feeds that increase soil carbon sequestration versus carbon emission, - ensure that the manure produced substitutes for synthetic fertilizer, and - use manure for bio-energy production...

  12. From Indoctrinating to Counterpoising Carbon Footprint: Role of Communication

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    As long as humans have interacted with each other and with nature, there has been environmental communication. Worldwide environmental issues ranging from ozone depletion to increased carbon footprint have been threatening our planet and compromising the quality of the lives of humans. In this milieu, environmental education and communication have a remarkable opportunity to accelerate understanding and to mobilize community participation to achieve a change - the reduction of carbon footprin...

  13. Carbon footprint of humanitarian logistics : Case the Finnish Red Cross

    OpenAIRE

    Anttila, Virva

    2011-01-01

    This thesis was written on the basis that despite all studies and analyses companies, governments and industries have about pollution and carbon footprint voluntary organi-zations have very little information about that. This will serve as background informa-tion for the Finnish Red Cross for the procurement operations. Although many relief item deliveries to areas suffered from natural disasters are very urgent, certain factors allow planners to take environmental impact and carbon emission...

  14. Carbon footprint reductions via grid energy storage systems

    OpenAIRE

    Trevor S. Hale, Kelly Weeks, Coleman Tucker

    2011-01-01

    This effort presents a framework for reducing carbon emissions through the use of large-scale grid-energy-storage (GES) systems. The specific questions under investigation herein are as follows: Is it economically sound to invest in a GES system and is the system at least carbon footprint neutral? This research will show the answer to both questions is in the affirmative. Scilicet, when utilized judiciously, grid energy storage systems can be both net present value positive as well as be tota...

  15. Tracking urban carbon footprints from production and consumption perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cities are hotspots of socio-economic activities and greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of this study was to extend the research range of the urban carbon footprint (CF) to cover emissions embodied in products traded among regions and intra-city sectors. Using Xiamen City as a study case, the total urban-related emissions were evaluated, and the carbon flows among regions and intra-city sectors were tracked. Then five urban CF accountings were evaluated, including purely geographic accounting (PGA), community-wide infrastructure footprint (CIF), and consumption-based footprint (CBF) methods, as well as the newly defined production-based footprint (PBF) and purely production footprint (PPF). Research results show that the total urban-related emissions of Xiamen City in 2010 were 55.2 Mt CO2e/y, of which total carbon flow among regions or intra-city sectors accounted for 53.7 Mt CO2e/y. Within the total carbon flow, import and export respectively accounted for 59 and 65%, highlighting the importance of emissions embodied in trade. By regional trade balance, North America and Europe were the largest net carbon exported-to regions, and Mainland China and Taiwan the largest net carbon imported-from regions. Among intra-sector carbon flows, manufacturing was the largest emission-consuming sector of the total urban carbon flow, accounting for 77.4, and 98% of carbon export was through industrial products trade. By the PBF, PPF, CIF, PGA and CBF methods, the urban CFs were respectively 53.7 Mt CO2e/y, 44.8 Mt CO2e/y, 28.4 Mt CO2e/y, 23.7 Mt CO2e/y, and 19.0 Mt CO2e/y, so all of the other four CFs were higher than the CBF. All of these results indicate that urban carbon mitigation must consider the supply chain management of imported goods, the production efficiency within the city, the consumption patterns of urban consumers, and the responsibility of the ultimate consumers outside the city. (letter)

  16. Carbon Footprint Analysis of Municipalities – Evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Angelakoglou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The economical crisis that hit Greece after 2009, significantly affected its energy consumption profile due to the increased price of domestic heating oil and gasoline. The specific study aims at the quantification of the carbon dioxide emissions in municipal level due to energy and fuel consumption. Three different municipalities in North Greece (Kavala, Alexandroupolis and Drama were assessed with the application of three different carbon footprint estimation approaches in each one of them, including two life cycle assessment methods. Results ranged from 511,799 to 571,000, 435,250 to 489,000 and 355,207 to 398,000 tons CO2 and tons CO2-eq. for Kavala, Alexandroupolis and Drama respectively. The analysis per energy type indicated the electrical energy consumption as the key factor affecting the results due to the relatively high CO2 emission coefficient of the electricity produced in Greece. The analysis per sector indicated that a percentage of nearly 75% of the total carbon footprint is assigned to the building sector whereas the private and commercial transport is accountable for the rest. Municipal activities (buildings, facilities, lighting and fleet contributed to a small percentage to the total carbon footprint (approx. 3-8%.

  17. Carbon footprints of heating oil and LPG heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For European homes without access to the natural gas grid, the main fuels-of-choice for heating are heating oil and LPG. How do the carbon footprints of these compare? Existing literature does not clearly answer this, so the current study was undertaken to fill this gap. Footprints were estimated in seven countries that are representative of the EU and constitute two-thirds of the EU-27 population: Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Poland and the UK. Novelties of the assessment were: systems were defined using the EcoBoiler model; well-to-tank data were updated according to most-recent research; and combustion emission factors were used that were derived from a survey conducted for this study. The key finding is that new residential heating systems fuelled by LPG are 20% lower carbon and 15% lower overall-environmental-impact than those fuelled by heating oil. An unexpected finding was that an LPG system's environmental impact is about the same as that of a bio heating oil system fuelled by 100% rapeseed methyl ester, Europe's predominant biofuel. Moreover, a 20/80 blend (by energy content) with conventional heating oil, a bio-heating-oil system generates a footprint about 15% higher than an LPG system's. The final finding is that fuel switching can pay off in carbon terms. If a new LPG heating system replaces an ageing oil-fired one for the final five years of its service life, the carbon footprint of the system's final five years is reduced by more than 50%.

  18. Using carbon footprint to evaluate environmental issues of food transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konieczny P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The international trade of food commodities is still growing and food products are transported sometimes for a long distance using  various modes. Food transportation issues should be discussed  not only in respect to quality and safety concerns but also from environmental point of view.  Numerous approaches are  proposed to study impacts of food transportation along typical food chain on environment. Carbon footprint based on seems to be an interesting indicator for such analysis.  Material and methods: The analysis carried out in this study is based mainly on data presented in paper and reports published in recent decade, including some opinions available on various internet websites.    Results and conclusions:  The greenhouse gas emissions associated food transport along whole food supply chain. Carbon footprint  can be used to study various environmental impacts on each chain stage including primary production, food processing, fuel and energy consumption in food distribution, retail issues and product use  by consumer during household consumption. Adding these together all of the greenhouse gas emissions gives the total carbon footprint for a product useful to affect consumer nutritional behaviors.  

  19. Income-carbon footprint relationships for urban and rural households of Iskandar Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskandar Malaysia has a vision to achieve sustainable development and a low carbon society status by decreasing the amount of CO2 emission as much as 60% by 2025. As the case is in other parts of the world, households are suspected to be a major source of carbon emission in Iskandar Malaysia. At the global level, 72% of greenhouse gas emission is a consequence of household activities, which is influenced by lifestyle. Income is the most important indicator of lifestyle and consequently may influence the amount of households' carbon footprint. The main objective of this paper is to illustrate the carbon-income relationships in Iskandar Malaysia's urban and rural areas. Data were gathered through a questionnaire survey of 420 households. The households were classified into six categories based on their residential area status. Both direct and indirect carbon footprints of respondents were calculated using a carbon footprint model. Direct carbon footprint includes domestic energy use, personal travel, flight and public transportation while indirect carbon footprint is the total secondary carbon emission measurement such as housing operations, transportation operations, food, clothes, education, cultural and recreational services. Analysis of the results shows a wide range of carbon footprint values and a significance correlation between income and carbon footprint. The carbon footprints vary in urban and rural areas, and also across different urban areas. These identified carbon footprint values can help the authority target its carbon reduction programs

  20. Income-carbon footprint relationships for urban and rural households of Iskandar Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, M. R.; Moeinzadeh, S. N.; Tifwa, H. Y.

    2014-02-01

    Iskandar Malaysia has a vision to achieve sustainable development and a low carbon society status by decreasing the amount of CO2 emission as much as 60% by 2025. As the case is in other parts of the world, households are suspected to be a major source of carbon emission in Iskandar Malaysia. At the global level, 72% of greenhouse gas emission is a consequence of household activities, which is influenced by lifestyle. Income is the most important indicator of lifestyle and consequently may influence the amount of households' carbon footprint. The main objective of this paper is to illustrate the carbon-income relationships in Iskandar Malaysia's urban and rural areas. Data were gathered through a questionnaire survey of 420 households. The households were classified into six categories based on their residential area status. Both direct and indirect carbon footprints of respondents were calculated using a carbon footprint model. Direct carbon footprint includes domestic energy use, personal travel, flight and public transportation while indirect carbon footprint is the total secondary carbon emission measurement such as housing operations, transportation operations, food, clothes, education, cultural and recreational services. Analysis of the results shows a wide range of carbon footprint values and a significance correlation between income and carbon footprint. The carbon footprints vary in urban and rural areas, and also across different urban areas. These identified carbon footprint values can help the authority target its carbon reduction programs.

  1. The carbon footprint of indoor Cannabis production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emergent industry of indoor Cannabis production – legal in some jurisdictions and illicit in others – utilizes highly energy intensive processes to control environmental conditions during cultivation. This article estimates the energy consumption for this practice in the United States at 1% of national electricity use, or $6 billion each year. One average kilogram of final product is associated with 4600 kg of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere, or that of 3 million average U.S. cars when aggregated across all national production. The practice of indoor cultivation is driven by criminalization, pursuit of security, pest and disease management, and the desire for greater process control and yields. Energy analysts and policymakers have not previously addressed this use of energy. The unchecked growth of electricity demand in this sector confounds energy forecasts and obscures savings from energy efficiency programs and policies. While criminalization has contributed to the substantial energy intensity, legalization would not change the situation materially without ancillary efforts to manage energy use, provide consumer information via labeling, and other measures. Were product prices to fall as a result of legalization, indoor production using current practices could rapidly become non-viable. - Highlights: ► The emergent industry of indoor Cannabis production utilizes highly energy intensive processes and is highly inefficient. ► In the United States, this represents an annual energy expenditure of $6 billion. ► One kg of final product is associated with emissions of 4600 kg of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. ► Aggregate U.S. emissions are equivalent those of 3 million cars. ► Energy analysts and policymakers have not previously addressed this use of energy.

  2. Energy and carbon footprints of sewage treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pratima; Kansal, Arun; Carliell-Marquet, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents energy and carbon footprints of sewage treatment plants (STPs) operating at different scales and using different technology options based on primary data from 50 STPs operating in India and the UK. The study used a combination of fundamental mass-balance approach for energy consumption and the methodology defined by IPCC for the carbon emissions. Small-scale institutional STPs consume twelve times the energy consumed by large-scale municipal STPs, the corresponding energy intensities being 4.87 kWh/m(3) and 0.40 kWh/m(3) respectively. Embodied energy from construction material and chemicals accounted for 46% and 33% of the total energy intensity of the municipal and institutional STPs respectively. The average carbon footprint of large-scale STPs is 0.78 kgCO2eq/m(3) and for small-scale STPs it is 3.04 kgCO2eq/m(3). However, fugitive emissions from large-scale STPs constituted 74% of the total carbon emissions whereas the figure was only 0.05% for small-scale STPs. Average electrical energy intensity in STPs in India is much lower (0.14 kWh/m(3)) than that in the UK (0.46 kWh/m(3)). This is due to the reason that STPs in India do not have resource recovery processes and use solar heat for sludge drying. The paper offers information and insights for designing low carbon strategies for urban waste infrastructure.

  3. Carbon footprint of milk from sheep farming systems in northern Spain including soil carbon sequestration in grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batalla, Inma M.; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Mogensen, Lisbeth;

    2015-01-01

    calculations. In this study, the carbon footprint of sheep milk was estimated from 12 farms in Northern Spain. Before taken into account contribution from soil carbon sequestration in the calculation, the carbon footprint values varied from 2.0 to 5.2 kg CO2 eq. per kg Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM......The link between climate change and livestock production has made carbon footprint based on life cycle assessment a world-wide indicator to assess and communicate the amount of greenhouse gases emitted per unit of product. Nevertheless, the majority of studies have not included soil carbon...... sequestration in the carbon footprint calculations. Especially in grasslands, soil carbon sequestration might be a potential sink to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in the livestock sector. However, there is no commonly accepted methodology on how to include soil carbon sequestration in carbon footprint...

  4. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Rotz, C A; Oltjen, J W; Mitloehner, F M

    2012-12-01

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH(3) emissions from representative beef production systems in California. The IFSM is a process-level farm model that simulates crop growth, feed production and use, animal growth, and the return of manure nutrients back to the land to predict the environmental impacts and economics of production systems. Ammonia emissions are determined by summing the emissions from animal housing facilities, manure storage, field applied manure, and direct deposits of manure on pasture and rangeland. All important sources and sinks of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide are predicted from primary and secondary emission sources. Primary sources include enteric fermentation, manure, cropland used in feed production, and fuel combustion. Secondary emissions occur during the production of resources used on the farm, which include fuel, electricity, machinery, fertilizer, and purchased animals. The carbon footprint is the net exchange of all GHG in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e) units per kg of HCW produced. Simulated beef production systems included cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot phases for the traditional British beef breeds and calf ranch and feedlot phases for Holstein steers. An evaluation of differing production management strategies resulted in ammonia emissions ranging from 98 ± 13 to 141 ± 27 g/kg HCW and carbon footprints of 10.7 ± 1.4 to 22.6 ± 2.0 kg CO(2)e/kg HCW. Within the British beef production cycle, the cow-calf phase was responsible for 69 to 72% of total GHG emissions with 17 to 27% from feedlot sources. Holstein steers that entered the beef production system as a by-product of dairy production had the lowest carbon footprint because the emissions

  5. Accounting for forest carbon pool dynamics in product carbon footprints: Challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, Joshua P., E-mail: jpnewell@umich.edu [School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States); Vos, Robert O., E-mail: vos@usc.edu [Spatial Sciences Institute, University of Southern California (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Modification and loss of forests due to natural and anthropogenic disturbance contribute an estimated 20% of annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide. Although forest carbon pool modeling rarely suggests a 'carbon neutral' flux profile, the life cycle assessment community and associated product carbon footprint protocols have struggled to account for the GHG emissions associated with forestry, specifically, and land use generally. Principally, this is due to underdeveloped linkages between life cycle inventory (LCI) modeling for wood and forest carbon modeling for a full range of forest types and harvest practices, as well as a lack of transparency in globalized forest supply chains. In this paper, through a comparative study of U.S. and Chinese coated freesheet paper, we develop the initial foundations for a methodology that rescales IPCC methods from the national to the product level, with reference to the approaches in three international product carbon footprint protocols. Due to differences in geographic origin of the wood fiber, the results for two scenarios are highly divergent. This suggests that both wood LCI models and the protocols need further development to capture the range of spatial and temporal dimensions for supply chains (and the associated land use change and modification) for specific product systems. The paper concludes by outlining opportunities to measure and reduce uncertainty in accounting for net emissions of biogenic carbon from forestland, where timber is harvested for consumer products. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Typical life cycle assessment practice for consumer products often excludes significant land use change emissions when estimating carbon footprints. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The article provides a methodology to rescale IPCC guidelines for product-level carbon footprints. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life cycle inventories and product carbon footprint protocols need more comprehensive land

  6. Barriers to Mitigate Carbon Footprint in a Selected Academic Institution in Bacoor City, Cavite, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adanza, Jonathan R.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon footprint is an environmental menace that needs to be addressed at once. Various mitigating measures were proposed and yet manifestations of its proliferation are very much observable. This study seeks to determine primarily the barriers of non-adherence to identified measures to mitigate carbon footprint in the environment. Using the mixed…

  7. Carbon Footprints and Embodied Carbon Flows Analysis for China’s Eight Regions: A New Perspective for Mitigation Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Xie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon footprints have been widely employed as an indicator for total carbon dioxide released by human activities. In this paper, we implemented a multi-regional input-output framework to evaluate the carbon footprints and embodied carbon flows for the eight regions of China from consumption-based perspective. It is found that the construction, electricity/stream supply, and machine manufacturing rank as the top sectors with the largest total carbon emissions. The construction sector alone accounts for 20%–50% of the national emissions. Besides the sectoral carbon footprints, regional footprints and their differences in carbon emissions were also observed. The middle region had the largest total carbon footprints, 1188 million ton, while the capital region ranked the first for its per capita carbon footprint, 7.77 ton/person. In regard to the embodied carbon flows within China, the study detected that the embodied carbon flows take up about 41% of the total carbon footprints of the nation. The northwest region and the eastern coast region are found to be the largest net embodied carbon exporter and importer, respectively. Further investigation revealed significant differences between production-based and consumption-based carbon emissions, both at sectoral and total amounts. Results of this paper can provide specific information to policies on sectoral and regional carbon emission reduction.

  8. Carbon footprint evaluation at industrial park level: A hybrid life cycle assessment approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial parks have become the effective strategies for government to promote sustainable economic development due to the following advantages: shared infrastructure and concentrated industrial activities within planned areas. However, due to intensive energy consumption and dependence on fossil fuels, industrial parks have become the main areas for greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, it is critical to quantify their carbon footprints so that appropriate emission reduction policies can be raised. The objective of this paper is to seek an appropriate method on evaluating the carbon footprint of one industrial park. The tiered hybrid LCA method was selected due to its advantages over other methods. Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Zone (SETDZ), a typical comprehensive industrial park in China, was chosen as a case study park. The results show that the total life cycle carbon footprint of SETDZ was 15.29 Mt, including 6.81 Mt onsite (direct) carbon footprint, 8.47 Mt upstream carbon footprint, and only 3201 t downstream carbon footprint. Analysis from industrial sector perspectives shows that chemical industry and manufacture of general purpose machinery and special purposes machinery sector were the two largest sectors for life cycle carbon footprint. Such a sector analysis may be useful for investigation of appropriate emission reduction policies. - Highlights: ► A hybrid LCA model was employed to calculate industrial park carbon footprint. ► A case study on SETDZ is done. ► Life cycle carbon footprint of SETDZ is 15.29 Mt. ► Upstream and onsite carbon footprints account for 55.40% and 44.57%, respectively. ► Chemical industry and machinery manufacturing sectors are the two largest sectors

  9. Limitations of Carbon Footprint as Indicator of Environmental Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Olsen, Stig I.; Hauschild, Michael Z.

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gas accountings, commonly referred to with the popular term carbon footprints (CFP), are a widely used metric of climate change impacts and the main focus of many sustainability policies among companies and authorities. However, environmental sustainability concerns not just climate...... change but also other environmental problems, like chemical pollution or depletion of natural resources, and the focus on CFP brings the risk of problem shifting when reductions in CFP are obtained at the expense of increase in other environmental impacts. But how real is this risk? Here, we model...... and analyze the life cycle impacts from about 4000 different products, technologies, and services taken from several sectors, including energy generation, transportation, material production, infrastructure, and waste management. By investigating the correlations between the CFP and 13 other impact scores, we...

  10. Reducing health care's carbon footprint--the power of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Aliria

    2012-11-01

    Global warming and environmentalism continue to be national and international issues as their complexities and implications become better understood. One ironic contributor to the degradation of the environment is the health care system. Serving as clinical laboratories, hotels, restaurants, and offices that never close, U.S. hospitals produce more than 2 million tons of waste annually. Although the consequences and significance of health care's carbon footprint are undeniable, strategies to reduce this impact are challenging. This article discusses how the role, traits, and knowledge of nurses combined with their positions in the health care system make them key players in creating an environmentally sustainable health care industry. With an analysis of environmental action versus inaction, this article explores how nurses at the forefront of health care are equipped to change practice that will reach far beyond the bedside. PMID:23413481

  11. Temporospatial changes of carbon footprint based on energy consumption in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHUAI Xiaowei; LAI Li; HUANG Xianjin; ZHAO Rongqin; WANG Wanjing; CHEN Zhigang

    2012-01-01

    Study on regional carbon emission is one of the hot topics under the background of global climate change and low-carbon economic development,and also help to establish different low-carbon strategies for different regions.On the basis of energy consumption and land use data of different regions in China from 1999 to 2008,this paper established carbon emission and carbon footprint models based on total energy consumption,and calculated the amount of carbon emissions and carbon footprint in different regions of China from 1999 to 2008.The author also analyzed carbon emission density and per unit area carbon footprint for each region.Finally,advices for decreasing carbon footprint were put forward.The main conclusions are as follows:(1) Carbon emissions from total energy consumption increased 129% from 1999 to 2008 in China,but its spatial distribution pattern among different regions just slightly changed,the sorting of carbon emission amount was:Eastern China > Northern China > Central and Southern China > Southwest China > Northwest China.(2) The sorting of carbon emission density was:Eastern China > Northeast China > Central and Southern China > Northern China > Southwest China > Northwest China from 1999 to 2003,but from 2004 Central and Southern China began to have higher carbon emission density than Northeast China,the order of other regions did not change.(3) Carbon footprint increased significantly since the rapid increasing of carbon emissions and less increasing area of productive land in different regions of China from 1999 to 2008.Northern China had the largest carbon footprint,and Northwest China,Eastern China,Northern China,Central and Southern China followed in turn,while Southwest China presented the lowest area of carbon footprint and the highest percentage of carbon absorption.(4) Mainly influenced by regional land area,Northern China presented the highest per unit area carbon footprint and followed by Eastern China,and Northeast

  12. Carbon Footprint Analysis for a GRAPE Production Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirca, C.; Marras, S.; Masia, S.; Duce, P.; Zara, P.; Spano, D.

    2013-12-01

    Agriculture activities can play a double role in emitting or sequestering carbon from the atmosphere. Mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agriculture is one of the most urgent research subjects in the framework of enhancing environmental stewardship. However, little is known about the role of the agriculture in the global carbon balance, since most of the studies applied the Eddy Covariance technique in natural or semi-natural ecosystems to investigate their role in mitigate the anthropogenic carbon release. The application of the Eddy Covariance technique in agricultural systems could greatly improve our knowledge about their role on the global carbon budget and help in modeling the related processes. In addition, there is a growing request from producers, trade companies, and customers on the assessment of the environmental impact of a production process related to agricultural high quality products. In recent years, particular attention was put on the estimation of GHG emissions deriving from productive processes. In this context, a useful tool is the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), which represents a methodology to estimate GHG emissions related to the entire life cycle of a product. The Carbon Footprint (CF) analysis represents a subset of the LCA, which only considers CO2 emissions with an impact on climate change. With respect to the wine industry, most of studies focused on the CF analysis related to the wine making process in the cellar, while a few studies analyzed the GHG emissions related to the grape production. The aim of this work was to quantify the CO2 emissions due to the grape production and emphasize the double role of a vineyard as a carbon sink or source. An Eddy Covariance station was set up in a representative vineyard located in the Mediterranean Basin (Sardinia, Italy) to measure the net carbon exchange between the surface and the atmosphere. The CF analysis was also conducted to compute the carbon balance of the grape production

  13. Carbon footprint of shopping (grocery) bags in China, Hong Kong and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, Subramanian Senthilkannan; Li, Y.; Hu, J. Y.; Mok, P. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon footprint has become a term often used by the media in recent days. The human carbon footprint is professed to be a very serious global threat and every nation is looking at the possible options to reduce it since its consequences are alarming. A carbon footprint is a measure of the impact of human activities on earth and in particular on the environment; more specifically it relates to climate change and to the total amount of greenhouse gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide emitted. Effort of individuals in minimizing the carbon footprint is vital to save our planet. This article reports a study of the carbon footprint of various types of shopping bags (plastic, paper, non-woven and woven) using life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) technique in two stages. The first stage (baseline study), comprised the study of the impact of different types of shopping bags in the manufacturing phase, without considering their usage and disposal phases (cradle to gate stage). The LCIA was accomplished by the IPCC 2007 method, developed by the Inter Panel on Climate Change in SIMAPRO 7.2. The GWP (Global Warming Potential) values calculated by the IPCC 2007 method for 100 years were considered as a directive to compare the carbon footprint made by the different types of shopping bags under consideration. The next stage was the study of the carbon footprint of these bags including their usage and disposal phases (cradle to grave stage) and the results derived were compared with the results derived from the baseline study, which is the major focus of this research work. The values for usage and end-of-life phases were obtained from the survey questionnaire performed amongst different user groups of shopping bags in China, Hong Kong and India. The results show that the impact of different types of shopping bags in terms of their carbon footprint potential is very high if no usage and disposal options were provided. When the carbon footprint values from different

  14. Future electricity : The challenge of reducing both carbon and water footprint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M.; Gerbens-Leenes, P. W.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the consumptive water footprint (WF) of electricity and heat in 2035 for the four energy scenarios of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and a fifth scenario with a larger percentage of solar energy. Counter-intuitively, the 'greenest' IEA scenario (with the smallest carbon footprint)

  15. Impacts of software and its engineering on the carbon footprint of ICT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy consumption of information and communication technology (ICT) is still increasing. Even though several solutions regarding the hardware side of Green IT exist, the software contribution to Green IT is not well investigated. The carbon footprint is one way to rate the environmental impacts of ICT. In order to get an impression of the induced CO2 emissions of software, we will present a calculation method for the carbon footprint of a software product over its life cycle. We also offer an approach on how to integrate some aspects of carbon footprint calculation into software development processes and discuss impacts and tools regarding this calculation method. We thus show the relevance of energy measurements and the attention to impacts on the carbon footprint by software within Green Software Engineering

  16. Impacts of software and its engineering on the carbon footprint of ICT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, Eva, E-mail: e.kern@umwelt-campus.de [Institute for Software Systems, Environmental Campus Birkenfeld, Campusallee, D-55761 Birkenfeld (Germany); Dick, Markus, E-mail: sustainablesoftwareblog@gmail.com [Fritz-Wunderlich-Straße 14, D-66869 Kusel (Germany); Naumann, Stefan, E-mail: s.naumann@umwelt-campus.de [Institute for Software Systems, Environmental Campus Birkenfeld, Campusallee, D-55761 Birkenfeld (Germany); Hiller, Tim, E-mail: tim.hiller@gmx.com [Institute for Software Systems, Environmental Campus Birkenfeld, Campusallee, D-55761 Birkenfeld (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    The energy consumption of information and communication technology (ICT) is still increasing. Even though several solutions regarding the hardware side of Green IT exist, the software contribution to Green IT is not well investigated. The carbon footprint is one way to rate the environmental impacts of ICT. In order to get an impression of the induced CO{sub 2} emissions of software, we will present a calculation method for the carbon footprint of a software product over its life cycle. We also offer an approach on how to integrate some aspects of carbon footprint calculation into software development processes and discuss impacts and tools regarding this calculation method. We thus show the relevance of energy measurements and the attention to impacts on the carbon footprint by software within Green Software Engineering.

  17. Carbon Footprint of Tree Nuts Based Consumer Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Volpe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study shows results of a calculation of carbon footprint (CFP resulting from the production of nuts added value products for a large consumer market. Nuts consumption is increasing in the world and so is the consumer awareness of the environmental impact of goods, hence the calculation of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of food production is of growing importance for producers. Calculation of CO2eq emissions was performed for all stages of the production chain to the final retail point for flour, grains, paste, chocolate covered nuts and spreadable cream produced from almonds, pistachios and hazelnuts grown and transformed in Italy and for peanuts grown in Argentina and transformed in Italy. Data from literature was used to evaluate CFP of raw materials, emissions from transport and packing were calculated using existing models, while emissions deriving from transformation were calculated empirically by multiplying the power of production lines (electrical and/or thermal by its productivity. All values were reported in kg of CO2 equivalent for each kg of packed product (net weight. Resulting values ranged between 1.2 g of CO2/kg for a 100 g bag of almond to 4.8 g of CO2/kg for the 100 g bag of chocolate covered almond. The calculation procedure can be well used for similar cases of large consumer food productions.

  18. Reducing the carbon footprint of fuels and petrochemicals. Preprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, S.; Balfanz, U.; Buchholz, S.; Lichtscheidl, J.; Marchionna, M.; Nees, F.; Santacesaria, E. (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    Within the DGMK conference between 08th and 10th October, 2012, in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Energy demand and mix for global welfare and stable ecosystems (A. Jess); (2) The EU's roadmap for moving to a low-carbon economy - Aspirations and reality for refiners (J. Lichtscheidl); (3) Applications of CCS technology to the oil and gas industries (M. Marchionna); (4) A new chemical system solution for acid gas removal (M. Seiler); (5) Hydrogenation of carbon dioxide towards synthetic natural gas - A route to effective future energy storage (M. Schoder); (6) Bio-MTBE - How to reduce CO{sub 2} footprint in fuels with a well known premium gasoline component (O. Busch); (7) Use of waste materials for Biodiesel production (R. Vitiello); (8) From algae to diesel and kerosene - Tailored fuels via selective catalysis (C. Zhao); (9) Chemo-catalytic valorization of cellulose (R. Palkovits); (10) Cellulosic ethanol: Potential, technology and development status (M. Rarbach); (11) Methanation of carbon oxides - History, status quo and future perspectives (W. Kaltner); (12) Chemical storage of renewable electricity in hydrocarbon fuels via H{sub 2} (H. Eilers); (13) Materials for the 21st century: Can the carbon come from CO{sub 2} (S. Kissling); (14) Effect of CO{sub 2} admixture on the catalytic performance of Ni-Nb-M-O catalysts in oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane to ethylene (A. Qiao); (15) Oxidative dehydrogenation of light alkanes (A. Meiswinkel); (16) Low carbon fuel and chemical production from waste gases (S. Simpson); (17) Methanol to propylene: From development to commercialization (S. Haag); (18) On the impact of olefins and aromatics in the methanol-to-hydrocarbon conversion over H-ZSM-5 catalysts (X. Sun); (19) Mn-Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} - An industrial catalyst for methane coupling (M. Yildiz); (20) Biorefineries - Prerequisites for the realization of a future bioeconomy (K. Wagemann); (21) A new process

  19. Community diversity, structure and carbon footprint of nematode food web following reforestation on degraded Karst soil

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Hu; Hui Li; Zheng Tang; Zhongfang Li; Jing Tian; Yilai Lou; Jianwei Li; Guichun Li; Xiaomin Hu

    2016-01-01

    We examined community diversity, structure and carbon footprint of nematode food web along a chronosequence of T. Sinensis reforestation on degraded Karst. In general, after the reforestation: a serious of diversity parameters and community indices (Shannon-Weinier index (H′), structure index (SI), etc.) were elevated; biomass ratio of fungivores to bacterivores (FFC/BFC), and fungi to bacteria (F/B) were increased, and nematode channel ratio (NCR) were decreased; carbon footprints of all nem...

  20. Carbon Footprint estimation for a Sustainable Improvement of Supply Chains: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Cordero

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper examines the current methodologies and approaches developed to estimate carbon footprint in supply chains and the studies existing in the literature review about the application of these methodologies and other new approaches proposed by some authors.Design/methodology/approach: Literature review about methodologies developed by some authors for determining greenhouse gases emissions throughout the supply chain of a given sector or organization.Findings and Originality/value: Due to its usefulness for the design and management of a sustainable supply chain management, methodologies for calculating carbon footprint across the supply chain are recommended by many authors not only to reduce GHG emissions but also to optimize it in a cost-effective manner. Although these approaches are in first stages of development and the literature is scarce, different methodologies for estimating CF emissions which include EIO analysis models and standardized methods and guidance have been developed, some of them applicable to supply chains especially methodologies for calculating CF of a specific economic sector supply chain in a territory or country and for calculating CF of an organization applicable to the estimation of GHG emissions of a specific company supply chain.

  1. Online purchasing creates opportunities to lower the life cycle carbon footprints of consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isley, Steven C; Stern, Paul C; Carmichael, Scott P; Joseph, Karun M; Arent, Douglas J

    2016-08-30

    A major barrier to transitions to environmental sustainability is that consumers lack information about the full environmental footprints of their purchases. Sellers' incentives do not support reducing the footprints unless customers have such information and are willing to act on it. We explore the potential of modern information technology to lower this barrier by enabling firms to inform customers of products' environmental footprints at the point of purchase and easily offset consumers' contributions through bundled purchases of carbon offsets. Using online stated choice experiments, we evaluated the effectiveness of several inexpensive features that firms in four industries could implement with existing online user interfaces for consumers. These examples illustrate the potential for firms to lower their overall carbon footprints while improving customer satisfaction by lowering the "soft costs" to consumers of proenvironmental choices. Opportunities such as these likely exist wherever firms possess environmentally relevant data not accessible to consumers or when transaction costs make proenvironmental action difficult. PMID:27528670

  2. Online purchasing creates opportunities to lower the life cycle carbon footprints of consumer products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isley, Steven C.; Stern, Paul C.; Carmichael, Scott P.; Joseph, Karun M.; Arent, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    A major barrier to transitions to environmental sustainability is that consumers lack information about the full environmental footprints of their purchases. Sellers’ incentives do not support reducing the footprints unless customers have such information and are willing to act on it. We explore the potential of modern information technology to lower this barrier by enabling firms to inform customers of products’ environmental footprints at the point of purchase and easily offset consumers’ contributions through bundled purchases of carbon offsets. Using online stated choice experiments, we evaluated the effectiveness of several inexpensive features that firms in four industries could implement with existing online user interfaces for consumers. These examples illustrate the potential for firms to lower their overall carbon footprints while improving customer satisfaction by lowering the “soft costs” to consumers of proenvironmental choices. Opportunities such as these likely exist wherever firms possess environmentally relevant data not accessible to consumers or when transaction costs make proenvironmental action difficult. PMID:27528670

  3. Online purchasing creates opportunities to lower the life cycle carbon footprints of consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isley, Steven C; Stern, Paul C; Carmichael, Scott P; Joseph, Karun M; Arent, Douglas J

    2016-08-30

    A major barrier to transitions to environmental sustainability is that consumers lack information about the full environmental footprints of their purchases. Sellers' incentives do not support reducing the footprints unless customers have such information and are willing to act on it. We explore the potential of modern information technology to lower this barrier by enabling firms to inform customers of products' environmental footprints at the point of purchase and easily offset consumers' contributions through bundled purchases of carbon offsets. Using online stated choice experiments, we evaluated the effectiveness of several inexpensive features that firms in four industries could implement with existing online user interfaces for consumers. These examples illustrate the potential for firms to lower their overall carbon footprints while improving customer satisfaction by lowering the "soft costs" to consumers of proenvironmental choices. Opportunities such as these likely exist wherever firms possess environmentally relevant data not accessible to consumers or when transaction costs make proenvironmental action difficult.

  4. The possibilities to reduce the carbon footprint of packages - Case: moulded pulp; Mahdollisuudet pakkausten hiilijalanjaeljen pienentaemiseen - Case: kuituvalos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenman, K.

    2009-07-01

    Along with climate change, the calculation of carbon footprints for products has become more common. In this study the greenhouse gas emissions caused by packages are examined during their life cycle. First, the carbon footprint is calculated for a retail package made out of moulded pulp. Secondly, the carbon footprint is calculated for a package in the same purpose made out of expandable polystyrene (EPS). These carbon footprints are compared in order to determine how their carbon balances differ and which stages during their life cycle cause the most significant emissions. Instructions from PAS 2050 specification are used for the calculation of carbon footprints. Direct and indirect emissions as well as avoided emissions are considered in the calculation. According to the results, the decisive factor in superiority over materials is the waste treatment. If moulded pulp is recycled, its carbon footprint is smaller than EPS's. The considered waste treatment methods for EPS are landfill and incineration. If moulded pulp is composted or incinerated, its carbon footprint is greater than the carbon footprint of EPS. The most significant stage during moulded pulp's life cycle to produce greenhouse gas emissions is the production of packages. For EPS the production of raw materials and transportation are the most significant stages. These results show the potential for climate change caused by these materials. Although it must be recognized, that other environmental impacts are not taken into a consideration in a carbon footprint analysis. (orig.)

  5. Water and Carbon Footprint of Wine: Methodology Review and Application to a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rinaldi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessments (LCAs play a strategic role in improving the environmental performance of a company and in supporting a successful marketing communication. The high impact of the food industry on natural resources, in terms of water consumption and greenhouse gases emission, has been focusing the attention of consumers and producers towards environmentally sustainable products. This work presents a comprehensive approach for the joint evaluation of carbon (CF and water (WF footprint of the wine industry from a cradle to grave perspective. The LCA analysis is carried out following the requirements of international standards (ISO/TS 14067 and ISO 14046. A complete review of the water footprint methodology is presented and guidelines for all the phases of the evaluation procedure are provided, including acquisition and validation of input data, allocation, application of analytic models, and interpretation of the results. The strength of this approach is the implementation of a side-by-side CF vs. WF assessment, based on the same system boundaries, functional unit, and input data, that allows a reliable comparison between the two indicators. In particular, a revised methodology is presented for the evaluation of the grey water component. The methodology was applied to a white and a red wine produced in the same company. A comparison between the two products is presented for each LCA phase along with literature results for similar wines.

  6. Carbon footprints of organic dairying in six European countries—real farm data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hietala, Sanna; Smith, Laurence; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman;

    2015-01-01

    Dairy farming is the largest agricultural contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in Europe. In this study, the carbon footprint of organic dairying was evaluated by means of a life cycle assessment, based on real farm data from six European countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Italy...... equivalents per kilogramme of energy-corrected milk with standard deviation of 0.22, which is consistent with recent studies. The main contributor to this is enteric fermentation from producing animals, resulting in 45 % of total GHG emissions, which is also consistent with previous studies....... and United Kingdom. A total of 34 farms were analysed. The assessment was carried out using an attributional approach with system boundaries from cradle to farm gate. In relation to dairy production, a functional unit of 1 kg of energy corrected milk was used. The results gave an average of 1.32 kg CO2...

  7. Carbon Footprint of Housing in the Leeds City Region - A Best Practice Scenario Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, John; Dawkins, Elena (Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden))|(Univ. of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom))

    2008-06-15

    The Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) was commissioned by the Environment Agency to carry out a carbon footprint analysis of the housing sector, using the Leeds City Region (LCR) as an example. The aim was to determine our ability to meet the 80 per cent by 2050 challenge of energy efficiency in the housing sector. The study relates specifically to LCR but its findings will help any planning and development teams make the right decisions and gain the resources necessary to meet carbon budgets at regional and local levels. With a growing population and an additional 263,000 housing units to be built within LCR by 2026, the housing sector would need to reduce its expected total carbon dioxide emissions by 38 million tonnes between 2010 and 2026 to be on track for 80 per cent savings in 2050. The report outlines the most detailed analysis to date of the required measures to deliver a growth-based regional housing strategy, alongside reducing carbon emissions. If the city region's new and existing housing is to attain the levels of energy efficiency necessary to deliver these carbon savings, big changes will be required in the way we build, maintain and run our homes over the next 20 years. There are pockets of good practice already in the region and the study shows that by combining innovative measures on construction standards, improvements to existing housing, low and zero carbon technologies and changing behaviour of householders, LCR can achieve the necessary savings to meet its carbon budget

  8. Estimation of the carbon footprint of the Galician fishing activity (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, Diego; Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Hospido, Almudena; Moreira, María Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2010-10-15

    The food production system as a whole is recognized as one of the major contributors to environmental impacts. Accordingly, food production, processing, transport and consumption account for a relevant portion of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with any country. In this context, there is an increasing market demand for climate-relevant information regarding the global warming impact of consumer food products throughout the supply chains. This article deals with the assessment of the carbon footprint of seafood products as a key subgroup in the food sector. Galicia (NW Spain) was selected as a case study. The analysis is based on a representative set of species within the Galician fishing sector, including species obtained from coastal fishing (e.g. horse mackerel, Atlantic mackerel, European pilchard and blue whiting), offshore fishing (e.g. European hake, megrim and anglerfish), deep-sea fishing (skipjack and yellowfin tuna), extensive aquaculture (mussels) and intensive aquaculture (turbot). The carbon footprints associated with the production-related activities of each selected species were quantified following a business-to-business approach on the basis of 1year of fishing activity. These individual carbon footprints were used to calculate the carbon footprint for each of the different Galician fisheries and culture activities. Finally, the lump sum of the carbon footprints for coastal, offshore and deep-sea fishing and extensive and intensive aquaculture brought about the carbon footprint of the Galician fishing activity (i.e., capture and culture). A benchmark for quantifying and communicating emission reductions was then provided, and opportunities to reduce the GHG emissions associated with the Galician fishing activity could be prioritized.

  9. Estimation of the carbon footprint of the Galician fishing activity (NW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The food production system as a whole is recognized as one of the major contributors to environmental impacts. Accordingly, food production, processing, transport and consumption account for a relevant portion of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with any country. In this context, there is an increasing market demand for climate-relevant information regarding the global warming impact of consumer food products throughout the supply chains. This article deals with the assessment of the carbon footprint of seafood products as a key subgroup in the food sector. Galicia (NW Spain) was selected as a case study. The analysis is based on a representative set of species within the Galician fishing sector, including species obtained from coastal fishing (e.g. horse mackerel, Atlantic mackerel, European pilchard and blue whiting), offshore fishing (e.g. European hake, megrim and anglerfish), deep-sea fishing (skipjack and yellowfin tuna), extensive aquaculture (mussels) and intensive aquaculture (turbot). The carbon footprints associated with the production-related activities of each selected species were quantified following a business-to-business approach on the basis of 1 year of fishing activity. These individual carbon footprints were used to calculate the carbon footprint for each of the different Galician fisheries and culture activities. Finally, the lump sum of the carbon footprints for coastal, offshore and deep-sea fishing and extensive and intensive aquaculture brought about the carbon footprint of the Galician fishing activity (i.e., capture and culture). A benchmark for quantifying and communicating emission reductions was then provided, and opportunities to reduce the GHG emissions associated with the Galician fishing activity could be prioritized.

  10. Estimation of the carbon footprint of the Galician fishing activity (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iribarren, Diego; Vazquez-Rowe, Ian; Hospido, Almudena; Moreira, Maria Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo, E-mail: diego.iribarren@rai.usc.es [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    The food production system as a whole is recognized as one of the major contributors to environmental impacts. Accordingly, food production, processing, transport and consumption account for a relevant portion of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with any country. In this context, there is an increasing market demand for climate-relevant information regarding the global warming impact of consumer food products throughout the supply chains. This article deals with the assessment of the carbon footprint of seafood products as a key subgroup in the food sector. Galicia (NW Spain) was selected as a case study. The analysis is based on a representative set of species within the Galician fishing sector, including species obtained from coastal fishing (e.g. horse mackerel, Atlantic mackerel, European pilchard and blue whiting), offshore fishing (e.g. European hake, megrim and anglerfish), deep-sea fishing (skipjack and yellowfin tuna), extensive aquaculture (mussels) and intensive aquaculture (turbot). The carbon footprints associated with the production-related activities of each selected species were quantified following a business-to-business approach on the basis of 1 year of fishing activity. These individual carbon footprints were used to calculate the carbon footprint for each of the different Galician fisheries and culture activities. Finally, the lump sum of the carbon footprints for coastal, offshore and deep-sea fishing and extensive and intensive aquaculture brought about the carbon footprint of the Galician fishing activity (i.e., capture and culture). A benchmark for quantifying and communicating emission reductions was then provided, and opportunities to reduce the GHG emissions associated with the Galician fishing activity could be prioritized.

  11. The Fundamental Aspects of Carbon Footprint Calculation in Papermaking Industry%论造纸工业碳足迹研究之基本方面

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欢; 张辉

    2012-01-01

    发展低碳产业、低碳经济、适应国际贸易中的碳标识、促进可持续性发展,都必须建立在碳足迹研究的基础之上.文章在讨论造纸工业碳足迹研究的意义、国内外研究现状和发展趋势的基础上,讨论了造纸工业碳足迹研究目的、内容和拟解决的关键问题,按照国际碳足迹研究相关协议进一步讨论了适用于造纸工业碳足迹的基本工具、原则、规则、研究方法、技术路线,以及如何使碳足迹定性定量的结果报告规范化.%In order to develop low-carbon industry and low-carbon economy, adopt carbon label which has been used in international trade, and promote sustainable economic development, it is necessary to analyse the carbon footprint. Based on discussion of the significance, progress and developing trend of carbon footprint calculation in papermaking industry, the goal, content and key points of the were presented; furthermore, the tools, principle, rules, methods and technical paths to be adapted for carton footprint study in papermaking industry according to international Greenhouse Gas Emission Protocols related to carbon footprint research were discussed; finally, the standardization of quantifying and qualifying carbon footprint in papermaking industry as well as reporting the results were summarized. This paper provides the guidance of carbon footprint calculation in papermaking industry.

  12. Generic model for calculating carbon footprint of milk using four different LCA modelling approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Randi; Schmidt, Jannick Højrup; Flysjö, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to develop a tool, which can be used for calculation of carbon footprint (using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach) of milk both at a farm level and at a national level. The functional unit is ‘1 kg energy corrected milk (ECM) at farm gate’ and the applied methodology...... methodology for the dairy sector. The key elements of consequential LCA and the IDF guide are presented and explained by examples. The national carbon footprints (CF) for milk produced in Denmark and Sweden in 2005 are presented....

  13. Carbon Footprint Analyses of Mainstream Wastewater Treatment Technologies under Different Sludge Treatment Scenarios in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Chai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With rapid urbanization and infrastructure investment, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in Chinese cities are putting increased pressure on energy consumption and exacerbating greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. A carbon footprint is provided as a tool to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions and identify opportunities to reduce climate change impacts. This study examined three mainstream wastewater treatment technologies: Anaerobic–Anoxic–Oxic (A–A–O, Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR and Oxygen Ditch, considering four different sludge treatment alternatives for small-to-medium-sized WWTPs. Following the life cycle approach, process design data and emission factors were used by the model to calculate the carbon footprint. Results found that direct emissions of CO2 and N2O, and indirect emissions of electricity use, are significant contributors to the carbon footprint. Although sludge anaerobic digestion and biogas recovery could significantly contribute to emission reduction, it was less beneficial for Oxygen Ditch than the other two treatment technologies due to its low sludge production. The influence of choosing “high risk” or “low risk” N2O emission factors on the carbon footprint was also investigated in this study. Oxygen Ditch was assessed as “low risk” of N2O emissions while SBR was “high risk”. The carbon footprint of A–A–O with sludge anaerobic digestion and energy recovery was more resilient to changes of N2O emission factors and control of N2O emissions, though process design parameters (i.e., effluent total nitrogen (TN concentration, mixed-liquor recycle (MLR rates and solids retention time (SRT and operation conditions (i.e., nitrite concentration are critical for reducing carbon footprint of SBR. Analyses of carbon footprints suggested that aerobic treatment of sludge not only favors the generation of large amounts of CO2, but also the emissions of N2O, so the rationale of reducing aerobic treatment and

  14. Sustainability of meat production beyond carbon footprint: a synthesis of case studies from grazing systems in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picasso, Valentín D; Modernel, Pablo D; Becoña, Gonzalo; Salvo, Lucía; Gutiérrez, Lucía; Astigarraga, Laura

    2014-11-01

    Livestock production has been challenged as a large contributor to climate change, and carbon footprint has become a widely used measure of cattle environmental impact. This analysis of fifteen beef grazing systems in Uruguay quantifies the range of variation of carbon footprint, and the trade-offs with other relevant environmental variables, using a partial life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Using carbon footprint as the primary environmental indicator has several limitations: different metrics (GWP vs. GTP) may lead to different conclusions, carbon sequestration from soils may drastically affect the results, and systems with lower carbon footprint may have higher energy use, soil erosion, nutrient imbalance, pesticide ecotoxicity, and impact on biodiversity. A multidimensional assessment of sustainability of meat production is therefore needed to inform decision makers. There is great potential to improve grazing livestock systems productivity while reducing carbon footprint and other environmental impacts, and conserving biodiversity.

  15. Sustainability of meat production beyond carbon footprint: a synthesis of case studies from grazing systems in Uruguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picasso, V.D.; Modernel Hristoff, P.D.; Becona, G.; Salvo, L.; Gutierrez, L.; Astigarraga, L.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock production has been challenged as a large contributor to climate change, and carbon footprint has become a widely used measure of cattle environmental impact. This analysis of fifteen beef grazing systems in Uruguay quantifies the range of variation of carbon footprint, and the trade-offs

  16. Carbon footprint of premium quality export bananas: case study in Ecuador, the world's largest exporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Almeida, Maria Gabriela; Villalobos, Pablo

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays, the new international market demands challenge the food producing countries to include the measurement of the environmental impact generated along the production process for their products. In order to comply with the environmentally responsible market requests the measurement of the greenhouse gas emissions of Ecuadorian agricultural goods has been promoted employing the carbon footprint concept. Ecuador is the largest exporter of bananas in the world. Within this context, this study is a first assessment of the carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian premium export banana (Musa AAA) using a considerable amount of field data. The system boundaries considered from agricultural production to delivery in a European destination port. The data collected over three years permitted identifying the hot spot stages. For the calculation, the CCaLC V3.0 software developed by the University of Manchester is used. The carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian export banana ranged from 0.45 to 1.04 kg CO2-equivalent/kg banana depending on the international overseas transport employed. The principal contributors to the carbon footprint are the on farm production and overseas transport stages. Mitigation and reduction strategies were suggested for the main emission sources in order to achieve sustainable banana production.

  17. Practices to Reduce Milk Carbon Footprint on Grazing Dairy Farms in Southern Uruguay: Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon footprint (CF) is an increasingly relevant indicator to estimate the impact of a product on climate change. This study followed international guidelines to quantify the CF of milk produced on 24 dairy farms in Uruguay. Cows were grazed all year and supplemented with concentrate feeds. These d...

  18. Carbon Footprint Linked to transport infrastructures; La huella de carbono en las infraestructuras de transporte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo Garcia, L.; Jimenez Arroyo, F.

    2013-06-01

    Quantification of emissions of greenhouse effect gases associated to transport infrastructures has been addressed in different ways. The first tools for this purpose appeared with the application of ISO 14040 standards (Life cycle analysis) that, applied to the particular case of energetic resources, led to a new concept known as carbon footprint. There is a specific standard for this quantification (ISO 14064) according to which, for the case of infrastructures, emissions and environmental effects linked to the whole life cycle are assessed taking into account all the stages: building, exploitation, maintenance and dismantling. the key point to perform this analysis is the accurate definition of a calculation methodology to be applied to the inventory of activities covered, in order to avoid information lacks, overlaps or redundancies. Quantification tools for emissions are effectively a reality, but social and political will, supported by strong economical reasons recognizing energy as a vital resource, is necessary for these tools to be developed, enhanced and used in a systematic way as a key decision element to choice among different transport alternatives. (Author) 23 refs.

  19. Life cycle assessment and carbon footprint in the wine supply-chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattara, Claudio; Raggi, Andrea; Cichelli, Angelo

    2012-06-01

    Global warming represents one of the most critical internationally perceived environmental issues. The growing, and increasingly global, wine sector is one of the industries which is under increasing pressure to adopt approaches for environmental assessment and reporting of product-related greenhouse gas emissions. The International Organization for Vine and Wine has recently recognized the need to develop a standard and objective methodology and a related tool for calculating carbon footprint (CF). This study applied this tool to a wine previously analyzed using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The objective was to test the tool as regards both its potential and possible limitations, and thus to assess its suitability as a standard tool. Despite the tool's user-friendliness, a number of limitations were noted including the lack of accurate baseline data, a partial system boundary and the impossibility of dealing with the multi-functionality issue. When the CF and LCA results are compared in absolute terms, large discrepancies become obvious due to a number of different assumptions, as well as the modeling framework adopted. Nonetheless, in relative terms the results seem to be quite consistent. However, a critical limitation of the CF methodology was its focus on a single issue, which can lead to burden shifting. In conclusion, the study confirmed the need for both further improvement and adaptation to additional contexts and further studies to validate the use of this tool in different companies. PMID:22525986

  20. Study on Logistics Carbon Footprint under PAS2050 Specification%PAS2050规范下物流服务碳足迹研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史祎馨

    2014-01-01

    Based on the domestic and foreign research situation about logistics and supply chain carbon footprint made some comments,based on logistics service concept to construct the carbon footprint,the third party logistics logistics business Service Corporation analysis of carbon footprint model and calculation method by using the PAS2050 standard,for the logistics enterprises to clearly understand the logistics service process carbon footprint the decomposition provides an analysis method, providing a theoretical basis and practical guidance for low carbon logistics operation for the enterprises to upgrade.%文中在对国内外关于物流与供应链碳足迹研究现状作了一定综述评论,在此基础上提出物流服务碳足迹概念,利用PAS2050规范构建针对第三方物流服务公司分析物流业务碳足迹模型和测算方法,为物流企业清楚地认识在物流服务过程中碳足迹分解提供了一种分析方法,为企业进行低碳物流运作升级提供了理论依据和实践指导。

  1. Improving farming practices reduces the carbon footprint of spring wheat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yantai; Liang, Chang; Chai, Qiang; Lemke, Reynald L; Campbell, Con A; Zentner, Robert P

    2014-11-18

    Wheat is one of the world's most favoured food sources, reaching millions of people on a daily basis. However, its production has climatic consequences. Fuel, inorganic fertilizers and pesticides used in wheat production emit greenhouse gases that can contribute negatively to climate change. It is unknown whether adopting alternative farming practices will increase crop yield while reducing carbon emissions. Here we quantify the carbon footprint of alternative wheat production systems suited to semiarid environments. We find that integrating improved farming practices (that is, fertilizing crops based on soil tests, reducing summerfallow frequencies and rotating cereals with grain legumes) lowers wheat carbon footprint effectively, averaging -256 kg CO2 eq ha(-1) per year. For each kg of wheat grain produced, a net 0.027-0.377 kg CO2 eq is sequestered into the soil. With the suite of improved farming practices, wheat takes up more CO2 from the atmosphere than is actually emitted during its production.

  2. Carbon Footprint Research and Textile Apparel Industry%碳足迹研究与纺织服装行业

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄瑞

    2012-01-01

    文章对现有碳足迹评价规范及核算方法进行了介绍,对不同层面的碳足迹研究进行了总结,最后指出未来服装方面碳足迹研究的发展方向。%Major carbon footprint evaluation criterions and methods were introduced. The research progresses of different scopes of carbon footprint study were summerized. Finally,the future direction of carbon footprint research in textile apparel industry was pointed out.

  3. Comparing Carbon and Water Footprints for Beef Cattle Production in Southern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley G. Ridoutt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Stand-alone environmental indicators based on life cycle assessment (LCA, such as the carbon footprint and water footprint, are becoming increasingly popular as a means of directing sustainable production and consumption. However, individually, these metrics violate the principle of LCA known as comprehensiveness and do not necessarily provide an indication of overall environmental impact. In this study, the carbon footprints for six diverse beef cattle production systems in southern Australia were calculated and found to range from 10.1 to 12.7 kg CO2e kg−1 live weight (cradle to farm gate. This compared to water footprints, which ranged from 3.3 to 221 L H2Oe kg−1 live weight. For these systems, the life cycle impacts of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and water use were subsequently modelled using endpoint indicators and aggregated to enable comparison. In all cases, impacts from GHG emissions were most important, representing 93 to 99% of the combined scores. As such, the industry’s existing priority of GHG emissions reduction is affirmed. In an attempt to balance the demands of comprehensiveness and simplicity, to achieve reliable public reporting of the environmental impacts of a large number of products across the economy, a multi-indicator approach based on combined midpoint and endpoint life cycle impact assessment modelling is proposed. For agri-food products, impacts from land use should also be included as tradeoffs between GHG emissions, water use and land use are common.

  4. Online Purchasing Creates Opportunities to Lower the Life Cycle Carbon Footprints of Consumer Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isley, Steven C.; Stern, Paul C.; Carmichael, Scott P.; Joseph, Karun M.; Arent, Douglas J.

    2016-08-03

    A major barrier to transitions to environmental sustainability is that consumers lack information about the full environmental footprints of their purchases. Sellers' incentives do not support reducing the footprints unless customers have such information and are willing to act on it. We explore the potential of modern information technology to lower this barrier by enabling firms to inform customers of products' environmental footprints at the point of purchase and easily offset consumers' contributions through bundled purchases of carbon offsets. Using online stated choice experiments, we evaluated the effectiveness of several inexpensive features that firms in four industries could implement with existing online user interfaces for consumers. These examples illustrate the potential for firms to lower their overall carbon footprints while improving customer satisfaction by lowering the 'soft costs' to consumers of pro-environmental choices. Opportunities such as these likely exist wherever firms possess environmentally relevant data not accessible to consumers or when transaction costs make pro-environmental action difficult.

  5. Carbon and Energy Footprints of Prefabricated Industrial Buildings: A Systematic Life Cycle Assessment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Bonamente

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A systematic analysis of green-house gases emission (carbon footprint and primary energy consumption (energy footprint of prefabricated industrial buildings during their entire life cycle is presented. The life cycle assessment (LCA study was performed in a cradle-to grave approach: site-specific data from an Italian company, directly involved in all the phases from raw material manufacturing to in-situ assembly, were used to analyze the impacts as a function of different design choices. Four buildings were analyzed and results were used to setup a parameterized model that was used to study the impacts of industrial prefabricated buildings over the input parameter space. The model vs. data agreement is within 4% for both carbon and energy footprint. The functional unit is 1 m3 of prefabricated building, considering a 50-year lifetime. The results of the four buildings decrease from 144.6 kgCO2eq/m3 and 649.5 kWh/m3 down to 123.5 kgCO2eq/m3 and 556.8 kWh/m3 as the building floor area increases from 1048 m2 to 21,910 m2. The use phase accounts for the major impact (approximate 76%. It is found that the carbon footprint is proportional to the energy footprint, the proportional factor being 0.222 kgCO2eq/kWh within 0.5% accuracy. Finally, a systematic study of the sensitivity of input parameters (insulation, lifetime, foundation type is presented.

  6. Life Cycle Analysis of Carbon Flow and Carbon Footprint of Harvested Wood Products of Larix principis-rupprechtii in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Larix principis-rupprechtii is a native tree species in North China with a large distribution; and its harvested timbers can be used for producing wood products. This study focused on estimating and comparing carbon flows and carbon footprints of different harvested wood products (HWPs from Larix principis-ruppechtii based on the life cycle analysis (from seedling cultivation to HWP final disposal. Based on our interviews and surveys, the system boundary in this study was divided into three processes: the forestry process, the manufacturing process, and the use and disposal process. By tracking carbon flows of HWPs along the entire life cycle, we found that, for one forest rotation period, a total of 26.81 tC/ha sequestered carbon was transferred into these HWPs, 66.2% of which were still stored in the HWP when the rotation period had ended; however, the HWP carbon storage decreased to 0.25 tC/ha (only 0.9% left in the 100th year after forest plantation. The manufacturing process contributed more than 90% of the total HWP carbon footprint, but it was still smaller than the HWP carbon storage. In terms of the carbon storage and the carbon footprint, construction products had the largest net positive carbon balance compared to furniture and panel products. In addition, HWP are known to have a positive impact on global carbon mitigation because they can store parts of the sequestered carbon for a certain period of time and they have a substitution effect on carbon mitigation. Furthermore, there still exist great opportunities for carbon mitigation from HWPs through the use of cleaner energy and increasing the utilization efficiency of wood fuel.

  7. Low Carbon Footprint Mortar from Pozzolanic Waste Material

    OpenAIRE

    Taha Mehmannavaz; Salihuddin Radin Sumadi; Muhammad Aamer Rafique Bhutta; Mostafa Samadi; Seyed Mahdi Sajjadi

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, Portland cement clinker leads to emission of CO2 into the atmosphere and therefore causes greenhouse effect. Incorporating of Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) and Pulverized Fuel Ash (PFA) as partial cement replacement materials into mix of low carbon mortar decreases the amount of cement use and reduces high dependence on cements compared to ordinary mortar. The result of this research supported use of the new concept in preparing low carbon mortar for industrial constructions. Strength of...

  8. Carbon footprints van conventioneel en biologisch varkensvlees : uitgebreide samenvatting : analyse van typische productiesystemen in Nederland, Denemarken, Engeland en DuitslandCarbon footprints van conventioneel en biologisch varkensvlees : uitgebreide samenvatting : analyse van typische productiesystemen in Nederland, Denemarken, Engeland en Duitsland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, A.; Blonk, H.; Ponsioen, T.; Sukkel, W.; Vermeer, H.M.; Vries, de J.W.; Hoste, R.

    2009-01-01

    Samenvatting van onderzoek naar de broeikasgasemissies door de productie van conventioneel en biologisch varkensvlees uit typische productiesystemen in Nederland, Denemarken, Engeland en Duitsland. Dit onderzoek is uitvoerig beschreven in de (Engelstalige) rapportage: 'Carbon footprints of conventio

  9. North and south: Regional footprints on the transition pathway towards a low carbon, global economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental or 'ecological' footprints are indicators of resource consumption and waste absorption transformed on the basis of biologically productive land area required per capita with prevailing technology. They represent a partial measure of the extent to which the planet, its regions, or nations are moving along a sustainable development pathway. Such footprints vary between countries at different stages of economic development and varying geographic characteristics. A correlation equation for national environmental footprints is used, alongside international projections of population growth and gross regional income, to estimate the relative contributions of the peoples of the industrialised North and populous South that would be needed in order to secure climate-stabilising carbon reductions out to about 2100. The four so-called 'marker scenarios' produced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change are used to estimate the degree of energy efficiency improvement and carbon mitigation that is feasible. The present footprint projections suggest that a reduction in the consumption of biophysical assets across both the developing and industrialised world is indeed possible. However, the developing world's footprint is shown to overshoot that of the industrialised countries by around 2010-2015. It then levels out and starts to fall, on the most optimistic scenario, by about 2050. In order to achieve global sustainability in the 21st Century a serious commitment to environmental protection is required in both the industrialised North and the 'majority South'. That implies balancing population growth, economic well-being, and environmental impacts in the interests of all the people and wildlife on 'Spaceship Earth'.

  10. Cradle-to-farm gate analysis of milk carbon footprint: a descriptive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Pirlo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four life cycle assessment studies which estimated the carbon footprint of milk production in countries with modern dairy farming were examined. It proved difficult to compare the studies because of the strong discrepancies between them. The aim of this review was to examine the characteristics of LCA studies on milk production in order to understand how the variability of results can be explained. The main reason is the different methodologies adopted. However, other variables were considered: production system, stocking rate, milk productivity, mitigation strategies. Life Cycle Assessment is a promising tool for benchmarking carbon footprint among different countries or production systems. This approach could also be used as a mitigation indicator in the enforcement of political decision. Two major factors are needed for a practical application: i a widely accepted methodology and ii direct measurements of greenhouse gases in specific contests.

  11. [Carbon footprint in five third-level health care centers in Peru, 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambarén-Alatrista, Celso; Alatrista-Gutiérrez, María Del Socorro

    2016-06-01

    This study was performed to calculate the carbon footprint generated by third-level health care centers located in Lima, Peru, in 2013. Reports were obtained on the consumption of energy resources and water as well as on waste generation from the five centers, which contributed to climate change with an emission of 14,462 teq of CO2. A total of 46% of these emissions were associated with fuel consumption by the powerhouse, power generators, and transport vehicles; 44% was related to energy consumption; and the remaining 10% was related to the use of water and generation of solid hospital waste. CO2, N2O, and CH4 are the greenhouse gases included in the estimated carbon footprint. Our results show that hospitals have a negative environmental impact, mainly due to fossil fuel consumption. PMID:27656927

  12. Community diversity, structure and carbon footprint of nematode food web following reforestation on degraded Karst soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ning; Li, Hui; Tang, Zheng; Li, Zhongfang; Tian, Jing; Lou, Yilai; Li, Jianwei; Li, Guichun; Hu, Xiaomin

    2016-01-01

    We examined community diversity, structure and carbon footprint of nematode food web along a chronosequence of T. Sinensis reforestation on degraded Karst. In general, after the reforestation: a serious of diversity parameters and community indices (Shannon-Weinier index (H′), structure index (SI), etc.) were elevated; biomass ratio of fungivores to bacterivores (FFC/BFC), and fungi to bacteria (F/B) were increased, and nematode channel ratio (NCR) were decreased; carbon footprints of all nematode trophic groups, and biomass of bacteria and fungi were increased. Our results indicate that the Karst aboveground vegetation restoration was accompanied with belowground nematode food web development: increasing community complexity, function and fungal dominance in decomposition pathway, and the driving forces included the bottom-up effect (resource control), connectedness of functional groups, as well as soil environments. PMID:27311984

  13. Community diversity, structure and carbon footprint of nematode food web following reforestation on degraded Karst soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ning; Li, Hui; Tang, Zheng; Li, Zhongfang; Tian, Jing; Lou, Yilai; Li, Jianwei; Li, Guichun; Hu, Xiaomin

    2016-06-01

    We examined community diversity, structure and carbon footprint of nematode food web along a chronosequence of T. Sinensis reforestation on degraded Karst. In general, after the reforestation: a serious of diversity parameters and community indices (Shannon-Weinier index (H‧), structure index (SI), etc.) were elevated; biomass ratio of fungivores to bacterivores (FFC/BFC), and fungi to bacteria (F/B) were increased, and nematode channel ratio (NCR) were decreased; carbon footprints of all nematode trophic groups, and biomass of bacteria and fungi were increased. Our results indicate that the Karst aboveground vegetation restoration was accompanied with belowground nematode food web development: increasing community complexity, function and fungal dominance in decomposition pathway, and the driving forces included the bottom-up effect (resource control), connectedness of functional groups, as well as soil environments.

  14. Community diversity, structure and carbon footprint of nematode food web following reforestation on degraded Karst soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ning; Li, Hui; Tang, Zheng; Li, Zhongfang; Tian, Jing; Lou, Yilai; Li, Jianwei; Li, Guichun; Hu, Xiaomin

    2016-01-01

    We examined community diversity, structure and carbon footprint of nematode food web along a chronosequence of T. Sinensis reforestation on degraded Karst. In general, after the reforestation: a serious of diversity parameters and community indices (Shannon-Weinier index (H'), structure index (SI), etc.) were elevated; biomass ratio of fungivores to bacterivores (FFC/BFC), and fungi to bacteria (F/B) were increased, and nematode channel ratio (NCR) were decreased; carbon footprints of all nematode trophic groups, and biomass of bacteria and fungi were increased. Our results indicate that the Karst aboveground vegetation restoration was accompanied with belowground nematode food web development: increasing community complexity, function and fungal dominance in decomposition pathway, and the driving forces included the bottom-up effect (resource control), connectedness of functional groups, as well as soil environments. PMID:27311984

  15. 生态足迹、碳足迹相关经验对水足迹评价的启示%Enlightenment from Ecological Footprint and Carbon Footprint Assessment Experience for Water Footprint Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙静; 白雪; 朱春雁; 胡梦婷

    2014-01-01

    本文总结了生态足迹和碳足迹的理论模式和操作经验,归纳了生态足迹、碳足迹所涉及的重点理论内容和目前存在的问题,借鉴其经验,结合水资源的属性和特点,对水足迹评价理论进行相关思考,在水足迹评价的方法学、内容和步骤、需重点研究内容等几个方面分析提出思路和想法。%The paper summarizes the theory model and practical experience of ecological footprintand carbon footprint, as well as the content and problems. Borrowing experience of ecological footprint and carbon footprint assessment and combing the features and characteristics of water resources, this paper considers the evaluation theory of water footprint assessment, and puts forward thought and consideration of the methodology, content and steps of water footprint assessment.

  16. Ability of carbon footprint to reflect the environmental burden of a product or service – an empirical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Olsen, Stig Irving; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    In the context of a global awareness of the climate change, carbon footprint (CFP) has recently become extensively used as a simple way to sensitize not only consumers in their purchasing behaviours but also public opinion in general. However, limitations in its environmental representativeness......-related impacts, each one updated with the latest set of characterization factors and with normalization references for the emission year 2004. Outcome of the study shows that carbon footprinting coincides well with the LCA-based global warming assessment, though divergences rise whenever NMVOC show a significant...... contribution in the inventory. Among other impact categories, especially the toxicity-related impacts do not correlate and show significant differences to carbon footprint results. Despite the fact that carbon footprint is a first step towards a more “environmental friendly” policy, its implications shall...

  17. Carbon Footprint Calculations: An Application of Chemical Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treptow, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    Topics commonly taught in a general chemistry course can be used to calculate the quantity of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere by various human activities. Each calculation begins with the balanced chemical equation for the reaction that produces the CO[subscript 2] gas. Stoichiometry, thermochemistry, the ideal gas law, and dimensional…

  18. Development of a Lightweight Low-Carbon Footprint Concrete Containing Recycled Waste Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Talukdar, S.; Islam, S. T.; Banthia, N.

    2011-01-01

    Use of any recycled material helps to maintain a greener environment by keeping waste materials out of the landfills. Recycling practices also can decrease the environmental and economical impact of manufacturing the materials from virgin resources, which reduces the overall carbon footprint of industrial materials and processes. This study examined the use of waste materials such as crushed glass, ground tire rubber, and recycled aggregate in concrete. Compressive strength and elastic mod...

  19. Carbon Footprint Analyses of Mainstream Wastewater Treatment Technologies under Different Sludge Treatment Scenarios in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chunyan Chai; Dawei Zhang; Yanling Yu; Yujie Feng; Man Sing Wong

    2015-01-01

    With rapid urbanization and infrastructure investment, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Chinese cities are putting increased pressure on energy consumption and exacerbating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A carbon footprint is provided as a tool to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions and identify opportunities to reduce climate change impacts. This study examined three mainstream wastewater treatment technologies: Anaerobic–Anoxic–Oxic (A–A–O), Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) and Oxy...

  20. Energy performance, fuel intensity and carbon footprint of the Greek fishing fleet

    OpenAIRE

    DAMALAS DIMITRIOS; Maravelias, Christos; KAPANTAGAKIS Anargyros

    2015-01-01

    Fishing is a fuel consuming food production activity, and its energy efficiency performance has worsened over time. Assembling data from the whole fishing sector, the energy performance, fuel intensity and carbon footprint of the Greek fishing fleet, were assessed for the period 2004–2008. Results demonstrated declining trends in fishing effort and respective fuel consumption, associated with the fuel price hike in 2008. Bottom trawlers illustrated the higher levels of fuel intensity (>1.5lt ...

  1. The Environmental Sustainability of Nations: Benchmarking the Carbon, Water and Land Footprints against Allocated Planetary Boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Fang; Reinout Heijungs; Zheng Duan; de Snoo, Geert R.

    2015-01-01

    Growing scientific evidence for the indispensable role of environmental sustainability in sustainable development calls for appropriate frameworks and indicators for environmental sustainability assessment (ESA). In this paper, we operationalize and update the footprint-boundary ESA framework, with a particular focus on its methodological and application extensions to the national level. By using the latest datasets available, the planetary boundaries for carbon emissions, water use and land ...

  2. The Impact of Precision Agriculture Techniques on Kentucky Grain Farmers' Carbon Footprint

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Rachael M.; Dillon, Carl R.; Schieffer, Jack; Shockley, Jordan M.

    2012-01-01

    This study estimates the carbon footprint of a Henderson County, Kentucky grain farmer under different production strategies; traditional farming and precision agriculture technologies. Four constrained optimization, whole farm analysis models were formulated under no-till conditions. One of the models was optimized without utilizing any precision agriculture techniques and was used as a base model to compare the other three models which incorporated precision agriculture technologies (PAT). ...

  3. CARBON FOOTPRINT IN SUSTAINABLE FOOD CHAIN AND ITS IMPORTANCE FOR FOOD CONSUMER

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Konieczny; Ewelina Mroczek; Magda Kucharska

    2013-01-01

    Freshness, sensory attributes and food safety are currently indicated as main criteria in respect to food purchasing decisions. However, growing number of consumers are ready to choose also environmentally friendly food products. Carbon Footprint (CF) expressed in CO2 equivalent of greenhouse gas emission seems to be an innovative indicator useful to evaluate environmental impacts associated with production and distribution of food. The review carried out in this study is based mainly on data...

  4. Resource Efficiency and Carbon Footprint Minimization in Manufacture of Plastic Products

    OpenAIRE

    K. Sabaliauskaitė; Kliaugaitė, D.

    2014-01-01

    Efficient resource management, waste prevention, as well as renewable resource consumption promote sustainable production and lower greenhouse gas emissions to the environment when manufacturing plastic products.The paper presents the analysis of the efficiency of resources and the potential of carbon footprint minimization in manufacture of plastic products by means of implementation of wood-plastic composite (WPC) production. The analysis was performed using life cycle assessment and materi...

  5. Targeting energy generation and carbon footprint for waste management and processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kravanja, Zdravko; Klemeš, Jiri; Čuček, Lidija; Varbanov, Petar

    2015-01-01

    Waste to Energy (WTE) processing carries a trade-off between energy extractionfrom the waste and the energy for waste management - collection, transport and treatment. Major performance indicators are the Primary Energy Savings (PES), Carbon Footprint (CFP) and especially the cost. This presentation analyses the significance of the factors in this trade-off introducing a new indicator - the Waste Energy Potential Utilisation (WPU). The results indicate that the impact of the logistics and ene...

  6. Resource Efficiency and Carbon Footprint Minimization in Manufacture of Plastic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilė Sabaliauskaitė

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Efficient resource management, waste prevention, as well as renewable resource consumption promote sustainable production and lower greenhouse gas emissions to the environment when manufacturing plastic products. The paper presents the analysis of the efficiency of resources and the potential of carbon footprint minimization in manufacture of plastic products by means of implementation of wood-plastic composite (WPC production. The analysis was performed using life cycle assessment and material flow analysis methodology. To devise the solution for better management of resources and minimization of carbon footprint, the environmental impacts of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and WPC wall panels through their life cycle were assessed, as well as the detailed material flow analyses of the PVC and WPC in production stages were carried out. The life cycle assessment has revealed that carbon footprint throughout life cycle of 1 kg of WPC wall panel is 37 % lower than those of the same weight of PVC wall panel product. Both products have a major impact on the environment during their production phase, while during this phase WPC wall panel has 35 % smaller carbon footprint and even 47 % smaller during disposal stages than those of the PVC wall panel. The results of material flow analysis have shown that recycling and reuse of production spoilage reduce the need of PVC secondary resources for PVC panels and primary WPC resources for WPC panel production. For better resource efficiency, the conceptual model of material flow management has been proposed. As WPC products are made of primary WPC granules, which are imported from abroad, the model suggests to produce the WPC granules at the company using collected PVC secondary materials (PVC stocks. It would lower environmental costs and environmental impact, increase the efficiency of resources, and diminish dependence on suppliers.

  7. Resource Efficiency and Carbon Footprint Minimization in Manufacture of Plastic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sabaliauskaitė

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficient resource management, waste prevention, as well as renewable resource consumption promote sustainable production and lower greenhouse gas emissions to the environment when manufacturing plastic products.The paper presents the analysis of the efficiency of resources and the potential of carbon footprint minimization in manufacture of plastic products by means of implementation of wood-plastic composite (WPC production. The analysis was performed using life cycle assessment and material flow analysis methodology. To devise the solution for better management of resources and minimization of carbon footprint, the environmental impacts of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and WPC wall panels through their life cycle were assessed, as well as the detailed material flow analyses of the PVC and WPC in production stages were carried out.The life cycle assessment has revealed that carbon footprints throughout life cycle of 1 kg of WPC wall panel are 37 % lower than those of the same weight of PVC wall panel product. Both products have a major impact on the environment during their production phase, while during this phase WPC wall panel has 35 % smaller carbon footprint and even 47 % smaller during disposal stages than those of the PVC wall panel.The results of material flow analysis have shown that recycling and reuse of production spoilage reduce the need of PVC secondary resources for PVC panels and primary WPC resources for WPC panel production.For better resource efficiency, the conceptual model of material flow management has been proposed. As WPC products are made of primary WPC granules, which are imported from abroad, the model suggests to produce the WPC granules at the company using collected PVC secondary materials (PVC stocks. It would lower environmental costs and environmental impact, increase the efficiency of resources, and diminish dependence on suppliers.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.67.1.6587

  8. Research developments in methods to reduce the carbon footprint of the food system: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhongyue; Sun, Da-Wen; Zeng, Xin-An; Liu, Dan; Pu, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    Global warming is a worldwide issue with its evident impact across a wide range of systems and sectors. It is caused by a number of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions, in which food system has made up of a large part. Recently, reduction of GHG emissions has become an urgent issue to be resolved in the food system. Many governments and organizations are making great endeavors to alleviate the adverse effect of this phenomenon. In this review, methods to reduce the carbon footprint within the life cycle of a food system are presented from the technical, consumption behavior and environmental policies perspectives. The whole food system including raw material acquisition, processing, packaging, preservation, transportation, consumption, and disposal are covered. Improving management techniques, and adopting advanced technology and equipment are critical for every stage of a food system. Rational site selection is important to alleviate the influence of land use change. In addition, environmental choices of packaging stage, reduction in refrigeration dependence, and correct waste treatment are essential to reduce the total carbon footprint of the production. However, only technical methods cannot radically reverse the trend of climate change, as consumption behaviors present a great deal of influence over climate change. Appropriate purchase patterns and substitution within food product categories by low carbon products can reduce GHG emissions. Development of methods to calculate the carbon footprint of every kind of food and its processing technology enable people to make environmental choice. Policy can shape and cultivate the new code of consumption and influence the direction of emerging technology and science. From political perspectives, government intervention and carbon offset are common tools, especially for carbon tax and a real or implicit price of carbon. Finally, by mitigating the methodologies described above, the rate and magnitude of climate changes

  9. Method for calculating carbon footprint of cattle feeds – including contribution from soil carbon changes and use of cattle manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels; Nguyen, T Lan T;

    2014-01-01

    ready to feed’. Included in the study were fodder crops that are grown in Denmark and typically used on Danish cattle farms. The contributions from the growing, processing and transport of feedstuffs were included, as were the changes in soil carbon (soil C) and from land use change (LUC). For each......Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) related to feed production is one of the hotspots in livestock production. The aim of this paper was to estimate the carbon footprint of different feedstuffs for dairy cattle using life cycle assessment (LCA). The functional unit was ‘1 kg dry matter (DM) of feed...... fodder crop, an individual production scheme was set up as the basis for calculating the carbon footprint (CF). In the calculations, all fodder crops were fertilized by artificial fertilizer based on the assumption that the environmental burden of using manure is related to the livestock production...

  10. Carbon Footprint Analysis for Mechanization of Maize Production Based on Life Cycle Assessment: A Case Study in Jilin Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haina Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The theory on the carbon footprint of agriculture can systematically evaluate the carbon emissions caused by artificial factors from the agricultural production process, which is the theoretical basis for constructing low-carbon agriculture and has important guiding significance for realizing low-carbon agriculture. Based on farm production survey data from Jilin Province in 2014, this paper aims to obtain a clear understanding of the carbon footprint of maize production through the following method: (1 one ton of maize production was evaluated systematically by using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA; (2 the carbon emissions of the whole system were estimated based on field measurement data, (3 using the emission factors we estimated Jilin’s carbon footprint for the period 2006–2013, and forecasted it for the period from 2014 to 2020 using the grey system model GM (1, 1.

  11. Low Carbon Footprint Mortar from Pozzolanic Waste Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Mehmannavaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Portland cement clinker leads to emission of CO2 into the atmosphere and therefore causes greenhouse effect. Incorporating of Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA and Pulverized Fuel Ash (PFA as partial cement replacement materials into mix of low carbon mortar decreases the amount of cement use and reduces high dependence on cements compared to ordinary mortar. The result of this research supported use of the new concept in preparing low carbon mortar for industrial constructions. Strength of low carbon mortar with POFA and PFA replacement in cement was affected and changed by replacing percent finesse, physical and chemical properties and pozzolanic activity of these wastes. Waste material replacement instead of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC was used in this study. This in turn was useful for promoting better quality of construction and innovative systems in construction industry, especially in Malaysia. This study was surely a step forward to achieving quality products which were affordable, durable and environmentally friendly. Disposing ash contributes to shortage of landfill space in Malaysia. Besides, hazard of ash might be another serious issue for human health. The ash disposal area also might create a new problem, which is the area's sedimentation and erosion.

  12. An Indigenous Application for Estimating Carbon footprint of academia library systems based on life cycle assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Saurabh; David Dornfeld

    2008-01-01

    Global Warming is one of the pressing problems of the current century and can have disastrous effects in disturbing the ecological balance and climate stability on the planet Earth, if not addressed pro-actively by all nations across the world. A carbon footprint is a measure of the impact human activities have on the environment in terms of the amount of green house gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide. It is meant to be useful for individuals and organizations to conceptualiz...

  13. Using Geothermal Electric Power to Reduce Carbon Footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombie, George W.

    Human activities, including the burning of fossil fuels, increase carbon dioxide levels, which contributes to global warming. The research problem of the current study examined if geothermal electric power could adequately replace fossil fuel by 2050, thus reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide while avoiding potential problems with expanding nuclear generation. The purpose of this experimental research was to explore under what funding and business conditions geothermal power could be exploited to replace fossil fuels, chiefly coal. Complex systems theory, along with network theory, provided the theoretical foundation for the study. Research hypotheses focused on parameters, such as funding level, exploration type, and interfaces with the existing power grid that will bring the United States closest to the goal of phasing out fossil based power by 2050. The research was conducted by means of computer simulations, using agent-based modeling, wherein data were generated and analyzed. The simulations incorporated key information about the location of geothermal resources, exploitation methods, transmission grid limits and enhancements, and demand centers and growth. The simulation suggested that rapid and aggressive deployment of geothermal power plants in high potential areas, combined with a phase out of coal and nuclear plants, would produce minimal disruptions in the supply of electrical power in the United States. The implications for social change include reduced risk of global warming for all humans on the planet, reduced pollution due to reduction or elimination of coal and nuclear power, increased stability in energy supply and prices in the United States, and increased employment of United States citizens in jobs related to domestic energy production.

  14. Food consumption and waste and the embedded carbon, water and ecological footprints of households in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guobao; Li, Mingjing; Semakula, Henry Musoke; Zhang, Shushen

    2015-10-01

    Strategies for reducing food waste and developing sustainable diets require information about the impacts of consumption behavior and waste generation on climatic, water, and land resources. We quantified the carbon, water, and ecological footprints of 17,110 family members of Chinese households, covering 1935 types of foods, by combining survey data with available life-cycle assessment data sets. We also summarized the patterns of both food consumption and waste generation and analyzed the factors influencing the observed trends. The average person wasted (consumed) 16 (415) kg of food at home annually, equivalent to 40 (1080) kg CO2e, 18 (673) m(3), and 173 (4956) gm(2) for the carbon, water and ecological footprints, respectively. The generation of food waste was highly correlated with consumption for various food groups. For example, vegetables, rice, and wheat were consumed the most and accounted for the most waste. In addition to the three plant-derived food groups, pork and aquatic products also contributed greatly to embedded footprints. The data obtained in this study could be used for assessing national food security or the carrying capacity of resources. PMID:26011615

  15. Future electricity: The challenge of reducing both carbon and water footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Gerbens-Leenes, P W; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2016-11-01

    We estimate the consumptive water footprint (WF) of electricity and heat in 2035 for the four energy scenarios of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and a fifth scenario with a larger percentage of solar energy. Counter-intuitively, the 'greenest' IEA scenario (with the smallest carbon footprint) shows the largest WF increase over time: an increase by a factor four over the period 2010-2035. In 2010, electricity from solar, wind, and geothermal contributed 1.8% to the total. The increase of this contribution to 19.6% in IEA's '450 scenario' contributes significantly to the decrease of the WF of the global electricity and heat sector, but is offset by the simultaneous increase of the use of firewood and hydropower. Only substantial growth in the fractions of energy sources with small WFs - solar, wind, and geothermal energy - can contribute to a lowering of the WF of the electricity and heat sector in the coming decades. The fifth energy scenario - adapted from the IEA 450 scenario but based on a quick transition to solar, wind and geothermal energy and a minimum in bio-energy - is the only scenario that shows a strong decline in both carbon footprint (-66%) and consumptive WF (-12%) in 2035 compared to the reference year 2010.

  16. Future electricity: The challenge of reducing both carbon and water footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Gerbens-Leenes, P W; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2016-11-01

    We estimate the consumptive water footprint (WF) of electricity and heat in 2035 for the four energy scenarios of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and a fifth scenario with a larger percentage of solar energy. Counter-intuitively, the 'greenest' IEA scenario (with the smallest carbon footprint) shows the largest WF increase over time: an increase by a factor four over the period 2010-2035. In 2010, electricity from solar, wind, and geothermal contributed 1.8% to the total. The increase of this contribution to 19.6% in IEA's '450 scenario' contributes significantly to the decrease of the WF of the global electricity and heat sector, but is offset by the simultaneous increase of the use of firewood and hydropower. Only substantial growth in the fractions of energy sources with small WFs - solar, wind, and geothermal energy - can contribute to a lowering of the WF of the electricity and heat sector in the coming decades. The fifth energy scenario - adapted from the IEA 450 scenario but based on a quick transition to solar, wind and geothermal energy and a minimum in bio-energy - is the only scenario that shows a strong decline in both carbon footprint (-66%) and consumptive WF (-12%) in 2035 compared to the reference year 2010. PMID:27387812

  17. Climate Change Adaptation Strategy in the Food Industry—Insights from Product Carbon and Water Footprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Ridoutt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change adds an additional layer of complexity that needs to be considered in business strategy. For firms in the food industry, many of the important climate impacts are not directly related to food processing so a value chain approach to adaptation is recommended. However, there is a general lack of operational tools to support this. In this study, carbon and water footprints were conducted at a low-precision screening level in three case studies in Australia: Smith’s potato chips, OneHarvest Calypso™ mango and selected Treasury Wine Estates products. The approach was cost-effective when compared to high-definition studies intended to support environmental labels and declarations, yet provided useful identification of physical, financial, regulatory and reputational hotspots related to climate change. A combination of diagnostic footprinting, downscaled climate projection and semi-quantitative value chain analysis is proposed as a practical and relevant toolkit to inform climate adaptation strategies.

  18. Developing mechanisms for estimating carbon footprint in farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya-Romero, María; Fernández Luque, José Enrique; Rodríguez Merino, Alejandro; José Moreno Delgado, Juan; Rodado, Concepción Mira; Romero Vicente, Rafael; Perez-Martin, Alfonso; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable land management is critical to avoid land degradation and to reclaim degraded land for its productive use and for reaping the benefits of crucial ecosystem services and protecting biodiversity. It also helps in mitigating and adapting to climate change. Land and its various uses are affected severely by climate change too (flooding, droughts, etc.). Existing tools and technologies for efficient land management need to be adapted and their application expanded. A large number of human livelihoods and ecosystems can benefit from these tools and techniques since these yield multiple benefits. Disseminating and scaling up the implementation of sustainable land management approaches will, however, need to be backed up by mobilizing strong political will and financial resources. The challenge is to provide an integral decision support tool that can establish relationships between soil carbon content, climate change and land use and management aspects that allow stakeholders to detect, cope with and intervene into land system change in a sustainable way. In order to achieve this goal an agro-ecological meta-model called CarboLAND will be calibrated in several plots located in Andalusia region, Southern Spain, under different scenarios of climate and agricultural use and management. The output will be the CLIMALAND e-platform, which will also include protocols in order to support stakeholders for an integrated ecosystem approach, taking into account biodiversity, hydrological and soil capability, socio-economic aspects, and regional and environmental policies. This tool will be made available at the European context for a regional level, providing user-friendly interfaces and a scientifically-technical platform for the assessment of sustainable land use and management.

  19. Carbon footprint of four different wastewater treatment scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diafarou, Moumouni; Mariska, Ronteltap, ,, Dr.; Damir, Brdjanovic, ,, Prof.

    2014-05-01

    97% lower compared to other anthropogenic sources like the public transport sector. The innovative sanitation scenarios were found to cause less environmental burden in terms of energy and GHGs. Nevertheless, to ensure a positive impact of these treatment systems, an optimum biogas reuse (for the production of electricity and heat), the source separation of human excreta (to disburden the wastewater treatment processes) should be introduced to reduce their GHG emissions. Keywords: Carbon dioxide, greenhouse gases, methane, wastewater treatment technologies.

  20. Carbon footprint calculation of Finnish greenhouse products; Kasvihuonetuotteiden ilmastovaikutuslaskenta. Loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yrjaenaeinen, H.; Silvenius, F.; Kaukoranta, T.; Naekkilae, J.; Saerkkae, L.; Tuhkanen, E.-M.

    2013-02-01

    This report presents the results of climate impact calculations for five products produced in Finnish greenhouses: tomatoes, cucumbers, salad crops, tulips and Elatior begonias. The study employed 16 greenhouses for the investigation; two greenhouses each for the tulips and the begonias and four each for the tomatoes, cucumbers and salad crops. Based on these calculations a greenhouse gas calculator was developed for greenhouse cultivators. The calculator is available at internet in www.kauppapuutarhaliitto.fi {yields} hiilijalanjaelki. In terms of environmental impacts this study concentrated on the climate impacts of the investigated products, and the calculations were made for the most significant greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. The following processes were included in the system boundaries: plant growing, manufacturing of lime, fertilizers and pesticides, manufacturing and disposal of pots, carbon dioxide production, irrigation, lighting, thermal curtains and cooling systems, the production and use of electricity and heat energy, distribution of products by the growers, other transportation, end-of-life and recycling. Processes excluded from the study were: distribution by other actors, retail functions, the consumer stage, and maintenance and manufacturing of infrastructure. The study used MTT's calculation model for the climate impact of food products excluding distribution and retail processes. The greenhouses selected for the study had some variation in their energy profiles and growing seasons. In addition, scenarios were created for different energy sources by using the average figures from this study. Monthly energy consumption values were also obtained from a number of the greenhouses and these were used to assess the variations in climate impact for different seasons. According to the results of the study the use of energy is the most significant source of climate impact of greenhouse products. In the tomato farms the

  1. Key issues and options in accounting for carbon sequestration and temporary storage in life cycle assessment and carbon footprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandao, Miguel; Levasseur, Annie; Kirschbaum, Miko U. F.;

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Biological sequestration can increase the carbon stocks of non-atmospheric reservoirs (e.g. land and landbased products). Since this contained carbon is sequestered from, and retained outside, the atmosphere for a period of time, the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is temporarily...... reduced and some radiative forcing is avoided. Carbon removal from the atmosphere and storage in the biosphere or anthroposphere, therefore, has the potential to mitigate climate change, even if the carbon storage and associated benefits might be temporary. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and carbon...... footprinting (CF) are increasingly popular tools for the environmental assessment of products, that take into account their entire life cycle. There have been significant efforts to develop robust methods to account for the benefits, if any, of sequestration and temporary storage and release of biogenic carbon...

  2. Assessment of carbon footprint and energy performance of the extra virgin olive oil chain in Umbria, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, S; Barbanera, M; Lascaro, E

    2014-06-01

    The cradle to grave carbon footprint (CF) and energy footprint (EF) analysis of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) produced in the Province of Perugia (Umbria, Italy) is assessed. In this study, olive orchard cultivation, EVOO extraction, bottling, packaging, storage at -18°C and distribution in the main importing countries were studied from a life cycle assessment perspective, with the main objective of identifying the processes with the largest environmental impacts. The selected functional unit was 1L of EVOO, packaged for distribution. Inventory data was gathered mainly through both direct communication using questionnaires and direct measurements. To determine the CF the ISO/TS 14067:2013 was followed while the EF was evaluated according to ISO standards 14040 and 14044. Results showed that the most impacting process is the distribution, mainly due to the choice of employing air transport. The main other hot spots identified were the olive orchard fertilization, EVOO freezing during its storage at the olive mill factory and the manufacture of glass bottles. Suggested improvement opportunities included shifts in the EVOO transportation policy, the introduction of lighter glass bottles in the bottling process, the use of cooling agent with lower global warming potential and the employment of biodiesel in the farming machineries.

  3. Assessment of carbon footprint and energy performance of the extra virgin olive oil chain in Umbria, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, S; Barbanera, M; Lascaro, E

    2014-06-01

    The cradle to grave carbon footprint (CF) and energy footprint (EF) analysis of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) produced in the Province of Perugia (Umbria, Italy) is assessed. In this study, olive orchard cultivation, EVOO extraction, bottling, packaging, storage at -18°C and distribution in the main importing countries were studied from a life cycle assessment perspective, with the main objective of identifying the processes with the largest environmental impacts. The selected functional unit was 1L of EVOO, packaged for distribution. Inventory data was gathered mainly through both direct communication using questionnaires and direct measurements. To determine the CF the ISO/TS 14067:2013 was followed while the EF was evaluated according to ISO standards 14040 and 14044. Results showed that the most impacting process is the distribution, mainly due to the choice of employing air transport. The main other hot spots identified were the olive orchard fertilization, EVOO freezing during its storage at the olive mill factory and the manufacture of glass bottles. Suggested improvement opportunities included shifts in the EVOO transportation policy, the introduction of lighter glass bottles in the bottling process, the use of cooling agent with lower global warming potential and the employment of biodiesel in the farming machineries. PMID:24636888

  4. An Reexamination of Carbon Footprint Tags%对碳足迹标签的再认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁旭

    2014-01-01

    出于规避碳足迹标签贸易壁垒性的考虑,中国没有选择碳足迹标签和其他种类碳标签并行发展的国际普遍形式,而是推出了低碳认证标识。但是,碳足迹标签具有其他碳标签无可比拟的低碳引领作用,中国的低碳经济发展绕不开这一碳减排工具的采用。在积极发展碳足迹标签的过程中采取有效措施来防范其壁垒性,应是中国低碳发展的正确抉择。%In order to avoid trade barriers of the carbon footprint label, China don’t choose the international common form to concurrently develop carbon footprint labels and other types of carbon labels, but only launched the low-carbon certification label. However, China’s low-carbon economic development can not bypass carbon footprint label, because this useful carbon emission tool can play the leading role in low-carbon development. It’s wise for China to actively develop the carbon footprint label and to take effective measures to prevent its barriers in its development.

  5. Carbon Footprint Assessment and Its Application in Pulp and Paper Industry%碳足迹评价及其在造纸行业的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马倩倩; 卢宝荣; 张清文

    2011-01-01

    Carbon footprint assessment of products is one of the steps of reducing Greenhouse Gas( GHG) emission. The origin and concept of carbon footprint are introduced in this paper, carbon footprint assessment system is also introduced systematically. Hie application of carbon footprint assessment in pulp and paper industry is discussed at last.%介绍了碳足迹的概念及其起源,并对碳足迹评价体系作了系统介绍,最后对碳足迹评价在造纸行业的应用进行了探讨.

  6. Integration of ecosystem services into the carbon footprint of milk of South German dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Kiefer, Lukas; Menzel, Friederike; Bahrs, Enno

    2015-04-01

    Allocation of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) is challenging especially when multi-functionality of dairy farms, which do not only produce milk but also meat is considered. Moreover, some farms fulfill a wide range of additional services for society such as management of renewable natural resources as well as preservation of biodiversity and cultural landscapes. Due to the increasing degradation of ecosystems many industrialized as well as developing countries designed payment systems for environmental services. This study examines different allocation methods of GHG for a comparatively large convenience sample of 113 dairy farms located in grassland-based areas of southern Germany. Results are carbon footprints of 1.99 kg CO2eq/kg of fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM) on average if "no allocation" for coupled products is performed. "Physical allocation" results in 1.53 kg CO2eq/kg FPCM and "conventional economic allocation" in 1.66 kg CO2eq/kg FPCM on average if emissions are apportioned between milk and meat. Economic allocation which includes ecosystem services for society based on the farm net income as a new aspect in this study results in a carbon footprint of 1.5 kg CO2eq/kg FPCM on average. System expansion that puts greater emphasis on coupled beef production accounts for a carbon footprint of 0.68 kg CO2eq/kg FPCM on average. Intense milk production systems with higher milk yields show better results based on "no allocation", "physical allocation" and "conventional economic allocation". By contrast, economic allocation, which takes into account ecosystem services favors extensive systems, especially in less favored areas. This shows that carbon footprints of dairy farms should not be examined one-dimensionally based on the amount of milk and meat that is produced on the farm. Rather, a broader perspective is necessary that takes into account the multi-functionality of dairy farms especially in countries where a wide

  7. The Environmental Sustainability of Nations: Benchmarking the Carbon, Water and Land Footprints against Allocated Planetary Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Fang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Growing scientific evidence for the indispensable role of environmental sustainability in sustainable development calls for appropriate frameworks and indicators for environmental sustainability assessment (ESA. In this paper, we operationalize and update the footprint-boundary ESA framework, with a particular focus on its methodological and application extensions to the national level. By using the latest datasets available, the planetary boundaries for carbon emissions, water use and land use are allocated to 28 selected countries in comparison to the corresponding environmental footprints. The environmental sustainability ratio (ESR—an internationally comparable indicator representing the sustainability gap between contemporary anthropogenic interference and critical capacity thresholds—allows one to map the reserve or transgression of the nation-specific environmental boundaries. While the geographical distribution of the three ESRs varies across nations, in general, the worldwide unsustainability of carbon emissions is largely driven by economic development, while resource endowments play a more central role in explaining national performance on water and land use. The main value added of this paper is to provide concrete evidence of the usefulness of the proposed framework in allocating overall responsibility for environmental sustainability to sub-global scales and in informing policy makers about the need to prevent the planet’s environment from tipping into an undesirable state.

  8. Research Progress of Carbon Footprinting in the Industry Sector%工业领域碳足迹研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛晓华; 苏旭东; 袁进; 常丽萍

    2013-01-01

    Under the background of global warming, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission control has become the concerning focus of the world. As the largest anthropogenic source of GHG, industrial GHG emission is receiving more and more attention. Carbon footprinting is a burgeoning GHG emission evaluation method and it has been widely recognized by many countries. Based on recent literatures concerning carbon footprinting in the industry sector, this paper summarized the emission source, system boundary, calculation method and evaluation standard of industrial carbon footprinting, and several existing problems of industrial carbon footprinting and its future development direction was further proposed.%在全球气候变暖背景下,控制温室气体排放成为世界各国关注的热点,工业部门作为人为温室气体排放的最大排放源受到越来越多的关注.碳足迹评价方法作为一种新兴的温室气体排放定量评价方法,已被世界各国普遍认可.本文基于近年来国内外关于工业领域碳足迹评价的相关文献,从工业领域的碳排放源、碳足迹核算的系统边界、计算方法以及评价标准等几个方面对碳足迹评价方法在工业领域的应用进行了归纳和总结,最终提出了碳足迹在工业领域应用亟待解决的问题和发展方向.

  9. Method to assess the carbon footprint at product level in the dairy industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria; Thrane, Mikkel; Hermansen, John Erik

    2014-01-01

    A model to calculate the farm-to-customer carbon footprint (CF) for different dairy product groups is presented. As the largest share of the CF of dairy products occurs at farm level, it is decisive how the emissions from raw milk production are allocated between different products. Impacts...... associated with raw milk are allocated based on a weighted fat and protein content (1:1.4). Data from the dairy company Arla Foods give 1.1, 8.1, 6.5, 7.4 and 1.2 kg carbon dioxide equivalents per kg of fresh dairy product, butter and butter blend, cheese, milk powder and whey based product, and other...

  10. Relating the carbon footprint of milk from Irish dairy farms to economic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, D; Hennessy, T; Moran, B; Shalloo, L

    2015-10-01

    Mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of milk or the carbon footprint (CF) of milk is a key issue for the European dairy sector given rising concerns over the potential adverse effects of climate change. Several strategies are available to mitigate GHG emissions, but producing milk with a low CF does not necessarily imply that a dairy farm is economically viable. Therefore, to understand the relationship between the CF of milk and dairy farm economic performance, the farm accountancy network database of a European Union nation (Ireland) was applied to a GHG emission model. The method used to quantify GHG emissions was life cycle assessment (LCA), which was independently certified to comply with the British standard for LCA. The model calculated annual on- and off-farm GHG emissions from imported inputs (e.g., electricity) up to the point milk was sold from the farm in CO2-equivalent (CO2-eq). Annual GHG emissions computed using LCA were allocated to milk based on the economic value of dairy farm products and expressed per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The results showed for a nationally representative sample of 221 grass-based Irish dairy farms in 2012 that gross profit averaged € 0.18/L of milk and € 1,758/ha and gross income was € 40,899/labor unit. Net profit averaged € 0.08/L of milk and € 750/ha and net income averaged € 18,125/labor unit. However, significant variability was noted in farm performance across each financial output measure. For instance, net margin per hectare of the top one-third of farms was 6.5 times higher than the bottom third. Financial performance measures were inversely correlated with the CF of milk, which averaged 1.20 kg of CO2-eq/kg of FPCM but ranged from 0.60 to 2.13 kg of CO2-eq/kg of FPCM. Partial least squares regression analysis of correlations between financial and environmental performance indicated that extending the length of the grazing season and increasing milk production

  11. Development of a Lightweight Low-Carbon Footprint Concrete Containing Recycled Waste Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Talukdar

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the use of waste materials such as crushed glass, ground tire rubber, and recycled aggregate in concrete. Compressive strength and elastic modulus were the primary parameters of interest. Results demonstrated that ground tire rubber introduced significant amounts of air into the mix and adversely affected the strength. The introduction of a defoamer was able to successfully remove part of the excess air from the mix, but the proportional strength improvements were not noted implying that air left in the defoamed mixture had undesirable characteristics. Freeze-thaw tests were next performed to understand the nature of air in the defoamed mixtures, and results demonstrated that this air is not helpful in resisting freeze-thaw resistance either. Overall, while lightweight, low-carbon footprint concrete materials seem possible from recycled materials, significant further optimization remains possible.

  12. 船舶碳足迹计算%Carbon footprint calculation of ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李碧英; 陈实

    2010-01-01

    @@ 船舶行业也是温室气体排放的主要来源之一,其所涉及的船舶建造、船舶营运及其他相关活动所产生的温室气体约占全球温室气体排放总量的3.3%.如何应对全球气候变暖已成为全人类面临的最重要的课题,而碳足迹(Carbon Footprint)的提出则为产品和服务温室气体排放量的测度提供了新方法.

  13. Carbon Footprint versus Performance of Aluminum, Plastic, and Wood Window Frames from Cradle to Gate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Kutnar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Window frame material has significant impact on the thermal performance of the window. Moreover, with sustainable design becoming a necessity, window frame materials need to have higher levels of environmental performance to be considered sustainable. As a result, a holistic performance metric is needed to assess window frame material. Three similar frames were considered, manufactured from aluminum, polyvinyl chloride (PVC, and wood. First their thermal performance was evaluated and compared using a heat transfer model. Then, carbon footprints of the three materials were considered for 1m2 of window area with a similar thermal performance. It was found that the thermal, as well as the environmental, performance of the wooden window frame was superior to those of aluminum and PVC. On the other hand aluminum frames had high environmental impacts and comparatively lower thermal performance. This study provides a holistic viewpoint on window frames by considering both environmental and thermal performance.

  14. Variation in carbon footprint of milk due to management differences between Swedish dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksson, Maria; Flysjö, Anna Maria; Cederberg, Christel;

    2011-01-01

    To identify mitigation options to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from milk production (i.e. the carbon footprint (CF) of milk), this study examined the variation in GHG emissions among dairy farms using data from previous CF studies on Swedish milk. Variations between farms...... (ECM) produced and delivered), feed dry matter intake (DMI), enteric CH4 emissions, N content in feed DMI, N-fertiliser rate and diesel used on farm. The largest between-farm variations among the analysed production data were N-fertiliser rate (kg/ha) and diesel used (l/ha) on farm (CV = 31% to 38...... in these production data, which were found to have a strong influence on milk CF, were obtained from existing databases of 1051 dairy farms in Sweden in 2005. Monte Carlo (MC) analysis was used to analyse the impact of variations in seven important parameters on milk CF concerning milk yield (energy-corrected milk...

  15. Environmental impact of an Italian wine bottle: Carbon and water footprint assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamente, Emanuele; Scrucca, Flavio; Rinaldi, Sara; Merico, Maria Cleofe; Asdrubali, Francesco; Lamastra, Lucrezia

    2016-08-01

    The food sector represents one of the major impacting sectors from an environmental point of view and, among all the products, wine emerges as one of the most studied by the literature. Single-issue approaches are commonly used, but a more comprehensive analysis is desirable, since a single indicator does not properly track the pressure on the environment. This paper presents a combined carbon and water footprint assessment, with a cradle to grave approach, for a protected designation of origin Italian red wine, and suggests a correlation among the two indicators across the life cycle phases. A total CF equal to 1.07±0.09kgCO2eq/bottle and a total WF equal to 580±30l/bottle were calculated for the studied product and a direct proportionality was found between the total CF and the sum of WFgrey(indirect) and WFblue. PMID:27101464

  16. Product and corporate carbon footprint using the compound method based on financial accounts. The case of Osorio wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We applied novel organisation-product-based-life-cycle assessment to Osorio Wind Farms. • This study includes sources, phases and areas previously unreported for the wind power sector. • MC3 assess carbon footprint in a practical and comprehensive manner. • MC3 is suitable for its application in major international projects. - Abstract: The challenge of developing clean and renewable energy sources is becoming ever more urgent. Over the last decade, the concept of carbon footprint has been used to report direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions and as a support for sustainable consumption decisions. However, the discrepancies in the approaches based on either the product or corporate carbon footprint can seriously hinder its successful implementation. The so-called compound method based on financial accounts is a tiered hybrid method which enables the calculation of both the product and corporate carbon footprint. This work aims to assess this method as a tool for carbon footprint through its implementation in a comprehensive life-cycle assessment of the Osorio Wind Farms in Brazil. The total cumulative life-cycle emissions are 362.455 t CO2eq, representing 18.33 gr CO2eq per kW h delivered to the Brazilian national power grid. The difference with regard to previous works derives from its broader scope and different assumptions. In this study the comparable value from wind turbine manufacture, transport and construction is 8.42 gr CO2eq per kW h, 56% lower than the mean figure reported by Arvesen and Hertwich (2012). This study includes sources, phases and areas previously unreported in the carbon footprint reviews for the wind power sector. We conclude that the compound method based on financial accounts is a practical method that allows the definition of a more comprehensive goal and scope. Its implementation at Osorio Wind Farms demonstrates the method’s suitability for application in major international projects and institutions

  17. The carbon footprint of French people's consumption: evolution from 1990 to 2007; L'empreinte carbone de la consommation des Francais: evolution de 1990 a 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquier, Jean-Louis; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Boitard, Corinne

    2012-03-15

    The carbon footprint calculated by the statistical service of the French ministry in charge of sustainable development represents the amount of greenhouse gases emitted in order to satisfy French consumption, including emissions connected to imports. In 2007, the carbon footprint per capita in France amounted to 12 tons of CO{sub 2}-equivalent per year, compared to 8 tons per person emitted from the French metropolitan territory. From 1990 to 2007, the carbon footprint per capita increased by 5%, whereas the average per capita emissions on the territory decreased by 15%. During this period, emissions connected to imports increased by 64%, reaching almost 50% of the French carbon footprint in 2007. (author)

  18. Minimizing the Carbon Footprint for the Time-Dependent Heterogeneous-Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem with Alternative Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Yu Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Torespondto the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, this paper investigates the minimal-carbon-footprint time-dependent heterogeneous-fleet vehicle routing problem with alternative paths (MTHVRPP. This finds a route with the smallestcarbon footprint, instead of the shortestroute distance, which is the conventional approach, to serve a number of customers with a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles in cases wherethere may not be only one path between each pair of customers, and the vehicle speed differs at different times of the day. Inheriting from the NP-hardness of the vehicle routing problem, the MTHVRPP is also NP-hard. This paper further proposes a genetic algorithm (GA to solve this problem. The solution representedbyour GA determines the customer serving ordering of each vehicle type. Then, the capacity check is used to classify multiple routes of each vehicle type, and the path selection determines the detailed paths of each route. Additionally, this paper improves the energy consumption model used for calculating the carbon footprint amount more precisely. Compared with the results without alternative paths, our experimental results show that the alternative path in this experimenthas a significant impact on the experimental results in terms of carbon footprint.

  19. The Study of Carbon Footprint in Textile and Apparel Industry%纺织服装行业碳足迹研究现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠莉华; 刘雁

    2012-01-01

    4 The massive emissions of GHG contributes to global warming, making it the serious challenges which the international community is facing. For this reason, the human vigorously advocated a low-carbon economy, and the concept of "carbon footprint" came into being. The concept of carbon footprint and relevant standards were summarized. The status of research and application of carbon footprint in domestic and international textile and apparel industry were introduced.%温室气体的大量排放加剧了全球气候变暖,使之成为目前国际社会面临的严峻挑战,为此大力倡导低碳经济,“碳足迹’’这一概念应运而生。整理了国际上的碳足迹概念及相关标准,介绍了国内外纺织服装行业碳足迹研究和应用现状。

  20. Carbon and water footprint of pork supply chain in Catalonia: From feed to final products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noya, Isabel; Aldea, Xavier; Gasol, Carles M; González-García, Sara; Amores, Maria José; Colón, Joan; Ponsá, Sergio; Roman, Isabel; Rubio, Miguel A; Casas, Eudald; Moreira, María Teresa; Boschmonart-Rives, Jesús

    2016-04-15

    A systematic tool to assess the Carbon Footprint (CF) and Water Footprint (WF) of pork production companies was developed and applied to representative Catalan companies. To do so, a cradle-to-gate environmental assessment was carried out by means of the LCA methodology, taking into account all the stages involved in the pork chain, from feed production to the processing of final products, ready for distribution. In this approach, the environmental results are reported based on eight different functional units (FUs) according to the main pork products obtained. With the aim of ensuring the reliability of the results and facilitating the comparison with other available reports, the Product Category Rules (PCR) for Catalan pork sector were also defined as a basis for calculations. The characterization results show fodder production as the main contributor to the global environmental burdens, with contributions higher than 76% regardless the environmental indicator or the life cycle stage considered, which is in agreement with other published data. In contrast, the results in terms of CF and WF lay above the range of values reported elsewhere. However, major discrepancies are mainly due to the differences in the co-products allocation criteria. In this sense, economic/physical allocation and/or system expansion have been mostly considered in literature. In contrast, no allocation was considered appropriate in this study, according to the characteristics of the industries and products under assessment; thus, the major impacts fall on the main product, which derives on comparatively higher environmental burdens. Finally, due to the relevance of fodder production in the overall impact assessment results, strategies to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions as well as water use associated to this stage were proposed in the pork supply chain. PMID:26861226

  1. Carbon and water footprint of pork supply chain in Catalonia: From feed to final products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noya, Isabel; Aldea, Xavier; Gasol, Carles M; González-García, Sara; Amores, Maria José; Colón, Joan; Ponsá, Sergio; Roman, Isabel; Rubio, Miguel A; Casas, Eudald; Moreira, María Teresa; Boschmonart-Rives, Jesús

    2016-04-15

    A systematic tool to assess the Carbon Footprint (CF) and Water Footprint (WF) of pork production companies was developed and applied to representative Catalan companies. To do so, a cradle-to-gate environmental assessment was carried out by means of the LCA methodology, taking into account all the stages involved in the pork chain, from feed production to the processing of final products, ready for distribution. In this approach, the environmental results are reported based on eight different functional units (FUs) according to the main pork products obtained. With the aim of ensuring the reliability of the results and facilitating the comparison with other available reports, the Product Category Rules (PCR) for Catalan pork sector were also defined as a basis for calculations. The characterization results show fodder production as the main contributor to the global environmental burdens, with contributions higher than 76% regardless the environmental indicator or the life cycle stage considered, which is in agreement with other published data. In contrast, the results in terms of CF and WF lay above the range of values reported elsewhere. However, major discrepancies are mainly due to the differences in the co-products allocation criteria. In this sense, economic/physical allocation and/or system expansion have been mostly considered in literature. In contrast, no allocation was considered appropriate in this study, according to the characteristics of the industries and products under assessment; thus, the major impacts fall on the main product, which derives on comparatively higher environmental burdens. Finally, due to the relevance of fodder production in the overall impact assessment results, strategies to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions as well as water use associated to this stage were proposed in the pork supply chain.

  2. 区域经济发展的碳足迹与碳承载力研究%Carbon Footprint and Carbon Bearing Capacity of Regional Economic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾晓薇; 胥孝川; 王青; 王凤波

    2012-01-01

    Based on the method and indicators oI the ecological tootprint, a mathematical model was developed for calculating the carbon footprint, carbon bearing capacity and carbon efficiency of a regional economy, which was applied to the study on the economic development of Shenyang from 1991 to 2005. The results show that, after 1998, the total carbon footprint of Shenyang increased rapidly at an annual growth rate of 15.2 %, overtaking the GDP growth rate at the same period (13.67 %). In the total carbon footprint, the emissions of fossil-fuel consumption occupy 73 %- 86 %. The carbon bearing capacity of Shenyang was relatively stable in the study period, resulting in a severe carbon overload with the carbon footprint 4 times higher than the carbon bearing capacity in 2005. Furthermore, the carbon efficiency exhibited a decreasing trend after 2000, i.e. the carbon footprint for each unit of economic output showed an increasing trend. It can be seen that, the high economic growth after 2000 was achieved at the cost of the rapid increase in carbon footprint, implying the steering to a low-carbon economy faces a grim challenge.%基于生态足迹方法和指标,构建了反映区域经济发展的碳足迹、碳承载力及碳效率的数学模型,并将其用于沈阳市1991~2005年的经济发展研究.结果显示:沈阳市碳足迹总量在1998年后以15.2%的年增长率快速增加,超过同期的GDP平均增速(13.76%);碳足迹总量中,化石能源消费的排放足迹占73%~86%.沈阳市的碳承载力在研究期相对稳定,导致碳超载情况严重,2005年的碳足迹是碳承载力的4倍.另外,碳效率在2000年后呈下降趋势,即单位经济产出的碳足迹呈上升趋势.可见2000年后经济的快速增长是以碳足迹的高速增加为代价的,这意味着向低碳经济转型面临严峻挑战.

  3. Energy budgeting and carbon footprint of transgenic cotton-wheat production system through peanut intercropping and FYM addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman Jeet; Ahlawat, I P S

    2015-05-01

    Two of the most pressing sustainability issues are the depletion of fossil energy resources and the emission of atmospheric green house gases like carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. The aim of this study was to assess energy budgeting and carbon footprint in transgenic cotton-wheat cropping system through peanut intercropping with using 25-50% substitution of recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) of cotton through farmyard manure (FYM) along with 100% RDN through urea and control (0 N). To quantify the residual effects of previous crops and their fertility levels, a succeeding crop of wheat was grown with varying rates of nitrogen, viz. 0, 50, 100, and 150 kg ha(-1). Cotton + peanut-wheat cropping system recorded 21% higher system productivity which ultimately helped to maintain higher net energy return (22%), energy use efficiency (12%), human energy profitability (3%), energy productivity (7%), carbon outputs (20%), carbon efficiency (17%), and 11% lower carbon footprint over sole cotton-wheat cropping system. Peanut addition in cotton-wheat system increased the share of renewable energy inputs from 18 to 21%. With substitution of 25% RDN of cotton through FYM, share of renewable energy resources increased in the range of 21% which resulted into higher system productivity (4%), net energy return (5%), energy ratio (6%), human energy profitability (74%), energy productivity (6%), energy profitability (5%), and 5% lower carbon footprint over no substitution. The highest carbon footprint (0.201) was recorded under control followed by 50 % substitution of RDN through FYM (0.189). With each successive increase in N dose up to 150 kg N ha(-1) to wheat, energy productivity significantly reduced and share of renewable energy inputs decreased from 25 to 13%. Application of 100 kg N ha(-1) to wheat maintained the highest grain yield (3.71 t ha(-1)), net energy return (105,516 MJ ha(-1)), and human energy profitability (223.4) over other N doses applied to wheat

  4. 基于生命周期的产品碳足迹评价与核算分析%Assessment and accounting the product carbon footprint based on the life cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田彬彬; 徐向阳; 付鸿娟; 王顺

    2012-01-01

    近年来,越来越多的企业对其产品进行碳足迹评价,评价方法主要采用产品碳足迹评价标准提供的碳计量方程,如GHG Protocol、ISO14064、PAS 2050、TS Q 0010等。在介绍相关评价标准的基础上,分析了产品碳足迹的评价步骤,最后利用河北盛华化工有限公司生产的PVC产品为例,给出了基于生命周期的B2B模式的产品碳足迹评价的案例。为企业及相关机构开展碳足迹评价提供借鉴作用。%In recent years, more and more enterprises evaluate the carbon footprint of their products, with the product carbon footprint evaluation standards for carbon measurement equation, such as the GHG Protocol, ISO 14064, PAS 2050, TS Q 0010 and so on. On the basis of introducing the relevant evaluation criteria, the paper analysis the product carbon footprint evaluation steps, and finally takes Hebei Shenghua Chemical Co., Ltd. production of PVC products as an example of a B2B model based on life cycle carbon footprint assessment of the product case. Provide reference for enterprises and related institutions for the carbon footprint assessment.

  5. A Comparison of Carbon Footprint and Production Cost of Different Pasta Products Based on Whole Egg and Pea Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Nette

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Feed and food production are inter alia reasons for high greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced by the replacement of animal components with plant components in processed food products, such as pasta. The main components currently used for pasta are semolina, and water, as well as additional egg. The hypothesis of this paper is that the substitution of whole egg with plant-based ingredients, for example from peas, in such a product might lead to reduced greenhouse gas emissions (GHG and thus a reduced carbon footprint at economically reasonable costs. The costs and carbon footprints of two pasta types, produced with egg or pea protein, are calculated. Plant protein–based pasta products proved to cause 0.57 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2eq (31% per kg pasta less greenhouse gas emissions than animal-based pasta, while the cost of production increases by 10% to 3.00 €/kg pasta.

  6. Study on the calculation method of carbon footprint for cement manufactures%水泥生产厂家碳足迹计算方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘玉凤; 杨李宁; 付祥钊

    2012-01-01

    This thesis analyzes factors influencing carbon footprint with technological procedure of cement manufactures in Chongqing city as an example, studies the calculation model and calculation process of carbon footprint, and forms calculation methods of carbon footprint adapting to cement manufactures, which has provide scientific calculation basis for calculating carbon footprint for cement manufactures.%从重庆市水泥生产厂家的工艺流程分析碳足迹的影响要素,研究碳足迹计算模型和计算过程,形成适用于水泥生产厂家的碳足迹计算方法,为水泥产业碳足迹计算提供了科学的计算依据。

  7. Ability of carbon footprint to reflect the environmental burden of a product or service – an empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent, Alexis; Olsen, Stig Irving; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2010-01-01

    In the context of a global awareness of the climate change, carbon footprint (CFP) has recently become extensively used as a simple way to sensitize not only consumers in their purchasing behaviours but also public opinion in general. However, limitations in its environmental representativeness arise if one decides to expand the outlook to include other environmental impacts, which are commonly evaluated in Life Cycle Assessments (LCA). In that perspective, over 500 products/services and two ...

  8. Our building is smarter than your building: The use of competitive rivalry to reduce energy consumption and linked carbon footprint

    OpenAIRE

    Carolyn McGibbon; Jacques Ophoff; Jean-Paul Van Belle

    2014-01-01

    This research is located within the smart city discourse and explores the linkage between smart buildings and an intelligent community, employing the University of Cape Town as a case study. It is also situated within the research stream of Green Information Systems, which examines the confluence between technology, people, data and processes, in order to achieve environmental objectives such as reduced energy consumption and its associated carbon footprint. Since approximately 80% of a unive...

  9. Surgical scrubbing: can we clean up our carbon footprints by washing our hands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somner, J E A; Stone, N; Koukkoulli, A; Scott, K M; Field, A R; Zygmunt, J

    2008-11-01

    A growing scientific consensus states that the global climate is changing and that human activity is responsible for these changes. It folLows that each of us has a responsibility to look at how our own lives impact on the environment. This study aimed to investigate water use during surgical scrubbing. Two water delivery systems were assessed to see whether technological innovation can promote more 'environmentally friendly' scrubbing behaviour. At least 10 different individuals, comprising surgeons, assistants and scrub nurses, were observed at two sites. Twenty-five separate surgical scrubs were observed in each location and the length of time for which the tap was on recorded. The tap was on during surgical scrubbing for a mean of 2 min 23 s at Gartnavel General Hospital (maximum: 4 min 37 s; minimum: 49 s; SD: 55 s) and for a mean of 1 min 7 s at Stobhill Hospital (maximum: 2 min 25 s; minimum: 19 s; SD: 33 s). The mean 'tap on' time (in seconds) at Gartnavel was significantly greater than that at Stobhill [t(39.5)=Pscrub. Surgical scrubbing is a ubiquitous procedure performed daily in healthcare settings. A simple technological solution can reduce water and energy use by modifying hand-washing behaviour and thereby reduce the carbon footprint of surgical scrubbing. PMID:18701193

  10. CARBON FOOTPRINT IN SUSTAINABLE FOOD CHAIN AND ITS IMPORTANCE FOR FOOD CONSUMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Konieczny

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Freshness, sensory attributes and food safety are currently indicated as main criteria in respect to food purchasing decisions. However, growing number of consumers are ready to choose also environmentally friendly food products. Carbon Footprint (CF expressed in CO2 equivalent of greenhouse gas emission seems to be an innovative indicator useful to evaluate environmental impacts associated with production and distribution of food. The review carried out in this study is based mainly on data presented in papers and reports published in recent decade, including some opinions available on various internet websites. In this study are discussed some examples of CF values calculated both, production of primary raw materials, food processing stages, final products transporting and activities taken during food preparation in the household, as well. The CF indicator offers also a new tool to promote disposition of food products distributed e.g. through big international supermarket chains. Mostly due to the suggestion of ecological institutions, direct comparison of CF values for different food products leads even to postulate almost total elimination of less eco-friendly animal origin food (like red meat from the diet of typical consumer. So, improving the state of consumers education in respect to environmental issues of whole food chain might effect not only their eating habits but also their health.

  11. Our building is smarter than your building: The use of competitive rivalry to reduce energy consumption and linked carbon footprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn McGibbon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is located within the smart city discourse and explores the linkage between smart buildings and an intelligent community, employing the University of Cape Town as a case study. It is also situated within the research stream of Green Information Systems, which examines the confluence between technology, people, data and processes, in order to achieve environmental objectives such as reduced energy consumption and its associated carbon footprint. Since approximately 80% of a university’s carbon footprint may be attributed to electricity consumption and as the portion of energy used inefficiently by buildings is estimated at 33% an argument may be made for seeing a campus as a “living laboratory” for energy consumption experiments in smart buildings. Integrated analytics were used to measure, monitor and mitigate energy consumption, directly linked to carbon footprinting. This paper examines a pilot project to reduce electricity consumption through a smart building competition. The lens used for this research was the empirical framework provided by the International Sustainable Campus Network/Global University Leadership Forum Charter. Preliminary findings suggest a link between the monitoring of smart buildings and behaviour by a segment of the intelligent community in the pursuit of a Sustainable Development strategy.

  12. Effect of regional grid mix, driving patterns and climate on the comparative carbon footprint of gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compare life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from several light-duty passenger gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) across US counties by accounting for regional differences due to marginal grid mix, ambient temperature, patterns of vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and driving conditions (city versus highway). We find that PEVs can have larger or smaller carbon footprints than gasoline vehicles, depending on these regional factors and the specific vehicle models being compared. The Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle has a smaller carbon footprint than the most efficient gasoline vehicle (the Toyota Prius) in the urban counties of California, Texas and Florida, whereas the Prius has a smaller carbon footprint in the Midwest and the South. The Leaf is lower emitting than the Mazda 3 conventional gasoline vehicle in most urban counties, but the Mazda 3 is lower emitting in rural Midwest counties. The Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid electric vehicle has a larger carbon footprint than the Prius throughout the continental US, though the Volt has a smaller carbon footprint than the Mazda 3 in many urban counties. Regional grid mix, temperature, driving conditions, and vehicle model all have substantial implications for identifying which technology has the lowest carbon footprint, whereas regional patterns of VMT have a much smaller effect. Given the variation in relative GHG implications, it is unlikely that blunt policy instruments that favor specific technology categories can ensure emission reductions universally. (letter)

  13. Effect of regional grid mix, driving patterns and climate on the comparative carbon footprint of gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Tugce; Tamayao, Mili-Ann M.; Hendrickson, Chris; Azevedo, Inês M. L.; Michalek, Jeremy J.

    2016-04-01

    We compare life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from several light-duty passenger gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) across US counties by accounting for regional differences due to marginal grid mix, ambient temperature, patterns of vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and driving conditions (city versus highway). We find that PEVs can have larger or smaller carbon footprints than gasoline vehicles, depending on these regional factors and the specific vehicle models being compared. The Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle has a smaller carbon footprint than the most efficient gasoline vehicle (the Toyota Prius) in the urban counties of California, Texas and Florida, whereas the Prius has a smaller carbon footprint in the Midwest and the South. The Leaf is lower emitting than the Mazda 3 conventional gasoline vehicle in most urban counties, but the Mazda 3 is lower emitting in rural Midwest counties. The Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid electric vehicle has a larger carbon footprint than the Prius throughout the continental US, though the Volt has a smaller carbon footprint than the Mazda 3 in many urban counties. Regional grid mix, temperature, driving conditions, and vehicle model all have substantial implications for identifying which technology has the lowest carbon footprint, whereas regional patterns of VMT have a much smaller effect. Given the variation in relative GHG implications, it is unlikely that blunt policy instruments that favor specific technology categories can ensure emission reductions universally.

  14. The Environmental Sustainability of Nations: Benchmarking the Carbon, Water and Land Footprints against Allocated Planetary Boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, K.; Heijungs, R.; Duan, Z.; De Snoo, G.R.

    2015-01-01

    Growing scientific evidence for the indispensable role of environmental sustainability in sustainable development calls for appropriate frameworks and indicators for environmental sustainability assessment (ESA). In this paper, we operationalize and update the footprint-boundary ESA framework, with

  15. Integrating ecological, carbon and water footprint into a "footprint family" of indicators: Definition and role in tracking human pressure on the planet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galli, A.; Wiedmann, T.O.; Ercin, A.E.; Knoblauch, D.; Ewing, B.R.; Giljum, S.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, attempts have been made to develop an integrated Footprint approach for the assessment of the environmental impacts of production and consumption. In this paper, we provide for the first time a definition of the “Footprint Family” as a suite of indicators to track human pressure on

  16. Modeling residential water and related energy, carbon footprint and costs in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We model residential water use and related energy and GHG emissions in California. • Heterogeneity in use, spatial variability and water and energy rates are accounted. • Outdoor is more than 50% of water use but 80% of energy is used by faucet + shower. • Variability in water and energy prices affects willingness to adopt conservation. • Targeting high-use hoses and joint conservation policies are effective strategies. - Abstract: Starting from single-family household water end-use data, this study develops an end-use model for water-use and related energy and carbon footprint using probability distributions for parameters affecting water consumption in 10 local water utilities in California. Monte Carlo simulations are used to develop a large representative sample of households to describe variability in use, with water bills for each house for different utility rate structures. The water-related energy consumption for each household realization was obtained using an energy model based on the different water end-uses, assuming probability distributions for hot-water-use for each appliance and water heater characteristics. Spatial variability is incorporated to account for average air and household water inlet temperatures and price structures for each utility. Water-related energy costs are calculated using averaged energy price for each location. CO2 emissions were derived from energy use using emission factors. Overall simulation runs assess the impact of several common conservation strategies on household water and energy use. Results show that single-family water-related CO2 emissions are 2% of overall per capita emissions, and that managing water and energy jointly can significantly reduce state greenhouse gas emissions

  17. Polylactic acid trays for fresh-food packaging: A Carbon Footprint assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrao, Carlo; Tricase, Caterina; Cholewa-Wójcik, Agnieszka; Kawecka, Agnieszka; Rana, Roberto; Siracusa, Valentina

    2015-12-15

    This paper discusses application of Carbon Footprint (CF) for quantification of the 100-year Global Warming Potential (GWP100) associated with the life cycle of polylactic acid (PLA) trays for packaging of fresh foods. A comparison with polystyrene (PS)-based trays was done considering two different transport system scenarios for PLA-granule supply to the tray production firm: a transoceanic freight vessel and an intercontinental freight aircraft. Doing so enabled estimation of the influence of the transportation phase on the GHG-emission rate associated with the PLA-trays' life cycle. From the assessment, the GWP100 resulted to be mainly due to PLA-granulate production and to its transportation to the tray manufacturing facility. Also, the study documented that, depending upon the transport system considered, the CF associated with the life cycle of the PLA trays can worsen so much that the latter are no longer GHG-emission saving as they are expected to be compared to the PS ones. Therefore, based upon the findings of the study, it was possible for the authors to understand the importance and the need of accounting for the transport-related issues in the design of PLA-based products, thus preserving their environmental soundness compared to traditional petroleum-based products. In this context, the study could be used as the base to reconsider the merits of PLA usage for product manufacturing, especially when high distances are implied, as in this analysed case. So, the authors believe that new research and policy frameworks should be designed and implemented for both development and promotion of more globally sustainable options. PMID:26282773

  18. Polylactic acid trays for fresh-food packaging: A Carbon Footprint assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrao, Carlo; Tricase, Caterina; Cholewa-Wójcik, Agnieszka; Kawecka, Agnieszka; Rana, Roberto; Siracusa, Valentina

    2015-12-15

    This paper discusses application of Carbon Footprint (CF) for quantification of the 100-year Global Warming Potential (GWP100) associated with the life cycle of polylactic acid (PLA) trays for packaging of fresh foods. A comparison with polystyrene (PS)-based trays was done considering two different transport system scenarios for PLA-granule supply to the tray production firm: a transoceanic freight vessel and an intercontinental freight aircraft. Doing so enabled estimation of the influence of the transportation phase on the GHG-emission rate associated with the PLA-trays' life cycle. From the assessment, the GWP100 resulted to be mainly due to PLA-granulate production and to its transportation to the tray manufacturing facility. Also, the study documented that, depending upon the transport system considered, the CF associated with the life cycle of the PLA trays can worsen so much that the latter are no longer GHG-emission saving as they are expected to be compared to the PS ones. Therefore, based upon the findings of the study, it was possible for the authors to understand the importance and the need of accounting for the transport-related issues in the design of PLA-based products, thus preserving their environmental soundness compared to traditional petroleum-based products. In this context, the study could be used as the base to reconsider the merits of PLA usage for product manufacturing, especially when high distances are implied, as in this analysed case. So, the authors believe that new research and policy frameworks should be designed and implemented for both development and promotion of more globally sustainable options.

  19. The Nitrogen Footprint Tool for Institutions: What it is and how it compares to the Campus Carbon Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, E.; Leach, A. M.; Galloway, J. N.; Andrews, J.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen footprints (NF) connect entities with the reactive nitrogen (Nr; all species of nitrogen except N2) lost to the environment as a result of their activities. While necessary to life, excess Nr can be detrimental to ecosystem and human health, causing impacts such as smog, eutrophication, biodiversity loss, and climate change. The NF tool was recently developed to help institutions measure and reduce their environmental impact. This tool accounts for the NF from energy usage, food production and consumption, fertilizer usage, research animals, and agricultural activities. The tool also provides scenario analysis to help institutions reduce their NF and establish a reduction target. Currently in a testing phase, seven institutions have used the tool to calculate their NF, and six additional institutions have calculations in progress. Many institutions interested in sustainability have already calculated their carbon footprint (CF), which reports the total greenhouse gas emissions resulting from institution activities. The University of New Hampshire Sustainability Institute (UNHSI) Campus Carbon Calculator, developed in 2001, is used by thousands of institutions in the United States. While important, the CF addresses just one aspect of an institution's environmental impact: global climate change. The NF broadens this perspective by connecting to additional environmental impacts that are both global and local. The data requirements for the CF and NF have a significant overlap, especially in the energy sector. Given the similarity of data requirements and the benefits of considering the two footprints together, the two tools are in the preliminary stages of being merged. We will first provide an overview of the NF tool for institutions. We will then compare available NF and CF results from multiple institutions to assess trends and correlations and to determine the impact of different scenarios on both footprints.

  20. Energy Consumption Carbon Footprint of Metropolitan District%长吉都市区能源碳足迹测度及影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张约翰; 张平宇

    2012-01-01

    The urban energy consumption carbon footprint is so important for the developing low-carbon econo- my. Based on the STIRPAT model and the ridge regression method, this article analyzes the trend of energy consumption carbon footprint of the metropolitan district of Changchun and Jilin during the period of 1999 to 2008. In it, the total energy consumption in the metropolitan district of Chang and Jilin is calculated, and the re- lationship between economic development and the energy consumption carbon footprint is analyzed. The car- bon footprint per capita indicates a tendency from decline to rise, and the decoupling index reflects the state of relative decoupling between economic growth and energy consumption carbon footprint. Both are employed in this study. The results are follows. 1) The energy consumption carbon footprint has fluctances in the metropoli- tan district of Changchun and Jilin. The carbon footprint per capita was low from 1999 to 2002, and increased from 2002 to 2008.2) Changchun and Jilin have different pillar industries, which has great disparities in the en- ergy consumption. For the energy consumption structure, there is a significant positive correlation between the energy consumption carbon footprint of coal and the oil index, and both of them are notable increase. 3) The proportion of productivity and living carbon footprint increases, and the output value of ernergy consuption car- bon footprint indicated a fluctuating situation in the metropolitan district of Changchun and Jilin. 3) There is significant positive correlation between energy consumption carbon footprint and economic development, prog- ress of knowledge, and urbanization. Of all influencing facotrs, the economic development is the dominat, but the later two work less. 4) The decoupling index of economic growth and energy consumption carbon footprint fluctuates within the stats of relative decoupling and in re-coupling. According to the situatin of of energy con

  1. Potential for improving the carbon footprint of butter and blend products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flysjö, A

    2011-12-01

    To reduce the environmental impact of a product efficiently, it is crucial to consider the entire value chain of the product; that is, to apply life cycle thinking, to avoid suboptimization and identify the areas where the largest potential improvements can be made. This study analyzed the carbon footprint (CF) of butter and dairy blend products, with the focus on fat content and size and type of packaging (including product waste at the consumer level). The products analyzed were butter with 80% fat in 250-g wrap, 250-g tub, and 10-g mini tub, and blends with 80% and 60% fat in 250-g tubs. Life cycle assessment was used to account for all greenhouse gas emissions from cow to consumer. A critical aspect when calculating the CF is how emissions are allocated between different products. Here, allocation of raw milk between products was based on a weighted fat and protein content (1:1.7), based on the price paid for raw milk to dairy farmers. The CF (expressed as carbon dioxide equivalents, CO₂e) for 1 kg of butter or blend (assuming no product waste at consumer) ranged from 5.2 kg (blend with 60% fat content) to 9.3 kg of CO₂e (butter in 250-g tub). When including product waste at the consumer level, the CF ranged from 5.5 kg of CO₂e (blend with 60% fat content) to 14.7 kg of CO₂e (butter in mini tub). Fat content and the proportion of vegetable oil in products had the greatest effect on CF of the products, with lower fat content and a higher proportion of vegetable oil resulting in lower CF. Hence, if the same functionality as butter could be retained while shifting to lower fat and higher proportions of vegetable oil, the CF of the product would be decreased. Size and type of packaging were less important, but it is crucial to have the correct size and type of packaging to avoid product losses at the consumer. The greatest share of greenhouse gas emissions associated with butter production occurred at the farm level; thus, minimizing product losses in the

  2. 城市碳足迹定义与计算方法研究%Research on definition of urban Carbon Footprint and its calculation methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兵; 王正; 朱超

    2011-01-01

    The paper illustrates the definition of the Carbon Footprint,analyzes the connotation for the Carbon Footprint based on the current research results,points out the calculation methods for the Carbon Footprint which is fit for the situation in China,and calculates the Carbon Footprints in Shanghai,Tianjin,Chongqing and Shenyang and the strength of the Carbon Footprint,so as to have the direction significance for enhancing the construction of low carbon cities.%阐述了碳足迹的定义,在现有研究成果的基础上分析了碳足迹的内涵,提出了适合中国国情的碳足迹计算方法,分别计算了上海、天津、重庆和沈阳的碳足迹及碳足迹强度,对促进低碳城市建设具有一定的指导意义。

  3. Productivity and carbon footprint of perennial grass-forage legume intercropping strategies with high or low nitrogen fertilizer input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Lachouani, Petra; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Ambus, Per; Boelt, Birte; Gislum, René

    2016-01-15

    A three-season field experiment was established and repeated twice with spring barley used as cover crop for different perennial grass-legume intercrops followed by a full year pasture cropping and winter wheat after sward incorporation. Two fertilization regimes were applied with plots fertilized with either a high or a low rate of mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to evaluate the carbon footprint (global warming potential) of the grassland management including measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions after sward incorporation. Without applying any mineral N fertilizer, the forage legume pure stand, especially red clover, was able to produce about 15 t above ground dry matter ha(-1) year(-1) saving around 325 kg mineral Nfertilizer ha(-1) compared to the cocksfoot and tall fescue grass treatments. The pure stand ryegrass yielded around 3t DM more than red clover in the high fertilizer treatment. Nitrous oxide emissions were highest in the treatments containing legumes. The LCA showed that the low input N systems had markedly lower carbon footprint values than crops from the high N input system with the pure stand legumes without N fertilization having the lowest carbon footprint. Thus, a reduction in N fertilizer application rates in the low input systems offsets increased N2O emissions after forage legume treatments compared to grass plots due to the N fertilizer production-related emissions. When including the subsequent wheat yield in the total aboveground production across the three-season rotation, the pure stand red clover without N application and pure stand ryegrass treatments with the highest N input equalled. The present study illustrate how leguminous biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) represents an important low impact renewable N source without reducing crop yields and thereby farmers earnings.

  4. The Multifunctional Environmental Energy Tower: Carbon Footprint and Land Use Analysis of an Integrated Renewable Energy Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Bonamente

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Multifunctional Environmental Energy Tower (MEET is a single, vertical, stand-alone renewable energy plant designed to decrease the primary energy consumption from fossil fuels, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, to maximize the energy production from renewable sources available in place and to minimize land use. A feasibility case study was performed for the city of Rome, Italy. Several technologies are exploited and integrated in a single system, including a photovoltaic plant, a geothermal plant and a biomass digester for urban organic waste and sewage sludge. In the proposed configuration, the MEET could cover more than 11% of the electric power demand and up to 3% of the space heating demand of the surrounding urban area. An LCA analysis evaluates the environmental impact in a cradle-to-grave approach for two impact categories: global warming (carbon footprint and land use (land occupation and land transformation. The functional unit is a mix of electric (49.1% and thermal (50.9% energy (kWhmix. The carbon footprint is 48.70 g CO2eq/kWhmix; the land transformation is 4.058 m2/GWhmix; and the land occupation is 969.3 m2y/GWhmix. With respect to other energy production technologies, the carbon footprint is lower and similar to the best-performing ones (e.g., co-generation from wood chips; both of the land use indicators are considerably smaller than the least-impacting technologies. A systematic study was finally performed, and possible optimizations of the original design are proposed. Thanks to the modular design, the conceptual idea can be easily applied to other urban and non-urban scenarios.

  5. Productivity and carbon footprint of perennial grass-forage legume intercropping strategies with high or low nitrogen fertilizer input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Lachouani, Petra; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Ambus, Per; Boelt, Birte; Gislum, René

    2016-01-15

    A three-season field experiment was established and repeated twice with spring barley used as cover crop for different perennial grass-legume intercrops followed by a full year pasture cropping and winter wheat after sward incorporation. Two fertilization regimes were applied with plots fertilized with either a high or a low rate of mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to evaluate the carbon footprint (global warming potential) of the grassland management including measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions after sward incorporation. Without applying any mineral N fertilizer, the forage legume pure stand, especially red clover, was able to produce about 15 t above ground dry matter ha(-1) year(-1) saving around 325 kg mineral Nfertilizer ha(-1) compared to the cocksfoot and tall fescue grass treatments. The pure stand ryegrass yielded around 3t DM more than red clover in the high fertilizer treatment. Nitrous oxide emissions were highest in the treatments containing legumes. The LCA showed that the low input N systems had markedly lower carbon footprint values than crops from the high N input system with the pure stand legumes without N fertilization having the lowest carbon footprint. Thus, a reduction in N fertilizer application rates in the low input systems offsets increased N2O emissions after forage legume treatments compared to grass plots due to the N fertilizer production-related emissions. When including the subsequent wheat yield in the total aboveground production across the three-season rotation, the pure stand red clover without N application and pure stand ryegrass treatments with the highest N input equalled. The present study illustrate how leguminous biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) represents an important low impact renewable N source without reducing crop yields and thereby farmers earnings. PMID:26479907

  6. Productivity and carbon footprint of perennial grass-forage legume intercropping strategies with high or low nitrogen fertilizer input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Lachouani, Petra; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman;

    2016-01-01

    A three-season field experiment was established and repeated twice with spring barley used as cover crop for different perennial grass-legume intercrops followed by a full year pasture cropping and winter wheat after sward incorporation. Two fertilization regimes were applied with plots fertilized...... in the high fertilizer treatment. Nitrous oxide emissions were highest in the treatments containing legumes. The LCA showed that the low input N systems had markedly lower carbon footprint values than crops from the high N input system with the pure stand legumes without N fertilization having the lowest...... reducing crop yields and thereby farmers earnings....

  7. A method to create carbon footprint estimates consistent with national accounts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edens, Bram; Hoekstra, Rutger; Zult, Daan; Lemmers, Oscar; Wilting, Harry; Wu, Ronghao

    2015-01-01

    Although multiregional input–output (MRIO) databases use data from national statistical offices, the reconciliation of various data sources results in significantly altered country data. This makes it problematic to use MRIO-based footprints for national policy-making. This paper develops a poten

  8. Finnish metedology developments for carbon and other footprints of food products

    OpenAIRE

    Pulkkinen, Hannele; Katajajuuri, Juha-Matti; Saarinen, Merja; Kauppinen, Tommi; Hartikainen, Hanna; Krogerus, Kristoffer; Silvenius, Frans

    2011-01-01

    The Foodprint - research programme aims to harmonise calculation methods and communication of footprints in the Finnish food sector taking care that international developments and best practices are taken into account. Some of the most challenging issues in the methodology development are described in this paper.

  9. The Awareness of Turkish High School Students about Carbon Footprint and the Effects of the High School Biology Curriculum on This Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öz-Aydin, Serap

    2016-01-01

    Carbon emissions which are one of the most important human sourced causes of global climate change continue to rise rapidly despite all efforts to minimize these emissions. Carbon footprint (CF) education is significant in terms of changing the present situation. The aim of this study is to determine the awareness of high school students about the…

  10. Product multi-hierarchy carbon footprint analysis method oriented to low-carbon design%面向低碳设计的产品多层次碳足迹分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍宏; 刘光复; 王吉凯

    2013-01-01

    To support product low-carbon design, the multi-hierarchy carbon footprint analysis method was proposed, and a multi-hierarchy carbon footprint analysis model was established. Through analyzing the influencing factors of product carbon footprint, the static analysis method for product carbon footprint was put forward. By considering the uncertain factors of carbon footprint, the uncertainty analysis model of product carbon footprint was constructed. Based on function-structure mapping, carbon footprint of module units were calculated and allocated. Integrating sensitivity analysis into multi-hierarchy carbon footprint analysis for products, the application of proposed method in design improvement was discussed. A case study of dishwasher was used to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of this method.%为支持产品低碳设计,提出产品多层次碳足迹分析方法,构建了产品多层次碳足迹分析模型.通过分析产品碳足迹影响因素,提出了产品碳足迹静态分析方法;考虑影响碳足迹的不确定因素,构建了产品碳足迹不确定性分析模型.基于功能结构映射,进行产品碳足迹的结构单元量化与分配.将多层次碳足迹分析方法与敏感性分析相结合,探讨了其在低碳设计改进中的应用.以洗碗机为例,验证了所提方法的可行性和有效性.

  11. The hourly life cycle carbon footprint of electricity generation in Belgium, bringing a temporal resolution in life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This paper brings a temporal resolution in LCA of electricity generation. • Dynamic life cycle assessment of electricity production in Belgium for 2011. • The overall average GWP per kW h is 0.184 kg CO2eq/kW h. • The carbon footprint of Belgian electricity ranges from 0.102 to 0.262 kg CO2eq/kW h. - Abstract: In the booming research on the environmental footprint of, for example, electrical vehicles, heat pumps and other (smart) electricity consuming appliances, there is a clear need to know the hourly CO2 content of one kW h of electricity. Since the CO2 footprint of electricity can vary every hour; the footprint of for example an electric vehicle is influenced by the time when the vehicle is charged. With the availability of the hourly CO2 content of one kW h, a decision support tool is provided to fully exploit the advantages of a future smart grid. In this paper, the GWP (Global Warming Potential) per kW h for each hour of the year is calculated for Belgium using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. This enables evaluating the influence of the electricity demand on the greenhouse gas emissions. Because of the LCA approach, the CO2 equivalent content does not only reflect activities related to the production of the electricity within a power plant, but includes carbon emissions related to the building of the infrastructure and the fuel supply chain. The considered feedstocks are nuclear combustible, oil, coal, natural gas, biowaste, blast furnace gas, and wood. Furthermore, renewable electricity production technologies like photovoltaic cells, hydro installations and wind turbines are covered by the research. The production of the wind turbines and solar panels is more carbon intensive (expressed per generated kW h of electricity) than the production of other conventional power plants, due to the lower electricity output. The overall average GWP per kW h is 0.184 kg CO2eq/kW h. Throughout the 2011 this value ranges from a minimum of 0

  12. Study on Model of Carbon Footprint Management for Logistics Companies%物流企业碳足迹管理模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦新生

    2014-01-01

    In order to promote carbon emission reduction for logistics industry and provide operational guidelines on the im-plementation of carbon footprint management for logistics companies,from three aspects of carbon emission regulation,de-mand of carbon emission reduction and supply chain service for logistics companies,the paper carries out the in-depth re-search on driving factors of carbon footprint management of logistics companies.The paper analyzes shortages of evaluation criteria of carbon footprint which applies to management of carbon emission for logistics companies.Based on compile theory on greenhouse gas emission inventory of enterprise,the paper constructs a model of carbon footprint management for logis-tics company.According to case study on a typical logistics company,the paper evaluates its results of carbon emission and then points out its improvement direction of carbon footprint management.Finally,the paper proposes recommendations of carbon footprint management for logistics companies in our country Therefore,it provides references of carbon footprint man-agement for logistics companies in China.It can also help logistics companies to enhance its competitiveness of low carbon.%为促进物流业碳减排,给物流企业实施碳足迹管理提供操作指南,从碳排放管制、物流企业碳减排需求、供应链服务三个方面深入研究物流企业碳足迹管理的驱动因素,分析碳足迹评价标准用于物流企业碳排放管理的不足。基于企业温室气体排放清单编制原理,构建物流企业碳足迹管理模型。选取物流企业案例进行研究,指出其碳足迹管理改善方向。最后提出我国物流企业碳足迹管理建议,为物流企业碳减排提供参考依据,有助于增强企业低碳竞争力。

  13. 快递包装碳足迹研究%Research of Carbon Footprint in Express Packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓超; 张庆英; 胡镔; 李扬威

    2014-01-01

    我国快递业近年来保持了43.5%的持续高增长,快递包装用量激增的同时,废弃包装的不得当处理对环境产生了巨大威胁。文中从碳足迹层面研究快递包装的碳排量,分析快递包装生命周期中的碳足迹。将问卷调查与实地访谈情况相结合,运用数理统计方法和数值优化思想,宏观把握一件快递包装在一次快递行为中的碳排放情况,明确高碳消耗环节。针对企业提出了节能减排思想指导下的“绿色包装”解决思路。%Express industry in China has maintained a sustained high growth of 43.5%in recent years ,with the explosion of express packing amount ,the misconduct of waste packaging generated a huge threat to the environment .This article studied the carbon emissions of express packing based on the carbon footprint level ,analysis the carbon footprint through the whole life cycle of express packing .It combined the questionnaire and on -the-spot interviews ,used the numerical optimization ideological and mathematical statistics method ,grasped carbon emissions in one package of one express behavior ,to determine the process of high carbon consumption .And it put forward a “green packaging” solution in view of the enterprise ,which put into energy -saving emission reduction awareness into the mechanism improvement.

  14. 不同空调系统的碳足迹分析%Carbon Footprint Analysis for Different Air-conditioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成波

    2011-01-01

    This article introduced the definition, analysis methods and computation methods of carbon footprint. And take an office building in Songjiang District, Shanghai as the example, selected three different air-conditioning systems, calculate the carbon footprint of the three kinds of plans, and compares its fit. Proposes the effective measure of reduce carbon footprint for HVAC system.%介绍了碳足迹的定义、分析方法及计算方法,并以上海市松江区某办公楼为例,选定三种不同的空调系统,计算三种方案的碳足迹,分析三种方案的优劣,并提出了降低HVAC系统碳足迹的措施。

  15. Monitoring CO{sub 2} emissions along the logistics chain. Carbon footprinting; Monitoring fuer den CO{sub 2}-Ausstoss in der Logistikkette. Carbon Footprint - Teilgutachten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmied, Martin [Oeko-Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Knoerr, Wolfgang [ifeu - Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    The aim of the project was to develop a standardized methodology to calculate GHG emissions along the logistics chain and to incorporate this methodology in the development of the european CEN standard prEN 16258. Meanwhile a draft standard - entitled ''Methodology for calculation and declaration on energy consumptions and GHG emissions in transport services'' is existing. To simplify the usage of the draft standard prEN 16258 for freight forwarders and logistics operators, guidelines/ a manual was developed in addition, which are published and distributed by the Association of German Freight Forwarders and Logistics Operators (Deutscher Speditions- und Logistikverband - DSLV).

  16. Analysis on Carbon Footprint of Energy Consumption Based on NEP in Fujian%基于NEP福建省能源碳足迹分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅煌伟; 黄民生; 张如

    2012-01-01

    借用NEP的碳足迹研究方法,核算了福建省能源消费碳排放足迹,研究了碳排放足迹与经济增长的关系,最后提出相应的政策建议.结果表明,福建省能源消费碳足迹处于盈余状态;煤炭碳足迹最大、比重最高;电力、石化、金属冶炼等高耗能行业限制与否,依然是各级政府决策层考虑的重点;单位GDP碳足迹有所下降,但仍具有较大的下降空间.%Borrowing the research methods of NEPs carbon footprint,carbon footprint of energy consumption in Fujian Province was checked, the relationship between carbon emission footprint and economic growth was studied, finally, the corresponding policy recommendations were proposed. The results show that the carbon footprint of energy consumption is in a surplus state in Fujian Province; the carbon footprint of coal is the largest and accounts for the highest ratio; whether the high-energy industry limit or not, such as power,petrochemical and metal smelting industry, is still the decision-making focus considered by all levels of governments;carbon footprint of per unit GDP has declined, but still has a larger declined space.

  17. 我国交通运输业碳足迹测算%Carbon footprint estimation of transportation industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗希; 张绍良; 卞晓红; 张韦唯

    2012-01-01

    According to the data of energy consumption and transport turnover from 2004 to 2008 in China, carbon footprint of transportation industry was estimated through carbon footprint model. The results show that total carbon footprint from transportation energy consumption in China is growing continuously, and increases from 3.702 534 x 10~8t in 2004 to 4.884 943 x 10~8t in 2008 with an average annual increase of 7. 17% . The direct carbon footprint from terminal fossil energy use in 5 years accounts for 89.06%. Carbon footprint from diesel consumption accounts for the largest proportion in total carbon footprint with 46.65%. The second proportion of carbon footprint is from gasoline consumption with 17. 85% , and shows a similar rising trend from diesel consumption to that year after year. Per unit conversion turnover carbon footprint shows an obvious declining trend, and drops from 485. 72 kg · (10~4 t · km) "' in 2004 to 408.45 kg ? (10~4 t· km)~(-1) in 2008 with average annual decline of 4.24%.%通过构建交通运输业碳足迹测算模型,利用能源消费量、运输周转量等数据对2004-2008年我国交通运输业能源消费碳足迹进行测算,结果表明:我国交通运输业能源消费碳足迹总量呈持续增长趋势,从2004年的37 025.34万t上升到2008年的48 849.43万t,年均增长7.17%.其中,5年来终端能源消费产生的直接碳足迹占89.06%.不同能源消费碳足迹中柴油消费碳足迹所占比例最大,为46.65%,其次是汽油消费碳足迹,占17.85%,二者均呈逐年上升趋势.单位换算周转量碳足迹呈明显下降趋势,从2004年的485.72 kg·(104 t·km)-下降到2008年的408.45 kg·(104 t·km)-1,年均降幅为4.24%.

  18. Long term strategy for electricity generation in Peninsular Malaysia – Analysis of cost and carbon footprint using MESSAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia envisages becoming a developed nation by 2020. To sustain industrial expansion and attract investments Malaysia must introduce new energy strategies. These strategies should also moderate carbon footprint. The new energy strategies introduced by the government are (i) installation of nuclear power plant by 2021, (ii) import of Sarawak hydropower from 2015 and (iii) enhancement of use of renewable energy from 2015. In this paper we analyze the cost and resulting carbon footprint of energy expansion for 12 energy scenes (inclusive of new strategies) to produce electricity for Peninsular Malaysia for the period 2009–2030. We use a computer model MESSAGE to provide optimization. The best strategy is for the following accumulated percentage of energy resource in the fuel mix: 49.3% (natural gas), 28.4% (coal), 4.06% (nuclear), 2.98% (hydropower), 4.45% (renewable), 10.82% (import hydropower). The minimum cost of expanding this strategy from 2009 until 2030 is USD6.090B. The CO2 emission index of this strategy is 0.329 t/MWh. The accumulated carbon dioxide emission for this period is 1825.96 Mton CO2 eq. -- Highlights: •We analyzed the cost of energy expansion and resulting carbon emission using software MESSAGE. •We studied the energy situation for the next 20 years beginning 2009 for Peninsular Malaysia. •We maintained the present energy resources of natural gas, coal and internal hydropower. •We included nuclear, hydropower import and renewable energy as new strategies

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions in milk and dairy product chains: Improving the carbon footprint of dairy products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flysjoe, A.M.

    2012-11-01

    The present PhD project has focused on some of the most critical methodological aspects influencing GHG emission estimates of milk and dairy products and how the methodology can be improved. In addition, the Carbon Footprint (CF) for different types of dairy products has been analysed. Based on these results, mitigation options have been identified along the entire dairy value chain. The key methodological challenges analysed in the present study are: estimation of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions, assessment of CO{sub 2} emissions from land use change (LUC), co-product handling, and definition of the functional unit. Estimates of the biogenic emissions CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are associated with large uncertainties due to the complexity and natural variation in biological processes. Accounting for these variations resulted in a {+-}30-50% variation in the CF for milk in Sweden and New Zealand (excluding emissions from LUC). The inclusion of emissions from LUC can drastically affect the CF of dairy products, and different models can even provide contradictory results. Thus, it is suggested that emissions associated with LUC are reported separately and that underlying assumptions are clearly explained. Accounting for the by-product beef is decisive for the CF of milk, and when designing future strategies for the dairy sector, milk and meat production needs to be addressed in an integrated approach. It is shown that an increase in milk yield per cow does not necessarily result in a lower CF of milk, when taking into account the alternative production of the by-product beef. This demonstrates that it is important to investigate interactions between different product chains, i.e. to apply system thinking. The CF of dairy products from Arla Foods analysed in the present study range from: 1.2-5.5 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg fresh dairy products, 7.3-10.9 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg butter and butter blends, 4.5-9.9 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg cheese, and 1.0-17.4 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg milk

  20. Research of Low-carbon Economic Development Based on Carbon Footprint in Kashgar Area%基于碳足迹的喀什地区低碳经济发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦良焕; 张文河; 王晶

    2016-01-01

    利用碳足迹的概念和研究方法,对喀什地区2000~2012年的能源消费碳排放和碳足迹进行分析计算。结果表明,喀什地区能源利用碳足迹从2000~2012年呈现上升趋势,且煤炭能源消费碳足迹的比重远远大于石油和天然气。在此基础上,提出要在喀什地区发展低碳经济的建议如优化能源结构,调整产业布局,开发新型能源,减少碳排放等,以实现可持续发展。%The paper used the concepts of carbon footprint and research methods to calculate the carbon emissions and carbon footprint in Kashgar Area from 2000 to 2012.The results showed that: the carbon footprint increased from 2000 to 2012.the carbon footprint of coal was the bigger more than oil and natural gas. Based on analyzing the carbon footprint of energy consumption, some proposals of development of low -carbon economy were proposed in Kashgar Area, such as optimizing energy structure, adjusting industrial layout, developing new energy, reducing carbon emissions to realize sustainable development.

  1. 涤纶纺织品的碳足迹评估%Carbon footprint assessment of polyester textiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵年花; 周翔; 董锋

    2012-01-01

    根据BS EN ISO 14040:2006和PAS 2050:2008-商品和服务在生命周期内的温室气体排放评价规范,以及PAS 2050:2008规范使用指南,以100 kg涤纶长丝织物为功能单位,建立该功能单位从原油开采到完成印染加工这一系统边界的过程图;应用GaBi Education 4 LCA软件计算规定的系统边界内的碳足迹.数据分析表明,生产100 kg涤纶织物的碳排放量为2 570.10 kg CO2e,染整加工过程占总碳排放量的64.5%.%According to BS EN ISO 14040:2006, PAS 2050:2008 - Specification for the Assessment of the Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Goods and Services and Guide to PAS 2050-.2008 - How to Assess the Carbon Footprint of Goods and Services, 100 kg polyester filament fabric is selected as function unit, and the procedure chart from crude petroleum extraction to dyeing and printing process is established. The carbon footprint in system boundary is calculated by GaBi Education 4 LCA software. The data analysis shows that the carbon emission of 100 kg polyester is 2 570.10 kg CO2e, 64.5% of which is contributed by dyeing and printing process.

  2. A method for calculating a land-use change carbon footprint (LUC-CFP) for agricultural commodities - applications to Brazilian beef and soy, Indonesian palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, U Martin; Henders, Sabine; Cederberg, Christel

    2014-11-01

    The world's agricultural system has come under increasing scrutiny recently as an important driver of global climate change, creating a demand for indicators that estimate the climatic impacts of agricultural commodities. Such carbon footprints, however, have in most cases excluded emissions from land-use change and the proposed methodologies for including this significant emissions source suffer from different shortcomings. Here, we propose a new methodology for calculating land-use change carbon footprints for agricultural commodities and illustrate this methodology by applying it to three of the most prominent agricultural commodities driving tropical deforestation: Brazilian beef and soybeans, and Indonesian palm oil. We estimate land-use change carbon footprints in 2010 to be 66 tCO2 /t meat (carcass weight) for Brazilian beef, 0.89 tCO2 /t for Brazilian soybeans, and 7.5 tCO2 /t for Indonesian palm oil, using a 10 year amortization period. The main advantage of the proposed methodology is its flexibility: it can be applied in a tiered approach, using detailed data where it is available while still allowing for estimation of footprints for a broad set of countries and agricultural commodities; it can be applied at different scales, estimating both national and subnational footprints; it can be adopted to account both for direct (proximate) and indirect drivers of land-use change. It is argued that with an increasing commercialization and globalization of the drivers of land-use change, the proposed carbon footprint methodology could help leverage the power needed to alter environmentally destructive land-use practices within the global agricultural system by providing a tool for assessing the environmental impacts of production, thereby informing consumers about the impacts of consumption and incentivizing producers to become more environmentally responsible. PMID:24838193

  3. A method for calculating a land-use change carbon footprint (LUC-CFP) for agricultural commodities - applications to Brazilian beef and soy, Indonesian palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, U Martin; Henders, Sabine; Cederberg, Christel

    2014-11-01

    The world's agricultural system has come under increasing scrutiny recently as an important driver of global climate change, creating a demand for indicators that estimate the climatic impacts of agricultural commodities. Such carbon footprints, however, have in most cases excluded emissions from land-use change and the proposed methodologies for including this significant emissions source suffer from different shortcomings. Here, we propose a new methodology for calculating land-use change carbon footprints for agricultural commodities and illustrate this methodology by applying it to three of the most prominent agricultural commodities driving tropical deforestation: Brazilian beef and soybeans, and Indonesian palm oil. We estimate land-use change carbon footprints in 2010 to be 66 tCO2 /t meat (carcass weight) for Brazilian beef, 0.89 tCO2 /t for Brazilian soybeans, and 7.5 tCO2 /t for Indonesian palm oil, using a 10 year amortization period. The main advantage of the proposed methodology is its flexibility: it can be applied in a tiered approach, using detailed data where it is available while still allowing for estimation of footprints for a broad set of countries and agricultural commodities; it can be applied at different scales, estimating both national and subnational footprints; it can be adopted to account both for direct (proximate) and indirect drivers of land-use change. It is argued that with an increasing commercialization and globalization of the drivers of land-use change, the proposed carbon footprint methodology could help leverage the power needed to alter environmentally destructive land-use practices within the global agricultural system by providing a tool for assessing the environmental impacts of production, thereby informing consumers about the impacts of consumption and incentivizing producers to become more environmentally responsible.

  4. An International Comparison Study on Carbon Footprint of China%中国碳足迹的国际比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈武; 常燕; 李云峰

    2013-01-01

    文章首先对2009年的碳排放情况进行了国际比较研究,接着研究了1971-2009年中国碳足迹的国际比较,继而运用历史的观点分析研究了1971-2009年中国碳强度和人均碳排放的国际比较情况.%This paper analyzes the international situation of China's carbon footprint using international comparison methods. Firstly, it takes an international comparison study on the carbon emission in 2009, then it studies the international comparison of China's carbon footprint from 1971 to 2009, and then it studies the international comparison of China's carbon intensity and per capita carbon emission from 1971 to 2009 using a historical perspective.

  5. Review and Outlook of China Electronic and IT Industry Footprints in IEC International Standardization Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Jingping

    2006-01-01

    @@ Year 2006 is the year marking the 100th anniversary of the founding of International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). IEC is mainly engaged in the international standardization for electrical and electronic technology field aiming at promoting international trade and technology cooperation and exchange, improving product and service quality, upgrading productivity and protecting the environment as well as human health and safety. Most countries worldwide adopt standards developed and promulgated by IEC, providing a platform to international trade and technical exchange. China has being a member since 1957. Electronic and IT are the most developed and energetic filed in recent decades. Number of IEC TC/SC specialized in electronic and IT amounts up to 52.

  6. 中国各省区碳足迹与碳排放空间转移%Regional Carbon Footprint and Interregional Transfer of Carbon Emissions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石敏俊; 王妍; 张卓颖; 周新

    2012-01-01

    Obligation assignment of carbon emission reduction needs to evaluate carbon emission charge by taking into account interregional transfer of carbon emissions. Carbon footprint, as a concept of carbon emission measurement, can evaluate life cycle carbon emissions of production and service to meet final demand. It should include direct carbon emissions caused by fossil energy as well as indirect carbon emissions induced by intermediate products production. This paper aims to estimate carbon footprint of each province and inter-provincial transfer of carbon emissions in China based on an input-output approach and China IRIO 2002 database. The results indicate there are significant differences of carbon footprint and per capita carbon footprint among provinces in China. The provinces with higher carbon footprint, mainly located in northern China, have large economic scale. The provinces with high per capita carbon footprint include developed metropolitan regions and energy-rich regions with a high proportion of energy intensive sectors. Interregional transfer of carbon emissions has emerged from energy-rich regions with a high proportion of energy intensive sectors to developed coastal regions and developing regions with incomplete industrial systems. The results imply developed coastal regions should bear more obligation of carbon emission reduction. As a significant amount of carbon emissions of energy-rich regions with a high proportion of energy intensive sectors is induced by provision of energy intensive products for developed coastal regions and developing regions with incomplete industrial systems, interregional transfer of carbon emissions should be taken into account for regional obligation assignment of carbon emission reduction. It can be considered to reduce obligation of carbon emission reduction for those energy-rich regions with a high proportion of energy intensive sectors. Otherwise, a compensation mechanism should be considered for developed coastal

  7. 基于投入产出分析的北京市居民消费碳足迹研究%Study on Carbon Footprint of the Household Consumption in Beijing Based on Input-Output Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董会娟; 耿涌

    2012-01-01

    随着我国城镇化的加快和人民生活水平的提高,居民消费碳足迹越来越不容忽视。本文在综述国内外居民消费碳足迹的基础上,以投入产出法为基础,深入研究了北京市2007年居民消费直接碳足迹和隐含碳足迹的特征。结果显示:城镇居民碳足迹总量约7993万t,约为农村居民碳足迹总量1195.55万t的7倍。其中城镇居民碳足迹以隐含碳足迹为主,农村居民碳足迹以直接碳足迹为主。从居民消费隐含碳足迹构成来看,城镇居民以食品、交通和通信、文教娱乐用品和服务为主,分别为35.2%,14.1%和13.8%;农村居民主要以食品、居住、交通和通信为主,分别为32.4%,21.9%和12.3%。此外,居民消费隐含碳足迹随着收入水平的增加而增加,尤其是交通和通信碳足迹增加明显。最后针对北京市城乡居民消费碳足迹的特征,分别给出了相应的政策建议。%Industry is generally recognized as the main source of greenhouse gases. However, with rapid urbanization of China and significantly improved household living standard, the carbon footprint of household consumption should not be ignored any more. A general overview of carbon footprint of household consumption shows that domestic study on this field is less intensive than abroad and needs to be further developed. In this paper, a comprehensive study on direct and embodied carbon footprint of Beijing household consumption was made based on input-output analysis. The results reveal that: 1) Total carbon footprint of Beijing urban residents in 2007 was 79.93 Mt, about seven times of that of rural residents. And embodied carbon footprint is predominant in urban resident consumption while direct carbon footprint is predominant in rural resident consumption; 2) As for the composition of household consumption’s embodied carbon footprint, Food, Transport communications and Education, culture recreation services are the top three categories

  8. 瓦楞纸箱生产碳足迹的计算方法与实例分析%Calculation Method and Case Analysis of Carbon Footprint in Corrugated Carton Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    年鹤; 王晓敏

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the large carbon emission and environmental pollution problems of corrugated carton production,a calculation method of carbon footprint was put forward.Three kinds of corrugated carton production carbon emission were calculated and the main influence factors of the carbon footprint were analyzed.Some energy-saving suggestions were put forward.The purpose was to provide reference for energy-saving and drafting carbon emissions standards.%针对瓦楞纸箱企业生产中的碳排放量大、对环境影响严重的情况,提出了瓦楞纸箱生产碳足迹的计算方法,计算了3种瓦楞纸箱生产的碳排放量,并对其碳足迹主要影响因素进行了初步分析,同时提出了几点节能建议。为瓦楞纸箱企业节能减排及制定碳排放标准提供参考依据。

  9. Integrating Role-Play with Case Study and Carbon Footprint Monitoring: A Transformative Approach to Enhancing Learners' Social Behavior for a More Sustainable Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Learners were separated into groups representing the interests of parties that typically negotiate environmental affairs in real world scenarios (conservationists, scientists, politicians, NGOs, stakeholders), and tasked with preparing role-play simulations using a variety of flipped learning techniques. Learners' carbon footprints were monitored…

  10. Carbon footprint and environmental impacts of print products from cradle to grave. Results from the LEADER project (part 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihkola, H.; Nors, M.; Kujanpaeae, M.; Helin, T.; Kariniemi, M.; Pajula, T. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)); Dahlbo, H.; Koskela, S. (Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland))

    2010-12-15

    The report presents the main results of the LEADER project that was ongoing in Finland between the years 2007-2010. The aim of the project was to study the environmental impacts occurring during the life cycle of print products. The scope of the project was focused on printed media products. In the study, life cycle assessments and carbon footprints were calculated for five case products: heatset offset printed magazine, coldset offset printed newspaper, sheetfed offset printed book, electrophotography printed photobook and rotogravure printed advertisement. The environmentally extended input-output model ENVIMAT was applied to provide an estimate of the environmental impacts related to the production and consumption of print products in Finland. Additionally, the development of environmental performance within different printing methods is evaluated and the environmental indicators specific for the printing phase are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Productivity and carbon footprint of perennial grass-forage legume intercropping strategies with high or low nitrogen fertilizer input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Lachouani, Petra; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman;

    2016-01-01

    A three-season field experiment was established and repeated twice with spring barley used as cover crop for different perennial grass-legume intercrops followed by a full year pasture cropping and winter wheat after sward incorporation. Two fertilization regimes were applied with plots fertilized...... fertilizer, the forage legume pure stand, especially red clover, was able to produce about 15 t aboveground dry matter ha− 1 year− 1 saving around 325 kg mineral N fertilizer ha− 1 compared to the cocksfoot and tall fescue grass treatments. The pure stand ryegrass yielded around 3 t DM more than red clover...... lowest carbon footprint. Thus, a reduction in N fertilizer application rates in the low input systems offsets increased N2O emissions after forage legume treatments compared to grass plots due to the N fertilizer production-related emissions. When including the subsequent wheat yield in the total...

  12. 碳足迹的概念和核算方法研究进展%Review of Carbon Footprint: Definitions and Accounting Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    计军平; 马晓明

    2011-01-01

    The concept of carbon footprint provides new perspective on impact of human activities on climate change. In this paper we investigate the definitions and accounting methods of carbon footprint by reviewing related studies. A widely accepted definition of carbon footprint does not exist. After analyzing units, scope of emissions and system boundaries about carbon footprint in existing literatures, we propose a definition. A widely accepted method for accounting carbon footprint does not exist either. Instead, three methods are frequently used to calculate carbon footprint separately, that is input-output analysis, life cycle assessment, and hybrid LCA. We analyze theories, scopes of application, advantages and disadvantages, and applications of these three methods. Finally, we suggest some research areas of carbon footprint, which are related to methods, applications and uncertainty.%碳足迹提供了分析人类活动对气候变化影响的新视角.从概念和核算方法两个方面对有关碳足迹的研究进行了分析:(1)概念上,碳足迹目前无统一的定义.在分析度量单位、温室气体种类及系统边界的基础上,文章提出了碳足迹的建议定义.(2)方法上,碳足迹目前无统一的核算方法.投入产出分析、生命周期评价及混合生命周期评价是三种主要的核算方法.文章对这三种方法的原理、适用范围、优缺点及应用情况进行了分析.最后,从方法、应用和不确定性三个方面对碳足迹研究作了展望.

  13. Environmental tax on products and services based on their carbon footprint: A case study of the pulp and paper sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of this work is to define an environmental tax on products based on their carbon footprint. We examine the relevance of life cycle analysis (LCA) and environmentally extended input–output analysis (EIO) as methodological tools for identifying the emission intensities on which the tax is based. The price effects of the tax and the policy implications of considering non-CO2 greenhouse gases (GHG) are also analyzed. The results from the case study on pulp production show that the environmental tax rate based on LCA (1.8%) is higher than both EIO approaches (0.8 and 1.4% for product and industry, respectively), but they are of the same order of magnitude. Although LCA is more product specific and provides a more detailed analysis, we recommend EIO as a more relevant approach to applying an economy-wide environmental tax. If an environmental tax were applied to non-CO2 GHG instead to CO2 alone, the tax would greatly affects sectors such as agriculture, mining of coal, extraction of peat, and food. Therefore, it is worthwhile for policy-makers to pay attention to the implications of considering either a CO2 tax or a global GHG emissions tax in order to make their policy measures effective and meaningful. - Highlights: ► Carbon footprints of products and services are modeled using EIO and LCA. ► Environmental taxes are introduced based on the estimated emission intensities. ► The effect of excluding non-GHG and its policy implications is discussed. ► Emission intensity and environmental tax are higher in LCA than EIO for the analyzed case study of pulp and paper production. ► EIO is more relevant than LCA for economy wide environmental tax application.

  14. Carbon footprint. An international comparison of evaluation approaches at specialist foundation engineering techniques; Carbon footprint. Internationaler Vergleich von Abschaetzungsansaetzen bei Spezialtiefbauverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoehrer, Alexander [Keller Grundbau GmbH, Soeding (Austria); Sondermann, Wolfgang [Keller Holding GmbH, Offenbach (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    From today's perspective, the regular reports on the global warming have become indispensable. Especially the construction industry emits a large amount of greenhouse gases. Therefore, the construction industry needs to adapt to the changing requirements. A first step of this is the assessment of the current methods of foundation engineering. To this end, the company Keller Holding GmbH (Offenbach, Federal Republic of Germany) developed an accounting method based on the relevant ISO standards. This allows an accounting of completed and upcoming projects in terms of their pollutant compensation. The accounting covers the extraction of raw materials of the mounting materials, transportation and machinery used on construction sites as well as disposal of waste materials. This enables a comprehensive accounting of the life cycle of the work carried out on site.

  15. 碳足迹计算在棉纺厂的应用研究%Application and Research of Carbon Footprint Calculation in Cotton Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晨晨; 魏孟媛; 薛文良

    2012-01-01

    研究碳足迹计算方法及其在棉纺厂的应用情况.分析了棉纺厂碳足迹计算的整体思路及产品生产过程中各设备的电能消耗,指出:棉纺厂碳排放量可通过计算电能消耗的间接方法求得.认为:棉纺厂通过电能消耗间接计算碳排放量的方法是可行的.通过计算碳足迹,可以得到棉纺产品加工过程各工序的碳排放量,使企业能更具体地监测高碳排放环节,继而寻求节能减排空间.%Carbon footprint calculation methods and its application in cotton mill were studied. Overall idea of carbon footprint calculation in cotton mill as well as power consumption of each equipment in production was analyzed. It is pointed out that carbon emissions can be obtained by the indirect method of calculating power consumption. It is considered that it is feasible to calculate indirectly carbon emissions by power consumption. Carbon emissions of each process in mill can be got by calculating carbon footprint, higher carbon emissions process can be monitored, energy-saving space can be got.

  16. Analysis on Assessment and Application of Carbon Footprint of Industrial Production Process%工业过程的碳足迹评价与应用初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代方舟; 吴迪; 王丹寅; 杜冲; 刘鑫磊; 易嗣宣; 黄少良; 王丽华; 严岩

    2011-01-01

    Carbon footprint is one of the worldwide approved methods to calculate and evaluate greenhouse gases load and has been applied in many more assessment practices. Based on the understand of the background that the greatest source of greenhouse gases emission is the large-scale industrial production, and the great importance of greenhouse gases control during industrial processes to curb the effects on global climate change, we developed the indicator of industrial carbon footprint. Then, we analyzed the concept of industrial carbon footprint, and discussed system boundary and drew calculating framework of industrial carbon footprint. Finally, we explored the application and importance of industrial carbon footprint on the levels of products, enterprises and regions.%碳足迹作为计算和评价人类活动的温室气体负荷的重要方法之一,已在世界范围内被广泛接受,并应用到越来越多的领域和评价实践.基于大规模工业生产是温室气体人为排放最主要来源的背景和工业过程温室气体控制对遏制气候变化的重要作用和意义,提出工业过程碳足迹的概念,分析工业碳足迹的内涵,讨论工业碳足迹的系统边界,构建工业碳足迹的核算框架,从产品、企业、区域三个层面对工业碳足迹的应用及其意义进行展望.

  17. 基于碳足迹的供应链管理研究与思考%The Consideration of Supply Chain Management Base on Carbon Footprint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈思源; 董敏; 王京安; 朱钦

    2011-01-01

    如今,"低碳"已经从环境保护人士的呼吁声中走进了普通人的生活,甚至成为一种时尚的生活方式,但碳足迹作为衡量温室气体排放量的一个指标还不为人们所熟知.更进一步,具体到物流供应链研究方面,在追求低碳的趋势下,如何基于碳足迹来重新考虑供应链管理决策分析显得相当重要.将碳足迹概念引进到供应链管理研究领域,介绍了碳足迹在供应链环节上是如何测量的,并且基于这些理论提出了针对碳足迹的影响下,如何对现有的供应链管理决策进行重新思考,最后对该领域的未来研究进行了展望.%Nowadays, "low carbon" steps into daily life from the papers of those environmentalists, even more it becomes a fashion lifestyle. Carbon footprint is not familiar with people as an expression in terms of the amount of carbon dioxide, or its equivalent of other GHGs, emitted. Furthermore carbon footprint has not introduced into the research field of supply chain management. In the grand trend of low carbon, it is more important to make re-decision of supply chain management based on the tool of carbon footprint. In this paper, it introduces carbon footprint into the research field of supply chain management. Then the paper describes how to calculate carbon footprint on the supply chain. It makes some re-thinking on the decision making field of supply chain management. Finally it has some vision on the research field of carbon footprint supply chain.

  18. Evaluation Methods of Carbon Footprints for Hotel Guests%酒店客人碳足迹计量实现方式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海珠; 魏慧娇

    2013-01-01

    Low-carbon hotel will become an inevitable trend for the development of star-rated hotels, it is therefore important to accu-rately evaluate carbon emission in a hotel and propose sound approaches to reduce carbon emission rate. The concept of carbon footprint is introduced with the intention to quantitatively evaluate a guest’s carbon emission. One guest’s carbon footprint consists of three parts, includ-ing carbon footprint for energy consumption, for consumable products, and for recyclable products. A computing formula is expounded to cal-culate guest’s carbon footprint based on the energy consumptions in hotel and custom’s expenditure, analyzing the measuring approaches for each parameter, and proposing the requirements for measuring equipments.%  低碳酒店是未来星级酒店发展的必然趋势,为了准确计量酒店的碳排放量,提出合理的减排措施,将“碳足迹”的概念引入星级酒店,探讨酒店客人碳足迹的记录方法。客人碳足迹主要包括能源消耗碳足迹、消耗品碳足迹和循环用品碳足迹。根据酒店资源消耗和客人消费情况,提出了客人碳足迹的计算公式,分析了碳足迹计算中各个参数的测量方式,并对计量仪表提出了要求。

  19. Farm and product carbon footprints of China's fruit production--life cycle inventory of representative orchards of five major fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming; Cheng, Kun; Yue, Qian; Yan, Yu; Rees, Robert M; Pan, Genxing

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the environmental impacts of fruit production will provide fundamental information for policy making of fruit consumption and marketing. This study aims to characterize the carbon footprints of China's fruit production and to figure out the key greenhouse gas emissions to cut with improved orchard management. Yearly input data of materials and energy in a full life cycle from material production to fruit harvest were obtained via field visits to orchards of five typical fruit types from selected areas of China. Carbon footprint (CF) was assessed with quantifying the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the individual inputs. Farm and product CFs were respectively predicted in terms of land use and of fresh fruit yield. Additionally, product CFs scaled by fruit nutrition value (vitamin C (Vc) content) and by the economic benefit from fruit production were also evaluated. The estimated farm CF ranged from 2.9 to 12.8 t CO2-eq ha(-1) across the surveyed orchards, whereas the product CF ranged from 0.07 to 0.7 kg CO2-eq kg(-1) fruit. While the mean product CFs of orange and pear were significantly lower than those of apple, banana, and peach, the nutrition-scaled CF of orange (0.5 kg CO2-eq g(-1) Vc on average) was significantly lower than others (3.0-5.9 kg CO2-eq g(-1) Vc). The income-scaled CF of orange and pear (1.20 and 1.01 kg CO2-eq USD(-1), respectively) was higher than apple, banana, and peach (0.87~0.39 kg CO2-eq USD(-1)). Among the inputs, synthetic nitrogen fertilizer contributed by over 50 % to the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, varying among the fruit types. There were some tradeoffs in product CFs between fruit nutrition value and fruit growers' income. Low carbon production and consumption policy and marketing mechanism should be developed to cut down carbon emissions from fruit production sector, with balancing the nutrition value, producer's income, and climate change mitigation. PMID:26527344

  20. Research on Carbon Footprint Fast Accounting Model for Building Construction Phase%建筑物物化阶段碳足迹快速计算模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 包昀培

    2016-01-01

    将物化阶段温室气体排放归结为建筑材料、施工机械、运输等三大碳足迹来源,以其构成建筑物物化阶段碳足迹,并基于BIM技术及《建筑工程消耗量定额》获取建筑的材料及机械工程量清单,运用碳足迹因子法计算三类碳足迹,形成建筑物物化阶段碳足迹计算快速模型。结合案例验证模型的正确性与可信性。%This paper divides the source of greenhouse gas into three sources:building material carbon footprint, construction machinery carbon footprint,and transportation carbon footprint,to form the carbon footprint of the buildings during its construction phase. Then,based on BIM technology and the Building Construction Consumption Quota to obtain the bill of material and machinery quantities,calculates the three kinds of carbon footprints with the method of carbon footprint factors,forms the carbon footprint fast accounting model. Finally, verifies the accuracy and credibility of the established model by combining the actual example.

  1. Temporal Analysis on Carbon Footprint of Fossil Energy Consumption in Gansu Province%甘肃省化石能源碳足迹动态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马彩虹

    2013-01-01

    基于生态足迹思想提出碳足迹和碳承载力概念,对甘肃省1995—2009年化石能源消费的碳排放和植被的碳承载力进行定量分析.结果表明:甘肃省化石能源消费的碳足迹由1995年的2 466.12×104 t C增长到2009年的4 464.47×104 t C;煤炭消费的碳足迹最大,其次为石油,天然气比重最小,2009年的比重分别为81.54%、15.20%和3.26%;碳承载力由1995年的1 158.89×104 t C增长到2009年的1 472.19×104 tC,其中,森林的碳承载力最大,其次为草地,农田最小;甘肃省能源消费碳足迹远高于生产性土地的碳承载力.伴随着碳足迹的高增长率,碳赤字持续增大.%The concepts of carbon footprint and carbon bearing capacity were introduced based on the idea of ecological footprint. Quantitative analysis was conducted on the carbon emission of the fossil energy and carbon bearing capacity of the vegetation in Gansu Province during 1995 to 2009. The results showed that the carbon footprint of the fossil energy consumption of the province increased from 2 466. 12 × 104 t C in 1995 to 4 464. 47×104 t C in 2009, in which coal consumption consisted the largest proportion, followed by petroleum and natural gas, which accounted for 81. 54%, 15. 20% and 3. 26%, respectively in 2009. Carbon bearing capacity of the vegetation increased from 1 158. 89 × 104 t C in 1995 to 1 472. 19 × 104 t C in 2009, of which carbon capacity of forest was the largest, followed by grassland, and farmland, indicating that the carbon footprint caused by fossil energy consumption was much higher than carbon bearing capacity of productive land. With high growth rate of carbon footprint, carbon deficit increased continuously.

  2. Paying for sustainability: A cross-cultural analysis of consumers’ valuations of food and non-food products labeled for carbon and water footprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grebitus, Carola; Steiner, Bodo; Veeman, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Increasing environmental concerns of consumers and global supply chains center on the impacts of carbon dioxide emissions and water usage. This study analyzes consumers’ preferences for sustainable products as indicated by water and carbon footprint labels, enabling a rare cross-cultural comparison....... We conduct discrete choice experiments in Canada and Germany to identify possible cross-cultural effects. Four products were considered contrasting food and non-food staple products, plant-based and animal-based foods, and processed and unprocessed food items. Results from mixed logit models suggest...... that each national group of consumers is – irrespective of their cultural background – highly heterogeneous in the discounts required for them to purchase products with larger carbon footprints. The non-food product is discounted most with regard to water usage, followed by the plant product, suggesting...

  3. Carbon Footprint bolbloemen : een rekenmodel voor de CO2-uitstoot uit de broeierij

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putten, van der K.; Wildschut, J.

    2012-01-01

    In sommige exportlanden wordt het vermelden van de ‘Carbon Footprint’ op producten geleidelijk aan verplicht gesteld. Doel van dit project is daarom exporteurs en handelaren een rekenmodel ter beschikking te stellen waarmee gemakkelijk het Carbon Footprintgetal van een zending bolbloemen kan worden

  4. Analysis of Diurnal Variations in Energy Footprint and Its Associated Carbon Emission for Water Supply and Reuse in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, Reza

    Arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world face water scarcity. Conventional water supply portfolio of these regions encompassed limited surface water, groundwater, and imported water. Current technological innovations technically and economically supplemented new water sources i.e., reclaimed water, desalted water and the groundwater sources that were not potable. The need for more efficient and alternative sources of drinking water supply necessitates studying the impediments e.g., intensive energy required, and emerging concern of the carbon emission. This dissertation discusses the challenges of energy footprint and its carbon emission among the processes involved in water supplies in the aforementioned regions. The conducted studies present time-dependent energy footprint analyses of different water reclamation and reuse processes. This study discusses the energy consumption in four main energy intensive processes inclusive of: activated sludge, microfiltration, reverse osmosis, and advanced oxidation with UV/ H2O2. The results indicate how the diurnal variations of different environmental parameters (e.g. flow and pollutant concentration) amplify the energy footprint variation among these processes. Meanwhile, the results show, due to the different power sources diurnally employed to provide electrical energy, the energy-associated carbon emission has more drastic variation in diurnal period compared to the energy footprint variation. In addition, this study presents the energy footprint of a modular process for treating local brackish groundwater by employing a combination of pellet reactor for radium and hardness minimization, reverse osmosis with intermediate precipitation, and concentrated brine crystallization to achieve high recovery with zero liquid discharge. Also it compares the energy footprint of the aforementioned process with the alternative option (i.e. desalted seawater conveyance with substantial lift). Finally, in coastal regions

  5. Net energy yield and carbon footprint of summer corn under different N fertilizer rates in the North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhan-biao; WEN Xin-ya; ZHANG Hai-lin; LU Xiao-hong; CHEN Fu

    2015-01-01

    Excessive use of N fertilizer in intensive agriculture can increase crop yield and at the same time cause high carbon (C) emissions. This study was conducted to determine optimized N fertilizer application for high grain yield and lower C emissions in summer corn (Zea mays L.). A ifeld experiment, including 0 (N0), 75 (N75), 150 (N150), 225 (N225), and 300 (N300) kg N ha–1 treatments, was carried out during 2010–2012 in the North China Plain (NCP). The results showed that grain yield, input energy, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and carbon footprint (CF) were al increased with the increase of N rate, except net energy yield (NEY). The treatment of N225 had the highest grain yield (10 364.7 kg ha–1) and NEY (6.8%), but the CF (0.25) was lower than that of N300, which indicates that a rate of 225 kg N ha–1 can be optimal for summer corn in NCP. Comparing GHG emision compontents, N fertilizer (0–51.1%) was the highest and fol owed by electricity for irrigation (19.73–49.35%). We conclude that optimazing N fertilizer application rate and reducing electricity for irrigation are the two key measures to increase crop yield, improve energy efifciency and decrease GHG emissions in corn production.

  6. 广西壮族自治区碳足迹动态分析%Dynamics of carbon footprint in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晶; 马彩虹; 程世娇

    2015-01-01

    In order to know the carbon balance of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region , IPCC method is used to estimate the carbon footprint and the amount of vegetation carbon sequestration from cement production process and energy activities , and the carbon footprint level assessment is carried out . The results show that between 1996 and 2012 , the carbon footprint grew year by year from -3 298.32 × 104 t to 24 859.66 × 104 t in Guangxi ,which increased by 853.71% . The energy carbon footprint increased by 432.91% ,cement carbon footprint increased by 372.60% , and the vegetation carbon sequestration increased by 44.77% .Carbon footprint from energy consumption account for 88.95% to 91.53% of total emissions , and cement account for only 8.47% to 11.05% . Carbon footprints per capita , per unit area and carbon emissions index increased to 749.88% ,830.60% and 769.42% , respectively . The grade of carbon footprint changed from carbon sinks to medium ,which was across 4 sub‐grades . The conclusions are as follow s :Since 1996 , the grow th of carbon footprint is fast in Guangxi . Carbon emission grow th of energy and cement is much larger than amount of vegetation carbon sequestration . The carbon footprint is mainly caused by the burning of fossil fuels . T he carbon sequestration capacity of vegetation is very strong , and it can neutralize the carbon emissions of more than a third of the carbon emissions in Guangxi . But the increase in the vegetation carbon is too small , so that more attention should be paid to the conservation of vegetation . T he carbon emissions increase is larger , w hich should arouse the attention of the relevant departments . Without considering the vegetation carbon sequestration , according to the carbon emission index from big to small order , Guangxi ranked fourteenth in 31 provinces and autonomous regions , belonging to the middle level in 2012 .%利用IPCC方法测算了广西壮族自治区的能源活动和水泥生产过程中的

  7. 广西壮族自治区碳足迹动态分析%Dynamics of carbon footprint in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晶; 马彩虹; 程世娇

    2015-01-01

    利用IPCC方法测算了广西壮族自治区的能源活动和水泥生产过程中的碳足迹和植被固碳量,并进行了碳足迹等级评估.结果表明,1996—2012年,广西碳足迹逐年增加,从-3298.32万 t上升到24859.66万 t ,提高了853.71%.其中,能源碳足迹提高了432.91%,水泥碳足迹提高了372.60%,植被固碳提高了44.77%.能源消费的碳足迹占总足迹的88.95%~91.53%,水泥仅占8.47%~11.05%.人均、单位面积碳足迹和碳排放指数增幅较高,分别达749.88%,830.60%,769.42%,碳足迹等级从碳汇变为中等,跨越4个亚级.可见,1996年以来,广西的碳足迹增速很快,其能源和水泥的碳足迹增幅远大于植被固碳的增速;碳足迹增高主要是由化石能源燃烧引起的;植被固碳能力相对较强,可中和该区1/3以上的碳足迹,但其增幅有限,所以应重视植被的保育;碳足迹等级增幅较大,应引起有关部门的重视.如不考虑植被固碳,以2012年为例,按碳排放指数由大到小的顺序,广西在全国31个省市自治区中排第14位,属于中等.%In order to know the carbon balance of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region , IPCC method is used to estimate the carbon footprint and the amount of vegetation carbon sequestration from cement production process and energy activities , and the carbon footprint level assessment is carried out . The results show that between 1996 and 2012 , the carbon footprint grew year by year from -3 298.32 × 104 t to 24 859.66 × 104 t in Guangxi ,which increased by 853.71% . The energy carbon footprint increased by 432.91% ,cement carbon footprint increased by 372.60% , and the vegetation carbon sequestration increased by 44.77% .Carbon footprint from energy consumption account for 88.95% to 91.53% of total emissions , and cement account for only 8.47% to 11.05% . Carbon footprints per capita , per unit area and

  8. Impact of direct greenhouse gas emissions on the carbon footprint of water reclamation processes employing nitrification-denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Andrew G; Townsend-Small, Amy; Rosso, Diego

    2015-02-01

    Water reclamation has the potential to reduce water supply demands from aquifers and more energy-intensive water production methods (e.g., seawater desalination). However, water reclamation via biological nitrification-denitrification is also associated with the direct emission of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) CO₂, N₂O, and CH₄. We quantified these direct emissions from the nitrification-denitrification reactors of a water reclamation plant in Southern California, and measured the (14)C content of the CO₂ to distinguish between short- and long-lived carbon. The total emissions were 1.5 (±0.2) g-fossil CO₂ m(-3) of wastewater treated, 0.5 (±0.1) g-CO₂-eq of CH₄ m(-3), and 1.8 (±0.5) g-CO₂-eq of N₂O m(-3), for a total of 3.9 (±0.5) g-CO₂-eqm(-3). This demonstrated that water reclamation can be a source of GHGs from long lived carbon, and thus a candidate for GHG reduction credit. From the (14)C measurements, we found that between 11.4% and 15.1% of the CO₂ directly emitted was derived from fossil sources, which challenges past assumptions that the direct CO₂ emissions from water reclamation contain only modern carbon. A comparison of our direct emission measurements with estimates of indirect emissions from several water production methods, however, showed that the direct emissions from water reclamation constitute only a small fraction of the plant's total GHG footprint. PMID:25461114

  9. Carbon footprint labels——quantifying the environmental value of the products%碳足迹标签——量化产品环境价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇彬鸿; 庄惠生

    2012-01-01

    随着环保法规的日益增多,环境保护问题被日益关注.气候变化、资源以及能源使用成为当今社会迫切需要解决的环境问题,许多环境市场机制的建立将环境成本货币化,产品的环境价值已经成为客户追求的附加值之一.消费者对环保价值的概念也逐渐扩展,从健康保护扩展到环境足迹降低.因此,碳足迹标签作为生态标签之一便应运而生了.消费者可通过产品包装上的碳足迹标签进行绿色购买,以鼓励厂商不断进行节能减排,降低最终产品的碳足迹.%With the coming of more environmental regulations, people are becoming more concerned with the environmental protection. Climate change, resource and energy use are all eager environmental issues which should be solved in nowadays society. Many environmental market mechanisms monetize the environmental costs. Environmental value of products has become one of the added-value for customers seeking. Consumers's attention on the environmental value is gradually expanding, from the health protection extend to the reduction of environmental footprint. Therefore, the carbon footprint label as one of the eco-labet is born. Consumers can choose the low carbon products through the carbon footprint labels on product packaging, thus this behavior will encourage manufacturers to reduce the carbon footprint of the final products.

  10. Power Challenges of Large Scale Research Infrastructures: the Square Kilometer Array and Solar Energy Integration; Towards a zero-carbon footprint next generation telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Domingos; Márquez, Gonzalo Lobo; Ruiz, Valeriano; Silva, Manuel; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes; Santander-Vela, Juande; Maia, Dalmiro; Antón, Sonia; van Ardenne, Arnold; Vetter, Matthias; Kramer, Michael; Keller, Reinhard; Pereira, Nuno; Silva, Vitor; Consortium, The BIOSTIRLING

    2012-01-01

    The Square Kilometer Array (SKA) will be the largest Global science project of the next two decades. It will encompass a sensor network dedicated to radioastronomy, covering two continents. It will be constructed in remote areas of South Africa and Australia, spreading over 3000Km, in high solar irradiance latitudes. Solar Power supply is therefore an option to power supply the SKA and contribute to a zero carbon footprint next generation telescope. Here we outline the major characteristics o...

  11. Combining carbon footprinting, monitoring, feedback, and rewards for a broad spectrum reduction of household induced greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrels, Adriaan (Government Institute for Economic Research VATT (Finland)); Hongisto, Mikko; Kallio, Arto (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)); Hyvoenen, Kaarina (National Consumer Research Centre KTK (Finland)); Katajajuuri, Juha-Matti (MTT Agrifood Research Finland (Finland)); Nissinen, Ari (Finnish Environment Institute SYKE (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    The study reported in this article (named CLIMATE BONUS) concerns the combined use of verified carbon footprints (possibly visualised through labels), personalised monitoring and feedback services to households regarding the greenhouse gas intensities of their purchases, and a reward system (bonuses) for consumers who manage to reduce the embodied emissions. The study assesses the accuracy and verification requirements and the harmonisation needs for the various information systems and their interfaces. This should culminate in a data strategy, in which a data acquisition, generation and co-ordination strategy and a data quality assurance strategy will be developed. Equally important, the study also assesses, via an own pilot, what the response of households (as consumers) can amount to and how the responsiveness to various incentives can be rated. The paper provides an outline of the intended system, including its rationale. Subsequently, the paper focuses on the consumer pilot and the feedback from the participants. It also provides a brief impression of the expected overall economic effectiveness of the system.

  12. Optimal expansion of a drinking water infrastructure system with respect to carbon footprint, cost-effectiveness and water demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Qi, Cheng; Yang, Y Jeffrey

    2012-11-15

    Urban water infrastructure expansion requires careful long-term planning to reduce the risk from climate change during periods of both economic boom and recession. As part of the adaptation management strategies, capacity expansion in concert with other management alternatives responding to the population dynamics, ecological conservation, and water management policies should be systematically examined to balance the water supply and demand temporally and spatially with different scales. To mitigate the climate change impact, this practical implementation often requires a multiobjective decision analysis that introduces economic efficiencies and carbon-footprint matrices simultaneously. The optimal expansion strategies for a typical water infrastructure system in South Florida demonstrate the essence of the new philosophy. Within our case study, the multiobjective modeling framework uniquely features an integrated evaluation of transboundary surface and groundwater resources and quantitatively assesses the interdependencies among drinking water supply, wastewater reuse, and irrigation water permit transfer as the management options expand throughout varying dimensions. With the aid of a multistage planning methodology over the partitioned time horizon, such a systems analysis has resulted in a full-scale screening and sequencing of multiple competing objectives across a suite of management strategies. These strategies that prioritize 20 options provide a possible expansion schedule over the next 20 years that improve water infrastructure resilience and at low life-cycle costs. The proposed method is transformative to other applications of similar water infrastructure systems elsewhere in the world.

  13. 基于碳足迹评价的低碳经济发展研究%Research of Low-carbon Economic Development Based on Carbon Footprint Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昊旻; 葛大兵; 梁容川; 许永立; 王意蓉; 刘珂; 王乐滨

    2013-01-01

    After understanding the concept of carbon footprint and its impact factors, we constructed the assessment model of carbon footprint according to the relational data of Hunan province from 2008 to 2011. We analyzed the annual variation trends of carbon footprint in cities and counties of Hunan province by using the constructed model, elaborated the relationships between carbon footprint and population size, level of economic development, industry structure and energy structure, and put forward several recommendations for the high - speed and effective development of low - carbon economy in Hunan based on the actual situation of this province.%在理解碳足迹概念及其影响因子的基础上,构建了碳足迹评价模型.通过《湖南统计年鉴》搜集整理了湖南省各市(州)2008~2011年的相关数据,并按照所构建碳足迹模型进行碳足迹分析,分析了湖南省各市(州)碳足迹的年变化趋势,并阐述了碳足迹与人口数量、产业结构、能源结构之间的关系,最后结合湖南省实际情况,为推动湖南低碳经济高速有效发展提供了几点建议.

  14. Potential for improving the carbon footprint of butter and blend products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria

    2011-01-01

    To reduce the environmental impact of a product efficiently, it is crucial to consider the entire value chain of the product; that is, to apply life cycle thinking, to avoid suboptimization and identify the areas where the largest potential improvements can be made. This study analyzed the carbon...... on the price paid for raw milk to dairy farmers. The CF (expressed as carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2e) for 1 kg of butter or blend (assuming no product waste at consumer) ranged from 5.2 kg (blend with 60% fat content) to 9.3 kg of CO2e (butter in 250-g tub). When including product waste at the consumer level...... at the consumer. The greatest share of greenhouse gas emissions associated with butter production occurred at the farm level; thus, minimizing product losses in the whole value chain—from cow to consumer—is essential for efficient production....

  15. Carbon dioxide exchange over agricultural landscape using eddy correlation and footprint modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, H.; Jensen, N.O.; Bøgh, E.;

    2003-01-01

    is maintained almost until the end of the growing season. It is demonstrated that daily CO2 fluxes can be simulated by a combined photosynthesis and soil respiration model. By this approach, it is concluded that the photosynthetic capacity is nearly equal for all the grain crops (120-140 mumol m(-2) s(-1......Within an agricultural landscape of western Denmark, the carbon dioxide exchange was studied throughout a year (April 1998-March 1999). During the growing season, five eddy correlation systems were operated in parallel over some of the more important crops (winter wheat, winter barley, spring...... barley, maize and grass). A sixth system was mounted on top of a 48 m mast to enable landscape-wide flux measurements both in summer and winter. The spatial distribution of the different crop types was mapped by use of satellite images (Landsat TM and SPOT). A very large diversity in carbon functioning...

  16. Towards a comparable carbon footprint for local initiatives: The FP7 project TESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2014-05-01

    TESS (Towards European Societal Sustainability -- www.tess-transition.eu) is a three-year, European-wide research project. It aims to reach an understanding of the potential for community-led initiatives to help deliver a truly sustainable, low-carbon future. Transitions to low-carbon societies take place at multiple and complementary scales. Transition processes are highly dependent on the innovative potential of community-based initiatives and their articulation with appropriate institutional architecture. Community-based initiatives are potentially more adaptable and less constrained by current structural circumstances than top-down policies and can give impetus to large-scale and technology driven changes. TESS will provide an understanding on the upscaling possibilities of such high-potential community-based initiatives by addressing two main questions: What is the impact of community-based initiatives in terms of carbon reduction potential and economic effect? What institutional structures (values, policies and mechanisms) support these initiatives in persisting beyond the initial phase and moving into an acceleration phase, spreading desired impacts? Answers will be provided through (1) a novel measuring, reporting and verification (MRV) framework for benchmarking community-based initiatives. This will enable quantifiable, comparable and standardised evaluation, and (2) the identification of success factors for the emergence, persistence and diffusion of promising initiatives, including online initiatives. We will identify these initiatives through case studies across regions and sectors and produce a systemic understanding of their impact on societal transitions towards sustainability. Our research will be integrated and transdisciplinary, with the unique opportunity to bring together social and natural scientists to foster a transition towards European societal sustainability. Our work will feed into and extend the Climate Adapt database to facilitate

  17. Carbon Footprint: A New Farm Management Consideration in the Southern High Plains

    OpenAIRE

    Weinheimer, Justin; Rajan, Nithya; Johnson, Phillip N.; Maas, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    As concerns continue to mount regarding man induced impacts to the global climate, the SHPT region could be faced with a unique scenario in which the net carbon balance should be considered in the producer’s enterprise selection and production systems. Currently, the SHPT produces nearly one third of the U.S. cotton crop. Under a potential cap and trade system the challenge for the agricultural industry in the SHPT may be how to sustain the region’s economic base and production capabilities. ...

  18. Developing Carbon Nanotube Standards at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Pasha; Arepalli, Sivaram; Sosa, Edward; Gorelik, Olga; Yowell, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are currently being produced and processed by several methods. Many researchers are continuously modifying existing methods and developing new methods to incorporate carbon nanotubes into other materials and utilize the phenomenal properties of SWCNTs. These applications require availability of SWCNTs with known properties and there is a need to characterize these materials in a consistent manner. In order to monitor such progress, it is critical to establish a means by which to define the quality of SWCNT material and develop characterization standards to evaluate of nanotube quality across the board. Such characterization standards should be applicable to as-produced materials as well as processed SWCNT materials. In order to address this issue, NASA Johnson Space Center has developed a protocol for purity and dispersion characterization of SWCNTs. The NASA JSC group is currently working with NIST, ANSI and ISO to establish purity and dispersion standards for SWCNT material. A practice guide for nanotube characterization is being developed in cooperation with NIST. Furthermore, work is in progress to incorporate additional characterization methods for electrical, mechanical, thermal, optical and other properties of SWCNTs.

  19. 浙江省公众碳足迹的调查与分析%Analysis on the public carbon footprint of Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁智雄; 沈月琴; 吕秋菊; 赵胜君; 马银芳

    2012-01-01

    Development of low carbon economy and building low carbon society is a strategic choice for regional socio-economic development under the global wanning conditions, and the public is important impetus of it. The public's cognition of low carbon and "carbon footprint" directly reflects the condition of public low carbon life. In this study, Zhejiang Province was chose as research object, Hangzhou, Jiaxing, Cixi, and Lin'an as survey sites, 481 public were randomly chose to do the investigation, and 473 copies valid questionnaires were obtained. The public carbon footprint among the four places was analyzed through analysis of statistical description and multivariate regression model, and the results showed as follows: (l)Carbon footprint is deeply related to the development of economic and population; (2)Carbon footprint is quite different from every area, for transportation takes relatively major proportion in the structure of carbon footprint; (3)Meanwhile, multivariate regression model shows that: factors influence public carbon footprint mainly are gender, education degree,monthly income,household energy usage, and transportation. Finally, the conclusion are get and suggestions are proposed according to the results, in order to achieve low carbon life of public. [Ch, 6 tab. 11 ref.]%发展低碳经济、建设低碳社会是气候变化背景下区域经济社会发展的战略选择.公众是低碳社会建设的重要力量,公众“碳足迹”直接反映了公众低碳生活状况.以浙江省为研究对象,选择杭州、嘉兴、慈溪、临安作为调查地点,随机选择481名公众进行调查,获得有效问卷473份.通过统计描述和多元回归模型的分析方法,分析案例点公众的年平均碳排放水平.结果显示:①碳足迹与经济发展水平、人口规模密切相关;②不同地区碳足迹差异明显,在碳足迹结构中,交通碳足迹所占的比例较大;③多元回归模型显示,影响公众碳足迹的主要

  20. 中国农田生态系统的碳足迹分析%Carbon Footprint Analysis of Farmland Ecosystem in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段华平; 张悦; 赵建波; 卞新民

    2011-01-01

    采用1990-2009年农作物产量、农田生产投入等统计数据,对中国农田生态系统碳排放、碳吸收和碳足迹进行估算,得到以下主要结论:碳排放量和碳排放强度、碳吸收量、碳足迹呈现增加趋势,碳吸收强度表现稳定,随着农用化石能源的大量使用,单位面积碳足迹从1990年的0.08hm2/hm2增加到2009年的0.13hm2/hm2。各省(市、自治区)单位面积碳足迹差异十分明显,2009年最高的福建为0.27hm2/hm2,最低的黑龙江为0.08hm2/hm2。中国农田生态系统存在碳生态盈余,碳足迹占同期生产性土地面积(耕地)的比例在10%左右,但随着年份的递进,所占比例有增大的趋势,1990年为8.46%,2009年为12.75%。%Based on the statistic data of crop yield and farmland produce investment in the period from 1990 to 2009,carbon emission,carbon absorption and carbon footprint of the farmland ecosystems were estimated in China.Conclusions were reached as follows:Carbon emission amount and intensity,carbon absorption amount,and carbon footprint on the increase,carbon absorption intensity was stable,with the large number of agricultural use of fossil energy,carbon footprint per unit area of 0.08 hm2/hm2 rose from 1990 to 2009 of 0.13 hm2/hm2.Provinces and autonomous regions per unit area of carbon footprint was very obvious differences,the highest in Fujian for the 0.27 hm2/hm2,the lowest in Heilongjiang for the 0.08 hm2/hm2.China farmland ecosystem existence of the ecological surplus,the carbon footprint accounting for same time the production land area proportion approximately was 10%,with the years progressive,but the carbon footprint accounting for the proportion to had the enlargement tendency,which was 8.46% in 1990 and 12.75% in 2009.

  1. Light pollution and solid-state lighting: reducing the carbon dioxide footprint is not enough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bará, Salvador

    2013-11-01

    Public and private lighting account for a relevant share of the overall electric power consumption worldwide. The pressing need of reducing the carbon dioxide emissions as well as of lowering the lumen•hour price tag has fostered the search for alternative lighting technologies to substitute for the incandescent and gas-discharge based lamps. The most successful approach to date, solid-state lighting, is already finding its way into the public lighting market, very often helped by substantial public investments and support. LED-based sources have distinct advantages: under controlled coditions their efficacy equals or surpasses that of conventional solutions, their small source size allows for an efficient collimation of the lightbeam (delivering the photons where they are actually needed and reducing lightspill on the surrounding areas), and they can be switched and/or dimmed on demand at very high rates, thus allowing for a taylored schedule of lighting. However, energy savings and carbon dioxide reduction are not the only crucial issues faced by present day lighting. A growing body of research has shown the significance of the spectral composition of light when it comes to assess the detrimental effects of artificial light-at-night (ALAN). The potential ALAN blueshift associated to the deployment of LED-based lighting systems has raised sensible concerns about its scientific, cultural, ecological and public health consequences, which can be further amplified if an increased light consumption is produced due to the rebound effect. This contribution addresses some of the challenges that these issues pose to the Optics and Photonics community.

  2. Impact of direct greenhouse gas emissions on the carbon footprint of water reclamation processes employing nitrification–denitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Andrew G., E-mail: andrew.schneider@yale.edu [University of Cincinnati, Department of Geology, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Townsend-Small, Amy [University of Cincinnati, Department of Geology, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); University of Cincinnati, Department of Geography, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Rosso, Diego [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-2175 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Water reclamation has the potential to reduce water supply demands from aquifers and more energy-intensive water production methods (e.g., seawater desalination). However, water reclamation via biological nitrification–denitrification is also associated with the direct emission of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and CH{sub 4}. We quantified these direct emissions from the nitrification–denitrification reactors of a water reclamation plant in Southern California, and measured the {sup 14}C content of the CO{sub 2} to distinguish between short- and long-lived carbon. The total emissions were 1.5 (± 0.2) g-fossil CO{sub 2} m{sup −3} of wastewater treated, 0.5 (± 0.1) g-CO{sub 2}-eq of CH{sub 4} m{sup −3}, and 1.8 (± 0.5) g-CO{sub 2}-eq of N{sub 2}O m{sup −3}, for a total of 3.9 (± 0.5) g-CO{sub 2}-eq m{sup −3}. This demonstrated that water reclamation can be a source of GHGs from long lived carbon, and thus a candidate for GHG reduction credit. From the {sup 14}C measurements, we found that between 11.4% and 15.1% of the CO{sub 2} directly emitted was derived from fossil sources, which challenges past assumptions that the direct CO{sub 2} emissions from water reclamation contain only modern carbon. A comparison of our direct emission measurements with estimates of indirect emissions from several water production methods, however, showed that the direct emissions from water reclamation constitute only a small fraction of the plant's total GHG footprint. - Highlights: • Direct greenhouse gas emissions were measured at a wastewater reclamation plant. • These greenhouse gas emissions amounted to 3.9 (± 0.5) g-CO{sub 2}-eq m{sup −3} of wastewater. • {sup 14}C analysis of the CO{sub 2} emissions was conducted to determine the fossil component. • 11.4% to 15.1% of the emitted CO{sub 2} was derived from fossil sources.

  3. A comparative study on carbon footprint of rice production between household and aggregated farms from Jiangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming; Luo, Ting; Bian, Rongjun; Cheng, Kun; Pan, Genxing; Rees, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Quantifying the carbon footprint (CF) for crop production can help identify key options to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agriculture. In the present study, both household and aggregated farm scales were surveyed to obtain the data of rice production and farming management practices in a typical rice cultivation area of Northern Jiangxi, China. The CFs of the different rice systems including early rice, late rice, and single rice under household and aggregated farm scale were calculated. In general, early rice had the lower CF in terms of land use and grain production being 4.54 ± 0.44 t CO2-eq./ha and 0.62 ± 0.1 t CO2-eq./t grain than single rice (6.84 ± 0.79 t CO2-eq./ha and 0.80 ± 0.13 t CO2-eq./t grain) and late rice (8.72 ± 0.54 t CO2-eq./ha and 1.1 ± 0.17 t CO2-eq./t grain). The emissions from nitrogen fertilizer use accounted for 33 % of the total CF on average and the direct CH4 emissions for 57 %. The results indicated that the CF of double rice cropping under aggregated farm being 0.86 ± 0.11 t CO2-eq./t grain was lower by 25 % than that being 1.14 ± 0.25 t CO2-eq./t grain under household farm, mainly due to high nitrogen use efficiency and low methane emissions. Therefore, developing the aggregated farm scale with efficient use of agro-chemicals and farming operation for greater profitability could offer a strategy for reducing GHG emissions in China's agriculture.

  4. Footprints of the weak s-process in the carbon-enhanced metal-poor star ET0097

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guochao; Li, Hongjie; Liu, Nian; Cui, Wenyuan; Liang, Yanchun; Zhang, Bo

    2016-09-01

    Historically, the weak s-process contribution to metal-poor stars is thought to be extremely small, due to the effect of the secondary-like nature of the neutron source 22Ne(α , n)25Mg in massive stars, which means that metal-poor "weak s-process stars" could not be found. ET0097 is the first observed carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) star in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Because C is enriched and the elements heavier than Ba are not overabundant, ET0097 can be classified as a CEMP-no star. However, this star shows overabundances of lighter n-capture elements (i.e., Sr, Y and Zr). In this work, having adopted the abundance decomposition approach, we investigate the astrophysical origins of the elements in ET0097. We find that the light elements and iron-peak elements (from O to Zn) of the star mainly originate from the primary process of massive stars and the heavier n-capture elements (heavier than Ba) mainly come from the main r-process. However, the lighter n-capture elements such as Sr, Y and Zr should mainly come from the primary weak s-process. The contributed fractions of the primary weak s-process to the Sr, Y and Zr abundances of ET0097 are about 82 %, 84 % and 58 % respectively, suggesting that the CEMP star ET0097 should have the footprints of the weak s-process. The derived result should be a significant evidence that the weak s-process elements can be produced in metal-poor massive stars.

  5. 基于能源消费的中国不同产业空间的碳足迹分析%Carbon footprint of different industrial spaces based on energy consumption in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵荣钦; 黄贤金; 钟太洋; 彭佳雯

    2011-01-01

    Using energy consumption and land use data of each region of China in 2007, this paper established carbon emission and carbon footprint model based on energy consumption,and estimated the carbon emission amount of fossil energy and rural biomass energy of different regions of China in 2007. Through matching the energy consumption items with industrial spaces, this paper divided industrial spaces into five types: agricultural space, living & industrial-commercial space, transportation industrial space, fishery and water conservancy space, and other industrial space. Then the author analyzed the carbon emission intensity and carbon footprint of each industrial space. Finally, advices of decreasing industrial carbon footprint and optimizing industrial space pattern were put forward. The main conclusions are as following: (1) Total amount of carbon emission from energy consumption of China in 2007 was about 1.65 GtC, in which the proportion of carbon emission from fossil energy was 89%.(2) Carbon emission intensity of industrial space of China in 2007 was 1.98 t/hm2, in which,carbon emission intensity of living & industrial-commercial space and of transportation industrial space was 55.16 t/hm2 and 49.65 t/hm2 respectively, they were high-carbon-emission industrial spaces among others. (3) Carbon footprint caused by industrial activities of China in 2007 was 522.34×106 hm2, which brought about ecological deficit of 28.69×106 hm2, which means that the productive lands were not sufficient to compensate for carbon footprint of industrial activities, and the compensating rate was 94.5%. As to the regional carbon footprint,several regions have ecological profit while others have not. In general, the present ecological deficit caused by industrial activities was small in 2007. (4) Per unit area carbon footprint of industrial space in China was about 0.63 hm2/hm2 in 2007, in which that of living & industrial-commercial space was the highest (17.5 hm2/hm2). The per unit

  6. Study on Carbon Footprint under the Background of Global Warming%气候变暖背景下碳足迹研究现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乐勤; 许信旺

    2011-01-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas emission and decreasing global wanning are currently primary research focus in international society, and also are the key research issuees in academic area. Carbon footprint analysis has become a generally accepted new approach for addressing climate change and elucidating quantitative evaluation on carbon emission intensity at home and abroad. This paper reviewes the present status and the trend of domestic and international studies of the connotation and calculation method of carbon footprint, evaluation of carbon footprint. It discusses the perspectives for future research in the area of carbon footprint from assessment method, calculation borders, major enterprises and area, eco-compensation mechanism of carbon footprint, research scales and scientific use of carbon footprint. It is useful to understand the present status and the trend. It can provide scientific foundation to construct the mechanism of low carbon economy, policy and legal system, which is beneficial for the "two-based society" construction and the advancement of sustainable development strategies.%减少CO2等温室气体排放,遏阻气候变暖趋势,是当今国际社会关注的焦点,也是学术界研究的热点.碳足迹分析方法是目前国内外普遍认可的应用于应对气候变化、解决定量评价碳排放强度的研究方法.采用文献、列举、归纳等研究方法,对碳足迹概念内涵、计算方法、碳足迹评估的国内外研究现状进行了评述.对未来碳足迹的研究从评估方法、计算边界、重点研究行业与领域、碳足迹补偿机制、研究尺度、碳足迹的科学利用六方面进行了展望.有利于学术界对碳足迹的研究现状、存在不足及未来研究方向有一个客观、全面的认识,推进碳足迹研究向纵深发展;可为构建发展低碳经济的机制、政策与法律体系提供科学依据,有利于“两型社会”建设与可持续发展战略的推进;也可提

  7. Carbon footprint analysis of typical chinese iron and steel enterprises%中国典型钢铁联合企业的碳足迹分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高成康; 陈杉; 陈胜; 秦威

    2015-01-01

    By definition of ecological footprint,carbon footprint is expressed in forest area. And the MFA-IO model was established to analyze carbon footprint in the whole process of iron and steel enterprise. Carbon footprint of per ton steel, was calculated in five typical iron and steel enterprises. Results show that carbon footprint of iron-making is largest ac-counting for 70%in iron and steel enterprises. And coke and coal are large consumption in iron-making,coking and sinter-ing process are less than iron-making. Analyzing the type of gas,carbon dioxide is a major contributor of carbon footprint in the whole production process. In the five cases,the contribution of CO2 values was accounted for about 70%. And the average carbon footprint of per ton steel products was 0.325 hm2/t. Among them,the Nanjing Steel carbon footprint of per ton steel products was up to 0.353 hm2/t,while Baosteel Branch's smallest was only 0.303 hm2/t. The differences are main-ly due to geographical differences,the distribution of energy around the enterprise and production equipment and technolo-gy. For overall analysis,the total carbon footprint was 19 895 800 hm2,the sum of the five provinces of forest area. This re-search shows that for only these five cases of iron and steel enterprises,the total GHG exceeded the purification capacity of the forest in the five provinces. Therefore,the study of China's steel industry to reduce the carbon footprint is very nec-essary and urgent.%明确了碳足迹概念,综合森林面积对碳排放的缓解作用,并基于物流分析和投入产出的耦合法建立MFA-IO模型分析钢铁企业的碳足迹。以中国5个典型钢铁企业为实例,研究钢铁企业的吨钢产品的碳足迹及其影响因素。结果表明:从钢铁生产工序分析,炼铁工序的碳足迹最大,且消耗的能源中含有大量的焦炭、煤。其次是焦化、烧结工序。从气体种类分析,钢铁生产中碳足迹的主要贡献者是CO2

  8. Carbon footprint related to cattle production in Brazil, management practices and new alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo, Eduardo; de oliveira, Ricardo; Berchielli, Telma; Reis, Ricardo; La Scala, Newton

    2013-04-01

    Brazil has the World largest commercial beef cattle herd, over 209.5 million heads in 2010 and is the leading exports of cattle meat. It has been argued that this activity has an important impact on GHG emissions, but a variety of options exists for greenhouse gases (GHG) mitigation in agriculture. Among those, the most prominent options are associated to the improvement of crops and grazing land management. Our study is focused on the GHG balance related to the improvement of brachiaria spp. pasture, leading to increases in the animal stocking rate and meat production per area and time. This study is based on the IPCC (2006) methodology and others Brazil specific data and results presented by scientific literature to estimate GHG balance (emissions sources and sinks) for three scenarios proposed for brachiaria pasture: 1) degraded pasture, 2) managed pasture and 3) crop-livestock-forest integration system (CLFIS). The approach takes into account the amounts of supplies per hectare used for each of the simulated scenario projected over a 20 years period. The GHG estimates are presented in kg CO2eq per kg of liveweight, considering the following emission sources and sinks within farm-gate: i) CH4 from enteric fermentation, ii) CH4 from manure deposited on pasture, iii) N2O emissions from urine and dung deposited by cattle on pasture, iv) N2O emissions from N synthetic fertilizer, v) N2O emissions from crop residues as of N-fixing crops and pasture renewal returned to soils, vi) CO2 from potassium use, vii) CO2 from phosphorus use, viii) CO2 from insecticides use, ix) CO2 from herbicides use, x) CO2 emissions due to lime application, xi) emissions due to diesel combustion, xii) eucalyptus biomass sequestration and xiii) soil carbon sequestration. We considered initial body weight of 200 kg for each heifer and a final slaughter weight of 450 kg head-1 for all scenarios; for degraded pasture a stocking rate of 0,5 head ha-1 year-1 and liveweight gain of 83 kg head-1

  9. Dynamic change and factor decomposition of carbon footprint of energy consumption in Anhui Province%安徽省能源消费碳排放足迹的动态变化及因素分解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付金沐; 李琦; 储国定; 陈啸吟

    2011-01-01

    文章采用生态足迹模型与因素分解分析模型,定量分析了1995-2008年安徽省能源消费碳排放足迹的变动趋势、生态效应以及影响因素.结果表明:近15 a安徽省碳排放足迹呈上升态势,煤炭足迹在其中占主导地位;碳足迹强度呈幂指数衰减,而碳足迹生态压力不断上升,说明碳排放对自然生态系统的压力逐渐增大.因素分解结果显示,经济增长效应是近些年安徽省碳足迹增加的主要因素,能源强度效应是抑制碳足迹增长的主要原因,而人口效应和结构效应对碳排放的贡献不大.%In this paper, the dynamic change, ecological effect and influencing factors of carbon footprint of energy consumption in Anhui Province from 1995 to 2008 are analyzed by ecological footprint model and factor decomposition model. The results show that during the past fifteen years, carbon footprint in Anhui Province is on the rise with coal footprint in the majority. An exponential decreasing trend is observed for carbon footprint intensity, whereas the ecological pressure intensity of carbon footprint is increasing, implying that the pressure of carbon emission on natural ecological system is enhancing. According to the results of factor decomposition, the economic growth and the energy intensity effect are main reasons for increasing and restraining the carbon footprint respectively. The effects of population and structure on the carbon emission are limited.

  10. A Dynamic Analysis of Carbon Footprint in Nanning City from 1990 to 2012%南宁1990—2012年碳足迹动态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申烨红; 赵先贵; 赵超

    2015-01-01

    文章采用IPCC和中国《省级温室气体编制指南》推荐的方法对南宁1990—2012年的碳足迹进行了动态分析.研究发现,1990—2012年南宁的碳足迹处于较低水平,但波动上升,增幅为441.0%,年均增幅为20.08%.碳足迹构成上,各部门所占比重由大到小依次是农业部门(60.16%)>能源部门(30.63%)>水泥工业部门(12.76%)>废物处理部门(3.32%),且都大于植被固碳(-6.87%). 由此可见南宁碳足迹主要是由农业生产和化石能源燃烧引起. 人均和单位面积碳足迹增幅分别为323.51%和441.82%; 万元GDP碳足迹降低了41.0%; 能源强度波动下降. 温室气体排放指数从0.04波动增加到0.20,1990年排放等级为很低(Ⅰb),1991—2011年为较低(Ⅰc),2012年为中下(Ⅱa).%This paper analyzed carbon footprint in Nanni ng from 1990 to 2012 by using the methods recommended by the IPCC and A Guide to the Provincial Greenhouse Gases Inventories in China. The study has found that from 1990 to 2012,Nanning carbon footprint is at a low level,but the volatility rises,with an increase of 441.0 percent and an average annual increase of 20.08%. From the component of carbon footprint,proportion of every sector decreases in the following order:The agricultural sector (60.16%),energy sector (30.63%),cement industry (12.76%),waste treatment sector (3.32%),and vegetation carbon (-6.87%). It proves that the increases of agricultural production and fossil energy consumption are the primary causes of carbon footprint increases of Nanning City. Carbon footprint per capita and per unit increases by 323.51%and 441.82% respectively,while carbon footprint per ten thousand Yuan decreases 41.0%. Energy intensity presents a fluctuant decreasing. Greenhouse gases emissions index has increased from 0.04 to 0.20. The grade of greenhouse gases emissions is at a very low level (Ib) in 1990,low level (Ic) from 1991 to 2011,and below-average level (IIa) at 2012.

  11. 南宁1990—2012年碳足迹动态分析%A Dynamic Analysis of Carbon Footprint in Nanning City from 1990 to 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申烨红; 赵先贵; 赵超

    2015-01-01

    文章采用IPCC和中国《省级温室气体编制指南》推荐的方法对南宁1990—2012年的碳足迹进行了动态分析.研究发现,1990—2012年南宁的碳足迹处于较低水平,但波动上升,增幅为441.0%,年均增幅为20.08%.碳足迹构成上,各部门所占比重由大到小依次是农业部门(60.16%)>能源部门(30.63%)>水泥工业部门(12.76%)>废物处理部门(3.32%),且都大于植被固碳(-6.87%). 由此可见南宁碳足迹主要是由农业生产和化石能源燃烧引起. 人均和单位面积碳足迹增幅分别为323.51%和441.82%; 万元GDP碳足迹降低了41.0%; 能源强度波动下降. 温室气体排放指数从0.04波动增加到0.20,1990年排放等级为很低(Ⅰb),1991—2011年为较低(Ⅰc),2012年为中下(Ⅱa).%This paper analyzed carbon footprint in Nanni ng from 1990 to 2012 by using the methods recommended by the IPCC and A Guide to the Provincial Greenhouse Gases Inventories in China. The study has found that from 1990 to 2012,Nanning carbon footprint is at a low level,but the volatility rises,with an increase of 441.0 percent and an average annual increase of 20.08%. From the component of carbon footprint,proportion of every sector decreases in the following order:The agricultural sector (60.16%),energy sector (30.63%),cement industry (12.76%),waste treatment sector (3.32%),and vegetation carbon (-6.87%). It proves that the increases of agricultural production and fossil energy consumption are the primary causes of carbon footprint increases of Nanning City. Carbon footprint per capita and per unit increases by 323.51%and 441.82% respectively,while carbon footprint per ten thousand Yuan decreases 41.0%. Energy intensity presents a fluctuant decreasing. Greenhouse gases emissions index has increased from 0.04 to 0.20. The grade of greenhouse gases emissions is at a very low level (Ib) in 1990,low level (Ic) from 1991 to 2011,and below-average level (IIa) at 2012.

  12. Application of an Expanded Sequestration Estimate to the Domestic Energy Footprint of the Republic of Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette O’Regan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The need for global comparability has led to the recent standardization of ecological footprint methods. The use of global averages and necessary methodological assumptions has questioned the ability of the ecological footprint to represent local or national specific concerns. This paper attempts to incorporate greater national relevancy by expanding the sequestration estimate used to calculate the annual carbon footprint of domestic Irish energy use. This includes expanding existing study boundaries to include additional carbon pools such as the litter, dead and soil pools. This generated an overall estimate of 4.38 tonnes of carbon per hectare per year (t C/ha/yr, resulting in an ecological footprint estimate of 0.49 hectares per capita (ha/cap The method employed in this paper also incorporated the potential role of grassland as a carbon sink. The caveat that the resultant value is dependent on the choice of study boundary is discussed. Including the lateral movement of carbon embodied in farm products (effectively placing the boundary around the farm gate reduces the estimate of grassland carbon sequestration by approximately 44% to 1.82 t C/ha/yr. When a footprint calculated using an overall sequestration estimate (based on the distribution of Irish grassland and forestry is translated into global hectares (gha, the standardized value is reduced by 35%.

  13. Comparison of Carbon Footprint of Energy Consumption and Carbon Capacity of Vegetation in China%中国能源碳足迹与植被碳承载力的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马彩虹

    2012-01-01

    采用碳足迹方法对2001~2009年中国的能源消费碳足迹、碳承载力和碳赤字作了定量分析.结果表明:中国能源消费碳排放显著增长,能源碳足迹由2001年的1.13Gt上升到2009年的2.21Gt,涨幅高达95.79%;同期碳承载力由1.08Gt增长到1.15Gt,涨幅仅为6.48%;而碳赤字则由0.05Gt提高到1.06Gt,9年间增高了20.24倍.可见由于碳足迹的增长速度远高于碳承载力,致使近来中国碳赤字快速增高,发展节能减排的任务还很艰巨.中国能源消费的碳足迹与美国、德国、印度等国的比较发现,中国能源消费总量碳足迹不容乐观,但人均值远远低于美国和德国等发达国家.%Based on the model of carbon footprint, the author calculated the carbon footprint of energy consumption, the capacity of carbon and its deficit in China from 2001 to 2009. The result showed that carbon footprint of energy consumption in China increased from 1.13Gt to 2.06Gt during the period, of which enhanced 95.79 percent. Yet, the carbon capacity increased from 1.08Ot to 1.15Gt during the same period, of which enhanced only 6.48%. Therefore, the carbon deficit in increased from 0.05Gt to 1.06Gt, of which enhanced 20.24 times during the 9 years. It is easy to see that, for the reason that the increased scale of carbon footprint was quickly than carbon capacity, the carbon deficit of China increased quickly. In comparison with America, Germany, India, the total carbon footprint of China is large, but the per capital of it was still low. The conclusion showed that the task of energy saving and emission reduction is still difficult.

  14. Power Challenges of Large Scale Research Infrastructures: the Square Kilometer Array and Solar Energy Integration; Towards a zero-carbon footprint next generation telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Barbosa, Domingos; Ruiz, Valeriano; Silva, Manuel; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes; Santander-Vela, Juande; Maia, Dalmiro; Antón, Sonia; van Ardenne, Arnold; Vetter, Matthias; Kramer, Michael; Keller, Reinhard; Pereira, Nuno; Silva, Vitor

    2012-01-01

    The Square Kilometer Array (SKA) will be the largest Global science project of the next two decades. It will encompass a sensor network dedicated to radioastronomy, covering two continents. It will be constructed in remote areas of South Africa and Australia, spreading over 3000Km, in high solar irradiance latitudes. Solar Power supply is therefore an option to power supply the SKA and contribute to a zero carbon footprint next generation telescope. Here we outline the major characteristics of the SKA and some innovation approaches on thermal solar energy Integration with SKA prototypes.

  15. Ecodesign — Carbon Footprint — Life Cycle Assessment — Life Cycle Sustainability Analysis. A Flexible Framework for a Continuum of Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijungs, Reinout

    2010-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool for answering questions related to environmental impacts of products. It is a comprehensive tool, addressing the entire life cycle, and addressing the full spectrum of environmental impacts. There are two opposite movements occurring: LCA is getting smaller, and it is getting broader. This presentation presents the general framework for a broader life cycle sustainability analysis (LCSA), and shows how the practical work related to doing an LCA, a carbon footprint, or an analysis for ecodesign, can be seen as special cases.

  16. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking unit... regenerator any gases that contain carbon monoxide (CO) in excess of 500 ppm by volume (dry basis)....

  17. Graphene: Carbon's superconducting footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafek, Oskar

    2012-02-01

    Graphene exhibits many extraordinary properties, but superconductivity isn't one of them. Two theoretical studies suggest that by decorating the surface of graphene with the right species of dopant atoms, or by using ionic liquid gating, superconductivity could yet be induced.

  18. A Low-Carbon Evaluation Based On Carbon Footprint in Wanzhou District, Chongqing City%基于碳足迹分析法的重庆市万州区低碳发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩建宁; 吴艳; 郑杰炳; 代述勇

    2012-01-01

    The article explains the concept of carbon footprint, and constructs a calculation model of carbon footprint in Wanzhou district, Chongqing city. According to ((Statistical Yearbook of Chongqing)) from 2001 to 2010, calculated carbon footprint of Chongqing wanzhou. Based on above, low-carbon development of building, traffic, energy, and Industry should be adopt.%对碳足迹的概念进行了阐述,构建了碳足迹的计算模型。根据《重庆统计年鉴》得出重庆市万州区2001-2010年间相关数据,计算出其2001-2010年的碳足迹。通过对重庆市万州区碳足迹的分析,建议可从建筑、交通、能源、产业4个方面进行低碳更新。

  19. Reducing the environmental impact of trials: a comparison of the carbon footprint of the CRASH-1 and CRASH-2 clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Ian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All sectors of the economy, including the health research sector, must reduce their carbon emissions. The UK National Institute for Health Research has recently prepared guidelines on how to minimize the carbon footprint of research. We compare the carbon emissions from two international clinical trials in order to identify where emissions reductions can be made. Methods We conducted a carbon audit of two clinical trials (the CRASH-1 and CRASH-2 trials, quantifying the carbon dioxide emissions produced over a one-year audit period. Carbon emissions arising from the coordination centre, freight delivery, trial-related travel and commuting were calculated and compared. Results The total emissions in carbon dioxide equivalents during the one-year audit period were 181.3 tonnes for CRASH-1 and 108.2 tonnes for CRASH-2. In total, CRASH-1 emitted 924.6 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents compared with 508.5 tonnes for CRASH-2. The CRASH-1 trial recruited 10,008 patients over 5.1 years, corresponding to 92 kg of carbon dioxide per randomized patient. The CRASH-2 trial recruited 20,211 patients over 4.7 years, corresponding to 25 kg of carbon dioxide per randomized patient. The largest contributor to emissions in CRASH-1 was freight delivery of trial materials (86.0 tonnes, 48% of total emissions, whereas the largest contributor in CRASH-2 was energy use by the trial coordination centre (54.6 tonnes, 30% of total emissions. Conclusions Faster patient recruitment in the CRASH-2 trial largely accounted for its greatly increased carbon efficiency in terms of emissions per randomized patient. Lighter trial materials and web-based data entry also contributed to the overall lower carbon emissions in CRASH-2 as compared to CRASH-1. Trial Registration Numbers CRASH-1: ISRCTN74459797 CRASH-2: ISRCTN86750102

  20. Research Progress and Analysis of Carbon Footprint of Livestock Products%畜禽产品碳足迹研究进展与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文强; 董红敏; 朱志平; 刘翀; 陶秀萍; 王悦

    2015-01-01

    放量占整个系统的(55.42±2.7)%,N2O 是猪肉生产碳足迹中贡献率最高的温室气体,占整个系统其排放量的(56.8±10.4)%,CH4是牛肉和牛奶生产碳足迹中贡献率最高的温室气体,分别占牛肉和牛奶碳足迹的(50.2±8.3)%和(58.6±8.3)%。目前国外尤其是欧美等发达国家关于畜禽产品碳足迹研究相对较多,但采用的评估方法和计算模型不同,需要建立统一的畜禽产品碳足迹评估方法。中国在畜禽产品碳足迹评估领域仍处于起步阶段,建议在国内外现有研究的基础上,建立符合中国生产实际的评价方法,系统评估中国畜禽产品的碳足迹,同时针对不同畜禽产品碳足迹贡献率高的环节开展减排技术研究,为科学评估中国畜禽产品的碳足迹,筛选减排技术,降低碳排放强度提供支持。%Livestock production is one of the important emission sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), evaluation of the carbon footprint of livestock products is vital for selection of mitigation technology and promotion of low-carbon agriculture. Based on current evaluation methods of carbon footprint, this study summarized the domestic and overseas researches on assessment of the carbon footprint of animal products (eggs, pork, beef and milk), and made a comprehensive analysis based on the present research achievements. Carbon footprint of livestock products varies with unit of animal products. The carbon footprint in producing 1 kg of beef is the greatest and reaches (20.51±8.39) kg CO2-eq, followed by 1 kg of pork and eggs production with (4.24±1.07) kg CO2-eq and (2.24±0.83) kg CO2-eq, respectively, while that in producing 1 kg milk is the minimum of (1.19±0.40) kg CO2-eq. The carbon footprint in producing 1 kg protein from animal products is in a descending order as beef>milk>pork and egg, with values of (103.05±42.14), (39.72±13.20), (32.09±8.14) and (19.37±7.15) kg CO2-eq, respectively. The carbon footprint in

  1. Developing consumption-based greenhouse gas accounts : the carbon footprint of local public service provision in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes the development and application of a tool to assess and document the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of municipalities and other public-service providers. The model is linked to the financial accounting system of municipalities and counties to calculate the Carbon Footprint (CF) of all purchases/activities made. In particular indirect emissions (Scope 3 according to the greenhouse gas (GHG) protocol) will effectively be accounted for with this system. One of the main findings of the thesis is indeed the importance of Scope 3 emissions to the total CF of the cases investigated. Within the local climate action framework, this thesis focuses on the CF resulting from the activities of the municipal/county administration. This will largely be the provision of services. Insights in the structure of the CF of services will therefore be provided in the papers presented in the thesis. Results show that direct GHG emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are not very significant. At the same time, indirect GHG emissions embodied in the purchase of products and services from sub-suppliers are very significant. Furthermore, when time series are investigated, we identify a shift from direct emissions (e.g. the combustion of diesel in municipal vehicles) to indirect Scope 3 emissions (e.g. the purchase of transportation services from a private company). This outsourcing of activities indicates a necessary shift to complete consumption-based inventories that include all direct and indirect GHG emissions in developing comparable indicators of sustainability. The comparability of municipal CFs is the focus of one of the papers in the thesis. In the paper, we investigate how the CF of all Norwegian municipalities compares to a set of key characteristics. The main finding here is that the CF is highly dependent on both municipal wealth and municipal size. Small and wealthy municipalities tend to have a significantly higher CF per capita relating to the

  2. Developing consumption-based greenhouse gas accounts : the carbon footprint of local public service provision in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hogne Nersund

    2011-07-01

    This thesis describes the development and application of a tool to assess and document the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of municipalities and other public-service providers. The model is linked to the financial accounting system of municipalities and counties to calculate the Carbon Footprint (CF) of all purchases/activities made. In particular indirect emissions (Scope 3 according to the greenhouse gas (GHG) protocol) will effectively be accounted for with this system. One of the main findings of the thesis is indeed the importance of Scope 3 emissions to the total CF of the cases investigated. Within the local climate action framework, this thesis focuses on the CF resulting from the activities of the municipal/county administration. This will largely be the provision of services. Insights in the structure of the CF of services will therefore be provided in the papers presented in the thesis. Results show that direct GHG emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are not very significant. At the same time, indirect GHG emissions embodied in the purchase of products and services from sub-suppliers are very significant. Furthermore, when time series are investigated, we identify a shift from direct emissions (e.g. the combustion of diesel in municipal vehicles) to indirect Scope 3 emissions (e.g. the purchase of transportation services from a private company). This outsourcing of activities indicates a necessary shift to complete consumption-based inventories that include all direct and indirect GHG emissions in developing comparable indicators of sustainability. The comparability of municipal CFs is the focus of one of the papers in the thesis. In the paper, we investigate how the CF of all Norwegian municipalities compares to a set of key characteristics. The main finding here is that the CF is highly dependent on both municipal wealth and municipal size. Small and wealthy municipalities tend to have a significantly higher CF per capita relating to the

  3. 旅游景区碳足迹测算及其对环境影响%A Study on Environmental Impact of Tourist Attractions Based on Carbon Footprint Calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹永广

    2011-01-01

    测算旅游景区碳足迹,探索其主要来源及对旅游景区环境的影响程度,为采取对策提供参考.采用层次分析法构建了旅游景区碳足迹对环境影响的评价指标体系,计算出影响程度的权重系数.结果显示,旅游景区餐饮碳足迹对环境影响程度最大,其权重为0.532;其次是交通碳足迹,其权重为0.214;旅游活动和住宿碳足迹对环境影响分别为0.194和0.160;景区居民日常生活比垃圾产生的碳足迹对环境影响大.研究揭示旅游者产生的碳足迹是旅游景区环境影响的主要来源,为此,管理者需合理调整或改善经营方式,营造低碳景区,引导旅游者参与低碳旅游.%Calculate the tourist scenic area carbon footprint on tourist attractions and explorate its important source and the influence which has the important meaning to seek for the countermeasures. This article described the carbon footprint on tourist attractions proposed its calculation from the tourist and the tourism operator, based on this, its impact on the environmental assessment index system was constructed, and the analytic hierarchy process was used to determine effection weight. The results show that: tourist attractions catering carbon footprint has the greatest influence, and its weight is 0.532; followed by the transportation carbon footprint, and its is 0. 214; tourism activity and the lodging carbon carbon footprint impact on the environment are 0. 194 and 0. 160 respectively; residents in their daily lives have great impact on the envirohment than the carbon footprint of waste. The article reveals that the tourist's carbon footprint is the main source in the tourist attraction, so the manager should adjust and improve their business way, create a low-carbon area, guide tourists taking part in low-carbon travel.

  4. 重庆市不同土地利用碳排放及碳足迹分析%Analysis of Land Use Patterns on Carbon Emission and Carbon Footprint in Chongqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝家程; 傅瓦利; 袁波; 张婷; 彭景涛

    2012-01-01

    Take Chongqing for example,based on statistics area of data of land use patterns and data of energy consumption from 1997 to 2009,the paper estimated carbon emission and energy carbon footprint of different land use patterns by using carbon emission model and carbon footprint model,and analyzed effects of carbon emission,influencing factors of carbon emission and changes of carbon footprint of energy consumption.The conclusions can be drawn as follows:(1)The total carbon emission was linear increasing with an annual rate of 210.69×104 t.(2)The main carbon source was construction land and the main carbon sink was woodland,the increase of carbon emission of construction land was far greater than woodland.(3)Carbon emission intensity decreased continuously,from 1.77 t/104 Yuan in 1997 falling to 1.38 t/104 Yuan in 2009,with an annual decreased rate of 1.12%,lower than the increase rate of GDP which was 11.5%.(4)Industrial structure and economic growth could promote carbon emission,energy structure had little influence on carbon emissions,the improvement of energy efficiency was the key reason of carbon emission intensity in Chongqing decreased continuously from 1997 to 2009.The total carbon footprint of energy consumption increased year by year with an annual speed of 93.75×104 hm2 since 2002,ecological carrying capacity also increased,but far less than the rate of increase of total carbon footprint,so the ecological deficit had expanded each year;forest carbon footprint and coal energy carbon footprint were the main carbon footprint.%以重庆市为例,运用1997-2009年重庆市不同土地利用面积数据和能源消费量数据,采用碳排放模型、碳足迹模型,对重庆市13年来不同土地利用方式碳排放量和能源碳足迹进行核算,分析不同土地利用方式碳排放效益、碳排放量的影响因素以及能源消费碳足迹变化。结果表明:(1)重庆市碳排放总量呈

  5. Global mining risk footprint of critical metals necessary for low-carbon technologies: the case of neodymium, cobalt, and platinum in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansai, Keisuke; Nakajima, Kenichi; Kagawa, Shigemi; Kondo, Yasushi; Shigetomi, Yosuke; Suh, Sangwon

    2015-02-17

    Meeting the 2-degree global warming target requires wide adoption of low-carbon energy technologies. Many such technologies rely on the use of precious metals, however, increasing the dependence of national economies on these resources. Among such metals, those with supply security concerns are referred to as critical metals. Using the Policy Potential Index developed by the Fraser Institute, this study developed a new footprint indicator, the mining risk footprint (MRF), to quantify the mining risk directly and indirectly affecting a national economy through its consumption of critical metals. We formulated the MRF as a product of the material footprint (MF) of the consuming country and the mining risks of the countries where the materials are mined. A case study was conducted for the 2005 Japanese economy to determine the MF and MRF for three critical metals essential for emerging energy technologies: neodymium, cobalt and platinum. The results indicate that in 2005 the MFs generated by Japanese domestic final demand, that is, the consumption-based metal output of Japan, were 1.0 × 10(3) t for neodymium, 9.4 × 10(3) t for cobalt, and 2.1 × 10 t for platinum. Export demand contributes most to the MF, accounting for 3.0 × 10(3) t, 1.3 × 10(5) t, and 3.1 × 10 t, respectively. The MRFs of Japanese total final demand (domestic plus export) were calculated to be 1.7 × 10 points for neodymium, 4.5 × 10(-2) points for cobalt, and 5.6 points for platinum, implying that the Japanese economy is incurring a high mining risk through its use of neodymium. This country's MRFs are all dominated by export demand. The paper concludes by discussing the policy implications and future research directions for measuring the MFs and MRFs of critical metals. For countries poorly endowed with mineral resources, adopting low-carbon energy technologies may imply a shifting of risk from carbon resources to other natural resources, in particular critical metals, and a trade

  6. 海水淡化生命周期碳足迹评估及减排策略研究%Study on the Life-Cycle Carbon Footprint Assessment and Reduction Strategies of Seawater Desalination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴水波; 苏立永; 葛云红

    2012-01-01

    根据碳足迹理论的最新研究进展,结合产品生命周期原理方法,明晰了海水淡化生命周期碳足迹的内涵,在此基础上构建了海水淡化生命周期碳足迹评估方法和各阶段计算模型,并分别从宏观和微观两个层面给出了海水淡化行业的碳足迹减排策略.%Connotation of the life-cycle carbon footprint of seawater desalination is defined according to the latest development of carbon footprint theory and the principle of product life-cycle, based on which assessment method and the detail calculation model of the life-cycle carbon footprint are established. Furthermore, carbon footprint reduction strategies for seawater desalination industry are given from the macro and the micro perspectives respectively.

  7. Study of the Effects on Student Knowledge and Perceptions of Activities Related to Submetering the 6th Grade Wing of a Middle School, to Displaying the Carbon Footprint, and to Efforts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Rick

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects upon student knowledge and perceptions regarding greenhouse gas emissions as a result of an intervention relying upon the submetering the 6th grade wing of a Middle School, displaying the information regarding electrical consumption and carbon footprint, and reducing the electrical consumption…

  8. How does co-product handling affect the carbon footprint of milk? Case study of milk production in New Zealand and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria; Cederberg, Christel; Henriksson, Maria;

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This paper investigates different methodologies of handling co-products in life cycle assessment (LCA) or carbon footprint (CF) studies. Co-product handling can have a significant effect on final LCA/CF results, and although there are guidelines on the preferred order for different methods...... for handling co-products, no agreed understanding on applicable methods is available. In the present study, the greenhouse gases (GHG) associated with the production of 1 kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM) at farm gate is investigated considering co-product handling. Materials and methods Two different milk...... (when slaughtered), calves, manure, hides, etc., the environmental burden (here GHG emissions) must be distributed between these outputs (in the present study no emissions are attributed to hides specifically, or to manure which is recycled on-farm). Different methodologically approaches, (1) system...

  9. The interaction between milk and beef production and emissions from land use change – critical considerations in life cycle assessment and carbon footprint studies of milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria; Cederberg, Christel; Henriksson, Maria;

    2012-01-01

    , when also accounting for other systems affected (e.g. beef production) it is not certain that an increase in milk yield per cow leads to a reduction in total GHG emissions per kg milk. In the present study the correlation between carbon footprint (CF) of milk and the amount of milk delivered per cow...... is investigated for 23 dairy farms (both organic and conventional) in Sweden. Use of a fixed allocation factor of 90% (based on economic value) indicates a reduction in CF with increased milk yield, while no correlation can be noted when system expansion is applied. The average CF for two groups of farms, organic...... and high yielding conventional, is also calculated. When conducting system expansion the CF is somewhat lower for the organic farms (which have a lower milk yield per cow, but more meat per kg milk), but when a 90% allocation factor is used, the CF is somewhat higher for the organic farms compared...

  10. Carbon and water footprints of Benninger systems%贝宁格系统的碳足迹和水足迹

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Strohle; G. Schramek

    2011-01-01

    通过对多种由Benninger(贝宁格)系统加工所得产品的碳足迹和水足迹进行测评,开发出一款通用的评测模型。贝宁格用于针织物和机织物的整理设备在低水耗方面尤为突出,且能耗及等价的CO:排放量都较低。%Carbon and water footprints have been evaluated for a wide range of very different products finished on Benninger systems and a universal calculation model has been developed. What particularly stands out is the low water consumption of the finishing machines for knitwear and woven fabrics. This in turn results in the low energy consumption and the equivalent CO2 emissions.

  11. Corporate Ecological Footprint: New Conversion Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Coto-Millán

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first ecological footprint calculation version, applied to companies, appeared in 2003. The said tool provides the possibility of calculating the total impact of a company or organisation in hectares or in equivalent emissions of CO2. This paper updates carbon absorption rates and improves electricity consumption conversion factors, one of the major footprint generating consumptions in companies. The new rates prove that the footprint estimated to date will be notably increased as, among other aspects, the IPCC has downgraded the amount of carbon that forests are capable of absorbing. These data reveal that companies must make a great effort to adapt to the challenges triggered by climate change.

  12. Optimization of Closed-loop Supply Chain Netw ork Considering the Carbon Footprint%考虑碳足迹的闭环供应链网络优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁晓丽; 王长琼

    2014-01-01

    With the environmental problems increasingly serious ,enterprises are required to integrate the management of carbon footprint into closed-loop supply chain management by government .And numerous studies show that closed-loop supply chain network design is very effective to reduce carbon footprint .In this situation ,this paper makes a research on the calculation method of the carbon foot-print .Finally ,the optimization model with the goal of economy and carbon footprint is built in order to reduce carbon footprint in the closed-loop supply chain .And this model is used in actual situations so as to provide some guidance for decision-makers .%随着环境问题的日益突出,各国政府要求企业将碳足迹的管理纳入到闭环供应链管理中,而众多研究表明闭环供应链网络的优化设计对减少碳足迹是十分有效的。在这种背景下,以消费性电子产品所在的闭环供应链为研究对象,应用生命周期的思想研究闭环供应链的碳足迹计算方法,建立成本目标和碳足迹目标下的闭环供应链网络优化模型,并应用到了实例中,以期为企业决策者对网络的设计和优化提供指导。

  13. 基于能源与工料消耗的土地整治项目碳排放与碳足迹%Carbon Emission and Carbon Footprint of Land Consolidation Projects Based on Energy and Material Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张中秋; 胡宝清; 韦金洪

    2016-01-01

    By constructing carbon emission model of land remediation projects, this paper estimated the carbon emission of land consolidation projects, and analyzed the characteristics of its carbon footprint, the result shows that: (1)XM1-XM5 car-bon emissions by energy and material consumption were 2512.278, 4515.352, 4424.498, 4430.621 and 5310.939 t, implement a land consolidation projects would emit 4238.74 t carbon. (2)The carbon emissions intensity of XM1-XM5 were 6.288, 8.924, 8.557, 7.391 and 4.016 t/hm2, implement a hectare of land consolidation projects will emit 7.035 t carbon, by optimizing the implementation of scale can control the carbon emission intensity. (3)The newly increased cultivated land's carbon emissions of XM1-XM5 were 202.93, 904.88, 1721.59, 1691.08 and 247.60 t/hm2, increased a hectare of culti-vated land through land consolidation projects would emit 953.62 t carbon. (4)The carbon footprint of XM1-XM5 were 77.921, 128.967, 146.830, 127.148 and 198.546 hm2, which were less than the implementation of there scale. All of the projects did not exist carbon footprint deficit phenomenon, and the land consolidation project's average carbon footprint was 135.883 hm2.%通过构建土地整治项目所耗主要能源与工料的碳排放模型,对土地整治项目的碳排放进行测算,并通过碳足迹模型,对土地整治项目的碳足迹进行了定量分析.研究结果表明:(1)XM1-XM5能源与工料消耗的碳排放量分别为2512.278、4515.352、4424.498、4430.621和5310.939 t,实施一个整治项目平均排放4238.74 t碳.(2)XM1-XM5的碳排放强度分别为6.288、8.924、8.557、7.391和4.016 t/hm2,实施1 hm2的土地整治项目,平均排放7.035 t碳,通过优化项目实施规模能够控制其碳排放强度.(3)XM1-XM5的新增耕地碳排放量分别为202.93、904.88、1721.59、1691.08和247.60 t/hm2,通过土地整治项目新增1 hm2耕地,平均排放953.62 t碳.(4)XM1-XM5的能源与工料消耗碳足迹分别是77.921

  14. Footprints and footprint analysis for atmospheric dispersion problems

    CERN Document Server

    Brännström, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    Footprint analysis, also known as the study of Influence areas, is a first order method for solving inverse atmospheric dispersion problems. We revisit the concept of footprints giving a rigorous definition of the concept (denoted posterior footprints and posterior zero footprints) in terms of spatio-temporal domains. The notion of footprints is then augmented the to the forward dispersion problem by defining prior footprints and prior zero footprints. We then study how posterior footprints and posterior zero footprints can be combined to reveal more information about the source, and how prior footprints and prior footprints can be combined to yield more information about the measurements.

  15. CO2 emission standards and investment in carbon capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policy makers in a number of countries have proposed or are considering proposing CO2 emission standards for new fossil fuel-fired power plants. The proposed standards require coal-fired power plants to have approximately the same carbon emissions as an uncontrolled natural gas-fired power plant, effectively mandating the adoption of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies for new coal plants. However, given the uncertainty in the capital and operating costs of a commercial scale coal plant with CCS, the impact of such a standard is not apparent a priori. We apply a stochastic generation expansion model to determine the impact of CO2 emission standards on generation investment decisions, and in particular for coal plants with CCS. Moreover, we demonstrate how the incentive to invest in coal-CCS from emission standards depends on the natural gas price, the CO2 price, and the enhanced oil recovery price, as well as on the level of the emission standard. This analysis is the first to consider the entire power system and at the same time allow the capture percentage for CCS plants to be chosen from a continuous range to meet the given standard at minimum cost. Previous system level studies have assumed that CCS plants capture 90% of the carbon, while studies of individual units have demonstrated the costs of carbon capture over a continuous range. We show that 1) currently proposed levels of emission standards are more likely to shift fossil fuel generation from coal to natural gas rather than to incentivize investment in CCS; 2) tighter standards that require some carbon reductions from natural gas-fired power plants are more likely than proposed standards to incentivize investments in CCS, especially on natural gas plants, but also on coal plants at high gas prices; and 3) imposing a less strict emission standard (emission rates higher than natural gas but lower than coal; e.g., 1500 lbs/MWh) is more likely than current proposals to incentivize investment

  16. Carbon footprint and its calculation in dyeing and finishing processing%碳足迹及其在染整加工中的测算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李戎; 吴丹丹; 蒋红; 丁雪军

    2011-01-01

    The carbon footprint calculation processing is studied based on a real case of cotton wet process, in which all the inputs and outputs data of the whole dyeing and finishing process of black cotton-spandex weft elastic satin drill is collected. According to the pad-dyeing practice, black cotton-spandex weft elastic satin drill of per square meter is chosen as functional unit and procedure chart from · cradle to gate· is built, then product system boundary is confirmed. Consumptions of all the materials, energy and waste water discharge are recorded in accordance to the product system boundary, then emission factors are searched in SimaPro 7.2 LCA software to calculate carbon footprint of product in the life cycle from cotton farming to dyeing and finishing production, transport and downstream customers. The results show that raw material stage is the largest proportion of carbon emission during the entire life cycle, reaching 64.54%, followed by the waste water discharge and energy consumption, accounted for 34.33%.%基于某印染厂轧染黑色棉氨纬弹贡缎为功能单位,以年时间内轧染生产过程中的输入和输出作为初级活动水平数据来计算碳足迹,建立该产品从“摇篮到大门”的过程图.应用SimaPro 7.2 LCA软件计算该款贡缎从原材料采集、染整加工、运输到下游买家这一生命周期范围内的碳足迹值.结果表明,该过程中,原材料碳排放所占比例最大,达到64.54%,其次是废水排放以及能源消耗部分,所产生的碳排放占34.33%.

  17. Research on the Carbon Footprint of Glass Brewage Packaging Vessel%玻璃瓶啤酒包装的碳足迹研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昕冉; 付亚波; 许文才; 孟令洋

    2011-01-01

    产品包装的碳足迹研究已成为近年来国际上研究的热点,并有望发展成为评估全球温室气体排放量可操作的一种评价指标。我国啤酒工业的迅速发展带来了包装容器资源消耗量大、环境负荷重等环境问题,因此,开展啤酒包装对环境潜在的碳排放量研究十分必要。以玻璃啤酒瓶为研究对象,采用混合生命周期法,对贯穿整个啤酒包装生命周期中的原材料生产、包装工艺、运输和消费、回收再利用等过程相关碳排放进行了研究,计算得到了玻璃啤酒瓶包装的碳排放当量。结果表明:玻璃啤酒瓶在整个生命周期中的碳排放总量为489.867g,啤酒瓶瓶体生产阶段的碳排放量最大,为363.83g,占总碳排放量的74.3%。%The study on carbon footprint of product has become a focus in the packaging research domain in recent years, and it is expected to be a practical evaluating index to estimates global greenhouse gas emissions. The rapid development of China's beer industry has brought a series of environmental problems, such as large consumption of resources and heavy burden to the environment. Therefore, it is essential to carry out research works on potential carbon emissions of beer packaging. In this work, glass brewage packaging vessel is selected as a researching object, the carbon emissions are in- vestigated by mixed LCA method. Through the relevant carbon emissions research of the processes during the whole life cycle including the production of raw materials, packing process, transportation, consumption, recycling and so on, the carbon footprint on glass brewage packaging vessel are calculated. The results show that the total carbon emissions of glass brewage bottom is 489. 867g across its whole life cycles. The carbon emissions of glass bottom production is 363.83g which contributes a paramount of 74. 3% to the whole carbon emis-sions.

  18. Changes in the Energy Consumption Carbon Footprint for Gansu Province%甘肃省能源消费碳足迹变化及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦文献; 翟嫚嫚; 陈兴鹏; 贾卓

    2014-01-01

    Energy consumption is one of the main human activities driving global climate change, and therefore research on the carbon footprint of energy consumption is of great significance. In this paper, concepts and methods relating to the carbon footprint of energy consumption were used to calculate total carbon footprint, carbon footprint of each type of energy, output value of the carbon footprint and its ecological pressure from 1990 to 2009 in Gansu Province, northwestern China. The ridge regression function within the STIRPAT model was applied to study the quantitative relationship between carbon footprint and economic growth and at the same time verify the existence of an Environmental Kuznets Curve. A decoupling index was introduced to further explore the dynamic relationship between economic growth and carbon footprint. We found that the total carbon footprint increased from 0.091 ha per capita in 1990 to 0.191 ha per capita in 2009 and fol owed a lfuctuating rising trend. Coal and oil occupy the dominant position within the carbon footprint composition, while natural gas is of little effect. The output value of the carbon footprint increased from 11 800 CNY per ha in 1990 to 25 100 CNY per ha in 2009, representing an average annual growth rate of 4.1%. The ecological pressure intensity of the carbon footprint increased to 0.24 in 2009, and remains much lower than developed provinces Jiangsu and Shanghai, due to the vast area of woodland in Gansu. Development of a low-carbon economy in Gansu remains hindered by limited energy, a fragile ecological environment and irrational energy structure. Population and GDP per capita growth were the main factors driving the increasing carbon footprint; the impact of population is 3.47 times of that of per capita GDP. Regression analysis and decoupling index analysis have proved the existence of the Environmental Kuznets Curve for economic growth and carbon footprint, but 33 years are required to reach the inlfection point.%

  19. Carbon Footprint Change of Energy Consumption in Gansu Province and Its Influencing Factors%甘肃省能源消费碳足迹变化及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦文献; 陈兴鹏; 贾卓

    2012-01-01

    能源消费是人类活动影响全球气候变化的主要行为之一,对能源消费导致的碳足迹进行研究具有重要意义。本文首先应用能源消费碳足迹的相关概念和方法,计算得到了甘肃省1990年-2009年的总碳足迹、各能源消费类型的碳足迹、碳足迹产值和碳足迹生态压力;然后利用STIRPAT模型进行岭回归函数拟合,探讨了经济增长与碳足迹之间的定量关系,并验证了环境库兹涅茨曲线的存在性;最后通过脱钩指数分析进一步研究了经济增长与碳足迹之间的动态变化关系。结果表明:碳足迹从1990年的0.091hm2/人上升为2009年的0.191hm2/人,呈现波动上升的趋势。各能源消费类型的碳足迹构成中,煤和石油占据了绝对地位,其中又以煤所占比重最大,石油次之,天然气所起的作用甚微。碳足迹产值由1990年的1.18万元/hm2增加为2009年的2.51万元/hm2,碳足迹生态压力也从1990年的0.10上升至2009年的0.24。人口和人均GDP是驱动碳足迹增长的主要因素,且回归分析和脱钩指数分析都表明经济增长与碳足迹之间存在环境库兹涅茨曲线。%Energy consumption is one of the main human activities that affect global climate change, and therefore research on carbon footprint of energy consumption has great significance. In this paper, firstly, concepts and methods relating to carbon footprint of energy consumption were used to calculate the total carbon footprint, carbon footprint of each type of energy, output value of the carbon footprint and its ecological pressure from 1990 to 2009 in Gansu Province. Then, ridge regression function for STIRPAT model was applied to study the quantitative relationship between carbon footprint and economic growth and at the same time verify the existence of Environmental Kuznets Curve. Finally, the decoupling index was introduced to further explore the dynamic relationship between economic growth and carbon footprint

  20. 中国化石能源与电能利用碳排放足迹研究%Research on carbon footprint in the use of fossil energy and electricity in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪芙蓉; 赵先贵; 朱艳

    2012-01-01

    基于碳足迹、碳足迹产值和碳足迹生态压力等指数,研究中国2000—2007年能源利用情况,分析2007年我国各地区的碳足迹状况及产生原因,在此基础上提出我国在优化能源利用方面可采取的措施.结果表明:2000—2007年总碳足迹和人均碳足迹均呈上升趋势,人均碳足迹从2000年10.45hm2/人增加到2007年28.61hm2/人,增幅达274%;2000—2007年我国能源利用碳足迹生态压力和人均GDP均呈上升趋势,碳足迹生态压力从2000年的9.77增长到2007年的26.74,增加值为16.97,但这段时期内,我国能源利用碳足迹产值却在下降,从751.96元/hm2减少为682.44元/hm2;2007年各地区碳排放差别较大,排放量最大省份是河北省,为2.98×1013 t,最小省份是青海省,为2.25×1012 t;地区间碳足迹产值与生态压力差异明显,但存在高峰值现象,并且两个峰值均出现在上海市.%Based on carbon footprint,the output value and ecological pressure of carbon footprint,the use of energy from 2000 to 2007,the carbon footprint in regions in 2007 and the causes were studied,and some measures to optimize the use of energy were advanced.The results showed that the total and per capita of carbon footprint were rising,the per capita of carbon footprint increased from 10.45 hm2/per in 2000 to 28.61 hm2/per in 2007,the growth reached to 274%;the ecological pressure of carbon footprint were increased from 9.77 in 2000 to 26.74 in 2007,so as the per capita GDP.However,the output value of carbon footprint was decreased from 751.96 yuan/hm2 to 682.44 yuan/hm2;Carbon emissions in regions were different in 2007,the top was 2.98×1013t in Hebei province and the least was 2.25×1012t in Qinghai province.The differences of the output value and ecological pressure of carbon footprint among regions were distinct,and the both peak were in Shanghai.

  1. 宁夏回族自治区平罗县主要农作物碳足迹研究%Main Crops Carbon Footprint in Pingluo County of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾宪芳; 赵世伟; 李晓晓; 李婷; 刘京

    2012-01-01

    农田碳足迹可以全面地反映农作物生产过程中各种因素引起的碳排放效应,是指导农业生产节能减排的重要指标。为探明农作物生产的碳足迹,基于宁夏回族自治区平罗县农田生产的实地调查数据,利用碳足迹的基本理论和方法,测算了该县农作物碳足迹。结果表明,水稻、玉米和小麦的碳足迹分别为1 487.56±164.59,913.03±142.99和809.75±144.99kg Ce/(hm2.a);碳成本分别为0.17±0.05,0.08±0.02g和0.12±0.03kg Ce/kg;化肥的施用量是影响碳足迹的主要因素,而水稻生产过程中灌溉水及育秧过程也是其碳足迹较高的主要原因。为了提高农田固碳减排增汇效益,应压缩水稻种植面积,扩大玉米和小麦种植,同时,建立节肥低碳高效的种植模式是实现平罗县农田节能减排的有效途径。%The carbon emission caused by various factors during the crop production process can be roundly evaluated using carbon footprint of farmland,which is an important indicator that can provide a guidance for energy saving and emission reduction in agricultural industry.In order to find out the carbon footprint of crop production,the carbon footprint of Pingluo County in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region is calculated based on the investigated data of farmland production in the county by using basic theories and research approaches of carbon footprint.Results show that the carbon footprints of rice,corn and wheat are 1 487.56±164.59,913.03±142.99 and 809.75±144.99 kg Ce/(hm2·a) and the carbon costs,0.17±0.05,0.08±0.02 and 0.12±0.03 kg Ce/kg,respectively.The application rate of chemical fertilizer is a main influence factor for the carbon footprint.Additionally,irrigation water and seedling production are the key causes of high-carbon footprint during rice production.To improve the benefits of fixing carbon,reducing emissions and adding carbon sinks of farmland,rice planting area should be reduced and corn and wheat planting

  2. 基于生态足迹法低碳住宅系统构筑的分析%Analysis on Low Carbon House's Construction Based on Ecological Footprint Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱佳音; 陈滨

    2012-01-01

    As a biophysical quantitative evaluation tool for measuring the sustainability of natural resources, the ecological footprint method has been obtained more and more attention and application. For one building, plenty of resources and energy must be used during the periods of design,construction,operation and demolition. In this paper,two kinds of low carbon houses and a contrast house were selected as the study objects,based on the calculation of ecological footprint,biocapacity and ecological footprint index,the variation of ecological footprint proportion for construction and operation periods were discussed, furthermore, the comparison of ecological footprint proportion of different kinds of resources were carried out. The results were meaningful for improving the low carbon building design.%生态足迹分析方法作为一种衡量自然资本可持续利用的生物物理定量评价工具,得到了越来越广泛的关注和应用.一栋建筑从设计、建设到运营、拆毁,需要消耗大量的资源和能源.本文选取2种类型的低碳住宅和对比住宅为研究对象,通过对生态足迹、生物承载力以及生态足迹指数等的计算分析,阐述了建设阶段和运营阶段生态足迹比重的变化以及各项资源所占生态足迹比重的对比,为明确低碳建筑的设计方向提供了参考依据.

  3. The social consequences of conspiracism: Exposure to conspiracy theories decreases intentions to engage in politics and to reduce one's carbon footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Daniel; Douglas, Karen M

    2014-02-01

    The current studies explored the social consequences of exposure to conspiracy theories. In Study 1, participants were exposed to a range of conspiracy theories concerning government involvement in significant events such as the death of Diana, Princess of Wales. Results revealed that exposure to information supporting conspiracy theories reduced participants' intentions to engage in politics, relative to participants who were given information refuting conspiracy theories. This effect was mediated by feelings of political powerlessness. In Study 2, participants were exposed to conspiracy theories concerning the issue of climate change. Results revealed that exposure to information supporting the conspiracy theories reduced participants' intentions to reduce their carbon footprint, relative to participants who were given refuting information, or those in a control condition. This effect was mediated by powerlessness with respect to climate change, uncertainty, and disillusionment. Exposure to climate change conspiracy theories also influenced political intentions, an effect mediated by political powerlessness. The current findings suggest that conspiracy theories may have potentially significant social consequences, and highlight the need for further research on the social psychology of conspiracism.

  4. The social consequences of conspiracism: Exposure to conspiracy theories decreases intentions to engage in politics and to reduce one's carbon footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Daniel; Douglas, Karen M

    2014-02-01

    The current studies explored the social consequences of exposure to conspiracy theories. In Study 1, participants were exposed to a range of conspiracy theories concerning government involvement in significant events such as the death of Diana, Princess of Wales. Results revealed that exposure to information supporting conspiracy theories reduced participants' intentions to engage in politics, relative to participants who were given information refuting conspiracy theories. This effect was mediated by feelings of political powerlessness. In Study 2, participants were exposed to conspiracy theories concerning the issue of climate change. Results revealed that exposure to information supporting the conspiracy theories reduced participants' intentions to reduce their carbon footprint, relative to participants who were given refuting information, or those in a control condition. This effect was mediated by powerlessness with respect to climate change, uncertainty, and disillusionment. Exposure to climate change conspiracy theories also influenced political intentions, an effect mediated by political powerlessness. The current findings suggest that conspiracy theories may have potentially significant social consequences, and highlight the need for further research on the social psychology of conspiracism. PMID:24387095

  5. 岩溶山区县域农业碳足迹分析——以毕节地区为例%Analysis of Agricultural Carbon Footprint in the Karst Mountainous Area --Taking Bijie as a Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵技新

    2012-01-01

    为探索岩溶落后地区的低碳农业发展途径,选择典型岩溶地区一毕节地区,以2010年统计数据为例,对其农业碳排放、碳固定和碳足迹进行估算。结果表明:(1)毕节地区8个县市的农业碳排放量和碳排放强度的地区差异明显,农业碳排放量最多的黔西县为86165.4t,最少的织金县为37169.3t,两者相差48996.0t,前者是后者碳排放量的1.32倍。碳排放强度最大为黔西县和纳雍县,最少的为织金县,其顺序依次为黔西县〉纳雍县〉金沙县〉大方县〉毕节市〉赫章县〉威宁县〉织金县。(2)毕节地区8个县市的农业碳汇量与碳汇强度变化差异明显。纳雍县和威宁县的农业碳汇量与碳汇强度变化呈相反趋势。(3)毕节地区8个县市的碳足迹差异化明显,农业碳足迹都处于生态盈余状态,单位面积的碳足迹和单位农业GDP碳足迹差异明显,单位面积碳足迹顺序为威宁县〉纳雍县〉金沙县〉赫章县〉大方县〉毕节市〉黔西县〉织金县;单位农业GDP碳足迹顺序为威宁县〉赫章县〉大方县〉金沙县〉黔西县〉毕节市〉纳雍县〉织金县。威宁县无论单位面积碳足迹和单位农业GDP碳足迹均最大,织金县最小。%Carbon footprint provides new perspective of analysis of human activities effecting climate change. Therefore, this paper taking typical karst area--Bijie as an example, estimated the agricultural carbon emis- sions, carbon sink and carbon footprint. The results of the study showed that: (1〉 agricultural carbon emis- sions and carbon emissions intensity of eight counties had apparent differences in Bijie, QianXi was the most agricultural carbon footprint county, 86 165.37 t, the least was Zhijin County with 37 169.33 t of emission, the difference between those two counties was 48 996.04 t, the carbon emission of QianXi County was 1.32 times of that of Zhijin County

  6. The impact of various parameters on the carbon footprint of milk production in New Zealand and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria; Henriksson, Maria; Cederberg, Christel;

    2011-01-01

    on the conceptual framework of lifecycle assessment (LCA), but only for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. National average data were used to model the dairy system in each country. Collection of inventory data and calculations of emissions were harmonised to the greatest extent possible for the two systems....... The calculated CF for 1 kg of energy corrected milk (ECM), including related by-products (surplus calves and culled cows), was 1.00 kg carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) for NZ and 1.16 kg CO2e for SE. Methane from enteric fermentation and nitrous oxide emissions from application of nitrogen (as fertiliser...... and as excreta dropped directly on the field) were the main contributors to the CF in both countries. The most important parameters to consider when calculating the GHG emissions were dry matter intake (DMI), emission factor (EF) for methane from enteric fermentation, amount of nitrogen applied and EF for direct...

  7. Validity of Footprint Analysis to Determine Flatfoot Using Clinical Diagnosis as the Gold Standard in a Random Sample Aged 40 Years and Older

    OpenAIRE

    Pita-Fernández, Salvador; González-Martín, Cristina; Seoane-Pillado, Teresa; López-Calviño, Beatriz; Pértega-Díaz, Sonia; Gil-Guillén, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Background Research is needed to determine the prevalence and variables associated with the diagnosis of flatfoot, and to evaluate the validity of three footprint analysis methods for diagnosing flatfoot, using clinical diagnosis as a benchmark. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of a population-based random sample ≥40 years old (n = 1002) in A Coruña, Spain. Anthropometric variables, Charlson’s comorbidity score, and podiatric examination (including measurement of Clarke’s angle, t...

  8. The Carbon Footprint of Winter Wheat-Summer Maize Cropping Pattern on North China Plain%华北平原冬小麦-夏玉米种植模式碳足迹研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史磊刚; 陈阜; 孔凡磊; 范士超

    2011-01-01

    农业碳足迹理论可以系统评价农业生产过程中人为因素引起的碳排放,是构建低碳农业的理论基础,对实现低碳农业其有重要的指导意义.为探明农业生产中的碳足迹,本文基于河北吴桥县农户生产调查数据,利用农业碳足迹理论及研究方法,评价了华北平原冬小麦-夏玉米两熟种植模式的碳足迹.结果表明:冬小麦-夏玉米种植模式碳足迹的大小为1 737.37±337.02 kgCe/hm2·a,生产1 kg粮食的碳成本是0.12±0.03 kgCe,其中冬小麦的碳足迹是1 101.31±251.91 kgCe/hm2·a,小麦的碳成本是0.16±0.04kgCe/kg,夏玉米的碳足迹是636.06±163.90 kgCe/hm2·a,玉米的碳成本是0.08±0.02 kgCe/kg.冬小麦-夏玉米种植模式碳足迹的组成中,化肥占总量的61.76%,电能占25.03%,柴油占7.44%,种子占4.75%,农药占1.02%.同时,发现N肥的施用量和电能消耗量均与碳足迹有正相关性,种植规模与碳成本有负相关性.因此,构建节肥、节水及规模化的低碳种植模式是实现华北平原农业节能减排的重要途径.%The theory on carbon footprint of agriculture can systematically evaluate the carbon emission caused by artificial factors, from agricultural production process, which is the theoretical basis for constructing low-carbon agriculture and has important guiding significance in realizing low-carbon agriculture. In order to get a clear understanding of carbon footprint in agricultural production,this paper, Based on the farmer's production survey data from Wuqiao County of Hebei Province, we systematically evaluated the carbon footprint of winter wheat-summer maize cropping pattern by using agricultural carbon footprint theory. The results were as follows: The carbon footprint of winter wheat-summer maize cropping pattern was 1 737.37 ±337.02 kg Ce/hm2 · a, and the carbon cost of grain was0.12±0.03 kg Ce/kg; the carbon footprint of winter wheat was 1101.31 ±251.91 kg Ce/hm2 · a, and the

  9. Water footprints of nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, A.K.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2004-01-01

    The water footprint concept has been developed in order to have an indicator of water use in relation to consumption of people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. Closely l

  10. Standard Test Method for Thermal Oxidative Resistance of Carbon Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1982-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the apparatus and procedure for the determination of the weight loss of carbon fibers, exposed to ambient hot air, as a means of characterizing their oxidative resistance. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to inch-pound units which are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard information, see Section 8.

  11. Footprints of the weak s-process in the carbon-enhanced metal-poor star ET0097

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Guochao; Liu, Nian; Cui, Wenyuan; Liang, Yanchun; Zhang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the weak s-process contribution to metal-poor stars is thought to be extremely small, due to the effect of the secondary-like nature of the neutron source 22Ne(a;n)25Mg in massive stars, which means that metal-poor weak s-process stars could not be found. ET0097 is the first observed carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) star in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Because C is enriched and the elements heavier than Ba are not overabundant, ET0097 can be classified as a CEMP-no star. However, this star shows overabundances of lighter n-capture elements (i.e., Sr, Y and Zr). In this work, having adopted the abundance decomposition approach, we investigate the astrophysical origins of the elements in ET0097. We find that the light elements and iron-peak elements (from O to Zn) of the star mainly originate from the primary process of massive stars and the heavier n-capture elements (heavier than Ba) mainly come from the main r-process. However, the lighter n-capture elements such as Sr, Y and Zr shoul...

  12. 基于能源消费的中国省级区域碳足迹时空演变分析%Spatiotemporal changes of carbon footprint based on energy consumption in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢俊宇; 黄贤金; 陈逸; 肖潇

    2013-01-01

    碳足迹作为衡量生产某一产品在其生命周期所直接或间接排放的CO2量,其能够反应人类某项活动或某种产品对生态环境的压力程度.本文采用1997-2008年全国省级区域化石能源消费数据和土地利用结构数据,构建碳足迹计算模型,测算不同时间、不同区域的碳足迹、碳生态承载力和碳赤字,并引入物理学中重心的概念,测算1997-2008年全国各省级区域碳足迹的重心,进行碳足迹重心的时空演变趋势分析,掌握区域间能源消费碳排放的差异性;同时构建能源消费碳足迹压力指数模型,计算1997-2008年各省的碳足迹压力指数,对研究区域进行生态压力强度分级,并考察各省级区域碳足迹压力指数在两个相邻时间点之间的变化强度,进行生态压力变化强度的级别划分.%Carbon footprint, as an important index to measure CO2 and other greenhouse gases into the equivalence of CO2 directly or indirectly emitted in the life cycle of production, can reflect the level of stress on the ecological environment of a human activity or a product. This article built a carbon footprint model to measure carbon footprint, ecological capacity of carbon and carbon deficit in different regions by using energy consumption and regional land use data from 1997 to 2008. Then the study, based on the conception of gravity derived from physics, estimated the provincial carbon footprint center of gravity from 1997 to 2008, analyzed the spatial and temporal variations and summarized the reasons for the center changes so as to understand the regional differences of carbon emissions of energy consumption. In addition, based on the index from 1997 to 2008 calculated through carbon footprint pressure index model, we divided China into five categories, namely the high degree of ecological carrying areas, the general degree of ecological carrying areas, the general transitional areas, the general degree of ecological pressure

  13. Taiwan’s Ecological Footprint (1994–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Jaan Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the 2011 edition of the National Footprint Accounts (NFA published by the Global Footprint Network (GFN, humankind consumed the resources and services of 1.5 planets in 2008; the corresponding number in 1961 was 0.7 planets. North Americans have an ecological footprint of 8.7 global hectares per person whereas Africans have a footprint of only 1.4 global hectares per person. The global mean biological capacity is only 1.8 global hectares per person so human beings are overshooting ecological resources. The ecological footprint measures the resources that are consumed by humans from the biosphere, and serves as an index of the sustainability of development. The NFA includes the ecological footprints of over 200 countries and regions, but not Taiwan. Hence, Taiwan must establish and update its own ecological footprint databases. Ecological footprint is one indicator of the sustainability of development, and can be compared across nations. This study extends previous studies by analyzing Taiwan’s ecological footprint from 2008–2011. With reference to the ecological footprint accounts of the Global Footprint Network and the Taiwan’s ecological footprint analysis for 1997–2007, this study presents Taiwan’s ecological footprint from 2008–2011. Most of the data that are used herein are taken from the Food and Agriculture Organization, the International Energy Agency, Taiwan’s Council of Agriculture and Taiwan’s National Development Council. The results thus obtained reveal that Taiwan’s ecological footprint from 2008–2011 exceeded that from 1997–2007. To respond to this trend toward un-sustainable development and to help Taiwan move toward sustainability, carbon reduction and energy saving policies should be implemented to effectively manage Taiwan’s ecological resources.

  14. The effect of simple nitrogen fertilizer recommendation strategies on product carbon footprint and gross margin of wheat and maize production in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Nan; Feike, Til; Back, Hans; Xiao, Haifeng; Bahrs, Enno

    2015-11-01

    Overuse of nitrogen (N) fertilizer constitutes the major issue of current crop production in China, exerting a substantial effect on global warming through massive emission of greenhouse gas (GHG). Despite the ongoing effort, which includes the promotion of technologically sophisticated N management schemes, farmers' N rates maintain at excessive rates. Therefore the current study tests three simple and easily to apply N fertilizer recommendation strategies, which could be implemented on large scale through the existing agricultural advisory system of China, at comparatively low cost. Building on a detailed crop production dataset of 65 winter wheat (WW) and summer maize (SM) producing farm households of the North China Plain, scenario analysis is applied. The effects of the three N strategies under constant and changing yield levels on product carbon footprint (PCF) and gross margin (GM) are determined for the production condition of every individual farm household. The N fixed rate strategy realized the highest improvement potential in PCF and GM in WW; while the N coefficient strategy performed best in SM. The analysis furthermore revealed that improved N management has a significant positive effect on PCF, but only a marginal and insignificant effect on GM. On the other side, a potential 10% yield loss would have only a marginal effect on PCF, but a detrimental effect on farmers' income. With farmers currently applying excessive N rates as "cheap insurance" against potential N limitation, it will be of vital importance to avoid any yield reductions (caused by N limitation) and respective severe financial losses, when promoting and implementing advanced fertilization strategies. To achieve this, it is furthermore recommended to increase the price of fertilizer, improve the agricultural extensions system, and recognize farmers' fertilizer related decision-making processes as key research areas.

  15. Effectiveness and legitimacy of forest carbon standards in the OTC voluntary carbon market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merger Eduard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the voluntary over-the-counter (OTC carbon market has reached a significant market volume. It is particularly interesting for forest mitigation projects which are either ineligible in compliance markets or confronted with a plethora of technical and financial hurdles and lacking market demand. As the OTC market is not regulated, voluntary standards have been created to secure the social and environmental integrity of the traded mitigation projects and thus to ensure the quality of the resulting carbon credits. Building on a theoretical efficiency-legitimacy framework, this study aims to identify and analyse the characteristics and indicators that determine the efficiency and organisational legitimacy of standards for afforestation/reforestation carbon projects. Results All interviewed market actors consider third-party certification and standards as a crucial component of market functionality, which provide quality assurance mechanisms that reduce information asymmetries and moral hazard between the actors regarding the quality of carbon credits, and thus reduce transaction costs. Despite this development, the recent evolution of many new and differing standards is seen as a major obstacle that renders it difficult for project developers and buyers to select an appropriate standard. According to the interviewed experts the most important legitimating factors of standards are assurance of a sufficient level of quality of carbon credits, scientifically substantiated methodological accounting and independent third-party verification, independence of standard bodies, transparency, wide market acceptance, back-up of the wider community including experts and NGOs, rigorous procedures, and the resemblance to the Afforestation/Reforestation (A/R CDM due to its international policy endorsements. In addition, standards must provide evidence that projects contribute to a positive social and environmental development, do

  16. Analysis of carbon footprint of Chinese lead industry during 2000 to 2009 and control strategy study%2000-2009年中国铅行业碳足迹分析及控制策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关杨; 邵超峰; 田晓刚; 鞠美庭

    2013-01-01

    With the help of life cycle assessment and footprinting methods, this paper accounted the carbon footprint caused by the production of refined lead in Chinese lead industry during 2000 to 2009, and studied the carbon sink forest costs and the revenue of Chinese lead industry. The results showed that; (1) The carbon footprint of Chinese lead industry has been increasing from 2000 to 2009. the main reason is the slow development of lead production technology and correspondingly the inconspicuous energy consumption drops (2) From 2005, revenue of Chinese lead industry is higher than the carbon sink forest costs, the main reason are the growth of refined lead output and the rapidly rising of lead price. Based on the above analysis, this paper proposed control strategy of carbon footprint of Chinese lead industry, to guide the low-carbon development of Chinese lead industry.%采用生命周期评价和碳足迹研究方法,对2000-2009年中国铅行业精铅生产过程中产生的碳足迹进行核算,并对其造成的碳汇成本和铅行业的收益进行研究.结果表明:(1)2000-2009年中国铅行业碳足迹总体呈增长趋势,主要原因是中国铅产业生产技术进步较为缓慢,生产过程中的能耗下降并不明显;(2)从2005年开始,铅行业收益高于其碳汇林成本,主要原因是中国精炼铅产量和国际铅价的高速增长.基于上述分析,从抑制碳排放和保证行业总体收益两方面提出了铅行业碳足迹控制策略,引导铅行业的低碳化发展.

  17. Assessment of technologies to meet a low carbon fuel standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Sonia; Lutsey, Nicholas P; Parker, Nathan C

    2009-09-15

    California's low carbon fuel standard (LCFS) was designed to incentivize a diverse array of available strategies for reducing transportation greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It provides strong incentives for fuels with lower GHG emissions, while explicitly requiring a 10% reduction in California's transportation fuel GHG intensity by 2020. This paper investigates the potential for cost-effective GHG reductions from electrification and expanded use of biofuels. The analysis indicates that fuel providers could meetthe standard using a portfolio approach that employs both biofuels and electricity, which would reduce the risks and uncertainties associated with the progress of cellulosic and battery technologies, feedstock prices, land availability, and the sustainability of the various compliance approaches. Our analysis is based on the details of California's development of an LCFS; however, this research approach could be generalizable to a national U.S. standard and to similar programs in Europe and Canada. PMID:19806719

  18. Research on Carbon Footprint of Landscape Greening Construction-The Landscaping Works for the Open Space of the Optics Valley Road in Wuhan City as An Example%园林绿化工程施工阶段碳足迹研究——以武汉光谷大道隙地绿化工程为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷利华; 姚忠勇; 万敏

    2012-01-01

    城市园林绿地是城市中唯一具有碳汇功能的绿色基础设施,但其自身的施工建设是否低碳值得关注.针对园林绿化工程施工阶段界定碳足迹的计算边界与计算思路,明确施工及其过程对碳排放有影响的因素,将其归结为“隐性”和“显性”2种碳足迹.结合武汉市光谷大道隙地绿化工程的施工工序解析碳足迹,并设计了低碳施工对比方案,提出:减少隐性碳足迹、合理选材、减少运输、科学养护4点措施,以实现城市园林绿地的“低碳”建设.%Urban green space is the green infrastructure with unique carbon sink function, and it is noteworthy to pay attention to its lowcarbon construction. The paper studied the carbon footprint calculation edges and methods in landscaping green construction projects, and proposed factors categorized as "recessive carbon footprint" and "dominant carbon footprint" styles in it. Based on the landscaping works for the open space of the Optics Valley Road in Wuhan City, this paper calculated its carbon footprint in construction stages, then designed another lower carbon construction plan to contrast against the higher one. Finally, this paper concluded that carbon footprint could be decreased in landscaping works by 4 construction measures such as: 1) decreasing recessive carbon footprint, 2) selecting lower carbon materials, 3) reducing transportation, and 4) reasonable conservation, so as to realize the "low carbon" greening construction.

  19. FootPrinter3: phylogenetic footprinting in partially alignable sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Fei; Blanchette, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    FootPrinter3 is a web server for predicting transcription factor binding sites by using phylogenetic footprinting. Until now, phylogenetic footprinting approaches have been based either on multiple alignment analysis (e.g. PhyloVista, PhastCons), or on motif-discovery algorithms (e.g. FootPrinter2). FootPrinter3 integrates these two approaches, making use of local multiple sequence alignment blocks when those are available and reliable, but also allowing finding motifs in unalignable regions....

  20. Carbon cartridge standards for 125I and suggested applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tries, M A; Ring, J P; Chabot, G E

    1997-09-01

    Carbon cartridge standards were prepared to assess the activity of 125I incident on, and adsorbed in, cartridge samples during air sampling. Each cartridge standard consisted of an 125I-spiked filter paper at a known depth, ranging from 0 to 19 mm, embedded in approximately 34 g of 20-30 mesh activated carbon contained within a 6.35 cm diameter by 2.22 cm deep metal cartridge with screened openings. The total counting efficiency values range from 17.8 to 20.8% for cartridges counted at 3.2 mm from a thin-crystal NaI(Tl) detector. The standards were analyzed using a front/back counting technique, and fitting functions were developed relating the front/back net counts ratio and counting efficiency to the 125I depth of burial. A method for determining sample activity that accounts for exponential radioiodine loading in cartridge samples is compared to a less complicated technique that assumes all the radioiodine is located at an equivalent depth of burial that is based on the sample front/back net counts ratio. In addition, methods are presented for determining airborne 125I activity for constant and variable concentrations. Variable concentrations are assumed to occur in a fume hood duct by one or more bulk releases as a result of iodinations that are performed during a given sampling interval. The two methods are shown to have maximum relative deviations ranging from -16 to +16%. PMID:9287093

  1. Spotting Cheetahs: Identifying Individuals by Their Footprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Zoe C; Alibhai, Sky K; Weise, Florian; Munro, Stuart; Van Vuuren, Marlice; Van Vuuren, Rudie

    2016-01-01

    The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is Africa's most endangered large felid and listed as Vulnerable with a declining population trend by the IUCN(1). It ranges widely over sub-Saharan Africa and in parts of the Middle East. Cheetah conservationists face two major challenges, conflict with landowners over the killing of domestic livestock, and concern over range contraction. Understanding of the latter remains particularly poor(2). Namibia is believed to support the largest number of cheetahs of any range country, around 30%, but estimates range from 2,905(3) to 13,520(4). The disparity is likely a result of the different techniques used in monitoring. Current techniques, including invasive tagging with VHF or satellite/GPS collars, can be costly and unreliable. The footprint identification technique(5) is a new tool accessible to both field scientists and also citizens with smartphones, who could potentially augment data collection. The footprint identification technique analyzes digital images of footprints captured according to a standardized protocol. Images are optimized and measured in data visualization software. Measurements of distances, angles, and areas of the footprint images are analyzed using a robust cross-validated pairwise discriminant analysis based on a customized model. The final output is in the form of a Ward's cluster dendrogram. A user-friendly graphic user interface (GUI) allows the user immediate access and clear interpretation of classification results. The footprint identification technique algorithms are species specific because each species has a unique anatomy. The technique runs in a data visualization software, using its own scripting language (jsl) that can be customized for the footprint anatomy of any species. An initial classification algorithm is built from a training database of footprints from that species, collected from individuals of known identity. An algorithm derived from a cheetah of known identity is then able to classify

  2. Measuring your Garden Footprint

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Gareth; Schmutz, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    The work reports on a Garden Organic (working name of Henry Doubleday Research Association, Coventry UK) members experiment in 2007. Garden Organic members were surveyed with a detailed paper questionnaire to calculate an average gardening footprint of committed (self-selected) organic gardeners in the UK. This was used to develop a garden footprinting methodology and to create a benchmark of committed organic gardening in the UK. This was then compared to commerical orangic growing and to ot...

  3. 78 FR 34340 - Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... Order; Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products from Turkey, 51 FR 17784 (May 15, 1986). The... International Trade Administration Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Preliminary... antidumping duty order on welded carbon steel standard pipe and tube products (welded pipe and tube)...

  4. 76 FR 54293 - Review of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 169..., 53 and 58 RIN 2060-AI43 Review of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide AGENCY... and the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for carbon monoxide (CO). Based on its...

  5. Huella del Carbono. Parte 1: Conceptos, Métodos de Estimación y Complejidades Metodológicas Carbon Footprint. Part 1: Concepts, Estimation Methods and Methodological Complexities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Espíndola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta y analiza el concepto de huella del carbono, su origen, su relación con los gases efecto invernadero, y sobre los procedimientos para cuantificarla. El efecto invernadero provoca que la energía que llega a la Tierra sea devuelta más lentamente, por lo que es mantenida más tiempo junto a la superficie elevando la temperatura. Es aceptado hoy en día que este efecto es producido por algunos gases liberados en forma natural o por las acciones humanas. La Huella de Carbono es considerada una de las más importantes herramientas para cuantificar las emisiones de gases efecto invernadero y en forma muy general, representa la cantidad de gases efecto invernadero emitidos a la atmósfera derivados de las actividades de producción o consumo de bienes y servicios. Al no existir consenso en cuanto a la definición y menos en la cuantificación de la huella del carbono, la primera parte de este trabajo analiza las principales corrientes y enfoques actuales.The concept of Carbon Footprint, its origin, its relation with greenhouse gases and the methods to quantify it are presented and analyzed. The so-called greenhouse effect causes that the energy that reaches the earth at a certain rate is returned to a slower rate, increasing the temperature of the earth surface. Additionally, it is nowadays accepted that this effect is produced by some gases that are naturally emitted or produced by human actions. The Carbon Footprint is considered to be one of the most important tools for quantifying greenhouse emissions and in a general form it represents the quantity of gases emitted to the atmosphere and that is produced by human activities, and by goods and service consumption. Since there is no consensus about the definition of Carbon Footprint or the forms of quantifying it, this first part of the paper series analyzes the main concept and the main present views on the Carbon Footprint.

  6. 基于碳足迹分析的手提电脑缓冲包装方案比较%Cushioning Package Design of Portable Computer Based on Carbon Footprint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史晓娟; 王文生; 王晓敏; 王迪

    2012-01-01

    指出了碳足迹分析在包装行业中应用的意义,分别选用EPE、瓦楞纸板和纸浆模塑作为缓冲包装材料,对手提电脑进行了缓冲包装设计,在保证缓冲作用的前提下,计算了分别生产一套上述3种材料的缓冲包装所产生的碳足迹,为手提电脑生产企业选择低碳环保型包装提供数据参考。%The significance of carbon footprint in packaging application was put iorward. EPE, corrugated cardboard and molded pulp were selected as package material and cushioning package was designed for portable computer. Under the precondition of good cushioning effect, the carbon footprint of cushioning package produced by the three kinds of material was calculated. The purpose was to provide reference for portable computer production enterprises in selection of low carbon and environmental protection packaging material.

  7. Huella del Carbono. Parte 2: La Visión de las Empresas, los Cuestionamientos y el Futuro Carbon Footprint: Part 2: Enterprises Viewpoint, Doubts and the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Espíndola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta segunda parte de la serie, se discute sobre la visión y posición que tienen las empresas frente al concepto de Huella del Carbono (HdC y de los métodos para cuantificarla. Se analiza los criterios de clasificación de emisiones en las principales metodologías de cálculo de la HdC y se discute sobre los principales cuestionamientos a la HdC, sobre los temas a resolver y sus alternativas de solución. Se presenta una base comparativa para los cuatro principales métodos de determinación de HdC actualmente vigentes en el mercado y se propone un método denominado Abaco para la contabilización de emisiones de CO2 equivalente , que permite identificar las características comunes de estos métodos. Todo esto puede servir de base en la toma de decisiones gerenciales para adoptar una determinada metodología. Se concluye que d e mantenerse la falta de claridad y comparabilidad en la determinación de emisiones podría provocar la pérdida de una gran oportunidad para lanzar una nueva economía medio-ambientalmente sostenible.In this second part of the series, the viewpoint of the enterprises and their position with respect to the implementation of carbon footprint (CFP quantification. The criteria for classification of emissions and the main methodologies for calculating the CFP are discussed and analyzed. The main questions and doubts about the CFP, on the subjects to be discussed and the alternatives of solution. A comparison of the main four methods currently used for determining the CFP and a method named Abacus for quantifying emissions of equivalent CO2 that allows identifying the common characteristics to all of them. All this can serve as basis for decision-making to adopt a given methodology. It is concluded that if the present situation of confusion of the different approaches to quantify the CFP continues, the companies and governments are loosing a great opportunity to arrive to a new environmentally sustainable economy.

  8. 城市能源消耗碳足迹动态变化及影响因素分析--以西安市为例%Dynamic Change of Urban Energy Consumption Carbon Footprint and Analysis of Influencing Factors--A Case Study of Xi’an

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      城市低碳发展已成为城市发展的一种“环保潮流”趋势,城市能源消耗碳足迹在一定程度上反映出城市低碳发展的状况。以西安市为例,应用碳足迹的计算模型,计算出西安市2001—2010年的碳足迹、人均碳足迹、VCF 等值。结果显示,2001—2010年西安市的碳足迹总量及人均碳足迹都呈逐年上升势态,但是上升趋势趋缓,2004—2010年单位 GDP 碳足迹逐年递减。分析西安市的碳足迹动态变化趋势及影响因素并结合西安市的发展状况,可以看出,能源利用效率的提高是西安市减少碳足迹的最主要原因,西安“十一五”以来(2005—2009年)节能降耗成效显著。最后根据分析结果提出适合西安市发展低碳经济的可行性建议。%Low carbon development of the city has became a“green trend”,the carbon footprint of urban energy consumption partly reflecting the low carbon development status of city. This paper taking Xi’an as a study area, building the model of carbon footprint and calculating Xi’an carbon footprint,the per capita carbon footprint and VCF and so on from 2001 to 2010. The result shows that Xi’an carbon footprint and the per capita carbon footprint are increasing year by year,but the upward trend is slow. The carbon footprint of Per GDP is decreasing each year from 2004 to 2010. We can know that the improvement of energy efficiency is the most important reason to reduce the carbon footprint of Xi’an,and Xi’an have a great success in energy conservation in“11th five-year plan”(2005—2009). In the end,the feasible suggestions developing low carbon economy are proposed according to the results of the analysis.

  9. 纺织服装原材料阶段碳足迹评价及碳减排措施--以棉花为例%Carbon footprint evaluation on raw materials stage of textile and garment carbon emission reduction measures:In case of cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚蕾

    2014-01-01

    The study about carbon footprint of textile and garment products is mostly concentrated in the industrial processing sector, and the research on carbon footprint of its raw material acquisition phase is relatively small. As a full life-cycle carbon footprint of the product, the raw material stage should also pay attention. Since the cotton fiber is China′s largest production of natural fiber, the carbon footprint of raw materials for cotton textile-cotton fiber is discussed. Based on the understanding of the life cycle assessment theory, in view of PAS2050 Guide specification, the carbon footprint evaluation of cotton is determined. Under the premise of defined system boundaries, the method to calculate the carbon footprint of various sectors is given. At last, the carbon emission reduction measures for the raw materials stage of textile and garment products are proposed.%纺织服装产品的碳足迹研究一直以来多集中在对工业加工环节的探讨,对其原材料的获取阶段的碳足迹研究则相对较少。作为产品的全生命周期碳足迹的探讨,原材料阶段的碳足迹也应该加以重视。鉴于棉纤维是我国产量最大的天然纤维,重点探讨棉纺织品原材料--棉纤维的碳足迹,在理解生命周期评价理论的基础上,基于PAS2050指南规范,确定棉花获取的碳足迹评价,在界定系统边界的前提下,给出了各环节碳足迹的计算方法,最后,提出纺织服装产品原材料阶段的碳减排措施。

  10. The environmental cost of subsistence: Optimizing diets to minimize footprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Jessica A; Davis, Kyle F; Emery, Kyle A; Leach, Allison M; Galloway, James N; Pace, Michael L

    2016-05-15

    The question of how to minimize monetary cost while meeting basic nutrient requirements (a subsistence diet) was posed by George Stigler in 1945. The problem, known as Stigler's diet problem, was famously solved using the simplex algorithm. Today, we are not only concerned with the monetary cost of food, but also the environmental cost. Efforts to quantify environmental impacts led to the development of footprint (FP) indicators. The environmental footprints of food production span multiple dimensions, including greenhouse gas emissions (carbon footprint), nitrogen release (nitrogen footprint), water use (blue and green water footprint) and land use (land footprint), and a diet minimizing one of these impacts could result in higher impacts in another dimension. In this study based on nutritional and population data for the United States, we identify diets that minimize each of these four footprints subject to nutrient constraints. We then calculate tradeoffs by taking the composition of each footprint's minimum diet and calculating the other three footprints. We find that diets for the minimized footprints tend to be similar for the four footprints, suggesting there are generally synergies, rather than tradeoffs, among low footprint diets. Plant-based food and seafood (fish and other aquatic foods) commonly appear in minimized diets and tend to most efficiently supply macronutrients and micronutrients, respectively. Livestock products rarely appear in minimized diets, suggesting these foods tend to be less efficient from an environmental perspective, even when nutrient content is considered. The results' emphasis on seafood is complicated by the environmental impacts of aquaculture versus capture fisheries, increasing in aquaculture, and shifting compositions of aquaculture feeds. While this analysis does not make specific diet recommendations, our approach demonstrates potential environmental synergies of plant- and seafood-based diets. As a result, this study

  11. Computing the Flux Footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. D.

    2015-07-01

    We address the flux footprint for measurement heights in the atmospheric surface layer, comparing eddy diffusion solutions with those furnished by the first-order Lagrangian stochastic (or "generalized Langevin") paradigm. The footprint given by Langevin models differs distinctly from that given by the random displacement model (i.e. zeroth-order Lagrangian stochastic model) corresponding to its "diffusion limit," which implies that a well-founded theory of the flux footprint must incorporate the turbulent velocity autocovariance. But irrespective of the choice of the eddy diffusion or Langevin class of model as basis for the footprint, tuning relative to observations is ultimately necessary. Some earlier treatments assume Monin-Obukhov profiles for the mean wind and eddy diffusivity and that the effective Schmidt number (ratio of eddy viscosity to the tracer eddy diffusivity) in the neutral limit , while others calibrate the model to the Project Prairie Grass dispersion trials. Because there remains uncertainty as to the optimal specification of (or a related parameter in alternative theories, e.g. the Kolmogorov coefficient in Langevin models) it is recommended that footprint models should be explicit in this regard.

  12. 干旱欠发达地区能源消费碳足迹变化及影响因素分析--以新疆维吾尔自治区为例%Carbon Footprint Changes of Energy Con sumption in Arid Underdeveloped Region and Its Inf luencing Fac tors:Taking Xinjiang as An Exampl e

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志强; 吴正平; 刘志有; 王世江; 黄晓东

    2015-01-01

    利用1990~2011年新疆的能源消费及经济发展统计数据,计算、分析了煤炭、石油、天然气等能源消费的碳足迹的演化规律,采用STIRPAT模型回归模拟了碳足迹与人口、人均GDP之间的相互影响关系,最终采用脱钩指数分析了经济增长与碳足迹之间的动态相互关系。研究结果表明:新疆能源消费的碳足迹总体呈现上升趋势,由1990年的0.138 hm2/人增加到2011年的0.437 hm2/人,增长了2.18倍,煤炭的碳足迹在总足迹中占据绝对地位,比重保持在70%~80%左右。碳足迹产值呈现增加趋势,由1990年的1.24万元/hm2增加为2011年的6.88万元/hm2。碳足迹生态压力趋向于增大,从1990年的0.042上升至2011年的0.175。人均GDP是驱动碳足迹增长的关键因素,人均GDP每增长1%,碳足迹将会增加0.982%。经济发展与碳足迹处于相对脱钩-复钩状态,但偏向于挂钩状态,新疆经济增长方式转变迫在眉睫。%Based on the statistical data of energy consumption and economic development in Xinjiang during 1990~2011, we calculated and analyzed the evolution law of carbon footprint of coal, oil, natural gas and other energy consumption, simulated the mutual influencing relationships among carbon footprint, population and GDP per capita by adopting STIRPAT regression model, and finally analyzed the dynamic mutual relationship between economic growth and carbon footprint by using decoupling index.The results indicated that the carbon footprint of energy consumption in Xinjiang generally presented a fluctuant rising trend, and in-creased from 0.138 hm2 per capita in 1990 to 0.437 hm2 per capita in 2011.The carbon footprint of coal occupied an absolute posi-tion in total carbon footprint, and account for 70%~80%of total carbon footprint.The output value of carbon footprint revealed an increasing tendency, and increased from 12400 yuan/hm2 in 1990 to68800

  13. Flux Footprint Climatology Estimated by Three Analytical Models over a Subtropical Coniferous Plantation in Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity poses a major challenge for the appropriate interpretation of eddy covariance data. The quantification of footprint climatology is fundamental to improving our understanding of carbon budgets, assessing the quality of eddy covariance data, and upscaling the representativeness of a tower fl ux to regional or global scales. In this study, we elucidated the seasonal variation of fl ux footprint climatologies and the major factors that infl uence them using the analytical FSAM (Flux Source Area Model), KM (Kormann and Meixner, 2001), and H (Hsieh et al., 2000) models based on eddy covariance measurements at two and three times the canopy height at the Qianyanzhou site of ChinaFLUX in 2003. The diff erences in footprints among the three models resulted from diff erent underlying theories used to construct the models. A comparison demonstrated that atmospheric stability was the main factor leading to diff erences among the three models. In neutral and stable conditions, the KM and FSAM values agreed with each other, but they were both lower than the H values. In unstable conditions, the agreement among the three models for rough surfaces was better than that for smooth surfaces, and the models showed greater agreement for a low measurement height than for a high measurement height. The seasonal fl ux footprint climatologies were asymmetrically distributed around the tower and corresponded well to the prevailing wind direction, which was north-northwest in winter and south-southeast in summer. The average sizes of the 90% fl ux footprint climatologies were 0.36–0.74 and 1.5–3.2 km2 at altitudes of two and three times the canopy height, respectively. The average sizes were ranked by season as follows: spring > summer > winter >autumn. The footprint climatology depended more on atmospheric stability on daily scale than on seasonal scale, and it increased with the increasing standard deviation of the lateral wind fl uctuations.

  14. Footprints of Buildings at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (footprints)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/INFO coverage consisting of 10 polygons representing the buildings' footprints at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah. The footprints were collected...

  15. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Scott Stucture Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  16. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Pemiscot Stucture Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  17. Building Footprints - MO 2012 New Madrid Stucture Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  18. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Stoddard Stucture Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  19. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Dunklin Stucture Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  20. Building Footprints - MO 2011 Montgomery Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  1. Building Footprints - MO 2011 Lincoln Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  2. Building Footprints - MO 2011 Warren Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  3. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Mississippi Stucture Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  4. Assessing the Blue and Green Water Footprint of Lucerne for Milk Production in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Morne E. Scheepers; Henry Jordaan

    2016-01-01

    The Global Water Footprint Standard approach was used to calculate the volumetric blue and green water footprint indicator for lucerne production as important feed for dairy cows in a major lucerne production region in South Africa. The degree of sustainability of water use then was assessed by comparing water use to water availability for the region. The results show a volumetric water footprint indicator of 378 m3/tonne of lucerne. Of the total blue and green water footprint, 55% is green w...

  5. 制造业供应链多阶碳足迹的构成研究——基于珠三角经济区31家制造企业%Composition Characteristics of Supply Chain Multi - Stage Carbon Footprint in Manufacturing Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付秋芳; 忻莉燕; 马健英

    2012-01-01

    “碳关税、碳标签、低碳经济”等口号和政今正成为中国制造企业脖子上的锁,今后能吃下多大的订单要由这些标准来决定。21世纪是供应链之间的竞争,中国制造企业要实现低碳战略,需要在其整条供应链上去识别碳足迹来进行碳排放管理。本文首先定义了供应链多阶碳足迹的概念,构建了供应链三阶碳足迹构成模型和测算模型;在此基础上,调研了珠三角经济区涉及九大制造行业的31家制造企业,分析了其供应链上的多阶碳足迹构成情况。最后,给出了旨在减少制造企业供应链多阶碳足迹的若干措施和建议。%Such catch phrases as "carbon tax" , "carbon label" and "low carbon economy" are now constraining China' s manufacturers, which also affects the size and scale of product orders they can gain. In fact, it is supply chains that compete. Therefore, China' s manufacturers should identify carbon footprint from total supply chain of theirs in order to realize low-carbon development. The present paper is devoted to investigating and analyzing the multi-stage carbon footprint in the supply chain. It firstly highlights the importance of understanding the distribution of carbon footprint in the supply chain, and afterwards it defines the concept of multi-stage supply chain carbon footprint to construct the model of the three-stage supply chain carbon footprint. It then studies the supply chain carbon footprint of 31 manufacturing enterprises within 9 industries in the Pearl River Delta. Finally, the paper presents some measures and proposals to lessen the multi - stage carbon footprint of the supply chain.

  6. 76 FR 8157 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... be effectively mitigated by setting more stringent ambient air quality standards (59 FR 38914). Apart... Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 29 / Friday... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  7. The sustainable development of vegetable production system from the carbon footprint perspective in Hubei Province%基于碳足迹视角的湖北省蔬菜生产可持续发展探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡世霞; 向荣彪; 董俊; 齐振宏

    2016-01-01

    在温室气体的累积排放导致全球增温趋势明显,人类生存面临挑战的气候环境条件下,研究蔬菜生产碳足迹,对于控制蔬菜生产温室气体排放,缓解气候变化与蔬菜生产可持续发展的矛盾具有积极意义。基于IPCC国家温室气体清单指南,运用过程生命周期评价法、动态评估及多元回归分析,对湖北省2003-2013年蔬菜生产系统碳足迹进行了核算。结果表明,湖北省蔬菜生产系统碳足迹由2003年的116.05万tCE增长到2013年的142.81万tCE,增加了23.06%。各生产投入品温室气体排放碳足迹排在前3位的为肥料、农药和排灌电能,分别占总排放碳足迹的58.07%、18.47%、9.03%。2003-2013年土地利用碳强度保持在0.97-1.29 tCE/hm2;单位产量碳强度从2003年的37.06 kgCE/t提高到39.91 kgCE/t,收益碳强度从2003年的0.10 kgCE/元降低到2013年的0.02 kgCE/元;碳生态效率从2003年的1.87降低到2013年的1.73。多元回归分析表明,湖北省蔬菜生产系统温室气体排放碳足迹与肥料用量、农药使用量、排灌电能三者间存在显著的线性相关,其相关性分别为0.571、0.341和0.228。根据分析结果,提出了强化科学施肥力度,提高土地规模化经营水平;推广生物防治,建设绿色防控体系;推广节水灌溉技术等可显著减少温室气体排放的策略。%In the background of the increasing concern for the global warming resulted from the cumulative greenhouse gas release, it is of great significance to study the carbon footprint of vegetable production, which can service as methods for controlling the emission of greenhouse gases and alleviating contradiction between climate change and the sustainable development of vegetable production. Based on the IPCC listed guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories, and applying the life-cycle assessment method, dynamic assessment, and multiple regression analysis, this

  8. 碳足迹视角下 ICT产业碳排放对环境影响分析%Research on Impact and Measures of ICT Industry Carbon Emissions for Environment from Carbon Footprint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雷; 刘桂玲; 王欣; 李铁克

    2013-01-01

    ICT技术和产业的发展改变了人们的生活方式和商业模式,这种改变大大促进了经济增长。根据美国和世界其他国家的研究报告得出,由ICT产业发展而产生的大量碳排放对环境的影响正在加剧。具体原因为ICT产品的广泛使用和海量数据处理中心的建立。根据ICT产业价值链形成过程中碳足迹的追踪,能够得出ICT产业在原材料提取、生产制造与运输、产品应用和回收处理各环节的碳排放的大体数量和所占比例。针对ICT产业价值链中碳排放产生原因不同,分别采取监测、预警、生产过程优化、先进产品应用、新商业模式和政府政策等对策给予解决,同时也简要说明了ICT产业如何为其他产业提供了间接减少碳排放的手段。最后,结合ICT产业存在问题和解决对策给出了ICT产业发展与环境之间关系的新研究思路,并提出未来可以从定量角度研究ICT产业发展中碳排放对环境影响。%The development of ICT industry has changed people's lifestyles and business model , and this change greatly promotes economic growth .On the report of USA and other countries , the environment impact of carbon emis-sions generated by ICT industry is intensifying .The specific reasons are the establishment of the use of ICT products and massive data processing centers .Tracking on the process of ICT industry value chain based on carbon footprint , the numbers and proportions of carbon emissions can be draw on ICT industry in raw material extraction , manufactur-ing and transport , product application and recycling .Because the different causes about carbon emissions of ICT in -dustry , we can take monitoring , early warning , production process optimization , advanced product applications , new business models , government policies and other measures to address it .And a brief description of how to reduce car-bon emissions in ICT industry is given for other

  9. ADDRESSING WATER FOOTPRINT CONCEPT: A DEMONSTRABLE STRATEGY FOR PAPERMAKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Shen,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of the water footprint concept in 2002, in the context of humankind’s ever-increasing awareness of the valuable global freshwater resources, it has received more and more attention. The application of this relatively new concept has been expected to provide ecological and environmental benefits. For the water-intensive papermaking industry, it seems that water footprint needs to be addressed. The water footprint of cellulosic paper can be divided into three components, including its green water footprint, blue water footprint, and grey water footprint, which may be accounted for by considering the individual contributions of wood or non-wood materials, pulp production processes, effluent discharge to the receiving water bodies, process chemicals and additives, energy consumption, etc. In the literature, the accounting of water footprint during the whole production chain of cellulosic paper is already available, and relevant research findings can provide useful insights into the application of the concept; however, further development of the accounting methodologies is much needed, so that the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of water footprint can be internationally recognized, certified, and standardized. Although there are ongoing or upcoming debates and challenges associated with the concept, its application to papermaking industry may be expected to provide various encouraging possibilities and impacts.

  10. Dynamic study of carbon footprint of Chinese aluminum industry based on life cycle assessment during the period of 2000-2009%基于生命周期评价的中国铝业2000-2009年碳足迹研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任希珍; 田晓刚; 鞠美庭; 孟伟庆

    2011-01-01

    基于铝产品生命周期评价,应用碳足迹方法对中国铝行业能源消耗和气体排放进行研究,分析比较了2000-2009年中国铝行业碳足迹及相对世界总体状况变化趋势.研究表明,在铝产品完整生命周期过程中,每吨原生铝产品的碳足迹为9.31 hm2,其中初级生产过程碳足迹为7.69 hm2,约占总碳足迹的83%,尤以电力所致碳足迹份额相对更为显著.近10 a中国铝行业碳足迹从2000年的2.60×107 hm2增加到2009年的1.21×108 hm2,且相对世界铝行业碳足迹比例逐年增大,成为中国铝行业发展劣势.在此基础上,提出了一些碳减排措施.%Chinese primary aluminum production and consumption have always been at the forefront of the world, and the relative pro portion has increased year by year. However, aluminum production process is energy-intensive, which consumes large amounts of energy and emits a lot of greenhouse gases, making aluminum industry face severe environmental challenge. Climate change is the main environ mental issue for the aluminum industry. As the world moves to com bat climate change, the aluminum industry is moving too. Energy consumption and gas emissions of Chinese aluminum industry are ana lyzed using carbon footprint tool from a carbon reduction perspective in this paper, based on life cycle assessment (LCA). More over, carbon footprint of Chinese and world' s aluminum industry during the period of 2000- 2009 are compared. The results show that carbon footprint of per ton of aluminum product in the full life cycle is 9.31 hm2. However, footprint of primary production is 7.69 hm2, ac counting for the proportion of 83%, which is mainly caused by elec trical power use. That is to say, reducing carbon footprint of elec trolytic aluminum, especially electrical power use, is the key to re duce carbon footprint of aluminum industry. What' s more, carbon footprint of Chinese aluminum industry in the past decade has ex panded from 2.60 × 107 hm2

  11. Carbon footprint of ground source heat pump system in heating solar greenhouse based on life cycle assessment%日光温室地源热泵供暖碳足迹的生命周期分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴立龙; 马承伟; 刘明池; 王宝驹; 武占会; 许勇

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese solar greenhouse, characterized by east-west orientation, a transparent camber south roof, and a solid north roof and east and west walls, is utilized primarily in horticulture in northern China. This design of greenhouse can keep the sheltering plants from freezing in winter because of the“greenhouse effect”. However, the healthy growing of plants still needs assisted heating especially during winter nights. The coal-fired heating system (CFHs) and the natural gas-fired heating system (GFHs) both have been widely applied to heat greenhouses. However, the conventional fossil energy sources, such as coal and natural gas, are non-renewable and are the major greenhouse gas (GHG) contributors. The overusing of fossil fuel in agricultural production has been directly or indirectly related to the global climate change, environmental pollution, and energy crisis. Therefore, renewable and clean energy, such as solar, geothermal, and shallow geothermal has been increasingly applied for greenhouse heating or cooling across the world. Ground source heat pump (GSHP) technology has dual functions in heating and cooling. It is one of the most rapidly growing green technologies for heating and air-conditioning in recent years. The GSHP application for solar greenhouse heating has proven to have a high primary energy ratio or coefficient of performance (COP) in previously studies. However, the environmental performance of the GSHP in heating solar greenhouse, such as its carbon footprint, is still unknown. Systematic and long-term study of the specific GSHP greenhouse-heating was required to evaluate its carbon footprint based on life cycle assessment (LCA) method. The GSHP in a Chinese solar greenhouse was studied to evaluate its environmental performance in greenhouse heating. The environmental performance of the GSHP was analyzed based on the field test data and the performance analysis models that were developed in this study. According to the study, in a 480 m

  12. Design challenges and gaps in standards in developing an interoperable zero footprint DI thin client for use in image-enabled electronic health record solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Arun; Koff, David; Bak, Peter; Bender, Duane; Castelli, Jane

    2015-03-01

    The deployment of regional and national Electronic Health Record solutions has been a focus of many countries throughout the past decade. A major challenge for these deployments has been support for ubiquitous image viewing. More specifically, these deployments require an imaging solution that can work over the Internet, leverage any point of service device: desktop, tablet, phone; and access imaging data from any source seamlessly. Whereas standards exist to enable ubiquitous image viewing, few if any solutions exist that leverage these standards and meet the challenge. Rather, most of the currently available web based DI viewing solutions are either proprietary solutions or require special plugins. We developed a true zero foot print browser based DI viewing solution based on the Web Access DICOM Objects (WADO) and Cross-enterprise Document Sharing for Imaging (XDS-I.b) standards to a) demonstrate that a truly ubiquitous image viewer can be deployed; b) identify the gaps in the current standards and the design challenges for developing such a solution. The objective was to develop a viewer, which works on all modern browsers on both desktop and mobile devices. The implementation allows basic viewing functionalities of scroll, zoom, pan and window leveling (limited). The major gaps identified in the current DICOM WADO standards are a lack of ability to allow any kind of 3D reconstruction or MPR views. Other design challenges explored include considerations related to optimization of the solution for response time and low memory foot print.

  13. 75 FR 16439 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe From Turkey: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Steel Pipe and Tube Products from Turkey, 51 FR 7984 (March 7, 1986). On March 2, 2009, the Department... Administrative Review: Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey, 72 FR 62837, 62838 (November 7...: Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey, 73 FR 12080 (March 6, 2008). To calculate the...

  14. Carbon finance and pro-poor co-benefits: The Gold Standard and Climate, Community and Biodiversity Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Rachel

    2011-04-15

    This paper assesses the practical contribution of the Gold Standard (GS) and Climate Community and Biodiversity (CCB) Standards to local development through the identification of high quality carbon offset projects and ensuring high standards of consultation with local communities during project development and implementation. It is based on desk research, involving analysis of the GS and CCB Standards' project databases, project design documents, and secondary literature. In addition, over 20 representatives of the two standards systems, project developers, NGO representatives, and researchers were interviewed. The paper concludes that both standard systems successfully reward high quality projects which have a demonstrated commitment to local consultations and sustainable development benefits. Moreover, they serve to give well-meaning project developers frameworks with which to ensure that a wide range of criteria are considered in planning and implementing projects. As voluntary standards, it is unrealistic to expect either the GS or CCB Standards to improve poor-quality or unsustainable projects.

  15. 丽江市旅游产业游客碳足迹分析评价%Analysis and Evaluation on Carbon Footprint of Visitors in Lijiang Tourism Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉菲; 赵璟

    2012-01-01

    在低碳经济的背景下,低碳旅游逐步走入人们的视线,但目前国内游客对低碳旅游的认知度不是很高,对低碳旅游的态度与行为偏差较大。为了探寻低碳旅游这一种新的绿色旅游模式,这里以丽江市旅游产业为依托,通过交通、住宿、饮食、游览、娱乐五个方面对游客在旅游中所留下的碳足迹进行分析,找出丽江发展低碳旅游所面临的主要问题,并提出相应的低碳政策建议。%In a low carbon economy background, low carbon travel insurance line into the sight of people, but at present, the awareness of low carbon tourism to the domestic tourists is not very high. In order to introduce a new green tourism low carbon tourism , the paper rely on the mode of lijiang tourism industry, through tourist's five aspects of transportation, lodging, food, tour, entertainment to analysis the footprint left in the tourism, and finds the problems of developing low carbon in lijiang, then puts forward the corresponding policy suggestions on low carbon.

  16. Footprint Representation of Planetary Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, S. H. G.; Gasselt, S. V.; Michael, G.; Neukum, G.

    The geometric outline of remote sensing image data, the so called footprint, can be represented as a number of coordinate tuples. These polygons are associated with according attribute information such as orbit name, ground- and image resolution, solar longitude and illumination conditions to generate a powerful base for classification of planetary experiment data. Speed, handling and extended capabilites are the reasons for using geodatabases to store and access these data types. Techniques for such a spatial database of footprint data are demonstrated using the Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) PostgreSQL, spatially enabled by the PostGIS extension. Exemplary, footprints of the HRSC and OMEGA instruments, both onboard ESA's Mars Express Orbiter, are generated and connected to attribute information. The aim is to provide high-resolution footprints of the OMEGA instrument to the science community for the first time and make them available for web-based mapping applications like the "Planetary Interactive GIS-on-the-Web Analyzable Database" (PIG- WAD), produced by the USGS. Map overlays with HRSC or other instruments like MOC and THEMIS (footprint maps are already available for these instruments and can be integrated into the database) allow on-the-fly intersection and comparison as well as extended statistics of the data. Footprint polygons are generated one by one using standard software provided by the instrument teams. Attribute data is calculated and stored together with the geometric information. In the case of HRSC, the coordinates of the footprints are already available in the VICAR label of each image file. Using the VICAR RTL and PostgreSQL's libpq C library they are loaded into the database using the Well-Known Text (WKT) notation by the Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc. (OGC). For the OMEGA instrument, image data is read using IDL routines developed and distributed by the OMEGA team. Image outlines are exported together with relevant attribute

  17. 亚太森博之低碳"纸"路%Low-carbon Footprint Development Path of APRIL SSYMB Pulp and Paper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马克顺; 张守国; 江健儿

    2011-01-01

    Since its founding, APRIL (Asia Pacific Resources International Limited ) has followed an integrated "forestry,pulp and paper"development strategy by plantation for carbon sequestration and rotating harvesting for pulp and paper production. The total investment in SSMYB Phase 1 and Phase 2 for environmental protection was 3.63 billion RMB,the highest among all Chinese pulp mills.Based on national authority's assessment,SSYMB's effluent pollutants are less than the limit set up by the European,American and Japanese standards,among the most advanced levels of cleaner production in the world.Employing the world's most advanced technologies in energy-saving,water conservation and waste treatments,SSYMB reaches water reuse rate of 90%,alkali recovery rate of 99.3%,black liquor recovery rate of 100% and energy self-sufficient rate of above 90%.%亚太资源集团秉持育林固碳、轮伐造纸的"林、浆、纸一体化"发展战略,跨国育林,国内"纸"用.公司一期、二期工程环保投资36.3亿元,创国内单个浆纸厂之最.据国家权威部门测评,公司排放指标均优于欧美、日本行业标准,达到清洁生产的国际先进水平.采用了世界最先进的节能、节水、"三废"处理新技术,水循环利用率达90%,碱回收率99.3%,黑液回收率100%,能源自给率90%以上.

  18. Dinosaur footprints in the Upper Turonian-Coniacian limestone in the Krnica Bay (NE Istria, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Mauko

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Three isolated footprints and one trackway that can be attributed to bipedal dinosaur, from a limestone bed in vicinity of Požara promontory, Krnica Bay, are described. According to the stratigraphic position the footprints are late Turonian to Coniacian in age.This is the first record of dinosaur remains in the Turonian-Coniacian and the youngest footprint site on the Adriatic-Dinaric Carbonate Platform described thus far.

  19. Water Footprint: Help or Hindrance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Chapagain

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In response to increasing concerns about pressures on global water resources, researchers have developed a range of water footprint concepts and tools. These have been deployed for a variety of purposes by businesses, governments and NGOs. A debate has now emerged about the value, and the shortcomings of using water footprint tools to support better water resources management. This paper tracks the evolution of the water footprint concept from its inception in the 1990s and reviews major applications of water footprint tools, including those by the private sector. The review suggests that water footprint assessments have been an effective means of raising awareness of global water challenges among audiences 'outside the water box' including decision makers in industry and government. Water footprint applications have also proved to be useful for the assessment of strategic corporate risks relating to water scarcity and pollution. There is evidence that these applications may help to motivate economically important stakeholders to contribute to joint efforts to mitigate shared water-related risks, although there have been few examples to date of such approaches leading to tangible improvements in water resources management at the local and river basin scales. Water footprint assessments have so far had limited influence on the development or implementation of improved public policy for water resources management and there is reason to believe that water footprint approaches may be a distraction in this context. Suggestions that international trade and economic development frameworks might be amended in light of global water footprint assessments have not yet been articulated coherently. Nevertheless, if used carefully, water footprint tools could contribute to better understanding of the connections between water use, economic development, business practice and social and environmental risks. In light of the review, a set of 'golden rules' is

  20. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.8 National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary ambient air...

  1. Saving the Planet’s Climate or Water Resources? The Trade-Off between Carbon and Water Footprints of European Biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Berger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Little information regarding the global water footprint of biofuels consumed in Europe is available. Therefore, the ultimate origin of feedstock underlying European biodiesel and bioethanol consumption was investigated and combined with the irrigation requirements of different crops in different countries. A (blue water consumption of 1.9 m3 in 12 countries per GJ of European biodiesel and 3.3 m3 in 23 countries per GJ of bioethanol was determined. Even though this represents an increase by a factor of 60 and 40 compared to fossil diesel and gasoline, these figures are low compared to global average data. The assessment of local consequences has shown that the irrigation of sunflower seed in Spain causes 50% of the impacts resulting from biodiesel—even though it constitutes only 0.9% of the feedstock. In case of bioethanol production, the irrigation of sugar cane in Egypt, which constitutes only 0.7% of the underlying feedstock, causes 20% of the impacts. In a case study on passenger cars, it was shown that biofuels can reduce the global warming potential by circa 50% along the product life cycle. However, the price of this improvement is an approximate 19 times increased water consumption, and resulting local impacts are even more severe.

  2. 75 FR 22372 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe... determines that certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's... imports of certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe (``seamless...

  3. 75 FR 69050 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe... duty order on certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe (``seamless... seamless pipe from the PRC. See Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure...

  4. 78 FR 79665 - Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Antidumping Duty Order; Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey, 51 FR 17784, 17784... International Trade Administration Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Final... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on welded carbon steel standard pipe and tube...

  5. 77 FR 67336 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... order on certain small diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe from Romania... diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe from Romania. See Certain Small... Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania, 65 FR 48963 (August...

  6. 78 FR 63164 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... antidumping duty order on certain small diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe... small diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe from Romania.\\1\\ We invited... (the Act). \\1\\ See Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure...

  7. 77 FR 56809 - Certain Small Diameter Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... Diameter Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Germany, 60 FR 39704 (August...\\ \\3\\ See Certain Small Diameter Seamless Carbon and Alloy Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From... International Trade Administration Certain Small Diameter Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line,...

  8. 75 FR 44766 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey: Final Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ...: Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey, 51 FR 7984 (March 7, 1986). On April 1...: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 16439 (April 1, 2010) (Preliminary...) was rescinded. See Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube from Turkey: Notice of Rescission...

  9. 77 FR 19623 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... Pipe and Tube Products from Turkey, 51 FR 7984 (March 7, 1986). \\2\\ See Antidumping or Countervailing... Administrative Review, in Part, 76 FR 78886 (December 20, 2011). \\12\\ See Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standare...: Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey, 72 FR 62837, 62838 (November 7, 2007) (Turkey...

  10. The Ecological Footprint of Industrialized countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Frassoldati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To compare the carbon footprint of different nations and the per capita for each country allows us to visualize a problem often underestimated by our systems of production and consumption, which is based on inequality. There is a need to work on this problem because in sharing the liability and the global consequences, the effects that cannot continue, reveals a series of possibilities. It would require 3-6 planets equal to Earth in order to sustain a lifestyle like that of an inhabitant of North America in order to supporst all inhabitants on Earth.

  11. Proceedings of the Advisory Committee on standardization of carbon-phenolic test methods and specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William B.

    1991-01-01

    Proceedings of the Advisory Committee on Standardization of carbon-phenolic test methods and specifications are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: ashing procedures and alkali metal content of carbon fiber and fabrics; SPIP product identification code; SPIP initiative to adopt a water-soluble rayon yarn lubricant/size for weaving; fabric oxidation mass loss test; shelf life limit for prepregs, industry standard; silicon contamination update; resin, filler, and fabric content in prepreg; carbon assay testing calibration; thiokol rayon specifications; and SPIP low conductivity PAN program.

  12. 78 FR 39533 - Power Sector Carbon Pollution Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ....) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, June 25, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-15941 Filed 6-28-13; 11:15 am] Billing code... Proposed Rulemaking entitled ``Standards of Performance for Greenhouse Gas Emissions for New Stationary... guidelines to reduce costs; (iii) develop approaches that allow the use of market-based...

  13. 75 FR 69125 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ..., and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register on May 11, 2010 (75 FR 26273). The hearing was... COMMISSION Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China Determination... alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe (``seamless SLP pipe''), provided for in subheadings...

  14. Chinese Standards on Refractories Magnesia Carbon Bricks GB/T 22589-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan; Peng Xigao

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the classification,techni-cal requirements,test methods,quality appraisal pro-cedures,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of magnesia carbon bricks. This standard is applicable to the magnesia carbonbricks for steel-making converter,electric furnace,la-dle(refining furnace),etc.

  15. 77 FR 54926 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel; Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... FR 19711) and determined on July 6, 2012, that it would conduct an expedited review (77 FR 42763... COMMISSION Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel; Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany... steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from Germany would be likely to lead to continuation...

  16. Assessment of global grey water footprint of major food crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Liu, Wenfeng; Antonelli, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural production is one of the major sources of water pollution in the world. This is closely related to the excess application of fertilizers. Leaching of N and P to water bodies has caused serious degradation of water quality in many places. With the persistent increase in the demand for agricultural products, agricultural intensification evident during the past decades will continue in the future. This will lead to further increase in fertilizer application and consequently water pollution. Grey water footprint is a measure of the intensity of water pollution caused by water use for human activities. It is defined as the volume of water that is required to assimilate a load of pollutants to a freshwater body, based on natural background concentrations and water quality standards. This study conducts a global assessment of grey water footprint for major cereal crops, wheat, maize and rice. A crop model, Python-based EPIC (PEPIT), is applied to quantify the leaching of N and P from the fertilizer application in the three crops on a global scale with 0.5 degree spatial resolution. The hotspots of leaching are identified. The results suggest that, based on the definition and method of grey water footprint proposed by the World Water Footprint Network, the grey water footprint in many parts of the world has exceeded their total water resources availability. This indicates the seriousness of water pollution caused by agricultural production. However, the situation may also call for the development of a realistic measurement of grey water footprint which is more pertinent to water resources management. This paper proposes some alternatives in measuring grey water footprint and also discusses incorporation of grey water footprint assessment into water policy formulation and river basins plan development.

  17. FLORIDA TOWER FOOTPRINT EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WATSON,T.B.; DIETZ, R.N.; WILKE, R.; HENDREY, G.; LEWIN, K.; NAGY, J.; LECLERC, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Florida Footprint experiments were a series of field programs in which perfluorocarbon tracers were released in different configurations centered on a flux tower to generate a data set that can be used to test transport and dispersion models. These models are used to determine the sources of the CO{sub 2} that cause the fluxes measured at eddy covariance towers. Experiments were conducted in a managed slash pine forest, 10 km northeast of Gainesville, Florida, in 2002, 2004, and 2006 and in atmospheric conditions that ranged from well mixed, to very stable, including the transition period between convective conditions at midday to stable conditions after sun set. There were a total of 15 experiments. The characteristics of the PFTs, details of sampling and analysis methods, quality control measures, and analytical statistics including confidence limits are presented. Details of the field programs including tracer release rates, tracer source configurations, and configuration of the samplers are discussed. The result of this experiment is a high quality, well documented tracer and meteorological data set that can be used to improve and validate canopy dispersion models.

  18. Trends and Determining Factors of Energy Consumption Carbon Footprint -An Analysis for Suzhou-Wuxi- Changzhou Region Based on STIRPAT Model%基于STIRPAT模型的能源消费碳足迹变化及影响因素——以江苏省苏锡常地区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢娜; 曲福田; 冯淑怡; 邵雪兰

    2011-01-01

    Improving the understanding of the impact of socio-economic development on energy consumption carbon footprint is of great importance for developing low-carbon economy. This paper calculated and analyzed the trend of energy consumption carbon footprint of Suzhou - Wuxi -Changzhou region during the period of 1991-2008. Applying ridge regression method, the STIRPAT model was estimated to explore the relationships between population, per capita GDP, technological development and energy consumption carbon footprint. The decoupling index was adopted to further analyze the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption carbon footprint. Results indicated that:1 ) For Suzhou- Wuxi- Changzhou region, energy consumption carbon footprint has increased from 0. 05 hm2 per capita in 1991 to 0. 58 hm2 per capita in 2008.The annual average increasing rate was 15.30%. Coal consumption accounted for the largest share in energy consumption carbon footprint. The share in 2008 was 96. 18%. Petroleum consumption fluctuated and showed a downward trend, the share decreased from 18.71% to 3.42% from 1991 to 2008. Different from petroleum, natural gas consumption rose very fast. Even though the share was only 0. 40% in 2008, the annual average increasing rate was 45.40% since the extension of natural gas in 2002. The value of carbon footprint showed an overall fluctuating downward tendency, indicating a large space for energy efficiency improvement. 2) Economic development was the main driving factor for energy consumption carbon footprint. 1% increase of per capita GDP has resulted in 0. 73% increase in energy consumption carbon footprint. The relationship between per capita GDP and energy consumption carbon footprint, however, did not prove the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC), indicating that with the socio-economic development, environmental pressure caused by energy consumption will continuously increasing. 3 ) The decoupling index was fluctuating, either

  19. Data quality analysis with combination uncertainty and sensitivity for carbon footprint assessment of products%产品碳足迹评价中不确定度与敏感度相结合的数据质量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莎; 李燚佩; 曹磊; 刘尊文; 陈迎新

    2014-01-01

    产品碳足迹评价中,数据种类、来源、获取途径和量化方法的选择不同将直接影响到评价结果的可靠与否。本文建立了结合敏感度和DQI-Monte Carlo不确定度分析的产品碳足迹评价数据质量分析模型。首先通过敏感度分析识别出产品碳足迹评价中的主要数据,再采用DQI-Monte Carlo不确定度分析方法对主要数据进行数据质量判定,甄选出影响评价结果可靠性的关键数据,并由此有针对性地提出数据质量改进意见,从而有效地优化数据收集方案,减少碳足迹评价结果的不确定度。建立的方法应用于我国某塑料软包装印刷企业的印刷前阶段碳足迹评价中。%The results of carbon footprint assessment of products depend onthe selection of data types, sources, assessment approaches. The purpose of this study is to develop a new method which is combined DOI-Monte Carlo with sensitivity analysis and data quality analysis method for carbon footprint assessment of products. For this new approach, firstly, the primary data impacting on the assessment result were chosen through data sensitivity analysis; then, with DOI-Monte Carlo analysis the uncertainty of the primary data and the key data that affect the evaluation results were obtained. As a result, the accuracy of carbon footprint assessment could be improved more specific by optimizing data collection scheme according to the above data analysis method. As a case study, the developed method was applied to the carbon footprint assessment in the pre-printing stage of one plastic flexible packaging printing company in China. This approach can be used for carbon footprint assessment of many products by improving the uncertainty and data quality.

  20. Conventional, hybrid, plug-in hybrid or electric vehicles? State-based comparative carbon and energy footprint analysis in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Driving patterns and electricity generation mix influence vehicle preferences. • EVs are found to be least carbon-intensive vehicle option in 24 states. • HEVs are found to be the most energy-efficient option in 45 states. • EVs across the board are unfavorable in the marginal electricity mix scenario. • Use of renewable energy to power EVs/PHEVs is crucial. - Abstract: Electric vehicles (EVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are often considered as better options in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption compared to internal combustion vehicles. However, making any decision among these vehicle options is not a straightforward process due to temporal and spatial variations, such as the sources of the electricity used and regional driving patterns. In this study, we compared these vehicle options across 50 states, taking into account state-specific average and marginal electricity generation mixes, regional driving patterns, and vehicle and battery manufacturing impacts. Furthermore, a policy scenario proposing the widespread use of solar energy to charge EVs and PHEVs is evaluated. Based on the average electricity generation mix scenario, EVs are found to be least carbon-intensive vehicle option in 24 states, while HEVs are found to be the most energy-efficient option in 45 states. In the marginal electricity mix scenario, widespread adoption of EVs is found to be an unwise strategy given the existing and near-future marginal electricity generation mix. On the other hand, EVs can be superior to other alternatives in terms of energy-consumption, if the required energy to generate 1 kW h of electricity is below 1.25 kW h

  1. Surveying the Environmental Footprint of Urban Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin Paul; Birkved, Morten; Fernandez, John

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of urban metabolism (UM) are well situated to identify the scale, components, and direction of urban and energy flows in cities and have been instrumental in benchmarking and monitoring the key levers of urban environmental pressure, such as transport, space conditioning......, and electricity. Hitherto, urban food consumption has garnered scant attention both in UM accounting (typically lumped with “biomass”) and on the urban policy agenda, despite its relevance to local and global environmental pressures. With future growth expected in urban population and wealth, an accounting...... of the environmental footprint from urban food demand (“foodprint”) is necessary. This article reviews 43 UM assessments including 100 cities, and a total of 132 foodprints in terms of mass, carbon footprint, and ecological footprint and situates it relative to other significant environmental drivers (transport...

  2. The application of spectrum standardization method for carbon analysis in coal using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiongwei; Fu, Yangting; Li, Zheng; Liu, Jianming; Ni, Weidou

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of carbon content in coal using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is limited by its low measurement precision and accuracy. A spectrum standardization method was proposed to achieve both reproducible and accurate results for the quantitative analysis of carbon content in coal with LIBS. The proposed method utilized the molecular carbon emissions to compensate the diminution of atomic carbon emission caused by matrix effect. The compensated carbon line intensities were further converted into an assumed standard state with fixed plasma temperature, electron density, and total number density of elemental carbon, which is proportional to its concentration in the coal samples. In addition, in order to obtained better compensation for total carbon number density fluctuations, an iterative algorithm was applied, which is different from our previous standardization calculations. The modified spectrum standardization model was applied to the measurement of carbon content in 24 bituminous coal sa...

  3. Carbon Footprint Based Multilevel Hierarchical Production Process Control%基于碳足迹的生产过程分级递阶控制技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙群; 张为民

    2011-01-01

    On the ground of resource and environmental attribution in manufacturing enterprise production process analysis, a carbon footprint was proposed as the unified quantitative indicator to evaluate resource and environmental attribution, optimum process control for production process. The relationship constraints among resource and environmental attribution and production control were discussed. Moreover, a multilevel hierarchy control system was established with the support of database, model base and knowledge base. This system offers a theoretical support for resource quantitative evaluation and production process control.%针对企业生产过程资源环境属性分析中缺乏统一量化评价指标的问题,提出将碳足迹作为衡量生产过程资源环境属性重要指标的思想,探讨了生态环境限制与生产过程资源环境属性的映射关系.以碳足迹作为生产控制优化的衡量指标,建立了制造任务参数优化的过程模型,在数据库、模型库和知识库的支持下,构建了基于碳足迹的生产过程分级递阶控制系统,为生产过程资源环境属性的定量评价及控制优化提供了理论支持.

  4. The ecological footprint method on a farm level – a case study on a UK organic farm with parallel cropping

    OpenAIRE

    Schmutz, Dr Ulrich; Firth, Chris; Lewis, Kevin; Lillywhite, Mr Robert

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the farming community to understand and improve their ecological footprint and reduce CO2-carbon emissions. This case study compares the ecological footprint of organic and conventional cabbage, celeriac, sugar beet and winter wheat crops on a UK commercial, parallel cropping, farm. Results show lower ecological footprints and energy ratios in all organic crops. However, CO2-emissions per unit yield are only lower if the fertility building is not considered. In...

  5. Trends and Issues in California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard - Learning from Response to Existing Climate Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcover, J.

    2015-12-01

    Debate over lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transportation has included heated discussion about appropriate policies and their cost and feasibility. One prominent policy mechanism, a carbon intensity standard, rates transport fuels based on analysis of lifecycle GHG emissions, and targets lower fuel pool carbon intensity through a market mechanism that uses a system of tradable, bankable credits and deficits. California instituted such a policy -- the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) - in 2010, which targets a 10% carbon intensity (CI) reduction by 2020. The program rolled out amid concerns over slow development of new fuels expected to be very low carbon (such as cellulosic) and has faced court challenges that added considerable policy uncertainty. Since the program's start, state transport energy mix has shifted modestly but noticeably. Looking ahead, emerging issues for the program include amendments and re-adoption in response to a court ruling, potential interaction with California's multi-sector cap on carbon emissions (which started covering transport fuels in 2015), and impacts from similar CI standards in other jurisdictions. This study provides an analysis of fuel mix changes since the LCFS was implemented in 2011, and a discussion of emerging issues focusing on policy interaction. Descriptive statistics on alternative fuel use, available fuel pathways, and CI ratings are presented based on data from the California Air Resources Board (which runs the program). They document a shift towards more alternative fuels in a more diverse mix, with lower average CI ratings for most alternative fuel types. Financial incentives for various fuels are compared under the LCFS and the US federal Renewable Fuel Standard; disincentives from conceptually different carbon pricing schemes under the LCFS and the Cap-and-Trade are also outlined. The results provide important information on response to an existing market-based policy mechanism for addressing GHG

  6. Vestige: Maximum likelihood phylogenetic footprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Peter

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic footprinting is the identification of functional regions of DNA by their evolutionary conservation. This is achieved by comparing orthologous regions from multiple species and identifying the DNA regions that have diverged less than neutral DNA. Vestige is a phylogenetic footprinting package built on the PyEvolve toolkit that uses probabilistic molecular evolutionary modelling to represent aspects of sequence evolution, including the conventional divergence measure employed by other footprinting approaches. In addition to measuring the divergence, Vestige allows the expansion of the definition of a phylogenetic footprint to include variation in the distribution of any molecular evolutionary processes. This is achieved by displaying the distribution of model parameters that represent partitions of molecular evolutionary substitutions. Examination of the spatial incidence of these effects across regions of the genome can identify DNA segments that differ in the nature of the evolutionary process. Results Vestige was applied to a reference dataset of the SCL locus from four species and provided clear identification of the known conserved regions in this dataset. To demonstrate the flexibility to use diverse models of molecular evolution and dissect the nature of the evolutionary process Vestige was used to footprint the Ka/Ks ratio in primate BRCA1 with a codon model of evolution. Two regions of putative adaptive evolution were identified illustrating the ability of Vestige to represent the spatial distribution of distinct molecular evolutionary processes. Conclusion Vestige provides a flexible, open platform for phylogenetic footprinting. Underpinned by the PyEvolve toolkit, Vestige provides a framework for visualising the signatures of evolutionary processes across the genome of numerous organisms simultaneously. By exploiting the maximum-likelihood statistical framework, the complex interplay between mutational

  7. Mathematical Footprints Discovering Mathematics Everywhere

    CERN Document Server

    Pappas, Theoni

    1999-01-01

    MATHEMATICAL FOOTPRINTS takes a creative look at the role mathematics has played since prehistoric times, and will play in the future, and uncovers mathematics where you least expect to find it from its many uses in medicine, the sciences, and its appearance in art to its patterns in nature and its central role in the development of computers. Pappas presents mathematical ideas in a readable non-threatening manner. MATHEMATICAL FOOTPRINTS is another gem by the creator of THE MATHEMATICS CALENDAR and author of THE JOY OF MATHEMATICS. "Pappas's books have been gold mines of mathematical ent

  8. Herschel Footprint Database and Service

    CERN Document Server

    Varga-Verebélyi, E; Budavári, T; Kiss, Cs

    2016-01-01

    We created the Herschel Footprint Database and web services for the Herschel Space Observatory imaging data. For this database we set up a unified data model for the PACS and SPIRE Herschel instruments, from the pointing and header information of each observation, generated and stored sky coverages (footprints) of the observations in their exact geometric form. With this tool we extend the capabilities of the Herschel Science Archive by providing an effective search tool that is able to find observations for selected sky locations (objects), or even in larger areas in the sky.

  9. Estimation of stature from static and dynamic footprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reel, Sarah; Rouse, Simon; Vernon, Wesley; Doherty, Patrick

    2012-06-10

    The ability to estimate accurately from known parameters is a fundamental aspect of science and is evident as an emerging approach in the area of footprints and stature estimation within the field of forensic identification. There are numerous foot dimensions that have been measured in the literature to predict stature with varying degrees of confidence but few studies have tried to link the strength of estimation to anatomical landmarks. Such an approach is utilised in this study which estimates stature from the right footprints of sixty one adult male and female UK participants. Static and dynamic footprints were taken from each volunteer using the 'inkless paper system'. The prints were digitised and twelve length, width and angle measurements were chosen for the analysis. The highest correlations with stature were shown to be the heel to fourth toe print for the static group of footprints (r=0.786, pLinear regression equations for this measurement presented the smallest standard error of estimate (SEE) and highest shared variance (R(2)) of all included variables (SEE 4.16, R(2) 0.74). Our study discusses a potential anatomical explanation as to why the lateral border of the foot and hence the impression it makes upon a hard surface, is a more stable indicator in the estimation of stature. The investigation recommends the use of Calc_A4 and Calc_A5 length measurements when estimating stature from footprint impressions.

  10. Life cycle carbon footprint study for a passive house type wooden-framed apartment building. A case study of the climate impacts of an apartment building; Passiivitason asuinkerrostalon elinkaaren hiilijalanjaelki. Tapaustutkimus kerrostalon ilmastovaikutuksista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasanen, P.; Korteniemi, J; Sipari, A. (Bionova Consulting, Lahti, Helsinki (Finland))

    2011-12-15

    This report concerns a full life cycle carbon footprint study for a passive house type wooden-framed apartment building. The studied building has five floors and is constructed from gluelam elements. The contractor was Rakennusliike Reponen. The building was compared with similar concrete element building. The study covers all phases of the life cycle: materials extraction, component production, construction, building use phase energy consumption, renovation, repairs and surface maintenance as well as demolition and material disposal. The material inventory covers all materials from foundations to floor surfacing, however interior furnishings, furniture and household equipment are out of scope. The scope covers the frame, windows, doors, floor surface materials and building services. The material inventory is based on data provided by the contractor. The apartment building is assumed to last for 100 years and energy production emissions are assumed to decrease over time. The study contains scenarios, where energy efficiency, calculation period (30,50 and 100 years) and heat supply source are varied. The key outcome of the study is that in all scenarios the use phase energy consumption is the largest contributor to the carbon emissions. For 100 year use phase in a wood frame apartment building the lifecycle emissions consists of following sources: use phase energy 76 %, materials and recycling 15 %, construction and repairs 9 %. For a concrete element building use phase energy is 71 %, materials and recycling 21 %, construction and repairs 8 % of total. Energy efficiency has significant potential for reducing emissions. The difference in lifecycle emissions for a building compliant with Finnish 2012 building code (delivered energy 125 kWh / m2 / a) and aue'near-zero energy' (80 kWh / m2 / a) building is 39 % over 100 years. Passive house level (100 kWh / m2 / a) achieves 18 % lower emissions than required by 2012 code. However, the single measure with the

  11. 75 FR 26273 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... COMMISSION Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China AGENCY... pipe (``seamless SLP pipe''), provided for in subheadings 7301.19.10, 7304.19.50, 7304.31.60, 7304.39... China of seamless SLP pipe, and that such products are being sold in the United States at less than...

  12. 75 FR 33578 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes from India: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... FR 20278 (May 1, 2009). On June 24, 2009, in response to a request from the Wheatland Tube Company... Antidumping Duty Order; Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes from India, 51 FR 17384 (May 12... Tubes from India, 51 FR 17384 (May 12, 1986). On May 1, 2009, the Department published in the...

  13. 76 FR 60083 - Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... pipe from Romania. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on April 1, 2011 (76 FR 18251) and determined on July 5, 2011 that it would conduct expedited reviews (76 FR 44608, July 26, 2011... COMMISSION Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania...

  14. Analysis on Impacts and Co-Abatement Effects of Implementing the Low Carbon Cement Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Pang

    2014-01-01

    Citation: Pang, J., Y.-C. Shi, X.-Z. Feng, et al., 2014: Analysis on impacts and co-abatement effects of implementing the low carbon cement standard.Adv. Clim. Change Res.,5(1, doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1248.2014.041.

  15. Methodology for Rewetting Drained Tropical Peatlands. Approved Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) Methodology VM0027

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffer, S.; Laer, Y.; Navrátil, R.; Wosten, J.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    The first methodology to address the rewetting of drained peatlands "Methodology for rewetting Drained Tropical Peatlands" has been approved by the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) Program. As the methodology is the first of its kind, it will provide unique guidance for other projects that aim at rewe

  16. AgSat Imagery Collection Footprints

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The AgSat Imagery Collection Footprints map shows the imagery footprints which have been collected under the USDA satellite blanket purchase agreement. Click on a...

  17. Standard Test Method for Gel Time of Carbon Fiber-Epoxy Prepreg

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of gel time of carbon fiber-epoxy tape and sheet. The test method is suitable for the measurement of gel time of resin systems having either high or low viscosity. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values in parentheses are for reference only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  18. The water footprint of bioenergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Meer, van der Theo H.

    2009-01-01

    All energy scenarios show a shift toward an increased percentage of renewable energy sources, including biomass. This study gives an overview of water footprints (WFs) of bioenergy from 12 crops that currently contribute the most to global agricultural production: barley, cassava, maize, potato, rap

  19. Quantifying the human impact on water resources: a critical review of the water footprint concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenoweth, J.; Hadjikakou, M.; Zoumides, C.

    2014-06-01

    The water footprint is a consumption-based indicator of water use, referring to the total volume of freshwater used directly and indirectly by a nation or a company, or in the provision of a product or service. Despite widespread enthusiasm for the development and use of water footprints, some concerns have been raised about the concept and its usefulness. A variety of methodologies have been developed for water footprinting which differ with respect to how they deal with different forms of water use. The result is water footprint estimates which vary dramatically, often creating confusion. Despite these methodological qualms, the concept has had notable success in raising awareness about water use in agricultural and industrial supply chains, by providing a previously unavailable and (seemingly) simple numerical indicator of water use. Nevertheless, and even though a range of uses have already been suggested for water footprinting, its policy value remains unclear. Unlike the carbon footprint which provides a universal measure of human impact on the atmosphere's limited absorptive capacity, the water footprint in its conventional form solely quantifies a single production input without any accounting of the impacts of use, which vary spatially and temporally. Following an extensive review of the literature related to water footprints, this paper critically examines the present uses of the concept, focusing on its current strengths, shortcomings and promising research avenues to advance it.

  20. Uk’e koley (no footprint) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winnestaffer, Jessica E.D. [Chickaloon Native Village

    2014-03-30

    Chickaloon Native Village is a federally-recognized Alaska Native Tribe that has long been devoted to being a good steward to the environment, understanding that it is our responsibility to take care of the land that has been loaned to us for the short time we are here. The goal of this project was to conduct a feasibility study to assess the energy uses, loads, and efficiencies for all of our current Tribally owned and operated buildings and rental housing units, to determine if it makes economic and environmental sense to install renewable energy systems on each building to lower our carbon footprints and to decrease our dependence on fossil fuels. The goal was met and we have developed a plan for installing renewable energy systems on several Tribal buildings where the benefits will be most notable.

  1. 77 FR 21968 - Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the... countervailing duty order on seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR...

  2. 75 FR 29972 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Determination, 75 FR 22372 (April 28, 2010) (``Preliminary Determination''). On May 3, 2010, Tianjin Pipe (Group... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe... antidumping duty investigation of certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure...

  3. 75 FR 57444 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China, 74 FR 57521 (November 6, 2009) and Certain Seamless Carbon... export restraints, the GOC is providing inputs to downstream producers of seamless pipe. \\8\\ See 75 FR at... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure...

  4. 75 FR 11119 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan, covering the period June 1, 2008... Deferral of Administrative Review, 74 FR 37690 (July 29, 2009). The preliminary results for this... International Trade Administration Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and...

  5. 75 FR 6183 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... investigation on certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's Republic of China. See Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 74 FR 52744 (October 14,...

  6. 75 FR 18153 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan, covering the period June 1, 2008... Deferral of Administrative Review, 74 FR 37690 (July 29, 2009). The preliminary results for this... the record. See Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe...

  7. 75 FR 57449 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe... determined that certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's..., in Part, and Postponement of Final Determination, 75 FR 22372 (April 28, 2010)...

  8. 75 FR 63439 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes From India: Extension of the Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 33578 (June 14, 2010). The review covers the... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes From India: Extension of... the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain welded carbon steel standard...

  9. 75 FR 68327 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes From India: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... and Requests for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 37759 (June 30, 2010). Based on various requests for review... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes From India: Rescission... certain welded carbon steel standard pipes and tubes from India. The period of review is May 1,...

  10. 77 FR 50465 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe (small diameter seamless pipe) from Romania.\\1... Order: Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania... Corporation (the petitioner) alleged that AMTP made sales of small diameter seamless pipe from Romania...

  11. 77 FR 21734 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure... review of the antidumping duty order on certain small diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 76 FR...

  12. 76 FR 47555 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Japan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... Pipe From Japan; Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From... certain small diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe (``small diameter pipe... sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on large diameter pipe from Japan and small......

  13. 基于生态足迹思想的皂市水利枢纽工程生态补偿标准研究%A study on ecological compensation standard for Zaoshi Water Conservancy Project based on the idea of ecological footprint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖建红; 陈绍金; 于庆东; 陈东景; 刘华平

    2011-01-01

    如何确定生态补偿标准是生态补偿研究的重点和难点问题.基于生态足迹思想方法,以皂市水利枢纽工程为例,构建了5个生态补偿主体受益评估模型(生态供给足迹评估模型)和8个生态补偿对象受损评估模型(生态需求足迹评估模型),对皂市工程生态补偿标准进行了定量评估.结果表明:①皂市工程生态补偿主体受益值为88482.2974 hm2/a,货币化转换结果为6.2353×108元/a;生态补偿对象受损值为14946.4861 hm2/a,货币化转换结果为1.0533×108元/a;生态补偿主体受益值是生态补偿对象受损值的5.92倍.②以明确生态补偿主体和生态补偿对象为前提,提出了3种生态补偿标准方案,目前推荐第2种生态补偿标准方案.③第2种生态补偿标准方案的生态补偿额为0.5238×108元/a,政府和水电开发业主是主要的生态补偿主体,其承担的生态补偿额分别占总生态补偿额的52.50%和35.77%;移民和河流生态系统本身是主要的生态补偿对象,其获得的生态补偿额分别占总生态补偿额的72.16%和15.68%.%Ecological compensation has been adopted in many countries and proved a good approach to protect environment. The focus of ecological compensation study was how to set ecological compensation standard. The ecological compensation standard was assessed mainly based on the methods of market value approach, opportunity cost approach, willingness to pay approach and cost analysis approach. Thus, the ecological footprint (EF) was applied rarely. The EF was defined as the biologically productive land and water a population requires to produce the resources it consumes and to absorb part of the waste generated by fossil and nuclear fuel consumption. The EF provides an aggregate estimate of demands upon the biophysical productivity and waste assimilation capacity of nature imposed by human lifestyles. This aggregate indicator permits the estimation of the equivalent land

  14. A GENOME MAY REDUCE YOUR CARBON FOOTPRINT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheap sequence information will place new emphasis on comparative approaches to mining the data for sequence alterations that lead to physiological contrasts between groups. The data will need to be accessible and coupled with phenotypic data to be made useful for breeders. Increased emphasis on b...

  15. Carbon footprint calculators for public procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Mattinen, Maija; Nissinen, Ari

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in public organizations to take into account the climate impacts of the products and services they procure. Furthermore, in Finland a Government Resolution  exists that provides a framework and sets aims for sustainable public procurement. Several municipalities in the Helsinki region together with the Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority and several expert organizations initiated an EU Life project, JULIA2030, to develop calculators for different sec...

  16. A Carbon Footprint of an Office Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellervo Matilainen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Current office buildings are becoming more and more energy efficient. In particular the importance of heating is decreasing, but the share of electricity use is increasing. When the CO2 equivalent emissions are considered, the CO2 emissions from embodied energy make up an important share of the total, indicating that the building materials have a high importance which is often ignored when only the energy efficiency of running the building is considered. This paper studies a new office building in design phase and offers different alternatives to influence building energy consumption, CO2 equivalent emissions from embodied energy from building materials and CO2 equivalent emissions from energy use and how their relationships should be treated. In addition this paper studies how we should weight the primary energy use and the CO2 equivalent emissions of different design options. The results showed that the reduction of energy use reduces both the primary energy use and CO2 equivalent emissions. Especially the reduction of electricity use has a high importance for both primary energy use and CO2 emissions when fossil fuels are used. The lowest CO2 equivalent emissions were achieved when bio-based, renewable energies or nuclear power was used to supply energy for the office building. Evidently then the share of CO2 equivalent emissions from the embodied energy of building materials and products became the dominant source of CO2 equivalent emissions. The lowest primary energy was achieved when bio-based local heating or renewable energies, in addition to district cooling, were used. The highest primary energy was for the nuclear power option.

  17. Simulating the Carbon Footprint of Galactic Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, Simeon; Suresh, Joshua; Hernquist, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We use observations of CIV and CII absorption in background quasars to constrain the parameters of supernova feedback models based on the Illustris cosmological simulation. We compare our simulations to two CIV absorber surveys at z=2-4, spanning a column density range $10^{12} - 10^{15}$ cm$^{-2}$, and an equivalent width 0.1 - 2 \\AA, respectively. We find that reproducing results from the first survey requires that the energy per unit mass of the supernova feedback be increased by a factor of two over the Illustris feedback model. We suggest that winds which deposit a fraction of their energy into heating, rather than accelerating, the surrounding gas can achieve this without altering the star formation rate. However, even our most energetic wind models do not produce enough absorbers with a CIV equivalent width greater than 0.6 Angstrom to match the results of the second survey. We connect these absorbers to the most massive haloes present in our simulations, and suggest possible ways to alleviate the disc...

  18. Life cycle analysis, Carbon footprint, Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The aim of Life Cycle Analysis is to try and evaluate the environmental impact of a device (or process), taking into account all the important contributing factors over its life. This can include the construction impacts and end of life issues, as well as any impact during the actual “use-phase” of the device. In the context of retail refrigeration, by far the dominant environmental impact results from the use of energy to run the refrigeration plant. This also applies to almost anything ...

  19. Carbon footprint of dairy production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their potential impact on global warming has become an important national and international concern. Dairy production systems along with all other types of animal agriculture are recognized as a source of GHG. Although little information exists on the net GHG emiss...

  20. The Carbon Footprint of Conference Papers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diomidis Spinellis

    Full Text Available The action required to stem the environmental and social implications of climate change depends crucially on how humankind shapes technology, economy, lifestyle and policy. With transport CO2 emissions accounting for about a quarter of the total, we examine the contribution of CO2 output by scientific travel. Thankfully for the reputation of the scientific community, CO2 emissions associated with the trips required to present a paper at a scientific conference account for just 0.003% of the yearly total. However, with CO2 emissions for a single conference trip amounting to 7% of an average individual's total CO2 emissions, scientists should lead by example by demonstrating leadership in addressing the issue.

  1. An urban metabolism and ecological footprint assessment of Metro Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jennie; Kissinger, Meidad; Rees, William E

    2013-07-30

    As the world urbanizes, the role of cities in determining sustainability outcomes grows in importance. Cities are the dominant form of human habitat, and most of the world's resources are either directly or indirectly consumed in cities. Sustainable city analysis and management requires understanding the demands a city places on a wider geographical area and its ecological resource base. We present a detailed, integrated urban metabolism of residential consumption and ecological footprint analysis of the Vancouver metropolitan region for the year 2006. Our overall goal is to demonstrate the application of a bottom-up ecological footprint analysis using an urban metabolism framework at a metropolitan, regional scale. Our specific objectives are: a) to quantify energy and material consumption using locally generated data and b) to relate these data to global ecological carrying capacity. Although water is the largest material flow through Metro Vancouver (424,860,000 m(3)), it has the smallest ecological footprint (23,100 gha). Food (2,636,850 tonnes) contributes the largest component to the ecological footprint (4,514,400 gha) which includes crop and grazing land as well as carbon sinks required to sequester emissions from food production and distribution. Transportation fuels (3,339,000 m(3)) associated with motor vehicle operation and passenger air travel comprises the second largest material flow through the region and the largest source of carbon dioxide emissions (7,577,000 tonnes). Transportation also accounts for the second largest component of the EF (2,323,200 gha). Buildings account for the largest electricity flow (17,515,150 MWh) and constitute the third largest component of the EF (1,779,240 gha). Consumables (2,400,000 tonnes) comprise the fourth largest component of the EF (1,414,440 gha). Metro Vancouver's total Ecological Footprint in 2006 was 10,071,670 gha, an area approximately 36 times larger than the region itself. The EFA reveals that

  2. Estimating carbon emissions avoided by electricity generation and efficiency projects: A standardized method (MAGPWR)

    OpenAIRE

    Meyers, S.; Marnay, C.; Schumacher, K.; Sathaye, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a standardized method for establishing a multi-project baseline for a power system. The method provides an approximation of the generating sources that are expected to operate on the margin in the future for a given electricity system. It is most suitable for small-scale electricity generation and electricity efficiency improvement projects. It allows estimation of one or more carbon emissions factors that represent the emissions avoided by projects, striking a bala...

  3. A Life-Cycle Carbon Footprint Assessment of Electric Power Companies%基于全生命周期评价的电力企业碳足迹评估——以山西省吕梁市某燃煤电厂为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘韵; 师华定; 曾贤刚

    2011-01-01

    Climate Change has prompted people to rethink development modes and take a low-carbon development mode. As climate change are receiving increasing attention worldwide, a new concept, carbon footprint, has emerged. Carbon footprint, based on CO2 emissions from the consumer, is a measure of assessing the effect of production and human activities on climate change by consuming energy and emitting CO2. It seems to be more robust than carbon emissions traditionally used. In China, electric power companies play an important role in emissions reduction and low-carbon economy activities; they are the major drivers of CO2 emissions reduction. Rethinking their strategic positions and development modes necessitates clear planning and research on accounting and managing enterprises' carbon footprint. In the present work, we analyzed and evaluated the carbon footprint of the coal-fired power company in Luliang City of Shanxi Province based on the theory of carbon footprint assessment, the full life cycle method, and the bottom-up method. The evaluation encompasses direct CO2 emissions and indirect emissions.The direct emissions involve emissions from coal firing and desulfurization replacement. The indirect emissions comprise emissions from coal mining and processing and the transportation for coal and waste. The evaluation requires the calculation of emission coefficients and mass conservation. Data are primarily from the Luliang coal-fired power company, Statistical Yearbook,and some published studies. Results show that the coal firing accounted for 96.2% of the whole carbon footprint, which resulted from the power company' s whole life cycle. Coal mining and processing accounted for 3%, desulfurization replacement accounted for 0.68%, and the transportation accounted for 0.12%. Based on the distribution of the whole life cycle carbon footprint of the power enterprise, it can be found that the primary potential of carbon emissions reduction lies in the coal

  4. A simple two-dimensional parameterisation for Flux Footprint Prediction (FFP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kljun, N.; Calanca, P.; Rotach, M. W.; Schmid, H. P.

    2015-11-01

    Flux footprint models are often used for interpretation of flux tower measurements, to estimate position and size of surface source areas, and the relative contribution of passive scalar sources to measured fluxes. Accurate knowledge of footprints is of crucial importance for any upscaling exercises from single site flux measurements to local or regional scale. Hence, footprint models are ultimately also of considerable importance for improved greenhouse gas budgeting. With increasing numbers of flux towers within large monitoring networks such as FluxNet, ICOS (Integrated Carbon Observation System), NEON (National Ecological Observatory Network), or AmeriFlux, and with increasing temporal range of observations from such towers (of the order of decades) and availability of airborne flux measurements, there has been an increasing demand for reliable footprint estimation. Even though several sophisticated footprint models have been developed in recent years, most are still not suitable for application to long time series, due to their high computational demands. Existing fast footprint models, on the other hand, are based on surface layer theory and hence are of restricted validity for real-case applications. To remedy such shortcomings, we present the two-dimensional parameterisation for Flux Footprint Prediction (FFP), based on a novel scaling approach for the crosswind distribution of the flux footprint and on an improved version of the footprint parameterisation of Kljun et al. (2004b). Compared to the latter, FFP now provides not only the extent but also the width and shape of footprint estimates, and explicit consideration of the effects of the surface roughness length. The footprint parameterisation has been developed and evaluated using simulations of the backward Lagrangian stochastic particle dispersion model LPDM-B (Kljun et al., 2002). Like LPDM-B, the parameterisation is valid for a broad range of boundary layer conditions and measurement heights over

  5. Carbon dioxide emission standards for U.S. power plants. An efficiency analysis perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampf, Benjamin [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Fachbereich Rechts- und Wirtschaftswissenschaften; Roedseth, Kenneth Loevold [Institute of Transport Economics, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Economics and Logistics

    2013-07-01

    On June 25, 2013, President Obama announced his plan to introduce carbon dioxide emission standards for electricity generation. This paper proposes an efficiency analysis approach that addresses which mission rates (and standards) would be feasible if the existing generating units adopt best practices. A new efficiency measure is introduced and further decomposed to identify different sources' contributions to emission rate improvements. Estimating two Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models - the well-known joint production model and the new materials balance model - on a dataset consisting of 160 bituminous-fired generating units, we find that the average generating unit's electricity-to-carbon dioxide ratio is 15.3 percent below the corresponding best-practice ratio. Further examinations reveal that this discrepancy can largely be attributed to non-discretionary factors and not to managerial inefficiency. Moreover, even if the best practice ratios could be implemented, the generating units would not be able to comply with the EPA's recently proposed carbon dioxide standard.

  6. The water footprint of land grabbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulli, Maria Cristina; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    increasing global demand for food, fibers, and biofuels has made investments in agriculture a priority for some governments and corporations eager to expand their agricultural production while securing good profits. Here we calculate the water appropriation associated with land deals at different negotiation and implementation stages. Using estimates of actual and potential evapotranspiration for the crops planted in the acquired land, we calculate the green and blue water appropriated by land investors under a variety of irrigation scenarios. We also determine the grey water footprint as the amount of water required to dilute to allowable standards the pollution resulting from fertilizer applications. We found that about 380 × 109 m3 yr-1 of rainwater is appropriated with the 43 million ha of reported contract area acquired by agri-investors (>240 × 109 m3 yr-1 in the 29 million ha of foreign acquisitions only). This water would be sufficient to feed ≈ 300-390 million people.

  7. Proceedings of a national conference on low carbon fuel standards for Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, B.; Ogilvie, K. (comps.) [Pollution Probe, Toronto, ON (Canada); McKechnie, J.; Charron, L.; Zhang, Y.; Standish, B. (comps.) [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada)

    2009-03-15

    This conference provided a forum to discuss the issue of low carbon fuel standards (LCFS) and how they can be applied in Canada, particularly as province-led measures. LCFS is a multifaceted transportation energy and technology policy framework aimed at reducing the lifecycle carbon intensity of transportation fuels. As such, it has important implications for energy industries and vehicle manufacturers. The conference presentations reviewed international issues and programs, including California's efforts to reduce lifecycle carbon intensity of transportation fuels by 10 percent by 2020. British Columbia and Ontario have both signed memoranda of understanding with California to coordinate policies on LCFS. The conference also outlined the role of petroleum producers and refiners, and discussed lifecycle analysis in terms of the tools available for measuring the carbon intensity of fuel. Other topics of discussion included alternative and renewable fuels; vehicle technologies for low-carbon fuels; compliance issues; and technology pathways for compliance through fuel-technology options. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. 旅游风景区旅游交通系统碳足迹评估——以南岳衡山为例%Carbon footprint evaluation research on the tourism transportation system at tourist attractions: a case study in Hengshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦银娣; 刘云鹏; 李伯华; 刘沛林

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been large-scale development in tourism in China. It is difficult to achieve sustainable development of the tourism industry because of increasing carbon emissions associated with tourist attractions. In this article, we focused on Hengshan as the case study and applied a life cycle evaluation theory to construct a carbon footprint calculation model of the tourism transportation system at a scenic spot in Hengshan. The following results were obtained: first, in terms of total volume, different types of transportation have different carbon footprints. The most energy-expensive method of reaching tourist attractions is tourist highways, which have a carbon footprint that is 2. 6 times that of tourist cableways and 46. 1 times that of tourist walkways. Second, in terms of the stages in which the carbon footprint is distributed, the majority of the carbon footprint of tourist highways (79% ) and tourist cableways (96% ) is in the operation and use stage of the life cycle. For tourist walkways, most of the energy consumption is at the construction and the later operation stages. Third, in terms of source constitution, the carbon footprint of tourist highways occupies the largest proportion (about 71% ) during its useful life, followed by tourist cableways (27% ) and tourist walkways (2% ). The model described in this article will not only help to achieve the goals of low-carbon tourism development, but will also provide the theoretical support for saving energy and reducing emissions at tourist attractions. The following suggestions are proposed: first, it is important to increase awareness of low-carbon tourism, taking into account the transportation preferences of travelers and advocating a comprehensive means of tourist transport. Second, combined with the characteristics of the tourism infrastructure, some caution is needed when selecting low-carbon vehicles. Different types of transportation use different types of energy and have

  9. Consumptive ecological footprint and productive ecological footprint:a modification on ecological footprint theory to evaluate regional sustainable development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XlONG Deguo; XIAN Xuefu

    2004-01-01

    Ecological footprint theory and its application achievements in global and regional sustainable development systems are studied by consulting the published literature, which finds that the application of ecological footprint theory to regional sustainability evaluation has leaded to a perplexity that the indicated result was inconsistent with the philosophy of sustainable development theory. Illuminated by the mechanical system of the movement of matters, it comes up that ecological footprint based on consumption of biologic production could not tell whether the ecological pressure acts on the specified region, and the original ecological footprint theory also undervalued the development impartiality of a region. A modification on this theory is made by introducing consumptive ecological footprint and productive ecological footprint, in which the latter is taken as the indicator of regional sustainability. The development impartiality can be demonstrated by comparison between the global ecological deficit per capita and regional consumptive ecological deficit per capita.

  10. Standard Specification for Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum, Low-Carbon Nickel-Molybdenum-Chromium, Low-Carbon Nickel-Molybdenum-Chromium-Tantalum, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Copper, and Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Tungsten Alloy Rod

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2015-01-01

    Standard Specification for Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum, Low-Carbon Nickel-Molybdenum-Chromium, Low-Carbon Nickel-Molybdenum-Chromium-Tantalum, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Copper, and Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Tungsten Alloy Rod

  11. Standard Specification for Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Copper, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Tantalum, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Tungsten, and Low-Carbon Nickel-Molybdenum-Chromium Alloy Plate, Sheet, and Strip

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2015-01-01

    Standard Specification for Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Copper, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Tantalum, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Tungsten, and Low-Carbon Nickel-Molybdenum-Chromium Alloy Plate, Sheet, and Strip

  12. Quantification of variables that determine the carbon footprint and energy embodied of structural clay products (cradle to gate with options); Cuantificacion de las variables que determinan la huella de carbono y energia embebida de los distintos productos de ceramica estructural (cuna a puerta con opciones)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Rubio, R.; Rio Merino, M. del

    2014-07-01

    The production and transport of structural ceramic products involves an important energy consumption, which leads to the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The aim of the research is to demonstrate the existence of significant differences in the value of the environmental impact of structural ceramic products manufactured in Spain. To achieve this objective, is developed a method of identifying and quantifying of variables that determine the Carbon Footprint and Embodied Energy of ceramic products, depending on the type of product. The necessary information is obtained mainly with a data collection in factories. It is established six variables with a global influence in the environmental impact, 44 primary and 39 secondary variables, establishing calculation formula from these variables. The results determined that, for same manufacturing conditions, the differences between ceramic products reach 27 % for carbon footprint and 35 % for Embodied Energy. The relevance that reaches the impact of transport can reach 40 % of the total. It is considered that the research and its results can contribute to reduce the environmental impact of the buildings. (Author)

  13. Global terrestrial Human Footprint maps for 1993 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Oscar; Sanderson, Eric W; Magrach, Ainhoa; Allan, James R; Beher, Jutta; Jones, Kendall R; Possingham, Hugh P; Laurance, William F; Wood, Peter; Fekete, Balázs M; Levy, Marc A; Watson, James E M

    2016-01-01

    Remotely-sensed and bottom-up survey information were compiled on eight variables measuring the direct and indirect human pressures on the environment globally in 1993 and 2009. This represents not only the most current information of its type, but also the first temporally-consistent set of Human Footprint maps. Data on human pressures were acquired or developed for: 1) built environments, 2) population density, 3) electric infrastructure, 4) crop lands, 5) pasture lands, 6) roads, 7) railways, and 8) navigable waterways. Pressures were then overlaid to create the standardized Human Footprint maps for all non-Antarctic land areas. A validation analysis using scored pressures from 3114×1 km(2) random sample plots revealed strong agreement with the Human Footprint maps. We anticipate that the Human Footprint maps will find a range of uses as proxies for human disturbance of natural systems. The updated maps should provide an increased understanding of the human pressures that drive macro-ecological patterns, as well as for tracking environmental change and informing conservation science and application. PMID:27552448

  14. BigFoot: Bayesian alignment and phylogenetic footprinting with MCMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós István

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously combined statistical alignment and phylogenetic footprinting to detect conserved functional elements without assuming a fixed alignment. Considering a probability-weighted distribution of alignments removes sensitivity to alignment errors, properly accommodates regions of alignment uncertainty, and increases the accuracy of functional element prediction. Our method utilized standard dynamic programming hidden markov model algorithms to analyze up to four sequences. Results We present a novel approach, implemented in the software package BigFoot, for performing phylogenetic footprinting on greater numbers of sequences. We have developed a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC approach which samples both sequence alignments and locations of slowly evolving regions. We implement our method as an extension of the existing StatAlign software package and test it on well-annotated regions controlling the expression of the even-skipped gene in Drosophila and the α-globin gene in vertebrates. The results exhibit how adding additional sequences to the analysis has the potential to improve the accuracy of functional predictions, and demonstrate how BigFoot outperforms existing alignment-based phylogenetic footprinting techniques. Conclusion BigFoot extends a combined alignment and phylogenetic footprinting approach to analyze larger amounts of sequence data using MCMC. Our approach is robust to alignment error and uncertainty and can be applied to a variety of biological datasets. The source code and documentation are publicly available for download from http://www.stats.ox.ac.uk/~satija/BigFoot/

  15. Measuring Your Water Footprint : What’s Next in Water Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2008-01-01

    By now, carbon neutrality is such a catchphrase in the world of responsible business, it’s impossible to ignore the carbon footprint of a new product or service. But with the exception of a few companies like Coca-Cola, Nestlé and Suez, the concept of water neutrality, or measuring your water footpr

  16. A synthetic standard for the analysis of carbon isotopes of carbon in silicates, and the observation of a significant water-associated matrix effect

    OpenAIRE

    House, Christopher H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to the biogeochemical fractionation of isotopes, organic material can be heterogeneous at the microscale. Because this heterogentiy preserves in the rock record, the microscale measurement of carbon isotopes is an important frontier of geobiology. Such analyses via secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) have been, however, held back by the lack of an appropriate homogeneous synthetic standard that can be shared between laboratories. Such a standard would need to yield a carbon ...

  17. Geometric morphometric footprint analysis of young women

    OpenAIRE

    Domjanic, Jacqueline; Fieder, Martin; Seidler, Horst; Mitteroecker, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Background Most published attempts to quantify footprint shape are based on a small number of measurements. We applied geometric morphometric methods to study shape variation of the complete footprint outline in a sample of 83 adult women. Methods The outline of the footprint, including the toes, was represented by a comprehensive set of 85 landmarks and semilandmarks. Shape coordinates were computed by Generalized Procrustes Analysis. Results The first four principal components represented t...

  18. Global standardization of the calculation of CO2 emissions along transport chains-gaps, approaches, perspectives of the global alignment process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehrler, V.; Engel, A. van den; Davydenko, I.; Diekmann, D.; Kiel, J.; Lewis, A.; Seidel, S.

    2015-01-01

    The transport industry, consumers, shippers and political bodies are all pressing for a global standard for the calculation of emissions along supply chains. Comparability of the chains’ efficiency, reduction of energy consumption, transparency of the carbon footprint of products and identification

  19. Ecological footprint of Shandong,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yu-jing; Luc Hens; ZHU Yong-guan; ZHAO Jing-zhu

    2004-01-01

    Ecological footprint has been given much attention and widely praised as an effective heuristic and pedagogic device for presenting current total human resource use in a way that communicates easily to almost everyone since 1996 when Wackernagel and Rees proposed it as a sustainable development indicator. Ecological footprint has been improving on its calculation and still can be a benchmark to measure sustainable development although there are still ongoing debates about specific methods for calculating the ecological footprint.This paper calculates the ecological footprint of Shandong Province, China with the methodology developed by Wackemagel and analyzes the current situation of sustainable development in Shandong.

  20. The water footprint of food

    OpenAIRE

    Arjen Y. Hoekstra; Förare, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    The international trade in agricultural commodities at the same time constitutes a trade with water in virtual form. Water in external areas has been used to produce the food and feed items that are imported. The water footprint of a good or a service is the total amount of water, external and internal, that is required to produce it. The concept can be used to calculate and compare the strain on water resources resulting from different options. It can also be extended to provide water budget...

  1. Boron Isotope Intercomparison Project (BIIP): Development of a new carbonate standard for stable isotopic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutjahr, Marcus; Bordier, Louise; Douville, Eric; Farmer, Jesse; Foster, Gavin L.; Hathorne, Ed; Hönisch, Bärbel; Lemarchand, Damien; Louvat, Pascale; McCulloch, Malcolm; Noireaux, Johanna; Pallavicini, Nicola; Rodushkin, Ilia; Roux, Philippe; Stewart, Joseph; Thil, François; You, Chen-Feng

    2014-05-01

    Boron consists of only of two isotopes with a relatively large mass difference (~10 %). It is also volatile in acidic media and prone to contamination during analytical treatment. Nevertheless, an increasing number of isotope laboratories are successfully using boron isotope compositions (expressed in δ11B) in marine biogenic carbonates to reconstruct seawater pH. Recent interlaboratory comparison efforts [1] highlighted the existence of a relatively high level of disagreement between laboratories when measuring such material, so in order to further strengthen the validity of this carbonate system proxy, appropriate reference materials need to be urgently characterised. We describe here the latest results of the Boron Isotope Intercomparison Project (BIIP) where we aim to characterise the boron isotopic composition of two marine carbonates: Japanese Geological Survey carbonate standard materials JCp-1 (coral porites) [2] and JCt-1 (Giant Clam) [3]. This boron isotope interlaboratory comparison study has two aims: (i) to assess to what extent chemical pre-treatment, aimed at removing organic material, can influence the resulting carbonate δ11B; (ii) to determine the isotopic composition of the two reference materials with a number of analytical techniques to provide the community with reference δ11B values for JCp-1 and JCt-1 and to further explore any differences related to analytical technique. In total eight isotope laboratories participated, of which one determined δ11B via negative thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (NTIMS) and seven used multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). For the latter several different introduction systems and chemical purification methods were used. Overall the results are strikingly consistent between the participating labs. The oxidation of organic material slightly lowered the median δ11B by ~0.1 ‰ for both JCp-1 and JCt-1, while the mean δ11B of all labs for both standards was lowered by 0

  2. 77 FR 6542 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Notice of Final Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Notice of... of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on certain welded carbon steel pipe and tube from Turkey for... FR 11197 (March 1, 2011). On March 30, 2011, we received a letter from Erbosan Erciyas Boru Sanayi...

  3. 76 FR 78886 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Intent To Rescind Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Intent To... the countervailing duty (CVD) order on certain welded carbon steel pipe and tube from Turkey. See... Administrative Review, 76 FR 11197 (March 1, 2011). On March 30, 2011, we received a letter from Erbosan...

  4. Evaluation of online carbon isotope dilution mass spectrometry for the purity assessment of synthetic peptide standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz, Sergio Cueto; Ruiz Encinar, Jorge, E-mail: ruizjorge@uniovi.es; García Alonso, J. Ignacio, E-mail: jiga@uniovi.es

    2014-09-24

    Highlights: • Purity assessment of peptide standards applicable to any water soluble peptide. • Online {sup 13}C isotope dilution mass spectrometry. • Mass flow chromatogram from measured 44/45 isotope ratios. • Validation by the analysis of NIST 8327. - Abstract: We present a novel method for the purity assessment of peptide standards which is applicable to any water soluble peptide. The method is based on the online {sup 13}C isotope dilution approach in which the peptide is separated from its related impurities by liquid chromatography (LC) and the eluent is mixed post-column with a continuous flow of {sup 13}C-enriched sodium bicarbonate. An online oxidation step using sodium persulfate in acidic media at 99 °C provides quantitative oxidation to {sup 12}CO{sub 2} and {sup 13}CO{sub 2} respectively which is extracted to a gaseous phase with the help of a gas permeable membrane. The measurement of the isotope ratio 44/45 in the mass spectrometer allows the construction of the mass flow chromatogram. As the only species that is finally measured in the mass spectrometer is CO{sub 2}, the peptide content in the standard can be quantified, on the base of its carbon content, using a generic primary standard such as potassium hydrogen phthalate. The approach was validated by the analysis of a reference material (NIST 8327), and applied to the quantification of two commercial synthetic peptide standards. In that case, the results obtained were compared with those obtained using alternative methods, such as amino acid analysis and ICP-MS. The results obtained proved the value of the method for the fast, accurate and precise mass purity assignment of synthetic peptide standards.

  5. Evaluation of online carbon isotope dilution mass spectrometry for the purity assessment of synthetic peptide standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Purity assessment of peptide standards applicable to any water soluble peptide. • Online 13C isotope dilution mass spectrometry. • Mass flow chromatogram from measured 44/45 isotope ratios. • Validation by the analysis of NIST 8327. - Abstract: We present a novel method for the purity assessment of peptide standards which is applicable to any water soluble peptide. The method is based on the online 13C isotope dilution approach in which the peptide is separated from its related impurities by liquid chromatography (LC) and the eluent is mixed post-column with a continuous flow of 13C-enriched sodium bicarbonate. An online oxidation step using sodium persulfate in acidic media at 99 °C provides quantitative oxidation to 12CO2 and 13CO2 respectively which is extracted to a gaseous phase with the help of a gas permeable membrane. The measurement of the isotope ratio 44/45 in the mass spectrometer allows the construction of the mass flow chromatogram. As the only species that is finally measured in the mass spectrometer is CO2, the peptide content in the standard can be quantified, on the base of its carbon content, using a generic primary standard such as potassium hydrogen phthalate. The approach was validated by the analysis of a reference material (NIST 8327), and applied to the quantification of two commercial synthetic peptide standards. In that case, the results obtained were compared with those obtained using alternative methods, such as amino acid analysis and ICP-MS. The results obtained proved the value of the method for the fast, accurate and precise mass purity assignment of synthetic peptide standards

  6. How to Calculate Your Institution's Nitrogen Footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nitrogen Footprint Tool (NFT) allows institutions to estimate and manage their nitrogen footprint, and EPA’s Sustainable and Healthy Communities program is supporting an effort to test and expand this approach at multiple colleges, universities and institutions across t...

  7. Measuring Your Water Footprint : What’s Next in Water Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2008-01-01

    By now, carbon neutrality is such a catchphrase in the world of responsible business, it’s impossible to ignore the carbon footprint of a new product or service. But with the exception of a few companies like Coca-Cola, Nestlé and Suez, the concept of water neutrality, or measuring your water footprint, is still under the radar. It’s time to take note: In a landscape where the demand for water is fast outstripping supply, focusing on water neutrality is a key corporate strategy in managing wa...

  8. Removal of Trace Arsenic to Meet Drinking Water Standards Using Iron Oxide Coated Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntim, Susana Addo; Mitra, Somenath

    2011-05-12

    This study presents the removal of trace level arsenic to meet drinking water standards using an iron oxide-multi-walled carbon nanotube (Fe-MWCNT) hybrid as a sorbent. The synthesis was facilitated by the high degree of nanotube functionalization using a microwave assisted process, and a controlled assembly of iron oxide was possible where the MWCNT served as an effective support for the oxide. In the final product, 11 % of the carbon atoms were attached to Fe. The Fe-MWCNT was effective in arsenic removal to below the drinking water standard levels of 10 µg L(-1). The absorption capacity of the composite was 1723 µg g(-1) and 189 µg g(-1) for As(III) and As(V) respectively. The adsorption of As(V) on Fe-MWCNT was faster than that of As(III). The pseudo-second order rate equation was found to effectively describe the kinetics of arsenic adsorption. The adsorption isotherms for As(III) and As(V) fitted both the Langmuir and Freundlich models.

  9. Evaluating renewable portfolio standards and carbon cap scenarios in the U.S. electric sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori; Chapman, Caroline; Logan, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 1617 Cole Boulevard, MS RSF 100, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Sumner, Jenny, E-mail: jenny.sumner@nrel.go [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 1617 Cole Boulevard, MS RSF 100, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Short, Walter [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 1617 Cole Boulevard, MS RSF 100, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    This report examines the impact of renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and cap-and-trade policy options on the U.S. electricity sector. The analysis uses the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model that simulates the least-cost expansion of electricity generation capacity and transmission in the U.S. to examine the impact of a variety of emissions caps-and RPS scenarios both individually and combined. The generation mix, carbon emissions, and electricity price are examined for various policy combinations simulated in the modeling. - Research highlights: {yields} The report examines renewable portfolio standards and cap-and-trade policy options. {yields} The analysis uses the NREL's Regional Energy Deployment System model. {yields} A carbon emissions cap and an RPS can be complementary policies.{yields} The cap alone case drives significant renewable generation.{yields} A 25% RPS has similar near term emissions as base cap at similar electricity price.

  10. Removal of Trace Arsenic to Meet Drinking Water Standards Using Iron Oxide Coated Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntim, Susana Addo; Mitra, Somenath

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the removal of trace level arsenic to meet drinking water standards using an iron oxide-multi-walled carbon nanotube (Fe-MWCNT) hybrid as a sorbent. The synthesis was facilitated by the high degree of nanotube functionalization using a microwave assisted process, and a controlled assembly of iron oxide was possible where the MWCNT served as an effective support for the oxide. In the final product, 11 % of the carbon atoms were attached to Fe. The Fe-MWCNT was effective in arsenic removal to below the drinking water standard levels of 10 µg L−1. The absorption capacity of the composite was 1723 µg g−1 and 189 µg g−1 for As(III) and As(V) respectively. The adsorption of As(V) on Fe-MWCNT was faster than that of As(III). The pseudo-second order rate equation was found to effectively describe the kinetics of arsenic adsorption. The adsorption isotherms for As(III) and As(V) fitted both the Langmuir and Freundlich models. PMID:21625394

  11. Standard Test Methods for Properties of Continuous Filament Carbon and Graphite Fiber Tows

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the preparation and tensile testing of resin-impregnated and consolidated test specimens made from continuous filament carbon and graphite yarns, rovings, and tows to determine their tensile properties. 1.2 These test methods also cover the determination of the density and mass per unit length of the yarn, roving, or tow to provide supplementary data for tensile property calculation. 1.3 These test methods include a procedure for sizing removal to provide the preferred desized fiber samples for density measurement. This procedure may also be used to determine the weight percent sizing. 1.4 These test methods include a procedure for determining the weight percent moisture adsorption of carbon or graphite fiber. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values in parentheses are for information only. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of t...

  12. 基于生命周期评价的宁夏出口枸杞干果产品碳足迹评价--以宁夏某企业为例%Carbon footprint Assessment of Ningxia Wolfberry Product of Export Based on Life Cycle Assessment-an Example Company in Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳杨; 程志; 王廷宁; 崔耀东; 单臣玉; 闫吉春

    2016-01-01

    As the climate change conference agreement signed in Paris, “down-top” to address climate change become the main reduction mechanism of global climate governance process� Based on the theory of product carbon footprint calculation, using the method of life cycle assessment, life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of wolfberry product for export of a company in Ningxia were researched� The distribution of its carbon footprint were analyzed� Data base and suggestions were provided for enterprises to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in export wolfberry products� Results showed that wolfberry product carbon footprint of the company in Ningxia was the 2�224kg CO2 eq/kg, planting fertilizer, drying gas, product transportation, electricity, raw materials transportation, pesticides as well as the growing were accounted for 44% 20%, 18%, 9%, 8%, 1% of total emissions� Fertilizer and drying fuel were the main control of the product life cycle greenhouse gas emissions.%随着气候变化大会《巴黎协议》的签订,“自下而上”应对气候变化成为全球气候治理进程的主要减排机制。本文基于产品碳足迹核算理论,采用生命周期评价方法,以宁夏某企业为案例,研究宁夏出口枸杞干果产品生命周期温室气体排放,评价分析其碳足迹的分布构成,为企业减少出口枸杞产品的温室气体排放提供数据基础和措施建议。研究结果表明:宁夏某企业出口枸杞干果产品碳足迹为2�224 kgCO2 eq/kg,种植使用的化肥、烘干使用的天然气、以及产品运输、加工使用的电力、原料运输以及种植使用的农药分别占总排放的44%、20%、18%、9%、8%、1%,化肥和烘干燃料是控制枸杞产品生命周期温室气体排放的主要对象。

  13. Chemical footprint: a methodological framework for bridging life cycle assessment and planetary boundaries for chemical pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Serenella; Goralczyk, Malgorzata

    2013-10-01

    The development and use of footprint methodologies for environmental assessment are increasingly important for both the scientific and political communities. Starting from the ecological footprint, developed at the beginning of the 1990s, several other footprints were defined, e.g., carbon and water footprint. These footprints-even though based on a different meaning of "footprint"-integrate life cycle thinking, and focus on some challenging environmental impacts including resource consumption, CO2 emission leading to climate change, and water consumption. However, they usually neglect relevant sources of impacts, as those related to the production and use of chemicals. This article presents and discusses the need and relevance of developing a methodology for assessing the chemical footprint, coupling a life cycle-based approach with methodologies developed in other contexts, such as ERA and sustainability science. Furthermore, different concepts underpin existing footprint and this could be the case also of chemical footprint. At least 2 different approaches and steps to chemical footprint could be envisaged, applicable at the micro- as well as at the meso- and macroscale. The first step (step 1) is related to the account of chemicals use and emissions along the life cycle of a product, sector, or entire economy, to assess potential impacts on ecosystems and human health. The second step (step 2) aims at assessing to which extent actual emission of chemicals harm the ecosystems above their capability to recover (carrying capacity of the system). The latter step might contribute to the wide discussion on planetary boundaries for chemical pollution: the thresholds that should not be surpassed to guarantee a sustainable use of chemicals from an environmental safety perspective. The definition of what the planetary boundaries for chemical pollution are and how the boundaries should be identified is an on-going scientific challenge for ecotoxicology and ecology. In

  14. GDP AND ENVIRONMENT RELATION: FOOTPRINT APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Aloísia da Cruz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Ecological Footprint represents the amount needed land and water to produce the resources and assimilate the waste generated by the population. In contrast the consumption of resources with the carrying capacity of nature and showing, in the long term, these impacts will be sustainable. This article by means of a discriminant analysis in selected countries, investigates the relationship between the variables chosen, the Ecological Footprint and per capita real GDP. And although there are countries with GDP per capita Ecological Footprint up and below average in general countries with per capita GDP increased tend to have a higher environmental impact, or ecological footprint than the average. Therefore, for the year 2005, this study supports a direct relationship between per capita real GDP and Ecological Footprint.

  15. 77 FR 59374 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe (Under 41/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... standard, line and pressure pipe (under 4\\1/2\\ inches) (hereinafter, ``small diameter pipe'') from Japan... Ltd. (``CNRL), a Canadian exporter of small diameter pipe, which had requested an administrative... International Trade Administration Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and...

  16. Exploiting Data Similarity to Reduce Memory Footprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, S; de Supinski, B R; Schulz, M; Franklin, D; Sherwood, T; Chong, F T

    2011-01-28

    Memory size has long limited large-scale applications on high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Since compute nodes frequently do not have swap space, physical memory often limits problem sizes. Increasing core counts per chip and power density constraints, which limit the number of DIMMs per node, have exacerbated this problem. Further, DRAM constitutes a significant portion of overall HPC system cost. Therefore, instead of adding more DRAM to the nodes, mechanisms to manage memory usage more efficiently - preferably transparently - could increase effective DRAM capacity and thus the benefit of multicore nodes for HPC systems. MPI application processes often exhibit significant data similarity. These data regions occupy multiple physical locations across the individual rank processes within a multicore node and thus offer a potential savings in memory capacity. These regions, primarily residing in heap, are dynamic, which makes them difficult to manage statically. Our novel memory allocation library, SBLLmalloc, automatically identifies identical memory blocks and merges them into a single copy. SBLLmalloc does not require application or OS changes since we implement it as a user-level library. Overall, we demonstrate that SBLLmalloc reduces the memory footprint of a range of MPI applications by 32.03% on average and up to 60.87%. Further, SBLLmalloc supports problem sizes for IRS over 21.36% larger than using standard memory management techniques, thus significantly increasing effective system size. Similarly, SBLLmalloc requires 43.75% fewer nodes than standard memory management techniques to solve an AMG problem.

  17. Water Footprint of crop productions: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovarelli, Daniela; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fiala, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Water Footprint is an indicator recently developed with the goal of quantifying the virtual content of water in products and/or services. It can also be used to identify the worldwide virtual water trade. Water Footprint is composed of three parts (green, blue and grey waters) that make the assessment complete in accordance with the Water Footprint Network and with the recent ISO14046. The importance of Water Footprint is linked to the need of taking consciousness about water content in products and services and of the achievable changes in productions, diets and market trades. In this study, a literature review has been completed on Water Footprint of agricultural productions. In particular, the focus was paid on crops for the production of food and bioenergy. From the review, the development of the Water Footprint concept emerged: in early studies the main goal was to assess products' water trade on a global scale, while in the subsequent years, the goal was the rigorous quantification of the three components for specific crops and in specific geographical areas. In the most recent assessments, similarities about the methodology and the employed tools emerged. For 96 scientific articles on Water Footprint indicator of agricultural productions, this literature review reports the main results and analyses weaknesses and strengths. Seventy-eight percent of studies aimed to quantify Water Footprint, while the remaining 22% analysed methodology, uncertainty, future trends and comparisons with other footprints. It emerged that most studies that quantified Water Footprint concerned cereals (33%), among which maize and wheat were the most investigated crops. In 46% of studies all the three components were assessed, while in 18% no indication about the subdivision was given; in the remaining 37%, only blue or green and blue components were quantified.

  18. Review article: Quantifying the human impact on water resources: a critical review of the water footprint concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chenoweth

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The water footprint is a consumption-based indicator of water use, referring to the total volume of freshwater used directly and indirectly by a nation or a company, or in the provision of a product or service. Despite widespread enthusiasm for the development and use of water footprints, some concerns have been raised about the concept and its usefulness. A variety of methodologies have been developed for water footprinting which differ with respect to how they deal with different forms of water use. The result is water footprint estimates which vary dramatically, often creating confusion. Despite these methodological qualms, the concept has had notable success in raising awareness about water use in agricultural and industrial supply chains, by providing a previously unavailable and (seemingly simple numerical indicator of water use. Nevertheless, and even though a range of uses have already been suggested for water footprinting, its policy value remains unclear. Unlike the carbon footprint which provides a universal measure of human impact on the atmosphere's limited absorptive capacity, the water footprint in its conventional form solely quantifies a single production input without any accounting of the impacts of use, which vary spatially and temporally. Following an extensive review of the literature related to water footprints, this paper critically examines the present uses of the concept, focusing on its current strengths, shortcomings and promising research avenues to advance it.

  19. The water footprint of humanity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y; Mekonnen, Mesfin M

    2012-02-28

    This study quantifies and maps the water footprint (WF) of humanity at a high spatial resolution. It reports on consumptive use of rainwater (green WF) and ground and surface water (blue WF) and volumes of water polluted (gray WF). Water footprints are estimated per nation from both a production and consumption perspective. International virtual water flows are estimated based on trade in agricultural and industrial commodities. The global annual average WF in the period 1996-2005 was 9,087 Gm(3)/y (74% green, 11% blue, 15% gray). Agricultural production contributes 92%. About one-fifth of the global WF relates to production for export. The total volume of international virtual water flows related to trade in agricultural and industrial products was 2,320 Gm(3)/y (68% green, 13% blue, 19% gray). The WF of the global average consumer was 1,385 m(3)/y. The average consumer in the United States has a WF of 2,842 m(3)/y, whereas the average citizens in China and India have WFs of 1,071 and 1,089 m(3)/y, respectively. Consumption of cereal products gives the largest contribution to the WF of the average consumer (27%), followed by meat (22%) and milk products (7%). The volume and pattern of consumption and the WF per ton of product of the products consumed are the main factors determining the WF of a consumer. The study illustrates the global dimension of water consumption and pollution by showing that several countries heavily rely on foreign water resources and that many countries have significant impacts on water consumption and pollution elsewhere. PMID:22331890

  20. Optical sampling of the flux tower footprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Gamon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to address the reasons and methods for conducting optical remote sensing within the flux tower footprint. Fundamental principles and conclusions gleaned from over two decades of proximal remote sensing at flux tower sites are reviewed. An organizing framework is the light-use efficiency (LUE model, both because it is widely used, and because it provides a useful theoretical construct for integrating optical remote sensing with flux measurements. Multiple ways of driving this model, ranging from meteorological measurements to remote sensing, have emerged in recent years, making it a convenient conceptual framework for comparative experimental studies. New interpretations of established optical sampling methods, including the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI and Solar-Induced Fluorescence (SIF, are discussed within the context of the LUE model. Multi-scale analysis across temporal and spatial axes is a central theme, because such scaling can provide links between ecophysiological mechanisms detectable at the level of individual organisms and broad patterns emerging at larger scales, enabling evaluation of emergent properties and extrapolation to the flux footprint and beyond. Proper analysis of sampling scale requires an awareness of sampling context that is often essential to the proper interpretation of optical signals. Additionally, the concept of optical types, vegetation exhibiting contrasting optical behavior in time and space, is explored as a way to frame our understanding of the controls on surface–atmosphere fluxes. Complementary NDVI and PRI patterns across ecosystems are offered as an example of this hypothesis, with the LUE model and light-response curve providing an integrating framework. We conclude that experimental approaches allowing systematic exploration of plant optical behavior in the context of the flux tower network provides a unique way to improve our understanding of environmental

  1. Optical sampling of the flux tower footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamon, J. A.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to address the reasons and methods for conducting optical remote sensing within the flux tower footprint. Fundamental principles and conclusions gleaned from over two decades of proximal remote sensing at flux tower sites are reviewed. An organizing framework is the light-use efficiency (LUE) model, both because it is widely used, and because it provides a useful theoretical construct for integrating optical remote sensing with flux measurements. Multiple ways of driving this model, ranging from meteorological measurements to remote sensing, have emerged in recent years, making it a convenient conceptual framework for comparative experimental studies. New interpretations of established optical sampling methods, including the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) and Solar-Induced Fluorescence (SIF), are discussed within the context of the LUE model. Multi-scale analysis across temporal and spatial axes is a central theme, because such scaling can provide links between ecophysiological mechanisms detectable at the level of individual organisms and broad patterns emerging at larger scales, enabling evaluation of emergent properties and extrapolation to the flux footprint and beyond. Proper analysis of sampling scale requires an awareness of sampling context that is often essential to the proper interpretation of optical signals. Additionally, the concept of optical types, vegetation exhibiting contrasting optical behavior in time and space, is explored as a way to frame our understanding of the controls on surface-atmosphere fluxes. Complementary NDVI and PRI patterns across ecosystems are offered as an example of this hypothesis, with the LUE model and light-response curve providing an integrating framework. We conclude that experimental approaches allowing systematic exploration of plant optical behavior in the context of the flux tower network provides a unique way to improve our understanding of environmental constraints and

  2. The Water Footprint of Food Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, N. D.; Konar, M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Food aid is a critical component of the global food system, particularly when emergency situations arise. For the first time, we evaluate the water footprint of food aid. To do this, we draw on food aid data from theWorld Food Programme and virtual water content estimates from WaterStat. We find that the total water footprint of food aid was 10 km3 in 2005, which represents approximately 0.5% of the water footprint of food trade and 2.0% of the water footprint of land grabbing (i.e., water appropriation associated with large agricultural land deals). The United States is by far the largest food aid donor and contributes 82% of the water footprint of food aid. The countries that receive the most water embodied in aid are Ethiopia, Sudan, North Korea, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. Notably, we find that there is significant overlap between countries that receive food aid and those that have their land grabbed. Multivariate regression results indicate that donor water footprints are driven by political and environmental variables, whereas recipient water footprints are driven by land grabbing and food indicators.

  3. The Water Footprint of Food Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Jackson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Food aid is a critical component of the global food system, particularly when emergency situations arise. For the first time, we evaluate the water footprint of food aid. To do this, we draw on food aid data from theWorld Food Programme and virtual water content estimates from WaterStat. We find that the total water footprint of food aid was 10 km3 in 2005, which represents approximately 0.5% of the water footprint of food trade and 2.0% of the water footprint of land grabbing (i.e., water appropriation associated with large agricultural land deals. The United States is by far the largest food aid donor and contributes 82% of the water footprint of food aid. The countries that receive the most water embodied in aid are Ethiopia, Sudan, North Korea, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. Notably, we find that there is significant overlap between countries that receive food aid and those that have their land grabbed. Multivariate regression results indicate that donor water footprints are driven by political and environmental variables, whereas recipient water footprints are driven by land grabbing and food indicators.

  4. Evaluating Renewable Portfolio Standards and Carbon Cap Scenarios in the U.S. Electric Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chapman, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Logan, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sumner, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Short, Walter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-05-01

    This report examines the impact of various renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and cap-and-trade policy options on the U.S. electricity sector, focusing mainly on renewable energy generation. The analysis uses the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model that simulates the least-cost expansion of electricity generation capacity and transmission in the United States to examine the impact of an emissions cap--similar to that proposed in the Waxman-Markey bill (H.R. 2454)--as well as lower and higher cap scenarios. It also examines the effects of combining various RPS targets with the emissions caps. The generation mix, carbon emissions, and electricity price are examined for various policy combinations to simulate the effect of implementing policies simultaneously.

  5. Modelling a nonlinear optical switching in a standard photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with carbon disulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munera, Natalia; Acuna Herrera, Rodrigo

    2016-06-01

    In this letter, a numerical analysis is developed for the propagation of ultrafast optical pulses through a standard photonic crystal fiber (PCF) consisting of two infiltrated holes using carbon disulfide (CS2). This material is a good choice since it has highly nonlinear properties, what makes it a good candidate for optical switching and broadband source at low power compared to traditional nonlinear fiber coupler. Based on supermodes theory, a set of generalized nonlinear equations is presented in order to study the propagation characteristics. It is shown in this letter that it is possible to get optical switching behavior at low power and how the dispersion, as well as, the two infiltrated holes separation influence this effect. Finally, we see that supercontinuum generation can be induced equally in both infiltrated holes despite no initial excitation at one hole.

  6. A simulation-based approach for evaluating and comparing the environmental footprints of beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Isenberg, B J; Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Pollak, E J

    2013-11-01

    A methodology was developed and used to determine environmental footprints of beef cattle produced at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) in Clay Center, NE, with the goal of quantifying improvements achieved over the past 40 yr. Information for MARC operations was gathered and used to establish parameters representing their production system with the Integrated Farm System Model. The MARC farm, cow-calf, and feedlot operations were each simulated over recent historical weather to evaluate performance, environmental impact, and economics. The current farm operation included 841 ha of alfalfa and 1,160 ha of corn to produce feed predominately for the beef herd of 5,500 cows, 1,180 replacement cattle, and 3,724 cattle finished per year. Spring and fall cow-calf herds were fed on 9,713 ha of pastureland supplemented through the winter with hay and silage produced by the farm operation. Feedlot cattle were backgrounded for 3 mo on hay and silage with some grain and finished over 7 mo on a diet high in corn and wet distillers grain. For weather year 2011, simulated feed production and use, energy use, and production costs were within 1% of actual records. A 25-yr simulation of their current production system gave an average annual carbon footprint of 10.9±0.6 kg of CO2 equivalent units per kg BW sold, and the energy required to produce that beef (energy footprint) was 26.5±4.5 MJ/kg BW. The annual water required (water footprint) was 21,300±5,600 L/kg BW sold, and the water footprint excluding precipitation was 2,790±910 L/kg BW. The simulated annual cost of producing their beef was US$2.11±0.05/kg BW. Simulation of the production practices of 2005 indicated that the inclusion of distillers grain in animal diets has had a relatively small effect on environmental footprints except that reactive nitrogen loss has increased 10%. Compared to 1970, the carbon footprint of the beef produced has decreased 6% with no change in the energy footprint, a 3% reduction

  7. Acting Globally: Potential Carbon Emissions Mitigation Impacts from an International Standards and Labelling Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A; Letschert, Virginie E.; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Egan, Christine

    2009-05-29

    This paper presents an analysis of the potential impacts of an international initiative designed to support and promote the development and implementation of appliances standards and labelling programs throughout the world. As part of previous research efforts, LBNL developed the Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), an analysis framework that estimates impact potentials of energy efficiency policies on a global scale. In this paper, we apply this framework to an initiative that would result in the successful implementation of programs focused on high priority regions and product types, thus evaluating the potential impacts of such an initiative in terms of electricity savings and carbon mitigation in 2030. In order to model the likely parameters of such a program, we limit impacts to a five year period starting in 2009, but assume that the first 5 years of a program will result in implementation of 'best practice' minimum efficiency performance standards by 2014. The 'high priority' regions considered are: Brazil, China, the European Union,India, Mexico and the United States. The products considered are: refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting (both fluorescent and incandescent), standby power (for consumer electronics) and televisions in the residential sector, and air conditioning and lighting in commercial buildings. In 2020, these regions and enduses account for about 37percent of global residential electricity and 29percent of electricity in commercial buildings. We find that 850Mt of CO2 could be saved in buildings by 2030 compared to the baseline forecast.

  8. The Footprint Database and Web Services of the Herschel Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, László; Varga-Verebélyi, Erika; Verdugo, Eva; Teyssier, David; Exter, Katrina; Valtchanov, Ivan; Budavári, Tamás; Kiss, Csaba

    2016-07-01

    Data from the Herschel Space Observatory is freely available to the public but no uniformly processed catalogue of the observations has been published so far. To date, the Herschel Science Archive does not contain the exact sky coverage (footprint) of individual observations and supports search for measurements based on bounding circles only. Drawing on previous experience in implementing footprint databases, we built the Herschel Footprint Database and Web Services for the Herschel Space Observatory to provide efficient search capabilities for typical astronomical queries. The database was designed with the following main goals in mind: (a) provide a unified data model for meta-data of all instruments and observational modes, (b) quickly find observations covering a selected object and its neighbourhood, (c) quickly find every observation in a larger area of the sky, (d) allow for finding solar system objects crossing observation fields. As a first step, we developed a unified data model of observations of all three Herschel instruments for all pointing and instrument modes. Then, using telescope pointing information and observational meta-data, we compiled a database of footprints. As opposed to methods using pixellation of the sphere, we represent sky coverage in an exact geometric form allowing for precise area calculations. For easier handling of Herschel observation footprints with rather complex shapes, two algorithms were implemented to reduce the outline. Furthermore, a new visualisation tool to plot footprints with various spherical projections was developed. Indexing of the footprints using Hierarchical Triangular Mesh makes it possible to quickly find observations based on sky coverage, time and meta-data. The database is accessible via a web site http://herschel.vo.elte.hu and also as a set of REST web service functions, which makes it readily usable from programming environments such as Python or IDL. The web service allows downloading footprint data

  9. Water footprint of hydro power in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeland, Kolbjørn; Tallaksen, Lena; Haakon Bakken, Tor; Killingtveit, Ånund

    2015-04-01

    The IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy (IPCC, 2012) assesses the potential for renewable energy sources to replace fossil-based fuels and benchmarks the technologies with respect to a set of criteria, including their water footprint measured as m3/MWh. While most of the renewable technologies show a typical range of 1-5 m3/MWh, the very sparse data on hydropower range from a minimum of 0.04 to a maximum of 209 m3/MWh. More recent studies on water footprint from hydropower indicate that the water consumption rates could go even far beyond the numbers published by IPCC (2012). The methodological approach behind these numbers are, however, criticized as it appears over-simplistic and several issues need to be defined and clarified in order to present the 'true picture' of the water footprint of hydropower. Despite this, the rather high numbers for hydropower may imply a reputational risk for the sector and also be a direct investment risk in new projects if hydropower is considered a "large-scale water consumer". Estimation of water footprint has two important components (i) definition of water footprint (including system boundaries), and (ii) estimation of evaporation, which is assumed to constitute the main water loss from hydropower. Here we will mainly address the second topic and have chosen to use a water footprint definition based on net evapotranspiration from reservoirs. Thus, we need estimates of evapotranspiration from the land surface prior to inundation and the evaporation from the reservoir after it has been filled up. The primary objective of the study is to estimate water footprint of hydropower in Norway and in particular to answer the following questions: (i) How does different environmental variables influence water footprint estimation in Norway?, and in particular (ii) What is the total/specific water footprint from Norwegian hydropower production? To answer these questions we tested how environmental variables like climate and vegetation

  10. The potential role of carbon labeling in a green economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past several years, labeling schemes that focus on a wide range of environmental and social metrics have proliferated. Although little empirical evidence has been generated yet with respect to carbon footprint labels, much can be learned from our experience with similar product labels. We first review the theory and evidence on the role of product labeling in affecting consumer and firm behavior. Next, we consider the role of governments and nongovernmental organizations, concluding that international, multistakeholder organizations have a critical part to play in setting protocols and standards. We argue that it is important to consider the entire life cycle of a product being labeled and develop an international standard for measurement and reporting. Finally, we examine the potential impact of carbon product labeling, discussing methodological and trade challenges and proposing a framework for choosing products best suited for labeling. - Highlights: ► Economic theory provides rationale for product information on carbon footprint. ► Small but growing evidence that labels will affect demand and product choice. ► International protocol using multi-stakeholder process is needed. ► Product priority should be based on life-cycle emissions and likely behavior changes. ► International trade law poses low risk for voluntary private carbon footprint labels.

  11. Spatially and temporally explicit water footprint accounting

    OpenAIRE

    MEKONNEN Mesfin Mergia

    2011-01-01

    The earth’s freshwater resources are subject to increasing pressure in the form of consumptive water use and pollution (Postel, 2000; WWAP, 2003, 2006, 2009). Quantitative assessment of the green, blue and grey water footprint of global production and consumption can be regarded as a key in understanding the pressure put on the global freshwater resources. The overall objective of this thesis is, therefore, to analyse the spatial and temporal pattern of the water footprint of humans from both...

  12. Atmospheric mercury footprints of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Wang, Yafei; Cinnirella, Sergio; Pirrone, Nicola

    2015-03-17

    The Minamata Convention was established to protect humans and the natural environment from the adverse effects of mercury emissions. A cogent assessment of mercury emissions is required to help implement the Minamata Convention. Here, we use an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output model to calculate atmospheric mercury footprints of nations based on upstream production (meaning direct emissions from the production activities of a nation), downstream production (meaning both direct and indirect emissions caused by the production activities of a nation), and consumption (meaning both direct and indirect emissions caused by final consumption of goods and services in a nation). Results show that nations function differently within global supply chains. Developed nations usually have larger consumption-based emissions than up- and downstream production-based emissions. India, South Korea, and Taiwan have larger downstream production-based emissions than their upstream production- and consumption-based emissions. Developed nations (e.g., United States, Japan, and Germany) are in part responsible for mercury emissions of developing nations (e.g., China, India, and Indonesia). Our findings indicate that global mercury abatement should focus on multiple stages of global supply chains. We propose three initiatives for global mercury abatement, comprising the establishment of mercury control technologies of upstream producers, productivity improvement of downstream producers, and behavior optimization of final consumers.

  13. Carbon pools and temporal dynamics along a rotation period in sessile oak dominated high forest and coppice with standards stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, V. J.; Yan, S.; Hochbichler, E.; Glatzel, G.

    2012-04-01

    Carbon pools in two Quercus petraea (sessile oak) dominated chronosequences under different forest management (high forest and coppice with standards) were investigated. The objective was to study temporal carbon dynamics, in particular carbon sequestration in the soil and woody biomass production, in common forest management systems in eastern Austria along with stand development. The chronosequence approach was used to substitute time-for-space to enable coverage of a full rotation period in each system. Carbon content was determined in the following compartments: aboveground biomass, litter, soil to a depth of 50 cm, living root biomass and decomposing residues in the mineral soil horizons. Biomass carbon pools, except fine roots and residues, were estimated using species-specific allometric functions. Total carbon pools were on average 143 Mg ha-1 in the high forest stand (HF) and 213 Mg ha-1 in the coppice with standards stand (CS). The mean share of the total organic carbon pool (TOC) which is soil organic carbon (SOC) differs only marginally between HF (43.4%) and CS (42.1%), indicating the dominance of site factors, particularly climate, in controlling this ratio. While there was no significant change in O-layer and SOC stores over stand development, we found clear relationships between living biomass (aboveground and belowground) pools and C:N ratio in topsoil horizons with stand age. SOC pools seem to be very stable and an impact of silvicultural interventions was not detected with the applied method. Rapid decomposition and mineralization of litter, indicated by low O-horizon pools with wide C:N ratios of residual woody debris at the end of the vegetation period, suggests high rates of turnover in this fraction. CS, in contrast to HF benefits from rapid resprouting after coppicing and hence seems less vulnerable to conditions of low rainfall and drying topsoil. Keywords: carbon dynamics; soil carbon; chronosequence; Quercus petraea; coppice; high forest

  14. The energy and emissions footprint of water supply for Southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to climate change and ongoing drought, California and much of the American West face critical water supply challenges. California’s water supply infrastructure sprawls for thousands of miles, from the Colorado River to the Sacramento Delta. Bringing water to growing urban centers in Southern California is especially energy intensive, pushing local utilities to balance water security with factors such as the cost and carbon footprint of the various supply sources. To enhance water security, cities are expanding efforts to increase local water supply. But do these local sources have a smaller carbon footprint than imported sources? To answer this question and others related to the urban water–energy nexus, this study uses spatially explicit life cycle assessment to estimate the energy and emissions intensity of water supply for two utilities in Southern California: Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, which serves Los Angeles, and the Inland Empire Utility Agency, which serves the San Bernardino region. This study differs from previous research in two significant ways: (1) emissions factors are based not on regional averages but on the specific electric utility and generation sources supplying energy throughout transport, treatment, and distribution phases of the water supply chain; (2) upstream (non-combustion) emissions associated with the energy sources are included. This approach reveals that in case of water supply to Los Angeles, local recycled water has a higher carbon footprint than water imported from the Colorado River. In addition, by excluding upstream emissions, the carbon footprint of water supply is potentially underestimated by up to 30%. These results have wide-ranging implications for how carbon footprints are traditionally calculated at local and regional levels. Reducing the emissions intensity of local water supply hinges on transitioning the energy used to treat and distribute water away from fossil fuel, sources such as coal

  15. The energy and emissions footprint of water supply for Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, A. J.; Newell, Joshua P.; Cousins, Joshua J.

    2015-11-01

    Due to climate change and ongoing drought, California and much of the American West face critical water supply challenges. California’s water supply infrastructure sprawls for thousands of miles, from the Colorado River to the Sacramento Delta. Bringing water to growing urban centers in Southern California is especially energy intensive, pushing local utilities to balance water security with factors such as the cost and carbon footprint of the various supply sources. To enhance water security, cities are expanding efforts to increase local water supply. But do these local sources have a smaller carbon footprint than imported sources? To answer this question and others related to the urban water-energy nexus, this study uses spatially explicit life cycle assessment to estimate the energy and emissions intensity of water supply for two utilities in Southern California: Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, which serves Los Angeles, and the Inland Empire Utility Agency, which serves the San Bernardino region. This study differs from previous research in two significant ways: (1) emissions factors are based not on regional averages but on the specific electric utility and generation sources supplying energy throughout transport, treatment, and distribution phases of the water supply chain; (2) upstream (non-combustion) emissions associated with the energy sources are included. This approach reveals that in case of water supply to Los Angeles, local recycled water has a higher carbon footprint than water imported from the Colorado River. In addition, by excluding upstream emissions, the carbon footprint of water supply is potentially underestimated by up to 30%. These results have wide-ranging implications for how carbon footprints are traditionally calculated at local and regional levels. Reducing the emissions intensity of local water supply hinges on transitioning the energy used to treat and distribute water away from fossil fuel, sources such as coal.

  16. 78 FR 33809 - Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ...In response to a request from an interested party, United States Steel Corporation (``U.S. Steel''), the Department of Commerce (``the Department'') initiated an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's Republic of China. The period of review is November 1, 2011, through October 31, 2012. Based on......

  17. 78 FR 25253 - Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure From the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ...The Department of Commerce (``the Department'') is rescinding the administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe (``seamless pipe'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period January 1, 2011, through December 31,...

  18. 75 FR 13255 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 74 FR... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe..., line, and pressure pipe (``seamless pipe'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') with...

  19. 77 FR 43806 - Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 82268 (December 30, 2011). The review covers 32... Charging Development Co., Ltd.; Wuxi Resources Steel Making Co., Ltd.; Wuxi Seamless Special Pipe Co.,...

  20. 76 FR 7815 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocations in Part, 75 FR 44224... Pipe (Over 4\\1/2\\ Inches) From Japan: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of the... certain large diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe (over 4\\1/2\\...

  1. 76 FR 78612 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes From India: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 37781 (June 28, 2011) (Notice of Initiation...'' with a lowercase ``s'' instead of an uppercase ``s.'' See Notice of Initiation, 76 FR at 37783... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes From India:...

  2. 78 FR 41369 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... on certain small diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe (small diameter... diameter seamless pipe. The small diameter seamless pipe subject to the order is currently classifiable... small diameter seamless pipe from Romania entered, or withdrawn from warehouse, for......

  3. National water footprint accounts: the green, blue and grey water footprint of production and consumption

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Mekonnen; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2011-01-01

    This study quantifies and maps the water footprints of nations from both a production and consumption perspective and estimates international virtual water flows and national and global water savings as a result of trade. The entire estimate includes a breakdown of water footprints, virtual water flows and water savings into their green, blue and grey components.

  4. Quantifying the Water Footprint of Manufactured Products: A Case Study of Pitcher Water Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Barker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water is a finite resource that is critically needed bysociety for a variety of purposes. The demand for freshwater will grow as the world population and global livingstandard increase, and fresh water shortages will becomemore commonplace. This will put significant stress onsociety. It has been argued that fresh water may becomethe next oil, and efforts have to be made to better manageits fresh water consumption by agricultural and domesticusers. Industry also uses large amounts. Surprisingly, onlyrecently is serious attention being directed toward waterrelatedissues. This effort to quantify the water footprint ofa manufactured product represents one of the first initiativesto characterize the role of water in a discrete good.This study employed a life cycle assessment methodologyto determine the water footprint of a pitcher water filter.This particular product was selected because many waterintensivematerials and processes are needed to produceits major components: for example, agricultural processesused to produce activated carbon and petrochemicalprocesses used to produce the polypropylene casing. Inaddition, a large amount of water is consumed during theproduct’s use phase. Water data was obtained from theEcoinvent 2.1 database and categorized as either beingassociated with blue or green water.The blue water footprint (surface water consumption forthe pitcher water filter was 76 gallons per filter: 10 gallonsconsumed for materials extraction, 15 gallons for themanufacturing stage, and 50 gallons during the use phase.The green water footprint (precipitation was associatedwith the cultivation of the coconut tree; activated carbonis obtained from the coconut shells. The green waterfootprint was calculated to be 164 gallons per filter.The overall water footprint was 240 gallons per filter;the filter footprint is heavily dominated by green water(68% rather than blue water (32%. Future studies mayinvestigate how the production and

  5. Assessing county-level water footprints of different cellulosic-biofuel feedstock pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yi-Wen; Wu, May

    2012-08-21

    While agricultural residue is considered as a near-term feedstock option for cellulosic biofuels, its sustainability must be evaluated by taking water into account. This study aims to analyze the county-level water footprint for four biofuel pathways in the United States, including bioethanol generated from corn grain, stover, wheat straw, and biodiesel from soybean. The county-level blue water footprint of ethanol from corn grain, stover, and wheat straw shows extremely wide variances with a national average of 31, 132, and 139 L of water per liter biofuel (L(w)/L(bf)), and standard deviation of 133, 323, and 297 L(w)/L(bf), respectively. Soybean biodiesel production results in a blue water footprint of 313 L(w)/L(bf) on the national average with standard deviation of 894 L(w)/L(bf). All biofuels show a greater green water footprint than the blue one. This work elucidates how diverse spatial resolutions affect biofuel water footprints, which can provide detailed insights into biofuels' implications on local water sustainability.

  6. Assessing county-level water footprints of different cellulosic-biofuel feedstock pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yi-Wen; Wu, May

    2012-08-21

    While agricultural residue is considered as a near-term feedstock option for cellulosic biofuels, its sustainability must be evaluated by taking water into account. This study aims to analyze the county-level water footprint for four biofuel pathways in the United States, including bioethanol generated from corn grain, stover, wheat straw, and biodiesel from soybean. The county-level blue water footprint of ethanol from corn grain, stover, and wheat straw shows extremely wide variances with a national average of 31, 132, and 139 L of water per liter biofuel (L(w)/L(bf)), and standard deviation of 133, 323, and 297 L(w)/L(bf), respectively. Soybean biodiesel production results in a blue water footprint of 313 L(w)/L(bf) on the national average with standard deviation of 894 L(w)/L(bf). All biofuels show a greater green water footprint than the blue one. This work elucidates how diverse spatial resolutions affect biofuel water footprints, which can provide detailed insights into biofuels' implications on local water sustainability. PMID:22816524

  7. 干姜“炒炭存性”质量标准初探%Primary study on quality standard of carbonizing drug characteristic of ginger carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟江; 许舒娅; 陈磊; 卢国勇; 梁慧超; 林志豪

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish the quality standard for carbonizing drug characteristic of ginger carbon. Method; Gingers and different carbonized gingers were compared by the absorption of pigment, tannin content, pH, mouth's coagulation time and bleeding time. Result: The study resulted in the recommended carbonizing standard that the absorption capacity shall not be less than 7. 50 mg · G-1 for methylene blue, the tannin content shall not be less than 2. 103 mg · G-1 , the pH shall be (5. 50 ±0. 10) , and coagulation time and bleeding time shall be the shorter the better. Conclusion: The established assessment standard for carbonizing drug characteristic of ginger carbon is reasonable, easily operated and feasible.%目的:探索建立干姜“炒炭存性”的质量标准.方法:比较干姜及不同炮制程度炭品的色素吸附力、鞣质含量、pH及对小鼠凝血、出血时间的变化.结果:干姜“炒炭存性”的标准应该是炒炭后对亚甲基监的吸附力建议不得低于7.50 mg·g-1、鞣质含量建议不低于2.103 mg·g-1,pH建议在(5.56±0.07),小鼠的凝血、出血时间最短为佳.结论:建立干姜“炒炭存性”的评价标准科学合理、简便可行.

  8. Energy intensity and greenhouse gases footprint of metallurgical processes: A continuous steelmaking case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barati, Mansoor [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, WB140, 184 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    The demand on primary energy resources of three steelmaking technologies has been evaluated using an integrated energy analysis approach that takes into account the energy equivalent of major materials and supplies used in the process, as well as the inefficiency of electricity generation. Two new parameters, Material CO{sub 2} Footprint (MCF) and Process CO{sub 2} Footprint (PCF), are defined to provide unified measures for carbon footprint of the treated materials, and the process respectively. Using these measures, a comparative study of the three processes has been performed. It is demonstrated that a novel steelmaking technology that operates continuously leads to substantial reduction in the overall energy demand, when compared with the conventional batch processes. CO{sub 2} reduction associated with the improvement of the energy efficiency is presented for several scenarios of power generation. (author)

  9. Energy intensity and greenhouse gases footprint of metallurgical processes: A continuous steelmaking case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansoor Barati [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada). Department of Materials Science and Engineering

    2010-09-15

    The demand on primary energy resources of three steelmaking technologies has been evaluated using an integrated energy analysis approach that takes into account the energy equivalent of major materials and supplies used in the process, as well as the inefficiency of electricity generation. Two new parameters, Material CO{sub 2} Footprint (MCF) and Process CO{sub 2} Footprint (PCF), are defined to provide unified measures for carbon footprint of the treated materials, and the process respectively. Using these measures, a comparative study of the three processes has been performed. It is demonstrated that a novel steelmaking technology that operates continuously leads to substantial reduction in the overall energy demand, when compared with the conventional batch processes. CO{sub 2} reduction associated with the improvement of the energy efficiency is presented for several scenarios of power generation.

  10. 国内外碳排放管理标准化进展%The Progress of International and National Carbon Emission Management Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亮; 陈健华; 鲍威; 孙亮; 郭慧婷

    2014-01-01

    Standardization, as a very effective tool, plays a more and more important supporting role in promoting China's policy implementation in addressing climate change and other issues. This paper summarizes the international situation and progress, and analyzes the international development tendency of carbon emission management standardization. Correspondingly, the national situation and progress of carbon emission management standardization is reviewed including involvement of international standardization, establishment of national standardization committee, development of national standards and so on. And the policy suggestions are raised to strengthen the standardization work in the fields of addressing climate change during the 12th Five-Year Plan period.

  11. Monitoring accelerated carbonation on standard Portland cement mortar by nonlinear resonance acoustic test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiras, J. N.; Kundu, T.; Popovics, J. S.; Monzó, J.; Borrachero, M. V.; Payá, J.

    2015-03-01

    Carbonation is an important deleterious process for concrete structures. Carbonation begins when carbon dioxide (CO2) present in the atmosphere reacts with portlandite producing calcium carbonate (CaCO3). In severe carbonation conditions, C-S-H gel is decomposed into silica gel (SiO2.nH2O) and CaCO3. As a result, concrete pore water pH decreases (usually below 10) and eventually steel reinforcing bars become unprotected from corrosion agents. Usually, the carbonation of the cementing matrix reduces the porosity, because CaCO3 crystals (calcite and vaterite) occupy more volume than portlandite. In this study, an accelerated carbonation-ageing process is conducted on Portland cement mortar samples with water to cement ratio of 0.5. The evolution of the carbonation process on mortar is monitored at different levels of ageing until the mortar is almost fully carbonated. A nondestructive technique based on nonlinear acoustic resonance is used to monitor the variation of the constitutive properties upon carbonation. At selected levels of ageing, the compressive strength is obtained. From fractured surfaces the depth of carbonation is determined with phenolphthalein solution. An image analysis of the fractured surfaces is used to quantify the depth of carbonation. The results from resonant acoustic tests revealed a progressive increase of stiffness and a decrease of material nonlinearity.

  12. Dynamic Changes of the Ecological Footprint and Its Component Analysis Response to Land Use in Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Yao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Humans’ demands for biological resources and energies have always been increasing, whereas evidence has shown that this demand is outpacing the regenerative and absorptive capacity of the planet. Since China is experiencing unprecedented urbanization and industrialization processes, how much impact this has imposed on the earth during economic development worldwide is conspicuous. Therefore, this paper tries to examine the environmental impact in detail and track its changes in a typical city of Central China, Wuhan, based on ecological footprint analysis. By calculating the ecological footprint and its components in terms of biologically productive land areas during the period of 1995–2008, it is found that the ecological footprint increased in fluctuations from 1.48 gha per capita to 2.10 gha per capita, with the carbon footprint contributing most within the whole time period. Compared to the tiny declining biocapacity of the region, a gradually aggravated ecological deficit in the city was observed, which increased from 1.12 gha per capita in 1995 to 1.79 gha per capita in 2008. Component analysis on the trends of the ecological footprint and ecological deficit reveals that the impact on the ecosystem induced by humans’ demands for resource production and energy consumption became greater than before, and cutting down the consumption of fossil fuels could reduce the carbon footprint and the overall ecological deficit of the city.

  13. Nitrogen footprints: past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human alteration of the nitrogen cycle has evolved from minimal in the mid-19th century to extensive in the present time. The consequences to human and environmental health are significant. While much attention has been given to the extent and impacts of the alteration, little attention has been given to those entities (i.e., consumers, institutions) that use the resources that result in extensive reactive nitrogen (Nr) creation. One strategy for assessment is the use of nitrogen footprint tools. A nitrogen footprint is generally defined as the total amount of Nr released to the environment as a result of an entity’s consumption patterns. This paper reviews a number of nitrogen footprint tools (N-Calculator, N-Institution, N-Label, N-Neutrality, N-Indicator) that are designed to provide that attention. It reviews N-footprint tools for consumers as a function of the country that they live in (N-Calculator, N-Indicator) and the products they buy (N-Label), for the institutions that people work in and are educated in (N-Institution), and for events and decision-making regarding offsets (N-Neutrality). N footprint tools provide a framework for people to make decisions about their resource use and show them how offsets can be coupled with behavior change to decrease consumer/institution contributions to N-related problems. (paper)

  14. Reducing cement's CO2 footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing process for Portland cement causes high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. However, environmental impacts can be reduced by using more energy-efficient kilns and replacing fossil energy with alternative fuels. Although carbon capture and new cements with less CO2 emission are still in the experimental phase, all these innovations can help develop a cleaner cement industry.

  15. MODERNIZATION OF PLANT FOR THE ORGANIZATION OF MANUFACTURE OF LIQUID CARBON DIOXIDE ACCORDING TO THE EUROPEAN STANDARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Кухтинов, Я. В.

    2015-01-01

    The high demands make to lowtemperature carbon dioxide according to the European standards. The analysis of made product by refrigerating carbon dioxide plant has shown that the basic undesirable impurity in ready CO2 is CO. By researches it is established that the maintenance of CO can achieve 17 ppm. Two ways of decrease of CO in lowtemperature liquid CO2 are considered. One of them is based on use of additives O2 in compressed CO2 and the further oxidation of CO and H2 in a reactor on ru...

  16. Exceptional preservation of children's footprints from a Holocene footprint site in Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Matthew R.; Morse, Sarita A.; Liutkus-Pierce, Cynthia; McClymont, Juliet; Evans, Mary; Crompton, Robin H.; Francis Thackeray, J.

    2014-09-01

    Here we report on a Holocene inter-dune site close to Walvis Bay (Namibia) which contains exceptionally well-preserved children's footprints. The footprint surface is dated using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) methods to approximately 1.5 ka. These dates are compared to those obtained at nearby footprint sites and used to verify a model of diachronous footprint surfaces and also add to the archaeological data available for the communities that occupied these near-coastal areas during the Holocene. This model of diachronous footprint surfaces has implications for other soft-sediment footprint sites such as the 1.5 Ma old footprints at Ileret (Kenya). The distribution of both human and animal tracks, is consistent with the passage of small flock of small ungulates (probably sheep/goats) followed by a group of approximately 9 ± 2 individuals (children or young adults). Age estimates from the tracks suggest that some of the individuals may have been as young as five years old. Variation in track topology across this sedimentologically uniform surface is explained in terms of variations in gait and weight/stature of the individual print makers and is used to corroborate a model of footprint morphology developed at a nearby site. The significance of the site within the literature on human footprints lies in the quality of the track preservation, their topological variability despite a potentially uniform substrate, and the small size of the tracks, and therefore the inferred young age of the track-makers. The site provides an emotive insight into the life of the track-makers.

  17. Footprint issues in scintillometry over heterogeneous landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Timmermans

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Scintillometry is widely recognized as a potential tool for obtaining spatially aggregated sensible heat fluxes. Although many investigations have been made over contrasting component surfaces, few aggregation schemes consider footprint contributions. In this paper an approach is presented to infer average sensible heat flux over a very heterogeneous landscape by using a large aperture scintillometer. The methodology is demonstrated on simulated data and tested on a time series of measurements obtained during the SPARC2004 experiment in Barrax, Spain. Results show that the two-dimensional footprint approach yields more accurate results of aggregated sensible heat flux than traditional methods.

  18. Dinosaur Footprint Fossils Discovered in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Recently,a Chinese-German science fieldwork investigation team,composed of staff from the SinoGerman Paleontology and Geography Joint Lab and the Xinjiang Geological Work Station,announced that they discovered a batch of dinosaur footprint fossils in the dessert 20 kilometers to the east of Shanshan County in the Turpan Basin,Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.These fossils spread around an area of 100 square meters and scientists believed that these footprints were left behind by carnivore dinosaurs.This major discovery has been published in Global Geology,an English journal published by the NorthEast Asia Geology Center.

  19. Quantifying the regional water footprint of biofuel production by incorporating hydrologic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M.; Chiu, Y.; Demissie, Y.

    2012-10-01

    A spatially explicit life cycle water analysis framework is proposed, in which a standardized water footprint methodology is coupled with hydrologic modeling to assess blue water, green water (rainfall), and agricultural grey water discharge in the production of biofuel feedstock at county-level resolution. Grey water is simulated via SWAT, a watershed model. Evapotranspiration (ET) estimates generated with the Penman-Monteith equation and crop parameters were verified by using remote sensing results, a satellite-imagery-derived data set, and other field measurements. Crop irrigation survey data are used to corroborate the estimate of irrigation ET. An application of the concept is presented in a case study for corn-stover-based ethanol grown in Iowa (United States) within the Upper Mississippi River basin. Results show vast spatial variations in the water footprint of stover ethanol from county to county. Producing 1 L of ethanol from corn stover growing in the Iowa counties studied requires from 4.6 to 13.1 L of blue water (with an average of 5.4 L), a majority (86%) of which is consumed in the biorefinery. The county-level green water (rainfall) footprint ranges from 760 to 1000 L L-1. The grey water footprint varies considerably, ranging from 44 to 1579 L, a 35-fold difference, with a county average of 518 L. This framework can be a useful tool for watershed- or county-level biofuel sustainability metric analysis to address the heterogeneity of the water footprint for biofuels.

  20. Footprint Problem with Angle of Attack Optimization for High Lifting Reentry Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Huifeng; ZHANG Ran; LI Zhaoying; ZHANG Rui

    2012-01-01

    A formal analysis to footprint problem with effects of angle of attack (AOA) is presented.First a flexible and rapid standardized method for footprint generation is developed.Zero bank angle control strategy and the maximum crossrange method are used to obtain virtual target set; afterward,closed-loop bank angle guidance law is used to find footprint by solving closest approach problem for each element in virtual target set.Then based on quasi-equilibrium glide condition,the typical inequality reentry trajectory constraints are converted to angle of attack lower boundary constraint.Constrained by the lower boundary,an original and practical angle of attack parametric method is proposed.By using parametric angle of attack profile,optimization algorithm for angle of attack is designed and the impact of angle of attack to footprint is discussed.Simulations with different angle of attack profiles are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed footprint solution method and validity of optimal algorithm.

  1. Sixteen years of change in the global terrestrial human footprint and implications for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Oscar; Sanderson, Eric W; Magrach, Ainhoa; Allan, James R; Beher, Jutta; Jones, Kendall R; Possingham, Hugh P; Laurance, William F; Wood, Peter; Fekete, Balázs M; Levy, Marc A; Watson, James E M

    2016-01-01

    Human pressures on the environment are changing spatially and temporally, with profound implications for the planet's biodiversity and human economies. Here we use recently available data on infrastructure, land cover and human access into natural areas to construct a globally standardized measure of the cumulative human footprint on the terrestrial environment at 1 km(2) resolution from 1993 to 2009. We note that while the human population has increased by 23% and the world economy has grown 153%, the human footprint has increased by just 9%. Still, 75% the planet's land surface is experiencing measurable human pressures. Moreover, pressures are perversely intense, widespread and rapidly intensifying in places with high biodiversity. Encouragingly, we discover decreases in environmental pressures in the wealthiest countries and those with strong control of corruption. Clearly the human footprint on Earth is changing, yet there are still opportunities for conservation gains. PMID:27552116

  2. Sixteen years of change in the global terrestrial human footprint and implications for biodiversity conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Oscar; Sanderson, Eric W.; Magrach, Ainhoa; Allan, James R.; Beher, Jutta; Jones, Kendall R.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Laurance, William F.; Wood, Peter; Fekete, Balázs M.; Levy, Marc A.; Watson, James E. M.

    2016-01-01

    Human pressures on the environment are changing spatially and temporally, with profound implications for the planet's biodiversity and human economies. Here we use recently available data on infrastructure, land cover and human access into natural areas to construct a globally standardized measure of the cumulative human footprint on the terrestrial environment at 1 km2 resolution from 1993 to 2009. We note that while the human population has increased by 23% and the world economy has grown 153%, the human footprint has increased by just 9%. Still, 75% the planet's land surface is experiencing measurable human pressures. Moreover, pressures are perversely intense, widespread and rapidly intensifying in places with high biodiversity. Encouragingly, we discover decreases in environmental pressures in the wealthiest countries and those with strong control of corruption. Clearly the human footprint on Earth is changing, yet there are still opportunities for conservation gains. PMID:27552116

  3. Sixteen years of change in the global terrestrial human footprint and implications for biodiversity conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Oscar; Sanderson, Eric W.; Magrach, Ainhoa; Allan, James R.; Beher, Jutta; Jones, Kendall R.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Laurance, William F.; Wood, Peter; Fekete, Balázs M.; Levy, Marc A.; Watson, James E. M.

    2016-08-01

    Human pressures on the environment are changing spatially and temporally, with profound implications for the planet's biodiversity and human economies. Here we use recently available data on infrastructure, land cover and human access into natural areas to construct a globally standardized measure of the cumulative human footprint on the terrestrial environment at 1 km2 resolution from 1993 to 2009. We note that while the human population has increased by 23% and the world economy has grown 153%, the human footprint has increased by just 9%. Still, 75% the planet's land surface is experiencing measurable human pressures. Moreover, pressures are perversely intense, widespread and rapidly intensifying in places with high biodiversity. Encouragingly, we discover decreases in environmental pressures in the wealthiest countries and those with strong control of corruption. Clearly the human footprint on Earth is changing, yet there are still opportunities for conservation gains.

  4. Sex estimation using anthropometry of feet and footprints in a Western Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemy, Naomi; Flavel, Ambika; Ishak, Nur-Intaniah; Franklin, Daniel

    2013-09-10

    An important component of forensic investigation is the identification of deceased (and increasingly living) individuals, which is often the role of the forensic anthropologist. One of the most valuable steps towards identification is via a biological profile, developed through the application of population specific standards. In disaster victim identification scenarios, fleshed feet are often recovered in footwear; footprints are another potential source of trace evidence found at crime scenes. In medico-legal investigations, feet and footprints can be useful for extrapolating living height, it is thus expedient to determine whether sex can be estimated from the same anthropometric data. The aim of the present study is to develop accurate sex estimation standards for a contemporary Western Australian population from measurements of the feet and footprints. The sample comprises 200 adults (90 males, 110 females). Three bilateral linear measurements were taken from each foot and seven bilateral measurements were acquired from static footprints obtained using a Podograph. A precision test was first conducted to assess data accuracy and reliability. Measurement data are then analysed using a range of parametric statistical tests. Results show that males were significantly (Pclassification accuracies ranged from 71% to 91%. Although in many instances the sex bias was large (>±5%), this study provides viable alternatives for estimating sex in Western Australian individuals with accuracy equivalent to established standards developed from foot bones. PMID:23806341

  5. 76 FR 44608 - Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania; Scheduling of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ...The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling of expedited reviews pursuant to section 751(c)(3) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1675(c)(3)) (the Act) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan and Romania would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within a......

  6. ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT ANALYSIS OF CANNED SWEET CORN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phairat Usubharatana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been a notable increase in both consumer knowledge and awareness regarding the ecological benefits of green products and services. Manufacturers now pay more attention to green, environmentally friendly production processes. Two significant tools that can facilitate such a goal are life cycle assessment (LCA and ecological footprint (EF. This study aimed to analyse and determine the damage to the environment, focusing on the canned fruit and vegetable processing. Canned sweet corn (340 g was selected for the case study. All inputs and outputs associated with the product system boundary were collected through field surveys. The acquired inventory was then analysed and evaluated using both LCA and EF methodology. The results were converted into an area of biologically productive land and presented as global hectares (gha. The ecological footprint of one can of sweet corn was calculated as 6.51E-04 gha. The three factors with the highest impact on ecological footprint value were the corn kernels used in the process, the packaging and steam, equivalent to 2.93E-04 gha, 1.19E-04 gha and 1.17E-04 gha respectively. To promote the sustainable development, the company should develop new technology or utilize better management techniques to reduce the ecological footprint of canned food production.

  7. The water footprint of tourism in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cazcarro, I.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Sánchez Chóliz, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study complements the water footprint (WF) estimations for Spain, incorporating insights of the process analysis and input–output (IO) analysis. We evaluate the virtual (both blue and green consumed) water trade of agricultural and industrial products, but also of services, especially through t

  8. The water footprint of food aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, Nicole; Konar, Megan; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Food aid is a critical component of the global food system, particularly when emergency situations arise. For the first time, we evaluate the water footprint of food aid. To do this, we draw on food aid data from theWorld Food Programme and virtual water content estimates from WaterStat. We find tha

  9. On Touristic Ecological Footprint of Macau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Meng; Yang Yu

    2012-01-01

    Despite its tiny territory, Macau boasts a large volume of tourist activities, which serves as the pillar of its economy. En- vironment and natural resources are the cornerstone of tourism, but are also subject to the negative impact of tourism. Based on the theory and methodology of ecological footprint analysis, this paper calculated the touristic ecological footprint and deficit of Macau in 2009, in an effort to bring to light the current status of excessive consumption of resources by tourism. As the findings show, the non-h'ansferable touristic ecological footprint and touristic ecologi- cal deficit of Macau in 2009 are respectively 18 300.891 gha and 12 737.584 gha, and the former is 3.29 times as large as the tour- istic ecological carrying capacity. Touristic ecological footprint of Macau is highly efficient in economic sense but currently tourism is developing in an unsustainable manner, so appropriate initiatives are in need to strike a balance between tourism development and resource conservation and to promote the sustainability of tourism industry of Macau.

  10. Building Footprints, Building footprints of all building locations in Johnson County, updated off Orthoimarty, Published in unknown, Johnson County AIMS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Building Footprints dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of unknown. It is described as 'Building footprints of all building...

  11. Validation of conventional Lagrangian stochastic footprint models against LES driven footprint estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Markkanen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we compare the performance of conventional Lagrangian stochastic (LS footprint models that use parameterised flow field characteristics with results of a Lagrangian trajectory model embedded in a large eddy simulation (LES framework. The two conventional models follow the particles backward and forward in time while the trajectories in LES only evolve forward in time. We assess their performance in unstably and neutrally stratified boundary layers at observation levels covering the whole depth of the atmospheric boundary layer. We present a concept for footprint model comparison that can be applied for 2-D footprints and demonstrate that comparison of only cross wind integrated footprints is not sufficient for purposes facilitating two dimensional footprint information. Because the flow field description among the three models is most realistic in LES we use those results as the reference in the comparison. We found that the agreement of the two conventional models against the LES is generally better for intermediate measurement heights and for the convective case, whereas the two conventional flux footprint models agree best under near neutral conditions.

  12. A model combining spectrum standardization and dominant factor based partial least square method for carbon analysis in coal by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiongwei; Fu, Yangting; Li, Zheng; Ni, Weidou

    2014-01-01

    Successful quantitative measurement of carbon content in coal using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is suffered from relatively low precision and accuracy. In the present work, the spectrum standardization method was combined with the dominant factor based partial least square (PLS) method to improve the measurement accuracy of carbon content in coal by LIBS. The combination model employed the spectrum standardization method to convert the carbon line intensity into standard state for more accurately calculating the dominant carbon concentration, and then applied PLS with full spectrum information to correct the residual errors. The combination model was applied to the measurement of carbon content for 24 bituminous coal samples. The results demonstrated that the combination model could further improve the measurement accuracy compared with both our previously established spectrum standardization model and dominant factor based PLS model using spectral area normalized intensity for the dominant fa...

  13. Water Footprinting: How to Address Water Use in Life Cycle Assessment?

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Berger; Matthias Finkbeiner

    2010-01-01

    As freshwater is a vital yet often scarce resource, the life cycle assessment community has put great efforts in method development to properly address water use. The International Organization for Standardization has recently even launched a project aiming at creating an international standard for ‘water footprinting’. This paper provides an overview of a broad range of methods developed to enable accounting and impact assessment of water use. The critical review revealed that methodolog...

  14. VIIRSN Level-3 Standard Mapped Image, Particulate Organic Carbon, Monthly, 4km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes Particulate Organic Carbon data from ther NPP-Suomi spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by VIIRS instrument carried aboard the...

  15. VIIRSN Level-3 Standard Mapped Image, Particulate Organic Carbon, 8-Day, 4km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes Particulate Organic Carbon data from the NPP-Suomi Spacecraft Measurements are gathered by the VIIRS instrument carried aboard the...

  16. VIIRSN Level-3 Standard Mapped Image, Particulate Inorganic Carbon, Monthly, 4km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes Particulate Inorganic Carbon data from ther NPP-Suomi spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by VIIRS instrument carried aboard the...

  17. VIIRSN Level-3 Standard Mapped Image, Particulate Inorganic Carbon, 8-Day, 4km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes Particulate Inorganic Carbon data from the NPP-Suomi Spacecraft Measurements are gathered by the VIIRS instrument carried aboard the...

  18. Robotic-based carbon ion therapy and patient positioning in 6 degrees of freedom: setup accuracy of two standard immobilization devices used in carbon ion therapy and IMRT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Alexandra D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To investigate repositioning accuracy in particle radiotherapy in 6 degrees of freedom (DOF and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT, 3 DOF for two immobilization devices (Scotchcast masks vs thermoplastic head masks currently in use at our institution for fractionated radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients. Methods and materials Position verifications in patients treated with carbon ion therapy and IMRT for head and neck malignancies were evaluated. Most patients received combined treatment regimen (IMRT plus carbon ion boost, immobilization was achieved with either Scotchcast or thermoplastic head masks. Position corrections in robotic-based carbon ion therapy allowing 6 DOF were compared to IMRT allowing corrections in 3 DOF for two standard immobilization devices. In total, 838 set-up controls of 38 patients were analyzed. Results Robotic-based position correction including correction of rotations was well tolerated and without discomfort. Standard deviations of translational components were between 0.5 and 0.8 mm for Scotchcast and 0.7 and 1.3 mm for thermoplastic masks in 6 DOF and 1.2 - 1.4 mm and 1.0 - 1.1 mm in 3 DOF respectively. Mean overall displacement vectors were between 2.1 mm (Scotchcast and 2.9 mm (thermoplastic masks in 6 DOF and 3.9 - 3.0 mm in 3 DOF respectively. Displacement vectors were lower when correction in 6 DOF was allowed as opposed to 3 DOF only, which was maintained at the traditional action level of > 3 mm for position correction in the pre-on-board imaging era. Conclusion Setup accuracy for both systems was within the expected range. Smaller shifts were required when 6 DOF were available for correction as opposed to 3 DOF. Where highest possible positioning accuracy is required, frequent image guidance is mandatory to achieve best possible plan delivery and maintenance of sharp gradients and optimal normal tissue sparing inherent in carbon ion therapy.

  19. Robotic-based carbon ion therapy and patient positioning in 6 degrees of freedom: setup accuracy of two standard immobilization devices used in carbon ion therapy and IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate repositioning accuracy in particle radiotherapy in 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT, 3 DOF) for two immobilization devices (Scotchcast masks vs thermoplastic head masks) currently in use at our institution for fractionated radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients. Position verifications in patients treated with carbon ion therapy and IMRT for head and neck malignancies were evaluated. Most patients received combined treatment regimen (IMRT plus carbon ion boost), immobilization was achieved with either Scotchcast or thermoplastic head masks. Position corrections in robotic-based carbon ion therapy allowing 6 DOF were compared to IMRT allowing corrections in 3 DOF for two standard immobilization devices. In total, 838 set-up controls of 38 patients were analyzed. Robotic-based position correction including correction of rotations was well tolerated and without discomfort. Standard deviations of translational components were between 0.5 and 0.8 mm for Scotchcast and 0.7 and 1.3 mm for thermoplastic masks in 6 DOF and 1.2 - 1.4 mm and 1.0 - 1.1 mm in 3 DOF respectively. Mean overall displacement vectors were between 2.1 mm (Scotchcast) and 2.9 mm (thermoplastic masks) in 6 DOF and 3.9 - 3.0 mm in 3 DOF respectively. Displacement vectors were lower when correction in 6 DOF was allowed as opposed to 3 DOF only, which was maintained at the traditional action level of > 3 mm for position correction in the pre-on-board imaging era. Setup accuracy for both systems was within the expected range. Smaller shifts were required when 6 DOF were available for correction as opposed to 3 DOF. Where highest possible positioning accuracy is required, frequent image guidance is mandatory to achieve best possible plan delivery and maintenance of sharp gradients and optimal normal tissue sparing inherent in carbon ion therapy

  20. Carbon-optimal and carbon-neutral supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Caro, F; Corbett, CJ; Tan, T Tarkan; Zuidwijk, RA

    2011-01-01

    Carbon footprinting is a tool for firms to determine the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with their supply chain or with a unit of final product or service. Carbon footprinting efforts typically aim to identify where best to invest in emission reduction efforts, and/or to determine the proportion of total emissions that an individual firm is accountable for, whether financially and/or operationally. A major and under-recognized challenge in determining the appropriate allocati...