WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon footprint standards

  1. Carbon Footprints

    OpenAIRE

    Rahel Aichele; Gabriel Felbermayr

    2011-01-01

    Lässt sich der Beitrag eines Landes zum weltweiten Klimaschutz an der Veränderung seines CO2-Ausstoßes messen, wie es im Kyoto-Abkommen implizit unterstellt wird? Oder ist aufgrund der Bedeutung des internationalen Güterhandels der Carbon Footprint – der alle CO2-Emissionen erfasst, die durch die Absorption (d.h. Konsum und Investitionen) eines Landes entstehen – das bessere Maß? Die Autoren erstellen eine Datenbank mit den Footprints von 40 Ländern für den Zeitraum 1995–2007. Die deskriptive...

  2. GHG emissions of green coffee production : toward a standard methodology for carbon footprinting : report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevenster, M.; Verhagen, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this project, the scope for product specific rules for carbon footprinting of (green) coffee is investigated and a proposal is drafted for further work toward actual definition and implementation of such a standard.

  3. Emerging product carbon footprint standards and schemes and their possible trade impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Simon; Gibbon, Peter

    Concern over climate change has stimulated interest in estimating the total amount of greenhouse gasses produced during the life-cycle of goods and services - i.e. during their production, transportation, sale, use and disposal. The outcome of these calculations is referred to as "product carbon...... operational. Two new international standards and several new schemes, including three public ones, are due to become operational by 2011 or earlier. The private schemes are owned by a mixture of voluntary bodies and private companies, including some large retailers. Many provide assistance for reducing carbon...... footprints or procedures for certification or labelling. Nonetheless, to date only a few thousand products have been footprinted. As PCFs are already becoming market access requirements for bio-fuels imported to the EU, and may also become EU market access requirements for all mass-produced goods within 10...

  4. Emerging product carbon footprint standards and schemes and their possible trade impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolwig, S.; Gibbon, P.

    2009-12-15

    Concern over climate change has stimulated interest in estimating the total amount of greenhouse gasses produced during the life-cycle of goods and services - i.e. during their production, transportation, sale, use and disposal. The outcome of these calculations is referred to as 'product carbon footprints' (PCFs). The paper reviews the rationale, context, coverage and characteristics of emerging standards and certification schemes that estimate and designate PCFs, and discusses the possible impacts on trade, particularly exports from distant and developing countries. It draws on a survey of PCF certification schemes carried out during 2009, on a review of evolving international and national standards, and on a review of consumer surveys. Since 2007 one public standard, and two public and 14 private certification schemes referring to standards for calculating and communicating PCFs have become operational. Two new international standards and several new schemes, including three public ones, are due to become operational by 2011 or earlier. The private schemes are owned by a mixture of voluntary bodies and private companies, including some large retailers. Many provide assistance for reducing carbon footprints or procedures for certification or labelling. Nonetheless, to date only a few thousand products have been footprinted. As PCFs are already becoming market access requirements for bio-fuels imported to the EU, and may also become EU market access requirements for all mass-produced goods within 10-15 years, there is a danger that developing country exporters will lose out as a result. This is because: they are less likely to have the resources necessary for calculating and verifying PCFs; publicly available datasets are less likely to include processes carried out mainly in developing countries; and some existing standards do not currently include production of capital goods in their definition of product life cycles, which imparts a bias against

  5. Skallerup Klit's carbon footprint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zacho, Kristina Overgaard; Ørnstrup, Niels Holm; Zimmermann, Tine Marquard;

    offsetting and without making actual emission reductions. Therefore the purpose of this study is to present recommendations on how Skallerup Klit can build up their business strategy using Carbon Footprint (CFP) as a tool. The CPF is calculated and assessed by using financial data in an Input-output LCA. For...

  6. Carbon Footprint of Thermowood

    OpenAIRE

    Nordlund, Teemu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of this Bachelor’s Thesis was to evaluate the carbon footprint of thermally modified wood and its manufacturing process and transportation cycle for several different ThermoWood producer. Research included the whole production cycle from harvesting raw wood to ThermoWood transportation in destination area. Carbon dioxide emissions from these areas were determined and calculated for every ThermoWood producer at first hand. Calculations were based on the PAS 2050:2011, which is ...

  7. Product carbon footprint developments and gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg Jensen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - Over the last decade, multiple initiatives have been undertaken to learn how to capture the carbon footprint of a supply chain at a product level. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the process of standardization to secure consistency of product carbon footprinting (PCF) and to...

  8. Carbon footprint: current methods of estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Divya; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Pandey, Jai Shanker

    2011-07-01

    Increasing greenhouse gaseous concentration in the atmosphere is perturbing the environment to cause grievous global warming and associated consequences. Following the rule that only measurable is manageable, mensuration of greenhouse gas intensiveness of different products, bodies, and processes is going on worldwide, expressed as their carbon footprints. The methodologies for carbon footprint calculations are still evolving and it is emerging as an important tool for greenhouse gas management. The concept of carbon footprinting has permeated and is being commercialized in all the areas of life and economy, but there is little coherence in definitions and calculations of carbon footprints among the studies. There are disagreements in the selection of gases, and the order of emissions to be covered in footprint calculations. Standards of greenhouse gas accounting are the common resources used in footprint calculations, although there is no mandatory provision of footprint verification. Carbon footprinting is intended to be a tool to guide the relevant emission cuts and verifications, its standardization at international level are therefore necessary. Present review describes the prevailing carbon footprinting methods and raises the related issues. PMID:20848311

  9. Carbon footprinting of electronic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Challenges in adopting existing CF standards for electronic products are discussed. • Carbon footprint of electronic products is underestimated using existing standards. • Multipronged approach is presented to overcome the identified challenges. • Multipronged approach demonstrated on commercial and military grade DC–DC converter system. - Abstract: In order to mitigate the effects of global warming, companies are being compelled by governments, investors, and customers to control their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Similar to the European Union’s legislation on the airline industry, legislation is expected to require the electronics industry to assess their product’s carbon footprint before sale or use, as the electronics industry’s contribution to global GHG emissions is comparable to the airline industry’s contribution. Thus, it is necessary for members of the electronics industry to assess their current GHG emission rates and identify methods to reduce environmental impacts. Organizations use Carbon Footprint (CF) analysis methods to identify and quantify the GHG emissions associated with the life cycle stages of their product or services. This paper discusses the prevailing methods used by organizations to estimate the CF of their electronics products and identifies the challenges faced by the electronics industry when adopting these methods in an environment of decreasing product development cycles with complex and diffuse supply chains. We find that, as a result of the inconsistencies arising from the system boundary selection methods and databases, the use of outdated LCA approaches, and the lack of supplier’s emissions-related data, the CFs of electronic products are typically underestimated. To address these challenges, we present a comprehensive approach to the carbon footprinting of electronic products that involves the use of product-group-oriented standards, hybrid life cycle assessment techniques, and the

  10. Carbon footprint bloembollen 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Putten, van, B.J.; Wildschut, J.

    2011-01-01

    Voor exporteurs en handelaren van leverbare bollen is het in de toekomst mogelijk van belang om aan te kunnen geven wat de carbon footprint (kg CO2 –equivalenten per eenheid) van hun product is. Daarom is een rekenmodel ontwikkeld, waarmee met een minimum aan variabelen op eenvoudige wijze de directe en indirecte CO2 uitstoot per 1000 stuks van op de plaats van bestemming afgeleverde bloembollen kan worden berekend. Andere hierbij vrijgekomen broeikasgassen zoals N2O en CH4 worden omgerekend ...

  11. A Better Carbon Footprint Label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Nielsen, Kristian S.

    2016-01-01

    expected, price and carbon footprint were negatively related to choice. Further, participants preferred organic to non-organic coffee and certification by a public authority. The effect of the carbon label is significantly stronger the more environmentally concerned the consumer is. Using colors to...... indicate relative carbon footprint significantly increases carbon label effectiveness. Hence, a carbon footprint label is more effective if it uses traffic light colors to communicate the product's relative performance.......Based on insights from behavioral economics, it is suggested to extend carbon footprint labeling with information about relative performance, using the well-known “traffic light” color scheme to communicate relative performance. To test this proposition, the impact of a carbon footprint label on...

  12. City Carbon Footprint Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwu Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cities worldwide have demonstrated political leadership by initiating meaningful strategies and actions to tackle climate change. However, the lack of knowledge concerning embodied greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of cities has hampered effective mitigation. We analyse trans-boundary GHG emission transfers between five Australian cities and their trading partners, with embodied emission flows broken down into major economic sectors. We examine intercity carbon footprint (CF networks and disclose a hierarchy of responsibility for emissions between cities and regions. Allocations of emissions to households, businesses and government and the carbon efficiency of expenditure have been analysed to inform mitigation policies. Our findings indicate that final demand in the five largest cities in Australia accounts for more than half of the nation’s CF. City households are responsible for about two thirds of the cities’ CFs; the rest can be attributed to government and business consumption and investment. The city network flows highlight that over half of emissions embodied in imports (EEI to the five cities occur overseas. However, a hierarchy of GHG emissions reveals that overseas regions also outsource emissions to Australian cities such as Perth. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on carbon neutrality, low-carbon city concepts and strategies and allocation of subnational GHG responsibility.

  13. Carbon Footprint Analysis for Baby Strollers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ang; Luo Yifan

    2012-01-01

    The increasing awareness of climate change has led or- ganizations to demand a standard procedure to measure and com- municate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions linked to their products or services. The publicly available specification PAS 2050 has been developed in response to broad community and industry desire for a consistent method-carbon footprint for assessing the life cycle GHG emissions of goods and services. Specifically, this paper illustrates the implementation of carbon footprint for a baby stroller in accordance with PAS 2050. A fial value of 321 kg per one stroller including package was calculated. Moreover, the study led to identify raw materials production of the stroller as the main source of GHS emissions where efforts need to focus for emission reduction opportunities. This case study is hoped to be a starting point for organizations to benefit from the increasing application of carbon footprint assessment.

  14. Carbon Footprint of Beef Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Jim Dyer; Darrel Cerkowniak; Dominique Maxime; Xavier P.C. Vergé; Devon E. Worth; Raymond L. Desjardins

    2012-01-01

    The carbon footprint of beef cattle is presented for Canada, The United States, The European Union, Australia and Brazil. The values ranged between 8 and 22 kg CO 2 e per kg of live weight (LW) depending on the type of farming system, the location, the year, the type of management practices, the allocation, as well as the boundaries of the study. Substantial reductions have been observed for most of these countries in the last thirty years. For instance, in Canada the mean carbon footprint of...

  15. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Masanet, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 3...

  16. What Is My Carbon Footprint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; McGivney-Burelle, Jean; Wagstrom, Rikki B.

    2016-01-01

    Human beings are having a profound impact on the environment. The opportunity to investigate this timely issue during one or two class periods gives algebra and precalculus students insight into a sustainability topic of great international concern--carbon footprints. Students use mathematical thinking in matters that are pertinent to their…

  17. Global carbon footprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The designated culprit of global warming, carbon dioxide (CO2), is primarily given off by the burning of fossil fuels. Whether by a specific technology, a sector, an economy or from one country to another, the quantities emitted are not the same. But the necessity of lowering these emissions is nonetheless urgent for all

  18. Goodbye to carbon neutral: Getting biomass footprints right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most guidance for carbon footprinting, and most published carbon footprints or LCAs, presume that biomass heating fuels are carbon neutral. However, it is recognised increasingly that this is incorrect: biomass fuels are not always carbon neutral. Indeed, they can in some cases be far more carbon positive than fossil fuels. This flaw in carbon footprinting guidance and practice can be remedied. In carbon footprints (not just of biomass or heating fuels, but all carbon footprints), rather than applying sequestration credits and combustion debits, a 'carbon-stock change' line item could be applied instead. Not only would this make carbon footprints more accurate, it would make them consistent with UNFCCC reporting requirements and national reporting practice. There is a strong precedent for this change. This same flaw has already been recognised and partly remedied in standards for and studies of liquid biofuels (e.g. biodiesel and bioethanol), which now account for land-use change, i.e. deforestation. But it is partially or completely missing from other studies and from standards for footprinting and LCA of solid fuels. Carbon-stock changes can be estimated from currently available data. Accuracy of estimates will increase as Kyoto compliant countries report more land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) data

  19. FILLERS AND THE CARBON FOOTPRINT OF PAPERMAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Shen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon footprint reduction is a global concern. For the papermaking industry, strategically effective measures of carbon footprint reduction can include many aspects such as energy efficiency improvement, use of renewable carbon-neutral energy, practicing of sustainable forestry, and development of an integrated forest products biorefinery. Filler addition in papermaking can save substantial amounts of pulp fibers, and reduce energy consumption, which can surely contribute to reduction in paper’s carbon footprint. However, the negative effect of filler addition on paper recycling, and the energy consumption associated with the production, processing, and treatment of fillers, will contribute to the carbon footprint. On balance, it can be considered that filler addition in reasonable amounts is likely to lower the paper’s carbon footprint. Certain research work is still needed to better understand the relationship between filler addition and the carbon footprint of papermaking.

  20. Carbon footprint estimation of municipal water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Ali A.

    2009-11-01

    This research investigates the embodied energy associated with water use. A geographic information system (GIS) was tested using data from Loudoun County, Virginia. The objective of this study is to estimate the embodied energy and carbon emission levels associated with water service at a geographical location and to improve for sustainability planning. Factors that affect the carbon footprint were investigated and the use of a GIS based model as a sustainability planning framework was evaluated. The carbon footprint metric is a useful tool for prediction and measurement of a system's sustainable performance over its expected life cycle. Two metrics were calculated: tons of carbon dioxide per year to represent the contribution to global warming and watt-hrs per gallon to show the embodied energy associated with water consumption. The water delivery to the building, removal of wastewater from the building and associated treatment of water and wastewater create a sizable carbon footprint; often the energy attributed to this water service is the greatest end use of electrical energy. The embodied energy in water depends on topographical characteristics of the area's local water supply, the efficiency of the treatment systems, and the efficiency of the pumping stations. The questions answered by this research are: What is the impact of demand side sustainable water practices on the embodied energy as represented by a comprehensive carbon footprint? What are the major energy consuming elements attributed to the system? What is a viable and visually identifiable tool to estimate the carbon footprint attributed to those Greenhouse Gas (GHG) producing elements? What is the embodied energy and emission associated with water use delivered to a building? Benefits to be derived from a standardized GIS applied carbon footprint estimation approach include: (1) Improved environmental and economic information for the developers, water and wastewater processing and municipal

  1. Kyoto and the Carbon Footprint of Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Aichele, Rahel; Felbermayr, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    A country’s carbon footprint refers to the CO2 emissions caused by domestic absorptionactivities. Trade in goods drives a wedge between the footprint and local emissions. Weprovide a panel database on carbon footprints and carbon net trade. Using a differencesin-differences IV estimation strategy, we evaluate the Kyoto Protocol’s effects on carbonfootprints and emissions. Instrumenting countries’ Kyoto commitment by their participationin the International Criminal Court, we show that Kyoto re...

  2. Carbon footprinting. An introduction for organisations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To some degree or other, every person and every organisation, either directly or indirectly, is responsible for producing carbon dioxide gas which finds its way into the atmosphere and therefore contributes to the greenhouse effect. The amount of carbon dioxide produced by a person, an organisation, a company, an industry, an event, or even a population can be quantified in what is now described as a carbon footprint. Gases other than carbon dioxide are also released to the atmosphere through man's activities and these can also be evaluated in terms of the carbon footprint. This document explains the meaning of the expression 'carbon footprint' and aims to assist businesses and organisations to determine collective and individual carbon footprints

  3. Land, carbon and water footprints in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yung-Jaan, E-mail: yungjaanlee@gmail.com

    2015-09-15

    The consumer responsibility approach uses footprints as indicators of the total direct and indirect effects of a product or consumption activity. This study used a time-series analysis of three environmental pressures to quantify the total environmental pressures caused by consumption in Taiwan: land footprint, carbon footprint, and water footprint. Land footprint is the pressure from appropriation of biologically productive land and water area. Carbon footprint is the pressure from greenhouse gas emissions. Water footprint is the pressure from freshwater consumption. Conventional carbon footprint is the total CO{sub 2} emitted by a certain activity or the CO{sub 2} accumulation during a product life cycle. This definition cannot be used to convert CO{sub 2} emissions into land units. This study responds to the needs of “CO{sub 2} land” in the footprint family by applying the carbon footprint concept used by GFN. The analytical results showed that consumption by the average Taiwan citizen in 2000 required appropriation of 5.39 gha (hectares of land with global-average biological productivity) and 3.63 gha in 2011 in terms of land footprint. The average Taiwan citizen had a carbon footprint of 3.95 gha in 2000 and 5.94 gha in 2011. These results indicate that separately analyzing the land and carbon footprints enables their trends to be compared and appropriate policies and strategies for different sectors to be proposed accordingly. The average Taiwan citizen had a blue water footprint of 801 m{sup 3} in 2000 and 784 m{sup 3} in 2011. By comparison, their respective global averages were 1.23 gha, 2.36 gha and 163 m{sup 3} blue water in 2011, respectively. Overall, Taiwan revealed higher environmental pressures compared to the rest of the world, demonstrating that Taiwan has become a high footprint state and has appropriated environmental resources from other countries. That is, through its imports of products with embodied pressures and its exports, Taiwan has

  4. Land, carbon and water footprints in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consumer responsibility approach uses footprints as indicators of the total direct and indirect effects of a product or consumption activity. This study used a time-series analysis of three environmental pressures to quantify the total environmental pressures caused by consumption in Taiwan: land footprint, carbon footprint, and water footprint. Land footprint is the pressure from appropriation of biologically productive land and water area. Carbon footprint is the pressure from greenhouse gas emissions. Water footprint is the pressure from freshwater consumption. Conventional carbon footprint is the total CO2 emitted by a certain activity or the CO2 accumulation during a product life cycle. This definition cannot be used to convert CO2 emissions into land units. This study responds to the needs of “CO2 land” in the footprint family by applying the carbon footprint concept used by GFN. The analytical results showed that consumption by the average Taiwan citizen in 2000 required appropriation of 5.39 gha (hectares of land with global-average biological productivity) and 3.63 gha in 2011 in terms of land footprint. The average Taiwan citizen had a carbon footprint of 3.95 gha in 2000 and 5.94 gha in 2011. These results indicate that separately analyzing the land and carbon footprints enables their trends to be compared and appropriate policies and strategies for different sectors to be proposed accordingly. The average Taiwan citizen had a blue water footprint of 801 m3 in 2000 and 784 m3 in 2011. By comparison, their respective global averages were 1.23 gha, 2.36 gha and 163 m3 blue water in 2011, respectively. Overall, Taiwan revealed higher environmental pressures compared to the rest of the world, demonstrating that Taiwan has become a high footprint state and has appropriated environmental resources from other countries. That is, through its imports of products with embodied pressures and its exports, Taiwan has transferred the environmental pressures

  5. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Greg; Brown, Rich; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2009-04-15

    The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 32 different supply chain fuel end uses. This level of end use detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the carbon footprint of California households. The modeling framework was applied to estimate the annual home energy and supply chain carbon footprints of a prototypical California household. A preliminary assessment of parameter uncertainty associated with key model input data was also conducted. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this modeling framework, a case study was conducted that analyzed the achievable carbon footprint reductions associated with the adoption of energy efficient household and supply chain technologies.

  6. Assessing Water and Carbon Footprints for Sustainable Water Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The key points of this presentation are: (1) Water footprint and carbon footprint as two sustainability attributes in adaptations to climate and socioeconomic changes, (2) Necessary to evaluate carbon and water footprints relative to constraints in resource capacity, (3) Critical...

  7. FILLERS AND THE CARBON FOOTPRINT OF PAPERMAKING

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Shen; Zhanqian Song; Xueren Qian; Wenxia Liu; Fei Yang

    2010-01-01

    Carbon footprint reduction is a global concern. For the papermaking industry, strategically effective measures of carbon footprint reduction can include many aspects such as energy efficiency improvement, use of renewable carbon-neutral energy, practicing of sustainable forestry, and development of an integrated forest products biorefinery. Filler addition in papermaking can save substantial amounts of pulp fibers, and reduce energy consumption, which can surely contribute to reduction in pap...

  8. Carbon footprint of electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloma, Marcin

    2013-07-01

    Paper assesses the greenhouse gas emissions related to the electronic sectors including information and communication technology and media sectors. While media often presents the carbon emission problem of other industries like petroleum industry, the airlines and automobile sectors, plastics and steel manufacturers, the electronics industry must include the increasing carbon footprints caused from their applications like media and entertainment, computers and cooling devices, complex telecommunications networks, cloud computing and powerful mobile phones. In that sense greenhouse gas emission of electronics should be studied in a life cycle perspective, including regular operational electricity use. Paper presents which product groups or processes are major contributors in emission. From available data and extrapolation of existing information we know that the information and communication technology sector produced 1.3% and media sector 1.7% of global gas emissions within production cycle, using the data from 2007.In the same time global electricity use of that sectors was 3.9% and 3.2% respectively. The results indicate that for both sectors operation leads to more gas emissions than manufacture, although impacts from the manufacture is significant, especially in the supply chain. Media electronics led to more emissions than PCs (manufacture and operation). Examining the role of electronics in climate change, including disposal of its waste, will enable the industry to take internal actions, leading to lowering the impact on the climate change within the sector itself.

  9. Carbon Footprint and Order Quantity in Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Even without economic factors and government regulations, the pressure and motivation of corporation to reduce emission are still increasing. This is because the key factors for corporation to reduce emissions have become corporate social responsibility and identification of low-carbon value by consumer and society from economic trade-off and government regulations. So, the purpose of this paper is to provide quantity methods for the logistics organizations with wish of voluntary reduction and social responsibility.Design/methodology/approach: Being difference from the traditional research that takes economic value as object, this paper takes carbon footprint as object directly, order quantity as decision variable. By referring to the traditional economic order quantity model, the paper creates logistics carbon footprint model which takes transport and inventory into account. Then it solves the model by calculating the values of order quantity, carbon footprint and revenue using the method of optimization.Findings and Originality/value: By solving and comparing the two models of economic order quantity model and carbon footprint model, it gets some results, such as carbon optimization order quantity, the effects order quantity deviating from economic order quantity or carbon order quantity having on economic or carbon footprint values, which can give some meaningful insight for corporation to search out reduction opportunities by operations adjustment.Originality/value: The study takes carbon footprint as object directly and creates the corresponding quantity model. By comparing with the traditional economic order quantity model, the paper provides quantity methods and obtains some meaningful insights for the logistics organizations with wish of voluntary reduction and social responsibility to reduce emissions by operations adjustment.

  10. Carbon footprint of Stockholm district heating network

    OpenAIRE

    Ingman, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is continuously rising and does almost certainly have an effect on the climate of the earth. Because of this, the work towards an ecologically sustainable society is important, and striving to minimize the carbon footprint of every process possible is key to reach this goal. The goal of this project has been to estimate the carbon footprint of the Stockholm district heating network, as well as the single facilities that it consists of. To do this,...

  11. Carbon footprint: a head-teaser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author outlines the difficulties faced by industries to assess the impact of their activities on the environment, and more particularly their carbon footprint which is to be reduced, as well as greenhouse gas emissions. One of these difficulties for these companies is to choose among many methods and service providers to perform this carbon footprint assessment. Even if the result of this assessment could therefore be a matter of discussion, some companies may use this assessment as a marketing tool, whereas the ADEME notices that many requirements in terms of emission reduction actions are not met

  12. Carbon Footprint Linked to transport infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantification of emissions of greenhouse effect gases associated to transport infrastructures has been addressed in different ways. The first tools for this purpose appeared with the application of ISO 14040 standards (Life cycle analysis) that, applied to the particular case of energetic resources, led to a new concept known as carbon footprint. There is a specific standard for this quantification (ISO 14064) according to which, for the case of infrastructures, emissions and environmental effects linked to the whole life cycle are assessed taking into account all the stages: building, exploitation, maintenance and dismantling. the key point to perform this analysis is the accurate definition of a calculation methodology to be applied to the inventory of activities covered, in order to avoid information lacks, overlaps or redundancies. Quantification tools for emissions are effectively a reality, but social and political will, supported by strong economical reasons recognizing energy as a vital resource, is necessary for these tools to be developed, enhanced and used in a systematic way as a key decision element to choice among different transport alternatives. (Author) 23 refs.

  13. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA CARBON FOOTPRINTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present convincing evidence of unburned carbon at photospheric velocities in new observations of five Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained by the Nearby Supernova Factory. These SNe are identified by examining 346 spectra from 124 SNe obtained before +2.5 days relative to maximum. Detections are based on the presence of relatively strong C II λ6580 absorption 'notches' in multiple spectra of each SN, aided by automated fitting with the SYNAPPS code. Four of the five SNe in question are otherwise spectroscopically unremarkable, with ions and ejection velocities typical of SNe Ia, but spectra of the fifth exhibit high-velocity (v > 20, 000 km s–1) Si II and Ca II features. On the other hand, the light curve properties are preferentially grouped, strongly suggesting a connection between carbon-positivity and broadband light curve/color behavior: three of the five have relatively narrow light curves but also blue colors and a fourth may be a dust-reddened member of this family. Accounting for signal to noise and phase, we estimate that 22+10–6% of SNe Ia exhibit spectroscopic C II signatures as late as –5 days with respect to maximum. We place these new objects in the context of previously recognized carbon-positive SNe Ia and consider reasonable scenarios seeking to explain a physical connection between light curve properties and the presence of photospheric carbon. We also examine the detailed evolution of the detected carbon signatures and the surrounding wavelength regions to shed light on the distribution of carbon in the ejecta. Our ability to reconstruct the C II λ6580 feature in detail under the assumption of purely spherical symmetry casts doubt on a 'carbon blobs' hypothesis, but does not rule out all asymmetric models. A low volume filling factor for carbon, combined with line-of-sight effects, seems unlikely to explain the scarcity of detected carbon in SNe Ia by itself.

  14. EDF Group reduces its carbon footprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although EDF's carbon footprint in France is already very low (40 g of CO2/kWh) compared to coal-fired units (about 20 times more) or even to gas-fired combined cycles (about 10 times more), its stakes in fossil-fired power plants in Europe and overseas contribute to a total amount of 64 million tonnes of CO2 emissions per year. Therefore, reduction of carbon emissions represents a real challenge; besides demand side management, renewable developments, efficiency improvement, fuel switching from coal to gas and contribution to the nuclear revival. CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) technologies development is also part of the picture. (orig.)

  15. Carbon Footprint - Application in Graphic Art Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bolanča Mirković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for more sustainable products and processes has triggered the develop-ment of a large number of environmental assessment tools. These tools measure environmental performance and identify improvement potentials from the envi-ronmental point of view. The life cycle assessment (lca methods take into ac-count all effects on the environment, direct and indirect resource inputs and/or emissions during the whole life cycle of products. The carbon footprint is a sub-set of data covered by life cycle assessment.The aim of this paper is to describe the potential environmental impacts (green-house gases, carbon footprint of printed paper and new media.

  16. Carbon Footprint - Application in Graphic Art Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Bolanca Mirkovic

    2010-01-01

    The need for more sustainable products and processes has triggered the development of a large number of environmental assessment tools. These tools measure environmental performance and identify improvement potentials from the environmental point of view. The life cycle assessment (lca) methods take into account all effects on the environment, direct and indirect resource inputs and/or emissions during the whole life cycle of products.  The carbon footprint is a sub-set of data covered by lif...

  17. Low Carbon Footprint Routes for Bird Watching

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Ta Fang; Chin-Wei Huang; Jui-Yu Chou; Bai-You Cheng; Shang-Shu Shih

    2015-01-01

    Bird watching is one of many recreational activities popular in ecotourism. Its popularity, therefore, prompts the need for studies on energy conservation. One such environmentally friendly approach toward minimizing bird watching’s ecological impact is ensuring a reduced carbon footprint by using an economic travel itinerary comprising a series of connected routes between tourist attractions that minimizes transit time. This study used a travel-route planning approach using geographic info...

  18. Lebanese household carbon footprint: Measurements, analysis and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Rawad; Tall, Ibrahim; Nachabe, Nour; Chaaban, Farid

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to estimate the carbon footprint of a typical Lebanese household, and compare the results with international standards and trends. The estimation of this footprint will reflect the impact of the daily Lebanese household activities on the environment in terms of carbon dioxide emissions. The method used in estimating the carbon emissions is based on gathering the primary footprints from various household activities. Another proposed method that provides more accurate results is the estimation of emissions based on secondary footprint, which reflects the total emissions not only from the regular activities but also from a lifecycle perspective. Practical and feasible solutions were proposed to help reduce the amount of C02 emissions per household. This would lead to a better air quality, money savings, greenhouse gases emissions reduction and would ensure the sustainability and prosperity of future generations. A detailed survey was conducted in which the questions were focused mainly on energy, food, and transportation issues. The fourteen questions were addressed to one hundred families in different Lebanese regions coming from different social and economic backgrounds. This diversity would constitute a reflective sample of the actual Lebanese society, allowing us to extrapolate the gathered results on a national level.

  19. Type Ia Supernova Carbon Footprints

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, R C; Aragon, C; Antilogus, P; Bailey, S; Baltay, C; Bongard, S; Buton, C; Canto, A; Childress, M; Chotard, N; Copin, Y; Fakhouri, H K; Gangler, E; Hsiao, E Y; Kerschhaggl, M; Kowalski, M; Loken, S; Nugent, P; Paech, K; Pain, R; Pecontal, E; Pereira, R; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Rigault, M; Rubin, D; Runge, K; Scalzo, R; Smadja, G; Tao, C; Weaver, B A; Wu, C; Brown, P J; Milne, P A

    2011-01-01

    We present convincing evidence of unburned carbon at photospheric velocities in new observations of 5 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained by the Nearby Supernova Factory. These SNe are identified by examining 346 spectra from 124 SNe obtained before +2.5 d relative to maximum. Detections are based on the presence of relatively strong C II 6580 absorption "notches" in multiple spectra of each SN, aided by automated fitting with the SYNAPPS code. Four of the 5 SNe in question are otherwise spectroscopically unremarkable, with ions and ejection velocities typical of SNe Ia, but spectra of the fifth exhibits high-velocity (v > 20,000 km/s) Si II and Ca II features. On the other hand, the light curve properties are preferentially grouped, strongly suggesting a connection between carbon-positivity and broad band light curve/color behavior: Three of the 5 have relatively narrow light curves but also blue colors, and a fourth may be a dust-reddened member of this family. Accounting for signal-to-noise and phase, we ...

  20. Harmonisation of Carbon Footprint Calculation for Freight Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrler, Verena Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    A lot of efforts within the transport industry as well as by its stakeholders are working toward the further standardisation of the calculation of CO2emissions along freight transport chains. This presentations maps out the challenges related to the development of such a standard and gives a summary on the current achievements of developments so far. It closes with an outlook on next steps needed towards a global standisation of carbon footprint calculation of freight transport.

  1. Carbon footprint of SURFnet 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruithof, G.H.; Meulenhoff, P.J.

    2012-04-15

    SURFnet wants to account for its energy consumption, in a way that it can compare itself to other National Research and Education Networks (NRENs) in Europe. To that end, an assessment was held to account for the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission in 2010, according to the ISO 14064:2006 part 1 standard. The quantitative assessment is limited to Scope 1 (direct emissions) and Scope 2 (indirect emissions related to bought energy). Accounting for Scope 3 emissions (e.g. emissions related to the production of bought products, travel, waste) is not included in this assessment. Only a qualitative assessment of the GHG emissions in Scope 3 emissions was done.

  2. Carbon footprint of automotive ignition coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Huey-Ling; Chen, Chih-Ming; Sun, Chin-Huang; Lin, Hung-Di

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, environmental issues, such as climate change and global warming due to the excessive development of industry, have attracted increasing attention of citizens worldwide. It is known that CO2 accounts for the largest proportion of greenhouse gases. Therefore, how to reduce CO2 emissions during the life cycle of a product to lessen its impact on environment is an important topic in the industrial society. Furthermore, it is also of great significance to cut down the required energy so as to lower its production costs during the manufacturing process nowadays. This study presents the carbon footprint of an automotive ignition coil and its partial materials are defined to explore their carbon emissions and environmental impact. The model IPCC GWP100a calculates potential global greenhouse effect by converting them into CO2 equivalents. In this way, the overall carbon footprint of an ignition coil can be explored. By using IPCC GWP100a, the results display that the shell has the most carbon emissions. The results can help the industry reduce the carbon emissions of an ignition coil product.

  3. Carbon footprint of SURFnet 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meulenhoff, P.J.; Jansen, B.I.

    2012-05-15

    SURFnet wants to account for its energy consumption in a way that it can compare itself to other National Research and Education Networks (NRENs) in Europe. To that end, an assessment was held to account for the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission in 2011, according to the ISO 14064:2006 part 1 standard. SURFnet starting reporting on GHG emissions in 2010. The quantitative assessment is limited to Scope 1 (direct emissions) and Scope 2 (indirect emissions related to bought energy) and certain parts of Scope 3 emissions (e.g. emissions related to the production of bought products, travel, waste). The total GHG emission under Scope 1, Scope 2, and Scope 3 accounted for by SURFnet in 2011 is equal 1278 ton CO2-eq.

  4. Carbon Footprint : A case study on the municipality of Haninge

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Weiling

    2011-01-01

    AbstractCarbon Footprints, as an indicator of climate performance, help identify major GHG emission sources and potential areas of improvement. In the context of greatly expanding sub-national climate efforts, research on Carbon Footprint accounting at municipality level is timely and necessary to facilitate the establishment of local climate strategies. This study aims at exploring the methodologies for Carbon Footprint assessment at municipality level, based on the case study of Haninge mun...

  5. Carbon footprint as environmental performance indicator for the manufacturing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Olsen, Stig Irving; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2010-01-01

    With the current focus on our climate change impacts, the embodied CO2 emission or "Carbon footprint" is often used as an environmental performance indicator for our products or production activities. The ability of carbon footprint to represent other types of impact like human toxicity, and hence...... the overall environmental impact is investigated based on life cycle assessments of several materials of major relevance to manufacturing industries. The dependence of the carbon footprint on the assumed scenarios for generation of thermal and electrical energy in the life cycle of the materials is...... analyzed, and the appropriateness of carbon footprint as an overall indicator of the environmental performance is discussed....

  6. Klimaregnskab og Carbon Footprint beregning for Kommunekemi a/s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leinikka Dall, Ole; Wenzel, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Klimaregnskab for anlægget i Nyborg og carbon footprint for: -forbrænding -uorganisk behandling -halmaskeanlæg Afrapporteret på tryk og indtastet i Simapro......Klimaregnskab for anlægget i Nyborg og carbon footprint for: -forbrænding -uorganisk behandling -halmaskeanlæg Afrapporteret på tryk og indtastet i Simapro...

  7. Identifying important characteristics of municipal carbon footprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hogne N.; Hertwich, Edgar G. [Industrial Ecology Programme and Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Realfagbygget E1, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2010-11-15

    Local climate action has been identified as a vital contributor to global mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper focuses on the GHG emissions resulting from the provision of local public services, illustrated through the Carbon Footprint (CF) indicator. The CF of all 429 Norwegian municipalities is calculated and compared to variables of interest. Results show that the CF changes significantly depending on size and wealth. Small and/or wealthy municipalities tend to have a much higher CF per capita compared to more populated and/or less wealthy cities. While wealth and CF relate very well linearly, increased population is only beneficial up to a certain size. Results indicate that the CF per capita increases in municipalities with more than {proportional_to}50,000 inhabitants, thus indicating a possible ideal size of municipalities to achieve the optimal municipal CF. (author)

  8. Carbon footprint reductions via grid energy storage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor S. Hale, Kelly Weeks, Coleman Tucker

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This effort presents a framework for reducing carbon emissions through the use of large-scale grid-energy-storage (GES systems. The specific questions under investigation herein are as follows: Is it economically sound to invest in a GES system and is the system at least carbon footprint neutral? This research will show the answer to both questions is in the affirmative. Scilicet, when utilized judiciously, grid energy storage systems can be both net present value positive as well as be total carbon footprint negative. The significant contribution herein is a necessary and sufficient condition for achieving carbon footprint reductions via grid energy storage systems.

  9. Carbon footprint of dairy goat milk production in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kimberly; Symes, Wymond; Garnham, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cradle-to-farm gate carbon footprint of indoor and outdoor dairy goat farming systems in New Zealand, identifying hotspots and discussing variability and methodology. Our study was based on the International Organization for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment, although only results for greenhouse gas emissions are presented. Two functional units were included: tonnes of CO2-equivalents (CO2e) per hectare (ha) and kilograms of CO2e per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The study covered 5 farms, 2 farming systems, and 3yr. Two methods for the calculation of enteric methane emissions were assessed. The Lassey method, as used in the New Zealand greenhouse gas inventory, provided a more robust estimate of emissions from enteric fermentation and was used in the final calculations. The alternative dry matter intake method was shown to overestimate emissions due to use of anecdotal assumptions around actual consumption of feed. Economic allocation was applied to milk and co-products. Scenario analysis was performed on the allocation method, nitrogen content of manure, manure management, and supplementary feed choice. The average carbon footprint for the indoor farms (n=3) was 11.05 t of CO2e/ha and 0.81kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. For the outdoor farms (n=2), the average was 5.38 t of CO2e/ha and 1.03kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The average for all 5 farms was 8.78 t of CO2e/ha and 0.90kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The results showed relatively high variability due to differences in management practices between farms. The 5 farms covered 10% of the total dairy goat farms but may not be representative of an average farm. Methane from enteric fermentation was a major emission source. The use of supplementary feed was highly variable but an important contributor to the carbon footprint. Nitrous oxide can contribute up to 18% of emissions. Indoor goat farming systems produced milk with a significantly higher carbon

  10. Low Carbon Footprint Routes for Bird Watching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ta Fang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bird watching is one of many recreational activities popular in ecotourism. Its popularity, therefore, prompts the need for studies on energy conservation. One such environmentally friendly approach toward minimizing bird watching’s ecological impact is ensuring a reduced carbon footprint by using an economic travel itinerary comprising a series of connected routes between tourist attractions that minimizes transit time. This study used a travel-route planning approach using geographic information systems to detect the shortest path, thereby solving the problems associated with time-consuming transport. Based on the results of road network analyses, optimal travel-route planning can be determined. These methods include simulated annealing (SA and genetic algorithms (GA. We applied two algorithms in our simulation research to detect which one is an appropriate algorithm for running carbon-routing algorithms at the regional scale. SA, which is superior to GA, is considered an excellent approach to search for the optimal path to reduce carbon dioxide and high gasoline fees, thereby controlling travel time by using the shortest travel routes.

  11. Product carbon footprints and their uncertainties in comparative decision contexts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik J G Henriksson

    Full Text Available In response to growing awareness of climate change, requests to establish product carbon footprints have been increasing. Product carbon footprints are life cycle assessments restricted to just one impact category, global warming. Product carbon footprint studies generate life cycle inventory results, listing the environmental emissions of greenhouse gases from a product's lifecycle, and characterize these by their global warming potentials, producing product carbon footprints that are commonly communicated as point values. In the present research we show that the uncertainties surrounding these point values necessitate more sophisticated ways of communicating product carbon footprints, using different sizes of catfish (Pangasius spp. farms in Vietnam as a case study. As most product carbon footprint studies only have a comparative meaning, we used dependent sampling to produce relative results in order to increase the power for identifying environmentally superior products. We therefore argue that product carbon footprints, supported by quantitative uncertainty estimates, should be used to test hypotheses, rather than to provide point value estimates or plain confidence intervals of products' environmental performance.

  12. Analysis of the carbon footprint of coastal protection systems

    OpenAIRE

    Labrujere, A.L.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    When calculating the Carbon Footprint for a product or service, a direct link is made between the total amount of consumed energy and the produced amount of carbon dioxide during production. For that reason calculating the carbon footprint of various alternatives is a very straightforward method to compare energy consumption and more importantly environmental pollution. Applying this method to large hydraulic engineering projects is not being done frequently. In this study the possibilities t...

  13. Carbon footprint of building products and assembled constructional complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović, Klemen

    2015-01-01

    Greenhouse gases are becoming bigger and bigger polluter of our planet. Carbon dioxide represents the largest part of greenhouse gases (70 %), because of that we represent carbon footprint with CO2 equivalent (CO2-e). We will compare assembled construction complexes and their carbon footprint in this graduation thesis. At first we will explain what greenhouse gases are and how they are formed. Then we will present some of the studies that research field of materials in constructio...

  14. Teaching Quantitative Reasoning for Nonscience Majors through Carbon Footprint Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boose, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative reasoning is a key intellectual skill, applicable across disciplines and best taught in the context of authentic, relevant problems. Here, I describe and assess a laboratory exercise that has students calculate their "carbon footprint" and evaluate the impacts of various behavior choices on that footprint. Students gather…

  15. Concerted drive to cut carbon footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    In 2013 Peter Sellars, head of Profession for Estates & Facilities Policy at the Department of Health, successfully bid for £50 million from the Treasury to help finance a range of 'spend-to-save' energy efficiency initiatives across the NHS in England. In all 117 energy efficiency projects were initiated across 48 English NHS organisations--funded through a dedicated NHS Energy Efficiency Fund. An independent analysis for the DH, NHS Energy Efficiency Fund Final Report, Summary 2014, by Professor Alan Short of Cambridge University's Department of Architecture, says the projects are already on track to save 100.6 million kg of CO2 annually, and some 2.4% of the entire 2012 NHS building energy-related carbon footprint, delivering annual energy savings of 160.5 million kWh (equivalent to boiling 3.34 billion cups of tea a year.) The Report--reproduced in large part here--summarises the schemes' preliminary outcomes, and makes recommendations for policy-makers implementing similar energy-saving funding schemes in the future. PMID:26281424

  16. Including carbon emissions from deforestation in the carbon footprint of Brazilian beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, Christel; Persson, U Martin; Neovius, Kristian; Molander, Sverker; Clift, Roland

    2011-03-01

    Effects of land use changes are starting to be included in estimates of life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, so-called carbon footprints (CFs), from food production. Their omission can lead to serious underestimates, particularly for meat. Here we estimate emissions from the conversion of forest to pasture in the Legal Amazon Region (LAR) of Brazil and present a model to distribute the emissions from deforestation over products and time subsequent to the land use change. Expansion of cattle ranching for beef production is a major cause of deforestation in the LAR. The carbon footprint of beef produced on newly deforested land is estimated at more than 700 kg CO(2)-equivalents per kg carcass weight if direct land use emissions are annualized over 20 years. This is orders of magnitude larger than the figure for beef production on established pasture on non-deforested land. While Brazilian beef exports have originated mainly from areas outside the LAR, i.e. from regions not subject to recent deforestation, we argue that increased production for export has been the key driver of the pasture expansion and deforestation in the LAR during the past decade and this should be reflected in the carbon footprint attributed to beef exports. We conclude that carbon footprint standards must include the more extended effects of land use changes to avoid giving misleading information to policy makers, retailers, and consumers. PMID:21280649

  17. A carbon footprint proportional to expenditure : a case for Norway?

    OpenAIRE

    Narbel, Patrick A.; Isaksen, Elisabeth T.

    2014-01-01

    Assuming that emissions originate from the consumption of goods and services, we study the relationship between consumption-based per capita carbon footprint and per capita expenditure for Norway, using 2007 data. A two-region input-output model reveals that the consumption-based per capita carbon footprint is directly proportional to expenditure with an estimated elasticity close to unity. We show that this result is at least partly driven by a near zero-emission power sector, which leads to...

  18. Adaptation of emission factors for the Tunisian carbon footprint tool

    OpenAIRE

    Dereix, Florian

    2013-01-01

    In Tunisia, the National Agency for the Environment is encouraging the creation of a carbon footprint method specifically adapted to the Tunisian context. In cooperation with the French National Agency for the Environment, the adaptation of the French carbon footprint method is realised and has to go along with an adaptation of the emission factors. In this framework, this master thesis aims at presenting the emission factors adaptation process led to adapt the accounting tool. First, a liter...

  19. Reducing Students' Carbon Footprints Using Personal Carbon Footprint Management System Based on Environmental Behavioural Theory and Persuasive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shyh-ming

    2016-01-01

    This study applied environmental behavioural theories to develop a personal carbon footprint management system and used persuasive technology to implement it. The system serves as an educational system to improve the determinants of students' low-carbon behaviours, to promote low-carbon concepts and to facilitate their carbon management. To assess…

  20. Twelve metropolitan carbon footprints. A preliminary comparative global assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dearth of available data on carbon emissions and comparative analysis between metropolitan areas make it difficult to confirm or refute best practices and policies. To help provide benchmarks and expand our understanding of urban centers and climate change, this article offers a preliminary comparison of the carbon footprints of 12 metropolitan areas. It does this by examining emissions related to vehicles, energy used in buildings, industry, agriculture, and waste. The carbon emissions from these sources - discussed here as the metro area's partial carbon footprint - provide a foundation for identifying the pricing, land use, help metropolitan areas throughout the world respond to climate change. The article begins by exploring a sample of the existing literature on urban morphology and climate change and explaining the methodology used to calculate each area's carbon footprint. The article then depicts the specific carbon footprints for Beijing, Jakarta, London, Los Angeles, Manila, Mexico City, New Delhi, New York, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Singapore, and Tokyo and compares these to respective national averages. It concludes by offering suggestions for how city planners and policymakers can reduce the carbon footprint of these and possibly other large urban areas. (author)

  1. Twelve metropolitan carbon footprints: A preliminary comparative global assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dearth of available data on carbon emissions and comparative analysis between metropolitan areas make it difficult to confirm or refute best practices and policies. To help provide benchmarks and expand our understanding of urban centers and climate change, this article offers a preliminary comparison of the carbon footprints of 12 metropolitan areas. It does this by examining emissions related to vehicles, energy used in buildings, industry, agriculture, and waste. The carbon emissions from these sources-discussed here as the metro area's partial carbon footprint-provide a foundation for identifying the pricing, land use, help metropolitan areas throughout the world respond to climate change. The article begins by exploring a sample of the existing literature on urban morphology and climate change and explaining the methodology used to calculate each area's carbon footprint. The article then depicts the specific carbon footprints for Beijing, Jakarta, London, Los Angeles, Manila, Mexico City, New Delhi, New York, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Singapore, and Tokyo and compares these to respective national averages. It concludes by offering suggestions for how city planners and policymakers can reduce the carbon footprint of these and possibly other large urban areas.

  2. Disagreement over carbon footprints: A comparison of electric and LPG forklifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon footprint is an increasingly popular concept: for labelling, marketing, finance and regulation. In individual cases, carbon footprints can also be contentious, for example in the case of LPG and electric forklifts. Therefore, the fuel carbon footprints of the two were investigated to see if a fair, robust comparison could be made. This investigation yielded two conclusions: (1) definitions will continue to complicate footprint comparisons and (2) fuel carbon footprints of electric and (liquefied petroleum gas) LPG forklifts are, in principle, about equal, while in actual practice, LPG's footprint is smaller than that of electricity. The paper concludes that carbon footprint definitions should be sensible and transparent, but not prescribed

  3. Disagreement over carbon footprints: A comparison of electric and LPG forklifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon footprint is an increasingly popular concept: for labelling, marketing, finance and regulation. In individual cases, carbon footprints can also be contentious, for example in the case of LPG and electric forklifts. Therefore, the fuel carbon footprints of the two were investigated to see if a fair, robust comparison could be made. This investigation yielded two conclusions: (1) definitions will continue to complicate footprint comparisons and (2) fuel carbon footprints of electric and (liquefied petroleum gas) LPG forklifts are, in principle, about equal, while in actual practice, LPG's footprint is smaller than that of electricity. The paper concludes that carbon footprint definitions should be sensible and transparent, but not prescribed. (author)

  4. Effects of Globalisation on Carbon Footprints of Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2009-01-01

    Outsourcing of production from the industrialised countries to the newly industrialised economies holds the potential to increase wealth in both places, but what are the environmental costs of the globalised manufacturing systems? This paper looks into the changes in carbon footprint of manufactu......Outsourcing of production from the industrialised countries to the newly industrialised economies holds the potential to increase wealth in both places, but what are the environmental costs of the globalised manufacturing systems? This paper looks into the changes in carbon footprint...

  5. The carbon footprint of reinforced concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Purnell, P

    2013-01-01

    As legislation forces significant reductions in the operational carbon dioxide emissions of the built environment, increasing attention is focused on the embodied carbon of structural materials. As the most prevalent structural material, the embodied carbon of concrete is of paramount interest. Previous direct or indirect analyses of embodied carbon in concrete have treated it either as an elemental material with a value of single embodied carbon, or calculated embodied carbon for a limited r...

  6. Facilities management carbon footprints: an audit of critical elements of management and reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Elmualim, Abbas; Kwawu, Wisdom

    2012-01-01

    Concern for the environmental impact of organizations’ activities has led to the recognition and demand for organizations to manage and report on their carbon footprint. However, there is no limit as to the areas of carbon footprints required in such annual environmental reports. To deliver improvements in the quality of carbon footprint management and reporting, there is a need to identify the main elements of carbon footprint strategy that can be endorsed, supported and encouraged by facili...

  7. The U.S. beef cattle industry: The carbon footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    This was an invited 20 minute oral presentation concerning the carbon footprint of the U.S. beef cattle industry. The audience at the workshop (about 30 people) included university professors and graduate students from agriculture and enviornmental sciences. The presentation included a brief revie...

  8. Calculating the Carbon Footprint from Different Classes of Air Travel

    OpenAIRE

    Bofinger, Heinrich; Strand, Jon

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a new methodology for calculating the "carbon footprint" of air travel whereby emissions from travel in premium (business and first) classes depend heavily on the average class-specific occupied floor space. Unlike methods currently used for the purpose, the approach properly accounts for the fact that the relative number of passenger seats in economy and premium classe...

  9. Computers and the Environment: Minimizing the Carbon Footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Rich

    2009-01-01

    Computers can be good and bad for the environment; one can maximize the good and minimize the bad. When dealing with environmental issues, it's difficult to ignore the computing infrastructure. With an operations carbon footprint equal to the airline industry's, computer energy use is only part of the problem; everyone is also dealing with the use…

  10. Management options to reduce the carbon footprint of livestock products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, John Erik; Kristensen, Troels

    2011-01-01

    Livestock products carry a large carbon footprint compared with other foods, and thus there is a need to focus on how to reduce it. The major contributing factors are emissions related to feed use and manure handling as well as the nature of the land required to produce the feed in question. We can....... Basically, it is important to make sure that all beneficial interactions in the livestock system are optimized instead of focusing only on animal productivity. There is an urgent need to arrive at a sound framework for considering the interaction between land use and carbon footprints of foods....... conclude that the most important mitigation options include - better feed conversion at the system level, - use of feeds that increase soil carbon sequestration versus carbon emission, - ensure that the manure produced substitutes for synthetic fertilizer, and - use manure for bio-energy production...

  11. Carbon footprint reductions via grid energy storage systems

    OpenAIRE

    Trevor S. Hale, Kelly Weeks, Coleman Tucker

    2011-01-01

    This effort presents a framework for reducing carbon emissions through the use of large-scale grid-energy-storage (GES) systems. The specific questions under investigation herein are as follows: Is it economically sound to invest in a GES system and is the system at least carbon footprint neutral? This research will show the answer to both questions is in the affirmative. Scilicet, when utilized judiciously, grid energy storage systems can be both net present value positive as well as be tota...

  12. From Indoctrinating to Counterpoising Carbon Footprint: Role of Communication

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    As long as humans have interacted with each other and with nature, there has been environmental communication. Worldwide environmental issues ranging from ozone depletion to increased carbon footprint have been threatening our planet and compromising the quality of the lives of humans. In this milieu, environmental education and communication have a remarkable opportunity to accelerate understanding and to mobilize community participation to achieve a change - the reduction of carbon footprin...

  13. Carbon footprint of humanitarian logistics : Case the Finnish Red Cross

    OpenAIRE

    Anttila, Virva

    2011-01-01

    This thesis was written on the basis that despite all studies and analyses companies, governments and industries have about pollution and carbon footprint voluntary organi-zations have very little information about that. This will serve as background informa-tion for the Finnish Red Cross for the procurement operations. Although many relief item deliveries to areas suffered from natural disasters are very urgent, certain factors allow planners to take environmental impact and carbon emission...

  14. Tracking urban carbon footprints from production and consumption perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cities are hotspots of socio-economic activities and greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of this study was to extend the research range of the urban carbon footprint (CF) to cover emissions embodied in products traded among regions and intra-city sectors. Using Xiamen City as a study case, the total urban-related emissions were evaluated, and the carbon flows among regions and intra-city sectors were tracked. Then five urban CF accountings were evaluated, including purely geographic accounting (PGA), community-wide infrastructure footprint (CIF), and consumption-based footprint (CBF) methods, as well as the newly defined production-based footprint (PBF) and purely production footprint (PPF). Research results show that the total urban-related emissions of Xiamen City in 2010 were 55.2 Mt CO2e/y, of which total carbon flow among regions or intra-city sectors accounted for 53.7 Mt CO2e/y. Within the total carbon flow, import and export respectively accounted for 59 and 65%, highlighting the importance of emissions embodied in trade. By regional trade balance, North America and Europe were the largest net carbon exported-to regions, and Mainland China and Taiwan the largest net carbon imported-from regions. Among intra-sector carbon flows, manufacturing was the largest emission-consuming sector of the total urban carbon flow, accounting for 77.4, and 98% of carbon export was through industrial products trade. By the PBF, PPF, CIF, PGA and CBF methods, the urban CFs were respectively 53.7 Mt CO2e/y, 44.8 Mt CO2e/y, 28.4 Mt CO2e/y, 23.7 Mt CO2e/y, and 19.0 Mt CO2e/y, so all of the other four CFs were higher than the CBF. All of these results indicate that urban carbon mitigation must consider the supply chain management of imported goods, the production efficiency within the city, the consumption patterns of urban consumers, and the responsibility of the ultimate consumers outside the city. (letter)

  15. Tracking urban carbon footprints from production and consumption perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jianyi; Hu, Yuanchao; Cui, Shenghui; Kang, Jiefeng; Ramaswami, Anu

    2015-05-01

    Cities are hotspots of socio-economic activities and greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of this study was to extend the research range of the urban carbon footprint (CF) to cover emissions embodied in products traded among regions and intra-city sectors. Using Xiamen City as a study case, the total urban-related emissions were evaluated, and the carbon flows among regions and intra-city sectors were tracked. Then five urban CF accountings were evaluated, including purely geographic accounting (PGA), community-wide infrastructure footprint (CIF), and consumption-based footprint (CBF) methods, as well as the newly defined production-based footprint (PBF) and purely production footprint (PPF). Research results show that the total urban-related emissions of Xiamen City in 2010 were 55.2 Mt CO2e/y, of which total carbon flow among regions or intra-city sectors accounted for 53.7 Mt CO2e/y. Within the total carbon flow, import and export respectively accounted for 59 and 65%, highlighting the importance of emissions embodied in trade. By regional trade balance, North America and Europe were the largest net carbon exported-to regions, and Mainland China and Taiwan the largest net carbon imported-from regions. Among intra-sector carbon flows, manufacturing was the largest emission-consuming sector of the total urban carbon flow, accounting for 77.4, and 98% of carbon export was through industrial products trade. By the PBF, PPF, CIF, PGA and CBF methods, the urban CFs were respectively 53.7 Mt CO2e/y, 44.8 Mt CO2e/y, 28.4 Mt CO2e/y, 23.7 Mt CO2e/y, and 19.0 Mt CO2e/y, so all of the other four CFs were higher than the CBF. All of these results indicate that urban carbon mitigation must consider the supply chain management of imported goods, the production efficiency within the city, the consumption patterns of urban consumers, and the responsibility of the ultimate consumers outside the city.

  16. Carbon Footprint Analysis of Municipalities – Evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Angelakoglou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The economical crisis that hit Greece after 2009, significantly affected its energy consumption profile due to the increased price of domestic heating oil and gasoline. The specific study aims at the quantification of the carbon dioxide emissions in municipal level due to energy and fuel consumption. Three different municipalities in North Greece (Kavala, Alexandroupolis and Drama were assessed with the application of three different carbon footprint estimation approaches in each one of them, including two life cycle assessment methods. Results ranged from 511,799 to 571,000, 435,250 to 489,000 and 355,207 to 398,000 tons CO2 and tons CO2-eq. for Kavala, Alexandroupolis and Drama respectively. The analysis per energy type indicated the electrical energy consumption as the key factor affecting the results due to the relatively high CO2 emission coefficient of the electricity produced in Greece. The analysis per sector indicated that a percentage of nearly 75% of the total carbon footprint is assigned to the building sector whereas the private and commercial transport is accountable for the rest. Municipal activities (buildings, facilities, lighting and fleet contributed to a small percentage to the total carbon footprint (approx. 3-8%.

  17. Processes for reducing NHS carbon footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    NHS Trust boards face challenging targets for cutting carbon emissions from new and existing facilities. Spirax Sarco's Murdo Macdonald looks at the help available and some of the latest examples of good practice in steam systems for hospital heating and hot water. PMID:17847881

  18. The conundrum of calculating carbon footprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strobel, Bjarne W.; Erichsen, Anders Christian; Gausset, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    A pre-condition for reducing global warming is to minimise the emission of greenhouse gasses (GHGs). A common approach to informing people about the link between behaviour and climate change rests on developing GHG calculators that quantify the ‘carbon footprint’ of a product, a sector or an actor...

  19. Carbon footprint of food maintenance in Finnish households

    OpenAIRE

    Kauppinen, Tommi; Katajajuuri, Juha-Matti; Pesonen, Inkeri; Kurppa, Sirpa

    2009-01-01

    This paper identifies the primary consumer actions having an effect on carbon footprint, their relative importance and their sensitivity to consumer choice concerning food maintenance. Food maintenance (transportation, preservation and preparation of food) of a Finnish household produces annually 170 kilograms of CO2-equivalent per individual as an average which corresponds approximately 2 % of the greenhouse gas emissions of private consumption. Of transportation, preservation and preparatio...

  20. Carbon Footprint of Tree Nuts Based Consumer Products

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Volpe; Simona Messineo; Maurizio Volpe; Antonio Messineo

    2015-01-01

    This case study shows results of a calculation of carbon footprint (CFP) resulting from the production of nuts added value products for a large consumer market. Nuts consumption is increasing in the world and so is the consumer awareness of the environmental impact of goods, hence the calculation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of food production is of growing importance for producers. Calculation of CO2eq emissions was performed for all stages of the production chain to the final retail po...

  1. Carbon footprints of heating oil and LPG heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For European homes without access to the natural gas grid, the main fuels-of-choice for heating are heating oil and LPG. How do the carbon footprints of these compare? Existing literature does not clearly answer this, so the current study was undertaken to fill this gap. Footprints were estimated in seven countries that are representative of the EU and constitute two-thirds of the EU-27 population: Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Poland and the UK. Novelties of the assessment were: systems were defined using the EcoBoiler model; well-to-tank data were updated according to most-recent research; and combustion emission factors were used that were derived from a survey conducted for this study. The key finding is that new residential heating systems fuelled by LPG are 20% lower carbon and 15% lower overall-environmental-impact than those fuelled by heating oil. An unexpected finding was that an LPG system's environmental impact is about the same as that of a bio heating oil system fuelled by 100% rapeseed methyl ester, Europe's predominant biofuel. Moreover, a 20/80 blend (by energy content) with conventional heating oil, a bio-heating-oil system generates a footprint about 15% higher than an LPG system's. The final finding is that fuel switching can pay off in carbon terms. If a new LPG heating system replaces an ageing oil-fired one for the final five years of its service life, the carbon footprint of the system's final five years is reduced by more than 50%.

  2. Assessing the carbon footprint of transporting primary aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Mankelow, J.M.; Oyo-Ita, D.; M Birkin

    2010-01-01

    Minerals are essential in maintaining our economy and lifestyle, but their extraction, processing and handling are responsible for about 7% of total global energy consumption. Reduction of this significant carbon footprint in the face of accelerating demand for commodities and construction materials is a major challenge facing the mining industry and its regulators over the next 30 years. Transport of primary minerals is responsible for around 40% of the energy consumed by the industry. A...

  3. carbon footprint study of a zero energy consumption residential construction

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina, Tiberiu; Blanco, Eric; Virgone, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This article purpose is to show with precise data the carbon footprint of a zero energy consumption residential house. On this construction, several active systems were installed along with a good insulation, with the objective to reduce at maximum the energy consumption for the heating and electricity. The question that was put is: What is the impact on the environment of these systems and insulation, starting from their manufacture and mounting?

  4. Using carbon footprint to evaluate environmental issues of food transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konieczny P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The international trade of food commodities is still growing and food products are transported sometimes for a long distance using  various modes. Food transportation issues should be discussed  not only in respect to quality and safety concerns but also from environmental point of view.  Numerous approaches are  proposed to study impacts of food transportation along typical food chain on environment. Carbon footprint based on seems to be an interesting indicator for such analysis.  Material and methods: The analysis carried out in this study is based mainly on data presented in paper and reports published in recent decade, including some opinions available on various internet websites.    Results and conclusions:  The greenhouse gas emissions associated food transport along whole food supply chain. Carbon footprint  can be used to study various environmental impacts on each chain stage including primary production, food processing, fuel and energy consumption in food distribution, retail issues and product use  by consumer during household consumption. Adding these together all of the greenhouse gas emissions gives the total carbon footprint for a product useful to affect consumer nutritional behaviors.  

  5. Carbon Footprint and Order Quantity in Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Tian Zhiyong; Huo Lingyu; Shen Guicheng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Even without economic factors and government regulations, the pressure and motivation of corporation to reduce emission are still increasing. This is because the key factors for corporation to reduce emissions have become corporate social responsibility and identification of low-carbon value by consumer and society from economic trade-off and government regulations. So, the purpose of this paper is to provide quantity methods for the logistics organizations with wish of voluntary red...

  6. Income-carbon footprint relationships for urban and rural households of Iskandar Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, M. R.; Moeinzadeh, S. N.; Tifwa, H. Y.

    2014-02-01

    Iskandar Malaysia has a vision to achieve sustainable development and a low carbon society status by decreasing the amount of CO2 emission as much as 60% by 2025. As the case is in other parts of the world, households are suspected to be a major source of carbon emission in Iskandar Malaysia. At the global level, 72% of greenhouse gas emission is a consequence of household activities, which is influenced by lifestyle. Income is the most important indicator of lifestyle and consequently may influence the amount of households' carbon footprint. The main objective of this paper is to illustrate the carbon-income relationships in Iskandar Malaysia's urban and rural areas. Data were gathered through a questionnaire survey of 420 households. The households were classified into six categories based on their residential area status. Both direct and indirect carbon footprints of respondents were calculated using a carbon footprint model. Direct carbon footprint includes domestic energy use, personal travel, flight and public transportation while indirect carbon footprint is the total secondary carbon emission measurement such as housing operations, transportation operations, food, clothes, education, cultural and recreational services. Analysis of the results shows a wide range of carbon footprint values and a significance correlation between income and carbon footprint. The carbon footprints vary in urban and rural areas, and also across different urban areas. These identified carbon footprint values can help the authority target its carbon reduction programs.

  7. Income-carbon footprint relationships for urban and rural households of Iskandar Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskandar Malaysia has a vision to achieve sustainable development and a low carbon society status by decreasing the amount of CO2 emission as much as 60% by 2025. As the case is in other parts of the world, households are suspected to be a major source of carbon emission in Iskandar Malaysia. At the global level, 72% of greenhouse gas emission is a consequence of household activities, which is influenced by lifestyle. Income is the most important indicator of lifestyle and consequently may influence the amount of households' carbon footprint. The main objective of this paper is to illustrate the carbon-income relationships in Iskandar Malaysia's urban and rural areas. Data were gathered through a questionnaire survey of 420 households. The households were classified into six categories based on their residential area status. Both direct and indirect carbon footprints of respondents were calculated using a carbon footprint model. Direct carbon footprint includes domestic energy use, personal travel, flight and public transportation while indirect carbon footprint is the total secondary carbon emission measurement such as housing operations, transportation operations, food, clothes, education, cultural and recreational services. Analysis of the results shows a wide range of carbon footprint values and a significance correlation between income and carbon footprint. The carbon footprints vary in urban and rural areas, and also across different urban areas. These identified carbon footprint values can help the authority target its carbon reduction programs

  8. Charcoal versus LPG grilling: A carbon-footprint comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Undoubtedly, grilling is popular. Britons fire up their barbeques some 60 million times a year, consuming many thousands of tonnes of fuel. In milder climates consumption is even higher, and in the developing world, charcoal continues to be an essential cooking fuel. So it is worth comparing the carbon footprints of the two major grill types, charcoal and LPG, and that was the purpose of the study this paper documents. Charcoal and LPG grill systems were defined, and their carbon footprints were calculated for a base case and for some plausible variations to that base case. In the base case, the charcoal grilling footprint of 998 kg CO2e is almost three times as large as that for LPG grilling, 349 kg CO2e. The relationship is robust under all plausible sensitivities. The overwhelming factors are that as a fuel, LPG is dramatically more efficient than charcoal in its production and considerably more efficient in cooking. Secondary factors are: use of firelighters, which LPG does not need; LPG's use of a heavier, more complicated grill; and LPG's use of cylinders that charcoal does not need.

  9. Air-source heat pump carbon footprints: HFC impacts and comparison to other heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European governments see that heat pumps could reduce carbon emissions in space- and hot-water heating. EU's Renewable Energy Directive designates heat pumps as renewable - eligible for various subsidies - if their carbon footprints are below an implied, average threshold. This threshold omits carbon generated by manufacture and emission of a heat-pump's fluorocarbon refrigerant. It also omits the footprint of the heat pump's hardware. To see if these omissions are significant, this study calculated carbon footprints of representative, residential heat pumps in the UK. Three findings emerged. First, in relation to power generation, which accounts for most of a heat-pump's greenhouse-gas emissions, fluorocarbons add another 20% to the footprint. Second, at UK efficiencies a heat-pump footprint (in kg CO2e emitted per kWh delivered) is comparable or higher than footprints of gaseous fuels used in heating. It is lower than the footprint of heating oil and far lower than the footprints of solid fuels. Third, production and disposal of a heat pump's hardware is relatively insignificant, accounting for only 2-3% of the overall heat-pump footprint. Sensitivities to the results were assessed: key factors are footprint of electricity generation, F-gas composition and leak rates and type of wall construction. - Research highlights: → Refrigerant emissions add 20% to a UK air-source heat pump's carbon footprint. → This contribution is so far ignored by regulations. → UK heat pump footprints are comparable to those of gaseous fuels.

  10. The carbon footprint of indoor Cannabis production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emergent industry of indoor Cannabis production – legal in some jurisdictions and illicit in others – utilizes highly energy intensive processes to control environmental conditions during cultivation. This article estimates the energy consumption for this practice in the United States at 1% of national electricity use, or $6 billion each year. One average kilogram of final product is associated with 4600 kg of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere, or that of 3 million average U.S. cars when aggregated across all national production. The practice of indoor cultivation is driven by criminalization, pursuit of security, pest and disease management, and the desire for greater process control and yields. Energy analysts and policymakers have not previously addressed this use of energy. The unchecked growth of electricity demand in this sector confounds energy forecasts and obscures savings from energy efficiency programs and policies. While criminalization has contributed to the substantial energy intensity, legalization would not change the situation materially without ancillary efforts to manage energy use, provide consumer information via labeling, and other measures. Were product prices to fall as a result of legalization, indoor production using current practices could rapidly become non-viable. - Highlights: ► The emergent industry of indoor Cannabis production utilizes highly energy intensive processes and is highly inefficient. ► In the United States, this represents an annual energy expenditure of $6 billion. ► One kg of final product is associated with emissions of 4600 kg of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. ► Aggregate U.S. emissions are equivalent those of 3 million cars. ► Energy analysts and policymakers have not previously addressed this use of energy.

  11. Carbon footprints and legitimation strategies: Symbolism or action?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrasky, S. [Univ. of Tasmania (Australia)

    2009-07-01

    The term 'carbon footprint' is now firmly entrenched in the common vernacular where it tends to function ideographically, representing a range of concerns about environmental impacts and degradation. Political and consumer concern about the related issues of carbon emissions, climate change and global warming has been heightened by a number of factors. It is often claimed that, along with the US, Australia has one of the heaviest carbon footprints. However, according to KPMG's (2008) survey results only 32 per cent of the Australian companies included in its survey report specifically on their carbon footprints. Nonetheless, KPMG (2007) reports that around 85 per cent of the 500 largest listed Australian companies do report on the related issues of climate change and greenhouse gas emissions. Motivations for making such disclosures can vary widely but legitimacy theory has been used extensively to explain environmental disclosure decisions in the context of maintaining an implicit social contract between the company and its stakeholders. While, prima facie, increased levels of voluntary disclosures may be a constructive outcome there is the associated risk that, in pursuit of legitimation, such disclosure can actually 'thicken' the corporate veil. This can occur because organizational action to maintain the social contact can be both symbolic and behavioral. That is, the disclosure response might be calculated to create a positive impression of the firm's activities with no associated change in operations (symbolism) or it might convey a message about how operational changes have been effected that are more consistent with societal expectations. This study examines the disclosure strategies of large Australian companies in light of the heightened societal awareness and concern about issues related to carbon footprints. This first aim is to determine whether, consistent with a general need for legitimation, companies are addressing

  12. The Carbon Footprint of Drinking Water : Calculation Tool for Norrvatten's Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie, Jutterström

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a model and define key figures in order to determine the carbon footprint of Norrvatten’s drinking water production and distribution, as well as analyse possible improvements. To generate the carbon footprint the study was developed from a life cycle assessment perspective, where the only environmental impact category considered was global warming. The system boundaries and methodology was determined through literature studies about carbon footprint and ear...

  13. Energy and carbon footprints of sewage treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pratima; Kansal, Arun; Carliell-Marquet, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents energy and carbon footprints of sewage treatment plants (STPs) operating at different scales and using different technology options based on primary data from 50 STPs operating in India and the UK. The study used a combination of fundamental mass-balance approach for energy consumption and the methodology defined by IPCC for the carbon emissions. Small-scale institutional STPs consume twelve times the energy consumed by large-scale municipal STPs, the corresponding energy intensities being 4.87 kWh/m(3) and 0.40 kWh/m(3) respectively. Embodied energy from construction material and chemicals accounted for 46% and 33% of the total energy intensity of the municipal and institutional STPs respectively. The average carbon footprint of large-scale STPs is 0.78 kgCO2eq/m(3) and for small-scale STPs it is 3.04 kgCO2eq/m(3). However, fugitive emissions from large-scale STPs constituted 74% of the total carbon emissions whereas the figure was only 0.05% for small-scale STPs. Average electrical energy intensity in STPs in India is much lower (0.14 kWh/m(3)) than that in the UK (0.46 kWh/m(3)). This is due to the reason that STPs in India do not have resource recovery processes and use solar heat for sludge drying. The paper offers information and insights for designing low carbon strategies for urban waste infrastructure. PMID:26406876

  14. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Rotz, C A; Oltjen, J W; Mitloehner, F M

    2012-12-01

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH(3) emissions from representative beef production systems in California. The IFSM is a process-level farm model that simulates crop growth, feed production and use, animal growth, and the return of manure nutrients back to the land to predict the environmental impacts and economics of production systems. Ammonia emissions are determined by summing the emissions from animal housing facilities, manure storage, field applied manure, and direct deposits of manure on pasture and rangeland. All important sources and sinks of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide are predicted from primary and secondary emission sources. Primary sources include enteric fermentation, manure, cropland used in feed production, and fuel combustion. Secondary emissions occur during the production of resources used on the farm, which include fuel, electricity, machinery, fertilizer, and purchased animals. The carbon footprint is the net exchange of all GHG in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e) units per kg of HCW produced. Simulated beef production systems included cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot phases for the traditional British beef breeds and calf ranch and feedlot phases for Holstein steers. An evaluation of differing production management strategies resulted in ammonia emissions ranging from 98 ± 13 to 141 ± 27 g/kg HCW and carbon footprints of 10.7 ± 1.4 to 22.6 ± 2.0 kg CO(2)e/kg HCW. Within the British beef production cycle, the cow-calf phase was responsible for 69 to 72% of total GHG emissions with 17 to 27% from feedlot sources. Holstein steers that entered the beef production system as a by-product of dairy production had the lowest carbon footprint because the emissions

  15. Carbon footprint of milk from sheep farming systems in northern Spain including soil carbon sequestration in grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batalla, Inma M.; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Hierro, O.; Pinto, M.; Hermansen, John Erik

    2015-01-01

    The link between climate change and livestock production has made carbon footprint based on life cycle assessment a world-wide indicator to assess and communicate the amount of greenhouse gases emitted per unit of product. Nevertheless, the majority of studies have not included soil carbon...... sequestration in the carbon footprint calculations. Especially in grasslands, soil carbon sequestration might be a potential sink to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in the livestock sector. However, there is no commonly accepted methodology on how to include soil carbon sequestration in carbon footprint...... calculations. In this study, the carbon footprint of sheep milk was estimated from 12 farms in Northern Spain. Before taken into account contribution from soil carbon sequestration in the calculation, the carbon footprint values varied from 2.0 to 5.2 kg CO2 eq. per kg Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM...

  16. Accounting for forest carbon pool dynamics in product carbon footprints: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modification and loss of forests due to natural and anthropogenic disturbance contribute an estimated 20% of annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide. Although forest carbon pool modeling rarely suggests a ‘carbon neutral’ flux profile, the life cycle assessment community and associated product carbon footprint protocols have struggled to account for the GHG emissions associated with forestry, specifically, and land use generally. Principally, this is due to underdeveloped linkages between life cycle inventory (LCI) modeling for wood and forest carbon modeling for a full range of forest types and harvest practices, as well as a lack of transparency in globalized forest supply chains. In this paper, through a comparative study of U.S. and Chinese coated freesheet paper, we develop the initial foundations for a methodology that rescales IPCC methods from the national to the product level, with reference to the approaches in three international product carbon footprint protocols. Due to differences in geographic origin of the wood fiber, the results for two scenarios are highly divergent. This suggests that both wood LCI models and the protocols need further development to capture the range of spatial and temporal dimensions for supply chains (and the associated land use change and modification) for specific product systems. The paper concludes by outlining opportunities to measure and reduce uncertainty in accounting for net emissions of biogenic carbon from forestland, where timber is harvested for consumer products. - Highlights: ► Typical life cycle assessment practice for consumer products often excludes significant land use change emissions when estimating carbon footprints. ► The article provides a methodology to rescale IPCC guidelines for product-level carbon footprints. ► Life cycle inventories and product carbon footprint protocols need more comprehensive land use-related accounting. ► Interdisciplinary collaboration linking the LCA and

  17. Carbon footprint evaluation at industrial park level: A hybrid life cycle assessment approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial parks have become the effective strategies for government to promote sustainable economic development due to the following advantages: shared infrastructure and concentrated industrial activities within planned areas. However, due to intensive energy consumption and dependence on fossil fuels, industrial parks have become the main areas for greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, it is critical to quantify their carbon footprints so that appropriate emission reduction policies can be raised. The objective of this paper is to seek an appropriate method on evaluating the carbon footprint of one industrial park. The tiered hybrid LCA method was selected due to its advantages over other methods. Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Zone (SETDZ), a typical comprehensive industrial park in China, was chosen as a case study park. The results show that the total life cycle carbon footprint of SETDZ was 15.29 Mt, including 6.81 Mt onsite (direct) carbon footprint, 8.47 Mt upstream carbon footprint, and only 3201 t downstream carbon footprint. Analysis from industrial sector perspectives shows that chemical industry and manufacture of general purpose machinery and special purposes machinery sector were the two largest sectors for life cycle carbon footprint. Such a sector analysis may be useful for investigation of appropriate emission reduction policies. - Highlights: ► A hybrid LCA model was employed to calculate industrial park carbon footprint. ► A case study on SETDZ is done. ► Life cycle carbon footprint of SETDZ is 15.29 Mt. ► Upstream and onsite carbon footprints account for 55.40% and 44.57%, respectively. ► Chemical industry and machinery manufacturing sectors are the two largest sectors

  18. Reducing health care's carbon footprint--the power of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Aliria

    2012-11-01

    Global warming and environmentalism continue to be national and international issues as their complexities and implications become better understood. One ironic contributor to the degradation of the environment is the health care system. Serving as clinical laboratories, hotels, restaurants, and offices that never close, U.S. hospitals produce more than 2 million tons of waste annually. Although the consequences and significance of health care's carbon footprint are undeniable, strategies to reduce this impact are challenging. This article discusses how the role, traits, and knowledge of nurses combined with their positions in the health care system make them key players in creating an environmentally sustainable health care industry. With an analysis of environmental action versus inaction, this article explores how nurses at the forefront of health care are equipped to change practice that will reach far beyond the bedside. PMID:23413481

  19. Limitations of Carbon Footprint as Indicator of Environmental Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Olsen, Stig I.; Hauschild, Michael Z.

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gas accountings, commonly referred to with the popular term carbon footprints (CFP), are a widely used metric of climate change impacts and the main focus of many sustainability policies among companies and authorities. However, environmental sustainability concerns not just climate...... change but also other environmental problems, like chemical pollution or depletion of natural resources, and the focus on CFP brings the risk of problem shifting when reductions in CFP are obtained at the expense of increase in other environmental impacts. But how real is this risk? Here, we model and...... analyze the life cycle impacts from about 4000 different products, technologies, and services taken from several sectors, including energy generation, transportation, material production, infrastructure, and waste management. By investigating the correlations between the CFP and 13 other impact scores, we...

  20. A life-cycle carbon footprint of Yosemite National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Like cities, many large national parks in the United States often include “urban” visitor and residential areas that mostly demand (rather than produce) energy and key urban materials. The U.S. National Park Service has committed to quantifying and reducing scopes 1 and 2 emissions by 35% and scope 3 emissions by 10% by 2020 for all parks. Current inventories however do not provide the specificity or granularity to evaluate solutions that address fundamental inefficiencies in these inventories. By quantifying and comparing the importance of different inventory sectors as well as upstream and downstream emissions in Yosemite National Park (YNP), this carbon footprint provides a case study and potential template for quantifying future emissions reductions, and for evaluating tradeoffs between them. Results indicate that visitor-related emissions comprise the largest fraction of the Yosemite carbon footprint, and that increases in annual visitation (3.43–3.90 million) coincide with and likely drive interannual increases in the magnitude of Yosemite′s extended inventory (126,000–130,000 t CO2e). Given this, it is recommended that “per visitor” efficiency be used as a metric to track progress. In this respect, YNP has annually decreased kilograms of GHG emissions per visitor from 36.58 (2008) to 32.90 (2011). We discuss opportunities for reducing this measure further. - Highlights: • A potential template for inventorying GHG emissions in national parks is presented. • Given variability in visitation, GHG/visitor is a better metric to measure efficiency. • Yosemite has reduced from 36.58 kg (2008) GHG emissions/visitor to 32.90 (2011)

  1. Temporospatial changes of carbon footprint based on energy consumption in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHUAI Xiaowei; LAI Li; HUANG Xianjin; ZHAO Rongqin; WANG Wanjing; CHEN Zhigang

    2012-01-01

    Study on regional carbon emission is one of the hot topics under the background of global climate change and low-carbon economic development,and also help to establish different low-carbon strategies for different regions.On the basis of energy consumption and land use data of different regions in China from 1999 to 2008,this paper established carbon emission and carbon footprint models based on total energy consumption,and calculated the amount of carbon emissions and carbon footprint in different regions of China from 1999 to 2008.The author also analyzed carbon emission density and per unit area carbon footprint for each region.Finally,advices for decreasing carbon footprint were put forward.The main conclusions are as follows:(1) Carbon emissions from total energy consumption increased 129% from 1999 to 2008 in China,but its spatial distribution pattern among different regions just slightly changed,the sorting of carbon emission amount was:Eastern China > Northern China > Central and Southern China > Southwest China > Northwest China.(2) The sorting of carbon emission density was:Eastern China > Northeast China > Central and Southern China > Northern China > Southwest China > Northwest China from 1999 to 2003,but from 2004 Central and Southern China began to have higher carbon emission density than Northeast China,the order of other regions did not change.(3) Carbon footprint increased significantly since the rapid increasing of carbon emissions and less increasing area of productive land in different regions of China from 1999 to 2008.Northern China had the largest carbon footprint,and Northwest China,Eastern China,Northern China,Central and Southern China followed in turn,while Southwest China presented the lowest area of carbon footprint and the highest percentage of carbon absorption.(4) Mainly influenced by regional land area,Northern China presented the highest per unit area carbon footprint and followed by Eastern China,and Northeast

  2. Carbon Footprint Analysis for a GRAPE Production Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirca, C.; Marras, S.; Masia, S.; Duce, P.; Zara, P.; Spano, D.

    2013-12-01

    Agriculture activities can play a double role in emitting or sequestering carbon from the atmosphere. Mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agriculture is one of the most urgent research subjects in the framework of enhancing environmental stewardship. However, little is known about the role of the agriculture in the global carbon balance, since most of the studies applied the Eddy Covariance technique in natural or semi-natural ecosystems to investigate their role in mitigate the anthropogenic carbon release. The application of the Eddy Covariance technique in agricultural systems could greatly improve our knowledge about their role on the global carbon budget and help in modeling the related processes. In addition, there is a growing request from producers, trade companies, and customers on the assessment of the environmental impact of a production process related to agricultural high quality products. In recent years, particular attention was put on the estimation of GHG emissions deriving from productive processes. In this context, a useful tool is the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), which represents a methodology to estimate GHG emissions related to the entire life cycle of a product. The Carbon Footprint (CF) analysis represents a subset of the LCA, which only considers CO2 emissions with an impact on climate change. With respect to the wine industry, most of studies focused on the CF analysis related to the wine making process in the cellar, while a few studies analyzed the GHG emissions related to the grape production. The aim of this work was to quantify the CO2 emissions due to the grape production and emphasize the double role of a vineyard as a carbon sink or source. An Eddy Covariance station was set up in a representative vineyard located in the Mediterranean Basin (Sardinia, Italy) to measure the net carbon exchange between the surface and the atmosphere. The CF analysis was also conducted to compute the carbon balance of the grape production

  3. Carbon footprint of shopping (grocery) bags in China, Hong Kong and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, Subramanian Senthilkannan; Li, Y.; Hu, J. Y.; Mok, P. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon footprint has become a term often used by the media in recent days. The human carbon footprint is professed to be a very serious global threat and every nation is looking at the possible options to reduce it since its consequences are alarming. A carbon footprint is a measure of the impact of human activities on earth and in particular on the environment; more specifically it relates to climate change and to the total amount of greenhouse gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide emitted. Effort of individuals in minimizing the carbon footprint is vital to save our planet. This article reports a study of the carbon footprint of various types of shopping bags (plastic, paper, non-woven and woven) using life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) technique in two stages. The first stage (baseline study), comprised the study of the impact of different types of shopping bags in the manufacturing phase, without considering their usage and disposal phases (cradle to gate stage). The LCIA was accomplished by the IPCC 2007 method, developed by the Inter Panel on Climate Change in SIMAPRO 7.2. The GWP (Global Warming Potential) values calculated by the IPCC 2007 method for 100 years were considered as a directive to compare the carbon footprint made by the different types of shopping bags under consideration. The next stage was the study of the carbon footprint of these bags including their usage and disposal phases (cradle to grave stage) and the results derived were compared with the results derived from the baseline study, which is the major focus of this research work. The values for usage and end-of-life phases were obtained from the survey questionnaire performed amongst different user groups of shopping bags in China, Hong Kong and India. The results show that the impact of different types of shopping bags in terms of their carbon footprint potential is very high if no usage and disposal options were provided. When the carbon footprint values from different

  4. Carbon footprints of cities and other human settlements in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A growing body of literature discusses the CO2 emissions of cities. Still, little is known about emission patterns across density gradients from remote rural places to highly urbanized areas, the drivers behind those emission patterns and the global emissions triggered by consumption in human settlements—referred to here as the carbon footprint. In this letter we use a hybrid method for estimating the carbon footprints of cities and other human settlements in the UK explicitly linking global supply chains to local consumption activities and associated lifestyles. This analysis comprises all areas in the UK, whether rural or urban. We compare our consumption-based results with extended territorial CO2 emission estimates and analyse the driving forces that determine the carbon footprint of human settlements in the UK. Our results show that 90% of the human settlements in the UK are net importers of CO2 emissions. Consumption-based CO2 emissions are much more homogeneous than extended territorial emissions. Both the highest and lowest carbon footprints can be found in urban areas, but the carbon footprint is consistently higher relative to extended territorial CO2 emissions in urban as opposed to rural settlement types. The impact of high or low density living remains limited; instead, carbon footprints can be comparatively high or low across density gradients depending on the location-specific socio-demographic, infrastructural and geographic characteristics of the area under consideration. We show that the carbon footprint of cities and other human settlements in the UK is mainly determined by socio-economic rather than geographic and infrastructural drivers at the spatial aggregation of our analysis. It increases with growing income, education and car ownership as well as decreasing household size. Income is not more important than most other socio-economic determinants of the carbon footprint. Possibly, the relationship between lifestyles and infrastructure only

  5. Quantifying the global and distributional aspects of American household carbon footprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of household consumption and its environmental impact remains one of the most important topics in sustainability research. Nevertheless, much past and recent work has focused on domestic national averages, neglecting both the growing importance of international trade on household carbon footprint and the variation between households of different income levels and demographics. Using consumer expenditure surveys and multi-country life cycle assessment techniques, this paper analyzes the global and distributional aspects of American household carbon footprint. We find that due to recently increased international trade, 30% of total US household CO2 impact in 2004 occurred outside the US. Further, households vary considerably in their CO2 responsibilities: at least a factor of ten difference exists between low and high-impact households, with total household income and expenditure being the best predictors of both domestic and international portions of the total CO2 impact. The global location of emissions, which cannot be calculated using standard input-output analysis, and the variation of household impacts with income, have important ramifications for polices designed to lower consumer impacts on climate change, such as carbon taxes. The effectiveness and fairness of such policies hinges on a proper understanding of how income distributions, rebound effects, and international trade affect them. (author)

  6. Impacts of software and its engineering on the carbon footprint of ICT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy consumption of information and communication technology (ICT) is still increasing. Even though several solutions regarding the hardware side of Green IT exist, the software contribution to Green IT is not well investigated. The carbon footprint is one way to rate the environmental impacts of ICT. In order to get an impression of the induced CO2 emissions of software, we will present a calculation method for the carbon footprint of a software product over its life cycle. We also offer an approach on how to integrate some aspects of carbon footprint calculation into software development processes and discuss impacts and tools regarding this calculation method. We thus show the relevance of energy measurements and the attention to impacts on the carbon footprint by software within Green Software Engineering

  7. Impacts of software and its engineering on the carbon footprint of ICT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, Eva, E-mail: e.kern@umwelt-campus.de [Institute for Software Systems, Environmental Campus Birkenfeld, Campusallee, D-55761 Birkenfeld (Germany); Dick, Markus, E-mail: sustainablesoftwareblog@gmail.com [Fritz-Wunderlich-Straße 14, D-66869 Kusel (Germany); Naumann, Stefan, E-mail: s.naumann@umwelt-campus.de [Institute for Software Systems, Environmental Campus Birkenfeld, Campusallee, D-55761 Birkenfeld (Germany); Hiller, Tim, E-mail: tim.hiller@gmx.com [Institute for Software Systems, Environmental Campus Birkenfeld, Campusallee, D-55761 Birkenfeld (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    The energy consumption of information and communication technology (ICT) is still increasing. Even though several solutions regarding the hardware side of Green IT exist, the software contribution to Green IT is not well investigated. The carbon footprint is one way to rate the environmental impacts of ICT. In order to get an impression of the induced CO{sub 2} emissions of software, we will present a calculation method for the carbon footprint of a software product over its life cycle. We also offer an approach on how to integrate some aspects of carbon footprint calculation into software development processes and discuss impacts and tools regarding this calculation method. We thus show the relevance of energy measurements and the attention to impacts on the carbon footprint by software within Green Software Engineering.

  8. Carbon Footprint of Tree Nuts Based Consumer Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Volpe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study shows results of a calculation of carbon footprint (CFP resulting from the production of nuts added value products for a large consumer market. Nuts consumption is increasing in the world and so is the consumer awareness of the environmental impact of goods, hence the calculation of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of food production is of growing importance for producers. Calculation of CO2eq emissions was performed for all stages of the production chain to the final retail point for flour, grains, paste, chocolate covered nuts and spreadable cream produced from almonds, pistachios and hazelnuts grown and transformed in Italy and for peanuts grown in Argentina and transformed in Italy. Data from literature was used to evaluate CFP of raw materials, emissions from transport and packing were calculated using existing models, while emissions deriving from transformation were calculated empirically by multiplying the power of production lines (electrical and/or thermal by its productivity. All values were reported in kg of CO2 equivalent for each kg of packed product (net weight. Resulting values ranged between 1.2 g of CO2/kg for a 100 g bag of almond to 4.8 g of CO2/kg for the 100 g bag of chocolate covered almond. The calculation procedure can be well used for similar cases of large consumer food productions.

  9. Carbon footprint of traffic biofuels - BioCarF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luoranen, M. [Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland). LUT Energy - Environmental technology], email: mika.luoranen@lut.fi

    2012-07-01

    There are goals to expand the use of biofuels produced from biomasses to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) from the traffic sector which have led to the growing utilization of biomasses. Expanding natural gas grids have created an opportunity to increase the use of biogas in gas operated cars by delivering biogas via natural gas grids. Despite the growing use of electric cars, there will be a demand for biofuels in heavy vehicles, ships, and airplanes which cannot be converted to use electricity because of the lack of sufficient battery technology. Biofuels can be produced from different kinds of feedstock. Biodiversity and social questions, such as the effects on food price, have put more pressure on decisions related to feedstock production and availability. The goal of this project is to find out the most potential raw materials and production technologies for such traffic biofuels that can replace traditional petroleum products or natural gas in the transportation use in the existing vehicles. Different options are compared from a life cycle point of view. GHG emissions and effects on carbon footprint in the traffic sector with different biofuel production chains will be investigated. In addition to GHG emissions, other factors such as social aspects, biodiversity, and water scarcity are taken into account in recognizing the best options.

  10. Reducing the carbon footprint of fuels and petrochemicals. Preprints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the DGMK conference between 08th and 10th October, 2012, in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Energy demand and mix for global welfare and stable ecosystems (A. Jess); (2) The EU's roadmap for moving to a low-carbon economy - Aspirations and reality for refiners (J. Lichtscheidl); (3) Applications of CCS technology to the oil and gas industries (M. Marchionna); (4) A new chemical system solution for acid gas removal (M. Seiler); (5) Hydrogenation of carbon dioxide towards synthetic natural gas - A route to effective future energy storage (M. Schoder); (6) Bio-MTBE - How to reduce CO2 footprint in fuels with a well known premium gasoline component (O. Busch); (7) Use of waste materials for Biodiesel production (R. Vitiello); (8) From algae to diesel and kerosene - Tailored fuels via selective catalysis (C. Zhao); (9) Chemo-catalytic valorization of cellulose (R. Palkovits); (10) Cellulosic ethanol: Potential, technology and development status (M. Rarbach); (11) Methanation of carbon oxides - History, status quo and future perspectives (W. Kaltner); (12) Chemical storage of renewable electricity in hydrocarbon fuels via H2 (H. Eilers); (13) Materials for the 21st century: Can the carbon come from CO2 (S. Kissling); (14) Effect of CO2 admixture on the catalytic performance of Ni-Nb-M-O catalysts in oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane to ethylene (A. Qiao); (15) Oxidative dehydrogenation of light alkanes (A. Meiswinkel); (16) Low carbon fuel and chemical production from waste gases (S. Simpson); (17) Methanol to propylene: From development to commercialization (S. Haag); (18) On the impact of olefins and aromatics in the methanol-to-hydrocarbon conversion over H-ZSM-5 catalysts (X. Sun); (19) Mn-Na2WO4/SiO2 - An industrial catalyst for methane coupling (M. Yildiz); (20) Biorefineries - Prerequisites for the realization of a future bioeconomy (K. Wagemann); (21) A new process for the valorisation of a bio-alcohol: The

  11. Reducing the carbon footprint of fuels and petrochemicals. Preprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, S.; Balfanz, U.; Buchholz, S.; Lichtscheidl, J.; Marchionna, M.; Nees, F.; Santacesaria, E. (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    Within the DGMK conference between 08th and 10th October, 2012, in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Energy demand and mix for global welfare and stable ecosystems (A. Jess); (2) The EU's roadmap for moving to a low-carbon economy - Aspirations and reality for refiners (J. Lichtscheidl); (3) Applications of CCS technology to the oil and gas industries (M. Marchionna); (4) A new chemical system solution for acid gas removal (M. Seiler); (5) Hydrogenation of carbon dioxide towards synthetic natural gas - A route to effective future energy storage (M. Schoder); (6) Bio-MTBE - How to reduce CO{sub 2} footprint in fuels with a well known premium gasoline component (O. Busch); (7) Use of waste materials for Biodiesel production (R. Vitiello); (8) From algae to diesel and kerosene - Tailored fuels via selective catalysis (C. Zhao); (9) Chemo-catalytic valorization of cellulose (R. Palkovits); (10) Cellulosic ethanol: Potential, technology and development status (M. Rarbach); (11) Methanation of carbon oxides - History, status quo and future perspectives (W. Kaltner); (12) Chemical storage of renewable electricity in hydrocarbon fuels via H{sub 2} (H. Eilers); (13) Materials for the 21st century: Can the carbon come from CO{sub 2} (S. Kissling); (14) Effect of CO{sub 2} admixture on the catalytic performance of Ni-Nb-M-O catalysts in oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane to ethylene (A. Qiao); (15) Oxidative dehydrogenation of light alkanes (A. Meiswinkel); (16) Low carbon fuel and chemical production from waste gases (S. Simpson); (17) Methanol to propylene: From development to commercialization (S. Haag); (18) On the impact of olefins and aromatics in the methanol-to-hydrocarbon conversion over H-ZSM-5 catalysts (X. Sun); (19) Mn-Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} - An industrial catalyst for methane coupling (M. Yildiz); (20) Biorefineries - Prerequisites for the realization of a future bioeconomy (K. Wagemann); (21) A new process

  12. Community diversity, structure and carbon footprint of nematode food web following reforestation on degraded Karst soil

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Hu; Hui Li; Zheng Tang; Zhongfang Li; Jing Tian; Yilai Lou; Jianwei Li; Guichun Li; Xiaomin Hu

    2016-01-01

    We examined community diversity, structure and carbon footprint of nematode food web along a chronosequence of T. Sinensis reforestation on degraded Karst. In general, after the reforestation: a serious of diversity parameters and community indices (Shannon-Weinier index (H′), structure index (SI), etc.) were elevated; biomass ratio of fungivores to bacterivores (FFC/BFC), and fungi to bacteria (F/B) were increased, and nematode channel ratio (NCR) were decreased; carbon footprints of all nem...

  13. Carbon-Footprint Policy Of The Top Ten Global Retailers: Contribution To Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Bălan

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the article is to study the policy of the most prominent ten global retailers relative to the reduction in their carbon footprint. This policy is an integral part of the environmental component of the organizational policy for sustainable development. The research has an exploratory character and is based on the analysis of public information available on the Internet about the objectives, strategies and achievements of the top ten global retailers in the field of carbon-footprint...

  14. Affluence and emission trade-offs: evidence from Indonesian household carbon footprint

    OpenAIRE

    Irfany, M. Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to analyze the household carbon footprint pattern in Indonesia and to analyze the determinants of the growing carbon footprint in this emerging economy. To measure the household emissions, we combine national input-output, emission database to generate sectoral CO2 emission intensities and matched these intensities with two waves of national expenditure surveys from 2005 and 2009. We then use this household CO2 emission for investigating the drivers of the ris...

  15. Carbon Footprint Analysis for the Waste Oil Management System in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Ana; Martinho, Graça; Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The study analyzes the carbon footprint of the waste oil management system operating in Portugal to ensure the sustainable operation in the future. The analysis was carried out in 2011for the system that is composed of a treatment procedure collecting the treated oil for re-refining, followed by the production of expanded clay and recycling for electricity production. Methodology: Carbon footprint analysis was conducted by using the Umberto software 5.5 based on the concepts of life cyc...

  16. Carbon Footprint estimation for a Sustainable Improvement of Supply Chains: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Cordero

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper examines the current methodologies and approaches developed to estimate carbon footprint in supply chains and the studies existing in the literature review about the application of these methodologies and other new approaches proposed by some authors.Design/methodology/approach: Literature review about methodologies developed by some authors for determining greenhouse gases emissions throughout the supply chain of a given sector or organization.Findings and Originality/value: Due to its usefulness for the design and management of a sustainable supply chain management, methodologies for calculating carbon footprint across the supply chain are recommended by many authors not only to reduce GHG emissions but also to optimize it in a cost-effective manner. Although these approaches are in first stages of development and the literature is scarce, different methodologies for estimating CF emissions which include EIO analysis models and standardized methods and guidance have been developed, some of them applicable to supply chains especially methodologies for calculating CF of a specific economic sector supply chain in a territory or country and for calculating CF of an organization applicable to the estimation of GHG emissions of a specific company supply chain.

  17. Carbon footprint of particleboard: a comparison between ISO/TS 14067, GHG Protocol, PAS 2050 and Climate Declaration

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Rita; Freire, Fausto

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to assess: i) the carbon footprint (CF) of particleboard produced in Portugal, and ii) the influence of different methodological issues in the particleboard CF calculation by comparing four CF methodologies (ISO/TS 14067; GHG Protocol Product Standard; PAS 2050; Climate Declaration). A life-cycle model was developed for particleboard (functional unit: 1 m3). Both cradle-to-gate and cradle-to-grave (end-of-life scenarios: incineration and landfill) assessments were performed....

  18. Carbon footprint of Canadian dairy products: calculations and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergé, X P C; Maxime, D; Dyer, J A; Desjardins, R L; Arcand, Y; Vanderzaag, A

    2013-09-01

    The Canadian dairy sector is a major industry with about 1 million cows. This industry emits about 20% of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the main livestock sectors (beef, dairy, swine, and poultry). In 2006, the Canadian dairy herd produced about 7.7 Mt of raw milk, resulting in about 4.4 Mt of dairy products (notably 64% fluid milk and 12% cheese). An integrated cradle-to-gate model (field to processing plant) has been developed to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) of 11 Canadian dairy products. The on-farm part of the model is the Unified Livestock Industry and Crop Emissions Estimation System (ULICEES). It considers all GHG emissions associated with livestock production but, for this study, it was run for the dairy sector specifically. Off-farm GHG emissions were estimated using the Canadian Food Carbon Footprint calculator, (cafoo)(2)-milk. It considers GHG emissions from the farm gate to the exit gate of the processing plants. The CF of the raw milk has been found lower in western provinces [0.93 kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/L of milk] than in eastern provinces (1.12 kg of CO2e/L of milk) because of differences in climate conditions and dairy herd management. Most of the CF estimates of dairy products ranged between 1 and 3 kg of CO2e/kg of product. Three products were, however, significantly higher: cheese (5.3 kg of CO2e/kg), butter (7.3 kg of CO2e/kg), and milk powder (10.1 kg of CO2e/kg). The CF results depend on the milk volume needed, the co-product allocation process (based on milk solids content), and the amount of energy used to manufacture each product. The GHG emissions per kilogram of protein ranged from 13 to 40 kg of CO2e. Two products had higher values: cream and sour cream, at 83 and 78 kg of CO2e/kg, respectively. Finally, the highest CF value was for butter, at about 730 kg of CO2e/kg. This extremely high value is due to the fact that the intensity indicator per kilogram of product is high and that butter is almost exclusively

  19. The carbon footprint of water management policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing concerns of global warming and climate change have forced water providers to scrutinize the energy for water production and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with it. A system dynamics model is developed to estimate the energy requirements to move water from the water source to the distribution laterals of the Las Vegas Valley and to analyze the carbon footprint associated with it. The results show that at present nearly 0.85 million megawatt hours per year (MWh/y) energy is required for conveyance of water in distribution laterals of the Valley from Lake Mead resulting in approximately 0.53 million metric tons of CO2 emissions per year. Considering the current mix of fuel source, the energy and CO2 emissions will increase to 1.34 million MWh/y and 0.84 million metric tons per year, respectively, by the year 2035. Various scenarios including change in population growth rate, water conservation, increase in water reuse, change in the Lake level, change in fuel sources, change in emission rates, and combination of multiple scenarios are analyzed to study their impact on energy requirements and associated CO2 emissions. - Highlights: ► A system dynamics model is developed for water system of the Las Vegas Valley. ► Currently 0.85 MWh/y energy is used by water system resulting in 0.53 million MT/y of CO2 emissions. ► Energy use and CO2 emissions will increase to 1.34 million MWh/y and 0.84 million MT/y by 2035.

  20. Online purchasing creates opportunities to lower the life cycle carbon footprints of consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isley, Steven C; Stern, Paul C; Carmichael, Scott P; Joseph, Karun M; Arent, Douglas J

    2016-08-30

    A major barrier to transitions to environmental sustainability is that consumers lack information about the full environmental footprints of their purchases. Sellers' incentives do not support reducing the footprints unless customers have such information and are willing to act on it. We explore the potential of modern information technology to lower this barrier by enabling firms to inform customers of products' environmental footprints at the point of purchase and easily offset consumers' contributions through bundled purchases of carbon offsets. Using online stated choice experiments, we evaluated the effectiveness of several inexpensive features that firms in four industries could implement with existing online user interfaces for consumers. These examples illustrate the potential for firms to lower their overall carbon footprints while improving customer satisfaction by lowering the "soft costs" to consumers of proenvironmental choices. Opportunities such as these likely exist wherever firms possess environmentally relevant data not accessible to consumers or when transaction costs make proenvironmental action difficult. PMID:27528670

  1. The Potential of the EPC Network to Monitor and Manage the Carbon Footprint of Products : Part 2: Dynamic Carbon Footprint Demonstrators

    OpenAIRE

    Dada, Ali; Rau, Anton; Konkel, Matthias; Staake, Thorsten; Fleisch, Elgar

    2010-01-01

    This paper is the second whitepaper on "the potential of the EPC Network to monitor and manage the carbon footprint of products". The first report provided a review of carbon accounting practices on the enterprise and product levels, outlining use cases where the EPC Network can be leveraged. The paper at hand presents a rototypical implementation of an integrated supply chain scenario where stakeholders benefit from automated environmental impact assessment and communication. In one part we ...

  2. Carbon and Energy Footprints of Prefabricated Industrial Buildings: A Systematic Life Cycle Assessment Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuele Bonamente; Franco Cotana

    2015-01-01

    A systematic analysis of green-house gases emission (carbon footprint) and primary energy consumption (energy footprint) of prefabricated industrial buildings during their entire life cycle is presented. The life cycle assessment (LCA) study was performed in a cradle-to grave approach: site-specific data from an Italian company, directly involved in all the phases from raw material manufacturing to in-situ assembly, were used to analyze the impacts as a function of different design choices. F...

  3. Carbon Footprint Calculation of an AEH-technology Residential House from Cradle to Grave

    OpenAIRE

    Gerasimenko, Olga

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents the carbon footprint calculation of a Finnish active energy house (AEH), which uses a range of innovative energy saving technologies. The calculation is made for all the stages of the 50-year life-cycle from cradle to grave. The results of the study take into account footprints of all materials production, materials transportation to the site, commissioning and demolition phases with all the waste and its transportation to waste treatment facilities and also the 50-yea...

  4. Environmental sustainability assessment of electricity from fossil fuel combustion: carbon footprint

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases from electricity production should be reduced since climate change has became a big concern in developed countries. Carbon footprint is used as environmental index measuring the emissions that have effect on global warming and shows that secondary footprint has an important relevance in the final emission factor. To achieve sustainability in electricity production is required the consideration and evaluation of all relevant environmental impacts at the same time....

  5. The consumption-based carbon footprint of households in Sulawesi, Jambi and Indonesia as a whole in 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Irfany, Mohammad Iqbal; Klasen, Stephan; Yusuf, Rezky Syahrezal

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the consumption-based carbon footprint of households in Sulawesi, Jambi and Indonesia as a whole. Combining the use of the GTAP data for emission intensities, of input-output tables for inter-industry linkages with household expenditure categories, we then estimate and calculate the carbon footprint from household consumption, including its drivers, pattern and decomposition of increasing household emission intensities. We find that the main driver of carbon footprint is o...

  6. Carbon footprint of construction products : a comparison of application of individual Environmental Product Declarations and Building Information Modeling software

    OpenAIRE

    Nyári, Judit

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the benefits of using software for calculating cradle-to-gate carbon footprint of selected construction products. The assessment of environmental impacts, such as carbon footprint calculation of building materials and assemblies is important, because buildings consume 40% of raw materials globally, and their service lifetime is several decades. A cradle-to-gate carbon footprint calculation was carried out for the same building’s selected constructi...

  7. Using hybrid method to evaluate carbon footprint of Xiamen City, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more holistic inventory estimation, this paper uses a hybrid approach to access the carbon footprint of Xiamen City in 2009. Besides carbon emissions from the end-use sector activities (called Scope 1+2 by WRI/WBCSD) in normal research, carbon emissions from the cross-boundary traffic and the embodied energy of key urban imported materials (namely Scope 3) were also included. The results are as follow: (1) Carbon emissions within Scope 1+2 only take up 66.14% of total carbon footprint, while emissions within Scope 3 which have usually been ignored account for 33.84%. (2) Industry is the most carbon-intensive end use sector which contributes 32.74% of the total carbon footprint and 55.13% of energy use emissions in Scope 1+2. (3) The per capita carbon footprint of Xiamen is just about one-third of that in Denver. (4) Comparing with Denver, the proportion of embodied emissions in Xiamen was 10.60% higher than Denver. Overall, Xiamen is relatively a low-carbon city with characters of industrial carbon-intensive and high embodied emissions. Further analysis indicates that the urbanization and industrialization in Xiamen might cause more material consumption and industrial emissions. These highlight the importance of management for Scope 3 emissions in the developing cities. - Highlights: • Carbon emissions from Scope 1+2+3 are calculated for Xiamen City, China. • Carbon footprint in Xiamen is industrial carbon-intensive and high embodied emissions. • Management for Scope 3 emissions in the developing cities is important

  8. Water and Carbon Footprint of Wine: Methodology Review and Application to a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rinaldi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessments (LCAs play a strategic role in improving the environmental performance of a company and in supporting a successful marketing communication. The high impact of the food industry on natural resources, in terms of water consumption and greenhouse gases emission, has been focusing the attention of consumers and producers towards environmentally sustainable products. This work presents a comprehensive approach for the joint evaluation of carbon (CF and water (WF footprint of the wine industry from a cradle to grave perspective. The LCA analysis is carried out following the requirements of international standards (ISO/TS 14067 and ISO 14046. A complete review of the water footprint methodology is presented and guidelines for all the phases of the evaluation procedure are provided, including acquisition and validation of input data, allocation, application of analytic models, and interpretation of the results. The strength of this approach is the implementation of a side-by-side CF vs. WF assessment, based on the same system boundaries, functional unit, and input data, that allows a reliable comparison between the two indicators. In particular, a revised methodology is presented for the evaluation of the grey water component. The methodology was applied to a white and a red wine produced in the same company. A comparison between the two products is presented for each LCA phase along with literature results for similar wines.

  9. Carbon footprints of organic dairying in six European countries—real farm data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hietala, Sanna; Smith, Laurence; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman;

    2015-01-01

    Dairy farming is the largest agricultural contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in Europe. In this study, the carbon footprint of organic dairying was evaluated by means of a life cycle assessment, based on real farm data from six European countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Italy and...... equivalents per kilogramme of energy-corrected milk with standard deviation of 0.22, which is consistent with recent studies. The main contributor to this is enteric fermentation from producing animals, resulting in 45 % of total GHG emissions, which is also consistent with previous studies....... United Kingdom. A total of 34 farms were analysed. The assessment was carried out using an attributional approach with system boundaries from cradle to farm gate. In relation to dairy production, a functional unit of 1 kg of energy corrected milk was used. The results gave an average of 1.32 kg CO2...

  10. Carbon and environmental footprinting of low carbon UK electricity futures to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity generation contributes a large proportion of the total greenhouse gas emissions in the United Kingdom (UK), due to the predominant use of fossil fuel (coal and natural gas) combustion for this purpose. A range of future UK energy scenarios has been employed to determine their resulting environmental and carbon footprints. Methodologies have been established to calculate these footprints for the UK electricity supply industry on both a historic timescale and in accordance with the three selected scenarios. The latter scenarios, developed by the UK SUPERGEN Consortium on ‘Highly Distributed Power Systems’ (HDPS), were characterised as ‘Business As Usual’ (BAU), ‘Low Carbon’ (LC) and ‘Deep Green’ (DG) futures, and yielded possible electricity demands out to 2050. It was found that the environmental footprint of the current power network is 41 million (M) global hectares (gha). If future trends follow a ‘Business As Usual’ scenario, then this footprint is observed to fall to about 25 Mgha in 2050. The LC scenario implies an extensive penetration of micro-generators in the home to satisfy heat and power demands. However, these energy requirements are minimised by way of improved insulation of the building fabric and other demand reduction measures. In contrast, the DG scenario presupposes a network where centralised renewable energy technologies – mainly large-scale onshore and offshore wind turbines - have an important role in the power generation. However, both the LC and DG scenarios were found to lead to footprints of less than 4 Mgha by 2050. These latter two scenarios were found to give rise to quite similar trajectories over the period 2010–2050. They are therefore more likely to reflect an effective transition pathway in terms of meeting the 2050 UK CO2 reduction targets associated with decarbonisation of its power network. However, this appears unlikely to be achieved by 2030–2040 as advocated by the UK Government

  11. Comparative performance of six carbon footprint models for use in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon footprint models are increasingly being used to manage personal and household carbon dioxide emissions. Six models were compared for their suitability for use in Ireland using typical data for a household of three people. The annual household energy and transportation emissions ranged from 10,540 to 17,361 kg CO2 yr-1 (mean 12,886; sd 2135) rising to a total footprint of 12,053 to 27, 218 kg CO2 yr-1 (mean 18,117; sd 5106) when aviation emissions were included. This represents a potential range for individual CO2 emissions of between 4018 and 9073 kg CO2/person/annum, a variation of over 5 tonnes/person. The information provided by these models proved to be inconsistent and often contradictory. The high variability between models was due to a number of anomalies. When these were corrected mean household energy and transportation emissions fell to 12,130 kg CO2 yr-1 (sd 805), with a total household footprint of 16,552 kg CO2 yr-1 (sd 1101). Models vary in their complexity in terms of what is included in the overall estimation of emissions making a full analysis of the primary carbon footprint very difficult. When compared to current Irish conversion factors the corrected models either underestimated or overestimated CO2 emissions by approximately 10%. Current carbon footprint models excluded emissions from CH4 and N2O underestimating CO2 emissions for the household by 1.8%

  12. Baseline effects on carbon footprints of biofuels: The case of wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As biofuel usage has boomed over the past decade, so has research and regulatory interest in its carbon accounting. This paper examines one aspect of that carbon accounting: the baseline, i.e. the reference case against which other conditions or changes can be compared. A literature search and analysis identified four baseline types: no baseline; reference point; marginal fossil fuel; and biomass opportunity cost. The fourth one, biomass opportunity cost, is defined in more detail, because this is not done elsewhere in the literature. The four baselines are then applied to the carbon footprint of a wood-fired power plant. The footprint of the resulting wood-fired electricity varies dramatically, according to the type of baseline. Baseline type is also found to be the footprint's most significant sensitivity. Other significant sensitivities are: efficiency of the power plant; the growth (or re-growth) rate of the forest that supplies the wood; and the residue fraction of the wood. Length of the policy horizon is also an important factor in determining the footprint. The paper concludes that because of their significance and variability, baseline choices should be made very explicit in biofuel carbon footprints. - Highlights: ► Four baseline types for biofuel footprinting are identified. ► One type, ‘biomass opportunity cost’, is defined mathematically and graphically. ► Choice of baseline can dramatically affect the footprint result. ► The ‘no baseline approach is not acceptable. ► Choice between the other three baselines depends on the question being addressed.

  13. Carbon Footprint of Housing in the Leeds City Region - A Best Practice Scenario Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, John; Dawkins, Elena (Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden))|(Univ. of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom))

    2008-06-15

    The Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) was commissioned by the Environment Agency to carry out a carbon footprint analysis of the housing sector, using the Leeds City Region (LCR) as an example. The aim was to determine our ability to meet the 80 per cent by 2050 challenge of energy efficiency in the housing sector. The study relates specifically to LCR but its findings will help any planning and development teams make the right decisions and gain the resources necessary to meet carbon budgets at regional and local levels. With a growing population and an additional 263,000 housing units to be built within LCR by 2026, the housing sector would need to reduce its expected total carbon dioxide emissions by 38 million tonnes between 2010 and 2026 to be on track for 80 per cent savings in 2050. The report outlines the most detailed analysis to date of the required measures to deliver a growth-based regional housing strategy, alongside reducing carbon emissions. If the city region's new and existing housing is to attain the levels of energy efficiency necessary to deliver these carbon savings, big changes will be required in the way we build, maintain and run our homes over the next 20 years. There are pockets of good practice already in the region and the study shows that by combining innovative measures on construction standards, improvements to existing housing, low and zero carbon technologies and changing behaviour of householders, LCR can achieve the necessary savings to meet its carbon budget

  14. Estimation of the carbon footprint of the Galician fishing activity (NW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The food production system as a whole is recognized as one of the major contributors to environmental impacts. Accordingly, food production, processing, transport and consumption account for a relevant portion of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with any country. In this context, there is an increasing market demand for climate-relevant information regarding the global warming impact of consumer food products throughout the supply chains. This article deals with the assessment of the carbon footprint of seafood products as a key subgroup in the food sector. Galicia (NW Spain) was selected as a case study. The analysis is based on a representative set of species within the Galician fishing sector, including species obtained from coastal fishing (e.g. horse mackerel, Atlantic mackerel, European pilchard and blue whiting), offshore fishing (e.g. European hake, megrim and anglerfish), deep-sea fishing (skipjack and yellowfin tuna), extensive aquaculture (mussels) and intensive aquaculture (turbot). The carbon footprints associated with the production-related activities of each selected species were quantified following a business-to-business approach on the basis of 1 year of fishing activity. These individual carbon footprints were used to calculate the carbon footprint for each of the different Galician fisheries and culture activities. Finally, the lump sum of the carbon footprints for coastal, offshore and deep-sea fishing and extensive and intensive aquaculture brought about the carbon footprint of the Galician fishing activity (i.e., capture and culture). A benchmark for quantifying and communicating emission reductions was then provided, and opportunities to reduce the GHG emissions associated with the Galician fishing activity could be prioritized.

  15. Urban planning and industry in Spain: A novel methodology for calculating industrial carbon footprints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present a methodology for calculating the carbon footprint of the industrial sector during the urban planning stage in order to clearly develop and implement preventive measures. The methodology created focuses on industrial urban planning procedures and takes into account urban infrastructure in the characterization of GHG emissions. It allows for the implementation of preventive measures based on sustainability design criteria. The methodology was derived for specific industrial activity categories and was tested on a group of municipalities in a province south of Madrid, Spain. The results indicate that the average carbon footprint of industrial activities varies between 137.36 kgCO2eq/m2e and 607.25 kgCO2eq/m2e depending on the activity. Gas and electricity are the most important emissions sources for the most polluting industrial activities (chemical and nonmetal mineral products), while transportation is the most important source for every other activity. Municipalities can have a decisive influence on the industrial carbon footprint because, except for waste management and two industrial activities related to electricity, the majority of reductions can be achieved through urban planning decision variables. -- Highlights: •Model to calculate industrial carbon footprint in urban planning stage is proposed. •Specific industrial activities planned have a strong effect on carbon footprint. •Gas and electricity are the most relevant sources for the most pollutant industries. •Transport is relevant source for the less pollutant industries. •Municipalities can decisively influence on industrial carbon footprint

  16. Carbon Footprint Analyses of Mainstream Wastewater Treatment Technologies under Different Sludge Treatment Scenarios in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Chai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With rapid urbanization and infrastructure investment, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in Chinese cities are putting increased pressure on energy consumption and exacerbating greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. A carbon footprint is provided as a tool to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions and identify opportunities to reduce climate change impacts. This study examined three mainstream wastewater treatment technologies: Anaerobic–Anoxic–Oxic (A–A–O, Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR and Oxygen Ditch, considering four different sludge treatment alternatives for small-to-medium-sized WWTPs. Following the life cycle approach, process design data and emission factors were used by the model to calculate the carbon footprint. Results found that direct emissions of CO2 and N2O, and indirect emissions of electricity use, are significant contributors to the carbon footprint. Although sludge anaerobic digestion and biogas recovery could significantly contribute to emission reduction, it was less beneficial for Oxygen Ditch than the other two treatment technologies due to its low sludge production. The influence of choosing “high risk” or “low risk” N2O emission factors on the carbon footprint was also investigated in this study. Oxygen Ditch was assessed as “low risk” of N2O emissions while SBR was “high risk”. The carbon footprint of A–A–O with sludge anaerobic digestion and energy recovery was more resilient to changes of N2O emission factors and control of N2O emissions, though process design parameters (i.e., effluent total nitrogen (TN concentration, mixed-liquor recycle (MLR rates and solids retention time (SRT and operation conditions (i.e., nitrite concentration are critical for reducing carbon footprint of SBR. Analyses of carbon footprints suggested that aerobic treatment of sludge not only favors the generation of large amounts of CO2, but also the emissions of N2O, so the rationale of reducing aerobic treatment and

  17. Carbon Footprint Analysis for Mechanization of Maize Production Based on Life Cycle Assessment: A Case Study in Jilin Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Haina Wang; Yingsheng Yang; Xiaoyi Zhang; Guangdong Tian

    2015-01-01

    The theory on the carbon footprint of agriculture can systematically evaluate the carbon emissions caused by artificial factors from the agricultural production process, which is the theoretical basis for constructing low-carbon agriculture and has important guiding significance for realizing low-carbon agriculture. Based on farm production survey data from Jilin Province in 2014, this paper aims to obtain a clear understanding of the carbon footprint of maize production through the following...

  18. Sustainability of meat production beyond carbon footprint: a synthesis of case studies from grazing systems in Uruguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picasso, V.D.; Modernel Hristoff, P.D.; Becona, G.; Salvo, L.; Gutierrez, L.; Astigarraga, L.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock production has been challenged as a large contributor to climate change, and carbon footprint has become a widely used measure of cattle environmental impact. This analysis of fifteen beef grazing systems in Uruguay quantifies the range of variation of carbon footprint, and the trade-offs

  19. Carbon footprint of premium quality export bananas: case study in Ecuador, the world's largest exporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Almeida, Maria Gabriela; Villalobos, Pablo

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays, the new international market demands challenge the food producing countries to include the measurement of the environmental impact generated along the production process for their products. In order to comply with the environmentally responsible market requests the measurement of the greenhouse gas emissions of Ecuadorian agricultural goods has been promoted employing the carbon footprint concept. Ecuador is the largest exporter of bananas in the world. Within this context, this study is a first assessment of the carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian premium export banana (Musa AAA) using a considerable amount of field data. The system boundaries considered from agricultural production to delivery in a European destination port. The data collected over three years permitted identifying the hot spot stages. For the calculation, the CCaLC V3.0 software developed by the University of Manchester is used. The carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian export banana ranged from 0.45 to 1.04 kg CO2-equivalent/kg banana depending on the international overseas transport employed. The principal contributors to the carbon footprint are the on farm production and overseas transport stages. Mitigation and reduction strategies were suggested for the main emission sources in order to achieve sustainable banana production. PMID:24361571

  20. Generic model for calculating carbon footprint of milk using four different LCA modelling approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Randi; Schmidt, Jannick Højrup; Flysjö, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to develop a tool, which can be used for calculation of carbon footprint (using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach) of milk both at a farm level and at a national level. The functional unit is ‘1 kg energy corrected milk (ECM) at farm gate’ and the applied methodology ...

  1. Practices to Reduce Milk Carbon Footprint on Grazing Dairy Farms in Southern Uruguay: Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon footprint (CF) is an increasingly relevant indicator to estimate the impact of a product on climate change. This study followed international guidelines to quantify the CF of milk produced on 24 dairy farms in Uruguay. Cows were grazed all year and supplemented with concentrate feeds. These d...

  2. Updating the carbon footprint of the Galician fishing activity (NW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent life cycle assessment studies have revealed the relevance of cooling agent leakage when assessing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions generated by fishing vessel operations. The goal of this communication is to update the carbon footprinting of the Galician fishing activity (NW Spain) by including the GHG emissions from cooling agent leakage. Results proved the relevant role played by refrigerants regarding their contribution to the carbon footprint of fishing activities. Thus, an overall increase of 13% was found when comparing the final global carbon footprint for the Galician fishing activity with previous calculations that did not include these emissions. Nevertheless, further efforts should be made in order to provide robust data in this respect. - Research Highlights: → Updated calculation of GHG emissions relating to the Galician fishing activity. → Lump sum of the carbon footprints for Galician fishing activities: 888,620 t CO2e/y. → Offshore fishing was the main contributor, ahead of deep-sea and coastal fishing. → Cooling agent leakage generated an overall increase of 13% in GHG emissions.

  3. The Local Electro-Energetic Carbon Footprint Generated by Tourism on the Islands of Cres and Lošinj

    OpenAIRE

    Hrvoje Grofelnik

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents valuation of the local electro-energetic carbon footprint on the islands of Cres and Lošinj (The Northern Adriatic, Republic of Croatia). In the form of a case study the article isolates the locally allocated but globally present environmental burden caused by CO2 emission into the atmosphere as the result of electrical energy production. Within the environmental burden, the residents’ footprint and the footprint generated by tourism have been isolated. The hypothesis the a...

  4. Improving farming practices reduces the carbon footprint of spring wheat production

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Yantai; LIANG, CHANG; Chai, Qiang; Lemke, Reynald L.; Campbell, Con A.; Zentner, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    Wheat is one of the world’s most favoured food sources, reaching millions of people on a daily basis. However, its production has climatic consequences. Fuel, inorganic fertilizers and pesticides used in wheat production emit greenhouse gases that can contribute negatively to climate change. It is unknown whether adopting alternative farming practices will increase crop yield while reducing carbon emissions. Here we quantify the carbon footprint of alternative wheat production systems suited ...

  5. Life cycle assessment and carbon footprint in the wine supply-chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattara, Claudio; Raggi, Andrea; Cichelli, Angelo

    2012-06-01

    Global warming represents one of the most critical internationally perceived environmental issues. The growing, and increasingly global, wine sector is one of the industries which is under increasing pressure to adopt approaches for environmental assessment and reporting of product-related greenhouse gas emissions. The International Organization for Vine and Wine has recently recognized the need to develop a standard and objective methodology and a related tool for calculating carbon footprint (CF). This study applied this tool to a wine previously analyzed using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The objective was to test the tool as regards both its potential and possible limitations, and thus to assess its suitability as a standard tool. Despite the tool's user-friendliness, a number of limitations were noted including the lack of accurate baseline data, a partial system boundary and the impossibility of dealing with the multi-functionality issue. When the CF and LCA results are compared in absolute terms, large discrepancies become obvious due to a number of different assumptions, as well as the modeling framework adopted. Nonetheless, in relative terms the results seem to be quite consistent. However, a critical limitation of the CF methodology was its focus on a single issue, which can lead to burden shifting. In conclusion, the study confirmed the need for both further improvement and adaptation to additional contexts and further studies to validate the use of this tool in different companies. PMID:22525986

  6. Carbon Footprint Linked to transport infrastructures; La huella de carbono en las infraestructuras de transporte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo Garcia, L.; Jimenez Arroyo, F.

    2013-06-01

    Quantification of emissions of greenhouse effect gases associated to transport infrastructures has been addressed in different ways. The first tools for this purpose appeared with the application of ISO 14040 standards (Life cycle analysis) that, applied to the particular case of energetic resources, led to a new concept known as carbon footprint. There is a specific standard for this quantification (ISO 14064) according to which, for the case of infrastructures, emissions and environmental effects linked to the whole life cycle are assessed taking into account all the stages: building, exploitation, maintenance and dismantling. the key point to perform this analysis is the accurate definition of a calculation methodology to be applied to the inventory of activities covered, in order to avoid information lacks, overlaps or redundancies. Quantification tools for emissions are effectively a reality, but social and political will, supported by strong economical reasons recognizing energy as a vital resource, is necessary for these tools to be developed, enhanced and used in a systematic way as a key decision element to choice among different transport alternatives. (Author) 23 refs.

  7. A case study of the carbon footprint of milk from high-performing confinement and grass-based dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, D; Capper, J L; Garnsworthy, P C; Grainger, C; Shalloo, L

    2014-03-01

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is the preferred methodology to assess carbon footprint per unit of milk. The objective of this case study was to apply an LCA method to compare carbon footprints of high-performance confinement and grass-based dairy farms. Physical performance data from research herds were used to quantify carbon footprints of a high-performance Irish grass-based dairy system and a top-performing United Kingdom (UK) confinement dairy system. For the US confinement dairy system, data from the top 5% of herds of a national database were used. Life-cycle assessment was applied using the same dairy farm greenhouse gas (GHG) model for all dairy systems. The model estimated all on- and off-farm GHG sources associated with dairy production until milk is sold from the farm in kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2-eq) and allocated emissions between milk and meat. The carbon footprint of milk was calculated by expressing GHG emissions attributed to milk per tonne of energy-corrected milk (ECM). The comparison showed that when GHG emissions were only attributed to milk, the carbon footprint of milk from the Irish grass-based system (837 kg of CO2-eq/t of ECM) was 5% lower than the UK confinement system (884 kg of CO2-eq/t of ECM) and 7% lower than the US confinement system (898 kg of CO2-eq/t of ECM). However, without grassland carbon sequestration, the grass-based and confinement dairy systems had similar carbon footprints per tonne of ECM. Emission algorithms and allocation of GHG emissions between milk and meat also affected the relative difference and order of dairy system carbon footprints. For instance, depending on the method chosen to allocate emissions between milk and meat, the relative difference between the carbon footprints of grass-based and confinement dairy systems varied by 3 to 22%. This indicates that further harmonization of several aspects of the LCA methodology is required to compare carbon footprints of contrasting dairy systems. In

  8. Improving farming practices reduces the carbon footprint of spring wheat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yantai; Liang, Chang; Chai, Qiang; Lemke, Reynald L; Campbell, Con A; Zentner, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    Wheat is one of the world's most favoured food sources, reaching millions of people on a daily basis. However, its production has climatic consequences. Fuel, inorganic fertilizers and pesticides used in wheat production emit greenhouse gases that can contribute negatively to climate change. It is unknown whether adopting alternative farming practices will increase crop yield while reducing carbon emissions. Here we quantify the carbon footprint of alternative wheat production systems suited to semiarid environments. We find that integrating improved farming practices (that is, fertilizing crops based on soil tests, reducing summerfallow frequencies and rotating cereals with grain legumes) lowers wheat carbon footprint effectively, averaging -256 kg CO2 eq ha(-1) per year. For each kg of wheat grain produced, a net 0.027-0.377 kg CO2 eq is sequestered into the soil. With the suite of improved farming practices, wheat takes up more CO2 from the atmosphere than is actually emitted during its production. PMID:25405548

  9. Online Purchasing Creates Opportunities to Lower the Life Cycle Carbon Footprints of Consumer Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isley, Steven C.; Stern, Paul C.; Carmichael, Scott P.; Joseph, Karun M.; Arent, Douglas J.

    2016-08-03

    A major barrier to transitions to environmental sustainability is that consumers lack information about the full environmental footprints of their purchases. Sellers' incentives do not support reducing the footprints unless customers have such information and are willing to act on it. We explore the potential of modern information technology to lower this barrier by enabling firms to inform customers of products' environmental footprints at the point of purchase and easily offset consumers' contributions through bundled purchases of carbon offsets. Using online stated choice experiments, we evaluated the effectiveness of several inexpensive features that firms in four industries could implement with existing online user interfaces for consumers. These examples illustrate the potential for firms to lower their overall carbon footprints while improving customer satisfaction by lowering the 'soft costs' to consumers of pro-environmental choices. Opportunities such as these likely exist wherever firms possess environmentally relevant data not accessible to consumers or when transaction costs make pro-environmental action difficult.

  10. Comparing Carbon and Water Footprints for Beef Cattle Production in Southern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley G. Ridoutt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Stand-alone environmental indicators based on life cycle assessment (LCA, such as the carbon footprint and water footprint, are becoming increasingly popular as a means of directing sustainable production and consumption. However, individually, these metrics violate the principle of LCA known as comprehensiveness and do not necessarily provide an indication of overall environmental impact. In this study, the carbon footprints for six diverse beef cattle production systems in southern Australia were calculated and found to range from 10.1 to 12.7 kg CO2e kg−1 live weight (cradle to farm gate. This compared to water footprints, which ranged from 3.3 to 221 L H2Oe kg−1 live weight. For these systems, the life cycle impacts of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and water use were subsequently modelled using endpoint indicators and aggregated to enable comparison. In all cases, impacts from GHG emissions were most important, representing 93 to 99% of the combined scores. As such, the industry’s existing priority of GHG emissions reduction is affirmed. In an attempt to balance the demands of comprehensiveness and simplicity, to achieve reliable public reporting of the environmental impacts of a large number of products across the economy, a multi-indicator approach based on combined midpoint and endpoint life cycle impact assessment modelling is proposed. For agri-food products, impacts from land use should also be included as tradeoffs between GHG emissions, water use and land use are common.

  11. Carbon and Energy Footprints of Prefabricated Industrial Buildings: A Systematic Life Cycle Assessment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Bonamente

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A systematic analysis of green-house gases emission (carbon footprint and primary energy consumption (energy footprint of prefabricated industrial buildings during their entire life cycle is presented. The life cycle assessment (LCA study was performed in a cradle-to grave approach: site-specific data from an Italian company, directly involved in all the phases from raw material manufacturing to in-situ assembly, were used to analyze the impacts as a function of different design choices. Four buildings were analyzed and results were used to setup a parameterized model that was used to study the impacts of industrial prefabricated buildings over the input parameter space. The model vs. data agreement is within 4% for both carbon and energy footprint. The functional unit is 1 m3 of prefabricated building, considering a 50-year lifetime. The results of the four buildings decrease from 144.6 kgCO2eq/m3 and 649.5 kWh/m3 down to 123.5 kgCO2eq/m3 and 556.8 kWh/m3 as the building floor area increases from 1048 m2 to 21,910 m2. The use phase accounts for the major impact (approximate 76%. It is found that the carbon footprint is proportional to the energy footprint, the proportional factor being 0.222 kgCO2eq/kWh within 0.5% accuracy. Finally, a systematic study of the sensitivity of input parameters (insulation, lifetime, foundation type is presented.

  12. Low Carbon Footprint Mortar from Pozzolanic Waste Material

    OpenAIRE

    Taha Mehmannavaz; Salihuddin Radin Sumadi; Muhammad Aamer Rafique Bhutta; Mostafa Samadi; Seyed Mahdi Sajjadi

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, Portland cement clinker leads to emission of CO2 into the atmosphere and therefore causes greenhouse effect. Incorporating of Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) and Pulverized Fuel Ash (PFA) as partial cement replacement materials into mix of low carbon mortar decreases the amount of cement use and reduces high dependence on cements compared to ordinary mortar. The result of this research supported use of the new concept in preparing low carbon mortar for industrial constructions. Strength of...

  13. Life Cycle Analysis of Carbon Flow and Carbon Footprint of Harvested Wood Products of Larix principis-rupprechtii in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Larix principis-rupprechtii is a native tree species in North China with a large distribution; and its harvested timbers can be used for producing wood products. This study focused on estimating and comparing carbon flows and carbon footprints of different harvested wood products (HWPs from Larix principis-ruppechtii based on the life cycle analysis (from seedling cultivation to HWP final disposal. Based on our interviews and surveys, the system boundary in this study was divided into three processes: the forestry process, the manufacturing process, and the use and disposal process. By tracking carbon flows of HWPs along the entire life cycle, we found that, for one forest rotation period, a total of 26.81 tC/ha sequestered carbon was transferred into these HWPs, 66.2% of which were still stored in the HWP when the rotation period had ended; however, the HWP carbon storage decreased to 0.25 tC/ha (only 0.9% left in the 100th year after forest plantation. The manufacturing process contributed more than 90% of the total HWP carbon footprint, but it was still smaller than the HWP carbon storage. In terms of the carbon storage and the carbon footprint, construction products had the largest net positive carbon balance compared to furniture and panel products. In addition, HWP are known to have a positive impact on global carbon mitigation because they can store parts of the sequestered carbon for a certain period of time and they have a substitution effect on carbon mitigation. Furthermore, there still exist great opportunities for carbon mitigation from HWPs through the use of cleaner energy and increasing the utilization efficiency of wood fuel.

  14. Carbon footprint analysis of a combined cooling heating and power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Assess GHG emissions of CCHP systems by adopting a MPCF method. • Propose the carbon footprint contribution rate for CCHP systems. • Calculate and analyze the MPCF of a typical CCHP system. • Present a feasible method to optimization CCHP systems from the respect of MPCF. - Abstract: Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) systems are safe, efficient, and environmentally friendly systems, which have been widely used all over the world. However, the greenhouse gas emission problems of CCHP systems have not been fully studied. This research adopted a multi-product carbon footprint (MPCF) method to assess the greenhouse gas emissions of a CCHP system. Activity data, mass and energy balances were checked to ensure the accuracy of the assessment. To solve the allocation problems, the authors introduced the concept of carbon footprint contribution rate, xj, and presented an applicable expression of xj for CCHP systems. The MPCF calculations showed that without optimization the total MPCF of the CCHP system is 8.071 kg-CO2e/kW h-prod and direct MPCF occupies the carbon footprint overwhelmingly. Moreover, an optimization thought that MPCF can be decreased by increasing the amount of cooling output was proposed theoretically. To corroborate the thought, a dehumidifier unit has been incorporated into the original CCHP system. Compared with the original system, results show that the MPCF of the optimized CCHP system drops by 7.5% while the total carbon emissions rise only by 0.5%, which means the CCHP system after optimization can produce more products than before but only with a small increase of environmental costs

  15. Farm-specific carbon footprinting to the farm gate for agricultural co-products using the OVERSEER® model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, D M; Ledgard, S F; Boyes, M

    2013-06-01

    The user inputs to OVERSEER® Nutrient Budgets (Overseer) allow farm-specific greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to be estimated. Since the development of the original model, life cycle assessment standards (e.g. PAS 2050) have been proposed and adopted for determining GHG or carbon footprints, which are usually reported as emissions per unit of product, for example, per kg milk, meat or wool. New Zealand pastoral farms frequently generate a range of products with different management practices. A robust system is required to allocate the individual sources of GHGs (e.g. methane, nitrous oxide, direct carbon dioxide and embodied carbon dioxide emissions for inputs used on the farm) to each product from a farm. This paper describes a method for allocating emissions to co-products from New Zealand farms. The method requires allocating the emissions, first, to an animal enterprise, separating the emissions between breeding and trading animals, and then allocating to a specific product to give product (e.g. milk, meat, wool, velvet) footprints from the 'cradle-to-farm-gate'. The meat product was based on live-weight gain. Procedures were adopted so that emissions associated with rearing of young stock used in live-weight gain systems, both as a by-product or a primary product could be estimated. This allows the possibility of total emissions for a meat product to be built up from contributing farms along the production chain. PMID:23739485

  16. North and south: Regional footprints on the transition pathway towards a low carbon, global economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental or 'ecological' footprints are indicators of resource consumption and waste absorption transformed on the basis of biologically productive land area required per capita with prevailing technology. They represent a partial measure of the extent to which the planet, its regions, or nations are moving along a sustainable development pathway. Such footprints vary between countries at different stages of economic development and varying geographic characteristics. A correlation equation for national environmental footprints is used, alongside international projections of population growth and gross regional income, to estimate the relative contributions of the peoples of the industrialised North and populous South that would be needed in order to secure climate-stabilising carbon reductions out to about 2100. The four so-called 'marker scenarios' produced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change are used to estimate the degree of energy efficiency improvement and carbon mitigation that is feasible. The present footprint projections suggest that a reduction in the consumption of biophysical assets across both the developing and industrialised world is indeed possible. However, the developing world's footprint is shown to overshoot that of the industrialised countries by around 2010-2015. It then levels out and starts to fall, on the most optimistic scenario, by about 2050. In order to achieve global sustainability in the 21st Century a serious commitment to environmental protection is required in both the industrialised North and the 'majority South'. That implies balancing population growth, economic well-being, and environmental impacts in the interests of all the people and wildlife on 'Spaceship Earth'.

  17. Cradle-to-farm gate analysis of milk carbon footprint: a descriptive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Pirlo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four life cycle assessment studies which estimated the carbon footprint of milk production in countries with modern dairy farming were examined. It proved difficult to compare the studies because of the strong discrepancies between them. The aim of this review was to examine the characteristics of LCA studies on milk production in order to understand how the variability of results can be explained. The main reason is the different methodologies adopted. However, other variables were considered: production system, stocking rate, milk productivity, mitigation strategies. Life Cycle Assessment is a promising tool for benchmarking carbon footprint among different countries or production systems. This approach could also be used as a mitigation indicator in the enforcement of political decision. Two major factors are needed for a practical application: i a widely accepted methodology and ii direct measurements of greenhouse gases in specific contests.

  18. Community diversity, structure and carbon footprint of nematode food web following reforestation on degraded Karst soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ning; Li, Hui; Tang, Zheng; Li, Zhongfang; Tian, Jing; Lou, Yilai; Li, Jianwei; Li, Guichun; Hu, Xiaomin

    2016-01-01

    We examined community diversity, structure and carbon footprint of nematode food web along a chronosequence of T. Sinensis reforestation on degraded Karst. In general, after the reforestation: a serious of diversity parameters and community indices (Shannon-Weinier index (H'), structure index (SI), etc.) were elevated; biomass ratio of fungivores to bacterivores (FFC/BFC), and fungi to bacteria (F/B) were increased, and nematode channel ratio (NCR) were decreased; carbon footprints of all nematode trophic groups, and biomass of bacteria and fungi were increased. Our results indicate that the Karst aboveground vegetation restoration was accompanied with belowground nematode food web development: increasing community complexity, function and fungal dominance in decomposition pathway, and the driving forces included the bottom-up effect (resource control), connectedness of functional groups, as well as soil environments. PMID:27311984

  19. Community diversity, structure and carbon footprint of nematode food web following reforestation on degraded Karst soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ning; Li, Hui; Tang, Zheng; Li, Zhongfang; Tian, Jing; Lou, Yilai; Li, Jianwei; Li, Guichun; Hu, Xiaomin

    2016-06-01

    We examined community diversity, structure and carbon footprint of nematode food web along a chronosequence of T. Sinensis reforestation on degraded Karst. In general, after the reforestation: a serious of diversity parameters and community indices (Shannon-Weinier index (H‧), structure index (SI), etc.) were elevated; biomass ratio of fungivores to bacterivores (FFC/BFC), and fungi to bacteria (F/B) were increased, and nematode channel ratio (NCR) were decreased; carbon footprints of all nematode trophic groups, and biomass of bacteria and fungi were increased. Our results indicate that the Karst aboveground vegetation restoration was accompanied with belowground nematode food web development: increasing community complexity, function and fungal dominance in decomposition pathway, and the driving forces included the bottom-up effect (resource control), connectedness of functional groups, as well as soil environments.

  20. Carbon Footprint Calculations: An Application of Chemical Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treptow, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    Topics commonly taught in a general chemistry course can be used to calculate the quantity of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere by various human activities. Each calculation begins with the balanced chemical equation for the reaction that produces the CO[subscript 2] gas. Stoichiometry, thermochemistry, the ideal gas law, and dimensional…

  1. The Impact of Precision Agriculture Techniques on Kentucky Grain Farmers' Carbon Footprint

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Rachael M.; Dillon, Carl R.; Schieffer, Jack; Shockley, Jordan M.

    2012-01-01

    This study estimates the carbon footprint of a Henderson County, Kentucky grain farmer under different production strategies; traditional farming and precision agriculture technologies. Four constrained optimization, whole farm analysis models were formulated under no-till conditions. One of the models was optimized without utilizing any precision agriculture techniques and was used as a base model to compare the other three models which incorporated precision agriculture technologies (PAT). ...

  2. Development of a Lightweight Low-Carbon Footprint Concrete Containing Recycled Waste Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Talukdar, S.; Islam, S. T.; Banthia, N.

    2011-01-01

    Use of any recycled material helps to maintain a greener environment by keeping waste materials out of the landfills. Recycling practices also can decrease the environmental and economical impact of manufacturing the materials from virgin resources, which reduces the overall carbon footprint of industrial materials and processes. This study examined the use of waste materials such as crushed glass, ground tire rubber, and recycled aggregate in concrete. Compressive strength and elastic mod...

  3. Carbon Footprint Analyses of Mainstream Wastewater Treatment Technologies under Different Sludge Treatment Scenarios in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chunyan Chai; Dawei Zhang; Yanling Yu; Yujie Feng; Man Sing Wong

    2015-01-01

    With rapid urbanization and infrastructure investment, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Chinese cities are putting increased pressure on energy consumption and exacerbating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A carbon footprint is provided as a tool to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions and identify opportunities to reduce climate change impacts. This study examined three mainstream wastewater treatment technologies: Anaerobic–Anoxic–Oxic (A–A–O), Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) and Oxy...

  4. Resource Efficiency and Carbon Footprint Minimization in Manufacture of Plastic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilė Sabaliauskaitė

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Efficient resource management, waste prevention, as well as renewable resource consumption promote sustainable production and lower greenhouse gas emissions to the environment when manufacturing plastic products. The paper presents the analysis of the efficiency of resources and the potential of carbon footprint minimization in manufacture of plastic products by means of implementation of wood-plastic composite (WPC production. The analysis was performed using life cycle assessment and material flow analysis methodology. To devise the solution for better management of resources and minimization of carbon footprint, the environmental impacts of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and WPC wall panels through their life cycle were assessed, as well as the detailed material flow analyses of the PVC and WPC in production stages were carried out. The life cycle assessment has revealed that carbon footprint throughout life cycle of 1 kg of WPC wall panel is 37 % lower than those of the same weight of PVC wall panel product. Both products have a major impact on the environment during their production phase, while during this phase WPC wall panel has 35 % smaller carbon footprint and even 47 % smaller during disposal stages than those of the PVC wall panel. The results of material flow analysis have shown that recycling and reuse of production spoilage reduce the need of PVC secondary resources for PVC panels and primary WPC resources for WPC panel production. For better resource efficiency, the conceptual model of material flow management has been proposed. As WPC products are made of primary WPC granules, which are imported from abroad, the model suggests to produce the WPC granules at the company using collected PVC secondary materials (PVC stocks. It would lower environmental costs and environmental impact, increase the efficiency of resources, and diminish dependence on suppliers.

  5. Resource Efficiency and Carbon Footprint Minimization in Manufacture of Plastic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sabaliauskaitė

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficient resource management, waste prevention, as well as renewable resource consumption promote sustainable production and lower greenhouse gas emissions to the environment when manufacturing plastic products.The paper presents the analysis of the efficiency of resources and the potential of carbon footprint minimization in manufacture of plastic products by means of implementation of wood-plastic composite (WPC production. The analysis was performed using life cycle assessment and material flow analysis methodology. To devise the solution for better management of resources and minimization of carbon footprint, the environmental impacts of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and WPC wall panels through their life cycle were assessed, as well as the detailed material flow analyses of the PVC and WPC in production stages were carried out.The life cycle assessment has revealed that carbon footprints throughout life cycle of 1 kg of WPC wall panel are 37 % lower than those of the same weight of PVC wall panel product. Both products have a major impact on the environment during their production phase, while during this phase WPC wall panel has 35 % smaller carbon footprint and even 47 % smaller during disposal stages than those of the PVC wall panel.The results of material flow analysis have shown that recycling and reuse of production spoilage reduce the need of PVC secondary resources for PVC panels and primary WPC resources for WPC panel production.For better resource efficiency, the conceptual model of material flow management has been proposed. As WPC products are made of primary WPC granules, which are imported from abroad, the model suggests to produce the WPC granules at the company using collected PVC secondary materials (PVC stocks. It would lower environmental costs and environmental impact, increase the efficiency of resources, and diminish dependence on suppliers.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.67.1.6587

  6. Carbon footprint of diets of Norwegian households - status and potential reductions

    OpenAIRE

    Stamm, Aurélie Valentine

    2015-01-01

    The present work aims at quantifying the current carbon footprint of diets of average Norwegian households with a holistic perspective, and assessing various ways to reduce it. The scope of the research comprises food consumed and food-related activities happening at home, including food transport, storage and preparation. After an introduction of the context of the research, its research question, goal and scope, the report reviews existing literature. It then presents the methods used f...

  7. The Environmental Sustainability of Nations: Benchmarking the Carbon, Water and Land Footprints against Allocated Planetary Boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Fang; Reinout Heijungs; Zheng Duan; de Snoo, Geert R.

    2015-01-01

    Growing scientific evidence for the indispensable role of environmental sustainability in sustainable development calls for appropriate frameworks and indicators for environmental sustainability assessment (ESA). In this paper, we operationalize and update the footprint-boundary ESA framework, with a particular focus on its methodological and application extensions to the national level. By using the latest datasets available, the planetary boundaries for carbon emissions, water use and land ...

  8. Targeting energy generation and carbon footprint for waste management and processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kravanja, Zdravko; Klemeš, Jiri; Čuček, Lidija; Varbanov, Petar

    2015-01-01

    Waste to Energy (WTE) processing carries a trade-off between energy extractionfrom the waste and the energy for waste management - collection, transport and treatment. Major performance indicators are the Primary Energy Savings (PES), Carbon Footprint (CFP) and especially the cost. This presentation analyses the significance of the factors in this trade-off introducing a new indicator - the Waste Energy Potential Utilisation (WPU). The results indicate that the impact of the logistics and ene...

  9. CARBON FOOTPRINT IN SUSTAINABLE FOOD CHAIN AND ITS IMPORTANCE FOR FOOD CONSUMER

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Konieczny; Ewelina Mroczek; Magda Kucharska

    2013-01-01

    Freshness, sensory attributes and food safety are currently indicated as main criteria in respect to food purchasing decisions. However, growing number of consumers are ready to choose also environmentally friendly food products. Carbon Footprint (CF) expressed in CO2 equivalent of greenhouse gas emission seems to be an innovative indicator useful to evaluate environmental impacts associated with production and distribution of food. The review carried out in this study is based mainly on data...

  10. Energy performance, fuel intensity and carbon footprint of the Greek fishing fleet

    OpenAIRE

    DAMALAS DIMITRIOS; Maravelias, Christos; KAPANTAGAKIS Anargyros

    2015-01-01

    Fishing is a fuel consuming food production activity, and its energy efficiency performance has worsened over time. Assembling data from the whole fishing sector, the energy performance, fuel intensity and carbon footprint of the Greek fishing fleet, were assessed for the period 2004–2008. Results demonstrated declining trends in fishing effort and respective fuel consumption, associated with the fuel price hike in 2008. Bottom trawlers illustrated the higher levels of fuel intensity (>1.5lt ...

  11. Resource Efficiency and Carbon Footprint Minimization in Manufacture of Plastic Products

    OpenAIRE

    K. Sabaliauskaitė; Kliaugaitė, D.

    2014-01-01

    Efficient resource management, waste prevention, as well as renewable resource consumption promote sustainable production and lower greenhouse gas emissions to the environment when manufacturing plastic products.The paper presents the analysis of the efficiency of resources and the potential of carbon footprint minimization in manufacture of plastic products by means of implementation of wood-plastic composite (WPC) production. The analysis was performed using life cycle assessment and materi...

  12. Estimating the Carbon Footprint of Florida Orange Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas H. Spreen; Dwivedi, Puneet; Goodrich-Schneider, Renee

    2010-01-01

    This study is a part of a comprehensive study which attempts to create a baseline of global warming impact (expressed in total greenhouse gas emission and measured in terms of carbon equivalent) associated with the production and consumption of a gallon of orange juice available in the form of NFC (Not from Concentrate) and FCOJ (Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice) in Florida. A detailed life‐cycle approach is adopted and greenhouse gas emissions of all the steps in the supply chain starting fr...

  13. Research developments in methods to reduce the carbon footprint of the food system: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhongyue; Sun, Da-Wen; Zeng, Xin-An; Liu, Dan; Pu, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    Global warming is a worldwide issue with its evident impact across a wide range of systems and sectors. It is caused by a number of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions, in which food system has made up of a large part. Recently, reduction of GHG emissions has become an urgent issue to be resolved in the food system. Many governments and organizations are making great endeavors to alleviate the adverse effect of this phenomenon. In this review, methods to reduce the carbon footprint within the life cycle of a food system are presented from the technical, consumption behavior and environmental policies perspectives. The whole food system including raw material acquisition, processing, packaging, preservation, transportation, consumption, and disposal are covered. Improving management techniques, and adopting advanced technology and equipment are critical for every stage of a food system. Rational site selection is important to alleviate the influence of land use change. In addition, environmental choices of packaging stage, reduction in refrigeration dependence, and correct waste treatment are essential to reduce the total carbon footprint of the production. However, only technical methods cannot radically reverse the trend of climate change, as consumption behaviors present a great deal of influence over climate change. Appropriate purchase patterns and substitution within food product categories by low carbon products can reduce GHG emissions. Development of methods to calculate the carbon footprint of every kind of food and its processing technology enable people to make environmental choice. Policy can shape and cultivate the new code of consumption and influence the direction of emerging technology and science. From political perspectives, government intervention and carbon offset are common tools, especially for carbon tax and a real or implicit price of carbon. Finally, by mitigating the methodologies described above, the rate and magnitude of climate changes

  14. Low Carbon Footprint Mortar from Pozzolanic Waste Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Mehmannavaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Portland cement clinker leads to emission of CO2 into the atmosphere and therefore causes greenhouse effect. Incorporating of Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA and Pulverized Fuel Ash (PFA as partial cement replacement materials into mix of low carbon mortar decreases the amount of cement use and reduces high dependence on cements compared to ordinary mortar. The result of this research supported use of the new concept in preparing low carbon mortar for industrial constructions. Strength of low carbon mortar with POFA and PFA replacement in cement was affected and changed by replacing percent finesse, physical and chemical properties and pozzolanic activity of these wastes. Waste material replacement instead of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC was used in this study. This in turn was useful for promoting better quality of construction and innovative systems in construction industry, especially in Malaysia. This study was surely a step forward to achieving quality products which were affordable, durable and environmentally friendly. Disposing ash contributes to shortage of landfill space in Malaysia. Besides, hazard of ash might be another serious issue for human health. The ash disposal area also might create a new problem, which is the area's sedimentation and erosion.

  15. Carbon Footprint Analysis for Mechanization of Maize Production Based on Life Cycle Assessment: A Case Study in Jilin Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haina Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The theory on the carbon footprint of agriculture can systematically evaluate the carbon emissions caused by artificial factors from the agricultural production process, which is the theoretical basis for constructing low-carbon agriculture and has important guiding significance for realizing low-carbon agriculture. Based on farm production survey data from Jilin Province in 2014, this paper aims to obtain a clear understanding of the carbon footprint of maize production through the following method: (1 one ton of maize production was evaluated systematically by using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA; (2 the carbon emissions of the whole system were estimated based on field measurement data, (3 using the emission factors we estimated Jilin’s carbon footprint for the period 2006–2013, and forecasted it for the period from 2014 to 2020 using the grey system model GM (1, 1.

  16. Evaluating and measuring carbon footprint of the inland operations activity for MAERSK LINE, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Kadawala, Jatin

    2009-01-01

    The emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) but the foremost carbon-dioxide (CO2), is beginning human induced climate change have turned out to be a global and ominous issue. All participants, society, groups etc ought to be betrothed in the mission of mitigating the anticipated impacts. For any business organisation determined to deal with the issue, measuring its carbon footprint is an indispensable footstep to take. Since 2003, A.P.Moller Maersk group has monitored the level of CO2 emissions a...

  17. An Indigenous Application for Estimating Carbon footprint of academia library systems based on life cycle assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Saurabh; David Dornfeld

    2008-01-01

    Global Warming is one of the pressing problems of the current century and can have disastrous effects in disturbing the ecological balance and climate stability on the planet Earth, if not addressed pro-actively by all nations across the world. A carbon footprint is a measure of the impact human activities have on the environment in terms of the amount of green house gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide. It is meant to be useful for individuals and organizations to conceptualiz...

  18. Using Geothermal Electric Power to Reduce Carbon Footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombie, George W.

    Human activities, including the burning of fossil fuels, increase carbon dioxide levels, which contributes to global warming. The research problem of the current study examined if geothermal electric power could adequately replace fossil fuel by 2050, thus reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide while avoiding potential problems with expanding nuclear generation. The purpose of this experimental research was to explore under what funding and business conditions geothermal power could be exploited to replace fossil fuels, chiefly coal. Complex systems theory, along with network theory, provided the theoretical foundation for the study. Research hypotheses focused on parameters, such as funding level, exploration type, and interfaces with the existing power grid that will bring the United States closest to the goal of phasing out fossil based power by 2050. The research was conducted by means of computer simulations, using agent-based modeling, wherein data were generated and analyzed. The simulations incorporated key information about the location of geothermal resources, exploitation methods, transmission grid limits and enhancements, and demand centers and growth. The simulation suggested that rapid and aggressive deployment of geothermal power plants in high potential areas, combined with a phase out of coal and nuclear plants, would produce minimal disruptions in the supply of electrical power in the United States. The implications for social change include reduced risk of global warming for all humans on the planet, reduced pollution due to reduction or elimination of coal and nuclear power, increased stability in energy supply and prices in the United States, and increased employment of United States citizens in jobs related to domestic energy production.

  19. Future electricity: The challenge of reducing both carbon and water footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Gerbens-Leenes, P W; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2016-11-01

    We estimate the consumptive water footprint (WF) of electricity and heat in 2035 for the four energy scenarios of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and a fifth scenario with a larger percentage of solar energy. Counter-intuitively, the 'greenest' IEA scenario (with the smallest carbon footprint) shows the largest WF increase over time: an increase by a factor four over the period 2010-2035. In 2010, electricity from solar, wind, and geothermal contributed 1.8% to the total. The increase of this contribution to 19.6% in IEA's '450 scenario' contributes significantly to the decrease of the WF of the global electricity and heat sector, but is offset by the simultaneous increase of the use of firewood and hydropower. Only substantial growth in the fractions of energy sources with small WFs - solar, wind, and geothermal energy - can contribute to a lowering of the WF of the electricity and heat sector in the coming decades. The fifth energy scenario - adapted from the IEA 450 scenario but based on a quick transition to solar, wind and geothermal energy and a minimum in bio-energy - is the only scenario that shows a strong decline in both carbon footprint (-66%) and consumptive WF (-12%) in 2035 compared to the reference year 2010. PMID:27387812

  20. Food consumption and waste and the embedded carbon, water and ecological footprints of households in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guobao; Li, Mingjing; Semakula, Henry Musoke; Zhang, Shushen

    2015-10-01

    Strategies for reducing food waste and developing sustainable diets require information about the impacts of consumption behavior and waste generation on climatic, water, and land resources. We quantified the carbon, water, and ecological footprints of 17,110 family members of Chinese households, covering 1935 types of foods, by combining survey data with available life-cycle assessment data sets. We also summarized the patterns of both food consumption and waste generation and analyzed the factors influencing the observed trends. The average person wasted (consumed) 16 (415) kg of food at home annually, equivalent to 40 (1080) kg CO2e, 18 (673) m(3), and 173 (4956) gm(2) for the carbon, water and ecological footprints, respectively. The generation of food waste was highly correlated with consumption for various food groups. For example, vegetables, rice, and wheat were consumed the most and accounted for the most waste. In addition to the three plant-derived food groups, pork and aquatic products also contributed greatly to embedded footprints. The data obtained in this study could be used for assessing national food security or the carrying capacity of resources. PMID:26011615

  1. Climate Change Adaptation Strategy in the Food Industry—Insights from Product Carbon and Water Footprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Ridoutt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change adds an additional layer of complexity that needs to be considered in business strategy. For firms in the food industry, many of the important climate impacts are not directly related to food processing so a value chain approach to adaptation is recommended. However, there is a general lack of operational tools to support this. In this study, carbon and water footprints were conducted at a low-precision screening level in three case studies in Australia: Smith’s potato chips, OneHarvest Calypso™ mango and selected Treasury Wine Estates products. The approach was cost-effective when compared to high-definition studies intended to support environmental labels and declarations, yet provided useful identification of physical, financial, regulatory and reputational hotspots related to climate change. A combination of diagnostic footprinting, downscaled climate projection and semi-quantitative value chain analysis is proposed as a practical and relevant toolkit to inform climate adaptation strategies.

  2. Developing mechanisms for estimating carbon footprint in farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya-Romero, María; Fernández Luque, José Enrique; Rodríguez Merino, Alejandro; José Moreno Delgado, Juan; Rodado, Concepción Mira; Romero Vicente, Rafael; Perez-Martin, Alfonso; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable land management is critical to avoid land degradation and to reclaim degraded land for its productive use and for reaping the benefits of crucial ecosystem services and protecting biodiversity. It also helps in mitigating and adapting to climate change. Land and its various uses are affected severely by climate change too (flooding, droughts, etc.). Existing tools and technologies for efficient land management need to be adapted and their application expanded. A large number of human livelihoods and ecosystems can benefit from these tools and techniques since these yield multiple benefits. Disseminating and scaling up the implementation of sustainable land management approaches will, however, need to be backed up by mobilizing strong political will and financial resources. The challenge is to provide an integral decision support tool that can establish relationships between soil carbon content, climate change and land use and management aspects that allow stakeholders to detect, cope with and intervene into land system change in a sustainable way. In order to achieve this goal an agro-ecological meta-model called CarboLAND will be calibrated in several plots located in Andalusia region, Southern Spain, under different scenarios of climate and agricultural use and management. The output will be the CLIMALAND e-platform, which will also include protocols in order to support stakeholders for an integrated ecosystem approach, taking into account biodiversity, hydrological and soil capability, socio-economic aspects, and regional and environmental policies. This tool will be made available at the European context for a regional level, providing user-friendly interfaces and a scientifically-technical platform for the assessment of sustainable land use and management.

  3. Carbon footprint of four different wastewater treatment scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diafarou, Moumouni; Mariska, Ronteltap, ,, Dr.; Damir, Brdjanovic, ,, Prof.

    2014-05-01

    97% lower compared to other anthropogenic sources like the public transport sector. The innovative sanitation scenarios were found to cause less environmental burden in terms of energy and GHGs. Nevertheless, to ensure a positive impact of these treatment systems, an optimum biogas reuse (for the production of electricity and heat), the source separation of human excreta (to disburden the wastewater treatment processes) should be introduced to reduce their GHG emissions. Keywords: Carbon dioxide, greenhouse gases, methane, wastewater treatment technologies.

  4. Carbon footprint calculation of Finnish greenhouse products; Kasvihuonetuotteiden ilmastovaikutuslaskenta. Loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yrjaenaeinen, H.; Silvenius, F.; Kaukoranta, T.; Naekkilae, J.; Saerkkae, L.; Tuhkanen, E.-M.

    2013-02-01

    This report presents the results of climate impact calculations for five products produced in Finnish greenhouses: tomatoes, cucumbers, salad crops, tulips and Elatior begonias. The study employed 16 greenhouses for the investigation; two greenhouses each for the tulips and the begonias and four each for the tomatoes, cucumbers and salad crops. Based on these calculations a greenhouse gas calculator was developed for greenhouse cultivators. The calculator is available at internet in www.kauppapuutarhaliitto.fi {yields} hiilijalanjaelki. In terms of environmental impacts this study concentrated on the climate impacts of the investigated products, and the calculations were made for the most significant greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. The following processes were included in the system boundaries: plant growing, manufacturing of lime, fertilizers and pesticides, manufacturing and disposal of pots, carbon dioxide production, irrigation, lighting, thermal curtains and cooling systems, the production and use of electricity and heat energy, distribution of products by the growers, other transportation, end-of-life and recycling. Processes excluded from the study were: distribution by other actors, retail functions, the consumer stage, and maintenance and manufacturing of infrastructure. The study used MTT's calculation model for the climate impact of food products excluding distribution and retail processes. The greenhouses selected for the study had some variation in their energy profiles and growing seasons. In addition, scenarios were created for different energy sources by using the average figures from this study. Monthly energy consumption values were also obtained from a number of the greenhouses and these were used to assess the variations in climate impact for different seasons. According to the results of the study the use of energy is the most significant source of climate impact of greenhouse products. In the tomato farms the

  5. Minimizing the Carbon Footprint for the Time-Dependent Heterogeneous-Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem with Alternative Paths

    OpenAIRE

    Wan-Yu Liu; Chun-Cheng Lin; Ching-Ren Chiu; You-Song Tsao; Qunwei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Torespondto the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, this paper investigates the minimal-carbon-footprint time-dependent heterogeneous-fleet vehicle routing problem with alternative paths (MTHVRPP). This finds a route with the smallestcarbon footprint, instead of the shortestroute distance, which is the conventional approach, to serve a number of customers with a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles in cases wherethere may not be only one path between each pair of customers, a...

  6. Towards certified carbon footprints of products. A road map for data production : Climate BFonus project report (WP3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usva, K.; Saarinen, M.; Katajajuuri, J.-M.; Nurmi, P.; Kurppa, S. (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Jokioinen (Finland)); Hongisto, M. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)); Nissinen, A.; Koskela, S. (Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Helsinki (Finland)); Perrels, A. (VATT Government Institute for Economic Research, Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-08-15

    This report is a part of a series of reports from the Climate Bonus project. The report illustrates the basic structure of a system that could produce strict and reliable data needed for generating product-oriented carbon footprints in Finland. It also represents a road map for developing the system for the energy and food sectors. Steering mechanismsl standards and possible data sources central to the system are also reviewed. Accurary and a scope of the outlined system should be developed step by step, starting from the major emission sourcesl processes and products. Account has also been taken of linkages between the proposed system and existing environmental management systems, annual reporting practices and the European emission-trading scheme (EU-ETS). (orig.)

  7. Key issues and options in accounting for carbon sequestration and temporary storage in life cycle assessment and carbon footprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandao, Miguel; Levasseur, Annie; Kirschbaum, Miko U. F.;

    2013-01-01

    footprinting (CF) are increasingly popular tools for the environmental assessment of products, that take into account their entire life cycle. There have been significant efforts to develop robust methods to account for the benefits, if any, of sequestration and temporary storage and release of biogenic carbon...... and CF. Several viewpoints and approaches are presented in a structured manner to help decision-makers in their selection of an option from competing approaches for dealing with timing issues, including delayed emissions of fossil carbon. Results: Key issues identified are that the benefits of...

  8. The net carbon footprint of a newly created boreal hydroelectric reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Teodoru, Cristian R.; Bastien, Julie; Bonneville, Marie-Claude; del Giorgio, Paul A.; Demarty, Maud; Garneau, Michelle; Hélie, Hélie Jean-Francois; Pelletier, Luc; Prairie, Yves T.; Roulet, Nigel T.; Strachan, Ian B.; Tremblay, Alain

    2012-01-01

    We present here the first comprehensive assessment of the carbon (C) footprint associated with the creation of a boreal hydroelectric reservoir (Eastmain-1 in northern Québec, Canada). This is the result of a large-scale, interdisciplinary study that spanned over a 7-years period (2003–2009), where we quantified the major C gas (CO2 and CH4)sources and sinks of the terrestrial and aquatic components of the pre-flood landscape, and also for the reservoir following the impoundment in 2006. The ...

  9. Practices to Reduce Milk Carbon Footprint on Grazing Dairy Farms in Southern Uruguay: Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Lizarralde; Valentin Picasso; C. Alan Rotz; Monica Cadenazzi; Laura Astigarraga

    2014-01-01

    Carbon footprint (CF) is an increasingly important indicator of the impact of a product on climate change. This study followed international guidelines to quantify the CF of milk produced on 24 grazing-based dairy farms in southern Uruguay. Cows grazed all year-round and were supplemented with concentrate feeds. Dairy farms varied in annual milk yield per cow (5672 ± 1245 kg fat and protein corrected milk [FPCM]), milk production per ha (4075 ± 1360 kg FPCM/ha), cow stocking rate (0.71 ± 0.12...

  10. Integrating waste and renewable energy to reduce the carbon footprint of locally integrated energy sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy use continues to rise and with it the emissions of CO2. Energy efficiency methods have been applied across sectors. Efficiency gains and energy use per manufactured unit have fallen, particularly in relation to the processing industry. Residential, work place, leisure, and service sectors still use large amounts of energy and produce large emissions of CO2 despite efficiency gains. Successful strategies used in the processing industry for integrating energy systems, namely Total Site targeting, have been applied to locally integrated energy sectors. The method shows that it can be successfully applied to integrate renewables into the energy source mix and consequently reduce the carbon footprint of these locally integrated energy sectors

  11. Design incentives to increase vehicle size created from the U.S. footprint-based fuel economy standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recently amended U.S. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards determine fuel-economy targets based on the footprint (wheelbase by track width) of vehicles such that larger vehicles have lower fuel-economy targets. This paper considers whether these standards create an incentive for firms to increase vehicle size by presenting an oligopolistic-equilibrium model in which automotive firms can modify vehicle dimensions, implement fuel-saving technology features, and trade off acceleration performance and fuel economy. Wide ranges of scenarios for consumer preferences are considered. Results suggest that the footprint-based CAFE standards create an incentive to increase vehicle size except when consumer preference for vehicle size is near its lower bound and preference for acceleration is near its upper bound. In all other simulations, the sales-weighted average vehicle size increases by 2–32%, undermining gains in fuel economy by 1–4 mpg (0.6–1.7 km/L). Carbon-dioxide emissions from these vehicles are 5–15% higher as a result (4.69×1011–5.17×1011 kg for one year of produced vehicles compared to 4.47×1011 kg with no size changes), which is equivalent to adding 3–10 coal-fired power plants to the electricity grid each year. Furthermore, results suggest that the incentive is larger for light trucks than for passenger cars, which could increase traffic safety risks. - Highlights: ► New U.S. fuel-economy standards may create an incentive to increase vehicle size. ► We model firms as choosing vehicle designs and prices in oligopolistic equilibrium. ► Vehicle size increases 2–32% for 20 out of 21 scenarios of consumer preferences. ► Increases in size reduce fuel economy gains from 5–13%, resulting in 5–15% higher CO2 emissions. ► Incentive is larger for trucks than cars, which may increase traffic safety risks.

  12. The Local Electro-Energetic Carbon Footprint Generated by Tourism on the Islands of Cres and Lošinj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Grofelnik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents valuation of the local electro-energetic carbon footprint on the islands of Cres and Lošinj (The Northern Adriatic, Republic of Croatia. In the form of a case study the article isolates the locally allocated but globally present environmental burden caused by CO2 emission into the atmosphere as the result of electrical energy production. Within the environmental burden, the residents’ footprint and the footprint generated by tourism have been isolated. The hypothesis the article is based on presumes that the local electro-energetic carbon footprint is dominantly under the influence of tourism and shows annual oscillations closely related to the number of tourists on the islands. The article's contribution on theoretical level is the actualization of partial tourist footprints isolation, while on applicative level its contribution is in footprint calculations as a foundation for articulation of sustainable development strategies and spatial planning based on the actual human influence on the environment. The overall aim of the work is to contribute to revitalization and sustainable development of the islands as exceptionally valuable naturally preserved areas.

  13. The Environmental Sustainability of Nations: Benchmarking the Carbon, Water and Land Footprints against Allocated Planetary Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Fang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Growing scientific evidence for the indispensable role of environmental sustainability in sustainable development calls for appropriate frameworks and indicators for environmental sustainability assessment (ESA. In this paper, we operationalize and update the footprint-boundary ESA framework, with a particular focus on its methodological and application extensions to the national level. By using the latest datasets available, the planetary boundaries for carbon emissions, water use and land use are allocated to 28 selected countries in comparison to the corresponding environmental footprints. The environmental sustainability ratio (ESR—an internationally comparable indicator representing the sustainability gap between contemporary anthropogenic interference and critical capacity thresholds—allows one to map the reserve or transgression of the nation-specific environmental boundaries. While the geographical distribution of the three ESRs varies across nations, in general, the worldwide unsustainability of carbon emissions is largely driven by economic development, while resource endowments play a more central role in explaining national performance on water and land use. The main value added of this paper is to provide concrete evidence of the usefulness of the proposed framework in allocating overall responsibility for environmental sustainability to sub-global scales and in informing policy makers about the need to prevent the planet’s environment from tipping into an undesirable state.

  14. Relating the carbon footprint of milk from Irish dairy farms to economic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, D; Hennessy, T; Moran, B; Shalloo, L

    2015-10-01

    Mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of milk or the carbon footprint (CF) of milk is a key issue for the European dairy sector given rising concerns over the potential adverse effects of climate change. Several strategies are available to mitigate GHG emissions, but producing milk with a low CF does not necessarily imply that a dairy farm is economically viable. Therefore, to understand the relationship between the CF of milk and dairy farm economic performance, the farm accountancy network database of a European Union nation (Ireland) was applied to a GHG emission model. The method used to quantify GHG emissions was life cycle assessment (LCA), which was independently certified to comply with the British standard for LCA. The model calculated annual on- and off-farm GHG emissions from imported inputs (e.g., electricity) up to the point milk was sold from the farm in CO2-equivalent (CO2-eq). Annual GHG emissions computed using LCA were allocated to milk based on the economic value of dairy farm products and expressed per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The results showed for a nationally representative sample of 221 grass-based Irish dairy farms in 2012 that gross profit averaged € 0.18/L of milk and € 1,758/ha and gross income was € 40,899/labor unit. Net profit averaged € 0.08/L of milk and € 750/ha and net income averaged € 18,125/labor unit. However, significant variability was noted in farm performance across each financial output measure. For instance, net margin per hectare of the top one-third of farms was 6.5 times higher than the bottom third. Financial performance measures were inversely correlated with the CF of milk, which averaged 1.20 kg of CO2-eq/kg of FPCM but ranged from 0.60 to 2.13 kg of CO2-eq/kg of FPCM. Partial least squares regression analysis of correlations between financial and environmental performance indicated that extending the length of the grazing season and increasing milk production

  15. Combining carbon footprinting, monitoring, feedback, and rewards (CLIMATE BONUS); Climate bonus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrels, A. (Government Institute for Economic Research VATT, Helsinki (Finland)), email: adriaan.perrels@vatt.fi; Hongisto, M.; Kallio, A. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)); Hyvoenen, K. (National Consumer Research Centre KTK, Helsinki (Finland)), email: kaarina.hyvonen@ncrc.fi; Nissinen, A.; Koskela, S. (Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Helsinki; Usva, K.; Katajajuuri, J.-M. (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Jokioinen (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    The project CLIMATE BONUS concerns a pre-study about the combined use of verified carbon footprints (possibly visualised through labels), personalised monitoring and feedback services to households regarding the greenhouse gas intensities of their purchases, a reward system (bonuses) for consumers who manage to reduce the embodied emissions, and a secondary reward system for retailers that successfully reduce the emission intensity of their sales. The study assesses the requirements and harmonisation needs for the various information systems and their interfaces. This culminates in a data strategy, in which a data acquisition, generation and co-ordination strategy and a data quality assurance strategy will be developed. Equally important, the study also assesses, via an own pilot, what the response of households (as consumers) can amount to and how the responsiveness to various incentives can be rated. Key challenges in the development of the envisaged system concern the comprehensiveness, comparability, transparency and tractability, precision and cost-effectiveness of product chain emission data, while accounting for the need for harmonisation footprint procedures at an international level. At the consumer side it is essential to ensure sufficiently wide and sustained participation among households. (orig.)

  16. Climate bonus. Combining carbon footprinting, monitoring, feedback, and rewards : Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrels, A. (Government Institute for Economic Research, Helsinki (Finland)); Hongisto, M.; Kallio, A. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)); Hyvoenen, K. (National Consumer Research Centre, Helsinki (Finland)); Nissinen, A.; Koskela, S. (Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Helsinki (Finland)); Usva, K.; Katajajuuri, J.-M. (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Jokioinen (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    The project Climate BONUS concerns a pre-study about the combined use of verified carbon footprints (possibly visualised through labels), personalised monitoring and feedback services to households regarding the greenhouse gas intensities of their purchases, a reward system (bonuses) for consumers who manage to reduce the embodied emissions, and a secondary reward system for retailers that successfully reduce the emission intensity of their sales. The study assesses the requirements and harmonisation needs for the various information systems and their interfaces. This culminates in a data strategy, in which a data acquisition, generation and co-ordination strategy and a data quality assurance strategy will be developed. Equally important, the study also assesses, via an own pilot, what the response of households (as consumers) can amount to and how the responsiveness to various incentives can be rated. Key challenges in the development of the envisaged system concern the comprehensiveness, comparability, transparency and tractability, precision and cost-effectiveness of product chain emission data, while accounting for the need for harmonisation footprint procedures at an international level. At the consumer side it is essential to ensure sufficiently wide and sustained participation among households. (orig.)

  17. Development of a Lightweight Low-Carbon Footprint Concrete Containing Recycled Waste Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Talukdar

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the use of waste materials such as crushed glass, ground tire rubber, and recycled aggregate in concrete. Compressive strength and elastic modulus were the primary parameters of interest. Results demonstrated that ground tire rubber introduced significant amounts of air into the mix and adversely affected the strength. The introduction of a defoamer was able to successfully remove part of the excess air from the mix, but the proportional strength improvements were not noted implying that air left in the defoamed mixture had undesirable characteristics. Freeze-thaw tests were next performed to understand the nature of air in the defoamed mixtures, and results demonstrated that this air is not helpful in resisting freeze-thaw resistance either. Overall, while lightweight, low-carbon footprint concrete materials seem possible from recycled materials, significant further optimization remains possible.

  18. Variation in carbon footprint of milk due to management differences between Swedish dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksson, Maria; Flysjö, Anna Maria; Cederberg, Christel;

    2011-01-01

    To identify mitigation options to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from milk production (i.e. the carbon footprint (CF) of milk), this study examined the variation in GHG emissions among dairy farms using data from previous CF studies on Swedish milk. Variations between farms in these...... (ECM) produced and delivered), feed dry matter intake (DMI), enteric CH4 emissions, N content in feed DMI, N-fertiliser rate and diesel used on farm. The largest between-farm variations among the analysed production data were N-fertiliser rate (kg/ha) and diesel used (l/ha) on farm (CV = 31% to 38...... production data, which were found to have a strong influence on milk CF, were obtained from existing databases of 1051 dairy farms in Sweden in 2005. Monte Carlo (MC) analysis was used to analyse the impact of variations in seven important parameters on milk CF concerning milk yield (energy-corrected milk...

  19. Environmental impact of an Italian wine bottle: Carbon and water footprint assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamente, Emanuele; Scrucca, Flavio; Rinaldi, Sara; Merico, Maria Cleofe; Asdrubali, Francesco; Lamastra, Lucrezia

    2016-08-01

    The food sector represents one of the major impacting sectors from an environmental point of view and, among all the products, wine emerges as one of the most studied by the literature. Single-issue approaches are commonly used, but a more comprehensive analysis is desirable, since a single indicator does not properly track the pressure on the environment. This paper presents a combined carbon and water footprint assessment, with a cradle to grave approach, for a protected designation of origin Italian red wine, and suggests a correlation among the two indicators across the life cycle phases. A total CF equal to 1.07±0.09kgCO2eq/bottle and a total WF equal to 580±30l/bottle were calculated for the studied product and a direct proportionality was found between the total CF and the sum of WFgrey(indirect) and WFblue. PMID:27101464

  20. Product and corporate carbon footprint using the compound method based on financial accounts. The case of Osorio wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We applied novel organisation-product-based-life-cycle assessment to Osorio Wind Farms. • This study includes sources, phases and areas previously unreported for the wind power sector. • MC3 assess carbon footprint in a practical and comprehensive manner. • MC3 is suitable for its application in major international projects. - Abstract: The challenge of developing clean and renewable energy sources is becoming ever more urgent. Over the last decade, the concept of carbon footprint has been used to report direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions and as a support for sustainable consumption decisions. However, the discrepancies in the approaches based on either the product or corporate carbon footprint can seriously hinder its successful implementation. The so-called compound method based on financial accounts is a tiered hybrid method which enables the calculation of both the product and corporate carbon footprint. This work aims to assess this method as a tool for carbon footprint through its implementation in a comprehensive life-cycle assessment of the Osorio Wind Farms in Brazil. The total cumulative life-cycle emissions are 362.455 t CO2eq, representing 18.33 gr CO2eq per kW h delivered to the Brazilian national power grid. The difference with regard to previous works derives from its broader scope and different assumptions. In this study the comparable value from wind turbine manufacture, transport and construction is 8.42 gr CO2eq per kW h, 56% lower than the mean figure reported by Arvesen and Hertwich (2012). This study includes sources, phases and areas previously unreported in the carbon footprint reviews for the wind power sector. We conclude that the compound method based on financial accounts is a practical method that allows the definition of a more comprehensive goal and scope. Its implementation at Osorio Wind Farms demonstrates the method’s suitability for application in major international projects and institutions

  1. Energy Efficiency of Thermal Power Station Auxiliary Power Consumption and Cost Savings in Carbon Footprint in India

    OpenAIRE

    K. Thirumavalavan; Mathi Ramalingam; Jayalalitha Subbaiahan

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses about the energy conservation and carbon credits in Thermal Power Stations in India. Indian power scenario, accounts for 66.4% (1,36,436 MW) of Thermal Power Generation. The Thermal Power Stations have the problem of consuming 8.5% of power it produces. Also it has the drawback of emission factors which leaves the carbon footprint, which has to be controlled as per the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The United Nations Framework watches ...

  2. Minimizing the Carbon Footprint for the Time-Dependent Heterogeneous-Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem with Alternative Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Yu Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Torespondto the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, this paper investigates the minimal-carbon-footprint time-dependent heterogeneous-fleet vehicle routing problem with alternative paths (MTHVRPP. This finds a route with the smallestcarbon footprint, instead of the shortestroute distance, which is the conventional approach, to serve a number of customers with a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles in cases wherethere may not be only one path between each pair of customers, and the vehicle speed differs at different times of the day. Inheriting from the NP-hardness of the vehicle routing problem, the MTHVRPP is also NP-hard. This paper further proposes a genetic algorithm (GA to solve this problem. The solution representedbyour GA determines the customer serving ordering of each vehicle type. Then, the capacity check is used to classify multiple routes of each vehicle type, and the path selection determines the detailed paths of each route. Additionally, this paper improves the energy consumption model used for calculating the carbon footprint amount more precisely. Compared with the results without alternative paths, our experimental results show that the alternative path in this experimenthas a significant impact on the experimental results in terms of carbon footprint.

  3. The carbon footprint of French people's consumption: evolution from 1990 to 2007; L'empreinte carbone de la consommation des Francais: evolution de 1990 a 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquier, Jean-Louis; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Boitard, Corinne

    2012-03-15

    The carbon footprint calculated by the statistical service of the French ministry in charge of sustainable development represents the amount of greenhouse gases emitted in order to satisfy French consumption, including emissions connected to imports. In 2007, the carbon footprint per capita in France amounted to 12 tons of CO{sub 2}-equivalent per year, compared to 8 tons per person emitted from the French metropolitan territory. From 1990 to 2007, the carbon footprint per capita increased by 5%, whereas the average per capita emissions on the territory decreased by 15%. During this period, emissions connected to imports increased by 64%, reaching almost 50% of the French carbon footprint in 2007. (author)

  4. Carbon and water footprint of pork supply chain in Catalonia: From feed to final products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noya, Isabel; Aldea, Xavier; Gasol, Carles M; González-García, Sara; Amores, Maria José; Colón, Joan; Ponsá, Sergio; Roman, Isabel; Rubio, Miguel A; Casas, Eudald; Moreira, María Teresa; Boschmonart-Rives, Jesús

    2016-04-15

    A systematic tool to assess the Carbon Footprint (CF) and Water Footprint (WF) of pork production companies was developed and applied to representative Catalan companies. To do so, a cradle-to-gate environmental assessment was carried out by means of the LCA methodology, taking into account all the stages involved in the pork chain, from feed production to the processing of final products, ready for distribution. In this approach, the environmental results are reported based on eight different functional units (FUs) according to the main pork products obtained. With the aim of ensuring the reliability of the results and facilitating the comparison with other available reports, the Product Category Rules (PCR) for Catalan pork sector were also defined as a basis for calculations. The characterization results show fodder production as the main contributor to the global environmental burdens, with contributions higher than 76% regardless the environmental indicator or the life cycle stage considered, which is in agreement with other published data. In contrast, the results in terms of CF and WF lay above the range of values reported elsewhere. However, major discrepancies are mainly due to the differences in the co-products allocation criteria. In this sense, economic/physical allocation and/or system expansion have been mostly considered in literature. In contrast, no allocation was considered appropriate in this study, according to the characteristics of the industries and products under assessment; thus, the major impacts fall on the main product, which derives on comparatively higher environmental burdens. Finally, due to the relevance of fodder production in the overall impact assessment results, strategies to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions as well as water use associated to this stage were proposed in the pork supply chain. PMID:26861226

  5. Climate metrics and the carbon footprint of livestock products: where’s the beef?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, U. Martin; Johansson, Daniel J. A.; Cederberg, Christel; Hedenus, Fredrik; Bryngelsson, David

    2015-03-01

    The livestock sector is estimated to account for 15% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, 80% of which originate from ruminant animal systems due to high emissions of methane (CH4) from enteric fermentation and manure management. However, recent analyses have argued that the carbon footprint (CF) of ruminant meat and dairy products are substantially reduced if one adopts alternative metrics for comparing emissions of GHGs—e.g., the 100 year global temperature change potential (GTP100), instead of the commonly used 100 year global warming potential (GWP100)—due to a lower valuation of CH4 emissions. This raises the question of which metric to use. Ideally, the choice of metric should be related to a climate policy goal. Here, we argue that basing current GHG metrics solely on temperature impact 100 years into the future is inconsistent with the current global climate goal of limiting warming to 2 °C, a limit that is likely to be reached well within 100 years. A reasonable GTP value for CH4, accounting for current projections for when 2 °C warming will be reached, is about 18, leading to a current CF of 19 kg CO2-eq. per kilo beef (carcass weight, average European system), 20% lower than if evaluated using GWP100. Further, we show that an application of the GTP metric consistent with a 2 °C climate limit leads to the valuation of CH4 increasing rapidly over time as the temperature ceiling is approached. This means that the CF for beef would rise by around 2.5% per year in the coming decades, surpassing the GWP based footprint in only ten years. Consequently, the impact on the livestock sector of substituting GTPs for GWPs would be modest in the near term, but could potentially be very large in the future due to a much higher (>50%) and rapidly appreciating CF.

  6. Carbon footprints of crops from organic and conventional arable crop rotations – using a life cycle assessment approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Meyer-Aurich, A; Olesen, Jørgen E;

    2014-01-01

    incorporated in the soil in the ‘Mulching’ rotation and removed and used for biogas production in the ‘Biogas’ rotation (and residues from biogas production were simulated to be returned to the field). A method was suggested for allocating effects of fertility building crops in life cycle assessments. The......-clover) and highlights the importance of analysing the whole crop rotation and including soil carbon changes when estimating carbon footprints of organic crops especially where green manure crops are included.......Many current organic arable agriculture systems are challenged by a dependency on imported livestock manure from conventional agriculture. At the same time organic agriculture aims at being climate friendly. A life cycle assessment is used in this paper to compare the carbon footprints of different...

  7. Method to assess the carbon footprint at product level in the dairy industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria; Thrane, Mikkel; Hermansen, John Erik

    2014-01-01

    associated with raw milk are allocated based on a weighted fat and protein content (1:1.4). Data from the dairy company Arla Foods give 1.1, 8.1, 6.5, 7.4 and 1.2 kg carbon dioxide equivalents per kg of fresh dairy product, butter and butter blend, cheese, milk powder and whey based product, and other......A model to calculate the farm-to-customer carbon footprint (CF) for different dairy product groups is presented. As the largest share of the CF of dairy products occurs at farm level, it is decisive how the emissions from raw milk production are allocated between different products. Impacts......, respectively. One critical aspect is how the by-product ‘whey’ is dealt with. No emissions are allocated to the milk solid whey, which is why products containing whey have an apparent low impact. Underlying methodological assumptions are open to debate and further research is needed concerning the CF impact...

  8. Carbon Footprint Management of Road Freight Transport under the Carbon Emission Trading Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing concern over environmental issues has considerably increased the number of regulations and legislation that aim to curb carbon emissions. Carbon emission trading mechanism, which is one of the most effective means, has been broadly adopted by several countries. This paper presents a road truck routing problem under the carbon emission trading mechanism. By introducing a calculation method of carbon emissions that considers the load and speed of the vehicle among other factors, a road truck routing optimizing model under the cap and trade mechanism based on the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP is described. Compared with the classical TSP model that only considers the economic cost, this model suggests that the truck routing decision under the cap and trade mechanism is more effective in reducing carbon emissions. A modified tabu search algorithm is also proposed to obtain solutions within a reasonable amount of computation time. We theoretically and numerically examine the impacts of carbon trading, carbon cap, and carbon price on truck routing decision, carbon emissions, and total cost. From the results of numerical experiments, we derive interesting observations about how to control the total cost and reduce carbon emissions.

  9. Energy budgeting and carbon footprint of transgenic cotton-wheat production system through peanut intercropping and FYM addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman Jeet; Ahlawat, I P S

    2015-05-01

    Two of the most pressing sustainability issues are the depletion of fossil energy resources and the emission of atmospheric green house gases like carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. The aim of this study was to assess energy budgeting and carbon footprint in transgenic cotton-wheat cropping system through peanut intercropping with using 25-50% substitution of recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) of cotton through farmyard manure (FYM) along with 100% RDN through urea and control (0 N). To quantify the residual effects of previous crops and their fertility levels, a succeeding crop of wheat was grown with varying rates of nitrogen, viz. 0, 50, 100, and 150 kg ha(-1). Cotton + peanut-wheat cropping system recorded 21% higher system productivity which ultimately helped to maintain higher net energy return (22%), energy use efficiency (12%), human energy profitability (3%), energy productivity (7%), carbon outputs (20%), carbon efficiency (17%), and 11% lower carbon footprint over sole cotton-wheat cropping system. Peanut addition in cotton-wheat system increased the share of renewable energy inputs from 18 to 21%. With substitution of 25% RDN of cotton through FYM, share of renewable energy resources increased in the range of 21% which resulted into higher system productivity (4%), net energy return (5%), energy ratio (6%), human energy profitability (74%), energy productivity (6%), energy profitability (5%), and 5% lower carbon footprint over no substitution. The highest carbon footprint (0.201) was recorded under control followed by 50 % substitution of RDN through FYM (0.189). With each successive increase in N dose up to 150 kg N ha(-1) to wheat, energy productivity significantly reduced and share of renewable energy inputs decreased from 25 to 13%. Application of 100 kg N ha(-1) to wheat maintained the highest grain yield (3.71 t ha(-1)), net energy return (105,516 MJ ha(-1)), and human energy profitability (223.4) over other N doses applied to wheat

  10. Sugarcane ethanol production in Malawi: Measures to optimize the carbon footprint and to avoid indirect emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane ethanol is considered to be one of the most efficient first-generation biofuels in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The carbon footprint (CF), however, increases significantly when taking into account emissions induced by indirect land-use changes (ILUC). This case study investigates sugarcane ethanol production in the Republic of Malawi, in Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA); the research objectives were to identify and quantify direct and indirect emissions and to identify measures to optimize the CF. The CF has been calculated with a life cycle approach and with data obtained from the involved companies; our estimations with regard to ILUC take into account further expansion plans for sugarcane crop production. Under existing production conditions ethanol produced in Malawi leads to GHG emissions expressed as CO2eq of 116 g MJ−1 of ethanol. However, high optimization potentials exist when the vinasse is used as an input for biogas production and the harvesting switches from pre-harvest burning to green harvesting. ILUC induced by prospective sugarcane expansions in the Southern Region will, according to current planning, probably not occur since these expansions are linked to the implementation of a large-scale irrigation project. However if ILUC takes place, high levels of additional CO2 emissions of about 77 g MJ−1 of ethanol are to be expected. Although the case study results are only valid for a specific region, some of the findings, such as the high compensation potential regarding ILUC through investments in irrigation systems, may be transferable to other regions in SSA. - Highlights: • We conducted a case study on sugarcane ethanol production in Malawi and calculated its carbon footprint (CF). • The current CF of sugarcane ethanol produced in the Southern Region in Malawi amounts for 116 g MJ−1 of ethanol. • The usage of vinasse in biogas plants would significantly improve the CF. • Another optimization measure is to switch

  11. A Comparison of Carbon Footprint and Production Cost of Different Pasta Products Based on Whole Egg and Pea Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Nette

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Feed and food production are inter alia reasons for high greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced by the replacement of animal components with plant components in processed food products, such as pasta. The main components currently used for pasta are semolina, and water, as well as additional egg. The hypothesis of this paper is that the substitution of whole egg with plant-based ingredients, for example from peas, in such a product might lead to reduced greenhouse gas emissions (GHG and thus a reduced carbon footprint at economically reasonable costs. The costs and carbon footprints of two pasta types, produced with egg or pea protein, are calculated. Plant protein–based pasta products proved to cause 0.57 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2eq (31% per kg pasta less greenhouse gas emissions than animal-based pasta, while the cost of production increases by 10% to 3.00 €/kg pasta.

  12. Ability of carbon footprint to reflect the environmental burden of a product or service – an empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent, Alexis; Olsen, Stig Irving; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2010-01-01

    In the context of a global awareness of the climate change, carbon footprint (CFP) has recently become extensively used as a simple way to sensitize not only consumers in their purchasing behaviours but also public opinion in general. However, limitations in its environmental representativeness arise if one decides to expand the outlook to include other environmental impacts, which are commonly evaluated in Life Cycle Assessments (LCA). In that perspective, over 500 products/services and two ...

  13. Our building is smarter than your building: The use of competitive rivalry to reduce energy consumption and linked carbon footprint

    OpenAIRE

    Carolyn McGibbon; Jacques Ophoff; Jean-Paul Van Belle

    2014-01-01

    This research is located within the smart city discourse and explores the linkage between smart buildings and an intelligent community, employing the University of Cape Town as a case study. It is also situated within the research stream of Green Information Systems, which examines the confluence between technology, people, data and processes, in order to achieve environmental objectives such as reduced energy consumption and its associated carbon footprint. Since approximately 80% of a unive...

  14. Surgical scrubbing: can we clean up our carbon footprints by washing our hands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somner, J E A; Stone, N; Koukkoulli, A; Scott, K M; Field, A R; Zygmunt, J

    2008-11-01

    A growing scientific consensus states that the global climate is changing and that human activity is responsible for these changes. It folLows that each of us has a responsibility to look at how our own lives impact on the environment. This study aimed to investigate water use during surgical scrubbing. Two water delivery systems were assessed to see whether technological innovation can promote more 'environmentally friendly' scrubbing behaviour. At least 10 different individuals, comprising surgeons, assistants and scrub nurses, were observed at two sites. Twenty-five separate surgical scrubs were observed in each location and the length of time for which the tap was on recorded. The tap was on during surgical scrubbing for a mean of 2 min 23 s at Gartnavel General Hospital (maximum: 4 min 37 s; minimum: 49 s; SD: 55 s) and for a mean of 1 min 7 s at Stobhill Hospital (maximum: 2 min 25 s; minimum: 19 s; SD: 33 s). The mean 'tap on' time (in seconds) at Gartnavel was significantly greater than that at Stobhill [t(39.5)=Pscrub. Surgical scrubbing is a ubiquitous procedure performed daily in healthcare settings. A simple technological solution can reduce water and energy use by modifying hand-washing behaviour and thereby reduce the carbon footprint of surgical scrubbing. PMID:18701193

  15. CARBON FOOTPRINT IN SUSTAINABLE FOOD CHAIN AND ITS IMPORTANCE FOR FOOD CONSUMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Konieczny

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Freshness, sensory attributes and food safety are currently indicated as main criteria in respect to food purchasing decisions. However, growing number of consumers are ready to choose also environmentally friendly food products. Carbon Footprint (CF expressed in CO2 equivalent of greenhouse gas emission seems to be an innovative indicator useful to evaluate environmental impacts associated with production and distribution of food. The review carried out in this study is based mainly on data presented in papers and reports published in recent decade, including some opinions available on various internet websites. In this study are discussed some examples of CF values calculated both, production of primary raw materials, food processing stages, final products transporting and activities taken during food preparation in the household, as well. The CF indicator offers also a new tool to promote disposition of food products distributed e.g. through big international supermarket chains. Mostly due to the suggestion of ecological institutions, direct comparison of CF values for different food products leads even to postulate almost total elimination of less eco-friendly animal origin food (like red meat from the diet of typical consumer. So, improving the state of consumers education in respect to environmental issues of whole food chain might effect not only their eating habits but also their health.

  16. Towards lower carbon footprint patterns of consumption: The case of drinking water in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects that individual consumption behaviours have on climate change are explored, focusing on products that satisfy the same need but with different carbon footprints. Two types of drinking water, produced, distributed and consumed in Italy, were compared as a case study: tap water and PET-bottled natural mineral water. The first is the one supplied to the municipality of Siena, while the second is a set of 6 different Italian bottled water brands. The results showed that drinking 1.5 L of tap water instead of PET-bottled water saves 0.34 kg CO2eq. Thus, a PET-bottled water consumer (2 L per day) who changes to tap water may prevent 163.50 kg CO2eq of greenhouse gas emissions per year. In monetary terms, this translates into a tradable annual verified emission reduction (VER) between US$ 0.20 and 7.67 per drinker. Analysing a mature bottled water market, such as the Italian one, may provide insights into the growing global bottled-water market and its effects on climate change. The environmental and economic benefits of changing drinking water habits are also discussed.

  17. Our building is smarter than your building: The use of competitive rivalry to reduce energy consumption and linked carbon footprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn McGibbon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is located within the smart city discourse and explores the linkage between smart buildings and an intelligent community, employing the University of Cape Town as a case study. It is also situated within the research stream of Green Information Systems, which examines the confluence between technology, people, data and processes, in order to achieve environmental objectives such as reduced energy consumption and its associated carbon footprint. Since approximately 80% of a university’s carbon footprint may be attributed to electricity consumption and as the portion of energy used inefficiently by buildings is estimated at 33% an argument may be made for seeing a campus as a “living laboratory” for energy consumption experiments in smart buildings. Integrated analytics were used to measure, monitor and mitigate energy consumption, directly linked to carbon footprinting. This paper examines a pilot project to reduce electricity consumption through a smart building competition. The lens used for this research was the empirical framework provided by the International Sustainable Campus Network/Global University Leadership Forum Charter. Preliminary findings suggest a link between the monitoring of smart buildings and behaviour by a segment of the intelligent community in the pursuit of a Sustainable Development strategy.

  18. Carbon Footprint of Telemedicine Solutions - Unexplored Opportunity for Reducing Carbon Emissions in the Health Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmner, Åsa; Ebi, Kristie L.; Lazuardi, Lutfan; Nilsson, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background The healthcare sector is a significant contributor to global carbon emissions, in part due to extensive travelling by patients and health workers. Objectives To evaluate the potential of telemedicine services based on videoconferencing technology to reduce travelling and thus carbon emissions in the healthcare sector. Methods A life cycle inventory was performed to evaluate the carbon reduction potential of telemedicine activities beyond a reduction in travel related emissions. The study included two rehabilitation units at Umeå University Hospital in Sweden. Carbon emissions generated during telemedicine appointments were compared with care-as-usual scenarios. Upper and lower bound emissions scenarios were created based on different teleconferencing solutions and thresholds for when telemedicine becomes favorable were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to pinpoint the most important contributors to emissions for different set-ups and use cases. Results Replacing physical visits with telemedicine appointments resulted in a significant 40–70 times decrease in carbon emissions. Factors such as meeting duration, bandwidth and use rates influence emissions to various extents. According to the lower bound scenario, telemedicine becomes a greener choice at a distance of a few kilometers when the alternative is transport by car. Conclusions Telemedicine is a potent carbon reduction strategy in the health sector. But to contribute significantly to climate change mitigation, a paradigm shift might be required where telemedicine is regarded as an essential component of ordinary health care activities and not only considered to be a service to the few who lack access to care due to geography, isolation or other constraints. PMID:25188322

  19. Effect of regional grid mix, driving patterns and climate on the comparative carbon footprint of gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Tugce; Tamayao, Mili-Ann M.; Hendrickson, Chris; Azevedo, Inês M. L.; Michalek, Jeremy J.

    2016-04-01

    We compare life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from several light-duty passenger gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) across US counties by accounting for regional differences due to marginal grid mix, ambient temperature, patterns of vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and driving conditions (city versus highway). We find that PEVs can have larger or smaller carbon footprints than gasoline vehicles, depending on these regional factors and the specific vehicle models being compared. The Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle has a smaller carbon footprint than the most efficient gasoline vehicle (the Toyota Prius) in the urban counties of California, Texas and Florida, whereas the Prius has a smaller carbon footprint in the Midwest and the South. The Leaf is lower emitting than the Mazda 3 conventional gasoline vehicle in most urban counties, but the Mazda 3 is lower emitting in rural Midwest counties. The Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid electric vehicle has a larger carbon footprint than the Prius throughout the continental US, though the Volt has a smaller carbon footprint than the Mazda 3 in many urban counties. Regional grid mix, temperature, driving conditions, and vehicle model all have substantial implications for identifying which technology has the lowest carbon footprint, whereas regional patterns of VMT have a much smaller effect. Given the variation in relative GHG implications, it is unlikely that blunt policy instruments that favor specific technology categories can ensure emission reductions universally.

  20. Effect of regional grid mix, driving patterns and climate on the comparative carbon footprint of gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compare life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from several light-duty passenger gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) across US counties by accounting for regional differences due to marginal grid mix, ambient temperature, patterns of vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and driving conditions (city versus highway). We find that PEVs can have larger or smaller carbon footprints than gasoline vehicles, depending on these regional factors and the specific vehicle models being compared. The Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle has a smaller carbon footprint than the most efficient gasoline vehicle (the Toyota Prius) in the urban counties of California, Texas and Florida, whereas the Prius has a smaller carbon footprint in the Midwest and the South. The Leaf is lower emitting than the Mazda 3 conventional gasoline vehicle in most urban counties, but the Mazda 3 is lower emitting in rural Midwest counties. The Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid electric vehicle has a larger carbon footprint than the Prius throughout the continental US, though the Volt has a smaller carbon footprint than the Mazda 3 in many urban counties. Regional grid mix, temperature, driving conditions, and vehicle model all have substantial implications for identifying which technology has the lowest carbon footprint, whereas regional patterns of VMT have a much smaller effect. Given the variation in relative GHG implications, it is unlikely that blunt policy instruments that favor specific technology categories can ensure emission reductions universally. (letter)

  1. The Environmental Sustainability of Nations: Benchmarking the Carbon, Water and Land Footprints against Allocated Planetary Boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, K.; Heijungs, R.; Duan, Z.; De Snoo, G.R.

    2015-01-01

    Growing scientific evidence for the indispensable role of environmental sustainability in sustainable development calls for appropriate frameworks and indicators for environmental sustainability assessment (ESA). In this paper, we operationalize and update the footprint-boundary ESA framework, with

  2. Application of Carbon Footprint to an agro-biogas supply chain in Southern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We used the methodological approach established by UNI EN ISO 14067 (2013). • We studied in detail an LCI of an agro-biogas supply chain located in Southern Italy. • Carbon sequestration was enabled by no-tillage practice in the investigated farm. • Low impacts were observed for transportation due to the short supply chain. • Environmental improvement was shown by reduction of the ammonium nitrate use. - Abstract: Over the last few years, agro-biogas has been receiving great attention since it enables replacement of natural gas, thereby representing a tool which reduces greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental impacts. In this context, this paper is aimed at the application of the Carbon Footprint (CF) to an agro-biogas supply chain (SC) in Southern Italy, according to ISO/TS 14067:2013, so as to calculate the related 100-year Global Warming Potential (GWP100). The topic was addressed because agro-biogas SCs, though being acknowledged worldwide as sustainable ways to produce both electricity and heat, can be source of GHG emissions and therefore environmental assessments and improvements are needed. Additionally, the performed literature review highlighted deficiencies in PCF assessments, so this study could contribute to enriching the international knowledge on the environmental burdens associated with agro-biogas SCs. The analysis was conducted using a life-cycle approach, thus including in the assessment: functional unit choice, system border definition and inventory analysis development. The primary data needed was provided by a farm located in the province of Foggia (Apulia region in Southern Italy), already equipped with anaerobic digestion and cogeneration plant for biogas production and utilisation. Results from this study are in agreement with those found by some of the most relevant studies in the sector. Indeed, it was possible to observe that GWP100 was almost entirely due to cropland farming and, in particular, to the

  3. Polylactic acid trays for fresh-food packaging: A Carbon Footprint assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrao, Carlo; Tricase, Caterina; Cholewa-Wójcik, Agnieszka; Kawecka, Agnieszka; Rana, Roberto; Siracusa, Valentina

    2015-12-15

    This paper discusses application of Carbon Footprint (CF) for quantification of the 100-year Global Warming Potential (GWP100) associated with the life cycle of polylactic acid (PLA) trays for packaging of fresh foods. A comparison with polystyrene (PS)-based trays was done considering two different transport system scenarios for PLA-granule supply to the tray production firm: a transoceanic freight vessel and an intercontinental freight aircraft. Doing so enabled estimation of the influence of the transportation phase on the GHG-emission rate associated with the PLA-trays' life cycle. From the assessment, the GWP100 resulted to be mainly due to PLA-granulate production and to its transportation to the tray manufacturing facility. Also, the study documented that, depending upon the transport system considered, the CF associated with the life cycle of the PLA trays can worsen so much that the latter are no longer GHG-emission saving as they are expected to be compared to the PS ones. Therefore, based upon the findings of the study, it was possible for the authors to understand the importance and the need of accounting for the transport-related issues in the design of PLA-based products, thus preserving their environmental soundness compared to traditional petroleum-based products. In this context, the study could be used as the base to reconsider the merits of PLA usage for product manufacturing, especially when high distances are implied, as in this analysed case. So, the authors believe that new research and policy frameworks should be designed and implemented for both development and promotion of more globally sustainable options. PMID:26282773

  4. Modeling residential water and related energy, carbon footprint and costs in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We model residential water use and related energy and GHG emissions in California. • Heterogeneity in use, spatial variability and water and energy rates are accounted. • Outdoor is more than 50% of water use but 80% of energy is used by faucet + shower. • Variability in water and energy prices affects willingness to adopt conservation. • Targeting high-use hoses and joint conservation policies are effective strategies. - Abstract: Starting from single-family household water end-use data, this study develops an end-use model for water-use and related energy and carbon footprint using probability distributions for parameters affecting water consumption in 10 local water utilities in California. Monte Carlo simulations are used to develop a large representative sample of households to describe variability in use, with water bills for each house for different utility rate structures. The water-related energy consumption for each household realization was obtained using an energy model based on the different water end-uses, assuming probability distributions for hot-water-use for each appliance and water heater characteristics. Spatial variability is incorporated to account for average air and household water inlet temperatures and price structures for each utility. Water-related energy costs are calculated using averaged energy price for each location. CO2 emissions were derived from energy use using emission factors. Overall simulation runs assess the impact of several common conservation strategies on household water and energy use. Results show that single-family water-related CO2 emissions are 2% of overall per capita emissions, and that managing water and energy jointly can significantly reduce state greenhouse gas emissions

  5. Potential for improving the carbon footprint of butter and blend products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flysjö, A

    2011-12-01

    To reduce the environmental impact of a product efficiently, it is crucial to consider the entire value chain of the product; that is, to apply life cycle thinking, to avoid suboptimization and identify the areas where the largest potential improvements can be made. This study analyzed the carbon footprint (CF) of butter and dairy blend products, with the focus on fat content and size and type of packaging (including product waste at the consumer level). The products analyzed were butter with 80% fat in 250-g wrap, 250-g tub, and 10-g mini tub, and blends with 80% and 60% fat in 250-g tubs. Life cycle assessment was used to account for all greenhouse gas emissions from cow to consumer. A critical aspect when calculating the CF is how emissions are allocated between different products. Here, allocation of raw milk between products was based on a weighted fat and protein content (1:1.7), based on the price paid for raw milk to dairy farmers. The CF (expressed as carbon dioxide equivalents, CO₂e) for 1 kg of butter or blend (assuming no product waste at consumer) ranged from 5.2 kg (blend with 60% fat content) to 9.3 kg of CO₂e (butter in 250-g tub). When including product waste at the consumer level, the CF ranged from 5.5 kg of CO₂e (blend with 60% fat content) to 14.7 kg of CO₂e (butter in mini tub). Fat content and the proportion of vegetable oil in products had the greatest effect on CF of the products, with lower fat content and a higher proportion of vegetable oil resulting in lower CF. Hence, if the same functionality as butter could be retained while shifting to lower fat and higher proportions of vegetable oil, the CF of the product would be decreased. Size and type of packaging were less important, but it is crucial to have the correct size and type of packaging to avoid product losses at the consumer. The greatest share of greenhouse gas emissions associated with butter production occurred at the farm level; thus, minimizing product losses in the

  6. Product-Carbon-Footprint von Lebensmitteln in Österreich: biologisch und konventionell im Vergleich

    OpenAIRE

    Theurl, M.C.; Markut, T.; Hörtenhuber, S.; Lindenthal, T.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this broad conceived study was to analyse greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) of more than 130 foodstuffs from two organic agricultural production methods (Organic premium brand and Organic EU-standard) as compared to conventional farming in Austria. The system boundaries of the life-cycle study ranged from agriculture and its upstream supply chain to the retailer, including changes in soil organic carbon (humus) and land use change. In conclusion, all organic products in both organic ...

  7. Productivity and carbon footprint of perennial grass-forage legume intercropping strategies with high or low nitrogen fertilizer input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Lachouani, Petra; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Ambus, Per; Boelt, Birte; Gislum, René

    2016-01-15

    A three-season field experiment was established and repeated twice with spring barley used as cover crop for different perennial grass-legume intercrops followed by a full year pasture cropping and winter wheat after sward incorporation. Two fertilization regimes were applied with plots fertilized with either a high or a low rate of mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to evaluate the carbon footprint (global warming potential) of the grassland management including measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions after sward incorporation. Without applying any mineral N fertilizer, the forage legume pure stand, especially red clover, was able to produce about 15 t above ground dry matter ha(-1) year(-1) saving around 325 kg mineral Nfertilizer ha(-1) compared to the cocksfoot and tall fescue grass treatments. The pure stand ryegrass yielded around 3t DM more than red clover in the high fertilizer treatment. Nitrous oxide emissions were highest in the treatments containing legumes. The LCA showed that the low input N systems had markedly lower carbon footprint values than crops from the high N input system with the pure stand legumes without N fertilization having the lowest carbon footprint. Thus, a reduction in N fertilizer application rates in the low input systems offsets increased N2O emissions after forage legume treatments compared to grass plots due to the N fertilizer production-related emissions. When including the subsequent wheat yield in the total aboveground production across the three-season rotation, the pure stand red clover without N application and pure stand ryegrass treatments with the highest N input equalled. The present study illustrate how leguminous biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) represents an important low impact renewable N source without reducing crop yields and thereby farmers earnings. PMID:26479907

  8. Carbon footprint of a reflective foil and comparison with other solutions for thermal insulation in building envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Environmental and energy assessment of thermal insulating materials in building envelope. ► Carbon footprint of a reflective foil, conceived and produced by an Italian company. ► Study conducted according to principles of LCA – Life Cycle Assessment. ► Identification of main impacting processes and measures for reducing emissions. ► Comparison with traditional insulating materials (EPS and rockwool). - Abstract: The present study aims at assessing environmental and energy compatibility of different solutions of thermal insulation in building envelope. In fact a good insulation results in a reduction of heating/cooling energy consumptions; on the other hand construction materials undergo production, transformation and transport processes, whose energy and resources consumptions may lead to a significant decrease of the environmental benefits. The paper presents a detailed carbon footprint of a product (CFP, defined as the sum of greenhouse gas emissions and removals of a product system, expressed in CO2 equivalents), which is a reflective foil conceived and produced by an Italian company. CFP can be seen as a Life Cycle Assessment with climate change as the single impact category; it does not assess other potential social, economic and environmental impacts arising from the provision of products. The analysis considers all stages of the life cycle, from the extraction of raw materials to the product’s disposal, i.e. “from cradle to grave”; it was carried out according to UNI EN ISO 14040 and 14044, and LCA modelling was performed using SimaPro software tool. On the basis of obtained results, different measures have been proposed in order to reduce emissions in the life cycle and neutralize residual carbon footprint. The results allowed to make an important comparison concerning the environmental performance of the reflective foil in comparison with other types of insulating materials

  9. The Multifunctional Environmental Energy Tower: Carbon Footprint and Land Use Analysis of an Integrated Renewable Energy Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Bonamente

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Multifunctional Environmental Energy Tower (MEET is a single, vertical, stand-alone renewable energy plant designed to decrease the primary energy consumption from fossil fuels, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, to maximize the energy production from renewable sources available in place and to minimize land use. A feasibility case study was performed for the city of Rome, Italy. Several technologies are exploited and integrated in a single system, including a photovoltaic plant, a geothermal plant and a biomass digester for urban organic waste and sewage sludge. In the proposed configuration, the MEET could cover more than 11% of the electric power demand and up to 3% of the space heating demand of the surrounding urban area. An LCA analysis evaluates the environmental impact in a cradle-to-grave approach for two impact categories: global warming (carbon footprint and land use (land occupation and land transformation. The functional unit is a mix of electric (49.1% and thermal (50.9% energy (kWhmix. The carbon footprint is 48.70 g CO2eq/kWhmix; the land transformation is 4.058 m2/GWhmix; and the land occupation is 969.3 m2y/GWhmix. With respect to other energy production technologies, the carbon footprint is lower and similar to the best-performing ones (e.g., co-generation from wood chips; both of the land use indicators are considerably smaller than the least-impacting technologies. A systematic study was finally performed, and possible optimizations of the original design are proposed. Thanks to the modular design, the conceptual idea can be easily applied to other urban and non-urban scenarios.

  10. Application of an Expanded Sequestration Estimate to the Domestic Energy Footprint of the Republic of Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Bernadette O’Regan; Richard Moles; Conor Walsh

    2010-01-01

    The need for global comparability has led to the recent standardization of ecological footprint methods. The use of global averages and necessary methodological assumptions has questioned the ability of the ecological footprint to represent local or national specific concerns. This paper attempts to incorporate greater national relevancy by expanding the sequestration estimate used to calculate the annual carbon footprint of domestic Irish energy use. This includes expanding existing study bo...

  11. A Methodological Proposal for Corporate Carbon Footprint and Its Application to a Wine-Producing Company in Galicia, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Luís Doménech Quesada; Adolfo Carballo Penela; María do Carme García-Negro

    2009-01-01

    Corporate carbon footprint (CCFP) is one of the most widely used indicators to synthesise environmental impacts on a corporate scale. We present a methodological proposal for CCFP calculation on the basis of the “method composed of financial accounts†abbreviated as MC3, considering the Spanish version “metodo compuesto de las cuentas contables†. The main objective is to describe how this method and the main outputs obtained work. This latter task is fulfilled with a practical case stu...

  12. Finnish metedology developments for carbon and other footprints of food products

    OpenAIRE

    Pulkkinen, Hannele; Katajajuuri, Juha-Matti; Saarinen, Merja; Kauppinen, Tommi; Hartikainen, Hanna; Krogerus, Kristoffer; Silvenius, Frans

    2011-01-01

    The Foodprint - research programme aims to harmonise calculation methods and communication of footprints in the Finnish food sector taking care that international developments and best practices are taken into account. Some of the most challenging issues in the methodology development are described in this paper.

  13. The hourly life cycle carbon footprint of electricity generation in Belgium, bringing a temporal resolution in life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This paper brings a temporal resolution in LCA of electricity generation. • Dynamic life cycle assessment of electricity production in Belgium for 2011. • The overall average GWP per kW h is 0.184 kg CO2eq/kW h. • The carbon footprint of Belgian electricity ranges from 0.102 to 0.262 kg CO2eq/kW h. - Abstract: In the booming research on the environmental footprint of, for example, electrical vehicles, heat pumps and other (smart) electricity consuming appliances, there is a clear need to know the hourly CO2 content of one kW h of electricity. Since the CO2 footprint of electricity can vary every hour; the footprint of for example an electric vehicle is influenced by the time when the vehicle is charged. With the availability of the hourly CO2 content of one kW h, a decision support tool is provided to fully exploit the advantages of a future smart grid. In this paper, the GWP (Global Warming Potential) per kW h for each hour of the year is calculated for Belgium using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. This enables evaluating the influence of the electricity demand on the greenhouse gas emissions. Because of the LCA approach, the CO2 equivalent content does not only reflect activities related to the production of the electricity within a power plant, but includes carbon emissions related to the building of the infrastructure and the fuel supply chain. The considered feedstocks are nuclear combustible, oil, coal, natural gas, biowaste, blast furnace gas, and wood. Furthermore, renewable electricity production technologies like photovoltaic cells, hydro installations and wind turbines are covered by the research. The production of the wind turbines and solar panels is more carbon intensive (expressed per generated kW h of electricity) than the production of other conventional power plants, due to the lower electricity output. The overall average GWP per kW h is 0.184 kg CO2eq/kW h. Throughout the 2011 this value ranges from a minimum of 0

  14. 快递包装碳足迹研究%Research of Carbon Footprint in Express Packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓超; 张庆英; 胡镔; 李扬威

    2014-01-01

    我国快递业近年来保持了43.5%的持续高增长,快递包装用量激增的同时,废弃包装的不得当处理对环境产生了巨大威胁。文中从碳足迹层面研究快递包装的碳排量,分析快递包装生命周期中的碳足迹。将问卷调查与实地访谈情况相结合,运用数理统计方法和数值优化思想,宏观把握一件快递包装在一次快递行为中的碳排放情况,明确高碳消耗环节。针对企业提出了节能减排思想指导下的“绿色包装”解决思路。%Express industry in China has maintained a sustained high growth of 43.5%in recent years ,with the explosion of express packing amount ,the misconduct of waste packaging generated a huge threat to the environment .This article studied the carbon emissions of express packing based on the carbon footprint level ,analysis the carbon footprint through the whole life cycle of express packing .It combined the questionnaire and on -the-spot interviews ,used the numerical optimization ideological and mathematical statistics method ,grasped carbon emissions in one package of one express behavior ,to determine the process of high carbon consumption .And it put forward a “green packaging” solution in view of the enterprise ,which put into energy -saving emission reduction awareness into the mechanism improvement.

  15. Monitoring CO{sub 2} emissions along the logistics chain. Carbon footprinting; Monitoring fuer den CO{sub 2}-Ausstoss in der Logistikkette. Carbon Footprint - Teilgutachten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmied, Martin [Oeko-Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Knoerr, Wolfgang [ifeu - Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    The aim of the project was to develop a standardized methodology to calculate GHG emissions along the logistics chain and to incorporate this methodology in the development of the european CEN standard prEN 16258. Meanwhile a draft standard - entitled ''Methodology for calculation and declaration on energy consumptions and GHG emissions in transport services'' is existing. To simplify the usage of the draft standard prEN 16258 for freight forwarders and logistics operators, guidelines/ a manual was developed in addition, which are published and distributed by the Association of German Freight Forwarders and Logistics Operators (Deutscher Speditions- und Logistikverband - DSLV).

  16. Quantification of variables that determine the carbon footprint and energy embodied of structural clay products (cradle to gate with options)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production and transport of structural ceramic products involves an important energy consumption, which leads to the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The aim of the research is to demonstrate the existence of significant differences in the value of the environmental impact of structural ceramic products manufactured in Spain. To achieve this objective, is developed a method of identifying and quantifying of variables that determine the Carbon Footprint and Embodied Energy of ceramic products, depending on the type of product. The necessary information is obtained mainly with a data collection in factories. It is established six variables with a global influence in the environmental impact, 44 primary and 39 secondary variables, establishing calculation formula from these variables. The results determined that, for same manufacturing conditions, the differences between ceramic products reach 27 % for carbon footprint and 35 % for Embodied Energy. The relevance that reaches the impact of transport can reach 40 % of the total. It is considered that the research and its results can contribute to reduce the environmental impact of the buildings. (Author)

  17. Carbon and water interactions and the footprint of climate-change activities (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R. B.

    2010-12-01

    Although climate change will have profound effects on ecosystems worldwide, climate policies will alter many terrestrial systems more in the coming decade than climate change will. Biofuels, renewable portfolio standards for electricity, and carbon pricing and offsets all change the global carbon cycle by design, competing for land area and land uses in ways that alter native systems. Just as importantly, such activities inevitably - and profoundly - change the Earth’s water cycle. In cases such as reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD), climate change activities could cut global deforestation rates in half by 2030, preserving 1.5 to 3 billion 9 metric tons of CO2-equivalent (tCO2e) emissions yearly and preserving the benefits of tropical forests for water recycling. In other cases, such as afforestation (tree planting) or biofuels, fundamental trade-offs exist between maximizing net primary production on land and the amounts of water required for such activities. Fundamental biogeochemical knowledge of carbon-water interactions can help to maximize the benefits of climate policies while preserving water resources and other ecosystem services wherever possible.

  18. Achieving transparency in carbon labelling for construction materials – Lessons from current assessment standards and carbon labels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The evolution of international GHG standards is reviewed. • The evolution of international carbon labelling schemes is reviewed. • The transparency requirements in carbon labelling schemes are revealed. • Key recommendations are provided to improve transparency in carbon labelling. - Abstract: The construction industry is one of the largest sources of carbon emissions. Manufacturing of raw materials, such as cement, steel and aluminium, is energy intensive and has considerable impact on carbon emissions level. Due to the rising recognition of global climate change, the industry is under pressure to reduce carbon emissions. Carbon labelling schemes are therefore developed as meaningful yardsticks to measure and compare carbon emissions. Carbon labelling schemes can help switch consumer-purchasing habits to low-carbon alternatives. However, such switch is dependent on a transparent scheme. The principle of transparency is highlighted in all international greenhouse gas (GHG) standards, including the newly published ISO 14067: Carbon footprint of products – requirements and guidelines for quantification and communication. However, there are few studies which systematically investigate the transparency requirements in carbon labelling schemes. A comparison of five established carbon labelling schemes, namely the Singapore Green Labelling Scheme, the CarbonFree (the U.S.), the CO2 Measured Label and the Reducing CO2 Label (UK), the CarbonCounted (Canada), and the Hong Kong Carbon Labelling Scheme is therefore conducted to identify and investigate the transparency requirements. The results suggest that the design of current carbon labels have transparency issues relating but not limited to the use of a single sign to represent the comprehensiveness of the carbon footprint. These transparency issues are partially caused by the flexibility given to select system boundary in the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to measure GHG emissions. The

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions in milk and dairy product chains: Improving the carbon footprint of dairy products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flysjoe, A.M.

    2012-11-01

    The present PhD project has focused on some of the most critical methodological aspects influencing GHG emission estimates of milk and dairy products and how the methodology can be improved. In addition, the Carbon Footprint (CF) for different types of dairy products has been analysed. Based on these results, mitigation options have been identified along the entire dairy value chain. The key methodological challenges analysed in the present study are: estimation of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions, assessment of CO{sub 2} emissions from land use change (LUC), co-product handling, and definition of the functional unit. Estimates of the biogenic emissions CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are associated with large uncertainties due to the complexity and natural variation in biological processes. Accounting for these variations resulted in a {+-}30-50% variation in the CF for milk in Sweden and New Zealand (excluding emissions from LUC). The inclusion of emissions from LUC can drastically affect the CF of dairy products, and different models can even provide contradictory results. Thus, it is suggested that emissions associated with LUC are reported separately and that underlying assumptions are clearly explained. Accounting for the by-product beef is decisive for the CF of milk, and when designing future strategies for the dairy sector, milk and meat production needs to be addressed in an integrated approach. It is shown that an increase in milk yield per cow does not necessarily result in a lower CF of milk, when taking into account the alternative production of the by-product beef. This demonstrates that it is important to investigate interactions between different product chains, i.e. to apply system thinking. The CF of dairy products from Arla Foods analysed in the present study range from: 1.2-5.5 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg fresh dairy products, 7.3-10.9 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg butter and butter blends, 4.5-9.9 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg cheese, and 1.0-17.4 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg milk

  20. Long term strategy for electricity generation in Peninsular Malaysia – Analysis of cost and carbon footprint using MESSAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia envisages becoming a developed nation by 2020. To sustain industrial expansion and attract investments Malaysia must introduce new energy strategies. These strategies should also moderate carbon footprint. The new energy strategies introduced by the government are (i) installation of nuclear power plant by 2021, (ii) import of Sarawak hydropower from 2015 and (iii) enhancement of use of renewable energy from 2015. In this paper we analyze the cost and resulting carbon footprint of energy expansion for 12 energy scenes (inclusive of new strategies) to produce electricity for Peninsular Malaysia for the period 2009–2030. We use a computer model MESSAGE to provide optimization. The best strategy is for the following accumulated percentage of energy resource in the fuel mix: 49.3% (natural gas), 28.4% (coal), 4.06% (nuclear), 2.98% (hydropower), 4.45% (renewable), 10.82% (import hydropower). The minimum cost of expanding this strategy from 2009 until 2030 is USD6.090B. The CO2 emission index of this strategy is 0.329 t/MWh. The accumulated carbon dioxide emission for this period is 1825.96 Mton CO2 eq. -- Highlights: •We analyzed the cost of energy expansion and resulting carbon emission using software MESSAGE. •We studied the energy situation for the next 20 years beginning 2009 for Peninsular Malaysia. •We maintained the present energy resources of natural gas, coal and internal hydropower. •We included nuclear, hydropower import and renewable energy as new strategies

  1. Carbon footprint and land requirement for dairy herd rations: impacts of feed production practices and regional climate variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, M; Cederberg, C; Swensson, C

    2014-08-01

    Feed production is a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy production and demands large arable and pasture acreage. This study analysed how regional conditions influence GHG emissions of dairy feed rations in a life cycle perspective, that is the carbon footprint (CF) and the land area required. Factors assessed included regional climate variations, grass/clover silage nutrient quality, feedstuff availability, crop yield and feed losses. Using the Nordic feed evaluation model NorFor, rations were optimised for different phases of lactation, dry and growing periods for older cows, first calvers and heifers by regional feed advisors and combined to annual herd rations. Feed production data at farm level were based on national statistics and studies. CF estimates followed standards for life cycle assessment and used emissions factors provided by IPCC. The functional unit was 'feed consumption to produce 1 kg energy corrected milk (ECM) from a cow with annual milk yield of 9 900 kg ECM including replacement animals and feed losses'. Feed ration CF varied from 417 to 531 g CO2 e/kg ECM. Grass/clover silage contributed more than 50% of total GHG emissions. Use of higher quality silage increased ration CF by up to 5% as a result of an additional cut and increased rates of synthetic N-fertiliser. Domestically produced horse bean (Vicia faba), by-products from the sugar industry and maize silage were included in the rations with the lowest CF, but horse bean significantly increased ration land requirement. Rations required between 1.4 to 2 m2 cropland and 0.1 to 0.2 m2/kg semi-natural grassland per kg ECM and year. Higher yield levels reduced ration total CF. Inclusion of GHG emissions from land use change associated with Brazilian soya feed significantly increased ration CF. Ration CF and land use depended on ration composition, which was highly influenced by the regional availability and production of feedstuffs. The impact of individual

  2. Linking Carbon Fluxes with Remotely-Sensed Vegetation Indices for Leaf Area and Aboveground Biomass Through Footprint Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayson, C.; Clark, K.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Skowronski, N.; Schmid, H. E.

    2010-12-01

    A major challenge of bottom-up scaling is that in-situ flux observations are spatially limited. Thus, to achieve valid regional exchange rates, models are used to interpolate and extrapolate to the vegetational/spatial domain covered by these observations. To parameterize these models from flux data, efforts must be made to select data that best represents the region being modeled as well as linking the fluxes to remotely-sensed data products that can be produced from site to regional scales. Because most long-term flux stations are not in spatially extensive, homogeneous locations, this requirement is often a challenge. However, this requirement can be met by selecting observation periods whose flux footprints are statistically representative of the type of ecosystem identified in the model. The flux footprint function indicates the time-varying surface “field-of-view” (or spatial sampling window) of an eddy-flux sensor, oriented mostly in upwind direction. For each observation period, the modeled flux footprint window is overlain with a high-resolution vegetation index map to determine a footprint-weighted vegetation index for which the observation is representative. Using flux-footprint analysis to link fluxes to models using just an enhanced vegetation index (EVI) map shows a positive trend between EVI and eddy covariance measured fluxes, but the link is not strong. Leaf area is linked with carbon (C) uptake, but forests tend to maximize leaf area, as determined through remote sensing, early on with forests having similar leaf areas across a wide range of ages. Adding another remotely-sensed dataset, aboveground biomass map (AGB), helps capture the processes of lower productivity rates (as biomass increases per unit of leaf area there is a decline, due to the forest ageing) and the C losses due to respiration, both heterotrophic and autotrophic (linked to live and detrital biomass pools). Adding biomass from LIDAR and a combined EVI-biomass layer to examine

  3. A method for calculating a land-use change carbon footprint (LUC-CFP) for agricultural commodities - applications to Brazilian beef and soy, Indonesian palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, U Martin; Henders, Sabine; Cederberg, Christel

    2014-11-01

    The world's agricultural system has come under increasing scrutiny recently as an important driver of global climate change, creating a demand for indicators that estimate the climatic impacts of agricultural commodities. Such carbon footprints, however, have in most cases excluded emissions from land-use change and the proposed methodologies for including this significant emissions source suffer from different shortcomings. Here, we propose a new methodology for calculating land-use change carbon footprints for agricultural commodities and illustrate this methodology by applying it to three of the most prominent agricultural commodities driving tropical deforestation: Brazilian beef and soybeans, and Indonesian palm oil. We estimate land-use change carbon footprints in 2010 to be 66 tCO2 /t meat (carcass weight) for Brazilian beef, 0.89 tCO2 /t for Brazilian soybeans, and 7.5 tCO2 /t for Indonesian palm oil, using a 10 year amortization period. The main advantage of the proposed methodology is its flexibility: it can be applied in a tiered approach, using detailed data where it is available while still allowing for estimation of footprints for a broad set of countries and agricultural commodities; it can be applied at different scales, estimating both national and subnational footprints; it can be adopted to account both for direct (proximate) and indirect drivers of land-use change. It is argued that with an increasing commercialization and globalization of the drivers of land-use change, the proposed carbon footprint methodology could help leverage the power needed to alter environmentally destructive land-use practices within the global agricultural system by providing a tool for assessing the environmental impacts of production, thereby informing consumers about the impacts of consumption and incentivizing producers to become more environmentally responsible. PMID:24838193

  4. An International Comparison Study on Carbon Footprint of China%中国碳足迹的国际比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈武; 常燕; 李云峰

    2013-01-01

    文章首先对2009年的碳排放情况进行了国际比较研究,接着研究了1971-2009年中国碳足迹的国际比较,继而运用历史的观点分析研究了1971-2009年中国碳强度和人均碳排放的国际比较情况.%This paper analyzes the international situation of China's carbon footprint using international comparison methods. Firstly, it takes an international comparison study on the carbon emission in 2009, then it studies the international comparison of China's carbon footprint from 1971 to 2009, and then it studies the international comparison of China's carbon intensity and per capita carbon emission from 1971 to 2009 using a historical perspective.

  5. Review and Outlook of China Electronic and IT Industry Footprints in IEC International Standardization Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Jingping

    2006-01-01

    @@ Year 2006 is the year marking the 100th anniversary of the founding of International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). IEC is mainly engaged in the international standardization for electrical and electronic technology field aiming at promoting international trade and technology cooperation and exchange, improving product and service quality, upgrading productivity and protecting the environment as well as human health and safety. Most countries worldwide adopt standards developed and promulgated by IEC, providing a platform to international trade and technical exchange. China has being a member since 1957. Electronic and IT are the most developed and energetic filed in recent decades. Number of IEC TC/SC specialized in electronic and IT amounts up to 52.

  6. Uncovering the Minor Contribution of Land-Cover Change in Upland Forests to the Net Carbon Footprint of a Boreal Hydroelectric Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessureault, Pierre-Luc; Boucher, Jean-François; Tremblay, Pascal; Bouchard, Sylvie; Villeneuve, Claude

    2015-07-01

    Hydropower in boreal conditions is generally considered the energy source emitting the least greenhouse gas per kilowatt-hour during its life cycle. The purpose of this study was to assess the relative contribution of the land-use change on the modification of the carbon sinks and sources following the flooding of upland forested territories to create the Eastmain-1 hydroelectric reservoir in Quebec's boreal forest using Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector. Results suggest a carbon sink loss after 100 yr of 300,000 ± 100,000 Mg CO equivalents (COe). A wildfire sensitivity analysis revealed that the ecosystem would have acted as a carbon sink as long as carbon flux estimate resulted in emissions of 4 ± 2 g COe kWh as a contribution to the carbon footprint calculation, one-eighth what was obtained in a recent study that used less precise and less sensitive estimates. Consequently, this study significantly reduces the reported net carbon footprint of this reservoir and reveals how negligible the relative contribution of the land-use change in upland forests to the total net carbon footprint of a hydroelectric reservoir in the boreal zone can be. PMID:26437092

  7. 中国各省区碳足迹与碳排放空间转移%Regional Carbon Footprint and Interregional Transfer of Carbon Emissions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石敏俊; 王妍; 张卓颖; 周新

    2012-01-01

    Obligation assignment of carbon emission reduction needs to evaluate carbon emission charge by taking into account interregional transfer of carbon emissions. Carbon footprint, as a concept of carbon emission measurement, can evaluate life cycle carbon emissions of production and service to meet final demand. It should include direct carbon emissions caused by fossil energy as well as indirect carbon emissions induced by intermediate products production. This paper aims to estimate carbon footprint of each province and inter-provincial transfer of carbon emissions in China based on an input-output approach and China IRIO 2002 database. The results indicate there are significant differences of carbon footprint and per capita carbon footprint among provinces in China. The provinces with higher carbon footprint, mainly located in northern China, have large economic scale. The provinces with high per capita carbon footprint include developed metropolitan regions and energy-rich regions with a high proportion of energy intensive sectors. Interregional transfer of carbon emissions has emerged from energy-rich regions with a high proportion of energy intensive sectors to developed coastal regions and developing regions with incomplete industrial systems. The results imply developed coastal regions should bear more obligation of carbon emission reduction. As a significant amount of carbon emissions of energy-rich regions with a high proportion of energy intensive sectors is induced by provision of energy intensive products for developed coastal regions and developing regions with incomplete industrial systems, interregional transfer of carbon emissions should be taken into account for regional obligation assignment of carbon emission reduction. It can be considered to reduce obligation of carbon emission reduction for those energy-rich regions with a high proportion of energy intensive sectors. Otherwise, a compensation mechanism should be considered for developed coastal

  8. Analysis of the energy metabolism of urban socioeconomic sectors and the associated carbon footprints: Model development and a case study for Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cities consume 80% of the world's energy; therefore, analyzing urban energy metabolism and the resulting carbon footprint provides basic data for formulating target carbon emission reductions. While energy metabolism includes both direct and indirect consumptions among sectors, few researchers have studied indirect consumption due to a lack of data. In this study, we used input–output analysis to calculate the energy flows among directly linked sectors. Building on this, we used ecological network analysis to develop a model of urban energy flows and also account for energy consumption embodied by the flows among indirectly linked sectors (represented numerically as paths with a length of 2 or more). To illustrate the model, monetary input–output tables for Beijing from 2000 to 2010 were analyzed to determine the embodied energy consumption and associated carbon footprints of these sectors. This analysis reveals the environmental pressure based on the source (energy consumption) and sink (carbon footprint) values. Indirect consumption was Beijing's primary form, and the carbon footprint therefore resulted mainly from indirect consumption (both accounting for ca. 60% of the total, though with considerable variation among sectors). To reduce emissions, the utilization efficiency of indirect consumption must improve. - Highlights: • We quantified the embodied energy transfers among Beijing's socioeconomic sectors. • We calculated the sectors' intensity of energy consumption and carbon footprint. • The indirect energy consumption was higher than the direct for all sectors. • The high-indirect-consumption sectors are at the end of industrial supply chains. • High-indirect-consumption sectors can improve upstream products energy efficiency

  9. 基于投入产出分析的北京市居民消费碳足迹研究%Study on Carbon Footprint of the Household Consumption in Beijing Based on Input-Output Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董会娟; 耿涌

    2012-01-01

    随着我国城镇化的加快和人民生活水平的提高,居民消费碳足迹越来越不容忽视。本文在综述国内外居民消费碳足迹的基础上,以投入产出法为基础,深入研究了北京市2007年居民消费直接碳足迹和隐含碳足迹的特征。结果显示:城镇居民碳足迹总量约7993万t,约为农村居民碳足迹总量1195.55万t的7倍。其中城镇居民碳足迹以隐含碳足迹为主,农村居民碳足迹以直接碳足迹为主。从居民消费隐含碳足迹构成来看,城镇居民以食品、交通和通信、文教娱乐用品和服务为主,分别为35.2%,14.1%和13.8%;农村居民主要以食品、居住、交通和通信为主,分别为32.4%,21.9%和12.3%。此外,居民消费隐含碳足迹随着收入水平的增加而增加,尤其是交通和通信碳足迹增加明显。最后针对北京市城乡居民消费碳足迹的特征,分别给出了相应的政策建议。%Industry is generally recognized as the main source of greenhouse gases. However, with rapid urbanization of China and significantly improved household living standard, the carbon footprint of household consumption should not be ignored any more. A general overview of carbon footprint of household consumption shows that domestic study on this field is less intensive than abroad and needs to be further developed. In this paper, a comprehensive study on direct and embodied carbon footprint of Beijing household consumption was made based on input-output analysis. The results reveal that: 1) Total carbon footprint of Beijing urban residents in 2007 was 79.93 Mt, about seven times of that of rural residents. And embodied carbon footprint is predominant in urban resident consumption while direct carbon footprint is predominant in rural resident consumption; 2) As for the composition of household consumption’s embodied carbon footprint, Food, Transport communications and Education, culture recreation services are the top three categories

  10. Productivity and carbon footprint of perennial grass-forage legume intercropping strategies with high or low nitrogen fertilizer input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Lachouani, Petra; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman;

    2016-01-01

    A three-season field experiment was established and repeated twice with spring barley used as cover crop for different perennial grass-legume intercrops followed by a full year pasture cropping and winter wheat after sward incorporation. Two fertilization regimes were applied with plots fertilized...... fertilizer, the forage legume pure stand, especially red clover, was able to produce about 15 t aboveground dry matter ha− 1 year− 1 saving around 325 kg mineral N fertilizer ha− 1 compared to the cocksfoot and tall fescue grass treatments. The pure stand ryegrass yielded around 3 t DM more than red clover...... lowest carbon footprint. Thus, a reduction in N fertilizer application rates in the low input systems offsets increased N2O emissions after forage legume treatments compared to grass plots due to the N fertilizer production-related emissions. When including the subsequent wheat yield in the total...

  11. Carbon footprint and environmental impacts of print products from cradle to grave. Results from the LEADER project (part 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihkola, H.; Nors, M.; Kujanpaeae, M.; Helin, T.; Kariniemi, M.; Pajula, T. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)); Dahlbo, H.; Koskela, S. (Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland))

    2010-12-15

    The report presents the main results of the LEADER project that was ongoing in Finland between the years 2007-2010. The aim of the project was to study the environmental impacts occurring during the life cycle of print products. The scope of the project was focused on printed media products. In the study, life cycle assessments and carbon footprints were calculated for five case products: heatset offset printed magazine, coldset offset printed newspaper, sheetfed offset printed book, electrophotography printed photobook and rotogravure printed advertisement. The environmentally extended input-output model ENVIMAT was applied to provide an estimate of the environmental impacts related to the production and consumption of print products in Finland. Additionally, the development of environmental performance within different printing methods is evaluated and the environmental indicators specific for the printing phase are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Environmental tax on products and services based on their carbon footprint: A case study of the pulp and paper sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of this work is to define an environmental tax on products based on their carbon footprint. We examine the relevance of life cycle analysis (LCA) and environmentally extended input–output analysis (EIO) as methodological tools for identifying the emission intensities on which the tax is based. The price effects of the tax and the policy implications of considering non-CO2 greenhouse gases (GHG) are also analyzed. The results from the case study on pulp production show that the environmental tax rate based on LCA (1.8%) is higher than both EIO approaches (0.8 and 1.4% for product and industry, respectively), but they are of the same order of magnitude. Although LCA is more product specific and provides a more detailed analysis, we recommend EIO as a more relevant approach to applying an economy-wide environmental tax. If an environmental tax were applied to non-CO2 GHG instead to CO2 alone, the tax would greatly affects sectors such as agriculture, mining of coal, extraction of peat, and food. Therefore, it is worthwhile for policy-makers to pay attention to the implications of considering either a CO2 tax or a global GHG emissions tax in order to make their policy measures effective and meaningful. - Highlights: ► Carbon footprints of products and services are modeled using EIO and LCA. ► Environmental taxes are introduced based on the estimated emission intensities. ► The effect of excluding non-GHG and its policy implications is discussed. ► Emission intensity and environmental tax are higher in LCA than EIO for the analyzed case study of pulp and paper production. ► EIO is more relevant than LCA for economy wide environmental tax application.

  13. A Study of Carbon Footprint Calculation of Home Electronics Based on Life Cycle Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Liu; Xiaoyong Pan; Zhihong Zhuang; Ling Peng; Dong Li

    2013-01-01

    Since, the world climate conference in Copenhagen 2009, low carbon has become the mainstream of the society. Low carbon gets trendy in the area of home electronics and the carbon emission calculation and evaluation draws attention from the home electronics enterprises that have already accumulated some knowledge on this issue. In this study, the carbon emission is assessed from the view of life cycle, consisting of both the direct emission and the indirect ...

  14. Analysis on Assessment and Application of Carbon Footprint of Industrial Production Process%工业过程的碳足迹评价与应用初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代方舟; 吴迪; 王丹寅; 杜冲; 刘鑫磊; 易嗣宣; 黄少良; 王丽华; 严岩

    2011-01-01

    Carbon footprint is one of the worldwide approved methods to calculate and evaluate greenhouse gases load and has been applied in many more assessment practices. Based on the understand of the background that the greatest source of greenhouse gases emission is the large-scale industrial production, and the great importance of greenhouse gases control during industrial processes to curb the effects on global climate change, we developed the indicator of industrial carbon footprint. Then, we analyzed the concept of industrial carbon footprint, and discussed system boundary and drew calculating framework of industrial carbon footprint. Finally, we explored the application and importance of industrial carbon footprint on the levels of products, enterprises and regions.%碳足迹作为计算和评价人类活动的温室气体负荷的重要方法之一,已在世界范围内被广泛接受,并应用到越来越多的领域和评价实践.基于大规模工业生产是温室气体人为排放最主要来源的背景和工业过程温室气体控制对遏制气候变化的重要作用和意义,提出工业过程碳足迹的概念,分析工业碳足迹的内涵,讨论工业碳足迹的系统边界,构建工业碳足迹的核算框架,从产品、企业、区域三个层面对工业碳足迹的应用及其意义进行展望.

  15. Farm and product carbon footprints of China's fruit production--life cycle inventory of representative orchards of five major fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming; Cheng, Kun; Yue, Qian; Yan, Yu; Rees, Robert M; Pan, Genxing

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the environmental impacts of fruit production will provide fundamental information for policy making of fruit consumption and marketing. This study aims to characterize the carbon footprints of China's fruit production and to figure out the key greenhouse gas emissions to cut with improved orchard management. Yearly input data of materials and energy in a full life cycle from material production to fruit harvest were obtained via field visits to orchards of five typical fruit types from selected areas of China. Carbon footprint (CF) was assessed with quantifying the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the individual inputs. Farm and product CFs were respectively predicted in terms of land use and of fresh fruit yield. Additionally, product CFs scaled by fruit nutrition value (vitamin C (Vc) content) and by the economic benefit from fruit production were also evaluated. The estimated farm CF ranged from 2.9 to 12.8 t CO2-eq ha(-1) across the surveyed orchards, whereas the product CF ranged from 0.07 to 0.7 kg CO2-eq kg(-1) fruit. While the mean product CFs of orange and pear were significantly lower than those of apple, banana, and peach, the nutrition-scaled CF of orange (0.5 kg CO2-eq g(-1) Vc on average) was significantly lower than others (3.0-5.9 kg CO2-eq g(-1) Vc). The income-scaled CF of orange and pear (1.20 and 1.01 kg CO2-eq USD(-1), respectively) was higher than apple, banana, and peach (0.87~0.39 kg CO2-eq USD(-1)). Among the inputs, synthetic nitrogen fertilizer contributed by over 50 % to the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, varying among the fruit types. There were some tradeoffs in product CFs between fruit nutrition value and fruit growers' income. Low carbon production and consumption policy and marketing mechanism should be developed to cut down carbon emissions from fruit production sector, with balancing the nutrition value, producer's income, and climate change mitigation. PMID:26527344

  16. Carbon Footprint bolbloemen : een rekenmodel voor de CO2-uitstoot uit de broeierij

    OpenAIRE

    Putten, van, B.J.; Wildschut, J.

    2012-01-01

    In sommige exportlanden wordt het vermelden van de ‘Carbon Footprint’ op producten geleidelijk aan verplicht gesteld. Doel van dit project is daarom exporteurs en handelaren een rekenmodel ter beschikking te stellen waarmee gemakkelijk het Carbon Footprintgetal van een zending bolbloemen kan worden uitgerekend. Ook kan worden uitgerekend wat het Carbon Footprintgetal is van bolbloemen die in de importlanden Zweden en de Verenigde Staten uit in Nederland geteelde broeibollen worden gebroeid. D...

  17. Carbon footprint of Breton pâté production: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Ricardo; Himeno, Anne; Gustavus, Lori

    2013-10-01

    This study targeted 9 different pork pâtés, produced with pork from different meat production systems (conventional, organic, and other quality certifications). Besides greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the study also included a detailed analysis of product nutrition. Results show that the GHG emissions range from 200 g CO2 e per 100 g of product for conventional pork pâtés and 330 g CO2 e per 100 g for organic pork pâtés. Results for organic pâtés are an indirect consequence of the lower productivity of swine feed ingredients. However, if the reference flow unit is nutritional indicator (e.g., calories, protein) instead of 100 g of product, results can be inverted. This fact highlights the difficulty of choosing a functional unit for studies on food products. The function of a food product is to provide quality nutrition, but because there are many different nutritional indicators, life cycle assessment practitioners normally use simple comparisons between amounts. This issue together with the choice of emissions allocation method between pork parts are the main sources of uncertainty. Also, the life cycle of pork production is the main hotspot in the C footprint, accounting for more than 80% of the total emissions. Energy spent for processing and packaging, the only life cycle step that the producer controls directly, accounts for less than 10% of the impact. PMID:23801646

  18. Net energy yield and carbon footprint of summer corn under different N fertilizer rates in the North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhan-biao; WEN Xin-ya; ZHANG Hai-lin; LU Xiao-hong; CHEN Fu

    2015-01-01

    Excessive use of N fertilizer in intensive agriculture can increase crop yield and at the same time cause high carbon (C) emissions. This study was conducted to determine optimized N fertilizer application for high grain yield and lower C emissions in summer corn (Zea mays L.). A ifeld experiment, including 0 (N0), 75 (N75), 150 (N150), 225 (N225), and 300 (N300) kg N ha–1 treatments, was carried out during 2010–2012 in the North China Plain (NCP). The results showed that grain yield, input energy, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and carbon footprint (CF) were al increased with the increase of N rate, except net energy yield (NEY). The treatment of N225 had the highest grain yield (10 364.7 kg ha–1) and NEY (6.8%), but the CF (0.25) was lower than that of N300, which indicates that a rate of 225 kg N ha–1 can be optimal for summer corn in NCP. Comparing GHG emision compontents, N fertilizer (0–51.1%) was the highest and fol owed by electricity for irrigation (19.73–49.35%). We conclude that optimazing N fertilizer application rate and reducing electricity for irrigation are the two key measures to increase crop yield, improve energy efifciency and decrease GHG emissions in corn production.

  19. Analysis of Diurnal Variations in Energy Footprint and Its Associated Carbon Emission for Water Supply and Reuse in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, Reza

    Arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world face water scarcity. Conventional water supply portfolio of these regions encompassed limited surface water, groundwater, and imported water. Current technological innovations technically and economically supplemented new water sources i.e., reclaimed water, desalted water and the groundwater sources that were not potable. The need for more efficient and alternative sources of drinking water supply necessitates studying the impediments e.g., intensive energy required, and emerging concern of the carbon emission. This dissertation discusses the challenges of energy footprint and its carbon emission among the processes involved in water supplies in the aforementioned regions. The conducted studies present time-dependent energy footprint analyses of different water reclamation and reuse processes. This study discusses the energy consumption in four main energy intensive processes inclusive of: activated sludge, microfiltration, reverse osmosis, and advanced oxidation with UV/ H2O2. The results indicate how the diurnal variations of different environmental parameters (e.g. flow and pollutant concentration) amplify the energy footprint variation among these processes. Meanwhile, the results show, due to the different power sources diurnally employed to provide electrical energy, the energy-associated carbon emission has more drastic variation in diurnal period compared to the energy footprint variation. In addition, this study presents the energy footprint of a modular process for treating local brackish groundwater by employing a combination of pellet reactor for radium and hardness minimization, reverse osmosis with intermediate precipitation, and concentrated brine crystallization to achieve high recovery with zero liquid discharge. Also it compares the energy footprint of the aforementioned process with the alternative option (i.e. desalted seawater conveyance with substantial lift). Finally, in coastal regions

  20. EVALUATION OF THE CARBON FOOTPRINT OF INNOVATIVE WATER MAIN REHABILITATION TECHNOLOGIES VS. OPEN CUT METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major benefit of trenchless rehabilitation technologies touted by many practitioners when comparing their products with tradition open cut construction methods is lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. In an attempt to verify these claims, multiple tools have been dev...

  1. 广西壮族自治区碳足迹动态分析%Dynamics of carbon footprint in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晶; 马彩虹; 程世娇

    2015-01-01

    利用IPCC方法测算了广西壮族自治区的能源活动和水泥生产过程中的碳足迹和植被固碳量,并进行了碳足迹等级评估.结果表明,1996—2012年,广西碳足迹逐年增加,从-3298.32万 t上升到24859.66万 t ,提高了853.71%.其中,能源碳足迹提高了432.91%,水泥碳足迹提高了372.60%,植被固碳提高了44.77%.能源消费的碳足迹占总足迹的88.95%~91.53%,水泥仅占8.47%~11.05%.人均、单位面积碳足迹和碳排放指数增幅较高,分别达749.88%,830.60%,769.42%,碳足迹等级从碳汇变为中等,跨越4个亚级.可见,1996年以来,广西的碳足迹增速很快,其能源和水泥的碳足迹增幅远大于植被固碳的增速;碳足迹增高主要是由化石能源燃烧引起的;植被固碳能力相对较强,可中和该区1/3以上的碳足迹,但其增幅有限,所以应重视植被的保育;碳足迹等级增幅较大,应引起有关部门的重视.如不考虑植被固碳,以2012年为例,按碳排放指数由大到小的顺序,广西在全国31个省市自治区中排第14位,属于中等.%In order to know the carbon balance of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region , IPCC method is used to estimate the carbon footprint and the amount of vegetation carbon sequestration from cement production process and energy activities , and the carbon footprint level assessment is carried out . The results show that between 1996 and 2012 , the carbon footprint grew year by year from -3 298.32 × 104 t to 24 859.66 × 104 t in Guangxi ,which increased by 853.71% . The energy carbon footprint increased by 432.91% ,cement carbon footprint increased by 372.60% , and the vegetation carbon sequestration increased by 44.77% .Carbon footprint from energy consumption account for 88.95% to 91.53% of total emissions , and cement account for only 8.47% to 11.05% . Carbon footprints per capita , per unit area and

  2. Potential for improving the carbon footprint of butter and blend products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria

    2011-01-01

    To reduce the environmental impact of a product efficiently, it is crucial to consider the entire value chain of the product; that is, to apply life cycle thinking, to avoid suboptimization and identify the areas where the largest potential improvements can be made. This study analyzed the carbon...... the price paid for raw milk to dairy farmers. The CF (expressed as carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2e) for 1 kg of butter or blend (assuming no product waste at consumer) ranged from 5.2 kg (blend with 60% fat content) to 9.3 kg of CO2e (butter in 250-g tub). When including product waste at the consumer...

  3. EVALUATION OF THE CARBON FOOTPRINT OF AN INNOVATIVE SEWER REHABILITATION METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    A benefit of trenchless methods touted by many practitioners when compared to open cut construction is lower carbon dioxide emissions. In an attempt to verify these claims, tools have been developed that calculate the environmental impact of traditional open cut methods and commo...

  4. Carbon and footprint-constrained energy planning using cascade analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents algebraic targeting techniques for energy sector planning with carbon (CO2) emission and land availability constraints. In general, it is desirable to maximize the use of low- or zero-carbon energy sources to reduce CO2 emission. However, such technologies are either more expensive (as with renewable energy) or more controversial (as in the case of nuclear energy or carbon capture and storage) than conventional fossil fuels. Thus, in many energy planning scenarios, there is some interest in identifying the minimum amount of low- or zero-carbon energy sources needed to meet the national or regional energy demand while maintaining the CO2 emission limits. Via the targeting step of pinch analysis, that quantity can be identified. Besides, another related problem involves the energy planning of biofuel systems in view of land availability constraints, which arises when agricultural resources need to be used for both food and energy production. Algebraic targeting approach of cascade analysis technique that was originally developed for resource conservation network is extended to determine targets or benchmarks for both of these problems

  5. EVALUATION OF THE CARBON FOOTPRINT OF AN INNOVATIVE SEWER REHABILITATION METHOD - abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    A benefit of trenchless methods touted by many practitioners when compared to open cut construction is lower carbon dioxide emissions. In an attempt to verify these claims, tools have been developed that calculate the environmental impact of traditional open cut methods and commo...

  6. Power Challenges of Large Scale Research Infrastructures: the Square Kilometer Array and Solar Energy Integration; Towards a zero-carbon footprint next generation telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Domingos; Márquez, Gonzalo Lobo; Ruiz, Valeriano; Silva, Manuel; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes; Santander-Vela, Juande; Maia, Dalmiro; Antón, Sonia; van Ardenne, Arnold; Vetter, Matthias; Kramer, Michael; Keller, Reinhard; Pereira, Nuno; Silva, Vitor; Consortium, The BIOSTIRLING

    2012-01-01

    The Square Kilometer Array (SKA) will be the largest Global science project of the next two decades. It will encompass a sensor network dedicated to radioastronomy, covering two continents. It will be constructed in remote areas of South Africa and Australia, spreading over 3000Km, in high solar irradiance latitudes. Solar Power supply is therefore an option to power supply the SKA and contribute to a zero carbon footprint next generation telescope. Here we outline the major characteristics o...

  7. Combining carbon footprinting, monitoring, feedback, and rewards for a broad spectrum reduction of household induced greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrels, Adriaan (Government Institute for Economic Research VATT (Finland)); Hongisto, Mikko; Kallio, Arto (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)); Hyvoenen, Kaarina (National Consumer Research Centre KTK (Finland)); Katajajuuri, Juha-Matti (MTT Agrifood Research Finland (Finland)); Nissinen, Ari (Finnish Environment Institute SYKE (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    The study reported in this article (named CLIMATE BONUS) concerns the combined use of verified carbon footprints (possibly visualised through labels), personalised monitoring and feedback services to households regarding the greenhouse gas intensities of their purchases, and a reward system (bonuses) for consumers who manage to reduce the embodied emissions. The study assesses the accuracy and verification requirements and the harmonisation needs for the various information systems and their interfaces. This should culminate in a data strategy, in which a data acquisition, generation and co-ordination strategy and a data quality assurance strategy will be developed. Equally important, the study also assesses, via an own pilot, what the response of households (as consumers) can amount to and how the responsiveness to various incentives can be rated. The paper provides an outline of the intended system, including its rationale. Subsequently, the paper focuses on the consumer pilot and the feedback from the participants. It also provides a brief impression of the expected overall economic effectiveness of the system.

  8. Carbon dioxide exchange over agricultural landscape using eddy correlation and footprint modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, H.; Jensen, N.O.; Bøgh, E.;

    2003-01-01

    barley, maize and grass). A sixth system was mounted on top of a 48 m mast to enable landscape-wide flux measurements both in summer and winter. The spatial distribution of the different crop types was mapped by use of satellite images (Landsat TM and SPOT). A very large diversity in carbon functioning......Within an agricultural landscape of western Denmark, the carbon dioxide exchange was studied throughout a year (April 1998-March 1999). During the growing season, five eddy correlation systems were operated in parallel over some of the more important crops (winter wheat, winter barley, spring......) s(-1)) which is moreover 30-40% higher than that of maize and grass. To estimate landscape CO2 fluxes, the measurements from the individual fields are weighted according to their areal contribution. These estimates are found to be in good agreement with the direct measurements conducted from the 48...

  9. Growth-promoting technologies decrease the carbon footprint, ammonia emissions, and costs of California beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, K R; Rotz, C A; Oltjen, J W; Mitloehner, F M

    2012-12-01

    Increased animal performance is suggested as one of the most effective mitigation strategies to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions from livestock production per unit of product produced. Little information exists, however, on the effects of increased animal productivity on the net decrease in emission from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH(3) emissions from representative beef production systems in California that use various management technologies to enhance animal performance. The IFSM is a farm process model that simulates crop growth, feed production, animal performance, and manure production and handling through time to predict the performance, economics, and environmental impacts of production systems. The simulated beef production systems compared were 1) Angus-natural, with no use of growth-enhancing technologies, 2) Angus-implant, with ionophore and growth-promoting implant (e.g., estrogen/trenbolone acetate-based) application, 3) Angus-ß2-adrenergic agonists (BAA; e.g., zilpaterol), with ionophore, growth-promoting implant, and BAA application, 4) Holstein-implant, with growth implant and ionophore application, and 5) Holstein-BAA, with ionophore, growth implant, and BAA use. During the feedlot phase, use of BAA decreased NH(3) emission by 4 to 9 g/kg HCW, resulting in a 7% decrease in NH(3) loss from the full production system. Combined use of ionophore, growth implant, and BAA treatments decreased NH(3) emission from the full production system by 14 g/kg HCW, or 13%. The C footprint of beef was decreased by 2.2 kg carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e)/kg HCW using all the growth-promoting technologies, and the Holstein beef footprint was decreased by 0.5 kg CO(2)e/kg HCW using BAA. Over the full production systems, these decreases were relatively small at 9% and 5% for Angus and Holstein beef, respectively. The growth

  10. Can Producing Oil Store Carbon? Greenhouse Gas Footprint of CO2EOR, Offshore North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R Jamie; Haszeldine, R Stuart

    2015-05-01

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2EOR) is a proven and available technology used to produce incremental oil from depleted fields while permanently storing large tonnages of injected CO2. Although this technology has been used successfully onshore in North America and Europe, there are currently no CO2EOR projects in the United Kingdom. Here, we examine whether offshore CO2EOR can store more CO2 than onshore projects traditionally have and whether CO2 storage can offset additional emissions produced through offshore operations and incremental oil production. Using a high-level Life Cycle system approach, we find that the largest contribution to offshore emissions is from flaring or venting of reproduced CH4 and CO2. These can already be greatly reduced by regulation. If CO2 injection is continued after oil production has been optimized, then offshore CO2EOR has the potential to be carbon negative--even when emissions from refining, transport, and combustion of produced crude oil are included. The carbon intensity of oil produced can be just 0.056-0.062 tCO2e/bbl if flaring/venting is reduced by regulation. This compares against conventional Saudi oil 0.040 tCO2e/bbl or mined shale oil >0.300 tCO2e/bbl. PMID:25789442

  11. Carbon Footprint: A New Farm Management Consideration in the Southern High Plains

    OpenAIRE

    Weinheimer, Justin; Rajan, Nithya; Johnson, Phillip N.; Maas, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    As concerns continue to mount regarding man induced impacts to the global climate, the SHPT region could be faced with a unique scenario in which the net carbon balance should be considered in the producer’s enterprise selection and production systems. Currently, the SHPT produces nearly one third of the U.S. cotton crop. Under a potential cap and trade system the challenge for the agricultural industry in the SHPT may be how to sustain the region’s economic base and production capabilities. ...

  12. Skallerup Klit's carbon footprint:a tool for building up the business strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Zacho, Kristina Overgaard; Ørnstrup, Niels Holm; Zimmermann, Tine Marquard; Kravchenko, Mariia; Lehmann, Martin; Prapaspongsa, Trakarn

    2011-01-01

    Skallerup Klit is a Danish holiday center certified as CO2 neutral. They use this label for branding as them selves as the first CO2 neutral holiday center in Denmark. There are reasons to question how ambitious “CO2 neutrality” as a strategy is, because this goal can be reached rather easily by offsetting and without making actual emission reductions. Therefore the purpose of this study is to present recommendations on how Skallerup Klit can build up their business strategy using Carbon Foot...

  13. A "footprint" of plant carbon fixation cycle functions during the development of a heterotrophic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Xueliang; Shen, Cuicui; Xie, Jiatao; Fu, Yanping; Jiang, Daohong; Hu, Zijin; Tang, Lihua; Tang, Liguang; Ding, Feng; Li, Kunfei; Wu, Song; Hu, Yanping; Luo, Lilian; Li, Yuanhao; Wang, Qihua; Li, Guoqing; Cheng, Jiasen

    2015-01-01

    Carbon fixation pathway of plants (CFPP) in photosynthesis converts solar energy to biomass, bio-products and biofuel. Intriguingly, a large number of heterotrophic fungi also possess enzymes functionally associated with CFPP, raising the questions about their roles in fungal development and in evolution. Here, we report on the presence of 17 CFPP associated enzymes (ten in Calvin-Benson-Basham reductive pentose phosphate pathway and seven in C4-dicarboxylic acid cycle) in the genome of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a heterotrophic phytopathogenic fungus, and only two unique enzymes: ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) and phosphoribulokinase (PRK) were absent. This data suggested an incomplete CFPP-like pathway (CLP) in fungi. Functional profile analysis demonstrated that the activity of the incomplete CLP was dramatically regulated during different developmental stages of S. sclerotiorum. Subsequent experiments confirmed that many of them were essential to the virulence and/or sclerotial formation. Most of the CLP associated genes are conserved in fungi. Phylogenetic analysis showed that many of them have undergone gene duplication, gene acquisition or loss and functional diversification in evolutionary history. These findings showed an evolutionary links in the carbon fixation processes of autotrophs and heterotrophs and implicated the functions of related genes were in course of continuous change in different organisms in evolution. PMID:26263551

  14. Light pollution and solid-state lighting: reducing the carbon dioxide footprint is not enough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bará, Salvador

    2013-11-01

    Public and private lighting account for a relevant share of the overall electric power consumption worldwide. The pressing need of reducing the carbon dioxide emissions as well as of lowering the lumen•hour price tag has fostered the search for alternative lighting technologies to substitute for the incandescent and gas-discharge based lamps. The most successful approach to date, solid-state lighting, is already finding its way into the public lighting market, very often helped by substantial public investments and support. LED-based sources have distinct advantages: under controlled coditions their efficacy equals or surpasses that of conventional solutions, their small source size allows for an efficient collimation of the lightbeam (delivering the photons where they are actually needed and reducing lightspill on the surrounding areas), and they can be switched and/or dimmed on demand at very high rates, thus allowing for a taylored schedule of lighting. However, energy savings and carbon dioxide reduction are not the only crucial issues faced by present day lighting. A growing body of research has shown the significance of the spectral composition of light when it comes to assess the detrimental effects of artificial light-at-night (ALAN). The potential ALAN blueshift associated to the deployment of LED-based lighting systems has raised sensible concerns about its scientific, cultural, ecological and public health consequences, which can be further amplified if an increased light consumption is produced due to the rebound effect. This contribution addresses some of the challenges that these issues pose to the Optics and Photonics community.

  15. Developing Carbon Nanotube Standards at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Pasha; Arepalli, Sivaram; Sosa, Edward; Gorelik, Olga; Yowell, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are currently being produced and processed by several methods. Many researchers are continuously modifying existing methods and developing new methods to incorporate carbon nanotubes into other materials and utilize the phenomenal properties of SWCNTs. These applications require availability of SWCNTs with known properties and there is a need to characterize these materials in a consistent manner. In order to monitor such progress, it is critical to establish a means by which to define the quality of SWCNT material and develop characterization standards to evaluate of nanotube quality across the board. Such characterization standards should be applicable to as-produced materials as well as processed SWCNT materials. In order to address this issue, NASA Johnson Space Center has developed a protocol for purity and dispersion characterization of SWCNTs. The NASA JSC group is currently working with NIST, ANSI and ISO to establish purity and dispersion standards for SWCNT material. A practice guide for nanotube characterization is being developed in cooperation with NIST. Furthermore, work is in progress to incorporate additional characterization methods for electrical, mechanical, thermal, optical and other properties of SWCNTs.

  16. Impact of direct greenhouse gas emissions on the carbon footprint of water reclamation processes employing nitrification–denitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Andrew G., E-mail: andrew.schneider@yale.edu [University of Cincinnati, Department of Geology, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Townsend-Small, Amy [University of Cincinnati, Department of Geology, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); University of Cincinnati, Department of Geography, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Rosso, Diego [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-2175 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Water reclamation has the potential to reduce water supply demands from aquifers and more energy-intensive water production methods (e.g., seawater desalination). However, water reclamation via biological nitrification–denitrification is also associated with the direct emission of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and CH{sub 4}. We quantified these direct emissions from the nitrification–denitrification reactors of a water reclamation plant in Southern California, and measured the {sup 14}C content of the CO{sub 2} to distinguish between short- and long-lived carbon. The total emissions were 1.5 (± 0.2) g-fossil CO{sub 2} m{sup −3} of wastewater treated, 0.5 (± 0.1) g-CO{sub 2}-eq of CH{sub 4} m{sup −3}, and 1.8 (± 0.5) g-CO{sub 2}-eq of N{sub 2}O m{sup −3}, for a total of 3.9 (± 0.5) g-CO{sub 2}-eq m{sup −3}. This demonstrated that water reclamation can be a source of GHGs from long lived carbon, and thus a candidate for GHG reduction credit. From the {sup 14}C measurements, we found that between 11.4% and 15.1% of the CO{sub 2} directly emitted was derived from fossil sources, which challenges past assumptions that the direct CO{sub 2} emissions from water reclamation contain only modern carbon. A comparison of our direct emission measurements with estimates of indirect emissions from several water production methods, however, showed that the direct emissions from water reclamation constitute only a small fraction of the plant's total GHG footprint. - Highlights: • Direct greenhouse gas emissions were measured at a wastewater reclamation plant. • These greenhouse gas emissions amounted to 3.9 (± 0.5) g-CO{sub 2}-eq m{sup −3} of wastewater. • {sup 14}C analysis of the CO{sub 2} emissions was conducted to determine the fossil component. • 11.4% to 15.1% of the emitted CO{sub 2} was derived from fossil sources.

  17. Impact of direct greenhouse gas emissions on the carbon footprint of water reclamation processes employing nitrification–denitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water reclamation has the potential to reduce water supply demands from aquifers and more energy-intensive water production methods (e.g., seawater desalination). However, water reclamation via biological nitrification–denitrification is also associated with the direct emission of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) CO2, N2O, and CH4. We quantified these direct emissions from the nitrification–denitrification reactors of a water reclamation plant in Southern California, and measured the 14C content of the CO2 to distinguish between short- and long-lived carbon. The total emissions were 1.5 (± 0.2) g-fossil CO2 m−3 of wastewater treated, 0.5 (± 0.1) g-CO2-eq of CH4 m−3, and 1.8 (± 0.5) g-CO2-eq of N2O m−3, for a total of 3.9 (± 0.5) g-CO2-eq m−3. This demonstrated that water reclamation can be a source of GHGs from long lived carbon, and thus a candidate for GHG reduction credit. From the 14C measurements, we found that between 11.4% and 15.1% of the CO2 directly emitted was derived from fossil sources, which challenges past assumptions that the direct CO2 emissions from water reclamation contain only modern carbon. A comparison of our direct emission measurements with estimates of indirect emissions from several water production methods, however, showed that the direct emissions from water reclamation constitute only a small fraction of the plant's total GHG footprint. - Highlights: • Direct greenhouse gas emissions were measured at a wastewater reclamation plant. • These greenhouse gas emissions amounted to 3.9 (± 0.5) g-CO2-eq m−3 of wastewater. • 14C analysis of the CO2 emissions was conducted to determine the fossil component. • 11.4% to 15.1% of the emitted CO2 was derived from fossil sources

  18. The carbon footprint and non-renewable energy demand of algae-derived biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Global sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the environmental impact of algal biodiesel. • GHG emission of algal biodiesel ranges from 40 to 125 g e-CO2/MJ. • Biodiesel from dried algae may prove sustainable if a low carbon solution e.g. solar drying is used. - Abstract: We determine the environmental impact of different biodiesel production strategies from algae feedstock in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and non-renewable energy consumption, we then benchmark the results against those of conventional and synthetic diesel obtained from fossil resources. The algae cultivation in open pond raceways and the transesterification process for the conversion of algae oil into biodiesel constitute the common elements among all considered scenarios. Anaerobic digestion and hydrothermal gasification are considered for the conversion of the residues from the wet oil extraction route; while integrated gasification–heat and power generation and gasification–Fischer–Tropsch processes are considered for the conversion of the residues from the dry oil extraction route. The GHG emissions per unit energy of the biodiesel are calculated as follows: 41 g e-CO2/MJb for hydrothermal gasification, 86 g e-CO2/MJb for anaerobic digestion, 109 g e-CO2/MJb for gasification–power generation, and 124 g e-CO2/MJb for gasification–Fischer–Tropsch. As expected, non-renewable energy consumptions are closely correlated to the GHG values. Also, using the High Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR) method, a global sensitivity analysis over the entire space of input parameters is performed to rank them with respect to their influence on key sustainability metrics. Considering reasonable ranges over which each parameter can vary, the most influential input parameters for the wet extraction route include extractor energy demand and methane yield generated from anaerobic digestion or hydrothermal gasification of the oil extracted-algae. The dominant

  19. A comparative study on carbon footprint of rice production between household and aggregated farms from Jiangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming; Luo, Ting; Bian, Rongjun; Cheng, Kun; Pan, Genxing; Rees, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Quantifying the carbon footprint (CF) for crop production can help identify key options to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agriculture. In the present study, both household and aggregated farm scales were surveyed to obtain the data of rice production and farming management practices in a typical rice cultivation area of Northern Jiangxi, China. The CFs of the different rice systems including early rice, late rice, and single rice under household and aggregated farm scale were calculated. In general, early rice had the lower CF in terms of land use and grain production being 4.54 ± 0.44 t CO2-eq./ha and 0.62 ± 0.1 t CO2-eq./t grain than single rice (6.84 ± 0.79 t CO2-eq./ha and 0.80 ± 0.13 t CO2-eq./t grain) and late rice (8.72 ± 0.54 t CO2-eq./ha and 1.1 ± 0.17 t CO2-eq./t grain). The emissions from nitrogen fertilizer use accounted for 33 % of the total CF on average and the direct CH4 emissions for 57 %. The results indicated that the CF of double rice cropping under aggregated farm being 0.86 ± 0.11 t CO2-eq./t grain was lower by 25 % than that being 1.14 ± 0.25 t CO2-eq./t grain under household farm, mainly due to high nitrogen use efficiency and low methane emissions. Therefore, developing the aggregated farm scale with efficient use of agro-chemicals and farming operation for greater profitability could offer a strategy for reducing GHG emissions in China's agriculture. PMID:25947895

  20. Footprints of the weak s-process in the carbon-enhanced metal-poor star ET0097

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guochao; Li, Hongjie; Liu, Nian; Cui, Wenyuan; Liang, Yanchun; Zhang, Bo

    2016-09-01

    Historically, the weak s-process contribution to metal-poor stars is thought to be extremely small, due to the effect of the secondary-like nature of the neutron source 22Ne(α , n)25Mg in massive stars, which means that metal-poor "weak s-process stars" could not be found. ET0097 is the first observed carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) star in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Because C is enriched and the elements heavier than Ba are not overabundant, ET0097 can be classified as a CEMP-no star. However, this star shows overabundances of lighter n-capture elements (i.e., Sr, Y and Zr). In this work, having adopted the abundance decomposition approach, we investigate the astrophysical origins of the elements in ET0097. We find that the light elements and iron-peak elements (from O to Zn) of the star mainly originate from the primary process of massive stars and the heavier n-capture elements (heavier than Ba) mainly come from the main r-process. However, the lighter n-capture elements such as Sr, Y and Zr should mainly come from the primary weak s-process. The contributed fractions of the primary weak s-process to the Sr, Y and Zr abundances of ET0097 are about 82 %, 84 % and 58 % respectively, suggesting that the CEMP star ET0097 should have the footprints of the weak s-process. The derived result should be a significant evidence that the weak s-process elements can be produced in metal-poor massive stars.

  1. Calculating CO2 footprint of the organic greenhouse horticulture

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, P.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the horticultural sector has been confronted with questions about the carbon footprint of its products. However, the global standards used to calculate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have some gaps that do not address the sector specific issues for horticulture, such as crop rotation, land use of soil organic matter and Combined Heat and Power (CHP). Therefore, a need was identified for a sector specific standard which addresses these interpretations gaps. In response to t...

  2. 基于能源消费的中国不同产业空间的碳足迹分析%Carbon footprint of different industrial spaces based on energy consumption in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵荣钦; 黄贤金; 钟太洋; 彭佳雯

    2011-01-01

    Using energy consumption and land use data of each region of China in 2007, this paper established carbon emission and carbon footprint model based on energy consumption,and estimated the carbon emission amount of fossil energy and rural biomass energy of different regions of China in 2007. Through matching the energy consumption items with industrial spaces, this paper divided industrial spaces into five types: agricultural space, living & industrial-commercial space, transportation industrial space, fishery and water conservancy space, and other industrial space. Then the author analyzed the carbon emission intensity and carbon footprint of each industrial space. Finally, advices of decreasing industrial carbon footprint and optimizing industrial space pattern were put forward. The main conclusions are as following: (1) Total amount of carbon emission from energy consumption of China in 2007 was about 1.65 GtC, in which the proportion of carbon emission from fossil energy was 89%.(2) Carbon emission intensity of industrial space of China in 2007 was 1.98 t/hm2, in which,carbon emission intensity of living & industrial-commercial space and of transportation industrial space was 55.16 t/hm2 and 49.65 t/hm2 respectively, they were high-carbon-emission industrial spaces among others. (3) Carbon footprint caused by industrial activities of China in 2007 was 522.34×106 hm2, which brought about ecological deficit of 28.69×106 hm2, which means that the productive lands were not sufficient to compensate for carbon footprint of industrial activities, and the compensating rate was 94.5%. As to the regional carbon footprint,several regions have ecological profit while others have not. In general, the present ecological deficit caused by industrial activities was small in 2007. (4) Per unit area carbon footprint of industrial space in China was about 0.63 hm2/hm2 in 2007, in which that of living & industrial-commercial space was the highest (17.5 hm2/hm2). The per unit

  3. 南宁1990—2012年碳足迹动态分析%A Dynamic Analysis of Carbon Footprint in Nanning City from 1990 to 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申烨红; 赵先贵; 赵超

    2015-01-01

    文章采用IPCC和中国《省级温室气体编制指南》推荐的方法对南宁1990—2012年的碳足迹进行了动态分析.研究发现,1990—2012年南宁的碳足迹处于较低水平,但波动上升,增幅为441.0%,年均增幅为20.08%.碳足迹构成上,各部门所占比重由大到小依次是农业部门(60.16%)>能源部门(30.63%)>水泥工业部门(12.76%)>废物处理部门(3.32%),且都大于植被固碳(-6.87%). 由此可见南宁碳足迹主要是由农业生产和化石能源燃烧引起. 人均和单位面积碳足迹增幅分别为323.51%和441.82%; 万元GDP碳足迹降低了41.0%; 能源强度波动下降. 温室气体排放指数从0.04波动增加到0.20,1990年排放等级为很低(Ⅰb),1991—2011年为较低(Ⅰc),2012年为中下(Ⅱa).%This paper analyzed carbon footprint in Nanni ng from 1990 to 2012 by using the methods recommended by the IPCC and A Guide to the Provincial Greenhouse Gases Inventories in China. The study has found that from 1990 to 2012,Nanning carbon footprint is at a low level,but the volatility rises,with an increase of 441.0 percent and an average annual increase of 20.08%. From the component of carbon footprint,proportion of every sector decreases in the following order:The agricultural sector (60.16%),energy sector (30.63%),cement industry (12.76%),waste treatment sector (3.32%),and vegetation carbon (-6.87%). It proves that the increases of agricultural production and fossil energy consumption are the primary causes of carbon footprint increases of Nanning City. Carbon footprint per capita and per unit increases by 323.51%and 441.82% respectively,while carbon footprint per ten thousand Yuan decreases 41.0%. Energy intensity presents a fluctuant decreasing. Greenhouse gases emissions index has increased from 0.04 to 0.20. The grade of greenhouse gases emissions is at a very low level (Ib) in 1990,low level (Ic) from 1991 to 2011,and below-average level (IIa) at 2012.

  4. Application of an Expanded Sequestration Estimate to the Domestic Energy Footprint of the Republic of Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette O’Regan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The need for global comparability has led to the recent standardization of ecological footprint methods. The use of global averages and necessary methodological assumptions has questioned the ability of the ecological footprint to represent local or national specific concerns. This paper attempts to incorporate greater national relevancy by expanding the sequestration estimate used to calculate the annual carbon footprint of domestic Irish energy use. This includes expanding existing study boundaries to include additional carbon pools such as the litter, dead and soil pools. This generated an overall estimate of 4.38 tonnes of carbon per hectare per year (t C/ha/yr, resulting in an ecological footprint estimate of 0.49 hectares per capita (ha/cap The method employed in this paper also incorporated the potential role of grassland as a carbon sink. The caveat that the resultant value is dependent on the choice of study boundary is discussed. Including the lateral movement of carbon embodied in farm products (effectively placing the boundary around the farm gate reduces the estimate of grassland carbon sequestration by approximately 44% to 1.82 t C/ha/yr. When a footprint calculated using an overall sequestration estimate (based on the distribution of Irish grassland and forestry is translated into global hectares (gha, the standardized value is reduced by 35%.

  5. The carbon footprint of UK households 1990-2004. A socio-economically disaggregated, quasi-multi-regional input-output model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a socio-economically disaggregated framework for attributing CO2 emissions to people's high level functional needs. Based around a quasi-multi-regional input-output (QMRIO) model, the study, in theory, takes into account all CO2 emissions that arise from energy used in production of goods and services to satisfy UK household demand, whether the emissions occur in the UK or abroad. Results show that CO2 emissions attributable to households were 15% above 1990 levels in 2004, and that although absolute decoupling occurred between household expenditure and CO2 during the UK's switch from coal to gas in the early 1990s, since then only slight relative decoupling is evident. The proportion of CO2 that arises outside UK borders in support of UK consumption is rising, and reducing these emissions is particularly problematic in a global trading system. Investigation into the carbon footprint of different segments of the UK population shows wide variation: the segment with the highest carbon footprint emits 64% more CO2 than the segment with the lowest. Results show that recreation and leisure are responsible for over one quarter of CO2 emissions in a typical UK household in 2004. We conclude that expanding lifestyle aspirations are significant factors in driving household CO2 emissions, but the study also emphasizes that attention must be paid to the infrastructures and institutions that result in considerable amounts of CO2 being locked up in basic household activities through which people meet their everyday needs for subsistence, protection, and communication with family and friends. The findings highlight the sheer scale of the challenge facing UK policy-makers, and suggest that policies should be targeted towards segments of society responsible for the highest carbon footprints. (author)

  6. Method for calculating carbon footprint of cattle feeds – including contribution from soil carbon changes and use of cattle manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels; Nguyen, T Lan T;

    2014-01-01

    ready to feed’. Included in the study were fodder crops that are grown in Denmark and typically used on Danish cattle farms. The contributions from the growing, processing and transport of feedstuffs were included, as were the changes in soil carbon (soil C) and from land use change (LUC). For each....... However, the livestock system is also credited for the fact that the use of manure reduces the amount of artificial fertilizer being used. Consequently, a manure handling system was set up as a subsystem to the cattle system. This method allowed a comparison between different fodder crops on an equal...... basis. Furthermore, the crop-specific contribution from changes in soil C was estimated based on estimated amounts of C input to the soil....

  7. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.103... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking unit... regenerator any gases that contain carbon monoxide (CO) in excess of 500 ppm by volume (dry basis)....

  8. 40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.263... Production Facilities § 60.263 Standard for carbon monoxide. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which contain, on a dry basis, 20 or greater volume percent of carbon...

  9. Power Challenges of Large Scale Research Infrastructures: the Square Kilometer Array and Solar Energy Integration; Towards a zero-carbon footprint next generation telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Barbosa, Domingos; Ruiz, Valeriano; Silva, Manuel; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes; Santander-Vela, Juande; Maia, Dalmiro; Antón, Sonia; van Ardenne, Arnold; Vetter, Matthias; Kramer, Michael; Keller, Reinhard; Pereira, Nuno; Silva, Vitor

    2012-01-01

    The Square Kilometer Array (SKA) will be the largest Global science project of the next two decades. It will encompass a sensor network dedicated to radioastronomy, covering two continents. It will be constructed in remote areas of South Africa and Australia, spreading over 3000Km, in high solar irradiance latitudes. Solar Power supply is therefore an option to power supply the SKA and contribute to a zero carbon footprint next generation telescope. Here we outline the major characteristics of the SKA and some innovation approaches on thermal solar energy Integration with SKA prototypes.

  10. Carbon footprint of a thermal energy storage system using phase change materials for industrial energy recovery to reduce the fossil fuel consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • TES system can increase energy efficiency while reducing carbon footprint. • Waste heat recovery using PCM helps to reduce the heat production from fossil fuels. • Environmental benefits, in terms of carbon footprint, are identified in this study. • PCM with high latent heat value tend to achieve better results in the overall system. • The KNO3 manufacture entails higher carbon footprint values than other PCM analysed. - Abstract: Until now, a small number of studies have analysed the carbon footprint (CO2 eq. emissions) of the application of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) in conventional Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems considering different conventional fossil fuels as the source of heat. In those scarce studies, the different environmental impact categories were estimated using, on the one hand, diverse environmental methodologies and, on the other hand, different environmental evaluation methods (the midpoint and endpoint approaches). Despite the fact that several researchers have used the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology as a tool to estimate the environmental impact of TES systems, there is no unanimity in the scientific community on the environmental evaluation method to be used. As a consequence, research results cannot be easily compared. This article evaluates the introduction of a TES system (using different PCMs) to recover the waste thermal energy released in industrial processes, which can be used in other applications, thereby avoiding fossil fuel consumption by the associated equipment to produce thermal energy. Five different fossil fuels have been considered to generate the 20 case studies that were analysed using the same methodology (LCA) and evaluation method (Global Warming Potential, GWP100, a midpoint approach). The results were used to identify the best cases, considering the environmental benefits that they generate. Additionally, this research indicates that the benefits can be achieved since, in general

  11. Corporate ecological footprint: new conversion factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrid Mateo Mantecón; Juan Luis Doménech Quesada; Pablo Coto-Millán

    2008-01-01

    The first ecological footprint calculation version, applied to companies, appeared in 2003. The said tool provides the possibility of calculating the total impact of a company or organisation in hectares or in equivalent emissions of C O 2 . This paper updates carbon absorption rates and improves electricity consumption conversion factors, one of the major footprint generating consumptions in companies. The new rates prove that the footprint estimated to date will be notably increased as, amo...

  12. Reducing the environmental impact of trials: a comparison of the carbon footprint of the CRASH-1 and CRASH-2 clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Ian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All sectors of the economy, including the health research sector, must reduce their carbon emissions. The UK National Institute for Health Research has recently prepared guidelines on how to minimize the carbon footprint of research. We compare the carbon emissions from two international clinical trials in order to identify where emissions reductions can be made. Methods We conducted a carbon audit of two clinical trials (the CRASH-1 and CRASH-2 trials, quantifying the carbon dioxide emissions produced over a one-year audit period. Carbon emissions arising from the coordination centre, freight delivery, trial-related travel and commuting were calculated and compared. Results The total emissions in carbon dioxide equivalents during the one-year audit period were 181.3 tonnes for CRASH-1 and 108.2 tonnes for CRASH-2. In total, CRASH-1 emitted 924.6 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents compared with 508.5 tonnes for CRASH-2. The CRASH-1 trial recruited 10,008 patients over 5.1 years, corresponding to 92 kg of carbon dioxide per randomized patient. The CRASH-2 trial recruited 20,211 patients over 4.7 years, corresponding to 25 kg of carbon dioxide per randomized patient. The largest contributor to emissions in CRASH-1 was freight delivery of trial materials (86.0 tonnes, 48% of total emissions, whereas the largest contributor in CRASH-2 was energy use by the trial coordination centre (54.6 tonnes, 30% of total emissions. Conclusions Faster patient recruitment in the CRASH-2 trial largely accounted for its greatly increased carbon efficiency in terms of emissions per randomized patient. Lighter trial materials and web-based data entry also contributed to the overall lower carbon emissions in CRASH-2 as compared to CRASH-1. Trial Registration Numbers CRASH-1: ISRCTN74459797 CRASH-2: ISRCTN86750102

  13. Research Progress and Analysis of Carbon Footprint of Livestock Products%畜禽产品碳足迹研究进展与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文强; 董红敏; 朱志平; 刘翀; 陶秀萍; 王悦

    2015-01-01

    放量占整个系统的(55.42±2.7)%,N2O 是猪肉生产碳足迹中贡献率最高的温室气体,占整个系统其排放量的(56.8±10.4)%,CH4是牛肉和牛奶生产碳足迹中贡献率最高的温室气体,分别占牛肉和牛奶碳足迹的(50.2±8.3)%和(58.6±8.3)%。目前国外尤其是欧美等发达国家关于畜禽产品碳足迹研究相对较多,但采用的评估方法和计算模型不同,需要建立统一的畜禽产品碳足迹评估方法。中国在畜禽产品碳足迹评估领域仍处于起步阶段,建议在国内外现有研究的基础上,建立符合中国生产实际的评价方法,系统评估中国畜禽产品的碳足迹,同时针对不同畜禽产品碳足迹贡献率高的环节开展减排技术研究,为科学评估中国畜禽产品的碳足迹,筛选减排技术,降低碳排放强度提供支持。%Livestock production is one of the important emission sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), evaluation of the carbon footprint of livestock products is vital for selection of mitigation technology and promotion of low-carbon agriculture. Based on current evaluation methods of carbon footprint, this study summarized the domestic and overseas researches on assessment of the carbon footprint of animal products (eggs, pork, beef and milk), and made a comprehensive analysis based on the present research achievements. Carbon footprint of livestock products varies with unit of animal products. The carbon footprint in producing 1 kg of beef is the greatest and reaches (20.51±8.39) kg CO2-eq, followed by 1 kg of pork and eggs production with (4.24±1.07) kg CO2-eq and (2.24±0.83) kg CO2-eq, respectively, while that in producing 1 kg milk is the minimum of (1.19±0.40) kg CO2-eq. The carbon footprint in producing 1 kg protein from animal products is in a descending order as beef>milk>pork and egg, with values of (103.05±42.14), (39.72±13.20), (32.09±8.14) and (19.37±7.15) kg CO2-eq, respectively. The carbon footprint in

  14. Developing consumption-based greenhouse gas accounts : the carbon footprint of local public service provision in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes the development and application of a tool to assess and document the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of municipalities and other public-service providers. The model is linked to the financial accounting system of municipalities and counties to calculate the Carbon Footprint (CF) of all purchases/activities made. In particular indirect emissions (Scope 3 according to the greenhouse gas (GHG) protocol) will effectively be accounted for with this system. One of the main findings of the thesis is indeed the importance of Scope 3 emissions to the total CF of the cases investigated. Within the local climate action framework, this thesis focuses on the CF resulting from the activities of the municipal/county administration. This will largely be the provision of services. Insights in the structure of the CF of services will therefore be provided in the papers presented in the thesis. Results show that direct GHG emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are not very significant. At the same time, indirect GHG emissions embodied in the purchase of products and services from sub-suppliers are very significant. Furthermore, when time series are investigated, we identify a shift from direct emissions (e.g. the combustion of diesel in municipal vehicles) to indirect Scope 3 emissions (e.g. the purchase of transportation services from a private company). This outsourcing of activities indicates a necessary shift to complete consumption-based inventories that include all direct and indirect GHG emissions in developing comparable indicators of sustainability. The comparability of municipal CFs is the focus of one of the papers in the thesis. In the paper, we investigate how the CF of all Norwegian municipalities compares to a set of key characteristics. The main finding here is that the CF is highly dependent on both municipal wealth and municipal size. Small and wealthy municipalities tend to have a significantly higher CF per capita relating to the

  15. Developing consumption-based greenhouse gas accounts : the carbon footprint of local public service provision in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hogne Nersund

    2011-07-01

    This thesis describes the development and application of a tool to assess and document the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of municipalities and other public-service providers. The model is linked to the financial accounting system of municipalities and counties to calculate the Carbon Footprint (CF) of all purchases/activities made. In particular indirect emissions (Scope 3 according to the greenhouse gas (GHG) protocol) will effectively be accounted for with this system. One of the main findings of the thesis is indeed the importance of Scope 3 emissions to the total CF of the cases investigated. Within the local climate action framework, this thesis focuses on the CF resulting from the activities of the municipal/county administration. This will largely be the provision of services. Insights in the structure of the CF of services will therefore be provided in the papers presented in the thesis. Results show that direct GHG emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are not very significant. At the same time, indirect GHG emissions embodied in the purchase of products and services from sub-suppliers are very significant. Furthermore, when time series are investigated, we identify a shift from direct emissions (e.g. the combustion of diesel in municipal vehicles) to indirect Scope 3 emissions (e.g. the purchase of transportation services from a private company). This outsourcing of activities indicates a necessary shift to complete consumption-based inventories that include all direct and indirect GHG emissions in developing comparable indicators of sustainability. The comparability of municipal CFs is the focus of one of the papers in the thesis. In the paper, we investigate how the CF of all Norwegian municipalities compares to a set of key characteristics. The main finding here is that the CF is highly dependent on both municipal wealth and municipal size. Small and wealthy municipalities tend to have a significantly higher CF per capita relating to the

  16. Subsurface energy footprints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthropogenic climate change and energy security concerns have created a demand for new ways of meeting society’s demand for energy. The Earth’s crust is being targeted in a variety of energy developments to either extract energy or facilitate the use of other energy resources by sequestering emitted carbon dioxide. Unconventional fossil fuel developments are already being pursued in great numbers, and large scale carbon capture and sequestration and geothermal energy projects have been proposed. In many cases, these developments compete for the same subsurface environments and they are not necessarily compatible with each other. Policy to regulate the interplay between these developments is poorly developed. Here, the subsurface footprints necessary to produce a unit of energy from different developments are estimated to assist with subsurface planning. The compatibility and order of development is also examined to aid policy development. Estimated subsurface energy footprints indicate that carbon capture and sequestration and geothermal energy developments are better choices than unconventional gas to supply clean energy. (letter)

  17. Study of the Effects on Student Knowledge and Perceptions of Activities Related to Submetering the 6th Grade Wing of a Middle School, to Displaying the Carbon Footprint, and to Efforts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Rick

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects upon student knowledge and perceptions regarding greenhouse gas emissions as a result of an intervention relying upon the submetering the 6th grade wing of a Middle School, displaying the information regarding electrical consumption and carbon footprint, and reducing the electrical consumption…

  18. How does co-product handling affect the carbon footprint of milk? Case study of milk production in New Zealand and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria; Cederberg, Christel; Henriksson, Maria;

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This paper investigates different methodologies of handling co-products in life cycle assessment (LCA) or carbon footprint (CF) studies. Co-product handling can have a significant effect on final LCA/CF results, and although there are guidelines on the preferred order for different methods...... for handling co-products, no agreed understanding on applicable methods is available. In the present study, the greenhouse gases (GHG) associated with the production of 1 kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM) at farm gate is investigated considering co-product handling. Materials and methods Two different...... milk production systems were used as case studies in the investigation of the effect of applying different methodologies in co-product handling: (1) outdoor grazing system in New Zealand and (2) mainly indoor housing system with a pronounced share of concentrate feed in Sweden. Since the cows produce...

  19. Corporate Ecological Footprint: New Conversion Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Coto-Millán

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first ecological footprint calculation version, applied to companies, appeared in 2003. The said tool provides the possibility of calculating the total impact of a company or organisation in hectares or in equivalent emissions of CO2. This paper updates carbon absorption rates and improves electricity consumption conversion factors, one of the major footprint generating consumptions in companies. The new rates prove that the footprint estimated to date will be notably increased as, among other aspects, the IPCC has downgraded the amount of carbon that forests are capable of absorbing. These data reveal that companies must make a great effort to adapt to the challenges triggered by climate change.

  20. Corporate Ecological Footprint: New Conversion Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first ecological footprint calculation version, applied to companies, appeared in 2003. The said tool provides the possibility of calculating the total impact of a company or organisation in hectares or in equivalent emissions of CO2. This paper updates carbon absorption rates and improves electricity consumption conversion factors, one of the major footprint generating consumptions in companies. The new rates prove that the footprint estimated to date will be notably increased as, among other aspects, the IPCC has downgraded the amount of carbon that forests are capable of absorbing. These data reveal that companies must make a great effort to adapt to the challenges triggered by climate change.

  1. Research on the Carbon Footprint of Glass Brewage Packaging Vessel%玻璃瓶啤酒包装的碳足迹研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昕冉; 付亚波; 许文才; 孟令洋

    2011-01-01

    产品包装的碳足迹研究已成为近年来国际上研究的热点,并有望发展成为评估全球温室气体排放量可操作的一种评价指标。我国啤酒工业的迅速发展带来了包装容器资源消耗量大、环境负荷重等环境问题,因此,开展啤酒包装对环境潜在的碳排放量研究十分必要。以玻璃啤酒瓶为研究对象,采用混合生命周期法,对贯穿整个啤酒包装生命周期中的原材料生产、包装工艺、运输和消费、回收再利用等过程相关碳排放进行了研究,计算得到了玻璃啤酒瓶包装的碳排放当量。结果表明:玻璃啤酒瓶在整个生命周期中的碳排放总量为489.867g,啤酒瓶瓶体生产阶段的碳排放量最大,为363.83g,占总碳排放量的74.3%。%The study on carbon footprint of product has become a focus in the packaging research domain in recent years, and it is expected to be a practical evaluating index to estimates global greenhouse gas emissions. The rapid development of China's beer industry has brought a series of environmental problems, such as large consumption of resources and heavy burden to the environment. Therefore, it is essential to carry out research works on potential carbon emissions of beer packaging. In this work, glass brewage packaging vessel is selected as a researching object, the carbon emissions are in- vestigated by mixed LCA method. Through the relevant carbon emissions research of the processes during the whole life cycle including the production of raw materials, packing process, transportation, consumption, recycling and so on, the carbon footprint on glass brewage packaging vessel are calculated. The results show that the total carbon emissions of glass brewage bottom is 489. 867g across its whole life cycles. The carbon emissions of glass bottom production is 363.83g which contributes a paramount of 74. 3% to the whole carbon emis-sions.

  2. CO2 emission standards and investment in carbon capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policy makers in a number of countries have proposed or are considering proposing CO2 emission standards for new fossil fuel-fired power plants. The proposed standards require coal-fired power plants to have approximately the same carbon emissions as an uncontrolled natural gas-fired power plant, effectively mandating the adoption of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies for new coal plants. However, given the uncertainty in the capital and operating costs of a commercial scale coal plant with CCS, the impact of such a standard is not apparent a priori. We apply a stochastic generation expansion model to determine the impact of CO2 emission standards on generation investment decisions, and in particular for coal plants with CCS. Moreover, we demonstrate how the incentive to invest in coal-CCS from emission standards depends on the natural gas price, the CO2 price, and the enhanced oil recovery price, as well as on the level of the emission standard. This analysis is the first to consider the entire power system and at the same time allow the capture percentage for CCS plants to be chosen from a continuous range to meet the given standard at minimum cost. Previous system level studies have assumed that CCS plants capture 90% of the carbon, while studies of individual units have demonstrated the costs of carbon capture over a continuous range. We show that 1) currently proposed levels of emission standards are more likely to shift fossil fuel generation from coal to natural gas rather than to incentivize investment in CCS; 2) tighter standards that require some carbon reductions from natural gas-fired power plants are more likely than proposed standards to incentivize investments in CCS, especially on natural gas plants, but also on coal plants at high gas prices; and 3) imposing a less strict emission standard (emission rates higher than natural gas but lower than coal; e.g., 1500 lbs/MWh) is more likely than current proposals to incentivize investment

  3. 宁夏回族自治区平罗县主要农作物碳足迹研究%Main Crops Carbon Footprint in Pingluo County of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾宪芳; 赵世伟; 李晓晓; 李婷; 刘京

    2012-01-01

    农田碳足迹可以全面地反映农作物生产过程中各种因素引起的碳排放效应,是指导农业生产节能减排的重要指标。为探明农作物生产的碳足迹,基于宁夏回族自治区平罗县农田生产的实地调查数据,利用碳足迹的基本理论和方法,测算了该县农作物碳足迹。结果表明,水稻、玉米和小麦的碳足迹分别为1 487.56±164.59,913.03±142.99和809.75±144.99kg Ce/(hm2.a);碳成本分别为0.17±0.05,0.08±0.02g和0.12±0.03kg Ce/kg;化肥的施用量是影响碳足迹的主要因素,而水稻生产过程中灌溉水及育秧过程也是其碳足迹较高的主要原因。为了提高农田固碳减排增汇效益,应压缩水稻种植面积,扩大玉米和小麦种植,同时,建立节肥低碳高效的种植模式是实现平罗县农田节能减排的有效途径。%The carbon emission caused by various factors during the crop production process can be roundly evaluated using carbon footprint of farmland,which is an important indicator that can provide a guidance for energy saving and emission reduction in agricultural industry.In order to find out the carbon footprint of crop production,the carbon footprint of Pingluo County in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region is calculated based on the investigated data of farmland production in the county by using basic theories and research approaches of carbon footprint.Results show that the carbon footprints of rice,corn and wheat are 1 487.56±164.59,913.03±142.99 and 809.75±144.99 kg Ce/(hm2·a) and the carbon costs,0.17±0.05,0.08±0.02 and 0.12±0.03 kg Ce/kg,respectively.The application rate of chemical fertilizer is a main influence factor for the carbon footprint.Additionally,irrigation water and seedling production are the key causes of high-carbon footprint during rice production.To improve the benefits of fixing carbon,reducing emissions and adding carbon sinks of farmland,rice planting area should be reduced and corn and wheat planting

  4. Epidemiological bases for the current ambient carbon monoxide standards.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuller, L H; Radford, E P

    1983-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is widely distributed in the environment, and acute or chronic toxic effects may be of considerable public health significance. A review of the basis for current ambient standards is given. Mortality and morbidity studies have been negative or equivocal in relating carbon monoxide levels to health effects, but studies in human subjects with compromised coronary or peripheral circulation support an effect of acute exposure to CO at blood levels equivalent to about 20 ppm over s...

  5. Carbon footprint of canned mussels from a business-to-consumer approach. A starting point for mussel processors and policy makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing demand for environmental information on the global warming impact of products requires a solid methodological framework which guarantees comparability and communicability. The publicly available specification PAS 2050 combines approaches to a variety of greenhouse gas specific assessment issues to deliver a globally applicable product Carbon Footprinting (CF) method, which is expected to be widely accepted. Specifically, this paper aims to demonstrate the implementation of a CF scheme for a common canned mussel product according to PAS 2050 guidelines. A final value of 4.35 kg CO2e per triple pack of round cans of mussels was calculated. Furthermore, this CF study led to identify primary packaging (can production) and mussel shell management as the main activities where efforts should focus for climate change mitigation. Throughout this case study, CF opportunities and drawbacks are discussed. The whole text tries to provide a starting point for both mussel processors and policy makers to benefit from the potential advantages of a responsible use of this increasingly popular tool.

  6. Analysis of Alternative National Ambient Carbon Monoxide Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph L. Keeney; Rakesh K. Sarin; Winkler, Robert L.

    1984-01-01

    A risk assessment model is developed to relate adverse health effects to alternative carbon monoxide standards. The analysis requires information in the form of available data and expert judgments concerning factors such as ambient CO level, human exposure to CO, physiological responses, and dose-response relationships. Quantitative estimates, including probabilities, are obtained for selected summary measures of adverse health effects.

  7. The impact of various parameters on the carbon footprint of milk production in New Zealand and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria; Henriksson, Maria; Cederberg, Christel;

    2011-01-01

    conceptual framework of lifecycle assessment (LCA), but only for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. National average data were used to model the dairy system in each country. Collection of inventory data and calculations of emissions were harmonised to the greatest extent possible for the two systems. The...... calculated CF for 1 kg of energy corrected milk (ECM), including related by-products (surplus calves and culled cows), was 1.00 kg carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) for NZ and 1.16 kg CO2e for SE. Methane from enteric fermentation and nitrous oxide emissions from application of nitrogen (as fertiliser and as...... excreta dropped directly on the field) were the main contributors to the CF in both countries. The most important parameters to consider when calculating the GHG emissions were dry matter intake (DMI), emission factor (EF) for methane from enteric fermentation, amount of nitrogen applied and EF for direct...

  8. Footprints of the weak s-process in the carbon-enhanced metal-poor star ET0097

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Guochao; Liu, Nian; Cui, Wenyuan; Liang, Yanchun; Zhang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the weak s-process contribution to metal-poor stars is thought to be extremely small, due to the effect of the secondary-like nature of the neutron source 22Ne(a;n)25Mg in massive stars, which means that metal-poor weak s-process stars could not be found. ET0097 is the first observed carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) star in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Because C is enriched and the elements heavier than Ba are not overabundant, ET0097 can be classified as a CEMP-no star. However, this star shows overabundances of lighter n-capture elements (i.e., Sr, Y and Zr). In this work, having adopted the abundance decomposition approach, we investigate the astrophysical origins of the elements in ET0097. We find that the light elements and iron-peak elements (from O to Zn) of the star mainly originate from the primary process of massive stars and the heavier n-capture elements (heavier than Ba) mainly come from the main r-process. However, the lighter n-capture elements such as Sr, Y and Zr shoul...

  9. The effect of simple nitrogen fertilizer recommendation strategies on product carbon footprint and gross margin of wheat and maize production in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Nan; Feike, Til; Back, Hans; Xiao, Haifeng; Bahrs, Enno

    2015-11-01

    Overuse of nitrogen (N) fertilizer constitutes the major issue of current crop production in China, exerting a substantial effect on global warming through massive emission of greenhouse gas (GHG). Despite the ongoing effort, which includes the promotion of technologically sophisticated N management schemes, farmers' N rates maintain at excessive rates. Therefore the current study tests three simple and easily to apply N fertilizer recommendation strategies, which could be implemented on large scale through the existing agricultural advisory system of China, at comparatively low cost. Building on a detailed crop production dataset of 65 winter wheat (WW) and summer maize (SM) producing farm households of the North China Plain, scenario analysis is applied. The effects of the three N strategies under constant and changing yield levels on product carbon footprint (PCF) and gross margin (GM) are determined for the production condition of every individual farm household. The N fixed rate strategy realized the highest improvement potential in PCF and GM in WW; while the N coefficient strategy performed best in SM. The analysis furthermore revealed that improved N management has a significant positive effect on PCF, but only a marginal and insignificant effect on GM. On the other side, a potential 10% yield loss would have only a marginal effect on PCF, but a detrimental effect on farmers' income. With farmers currently applying excessive N rates as "cheap insurance" against potential N limitation, it will be of vital importance to avoid any yield reductions (caused by N limitation) and respective severe financial losses, when promoting and implementing advanced fertilization strategies. To achieve this, it is furthermore recommended to increase the price of fertilizer, improve the agricultural extensions system, and recognize farmers' fertilizer related decision-making processes as key research areas. PMID:26311087

  10. Taiwan’s Ecological Footprint (1994–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Jaan Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the 2011 edition of the National Footprint Accounts (NFA published by the Global Footprint Network (GFN, humankind consumed the resources and services of 1.5 planets in 2008; the corresponding number in 1961 was 0.7 planets. North Americans have an ecological footprint of 8.7 global hectares per person whereas Africans have a footprint of only 1.4 global hectares per person. The global mean biological capacity is only 1.8 global hectares per person so human beings are overshooting ecological resources. The ecological footprint measures the resources that are consumed by humans from the biosphere, and serves as an index of the sustainability of development. The NFA includes the ecological footprints of over 200 countries and regions, but not Taiwan. Hence, Taiwan must establish and update its own ecological footprint databases. Ecological footprint is one indicator of the sustainability of development, and can be compared across nations. This study extends previous studies by analyzing Taiwan’s ecological footprint from 2008–2011. With reference to the ecological footprint accounts of the Global Footprint Network and the Taiwan’s ecological footprint analysis for 1997–2007, this study presents Taiwan’s ecological footprint from 2008–2011. Most of the data that are used herein are taken from the Food and Agriculture Organization, the International Energy Agency, Taiwan’s Council of Agriculture and Taiwan’s National Development Council. The results thus obtained reveal that Taiwan’s ecological footprint from 2008–2011 exceeded that from 1997–2007. To respond to this trend toward un-sustainable development and to help Taiwan move toward sustainability, carbon reduction and energy saving policies should be implemented to effectively manage Taiwan’s ecological resources.

  11. Standard Test Method for Thermal Oxidative Resistance of Carbon Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1982-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the apparatus and procedure for the determination of the weight loss of carbon fibers, exposed to ambient hot air, as a means of characterizing their oxidative resistance. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to inch-pound units which are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard information, see Section 8.

  12. Effectiveness and legitimacy of forest carbon standards in the OTC voluntary carbon market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merger Eduard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the voluntary over-the-counter (OTC carbon market has reached a significant market volume. It is particularly interesting for forest mitigation projects which are either ineligible in compliance markets or confronted with a plethora of technical and financial hurdles and lacking market demand. As the OTC market is not regulated, voluntary standards have been created to secure the social and environmental integrity of the traded mitigation projects and thus to ensure the quality of the resulting carbon credits. Building on a theoretical efficiency-legitimacy framework, this study aims to identify and analyse the characteristics and indicators that determine the efficiency and organisational legitimacy of standards for afforestation/reforestation carbon projects. Results All interviewed market actors consider third-party certification and standards as a crucial component of market functionality, which provide quality assurance mechanisms that reduce information asymmetries and moral hazard between the actors regarding the quality of carbon credits, and thus reduce transaction costs. Despite this development, the recent evolution of many new and differing standards is seen as a major obstacle that renders it difficult for project developers and buyers to select an appropriate standard. According to the interviewed experts the most important legitimating factors of standards are assurance of a sufficient level of quality of carbon credits, scientifically substantiated methodological accounting and independent third-party verification, independence of standard bodies, transparency, wide market acceptance, back-up of the wider community including experts and NGOs, rigorous procedures, and the resemblance to the Afforestation/Reforestation (A/R CDM due to its international policy endorsements. In addition, standards must provide evidence that projects contribute to a positive social and environmental development, do

  13. Water footprints of nations

    OpenAIRE

    Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2004-01-01

    The water footprint concept has been developed in order to have an indicator of water use in relation to consumption of people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. Closely linked to the water footprint concept is the virtual water concept. Virtual water is defined as the volume of water required to produce a commodity or service. International trade of commodities imp...

  14. FootPrinter3: phylogenetic footprinting in partially alignable sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Fei; Blanchette, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    FootPrinter3 is a web server for predicting transcription factor binding sites by using phylogenetic footprinting. Until now, phylogenetic footprinting approaches have been based either on multiple alignment analysis (e.g. PhyloVista, PhastCons), or on motif-discovery algorithms (e.g. FootPrinter2). FootPrinter3 integrates these two approaches, making use of local multiple sequence alignment blocks when those are available and reliable, but also allowing finding motifs in unalignable regions....

  15. Spotting Cheetahs: Identifying Individuals by Their Footprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Zoe C; Alibhai, Sky K; Weise, Florian; Munro, Stuart; Van Vuuren, Marlice; Van Vuuren, Rudie

    2016-01-01

    The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is Africa's most endangered large felid and listed as Vulnerable with a declining population trend by the IUCN(1). It ranges widely over sub-Saharan Africa and in parts of the Middle East. Cheetah conservationists face two major challenges, conflict with landowners over the killing of domestic livestock, and concern over range contraction. Understanding of the latter remains particularly poor(2). Namibia is believed to support the largest number of cheetahs of any range country, around 30%, but estimates range from 2,905(3) to 13,520(4). The disparity is likely a result of the different techniques used in monitoring. Current techniques, including invasive tagging with VHF or satellite/GPS collars, can be costly and unreliable. The footprint identification technique(5) is a new tool accessible to both field scientists and also citizens with smartphones, who could potentially augment data collection. The footprint identification technique analyzes digital images of footprints captured according to a standardized protocol. Images are optimized and measured in data visualization software. Measurements of distances, angles, and areas of the footprint images are analyzed using a robust cross-validated pairwise discriminant analysis based on a customized model. The final output is in the form of a Ward's cluster dendrogram. A user-friendly graphic user interface (GUI) allows the user immediate access and clear interpretation of classification results. The footprint identification technique algorithms are species specific because each species has a unique anatomy. The technique runs in a data visualization software, using its own scripting language (jsl) that can be customized for the footprint anatomy of any species. An initial classification algorithm is built from a training database of footprints from that species, collected from individuals of known identity. An algorithm derived from a cheetah of known identity is then able to classify

  16. Measuring your Garden Footprint

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Gareth; Schmutz, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    The work reports on a Garden Organic (working name of Henry Doubleday Research Association, Coventry UK) members experiment in 2007. Garden Organic members were surveyed with a detailed paper questionnaire to calculate an average gardening footprint of committed (self-selected) organic gardeners in the UK. This was used to develop a garden footprinting methodology and to create a benchmark of committed organic gardening in the UK. This was then compared to commerical orangic growing and to ot...

  17. Huella del Carbono. Parte 1: Conceptos, Métodos de Estimación y Complejidades Metodológicas Carbon Footprint. Part 1: Concepts, Estimation Methods and Methodological Complexities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Espíndola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta y analiza el concepto de huella del carbono, su origen, su relación con los gases efecto invernadero, y sobre los procedimientos para cuantificarla. El efecto invernadero provoca que la energía que llega a la Tierra sea devuelta más lentamente, por lo que es mantenida más tiempo junto a la superficie elevando la temperatura. Es aceptado hoy en día que este efecto es producido por algunos gases liberados en forma natural o por las acciones humanas. La Huella de Carbono es considerada una de las más importantes herramientas para cuantificar las emisiones de gases efecto invernadero y en forma muy general, representa la cantidad de gases efecto invernadero emitidos a la atmósfera derivados de las actividades de producción o consumo de bienes y servicios. Al no existir consenso en cuanto a la definición y menos en la cuantificación de la huella del carbono, la primera parte de este trabajo analiza las principales corrientes y enfoques actuales.The concept of Carbon Footprint, its origin, its relation with greenhouse gases and the methods to quantify it are presented and analyzed. The so-called greenhouse effect causes that the energy that reaches the earth at a certain rate is returned to a slower rate, increasing the temperature of the earth surface. Additionally, it is nowadays accepted that this effect is produced by some gases that are naturally emitted or produced by human actions. The Carbon Footprint is considered to be one of the most important tools for quantifying greenhouse emissions and in a general form it represents the quantity of gases emitted to the atmosphere and that is produced by human activities, and by goods and service consumption. Since there is no consensus about the definition of Carbon Footprint or the forms of quantifying it, this first part of the paper series analyzes the main concept and the main present views on the Carbon Footprint.

  18. Huella del Carbono. Parte 2: La Visión de las Empresas, los Cuestionamientos y el Futuro Carbon Footprint: Part 2: Enterprises Viewpoint, Doubts and the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Espíndola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta segunda parte de la serie, se discute sobre la visión y posición que tienen las empresas frente al concepto de Huella del Carbono (HdC y de los métodos para cuantificarla. Se analiza los criterios de clasificación de emisiones en las principales metodologías de cálculo de la HdC y se discute sobre los principales cuestionamientos a la HdC, sobre los temas a resolver y sus alternativas de solución. Se presenta una base comparativa para los cuatro principales métodos de determinación de HdC actualmente vigentes en el mercado y se propone un método denominado Abaco para la contabilización de emisiones de CO2 equivalente , que permite identificar las características comunes de estos métodos. Todo esto puede servir de base en la toma de decisiones gerenciales para adoptar una determinada metodología. Se concluye que d e mantenerse la falta de claridad y comparabilidad en la determinación de emisiones podría provocar la pérdida de una gran oportunidad para lanzar una nueva economía medio-ambientalmente sostenible.In this second part of the series, the viewpoint of the enterprises and their position with respect to the implementation of carbon footprint (CFP quantification. The criteria for classification of emissions and the main methodologies for calculating the CFP are discussed and analyzed. The main questions and doubts about the CFP, on the subjects to be discussed and the alternatives of solution. A comparison of the main four methods currently used for determining the CFP and a method named Abacus for quantifying emissions of equivalent CO2 that allows identifying the common characteristics to all of them. All this can serve as basis for decision-making to adopt a given methodology. It is concluded that if the present situation of confusion of the different approaches to quantify the CFP continues, the companies and governments are loosing a great opportunity to arrive to a new environmentally sustainable economy.

  19. Carbon cartridge standards for 125I and suggested applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tries, M A; Ring, J P; Chabot, G E

    1997-09-01

    Carbon cartridge standards were prepared to assess the activity of 125I incident on, and adsorbed in, cartridge samples during air sampling. Each cartridge standard consisted of an 125I-spiked filter paper at a known depth, ranging from 0 to 19 mm, embedded in approximately 34 g of 20-30 mesh activated carbon contained within a 6.35 cm diameter by 2.22 cm deep metal cartridge with screened openings. The total counting efficiency values range from 17.8 to 20.8% for cartridges counted at 3.2 mm from a thin-crystal NaI(Tl) detector. The standards were analyzed using a front/back counting technique, and fitting functions were developed relating the front/back net counts ratio and counting efficiency to the 125I depth of burial. A method for determining sample activity that accounts for exponential radioiodine loading in cartridge samples is compared to a less complicated technique that assumes all the radioiodine is located at an equivalent depth of burial that is based on the sample front/back net counts ratio. In addition, methods are presented for determining airborne 125I activity for constant and variable concentrations. Variable concentrations are assumed to occur in a fume hood duct by one or more bulk releases as a result of iodinations that are performed during a given sampling interval. The two methods are shown to have maximum relative deviations ranging from -16 to +16%. PMID:9287093

  20. 78 FR 34340 - Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... Order; Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products from Turkey, 51 FR 17784 (May 15, 1986). The... International Trade Administration Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Preliminary... antidumping duty order on welded carbon steel standard pipe and tube products (welded pipe and tube)...

  1. California's Low-Carbon Fuel Standard - Compliance Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcover, J.; Yeh, S.

    2013-12-01

    Policies to incentivize lower carbon transport fuels have become more prevalent even as they spark heated debate over their cost and feasibility. California's approach - performance-based regulation called the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) - has proved no exception. The LCFS aims to achieve 10% reductions in state transport fuel carbon intensity (CI) by 2020, by setting declining annual CI targets, and rewarding fuels for incremental improvements in CI beyond the targets while penalizing those that fail to meet requirements. Even as debate continues over when new, lower carbon fuels will become widely available at commercial scale, California's transport energy mix is shifting in gradual but noticeable ways under the LCFS. We analyze the changes using available data on LCFS fuels from the California Air Resources Board and other secondary sources, beginning in 2011 (the first compliance year). We examine trends in program compliance (evaluated through carbon credits and deficits generated), and relative importance of various transport energy pathways (fuel types and feedstocks, and their CI ratings, including new pathways added since the program's start). We document a roughly 2% decline in CI for gasoline and diesel substitutes under the program, with compliance achieved through small shifts toward greater reliance on fuels with lower CI ratings within a relatively stable amount of transport energy derived from alternatives to fossil fuel gasoline and diesel. We also discuss price trends in the nascent LCFS credit market. The results are important to the broader policy debate about transportation sector response to market-based policies aimed at reducing the sector's greenhouse gas emissions.

  2. The environmental cost of subsistence: Optimizing diets to minimize footprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Jessica A; Davis, Kyle F; Emery, Kyle A; Leach, Allison M; Galloway, James N; Pace, Michael L

    2016-05-15

    The question of how to minimize monetary cost while meeting basic nutrient requirements (a subsistence diet) was posed by George Stigler in 1945. The problem, known as Stigler's diet problem, was famously solved using the simplex algorithm. Today, we are not only concerned with the monetary cost of food, but also the environmental cost. Efforts to quantify environmental impacts led to the development of footprint (FP) indicators. The environmental footprints of food production span multiple dimensions, including greenhouse gas emissions (carbon footprint), nitrogen release (nitrogen footprint), water use (blue and green water footprint) and land use (land footprint), and a diet minimizing one of these impacts could result in higher impacts in another dimension. In this study based on nutritional and population data for the United States, we identify diets that minimize each of these four footprints subject to nutrient constraints. We then calculate tradeoffs by taking the composition of each footprint's minimum diet and calculating the other three footprints. We find that diets for the minimized footprints tend to be similar for the four footprints, suggesting there are generally synergies, rather than tradeoffs, among low footprint diets. Plant-based food and seafood (fish and other aquatic foods) commonly appear in minimized diets and tend to most efficiently supply macronutrients and micronutrients, respectively. Livestock products rarely appear in minimized diets, suggesting these foods tend to be less efficient from an environmental perspective, even when nutrient content is considered. The results' emphasis on seafood is complicated by the environmental impacts of aquaculture versus capture fisheries, increasing in aquaculture, and shifting compositions of aquaculture feeds. While this analysis does not make specific diet recommendations, our approach demonstrates potential environmental synergies of plant- and seafood-based diets. As a result, this study

  3. Computing the Flux Footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. D.

    2015-07-01

    We address the flux footprint for measurement heights in the atmospheric surface layer, comparing eddy diffusion solutions with those furnished by the first-order Lagrangian stochastic (or "generalized Langevin") paradigm. The footprint given by Langevin models differs distinctly from that given by the random displacement model (i.e. zeroth-order Lagrangian stochastic model) corresponding to its "diffusion limit," which implies that a well-founded theory of the flux footprint must incorporate the turbulent velocity autocovariance. But irrespective of the choice of the eddy diffusion or Langevin class of model as basis for the footprint, tuning relative to observations is ultimately necessary. Some earlier treatments assume Monin-Obukhov profiles for the mean wind and eddy diffusivity and that the effective Schmidt number (ratio of eddy viscosity to the tracer eddy diffusivity) in the neutral limit , while others calibrate the model to the Project Prairie Grass dispersion trials. Because there remains uncertainty as to the optimal specification of (or a related parameter in alternative theories, e.g. the Kolmogorov coefficient in Langevin models) it is recommended that footprint models should be explicit in this regard.

  4. Flux Footprint Climatology Estimated by Three Analytical Models over a Subtropical Coniferous Plantation in Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity poses a major challenge for the appropriate interpretation of eddy covariance data. The quantification of footprint climatology is fundamental to improving our understanding of carbon budgets, assessing the quality of eddy covariance data, and upscaling the representativeness of a tower fl ux to regional or global scales. In this study, we elucidated the seasonal variation of fl ux footprint climatologies and the major factors that infl uence them using the analytical FSAM (Flux Source Area Model), KM (Kormann and Meixner, 2001), and H (Hsieh et al., 2000) models based on eddy covariance measurements at two and three times the canopy height at the Qianyanzhou site of ChinaFLUX in 2003. The diff erences in footprints among the three models resulted from diff erent underlying theories used to construct the models. A comparison demonstrated that atmospheric stability was the main factor leading to diff erences among the three models. In neutral and stable conditions, the KM and FSAM values agreed with each other, but they were both lower than the H values. In unstable conditions, the agreement among the three models for rough surfaces was better than that for smooth surfaces, and the models showed greater agreement for a low measurement height than for a high measurement height. The seasonal fl ux footprint climatologies were asymmetrically distributed around the tower and corresponded well to the prevailing wind direction, which was north-northwest in winter and south-southeast in summer. The average sizes of the 90% fl ux footprint climatologies were 0.36–0.74 and 1.5–3.2 km2 at altitudes of two and three times the canopy height, respectively. The average sizes were ranked by season as follows: spring > summer > winter >autumn. The footprint climatology depended more on atmospheric stability on daily scale than on seasonal scale, and it increased with the increasing standard deviation of the lateral wind fl uctuations.

  5. Footprints of Buildings at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (footprints)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/INFO coverage consisting of 10 polygons representing the buildings' footprints at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah. The footprints were collected...

  6. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Dunklin Stucture Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  7. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Pemiscot Stucture Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  8. Building Footprints - MO 2011 Montgomery Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  9. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Scott Stucture Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  10. Building Footprints - MO 2012 New Madrid Stucture Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  11. Building Footprints - MO 2011 Lincoln Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  12. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Stoddard Stucture Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  13. Building Footprints - MO 2011 Warren Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  14. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Mississippi Stucture Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  15. Surveying the Environmental Footprint of Urban Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin Paul; Birkved, Morten; Fernandez, John

    2016-01-01

    of the environmental footprint from urban food demand (“foodprint”) is necessary. This article reviews 43 UM assessments including 100 cities, and a total of 132 foodprints in terms of mass, carbon footprint, and ecological footprint and situates it relative to other significant environmental drivers (transport......, and electricity. Hitherto, urban food consumption has garnered scant attention both in UM accounting (typically lumped with “biomass”) and on the urban policy agenda, despite its relevance to local and global environmental pressures. With future growth expected in urban population and wealth, an accounting......, energy, and so on) The foodprint was typically the third largest source of mass flows (average is 0.8 tonnes per capita per annum) and carbon footprint (average is 1.9 tonnes carbon dioxide equivalents per capita per annum) in the reviewed cities, whereas it was generally the largest driver of urban...

  16. Assessing the Blue and Green Water Footprint of Lucerne for Milk Production in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Morne E. Scheepers; Henry Jordaan

    2016-01-01

    The Global Water Footprint Standard approach was used to calculate the volumetric blue and green water footprint indicator for lucerne production as important feed for dairy cows in a major lucerne production region in South Africa. The degree of sustainability of water use then was assessed by comparing water use to water availability for the region. The results show a volumetric water footprint indicator of 378 m3/tonne of lucerne. Of the total blue and green water footprint, 55% is green w...

  17. Water requirements and footprint of a super intensive olive grove under Mediterranean climate

    OpenAIRE

    Paço, T. A.; Nogueira, A.M.; Silvestre, J.C.; Gonzalez, L.F.; Santos, F. L.; L. S. Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The water footprint of a product can be described as the volume of freshwater used to produce it, associated to a geographic and temporal resolution. For crops, the water footprint relates crop water requirements and yield. The components of water footprint, blue, green and grey water footprints, refer to the volumes of respectively, surface and groundwater, rainfall, and water required to assimilate pollution, used to produce the crop yield. The global standard for crop water ...

  18. 76 FR 18251 - Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan Andromania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... of large diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from Romania (65 FR... standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan and Romania (71 FR 26746). The Commission is now conducting... COMMISSION Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan Andromania AGENCY:...

  19. 碳足迹视角下 ICT产业碳排放对环境影响分析%Research on Impact and Measures of ICT Industry Carbon Emissions for Environment from Carbon Footprint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雷; 刘桂玲; 王欣; 李铁克

    2013-01-01

    ICT技术和产业的发展改变了人们的生活方式和商业模式,这种改变大大促进了经济增长。根据美国和世界其他国家的研究报告得出,由ICT产业发展而产生的大量碳排放对环境的影响正在加剧。具体原因为ICT产品的广泛使用和海量数据处理中心的建立。根据ICT产业价值链形成过程中碳足迹的追踪,能够得出ICT产业在原材料提取、生产制造与运输、产品应用和回收处理各环节的碳排放的大体数量和所占比例。针对ICT产业价值链中碳排放产生原因不同,分别采取监测、预警、生产过程优化、先进产品应用、新商业模式和政府政策等对策给予解决,同时也简要说明了ICT产业如何为其他产业提供了间接减少碳排放的手段。最后,结合ICT产业存在问题和解决对策给出了ICT产业发展与环境之间关系的新研究思路,并提出未来可以从定量角度研究ICT产业发展中碳排放对环境影响。%The development of ICT industry has changed people's lifestyles and business model , and this change greatly promotes economic growth .On the report of USA and other countries , the environment impact of carbon emis-sions generated by ICT industry is intensifying .The specific reasons are the establishment of the use of ICT products and massive data processing centers .Tracking on the process of ICT industry value chain based on carbon footprint , the numbers and proportions of carbon emissions can be draw on ICT industry in raw material extraction , manufactur-ing and transport , product application and recycling .Because the different causes about carbon emissions of ICT in -dustry , we can take monitoring , early warning , production process optimization , advanced product applications , new business models , government policies and other measures to address it .And a brief description of how to reduce car-bon emissions in ICT industry is given for other

  20. ADDRESSING WATER FOOTPRINT CONCEPT: A DEMONSTRABLE STRATEGY FOR PAPERMAKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Shen,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of the water footprint concept in 2002, in the context of humankind’s ever-increasing awareness of the valuable global freshwater resources, it has received more and more attention. The application of this relatively new concept has been expected to provide ecological and environmental benefits. For the water-intensive papermaking industry, it seems that water footprint needs to be addressed. The water footprint of cellulosic paper can be divided into three components, including its green water footprint, blue water footprint, and grey water footprint, which may be accounted for by considering the individual contributions of wood or non-wood materials, pulp production processes, effluent discharge to the receiving water bodies, process chemicals and additives, energy consumption, etc. In the literature, the accounting of water footprint during the whole production chain of cellulosic paper is already available, and relevant research findings can provide useful insights into the application of the concept; however, further development of the accounting methodologies is much needed, so that the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of water footprint can be internationally recognized, certified, and standardized. Although there are ongoing or upcoming debates and challenges associated with the concept, its application to papermaking industry may be expected to provide various encouraging possibilities and impacts.

  1. The Ecological Footprint Remains A Misleading Metric of Global Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Blomqvist, Linus; Brook, Barry W.; Ellis, Erle C.; Kareiva, Peter M.; Nordhaus, Ted; Shellenberger, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The global overshoot indicated by Ecological Footprint calculations consists entirely of an unreliable reframing of human carbon emissions and none of the five other land-use categories—cropland, grazing land, built-up land, fishing grounds, and forests. The Ecological Footprint is therefore “so misleading as to preclude its use in any serious science or policy context,” argue Blomqvist et al. in this perspective.

  2. Cement Footprint, October 2012 (MECS 2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-01

    Manufacturing energy and carbon footprints map energy consumption and losses, as well as greenhouse gas emissions from fuel consumption, for fifteen individual U.S. manufacturing sectors (representing 94% of all manufacturing energy use) and for the entire manufacturing sector. By providing energy consumption and emissions figures broken down by end use, the footprints allow for comparisons of energy use and emissions sources both within and across sectors. The footprints portray a large amount of information for each sector, including: * Comparison of the energy generated offsite and transferred to facilities versus that generated onsite * Nature and amount of energy consumed by end use within facilities * Magnitude of the energy lost both outside and inside facility boundaries * Magnitude of the greenhouse gas emissions released as a result of manufacturing energy use. Energy losses indicate opportunities to improve efficiency by implementing energy management best practices, upgrading energy systems, and developing new technologies. Footprints are available below for each sector. Data is presented in two levels of detail. The first page provides a high- level snapshot of the offsite and onsite energy flow, and the second page shows the detail for onsite generation and end use of energy. The principle energy use data source is the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), for consumption in the year 2006, when the survey was last completed.

  3. Foundries Footprint, October 2012 (MECS 2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-17

    Manufacturing energy and carbon footprints map energy consumption and losses, as well as greenhouse gas emissions from fuel consumption, for fifteen individual U.S. manufacturing sectors (representing 94% of all manufacturing energy use) and for the entire manufacturing sector. By providing energy consumption and emissions figures broken down by end use, the footprints allow for comparisons of energy use and emissions sources both within and across sectors. The footprints portray a large amount of information for each sector, including: * Comparison of the energy generated offsite and transferred to facilities versus that generated onsite * Nature and amount of energy consumed by end use within facilities * Magnitude of the energy lost both outside and inside facility boundaries * Magnitude of the greenhouse gas emissions released as a result of manufacturing energy use. Energy losses indicate opportunities to improve efficiency by implementing energy management best practices, upgrading energy systems, and developing new technologies. Footprints are available below for each sector. Data is presented in two levels of detail. The first page provides a high- level snapshot of the offsite and onsite energy flow, and the second page shows the detail for onsite generation and end use of energy. The principle energy use data source is the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), for consumption in the year 2006, when the survey was last completed.

  4. Dynamic study of carbon footprint of Chinese aluminum industry based on life cycle assessment during the period of 2000-2009%基于生命周期评价的中国铝业2000-2009年碳足迹研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任希珍; 田晓刚; 鞠美庭; 孟伟庆

    2011-01-01

    基于铝产品生命周期评价,应用碳足迹方法对中国铝行业能源消耗和气体排放进行研究,分析比较了2000-2009年中国铝行业碳足迹及相对世界总体状况变化趋势.研究表明,在铝产品完整生命周期过程中,每吨原生铝产品的碳足迹为9.31 hm2,其中初级生产过程碳足迹为7.69 hm2,约占总碳足迹的83%,尤以电力所致碳足迹份额相对更为显著.近10 a中国铝行业碳足迹从2000年的2.60×107 hm2增加到2009年的1.21×108 hm2,且相对世界铝行业碳足迹比例逐年增大,成为中国铝行业发展劣势.在此基础上,提出了一些碳减排措施.%Chinese primary aluminum production and consumption have always been at the forefront of the world, and the relative pro portion has increased year by year. However, aluminum production process is energy-intensive, which consumes large amounts of energy and emits a lot of greenhouse gases, making aluminum industry face severe environmental challenge. Climate change is the main environ mental issue for the aluminum industry. As the world moves to com bat climate change, the aluminum industry is moving too. Energy consumption and gas emissions of Chinese aluminum industry are ana lyzed using carbon footprint tool from a carbon reduction perspective in this paper, based on life cycle assessment (LCA). More over, carbon footprint of Chinese and world' s aluminum industry during the period of 2000- 2009 are compared. The results show that carbon footprint of per ton of aluminum product in the full life cycle is 9.31 hm2. However, footprint of primary production is 7.69 hm2, ac counting for the proportion of 83%, which is mainly caused by elec trical power use. That is to say, reducing carbon footprint of elec trolytic aluminum, especially electrical power use, is the key to re duce carbon footprint of aluminum industry. What' s more, carbon footprint of Chinese aluminum industry in the past decade has ex panded from 2.60 × 107 hm2

  5. Carbon footprint of ground source heat pump system in heating solar greenhouse based on life cycle assessment%日光温室地源热泵供暖碳足迹的生命周期分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴立龙; 马承伟; 刘明池; 王宝驹; 武占会; 许勇

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese solar greenhouse, characterized by east-west orientation, a transparent camber south roof, and a solid north roof and east and west walls, is utilized primarily in horticulture in northern China. This design of greenhouse can keep the sheltering plants from freezing in winter because of the“greenhouse effect”. However, the healthy growing of plants still needs assisted heating especially during winter nights. The coal-fired heating system (CFHs) and the natural gas-fired heating system (GFHs) both have been widely applied to heat greenhouses. However, the conventional fossil energy sources, such as coal and natural gas, are non-renewable and are the major greenhouse gas (GHG) contributors. The overusing of fossil fuel in agricultural production has been directly or indirectly related to the global climate change, environmental pollution, and energy crisis. Therefore, renewable and clean energy, such as solar, geothermal, and shallow geothermal has been increasingly applied for greenhouse heating or cooling across the world. Ground source heat pump (GSHP) technology has dual functions in heating and cooling. It is one of the most rapidly growing green technologies for heating and air-conditioning in recent years. The GSHP application for solar greenhouse heating has proven to have a high primary energy ratio or coefficient of performance (COP) in previously studies. However, the environmental performance of the GSHP in heating solar greenhouse, such as its carbon footprint, is still unknown. Systematic and long-term study of the specific GSHP greenhouse-heating was required to evaluate its carbon footprint based on life cycle assessment (LCA) method. The GSHP in a Chinese solar greenhouse was studied to evaluate its environmental performance in greenhouse heating. The environmental performance of the GSHP was analyzed based on the field test data and the performance analysis models that were developed in this study. According to the study, in a 480 m

  6. Design challenges and gaps in standards in developing an interoperable zero footprint DI thin client for use in image-enabled electronic health record solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Arun; Koff, David; Bak, Peter; Bender, Duane; Castelli, Jane

    2015-03-01

    The deployment of regional and national Electronic Health Record solutions has been a focus of many countries throughout the past decade. A major challenge for these deployments has been support for ubiquitous image viewing. More specifically, these deployments require an imaging solution that can work over the Internet, leverage any point of service device: desktop, tablet, phone; and access imaging data from any source seamlessly. Whereas standards exist to enable ubiquitous image viewing, few if any solutions exist that leverage these standards and meet the challenge. Rather, most of the currently available web based DI viewing solutions are either proprietary solutions or require special plugins. We developed a true zero foot print browser based DI viewing solution based on the Web Access DICOM Objects (WADO) and Cross-enterprise Document Sharing for Imaging (XDS-I.b) standards to a) demonstrate that a truly ubiquitous image viewer can be deployed; b) identify the gaps in the current standards and the design challenges for developing such a solution. The objective was to develop a viewer, which works on all modern browsers on both desktop and mobile devices. The implementation allows basic viewing functionalities of scroll, zoom, pan and window leveling (limited). The major gaps identified in the current DICOM WADO standards are a lack of ability to allow any kind of 3D reconstruction or MPR views. Other design challenges explored include considerations related to optimization of the solution for response time and low memory foot print.

  7. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards... carbon monoxide in the ambient air shall be measured by: (1) A reference method based on appendix C and... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary ambient air......

  8. 75 FR 16439 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe From Turkey: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Steel Pipe and Tube Products from Turkey, 51 FR 7984 (March 7, 1986). On March 2, 2009, the Department... Administrative Review: Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey, 72 FR 62837, 62838 (November 7...: Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey, 73 FR 12080 (March 6, 2008). To calculate the...

  9. Carbon finance and pro-poor co-benefits: The Gold Standard and Climate, Community and Biodiversity Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Rachel

    2011-04-15

    This paper assesses the practical contribution of the Gold Standard (GS) and Climate Community and Biodiversity (CCB) Standards to local development through the identification of high quality carbon offset projects and ensuring high standards of consultation with local communities during project development and implementation. It is based on desk research, involving analysis of the GS and CCB Standards' project databases, project design documents, and secondary literature. In addition, over 20 representatives of the two standards systems, project developers, NGO representatives, and researchers were interviewed. The paper concludes that both standard systems successfully reward high quality projects which have a demonstrated commitment to local consultations and sustainable development benefits. Moreover, they serve to give well-meaning project developers frameworks with which to ensure that a wide range of criteria are considered in planning and implementing projects. As voluntary standards, it is unrealistic to expect either the GS or CCB Standards to improve poor-quality or unsustainable projects.

  10. Tire footprint studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Mangal; Medzorian, John

    1995-08-01

    This presentation covers the results of tire footprint studies conducted in the Landing Gear Development Facility of the USAF Wright Laboratory at the Wright Patterson Air force Base, OH. Tire footprint studies are essential in understanding tire wear mechanisms and computing tire tread wear rates. The power input into the tread is the driving force for tread wear. Variables needed for power input calculations include the footprint pressure and slip velocity distributions. Studies were performed on the effects of power input distributions due to vertical load, camber, yaw, inflation pressure, and tire construction. For the present study, two tire constructions, one radial and the other bias, were selected. These tires were for the F-16 Block 30 fighter aircraft, both of which were previously worn. The present study was limited to steady straight roll with a 14,000 lb vertical load, a 310 psi inflation pressure, and zero yaw and camber. All tests were conducted on the Tire Force Machine (TFM) with a specialized sensor plate with embedded pressure sensors (X, Y, and Z) and slip sensors (X and Y). All tests were conducted for a table speed of 1 in/s. Tests on the TFM show that the power intensity distributions and total power for both tire constructions are quite similar for straight roll. Later on, tests were also conducted on a modified dynamometer which was overlaid with a grit wear surface. The tire speed was maintained at 40 miles per hour and yaw was set to four degrees. Dynamometer tests showed that radial tires have more tread wear than the bias tire; however, in the field, radial tires have longer life.

  11. 亚太森博之低碳"纸"路%Low-carbon Footprint Development Path of APRIL SSYMB Pulp and Paper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马克顺; 张守国; 江健儿

    2011-01-01

    Since its founding, APRIL (Asia Pacific Resources International Limited ) has followed an integrated "forestry,pulp and paper"development strategy by plantation for carbon sequestration and rotating harvesting for pulp and paper production. The total investment in SSMYB Phase 1 and Phase 2 for environmental protection was 3.63 billion RMB,the highest among all Chinese pulp mills.Based on national authority's assessment,SSYMB's effluent pollutants are less than the limit set up by the European,American and Japanese standards,among the most advanced levels of cleaner production in the world.Employing the world's most advanced technologies in energy-saving,water conservation and waste treatments,SSYMB reaches water reuse rate of 90%,alkali recovery rate of 99.3%,black liquor recovery rate of 100% and energy self-sufficient rate of above 90%.%亚太资源集团秉持育林固碳、轮伐造纸的"林、浆、纸一体化"发展战略,跨国育林,国内"纸"用.公司一期、二期工程环保投资36.3亿元,创国内单个浆纸厂之最.据国家权威部门测评,公司排放指标均优于欧美、日本行业标准,达到清洁生产的国际先进水平.采用了世界最先进的节能、节水、"三废"处理新技术,水循环利用率达90%,碱回收率99.3%,黑液回收率100%,能源自给率90%以上.

  12. Saving the Planet’s Climate or Water Resources? The Trade-Off between Carbon and Water Footprints of European Biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Berger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Little information regarding the global water footprint of biofuels consumed in Europe is available. Therefore, the ultimate origin of feedstock underlying European biodiesel and bioethanol consumption was investigated and combined with the irrigation requirements of different crops in different countries. A (blue water consumption of 1.9 m3 in 12 countries per GJ of European biodiesel and 3.3 m3 in 23 countries per GJ of bioethanol was determined. Even though this represents an increase by a factor of 60 and 40 compared to fossil diesel and gasoline, these figures are low compared to global average data. The assessment of local consequences has shown that the irrigation of sunflower seed in Spain causes 50% of the impacts resulting from biodiesel—even though it constitutes only 0.9% of the feedstock. In case of bioethanol production, the irrigation of sugar cane in Egypt, which constitutes only 0.7% of the underlying feedstock, causes 20% of the impacts. In a case study on passenger cars, it was shown that biofuels can reduce the global warming potential by circa 50% along the product life cycle. However, the price of this improvement is an approximate 19 times increased water consumption, and resulting local impacts are even more severe.

  13. The greenhouse emissions footprint of free-range eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R C; Omed, H; Edwards-Jones, G

    2014-01-01

    Eggs are an increasingly significant source of protein for human consumption, and the global poultry industry is the single fastest-growing livestock sector. In the context of international concern for food security and feeding an increasingly affluent human population, the contribution to global greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions from animal protein production is of critical interest. We calculated the GHG emissions footprint for the fastest-growing sector of the UK egg market: free-range production in small commercial units on mixed farms. Emissions are calculated to current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and UK standards (PAS2050): including direct, indirect, and embodied emissions from cradle to farm gate compatible with a full product life-cycle assessment. We present a methodology for the allocation of emissions between ruminant and poultry enterprises on mixed farms. Greenhouse gas emissions averaged a global warming potential of 2.2 kg of CO2e/dozen eggs, or 1.6 kg of CO2equivalent (e)/kg (assuming average egg weight of 60 g). One kilogram of protein from free-range eggs produces 0.2 kg of CO2e, lower than the emissions from white or red meat (based on both kg of meat and kg of protein). Of these emissions, 63% represent embodied carbon in poultry feed. A detailed GHG emissions footprint represents a baseline for comparison with other egg production systems and sources of protein for human consumption. Eggs represent a relatively low-carbon supply of animal protein, but their production is heavily dependent on cereals and soy, with associated high emissions from industrial nitrogen production, land-use change, and transport. Alternative sources of digestible protein for poultry diets are available, may be produced from waste processing, and would be an effective tool for reducing the industry's GHG emissions and dependence on imported raw materials. PMID:24570444

  14. 75 FR 22372 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe... determines that certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's... imports of certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe (``seamless...

  15. 75 FR 69050 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe... duty order on certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe (``seamless... seamless pipe from the PRC. See Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure...

  16. 78 FR 79665 - Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Antidumping Duty Order; Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey, 51 FR 17784, 17784... International Trade Administration Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Final... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on welded carbon steel standard pipe and tube...

  17. The Ecological Footprint of Industrialized countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Frassoldati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To compare the carbon footprint of different nations and the per capita for each country allows us to visualize a problem often underestimated by our systems of production and consumption, which is based on inequality. There is a need to work on this problem because in sharing the liability and the global consequences, the effects that cannot continue, reveals a series of possibilities. It would require 3-6 planets equal to Earth in order to sustain a lifestyle like that of an inhabitant of North America in order to supporst all inhabitants on Earth.

  18. 75 FR 44766 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey: Final Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ...: Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey, 51 FR 7984 (March 7, 1986). On April 1...: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 16439 (April 1, 2010) (Preliminary...) was rescinded. See Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube from Turkey: Notice of Rescission...

  19. 77 FR 19623 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... Pipe and Tube Products from Turkey, 51 FR 7984 (March 7, 1986). \\2\\ See Antidumping or Countervailing... Administrative Review, in Part, 76 FR 78886 (December 20, 2011). \\12\\ See Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standare...: Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey, 72 FR 62837, 62838 (November 7, 2007) (Turkey...

  20. Assessment of global grey water footprint of major food crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Liu, Wenfeng; Antonelli, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural production is one of the major sources of water pollution in the world. This is closely related to the excess application of fertilizers. Leaching of N and P to water bodies has caused serious degradation of water quality in many places. With the persistent increase in the demand for agricultural products, agricultural intensification evident during the past decades will continue in the future. This will lead to further increase in fertilizer application and consequently water pollution. Grey water footprint is a measure of the intensity of water pollution caused by water use for human activities. It is defined as the volume of water that is required to assimilate a load of pollutants to a freshwater body, based on natural background concentrations and water quality standards. This study conducts a global assessment of grey water footprint for major cereal crops, wheat, maize and rice. A crop model, Python-based EPIC (PEPIT), is applied to quantify the leaching of N and P from the fertilizer application in the three crops on a global scale with 0.5 degree spatial resolution. The hotspots of leaching are identified. The results suggest that, based on the definition and method of grey water footprint proposed by the World Water Footprint Network, the grey water footprint in many parts of the world has exceeded their total water resources availability. This indicates the seriousness of water pollution caused by agricultural production. However, the situation may also call for the development of a realistic measurement of grey water footprint which is more pertinent to water resources management. This paper proposes some alternatives in measuring grey water footprint and also discusses incorporation of grey water footprint assessment into water policy formulation and river basins plan development.

  1. FLORIDA TOWER FOOTPRINT EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WATSON,T.B.; DIETZ, R.N.; WILKE, R.; HENDREY, G.; LEWIN, K.; NAGY, J.; LECLERC, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Florida Footprint experiments were a series of field programs in which perfluorocarbon tracers were released in different configurations centered on a flux tower to generate a data set that can be used to test transport and dispersion models. These models are used to determine the sources of the CO{sub 2} that cause the fluxes measured at eddy covariance towers. Experiments were conducted in a managed slash pine forest, 10 km northeast of Gainesville, Florida, in 2002, 2004, and 2006 and in atmospheric conditions that ranged from well mixed, to very stable, including the transition period between convective conditions at midday to stable conditions after sun set. There were a total of 15 experiments. The characteristics of the PFTs, details of sampling and analysis methods, quality control measures, and analytical statistics including confidence limits are presented. Details of the field programs including tracer release rates, tracer source configurations, and configuration of the samplers are discussed. The result of this experiment is a high quality, well documented tracer and meteorological data set that can be used to improve and validate canopy dispersion models.

  2. 78 FR 39533 - Power Sector Carbon Pollution Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ....) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, June 25, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-15941 Filed 6-28-13; 11:15 am] Billing code... Proposed Rulemaking entitled ``Standards of Performance for Greenhouse Gas Emissions for New Stationary... guidelines to reduce costs; (iii) develop approaches that allow the use of market-based...

  3. 75 FR 69125 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ..., and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register on May 11, 2010 (75 FR 26273). The hearing was... COMMISSION Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China Determination... alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe (``seamless SLP pipe''), provided for in subheadings...

  4. 77 FR 54926 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel; Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... FR 19711) and determined on July 6, 2012, that it would conduct an expedited review (77 FR 42763... COMMISSION Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel; Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany... steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from Germany would be likely to lead to continuation...

  5. Chinese Standards on Refractories Magnesia Carbon Bricks GB/T 22589-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan; Peng Xigao

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the classification,techni-cal requirements,test methods,quality appraisal pro-cedures,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of magnesia carbon bricks. This standard is applicable to the magnesia carbonbricks for steel-making converter,electric furnace,la-dle(refining furnace),etc.

  6. US power plant carbon standards and clean air and health co-benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Charles T.; Buonocore, Jonathan J.; Levy, Jonathan I.; Lambert, Kathleen F.; Burtraw, Dallas; Reid, Stephen B.; Fakhraei, Habibollah; Schwartz, Joel

    2015-06-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions standards for US power plants will influence the fuels and technologies used to generate electricity, alter emissions of pollutants such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, and influence ambient air quality and public health. We present an analysis of how three alternative scenarios for US power plant carbon standards could change fine particulate matter and ozone concentrations in ambient air, and the resulting public health co-benefits. The results underscore that carbon standards to curb global climate change can also provide immediate local and regional health co-benefits, but the magnitude depends on the design of the standards. A stringent but flexible policy that counts demand-side energy efficiency towards compliance yields the greatest health benefits of the three scenarios analysed.

  7. Data quality analysis with combination uncertainty and sensitivity for carbon footprint assessment of products%产品碳足迹评价中不确定度与敏感度相结合的数据质量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莎; 李燚佩; 曹磊; 刘尊文; 陈迎新

    2014-01-01

    产品碳足迹评价中,数据种类、来源、获取途径和量化方法的选择不同将直接影响到评价结果的可靠与否。本文建立了结合敏感度和DQI-Monte Carlo不确定度分析的产品碳足迹评价数据质量分析模型。首先通过敏感度分析识别出产品碳足迹评价中的主要数据,再采用DQI-Monte Carlo不确定度分析方法对主要数据进行数据质量判定,甄选出影响评价结果可靠性的关键数据,并由此有针对性地提出数据质量改进意见,从而有效地优化数据收集方案,减少碳足迹评价结果的不确定度。建立的方法应用于我国某塑料软包装印刷企业的印刷前阶段碳足迹评价中。%The results of carbon footprint assessment of products depend onthe selection of data types, sources, assessment approaches. The purpose of this study is to develop a new method which is combined DOI-Monte Carlo with sensitivity analysis and data quality analysis method for carbon footprint assessment of products. For this new approach, firstly, the primary data impacting on the assessment result were chosen through data sensitivity analysis; then, with DOI-Monte Carlo analysis the uncertainty of the primary data and the key data that affect the evaluation results were obtained. As a result, the accuracy of carbon footprint assessment could be improved more specific by optimizing data collection scheme according to the above data analysis method. As a case study, the developed method was applied to the carbon footprint assessment in the pre-printing stage of one plastic flexible packaging printing company in China. This approach can be used for carbon footprint assessment of many products by improving the uncertainty and data quality.

  8. Conventional, hybrid, plug-in hybrid or electric vehicles? State-based comparative carbon and energy footprint analysis in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Driving patterns and electricity generation mix influence vehicle preferences. • EVs are found to be least carbon-intensive vehicle option in 24 states. • HEVs are found to be the most energy-efficient option in 45 states. • EVs across the board are unfavorable in the marginal electricity mix scenario. • Use of renewable energy to power EVs/PHEVs is crucial. - Abstract: Electric vehicles (EVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are often considered as better options in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption compared to internal combustion vehicles. However, making any decision among these vehicle options is not a straightforward process due to temporal and spatial variations, such as the sources of the electricity used and regional driving patterns. In this study, we compared these vehicle options across 50 states, taking into account state-specific average and marginal electricity generation mixes, regional driving patterns, and vehicle and battery manufacturing impacts. Furthermore, a policy scenario proposing the widespread use of solar energy to charge EVs and PHEVs is evaluated. Based on the average electricity generation mix scenario, EVs are found to be least carbon-intensive vehicle option in 24 states, while HEVs are found to be the most energy-efficient option in 45 states. In the marginal electricity mix scenario, widespread adoption of EVs is found to be an unwise strategy given the existing and near-future marginal electricity generation mix. On the other hand, EVs can be superior to other alternatives in terms of energy-consumption, if the required energy to generate 1 kW h of electricity is below 1.25 kW h

  9. The ecological footprint method on a farm level – a case study on a UK organic farm with parallel cropping

    OpenAIRE

    Schmutz, Dr Ulrich; Firth, Chris; Lewis, Kevin; Lillywhite, Mr Robert

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the farming community to understand and improve their ecological footprint and reduce CO2-carbon emissions. This case study compares the ecological footprint of organic and conventional cabbage, celeriac, sugar beet and winter wheat crops on a UK commercial, parallel cropping, farm. Results show lower ecological footprints and energy ratios in all organic crops. However, CO2-emissions per unit yield are only lower if the fertility building is not considered. In...

  10. Mathematical Footprints Discovering Mathematics Everywhere

    CERN Document Server

    Pappas, Theoni

    1999-01-01

    MATHEMATICAL FOOTPRINTS takes a creative look at the role mathematics has played since prehistoric times, and will play in the future, and uncovers mathematics where you least expect to find it from its many uses in medicine, the sciences, and its appearance in art to its patterns in nature and its central role in the development of computers. Pappas presents mathematical ideas in a readable non-threatening manner. MATHEMATICAL FOOTPRINTS is another gem by the creator of THE MATHEMATICS CALENDAR and author of THE JOY OF MATHEMATICS. "Pappas's books have been gold mines of mathematical ent

  11. Herschel Footprint Database and Service

    CERN Document Server

    Varga-Verebélyi, E; Budavári, T; Kiss, Cs

    2016-01-01

    We created the Herschel Footprint Database and web services for the Herschel Space Observatory imaging data. For this database we set up a unified data model for the PACS and SPIRE Herschel instruments, from the pointing and header information of each observation, generated and stored sky coverages (footprints) of the observations in their exact geometric form. With this tool we extend the capabilities of the Herschel Science Archive by providing an effective search tool that is able to find observations for selected sky locations (objects), or even in larger areas in the sky.

  12. The application of spectrum standardization method for carbon analysis in coal using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiongwei; Fu, Yangting; Li, Zheng; Liu, Jianming; Ni, Weidou

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of carbon content in coal using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is limited by its low measurement precision and accuracy. A spectrum standardization method was proposed to achieve both reproducible and accurate results for the quantitative analysis of carbon content in coal with LIBS. The proposed method utilized the molecular carbon emissions to compensate the diminution of atomic carbon emission caused by matrix effect. The compensated carbon line intensities were further converted into an assumed standard state with fixed plasma temperature, electron density, and total number density of elemental carbon, which is proportional to its concentration in the coal samples. In addition, in order to obtained better compensation for total carbon number density fluctuations, an iterative algorithm was applied, which is different from our previous standardization calculations. The modified spectrum standardization model was applied to the measurement of carbon content in 24 bituminous coal sa...

  13. Trends and Issues in California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard - Learning from Response to Existing Climate Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcover, J.

    2015-12-01

    Debate over lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transportation has included heated discussion about appropriate policies and their cost and feasibility. One prominent policy mechanism, a carbon intensity standard, rates transport fuels based on analysis of lifecycle GHG emissions, and targets lower fuel pool carbon intensity through a market mechanism that uses a system of tradable, bankable credits and deficits. California instituted such a policy -- the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) - in 2010, which targets a 10% carbon intensity (CI) reduction by 2020. The program rolled out amid concerns over slow development of new fuels expected to be very low carbon (such as cellulosic) and has faced court challenges that added considerable policy uncertainty. Since the program's start, state transport energy mix has shifted modestly but noticeably. Looking ahead, emerging issues for the program include amendments and re-adoption in response to a court ruling, potential interaction with California's multi-sector cap on carbon emissions (which started covering transport fuels in 2015), and impacts from similar CI standards in other jurisdictions. This study provides an analysis of fuel mix changes since the LCFS was implemented in 2011, and a discussion of emerging issues focusing on policy interaction. Descriptive statistics on alternative fuel use, available fuel pathways, and CI ratings are presented based on data from the California Air Resources Board (which runs the program). They document a shift towards more alternative fuels in a more diverse mix, with lower average CI ratings for most alternative fuel types. Financial incentives for various fuels are compared under the LCFS and the US federal Renewable Fuel Standard; disincentives from conceptually different carbon pricing schemes under the LCFS and the Cap-and-Trade are also outlined. The results provide important information on response to an existing market-based policy mechanism for addressing GHG

  14. AgSat Imagery Collection Footprints

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The AgSat Imagery Collection Footprints map shows the imagery footprints which have been collected under the USDA satellite blanket purchase agreement. Click on a...

  15. The water footprint of bioenergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Meer, van der Theo H.

    2009-01-01

    All energy scenarios show a shift toward an increased percentage of renewable energy sources, including biomass. This study gives an overview of water footprints (WFs) of bioenergy from 12 crops that currently contribute the most to global agricultural production: barley, cassava, maize, potato, rap

  16. 75 FR 26273 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... COMMISSION Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China AGENCY... pipe (``seamless SLP pipe''), provided for in subheadings 7301.19.10, 7304.19.50, 7304.31.60, 7304.39... China of seamless SLP pipe, and that such products are being sold in the United States at less than...

  17. 76 FR 60083 - Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... pipe from Romania. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on April 1, 2011 (76 FR 18251) and determined on July 5, 2011 that it would conduct expedited reviews (76 FR 44608, July 26, 2011... COMMISSION Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania...

  18. Methodology for Rewetting Drained Tropical Peatlands. Approved Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) Methodology VM0027

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffer, S.; Laer, Y.; Navrátil, R.; Wosten, J.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    The first methodology to address the rewetting of drained peatlands "Methodology for rewetting Drained Tropical Peatlands" has been approved by the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) Program. As the methodology is the first of its kind, it will provide unique guidance for other projects that aim at rewe

  19. Standard enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of formation of “B” type carbonate fluorapatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The “B” type carbonate fluorapatites were dissolved in 26.22 wt% H3PO4 acid solution. • Dissolution processes were realized in a C80 SETARAM calorimeter. • The standard enthalpy of formation was determined by thermochemical cycle. • Estimation standard entropy of formation a value of the Gibbs free energy can deduce. • Increasing the amount of carbonate generates a decrease of the stability. - Abstract: The “B” type carbonate fluorapatites Ca10−x+u(PO4)6−x(CO3)xF2−x+2u, with 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 2 and u ⩽ x/2, were synthesized by a double decomposition method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The heat of dissolution of these products in a phosphoric acid solution was measured by a C-80 SETARAM microcalorimeter. A thermochemical cycle was proposed and complementary processes were carried out in order to get the standard enthalpies of formation of these apatites. Estimation of the values of entropy of formation allowed the determination of standard Gibbs free energies of formation of these compounds. The results showed that incorporation of carbonate ions results in a decrease of the stability of the apatite structure

  20. 75 FR 33578 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes from India: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... FR 20278 (May 1, 2009). On June 24, 2009, in response to a request from the Wheatland Tube Company... Antidumping Duty Order; Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes from India, 51 FR 17384 (May 12... Tubes from India, 51 FR 17384 (May 12, 1986). On May 1, 2009, the Department published in the...

  1. Standard Test Method for Gel Time of Carbon Fiber-Epoxy Prepreg

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of gel time of carbon fiber-epoxy tape and sheet. The test method is suitable for the measurement of gel time of resin systems having either high or low viscosity. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values in parentheses are for reference only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  2. Uk’e koley (no footprint) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winnestaffer, Jessica E.D. [Chickaloon Native Village

    2014-03-30

    Chickaloon Native Village is a federally-recognized Alaska Native Tribe that has long been devoted to being a good steward to the environment, understanding that it is our responsibility to take care of the land that has been loaned to us for the short time we are here. The goal of this project was to conduct a feasibility study to assess the energy uses, loads, and efficiencies for all of our current Tribally owned and operated buildings and rental housing units, to determine if it makes economic and environmental sense to install renewable energy systems on each building to lower our carbon footprints and to decrease our dependence on fossil fuels. The goal was met and we have developed a plan for installing renewable energy systems on several Tribal buildings where the benefits will be most notable.

  3. 基于生态足迹思想的皂市水利枢纽工程生态补偿标准研究%A study on ecological compensation standard for Zaoshi Water Conservancy Project based on the idea of ecological footprint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖建红; 陈绍金; 于庆东; 陈东景; 刘华平

    2011-01-01

    如何确定生态补偿标准是生态补偿研究的重点和难点问题.基于生态足迹思想方法,以皂市水利枢纽工程为例,构建了5个生态补偿主体受益评估模型(生态供给足迹评估模型)和8个生态补偿对象受损评估模型(生态需求足迹评估模型),对皂市工程生态补偿标准进行了定量评估.结果表明:①皂市工程生态补偿主体受益值为88482.2974 hm2/a,货币化转换结果为6.2353×108元/a;生态补偿对象受损值为14946.4861 hm2/a,货币化转换结果为1.0533×108元/a;生态补偿主体受益值是生态补偿对象受损值的5.92倍.②以明确生态补偿主体和生态补偿对象为前提,提出了3种生态补偿标准方案,目前推荐第2种生态补偿标准方案.③第2种生态补偿标准方案的生态补偿额为0.5238×108元/a,政府和水电开发业主是主要的生态补偿主体,其承担的生态补偿额分别占总生态补偿额的52.50%和35.77%;移民和河流生态系统本身是主要的生态补偿对象,其获得的生态补偿额分别占总生态补偿额的72.16%和15.68%.%Ecological compensation has been adopted in many countries and proved a good approach to protect environment. The focus of ecological compensation study was how to set ecological compensation standard. The ecological compensation standard was assessed mainly based on the methods of market value approach, opportunity cost approach, willingness to pay approach and cost analysis approach. Thus, the ecological footprint (EF) was applied rarely. The EF was defined as the biologically productive land and water a population requires to produce the resources it consumes and to absorb part of the waste generated by fossil and nuclear fuel consumption. The EF provides an aggregate estimate of demands upon the biophysical productivity and waste assimilation capacity of nature imposed by human lifestyles. This aggregate indicator permits the estimation of the equivalent land

  4. Carbon footprint calculators for public procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Mattinen, Maija; Nissinen, Ari

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in public organizations to take into account the climate impacts of the products and services they procure. Furthermore, in Finland a Government Resolution  exists that provides a framework and sets aims for sustainable public procurement. Several municipalities in the Helsinki region together with the Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority and several expert organizations initiated an EU Life project, JULIA2030, to develop calculators for different sec...

  5. A GENOME MAY REDUCE YOUR CARBON FOOTPRINT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheap sequence information will place new emphasis on comparative approaches to mining the data for sequence alterations that lead to physiological contrasts between groups. The data will need to be accessible and coupled with phenotypic data to be made useful for breeders. Increased emphasis on b...

  6. The Carbon Footprint of Conference Papers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diomidis Spinellis

    Full Text Available The action required to stem the environmental and social implications of climate change depends crucially on how humankind shapes technology, economy, lifestyle and policy. With transport CO2 emissions accounting for about a quarter of the total, we examine the contribution of CO2 output by scientific travel. Thankfully for the reputation of the scientific community, CO2 emissions associated with the trips required to present a paper at a scientific conference account for just 0.003% of the yearly total. However, with CO2 emissions for a single conference trip amounting to 7% of an average individual's total CO2 emissions, scientists should lead by example by demonstrating leadership in addressing the issue.

  7. The Carbon Footprint of Conference Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinellis, Diomidis; Louridas, Panos

    2013-01-01

    The action required to stem the environmental and social implications of climate change depends crucially on how humankind shapes technology, economy, lifestyle and policy. With transport CO2 emissions accounting for about a quarter of the total, we examine the contribution of CO2 output by scientific travel. Thankfully for the reputation of the scientific community, CO2 emissions associated with the trips required to present a paper at a scientific conference account for just 0.003% of the yearly total. However, with CO2 emissions for a single conference trip amounting to 7% of an average individual's total CO2 emissions, scientists should lead by example by demonstrating leadership in addressing the issue. PMID:23840496

  8. The Carbon Footprint of Conference Papers

    OpenAIRE

    Spinellis, Diomidis; Louridas, Panos

    2013-01-01

    The action required to stem the environmental and social implications of climate change depends crucially on how humankind shapes technology, economy, lifestyle and policy. With transport CO2 emissions accounting for about a quarter of the total, we examine the contribution of CO2 output by scientific travel. Thankfully for the reputation of the scientific community, CO2 emissions associated with the trips required to present a paper at a scientific conference account for just 0.003% of the y...

  9. A Carbon Footprint of an Office Building

    OpenAIRE

    Pellervo Matilainen; Miimu Airaksinen

    2011-01-01

    Current office buildings are becoming more and more energy efficient. In particular the importance of heating is decreasing, but the share of electricity use is increasing. When the CO 2 equivalent emissions are considered, the CO 2 emissions from embodied energy make up an important share of the total, indicating that the building materials have a high importance which is often ignored when only the energy efficiency of running the building is considered. This paper studies a new office buil...

  10. Life cycle analysis, Carbon footprint, Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The aim of Life Cycle Analysis is to try and evaluate the environmental impact of a device (or process), taking into account all the important contributing factors over its life. This can include the construction impacts and end of life issues, as well as any impact during the actual “use-phase” of the device. In the context of retail refrigeration, by far the dominant environmental impact results from the use of energy to run the refrigeration plant. This also applies to almost anything ...

  11. Carbon footprint of dairy production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their potential impact on global warming has become an important national and international concern. Dairy production systems along with all other types of animal agriculture are recognized as a source of GHG. Although little information exists on the net GHG emiss...

  12. A Carbon Footprint of an Office Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellervo Matilainen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Current office buildings are becoming more and more energy efficient. In particular the importance of heating is decreasing, but the share of electricity use is increasing. When the CO2 equivalent emissions are considered, the CO2 emissions from embodied energy make up an important share of the total, indicating that the building materials have a high importance which is often ignored when only the energy efficiency of running the building is considered. This paper studies a new office building in design phase and offers different alternatives to influence building energy consumption, CO2 equivalent emissions from embodied energy from building materials and CO2 equivalent emissions from energy use and how their relationships should be treated. In addition this paper studies how we should weight the primary energy use and the CO2 equivalent emissions of different design options. The results showed that the reduction of energy use reduces both the primary energy use and CO2 equivalent emissions. Especially the reduction of electricity use has a high importance for both primary energy use and CO2 emissions when fossil fuels are used. The lowest CO2 equivalent emissions were achieved when bio-based, renewable energies or nuclear power was used to supply energy for the office building. Evidently then the share of CO2 equivalent emissions from the embodied energy of building materials and products became the dominant source of CO2 equivalent emissions. The lowest primary energy was achieved when bio-based local heating or renewable energies, in addition to district cooling, were used. The highest primary energy was for the nuclear power option.

  13. Simulating the Carbon Footprint of Galactic Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, Simeon; Suresh, Joshua; Hernquist, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We use observations of CIV and CII absorption in background quasars to constrain the parameters of supernova feedback models based on the Illustris cosmological simulation. We compare our simulations to two CIV absorber surveys at z=2-4, spanning a column density range $10^{12} - 10^{15}$ cm$^{-2}$, and an equivalent width 0.1 - 2 \\AA, respectively. We find that reproducing results from the first survey requires that the energy per unit mass of the supernova feedback be increased by a factor of two over the Illustris feedback model. We suggest that winds which deposit a fraction of their energy into heating, rather than accelerating, the surrounding gas can achieve this without altering the star formation rate. However, even our most energetic wind models do not produce enough absorbers with a CIV equivalent width greater than 0.6 Angstrom to match the results of the second survey. We connect these absorbers to the most massive haloes present in our simulations, and suggest possible ways to alleviate the disc...

  14. 77 FR 21968 - Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the... countervailing duty order on seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR...

  15. 75 FR 29972 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Determination, 75 FR 22372 (April 28, 2010) (``Preliminary Determination''). On May 3, 2010, Tianjin Pipe (Group... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe... antidumping duty investigation of certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure...

  16. 75 FR 57444 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China, 74 FR 57521 (November 6, 2009) and Certain Seamless Carbon... export restraints, the GOC is providing inputs to downstream producers of seamless pipe. \\8\\ See 75 FR at... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure...

  17. 75 FR 11119 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan, covering the period June 1, 2008... Deferral of Administrative Review, 74 FR 37690 (July 29, 2009). The preliminary results for this... International Trade Administration Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and...

  18. 75 FR 6183 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... investigation on certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's Republic of China. See Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 74 FR 52744 (October 14,...

  19. 75 FR 18153 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan, covering the period June 1, 2008... Deferral of Administrative Review, 74 FR 37690 (July 29, 2009). The preliminary results for this... the record. See Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe...

  20. 75 FR 57449 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe... determined that certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's..., in Part, and Postponement of Final Determination, 75 FR 22372 (April 28, 2010)...

  1. 76 FR 47555 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Japan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ...On April 1, 2011, the Department of Commerce (``Department'') initiated the second sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on certain large diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe (``large diameter pipe'') from Japan and certain small diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe (``small diameter pipe'') from Japan and Romania. The......

  2. 75 FR 63439 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes From India: Extension of the Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 33578 (June 14, 2010). The review covers the... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes From India: Extension of... the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain welded carbon steel standard...

  3. 75 FR 68327 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes From India: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... and Requests for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 37759 (June 30, 2010). Based on various requests for review... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes From India: Rescission... certain welded carbon steel standard pipes and tubes from India. The period of review is May 1,...

  4. An urban metabolism and ecological footprint assessment of Metro Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jennie; Kissinger, Meidad; Rees, William E

    2013-07-30

    As the world urbanizes, the role of cities in determining sustainability outcomes grows in importance. Cities are the dominant form of human habitat, and most of the world's resources are either directly or indirectly consumed in cities. Sustainable city analysis and management requires understanding the demands a city places on a wider geographical area and its ecological resource base. We present a detailed, integrated urban metabolism of residential consumption and ecological footprint analysis of the Vancouver metropolitan region for the year 2006. Our overall goal is to demonstrate the application of a bottom-up ecological footprint analysis using an urban metabolism framework at a metropolitan, regional scale. Our specific objectives are: a) to quantify energy and material consumption using locally generated data and b) to relate these data to global ecological carrying capacity. Although water is the largest material flow through Metro Vancouver (424,860,000 m(3)), it has the smallest ecological footprint (23,100 gha). Food (2,636,850 tonnes) contributes the largest component to the ecological footprint (4,514,400 gha) which includes crop and grazing land as well as carbon sinks required to sequester emissions from food production and distribution. Transportation fuels (3,339,000 m(3)) associated with motor vehicle operation and passenger air travel comprises the second largest material flow through the region and the largest source of carbon dioxide emissions (7,577,000 tonnes). Transportation also accounts for the second largest component of the EF (2,323,200 gha). Buildings account for the largest electricity flow (17,515,150 MWh) and constitute the third largest component of the EF (1,779,240 gha). Consumables (2,400,000 tonnes) comprise the fourth largest component of the EF (1,414,440 gha). Metro Vancouver's total Ecological Footprint in 2006 was 10,071,670 gha, an area approximately 36 times larger than the region itself. The EFA reveals that

  5. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 2: Policy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sperling, Daniel; Farrell, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    The Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) can play a major role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and stimulating improvements in transportation fuel technologies so that California can meet its climate policy goals. In Part 1 of this study we evaluated the technical feasibility of achieving a 10 percent reduction in the carbon intensity (measured in gCO2e/MJ) of transportation fuels in California by 2020. We identified six scenarios based on a variety of different technologies that could meet o...

  6. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in carbonate rocks by using a ko standardization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantitative analysis of the trace element was conducted by the ko method using carbonate rock standard sample JLs-1 (limestone) and JDo-1 (Dolomite), and the effectiveness of the activation analysis with the ko method to the carbonate rock sample was confirmed. The accuracy of the quantitative measurement for the analysis results of long-lived nuclides of Al and Ba, middle-lived nuclides of Sm and Ho, and short-lived nuclides of Ce and Yb was evaluated compared with recommended values of Geological Survey of Japan. (H. Katsuta)

  7. Glass and Fiber Glass Footprint, October 2012 (MECS 2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-17

    Manufacturing energy and carbon footprints map energy consumption and losses, as well as greenhouse gas emissions from fuel consumption, for fifteen individual U.S. manufacturing sectors (representing 94% of all manufacturing energy use) and for the entire manufacturing sector. By providing energy consumption and emissions figures broken down by end use, the footprints allow for comparisons of energy use and emissions sources both within and across sectors. The footprints portray a large amount of information for each sector, including: * Comparison of the energy generated offsite and transferred to facilities versus that generated onsite * Nature and amount of energy consumed by end use within facilities * Magnitude of the energy lost both outside and inside facility boundaries * Magnitude of the greenhouse gas emissions released as a result of manufacturing energy use. Energy losses indicate opportunities to improve efficiency by implementing energy management best practices, upgrading energy systems, and developing new technologies. Footprints are available below for each sector. Data is presented in two levels of detail. The first page provides a high- level snapshot of the offsite and onsite energy flow, and the second page shows the detail for onsite generation and end use of energy. The principle energy use data source is the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), for consumption in the year 2006, when the survey was last completed.

  8. Iron and Steel Footprint, October 2012 (MECS 2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-17

    Manufacturing energy and carbon footprints map energy consumption and losses, as well as greenhouse gas emissions from fuel consumption, for fifteen individual U.S. manufacturing sectors (representing 94% of all manufacturing energy use) and for the entire manufacturing sector. By providing energy consumption and emissions figures broken down by end use, the footprints allow for comparisons of energy use and emissions sources both within and across sectors. The footprints portray a large amount of information for each sector, including: * Comparison of the energy generated offsite and transferred to facilities versus that generated onsite * Nature and amount of energy consumed by end use within facilities * Magnitude of the energy lost both outside and inside facility boundaries * Magnitude of the greenhouse gas emissions released as a result of manufacturing energy use. Energy losses indicate opportunities to improve efficiency by implementing energy management best practices, upgrading energy systems, and developing new technologies. Footprints are available below for each sector. Data is presented in two levels of detail. The first page provides a high- level snapshot of the offsite and onsite energy flow, and the second page shows the detail for onsite generation and end use of energy. The principle energy use data source is the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), for consumption in the year 2006, when the survey was last completed.

  9. Flux footprints in different ecosystems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macálková, Lenka; Havránková, Kateřina; Pavelka, Marian

    Brno : Global Change Research Centre, The Czech Academy of Sciences, v. v. i., 2015 - ( Urban , O.; Šprtová, M.; Klem, K.), s. 54-57 ISBN 978-80-87902-10-3. [Global Change: A Complex Challenge /4th/. Brno (CZ), 23.03.2015-24.03.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : eddy covariance * flux footprints * ecosystems Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  10. A simple two-dimensional parameterisation for Flux Footprint Prediction (FFP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kljun, N.; Calanca, P.; Rotach, M. W.; Schmid, H. P.

    2015-11-01

    Flux footprint models are often used for interpretation of flux tower measurements, to estimate position and size of surface source areas, and the relative contribution of passive scalar sources to measured fluxes. Accurate knowledge of footprints is of crucial importance for any upscaling exercises from single site flux measurements to local or regional scale. Hence, footprint models are ultimately also of considerable importance for improved greenhouse gas budgeting. With increasing numbers of flux towers within large monitoring networks such as FluxNet, ICOS (Integrated Carbon Observation System), NEON (National Ecological Observatory Network), or AmeriFlux, and with increasing temporal range of observations from such towers (of the order of decades) and availability of airborne flux measurements, there has been an increasing demand for reliable footprint estimation. Even though several sophisticated footprint models have been developed in recent years, most are still not suitable for application to long time series, due to their high computational demands. Existing fast footprint models, on the other hand, are based on surface layer theory and hence are of restricted validity for real-case applications. To remedy such shortcomings, we present the two-dimensional parameterisation for Flux Footprint Prediction (FFP), based on a novel scaling approach for the crosswind distribution of the flux footprint and on an improved version of the footprint parameterisation of Kljun et al. (2004b). Compared to the latter, FFP now provides not only the extent but also the width and shape of footprint estimates, and explicit consideration of the effects of the surface roughness length. The footprint parameterisation has been developed and evaluated using simulations of the backward Lagrangian stochastic particle dispersion model LPDM-B (Kljun et al., 2002). Like LPDM-B, the parameterisation is valid for a broad range of boundary layer conditions and measurement heights over

  11. The water footprint of land grabbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulli, Maria Cristina; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    increasing global demand for food, fibers, and biofuels has made investments in agriculture a priority for some governments and corporations eager to expand their agricultural production while securing good profits. Here we calculate the water appropriation associated with land deals at different negotiation and implementation stages. Using estimates of actual and potential evapotranspiration for the crops planted in the acquired land, we calculate the green and blue water appropriated by land investors under a variety of irrigation scenarios. We also determine the grey water footprint as the amount of water required to dilute to allowable standards the pollution resulting from fertilizer applications. We found that about 380 × 109 m3 yr-1 of rainwater is appropriated with the 43 million ha of reported contract area acquired by agri-investors (>240 × 109 m3 yr-1 in the 29 million ha of foreign acquisitions only). This water would be sufficient to feed ≈ 300-390 million people.

  12. Consumptive ecological footprint and productive ecological footprint:a modification on ecological footprint theory to evaluate regional sustainable development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XlONG Deguo; XIAN Xuefu

    2004-01-01

    Ecological footprint theory and its application achievements in global and regional sustainable development systems are studied by consulting the published literature, which finds that the application of ecological footprint theory to regional sustainability evaluation has leaded to a perplexity that the indicated result was inconsistent with the philosophy of sustainable development theory. Illuminated by the mechanical system of the movement of matters, it comes up that ecological footprint based on consumption of biologic production could not tell whether the ecological pressure acts on the specified region, and the original ecological footprint theory also undervalued the development impartiality of a region. A modification on this theory is made by introducing consumptive ecological footprint and productive ecological footprint, in which the latter is taken as the indicator of regional sustainability. The development impartiality can be demonstrated by comparison between the global ecological deficit per capita and regional consumptive ecological deficit per capita.

  13. 旅游风景区旅游交通系统碳足迹评估——以南岳衡山为例%Carbon footprint evaluation research on the tourism transportation system at tourist attractions: a case study in Hengshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦银娣; 刘云鹏; 李伯华; 刘沛林

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been large-scale development in tourism in China. It is difficult to achieve sustainable development of the tourism industry because of increasing carbon emissions associated with tourist attractions. In this article, we focused on Hengshan as the case study and applied a life cycle evaluation theory to construct a carbon footprint calculation model of the tourism transportation system at a scenic spot in Hengshan. The following results were obtained: first, in terms of total volume, different types of transportation have different carbon footprints. The most energy-expensive method of reaching tourist attractions is tourist highways, which have a carbon footprint that is 2. 6 times that of tourist cableways and 46. 1 times that of tourist walkways. Second, in terms of the stages in which the carbon footprint is distributed, the majority of the carbon footprint of tourist highways (79% ) and tourist cableways (96% ) is in the operation and use stage of the life cycle. For tourist walkways, most of the energy consumption is at the construction and the later operation stages. Third, in terms of source constitution, the carbon footprint of tourist highways occupies the largest proportion (about 71% ) during its useful life, followed by tourist cableways (27% ) and tourist walkways (2% ). The model described in this article will not only help to achieve the goals of low-carbon tourism development, but will also provide the theoretical support for saving energy and reducing emissions at tourist attractions. The following suggestions are proposed: first, it is important to increase awareness of low-carbon tourism, taking into account the transportation preferences of travelers and advocating a comprehensive means of tourist transport. Second, combined with the characteristics of the tourism infrastructure, some caution is needed when selecting low-carbon vehicles. Different types of transportation use different types of energy and have

  14. Estimating carbon emissions avoided by electricity generation and efficiency projects: A standardized method (MAGPWR)

    OpenAIRE

    Meyers, S.; Marnay, C.; Schumacher, K.; Sathaye, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a standardized method for establishing a multi-project baseline for a power system. The method provides an approximation of the generating sources that are expected to operate on the margin in the future for a given electricity system. It is most suitable for small-scale electricity generation and electricity efficiency improvement projects. It allows estimation of one or more carbon emissions factors that represent the emissions avoided by projects, striking a bala...

  15. Carbon dioxide emission standards for U.S. power plants. An efficiency analysis perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampf, Benjamin [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Fachbereich Rechts- und Wirtschaftswissenschaften; Roedseth, Kenneth Loevold [Institute of Transport Economics, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Economics and Logistics

    2013-07-01

    On June 25, 2013, President Obama announced his plan to introduce carbon dioxide emission standards for electricity generation. This paper proposes an efficiency analysis approach that addresses which mission rates (and standards) would be feasible if the existing generating units adopt best practices. A new efficiency measure is introduced and further decomposed to identify different sources' contributions to emission rate improvements. Estimating two Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models - the well-known joint production model and the new materials balance model - on a dataset consisting of 160 bituminous-fired generating units, we find that the average generating unit's electricity-to-carbon dioxide ratio is 15.3 percent below the corresponding best-practice ratio. Further examinations reveal that this discrepancy can largely be attributed to non-discretionary factors and not to managerial inefficiency. Moreover, even if the best practice ratios could be implemented, the generating units would not be able to comply with the EPA's recently proposed carbon dioxide standard.

  16. Carbon dioxide emission standards for U.S. power plants. An efficiency analysis perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On June 25, 2013, President Obama announced his plan to introduce carbon dioxide emission standards for electricity generation. This paper proposes an efficiency analysis approach that addresses which mission rates (and standards) would be feasible if the existing generating units adopt best practices. A new efficiency measure is introduced and further decomposed to identify different sources' contributions to emission rate improvements. Estimating two Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models - the well-known joint production model and the new materials balance model - on a dataset consisting of 160 bituminous-fired generating units, we find that the average generating unit's electricity-to-carbon dioxide ratio is 15.3 percent below the corresponding best-practice ratio. Further examinations reveal that this discrepancy can largely be attributed to non-discretionary factors and not to managerial inefficiency. Moreover, even if the best practice ratios could be implemented, the generating units would not be able to comply with the EPA's recently proposed carbon dioxide standard.

  17. Quantification of variables that determine the carbon footprint and energy embodied of structural clay products (cradle to gate with options); Cuantificacion de las variables que determinan la huella de carbono y energia embebida de los distintos productos de ceramica estructural (cuna a puerta con opciones)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Rubio, R.; Rio Merino, M. del

    2014-07-01

    The production and transport of structural ceramic products involves an important energy consumption, which leads to the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The aim of the research is to demonstrate the existence of significant differences in the value of the environmental impact of structural ceramic products manufactured in Spain. To achieve this objective, is developed a method of identifying and quantifying of variables that determine the Carbon Footprint and Embodied Energy of ceramic products, depending on the type of product. The necessary information is obtained mainly with a data collection in factories. It is established six variables with a global influence in the environmental impact, 44 primary and 39 secondary variables, establishing calculation formula from these variables. The results determined that, for same manufacturing conditions, the differences between ceramic products reach 27 % for carbon footprint and 35 % for Embodied Energy. The relevance that reaches the impact of transport can reach 40 % of the total. It is considered that the research and its results can contribute to reduce the environmental impact of the buildings. (Author)

  18. Global terrestrial Human Footprint maps for 1993 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Oscar; Sanderson, Eric W; Magrach, Ainhoa; Allan, James R; Beher, Jutta; Jones, Kendall R; Possingham, Hugh P; Laurance, William F; Wood, Peter; Fekete, Balázs M; Levy, Marc A; Watson, James E M

    2016-01-01

    Remotely-sensed and bottom-up survey information were compiled on eight variables measuring the direct and indirect human pressures on the environment globally in 1993 and 2009. This represents not only the most current information of its type, but also the first temporally-consistent set of Human Footprint maps. Data on human pressures were acquired or developed for: 1) built environments, 2) population density, 3) electric infrastructure, 4) crop lands, 5) pasture lands, 6) roads, 7) railways, and 8) navigable waterways. Pressures were then overlaid to create the standardized Human Footprint maps for all non-Antarctic land areas. A validation analysis using scored pressures from 3114×1 km(2) random sample plots revealed strong agreement with the Human Footprint maps. We anticipate that the Human Footprint maps will find a range of uses as proxies for human disturbance of natural systems. The updated maps should provide an increased understanding of the human pressures that drive macro-ecological patterns, as well as for tracking environmental change and informing conservation science and application. PMID:27552448

  19. BigFoot: Bayesian alignment and phylogenetic footprinting with MCMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós István

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously combined statistical alignment and phylogenetic footprinting to detect conserved functional elements without assuming a fixed alignment. Considering a probability-weighted distribution of alignments removes sensitivity to alignment errors, properly accommodates regions of alignment uncertainty, and increases the accuracy of functional element prediction. Our method utilized standard dynamic programming hidden markov model algorithms to analyze up to four sequences. Results We present a novel approach, implemented in the software package BigFoot, for performing phylogenetic footprinting on greater numbers of sequences. We have developed a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC approach which samples both sequence alignments and locations of slowly evolving regions. We implement our method as an extension of the existing StatAlign software package and test it on well-annotated regions controlling the expression of the even-skipped gene in Drosophila and the α-globin gene in vertebrates. The results exhibit how adding additional sequences to the analysis has the potential to improve the accuracy of functional predictions, and demonstrate how BigFoot outperforms existing alignment-based phylogenetic footprinting techniques. Conclusion BigFoot extends a combined alignment and phylogenetic footprinting approach to analyze larger amounts of sequence data using MCMC. Our approach is robust to alignment error and uncertainty and can be applied to a variety of biological datasets. The source code and documentation are publicly available for download from http://www.stats.ox.ac.uk/~satija/BigFoot/

  20. Measuring Your Water Footprint : What’s Next in Water Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2008-01-01

    By now, carbon neutrality is such a catchphrase in the world of responsible business, it’s impossible to ignore the carbon footprint of a new product or service. But with the exception of a few companies like Coca-Cola, Nestlé and Suez, the concept of water neutrality, or measuring your water footpr

  1. BUILDING ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM USING ISO 50001 STANDARD

    OpenAIRE

    Lokanath, Dr. M Dakshayini

    2016-01-01

    Neither energy can be created nor can be destroyed, so the main purpose of Building Energy Management Systems Software is to control the energy devices to make effective utilization of energy. All efforts are being put reduce energy consumption and decrease the carbon footprint. There are many alternative renewable energy sources to harvest naturally but currently these devices are costly for daily use. The ISO 50001 Standard has been proposed in 2001 for efficient use of energy in all commer...

  2. Geometric morphometric footprint analysis of young women

    OpenAIRE

    Domjanic, Jacqueline; Fieder, Martin; Seidler, Horst; Mitteroecker, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Background Most published attempts to quantify footprint shape are based on a small number of measurements. We applied geometric morphometric methods to study shape variation of the complete footprint outline in a sample of 83 adult women. Methods The outline of the footprint, including the toes, was represented by a comprehensive set of 85 landmarks and semilandmarks. Shape coordinates were computed by Generalized Procrustes Analysis. Results The first four principal components represented t...

  3. Ecological footprint of Shandong,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yu-jing; Luc Hens; ZHU Yong-guan; ZHAO Jing-zhu

    2004-01-01

    Ecological footprint has been given much attention and widely praised as an effective heuristic and pedagogic device for presenting current total human resource use in a way that communicates easily to almost everyone since 1996 when Wackernagel and Rees proposed it as a sustainable development indicator. Ecological footprint has been improving on its calculation and still can be a benchmark to measure sustainable development although there are still ongoing debates about specific methods for calculating the ecological footprint.This paper calculates the ecological footprint of Shandong Province, China with the methodology developed by Wackemagel and analyzes the current situation of sustainable development in Shandong.

  4. The water footprint of food

    OpenAIRE

    Arjen Y. Hoekstra; Förare, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    The international trade in agricultural commodities at the same time constitutes a trade with water in virtual form. Water in external areas has been used to produce the food and feed items that are imported. The water footprint of a good or a service is the total amount of water, external and internal, that is required to produce it. The concept can be used to calculate and compare the strain on water resources resulting from different options. It can also be extended to provide water budget...

  5. Global standardization of the calculation of CO2 emissions along transport chains-gaps, approaches, perspectives of the global alignment process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehrler, V.; Engel, A. van den; Davydenko, I.; Diekmann, D.; Kiel, J.; Lewis, A.; Seidel, S.

    2015-01-01

    The transport industry, consumers, shippers and political bodies are all pressing for a global standard for the calculation of emissions along supply chains. Comparability of the chains’ efficiency, reduction of energy consumption, transparency of the carbon footprint of products and identification

  6. How to Calculate Your Institution's Nitrogen Footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nitrogen Footprint Tool (NFT) allows institutions to estimate and manage their nitrogen footprint, and EPA’s Sustainable and Healthy Communities program is supporting an effort to test and expand this approach at multiple colleges, universities and institutions across t...

  7. Measuring the Global Footprint of an MBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Ilan; McAllaster, Craig M.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the concept that is termed the "global footprint" as a measure of a university's internationalization efforts along multiple dimensions. A university's globalization is multidimensional and includes students, faculty, and curricula. In this article, the authors demonstrate their conceptualization of the global footprint,…

  8. 77 FR 6542 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Notice of Final Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Notice of... of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on certain welded carbon steel pipe and tube from Turkey for... FR 11197 (March 1, 2011). On March 30, 2011, we received a letter from Erbosan Erciyas Boru Sanayi...

  9. 76 FR 78886 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Intent To Rescind Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Intent To... the countervailing duty (CVD) order on certain welded carbon steel pipe and tube from Turkey. See... Administrative Review, 76 FR 11197 (March 1, 2011). On March 30, 2011, we received a letter from Erbosan...

  10. Measuring Your Water Footprint : What’s Next in Water Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2008-01-01

    By now, carbon neutrality is such a catchphrase in the world of responsible business, it’s impossible to ignore the carbon footprint of a new product or service. But with the exception of a few companies like Coca-Cola, Nestlé and Suez, the concept of water neutrality, or measuring your water footprint, is still under the radar. It’s time to take note: In a landscape where the demand for water is fast outstripping supply, focusing on water neutrality is a key corporate strategy in managing wa...

  11. 基于生命周期评价的宁夏出口枸杞干果产品碳足迹评价--以宁夏某企业为例%Carbon footprint Assessment of Ningxia Wolfberry Product of Export Based on Life Cycle Assessment-an Example Company in Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳杨; 程志; 王廷宁; 崔耀东; 单臣玉; 闫吉春

    2016-01-01

    As the climate change conference agreement signed in Paris, “down-top” to address climate change become the main reduction mechanism of global climate governance process� Based on the theory of product carbon footprint calculation, using the method of life cycle assessment, life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of wolfberry product for export of a company in Ningxia were researched� The distribution of its carbon footprint were analyzed� Data base and suggestions were provided for enterprises to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in export wolfberry products� Results showed that wolfberry product carbon footprint of the company in Ningxia was the 2�224kg CO2 eq/kg, planting fertilizer, drying gas, product transportation, electricity, raw materials transportation, pesticides as well as the growing were accounted for 44% 20%, 18%, 9%, 8%, 1% of total emissions� Fertilizer and drying fuel were the main control of the product life cycle greenhouse gas emissions.%随着气候变化大会《巴黎协议》的签订,“自下而上”应对气候变化成为全球气候治理进程的主要减排机制。本文基于产品碳足迹核算理论,采用生命周期评价方法,以宁夏某企业为案例,研究宁夏出口枸杞干果产品生命周期温室气体排放,评价分析其碳足迹的分布构成,为企业减少出口枸杞产品的温室气体排放提供数据基础和措施建议。研究结果表明:宁夏某企业出口枸杞干果产品碳足迹为2�224 kgCO2 eq/kg,种植使用的化肥、烘干使用的天然气、以及产品运输、加工使用的电力、原料运输以及种植使用的农药分别占总排放的44%、20%、18%、9%、8%、1%,化肥和烘干燃料是控制枸杞产品生命周期温室气体排放的主要对象。

  12. Exploiting Data Similarity to Reduce Memory Footprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, S; de Supinski, B R; Schulz, M; Franklin, D; Sherwood, T; Chong, F T

    2011-01-28

    Memory size has long limited large-scale applications on high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Since compute nodes frequently do not have swap space, physical memory often limits problem sizes. Increasing core counts per chip and power density constraints, which limit the number of DIMMs per node, have exacerbated this problem. Further, DRAM constitutes a significant portion of overall HPC system cost. Therefore, instead of adding more DRAM to the nodes, mechanisms to manage memory usage more efficiently - preferably transparently - could increase effective DRAM capacity and thus the benefit of multicore nodes for HPC systems. MPI application processes often exhibit significant data similarity. These data regions occupy multiple physical locations across the individual rank processes within a multicore node and thus offer a potential savings in memory capacity. These regions, primarily residing in heap, are dynamic, which makes them difficult to manage statically. Our novel memory allocation library, SBLLmalloc, automatically identifies identical memory blocks and merges them into a single copy. SBLLmalloc does not require application or OS changes since we implement it as a user-level library. Overall, we demonstrate that SBLLmalloc reduces the memory footprint of a range of MPI applications by 32.03% on average and up to 60.87%. Further, SBLLmalloc supports problem sizes for IRS over 21.36% larger than using standard memory management techniques, thus significantly increasing effective system size. Similarly, SBLLmalloc requires 43.75% fewer nodes than standard memory management techniques to solve an AMG problem.

  13. Application and test of a simple tool for operational footprint evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a user-friendly tool for footprint calculations of flux measurements in the surface layer. The calculations are based on the analytical footprint model by Kormann, R. and Meixner, F.X. [2001. An analytical footprint model for Non-neutral Stratification. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 99, 207-224]. The footprint density function of a flux sensor is determined using readily available data from standard eddy covariance measurements. This footprint density function is integrated over defined surface areas given as quadrangular polygons representing e.g. agricultural fields. We illustrate the use and performance of the tool by applying it to CO2 flux measurements with three eddy covariance system at the Swiss CarboEurope grassland site. Two flux towers were positioned in the centre of two neighbouring fields, respectively, that showed a very different CO2 flux during the study period. The third tower was located near the border of the two fields and was frequently influenced by both fields to a similar degree. The calculated footprint fractions were used to simulate the latter flux from the other two systems. The measured and simulated fluxes showed a good agreement and thus support the reliability of the footprint calculation. The presented simple footprint tool can be used as a routine quality check for flux monitoring stations influenced by surface areas with varying vegetation covers and/or land-use. - A simple tool for operational footprint calculations is presented and its reliability is assessed using CO2 flux measurements in a patchy agricultural landscape

  14. Chemical footprint: a methodological framework for bridging life cycle assessment and planetary boundaries for chemical pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Serenella; Goralczyk, Malgorzata

    2013-10-01

    The development and use of footprint methodologies for environmental assessment are increasingly important for both the scientific and political communities. Starting from the ecological footprint, developed at the beginning of the 1990s, several other footprints were defined, e.g., carbon and water footprint. These footprints-even though based on a different meaning of "footprint"-integrate life cycle thinking, and focus on some challenging environmental impacts including resource consumption, CO2 emission leading to climate change, and water consumption. However, they usually neglect relevant sources of impacts, as those related to the production and use of chemicals. This article presents and discusses the need and relevance of developing a methodology for assessing the chemical footprint, coupling a life cycle-based approach with methodologies developed in other contexts, such as ERA and sustainability science. Furthermore, different concepts underpin existing footprint and this could be the case also of chemical footprint. At least 2 different approaches and steps to chemical footprint could be envisaged, applicable at the micro- as well as at the meso- and macroscale. The first step (step 1) is related to the account of chemicals use and emissions along the life cycle of a product, sector, or entire economy, to assess potential impacts on ecosystems and human health. The second step (step 2) aims at assessing to which extent actual emission of chemicals harm the ecosystems above their capability to recover (carrying capacity of the system). The latter step might contribute to the wide discussion on planetary boundaries for chemical pollution: the thresholds that should not be surpassed to guarantee a sustainable use of chemicals from an environmental safety perspective. The definition of what the planetary boundaries for chemical pollution are and how the boundaries should be identified is an on-going scientific challenge for ecotoxicology and ecology. In

  15. Water Footprint of crop productions: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovarelli, Daniela; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fiala, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Water Footprint is an indicator recently developed with the goal of quantifying the virtual content of water in products and/or services. It can also be used to identify the worldwide virtual water trade. Water Footprint is composed of three parts (green, blue and grey waters) that make the assessment complete in accordance with the Water Footprint Network and with the recent ISO14046. The importance of Water Footprint is linked to the need of taking consciousness about water content in products and services and of the achievable changes in productions, diets and market trades. In this study, a literature review has been completed on Water Footprint of agricultural productions. In particular, the focus was paid on crops for the production of food and bioenergy. From the review, the development of the Water Footprint concept emerged: in early studies the main goal was to assess products' water trade on a global scale, while in the subsequent years, the goal was the rigorous quantification of the three components for specific crops and in specific geographical areas. In the most recent assessments, similarities about the methodology and the employed tools emerged. For 96 scientific articles on Water Footprint indicator of agricultural productions, this literature review reports the main results and analyses weaknesses and strengths. Seventy-eight percent of studies aimed to quantify Water Footprint, while the remaining 22% analysed methodology, uncertainty, future trends and comparisons with other footprints. It emerged that most studies that quantified Water Footprint concerned cereals (33%), among which maize and wheat were the most investigated crops. In 46% of studies all the three components were assessed, while in 18% no indication about the subdivision was given; in the remaining 37%, only blue or green and blue components were quantified. PMID:26802352

  16. Evaluation of online carbon isotope dilution mass spectrometry for the purity assessment of synthetic peptide standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Purity assessment of peptide standards applicable to any water soluble peptide. • Online 13C isotope dilution mass spectrometry. • Mass flow chromatogram from measured 44/45 isotope ratios. • Validation by the analysis of NIST 8327. - Abstract: We present a novel method for the purity assessment of peptide standards which is applicable to any water soluble peptide. The method is based on the online 13C isotope dilution approach in which the peptide is separated from its related impurities by liquid chromatography (LC) and the eluent is mixed post-column with a continuous flow of 13C-enriched sodium bicarbonate. An online oxidation step using sodium persulfate in acidic media at 99 °C provides quantitative oxidation to 12CO2 and 13CO2 respectively which is extracted to a gaseous phase with the help of a gas permeable membrane. The measurement of the isotope ratio 44/45 in the mass spectrometer allows the construction of the mass flow chromatogram. As the only species that is finally measured in the mass spectrometer is CO2, the peptide content in the standard can be quantified, on the base of its carbon content, using a generic primary standard such as potassium hydrogen phthalate. The approach was validated by the analysis of a reference material (NIST 8327), and applied to the quantification of two commercial synthetic peptide standards. In that case, the results obtained were compared with those obtained using alternative methods, such as amino acid analysis and ICP-MS. The results obtained proved the value of the method for the fast, accurate and precise mass purity assignment of synthetic peptide standards

  17. Evaluation of online carbon isotope dilution mass spectrometry for the purity assessment of synthetic peptide standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz, Sergio Cueto; Ruiz Encinar, Jorge, E-mail: ruizjorge@uniovi.es; García Alonso, J. Ignacio, E-mail: jiga@uniovi.es

    2014-09-24

    Highlights: • Purity assessment of peptide standards applicable to any water soluble peptide. • Online {sup 13}C isotope dilution mass spectrometry. • Mass flow chromatogram from measured 44/45 isotope ratios. • Validation by the analysis of NIST 8327. - Abstract: We present a novel method for the purity assessment of peptide standards which is applicable to any water soluble peptide. The method is based on the online {sup 13}C isotope dilution approach in which the peptide is separated from its related impurities by liquid chromatography (LC) and the eluent is mixed post-column with a continuous flow of {sup 13}C-enriched sodium bicarbonate. An online oxidation step using sodium persulfate in acidic media at 99 °C provides quantitative oxidation to {sup 12}CO{sub 2} and {sup 13}CO{sub 2} respectively which is extracted to a gaseous phase with the help of a gas permeable membrane. The measurement of the isotope ratio 44/45 in the mass spectrometer allows the construction of the mass flow chromatogram. As the only species that is finally measured in the mass spectrometer is CO{sub 2}, the peptide content in the standard can be quantified, on the base of its carbon content, using a generic primary standard such as potassium hydrogen phthalate. The approach was validated by the analysis of a reference material (NIST 8327), and applied to the quantification of two commercial synthetic peptide standards. In that case, the results obtained were compared with those obtained using alternative methods, such as amino acid analysis and ICP-MS. The results obtained proved the value of the method for the fast, accurate and precise mass purity assignment of synthetic peptide standards.

  18. Ecological Footprints in transnational media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf

    2013-01-01

    planning in administrative bodies to broadcast media reporting how countries are ranked in the newest index of corruption, wealth, or happiness. The question this paper rises is how sustainable development indicators, and more specifically the Ecological Footprint is represented and at work in public media......Like all sorts of states and developments of the natural and social world are measured, surveyed, and indexed so is sustainable development made the object of measurements and inscribed into indicators. Indicators are an integral part of policy processes and public communication from anonymous...... connect to the formation of public sentiments regarding planetary problems, consumer habits, and global equity, whereas its connections to policy making - through its media appearances - are rather weak....

  19. Standard Test Methods for Properties of Continuous Filament Carbon and Graphite Fiber Tows

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the preparation and tensile testing of resin-impregnated and consolidated test specimens made from continuous filament carbon and graphite yarns, rovings, and tows to determine their tensile properties. 1.2 These test methods also cover the determination of the density and mass per unit length of the yarn, roving, or tow to provide supplementary data for tensile property calculation. 1.3 These test methods include a procedure for sizing removal to provide the preferred desized fiber samples for density measurement. This procedure may also be used to determine the weight percent sizing. 1.4 These test methods include a procedure for determining the weight percent moisture adsorption of carbon or graphite fiber. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values in parentheses are for information only. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of t...

  20. Evaluating renewable portfolio standards and carbon cap scenarios in the U.S. electric sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori; Chapman, Caroline; Logan, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 1617 Cole Boulevard, MS RSF 100, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Sumner, Jenny, E-mail: jenny.sumner@nrel.go [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 1617 Cole Boulevard, MS RSF 100, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Short, Walter [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 1617 Cole Boulevard, MS RSF 100, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    This report examines the impact of renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and cap-and-trade policy options on the U.S. electricity sector. The analysis uses the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model that simulates the least-cost expansion of electricity generation capacity and transmission in the U.S. to examine the impact of a variety of emissions caps-and RPS scenarios both individually and combined. The generation mix, carbon emissions, and electricity price are examined for various policy combinations simulated in the modeling. - Research highlights: {yields} The report examines renewable portfolio standards and cap-and-trade policy options. {yields} The analysis uses the NREL's Regional Energy Deployment System model. {yields} A carbon emissions cap and an RPS can be complementary policies.{yields} The cap alone case drives significant renewable generation.{yields} A 25% RPS has similar near term emissions as base cap at similar electricity price.

  1. A Footprint Family extended MRIO model to support Europe's transition to a One Planet Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Alessandro; Weinzettel, Jan; Cranston, Gemma; Ercin, Ertug

    2013-09-01

    Currently, the European economy is using nearly three times the ecological assets that are locally available. This situation cannot be sustained indefinitely. Tools are needed that can help reverse the unsustainable trend. In 2010, an EC funded One Planet Economy Network: Europe (OPEN:EU) project was launched to develop the evidence and innovative practical tools that will allow policy-makers and civil society to identify policy interventions to transform Europe into a One Planet Economy, by 2050. Building on the premise that no indicator alone is able to comprehensively monitor (progress towards) sustainability, the project has drawn on the Ecological, Carbon and Water Footprints to define a Footprint Family suite of indicators, to track human pressure on the planet. An environmentally-extended multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model has then been developed to group the Footprint Family under a common framework and combine the indicators in the family with national economic accounts and trade statistics. Although unable to monitor the full spectrum of human pressures, once grouped within the MRIO model, the Footprint Family is able to assess the appropriation of ecological assets, GHG emissions as well as freshwater consumption and pollution associated with consumption of specific products and services within a specified country. Using MRIO models within the context of Footprint analyses also enables the Footprint Family to take into account full production chains with technologies specific to country of origin. PMID:23273807

  2. The Water Footprint of Food Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, N. D.; Konar, M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Food aid is a critical component of the global food system, particularly when emergency situations arise. For the first time, we evaluate the water footprint of food aid. To do this, we draw on food aid data from theWorld Food Programme and virtual water content estimates from WaterStat. We find that the total water footprint of food aid was 10 km3 in 2005, which represents approximately 0.5% of the water footprint of food trade and 2.0% of the water footprint of land grabbing (i.e., water appropriation associated with large agricultural land deals). The United States is by far the largest food aid donor and contributes 82% of the water footprint of food aid. The countries that receive the most water embodied in aid are Ethiopia, Sudan, North Korea, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. Notably, we find that there is significant overlap between countries that receive food aid and those that have their land grabbed. Multivariate regression results indicate that donor water footprints are driven by political and environmental variables, whereas recipient water footprints are driven by land grabbing and food indicators.

  3. The Water Footprint of Food Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Jackson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Food aid is a critical component of the global food system, particularly when emergency situations arise. For the first time, we evaluate the water footprint of food aid. To do this, we draw on food aid data from theWorld Food Programme and virtual water content estimates from WaterStat. We find that the total water footprint of food aid was 10 km3 in 2005, which represents approximately 0.5% of the water footprint of food trade and 2.0% of the water footprint of land grabbing (i.e., water appropriation associated with large agricultural land deals. The United States is by far the largest food aid donor and contributes 82% of the water footprint of food aid. The countries that receive the most water embodied in aid are Ethiopia, Sudan, North Korea, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. Notably, we find that there is significant overlap between countries that receive food aid and those that have their land grabbed. Multivariate regression results indicate that donor water footprints are driven by political and environmental variables, whereas recipient water footprints are driven by land grabbing and food indicators.

  4. The uncertain climate footprint of wetlands under human pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Ana Maria Roxana; Lohila, Annalea; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Baldocchi, Dennis D; Desai, Ankur R; Roulet, Nigel T; Vesala, Timo; Dolman, Albertus Johannes; Oechel, Walter C; Marcolla, Barbara; Friborg, Thomas; Rinne, Janne; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala; Merbold, Lutz; Meijide, Ana; Kiely, Gerard; Sottocornola, Matteo; Sachs, Torsten; Zona, Donatella; Varlagin, Andrej; Lai, Derrick Y F; Veenendaal, Elmar; Parmentier, Frans-Jan W; Skiba, Ute; Lund, Magnus; Hensen, Arjan; van Huissteden, Jacobus; Flanagan, Lawrence B; Shurpali, Narasinha J; Grünwald, Thomas; Humphreys, Elyn R; Jackowicz-Korczyński, Marcin; Aurela, Mika A; Laurila, Tuomas; Grüning, Carsten; Corradi, Chiara A R; Schrier-Uijl, Arina P; Christensen, Torben R; Tamstorf, Mikkel P; Mastepanov, Mikhail; Martikainen, Pertti J; Verma, Shashi B; Bernhofer, Christian; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2015-04-14

    Significant climate risks are associated with a positive carbon-temperature feedback in northern latitude carbon-rich ecosystems, making an accurate analysis of human impacts on the net greenhouse gas balance of wetlands a priority. Here, we provide a coherent assessment of the climate footprint of a network of wetland sites based on simultaneous and quasi-continuous ecosystem observations of CO2 and CH4 fluxes. Experimental areas are located both in natural and in managed wetlands and cover a wide range of climatic regions, ecosystem types, and management practices. Based on direct observations we predict that sustained CH4 emissions in natural ecosystems are in the long term (i.e., several centuries) typically offset by CO2 uptake, although with large spatiotemporal variability. Using a space-for-time analogy across ecological and climatic gradients, we represent the chronosequence from natural to managed conditions to quantify the "cost" of CH4 emissions for the benefit of net carbon sequestration. With a sustained pulse-response radiative forcing model, we found a significant increase in atmospheric forcing due to land management, in particular for wetland converted to cropland. Our results quantify the role of human activities on the climate footprint of northern wetlands and call for development of active mitigation strategies for managed wetlands and new guidelines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) accounting for both sustained CH4 emissions and cumulative CO2 exchange. PMID:25831506

  5. A simulation-based approach for evaluating and comparing the environmental footprints of beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Isenberg, B J; Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Pollak, E J

    2013-11-01

    A methodology was developed and used to determine environmental footprints of beef cattle produced at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) in Clay Center, NE, with the goal of quantifying improvements achieved over the past 40 yr. Information for MARC operations was gathered and used to establish parameters representing their production system with the Integrated Farm System Model. The MARC farm, cow-calf, and feedlot operations were each simulated over recent historical weather to evaluate performance, environmental impact, and economics. The current farm operation included 841 ha of alfalfa and 1,160 ha of corn to produce feed predominately for the beef herd of 5,500 cows, 1,180 replacement cattle, and 3,724 cattle finished per year. Spring and fall cow-calf herds were fed on 9,713 ha of pastureland supplemented through the winter with hay and silage produced by the farm operation. Feedlot cattle were backgrounded for 3 mo on hay and silage with some grain and finished over 7 mo on a diet high in corn and wet distillers grain. For weather year 2011, simulated feed production and use, energy use, and production costs were within 1% of actual records. A 25-yr simulation of their current production system gave an average annual carbon footprint of 10.9±0.6 kg of CO2 equivalent units per kg BW sold, and the energy required to produce that beef (energy footprint) was 26.5±4.5 MJ/kg BW. The annual water required (water footprint) was 21,300±5,600 L/kg BW sold, and the water footprint excluding precipitation was 2,790±910 L/kg BW. The simulated annual cost of producing their beef was US$2.11±0.05/kg BW. Simulation of the production practices of 2005 indicated that the inclusion of distillers grain in animal diets has had a relatively small effect on environmental footprints except that reactive nitrogen loss has increased 10%. Compared to 1970, the carbon footprint of the beef produced has decreased 6% with no change in the energy footprint, a 3% reduction

  6. Evaluating Renewable Portfolio Standards and Carbon Cap Scenarios in the U.S. Electric Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chapman, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Logan, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sumner, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Short, Walter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-05-01

    This report examines the impact of various renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and cap-and-trade policy options on the U.S. electricity sector, focusing mainly on renewable energy generation. The analysis uses the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model that simulates the least-cost expansion of electricity generation capacity and transmission in the United States to examine the impact of an emissions cap--similar to that proposed in the Waxman-Markey bill (H.R. 2454)--as well as lower and higher cap scenarios. It also examines the effects of combining various RPS targets with the emissions caps. The generation mix, carbon emissions, and electricity price are examined for various policy combinations to simulate the effect of implementing policies simultaneously.

  7. Modelling a nonlinear optical switching in a standard photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with carbon disulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munera, Natalia; Acuna Herrera, Rodrigo

    2016-06-01

    In this letter, a numerical analysis is developed for the propagation of ultrafast optical pulses through a standard photonic crystal fiber (PCF) consisting of two infiltrated holes using carbon disulfide (CS2). This material is a good choice since it has highly nonlinear properties, what makes it a good candidate for optical switching and broadband source at low power compared to traditional nonlinear fiber coupler. Based on supermodes theory, a set of generalized nonlinear equations is presented in order to study the propagation characteristics. It is shown in this letter that it is possible to get optical switching behavior at low power and how the dispersion, as well as, the two infiltrated holes separation influence this effect. Finally, we see that supercontinuum generation can be induced equally in both infiltrated holes despite no initial excitation at one hole.

  8. Performance of carbon-interspaced antiscatter grids tested with the IEC standard fixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungwon Precision Ind. Co., Ltd. has recently developed precise carbon-interspaced antiscatter grids by adopting the sawing process in order to employ them to digital radiographic (DR) systems. Twelve grid samples of strip densities ranging from 40 to 85 lines/cm at a fixed grid ratio of 5:1 and of grid ratios from 5:1 to 10:1 at a fixed strip density of 80 lines/cm were prepared and their physical characteristics were examined under a well-controlled test condition with the IEC standard fixture, in terms of the transmission of primary radiation, the transmission of scattered radiation, the transmission of total radiation, the contrast improvement factor, and the Bucky factor. We expect that these experimental results will be useful for the selection of antiscatter grids in the applications of DR imaging as well as for the improvement of grid design. (author)

  9. ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT FROM THE SUSTAINABILITY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cornelia PICIU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper studied the importance of Ecological Footprint (EF for estimating the biologically productive area. Since the Ecological Footprint is a measure of renewable biocapacity, we argue that some dimensions of ecological sustainability should not be included in the Ecological Footprint. These include human activities that should be phased out to obtain sustainability, such as emissions of persistent compounds foreign to nature and qualitative aspects that represent secondary uses of ecological areas and do not, therefore, occupy a clearly identifiable additional ecological space. We also conclude that the Ecological Footprint is useful for documenting the overall human use or abuse of the potentially renewable functions and services of nature. Particularly, by aggregating in a consistent way a variety of human impacts, it can effectively identify the scale of the human economy by comparison with the size of the biosphere.

  10. Water footprint of hydro power in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeland, Kolbjørn; Tallaksen, Lena; Haakon Bakken, Tor; Killingtveit, Ånund

    2015-04-01

    The IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy (IPCC, 2012) assesses the potential for renewable energy sources to replace fossil-based fuels and benchmarks the technologies with respect to a set of criteria, including their water footprint measured as m3/MWh. While most of the renewable technologies show a typical range of 1-5 m3/MWh, the very sparse data on hydropower range from a minimum of 0.04 to a maximum of 209 m3/MWh. More recent studies on water footprint from hydropower indicate that the water consumption rates could go even far beyond the numbers published by IPCC (2012). The methodological approach behind these numbers are, however, criticized as it appears over-simplistic and several issues need to be defined and clarified in order to present the 'true picture' of the water footprint of hydropower. Despite this, the rather high numbers for hydropower may imply a reputational risk for the sector and also be a direct investment risk in new projects if hydropower is considered a "large-scale water consumer". Estimation of water footprint has two important components (i) definition of water footprint (including system boundaries), and (ii) estimation of evaporation, which is assumed to constitute the main water loss from hydropower. Here we will mainly address the second topic and have chosen to use a water footprint definition based on net evapotranspiration from reservoirs. Thus, we need estimates of evapotranspiration from the land surface prior to inundation and the evaporation from the reservoir after it has been filled up. The primary objective of the study is to estimate water footprint of hydropower in Norway and in particular to answer the following questions: (i) How does different environmental variables influence water footprint estimation in Norway?, and in particular (ii) What is the total/specific water footprint from Norwegian hydropower production? To answer these questions we tested how environmental variables like climate and vegetation

  11. Can ethanol alone meet California's low carbon fuel standard? An evaluation of feedstock and conversion alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimin; Joshi, Satish; MacLean, Heather L.

    2010-01-01

    The feasibility of meeting California's low carbon fuel standard (LCFS) using ethanol from various feedstocks is assessed. Lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, direct agricultural land use, petroleum displacement directly due to ethanol blending, and production costs for a number of conventional and lignocellulosic ethanol pathways are estimated under various supply scenarios. The results indicate that after considering indirect land use effects, all sources of ethanol examined, except Midwest corn ethanol, are viable options to meet the LCFS. However, the required ethanol quantity depends on the GHG emissions performance and ethanol availability. The quantity of ethanol that can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass resources within California is insufficient to meet the year 2020 LCFS target. Utilizing lignocellulosic ethanol to meet the LCFS is more attractive than utilizing Brazilian sugarcane ethanol due to projected lower direct agricultural land use, dependence on imported energy, ethanol cost, required refueling infrastructure modifications and penetration of flexible fuel E85 vehicles. However, advances in cellulosic ethanol technology and commercial production capacity are required to support moderate- to large-scale introduction of low carbon intensity cellulosic ethanol. Current cellulosic ethanol production cost estimates suffer from relatively high uncertainty and need to be refined based on commercial scale production data when available.

  12. The Footprint Database and Web Services of the Herschel Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, László; Varga-Verebélyi, Erika; Verdugo, Eva; Teyssier, David; Exter, Katrina; Valtchanov, Ivan; Budavári, Tamás; Kiss, Csaba

    2016-07-01

    Data from the Herschel Space Observatory is freely available to the public but no uniformly processed catalogue of the observations has been published so far. To date, the Herschel Science Archive does not contain the exact sky coverage (footprint) of individual observations and supports search for measurements based on bounding circles only. Drawing on previous experience in implementing footprint databases, we built the Herschel Footprint Database and Web Services for the Herschel Space Observatory to provide efficient search capabilities for typical astronomical queries. The database was designed with the following main goals in mind: (a) provide a unified data model for meta-data of all instruments and observational modes, (b) quickly find observations covering a selected object and its neighbourhood, (c) quickly find every observation in a larger area of the sky, (d) allow for finding solar system objects crossing observation fields. As a first step, we developed a unified data model of observations of all three Herschel instruments for all pointing and instrument modes. Then, using telescope pointing information and observational meta-data, we compiled a database of footprints. As opposed to methods using pixellation of the sphere, we represent sky coverage in an exact geometric form allowing for precise area calculations. For easier handling of Herschel observation footprints with rather complex shapes, two algorithms were implemented to reduce the outline. Furthermore, a new visualisation tool to plot footprints with various spherical projections was developed. Indexing of the footprints using Hierarchical Triangular Mesh makes it possible to quickly find observations based on sky coverage, time and meta-data. The database is accessible via a web site http://herschel.vo.elte.hu and also as a set of REST web service functions, which makes it readily usable from programming environments such as Python or IDL. The web service allows downloading footprint data

  13. Spatially and temporally explicit water footprint accounting

    OpenAIRE

    MEKONNEN Mesfin Mergia

    2011-01-01

    The earth’s freshwater resources are subject to increasing pressure in the form of consumptive water use and pollution (Postel, 2000; WWAP, 2003, 2006, 2009). Quantitative assessment of the green, blue and grey water footprint of global production and consumption can be regarded as a key in understanding the pressure put on the global freshwater resources. The overall objective of this thesis is, therefore, to analyse the spatial and temporal pattern of the water footprint of humans from both...

  14. The water footprint of electricity from hydropower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Mekonnen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydropower accounts for about 16% of the world's electricity supply. It has been debated whether hydroelectric generation is merely an in-stream water user or whether it also consumes water. In this paper we provide scientific support for the argument that hydroelectric generation is in most cases a significant water consumer. The study assesses the blue water footprint of hydroelectricity – the water evaporated from manmade reservoirs to produce electric energy – for 35 selected sites. The aggregated blue water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 90 Gm3 yr−1, which is equivalent to 10% of the blue water footprint of global crop production in the year 2000. The total blue water footprint of hydroelectric generation in the world must be considerably larger if one considers the fact that this study covers only 8% of the global installed hydroelectric capacity. Hydroelectric generation is thus a significant water consumer. The average water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 68 m3 GJ−1. Great differences in water footprint among hydropower plants exist, due to differences in climate in the places where the plants are situated, but more importantly as a result of large differences in the area flooded per unit of installed hydroelectric capacity. We recommend that water footprint assessment is added as a component in evaluations of newly proposed hydropower plants as well as in the evaluation of existing hydroelectric dams, so that the consequences of the water footprint of hydroelectric generation on downstream environmental flows and other water users can be evaluated.

  15. European Water Footprint Scenarios for 2050

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ertug Ercin; Arjen Y. Hoekstra

    2016-01-01

    This study develops water footprint scenarios for Europe for 2050, at the country level, based on projections regarding population and economic growth, production and trade patterns, consumption patterns (diets and bioenergy use) and technological development. The objective is to estimate possible future changes in the green, blue and grey water footprint (WF) of production and consumption, to analyze the main drivers of projected changes and to assess Europe’s future dependence on water reso...

  16. The water footprint of electricity from hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2011-09-01

    Hydropower accounts for about 16% of the world';s electricity supply. It has been debated whether hydroelectric generation is merely an in-stream water user or whether it also consumes water. In this paper we provide scientific support for the argument that hydroelectric generation is in most cases a significant water consumer. The study assesses the blue water footprint of hydroelectricity - the water evaporated from manmade reservoirs to produce electric energy - for 35 selected sites. The aggregated blue water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 90 Gm3 yr-1, which is equivalent to 10% of the blue water footprint of global crop production in the year 2000. The total blue water footprint of hydroelectric generation in the world must be considerably larger if one considers the fact that this study covers only 8% of the global installed hydroelectric capacity. Hydroelectric generation is thus a significant water consumer. The average water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 68 m3 GJ-1. Great differences in water footprint among hydropower plants exist, due to differences in climate in the places where the plants are situated, but more importantly as a result of large differences in the area flooded per unit of installed hydroelectric capacity. We recommend that water footprint assessment is added as a component in evaluations of newly proposed hydropower plants as well as in the evaluation of existing hydroelectric dams, so that the consequences of the water footprint of hydroelectric generation on downstream environmental flows and other water users can be evaluated.

  17. The potential role of carbon labeling in a green economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past several years, labeling schemes that focus on a wide range of environmental and social metrics have proliferated. Although little empirical evidence has been generated yet with respect to carbon footprint labels, much can be learned from our experience with similar product labels. We first review the theory and evidence on the role of product labeling in affecting consumer and firm behavior. Next, we consider the role of governments and nongovernmental organizations, concluding that international, multistakeholder organizations have a critical part to play in setting protocols and standards. We argue that it is important to consider the entire life cycle of a product being labeled and develop an international standard for measurement and reporting. Finally, we examine the potential impact of carbon product labeling, discussing methodological and trade challenges and proposing a framework for choosing products best suited for labeling. - Highlights: ► Economic theory provides rationale for product information on carbon footprint. ► Small but growing evidence that labels will affect demand and product choice. ► International protocol using multi-stakeholder process is needed. ► Product priority should be based on life-cycle emissions and likely behavior changes. ► International trade law poses low risk for voluntary private carbon footprint labels.

  18. The energy and emissions footprint of water supply for Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, A. J.; Newell, Joshua P.; Cousins, Joshua J.

    2015-11-01

    Due to climate change and ongoing drought, California and much of the American West face critical water supply challenges. California’s water supply infrastructure sprawls for thousands of miles, from the Colorado River to the Sacramento Delta. Bringing water to growing urban centers in Southern California is especially energy intensive, pushing local utilities to balance water security with factors such as the cost and carbon footprint of the various supply sources. To enhance water security, cities are expanding efforts to increase local water supply. But do these local sources have a smaller carbon footprint than imported sources? To answer this question and others related to the urban water-energy nexus, this study uses spatially explicit life cycle assessment to estimate the energy and emissions intensity of water supply for two utilities in Southern California: Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, which serves Los Angeles, and the Inland Empire Utility Agency, which serves the San Bernardino region. This study differs from previous research in two significant ways: (1) emissions factors are based not on regional averages but on the specific electric utility and generation sources supplying energy throughout transport, treatment, and distribution phases of the water supply chain; (2) upstream (non-combustion) emissions associated with the energy sources are included. This approach reveals that in case of water supply to Los Angeles, local recycled water has a higher carbon footprint than water imported from the Colorado River. In addition, by excluding upstream emissions, the carbon footprint of water supply is potentially underestimated by up to 30%. These results have wide-ranging implications for how carbon footprints are traditionally calculated at local and regional levels. Reducing the emissions intensity of local water supply hinges on transitioning the energy used to treat and distribute water away from fossil fuel, sources such as coal.

  19. The energy and emissions footprint of water supply for Southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to climate change and ongoing drought, California and much of the American West face critical water supply challenges. California’s water supply infrastructure sprawls for thousands of miles, from the Colorado River to the Sacramento Delta. Bringing water to growing urban centers in Southern California is especially energy intensive, pushing local utilities to balance water security with factors such as the cost and carbon footprint of the various supply sources. To enhance water security, cities are expanding efforts to increase local water supply. But do these local sources have a smaller carbon footprint than imported sources? To answer this question and others related to the urban water–energy nexus, this study uses spatially explicit life cycle assessment to estimate the energy and emissions intensity of water supply for two utilities in Southern California: Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, which serves Los Angeles, and the Inland Empire Utility Agency, which serves the San Bernardino region. This study differs from previous research in two significant ways: (1) emissions factors are based not on regional averages but on the specific electric utility and generation sources supplying energy throughout transport, treatment, and distribution phases of the water supply chain; (2) upstream (non-combustion) emissions associated with the energy sources are included. This approach reveals that in case of water supply to Los Angeles, local recycled water has a higher carbon footprint than water imported from the Colorado River. In addition, by excluding upstream emissions, the carbon footprint of water supply is potentially underestimated by up to 30%. These results have wide-ranging implications for how carbon footprints are traditionally calculated at local and regional levels. Reducing the emissions intensity of local water supply hinges on transitioning the energy used to treat and distribute water away from fossil fuel, sources such as coal

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Carbon Steel with Multi-Line Internal Standard Calibration Method Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Congyuan; Du, Xuewei; An, Ning; Zeng, Qiang; Wang, Shengbo; Wang, Qiuping

    2016-04-01

    A multi-line internal standard calibration method is proposed for the quantitative analysis of carbon steel using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). A procedure based on the method was adopted to select the best calibration curves and the corresponding emission lines pairs automatically. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy experiments with carbon steel samples were performed, and C, Cr, and Mn were analyzed via the proposed method. Calibration curves of these elements were constructed via a traditional single line internal standard calibration method and a multi-line internal standard calibration method. The calibration curves obtained were evaluated with the determination coefficient, the root mean square error of cross-validation, and the average relative error of cross-validation. All of the parameters were improved significantly with the proposed method. The results show that accurate and stable calibration curves can be obtained efficiently via the multi-line internal standard calibration method. PMID:26872822

  1. National water footprint accounts: the green, blue and grey water footprint of production and consumption

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Mekonnen; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2011-01-01

    This study quantifies and maps the water footprints of nations from both a production and consumption perspective and estimates international virtual water flows and national and global water savings as a result of trade. The entire estimate includes a breakdown of water footprints, virtual water flows and water savings into their green, blue and grey components.

  2. Quantifying the Water Footprint of Manufactured Products: A Case Study of Pitcher Water Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Barker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water is a finite resource that is critically needed bysociety for a variety of purposes. The demand for freshwater will grow as the world population and global livingstandard increase, and fresh water shortages will becomemore commonplace. This will put significant stress onsociety. It has been argued that fresh water may becomethe next oil, and efforts have to be made to better manageits fresh water consumption by agricultural and domesticusers. Industry also uses large amounts. Surprisingly, onlyrecently is serious attention being directed toward waterrelatedissues. This effort to quantify the water footprint ofa manufactured product represents one of the first initiativesto characterize the role of water in a discrete good.This study employed a life cycle assessment methodologyto determine the water footprint of a pitcher water filter.This particular product was selected because many waterintensivematerials and processes are needed to produceits major components: for example, agricultural processesused to produce activated carbon and petrochemicalprocesses used to produce the polypropylene casing. Inaddition, a large amount of water is consumed during theproduct’s use phase. Water data was obtained from theEcoinvent 2.1 database and categorized as either beingassociated with blue or green water.The blue water footprint (surface water consumption forthe pitcher water filter was 76 gallons per filter: 10 gallonsconsumed for materials extraction, 15 gallons for themanufacturing stage, and 50 gallons during the use phase.The green water footprint (precipitation was associatedwith the cultivation of the coconut tree; activated carbonis obtained from the coconut shells. The green waterfootprint was calculated to be 164 gallons per filter.The overall water footprint was 240 gallons per filter;the filter footprint is heavily dominated by green water(68% rather than blue water (32%. Future studies mayinvestigate how the production and

  3. Assessing county-level water footprints of different cellulosic-biofuel feedstock pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yi-Wen; Wu, May

    2012-08-21

    While agricultural residue is considered as a near-term feedstock option for cellulosic biofuels, its sustainability must be evaluated by taking water into account. This study aims to analyze the county-level water footprint for four biofuel pathways in the United States, including bioethanol generated from corn grain, stover, wheat straw, and biodiesel from soybean. The county-level blue water footprint of ethanol from corn grain, stover, and wheat straw shows extremely wide variances with a national average of 31, 132, and 139 L of water per liter biofuel (L(w)/L(bf)), and standard deviation of 133, 323, and 297 L(w)/L(bf), respectively. Soybean biodiesel production results in a blue water footprint of 313 L(w)/L(bf) on the national average with standard deviation of 894 L(w)/L(bf). All biofuels show a greater green water footprint than the blue one. This work elucidates how diverse spatial resolutions affect biofuel water footprints, which can provide detailed insights into biofuels' implications on local water sustainability. PMID:22816524

  4. Rare earths: preparation of spectro chemically pure standards, study of their carbonates and synthesis of a new compound series - the peroxy carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the following studies are concerned: I) preparation of lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium and samarium oxides for use as spectro chemically pure standards; II) behavior of the rare earth (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm) carbonates soluble in ammonium carbonate and mixture of ammonium carbonate/ammonium hydroxide, and III) synthesis and characterization of rare earth peroxy carbonates - a new series of compounds. Data for the synthesis and characterization of the rare earths peroxy carbonates described for the first time in this work are presented and discussed. With the aid of thermal analysis (TG-DTG) the thermal stability and the stoichiometric composition for new compounds were established and a mechanism of thermal decomposition was proposed. The peroxy carbonate was prepared by the addition of hydrogen peroxyde to the complexed soluble rare earths carbonates. These studies included also the determinations of active oxygen, the total rare earth oxide by gravimetry and complexometry and the C, H and N contents by microanalysis. The new compounds were also investigated by infrared spectroscopy. (author)

  5. Energy intensity and greenhouse gases footprint of metallurgical processes: A continuous steelmaking case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demand on primary energy resources of three steelmaking technologies has been evaluated using an integrated energy analysis approach that takes into account the energy equivalent of major materials and supplies used in the process, as well as the inefficiency of electricity generation. Two new parameters, Material CO2 Footprint (MCF) and Process CO2 Footprint (PCF), are defined to provide unified measures for carbon footprint of the treated materials, and the process respectively. Using these measures, a comparative study of the three processes has been performed. It is demonstrated that a novel steelmaking technology that operates continuously leads to substantial reduction in the overall energy demand, when compared with the conventional batch processes. CO2 reduction associated with the improvement of the energy efficiency is presented for several scenarios of power generation.

  6. Energy intensity and greenhouse gases footprint of metallurgical processes: A continuous steelmaking case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barati, Mansoor [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, WB140, 184 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    The demand on primary energy resources of three steelmaking technologies has been evaluated using an integrated energy analysis approach that takes into account the energy equivalent of major materials and supplies used in the process, as well as the inefficiency of electricity generation. Two new parameters, Material CO{sub 2} Footprint (MCF) and Process CO{sub 2} Footprint (PCF), are defined to provide unified measures for carbon footprint of the treated materials, and the process respectively. Using these measures, a comparative study of the three processes has been performed. It is demonstrated that a novel steelmaking technology that operates continuously leads to substantial reduction in the overall energy demand, when compared with the conventional batch processes. CO{sub 2} reduction associated with the improvement of the energy efficiency is presented for several scenarios of power generation. (author)

  7. Energy intensity and greenhouse gases footprint of metallurgical processes: A continuous steelmaking case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansoor Barati [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada). Department of Materials Science and Engineering

    2010-09-15

    The demand on primary energy resources of three steelmaking technologies has been evaluated using an integrated energy analysis approach that takes into account the energy equivalent of major materials and supplies used in the process, as well as the inefficiency of electricity generation. Two new parameters, Material CO{sub 2} Footprint (MCF) and Process CO{sub 2} Footprint (PCF), are defined to provide unified measures for carbon footprint of the treated materials, and the process respectively. Using these measures, a comparative study of the three processes has been performed. It is demonstrated that a novel steelmaking technology that operates continuously leads to substantial reduction in the overall energy demand, when compared with the conventional batch processes. CO{sub 2} reduction associated with the improvement of the energy efficiency is presented for several scenarios of power generation.

  8. Nitrogen footprints: past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human alteration of the nitrogen cycle has evolved from minimal in the mid-19th century to extensive in the present time. The consequences to human and environmental health are significant. While much attention has been given to the extent and impacts of the alteration, little attention has been given to those entities (i.e., consumers, institutions) that use the resources that result in extensive reactive nitrogen (Nr) creation. One strategy for assessment is the use of nitrogen footprint tools. A nitrogen footprint is generally defined as the total amount of Nr released to the environment as a result of an entity’s consumption patterns. This paper reviews a number of nitrogen footprint tools (N-Calculator, N-Institution, N-Label, N-Neutrality, N-Indicator) that are designed to provide that attention. It reviews N-footprint tools for consumers as a function of the country that they live in (N-Calculator, N-Indicator) and the products they buy (N-Label), for the institutions that people work in and are educated in (N-Institution), and for events and decision-making regarding offsets (N-Neutrality). N footprint tools provide a framework for people to make decisions about their resource use and show them how offsets can be coupled with behavior change to decrease consumer/institution contributions to N-related problems. (paper)

  9. 77 FR 21734 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Romania: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import...

  10. 77 FR 27428 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ...On March 5, 2012, the Department of Commerce (``Department'') published its preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain large diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe (over 4\\1/2\\ inches) from Japan. The review covers four manufacturers/exporters: JFE Steel Corporation (``JFE''); Nippon Steel Corporation (``Nippon'');......

  11. 78 FR 41369 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ...The Department of Commerce (the Department) is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain small diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe (small diameter seamless pipe) from Romania. The period of review (POR) is August 1, 2011, through July 31, 2012. The review covers two producers/exporters of the subject merchandise, ArcelorMittal......

  12. 78 FR 33809 - Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ...In response to a request from an interested party, United States Steel Corporation (``U.S. Steel''), the Department of Commerce (``the Department'') initiated an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's Republic of China. The period of review is November 1, 2011, through October 31, 2012. Based on......

  13. 77 FR 67336 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ...On August 21, 2012, the Department of Commerce published the preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain small diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe from Romania. The period of review is August 1, 2010, through July 31, 2011. We gave interested parties an opportunity to comment on the preliminary results, but we......

  14. 75 FR 9163 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... Pipe from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation, 74 FR 52945..., 73 FR 70961 (November 24, 2008) (``Line Pipe from the PRC''). In that case, the Department determined... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure...

  15. 75 FR 69052 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe..., and pressure pipe (``seamless pipe'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). In addition, the... value in the antidumping duty investigation of seamless pipe from the PRC. See Certain Seamless...

  16. 78 FR 25253 - Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure From the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ...The Department of Commerce (``the Department'') is rescinding the administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe (``seamless pipe'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period January 1, 2011, through December 31,...

  17. 77 FR 56809 - Certain Small Diameter Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ..., seamless pipes are seamless carbon and alloy (other than stainless) steel pipes, of circular cross-section... produced in non- standard wall thicknesses are commonly referred to as tubes. The seamless pipes subject to.... Seamless line pipes are produced to the API 5L specification. Seamless pipes are commonly produced...

  18. 77 FR 50465 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ...The Department of Commerce (the Department) is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain small diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe from Romania. The review covers one producer/exporter of the subject merchandise, ArcelorMittal Tubular Products Roman S.A. (AMTP). The period of review (POR) is August 1, 2010, through July 31,......

  19. 75 FR 13255 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 74 FR... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe..., line, and pressure pipe (``seamless pipe'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') with...

  20. 77 FR 43806 - Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 82268 (December 30, 2011). The review covers 32... Charging Development Co., Ltd.; Wuxi Resources Steel Making Co., Ltd.; Wuxi Seamless Special Pipe Co.,...

  1. 78 FR 41366 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 4 1/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ...The Department of Commerce (the Department) is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain large diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe (over 4 \\1/2\\ inches) (large diameter seamless pipe) from Japan. The period of review (POR) is June 1, 2011, through May 31, 2012. This review covers five producers/exporters of subject......

  2. 76 FR 7815 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocations in Part, 75 FR 44224... Pipe (Over 4\\1/2\\ Inches) From Japan: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of the... certain large diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe (over 4\\1/2\\...

  3. 76 FR 78612 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes From India: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 37781 (June 28, 2011) (Notice of Initiation...'' with a lowercase ``s'' instead of an uppercase ``s.'' See Notice of Initiation, 76 FR at 37783... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes From India:...

  4. Dynamic Changes of the Ecological Footprint and Its Component Analysis Response to Land Use in Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Yao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Humans’ demands for biological resources and energies have always been increasing, whereas evidence has shown that this demand is outpacing the regenerative and absorptive capacity of the planet. Since China is experiencing unprecedented urbanization and industrialization processes, how much impact this has imposed on the earth during economic development worldwide is conspicuous. Therefore, this paper tries to examine the environmental impact in detail and track its changes in a typical city of Central China, Wuhan, based on ecological footprint analysis. By calculating the ecological footprint and its components in terms of biologically productive land areas during the period of 1995–2008, it is found that the ecological footprint increased in fluctuations from 1.48 gha per capita to 2.10 gha per capita, with the carbon footprint contributing most within the whole time period. Compared to the tiny declining biocapacity of the region, a gradually aggravated ecological deficit in the city was observed, which increased from 1.12 gha per capita in 1995 to 1.79 gha per capita in 2008. Component analysis on the trends of the ecological footprint and ecological deficit reveals that the impact on the ecosystem induced by humans’ demands for resource production and energy consumption became greater than before, and cutting down the consumption of fossil fuels could reduce the carbon footprint and the overall ecological deficit of the city.

  5. The Progress of International and National Carbon Emission Management Standardization%国内外碳排放管理标准化进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亮; 陈健华; 鲍威; 孙亮; 郭慧婷

    2014-01-01

    Standardization, as a very effective tool, plays a more and more important supporting role in promoting China's policy implementation in addressing climate change and other issues. This paper summarizes the international situation and progress, and analyzes the international development tendency of carbon emission management standardization. Correspondingly, the national situation and progress of carbon emission management standardization is reviewed including involvement of international standardization, establishment of national standardization committee, development of national standards and so on. And the policy suggestions are raised to strengthen the standardization work in the fields of addressing climate change during the 12th Five-Year Plan period.

  6. Monitoring accelerated carbonation on standard Portland cement mortar by nonlinear resonance acoustic test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiras, J. N.; Kundu, T.; Popovics, J. S.; Monzó, J.; Borrachero, M. V.; Payá, J.

    2015-03-01

    Carbonation is an important deleterious process for concrete structures. Carbonation begins when carbon dioxide (CO2) present in the atmosphere reacts with portlandite producing calcium carbonate (CaCO3). In severe carbonation conditions, C-S-H gel is decomposed into silica gel (SiO2.nH2O) and CaCO3. As a result, concrete pore water pH decreases (usually below 10) and eventually steel reinforcing bars become unprotected from corrosion agents. Usually, the carbonation of the cementing matrix reduces the porosity, because CaCO3 crystals (calcite and vaterite) occupy more volume than portlandite. In this study, an accelerated carbonation-ageing process is conducted on Portland cement mortar samples with water to cement ratio of 0.5. The evolution of the carbonation process on mortar is monitored at different levels of ageing until the mortar is almost fully carbonated. A nondestructive technique based on nonlinear acoustic resonance is used to monitor the variation of the constitutive properties upon carbonation. At selected levels of ageing, the compressive strength is obtained. From fractured surfaces the depth of carbonation is determined with phenolphthalein solution. An image analysis of the fractured surfaces is used to quantify the depth of carbonation. The results from resonant acoustic tests revealed a progressive increase of stiffness and a decrease of material nonlinearity.

  7. Footprint issues in scintillometry over heterogeneous landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Timmermans

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Scintillometry is widely recognized as a potential tool for obtaining spatially aggregated sensible heat fluxes. Although many investigations have been made over contrasting component surfaces, few aggregation schemes consider footprint contributions. In this paper an approach is presented to infer average sensible heat flux over a very heterogeneous landscape by using a large aperture scintillometer. The methodology is demonstrated on simulated data and tested on a time series of measurements obtained during the SPARC2004 experiment in Barrax, Spain. Results show that the two-dimensional footprint approach yields more accurate results of aggregated sensible heat flux than traditional methods.

  8. Dinosaur Footprint Fossils Discovered in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Recently,a Chinese-German science fieldwork investigation team,composed of staff from the SinoGerman Paleontology and Geography Joint Lab and the Xinjiang Geological Work Station,announced that they discovered a batch of dinosaur footprint fossils in the dessert 20 kilometers to the east of Shanshan County in the Turpan Basin,Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.These fossils spread around an area of 100 square meters and scientists believed that these footprints were left behind by carnivore dinosaurs.This major discovery has been published in Global Geology,an English journal published by the NorthEast Asia Geology Center.

  9. Exceptional preservation of children's footprints from a Holocene footprint site in Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Matthew R.; Morse, Sarita A.; Liutkus-Pierce, Cynthia; McClymont, Juliet; Evans, Mary; Crompton, Robin H.; Francis Thackeray, J.

    2014-09-01

    Here we report on a Holocene inter-dune site close to Walvis Bay (Namibia) which contains exceptionally well-preserved children's footprints. The footprint surface is dated using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) methods to approximately 1.5 ka. These dates are compared to those obtained at nearby footprint sites and used to verify a model of diachronous footprint surfaces and also add to the archaeological data available for the communities that occupied these near-coastal areas during the Holocene. This model of diachronous footprint surfaces has implications for other soft-sediment footprint sites such as the 1.5 Ma old footprints at Ileret (Kenya). The distribution of both human and animal tracks, is consistent with the passage of small flock of small ungulates (probably sheep/goats) followed by a group of approximately 9 ± 2 individuals (children or young adults). Age estimates from the tracks suggest that some of the individuals may have been as young as five years old. Variation in track topology across this sedimentologically uniform surface is explained in terms of variations in gait and weight/stature of the individual print makers and is used to corroborate a model of footprint morphology developed at a nearby site. The significance of the site within the literature on human footprints lies in the quality of the track preservation, their topological variability despite a potentially uniform substrate, and the small size of the tracks, and therefore the inferred young age of the track-makers. The site provides an emotive insight into the life of the track-makers.

  10. Simulation of Large Footprint Lidar Waveforms from Forests: Analysis of the Sensitivity of Height Estimates to Footprint Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Y.; Lefsky, M.; Sun, G.; Li, Z.

    2008-12-01

    A spaceborne lidar mission would serve multiple scientific purposes including remote sensing of ecosystem structure and carbon storage, terrestrial and sea ice topography and monitoring of ice sheets. Some spaceborne lidar mission designs include the possibility that a lidar sensor would share a platform with another sensor. To reconcile multiple mission goals and sensor requirements, detailed knowledge of the sensitivity of sensor performance to aspects of mission design is required. Two important aspects of sensor design are footprint size and off-nadir pointing angle. This research uses radiative transfer and waveform synthesis models to investigate the sensitivity of forest height estimates to footprint size and off-nadir pointing and their interaction, over a range of forest canopy properties. An individual-based forest model was used to simulate stands of mixed conifer forest in the Tahoe National Forest (Northern California, USA) and stands of deciduous forests in the Bartlett Experimental Forest (New Hampshire, USA); waveforms were simulated from the forest model's output. A waveform synthesis method was used to create waveforms using airborne lidar data collected at these sites and a site in Dayekou Experimental Forest (Gansu, China). Data in the Tahoe and Bartlett study areas were collected conventionally; at the Dayekou test site, airborne lidar data were collected from five overlapping flight lines with different observation angles. Off-nadir angles varied from 0 to 16 degrees with a 25 m diameter footprint size. Preliminary results show that as the off-nadir angle increases, the intensity of the waveform ground return decreases and the vegetation return intensity increases. Over flat terrain, good linear relationships between waveform shape indices and maximum and mean tree height were found with different off-nadir angles. As terrain slope increases, our ability to retrieve canopy height decreases, and each off-nadir angle must be considered

  11. Modeling The Anthropogenic CO2 Footprint in Europe Using a High Resolution Atmospheric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Gruber, Nicolas; Brunner, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    The localized nature of most fossil fuel emission sources leaves a distinct footprint on atmospheric CO2 concentrations, yet to date, most studies have used relatively coarse atmospheric transport models to simulate this footprint, causing an excess amount of spatial smoothing. In addition, most studies have considered only monthly variations in emissions, neglecting their substantial diurnal and weekly fluctuations. With the fossil fuel emission fluxes dominating the carbon balance in Europe and many other industrialized countries, it is paramount to simulate the fossil fuel footprint in atmospheric CO2 accurately in time and space in order to discern the footprint of the terrestrial biosphere. Furthermore, a good understanding of the fossil fuel footprint also provides the opportunity to monitor and verify any change in fossil fuel emission. We use here a high resolution (7 km) atmospheric model setup for central Europe based on the operational weather forecast model COSMO and simulate the atmospheric CO2 concentrations separately for 5 fossil fuel emission sectors (i.e., power generation, heating, transport, industrial processes, and rest), and for 10 different country-based regions. The emissions were based on high-resolution emission inventory data (EDGAR(10km) and MeteoTest(500m)), to which we have added detailed time functions for each process and country. The total anthropogenic CO2 footprint compares well with observational estimates based on radiocarbon (C14) and CO for a number of sites across Europe, providing confidence in the emission inventory and atmospheric transport. Despite relatively rapid atmospheric mixing, the fossil fuel footprint shows strong annual mean structures reflecting the point-source nature of most emissions. Among all the processes, the emissions from power plants dominates the fossil fuel footprint, followed by industry, while traffic emissions are less distinct, largely owing to their spatially more distributed nature. However

  12. Quantifying the regional water footprint of biofuel production by incorporating hydrologic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M.; Chiu, Y.; Demissie, Y.

    2012-10-01

    A spatially explicit life cycle water analysis framework is proposed, in which a standardized water footprint methodology is coupled with hydrologic modeling to assess blue water, green water (rainfall), and agricultural grey water discharge in the production of biofuel feedstock at county-level resolution. Grey water is simulated via SWAT, a watershed model. Evapotranspiration (ET) estimates generated with the Penman-Monteith equation and crop parameters were verified by using remote sensing results, a satellite-imagery-derived data set, and other field measurements. Crop irrigation survey data are used to corroborate the estimate of irrigation ET. An application of the concept is presented in a case study for corn-stover-based ethanol grown in Iowa (United States) within the Upper Mississippi River basin. Results show vast spatial variations in the water footprint of stover ethanol from county to county. Producing 1 L of ethanol from corn stover growing in the Iowa counties studied requires from 4.6 to 13.1 L of blue water (with an average of 5.4 L), a majority (86%) of which is consumed in the biorefinery. The county-level green water (rainfall) footprint ranges from 760 to 1000 L L-1. The grey water footprint varies considerably, ranging from 44 to 1579 L, a 35-fold difference, with a county average of 518 L. This framework can be a useful tool for watershed- or county-level biofuel sustainability metric analysis to address the heterogeneity of the water footprint for biofuels.

  13. Sixteen years of change in the global terrestrial human footprint and implications for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Oscar; Sanderson, Eric W; Magrach, Ainhoa; Allan, James R; Beher, Jutta; Jones, Kendall R; Possingham, Hugh P; Laurance, William F; Wood, Peter; Fekete, Balázs M; Levy, Marc A; Watson, James E M

    2016-01-01

    Human pressures on the environment are changing spatially and temporally, with profound implications for the planet's biodiversity and human economies. Here we use recently available data on infrastructure, land cover and human access into natural areas to construct a globally standardized measure of the cumulative human footprint on the terrestrial environment at 1 km(2) resolution from 1993 to 2009. We note that while the human population has increased by 23% and the world economy has grown 153%, the human footprint has increased by just 9%. Still, 75% the planet's land surface is experiencing measurable human pressures. Moreover, pressures are perversely intense, widespread and rapidly intensifying in places with high biodiversity. Encouragingly, we discover decreases in environmental pressures in the wealthiest countries and those with strong control of corruption. Clearly the human footprint on Earth is changing, yet there are still opportunities for conservation gains. PMID:27552116

  14. MODERNIZATION OF PLANT FOR THE ORGANIZATION OF MANUFACTURE OF LIQUID CARBON DIOXIDE ACCORDING TO THE EUROPEAN STANDARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Кухтинов, Я. В.

    2015-01-01

    The high demands make to lowtemperature carbon dioxide according to the European standards. The analysis of made product by refrigerating carbon dioxide plant has shown that the basic undesirable impurity in ready CO2 is CO. By researches it is established that the maintenance of CO can achieve 17 ppm. Two ways of decrease of CO in lowtemperature liquid CO2 are considered. One of them is based on use of additives O2 in compressed CO2 and the further oxidation of CO and H2 in a reactor on ru...

  15. On Touristic Ecological Footprint of Macau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Meng; Yang Yu

    2012-01-01

    Despite its tiny territory, Macau boasts a large volume of tourist activities, which serves as the pillar of its economy. En- vironment and natural resources are the cornerstone of tourism, but are also subject to the negative impact of tourism. Based on the theory and methodology of ecological footprint analysis, this paper calculated the touristic ecological footprint and deficit of Macau in 2009, in an effort to bring to light the current status of excessive consumption of resources by tourism. As the findings show, the non-h'ansferable touristic ecological footprint and touristic ecologi- cal deficit of Macau in 2009 are respectively 18 300.891 gha and 12 737.584 gha, and the former is 3.29 times as large as the tour- istic ecological carrying capacity. Touristic ecological footprint of Macau is highly efficient in economic sense but currently tourism is developing in an unsustainable manner, so appropriate initiatives are in need to strike a balance between tourism development and resource conservation and to promote the sustainability of tourism industry of Macau.

  16. ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT ANALYSIS OF CANNED SWEET CORN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phairat Usubharatana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been a notable increase in both consumer knowledge and awareness regarding the ecological benefits of green products and services. Manufacturers now pay more attention to green, environmentally friendly production processes. Two significant tools that can facilitate such a goal are life cycle assessment (LCA and ecological footprint (EF. This study aimed to analyse and determine the damage to the environment, focusing on the canned fruit and vegetable processing. Canned sweet corn (340 g was selected for the case study. All inputs and outputs associated with the product system boundary were collected through field surveys. The acquired inventory was then analysed and evaluated using both LCA and EF methodology. The results were converted into an area of biologically productive land and presented as global hectares (gha. The ecological footprint of one can of sweet corn was calculated as 6.51E-04 gha. The three factors with the highest impact on ecological footprint value were the corn kernels used in the process, the packaging and steam, equivalent to 2.93E-04 gha, 1.19E-04 gha and 1.17E-04 gha respectively. To promote the sustainable development, the company should develop new technology or utilize better management techniques to reduce the ecological footprint of canned food production.

  17. The water footprint of tourism in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cazcarro, I.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Sánchez Chóliz, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study complements the water footprint (WF) estimations for Spain, incorporating insights of the process analysis and input–output (IO) analysis. We evaluate the virtual (both blue and green consumed) water trade of agricultural and industrial products, but also of services, especially through t

  18. The water footprint of food aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, Nicole; Konar, Megan; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Food aid is a critical component of the global food system, particularly when emergency situations arise. For the first time, we evaluate the water footprint of food aid. To do this, we draw on food aid data from theWorld Food Programme and virtual water content estimates from WaterStat. We find tha

  19. Sex estimation using anthropometry of feet and footprints in a Western Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemy, Naomi; Flavel, Ambika; Ishak, Nur-Intaniah; Franklin, Daniel

    2013-09-10

    An important component of forensic investigation is the identification of deceased (and increasingly living) individuals, which is often the role of the forensic anthropologist. One of the most valuable steps towards identification is via a biological profile, developed through the application of population specific standards. In disaster victim identification scenarios, fleshed feet are often recovered in footwear; footprints are another potential source of trace evidence found at crime scenes. In medico-legal investigations, feet and footprints can be useful for extrapolating living height, it is thus expedient to determine whether sex can be estimated from the same anthropometric data. The aim of the present study is to develop accurate sex estimation standards for a contemporary Western Australian population from measurements of the feet and footprints. The sample comprises 200 adults (90 males, 110 females). Three bilateral linear measurements were taken from each foot and seven bilateral measurements were acquired from static footprints obtained using a Podograph. A precision test was first conducted to assess data accuracy and reliability. Measurement data are then analysed using a range of parametric statistical tests. Results show that males were significantly (Pclassification accuracies ranged from 71% to 91%. Although in many instances the sex bias was large (>±5%), this study provides viable alternatives for estimating sex in Western Australian individuals with accuracy equivalent to established standards developed from foot bones. PMID:23806341

  20. Building Footprints, Building footprints of all building locations in Johnson County, updated off Orthoimarty, Published in unknown, Johnson County AIMS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Building Footprints dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of unknown. It is described as 'Building footprints of all building...