WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon fibre composite

  1. Recycling of carbon fibre composites

    OpenAIRE

    Melendi-Espina, S.; Morris, C N; Turner, T.A.; Pickering, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    A clear case for carbon fibre recovery and reuse exists on environmental grounds due to the high cost and energy use of virgin fibre production. On a specific energy basis, carbon fibres can be recovered at around 10% of the energy required to manufacture virgin fibres but the scale of the recovery process can make a large difference to overall cost effectiveness. This study will describe the technical and economic challenges associated with the recycling of carbon fibres, the state of the ar...

  2. Radiation curing of carbon fibre composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadaro, G.; Alessi, S.; Dispenza, C.; Sabatino, M. A.; Pitarresi, G.; Tumino, D.; Przbytniak, G.

    2014-01-01

    Epoxy/carbon fibre reinforced composites were produced by means of e-beam irradiation through a pulsed 10 MeV electron beam accelerator. The matrix consisted of a difunctional epoxy monomer (DGEBA) and an initiator of cationic polymerisation, while the reinforcement was a unidirectional high modulus carbon fibre fabric. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis was carried out in order to determine the cross-linking degree. The analysis pointed out a nonuniformity in the cross-linking degree of the e-beam cured panels, with the formation of clusters at low Tg (glass transition temperature) and clusters at high Tg. An out-of-mould post irradiation thermal treatment on e-beam cured samples provides a higher uniformity in the network although some slight degradation effects. Mode I delamination fracture toughness and Interlaminar Shear Strength (ISS) were also investigated by means of Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) and Short Beam Shear tests, respectively. Results from this mechanical characterisation allowed to correlate fracture toughness of the bulk matrix resin, cross-linking density and fibre/matrix interaction to the delamination fracture behaviour of the fibre reinforced material.

  3. Microwave absorbing properties of activated carbon fibre polymer composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tianchun Zou; Naiqin Zhao; Chunsheng Shi; Jiajun Li

    2011-02-01

    Microwave absorption of composites containing activated carbon fibres (ACFs) was investigated. The results show that the absorptivity greatly depends on increasing ACF content in the absorbing layer, first increasing and then decreasing. When the content is 0.76 wt.%, the bandwidth below −10dB is 12.2 GHz. Comparing the absorption characteristics of the ACF composite with one containing unactivated fibres, it is found that carbon fibre activation increases the absorption of the composite.

  4. Aligned short fibre hybrid composites with virgin and recycled carbon fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Longana, Marco L.; Yu, Hana; Potter, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    One of the main problems in industrial applications of carbon composite materials is recycling end of life products. Usually chopped recycled fibres are randomly dispersed in materials as low-grade additives for non-structural applications; however, in order to maximize economic and functional viability, these fibres should be reused as reinforcement for high performance structural composites. The fibre alignment level is the key factor to increase the fibre volume fraction, and consequently ...

  5. Dynamic damage in carbon-fibre composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, N K; Parry, S; Townsend, D; Withers, P J; Soutis, C; Frias, C

    2016-07-13

    The Taylor test is used to determine damage evolution in carbon-fibre composites across a range of strain rates. The hierarchy of damage across the scales is key in determining the suite of operating mechanisms and high-speed diagnostics are used to determine states during dynamic loading. Experiments record the test response as a function of the orientation of the cylinder cut from the engineered multi-ply composite with high-speed photography and post-mortem target examination. The ensuing damage occurs during the shock compression phase but three other tensile loading modes operate during the test and these are explored. Experiment has shown that ply orientations respond to two components of release; longitudinal and radial as well as the hoop stresses generated in inelastic flow at the impact surface. The test is a discriminant not only of damage thresholds but of local failure modes and their kinetics. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials'.

  6. Dynamic damage in carbon-fibre composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, N K; Parry, S; Townsend, D; Withers, P J; Soutis, C; Frias, C

    2016-07-13

    The Taylor test is used to determine damage evolution in carbon-fibre composites across a range of strain rates. The hierarchy of damage across the scales is key in determining the suite of operating mechanisms and high-speed diagnostics are used to determine states during dynamic loading. Experiments record the test response as a function of the orientation of the cylinder cut from the engineered multi-ply composite with high-speed photography and post-mortem target examination. The ensuing damage occurs during the shock compression phase but three other tensile loading modes operate during the test and these are explored. Experiment has shown that ply orientations respond to two components of release; longitudinal and radial as well as the hoop stresses generated in inelastic flow at the impact surface. The test is a discriminant not only of damage thresholds but of local failure modes and their kinetics. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials'. PMID:27242311

  7. Adhesive bonding of discontinuous carbon fibre composites: an experimental investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholls, Tristan Kit

    2013-01-01

    The excellent specific stiffness and strength of carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites means that the automotive sector has been investigating methods of implementing these materials into structurally demanding applications. The work detailed within this thesis supports ongoing research at the University of Nottingham into the automated manufacture of discontinuous carbon fibre reinforced polymer composite materials. Advances in the automation of composites manufacturing has meant that m...

  8. Raman Spectroscopic Studies of Carbon Nanotube Composite Fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Libo

    2011-01-01

    The project has been concerned with structure/property relationships in a series of different carbon nanotube (CNT) composite fibres. Raman spectroscopy has been proved to be a powerful technique to characterise the CNT-containing fibres. Electrospinning has been used to prepare poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibres containing single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The effect of the processing conditions including the polymer concentration, electric voltage, tip-to-collector distance, nanotube ...

  9. Fatigue properties of unidirectional carbon fibre composites at cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannkoke, K.; Wagner, H.-J.

    Design engineers working with composite materials are still confronted with uncertainties as to their fatigue behaviour, especially for cryogenic applications. In the course of cooling, different thermal contraction of the fibre and matrix gives rise to thermal stresses and strains which influence most of the mechanical properties. In this paper, the fatigue behaviour of unidirectional (UD) composites with different fibres and matrices will be described. A first step in understanding the failure mechanism under cyclic loading will be presented. In earlier tests excellent fatigue properties were found for carbon fibre UD composites made of T300 carbon fibres and an epoxy matrix 1,2. However, the applied epoxy resin was brittle, especially at low temperatures. Therefore the brittle resin was substituted by polycarbonate (PC), a tough thermoplastic polymer 3,4. Nevertheless, for a composite with that matrix the fatigue endurance limit, normalized to the static strength, was found to be much lower (43%). SEM studies illustrated a poor fibre - matrix bond. To determine the bond's influence on fatigue properties, another tough matrix system was tested. The polymer PEEK is known to build a strong bond to carbon fibres, initiated by crystal growth onto the fibre surface 4,5. However, investigations on the fatigue behaviour of this composite at 77 K yielded the same low fatigue endurance limit as was found for the carbon fibre - PC system 4. At this point it can be concluded that the poor fatigue behaviour is not necessarily due to a strong or poor fibre - matrix bond. It is the purpose of this work to examine whether this different fatigue behaviour is due to matrix failure.

  10. Effects of fibre content on mechanical properties and fracture behaviour of short carbon fibre reinforced geopolymer matrix composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tiesong Lin; Dechang Jia; Meirong Wang; Peigang He; Defu Liang

    2009-02-01

    Geopolymer matrix composites reinforced with different volume fractions of short carbon fibres (Cf/geopolymer composites) were prepared and the mechanical properties, fracture behaviour and microstructure of as-prepared composites were studied and correlated with fibre content. The results show that short carbon fibres have a great strengthening and toughening effect at low volume percentages of fibres (3.5 and 4.5 vol.%). With the increase of fibre content, the strengthening and toughening effect of short carbon fibres reduce, possibly due to fibre damage, formation of high shear stresses at intersect between fibres and strong interface cohesion of fibre/matrix under higher forming pressure. The property improvements are primarily based on the network structure of short carbon fibre preform and the predominant strengthening and toughening mechanisms are attributed to the apparent fibre bridging and pulling-out effect.

  11. Delamination in carbon-fibre composites improved with in situ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koissin, V.; Warnet, L.; Akkerman, R.

    2013-01-01

    Mode I interlaminar fracture toughness is investigated for a carbon-fibre composite toughened by nanofibres grown on the woven fabric reinforcement. For a comparison, the same is studied for the normal (non-toughened) composite. The test data show that the nanofibres significantly increase the fract

  12. Recent developments in carbon fibre composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, J.; Norita, T.; Hirata, M.

    1985-12-01

    To fulfill requirements of carbon fiber composite for aircraft structures, intermediate modulus (295 GPa) and higher strength (5600 MPa) carbon fiber TORAYCA T800 was developed. T800 composite shows greatly improved composite properties dominated by fiber such as tensile modulus, compressive modulus, tensile strength without hole and with hole, and through-penetration impact load. There is no effect on transverse tensile strength, compressive strengths, and shear strength with increase of fiber properties. Status of matrix resin developments is also discussed in terms of improvements in transverse cracking and compressive strength after impact. 9 references.

  13. Analysis of composition and microstructural uniformity of hybrid glass/carbon fibre composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauson, Justine; Markussen, Christen Malte; Madsen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    In hybrid fibre composites, the intermixing of the two types of fibres imposes challenges to obtain materials with a well-defined and uniform microstructure. In the present paper, the composition and the microstructural uniformity of hybrid glass/carbon fibre composites mixed at the fibre bundle...... level are investigated. The different levels of compositions in the composites are defined and experimentally determined. The composite volume fractions are determined using an image analysis based procedure. The global fibre volume fractions are determined using a gravimetrical based method. The local...... fibre volume fractions are determined using volumetric calculations. A model is presented to predict the interrelation of volume fractions in hybrid fibre composites. The microstructural uniformity of the composites is analysed by the determined variation in composite volume fractions. Two analytical...

  14. Carbon fibre composite for ventilation air methane (VAM) capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal mine methane (CMM) is not only a hazardous greenhouse gas but is also a wasted energy resource, if not utilised. This paper evaluates a novel adsorbent material developed for capturing methane from ventilation air methane (VAM) gas in underground coal mines. The adsorbent material is a honeycomb monolithic carbon fibre composite (HMCFC) consisting of multiple parallel flow-through channels and the material exhibits unique features including low pressure drop, good mechanical properties, ability to handle dust-containing gas streams, good thermal and electrical conductivity and selective adsorption of gases. During this study, a series of HMCFC adsorbents (using different types of carbon fibres) were successfully fabricated. Experimental data demonstrated the proof-of-concept of using the HMCFC adsorbent to capture methane from VAM gas. The adsorption capacity of the HMCFC adsorbent was twice that of commercial activated carbon. Methane concentration of 0.56% in the inlet VAM gas stream is reduced to about 0.011% after it passes through the novel carbon fibre composite adsorbent material at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. This amounts to a maximum capture efficiency of 98%. These encouraging laboratory scale studies have prompted further large scale trials and economic assessment.

  15. Carbon fibre composite for ventilation air methane (VAM) capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvenkatachari, Ramesh; Su, Shi; Yu, Xin Xiang

    2009-12-30

    Coal mine methane (CMM) is not only a hazardous greenhouse gas but is also a wasted energy resource, if not utilised. This paper evaluates a novel adsorbent material developed for capturing methane from ventilation air methane (VAM) gas in underground coal mines. The adsorbent material is a honeycomb monolithic carbon fibre composite (HMCFC) consisting of multiple parallel flow-through channels and the material exhibits unique features including low pressure drop, good mechanical properties, ability to handle dust-containing gas streams, good thermal and electrical conductivity and selective adsorption of gases. During this study, a series of HMCFC adsorbents (using different types of carbon fibres) were successfully fabricated. Experimental data demonstrated the proof-of-concept of using the HMCFC adsorbent to capture methane from VAM gas. The adsorption capacity of the HMCFC adsorbent was twice that of commercial activated carbon. Methane concentration of 0.56% in the inlet VAM gas stream is reduced to about 0.011% after it passes through the novel carbon fibre composite adsorbent material at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. This amounts to a maximum capture efficiency of 98%. These encouraging laboratory scale studies have prompted further large scale trials and economic assessment. PMID:19733967

  16. Carbon fibre composite for ventilation air methane (VAM) capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvenkatachari, Ramesh; Su, Shi; Yu, Xin Xiang

    2009-12-30

    Coal mine methane (CMM) is not only a hazardous greenhouse gas but is also a wasted energy resource, if not utilised. This paper evaluates a novel adsorbent material developed for capturing methane from ventilation air methane (VAM) gas in underground coal mines. The adsorbent material is a honeycomb monolithic carbon fibre composite (HMCFC) consisting of multiple parallel flow-through channels and the material exhibits unique features including low pressure drop, good mechanical properties, ability to handle dust-containing gas streams, good thermal and electrical conductivity and selective adsorption of gases. During this study, a series of HMCFC adsorbents (using different types of carbon fibres) were successfully fabricated. Experimental data demonstrated the proof-of-concept of using the HMCFC adsorbent to capture methane from VAM gas. The adsorption capacity of the HMCFC adsorbent was twice that of commercial activated carbon. Methane concentration of 0.56% in the inlet VAM gas stream is reduced to about 0.011% after it passes through the novel carbon fibre composite adsorbent material at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. This amounts to a maximum capture efficiency of 98%. These encouraging laboratory scale studies have prompted further large scale trials and economic assessment.

  17. Multifunctional Carbon Fibre Flat Tape for Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Koncherry, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been a significant growth in the use of composites in sectors such as automotive, aerospace and wind energy. Composites are traditionally designed for mechanical performance in terms of strength, stiffness and impact energy absorption; however multifunctionality has become the focus of researchers and designers in recent years. Multifunctional design of composites involve adding functionality such as thermal management, radiation shielding, stealth, structural health monit...

  18. The carbon fibre market and uses for composite wind blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, J.R. [Tenax Fibers Gmbh and Co. KG, Wuppertal (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    Due to its excellent fatigue properties, low weight and high stiffness, carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) is the ideal material to use for the manufacture of wind blades. The present use of CFRP in the wind energy sector however is very low in comparison to glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP) materials. The main reason for this low use of CFRP is cost since at present times carbon fibre is valued ten times as much as glass fibre. This paper introduces carbon fibre as an alternative material to glass and examines the use of CFRP components in other high fatigue applications. (au)

  19. Microwave heating as a means for carbon fibre recovery from polymer composites: a technical feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon fibre composites with an epoxy resin matrix were subjected to microwave-heating experiments in order to volatilise the polymer content and to produce clean fibres for potential reuse in high-grade applications. The composites were processed at 3 kW for 8 s in a multimode microwave applicator. The recovered fibres were characterised by tensile tests and electron microscopy. The results compare favourably with virgin fibre properties

  20. Closed loop recycling of carbon fibre composites with the HiPerDiF method

    OpenAIRE

    Longana, Marco; Yu, Hana; Potter, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The HiPerDiF (High Performance Discontinuous Fibre) short fibre alignment method is used to investigate the possibility to develop a high performance, closed-loop fully recyclable composite material. In this work, the possibility to reuse short carbon fibres in a closed-loop recycling process is studied.

  1. The application of transient thermography for the thermal characterisation of carbon fibre/epoxy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wróbel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Primary purpose of the present experimental study was to evaluate the local fibre content in carbon fibre/epoxy composites using transient thermography.Design/methodology/approach: The experiments have been performed using transient thermography to obtain the thermograms for carbon/epoxy specimens with different carbon fibre content. From obtained thermograms the thermal diffusivity values were determined and compared for each specimen and correlated with carbon content. The composites were two times tested using two different heating conditions to check the conformity of determined diffusivity values.Findings: It was found from obtained results that composites with different carbon fibre content had different values of thermal diffusivity, indicating that transient thermography can be considered as a non-destructive testing method for fiber content evaluation in CFRP composites.Research limitations/implications: Developed empirical formula is not universal for any other fibre reinforced polymer composite, so different relationships should be determined for different composites.Practical implications: The results obtained from present experiment would be of great importance in the industrial applications to obtain first estimate of carbon fibre content in fibre reinforced composite materials.Originality/value: The originality of present investigation is in application of transient thermography for local fibre content evaluation in polymer composite materials. The method should be of interest for the industrial quality control applications and is of great importance for composite products with high failure-free requirements.

  2. Development of flax/carbon fibre hybrid composites for enhanced properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, H N; Zhang, Z Y; Guthrie, R; Macmullen, J; Bennett, N

    2013-07-01

    Uni-directional (UD) and cross-ply (CP) cellulosic flax fibre epoxy composites were produced by hybridising UD carbon fibre prepreg onto flax system. A compression moulding technique was used to produce both flax and carbon/flax hybridised laminates. The effect of carbon fibre hybridisation on the water absorption behaviour, thermal and mechanical properties of both UD and CP flax specimens were investigated by means of water absorption, tensile, thermogravemetric analysis and flexural testing. The results showed that water absorption behaviour of hybrid samples are markedly improved compared to those without hybridisation. Similarly, the thermal stability, tensile and flexural properties of the hybrid composites are significantly improved in comparison with UD and CP flax composites without hybridisation. The experimental results suggest that cellulosic flax fibre reinforcement contributed to improve the toughness properties by promoting crack propagation whereas the carbon fibre contributed in improving thermal stability, water absorption behaviour and the overall strength and the stiffness of the hybrid composites.

  3. Laser-generated ultrasound with optical fibres using functionalised carbon nanotube composite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colchester, Richard J.; Mosse, Charles A.; Bhachu, Davinder S.; Bear, Joseph C.; Carmalt, Claire J.; Parkin, Ivan P.; Treeby, Bradley E.; Papakonstantinou, Ioannis; Desjardins, Adrien E.

    2014-04-01

    Optical ultrasound transducers were created by coating optical fibres with a composite of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Dissolution of CNTs in PDMS to create the composite was facilitated by functionalisation with oleylamine. Composite surfaces were applied to optical fibres using dip coating. Under pulsed laser excitation, ultrasound pressures of 3.6 MPa and 4.5 MPa at the coated end faces were achieved with optical fibre core diameters of 105 and 200 μm, respectively. The results indicate that CNT-PDMS composite coatings on optical fibres could be viable alternatives to electrical ultrasound transducers in miniature ultrasound imaging probes.

  4. Recycling of carbon fibre reinforced composites using water in subcritical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a method of chemical recycling of thermosetting epoxy composite was discussed. Water was used to be reaction medium and the decomposition of carbon fibre reinforced epoxy composites was studied. Experiments were devised in order to identify the significant process parameters that affect fibre reinforced composite recovery potential including temperature, time, catalyst, feedstock, and pressure. Experiments were performed in a batch-type reactor without stirring. Under the condition that the temperature was 260 deg. C and the ratio of resin and water was 1:5 g/mL, the decomposition rate could reach 100 wt.% and the carbon fibres were obtained. The results from the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) measurements showed that the fibres were clean and no cracks or defects were found. The average tensile strength of the reclaimed fibres was about 98.2% than that of the virgin fibres.

  5. Development of textile-reinforced carbon fibre aluminium composites manufactured with gas pressure infiltration methods

    OpenAIRE

    W. Hufenbach; Gude, M.; A. Czulak; J. Śleziona; A. Dolata-Grosz; M. Dyzia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of his paper is to show potential of textile-reinforced carbon fibre aluminium composite with advantage of the lightweight construction of structural components subjected to thermo-mechanical stress.Design/methodology/approach: The manufacture of specimens of the carbon fibre-reinforced aluminium was realised with the aid of an advanced differential gas pressure infiltration technique, which was developed at ILK, TU Dresden.Findings: The gas pressure infiltration technology e...

  6. Long discontinuous carbon fibre/polypropylene composites for high volume automotive applications

    OpenAIRE

    Burn, David T.

    2016-01-01

    The volume of fibre reinforced composites is increasing within the automotive industry, as stringent emissions legislation and consumer demands for improved fuel economy are encouraging manufacturers to reduce vehicular mass. Moreover, the falling cost of carbon fibre has meant that these composites are now being considered for semi-structural and structural components for medium-volume (+50,000ppa) applications in Euro Market Segments E and F (Jaguar XF, BMW 7 Series, Mercedes S-Class). ...

  7. Recycling of woven carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer composites using supercritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Chase C; Zeng, Changchun; Zhang, Chuck; Wang, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, there has been great deal of interest in recycling carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer composites. One method that has shown promising results involves the use of supercritical fluids to achieve separation between matrix and fibres by effectively degrading the resin into lower molecular weight compounds. In addition, the solvents used are environmentally benign and can also be recovered and reused. In this study, supercritical water with 0.05 M KOH as the catalyst was used for the recycling of an aerospace-grade high-performance epoxy carbon fibre composite (Hexcel 8552/IM7). The morphology of the reclaimed fibres was observed by scanning electron microscopy, and the tensile properties of the fibres were measured by single filament testing. The effects of processing time on the resin elimination efficiency and fibre property retention were investigated. With the process developed in this research, as much as 99.2 wt% resin elimination was achieved, resulting in the recovery of clean, undamaged fibres. The reclaimed fibres retained the original tensile strength. The feasibility of recycling multiple layer composites was also explored.

  8. High Power Q-Switched Thulium Doped Fibre Laser using Carbon Nanotube Polymer Composite Saturable Absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernysheva, Maria; Mou, Chengbo; Arif, Raz; AlAraimi, Mohammed; Rümmeli, Mark; Turitsyn, Sergei; Rozhin, Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    We have proposed and demonstrated a Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser (TDFL) with a 'Yin-Yang' all-fibre cavity scheme based on a combination of nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) and nonlinear amplified loop mirror (NALM). Unidirectional lasing operation has been achieved without any intracavity isolator. By using a carbon nanotube polymer composite based saturable absorber (SA), we demonstrated the laser output power of ~197 mW and pulse energy of 1.7 μJ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power from a nanotube polymer composite SA based Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser.

  9. Microstructure and Properties of M40 Carbon Fibre Reinforced Mg-Re-Zr Alloy Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gaohui Wu; Meihui Song; Ziyang Xiu; Ning Wang; Wenshu Yang

    2009-01-01

    M40 carbon fibre reinforced rare earth magnesium alloy ZM6 composites with fibre volume fraction about 60%were fabricated by pressure infiltration method.The microstructure, interfacial morphology, and precipitation were studied by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive Xray spectrometer.It was shown that the interfaces between Mg alloy and fibres were well bonded and free from cracks.The Mg12Nd phase was preferentially precipitated at the fibre/matrix interfaces, leading to the segregation of Nd at the interfaces and the dramatic decrease of Mg12Nd precipitation in the matrix far from interfaces.Crystal defects such as high-density dislocations and twins were observed in the matrix near the fibre/matrix interface.A high bending strength (1393 MPa) and elastic modulus (190 GPa) were achieved in M40/ZM6 composite.

  10. The oxidative stability of carbon fibre reinforced glass-matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prewo, K. M.; Batt, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    The environmental stability of carbon fibre reinforced glass-matrix composites is assessed. Loss of composite strength due to oxidative exposure at elevated temperatures under no load, static load and cyclic fatigue as well as due to thermal cycling are all examined. It is determined that strength loss is gradual and predictable based on the oxidation of carbon fibres. The glass matrix was not found to prevent this degradation but simply to limit it to a gradual process progressing from the composite surfaces inward.

  11. Electrochemical characteristics of a carbon fibre composite and the associated galvanic effects with aluminium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z., E-mail: zuojia.liu@gmail.com; Curioni, M.; Jamshidi, P.; Walker, A.; Prengnell, P.; Thompson, G.E.; Skeldon, P.

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • Exposed carbon fibres on two defined regions (“front” and “side”) are a focus of the investigation in NaCl electrolyte. • The exposed carbon fibres on the side and front regions are responsible for a high cathodic current density. • The NaCl + CuSO{sub 4} electrolyte was used to investigate the cathodic polarization behaviour of the exposed carbon fibres. • Galvanic coupling behaviour between the composite and aluminium alloys (AA7075-T6 and AA1050) was measured in NaCl electrolyte. • The higher galvanic current density measured on AA1050 alloy introduced a higher dissolution rate than the AA7075-T6 alloy. - Abstract: The electrochemical behaviour of a carbon fibre reinforced epoxy matrix composite in 3.5% NaCl and 3.5% NaCl + 0.5 M CuSO{sub 4} electrolytes was examined by potentiodynamic polarisation, potentiostatic polarisation and scanning electron microscopy. Exposed carbon fibres on two defined regions (“front” and “side”) are a focus of the investigation. The large size of the exposed carbon fibres on the side region is responsible for a higher cathodic current density than the front region in the NaCl electrolyte. The deposition of copper on the front surface of composite confirmed that the significantly higher cathodic current resulted from the exposure of the fibres to the NaCl electrolyte. Galvanic coupling between the composite and individual aluminium alloys (AA7075-T6 and AA1050) was used to measure galvanic potentials and galvanic current densities. The highly alloyed AA7075-T6 alloy and its high population density of cathodic sites compared to the AA1050 acted to reduce the galvanic effect when coupled to the composite front or side regions.

  12. Investigations on d.c. conductivity behaviour of milled carbon fibre reinforced epoxy graded composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navin Chand; Archana Nigrawal

    2008-08-01

    This paper reports the d.c. conductivity behaviour of milled carbon fibre reinforced polysulphide modified epoxy gradient composites. Milled carbon fibre reinforced composites having 3 vol. % of milled carbon fibre and poly sulphide modified epoxy resin have been developed. D.C. conductivity measurements are conducted on the graded composites by using an Electrometer in the temperature range from 26°C to 150°C. D.C. conductivity increases with the increase of distance in the direction of centrifugal force, which shows the formation of graded structure with the composites. D.C. conductivity increases on increase of milled carbon fibre content from 0.45 to 1.66 vol.%. At 50°C, d.c. conductivity values were 1.85 × 10-11, 1.08 × 10-11 and 2.16 × 10-12 for samples 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The activation energy values for different composite samples 1, 2 and 3 are 0.489, 0.565 and 0.654 eV, respectively which shows decrease in activation energy with increase of fibre content.

  13. Preparation of hollow-fibre composite carbon-zeolite membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, S.P.J.; Linkov, V.M.; Sanderson, R.D.; Petrik, L.F.; O'Connor, C.T.; Keizer, K.

    1995-01-01

    Carbon membranes, produced by thermo-oxidative stabilization of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursors, were used as porous supports for continuous zeolite layers to give composite zeolite-carbon membranes. Different zeolite growth techniques were used, and the membranes were characterized by means of s

  14. Development of textile-reinforced carbon fibre aluminium composites manufactured with gas pressure infiltration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Hufenbach

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of his paper is to show potential of textile-reinforced carbon fibre aluminium composite with advantage of the lightweight construction of structural components subjected to thermo-mechanical stress.Design/methodology/approach: The manufacture of specimens of the carbon fibre-reinforced aluminium was realised with the aid of an advanced differential gas pressure infiltration technique, which was developed at ILK, TU Dresden.Findings: The gas pressure infiltration technology enables to fabricate complex carbon aluminium composites with fibre or textile reinforcement using moulds of graphite, but in future development the optimization of infiltration process is required. The load-adapted combination of 3D reinforced semi-finished fibre products (textile preforms made from carbon fibres (CF with aluminium light metal alloys (Al offers a considerable lightweight construction potential, which up to now has not been exploited.Research limitations/implications: Gas pressure infiltration technology enables to fabricate complex carbon aluminium composites with fibre or textile reinforcement using precision moulds of graphite, but in future development the optimization of infiltration process is required.Practical implications: Load-adapted CF/Al-MMC, due to the relatively high stiffness and strength of the metal matrix, allow the introduction of extremely high forces, thereby enabling a much better exploitation of the existing lightweight construction potential of this material in comparison to other composite materials.Originality/value: Constantly rising demands on extremely stressed lightweight structures, particularly in traffic engineering as well as in machine building and plant engineering, increasingly require the use of endless fibre-reinforced composite materials which, due to their selectively adaptable characteristics profiles, are clearly superior to conventional monolithic materials.

  15. Processing, structure and flexural strength of CNT and carbon fibre reinforced, epoxy-matrix hybrid composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Chandra Shekar; M Sai Priya; P K Subramanian; Anil Kumar; B Anjaneya Prasad; N Eswara Prasad

    2014-05-01

    Advanced materials such as continuous fibre-reinforced polymer matrix composites offer significant enhancements in variety of properties, as compared to their bulk, monolithic counterparts. These properties include primarily the tensile stress, flexural stress and fracture parameters. However, till date, there are hardly any scientific studies reported on carbon fibre (Cf) and carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced hybrid epoxy matrix composites (unidirectional). The present work is an attempt to bring out the flexural strength properties along with a detailed investigation in the synthesis of reinforced hybrid composite. In this present study, the importance of alignment of fibre is comprehensively evaluated and reported. The results obtained are discussed in terms of material characteristics, microstructure and mode of failure under flexural (3-point bend) loading. The study reveals the material exhibiting exceptionally high strength values and declaring itself as a material with high strength to weight ratio when compared to other competing polymer matrix composites (PMCs); as a novel structural material for aeronautical and aerospace applications.

  16. Interfacial Interaction in Coated Carbon Fibre Reinforced Aluminous Mg-based Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun LI; Nanlin SHI; Jun GON; Chao SUN

    2008-01-01

    Four kinds of Mg alloys reinforced with carbon fibres were fabricated by a gas pressure infiltration technique.The fibres were pre-coated a SiO2 layer prior to fabrication.Different microstructures and interactions in the fibre-matrix interface of these composites were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).The results showed that the interracial interaction strongly depended on the content of Al in the Mg-based matrices.The microstructure of the interface could then be controlled by adjusting the Al content of the Mg-based matrix.In addition,fibres extracted from different Mg-based matrix all had some degradation owing to the interracial reaction and the fibre-matrix interdiffusion.

  17. FTIR study of degradation products of aliphatic polyesters carbon fibres composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamuła, Elżbieta; Błażewicz, Marta; Paluszkiewicz, Czesława; Dobrzyński, Piotr

    2001-09-01

    Biodegradable polymer composites based on polylactides and polyglycolides constitute a group of materials characterised by good biocompatibility. They are considered in tissue engineering as scaffolds for cells proliferation and controlled tissue regeneration. Two types of biodegradable polymers possessing different chemical structure, molecular weights and crystallinity degrees and two composite materials made up of them and carbon fibres were analysed in this study. The samples were incubated in aqueous media for 8 weeks and analysed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the attenuated total reflection mode (FTIR-ATR). Infrared spectroscopy enabled identification of degradation products and estimation of the influence of carbon fibres on hydrolytic degradation of analysed polymers. Analysis of the infrared spectra showed that hydrolytic degradation process depends on chemical structure, molecular weight and crystallinity of polymers. Catalytic effect of carbon fibres at the initial stage of polymer degradation was observed. Further degradation is dependent on the properties of polymer.

  18. INFLUENCE OF THERMAL CYCLING ON MICROSTRUCTURE AND THERMAL EXPANSION OF CARBON FIBRES/COPPER COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Štefánik

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of copper matrix reinforced by high modulus carbon fibres (Thornel K1100 as well as the microstructure and dilatation changes during thermocycling is presented.Unidirectional composites with two types of matrix - pure copper and/or copper alloy with 0.2 wt. % of chromium - were thermally cycled between 30-600 °C three times.The composite with pure Cu exhibited larger voids and weak interfacial bonding. Due to the chemical reaction with K1100 fibres a reactive interfacial bonding has been formed. During thermocycling the hysteresis, but no large disintegration was observed. The coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs strongly depend on fibre orientation. In direction parallel to the fibre orientation in the temperature range of 220-500°C CTEs were very low (0.7-1.0x10-6/K, but in perpendicular direction the CTEs were higher than that of pure copper.

  19. Electron beam processing of carbon fibre reinforced braided composites beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. In this paper the possibility of producing a new type carbon fiber reinforced composite is examined by applying braiding, a well-known process of textile technology. The appearance of the new Hungarian carbon fiber with excellent mechanical properties in the market enables the development of newer type carbon fiber reinforced composites in the continuously widening range of engineering applications. Advanced hollow profiles, pipes and other composite products can be manufactured in continuous operation. A new way of composite production of this kind is the manufacturing of reinforcing structure by braiding technology producing a composite with sufficient mechanical properties from this cross directional fabric-like textile structure by impregnation. This manufacturing process can complete the variety of hollow products serving the same purpose as pultrusion or filament winding. This way a profile type framework element with a hollow cross section is manufactured having favorable mechanical properties. Owing to its small mass and high specific strength this product can be applied in dynamically loaded structures e.g. in the automotive industry. For crosslinking of the matrix the method of high-speed electron beam curing has been examined in order to reach continuous operation. The field of use and application of carbon fiber braided structures has a great chance especially in machine engineering and in the automotive industry. The main reason for this is that braiding processes are capable of producing structures having good mechanical properties at a low processing price. The mass of the composite load-bearing structure produced this way is one fifth of the steel product having similar geometry, and its specific mechanical properties are nearly as good as that of the most commonly applied semiproduct and structural component, the welded steel profile

  20. Synthesis of unsaturated polyesters for improved interfacial strength in carbon fibre composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamstedt, E.K.; Skrifvars, M.; Jacobsen, T. K.;

    2002-01-01

    . To make better use of the versatility of unsaturated polyesters in a carbon fibre composite, a set of unsaturated polyester resins have been synthesized with different ratios of maleic anhydride, o-phthalic anhydride and 1,2-propylene glycol as precursors. The effective interfacial strength was determined...

  1. Physical and mechanical characterization of radiation-curable carbon fibre composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing is the utilization of ionizing radiation, usually photons or electron beams, to produce useful physical and chemical changes in a material. A potential application for electron beam processing for composite manufacturing is for curing carbon fibre prepregs. These prepregs, carbon fibres or fabrics preimpregnated with liquid polymer resin, are commonly used in many industries, including aircraft and aerospace, automotive, electronics, construction and various commercial products. The objective of this experimental program is to design and manufacture a radiation-curable polymer-carbon fibre prepreg that meets the typical mechanical and physical property specifications set by the aircraft industry. This paper describes our current work in the design, manufacture and characterization of radiation-curable prepregs

  2. Effect of carbon fibre on properties of TiB2/C composite cathode coating for aluminum electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; L(U) Xiao-jun; LAI Yan-qing; LI Qing-yu; TIAN Zhong-liang; FANG Zhao

    2008-01-01

    The tensile strength, compressive strength and electrical resistivity of TiB2/C composite cathode coating were measured with a hydraulic pressure universal test machine and an electrical resistivity test device, and the effects of carbon fibre content and carbon fibre length on tensile strength, compressive strength and electrical resistivity were investigated. The results show that the tensile strength of coating increases at the beginning and then reduces with the increase of carbon fibre content when the carbon fibre (length of 3 mm) content ranges from 0 to 4.0%; at the carbon fibre content of 1.5%, the tensile strength of coating reaches the maximum, 25.6 MPa. For the coating with carbon fibre content of 1.5%, the carbon fibre length has a great influence on tensile strength and compressive strength of coating; when the carbon fibre length is 6 mm, the tensile strength and compressive strength of coating reach the maximum, 27.6 MPa and 39.2 MPa, respectively. The electrical resistivity of coating reduces with the rise of temperature and the length of carbon fibre, and the influence of carbon fibre length on electrical resistivity of coating at low temperature (30-200℃) is more obvious than that at high temperature (960℃).

  3. Impact of electrochemical cycling on the tensile properties of carbon fibres for structural lithium-ion composite batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques, Eric; Kjell, Maria H.; Zenkert, Dan; Lindbergh, Göran; Behm, Mårten; Willgert, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Carbon fibres are particularly well suited for use in a multifunctional lightweight design of a structural composite material able to store energy as a lithium-ion battery. The fibres will in this case act as both a high performance structural reinforcement and one of the battery electrodes. However, the electrochemical cycling consists of insertions and extractions of lithium ions in the microstructure of carbon fibres and its impact on the mechanical performance is unknown. This study inves...

  4. Exposure Assessment of Particulate Matter from Abrasive Treatment of Carbon and Glass Fibre-Reinforced Epoxy-Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Alexander C. Ø.; Levin, Marcus; Koivisto, Antti J.;

    2015-01-01

    and glass fibre-reinforced epoxy composite materials at two facilities. We measured particle number concentrations and size distributions of the released material in near field and far field during sanding of glass-and carbon fibre-reinforced composites. We assessed the means of reducing exposure during...

  5. Investigation of Effect of Carbon Fibres on the Mechanical Properties of the Hybrid Composite Laminate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyashankar B V

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work Fabric made of woven carbon, glass along with epoxy resins are used to make composite laminate. Average resin fraction on weight basis after curing was 45%. The different types of specimens are prepared with variable percentage of carbon fibres. The mechanical tests such as Tensile test, compression test, flexural test and impact tests are conducted over the specimens and the results are evaluated which indicates that the increase in carbon content increases the mechanical properties of the composite laminate .

  6. Impact fatigue behaviour of carbon fibre-reinforced vinylester resin composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rita Roy; B K Sarkar; A K Rana; N R Bose

    2001-02-01

    Two types of unidirectional carbon fibre, one of high strength (DHMS) and another of medium strength (VLMS) reinforced vinylester resin composites have been examined for their impact fatigue behaviour over 104 impact cycles for the first time. The study was conducted using a pendulum type repeated impact apparatus specially designed and constructed for the purpose. A well-defined impact fatigue behaviour (S–N type curve) curve has been demonstrated. It showed a plateau region of 10–102 cycles immediately below the single cycle impact strength, followed by progressive endurance with decreasing impact loads, culminating in an endurance limit at about 71% and 85% of the single impact strength for DHMS-48 and VLMS-48, respectively. Analysis of the fractured surfaces revealed primary debonding, fibre breakage and pull-out at the tensile zone of the samples and a shear mode of fracture with breakage of fibre bundles at the compressive zone of the samples. The occurrence of a few major macrocracks in the matrix with fibre breakage at the high load–low endurance region and development of multiple microcracks in the matrix, coalescing and fibre breakage at the low-load–high endurance region have been inferred to explain the fatigue behaviour of the composites examined.

  7. Development of a carbon fibre composite active mirror: Design and testing

    CERN Document Server

    Kendrew, S; Brooks, D; Dorn, C; Yates, C; Dwan, R M; Richardson, I; Evans, G

    2005-01-01

    Carbon fibre composite technology for lightweight mirrors is gaining increasing interest in the space- and ground-based astronomical communities for its low weight, ease of manufacturing, excellent thermal qualities and robustness. We present here first results of a project to design and produce a 27 cm diameter deformable carbon fibre composite mirror. The aim was to produce a high surface form accuracy as well as low surface roughness. As part of this programme, a passive mirror was developed to investigate stability and coating issues. Results from the manufacturing and polishing process are reported here. We also present results of a mechanical and thermal finite element analysis, as well as early experimental findings of the deformable mirror. Possible applications and future work are discussed.

  8. Influence of Fabric Parameters on Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Failure Mechanisms in Carbon-Fibre Reinforced Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Wielage; D.Richter; H.Mucha; Th.Lampke

    2008-01-01

    The effects of fibre/matrix bonding,fabric density,fibre volume fraction and bundle size on microstructure,mechanical properties and failure mechanisms in carbon fibre reinforced composites (plastic and carbon matrix) have been investigated.The microstructure of unloaded and cracked samples was studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM),respectively whereas the mechanical behaviour was examined by 3-point bending experiments.Exclusively one type of experimental resole type phenolic resin was applied.A strong fibre/matrix bonding,which is needed for high strength of carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) materials leads to severe composite damages during the pyrolysis resulting in low strength,brittle failure and a very low utilisation of the fibres strain to failure in C/C composites.Inherent fabric parameters such as an increasing fabric density or bundle size or a reduced fibre volume fraction introduce inhomogenities to the CFRP's microstructure.Results are lower strength and stiffness whereas the strain to failure increases or remains unchanged.Toughness is almost not affected.In C/C composites inhomogenities due to a reduced bundle size reduce strain to failure,strength,stiffness and toughness.Vice versa a declining fibre volume fraction leads to exactly the opposite behaviour.Increasing the fabric density (weight per unit area) causes similar effects as in CFRPs.

  9. Long-term compressive property durability of carbon fibre-reinforced polyetheretherketone composite in physiological saline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G; Latour, R A; Kennedy, J M; Del Schutte, H; Friedman, R J

    1996-04-01

    In total hip arthroplasty, concerns such as corrosion and stress shielding associated with stiff metallic femoral components have led to the development of low stiffness advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite femoral components. Carbon fibre-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CF/PEEK) composite material is now one of the primary material systems being considered for composite hip stem development. As a hip stem, a composite material must be able to support a complex state of stress in the in vivo environment without failure. Considering the loading conditions of a hip stem (superimposed compression and bending), and the fact that FRP composites typically possess lower compressive than tensile strength, the compressive behaviour of FRP composites becomes very important for femoral component design. This paper presents an investigation of the long-term durability of 0 degree and 90 degrees compressive strengths of CF/PEEK composite following physiological saline saturation. 0 degree and 90 degrees compressive moduli and Poisson ratio (v12) properties are also reported. Samples were tested following conditioning in physiological saline at 37, 65 and 95 degrees C for time periods from 0 to 5000 h. Dry samples were tested as controls. Results show no significant loss in compressive property values of the saline-saturated or the dry control samples as a function of conditioning time or temperature. PMID:8730962

  10. Strengthening of steel–concrete composite girders using carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S M Mosavi; A Sadeghi Nik

    2015-02-01

    Applying composites in order to strengthen and renew the infrastructures has globally been accepted. Traditional methods to strengthen the out-of-standard structures are costly, time consuming and requires a lot of labour. Today, new techniques are hired using light and strong substances which also resist against corrosion, known as Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) plates. Regarding the high tensile strength and proper module of elasticity, CFRP plates are considered as a suitable alternative to strengthen girders. The behaviour of steel–concrete composite girders being statically loaded and strengthened by CFRP plates in this study. The CFRP plates used in this study have been stuck, with epoxy adhesive, under the tensile sections of three steel girders. The results accompanied with analytical study of moment–curvature and numerical analysis done with ANSYS, show that CFRP plates with epoxy adhesive increases the ultimate loading capacity of steel–concrete composite girder. Plastic stiffness of the girders was also increased.

  11. The influence of carbon fibre content on the tribological properties of polyarylate based composites materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Burya; A.I.; Chigvintseva; O.P

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of scientific-technical literature has shown the prospectiveness of applyinghigh-temperature thermoplastic polymers - among which there are complex aromatic polyesters -as constructive materials. Mixed polyarylates of DV mark based on diphenilolpropane and themixture of iso- and terephtale acid are mentioned to make the most valuable practical interest. Forimproving technological and exploitation properties the authors of the article have suggested toreinforce the polymer linking element with uglen-9 mark. Combination of the composition compo-nents was realized within the rotating electromagnetic field with the help of non-equiaxial ferro-magnetic elements. The study of tribotechnical characteristics (coefficient of friction, intensity oflinear wear, temperature in the contact zone "polymer specimen - counterbody" of elaborated car-bon plastics) has been made at the disc machine of friction. Investigation of exploitation regimes’(specific pressure and slip velocity) influence on the mentioned properties of the initial polymer hasshown that polyarylate can be recommended for work at values of PV criterion not greater than 1.2MPa · m/s. Hardening the exploitation regimes is accompanied by the catastrophic wear of plastic.Reinforcement of polyarylate with carbon fibre is noted to enable significant improvement (to de-crease the coefficient of friction, to increase resistance to wear) of tribotechnical characteristics ofcarbon plastics. The most optimal is the content of carbon fibre in polyarylate in amount of 25mass.%.

  12. High-power picosecond laser drilling/machining of carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, A.; Li, L.; Mativenga, P.; Sabli, A.

    2016-02-01

    The large differences in physical and thermal properties of the carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite constituents make laser machining of this material challenging. An extended heat-affected zone (HAZ) often occurs. The availability of ultrashort laser pulse sources such as picosecond lasers makes it possible to improve the laser machining quality of these materials. This paper reports an investigation on the drilling and machining of CFRP composites using a state-of-the-art 400 W picosecond laser system. Small HAZs (drilled on sample of 6 mm thickness, whereas no HAZ was seen below the top surface on the cut surfaces. Multiple ring material removal strategy was used. Furthermore, the effect of laser processing parameters such as laser power, scanning speed and repetition rate on HAZ sizes and ablation depth was investigated.

  13. Radiation-curing of acrylate composites including carbon fibres: A customized surface modification for improving mechanical performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Arnaud; Pietras-Ozga, Dorota; Ponsaud, Philippe; Kowandy, Christelle; Barczak, Mariusz; Defoort, Brigitte; Coqueret, Xavier

    2014-12-01

    The lower transverse mechanical properties of radiation-cured acrylate-based composites reinforced with carbon-fibre with respect to the thermosettable analogues was investigated from the viewpoint of chemical interactions at the interface between the matrix and the carbon material. XPS analysis of representative commercial carbon fibres revealed the presence of a significant amount of chemical functions potentially exerting an adverse effect on the initiation and propagation of the free radical polymerization initiated under high energy radiation. The EB-induced polymerization of n-butyl acrylate as a simple model monomer was conducted in the presence of various aromatic additives exhibiting a strong inhibiting effect, whereas thiols efficiently sensitize the initiation mechanism and undergo transfer reactions. A method based on the surface modification of sized fibres by thiomalic acid is proposed for overcoming the localized inhibition phenomenon and for improving the mechanical properties of the resulting acrylate-based composites.

  14. Environmental effect on the mechanical properties of commingled-yarn-based carbon fibre/polyamide 6 composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavalu Thirumalai, Durai Prabhakaran; Toftegaard, Helmuth Langmaack

    2014-01-01

    on the material properties. They are three-point bending to measure the flexural strength and stiffness, and short beam three-point bending to measure the interlaminar shear strength. The 10-mm-thick quasi-isotropic carbon fibre/polyamide 6 composites with 52% volume fraction of carbon fibre to be tested were......The main objective of this experimental investigation was to evaluate the changes from accelerated ageing on selected properties of carbon fibre/polyamide 6 composites based on hybrid yarns. In this study, two types of mechanical tests were performed to measure the environmental influence...... also performed on as manufactured and dried material at low temperature (–45) and high temperature (115). The measured mechanical properties decreased with exposure time at 60 and 100% relative humidity. Both the bending stiffness and the strength degrade to a level of about 65%, whereas interlaminar...

  15. Modelling and simulation of randomly oriented carbon fibre-reinforced composites under thermal load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffler, R.; Fröschl, J.; Drechsler, K.; Ladstätter, E.

    2016-03-01

    Carbon fibre-reinforced sheet moulding compounds (CF-SMC) already exhibit a complex material behaviour under uniaxial loads due to the random orientation of the fibres in the matrix resin. Mature material models for metallic materials are generally not transferable. This paper proposes an approach for modelling the fatigue behaviour of CF-SMC based on extensive static and cyclic tests using low cost secondary carbon fibres (SCF). The main focus is on describing the stiffness degradation considering the dynamic modulus of the material. Influence factors such as temperature, orientation, rate dependence and specimen thickness were additionally considered.

  16. Characterisation of Microstructure of We43 Magnesium Matrix Composites Reinforced with Carbon Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gryc A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the microstructures of WE43 matrix composites reinforced with carbon fibres have been characterised. The influence of reinforcement type and T6 heat treatment (a solution treatment at 525°C for 8 h, a hot water quench and a subsequent ageing treatment at 250°C for 16 h on microstructure have been evaluated. The light microscope and scanning electron microscope investigations have been carried out. No significant differences in samples reinforced with non-coated textiles have been reported. The substantial changes in sample reinforced with nickel-coated textile have been observed. The segregation of alloying elements to the matrix-reinforcement layer has been identified. The T6 heat treatment caused the appearance of disperse precipitates of β phase, but the process cannot be considered as satisfactory (irregular distribution, low volume fraction, relatively large size.

  17. Shape memory performance of asymmetrically reinforced epoxy/carbon fibre fabric composites in flexure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fejos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study asymmetrically reinforced epoxy (EP/carbon fibre (CF fabric composites were prepared and their shape memory properties were quantified in both unconstrained and fully constrained flexural tests performed in a dynamic mechanical analyser (DMA. Asymmetric layering was achieved by incorporating two and four CF fabric layers whereby setting a resin- and reinforcement-rich layer ratio of 1/4 and 1/2, respectively. The recovery stress was markedly increased with increasing CF content. The related stress was always higher when the CF-rich layer experienced tension load locally. Specimens with CF-rich layers on the tension side yielded better shape fixity ratio, than those with reinforcement layering on the compression side. Cyclic unconstrained shape memory tests were also run up to five cycles on specimens having the CF-rich layer under local tension. This resulted in marginal changes in the shape fixity and recovery ratios.

  18. Low Cost Carbon Fibre for Automotive Applications Part 1: Low Cost Carbon Fibre Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Charles David [ORNL; Das, Sujit [ORNL; Wheatley, Dr. Alan [University of Sunderland

    2014-01-01

    In pursuit of the goal to produce ultra-lightweight fuel efficient vehicles, there has been great excitement during the last few years about the potential for using carbon fibre reinforced composites in high volume applications. Currently, the greatest hurdle that inhibits wider implementation of carbon fibre composites in transportation is the high cost of carbon fibre when compared to other candidate materials. However, significant research is being conducted to develop lower cost, high volume technologies for producing carbon fibre. This chapter will highlight ongoing research in this area.

  19. Synergistic toughening of composite fibres by self-alignment of reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min Kyoon; Lee, Bommy; Kim, Shi Hyeong; Lee, Jae Ah; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Gambhir, Sanjeev; Wallace, Gordon G.; Kozlov, Mikhail E.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2012-01-01

    The extraordinary properties of graphene and carbon nanotubes motivate the development of methods for their use in producing continuous, strong, tough fibres. Previous work has shown that the toughness of the carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer fibres exceeds that of previously known materials. Here we show that further increased toughness results from combining carbon nanotubes and reduced graphene oxide flakes in solution-spun polymer fibres. The gravimetric toughness approaches 1,000 J g-1, far exceeding spider dragline silk (165 J g-1) and Kevlar (78 J g-1). This toughness enhancement is consistent with the observed formation of an interconnected network of partially aligned reduced graphene oxide flakes and carbon nanotubes during solution spinning, which act to deflect cracks and allow energy-consuming polymer deformation. Toughness is sensitive to the volume ratio of the reduced graphene oxide flakes to the carbon nanotubes in the spinning solution and the degree of graphene oxidation. The hybrid fibres were sewable and weavable, and could be shaped into high-modulus helical springs.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Chain-Extended Bismaleimide/Carbon Fibre Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satheesh Chandran M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study of the influence of the addition of aromatic diamine (MDA to bismaleimide (BMI resin on the crystallinity, solubility, melting temperature, and mechanical properties of BMI/carbon composites. The modified BMI was prepared through the chain extension with MDA via Michael addition reaction with molar ratio of 3 : 2 (BMI : MDA. Both modified and unmodified BMI were characterised for chemical structure, crystallinity, melting temperature, mechanical property, and morphology and fracture behaviour using FTIR, XRD, DSC, UTM, and SEM, respectively. The FTIR results revealed the formation of polymeric chain due to the broad N-H absorption. The modified resin was semicrystalline in nature having low melting temperature and hence showed good processibility. The modification of BMI resulted in decrease of pores and increase of tensile, flexural, and impact properties of the composites. Also, SEM studies of the tensile fractured specimens revealed that modification of BMI resulted in improved resin/fibre interfacial strength.

  1. Carbon Carbon Composites: An Overview .

    OpenAIRE

    G. Rohini Devi; K. Rama Rao

    1993-01-01

    Carbon carbon composites are a new class of engineering materials that are ceramic in nature but exhibit brittle to pseudoplastic behaviour. Carbon-carbon is a unique all-carbon composite with carbon fibre embeded in carbon matrix and is known as an inverse composite. Due to their excellent thermo-structural properties, carbon-carbon composites are used in specialised application like re-entry nose-tips, leading edges, rocket nozzles, and aircraft brake discs apart from several indust...

  2. Fatigue testing of a carbon fibre composite wind turbine blade with associated material characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, G.A.; Richardson, D.J. [Univ. of the West of England, Faculty of Engineering, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    1996-09-01

    Within the EC project JOULE 2, the University of the West of England (UWE) tested a carbon fibre reinforced epoxy (CFRE) full scale wind turbine blade together with an associated material test coupon programme. All the work was closely linked with the manufacturer Polymarine BV of the Netherlands, who designed and manufactured the blade and provided test specimens, the UWE carried out the research into the validation of the design calculations together with a check of the strength and fatigue life of the blade. (au)

  3. A Lamb waves based statistical approach to structural health monitoring of carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carboni, Michele; Gianneo, Andrea; Giglio, Marco

    2015-07-01

    This research investigates a Lamb-wave based structural health monitoring approach matching an out-of-phase actuation of a pair of piezoceramic transducers at low frequency. The target is a typical quasi-isotropic carbon fibre reinforced polymer aeronautical laminate subjected to artificial, via Teflon patches, and natural, via suitable low velocity drop weight impact tests, delaminations. The performance and main influencing factors of such an approach are studied through a Design of Experiment statistical method, considering both Pulse Echo and Pitch Catch configurations of PZT sensors. Results show that some factors and their interactions can effectively influence the detection of a delamination-like damage.

  4. Resistance welding of carbon fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone composites using metal mesh and PEI film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫久春; 王晓林; 秦明; 赵新英; 杨士勤

    2004-01-01

    Weldability of polyetheretherketone(PEEK) with polyetherimide(PEI) is tested. And carbon fiber reinforced PEEK laminates are resistance welded using stainless steel mesh heating element. The effects of the welding time and welding pressure on the lap shear strength of joints are investigated. Results show that PEEK can heal with PEI well in welding condition and the lap shear strength of PEEK/CF(carbon fibre) joint increases linearly with welding time, but reaches a maximum value when welding pressure ranging from 0.3MPa to 0.5MPa with constant welding time. The fracture characteristics of surface are analyzed by SEM techniques, and four types of fracture modes of lap shear joints are suggested.

  5. Characterization and analysis of carbon fibre-reinforced polymer composite laminates with embedded circular vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C-Y; Trask, R S; Bond, I P

    2010-08-01

    A study of the influence of embedded circular hollow vascules on structural performance of a fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite laminate is presented. Incorporating such vascules will lead to multi-functional composites by bestowing functions such as self-healing and active thermal management. However, the presence of off-axis vascules leads to localized disruption to the fibre architecture, i.e. resin-rich pockets, which are regarded as internal defects and may cause stress concentrations within the structure. Engineering approaches for creating these simple vascule geometries in conventional FRP laminates are proposed and demonstrated. This study includes development of a manufacturing method for forming vascules, microscopic characterization of their effect on the laminate, finite element (FE) analysis of crack initiation and failure under load, and validation of the FE results via mechanical testing observed using high-speed photography. The failure behaviour predicted by FE modelling is in good agreement with experimental results. The reduction in compressive strength owing to the embedding of circular vascules ranges from 13 to 70 per cent, which correlates with vascule dimension.

  6. Carbon/Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) Composites from Green Pellets Contain CNTs and Self-adhesive Carbon Grains from Fibres of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deraman, Mohamad; Saad, Siti Khatijah Md.; Ishak, Maria M.; Awitdrus, Taer, Erman; Talib, Ibrahim; Omar, Ramli; Jumali, Mohammad Hafizuddin Hj.

    2010-10-01

    Nano composites green pellets (GPs) were prepared from the mixtures of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at varying percentage (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%) and self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG) from fibres of oil palm empty fruit bunch. These GPs were carbonized and CO2 activated to produce activated carbon/CNTs composites in the form of pellets (ACPs). It was found that the density (ρ) and electrical conductivity (σ) of the ACPs varied nonlinearly with CNTs content; as for the CNTs content of 3-5%, we observed the peak values of ρ and σ at 1.3781 gcm-3 and 3.4146 (Ωcm)-1 respectively. The presence of the agglomerated and individual particles of CNTs in the pores of the ACPs was clearly shown by the micrograph of the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). The nitrogen adsorption isotherm data showed the decrease in surface area, volume and diameter of pores due to the effect of CNTs. The effect of CNTs on the electrochemical behavior of the ACPs were investigated from the supercapacitor cells fabricated using the ACPs as composite electrodes. It was found that the specific capacitance, energy density and power density of the supercapacitor with electrodes containing 10% CNTs were lower than that with electrodes without CNTs. This result is consistent with the change of pores characteristic due to the presence of CNTs in the ACPs, suggesting the need to optimize the pore characteristic for improving the supercapacitor performance.

  7. Aligned flax fibre/polylactate composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Lilholt, Hans; Thygesen, Anders;

    2008-01-01

    The potential of biocomposites in engineering applications is demonstrated by using aligned flax fibre/polylactate composites as a materials model system. The failure stress of flax fibres is measured by tensile testing of single fibres and fibre bundles. For both fibre configurations, it is found...... that failure stress is decreased by increasing the tested fibre volume. Based on two types of flax fibre preforms: carded sliver and unidirectional non-crimp fabric, aligned flax fibre/polylactate composites were fabricated with variable fibre content. The volumetric composition and tensile properties...... of the composite were measured. For composites with a fibre content of 37 % by volume, stiffness is about 20 GPa and failure stress is about 180 MPa. The tensile properties of the composites are analysed with a modified rule of mixtures model, which includes the effect of porosity. The experimental results...

  8. Toughening of a Carbon-Fibre Composite Using Electrospun Poly(Hydroxyether of Bisphenol A) Nanofibrous Membranes Through Inverse Phase Separation and Inter-Domain Etherification

    OpenAIRE

    Bronwyn Fox; Thomas Chaffraix; Kevin Magniez

    2011-01-01

    The interlaminar toughening of a carbon fibre reinforced composite by interleaving a thin layer (~20 microns) of poly(hydroxyether of bisphenol A) (phenoxy) nanofibres was explored in this work. Nanofibres, free of defect and averaging several hundred nanometres, were produced by electrospinning directly onto a pre-impregnated carbon fibre material (Toray G83C) at various concentrations between 0.5 wt % and 2 wt %. During curing at 150 °C, phenoxy diffuses through the epoxy resin to form a se...

  9. Reduced stress shielding with limited micromotions using a carbon fibre composite biomimetic hip stem: a finite element model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caouette, C; Yahia, L H; Bureau, M N

    2011-09-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) enjoys excellent rates of success in older patients, but younger patients are still at risk of aseptic loosening and bone resorption from stress shielding. One solution to the stress shielding problem is to use a hip stem with mechanical properties matching those of cortical bone. The objective of the present study was to investigate numerically the biomechanical performance of such a biomimetic hip stem based on a hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated carbon fibre composite. A finite element model (FEM) of the biomimetic stem was constructed. Contact elements were studied to model the bone-implant interface in a non-osseointegrated and osseointegrated state in the best way. Three static load cases representing slow walking, stair climbing, and gait in a healthy individual were considered. Stress shielding and bone-implant interface micromotions were evaluated and compared with the results of a similar FEM based on titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). The composite stems allowed for reduced stress shielding when compared with a traditional Ti-6Al-4V stem. Micromotions were slightly higher with the composite stem, but remained below 40 microm on most of the HA-coated surface. It is concluded that a biomimetic composite stem might offer a better compromise between stress shielding and micromotions than the Ti-6Al-4V stem with the same external geometry.

  10. Carbon Carbon Composites: An Overview .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rohini Devi

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon carbon composites are a new class of engineering materials that are ceramic in nature but exhibit brittle to pseudoplastic behaviour. Carbon-carbon is a unique all-carbon composite with carbon fibre embeded in carbon matrix and is known as an inverse composite. Due to their excellent thermo-structural properties, carbon-carbon composites are used in specialised application like re-entry nose-tips, leading edges, rocket nozzles, and aircraft brake discs apart from several industrial and biomedical applications. The multidirectional carbon-carbon product technology is versatile and offers design flexibility. This paper describes the multidirectional preform and carbon-carbon process technology and research and development activities within the country. Carbon-carbon product experience at DRDL has also been discussed. Development of carbon-carbon brake discs process technology using the liquid impregnation process is described. Further the test results on material characterisation, thermal, mechanical and tribological properties are presented.

  11. Influence of the Testing Gage Length on the Strength, Young's Modulus and Weibull Modulus of Carbon Fibres and Glass Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Claudio Pardini

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fibres and glass fibres are reinforcements for advanced composites and the fiber strength is the most influential factor on the strength of the composites. They are essentially brittle and fail with very little reduction in cross section. Composites made with these fibres are characterized by a high strength/density ratio and their properties are intrisically related to their microstructure, i.e., amount and orientation of the fibres, surface treatment, among other factors. Processing parameters have an important role in the fibre mechanical behaviour (strength and modulus. Cracks, voids and impurities in the case of glass fibres and fibrillar misalignments in the case of carbon fibres are created during processing. Such inhomogeneities give rise to an appreciable scatter in properties. The most used statistical tool that deals with this characteristic variability in properties is the Weibull distribution. The present work investigates the influence of the testing gage length on the strength, Young's modulus and Weibull modulus of carbon fibres and glass fibres. The Young's modulus is calculated by two methods: (i ASTM D 3379M, and (ii interaction between testing equipment/specimen The first method resulted in a Young modulus of 183 GPa for carbon fibre, and 76 GPa for glass fibre. The second method gave a Young modulus of 250 GPa for carbon fibre and 50 GPa for glass fibre. These differences revelead differences on how the interaction specimen/testing machine can interfere in the Young modulus calculations. Weibull modulus can be a tool to evaluate the fibre's homogeneity in terms of properties and it is a good quality control parameter during processing. In the range of specimen gage length tested the Weibull modulus for carbon fibre is ~ 3.30 and for glass fibres is ~ 5.65, which indicates that for the batch of fibres tested, the glass fibre is more uniform in properties.

  12. Contrast Enhancement of MicroCT Scans to Aid 3D Modelling of Carbon Fibre Fabric Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Luke P.; Pearce, Garth M.; Herszberg, Israel; Bannister, Michael K.; Mollenhauer, David H.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a methodology for volume capture and rendering of plain weave and multi-layer fabric meso-architectures within a consolidated, cured laminate. Micro X-ray Computed Tomography (MicroCT) is an excellent tool for the non-destructive visualisation of material microstructures however the contrast between tows and resin is poor for carbon fibre composites. Firstly, this paper demonstrates techniques to improve the contrast of the microCT images by introducing higher density materials such as gold, iodine and glass into the fabric. Two approaches were demonstrated to be effective for enhancing the differentiation between the tows in the reconstructed microCT visualisations. Secondly, a method of generating three-dimensional volume models of woven composites using microCT scan data is discussed. The process of generating a model is explained from initial manufacture with the aid of an example plain weave fabric. These methods are to be used in the finite element modelling of three-dimensional fabric preforms in future work.

  13. Production of continuous intermingled CF/GF hybrid composite via fibre tow spreading technology

    OpenAIRE

    Diao, H.; Bismarck, A.; Robinson, P.; Wisnom, M. R.

    2014-01-01

    An air-assisted fibre tow spreader was used to produce continuous commingled glass and carbon fibre tows. Hybrid carbon and glass fibre (CF/GF) reinforced epoxy composites were manufactured from these commingled fibre tows by resin film infusion. The degree of hybridisation of the hybrid CF/GF tow was defined and characterised. Compared with the corresponding continuous CF/epoxy composite, the hybrid composite with a degree of hybridisation of 32.45% exhibits a more gradual tensile failure. T...

  14. Reliability of stable carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of pedogenic needle fibre calcite as environmental indicators: examples from Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millière, Laure; Spangenberg, Jorge E; Bindschedler, Saskia; Cailleau, Guillaume; Verrecchia, Eric P

    2011-09-01

    Stable carbon and oxygen isotope analyses were conducted on pedogenic needle fibre calcite (NFC) from seven sites in areas with roughly similar temperate climates in Western Europe, including the Swiss Jura Mountains, eastern and southern France, northern Wales, and north-eastern Spain. The δ(13)C values (-12.5 to-6.8 ‰ Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB)) record the predominant C(3) vegetation cover at the sites. A good correlation was found between mean monthly climatic parameters (air temperature, number of frost days, humidity, and precipitation) and δ(18)O values (-7.8 to-3.4‰ VPDB) of all the NFC. Similar seasonal variations of δ(18)O values for monthly NFC samples from the Swiss sites and those of mean monthly δ(18)O values of local precipitation and meteorological data point out precipitation and preferential growth/or recrystallisation of the pedogenic needle calcite during dry seasons. These covariations indicate the potential of stable isotope compositions of preserved NFC in fossil soil horizons as a promising tool for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions.

  15. Assessment of the post-impact damage propagation in a carbon-fibre composite under cyclic loading: Ocena napredovanja poškodbe po udarcu pri ponavljajočih se obremenitvah kompozita z ogljikovimi vlakni:

    OpenAIRE

    Doktor, Tomáš; Fíla, Tomáš; Kytýř, Daniel; Šleichrt, Jan; Šperl, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Carbon fibre in polyphenylene sulfide composites (C/PPS) became a popular material in the aircraft industry but its fragility and low impact resistance limits its application in primary aircraft structures. This study is focused on damage propagation in the laminated composites reinforced with carbon fibres. The damage may be inflicted during the ground maintenance, by an inflight bird strike or during a flight in severe meteorological conditions (heavy storms). The initial damage was created...

  16. Strength and toughness of structural fibres for composite material reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herráez, M; Fernández, A; Lopes, C S; González, C

    2016-07-13

    The characterization of the strength and fracture toughness of three common structural fibres, E-glass, AS4 carbon and Kevlar KM2, is presented in this work. The notched specimens were prepared by means of selective carving of individual fibres by means of the focused ion beam. A straight-fronted edge notch was introduced in a plane perpendicular to the fibre axis, with the relative notch depth being a0/D≈0.1 and the notch radius at the tip approximately 50 nm. The selection of the appropriate beam current during milling operations was performed to avoid to as much as possible any microstructural changes owing to ion impingement. Both notched and un-notched fibres were submitted to uniaxial tensile tests up to failure. The strength of the un-notched fibres was characterized in terms of the Weibull statistics, whereas the residual strength of the notched fibres was used to determine their apparent toughness. To this end, the stress intensity factor of a fronted edge crack was computed by means of the finite-element method for different crack lengths. The experimental results agreed with those reported in the literature for polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibres obtained by using similar techniques. After mechanical testing, the fracture surface of the fibres was analysed to ascertain the failure mechanisms. It was found that AS4 carbon and E-glass fibres presented the lower toughness with fracture surfaces perpendicular to the fibre axis, emanating from the notch tip. The fractured region of Kevlar KM2 fibres extended along the fibre and showed large permanent deformation, which explains their higher degree of toughness when compared with carbon and glass fibres. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials'.

  17. Strength and toughness of structural fibres for composite material reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herráez, M; Fernández, A; Lopes, C S; González, C

    2016-07-13

    The characterization of the strength and fracture toughness of three common structural fibres, E-glass, AS4 carbon and Kevlar KM2, is presented in this work. The notched specimens were prepared by means of selective carving of individual fibres by means of the focused ion beam. A straight-fronted edge notch was introduced in a plane perpendicular to the fibre axis, with the relative notch depth being a0/D≈0.1 and the notch radius at the tip approximately 50 nm. The selection of the appropriate beam current during milling operations was performed to avoid to as much as possible any microstructural changes owing to ion impingement. Both notched and un-notched fibres were submitted to uniaxial tensile tests up to failure. The strength of the un-notched fibres was characterized in terms of the Weibull statistics, whereas the residual strength of the notched fibres was used to determine their apparent toughness. To this end, the stress intensity factor of a fronted edge crack was computed by means of the finite-element method for different crack lengths. The experimental results agreed with those reported in the literature for polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibres obtained by using similar techniques. After mechanical testing, the fracture surface of the fibres was analysed to ascertain the failure mechanisms. It was found that AS4 carbon and E-glass fibres presented the lower toughness with fracture surfaces perpendicular to the fibre axis, emanating from the notch tip. The fractured region of Kevlar KM2 fibres extended along the fibre and showed large permanent deformation, which explains their higher degree of toughness when compared with carbon and glass fibres.This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials'. PMID:27242306

  18. Preparation Of Melt Spun Electroconductive Fine Fibres Containing Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjalili Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of electroconductive fine fibres containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs by melt spinning was the main goal of the present study. In this regard, the influence of the main operating parameters such as type of polymer used (polyester, polypropylene and polyamide, type and concentration of the CNTs on conductivity, and mechanical and thermal properties of the melt spun fibres was studied. The conductivity of melt spun fibres was measured based on the method developed by Morton and Hearl. The morphologies of the CNTs–polymer composite fibres were studied by scanning electron microscopy. Thermal behaviours and mechanical properties of the CNTs–polymer composite fibres were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and tearing tester, respectively. The results reveal that using CNTs had tangible effect on electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of the melt spun fibres. Also, polyamide had a better dispersion of CNTs and correspondingly lower surface resistivity.

  19. Roughness Influence On Macro- And Micro-Tribology Of Multi-Layered Hard Coatings On Carbon Fibre Polymer Composite

    OpenAIRE

    Lackner J. M.; Major B.; Waldhauser W.; Mzyk A.; Major Ł.; Kot M.

    2015-01-01

    Goal of this work is the investigation of roughness influences on the abrasive wear behaviour of magnetron sputtered multi-layered, low-friction coatings on carbon-fibre reinforced polymers (CFRP). Higher coating roughness at similar CFRP quality was realized by higher deposition rates, leading to increased heat flux to the substrates during deposition. Thermal expansion of the epoxy matrix on the micro scale results in a wavy, wrinkled surface topography. Both in scratch and reciprocal slidi...

  20. Characterisation of Natural Fibre Reinforcements and Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K. Cullen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent EU directives (e.g., ELV and WEEE have caused some rethinking of the life cycle implications of fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites. Man-made reinforcement fibres have significant ecological implications. One alternative is the use of natural fibres as reinforcements. The principal candidates are bast (plant stem fibres with flax, hemp, and jute as the current front runners. The work presented here will consider the characterisation of jute fibres and their composites. A novel technique is proposed for the measurement of fibre density. The new rule of mixtures, extended for noncircular cross-section natural fibres, is shown to provide a sensible estimate for the experimentally measured elastic modulus of the composite.

  1. A micrographic study of bending failure in five thermoplastic-carbon fibre composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurgartis, S. W.; Sternstein, S. S.

    1988-01-01

    The local deformation and failure sequences of five thermoplastic matrix composites were microscopically observed while bending the samples in a small fixture attached to a microscope stage. The thermoplastics are polycarbonate, polysulfane, polyphenylsulfide, polyethersulfane, and polyetheretherketone. Comparison was made to an epoxy matrix composite, 5208/T-300. Laminates tested are (0/90) sub 2S, with outer ply fibers parallel to the beam axis. Four point bending was used at a typical span-to-thickness ratio of 39:1. It was found that all of the thermoplastic composites failed by abrupt longitudinal compression buckling of the outer ply. Very little precursory damage was observed. Micrographs reveal typical fiber kinking associated with longitudinal compression failure. Curved fracture surfaces on the fibers suggest they failed in bending rather than direct compression. Delamination was suppressed in the thermoplastic composites, and the delamination that did occur was found to be the result of compression buckling, rather than vice-versa. Microbuckling also caused other subsequent damage such as ply splitting, transverse ply shear failure, fiber tensile failure, and transverse ply cracking.

  2. A novel method based on selective laser sintering for preparing high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy ternary composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Yan, Chunze; Shi, Yunsong; Wen, Shifeng; Liu, Jie; Wei, Qingsong; Shi, Yusheng

    2016-01-01

    A novel method based on selective laser sintering (SLS) process is proposed for the first time to prepare complex and high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy (CF/PA12/EP) ternary composites. The procedures are briefly described as follows: prepare polyamide12 (PA12) coated carbon fibre (CF) composite powder; build porous green parts by SLS; infiltrate the green parts with high-performance thermosetting epoxy (EP) resin; and finally cure the resin at high temperature. The obtained composites are a ternary composite system consisting of the matrix of novolac EP resin, the reinforcement of CFs and the transition thin layer of PA12 with a thickness of 595 nm. The SEM images and micro-CT analysis prove that the ternary system is a three-dimensional co-continuous structure and the reinforcement of CFs are well dispersed in the matrix of EP with the volume fraction of 31%. Mechanical tests show that the composites fabricated by this method yield an ultimate tensile strength of 101.03 MPa and a flexural strength of 153.43 MPa, which are higher than those of most of the previously reported SLS materials. Therefore, the process proposed in this paper shows great potential for manufacturing complex, lightweight and high-performance CF reinforced composite components in aerospace, automotive industries and other areas. PMID:27650254

  3. A novel method based on selective laser sintering for preparing high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy ternary composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Yan, Chunze; Shi, Yunsong; Wen, Shifeng; Liu, Jie; Wei, Qingsong; Shi, Yusheng

    2016-09-21

    A novel method based on selective laser sintering (SLS) process is proposed for the first time to prepare complex and high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy (CF/PA12/EP) ternary composites. The procedures are briefly described as follows: prepare polyamide12 (PA12) coated carbon fibre (CF) composite powder; build porous green parts by SLS; infiltrate the green parts with high-performance thermosetting epoxy (EP) resin; and finally cure the resin at high temperature. The obtained composites are a ternary composite system consisting of the matrix of novolac EP resin, the reinforcement of CFs and the transition thin layer of PA12 with a thickness of 595 nm. The SEM images and micro-CT analysis prove that the ternary system is a three-dimensional co-continuous structure and the reinforcement of CFs are well dispersed in the matrix of EP with the volume fraction of 31%. Mechanical tests show that the composites fabricated by this method yield an ultimate tensile strength of 101.03 MPa and a flexural strength of 153.43 MPa, which are higher than those of most of the previously reported SLS materials. Therefore, the process proposed in this paper shows great potential for manufacturing complex, lightweight and high-performance CF reinforced composite components in aerospace, automotive industries and other areas.

  4. A novel method based on selective laser sintering for preparing high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy ternary composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Yan, Chunze; Shi, Yunsong; Wen, Shifeng; Liu, Jie; Wei, Qingsong; Shi, Yusheng

    2016-01-01

    A novel method based on selective laser sintering (SLS) process is proposed for the first time to prepare complex and high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy (CF/PA12/EP) ternary composites. The procedures are briefly described as follows: prepare polyamide12 (PA12) coated carbon fibre (CF) composite powder; build porous green parts by SLS; infiltrate the green parts with high-performance thermosetting epoxy (EP) resin; and finally cure the resin at high temperature. The obtained composites are a ternary composite system consisting of the matrix of novolac EP resin, the reinforcement of CFs and the transition thin layer of PA12 with a thickness of 595 nm. The SEM images and micro-CT analysis prove that the ternary system is a three-dimensional co-continuous structure and the reinforcement of CFs are well dispersed in the matrix of EP with the volume fraction of 31%. Mechanical tests show that the composites fabricated by this method yield an ultimate tensile strength of 101.03 MPa and a flexural strength of 153.43 MPa, which are higher than those of most of the previously reported SLS materials. Therefore, the process proposed in this paper shows great potential for manufacturing complex, lightweight and high-performance CF reinforced composite components in aerospace, automotive industries and other areas. PMID:27650254

  5. Plasma treatment of carbon fibres and glass-fibre-reinforced polyesters at atmospheric pressure for adhesion improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom; Toftegaard, Helmuth Langmaack;

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment is useful for adhesion improvement, because cleaning, roughening and addition of polar functional groups can be expected at the surfaces. Its possible applications in the wind energy industry include plasma treatment of fibres and fibre-reinforced polymer...... composites before assembling them to build wind turbine blades. In the present work, unsized carbon fibres are continuously treated using a dielectric barrier discharge plasma in helium at atmospheric pressure, and carbon fibre reinforced epoxy composite plates are manufactured for the mechanical test...

  6. Roughness Influence On Macro- And Micro-Tribology Of Multi-Layered Hard Coatings On Carbon Fibre Polymer Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lackner J.M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Goal of this work is the investigation of roughness influences on the abrasive wear behaviour of magnetron sputtered multi-layered, low-friction coatings on carbon-fibre reinforced polymers (CFRP. Higher coating roughness at similar CFRP quality was realized by higher deposition rates, leading to increased heat flux to the substrates during deposition. Thermal expansion of the epoxy matrix on the micro scale results in a wavy, wrinkled surface topography. Both in scratch and reciprocal sliding testing against alumina, the friction coefficients are lower for the smooth coatings, but their wear rate is higher due to low-cycle fatigue caused abrasion.

  7. High energy flux thermo-mechanical test of 1D-carbon-carbon fibre composite prototypes for the SPIDER diagnostic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Muri, M., E-mail: michela.demuri@igi.cnr.it; Pasqualotto, R.; Dalla Palma, M.; Cervaro, V.; Fasolo, D.; Franchin, L.; Tollin, M.; Serianni, G. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Cavallin, T. [Istituto per l’Energetica e le Interfasi, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Greuner, H.; Böswirth, B. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    Operation of the thermonuclear fusion experiment ITER requires additional heating via injection of neutral beams from accelerated negative ions. In the SPIDER test facility, under construction in Padova, the production of negative ions will be studied and optimised. STRIKE (Short-Time Retractable Instrumented Kalorimeter Experiment) is a diagnostic used to characterise the SPIDER beam during short pulse operation (several seconds) to verify if the beam meets the ITER requirements about the maximum allowed beam non-uniformity (below ±10%). The major components of STRIKE are 16 1D-CFC (Carbon-Carbon Fibre Composite) tiles, observed at the rear side by a thermal camera. This contribution gives an overview of some tests under high energy particle flux, aimed at verifying the thermo-mechanical behaviour of several CFC prototype tiles. The tests were performed in the GLADIS facility at IPP (Max-Plank-Institut für Plasmaphysik), Garching. Dedicated linear and nonlinear simulations were carried out to interpret the experiments and a comparison of the experimental data with the simulation results is presented. The results of some morphological and structural studies on the material after exposure to the GLADIS beam are also given.

  8. High energy flux thermo-mechanical test of 1D-carbon-carbon fibre composite prototypes for the SPIDER diagnostic calorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Muri, M; Cavallin, T; Pasqualotto, R; Dalla Palma, M; Cervaro, V; Fasolo, D; Franchin, L; Tollin, M; Greuner, H; Böswirth, B; Serianni, G

    2014-02-01

    Operation of the thermonuclear fusion experiment ITER requires additional heating via injection of neutral beams from accelerated negative ions. In the SPIDER test facility, under construction in Padova, the production of negative ions will be studied and optimised. STRIKE (Short-Time Retractable Instrumented Kalorimeter Experiment) is a diagnostic used to characterise the SPIDER beam during short pulse operation (several seconds) to verify if the beam meets the ITER requirements about the maximum allowed beam non-uniformity (below ±10%). The major components of STRIKE are 16 1D-CFC (Carbon-Carbon Fibre Composite) tiles, observed at the rear side by a thermal camera. This contribution gives an overview of some tests under high energy particle flux, aimed at verifying the thermo-mechanical behaviour of several CFC prototype tiles. The tests were performed in the GLADIS facility at IPP (Max-Plank-Institut für Plasmaphysik), Garching. Dedicated linear and nonlinear simulations were carried out to interpret the experiments and a comparison of the experimental data with the simulation results is presented. The results of some morphological and structural studies on the material after exposure to the GLADIS beam are also given.

  9. Hydrofluoric–nitric–sulphuric-acid surface treatment of tungsten for carbon fibre-reinforced composite hybrids in space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanerva, M., E-mail: Mikko.Kanerva@aalto.fi [Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Applied Mechanics, P.O.B. 14300, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Johansson, L.-S.; Campbell, J.M. [Aalto University, School of Chemical Technology, Department of Forest Products Technology, P.O.B. 16300, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Revitzer, H. [Aalto University, School of Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, P.O.B. 16300, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Sarlin, E. [Tampere University of Technology, Department of Materials Science, P.O.B. 589, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Brander, T.; Saarela, O. [Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Applied Mechanics, P.O.B. 14300, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • XPS and AFM analysis of the effect of hydrofluoric–nitric–sulphuric-acid on tungsten. • Dreiling's model established 54.4% thinning of WO{sub 3} due to 67 s treatment. • Strain energy release rate increased ≈8.4 J/m{sup 2} at the interface. • Failure loci analysis expressed the oxide and carbon fibre surfaces as weak points. - Abstract: Hybrid material systems, such as combinations of tungsten foils and carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP), are replacing metal alloy concepts in spacecraft enclosures. However, a good adhesion between the tungsten oxide scale and the epoxy resin used is required. Here, the effects of a hydrofluoric–nitric–sulphuric-acid (HFNS) treatment on tungsten oxides and subsequent adhesion to CFRP are analysed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fracture testing. The work shows that HFNS treatment results in decreased oxygen content, over 50% thinner tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) layer and increased nano-roughness on thin tungsten foils. Fracture testing established a 39% increase in the average critical strain for tungsten–CFRP specimens after HFNS treatment was carried out on tungsten. The effect of the oxide scale modification regarding the critical strain energy release rate was ΔG{sub c}≈ 8.4 J/m{sup 2}.

  10. Winding of fibre composites; Vikling af fiberkompositter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lystrup, Aage

    2006-01-01

    Within the project 'Storage of hydrogen in advanced high pressure vessels' under the PSO-R AND D 2005 program one of the tasks is to describe the technology, which is used for manufacturing of fibre reinforced pressure vessels. Fibre reinforced pressure vessels for high pressures are manufactured by winding structural load bearing fibres around a mandrel or an internal liner. There are two different types of cylindrical pressure vessels: 1) Cylinders with thick metal liner, where only the cylindrical part is over wrapped with hoop windings, and 2) cylinders with a thin metal or polymer liner, where both the cylindrical part and the end domes are over wrapped with more layers with different fibre orientations (helical and hoop windings). This report describes the fundamental principles for filament winding of fibre reinforced polymer composites. After a short introduction to the advanced fibre composites, their properties and semi-raw materials used for fibre composites, the focus is on the process parameters, which have influence on the material quality of filament wound components. The report is both covering winding of fibre reinforced thermo-setting polymers as well as thermoplastic polymers, and there are references to vendors of filament winding machines, accessory equipment and computer software for design and manufacturing of filament wound components. (au)

  11. Fibre distribution inside yarns of textile composite: gemetrical and FE modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koissin, V.; Ivanov, D.S.; Lomov, S.V.; Verpoest, I.

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the experimental investigation and modelling of the uneven fibre distribution inside yarns of a textile composite. The test data is given for the tri-axial carbon-fibre braid; a considerable irregularity is revealed for the fibre distribution along and across the yarns. The im

  12. Toughening of a Carbon-Fibre Composite Using Electrospun Poly(Hydroxyether of Bisphenol A Nanofibrous Membranes Through Inverse Phase Separation and Inter-Domain Etherification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Fox

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The interlaminar toughening of a carbon fibre reinforced composite by interleaving a thin layer (~20 microns of poly(hydroxyether of bisphenol A (phenoxy nanofibres was explored in this work. Nanofibres, free of defect and averaging several hundred nanometres, were produced by electrospinning directly onto a pre-impregnated carbon fibre material (Toray G83C at various concentrations between 0.5 wt % and 2 wt %. During curing at 150 °C, phenoxy diffuses through the epoxy resin to form a semi interpenetrating network with an inverse phase type of morphology where the epoxy became the co-continuous phase with a nodular morphology. This type of morphology improved the fracture toughness in mode I (opening failure and mode II (in-plane shear failure by up to 150% and 30%, respectively. Interlaminar shear stress test results showed that the interleaving did not negatively affect the effective in-plane strength of the composites. Furthermore, there was some evidence from DMTA and FT-IR analysis to suggest that inter-domain etherification between the residual epoxide groups with the pendant hydroxyl groups of the phenoxy occurred, also leading to an increase in glass transition temperature (~7.5 °C.

  13. Hydrofluoric-nitric-sulphuric-acid surface treatment of tungsten for carbon fibre-reinforced composite hybrids in space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, M.; Johansson, L.-S.; Campbell, J. M.; Revitzer, H.; Sarlin, E.; Brander, T.; Saarela, O.

    2015-02-01

    Hybrid material systems, such as combinations of tungsten foils and carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP), are replacing metal alloy concepts in spacecraft enclosures. However, a good adhesion between the tungsten oxide scale and the epoxy resin used is required. Here, the effects of a hydrofluoric-nitric-sulphuric-acid (HFNS) treatment on tungsten oxides and subsequent adhesion to CFRP are analysed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fracture testing. The work shows that HFNS treatment results in decreased oxygen content, over 50% thinner tungsten trioxide (WO3) layer and increased nano-roughness on thin tungsten foils. Fracture testing established a 39% increase in the average critical strain for tungsten-CFRP specimens after HFNS treatment was carried out on tungsten. The effect of the oxide scale modification regarding the critical strain energy release rate was ΔGc≈ 8.4 J/m2.

  14. Creep Strength of Discontinuous Fibre Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Bøcker

    1974-01-01

    A unidirectional, discontinuous fibre composite is considered under conditions of steady state creep in the direction of reinforcement. The composite consists of noncreeping, discontinuous, perfectly aligned, uniformly distributed fibres which are perfectly bonded to a matrix obeying a power...... relation between stress and strain rate. Expressions for the interface stress, the creep velocity profile adjacent to the fibres and the creep strength of the composite are derived. Previous results for the creep strength, sc = aVfs0 ( \\frac[( Î )\\dot] [( Î )\\dot] 0 )1/nr1 + 1/n c=Vf001n1+1n in which[( Î...... )\\dot] is the composite creep rate,V f is the fibre volume fraction,sgr 0,epsi 0 andn are the constants in the matrix creep law. The creep strength coefficient agr is found to be very weakly dependent onV f and practically independent ofn whenn is greater than about 6....

  15. Characterisation of Flax Fibres and Flax Fibre Composites. Being cellulose based sources of materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslan, Mustafa

    a growing interest among composite manufacturers for such low-cost and low-weight cellulosic fibre composites. In addition, wood and plant fibre based composites with thermoplastic polymeric matrices are recyclable, and they are cost attractive alternatives to oil based fibre reinforced polymer composites......Cellulosic fibres, like wood and plant fibres, have the potential for use as load-bearing constituents in composite materials due to their attractive properties such as high stiffness-to-weight ratio that makes cellulosic fibre composites ideal for many structural applications. There is thus...... that currently have the largest market share for composite applications. However, the most critical limitation in the use of cellulosic fibre composites for structural applications is the lack of well described fibre properties, in particular, the tensile strength. This is due to variations in fibre morphology...

  16. Chalcogenide-tellurite composite microstructured optical fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohoutek, T.; Duan, Z.; Kawashima, H.; Yan, X.; Suzuki, T.; Matsumoto, M.; Misumi, Takashi; Ohishi, Y.

    2012-02-01

    We report on fabrication a composite microstructured optical fibre composed of highly nonlinear chalcogenide Ge-Ga- Sb-S glass core and tellurite TeO2-ZnO-Li20-Bi2O3 glass clad. We aimed at obtaining more flattened chromatic dispersion for pumping chalcogenide glass based optical fibre by a pulse laser at current telecommunication wavelengths, i.e. λ = 1.35 - 1.7 μm, which is difficult to achieve by using a single material chalcogenide fibers due to their high refractive index (n > 2.1). A fibre design exploiting a composite of two glasses and one ring of the air holes brings similar options for tuning the fibre dispersion such as use of complex multi rings of air-holes approach. A good choice of glasses, allows for fabricating a composite chalcogenide-tellurite optical fibre benefiting from high nonlinearity of chalcogenide core glass but exploiting a tellurite glass technology and fibre drawing. In the paper, we discuss some aspects of CMOF design concerning current chalcogenide and tellurite glass choice. Also, we show the supercontinuum spectra recorded from current chalcogenide-tellurite CMOF pumped with a custom made femtosecond fibre laser at λ = 1.55 μm with the pulse duration of 400 fs.

  17. Natural Composites: Cellulose Fibres and the related Performance of Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilholt, Hans; Madsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Biobased materials are becoming of increasing interest as potential structural materials for the future. A useful concept in this context is the fibre reinforcement of materials by stiff and strong fibres. The biobased resources can contribute with cellulose fibres and biopolymers. This offers...... in stiffness, on the packing ability of cellulose fibres and the related maximum fibre volume fraction in composites, on the moisture sorption of cellulose fibres and the related mass increase and (large) hygral strains induced, and on the mechanical performance of composites....... the potential for stiff and strong biocomposite materials, but these have some limitations and obstacles to full performance. The focus will be on the ultra-structure, and the strength and stiffness of cellulose fibres, on the (unavoidable) defects causing large reductions in strength and moderate reductions...

  18. A Micro Raman Investigation of Viscoelasticity in Short Fibre Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjødt-Thomsen, Jan

    The purpose of the present Ph.D. project is to investigate the load transfer mechanisms between the fibre and matrix and the stress/strain fields in and around single fibres in short fibre reinforced viscoelastic polymer matrix composites subjected to various loading histories. The materials...... considered are high modulus carbon fibres embedded in a polypropylene matrix. The polypropylene matrix displays nonlinear viscoelasticity and its constitutive behaviour is modelled using the Schapery model....

  19. Hybrid filler composition optimization for tensile strength of jute fibre-reinforced polymer composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ANURAG GUPTA; HARI SINGH; R SWALIA

    2016-09-01

    In present research work, pultrusion process is used to develop jute fibre-reinforced polyester (GFRP) composite and experiments have been performed on an indigenously developed pultrusion experimental setup. The developed composite consists of natural jute fibre as reinforcement and unsaturated polyester resin as matrix with hybrid filler containing bagasse fibre, carbon black and calcium carbonate (CaCO$_3$). The effect of weight content of bagasse fibre, carbon black and calcium carbonate on tensile strength of pultruded GFRP composite is evaluated and the optimum hybrid filler composition for maximizing the tensile strength is determined. Different compositions of hybrid filler are prepared by mixing three fillers using Taguchi L$_9$ orthogonal array. Fifteen percent of hybrid filler of different composition by weight was mixed in the unsaturated polyester resin matrix. Taguchi L$_9$ orthogonal array (OA) has been used to plan the experiments and ANOVA is used for analysing tensile strength. A regression model has also been proposed to evaluate the tensile strength of the composite within 7% error by varying the abovefillers weight. A confirmation experiment was performed which gives 73.14 MPa tensile strength of pultruded jute fibre polymer composite at the optimum composition of hybrid filler.

  20. Surface characterisation of carbon fibre recycled using fluidised bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, G.; Pickering, S. J.; Walker, G. S.; Wong, K. H.; Rudd, C. D.

    2008-02-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to investigate the surface of carbon fibres recycled using a high-temperature fluidised bed. The interfacial shear strength of the recycled carbon fibres with epoxy resin was examined using a micro-droplet test. The corresponding as received carbon fibres were used as control samples. It was shown that the recycling process converted some of the surface hydroxyl groups into carbonyl and carboxylic groups due to the effect of heat in atmosphere of air. The overall O/C ratio was not changed significantly. The interfacial shear strength with epoxy resin was not affected by the change of surface oxygen composition. It was also shown that surface texture may play a dominant role in interfacial bonding performance.

  1. Experimental Study on High Speed Drilling Carbon Fibred Composite%碳纤维复合材料高速钻削实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东; 陈志同; 陈五一; 顾卫东

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives the investigation on drilling force and moment of carbon fibred composite with carbide drilling tools brazed diamond. The experiments were carried out under air cooling cutting conditions. The regulation of the drilling force influenced by the feed rate and cutting speed was obtained. The exponential formula of drilling force and moment were obtained through regression analysis method.%研究了硬质合金钎焊金刚石钻头高速钻削碳纤维复合材料时钻削力、扭矩的变化规律,得到了进给量、切削速度对钻削力和扭矩的影响规律.对钻削力和扭矩实验结果进行了回归分析得到了钻削力和扭矩的指数公式.

  2. Etude expérimentale et numérique de l'écrasement de stratifiés composites à base de fibres de carbone

    OpenAIRE

    Israr Ahmad, Haris Ahmad Bin

    2014-01-01

    L’un des défis de la simulation numérique de la résistance au crash des structures composites est de pouvoir prédire les endommagements, leur évolution au cours de l’écrasement et l'énergie absorbée, à partir d'un nombre limité de propriétés matériau. Le but de cette étude est d'améliorer la compréhension des mécanismes élémentaires impliqués dans l'écrasement de stratifiés de plis unidirectionnels à base de fibres de carbone et de développer un modèle numérique. Des essais sont réalisés à...

  3. Hybrid Composite Structures: Multifunctionality through Metal Fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, T.

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of fibre reinforced polymer composites into the wings and fuselages of the newest aircraft are changing the design and manufacturing approach. Composites provide greater freedom to designers who want to improve aircraft performance in an affordable way. In this quest, researchers ar

  4. 碳纤维复合材料强度的有限元模拟%FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION FOR THE STRENGTH OF CARBON FIBRE COMPOSITE MATERIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玮; 段成红; 吴祥

    2011-01-01

    Carbon fibre composite materials are more and more used in industries, but the research on the properties is not deep enough. To save test cost, it is necessary to carry out theoretical simulation for the materials while performing experimental investigation. In this paper, ultimate strength of a carbon fibre composite material with a standard testing NOL-ring was calculated numerically by using ANSYS software with two simulation methods,namely node coupling and contacting. Circumferential stresses along the NOL-ring were given. Results show that errors between the two simulations and the test results are 23.6% and 5.6% respectively, indicating that using contacting method is more precise.%碳纤维复合材料在工业上的应用越来越广,但对其材料性质的研究还远不充分.为了节省试验经费,应在进行必要试验的同时对碳纤维复合材料的性质进行模拟计算.本文针对一标准试验,利用ANSYS软件的节点耦合技术和接触分析技术分别对某碳纤维复合材料制成的NOL环进行了拉伸破坏载荷下的强度计算,给出NOL环上各点的周向应力.结果发现,这两种模拟方法与试验值的误差分别为23.6%和5.6%,表明接触分析技术比较精确.

  5. Evaluation of the Shear Strength Behaviour of Polypropylene and Carbon Fibre Reinforced Cohesive Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas A. Anagnostopoulos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of various parameters involved, such as the strength properties of fibres, the relative size of fibres and grains and the rate of shear on the shear strength of polypropylene or carbon fibre reinforced cohesive soils with different percentage loading of fibres. The experimental results reveal that the inclusion of polypropylene fibres in soil increases considerably the shear strength. Contrarily, the inclusion of the carbon fibres did not produce a clear beneficial effect. In both cases, the shear strengths results are attributed to the different micro mechanisms involved in the fibre/soil interactions as studied through scanning electron micrographs. A significant outcome from the current work is that the strength of the reinforced soil composites is independent of the fibre mechanical indexes.

  6. Preparation & characterization of SiO2 interface layer by dip coating technique on carbon fibre for Cf/SiC composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon fibres (Cf) are one of the most important reinforced materials for ceramic matrix composites such as Cf - SiC composites and they are generally sought for high temperature applications in as space application, nuclear reactor and automobile industries. But the major problem arise when Cf reinforced composites exposed to high temperature in an oxidizing environment, Cf react with oxygen and burnt away. In present work, we have studied the effect of silica (SiO2) coating as a protective coating on Cf for the Cf / SiC composites. The silica solution prepared by the sol-gel process and coating on Cf is done by dip coating technique with varying the withdrawing speed i.e. 2, 5, 8 mm/s with fixed dipping cycle (3 Nos.). The uniform silica coating on the Cf is shown by the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. The tensile test shows the increase in tensile strength with respect to increase in withdrawing speed. The isothermal oxidation analysis confirmed enhancement of oxidation resistance of silica coated Cf as compared tothe uncoated Cf

  7. Preparation & characterization of SiO{sub 2} interface layer by dip coating technique on carbon fibre for C{sub f}/SiC composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Kundan, E-mail: kundanemails@gmail.com [Fusion Reactor Material Development & Characterization Division, Institute for Plasma Research, GIDC Electronics Estate, Sector-25, Gandhinagar-382016 (India); Centre for Nanotechnology, Central University of Jharkhand, Ratu-Lohardaga Road, Brambe, Ranchi-835205 INDIA (India); Jariwala, C., E-mail: chetan@ipr.res.in; Pillai, R.; Chauhan, N.; Raole, P. M. [Fusion Reactor Material Development & Characterization Division, Institute for Plasma Research, GIDC Electronics Estate, Sector-25, Gandhinagar-382016 (India)

    2015-08-28

    Carbon fibres (C{sub f}) are one of the most important reinforced materials for ceramic matrix composites such as C{sub f} - SiC composites and they are generally sought for high temperature applications in as space application, nuclear reactor and automobile industries. But the major problem arise when C{sub f} reinforced composites exposed to high temperature in an oxidizing environment, C{sub f} react with oxygen and burnt away. In present work, we have studied the effect of silica (SiO{sub 2}) coating as a protective coating on C{sub f} for the C{sub f} / SiC composites. The silica solution prepared by the sol-gel process and coating on C{sub f} is done by dip coating technique with varying the withdrawing speed i.e. 2, 5, 8 mm/s with fixed dipping cycle (3 Nos.). The uniform silica coating on the C{sub f} is shown by the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. The tensile test shows the increase in tensile strength with respect to increase in withdrawing speed. The isothermal oxidation analysis confirmed enhancement of oxidation resistance of silica coated C{sub f} as compared tothe uncoated C{sub f}.

  8. Preparation & characterization of SiO2 interface layer by dip coating technique on carbon fibre for Cf/SiC composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kundan; Jariwala, C.; Pillai, R.; Chauhan, N.; Raole, P. M.

    2015-08-01

    Carbon fibres (Cf) are one of the most important reinforced materials for ceramic matrix composites such as Cf - SiC composites and they are generally sought for high temperature applications in as space application, nuclear reactor and automobile industries. But the major problem arise when Cf reinforced composites exposed to high temperature in an oxidizing environment, Cf react with oxygen and burnt away. In present work, we have studied the effect of silica (SiO2) coating as a protective coating on Cf for the Cf / SiC composites. The silica solution prepared by the sol-gel process and coating on Cf is done by dip coating technique with varying the withdrawing speed i.e. 2, 5, 8 mm/s with fixed dipping cycle (3 Nos.). The uniform silica coating on the Cf is shown by the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. The tensile test shows the increase in tensile strength with respect to increase in withdrawing speed. The isothermal oxidation analysis confirmed enhancement of oxidation resistance of silica coated Cf as compared tothe uncoated Cf.

  9. Hybrid Composite Structures: Multifunctionality through Metal Fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, T

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of fibre reinforced polymer composites into the wings and fuselages of the newest aircraft are changing the design and manufacturing approach. Composites provide greater freedom to designers who want to improve aircraft performance in an affordable way. In this quest, researchers are looking to the area of multifunctional structures, which represents a new manufacturing and integration methodology. Composite materials are ideally suited to achieve multifunctionality because t...

  10. Natural fibre composites for 3D Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Kapil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing has been common option for prototyping. Not all the materials are suitable for 3D printing. Various studies have been done and still many are ongoing regarding the suitability of the materials for 3D printing. This thesis work discloses the possibility of 3D printing of certain polymer composite materials. The main objective of this thesis work was to study the possibility for 3D printing the polymer composite material composed of natural fibre composite and various different ...

  11. Performance of unidirectional carbon fibre cloth/carbon composite laminates fabricated by hot-pressing%单向炭布叠层C/C复合材料的热压法制备及其性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄向东; 潘祖金; 黄俊伟; 李强

    2012-01-01

    以经表面处理的石墨、单向炭布、和沥青粉为原料,通过热压烧结制备炭布叠层C/C复合材料.考察了炭布含量对材料密度、孔隙率、弯曲强度以及摩擦磨损的影响,采用MM200摩擦磨损试验机进行了环-块摩擦磨损实验,并借助SEM表征了材料的弯曲断口和磨痕形貌.结果表明:当炭布质量分数为50%时,C/C复合材料的综合性能最好,抗弯强度为112.2MPa,密度为1.72 g/cm3,摩擦系数为0.28,磨损率为3.68×10-13 m3·N-1·m-1.弯曲实验中材料呈“假塑性”方式破坏,断口出现大量纤维的拔出.石墨相含量的增加有利于形成较好的摩擦膜,降低磨损率,保持摩擦系数稳定.%Unidirectional carbon fibre cloth/carbon composite laminates were fabricated by hot-pressing alternating stacks of unidirectional carbon fibre cloth and uniformly-spread powder mixtures of phenolic-resin coated nature graphite flakes and pitch. The effects of the contents of carbon fibre cloth on the density, porosity, flexur-al strength, friction and wear properties of the composite laminates were investigated by SEM, a friction-and-wear testing machine and a universal testing machine. Results showed that the sample with the best overall performance had a mass fraction of carbon fibre cloth of 50% . This material had a flexural strength of 112.2 Mpa, a density of 1.72g/cm3, a friction coefficient of 0.28, and a wear rate of 3.68×l0-13 m3·N-1. Failure behavior was pseudoplastic and there were a large number of fibre pullouts on the fracture surface. An increase of graphite content was favorable for the formation of a film during wear, which reduced the wear rate and resulted in a steady value of the coefficient of friction.

  12. Fracture characterisation of short bamboo fibre reinforced polyester composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the study, fracture behaviour of short bamboo fibre reinforced polyester composites is investigated. The matrix is reinforced with fibres ranging from 10 to 50, 30 to 50 and 30 to 60 vol.% at increments of 10 vol.% for bamboo fibres at 4, 7 and 10 mm lengths respectively. The results reveal that at 4 mm of fibre length, the increment in fibre content deteriorates the fracture toughness. As for 7 and 10 mm fibre lengths, positive effect of fibre reinforcement is observed. The optimum fibre content is found to be at 40 vol.% for 7 mm fibre and 50 vol.% for 10 mm fibre. The highest fracture toughness is achieved at 10 mm/50 vol.% fibre reinforced composite, with 340% of improvement compared to neat polyester. Fractured surfaces investigated through the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) describing different failure mechanisms are also reported.

  13. Microstructure characterization of advanced protective Cr/CrN+a-C:H/a-C:H:Cr multilayer coatings on carbon fibre composite (CFC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, L; Janusz, M; Lackner, J M; Kot, M; Major, B

    2016-06-01

    Studies of advanced protective chromium-based coatings on the carbon fibre composite (CFC) were performed. Multidisciplinary examinations were carried out comprising: microstructure transmission electron microscopy (TEM, HREM) studies, micromechanical analysis and wear resistance. Coatings were prepared using a magnetron sputtering technique with application of high-purity chromium and carbon (graphite) targets deposited on the CFC substrate. Selection of the CFC for surface modification in respect to irregularities on the surface making the CFC surface more smooth was performed. Deposited coatings consisted of two parts. The inner part was responsible for the residual stress compensation and cracking initiation as well as resistance at elevated temperatures occurring namely during surgical tools sterilization process. The outer part was responsible for wear resistance properties and biocompatibility. Experimental studies revealed that irregularities on the substrate surface had a negative influence on the crystallites growth direction. Chromium implanted into the a-C:H structure reacted with carbon forming the cubic nanocrystal chromium carbides of the Cr23 C6 type. The cracking was initiated at the coating/substrate interface and the energy of brittle cracking was reduced because of the plastic deformation at each Cr interlayer interface. The wear mechanism and cracking process was described in micro- and nanoscale by means of transmission electron microscope studies. Examined materials of coated CFC type would find applications in advanced surgical tools.

  14. Methodology for characterisation of glass fibre composite architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Zangenberg; Larsen, J.B.; Østergaard, R.C.;

    2012-01-01

    The present study outlines a methodology for microstructural characterisation of fibre reinforced composites containing circular fibres. Digital micrographs of polished cross-sections are used as input to a numerical image processing tool that determines spatial mapping and radii detection...... of the fibres. The information is used for different analyses to investigate and characterise the fibre architecture. As an example, the methodology is applied to glass fibre reinforced composites with varying fibre contents. The different fibre volume fractions (FVFs) affect the number of contact points per...... fibre, the communal fibre distance and the local FVF. The fibre diameter distribution and packing pattern remain somewhat similar for the considered materials. The methodology is a step towards a better understanding of the composite microstructure and can be used to evaluate the interconnection between...

  15. Electron processing of fibre-reinforced advanced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajit; Saunders, Chris B.; Barnard, John W.; Lopata, Vince J.; Kremers, Walter; McDougall, Tom E.; Chung, Minda; Tateishi, Miyoko

    1996-08-01

    Advanced composites, such as carbon-fibre-reinforced epoxies, are used in the aircraft, aerospace, sporting goods, and transportation industries. Though thermal curing is the dominant industrial process for advanced composites, electron curing of similar composites containing acrylated epoxy matrices has been demonstrated by our work. The main attraction of electron processing technology over thermal technology is the advantages it offers which include ambient temperature curing, reduced curing times, reduced volatile emissions, better material handling, and reduced costs. Electron curing technology allows for the curing of many types of products, such as complex shaped, those containing different types of fibres, and up to 15 cm thick. Our work has been done principally with the AECL's 10 MeV, 1 kW electron accelerator; we have also done some comparative work with an AECL Gammacell 220. In this paper we briefly review our work on the various aspects of electron curing of advanced composites and their properties.

  16. Towards Applying The Boothroyd, Dewhurst and Knight Methodology for Cost Estimation on Fibre Composite Manufacturing - A Theoretical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Henriksson, Fredrik; Johansen, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    Increased usage of carbon fibre composite poses challenges for the automotive industry; one is to manage carbon fibre composites within the product development process. This paper combines knowledge in design engineering, material science and production technology, aiming to bridge these domains. The study indicates that mass production methods suitable for carbon fibre have several factors in common with traditional polymer production methods. Thus, it is possible that DfMA methods for tradi...

  17. Investigations into the damage for various types of unprotected carbon fibre composites with a variety of lightning arc attachments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, G. W.

    1991-01-01

    Very little quantitative information exists on the extent and nature of damage caused to unprotected carbon fiber composites (CFC's) due to lightning arc attachment. An initial investigation into the arc damage to three different types and various thickness of CFC's from A and C component type lightning discharges is described. The difference in damage which the two types of waveform produced and the way the area of damage varies with different levels of action integral and charge transfer is compared. In some cases, the temperature rise at the rear of the panels was recorded for various levels of action integral and charge transfer. A comparison was made of the area of damage from visual inspection and soft x ray photography, using a suitable penetrant in the damage area. It is concluded there is a need for a more detailed analysis of the damage.

  18. Friction measurements on carbon fibre tows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, B.; Warnet, L.; Akkerman, R.

    2010-01-01

    Friction plays an important role in the production of fibre reinforced composite products. The fibrous tows deform during the forming phase. Friction is regarded as a dominant phenomenon in tow deformation mechanisms. The coefficient of friction is a material-interface characteristic which gives a r

  19. Electrospun cerium nitrate/polymer composite fibres:synthesis, characterization and fibre-division model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Meng-Meng; Long Yun-Ze; Yin Hong-Xing; Zhang Zhi-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Cerium (III)nitrate/poly(vinylpyrrolidone)(Ce(NO3)3/PVP)composite fibres have been prepared by electrospinning. After calcining the composite fibres in air at 500℃, CeO2 nanowires were obtained. The characterizations of the as-spun composite fibres and resultant nanowires have been carried out by a scanning electron microscope (SEM),an infrared spectrometer, an x-ray diffractometer and a fluorescence spectrophotometer. Interestingly, some unusual ribbon-like or twin fibres were observed besides the common fibres with circular or elliptic cross sections. We developed a fibre-division model resulting from Coulomb repulsion and solvent vaporization to interpret the formation of the ribbona or twin fibres, which has been confirmed by the SEM studies. Our results also indicate that the formation of the ribbons or twin fibres is less dependent on operation voltage and work distance.

  20. Influence of Fibre Architecture on Mechanical Properties of Jute Fibre Reinforced Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Md Rejaul

    2013-01-01

    Jute fibre reinforced epoxy based composites were manufactured by vacuum bagging method using three different jute fibre structures; woven fabric, non-woven mat and carded sliver. The composites were made using different number of layers of reinforcing materials. Then the tensile test on composite laminates was conducted in different directions of composites according to ASTM D 3039 standards. The tensile properties were evaluated as a function of fibre architecture (woven, non-woven and sliv...

  1. Short Fibre and Particulate-reinforced Rubber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Agarwal

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Particulate fillers (carbon black and silica and short fibre (aromatic polyamide, Kevlar have been utilised to produce rubber composites based on acrylonitrile-co-butadiene rubber (NBR. Mechanical properties of these composites have been determined and compared with unfilled rubber vulcanisate. The effect of surface treatment on the improvement of strength, in case of Kevlar, has also been considered. The influence of elevated temperature on tear strength, an important failure criterion, has been evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy has been used as a tool to correlate the topographical features associated with changes in the tear strength of the composites.

  2. Continuous jute fibre reinforced laminated paper composite and reinforcement-fibre free paper laminate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B B Verma

    2009-12-01

    Plastic bags create a serious environmental problem. The proposed jute fibre reinforced laminated paper composite and reinforcement-fibre free paper laminate may help to combat the war against this pollutant to certain extent. The paper laminate, without reinforcement fibre, exhibited a few fold superiority in tensile properties than single paper strip. The studies further show that an appreciable improvement in tensile properties can be achieved by introducing continuous jute fibre in paper laminates.

  3. An overview of nuclear micro-beam analysis of surface and bulk fuel retention in carbon-fibre composites from Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface and bulk retention of deuterium in tiles of the pump limiter from Tore Supra was examined with nuclear reaction analysis using both standard and micro-beam techniques. The aim was to determine the variations in the content and distribution of fuel species in carbon-fibre composites. On plasma-facing surfaces from the deposition zone, the D content reaches 2.5 x 1019 cm-2 in about 8 μm thick top layer, but lateral differences reach even more than one order of magnitude. This is also measured in the erosion zone: 6.6 x 1017 cm-2 to 7.7 x 1018 cm-2 D atoms. Bulk content was examined on cross-sections opened by fracturing the tiles. Fuel is detected up to the depth of 1-1.5 mm beneath the plasma-facing surface in tiles from both the erosion and deposition zones. It occurs in bands, about 100 μm wide and several mm long, roughly parallel to the original plasma-facing surface.

  4. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Aligned Natural Fibre Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    . Several challenges have to be addressed and solved, many of which pertain to the fact that the fibres are sourced from a natural resource: 1) Inconsistent properties, depending on plant species, growth and harvest conditions, and fibre extraction techniques. 2) Strength values of composites are lower than......Recently, there has been a great interest in developing and maturing natural fibre composites for structural applications. Natural fibres derived from plants such as flax and hemp have the potential to compete with traditional glass fibres as reinforcements in polymer matrices, due to good specific...... properties (stiffness-to-density ratio). The perspective of using natural fibres is to have a sustainable, biodegradable, CO2-neutral alternative to glass fibres. However, so far, it has not been possible to take full advantage of the natural fibre properties when using them for composite applications...

  5. Fractographic observations of the microstructural characteristics of flax fibre composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Asian, Mustafa; Lilholt, Hans

    2016-01-01

    flax fibre/thermoplastic composites are presented. The findings are presented in relation to the three operational parts in composites: fibres, matrix and fibre/matrix interface. For the flax fibres, the striated structure on the fibre surface is shown to consist of cellulose macrofibrils oriented...... failure followed by longitudinal splitting. For the thermoplastic matrix, concentric rings with different points of origin are observed in the matrix regions of the composite fracture surface. The concentric rings have a microporous structure consisting of nanoscale polymer fibrils. The concentring rings...... form mirror zones with no riverlines, followed by repeated mist and hackle zones with distinct radiating riverlines. For the flax fibre/thermoplastic matrix interface, microscale imprints of whole fibres, and nanoscale imprints of fibre surface structures are observed on the matrix surface...

  6. The influence of the Ni layer covering carbon fibre on the AK132 matrix structure

    OpenAIRE

    A. Zyska; Z. Konopka; M. Łągiewka

    2007-01-01

    The quality and the quantity assessment of the structure of the AlSi13Cu2 alloy matrix composites reinforced with carbon fibre in the amount of 5, 10, or 15 vol. percent has been presented. Due to the poor wettability of carbon fibre by molten AlSi alloy and the low castability of the examined composites, the Ni-covered fibre with 0.25 μm thick Ni layer has been used and the pressure casting technology has been employed. The chemical interaction between Ni layer and the molten AlSi alloy has ...

  7. Control of interfaces in Al-C fibre composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, S. G.; Blue, C. A.; Lin, R. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The interface of Al-C fiber composite was modified by coating a silver layer on the surface of carbon fibres prior to making composites, in an attempt to improve the wettability between molten aluminum and carbon fibers during infiltration. An electroless plating technique was adopted and perfected to provide a homogeneous silver coating on the carbon fiber surface. Al-C fiber composites were prepared using a liquid infiltration technique in a vacuum. It was found that silver coating promoted the wetting between aluminum and carbon fibers, particularly with polyacrylonitrile-base carbon fibers. However, due to rapid dissolution of silver in molten aluminum, it was believed that the improved infiltration was not due to the wetting behavior between molten aluminum and silver. The cleaning of the fiber surface and the preservation of the cleaned carbon surface with silver coating was considered to be the prime reason for the improved wettability. Interfacial reactions between aluminum and carbon fibers were observed. Amorphous carbon was found to react more with aluminum than graphitic carbon. This is believed to be because of the inertness of the graphitic basal planes.

  8. Fatigue damage propagation in unidirectional glass fibre reinforced composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Zangenberg; Alzamora Guzman, Vladimir Joel; Østergaard, R.C.;

    2012-01-01

    Damage progression in unidirectional glass fibre reinforced composites exposed to tension fatigue is investigated, and a quantitative explanation is given for the observed stiffness loss. The stiffness degradation during fatigue is directly related to fibre breaks in the load-carrying axial fibre...... bundles. The underlying mechanisms are examined using digital microscopy, and it is postulated that fatigue damage initiates due to stress concentrations between the backing (transverse) layer and the unidirectional layer, followed by a cyclic fretting and axial fibre debonding. This fretting mechanism...... needs further attention and understanding in order to improve the fatigue life-time of glass fibre reinforced composites....

  9. Catalytic carbon deposition on 3-dimensional carbon fibre supports

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Matthew James

    2005-01-01

    Catalytic carbon deposition reactions, using methane, ethane or synthetic natural gas (1.8 vol. % propane, 6.7 vol. % ethane and balance methane) as the carbon-containing gas feedstock with or without the addition of hydrogen, have been investigated over nickel, cobalt and iron catalysts supported on 3-dimensional carbon fibre supports, using both a horizontal tube furnace and an isothermal, isobaric induction furnace. The transition metal catalysts were prepared by impregnating 3-dimens...

  10. Electrodeposition of Nickel onto 12K Carbon Fibre Tow in a Continuous Manner

    OpenAIRE

    Pierozynski, Boguslaw

    2012-01-01

    Nickel-coated carbon fibre (NiCCF) is an important composite material, which finds nu- merous engineering applications, primarily within: computer, telecommunication, automotive and military industries. In general, NiCCF can be produced by one of the three methods, namely: chemical vapour deposition (CVD), electroless, and electrochemical (galvanic) deposition of Ni on a carbon fibre tow material. The present paper reports a study of the process of nickel electrodeposition (at ultrathin layer...

  11. The effect of fibre orientation on a TWCP composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple authors have shown that orientation can greatly affect the shock profiles seen in composites. Carbon fibre composites are employed in multiple sectors, with their use in the aerospace industry becoming more prevalent. An angle of 20° between the outer surface and the weave direction has been shown to provide a good compromise between strength and ablation, making orientation an important property. Using a single stage gas gun with manganin pressure gauges the shock response of both a 90° and 45° layup TWCP composite was investigated up to a particle velocity of approximately 1 mm μs−1, in both the Us-up and pressure-volume planes. Comparisons in terms of shock propagation were also made with a previously investigated TWCP orientation of 0° . This allowed a detailed interrogation of the effects of weave orientation in this important TWCP composite to be made. It was found that the shock response was not greatly altered by orientation of the carbon fibre weave above a certain particle velocity. This was due to the 90° behaving elastically until a particle velocity of 0.6 mm μs−1. Above this value the experimental data had very little deviation regardless of the angle.

  12. Characterisation of the mechanical and fracture properties of a uni-weave carbon fibre/epoxy non-crimp fabric composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bru

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A complete database of the mechanical properties of an epoxy polymer reinforced with uni-weave carbon fibre non-crimp fabric (NCF is established. In-plane and through-the-thickness tests were performed on unidirectional laminates under normal loading and shear loading. The response under cyclic shear loading was also measured. The material has been characterised in terms of stiffness, strength, and failure features for the different loading cases. The critical energy release rates associated with different failure modes in the material were measured from interlaminar and translaminar fracture toughness tests. The stress–strain data of the tensile, compressive, and shear test specimens are included. The load–deflection data for all fracture toughness tests are also included. The database can be used in the development and validation of analytical and numerical models of fibre reinforced plastics (FRPs, in particular FRPs with NCF reinforcements.

  13. Characterisation of the mechanical and fracture properties of a uni-weave carbon fibre/epoxy non-crimp fabric composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bru, Thomas; Hellström, Peter; Gutkin, Renaud; Ramantani, Dimitra; Peterson, Göran

    2016-03-01

    A complete database of the mechanical properties of an epoxy polymer reinforced with uni-weave carbon fibre non-crimp fabric (NCF) is established. In-plane and through-the-thickness tests were performed on unidirectional laminates under normal loading and shear loading. The response under cyclic shear loading was also measured. The material has been characterised in terms of stiffness, strength, and failure features for the different loading cases. The critical energy release rates associated with different failure modes in the material were measured from interlaminar and translaminar fracture toughness tests. The stress-strain data of the tensile, compressive, and shear test specimens are included. The load-deflection data for all fracture toughness tests are also included. The database can be used in the development and validation of analytical and numerical models of fibre reinforced plastics (FRPs), in particular FRPs with NCF reinforcements.

  14. Characterisation of the mechanical and fracture properties of a uni-weave carbon fibre/epoxy non-crimp fabric composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bru, Thomas; Hellström, Peter; Gutkin, Renaud; Ramantani, Dimitra; Peterson, Göran

    2016-01-01

    A complete database of the mechanical properties of an epoxy polymer reinforced with uni-weave carbon fibre non-crimp fabric (NCF) is established. In-plane and through-the-thickness tests were performed on unidirectional laminates under normal loading and shear loading. The response under cyclic shear loading was also measured. The material has been characterised in terms of stiffness, strength, and failure features for the different loading cases. The critical energy release rates associated with different failure modes in the material were measured from interlaminar and translaminar fracture toughness tests. The stress–strain data of the tensile, compressive, and shear test specimens are included. The load–deflection data for all fracture toughness tests are also included. The database can be used in the development and validation of analytical and numerical models of fibre reinforced plastics (FRPs), in particular FRPs with NCF reinforcements. PMID:26958626

  15. Manufacturing Titanium Metal Matrix Composites by Consolidating Matrix Coated Fibres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Xin PENG

    2005-01-01

    Titanium metal matrix composites (TiMMCs) reinforced by continuous silicon carbide fibres are being developed for aerospace applications. TiMMCs manufactured by the consolidation of matrix-coated fibre (MCF) method offer optimum properties because of the resulting uniform fibre distribution, minimum fibre damage and fibre volume fraction control. In this paper, the consolidation of Ti-6Al-4V matrix-coated SiC fibres during vacuum hot pressing has been investigated. Experiments were carried out on multi-ply MCFs under vacuum hot pressing (VHP). In contrast to most of existing studies, the fibre arrangement has been carefully controlled either in square or hexagonal arraysthroughout the consolidated sample. This has enabled the dynamic consolidation behaviour of MCFs to be demonstrated by eliminating the fibre re-arrangement during the VHP process. The microstructural evolution of the matrix coating was reported and the deformation mechanisms involved were discussed.

  16. Preparation of PAN carbon fibre/hydroxyapatite composite by electro-deposition method%电沉积制备PAN基碳纤维/羟基磷灰石复合材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜宏阳; 刘贵山; 冯俊; 吴凯卓

    2012-01-01

    采用电沉积方法制备PAN基碳纤维/羟基磷灰石复合材料,考察了碳纤维基体燃烧氧化、沉积条件,包括沉积时间、沉积电压、沉积温度对沉积效果的影响,利用X射线衍射仪(XRD)对羟基磷灰石(HA)涂层的晶相进行了分析测试,利用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)分析了PAN基碳纤维燃烧氧化前后的表观形貌以及燃烧氧化前后电沉积HA的表观形貌.研究结果表明,经燃烧氧化处理过的PAN基碳纤维更易得到均匀的HA沉积涂层,其较佳的沉积条件是沉积时间为30 min,沉积电压为25 V,沉积温度为90℃.%PAN carbon fibre/hydroxyapatite composite was prepared by electro-deposition method in this experiment. The influence of oxidized carbon fibre and depositional conditions including deposition time, deposition voltage and bath temperature on the deposition effect was studied. The crystal phase of hydroxyapatite coat was investigated by XRD. The surface morphology of oxidized and unoxidized carbon fibre electrodeposited and un-electrodeposited was observed by SEM. The results showed that homogeneous HA coat was obtained more easily using oxidized PAN carbon fibre as substrate. The optimal conditions were 30 min of deposition time, 25 V of deposition voltage and 90 ℃ of bath temperature.

  17. 碳纤维增强镁基复合材料的制备及微观结构分析%Preparation and Microstructure of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Mg-based Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萍; 张永忠; 尹法章; 张习敏

    2011-01-01

    采用溶胶-凝胶方法,经过水解、浸渍及干燥烧结,在纤维表面涂覆上一层均匀光亮、无裂纹且厚度适中的二氧化硅涂层.在惰性气体保护下实现三维编织碳纤维增强镁基复合材料的压力浸渗制备.通过SEM和XRD等分析碳纤维表面二氧化硅涂层的形貌、成分及其结构以及复合材料中碳纤维与镁基体界面的微观结构.结果表明,二氧化硅涂层厚度适当的碳纤维与镁合金基体之间通过轻微的界面反应,改善了二者间的润湿性,有效促进了镁合金熔液在三维编织碳纤维中的浸渗过程.%The homogeneous and crack-free SiO2 coating with suitable thickness on the surface of carbon fibre is prepared by sol-gel method with procedure of hydrolysis, dipping, gelling, drying and sintering.The 3-dimensional braided carbon fibre reinforced Mg-based composites are prepared in a route of pressure infiltration process under the protection of argon gas.The morphology, structure and composition of the SiO2 coating as well as the interface microstructure between the carbon fibre and the Mg matrix are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction.The results show that during infiltration there is slight reaction between the SiO2 coating and the Mg matrix.And the wetting between the carbon fibre and the Mg matrix is effectively improved and the performance of the impregnation of Mg into the braided carbon fibre is promoted by the reaction.

  18. Reinforcing effect of nanosilica on polypropylene-nylon fibre composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymer composites reinforced by both the micro and nano fillers is the subject of this paper. Polypropylene (PP)-nylon micro-fibre composites modified with nanosilica and modified nanosilica (using silane coupling agent) were prepared by melt compounding. The nanosilica prepared in the laboratory was used as reinforcing filler in PP-nylon fibre composites. The compounding characteristics and mechanical properties of the composites were studied. The equilibrium torque during compounding increased with the addition of nanosilica and modified nanosilica. The use of two types of fillers leads to synergistic effect on the mechanical properties of the composite. Composites with 1 wt.% nanosilica and 30 wt.% nylon fibre show high tensile strength, tensile modulus, flexural strength and flexural modulus. Composites modified with 1 wt.% nanosilica and 10 wt.% nylon fibre-PP composite show higher impact strength.

  19. Analysis of Composite Material Blended With Thermoplastics and Jute Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopal S

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently natural fibres have been receiving considerable attention as substitutes for synthetic fibre reinforcements due to their low cost, low density, acceptable specific strength, good thermal insulation properties, reduced tool wear, reduced thermal and respiratory irritation and renewable resources. The aim of this work is to develop chemically treated and chemically untreated fibre reinforced composite material with optimum properties so that it can replace the existing synthetic fibre reinforced composite material for a suitable application. In this work, polyester resin has been reinforced with jute fabric, so as to develop jute fibre reinforced plastic (JFRP with a weight ratio of 10:1:1 Hand lay-up technique was used to manufacture the composites where Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide and cobalt Naphthalene were used as coupling agent and accelerator respectively. The thickness of the composite specimen was obtained by laying up layer of fibre and matrix. The untreated composites have been used and mechanical properties are compared with natural fibre and jute fibre composite by using the Ansys method.

  20. Multifunctional and dimensionally stable flexible fibre composites for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datashvili, Leri

    2010-04-01

    Large deployable reflectors typically use knitted metal mesh reflecting surfaces. Knitted metal meshes are characterized by excellent stowability properties. For the operation, meshes have to be tensioned, which leads to much lower accuracy. In order to keep the stowability advantages of knitted meshes but enhancing shape accuracy, a flexible reflecting surface material composed of carbon fibre reinforced silicone (CFRS) has been developed and investigated. Due to its low bending stiffness determined by the silicone matrix, the composite material can be manufactured easily with double curvature and nearly ideal parabolic shape. Compared to the conventional stiff matrix composites, which give high accurate double curved reflecting surfaces, an additional functionality is acquired by using a flexible silicone matrix. The use of this material allows for easy stowing and deployment. Because of the carbon fibres, the CFRS is characterized with a very low thermal expansion coefficient (measured and calculated about -0.36e-6/°C) with no moisture absorption or micro-cracking effects even under strong environmental cycles. These points indicate a high dimensional stability of the material. Results obtained from different thermo-mechanical and radio-frequency (RF) characterization tests for such CFRS surfaces confirm the expected behaviour. The measured RF properties, such as insertion loss, cross-polarization, reflectivity, and passive inter-modulation (PIM), show that the created material can be used even up to 15 GHz of RF. Higher frequencies can be achieved in different cases. Several application examples are addressed further in the paper.

  1. Mechanical properties of pineapple leaf fibre reinforced polypropylene composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arib, R.M.N. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sapuan, S.M. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)]. E-mail: sapuan@eng.upm.edu.my; Ahmad, M.M.H.M. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Paridah, M.T. [Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Zaman, H.M.D. Khairul [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2006-07-01

    Pineapple leaf fibre, which is rich in cellulose, relative inexpensive and abundantly available has the potential for polymer-reinforced composite. The present study investigates the tensile and flexural behaviours of pineapple leaf fibre-polypropylene composites as a function of volume fraction. The tensile modulus and tensile strength of the composites were found to be increasing with fibre content in accordance with the rule of mixtures. The tensile modulus and tensile strength with a volume fraction 10.8% are 687.02 and 37.28 MPa, respectively. The flexural modulus gives higher value at 2.7% volume fraction. The flexural strength of the composites containing 5.4% volume fraction was found to be higher than that of pure polypropylene resin by 5.1%. Scanning electron microscopic studies were carried out to understand the fibre-matrix adhesion and fibre breakage.

  2. Mechanical properties of natural fibre reinforced polymer composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A S Singha; Vijay Kumar Thakur

    2008-10-01

    During the last few years, natural fibres have received much more attention than ever before from the research community all over the world. These natural fibres offer a number of advantages over traditional synthetic fibres. In the present communication, a study on the synthesis and mechanical properties of new series of green composites involving Hibiscus sabdariffa fibre as a reinforcing material in urea–formaldehyde (UF) resin based polymer matrix has been reported. Static mechanical properties of randomly oriented intimately mixed Hibiscus sabdariffa fibre reinforced polymer composites such as tensile, compressive and wear properties were investigated as a function of fibre loading. Initially urea–formaldehyde resin prepared was subjected to evaluation of its optimum mechanical properties. Then reinforcing of the resin with Hibiscus sabdariffa fibre was accomplished in three different forms: particle size, short fibre and long fibre by employing optimized resin. Present work reveals that mechanical properties such as tensile strength, compressive strength and wear resistance etc of the urea–formaldehyde resin increases to considerable extent when reinforced with the fibre. Thermal (TGA/DTA/DTG) and morphological studies (SEM) of the resin and biocomposites have also been carried out.

  3. Natural fibre selection for composite eco-design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corona, Andrea; Madsen, Bo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky;

    2016-01-01

    Natural fibre composites (NFC) are gaining interest in manufacturing because they address some of the environmental problems of traditional composites: use of non-renewable resources, and large impacts related to their production and disposal. Since natural fibres are not yet optimized...... for composite production, it is crucial to identify the most appropriate applications, and determine the optimal fibre/matrix ratio. A methodology is proposed for early-stage decisions support on selection of bio-composite materials. Results help identify the application with the largest reduction...

  4. Investigation of Optimum Parameters for Mechanical Properties of Ecofriendly Molded Plant Fibre Polymer Matrix Composite by Experimental Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.BENJAMIN LAZARUS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibre composites are mainly price-driven commodity composites, which have useable structural properties at relatively low cost. The manufacture of such types of composites are environmentally sustainable alternative to conventional composites made of glass, carbon and aramid fibres which are considered critical because of the growing environmental consciousness. Fibres derived from plants are renewable and have low levels of embodied energy compared to synthetic fibres. Therefore this research work explains the development of natural fibre composite, [9] to attain the optimum mechanical property parameters which are equivalent and better to the traditional reinforcing fibres such as glass and carbon. The research work illustrates the manufacture and tested values of one such composite manufactured from a plant fibre which is used as green manuring plant called Crotalaria juncea. Retted fibres after alkali treatment [17] is taken and plate preparation is done using polyester resin mixed with random orientation of the fibre of lengths 20,30,40 and 50mm to a weight of 21,28,31,35,42 and 45 grams as the first part. In the second part of the work woven orientation of biaxial, biaxially stitched and unidirectional mat in 2 layer and 3 layer separately and they are mixed with polyester resin and plates are prepared. Both the stages are tested for mechanical properties [10,16] such that the breakeven value of each property is analyzed, and the results acquired derive the usefulness of the material for required application.

  5. Preparation Of Melt Spun Electroconductive Fine Fibres Containing Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjalili Mohammad; Karimi Loghman

    2015-01-01

    Preparation of electroconductive fine fibres containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by melt spinning was the main goal of the present study. In this regard, the influence of the main operating parameters such as type of polymer used (polyester, polypropylene and polyamide), type and concentration of the CNTs on conductivity, and mechanical and thermal properties of the melt spun fibres was studied. The conductivity of melt spun fibres was measured based on the method developed by Morton and Hearl...

  6. Multiplexed fibre optic sensors for monitoring resin infusion, flow, and cure in composite material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehura, Edmon; Jarzebinska, Renata; Da Costa, Elisabete F. R.; Skordos, Alexandros A.; James, Stephen W.; Partridge, Ivana K.; Tatam, Ralph P.

    2013-04-01

    The infusion, flow and cure of RTM6 resin in a carbon fibre reinforced composite preform have been monitored using a variety of multiplexed fibre optic sensors. Optical fibre Fresnel sensors and tilted fibre Bragg grating (TFBG) sensors were configured to monitor resin infusion/flow in-plane of the component. The results obtained from the different sensors were in good agreement with visual observations. The degree of cure was monitored by Fresnel sensors via a measurement of the refractive index of the resin which was converted to degree of cure using a calibration determined from Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Fibre Bragg grating sensors fabricated in highly linearly birefringent fibre were used to monitor the development of transverse strain during the cure process, revealing through-thickness material shrinkage of about 712 μɛ and residual strain of 223 μɛ. An alternative approach to infusion monitoring, based on an array of multiplexed tapered optical fibre sensors interrogated using optical frequency domain reflectometry, was also investigated in a separate carbon fibre preform that was infused with RTM6 resin.

  7. N-type thermoelectric recycled carbon fibre sheet with electrochemically deposited Bi2Te3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, E. J. X.; Pickering, S. J.; Chan, A.; Wong, K. H.; Lau, P. L.

    2012-09-01

    An N-type thermoelectric recycled carbon fibre sheet with bismuth telluride coating has been successfully synthesised through an electro-deposition technique. The Seebeck coefficient and electrical properties of the combined recycled carbon fibre sheet and bismuth telluride films are reported. Classification of the crystal structure, surface morphology and the elemental composition of the resulting deposits are methodically characterised by XRD, SEM and EDX. Cyclic voltammetry is also carried out in nitric acid solutions to investigate the right range of deposition potential. The synthesis N-type thermoelectric sheet has a highest attainable Seebeck coefficient of -54 μV K-1 and an electrical resistivity of 8.9×10-5 Ω m. The results show slight differences in morphologies and thermoelectric properties for the films deposited at varying deposition potential. The increase in thermoelectrical properties of the recycled carbon fibre is in line with the development of using coated recycled fibre for thermoelectrical applications.

  8. Electroless plating and magnetic properties of Co–Zn–P coating on short carbon fibres

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xinghua Su; Chengwen Qiang

    2012-12-01

    A layer of Co–Zn–P alloys was coated on short carbon fibre (CFs) surfaces using electroless plating method. The influence of the concentration of Co2+ and Zn2+ and reaction time on the plating rate were measured by comparing the relative mass gain rate of Co–Zn–P-coated fibres with uncoated carbon fibres prepared under different conditions. The materials characterizations were analysed by field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscope. The magnetic properties of Co–Zn–P/CFs composites prepared in different Zn2+ concentration baths were measured by the vibrating sample magnetometer. The best processing parameters of electroless plating of Co–Zn–P coating on short carbon fibres were obtained.

  9. Fabrication and Sensing Performance of Smart Composite Structures Using Optical Fibre Sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C Y Wei; S W James; C C Ye; R P Tatam; P E lrving

    2000-01-01

    This paper determines the performance of Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors for strain sensing applications in carbon fibre composite materials. Carbon fibre laminates in either cross-plied or quasiisotropic stacking sequences were fabricated using T300/Hexcel 914 prepregs. The FBG optical sensors were either surface attached, or embedded within laminates. The sensor orientation was aligned either parallel or transverse to the adjacent carbon fibre layers. The composite structures with integrated FBG sensors were subjected to static tensile loading. A scanning fibre Fabry-Perot filter was used to monitor the reflected Bragg wavelengths. The optical sensor embedded between two 90° carbon fibre plies shows a high sensitivity to multi-site cracking formed in the transverse plies. The embedding in 90° plies seems to change the local stress distributions and to become a source of crack initiation. Efficient stress transfer from the host materials to the sensors is dependent upon incorporation methods, the thickness of the adhesive layers, and the location of the sensors.

  10. Effects of fibre orientation on mechanical properties of hybrid bamboo/glass fibre polymer composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Stanly Jones Retnam; M Sivapragash; P Pradeep

    2014-08-01

    The usage of natural fibre as reinforcement in polymer composites have widely increased because of its enhanced properties. The usage of plant fibre cannot alone satisfy all the needs of the composites. Hence, introduction of hybrid plays a vital role in enhancing the mechanical properties of the FRP composites. Fibre orientation contributes significant role in improving the mechanical properties of the FRP composites. In this proposal, hybrid bamboo/glass fibre woven in different orientations such as 0°/90° and ± 45° was used and its effect on mechanical properties were studied. Composites containing hybrid fibres found to possess better mechanical properties, when compared to pure bamboo. In order to justify this, the following mechanical properties such as tensile, flexural, impact and hardness were investigated. SEM analysis shows the bonding between the matrix and reinforcement. All the above test results indicate that the introduction of natural bamboo fibre in glass reduces the overall cost of the composites with no compromise in strength and also attracted several studies covering green technologies.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of S. cilliare fibre reinforced polymer composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A S Singha; Vijay Kumar Thakur

    2009-02-01

    In the recent times, there has been an ever-increasing interest in green composite materials for its applications in the field of industries, aerospace, sports, household etc and in many other fields. In this paper, fabrication of Saccharum cilliare fibre reinforced green polymer composites using resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) as a novel matrix has been reported. A systematic approach for processing of polymer is presented. Effect of fibre loading on mechanical properties like flexural, tensile, compressive and wear resistances has also been determined. Reinforcing of the RF resin with Saccharum cilliare (SC) fibre was done in the form of particle size (200 micron). Present work reveals that mechanical properties of the RF resin have been found to increase up to 30% fibre loading and then decreases. Morphological and thermal studies of the resin, fibre and particle reinforced (P-Rnf) green composites have also been studied.

  12. CHLORINE DIOXIDE TREATMENT OF SISAL FIBRE: SURFACE LIGNIN AND ITS INFLUENCES ON FIBRE SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS AND INTERFACIAL BEHAVIOUR OF SISAL FIBRE/PHENOLIC RESIN COMPOSITES

    OpenAIRE

    Linxin Zhong; Shiyu Fu; Feng Li; Huaiyu Zhan

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation of the influences of chlorine dioxide treatment on fibre surface lignin. The fibre surface characteristics and the interfacial behaviour of the sisal fibre/phenolic resin composites were also studied by SEM, AFM, and XPS. The results show that the surface of the untreated fibre contains a large amount of lignin with granular structure and non-granular structure. The surface lignin concentration is up to 51% for the untreated fibre, and then it decreases t...

  13. Service life prediction and fibre reinforced cementitious composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoklund Larsen, E.

    The present Ph.D.thesis addresses the service life concept on the fibre reinforced cementitious composites. The advantages and problems of adding fibre to a cementitious matrix and the influence on service life are described. In SBI Report 221, Service life prediction and cementitious somposites...

  14. Protocol for Quantification of Defects in Natural Fibres for Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ulrich Andreas; Madsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Natural bast-type plant fibres are attracting increasing interest for being used for structural composite applications where high quality fibres with good mechanical properties are required. A protocol for the quantification of defects in natural fibres is presented. The protocol is based...... of defect size by width, and it is shown that both definitions can be used to give unbiased findings for the comparison between fibre types. Finally, considerations are given with respect to true measures of defect content, number of determinations, and number of significant figures used for the descriptive...

  15. Multiwalled carbon nanotube reinforced biomimetic bundled gel fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Jin; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Takahashi, Haruko; Sasaki, Naruo; Matsunaga, Yukiko T

    2016-08-19

    This work describes the fabrication and characterization of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC)-based biomimetic bundled gel fibres. The bundled gel fibres were reinforced with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). A phase-separated aqueous solution with MWCNT and HPC was transformed into a bundled fibrous structure after being injected into a co-flow microfluidic device and applying the sheath flow. The resulting MWCNT-bundled gel fibres consist of multiple parallel microfibres. The mechanical and electrical properties of MWCNT-bundled gel fibres were improved and their potential for tissue engineering applications as a cell scaffold was demonstrated. PMID:27200527

  16. Biological and physicochemical properties of carbon-graphite fibre-reinforced polymers intended for implant suprastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerström, Susanna; Sandborgh-Englund, Gunilla; Ruyter, Eystein I

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine water sorption, water solubility, dimensional change caused by water storage, residual monomers, and possible cytotoxic effects of heat-polymerized carbon-graphite fibre-reinforced composites with different fibre loadings based on methyl methacrylate/poly(methyl methacrylate) (MMA/PMMA) and the copolymer poly (vinyl chloride-co-vinyl acetate). Two different resin systems were used. Resin A contained ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate (1,4-BDMA); the cross-linker in Resin B was diethylene glycol dimethacrylate (DEGDMA). The resin mixtures were reinforced with 24, 36 and 47 wt% surface-treated carbon-graphite fibres. In addition, polymer B was reinforced with 58 wt% fibres. Water sorption was equal to or below 3.34±1.18 wt%, except for the 58 wt% fibre loading of polymer B (5.27±1.22 wt%). Water solubility was below 0.36±0.015 wt%, except for polymer B with 47 and 58 wt% fibres. For all composites, the volumetric increase was below 0.01±0.005 vol%. Residual MMA monomer was equal to or below 0.68±0.05 wt% for the fibre composites. The filter diffusion test and the (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assay demonstrated no cytotoxicity for the carbon-graphite fibre-reinforced composites, and residual cross-linking agents and vinyl chloride were not detectable by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis.

  17. Frottement des matériaux composites polymères à renfort fibre de carbone : expériences et modélisation

    OpenAIRE

    Smerdova, Olga; Le Bot, Alain; Cayer-Barrioz, Juliette; Sarbaev, Boris

    2011-01-01

    International audience combinaison de leurs propriétés mécaniques et thermiques avec leur faible masse. Cependant, leurs propriétés tribologiques restent largement méconnues. Dans le cadre de ce travail, l'étude expérimentale du frottement entre deux PRFC composites sous faible charge normale (jusqu'à 20N) a été réalisée. Deux effets ont été soigneusement étudiés pendant l'expérience : la fraction volumique et l'orientation des fibres. En complément de ce travail expérimental, une modélisa...

  18. Analysis of a Carbon Fibre Rim : Student Formula

    OpenAIRE

    Uyttersprot, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    This master’s thesis is within the context of a formula race competition between universities. The main goal is to replace the modern rims of the TAMK Student Formula car by lighter and more efficient rims. To achieve this goal, important topics such as general rim design, tyre forces, tyre moments, strength of materials, fatigue and mechanical properties of carbon fibre were examined. Carbon fibre was applied because of its decent strength, weight and fatigue characteristics. Two possib...

  19. Low Cost Carbon Fibre: Applications, Performance and Cost Models - Chapter 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Charles David [ORNL; Wheatley, Dr. Alan [University of Sunderland; Das, Sujit [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Weight saving in automotive applications has a major bearing on fuel economy. It is generally accepted that, typically, a 10% weight reduction in an automobile will lead to a 6-8% improvement in fuel economy. In this respect, carbon fibre composites are extremely attractive in their ability to provide superlative mechanical performance per unit weight. That is why they are specified for high-end uses such as Formula 1 racing cars and the latest aircraft (e.g. Boeing 787, Airbus A350 and A380), where they comprise over 50% by weight of the structure However, carbon fibres are expensive and this renders their composites similarly expensive. Research has been carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Tennessee, USA for over a decade with the aim of reducing the cost of carbon fibre such that it becomes a cost-effective option for the automotive industry. Aspects of this research relating to the development of low cost carbon fibre have been reported in Chapter 3 of this publication. In this chapter, the practical industrial applications of low-cost carbon fibre are presented, together with considerations of the performance and cost models which underpin the work.

  20. A Review on Pineapple Leaves Fibre and Its Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Asim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibre based composites are under intensive study due to their ecofriendly nature and peculiar properties. The advantage of natural fibres is their continuous supply, easy and safe handling, and biodegradable nature. Although natural fibres exhibit admirable physical and mechanical properties, it varies with the plant source, species, geography, and so forth. Pineapple leave fibre (PALF is one of the abundantly available wastes materials of Malaysia and has not been studied yet as it is required. A detailed study of chemical, physical, and mechanical properties will bring out logical and reasonable utilization of PALF for various applications. From the socioeconomic prospective, PALF can be a new source of raw material to the industries and can be potential replacement of the expensive and nonrenewable synthetic fibre. However, few studies on PALF have been done describing the interfacial adhesion between fibres and reinforcement compatibility of fibre but a detailed study on PALF properties is not available. In this review, author covered the basic information of PALF and compared the chemical, physical, and mechanical properties with other natural fibres. Furthermore, it summarizes the recent work reported on physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of PALF reinforced polymer composites with its potential applications.

  1. Influence of alkali treatment and fibre length on mechanical properties of short Agave fibre reinforced epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → New renewable and biodegradable Agave americana fibre. → The mechanical properties of alkali treated composites increase 10-15% to compare untreated composites. → The influence fibre length is contributing the strength of short fibre composites. → Future scope in light weight materials manufacture. -- Abstract: Composites based on short Agave fibres (untreated and alkali treated) reinforced epoxy resin using three different fibre lengths (3 mm, 7 mm and 10 mm length) are prepared by using hand lay up and compression mould technique. The materials were characterized in terms of tensile, compressive, flexural, impact, water absorption properties and machinability behaviour. All mechanical tests showed that alkali treated fibre composites withstand more fracture strain than untreated fibre composites. As evidenced by the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) tests, the thermo-mechanical properties of the composite with alkali treated Agave fibre were considerably good as alkali treatment had facilitated more sites of fibre resin interface. The machinability and atomic force microscope (AFM) studies were carried out to analyze the fibre-matrix interaction in untreated and alkali treated Agave fibre-epoxy composites.

  2. UNIFORMITY ASSESSMENT OF CARBON FIBRES DISPERSION IN CEMENT PASTE BY IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    An alternating current was applied to measure the impedance of a hardened cement paste with various contents of carbon fibres.When the free water content in the hardened cement paste is 90%-98%,and the measuring frequency 500Hz,an approximate linear relationship was found between fibre content and impedance of the composite.Based on this relationship,a new attempt was made to evaluate the dispersion uniformity of carbon fibres in cement paste by impedance measurement.The standard deviation S and the coefficient of vriation S/(X-)i of impedance of the fibre-cement specimens randomly taken locating in different points were used as main parameters for the uniformity assessment.As a case,four different mixing processes were designed for dispersing carbon fibres into the cement paste.The results demonstrate that the relative longer mixing time increases the dispersion uniformity of carbon fibres in cement paste,and the addition of the water reducer dramatically improves the uniformity due to the change of the fluidity of the paste.The ground fly ash can increase the uniformity to a certain extent.

  3. Deflection analysis of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with carbon fibre reinforced polymer under long-term load action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mykolas DAUGEVI(C)IUS; Juozas VALIVONIS; Gediminas MAR(C)IUKAITIS

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental research on reinforced concrete beams strengthened with an external carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) layer under long-term load action that lasted for 330 d.We describe the characteristics of deflection development of the beams strengthened with different additional anchorages of the external carbon fibre composite layer during the period of interest.The conducted experiments showed that the additional anchorage influences the slip of the extemal layer with respect to the strengthened element.Thus,concrete and carbon fibre composite interface stiffness decreases with a long-term load action.Therefore,the proposed method of analysis based on the built-up-bars theory can be used to estimate concrete and carbon fibre composite interface stiffness in the case of long-term load.

  4. Concrete reinforced by braided fibre composite rods

    OpenAIRE

    Fangueiro, Raúl; Sousa, Guilherme José Miranda de; Soutinho, Hélder Filipe Cunha; Jalali, Said; Araújo, Mário Duarte de

    2005-01-01

    One of the most serious problems affecting concrete is corrosion of the steel reinforcement. Corrosion may occur due to reaction of lime present in hydrated cement with carbon dioxide or to the action of chlorides. The braiding technique is probably the most ancient production process for textile structures. Normally used for ropes and cables, braided fabrics are also very interesting for composite reinforcements due to their characteristics: in-plane multiaxial ...

  5. Impact performance of the fibre-cement composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transition zone of short filament fibres randomly dispersed in a paste of ordinary portland cement is analysed. Composites of vegetable fibres (malva, sisal and coir) are compared with those containing chrysotile asbestos and polypropylene fibres. The series of composites are prepared to be tested at the ages of 7, 28, 90 and 180 days. The water-cement ratio is 0.38 and at the age of 28 days specimens with ratio of 0.30 and 0.46 are also tested. The backscattered electron image and energy dispersive spectroscopy identify the major properties of the fibre-matrix interface. The microstructural characteristics are directly associated with the toughness of the composites, once the energy dissipation at transition zone is confirmed. (author). 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. Biodegradable composites based on L-polylactide and jute fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plackett, David; Løgstrup Andersen, T.; Batsberg Pedersen, W.;

    2003-01-01

    Biodegradable polymers can potentially be combined with plant fibres to produce biodegradable composite materials. In our research, a commercial L-polylactide was converted to film and then used in combination with jute fibre mats to generate composites by a film stacking technique. Composite...... tensile properties were determined and tensile specimen fracture surfaces were examined using environmental scanning electron microscopy. Degradation of the polylactide during the process was investigated using size exclusion chromatography. The tensile properties of composites produced at temperatures in...... the 180-220 degreesC range were significantly higher than those of polylactide alone. Composite samples failed in a brittle fashion under tensile load and showed little sign of fibre pull-out. Examination of composite fracture surfaces using electron microscopy showed voids occurring between the jute...

  7. Physical and mechanical properties of unidirectional plant fibre composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, B.; Lilholt, H.

    2003-01-01

    Unidirectional composites were made from filament wound non-treated flax yarns and polypropylene foils. With increasing composite fibre weight fractions from 0.56 to 0.72, porosity fractions increased from 0.04 to 0.08; a theoretical model was fitted to the data in order to describe the composite...... volumetric interaction between contents of fibre, matrix and porosity. In the model two porosity components were proposed, a process governed component and a structurally governed component. The composite axial stiffness and strength were in the range 27-29 GPa and 251-321 MPa, respectively. A modified...... version of the "rule-of-mixtures", supplemented with parameters of composite porosity content and anisotropy of fibre properties, were developed to improve the prediction of composite tensile properties. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. Hybrid yarn for thermoplastic fibre composites. Summary of technical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lystrup, Aa.

    1998-01-01

    This report is a summary of the technical results obtained within the framework program: `Hybrid Yarn for Thermoplastic Fibre Composites`. The program which started at the 15th of June 1994 and expired at the 31st of December 1997, was a framework program under the Danish Materials Technology Program, MUP2. A new type of hybrid yarn for production of fibre composites with thermoplastic matrix material is developed and tested. A hybrid yarn is a commingled textured yarn consisting of structural fibres and thermoplastic fibres. In a subsequent heating and consolidation process the plastic fibres melt and become the matrix material in the formed fibre composite material. Two types of processing technology are developed and studied: Vacuum consolidation and press consolidation. Vacuum consolidation of hybrid yarn fabrics is suitable for fabrication of larger parts such as wind turbine blades, and press consolidation is a fast process suitable for smaller parts such as automobile body parts. To demonstrate the potential for industrial use of the developed hybrid yarn and process technologies a section of a wind turbine blade, an inspection cover and a car door-post have been produced. An environmental evaluation of the manufacture of hybrid yarn and composites shows that the use of the hybrid yarn is a gain for both the working environment and the external environment, compared to the use of thermosetting polymer composites. (au)

  9. Composite second-order performance improvement in optical fibre CATV transmission system using chirped fibre grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Qing; Liu Feng; Cai Hai-Wen; Qu Rong-Hui; Fang Zu-Jie

    2005-01-01

    Theoretically, we analyse the dispersion compensation characteristics of the chirped fibre grating (CFG) in an optical fibre cable television (CATV) system and obtain the analytic expression of the composite second-order (CSO)distortion using the time-domain form of the field envelope wave equation. The obtained result is in good agreement with the numerical simulation result. Experimentally, we verify the result by making use of the tunable characteristics of CFG to change the dispersion compensation amount and obtain an optimal CSO performance in a 125km fibre transmission link. Both the theoretical and experimental results show that the CSO performance can be improved by properly choosing the dispersion compensation amount for a certain fibre transmission link.

  10. Effects of fibre-surface morphology on the mechanical properties of Porifera-inspired rubber-matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Parvez; Stillfried, Daniela Graf; Celli, Jessika; Toivakka, Martti

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, mineralised organic fibre morphologies, inspired by the structures of Porifera (sponges) are correlated to the mechanical performance of fibre reinforced rubbers. The mineralised structures are rich in calcium carbonate and silica. These compounds nucleate and precipitate on the fibre surfaces yielding different morphologies as a function of mineral ion concentrations. Smaller mineralised precipitates manifestly improve the mechanical performance of composites while thicker precipitates enveloping the fibres give rise to inferior properties. Mechanisms and evidenced reasoning for these differences are reported herein.

  11. Shape memory polymeric composites sensing by optic fibre Bragg gratings: A very first approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrini, Fabrizio; Santo, Loredana; Ciminello, Monica; Concilio, Antonio; Volponi, Ruggero; Spena, Paola

    2016-05-01

    Shape memory polymer composites (SMPCs) have the potential for many applications in aerospace, spanning from self-repairing of structures to self-deploying of antennas, solar sails, or functional devices (e.g. for grabbing small space debris). In all these cases, it may be essential to have information about their configuration at different stages of shape recovery. In this study, the strain history of a prepreg carbon fibre system, cured with a shape memory polymer (SMP) interlayer, is monitored through a Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG), a fibre optic sensor device. SMPC has been manufactured by using traditional technologies for aerospace. After manufacturing cylindrical shape samples, an external fibre optic system is added to the composite structure; this system is especially suited for high temperatures which are necessary for SMP recovery and composite softening. Sensor functionality is checked before and after each strain history path. Optic fibre arrangement is optimized to avoid unwanted breakings whereas strains are limited by fibre collapsing, i.e. within nominal 2% of deformation. Dynamic information about shape recovery gives fundamental insights about strain evolution during time as well as its spatial distribution.

  12. Design and evaluation of carbon fibre-reinforced launch packages with segmented, copper and molybdenum fibre armatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, M.; Huijser, T.; Karthaus, W.

    1997-01-01

    Fibre armatures have been studied both dynamically and statically to gain insight in their electrothermal and mechanical behaviour. In the first part of this paper, the results of launch experiments with single and multi-segment copper and molybdenum fibre armatures integrated in carbon-fibre reinfo

  13. A Micro-Computed Tomography Technique to Study the Quality of Fibre Optics Embedded in Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Chiesura

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Quality of embedment of optical fibre sensors in carbon fibre-reinforced polymers plays an important role in the resultant properties of the composite, as well as for the correct monitoring of the structure. Therefore, availability of a tool able to check the optical fibre sensor-composite interaction becomes essential. High-resolution 3D X-ray Micro-Computed Tomography, or Micro-CT, is a relatively new non-destructive inspection technique which enables investigations of the internal structure of a sample without actually compromising its integrity. In this work the feasibility of inspecting the position, the orientation and, more generally, the quality of the embedment of an optical fibre sensor in a carbon fibre reinforced laminate at unit cell level have been proven.

  14. A micro-computed tomography technique to study the quality of fibre optics embedded in composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesura, Gabriele; Luyckx, Geert; Voet, Eli; Lammens, Nicolas; Van Paepegem, Wim; Degrieck, Joris; Dierick, Manuel; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Vanderniepen, Pieter; Sulejmani, Sanne; Sonnenfeld, Camille; Geernaert, Thomas; Berghmans, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Quality of embedment of optical fibre sensors in carbon fibre-reinforced polymers plays an important role in the resultant properties of the composite, as well as for the correct monitoring of the structure. Therefore, availability of a tool able to check the optical fibre sensor-composite interaction becomes essential. High-resolution 3D X-ray Micro-Computed Tomography, or Micro-CT, is a relatively new non-destructive inspection technique which enables investigations of the internal structure of a sample without actually compromising its integrity. In this work the feasibility of inspecting the position, the orientation and, more generally, the quality of the embedment of an optical fibre sensor in a carbon fibre reinforced laminate at unit cell level have been proven.

  15. Investigation of crack paths in natural fibre-reinforced composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Keck

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, fibre-reinforced composite materials are widely used in many fields, e.g. automotive and aerospace. Natural fibres such as flax and hemp provide good density specific mechanical properties. Additionally, the embodied production energy in natural fibres is much smaller than in synthetic ones. Within this paper the fracture mechanical behaviour of flax fibre-reinforced composites is discussed. Especially, this paper focuses on the determination and investigation of crack paths in compact tension specimens with three different fibre directions under a static as well as fatigue load. Differences and similarities in the obtained crack paths under different loading conditions are presented. Due to the pronounced orthotropic behaviour of those materials the crack path is not only governed by the stress state, but practically determined by the fibre direction and fibre volume fraction. Therefore, the well-known stress intensity factor solutions for the standard specimens are not applicable. It is necessary to carry out extensive numerical simulations to evaluate the stress intensity factor evolution along the growing crack in order to be able to determine fatigue crack growth rate curves. Those numerical crack growth simulations are performed with the three-dimensional crack simulation program ADAPCRACK3D to gain energy release rates and in addition stress intensity factors

  16. Effect of Thickness on the Tensile Properties of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Composite%试样厚度对碳纤维复合材料拉伸力学性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董明洪; 查小琴; 张永兆

    2013-01-01

    本文对两种不同厚度的碳纤维复合材料进行了力学性能试验,并对其断裂过程及性能进行了对比分析.结果表明:厚度为1.40 mm的碳纤维复合材料比厚度为3.00 mm的碳纤维复合材料力学性能优越,其断裂后的纤维股比较细,纤维股完全发生断裂,贡献出其所有的应力;而厚度为3.00 mm的碳纤维复合材料断裂后的纤维股都比较粗,纤维辅层之间未能完全发挥到其极限应力.厚度为1.40mm的碳纤维复合材料比厚度为3.00 mm的碳纤维复合材料的抗拉强度平均提高了65%;弹性模量提高了8.8%;延伸率提高了0.5%.%Mechanical test was carried out on the carbon fibre reinforced composite with different thicknesses,and the process of cracking and the mechanic properties were analyzed.The results manifested that for the specimen with the thickness of 1.40 mm,the fibre strands on the fracture were very fine and completely broken indicating that the fibre had been fully strained,the tensile strength of the specimen was 3 050 MPa,elasticity modulus was 156.5 GPa,and ductility was 1.7%,while for the speumen with the thickness of 3.0 mm,the fibre strands were coarse.As there was no strain within the coarse fibre strands,the overall mechanic properties were much low with tensile strength 1847 MPa,elasticity modulus 143.8 GPa,and ductility 1.2%.Compared to the later specimen,tensile strength of the former specimen was enhanced by 65%,elasticity modulus by 8.8%,and ductility by 0.5%.

  17. Interface and internal compatibility in a copper fibre cement composite

    OpenAIRE

    Kittl, P.; Martínez, V.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the mechanical behaviour of a compacted composite formed by short ductile copper fibres randomly distributed in portland cement matrix. The samples, a half with fibres and the other without them, were subjected to compression fatigue. So, 1 hertz and the value of stress corresponding to the 1% of the probability of fracture by gradual load were used. Diagrams of cumulative probability of fracture against cycles are obtained for both types of samples. Scanning electron micr...

  18. Influence of an Optimized Fibre Coating on Interfacial and Mechanical Properties of Glass Fibre/Polypropylene Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The influence of pretreatment of fibre on interfacial and mechanical properties of glass fibre/polypropylene composites was investigated. Firstly, the glass fibres were coated with the blends of m-IPP (maleic anhydride grafting isotatic polypropylene) and m-APP (maleic anhydride grafting amorphous polypropylene) in different ratios.Secondly, the interfacial reaction of the coated composites was analysed by FTIR, which shows that the interfacial chemical reaction between m-IPP/m-APP in the fibre coating and the fibre surface-bound coupling agent is in existence.Thirdly, the microstructure of the coated composites was studied by SEM. The results indicate that the coating treatment is effective on improving interfacial adhesion of the fibre-matrix and the right amount of m-APP added to the coat impels the plastic deformation surrounding the point of cracks, which makes cracks turn to region and prevents from further interface debonding. Lastly, the mechanical properties were evaluated by measurement of the flexural strength and impact strength of the composites. It was found that the flexural strength and impact strength of the composites with coating fibre are higher than those of uncoating fibre composite. The results of these investigations draw the conclusion that the pretreatment of fibre with m-IPP/m-APP blends can form an optimize interlayer between the fibre and the PP matrix, which improves both the strength and toughness of the composites.

  19. Low-temperature SCR of NOx with NH3 over Nomex rejects-based activated carbon fibre composite-supported manganese oxides. Part 1. Effect of pre-conditioning of the carbonaceous support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomex rejects-based activated carbon fibre composites, recently developed at our laboratory, were tested as catalytic supports for the low-temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide with ammonia. Impregnation of the support was performed by equilibrium adsorption of a diluted aqueous solution of manganese acetate. Prior to impregnation, different pre-conditioning procedures of the carbonaceous support were investigated. These comprised steam activation and oxidation with air and different liquids. The modified supports were characterised by different techniques and the impregnated catalysts were tested for SCR of NO at 150C. The best catalytic results were achieved after support activation at 20wt.% (SBET∼1000m2g-1) and oxidation with nitric acid at 90C for 1-2h

  20. Thermal recycling and re-manufacturing of glass fibre thermosetting composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraisse, Anthony; Beauson, Justine; Brøndsted, Povl;

    2016-01-01

    The impact of using thermally recycled glass fibre in re-manufactured composites was investigated. A unidirectional glass fibre thermosetting composite laminate was manufactured. The matrix in one part of the laminate was burnt off to recover the glass fibres. These recycled glass fibres were used...... was observed in the composites with the pristine and the recycled fibres, which lead to a lower fibre volume fraction in the latter one. The Young's modulus of the composites was not changed by the recycling process, if the lower fibre volume fraction is taken into account. However, a marked drop...

  1. The influence of the Ni layer covering carbon fibre on the AK132 matrix structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zyska

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality and the quantity assessment of the structure of the AlSi13Cu2 alloy matrix composites reinforced with carbon fibre in the amount of 5, 10, or 15 vol. percent has been presented. Due to the poor wettability of carbon fibre by molten AlSi alloy and the low castability of the examined composites, the Ni-covered fibre with 0.25 μm thick Ni layer has been used and the pressure casting technology has been employed. The chemical interaction between Ni layer and the molten AlSi alloy has been estimated in the thermodynamic aspect using the Thermo-Calc calculation packet as well as performing the microstructural investigations by means of transmission electron microscope. Simulations of solidifying have been carried out and the phase composition of the metal matrix has been determined. Microstructural examinations have proved that the total dissolving of the Ni layer occurs under the conditions of composite production and the phases of the Al3Ni type (Fe and Cu dopped arise. These phases occur in the form of independent precipitates in the whole volume of matrix as well as the ones locally grouped around the carbon fibres.

  2. Non-linear elastic behaviour of carbon fibres of different structural and mechanical characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISIDOR M. DJORDJEVIC

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Five types of polyacrylonitrile, PAN, based carbon fibres, differing in modulus, breaking strain and in crystallite orientation, have been studied. Non-Hookean behaviour was investigated by computing the tangent tensile and compression moduli as a function of strain, from the axial stress–strain response obtained in standard tensile, compression, as well as in modified flexural tests of unidirectional carbon/ epoxy composites. The dependences of the tensile modulus on tensile strain of the carbon fibres were extracted from data obtained in single-filament tensile tests. Analytical expressions for the tensile modulus–tensile strain and compression modulus–compression strain dependences in the performed test were deduced. The structural characterization of the carbon fibres was performed by X-ray diffraction on bundle of parallel fibres. The interlayer spacing d002 and the apparent lateral dimension of the crystallites Lc were deduced by processing the 002 diffraction profiles. The established modulus–strain dependences were correlated with the fibre characteristics (breaking strain and mean modulus values, as well as with the characteristic of the 002 diffraction profile and the d002 and Lc values.

  3. Dynamic fracture behaviour in fibre-reinforced cementitious composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rena C.; Cifuentes, Héctor; Rivero, Ignacio; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Zhang, Xiaoxin

    2016-08-01

    The object of this work is to simulate the dynamic fracture propagation in fibre-reinforced cementitious composites, in particular, in steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC). Beams loaded in a three-point bend configuration through a drop-weight impact device are considered. A single cohesive crack is assumed to propagate at the middle section; the opening of this crack is governed by a rate-dependent cohesive law; the fibres around the fracture plane are explicitly represented through truss elements. The fibre pull-out behaviour is depicted by an equivalent constitutive law, which is obtained from an analytical load-slip curve. The obtained load-displacement curves and crack propagation velocities are compared with their experimental counterparts. The good agreement with experimental data testifies to the feasibility of the proposed methodology and paves the way to its application in a multi-scale framework.

  4. Cavitation instabilities between fibres in a metal matrix composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    Short fibre reinforced metal matrix composites (MMC) are studied here to investigate the possibility that a cavitation instability can develop in the metal matrix. The high stress levels needed for a cavitation instability may occur in metal–ceramic systems due to the constraint on plastic flow...... of transversely staggered fibres is here modelled by using an axisymmetric cell model analysis. First the critical stress level is determined for a cavitation instability in an infinite solid made of the Al matrix material. By studying composites with different distributions and aspect ratios of the fibres...... induced by bonding to the ceramics that only show elastic deformation. In an MMC the stress state in the metal matrix is highly non-uniform, varying between regions where shear stresses are dominant and regions where hydrostatic tension is strong. An Al–SiC whisker composite with a periodic pattern...

  5. Non-linear elastic behaviour of carbon fibres of different structural and mechanical characteristic

    OpenAIRE

    ISIDOR M. DJORDJEVIC; DANIELA R. SEKULIC; MOMCILO M. STEVANOVIC

    2007-01-01

    Five types of polyacrylonitrile, PAN, based carbon fibres, differing in modulus, breaking strain and in crystallite orientation, have been studied. Non-Hookean behaviour was investigated by computing the tangent tensile and compression moduli as a function of strain, from the axial stress–strain response obtained in standard tensile, compression, as well as in modified flexural tests of unidirectional carbon/ epoxy composites. The dependences of the tensile modulus on tensile strain of the ca...

  6. Development of Diamond-like Carbon Fibre Wheel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏源迁; 山口勝美; 洞口巌; 竹内雅之

    2004-01-01

    A unique diamond-like carbon (DLC) grinding wheel was developed, in which the DLC fibres were made by rolling Al sheets coated with DLC films and aligned normally to the grinding wheel surface by laminating Al sheets together with DLC fibres. In this paper, the formation process of DLC fibres and the fabrication process of a DLC fibre wheel were investigated. Many grinding experiments were also carried out on a precision NC plane milling machine using a newly developed DLC wheel. Grinding of specimens of silicon wafers, optical glasses, quartz, granites and hardened die steel SKD11 demonstrated the capabilities of nanometer surface finish. A smooth surface with a roughness value of Ra2.5nm (Ry26nm) was achieved.

  7. Quantitative study on the statistical properties of fibre architecture of genuine and numerical composite microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Zangenberg; Brøndsted, Povl

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative study is carried out regarding the statistical properties of the fibre architecture found in composite laminates and that generated numerically using Statistical Representative Volume Elements (SRVE’s). The aim is to determine the reliability and consistency of SRVE......’s for representation of the composite microstructure as well as investigate the effect of a varying fibre radii distribution on the fibre architecture. Based on digital image analysis, the fibre architecture of unidirectional glass fibre composites with varying fibre content is recognised. The fibre architecture found...

  8. Tribological properties of Al 7075 alloy based composites strengthened with Al2O3 fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Naplocha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Wear resistance of 7075 aluminium alloy based composite materials reinforced with Al2O3 Saffil fibres was investigated. The measurementsof wear were performed applying the pin-on-disc method at dry friction conditions with the gray iron counterpart. The effects ofpressure of composite samples on the counterpart made of gray iron and the orientation of fibers in relation to the friction surface on wear rate were determined. The materials were produced by squeeze casting method where 80-90% porous ceramic preform were infiltrated.After T6 heat treatment hardness increased about 50-60% both for unreinforced alloy and composites containing strengthening Saffilfibres. Wear resistance of composite materials in relation to the unreinforced 7075 alloy was slightly worse at lower pressure of 0.8 MPa. Under higher pressure of 1.2 MPa wear resistance of unreinforced 7075 alloy was even better whereas no effect of orientation of fibers on wear in composite materials was observed. Additionally, significant wear of counterface in the presence of debris with fragmented Al2O3 fibres as abrasives was observed. Wear resistance improvement of composite materials was obtained when with alumina Saffil fibres Carbon C fibres in the preforms were applied.

  9. THERMOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF JUTE/BAGASSE HYBRID FIBRE REINFORCED EPOXY THERMOSET COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Kumar Saw

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibres are partly replacing currently used synthetic fibres as reinforcement for polymer composites. Jute fibre bundles were high-cellulose-content modified by alkali treatment, while the bagasse fibre bundles were modified by creating quinones in the lignin portions of fibre surfaces and reacting them with furfuryl alcohol (FA to increase their adhesiveness. The effects of different fibre bundle loading and modification of bagasse fibre surfaces in hybrid fibre reinforced epoxy composites have been studied. The role of fibre/matrix interactions in chemically modified hybrid composites were investigated using Differential Scanning Calorimeter, Differential Thermo Gravimetry, and a Universal Tensile Machine and compared with those of unmodified bagasse fibre bundles incorporated with modified jute fibre bundles reinforced hybrid composites. Fibre surface modification reduced the hydrophilicity of fibre bundles, and significantly increased mechanical properties of hybrid composites were observed in conjunction with SEM images. The SEM analysis of the fibre and the composite fractured surfaces have confirmed the FA grafting and shown a better compatibility at the interface between chemically modified fibre bundles and epoxy resin. This paper incorporates interesting results of thermomechanical properties and evaluation of fibre/matrix interactions.

  10. Scale-up activation of carbon fibres for hydrogen storage

    OpenAIRE

    Kunowsky, Mirko; Marco Lozar, Juan Pablo; Cazorla Amorós, Diego; Linares Solano, Ángel

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated, at a laboratory scale, the chemical activation of two different carbon fibres (CF), their porosity characterization, and their optimization for hydrogen storage [1]. In the present work, this study is extended to: (i) a larger range of KOH activated carbon fibres, (ii) a larger range of hydrogen adsorption measurements at different temperatures and pressures (i.e. at room temperature, up to 20 MPa, and at 77 K, up to 4 MPa), and (iii) a scaling-up activat...

  11. Effects of hybrid composition of LCP and glass fibres on abrasive wear of reinforced LLDPE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S A R Hashmi; Ajay Naik; Navin Chand

    2006-02-01

    The hybrid of liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) fibres and glass fibres (GF) provide a combination of modulus and toughness to semi-crystalline linear-low-density-polyethylene (LLDPE). LCP and GF fibres reinforced composites were studied using two-body abrasion tester under different applied loads. Two sets of fibre reinforced LLDPE, 10 and 20 vol%, were investigated. The contents of LCP and glass fibres were varied as 25, 50, 75 and 100 vol% of overall volume of fibres in LLDPE. The effect of replacing glass fibre with LCP fibre on wear is reported. Wear loss increased with the applied loads and glass fibre contents in LLDPE. The replacements of glass fibres with LCP fibres improved abrasive wear resistance of composite. The composite containing 20 vol% of glass fibres in LLDPE showed the specific wear rate nearly double to that of LCP fibre reinforced LLDPE. Incorporation of LCP fibre improved wear resistance of glass fibre reinforced LLDPE. Worn surfaces were studied using SEM. Glass fibres were broken in small debris and removed easily whereas LCP fibres yielded to fibrillation during abrasive action. The overall wear rate was governed by the composition and test conditions.

  12. Study on Effect of Thickness and Fibre Orientation on a Tensile and Flexural Properties of a Hybrid Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Santhosh Kumar. M

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This project presents the study of tensile, flexural & moisture absorption properties of composites made from S-glass, Carbon and E-glass fibre. The specimens are prepared using hand lay-up techniques as per ASTM standard for different thickness 2mm and 3mm and fibre orientation of 30º, 45º and 60º, where an attempt is made to study the properties of composite materials by composing the different materials together to obtain the desired properties by increasing the thickness and fibre orientation. By the variation of thickness tensile strength of hybrid composite is observed for each thickness and is compared with the finite element analysis results. The test ready specimens were subjected to tensile and flexural loads on UTM. This research indicates that tensile strength is mainly dependent on the fiber orientation & thickness of laminated polymer composites. The moisture absorption increases with the fibre, filler content and duration of immersion in water.

  13. STRAIN HARDENING PROPERTIES OF STEEL FIBRE REINFORCED LATEX CONCRETE COMPOSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Sounthararajan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Steel fibre addition in concrete possesses high merits in terms of achieving homogeneity and tensile strength properties. Polymeric addition in concrete has high advantages in terms of pore fillingeffect and subsequent increase in durability index. The combined addition of steel and polymeric latex additions in concrete leads to increased strength, durability, toughness, resistance to cracking and crack propagation. Studies were conducted in the present study to analyse the properties of concrete that can be further improved with the addition of polymer styrene butadiene rubber emulsion (SBR along with steel fibres. In this research analysis, styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR latex as a polymeric admixture was used in steel fibre reinforced concrete. The effect of curing conditions on the strength gain properties of composite steel fibre latex matrix on the compressive, flexural strength, and split tensile test of polymermodified steel fibre reinforced concrete (PSFC concrete was examined. Including SBR latex at a certain % of binder in the PSFC concrete improves the bonds within the cement matrix and steel fibres (SF. This is due to the SBR films formed in the matrix. By the comparison of properties of SFC and PSFC, it can be shown that a tremendous increase in compressive strength when 4% and 8% SBR is added along with 0.75% and 1.5% SF. The increase in flexural strength was noticed and post cracking ductility is imparted to concrete.

  14. Effect of alkali treated jute fibres on composite properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dipa Ray; B K Sarkar; A K Rana; N R Bose

    2001-04-01

    Jute fibres were subjected to a 5% alkali (NaOH) solution treatment for 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h at 30°C. An improvement in the crystallinity in the jute fibres increased its modulus by 12%, 68% and 79% after 4, 6 and 8 h of treatment respectively. The tenacity of the fibres improved by 46% after 6 and 8 h treatment and the % breaking strain was reduced by 23% after 8 h treatment. For the 35% composites with 4 h treated fibres, the flexural strength improved from 199.1 MPa to 238.9 MPa by 20%, modulus improved from 11.89 GPa to 14.69 GPa by 23% and laminar shear strength increased from 0.238 MPa to 0.2834 MPa by 19%. On plotting the different values of slopes obtained from the rates of improvement of the flexural strength and modulus, against the NaOH treatment time, two different failure modes were apparent before and after 4 h of treatment. In the first region between 0 and 4 h, fibre pull out was predominant whereas in the second region between 6 and 8 h, transverse fracture occurred with a minimum fibre pull out. This observation was well supported by the SEM investigations of the fracture surfaces.

  15. CHLORINE DIOXIDE TREATMENT OF SISAL FIBRE: SURFACE LIGNIN AND ITS INFLUENCES ON FIBRE SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS AND INTERFACIAL BEHAVIOUR OF SISAL FIBRE/PHENOLIC RESIN COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linxin Zhong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an investigation of the influences of chlorine dioxide treatment on fibre surface lignin. The fibre surface characteristics and the interfacial behaviour of the sisal fibre/phenolic resin composites were also studied by SEM, AFM, and XPS. The results show that the surface of the untreated fibre contains a large amount of lignin with granular structure and non-granular structure. The surface lignin concentration is up to 51% for the untreated fibre, and then it decreases to 24% and 20% for fibres treated with 1.5 % and 2.0% chlorine dioxide, respectively. The removal of lignin from the fibre surface can enhance the interfacial strength of the composites, giving rise to increases by 36% and 28% in tensile strength and internal bonding strength. These results indicate that the surface properties of single sisal fibres can be tailored to improve the fibre/resin interface. Chlorine dioxide treatment has potential for surface modification of sisal fibre in engineering the interfacial behaviour of composites.

  16. Modelling of volumetric composition and mechanical properties of unidirectional hemp/epoxy composites - Effect of enzymatic fibre treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Thygesen, Anders; Meyer, Anne S.;

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to assess the effect of enzymatic fibre treatments on the fibre performance in unidirectional hemp/epoxy composites by modelling the volumetric composition and mechanical properties of the composites. It is shown that the applied models can well predict...... the changes in volumetric composition and mechanical properties of the composites when differently treated hemp fibres are used. The decrease in the fibre correlated porosity factor with the enzymatic fibre treatments shows that the removal of pectin by pectinolytic enzymes results in a better fibre...

  17. Thermal Conductivity of Structural Glass/Fibre Epoxy Composite as a Function of Fibre Orientation

    CERN Document Server

    Cugnet, D; Kuijper, A; Parma, Vittorio; Vandoni, Giovanna

    2002-01-01

    The LHC, the new superconducting particle accelerator presently under construction at CERN, makes use of some 1200 dipole magnets for orbit bending and 500 quadrupole magnets for focusing/defocusing of the circulating high-energy proton beams. Two or three column-type support posts sustain each cryomagnet. The choice of a convenient material for these supports is critical, because of the required high positioning accuracy of the magnets in their cryostats and stringent thermal budget requirements imposed by the LHC cryogenic system. A glass-fibre/epoxy resin composite has been chosen for its good combination of high stiffness and low thermal conductivity over the 2-293 K temperature range. Plies of long glass-fibres are stacked optimally yielding the best mechanical behaviour. However, heat leaks from the supports are influenced by the thermal characteristics of the composite, which in turn depend on the orientation of the fibres. To study the dependence of the thermal conductivity on fibre's orientation, we ...

  18. DEPOSITION OF NICKEL ON CARBON FIBRES BY GALVANIC METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Štefánik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of coating parameters in quasi-static coating of Ni layer on carbon fibre tow by galvanic method is presented. The tow of fibres was immersed in typical galvanic bath based on NiSO4, NiCl2, Na2SO4 and H3BO3 and current to carbon fibres was supplied by two leading metal rolls which are parts of continuous coating apparatus. The main parameters were current of 1 A, electrolyte temperature of 50 °C and the distance from power contacts to level of galvanic bath (8 or 13 cm. The amount and structure of deposited Ni layer at coating time 15 and 90 seconds of exposure in electrolyte and depth of immersion of tow into bath were discussed.

  19. Fibre reinforced polymer nanocomposites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlasveld, D.P.N.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis the results are described of the research on a combination of two types of composites: thermoplastic nanocomposites and continuous fibre composites. In this three-phase composite the main reinforcing phase are continuous glass or carbon fibres, and the matrix consists of a polyamide 6

  20. FibreChain: characterization and modeling of thermoplastic composites processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, A.D.; Niazi, M.S.; Akkerman, R.; Lomov, S.V.

    2013-01-01

    Thermoplastic composites feature the advantage of melting and shaping. The material properties during processing and the final product properties are to a large extent determined by the thermal history of the material. The approach in the FP7-project FibreChain for process chain modeling of thermopl

  1. Use and fibre type composition in limb muscles of cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kernell, D; Hensbergen, E

    1998-01-01

    As a background for studies concerning the effects of training on the properties and fibre type composition of skeletal muscle, information is needed concerning the normal duration of muscle use per day. Data of this kind were collected from adult cats, using implanted electrodes for electromyograph

  2. Influence of fibre-surface treatment on structural, thermal and mechanical properties of jute fibre and its composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Sinha; S K Rout

    2009-02-01

    Jute fibres (Corchorus olitorious), an environmentally and ecologically friendly product, were chemically modified and treated with 5% NaOH solution at room temperature for 2 h, 4 h and 8 h. The above samples were characterized and morphologically analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Instron 1185. Alkali treatment affects the supramolecular structure of the fibre as shown by XRD by improving the degree of crystallinity of the fibre. Surface chemistry of the fibre also altered as depicted by FT–IR studies. This chemical treatment was also found to alter the characteristic of the fibre surface topography as seen by the SEM. From the mechanical single fibre test it was found that the tenacity and modulus of the fibre improved after alkali treatment. This might be due to the improvement in the crystallinity. DSC data demonstrated that the thermal degradation temperature for the cellulose get lowered from 365.26°C to 360.62°C after alkali treatment led to the reduction in fibre thermal stability. Jute fibre reinforced composite were prepared with treated and untreated jute fibre (15 wt%) reinforced unsaturated polyester (UPE). Effectiveness of these composites was experimentally investigated through the study of the composites by DSC, Instron 1195 for mechanical property of composites, volume fraction of the porosity and hydrophobic finishing of the composite. From the DSC analysis it was found that thermal stability enhanced for treated fibre reinforced composite. This could be due to the resistance offered by the closely packed cellulose chain in combination with the resin. Flexural strength of the composite prepared with 2 h and 4 h alkali treated fibre were found to increase by 3.16% and 9.5%, respectively. Although 8 h treated fibre exhibited maximum strength properties, but the composite prepared with them showed lower strength

  3. The electro-structural behaviour of yarn-like carbon nanotube fibres immersed in organic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrones, Jeronimo; Windle, Alan H.; Elliott, James A.

    2014-10-01

    Yarn-like carbon nanotube (CNT) fibres are a hierarchically-structured material with a variety of promising applications such as high performance composites, sensors and actuators, smart textiles, and energy storage and transmission. However, in order to fully realize these possibilities, a more detailed understanding of their interactions with the environment is required. In this work, we describe a simplified representation of the hierarchical structure of the fibres from which several mathematical models are constructed to explain electro-structural interactions of fibres with organic liquids. A balance between the elastic and surface energies of the CNT bundle network in different media allows the determination of the maximum lengths that open junctions can sustain before collapsing to minimize the surface energy. This characteristic length correlates well with the increase of fibre resistance upon immersion in organic liquids. We also study the effect of charge accumulation in open interbundle junctions and derive expressions to describe experimental data on the non-ohmic electrical behaviour of fibres immersed in polar liquids. Our analyses suggest that the non-ohmic behaviour is caused by progressively shorter junctions collapsing as the voltage is increased. Since our models are not based on any property unique to carbon nanotubes, they should also be useful to describe other hierarchical structures.

  4. The electro-structural behaviour of yarn-like carbon nanotube fibres immersed in organic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarn-like carbon nanotube (CNT) fibres are a hierarchically-structured material with a variety of promising applications such as high performance composites, sensors and actuators, smart textiles, and energy storage and transmission. However, in order to fully realize these possibilities, a more detailed understanding of their interactions with the environment is required. In this work, we describe a simplified representation of the hierarchical structure of the fibres from which several mathematical models are constructed to explain electro-structural interactions of fibres with organic liquids. A balance between the elastic and surface energies of the CNT bundle network in different media allows the determination of the maximum lengths that open junctions can sustain before collapsing to minimize the surface energy. This characteristic length correlates well with the increase of fibre resistance upon immersion in organic liquids. We also study the effect of charge accumulation in open interbundle junctions and derive expressions to describe experimental data on the non-ohmic electrical behaviour of fibres immersed in polar liquids. Our analyses suggest that the non-ohmic behaviour is caused by progressively shorter junctions collapsing as the voltage is increased. Since our models are not based on any property unique to carbon nanotubes, they should also be useful to describe other hierarchical structures. (paper)

  5. COMMERCIAL VIABILITY ANALYSIS OF LIGNIN BASED CARBON FIBRE

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Chien-Wei Chen

    2014-01-01

    Lignin is a rich renewable source of aromatic compounds. As a potentialpetroleum feedstock replacement, lignin can reduce environmental impacts such ascarbon emission. Due to its complex chemical structure, lignin is currently underutilized.Exploiting lignin as a precursor for carbon fibre adds high economic value to lignin andencourages further development in lignin extraction technology. This report includes apreliminary cost analysis and identifies the key aspects of lignin-based carbon fi...

  6. Effect of fibre shape on transverse thermal conductivity of unidirectional composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Raghava Rao; V Ramachandra Raju; K Mohana Rao

    2015-04-01

    The determination of thermal conductivities of a composite lamina is of paramount importance in the effective design and application of composite materials. The thermal conductivity of a lamina along the fibre direction can be easily estimated from the Rule of Mixtures but, the thermal conductivity in the transverse direction which depends on many factors need to be determined effectively. The transverse thermal conductivities of continuous fibre reinforced composite lamina are computed by numerical method using finite element analysis. Different fibre concentrations, fibre shapes and different fibre-matrix combinations are examined. A Regular array of square pattern of fibres is considered. The finite element model is validated with the available experimental results and theoretical models for a circular fibre and then extended to other shapes of fibres. Two-dimensional finite element model is adopted for the analysis, due to the restriction of heat flow only in transverse direction and the fibres are assumed to be continuous and perfectly bonded to the matrix. Analysis is carried out for a wide range of fibre-matrix combinations and up to the maximum fibre concentration in the composite. The analysis is extended for circular, square, elliptical and rhombus shaped fibres. From the results it is observed that there is a significant variation in the transverse thermal conductivity due to the shape of fibre, concentration ratios and fibre matrix combinations. This variation in thermal conductivity of a composite lamina results into a broader choice for the selection of composite materials in thermal applications.

  7. Use of Macro Fibre Composite Transducers as Acoustic Emission Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Eaton

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The need for ever lighter and more efficient aerospace structures and components has led to continuous optimization pushing the limits of structural performance. In order to ensure continued safe operation during long term service it is desirable to develop a structural health monitoring (SHM system. Acoustic emission (AE offers great potential for real time global monitoring of aerospace structures, however currently available commercial sensors have limitations in size, weight and adaptability to complex structures. This work investigates the potential use of macro-fibre composite (MFC film transducers as AE sensors. Due to the inhomogeneous make-up of MFC transducers their directional dependency was examined and found to have limited effect on signal feature data. However, signal cross-correlations revealed a strong directional dependency. The sensitivity and signal attenuation with distance of MFC sensors were compared with those of commercially available sensors. Although noticeably less sensitive than the commercial sensors, the MFC sensors still had an acceptable operating range. Furthermore, a series of compressive carbon fiber coupon tests were monitored in parallel using both an MFC sensor and a commercially available sensor for comparison. The results showed good agreement of AE trends recorded by both sensors.

  8. Multilayered Glass Fibre-reinforced Composites In Rotational Moulding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W. C.; Harkin-Jones, E.; Kearns, M.; McCourt, M.

    2011-05-01

    The potential of multiple layer fibre-reinforced mouldings is of growing interest to the rotational moulding industry because of their cost/performance ratio. The particular problem that arises when using reinforcements in this process relate to the fact that the process is low shear and good mixing of resin and reinforcement is not optimum under those conditions. There is also a problem of the larger/heavier reinforcing agents segregating out of the powder to lay up on the inner part surface. In this study, short glass fibres were incorporated and distributed into a polymer matrix to produce fibre-reinforced polymer composites using the rotational moulding process and characterised in terms of morphology and mechanical properties.

  9. Lamb wave detection in prepreg composite materials with fibre Bragg grating sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Miesen. N.; Mizutani, Y; Groves, R.M.; Sinke, J.; Benedictus, R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that existing Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) techniques have potential during the production phase in addition to their application for maintenance and for in-flight monitoring. Flaws occur during composite fabrication in industry, due to an imperfect process control and human errors. This decreases production efficiency and increases costs. In this paper, the monitoring of Lamb waves in unidirectional carbon fibre (UD-CFRP) prepreg material is demonstrated using b...

  10. Drilling analysis of coir–fibre-reinforced polyester composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Jayabal; U Natarajan

    2011-12-01

    An investigation has been carried out to make use of coir, a natural fibre abundantly available in India. Coir–polyester composites were prepared and their mechanical and machinability characteristics were studied. The short coir–fibre-reinforced composites exhibited the tensile, flexural and impact strength of 16.1709 MPa, 29.2611 MPa and 46.1740 J/m, respectively. The regression equations were developed and optimized for studying drilling characteristics of coir–polyester composites using the Taguchi approach. A drill bit diameter of 6 mm, spindle speed of 600 rpm and feed rate of 0.3 mm/rev gave the minimum value of thrust force, torque and tool wear in drilling analysis.

  11. Evaluation of Defects in Multilayer Carbon Fibre Epoxy for Aeronautics Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Buonsanti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of carbon fibre reinforced polymers is an elaborate process unfree from faults and problems. Problems during the manufacturing, such as plies' overlapping, can cause flaws in the resulting material, so compromising its integrity. Compared with metallic materials, carbon epoxy composites show a number of advantages. Within this framework, ultrasonic tests are effective to identify the presence of defects. In this paper a Finite Element Method approach is proposed for evaluating the most effective incidence angle of an ultrasonic probe with regard to defects' identification. According to our goal, the analysis has been carried out considering a single-line plane emitting source varying the probe angle of inclination. The proposed model looks promising to specially emphasize the presence of delaminations as well as massive breaking in a specimen of multilayer carbon fibre epoxy. Subsequently, simulation parameters and results have been exploited and compared, respectively, for a preliminary experimental in-lab campaign of measurements with encouraging results.

  12. Monitoring Pre-Stressed Composites Using Optical Fibre Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Badcock, Rodney A; Machavaram, Venkata R; Fernando, Gerard F

    2016-01-01

    Residual stresses in fibre reinforced composites can give rise to a number of undesired effects such as loss of dimensional stability and premature fracture. Hence, there is significant merit in developing processing techniques to mitigate the development of residual stresses. However, tracking and quantifying the development of these fabrication-induced stresses in real-time using conventional non-destructive techniques is not straightforward. This article reports on the design and evaluation of a technique for manufacturing pre-stressed composite panels from unidirectional E-glass/epoxy prepregs. Here, the magnitude of the applied pre-stress was monitored using an integrated load-cell. The pre-stressing rig was based on a flat-bed design which enabled autoclave-based processing. A method was developed to end-tab the laminated prepregs prior to pre-stressing. The development of process-induced residual strain was monitored in-situ using embedded optical fibre sensors. Surface-mounted electrical resistance strain gauges were used to measure the strain when the composite was unloaded from the pre-stressing rig at room temperature. Four pre-stress levels were applied prior to processing the laminated preforms in an autoclave. The results showed that the application of a pre-stress of 108 MPa to a unidirectional [0]16 E-glass/913 epoxy preform, reduced the residual strain in the composite from -600 µε (conventional processing without pre-stress) to approximately zero. A good correlation was observed between the data obtained from the surface-mounted electrical resistance strain gauge and the embedded optical fibre sensors. In addition to "neutralising" the residual stresses, superior axial orientation of the reinforcement can be obtained from pre-stressed composites. A subsequent publication will highlight the consequences of pres-stressing on fibre alignment, the tensile, flexural, compressive and fatigue performance of unidirectional E-glass composites. PMID

  13. Monitoring Pre-Stressed Composites Using Optical Fibre Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Krishnamurthy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Residual stresses in fibre reinforced composites can give rise to a number of undesired effects such as loss of dimensional stability and premature fracture. Hence, there is significant merit in developing processing techniques to mitigate the development of residual stresses. However, tracking and quantifying the development of these fabrication-induced stresses in real-time using conventional non-destructive techniques is not straightforward. This article reports on the design and evaluation of a technique for manufacturing pre-stressed composite panels from unidirectional E-glass/epoxy prepregs. Here, the magnitude of the applied pre-stress was monitored using an integrated load-cell. The pre-stressing rig was based on a flat-bed design which enabled autoclave-based processing. A method was developed to end-tab the laminated prepregs prior to pre-stressing. The development of process-induced residual strain was monitored in-situ using embedded optical fibre sensors. Surface-mounted electrical resistance strain gauges were used to measure the strain when the composite was unloaded from the pre-stressing rig at room temperature. Four pre-stress levels were applied prior to processing the laminated preforms in an autoclave. The results showed that the application of a pre-stress of 108 MPa to a unidirectional [0]16 E-glass/913 epoxy preform, reduced the residual strain in the composite from −600 µε (conventional processing without pre-stress to approximately zero. A good correlation was observed between the data obtained from the surface-mounted electrical resistance strain gauge and the embedded optical fibre sensors. In addition to “neutralising” the residual stresses, superior axial orientation of the reinforcement can be obtained from pre-stressed composites. A subsequent publication will highlight the consequences of pres-stressing on fibre alignment, the tensile, flexural, compressive and fatigue performance of unidirectional E

  14. Monitoring Pre-Stressed Composites Using Optical Fibre Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Badcock, Rodney A.; Machavaram, Venkata R.; Fernando, Gerard F.

    2016-01-01

    Residual stresses in fibre reinforced composites can give rise to a number of undesired effects such as loss of dimensional stability and premature fracture. Hence, there is significant merit in developing processing techniques to mitigate the development of residual stresses. However, tracking and quantifying the development of these fabrication-induced stresses in real-time using conventional non-destructive techniques is not straightforward. This article reports on the design and evaluation of a technique for manufacturing pre-stressed composite panels from unidirectional E-glass/epoxy prepregs. Here, the magnitude of the applied pre-stress was monitored using an integrated load-cell. The pre-stressing rig was based on a flat-bed design which enabled autoclave-based processing. A method was developed to end-tab the laminated prepregs prior to pre-stressing. The development of process-induced residual strain was monitored in-situ using embedded optical fibre sensors. Surface-mounted electrical resistance strain gauges were used to measure the strain when the composite was unloaded from the pre-stressing rig at room temperature. Four pre-stress levels were applied prior to processing the laminated preforms in an autoclave. The results showed that the application of a pre-stress of 108 MPa to a unidirectional [0]16 E-glass/913 epoxy preform, reduced the residual strain in the composite from −600 µε (conventional processing without pre-stress) to approximately zero. A good correlation was observed between the data obtained from the surface-mounted electrical resistance strain gauge and the embedded optical fibre sensors. In addition to “neutralising” the residual stresses, superior axial orientation of the reinforcement can be obtained from pre-stressed composites. A subsequent publication will highlight the consequences of pres-stressing on fibre alignment, the tensile, flexural, compressive and fatigue performance of unidirectional E-glass composites. PMID

  15. The potential of using date palm fibres as reinforcement for polymeric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► High concentration of chemical treatment may deteriorate the natural fibre strength. ► Fibre length in the composite significantly influences the interfacial adhesion property. ► 6% NaOH treatment is the optimum concentration to treat the natural fibres. ► Chemical treatment enhances the surface characteristics of the fibres. ► Chemical treatment reduces the porosity of the composites. -- Abstract: Interfacial adhesion of natural fibres as reinforcement for fibre polymeric composites is the key parameter in designing composites. In the current study, interfacial adhesion of date palm fibre with epoxy matrix is experimentally investigated using single fibre pull out technique. The influence of NaOH treatment concentrations (0–9%), fibre embedded length and fibre diameter on the interfacial adhesion property was considered in this study. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the surface morphology and damage feature on the fibre and bonding area before and after conducting the experiments. The results revealed that 6% concentration of NaOH is the optimum solution for treating the date palm fibre to maintain high interfacial adhesion and strength with epoxy matrix. The embedded length of the fibre controlled the interfacial adhesion property, where 10 mm embedded length was the optimum fibre length.

  16. Electrospun nanostructured composite fibres for hydrogen storage applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kurban, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The urgent realisation of the low carbon economy requires the development of cheap, safe and lightweight hydrogen storage, both for commercialisation of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, and for the use of hydrogen as a reservoir of energy from intermittent renewable energy sources. The primary motivation of this PhD project was to investigate (co)electrospinning, a cheap and scalable fibre production technique, for nanostructuring potential solid state hydrogen storage materials. Solid state stor...

  17. Structure and properties of a pulp fibre-reinforced composite with regenerated cellulose matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindl, W.; Schöberl, T.; Keckes, J.

    2006-04-01

    Fully bio-based cellulose cellulose composites were produced by partly dissolving beech pulp fibres in lithium chloride/dimethylacetamide (LiCl/DMAc) and subsequent regeneration of matrix cellulose in the presence of undissolved fibres. Compared to cellulose epoxy composites produced from the same fibres, a two-fold increase in tensile strength and elastic modulus was observed for cellulose cellulose composites. From scanning electron microscopy and nanoindentation it is concluded that changes in the fibre cell wall during LiCl/DMAc treatment, improved matrix properties of regenerated cellulose compared to epoxy, and improved fibre matrix adhesion are responsible for the superior properties of cellulose cellulose composites.

  18. Modelling of polypropylene fibre-matrix composites using finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene (PP fibre-matrix composites previously prepared and studied experimentally were modelled using finite element analysis (FEA in this work. FEA confirmed that fibre content and composition controlled stress distribution in all-PP composites. The stress concentration at the fibre-matrix interface became greater with less fibre content. Variations in fibre composition were more significant in higher stress regions of the composites. When fibre modulus increased, the stress concentration at the fibres decreased and the shear stress at the fibre-matrix interface became more intense. The ratio between matrix modulus and fibre modulus was important, as was the interfacial stress in reducing premature interfacial failure and increasing mechanical properties. The model demonstrated that with low fibre concentration, there were insufficient fibres to distribute the applied stress. Under these conditions the matrix yielded when the applied stress reached the matrix yield stress, resulting in increased fibre axial stress. When the fibre content was high, there was matrix depletion and stress transfer was inefficient. The predictions of the FEA model were consistent with experimental and published data.

  19. Low-temperature SCR of NOx with NH3 over Nomex rejects-based activated carbon fibre composite-supported manganese oxides. Part 2. Effect of procedures for impregnation and active phase formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of this work dealt with the preparation and conditioning of Nomex rejects-based activated carbon fibre (ACF) composites to be used as catalytic supports of manganese oxides for the low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia. In this second part, the catalytic results obtained by applying different impregnation procedures, including the previous exchange of the oxidised support with solutions of NaOH, are described. Washing the support with deionised water after both the Na-exchange and the impregnation steps improved the activity of the resulting catalyst. For the active phase formation (manganese oxide) on the support surface, different treatments were tested. It was determined that a treatment of the impregnated catalyst consisting of a stage of NO/O2/NH3 adsorption/reaction at 150C followed by heat treatment up to 400C under inert atmosphere, and a final stage of mild oxidation at 200C yielded the best catalytic results The final oxidation state of manganese was estimated to be between II and III.This final fabrication procedure yielded catalysts that in conditions of high spatial velocities (11000-25000h-1) and negligible pressure drop, showed a high catalytic activity at 150C, with NOx reduction percentages close to 85%, selectivities above 95% and low gasification rates of the carbonaceous support

  20. Mechanical and electrical performance of Roystonea regia/glass fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Govardhan Goud; R N Rao

    2012-08-01

    The present paper investigates mechanical and electrical properties of Roystonea regia/glass fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites. Five varieties of hybrid composites have been prepared by varying the glass fibre loading. Roystonea regia (royal palm), a natural fibre was collected from the foliage of locally available royal palm tree through the process of water retting and mechanical extraction. Roystonea regia, -glass short fibres were used together as reinforcement in epoxy matrix to form hybrid composites. It has been observed that tensile, flexural, impact and hardness properties of hybrid composites considerably increased with increase in glass fibre loading. But electrical conductivity and dielectric constant values decreased with increase in glass fibre content in the hybrid composites at all frequencies. Scanning electron microscopy of fractured hybrid composites has been carried out to study the fibre matrix adhesion.

  1. Manufacturing of amber particles suitable for composite fibre melt spinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ļašenko Inga Ļ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyamide fibre containing amber particles was fabricated. The amber particles were obtained by grinding technology using planetary ball-mills. Scanning electron microscopy and granulometry testing were used to characterise the structure and the size of prepared amber particles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to analyse the chemical structure of the amber particles. The amber particles were characterised with average size up to 3 μm. The chemical composition of amber before and after the grinding remained unchanged. The amber particles were melt-extruded using polyamide 6 as the matrix. Melt spinning processing was used to fabricate polyamide-amber filaments. Pre-oriented yarns and fully drawn yarns were obtained after hotdrawing experiments. Reported experimental findings of amber composite fibre could be important for textile applications.

  2. Fire-retardant Polyester Composites from Recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Wastes Reinforced with Coconut Fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coconut fibre reinforced composite was prepared by blending unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) from waste PET with 0.3 v % of coconut fibre. The coconut fibres were pre-treated with sodium hydroxide followed by silane prior to inclusion into the UPR. The untreated coconut fibres reinforced composite were used as a control. DriconR as a phosphate type of flame retardant was then added to the composite to reduce the flammability of the composite. The amount of DriconR was varied from 0 to 10 wt % of the overall mass of resin. The burning properties and limiting oxygen index (LOI) of the treated and untreated composites increased with the addition of Dricon. The tensile strength and modulus of both composites were also increased with the addition of DriconR. The treated fibre composite with 5 wt % DriconR showed the highest burning time and LOI with the values of 101.5 s and 34 s, respectively. The optimum tensile strength and modulus for treated fibre composite was at 5 wt % DriconR whereas the untreated fibre composite was at 2.5 wt % loading of DriconR. Thermogravimetry (TGA) analysis indicated that the degradation temperature increased with the addition of DriconR up to 5 wt % into UPR/ coconut fibre composites. Morphological observations indicated better distribution of DriconR for treated fibre composite resulted in enhancement of the tensile properties of the treated fibre composite. (author)

  3. Glass Fibre Strength—A Review with Relation to Composite Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    James Thomason; Peter Jenkins; Liu Yang

    2016-01-01

    The recovery and reuse of glass fibres from manufacturing waste and end-of-life composites in an environmentally-friendly, cost-effective manner is one of the most important challenges facing the thermosetting polymer composites industry. A number of processes for recycling fibres from such materials are available or under development. However, nearly all options deliver recycled glass fibres that are not cost-performance competitive due to the huge drop in strength of recycled glass fibre co...

  4. Characterisation and Performance of Fibre-Reinforced Composite Restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Haddad, Ala'A

    2015-01-01

    In the modern era of metal-free minimally-invasive dentistry, there is a growing tendency toward using metal-free restorative alternatives that provide not only excellent aesthetics but also enable superior durability. Fibre-reinforced composite (FRC) is one cost-effective alternative that fulfils the requirements of aesthetics and durability, and offers favourable physico-mechanical properties. Many FRC applications are well-documented in the literature, such as crowns and fixed partial dent...

  5. Preparation of silicon nitride/carbon fibre/epoxy resin composites%氮化硅/碳纤维/环氧树脂复合材料的制备研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明明; 张炜巍

    2013-01-01

    The silicon nitride (Si3N4) microparticles before and after modification were employed to prepare Si3N4/carbon fibre/epoxy resin (Si3N4/CF/EP) composite via high temperature molding press method.The effects of the mass fraction and surface modification of Si3N4 on the thermal conductivity,electrical properties and mechanical properties of the composite were investigated.The results showed that for the Si3N4/CF/EP composite its thermal conductivity increased with increasing the mass fraction of Si3N4,and the thermal conductivity was 1.02 W/mK when the mass fraction of Si3N4 was 40%.The electrical properties of the composite decrease linearly with increasing the mass fraction of Si3N4.The mechanical properties of the composite increased firstly and then decreased with adding of Si3N4.The thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of the composite were further improved after the modification of Si3N4.%采用高温模压成型法制备氮化硅/碳纤维/环氧树脂导热复合材料(Si3N4/CF/EP).研究了Si3N4用量和表面改性对Si3N4/CF/EP复合材料导热性能、导电性能和力学性能的影响.结果表明,复合材料的导热性能随Si3N4质量分数的增加而增大,当Si3N4质量分数为40%时,导热率为1.02 W/mK;而Si3N4/CF/EP复合材料的导电率随Si3N4质量分数的增加而呈线性降低;力学性能则随Si3N4质量分数的增加先增大后降低.表面改性有助于进一步提高Si3N4/CF/EP复合材料的导热性能和力学性能.

  6. Modelling of volumetric composition and mechanical properties of unidirectional hemp/epoxy composites - Effect of enzymatic fibre treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Thygesen, A.; Meyer, AS; Madsen, B.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present study is to assess the effect of enzymatic fibre treatments on the fibre performance in unidirectional hemp/epoxy composites by modelling the volumetric composition and mechanical properties of the composites. It is shown that the applied models can well predict the changes in volumetric composition and mechanical properties of the composites when differently treated hemp fibres are used. The decrease in the fibre correlated porosity factor with the enzymatic fibre treatments shows that the removal of pectin by pectinolytic enzymes results in a better fibre impregnation by the epoxy matrix, and the mechanical properties of the composites are thereby increased. The effective fibre stiffness and strength established from the modelling show that the enzymatic removal of pectin also leads to increased mechanical properties of the fibres. Among the investigated samples, the composites with hydrothermally pre-treated and enzymatically treated fibres have the lowest porosity factor of 0.08 and the highest mechanical properties. In these composites, the effective fibre stiffness and strength are determined to be 83 GPa and 667 MPa, respectively, when the porosity efficiency exponent is set equal to 2. Altogether, it is demonstrated that the applied models provide a concept to be used for the evaluation of performance of treated fibres in composites.

  7. Thermal recycling and re-manufacturing of glass fibre thermosetting composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraisse, A.; Beauson, J.; Brøndsted, P.; Madsen, B.

    2016-07-01

    The impact of using thermally recycled glass fibre in re-manufactured composites was investigated. A unidirectional glass fibre thermosetting composite laminate was manufactured. The matrix in one part of the laminate was burnt off to recover the glass fibres. These recycled glass fibres were used to manufacture a new composite laminate with the same fibre architecture as the pristine one. The fibres, the matrix and the composite laminates were thoroughly characterised and analysed. The results show that good materials quality was obtained for both laminates. A difference in fibre packing behaviour was observed in the composites with the pristine and the recycled fibres, which lead to a lower fibre volume fraction in the latter one. The Young's modulus of the composites was not changed by the recycling process, if the lower fibre volume fraction is taken into account. However, a marked drop in the maximum stress of the composites was reported, which was found to be related to the loss in maximum stress of the fibres.

  8. Properties of hemp fibre polymer composites - An optimisation of fibre properties using novel defibration methods and fibre characterisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Characterization of hemp fibres was carried out with fibres obtained with low handling damage and defibration damage to get an indication of how strong cellulose based fibres that can be produced from hemp. Comparison was made with hemp yarn producedunder traditional conditions where damage is un...

  9. Glass fibres reinforced polyester composites degradation monitoring by surface analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croitoru, Catalin; Patachia, Silvia; Papancea, Adina; Baltes, Liana; Tierean, Mircea

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents a novel method for quantification of the modifications that occur on the surface of different types of gel-coated glass fibre-reinforced polyester composites under artificial UV-ageing at 254 nm. The method implies the adsorption of an ionic dye, namely methylene blue, on the UV-aged composite, and computing the CIELab colour space parameters from the photographic image of the coloured composite's surface. The method significantly enhances the colour differences between the irradiated composites and the reference, in contrast with the non-coloured ones. The colour modifications that occur represent a good indicative of the surface degradation, alteration of surface hydrophily and roughness of the composite and are in good correlation with the ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and optical microscopy results. The proposed method is easier, faster and cheaper than the traditional ones.

  10. Mechanical properties of kenaf bast and core fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishak, M R; Leman, Z; Sapuan, S M [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Edeerozey, A M M; Othman, I S, E-mail: zleman@eng.upm.edu.my [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, 76109 Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia)

    2010-05-15

    Kenaf fibre has high potential to be used for composite reinforcement in biocomposite material. It is made up of an inner woody core and an outer fibrous bark surrounding the core. The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical properties of short kenaf bast and core fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites with varying fibre weight fraction i.e. 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. The compression moulding technique was used to prepare the composite specimens for tensile, flexural and impact tests in accordance to the ASTM D5083, ASTM D790 and ASTM D256 respectively. The overall results showed that the composites reinforced with kenaf bast fibre had higher mechanical properties than kenaf core fibre composites. The results also showed that the optimum fibre content for achieving highest tensile strength for both bast and core fibre composites was 20%wt. It was also observed that the elongation at break for both composites decreased as the fibre content increased. For the flexural strength, the optimum fibre content for both composites was 10%wt while for impact strength, it was at 10%wt and 5%wt for bast and core fibre composites respectively.

  11. Mechanical properties of kenaf bast and core fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenaf fibre has high potential to be used for composite reinforcement in biocomposite material. It is made up of an inner woody core and an outer fibrous bark surrounding the core. The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical properties of short kenaf bast and core fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites with varying fibre weight fraction i.e. 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. The compression moulding technique was used to prepare the composite specimens for tensile, flexural and impact tests in accordance to the ASTM D5083, ASTM D790 and ASTM D256 respectively. The overall results showed that the composites reinforced with kenaf bast fibre had higher mechanical properties than kenaf core fibre composites. The results also showed that the optimum fibre content for achieving highest tensile strength for both bast and core fibre composites was 20%wt. It was also observed that the elongation at break for both composites decreased as the fibre content increased. For the flexural strength, the optimum fibre content for both composites was 10%wt while for impact strength, it was at 10%wt and 5%wt for bast and core fibre composites respectively.

  12. Determination of thermal diffusivity of carbon/epoxy composites with different fiber content using transient thermography

    OpenAIRE

    G. Wróbel; Z. Rdzawski; G. Muzia; S. Pawlak

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of present study was to determine the thermal diffusivity of carbon fibre/epoxy composites with different fibre content using flash method.Design/methodology/approach: The experiments have been performed using transient thermography to obtain the thermograms for carbon/epoxy specimens with different carbon fibre content. From recorded thermograms the thermal diffusivity values were determined for two different heating conditions to verify the effect of heating conditions ...

  13. Effect of fibre length on the physical and mechanical properties of sisal/polyethylene composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composites of sisal fibres with polyethylene polymer chips were prepared at 50% fibre weight with varying lengths of the sisal fibres and the physical and mechanical properties of the composites were determined. The results of the physical properties show that moisture uptake of the composites initially increases from 0 to 60% as the fibre length increased from 0 to 5 mm and there after remained about the same. Density was observed to decrease initially at 5 mm and then steadily increased. The hardness and thickness was increased with increase in fibre length. Young's modulus, breaking load and breaking extension increased as the length of fibres in composite increased from 10 mm length, while work of rupture increased with increase in fibre length from about 5 mm. (author)

  14. Single fibre and multifibre unit cell analysis of strength and cracking of unidirectional composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, H.W.; Zhou, H.W.; Mishnaevsky, Leon;

    2009-01-01

    Numerical simulations of damage evolution in composites reinforced with single and multifibre are presented. Several types of unit cell models are considered: single fibre unit cell, multiple fibre unit cell with one and several damageable sections per fibres, unit cells with homogeneous and inho...

  15. Evaluation on mechanical properties of woven aloevera and sisal fibre hybrid reinforced epoxy composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Shadrach Jeya Sekaran; K Palani Kumar; K Pitchandi

    2015-09-01

    Natural fibres as reinforcement in polymer composite for making low-cost materials are growing day by day. Researcher’s main attention is to apply appropriate technology to utilize these natural fibres as effectively and economically as possible to produce good quality fibre-reinforced polymer composites for various engineering applications. In this research, the experiments of tensile, flexural and impact tests were carried out for woven aloevera and sisal fibre hybrid-reinforced epoxy composites. The hand layup method of fabrication was employed in preparing the composites. The surface morphology of the composites was examined through scanning electron microscope. Due to the low-density and high-specific properties of sisal fibre composites, it offer cost savings when compared with synthetic fibres. Hence it has very good implications in the automotive and transportation industry.

  16. In situ observations of microscale damage evolution in unidirectional natural fibre composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Madsen, Bo; Sørensen, Bent F.;

    2012-01-01

    damage state at each stress level. The overall aim of the study is to gain a better understanding of the damage mechanisms in natural fibre composites. This is necessary if they are to be optimized to fulfil their promising potential. Three dominating damage mechanisms have been identified: (i) interface...... splitting cracks typically seen at the interfaces of bundles of unseparated fibres, (ii) matrix shear cracks, and (iii) fibre failures typically seen at fibre defects. Based on the findings in the present study, well separated fibres with a low number of defects are recommended for composite reinforcements....

  17. Highly stretchable electric circuits from a composite material of silver nanoparticles and elastomeric fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Minwoo; Im, Jungkyun; Shin, Minkwan; Min, Yuho; Park, Jaeyoon; Cho, Heesook; Park, Soojin; Shim, Mun-Bo; Jeon, Sanghun; Chung, Dae-Young; Bae, Jihyun; Park, Jongjin; Jeong, Unyong; Kim, Kinam

    2012-12-01

    Conductive electrodes and electric circuits that can remain active and electrically stable under large mechanical deformations are highly desirable for applications such as flexible displays, field-effect transistors, energy-related devices, smart clothing and actuators. However, high conductivity and stretchability seem to be mutually exclusive parameters. The most promising solution to this problem has been to use one-dimensional nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes and metal nanowires coated on a stretchable fabric, metal stripes with a wavy geometry, composite elastomers embedding conductive fillers and interpenetrating networks of a liquid metal and rubber. At present, the conductivity values at large strains remain too low to satisfy requirements for practical applications. Moreover, the ability to make arbitrary patterns over large areas is also desirable. Here, we introduce a conductive composite mat of silver nanoparticles and rubber fibres that allows the formation of highly stretchable circuits through a fabrication process that is compatible with any substrate and scalable for large-area applications. A silver nanoparticle precursor is absorbed in electrospun poly (styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene) (SBS) rubber fibres and then converted into silver nanoparticles directly in the fibre mat. Percolation of the silver nanoparticles inside the fibres leads to a high bulk conductivity, which is preserved at large deformations (σ ≈ 2,200 S cm(-1) at 100% strain for a 150-µm-thick mat). We design electric circuits directly on the electrospun fibre mat by nozzle printing, inkjet printing and spray printing of the precursor solution and fabricate a highly stretchable antenna, a strain sensor and a highly stretchable light-emitting diode as examples of applications.

  18. Urea Formaldehyde Composites Reinforced with Sago Fibres Analysis by FTIR, TGA, and DSC

    OpenAIRE

    Tay Chen Chiang; Sinin Hamdan; Mohd Shahril Osman

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural material or biomaterial plays an important role in the field of fibre-reinforced polymeric materials with their new range of applications and achieves the ecological objective. Composition and structure of the nature fibre and matrix must be taken into consideration for the end use. In this project, Sago fibre particleboard bonds with Urea Formaldehyde to form composite. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra are used to characterize the Sago/Urea Formaldehyde composite in ter...

  19. Processing and properties of composites obtained from natural fibres and thermosetting matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Duro, A. C.; Castro, B. F.; J.F. Silva; Nunes, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, different natural fibres were studied and characterized, using optical and SEM microscopy. Those fibres were used to reinforce polyester and epoxy matrices and produce composite plates by hand lay-up. A vacuum bag was then used to allow improving the fibre impregnation, establishing a controlled pressure atmosphere. All different obtained composite plates were submitted to mechanical testing, in order to determine relevant mechanical proprieties. The produced composites were,...

  20. RETROFITTING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS USING FIBRE REINFORCED POLYMER (FRP COMPOSITES - A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namasivayam Aravind

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation and strengthening of old structures using advanced materials is a contemporary research in the field of Structural Engineering. During past two decades, much research has been carried out on shear and flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete beams using different types of fibre reinforced polymers and adhesives. Strengthening of old structures is necessary to obtain an expected life span. Life span of Reinforced Concrete (RC structures may be reduced due to many reasons, such as deterioration of concrete and development of surface cracks due to ingress of chemical agents, improper design and unexpected external lateral loads such as wind or seismic forces acting on a structure, which are also the reasons for failure of structural members. The superior properties of polymer composite materials like high corrosion resistance, high strength, high stiffness, excellent fatigue performance and good resistance to chemical attack etc., has motivated the researchers and practicing engineers to use the polymer composites in the field of rehabilitation of structures. This paper reviews fourteen articles on rehabilitation of reinforced concrete (RC beams. The paper reviews the different properties of Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP and Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP composites and adhesives, influence of dimensions of beams and loading rate causing failure. The paper proposes an enhanced retrofitting technique for flexural members and to develop a new mathematical model.

  1. RETROFITTING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS USING FIBRE REINFORCED POLYMER (FRP COMPOSITES – A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namasivayam Aravind

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation and strengthening of old structures using advanced materials is a contemporary research in the field of Structural Engineering. During past two decades, much research has been carried out on shear and flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete beams using different types of fibre reinforced polymers and adhesives. Strengthening of old structures is necessary to obtain an expected life span. Life span of Reinforced Concrete (RC structures may be reduced due to many reasons, such as deterioration of concrete and development of surface cracks due to ingress of chemical agents, improper design and unexpected external lateral loads such as wind or seismic forces acting on a structure, which are also the reasons for failure of structural members. The superior properties of polymer composite materials like high corrosion resistance, high strength, high stiffness, excellent fatigue performance and good resistance to chemical attack etc., has motivated the researchers and practicing engineers to use the polymer composites in the field of rehabilitation of structures. This paper reviews fourteen articles on rehabilitation of reinforced concrete (RC beams. The paper reviews the different properties of Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP and Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP composites and adhesives, influence of dimensions of beams and loading rate causing failure. The paper proposes an enhanced retrofitting technique for flexural members and to develop a new mathematical model.

  2. THE USE OF SISAL FIBRE AS REINFORCEMENT IN CEMENT BASED COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romildo Dias Tolêdo Filho

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The inclusion of fibre reinforcement in concrete, mortar and cement paste can enhance many of the engineering properties of the basic materials, such as fracture toughness, flexural strength and resistance to fatigue, impact, thermal shock and spalling. In recent years, a great deal of interest has been created worldwide on the potential applications of natural fibre reinforced, cement based composites. Investigations have been carried out in many countries on various mechanical properties, physical performance and durability of cement based matrices reinforced with naturally occurring fibres including sisal, coconut, jute, bamboo and wood fibres. These fibres have always been considered promising as reinforcement of cement based matrices because of their availability, low cost and low consumption of energy. In this review, the general properties of the composites are described in relation to fibre content, length, strength and stiffness. A chronological development of sisal fibre reinforced, cement based matrices is reported and experimental data are provided to illustrate the performance of sisal fibre reinforced cement composites. A brief description on the use of these composite materials as building products has been included. The influence of sisal fibres on the development of plastic shrinkage in the pre-hardened state, on tensile, compressive and bending strength in the hardened state of mortar mixes is discussed. Creep and drying shrinkage of the composites and the durability of natural fibres in cement based matrices are of particular interest and are also highlighted. The results show that the composites reinforced with sisal fibres are reliable materials to be used in practice for the production of structural elements to be used in rural and civil construction. This material could be a substitute asbestos-cement composite, which is a serious hazard to human and animal health and is prohibited in industrialized countries. The

  3. Carbon fibre-reinforced, alkali-activated slag mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcés, P.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the effect of carbon fibre on alkaliactivated slag mortar (AAS mechanical strength, volume stability and reinforcing steel corrosion, compared to its effect on the same properties in Portland cement (PC properties. Mechanical strength and volume stability tests were performed as set out in the respective Spanish UNE standards. The corrosion rate of steel embedded in the specimens studied was determined from polarization resistance analysis. One of the findings of the study performed was that carbon fibre failed to improve AAS or CP mortar strength. As far as volume stability is concerned, the inclusion of carbon fibres in AAS with a liquid/solid ratio of 0.5 reduced drying shrinkage by about 50%. The effect of carbon fibre on PC mortars differed from its effect on AAS mortars. Studies showed that in the presence of carbonation, steel corrosion reached higher levels in carbon-fibre reinforced AAS mortars; the inclusion of 1% carbon fibre improved corrosion resistance perceptibly in these same mortars, however, when exposed to chloride attack.Se ha estudiado el efecto de la incorporación de fibras de carbón en el comportamiento mecánico, estabilidad de volumen y nivel de corrosión de la armadura en morteros de escorias activadas alcalinamente (AAS. Se evalúa la influencia de las fibras de carbón en el comportamiento de morteros alcalinos en comparación con el efecto que producen en morteros de Portland (CP. Los ensayos mecánicos y de estabilidad de volumen se han realizado según lo establecido en la norma UNE que los regula. Se ha utilizado la técnica de la Resistencia a la Polarización para determinar la velocidad de corrosión del acero embebido en las muestras estudiadas. Como consecuencia del estudio realizado, se ha podido concluir que la adición de fibras de carbón a morteros de AAS y CP no mejora las características resistentes de los mismos. En relación con la estabilidad de volumen, la incorporación de

  4. Fibre reinforced polymer nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasveld, D.P.N.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis the results are described of the research on a combination of two types of composites: thermoplastic nanocomposites and continuous fibre composites. In this three-phase composite the main reinforcing phase are continuous glass or carbon fibres, and the matrix consists of a polyamide 6 / layered silicate nanocomposite. To be able to produce and understand this new type of thermoplastic composite, the properties of the nanocomposite matrix materials have been investigated, follow...

  5. Glass Fibre Strength—A Review with Relation to Composite Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Thomason

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The recovery and reuse of glass fibres from manufacturing waste and end-of-life composites in an environmentally-friendly, cost-effective manner is one of the most important challenges facing the thermosetting polymer composites industry. A number of processes for recycling fibres from such materials are available or under development. However, nearly all options deliver recycled glass fibres that are not cost-performance competitive due to the huge drop in strength of recycled glass fibre compared to its original state. A breakthrough in the regeneration of recycled glass fibre performance has the potential to totally transform the economics of recycling such composites. This paper reviews the available knowledge of the thermally-induced strength loss in glass fibres, discusses some of the phenomena that are potentially related and presents the status of research into processes to regenerate the strength and value of such weak recycled glass fibres.

  6. A Review of the Flammability Factors of Kenaf and Allied Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibre is a well-known reinforcement fibre in polymer-matrix Composites (PMC lately. Natural fibre has fast growing and abundance properties which make it available at very low cost. For kenaf fibre there is long lists of research projects which have been done regarding its behaviour, and properties and modification made to it. In this paper, fire flammability is the main concern for natural fibre reinforced polymer (NFRP composites especially kenaf fibre. To estimate its flammability, a wide range of factors can be considered such as fibre content, type of matrices, pH conditions, treatment, and fire retardant (FR filler’s type. The most important criteria are the ignition time, rate of propagation, and fire behavior. thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, different scanning calorimetric (DSC, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA are the three most famous methods used to investigate the fire behaviour of composites.

  7. Hybrid Fibre Polylactide Acid Composite with Empty Fruit Bunch: Chopped Glass Strands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Y. Tshai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid polylactide acid (PLA composites reinforced with palm empty fruit bunch (EFB and chopped strand E-glass (GLS fibres were investigated. The hybrid fibres PLA composite was prepared through solution casting followed by pelletisation and subsequent hot compression press into 1 mm thick specimen. Chloroform and dichloromethane were used as solvent and their effectiveness in dissolving PLA was reported. The overall fibre loading was kept constant at volume fraction, Vf, of 20% while the ratio of EFB to GLS fibre was varied between Vf of 0 : 20 to 20 : 0. The inclusion of GLS fibres improved the tensile and flexural performance of the hybrid composites, but increasing the glass fibre length from 3 to 6 mm has a negative effect on the mechanical properties of the hybrid composites. Moreover, the composites that were prepared using chloroform showed superior tensile and flexural properties compared to those prepared with dichloromethane.

  8. Influence of reprocessing on fibre length distribution, tensile strength and impact strength of injection moulded cellulose fibre-reinforced polylactide (PLA composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Graupner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the reprocessing behaviour of recycled injection moulded polylactide (PLA composites. The composites are reinforced with regenerated cellulose fibres (lyocell of variable fineness and a fibre mass content of 30%. They were reprocessed up to three times. The influence of reprocessing on the fibre length distribution and the resulting composite mechanical properties (tensile and impact strength was analysed. While the first reprocessing cycle does not affect the mechanical characteristics of the neat PLA matrix, the strength of the composites decreases significantly due to a decreasing fibre aspect ratio. It was shown that fibres having a larger cross-sectional area display a lower aspect ratio than finer fibres, after reprocessing. This phenomenon leads to a larger decrease in tensile strength of composites reinforced with coarser fibres when compared to composites reinforced with finer fibres. A comparison of virgin composites and threefold reprocessed composites with a similar fibre length distribution resulted in a significantly higher tensile strength compared to the virgin sample. This result leads to the conclusion that not only the fibre length is drastically reduced by reprocessing but also that the fibres and the matrix were damaged.

  9. Tensile and compressive properties of flax fibres for natural fibre reinforced composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.L.; Oever, van den M.J.A.; Peters, O.C.J.J.

    2002-01-01

    Mechanical properties of standard decorticated and hand isolated flax bast fibres were determined in tension as well as in compression. The tensile strength of technical fibre bundles was found to depend strongly on the clamping length. The tensile strength of elementary flax fibres was found to ran

  10. Improvement of fibre and composites for new markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toonen, M.A.J.; Ebskamp, M.J.M.; Kohler, R.

    2007-01-01

    Plant fibres have decisive advantages compared with synthetic fibres. One great advantage of plant fibres is their optimized strength to weight ratio. Others are their better workability as a result of optimum fibre length and cell wall thickness, their high anisotropic qualities and their good ion

  11. Gbit/s data transmission on carbon fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data transmission at the upgraded Large Hadron Collider experiments, foreseen for mid 2020s, will be in the multi Gbit/s range per connection for the innermost detector layers. This paper reports on first tests on the possible use of carbon cables for electrical data transmission close to the interaction point. Carbon cables have the potential advantage of being light, having a low activation and easy integration into the detector components close to the interaction point. In these tests commercially available carbon fibres were used, in which the filaments had a very thin nickel coating. For these cables data rates beyond 1 Gbit/s over more than 1 m with an error rate of less than 10-12 could be reached. The characteristics of the cables have been measured in terms of S-parameters and could be converted to a SPICE model. Some outlook on potential further improvements is presented

  12. Atmospheric pressure plasma surface modification of carbon fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom; Michelsen, Poul

    2008-01-01

    /O2 and Ar plasma treatments, mainly attributed to an increase in the density of the C-O single bond at the carbon fibre surfaces. The O/C ratio increased to 0.182 after 1-s He plasma treatment, and remained approximately constant after longer treatment. After exposure in an ambient air at room...... temperature for a month the O/C ratio at the plasma treated surfaces decreased to 0.151, which is close to that of the untreated ones. It can be attributed to the adsorption of hydrocarbon contamination at the plasma treated surfaces....

  13. Nanostructuring carbon fibre probes for use in central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meixian; Phair, Jolene; Cardosi, Marco F; Davis, James

    2014-02-17

    A carbon fibre probe is described which utilises the oxidation of an endogenous biomarker to provide diagnostic information on the condition of intravascular access lines. The probe surface was modified through anodic oxidation to provide a high selectivity towards urate which was used as a redox probe through which the pH could be determined. A Nernstian response (-60 mV/pH) was obtained which was free from the interference of other redox species common to biofluids. The electroanalytical performance of the probe has been optimised and the applicability of the approach demonstrated through testing the responses in whole blood.

  14. Fabrication and tribological properties of Al reinforced with carbon fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrems Amestoy, M.; Faura Mateu, F. [Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena (Spain); Froyen, L. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering. Katholieke Universiteit Lewen. Heverlee. Belgium (Belgium)

    2000-07-01

    The present work studies the manufacturing process of Al reinforced with Carbon Fibres (CF) by Squeeze Casting, establishing the variables for obtaining and acceptable product with little Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} at the interface. Friction and wear tests are performed and the necessary conditions for the formation of a tribofilm are established. The tests how an increasing resistance to abrasion due to their own wear mechanism. Certain design criteria for those components subjected to friction are recommended in order to maximize the mechanical performance of the tribological system. (Author ) 16 refs.

  15. Lamb wave detection in prepreg composite materials with fibre Bragg grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesen, Nick; Mizutani, Yoshihiro; Groves, Roger M.; Sinke, Jos; Benedictus, Rinze

    2011-04-01

    This paper demonstrates that existing Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) techniques have potential during the production phase in addition to their application for maintenance and for in-flight monitoring. Flaws occur during composite fabrication in industry, due to an imperfect process control and human errors. This decreases production efficiency and increases costs. In this paper, the monitoring of Lamb waves in unidirectional carbon fibre (UD-CFRP) prepreg material is demonstrated using both Fibre Bragg Gratings (FBG)s and piezolectric acoustic sensors, and that these SHM sensors may be used for flaw detection and production monitoring. The detection of Lamb waves in a one ply thick sheet of prepreg UD-CFRP material is demonstrated for an FBG sensor aligned with the carbon fibre orientation and bonded to the surface of the prepreg, Furthermore, the velocity of Lamb waves in prepreg UD-CFRP in different orientations is investigated. Finally the successful detection of a material crack in a prepreg UD-CFRP sheet using the Lamb wave detection method is demonstrated.

  16. Recycled Polyamide-6/Waste Silk & Cotton Fibre Polymer Composites:Effect of Fibre length

    OpenAIRE

    TAŞDEMİR, Münir; KOÇAK, Dilara; MERDAN, Nigar; USTA, İsmail; AKALIN, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Among textile fibres today, cotton is the most commonly used natural fibre. Cotton is being used in almost all areas of textiles. Waste cotton which is produced during the yarn production process is then re-used in yarn production again or as a waste in other uses. Besides this, silk fibres have been used for nearly 5000 years. Silk is one of the most precious fibres among all textile fibres and it has a very wide range of uses like: sewing threads, clothes, home textiles, technical textiles ...

  17. FLEXURAL PROPERTIES OF ALKALINE TREATED SUGAR PALM FIBRE REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bachtiar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effect of alkaline treatment on the flexural properties of sugar palm fibre reinforced epoxy composites is presented in this paper. The composites were reinforced with 10% weight fraction of the fibres. The fibres were treated using sodium hydroxide (NaOH with 0.25 M and 0.5 M concentration solution for 1 hour, 4 hours and 8 hours soaking time. The purpose of treating fibres with alkali was to enhance the interfacial bonding between matrix and fibre surfaces. The maximum flexural strength occurred at 0.25 M NaOH solution with 1 hour of soaking time, i.e 96.71 MPa, improving by 24.41% from untreated fibre composite. But, the maximum flexural modulus took place at 0.5 M NaOH solution with 4 hours soaking time, i.e. 6948 MPa, improving by 148% from untreated composite.

  18. M55J碳纤维/氰酸酯复合材料X、Y方向低温热导率的测试研究%Research and Measurement of the Thermal Conductivity of M55J Carbon Fibre/Cyanate Ester Composites for the X、 Y Directions at Low Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建可

    2011-01-01

    碳纤维/氰酸酯复合材料是目前广泛在航天器应用的新型材料.该材料在X、Y方向的低温热导率是设计、使用的重要参考依据.目前一些测量方法不能表征材料传热特性,本文提出采用传统的一维稳态热流法.以M55J碳纤维/氰酸酯复合材料为例,对X、Y方向的低温热导率进行了测试、分析.在试验分析的基础上,采用单层板热导率测量数据,用分析模型计算了M55J碳纤维/氰酸酯复合材料的低温热导率并与测量数据进行了比对,两者最大偏差在18%之内,说明与从计算单层板的热导率开始的方法相比较,采用这种计算方法较简单准确.文章分析表明,碳纤维/氰酸酯复合材料的低温热导率可以通过铺层设计改变,以减少材料设计的盲目性,满足航天器的特殊需求.%The carbon fibre/cyanate ester composites is a new material in aerospace. The thermal conductivity of carbon fibre/cyanate ester composites at low temperature for X、Y directions are the important date for design and applied in aerospace. At present, some of measurement method of the thermal conductivity of carbon fibre/cyanate ester composites for X、Y directions is not shown its thermal characteristic. So the tradition method in which heat flow is along one direction on measurement the thermal conductivity of carbon fibre/cyanate ester composites for X、Y directions is suggested. For example ,the thermal conductivity of M55J carbon fibre/cyanate ester composites at low temperature for X、Y direction were been researched , and were been calculated by measurement data of monolayer、analysis and calculated model and were been compared with the measurement data. The largest error between calculated data and measurement data is in 18% . So the calculated method is simply and accurate than calculated the thermal conductivity from fibre and cyanate ester. By the article analysis the thermal conductivity of carbon fibre/cyanate ester

  19. The effect of fibre layering pattern in resisting bending loads of natural fibre-based hybrid composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusoh Muhamad Shahirul Mat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fibre layering pattern and hybridization on the flexural properties of composite hybrid laminates between natural fibres of basalt, jute and flax with synthetic fibre of E-glass reinforced epoxy have been investigated experimentally. Results showed that the effect fibre layering pattern was highly significant on the flexural strength and modulus, which were strongly dependent on the hybrid configuration between sandwich-like (SL and intercalation (IC sequence of fibre layers. In addition, specific modulus based on the variation densities of the hybrid laminates was used to discover the best combination either basalt, jute or flax with E-glass exhibits superior properties concerning on the strength to weight-ratio. Generally, SL sequence of glass/basalt exhibited superior strength and stiffness compared with glass/jute and glass/flax in resisting bending loads. In terms of hybridization effect, glass/jute was found to be the best combination with E-glass compared to the rest of natural fibres investigated in the present study. Hence, the proper stacking sequences and material selection are among predominant factors that influence on mechanical properties and very crucial in designing composite hybrid system to meet the desired requirements.

  20. Fibre composite structures for space applications—recent and future developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansemir, H.; Haider, O.

    Fibre composites are widely used for space applications, such as solar arrays, antennas, optical platforms and supports for cryogenic tanks. One of the latest successfully launched satellites is the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). The lifetime of ISO is mainly limited due to the thermal conductivity of the cryogenic tank support structure. Recent efforts show that optimized load adapted support structures can essentially decrease the thermal conductivity and thus increase the lifetime of such satellites. Ultra high modulus carbon composites can decrease the moisture induced deformations of optical platforms and antennas. New test specimens and procedures allow an improved selection of composites for specialized applications. In this paper composite structures of recently launched satellites are described. Improvements in material evaluation methods, structural analysis and design for future developments are demonstrated.

  1. A new route for fibre management in powder injection molded metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of short fibre reinforced metal matrix composites can be enhanced by controlling the directionality of the fibers. In the reported research, the multiple live feed injection moulding technique was successfully used for controlling the orientation of short fibers in powder injection molded metal matrix composites. A range of heavily loaded short fibre reinforced metal matrix compounds were injection molded by both parameters. The level of fibre orientation achieved in injection molded components was assessed by calculation of the orientation factor. One result of this investigation was identification of the moulding composition to achieve the highest level of fibre orientation in a preferred direction. (author)

  2. TESTS ON STRUCTURALLY DEFICIENT RC SLABS STRENGTHENED WITH FIBRE REINFORCED POLYMER (FRP) COMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.T. Smith; S.J. Kim

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a series of tests on fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) strengthened reinforced concrete (RC) slabs, which were recently undertaken at the University of Technology,Sydney. The slabs were reinforced with high-strength low-ductile steel reinforcement and strengthened with either carbon FRP (CFRP) or glass FRP (GFRP) composites. The unstrengthened control slabs failed by fracture of the steel tension reinforcement while the FRP strengthened slabs failed by debonding of the FRP followed by rupture of the tension steel. The FRP-strengthened slabs were stronger than their unstrengthened counterparts and displayed considerable ductility.

  3. Long Fibre Composite Modelling Using Cohesive User's Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozák, Vladislav; Chlup, Zdeněk

    2010-09-01

    The development glass matrix composites reinforced by unidirectional long ceramic fibre has resulted in a family of very perspective structural materials. The only disadvantage of such materials is relatively high brittleness at room temperature. The main micromechanisms acting as toughening mechanism are the pull out, crack bridging, matrix cracking. There are other mechanisms as crack deflection etc. but the primer mechanism is mentioned pull out which is governed by interface between fibre and matrix. The contribution shows a way how to predict and/or optimise mechanical behaviour of composite by application of cohesive zone method and write user's cohesive element into the FEM numerical package Abaqus. The presented results from numerical calculations are compared with experimental data. Crack extension is simulated by means of element extinction algorithms. The principal effort is concentrated on the application of the cohesive zone model with the special traction separation (bridging) law and on the cohesive zone modelling. Determination of micro-mechanical parameters is based on the combination of static tests, microscopic observations and numerical calibration procedures.

  4. Hybrid Fibre Polylactide Acid Composite with Empty Fruit Bunch: Chopped Glass Strands

    OpenAIRE

    K. Y. Tshai; A. B. Chai; Kong, I.; Hoque, M.E; Tshai, K. H.

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid polylactide acid (PLA) composites reinforced with palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and chopped strand E-glass (GLS) fibres were investigated. The hybrid fibres PLA composite was prepared through solution casting followed by pelletisation and subsequent hot compression press into 1 mm thick specimen. Chloroform and dichloromethane were used as solvent and their effectiveness in dissolving PLA was reported. The overall fibre loading was kept constant at volume fraction, Vf, of 20% while the ...

  5. Effects of water ageing on the mechanical properties of flax and glass fibre composites: Degradation and reversibility

    OpenAIRE

    Apolinario, Guilherme; Ienny, Patrick; Corn, Stéphane; Léger, Romain; Bergeret, Anne; Haudin, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical properties of flax-fibre reinforced composites (FFRC) are strongly affected by water ageing compared to glass-fibre reinforced composites (GFRC). This study highlights the influence of water absorption during immersion at 30°C on mechanical properties of unsaturated polyester reinforced composites. Flax-fibre composites showed a Fickian absorption behaviour and a water uptake 15 times higher than that of glass-fibre composites. GFRC's tensile modulus and maximum stress were slightl...

  6. Mechanical performance of oil palm empty fruit bunches/jute fibres reinforced epoxy hybrid composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawaid, M. [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Abdul Khalil, H.P.S., E-mail: akhalilhps@gmail.com [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Abu Bakar, A. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Hybrid composites constituents of natural fibres show good mechanical performances. {yields} Hybridization with 20% jute fibre gives rise to sufficient modulus to composites. {yields} Outer or core material affect mechanical performance of hybrid composites. {yields} Impact strength of pure EFB composite is higher than hybrid composites. - Abstract: Oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB)/jute fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites with different sequence of fibre mat arrangement such as EFB/jute/EFB and jute/EFB/jute were fabricated by hand lay-up method. The effect of layering patterns on the mechanical performance of the composites was studied. The hybrid composites are intended for engineering applications as an alternative to synthetic fibre composites. Mechanical performance of hybrid composites were evaluated and compared with the pure EFB, pure jute composites and neat epoxy using flexural and impact testing. The flexural properties of hybrid composite is higher than that of pure EFB composite with respect to the weight fraction of fibre, where as the impact strength of pure EFB composite is much higher than those of hybrid composites. The flexural results were interpreted using sandwich theory. The fracture surface morphology of the impact testing samples of the hybrid composites was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  7. Mechanical performance of oil palm empty fruit bunches/jute fibres reinforced epoxy hybrid composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Hybrid composites constituents of natural fibres show good mechanical performances. → Hybridization with 20% jute fibre gives rise to sufficient modulus to composites. → Outer or core material affect mechanical performance of hybrid composites. → Impact strength of pure EFB composite is higher than hybrid composites. - Abstract: Oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB)/jute fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites with different sequence of fibre mat arrangement such as EFB/jute/EFB and jute/EFB/jute were fabricated by hand lay-up method. The effect of layering patterns on the mechanical performance of the composites was studied. The hybrid composites are intended for engineering applications as an alternative to synthetic fibre composites. Mechanical performance of hybrid composites were evaluated and compared with the pure EFB, pure jute composites and neat epoxy using flexural and impact testing. The flexural properties of hybrid composite is higher than that of pure EFB composite with respect to the weight fraction of fibre, where as the impact strength of pure EFB composite is much higher than those of hybrid composites. The flexural results were interpreted using sandwich theory. The fracture surface morphology of the impact testing samples of the hybrid composites was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  8. Cellulose kraft pulp reinforced polylactic acid (PLA composites: effect of fibre moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Retulainen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available PLA offers a competitive and CO2 neutral matrix to commonly used polyolefin polymer based composites. Moreover, the use of PLA reduces dependency on oil when producing composite materials. However, PLA has a tendency of hydrolytic degradation under melt processing conditions in the presence of moisture, which remains a challenge when processing PLA reinforced natural fibre composites. Natural fibres such as cellulose fibres are hygroscopic with 6–10 wt% moisture content at 50–70% relative humidity conditions. These fibres are sensitive to melt processing conditions and fibre breakage (cutting also occur during processing. The degradation of PLA, moisture absorption of natural fibres together with fibre cutting and uneven dispersion of fibres in polymer matrix, deteriorates the overall properties of the composite. In the given research paper, bleached softwood kraft pulp (BSKP reinforced PLA compounds were successfully melt processed using BSKP with relatively high moisture contents. The effect of moist BSKP on the molecular weight of PLA, fibre length and the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. By using moist never-dried kraft pulp fibres for feeding, the fibre cutting was decreased during the melt compounding. Even though PLA degradation occurred during the melt processing, the final damage to the PLA was moderate and thus did not deteriorate the mechanical properties of the composites. However, comprehensive moisture removal is required during the compounding in order to achieve optimal overall performance of the PLA/BSKP composites. The economic benefit gained from using moist BSKP is that the expensive and time consuming drying process steps of the kraft pulp fibres prior to processing can be minimized.

  9. Recovery of carbon fibres and production of high quality fuel gas from the chemical recycling of carbon fibre reinforced plastic wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Yildirir, E; Onwudili, JA; Williams, PT

    2014-01-01

    A solvolysis process to depolymerize the resin fraction of carbon fibre reinforced plastic waste to recover carbon fibre, followed by hydrothermal gasification of the liquid residual product to produce fuel gas was investigated using batch reactors. The depolymerisation reactions were carried out in ethylene glycol and ethylene glycol/water mixtures at near-critical conditions of the two solvents. With ethylene glycol alone the highest resin removal of 92.1% was achieved at 400 °C. The additi...

  10. Natural composites: Strength, packing ability and moisture sorption of cellulose fibres, and the related performance of composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilholt, Hans; Madsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Biobased materials are becoming of increasing interest as potential structural materials for the future. A useful concept in this context is the fibre reinforcement of materials by stiff and strong fibres. The bio-resources can contribute with cellulose fibres and (bio) polymers from hemicelluloses...... in stiffness, on the packing ability of cellulose fibres and the related maximum fibre volume fraction in composites, on the moisture sorption of cellulose fibres and the related mass increase and (large) hygral strains induced, and on the mechanical performance of composites........ This offers the potential for stiff and strong biocomposite materials, but these have some limitations and obstacles to full performance. The focus will be on the structure, strength and stiffness of cellulose fibres, on the (unavoidable) defects causing large reductions in strength and moderate reductions...

  11. Analysis of filler--fibre interaction in fly ash filled short fibre-epoxy composites using ultrasonic NDE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S M Kulkarni; D Anuradha; C R L Murthy; Kishore

    2002-04-01

    Size and aspect ratio are believed to influence the rheology or the flow in the mixture and in turn the mechanical performance of the composites. Fillers and fibres when used in combination are expected to complement each other's performance resulting in better properties for the composite. They also reduce the extent of matrix polymer required in the system. Composites involving fillers and fibres individually and in combination are studied for the level defect population using NDE and the mechanical performance under compression correlated with such an analysis. It was found that inclusion filler-fibre combination besides yielding better physical properties like density also yielded improved mechanical properties like strength and modulus. These properties showed an improvement of about 30-40% as compared to the ones where a single reinforcement either ash or fibre was used. Further, they exhibited uniform distribution of defects whose population was least compared to the situation where only one component (either filler or fibre) as reinforcement was tried.

  12. Preliminary study on the development of EFB Fibre-sago starch composites: impact and flexural properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is growing interest in the use of natural fibres as the reinforcements for polymer composites in the automotive industry and as matrix for composites in building products application to replace synthetic fibres. In this respect the aim of this study is to develop an environmental friendly composites for furniture industry based on EFB fibres and sago starch. In this preliminary study, a basic composition and processing of EFB fibres-sago starch composites were established and the properties of the composites were determined. EFB fibre content was varied between 50-80% by weight. The amount of sago starch in liquid form was also varied and final weight percentage of sago starch added into the EFB fibres was adjusted accordingly. The mixtures of EFB fibres and sago starch were blended using Haake Rheomixer. The preliminary results indicate that the impact and flexural strengths increased up to 33.58 J/m2 and 18.92 Mpa, respectively at 70% fibres contents. Further study is now being conducted to improve the processability of the composites by adding plasticisers and processing aids and to incorporate certain reactive additives that can enhance electron beam cross linking for further improvement on the mechanical properties of the composites. (Author)

  13. Influence of date palm fibre and graphite filler on mechanical and wear characteristics of epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Nature of the fibres controls the mechanical and the tribological behaviour of the composites. • The addition of the graphite worsens the tensile properties of the composite. • Addition of date palm fibre enhanced wear and frictional characteristics of composites. • The fibres strengthen the composite while the graphite generates lubricant film transfer. - Abstract: In this article, mechanical and tribological performance of the epoxy composites based on graphite filler and/or date palm fibre are comprehensively discussed. The influence of the date palm fibre and/or graphite filler on the microstructure of the materials, tensile fracture samples, and worn surface of tribological samples are examined using scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed that interfacial adhesion of the date palm fibre with the epoxy is the key of the mechanical and tribological performance of natural fibre/polymer composites. The addition of the graphite is highly recommended for the natural fibre/polymer composites which can assist to reduce the friction which in turn enhances the wear characteristics of the polymer composites; however, the high content of the graphite deteriorates the mechanical properties

  14. Mechanical property analysis of kenaf–glass fibre reinforced polymer composites using finite element analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Ramesh; S Nijanthan

    2016-02-01

    Nowadays, natural fibres are used as a reinforcing material in polymer composites, owing to severe environmental concerns. Among many different types of natural resources, kenaf plants have been extensively exploited over the past few years. In this experimental study, partially eco-friendly hybrid composites were fabricated by using kenaf and glass fibres with two different fibre orientations of 0° and 90°. The mechanical properties such as tensile, flexural and impact strengths of these composites have been evaluated. From the experiment, it was observed that the composites with the 0° fibre orientation can withstand the maximum tensile strength of 49.27 MPa, flexural strength of 164.35 MPa, and impact strength of 6 J. Whereas, the composites with the 90° fibre orientation hold the maximum tensile strength of 69.86 MPa, flexural strength of 162.566 MPa and impact strength of 6.66 J. The finite element analysis was carried out to analyse the elastic behaviour of the composites and to predict the mechanical properties by using NX Nastran 9.0 software. The experimental results were compared with the predicted values and a high correlation between the results was observed. The morphology of the fractured surfaces of the composites was analysed using a scanning electron microscopy analysis. The results indicated that the properties were in the increasing trend and comparable with pure synthetic fibre reinforced composites, which shows the potential for hybridization of kenaf fibre with glass fibre.

  15. Pulse-Width Increase of Reflex Triode Vircator Using the Carbon Fibre Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lie; Li, Li-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Wen, Jian-Chun; Wan, Hong

    2006-04-01

    We present the investigation on the reflex triode virtual cathode oscillator in which performances of carbon-fibre and stainless-steel cathodes are compared with each other. The experimental results and analyses show that surface tracking induces the electron emission of the carbon fibre cathode. There are electron emission phenomena observed not only from the top of the carbon fibre but also from its side surface. Compared with the case of the stainless steel cathode, the plasma expansion velocity for the carbon fibre cathode is slower, and using the carbon fibre cathode can widen the pulse width of output microwave. The output microwave pulse width reaches an increase of about 20%. This mechanism is different from the conventional explosive emission of metal cathodes.

  16. Pulse-width increase of reflex triode vircator using the carbon fibre cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present the investigation on the reflex triode virtual cathode oscillator in which performances of carbon fibre and stainless-steel cathodes are compared with each other. The experimental results and analyses show that surface tracking induces the electron emission of the carbon fibre cathode. There are electron emission phenomena observed not only from the top of the carbon fibre but also from its side surface. Compared with the case of the stainless steel cathode, the plasma expansion velocity for the carbon fibre cathode is slower, and using the carbon fibre cathode can widen the pulse width of output microwave. The output microwave pulse width reaches an increase of about 20%. This mechanism is different from the conventional explosive emission of metal cathodes. (authors)

  17. Correlation between mechanical and dielectric properties of Alfa/Wool/Polymeric hybrid fibres reinforced polyester composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dielectric measurements and tensile testing of polyester/natural fibres (Alfa/wool) and thermo binder fibres (Pe/Pet) composites were investigated in order to study the adhesion of the fibres in the polyester matrix. Two composites #1 and #2 having 17:1:2 and 17:2:1 as a relative fraction of alfa/wool and thermo binder (Pe/Pet), respectively, have been characterized in this study. The obtained results revealed that the fibres adhesion in the matrix was better in the composite #1 than in the composite #2. Indeed, the analysis of the interfacial or Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars (MWS) polarization intensity, using the Havriliak–Negami model, has shown a lower intensity and the tensile testing exhibited a higher Young modulus in the composite #1. So the thermo binder fibres improve this adhesion

  18. Toughening and healing of continuous fibre reinforced composites with bis-maleimide based pre-pregs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulos, V.; Kotrotsos, A.; Tsantzalis, S.; Tsokanas, P.; Christopoulos, A. C.; Loutas, T.

    2016-08-01

    Unidirectional (UD) pre-pregs containing self-healing materials based on Diels-Alder reaction bis-maleimide (BMI) polymers were successfully incorporated on the mid-plane of UD carbon fibre reinforced polymers. The fracture toughness of these composites and the introduced healing capability were measured under mode I loading. The interlaminar fracture toughness was enhanced considerably, since the maximum load (P max) of the modified composite increased approximately 1.5 times and the mode I fracture energy (G IC) displayed a significant increase of almost 3.5 times when compared to the reference composites. Furthermore the modified composites displayed a healing efficiency (HE) value of about 30% for P max and 20% for G IC after the first healing, appearing to be an almost stable behaviour after the third healing cycle. The HE displayed a decrease of 20% and 15% for P max and G IC values, respectively, after the fifth healing cycle. During the tests, the monitored acoustic emission (AE) activity of the samples showed that there is no significant difference due to the presence of BMI polymer in terms of AE hits. Moreover, optical microscopy not only showed that the epoxy matrix at the interface is partly infiltrated by the BMI polymer, but it also revealed the presence of pulled out fibres at the fractured surface, indicating ductile behaviour.

  19. Toughening and healing of continuous fibre reinforced composites with bis-maleimide based pre-pregs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulos, V.; Kotrotsos, A.; Tsantzalis, S.; Tsokanas, P.; Christopoulos, A. C.; Loutas, T.

    2016-08-01

    Unidirectional (UD) pre-pregs containing self-healing materials based on Diels–Alder reaction bis-maleimide (BMI) polymers were successfully incorporated on the mid-plane of UD carbon fibre reinforced polymers. The fracture toughness of these composites and the introduced healing capability were measured under mode I loading. The interlaminar fracture toughness was enhanced considerably, since the maximum load (P max) of the modified composite increased approximately 1.5 times and the mode I fracture energy (G IC) displayed a significant increase of almost 3.5 times when compared to the reference composites. Furthermore the modified composites displayed a healing efficiency (HE) value of about 30% for P max and 20% for G IC after the first healing, appearing to be an almost stable behaviour after the third healing cycle. The HE displayed a decrease of 20% and 15% for P max and G IC values, respectively, after the fifth healing cycle. During the tests, the monitored acoustic emission (AE) activity of the samples showed that there is no significant difference due to the presence of BMI polymer in terms of AE hits. Moreover, optical microscopy not only showed that the epoxy matrix at the interface is partly infiltrated by the BMI polymer, but it also revealed the presence of pulled out fibres at the fractured surface, indicating ductile behaviour.

  20. Pitch carbon microsphere composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, H. L.; Nelson, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    Petroleum pitch carbon microspheres were prepared by flash heating emulsified pitch and carbonizing the resulting microspheres in an inert atmosphere. Microsphere composites were obtained from a mixture of microspheres and tetraester precursor pyrrone powder. Scanning electron micrographs of the composite showed that it was an aggregate of microspheres bonded together by the pyrrone at the sphere contact points, with voids in and among the microspheres. Physical, thermal, and sorption properties of the composite are described. Composite applications could include use as a honeycomb filler in elevated-temperature load-bearing sandwich boards or in patient-treatment tables for radiation treatment of tumors.

  1. Characterization of Glass Fibre – Coconut Coir– Human Hair Hybrid Composites

    OpenAIRE

    D. Senthilnathan; A Gnanavel Babu; G.B.Bhaskar; KGS. Gopinath

    2014-01-01

    A composite material is a combination of two or more materials arranged in the form of layer one on the other layer using binding material through some prescribed methods. In the Glass fibre coconut fibre human hair hybrid composite method, the epoxy resin is used as binding material, in which one layer is formed of glass fibre, followed by coconut fibre and then by human hair. By using hand layup method and by changing the above arrangement of layers, six types of laminates are prepared by u...

  2. A New Method for Descaling Wool Fibres by Nano Abrasive Calcium Carbonate Particles in Ultrasonic Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali rezaghasemi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, the most conventional methods for descaling of wool fibre are based on chemical degradation and resin covering of scales or a combination of them. These methods are producing wastewater and can cover physical properties of the fibres beside scales orderly. In this study, a new and clean method is developed on the basis of abrasion effect of calcium carbonate Nano particles (CCNP in an ultrasonic bath. Woolen Samples (fibre and yarn were sonicated with different levels of CCNP. Tensile properties of the yarns, directional friction effect of the fibres and scanning electron microscope images of the fibres were studied. Test results showed that sonicated Nano treatment of woolyarn reduced its tenacity, extension and work of rupture and increased its coefficient of friction. Scanning electron microscope images of fibres and measurement of fibres directional displacement confirmed descaling of Nano abrasive treated wool samples in comparison to the raw wool.

  3. On longitudinal compressive failure of carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer: from unidirectional to woven, and from virgin to recycled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, S T; Gutkin, R; Pimenta, S; De Carvalho, N V; Robinson, P

    2012-04-28

    Modelling the longitudinal compressive failure of carbon-fibre-reinforced composites has been attempted for decades. Despite many developments, no single model has surfaced to provide simultaneously a definitive explanation for the micromechanics of failure as well as validated predictions for a generic stress state. This paper explores the reasons for this, by presenting experimental data (including scanning electron microscopic observations of loaded kink bands during propagation, and brittle shear fracture at 45° to the fibres) and reviewing previously proposed micromechanical analytical and numerical models. The paper focuses mainly on virgin unidirectional (UD) composites, but studies for woven and recycled composites are also presented, highlighting similarities and differences between these cases. It is found that, while kink-band formation (also referred to in the literature as microbuckling) is predominant in UD composites under longitudinal compression, another failure mode related to the failure of the fibres can be observed experimentally. It is also shown that the micromechanics of the failure process observed in UD composites is similar to that in other fibre architectures, hence encouraging the adaptation and application of models developed for the former to the latter.

  4. Effects of moisture on the mechanical properties of glass fibre reinforced vinylester resin composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rita Roy; B K Sarkar; N R Bose

    2001-02-01

    Glass fibre reinforced vinylester resin composites incorporating varying amounts of fibres (63.5, 55.75, 48.48, 38.63 and 27.48 wt%) were characterized for their mechanical properties both as prepared and after treatment with boiling water for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 h. Weights of the samples were found to increase to a saturation at about 8 h with boiling water treatment. In keeping with the composite principle, the mechanical properties improved with fibre loading. However, the properties were relatively inferior when treated with boiling water for longer hours attributing to ingress of moisture by capillary action through the interface between the fibre and the resin matrix. Considering the rates of moisture absorption and correlating with the mechanical properties, it was observed that the deteriorating effects were predominant up to 4 h treatment with boiling water. Estimation of defect concentrations for 63.5 wt% of nascent fibre reinforced composites as well as those composites treated with boiling water for 24 h were 56.93% and 64.16% respectively. Similarly, 27.48 wt% nascent fibre reinforced composites and those composites with boiling water treatment showed the estimation of defect concentrations of 39.94% and 50.55% respectively. SEM study of the fractured surfaces showed heavy fibre pull-out in the tensile zone whilst shear fracture of the fibre bundles was predominant at the compressive zone of the samples tested for flexural strength properties.

  5. Properties of drawn W wire used as high performance fibre in tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesch, J.; Almanstötter, J.; Coenen, J. W.; Fuhr, M.; Gietl, H.; Han, Y.; Höschen, T.; Linsmeier, Ch; Travitzky, N.; Zhao, P.; Neu, R.

    2016-07-01

    High strength and creep resistance also at high temperature, combined with a high thermal conductivity and high melting point make tungsten (W) an ideal material for highly loaded areas in future fusion reactors. However, as a typical bcc metal tungsten features an intrinsic brittleness up to very high temperature and is prone to operational embrittlement. Tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composite (Wf/W) utilizes extrinsic toughening mechanisms similar to ceramic fibre-reinforced ceramics and therefore overcomes the brittleness problem. The properties of the composite are to a large extend determined by the properties of the drawn tungsten wire used as reinforcement fibres. W wire exhibits a superior strength and shows ductile behaviour with exceptional local plasticity. Beside the typical mechanisms observed for ceramic composites the ductile deformation of the fibres is therefore an additional very effective toughening mechanism. Tension tests were used to investigate this phenomenon in more detail. Results show that there is a region of enhanced localized plastic deformation. The specific energy consumption in this region was estimated and used to suggest optimisation options for Wf/W composites.

  6. Myosin heavy-chain isoform distribution, fibre-type composition and fibre size in skeletal muscle of patients on haemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Eidemak, Inge; Sorensen, Helle Tauby;

    2007-01-01

    and distribution of muscle fibres and the myosin heavy-chain (MHC) isoform composition in patiens on haemodialysis (HD) in order to establish any differences with values for untrained control subjects. Material and methods. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of 14 non-diabetic patients...

  7. Effect of Moisture Absorption Behavior on Mechanical Properties of Basalt Fibre Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amuthakkannan Pandian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of mechanical properties of fibre reinforced polymeric materials under different environmental conditions is much important. This is because materials with superior ageing resistance can be satisfactorily durable. Moisture effects in fibre reinforced plastic composites have been widely studied. Basalt fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester resin composites were subjected to water immersion tests using both sea and normal water in order to study the effects of water absorption behavior on mechanical properties. Composites specimens containing woven basalt, short basalt, and alkaline and acid treated basalt fibres were prepared. Water absorption tests were conducted by immersing specimens in water at room temperature for different time periods till they reached their saturation state. The tensile, flexural, and impact properties of water immersed specimens were conducted and compared with dry specimens as per the ASTM standard. It is concluded that the water uptake of basalt fibre is considerable loss in the mechanical properties of the composites.

  8. Developments in the fluidised bed process for fibre recovery from thermoset composites

    OpenAIRE

    Pickering, S. J.; Turner, T.A.; Meng, F.(University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, USA); Morris, C N; Heil, J.P.; K. H. Wong; Melendi-Espina, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) is being used in increasing quantities particularly in the transport industry to reduce carbon emissions through weight reduction and in the energy industries for renewable technologies, such as wind turbines. As a high value and energy intensive material to manufacture a good case can be made for recovering and reusing carbon fibre from waste material. A number of companies in Europe and the USA are now in the early stages of commercial operation, but t...

  9. Prediction of failure in notched carbon-fibre-reinforced-polymer laminates under multi-axial loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J L Y; Deshpande, V S; Fleck, N A

    2016-07-13

    A damage-based finite-element model is used to predict the fracture behaviour of centre-notched quasi-isotropic carbon-fibre-reinforced-polymer laminates under multi-axial loading. Damage within each ply is associated with fibre tension, fibre compression, matrix tension and matrix compression. Inter-ply delamination is modelled by cohesive interfaces using a traction-separation law. Failure envelopes for a notch and a circular hole are predicted for in-plane multi-axial loading and are in good agreement with the observed failure envelopes from a parallel experimental study. The ply-by-ply (and inter-ply) damage evolution and the critical mechanisms of ultimate failure also agree with the observed damage evolution. It is demonstrated that accurate predictions of notched compressive strength are obtained upon employing the band broadening stress for microbuckling, highlighting the importance of this damage mode in compression. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials'.

  10. Prediction of failure in notched carbon-fibre-reinforced-polymer laminates under multi-axial loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J L Y; Deshpande, V S; Fleck, N A

    2016-07-13

    A damage-based finite-element model is used to predict the fracture behaviour of centre-notched quasi-isotropic carbon-fibre-reinforced-polymer laminates under multi-axial loading. Damage within each ply is associated with fibre tension, fibre compression, matrix tension and matrix compression. Inter-ply delamination is modelled by cohesive interfaces using a traction-separation law. Failure envelopes for a notch and a circular hole are predicted for in-plane multi-axial loading and are in good agreement with the observed failure envelopes from a parallel experimental study. The ply-by-ply (and inter-ply) damage evolution and the critical mechanisms of ultimate failure also agree with the observed damage evolution. It is demonstrated that accurate predictions of notched compressive strength are obtained upon employing the band broadening stress for microbuckling, highlighting the importance of this damage mode in compression. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials'. PMID:27242302

  11. Bond strength of fibre glass and carbon fibre posts to the root canal walls using different resin cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Ana Paula; Cecchin, Doglas; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; Naves, Lucas Zago; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the bond strength of fibre glass and carbon fibre posts in the root canal walls cemented with self-adhesive (RelyX-Unicem) and chemical (Cement-Post) resin cements. Forty maxillary canines were divided into four groups according to the cement and post used and submitted to the push-out test (0.5 mm min(-1)). The data were submitted to statistical analysis (2-way ANOVA, Bonferroni--PFibre glass presented the best results when cemented with RelyX-Unicem and Cement-Post (Pfibre glass posts and RelyX-Unicem.

  12. The effects of acetylation on properties of flax fibre and its polypropylene composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Flax fibre was modified with acetylation. The influence of the acetylation on the structure and properties of flax fibre were investigated as well as modified flax fibre reinforced polypropylene composites were also prepared. The catalyst was used to accelerate acetylation reaction rate. Flax fibre was characterised after modification. Surface morphology, moisture absorption property, components content, degree of polymerisation, crystallinity of cellulose and thermal stability of flax fibres were studied. Due to acetylation, the flax fibre surface morphology and moisture resistance properties improved remarkably. Flax fibre (modified and unmodified reinforced polypropylene composites were fabricated with 30 wt% fibre loading. The mechanical properties were investigated for those composites. Tensile and flexural strengths of composites were found to increase with increasing degree of acetylation up to 18% and then decreased. Charpy impact strengths of composites were found to decrease with increasing degree of acetylation. Owing to addition of coupling agent (maleated polypropylene -MAH, the tensile and flexural strength properties were found to increase in between 20 to 35% depending on degree of acetylation.

  13. Consolidation modeling of fibre reinforced thermoplastic composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoplastic matrix composites offer rapid, clean processing compared to their thermoset counterparts. In automotive applications they also provide useful toughness and recyclability. Recent developments in co- mingling technology consisting of uniform combination of reinforcement and matrix have provided a new hybrid yam which facilitates a range of fabrication options combined with the potential for relatively low pressure processing. Both isothermal and non-isothermal compression moulding processes have successfully been used to produce thermoplastic composite materials while maintaining various process parameters. These process parameters including mainly pressure and temperature have a major influence on the final quality of the component including void content due to high melt viscosity of thermoplastic. A mathematical model has been developed and described in this paper that monitors these process parameters and their effect on the quality of the composite material. The results thus obtained were compared with the experimental results obtained by making flat plaques and tubular parts. Co-mingled material used during the experimental and modeling consisted of glass fibre as a reinforcement and polypropylene as the matrix. (author)

  14. Mechanical and thermal properties of polypropylene composites with curaua fibre irradiated with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal and mechanical behavior of polypropylene with curaua fibre composites were investigated. The treatment of the curaua fibres was processed in alkaline solution (10% wt NaOH). A coupling agent was used (maleic anhydride) to increase the adhesion of the fibre/matrix interface. This composite was irradiated with gamma source in the doses of 5, 15 and 30 kGy and the adhesion between the fibres and the polymeric matrix was monitored to observe probable changes. The thermal behavior was evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetry (TGA). The mechanical behavior was evaluated using tensile strength in comparison with non-reinforced polypropylene resin. The morphology of the composite fracture surface was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There were no significant changes in the thermal properties neither in the adhesion of irradiated fibres at doses of 5, 15 and 30 kGy of gamma radiation. (author)

  15. Coefficient of Friction Measurements for Thermoplastics and Fibre Composites Under Low Sliding Velocity and High Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Svendsen, Gustav Winther; Hiller, Jochen;

    2013-01-01

    that friction materials which are untypical for brake applications, like thermoplastics and fibre composites, can offer superior performance in terms of braking torque, wear resistance and cost than typical brake linings. In this paper coefficient of friction measurements for various thermoplastic and fibre...

  16. Excellent bonding behaviour of novel surface-tailored fibre composite rods with cementitious matrix

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fernando Cunha; Sohel Rana; Raul Fangueiro; Graça Vasconcelos

    2014-08-01

    Novel composite rods were produced by a special braiding technique that involves braiding of polyester yarns around a core of resin-impregnated carbon fibres and subsequent curing. The surface roughness of these braided rods was tailored by replacing one or two simple yarns in the outer-braided layer with braided yarns (produced from 8 simple yarns) and adjusting the take-up velocity. Pull-out tests were carried out to characterize the bond behaviour of these composite rods with cementitious matrix. It was observed that the rod produced with two braided yarns in the outer cover and highest take-up speed was ruptured completely before pull-out, leading to full utilization of its tensile strength, and exhibited 134% higher pull-out force as compared to the rods produced using only simple braiding yarns.

  17. Properties of compression moulded new fully biobased thermoset composites with aligned flax fibre textiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohl, Th.; Bierer, M.; Natter, E.;

    2011-01-01

    thermoset composite with aligned flax fibre textiles was developed using a bioderived matrix resin. The thermoset furan resin has recently received interest due to its good environmental profile containing no petrochemicals, using water as solvent and biomass as raw material. The new resin also shows good...... mechanical performance and excellent fire resistance. In the present study, aligned natural fibre textiles, randomly oriented natural fibre textiles and glass fibre textiles have been hand laid up and impregnated with the furan resin to form prepregs. After precuring, the prepregs were consolidated...

  18. Study on durability of natural fibre concrete composites using mechanical strength and microstructural properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sivaraja; Kandasamy; N Velmani; M Sudhakaran Pillai

    2010-12-01

    Investigations to overcome the brittle response and limiting post-yield energy absorption of concrete led to the development of fibre reinforced concrete using discrete fibres within the concrete mass. Out of the commonly used fibres, easily available low cost natural fibres are renewable source materials. Though these fibres are ecologically advantageous, they have some limitations such as lower durability and lesser strength. But recent research provides several treatment processes to enhance the durability of natural fibres. In this paper, the durability of natural fibres such as coconut coir and sugarcane bagasse has been reported by conducting an experimental investigation. This investigation includes two parts. The first part focuses on the determination of mechanical strength properties such as compressive, tensile, modulus of rupture and flexural properties of natural fibre reinforced concrete specimens once every 3 months for a period for 2 years under alternate wetting and drying conditions. Gain or loss in strength of composite concrete at 9 intervals were computed and are reported here. The second part covers the microstructural properties of fresh natural fibres in as received condition and natural fibres reacted with concrete under accelerated curing conditions for two years. SEM and EDAC test results are discussed.

  19. Recent Development of Flax Fibres and Their Reinforced Composites Based on Different Polymeric Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrushikesh Abhyankar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work describes flax fibre reinforced polymeric composites with recent developments. The properties of flax fibres, as well as advanced fibre treatments such as mercerization, silane treatment, acylation, peroxide treatment and coatings for the enhancement of flax/matrix incompatibility are presented. The characteristic properties and characterizations of flax composites on various polymers including polypropylene (PP and polylactic acid, epoxy, bio-epoxy and bio-phenolic resin are discussed. A brief overview is also given on the recent nanotechnology applied in flax composites.

  20. Myosin heavy chain composition of single fibres from m. biceps brachii of male body builders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, H; Zhou, M.-Y.; Richter, Erik

    1990-01-01

    expression of MHC isoforms within histochemical type II fibres of human skeletal muscle with body building. Furthermore, in human skeletal muscle differences in expression of MHC isoforms may not always be reflected in the traditional histochemical classification of types I, IIa, IIb and IIc fibres.......The myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition of single fibres from m. biceps brachii of young sedentary men (28 +/- 0.4 years, mean +/- SE, n = 4) and male body builders (25 +/- 2.0 years, n = 4) was analysed with a sensitive one-dimensional electrophoretic technique. Compared with sedentary men, the...... body builders had a higher proportion of fibres containing only MHC type IIa (36 +/- 4 vs 12 +/- 2%; P less than 0.05), but a lower proportion of fibres with a coexistence of MHC types IIa and IIb (16 +/- 3 vs 34 +/- 2%; P less than 0.05) and nearly no fibres containing only MHC type IIb (1 +/- 1 vs 12...

  1. Influence of fibre treatments on mechanical properties of short Sansevieria cylindrica/polyester composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Fibre treatments were performed to improve interfacial bond between SCF and matrix. ► Mechanical properties of treated SCFP composites are greater than USCFP composites. ► PSCFP composites show maximum mechanical properties among treated SCFP composites. ► SEM analysis revealed that the wetting of PSCFs by the polyester resin was good. ► KMnO4 treatment is ideal treatment for SCFs to get optimum mechanical properties. -- Abstract: In the present study, to improve the interfacial bond between Sansevieria cylindrica fibres (SCFs) and polyester matrix, chemical surface treatments have been performed on the fibres. Treatments including alkali, benzoyl peroxide, potassium permanganate and stearic acid were carried out to modify the fibre surface. Raw and each type of treated SCF samples were utilised separately for fabricating the composites. The mechanical properties of composites prepared from the chemically treated SCFs are found to be much better than those of the untreated ones. Potassium-permanganate-treated S. cylindrica fibre/polyester (PSCFP) composites showed optimum mechanical properties among the treated S. cylindrica fibre/polyester (SCFP) composites. The surface morphologies of fracture surfaces of composites were recorded using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM micrographs reveal that interfacial bonding between potassium-permanganate-treated SCF (PSCF) and polyester matrix has significantly improved, suggesting that better dispersion of PSCF into the matrix has occurred upon potassium permanganate treatment of SCF.

  2. Kenaf Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene Composites: Effect of Cyclic Immersion on Tensile Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Haniffah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the degradation of tensile properties of kenaf fibre reinforced polypropylene composites due to cyclic immersion into two different solutions, as well as comparison of the developed composites’ tensile properties under continuous and cyclic immersion. Composites with 40% and 60% fibre loadings were immersed in tap water and bleach for 4 cycles. Each cycle consisted of 3 days of immersion and 4 days of conditioning in room temperature (28°C and 55% humidity. The tensile strength and modulus of composites were affected by fibre composition, type of liquid of immersion, and number of cycles. The number of immersion cycles and conditioning caused degradation to tensile strength and modulus of kenaf fibre reinforced polypropylene composites. Continuous and cyclic immersion in bleach caused tensile strength of the composites to differ significantly whereas, for tensile modulus, the difference was insignificant in any immersion and fibre loadings. However, continuous immersion in the bleach reduced the tensile strength of composites more compared to cyclic immersion. These preliminary results suggest further evaluation of the suitability of kenaf fibre reinforced polypropylene composites for potential bathroom application where the composites will be exposed to water/liquid in cyclic manner due to discontinuous usage of bathroom.

  3. Mechanical properties of soil buried kenaf fibre reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We developed composites from kenaf and thermoplastic polyurethane. • Soil burial of composites after 80 days shows increase in flexural strength. • Soil burial of composites after 80 days shows increase in flexural modulus. • Tensile properties of composites degrade after soil burial tests. • We investigate the morphological fracture through scanning electron microscopy. - Abstract: A study on mechanical properties of soil buried kenaf fibre reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composites is presented in this paper. Kenaf bast fibre reinforced TPU composites were prepared via melt-mixing method using Haake Polydrive R600 internal mixer. The composites with 30% fibre loading were prepared based on some important parameters; i.e. 190 °C for reaction temperature, 11 min for reaction time and 400 rpm for rotating speed. The composites were subjected to soil burial tests where the purpose of these tests was to study the effect of moisture absorption on the mechanical properties of the composites. Tensile and flexural properties of the composites were determined before and after the soil burial tests for 20, 40, 60 and 80 days. The percentages of both moisture uptake and weight gain after soil burial tests were recorded. Tensile strength of kenaf fibre reinforced TPU composite dropped to ∼16.14 MPa after 80 days of soil burial test. It was also observed that there was no significant change in flexural properties of soil buried kenaf fibre reinforced TPU composite specimens

  4. Nanotube composite carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, R.; Jacques, D.; Rao, A. M.; Rantell, T.; Derbyshire, F.; Chen, Y.; Chen, J.; Haddon, R. C.

    1999-08-01

    Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were dispersed in isotropic petroleum pitch matrices to form nanotube composite carbon fibers with enhanced mechanical and electrical properties. We find that the tensile strength, modulus, and electrical conductivity of a pitch composite fiber with 5 wt % loading of purified SWNTs are enhanced by ˜90%, ˜150%, and 340% respectively, as compared to the corresponding values in unmodified isotropic pitch fibers. These results serve to highlight the potential that exits for developing a spectrum of material properties through the selection of the matrix, nanotube dispersion, alignment, and interfacial bonding.

  5. Effect of fibre arrangement on the multiaxial fatigue of fibrous composites: a micromechanical computational model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Brighenti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Structural components made of fibre-reinforced materials are frequently used in engineering applications. Fibre-reinforced composites are multiphase materials, and complex mechanical phenomena take place at limit conditions but also during normal service situations, especially under fatigue loading, causing a progressive deterioration and damage. Under repeated loading, the degradation mainly occurs in the matrix material and at the fibre-matrix interface, and such a degradation has to be quantified for design structural assessment purposes. To this end, damage mechanics and fracture mechanics theories can be suitably applied to examine such a problem. Damage concepts can be applied to the matrix mechanical characteristics and, by adopting a 3-D mixed mode fracture description of the fibre-matrix detachment, fatigue fracture mechanics concepts can be used to determine the progressive fibre debonding responsible for the loss of load bearing capacity of the reinforcing phase. In the present paper, a micromechanical model is used to evaluate the unixial or multiaxial fatigue behaviour of structures with equi-oriented or randomly distributed fibres. The spatial fibre arrangement is taken into account through a statistical description of their orientation angles for which a Gaussian-like distribution is assumed, whereas the mechanical effect of the fibres on the composite is accounted for by a homogenization approach aimed at obtaining the macroscopic elastic constants of the material. The composite material behaves as an isotropic one for randomly distributed fibres, while it is transversally isotropic for unidirectional fibres. The fibre arrangement in the structural component influences the fatigue life with respect to the biaxiality ratio for multiaxial constant amplitude fatigue loading. One representative parametric example is discussed.

  6. Effect of Oil Palm Fibres Volume Fraction on Mechanical Properties of Polyester Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, B. F.

    The effect of two types of oil palm fibres (bunch and fruit) on mechanical properties of polyester composites is examined in the current work considering different volume fractions. Tensile, compression, and flexural properties of the composites were investigated. In addition to that, tensile strengths were calculated theoretically using Hirsch model. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the fracture mechanism of the specimens. Single fibre pull-out tests were performed to determine the interfacial shear strength between polyester resin and both types of oil palm fibres. Results revealed that both types of oil palm fibres enhanced the mechanical performance of polyester composites. At a higher volume fraction (40-50%), tensile strength of the polyester composite was improved, i.e., 2.5 times improvement in the tensile strength value. Experimental tensile strength values of oil palm bunch/polyester composites have a good correlation with the theoretical results, especially at low volume fractions of fibre. Flexural strength of polyester worsened with oil palm fibres at all volume fractions of fibre.

  7. Micromechanical model of cross-over fibre bridging - Prediction of mixed mode bridging laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Gamstedt, E.K.; Østergaard, Rasmus Christian;

    2008-01-01

    The fracture resistance of fibre composites can be greatly enhanced by crack bridging. In situ observations of mixed mode crack growth in a unidirectional carbon-fibre/epoxy composite reveal crack bridging by single fibres and by beam-like ligaments consisting of several fibres. Based on the obse...

  8. The effects of fibre architecture on fatigue life-time of composite materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Zangenberg; Østergaard, Rasmus

    Wind turbine rotor blades are among the largest composite structures manufactured of fibre reinforced polymer. During the service life of a wind turbine rotor blade, it is subjected to cyclic loading that potentially can lead to material failure, also known as fatigue. With reference to glass fibre...... decades; however, a clear answer to what causes the material to degrade, has not been given yet. Even for the simplest kind of fibre reinforced composites, the axially loaded unidirectional material, the fatigue failure modes are complex, and require advanced experimental techniques and characterisation...... methodologies in order to be assessed. Furthermore, numerical evaluation and predictions of the fatigue damage evolution are decisive in order to make future improvements. The present work is focused around two central themes: fibre architecture and fatigue failure. The fibre architecture is characterised using...

  9. Microstructure and mechanical performance of modified mortar using hemp fibres and carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Hamzaoui, Rabah

    2014-04-01

    Mechanical performance of modified mortar using hemp fibres is studied following various processing conditions. Hemp fibres combined with carbon nanotubes (CNT) are introduced in mortar and their effect is studied as function of curing time. The cement phase is replaced by different percentages of dry or wet hemp fibres ranging from 1.1. wt% up to 3.1. wt% whereas carbon nanotubes are dispersed in the aqueous solution. Our experimental results show that compressive and flexural strengths of wet fibres modified mortar are higher than those for dry hemp-mortar material. The achieved optimal percentage of wet hemp fibres is 2.1. wt% allowing a flexural strength higher than that of reference mortar. The addition of an optimal CNT concentration (0.01. wt%) combined with wet hemp has a reinforcing effect which turns to be related to an improvement of compressive and flexural strengths by 10% and 24%, respectively, in comparison with reference condition. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Durability and inflammogenic impact of carbon nanotubes compared with asbestos fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Steve

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that carbon nanotubes might conform to the fibre pathogenicity paradigm that explains the toxicities of asbestos and other fibres on a continuum based on length, aspect ratio and biopersistence. Some types of carbon nanotubes satisfy the first two aspects of the fibre paradigm but only recently has their biopersistence begun to be investigated. Biopersistence is complex and requires in vivo testing and analysis. However durability, the chemical mimicking of the process of fibre dissolution using in vitro treatment, is closely related to biopersistence and more readily determined. Here, we describe an experimental process to determine the durability of four types of carbon nanotubes in simulated biological fluid (Gambles solution, and their subsequent pathogenicity in vivo using a mouse model sensitive to inflammogenic effects of fibres. The in vitro and in vivo results were compared with well-characterised glass wool and asbestos fibre controls. Results After incubation for up to 24 weeks in Gambles solution, our control fibres were recovered at percentages consistent with their known in vitro durabilities and/or in vivo persistence, and three out of the four types of carbon nanotubes tested (single-walled (CNTSW and multi-walled (CNTTANG2, CNTSPIN showed no, or minimal, loss of mass or change in fibre length or morphology when examined by electron microscopy. However, the fourth type [multi-walled (CNTLONG1] lost 30% of its original mass within the first three weeks of incubation, after which there was no further loss. Electron microscopy of CNTLONG1 samples incubated for 10 weeks confirmed that the proportion of long fibres had decreased compared to samples briefly exposed to the Gambles solution. This loss of mass and fibre shortening was accompanied by a loss of pathogenicity when injected into the peritoneal cavities of C57Bl/6 mice compared to fibres incubated briefly. CNTSW did not elicit an

  11. High-strength carbon nanotube fibre-like ribbon with high ductility and high electrical conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J N; Luo, X G; Wu, T; Chen, Y

    2014-01-01

    Macroscopic fibres made up of carbon nanotubes exhibit properties far below theoretical predictions and even much lower than those for conventional carbon fibres. Here we report improvements of mechanical and electrical properties by more than one order of magnitude by pressurized rolling. Our carbon nanotubes self-assemble to a hollow macroscopic cylinder in a tube reactor operated at high temperature and then condense in water or ethanol to form a fibre, which is continually spooled in an open-air environment. This initial fibre is densified by rolling under pressure, leading to a combination of high tensile strength (3.76-5.53 GPa), high tensile ductility (8-13%) and high electrical conductivity ((1.82-2.24) × 10(4) S cm(-1)). Our study therefore demonstrates strategies for future performance maximization and the very considerable potential of carbon nanotube assemblies for high-end uses.

  12. Microstructural Characterization of Nanocrystalline Sn-Coated Carbon Fibre Electrodes Cycled in Li-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sandeep; Shafiei, Mehdi; Alpas, Ahmet T.

    2015-12-01

    The mechanisms of electrochemical capacity retention and eventual degradation in composite anodes prepared by electrodepositing nanocrystalline Sn coating on carbon fibres (CF), Sn-CF, were studied using in situ optical microscopy, high-resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Specific capacity changes of Sn-CF anodes ( vs Li/Li+) were observed to take place in three stages: during the first two galvanostatic cycles, a rapid capacity decrease (from 1045 to 930 mAh g-1) occurred, which was followed by a steady-state stage where the capacity remained constant at 922 ± 22 mAh g-1. The fast capacity drop of Sn-CF in the first cycle was attributed to the partial decohesion of Sn from CFs although the carbon substrate remained unaffected due to formation of a layer from the solid electrolyte reduction products. The pure Sn electrode with a higher initial specific capacity than the Sn-CF displayed a rapid decrease in the same range, whereas the specific capacity of the uncoated CF was already much lower as the fibres were severely damaged in the first cycle.

  13. Interface and internal compatibility in a copper fibre cement composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittl, P.

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mechanical behaviour of a compacted composite formed by short ductile copper fibres randomly distributed in portland cement matrix. The samples, a half with fibres and the other without them, were subjected to compression fatigue. So, 1 hertz and the value of stress corresponding to the 1% of the probability of fracture by gradual load were used. Diagrams of cumulative probability of fracture against cycles are obtained for both types of samples. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the mechanisms of fracture are different in each case. Samples of compacted neat-cement paste finish their life with a catastrophic fracture whereas samples of composite behave like a pseudoductile material devoid of catastrophic failure. The results are discussed and compared with the ones obtained by thermal shock and by the interface brittleness theory, as well as with the statistical theory of time-dependent fracture for cementitious materials subjected to cyclic loading. So, in the thermal shock microcracks are generated in the interface matrix-fibre which simultaneously act as emmitings and sumps of cracks whereas this does not occur in mechanical fatigue.

    Este trabajo presenta el comportamiento mecánico de un compuesto fabricado por compactación y constituido por fibras de cobre distribuidas aleatoriamente en una matriz de cemento portland. Las muestras, la mitad con fibras y la otra sin ellas, se sometieron a fatiga por compresión. El ciclo de carga fue de 1 hertz y la carga aplicada aquella correspondiente a la tensión asociada a un 1% de probabilidad de fractura cuando la carga se aplica gradualmente. Para ambos tipos de muestras se graficaron los diagramas de probabilidad acumulativa de fractura en función del número de ciclos. Con microscopía electrónica de barrido se observó que el mecanismo de fractura es diferente para cada tipo de muestras. Aquellas de pasta pura de cemento compactada terminaron su ciclo de

  14. Mechanical properties and fabrication of small boat using woven glass/sugar palm fibres reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misri, S; Leman, Z; Sapuan, S M; Ishak, M R, E-mail: sairizal_misri@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2010-05-15

    In recent years, sugar palm fibre has been found to have great potential to be used as fibre reinforcement in polymer matrix composites. This research investigates the mechanical properties of woven glass/sugar palm fibres reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composite. The composite specimens made of different layer of fibres such as strand mat, natural and hand woven of sugar palm fibres. The composites were fabricated using a compression moulding technique. The tensile and impact test was carried out in accordance to ASTM 5083 and ASTM D256 standard. The fibre glass boat is a familiar material used in boat industry. A lot of research on fabrication process such as lay-up, vacuum infusion mould and resin transfer mould has been conducted. Hybrid material of sugar palm fibre and fibre glass was used in fabricating the boat. This research investigates the method selection for fabrication of small boat application of natural fibre composites. The composite specimens made of different layer of fibres; woven glass fibre, strand mat, natural and hand woven of woven sugar palm fibres were prepared. The small boat were fabricated using a compression moulding and lay up technique. The results of the experiment showed that the tensile strength, tensile modulus, elongation at break value and impact strength were higher than the natural woven sugar palm fibre. The best method for fabricating the small boat was compression moulding technique. As a general conclusion, the usage of glass fibre had improved the tensile properties sugar palm fibre composites and compression moulding technique is suitable to be used in making a small boat application of natural fibre composites.

  15. Mechanical properties and fabrication of small boat using woven glass/sugar palm fibres reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, sugar palm fibre has been found to have great potential to be used as fibre reinforcement in polymer matrix composites. This research investigates the mechanical properties of woven glass/sugar palm fibres reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composite. The composite specimens made of different layer of fibres such as strand mat, natural and hand woven of sugar palm fibres. The composites were fabricated using a compression moulding technique. The tensile and impact test was carried out in accordance to ASTM 5083 and ASTM D256 standard. The fibre glass boat is a familiar material used in boat industry. A lot of research on fabrication process such as lay-up, vacuum infusion mould and resin transfer mould has been conducted. Hybrid material of sugar palm fibre and fibre glass was used in fabricating the boat. This research investigates the method selection for fabrication of small boat application of natural fibre composites. The composite specimens made of different layer of fibres; woven glass fibre, strand mat, natural and hand woven of woven sugar palm fibres were prepared. The small boat were fabricated using a compression moulding and lay up technique. The results of the experiment showed that the tensile strength, tensile modulus, elongation at break value and impact strength were higher than the natural woven sugar palm fibre. The best method for fabricating the small boat was compression moulding technique. As a general conclusion, the usage of glass fibre had improved the tensile properties sugar palm fibre composites and compression moulding technique is suitable to be used in making a small boat application of natural fibre composites.

  16. Mechanical properties and fabrication of small boat using woven glass/sugar palm fibres reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misri, S.; Leman, Z.; Sapuan, S. M.; Ishak, M. R.

    2010-05-01

    In recent years, sugar palm fibre has been found to have great potential to be used as fibre reinforcement in polymer matrix composites. This research investigates the mechanical properties of woven glass/sugar palm fibres reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composite. The composite specimens made of different layer of fibres such as strand mat, natural and hand woven of sugar palm fibres. The composites were fabricated using a compression moulding technique. The tensile and impact test was carried out in accordance to ASTM 5083 and ASTM D256 standard. The fibre glass boat is a familiar material used in boat industry. A lot of research on fabrication process such as lay-up, vacuum infusion mould and resin transfer mould has been conducted. Hybrid material of sugar palm fibre and fibre glass was used in fabricating the boat. This research investigates the method selection for fabrication of small boat application of natural fibre composites. The composite specimens made of different layer of fibres; woven glass fibre, strand mat, natural and hand woven of woven sugar palm fibres were prepared. The small boat were fabricated using a compression moulding and lay up technique. The results of the experiment showed that the tensile strength, tensile modulus, elongation at break value and impact strength were higher than the natural woven sugar palm fibre. The best method for fabricating the small boat was compression moulding technique. As a general conclusion, the usage of glass fibre had improved the tensile properties sugar palm fibre composites and compression moulding technique is suitable to be used in making a small boat application of natural fibre composites.

  17. Mechanical characterisation of hybrid composite laminates based on basalt fibres in combination with flax, hemp and glass fibres manufactured by vacuum infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► For the first time, hybrid laminates with three different fibres were produced. ► Concerns are confirmed on the brittleness of hybrid laminates with basalt fibre core. ► An optimal configuration (FHB) for flexural properties was singled out. ► Differences between tensile and flexural properties of hybrids were identified. ► In general, the specific mechanical properties of the hybrids are quite high. - Abstract: This work concerns the production by vacuum infusion and the comparison of the properties of different hybrid composite laminates, based on basalt fibre composites as the inner core, and using also glass, flax and hemp fibre laminates to produce symmetrical configurations, all of them with a 21–23% fibre volume, in an epoxy resin. The laminates have been subjected to tensile, three-point flexural and interlaminar shear strength tests and their fracture surfaces have been characterised by scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical performance of all the hybrid laminates appears superior to pure hemp and flax fibre reinforced laminates and inferior to basalt fibre laminates. Among the hybrids, the best properties are offered by those obtained by adding glass and flax to basalt fibre reinforced laminates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation of hybrid laminates showed the diffuse presence of fibre pull-out in hemp and flax fibre reinforced layers and a general trend of brittle failure

  18. A simple model for characterizing non-uniform fibre-based composites and networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Avik P

    2011-04-20

    A mean-field model is presented that describes non-uniformities in the spatial distribution of fibres in networks and composites in terms of fluctuations in the local composition. The mean pore radius, specific surface area, lineal path function, and chord length probability density are expressed as functions of the fibre volume fraction within a heuristic formalism. The impact of statistical heterogeneities in the fibre distribution upon the elastic moduli is assessed within the semi-empirical Reuss-Voigt-Hill averaging scheme. Results from illustrative calculations suggest that such macroscopically averaged material properties are particularly sensitive to variations in the mean pore radius. PMID:21436504

  19. Characterization of Glass Fibre – Coconut Coir– Human Hair Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Senthilnathan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A composite material is a combination of two or more materials arranged in the form of layer one on the other layer using binding material through some prescribed methods. In the Glass fibre coconut fibre human hair hybrid composite method, the epoxy resin is used as binding material, in which one layer is formed of glass fibre, followed by coconut fibre and then by human hair. By using hand layup method and by changing the above arrangement of layers, six types of laminates are prepared by using the resin of LY556 and hardness HY951.The six types of laminates are Glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRPCoconut coir reinforced plastic(CCRP,Human hair reinforced plastic(HHRP,Glass – Coconut coir - human hair- Glass hybrid composite (GCHGRP,Coconut coir-glass- human hair-coconut coir hybrid composite (CGHCRP and human hair-coconut coir-glass-human hair hybrid composite (HCGHRP . As per ASTM standard, specimens are prepared in the above said six conduct various tests such as tensile, flexural, shear, impact and hardness tests. From the characterization of Glass-coconut coir-Human hair hybrid composite, it is observed that Eco-friendly coconut coir and human hair inclusion in the Glass fibre laminates have significantly influenced the mechanical properties.

  20. Regenerated thermosetting styrene-co-acrylonitrile sandwich composite panels reinforced by jute fibre: structures and properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jinglong Li; Qin Peng; Anrong Zeng; Junlin Li; Xiaole Wu; Xiaofei Liu

    2016-02-01

    Jute fibres-reinforced sandwich regenerated composite panels were fabricated using industrial waste thermosetting styrene-co-acrylonitrile (SAN) foam scraps via compression moulding for the purpose of recycling waste SAN foam and obtaining high physical performance. The jute fibres were, respectively, treated by heat, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution (5.0 wt%), and N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) in order to improve the mechanical properties of the composites. The structures and mechanical properties of the composites were studied. The SAN matrix got compact and some crystalline region formed in SAN matrix via compression moulding. The composite reinforced by DMAc-treated jute fibres performed optimum mechanical properties among the regenerated panels whose impact strength, flexural strength, and compressive strength were 19.9 kJ m−2, 41.7 MPa, and 61.0 MPa, respectively. Good interfacial bonding between DMAc-treated fibres and SAN matrix was verified by peel test and exhibited in SEM photographs. Besides, the water absorption of DMAc-treated fibres composite was lower than other SAN/jute fibre-reinforced sandwich composite panels.

  1. The study of mechanical properties of pineapple leaf fibre reinforced tapioca based bioplastic resin composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathivanan D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibre reinforced composite has brought the material engineering to a high new level of research. Natural fibres are compatible with matrices like polypropylene and can be used as reinforcement material to reduce the composition of plastic in a material. Natural fibres such as kenaf, pineapple leaf, and coir already found its importance in reducing the dependence of petroleum based products. However the biodegradability of the product at the end of the intended lifespan is still questionable. This has led many researches to look for a suitable replacement for synthetic fibres and achieve better adhesion between fibre and matrix. In this study, fiber and matrix which are hydrophilic in nature was used and the mixture was extruded and hot compressed to acquire better mechanical properties. The specimens were fabricated and tested according to ASTM D638. The 30% composition illustrates the best average modulus value among other composition and from this result it can be concluded that the increase of PALF fibre in TBR composite increases the modulus strength of the composite.

  2. Bioinspired self-healing of advanced composite structures using hollow glass fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, R S; Williams, G J; Bond, I P

    2007-04-22

    Self-healing is receiving an increasing amount of worldwide interest as a method to autonomously address damage in materials. The incorporation of a self-healing capability within fibre-reinforced polymers has been investigated by a number of workers previously. The use of functional repair components stored inside hollow glass fibres (HGF) is one such bioinspired approach being considered. This paper considers the placement of self-healing HGF plies within both glass fibre/epoxy and carbon fibre/epoxy laminates to mitigate damage occurrence and restore mechanical strength. The study investigates the effect of embedded HGF on the host laminates mechanical properties and also the healing efficiency of the laminates after they were subjected to quasi-static impact damage. The results of flexural testing have shown that a significant fraction of flexural strength can be restored by the self-repairing effect of a healing resin stored within hollow fibres. PMID:17251131

  3. Fibre break failure processes in unidirectional composites: evaluation of critical damage states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thionnet, A; Bunsell, A R

    2016-07-13

    Earlier work which successfully modelled the kinetics of fibre breakage in unidirectional composites under monotonic tensile loading has been extended to quantify the kinetics of fibre failure during both monotonic and sustained tensile loading. In both cases, failure was seen to occur when a critical density of large clusters (more than 16 fibres are broken within the representative volume element) of fibre breaks developed. However, in monotonic loading failure occurred very quickly after the first development of these large clusters, whereas under sustained loading the composite could accommodate greater levels of large clusters because of the lower applied load. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials'. PMID:27242295

  4. Bending Strength and Fracture Investigations of Cu Based Composite Materials Strengthened with δ-Alumina Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.W. Kaczmar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Bending strength, thermal and electric conductivity and microstructure examinations of Cu based composite materials reinforced with Saffil alumina fibres are presented. Materials were produced by squeeze casting method applying the designed device and specially elaborated production parameters. Applying infiltration pressure of 90MPa and suitable temperature parameters provided manufacturing of copper based composite materials strengthened with Saffil alumina fibres characterized by the low rest porosity and good fibre-matrix interface. Three point bending tests at temperatures of 25, 100 and 300ºC were performed on specimens reinforced with 10, 15 and 20% of Saffil fibres. Introduced reinforcement effected on the relatively high bending strengths at elevated temperatures. In relation to unreinforced Cu casting strength of composite material Cu - 15vol.% Saffil fibres increase by about 25%, whereas at the highest applied test temperature of 300oC the improvement was almost 100%. Fibres by strengthening of the copper matrix and by transferring loads from the matrix reduce its plastic deformation and hinder the micro-crack developed during bending tests. Decreasing of thermal and electrical conductivity of Cu after incorporating fibres in the matrix are relatively small and these properties can be acceptable for electric and thermal applications.

  5. Optimization of basic dye removal by oil palm fibre-based activated carbon using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, B H; Tan, I A W; Ahmad, A L

    2008-10-30

    Oil palm fibre was used to prepare activated carbon using physiochemical activation method which consisted of potassium hydroxide (KOH) treatment and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) gasification. The effects of three preparation variables: the activation temperature, activation time and chemical impregnation (KOH:char) ratio on methylene blue (MB) uptake from aqueous solutions and activated carbon yield were investigated. Based on the central composite design (CCD), a quadratic model and a two factor interaction (2FI) model were respectively developed to correlate the preparation variables to the MB uptake and carbon yield. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the significant factors on each experimental design response were identified. The optimum activated carbon prepared from oil palm fibre was obtained by using activation temperature of 862 degrees C, activation time of 1h and chemical impregnation ratio of 3.1. The optimum activated carbon showed MB uptake of 203.83 mg/g and activated carbon yield of 16.50%. The equilibrium data for adsorption of MB on the optimum activated carbon were well represented by the Langmuir isotherm, giving maximum monolayer adsorption capacity as high as 400mg/g at 30 degrees C. PMID:18329169

  6. Recycling of textile wastes in fibre-cement composites

    OpenAIRE

    H. Monteiro; Caldeira, F.; Pinto, J; Varum, H.

    2013-01-01

    Changing wastes into raw materials is one of the most favoured options for waste management, as it diverts wastes from landfill and saves resources. Fibres, either vegetable (cellulosic) or synthetic, may be added to cement pastes in order improve the properties of concrete or mortar by reinforcement. At the same time, if our source of fibres is wastes, then such processes make ways for recycling. In this work we studied the compatibility of residues from the nonwoven textile indu...

  7. The preparation of aramid fibres in silicone based composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; A. J. Nowak; A. Pusz; M. Górniak

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The evaluation of modified aramid fibres – Kevlar – as reinforcement in silicon materials used in medicine.Design/methodology/approach: Samples of laminated material based on modified aramid fibres and medical silicone were made by a method of manual formation of laminates that is impregnation of reinforcement with matrix to hardening silicone process using hardening methods connected with heat. Created material was observed on Scanning Electron Microscopy manufactured by Zeiss.Findi...

  8. Carbon Fiber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    HyComp(R), Inc. development a line of high temperature carbon fiber composite products to solve wear problems in the harsh environment of steel and aluminum mills. WearComp(R), self-lubricating composite wear liners and bushings, combines carbon graphite fibers with a polyimide binder. The binder, in conjunction with the fibers, provides the slippery surface, one that demands no lubrication, yet wears at a very slow rate. WearComp(R) typically lasts six to ten times longer than aluminum bronze. Unlike bronze, WearComp polishes the same surface and imparts a self-lube film for years of service. It is designed for continuous operation at temperatures of 550 degrees Fahrenheit and can operate under high compressive loads.

  9. Preparation of natural fibre composites from bio-based thermoset resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakersson, D.; Skrifvars, M. [Univ. College of Boraes, School of Engineering, Boraes (Sweden); Seppaelae, V. [Helsinki Univ. olf Technology, Dept. og Chemical Technology, Lab. of Polymer Technikogy (Finland); Walkenstroem, P. [IFP Research AB, Moelndal (Sweden)

    2006-07-01

    Thermoset composites were produced from natural fibres. Two different bioresins were used: an epoxidized soy-bean oil (AECO) resin, and a functionalized polylactic acid (PLA) resin. Both of them are cross-linkable and therefore suitable for producing thermoset composites. The cross-linking behaviour was characterized by means of DMTA, RPA, DSC and FTIR. Mats of air-laid flax fibres were spray impregnated and the mechanical properties of the composite were evaluated. The feasibility to use these resins in structural composite applications is discussed. (au)

  10. Effect of pectin and hemicellulose removal from hemp fibres on the mechanical properties of unidirectional hemp/epoxy composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Meyer, Anne S.; Fernando, Dinesh;

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pectin and hemicellulose removal from hemp fibres on the mechanical properties of hemp fibre/epoxy composites. Pectin removal by EDTA and endo-polygalacturonase (EPG) removed epidermal and parenchyma cells from hemp fibres and improved...

  11. Present Situation and Development of Carbon Fibres in GRAFIL INC., Japan%日本GRAFIL公司的碳纤维现况与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵稼祥

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the present status and development of carbon fibres and composite materials in GRAFIL INC., Japan are presented.%介绍了日本GRAFIL公司碳纤维及其复合材料的现况与发展。

  12. Water Absorption Behaviour and Its Effect on the Mechanical Properties of Flax Fibre Reinforced Bioepoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Muñoz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of sustainable development, considerable interest is being shown in the use of natural fibres like as reinforcement in polymer composites and in the development of resins from renewable resources. This paper focuses on eco-friendly and sustainable green composites manufacturing using resin transfer moulding (RTM process. Flax fibre reinforced bioepoxy composites at different weight fractions (40 and 55 wt% were prepared in order to study the effect of water absorption on their mechanical properties. Water absorption test was carried out by immersion specimens in water bath at room temperature for a time duration. The process of water absorption of these composites was found to approach Fickian diffusion behavior. Diffusion coefficients and maximum water uptake values were evaluated; the results showed that both increased with an increase in fibre content. Tensile and flexural properties of water immersed specimens were evaluated and compared to dry composite specimens. The results suggest that swelling of flax fibres due to water absorption can have positive effects on mechanical properties of the composite material. The results of this study showed that RTM process could be used to manufacture natural fibre reinforced composites with good mechanical properties even for potential applications in a humid environment.

  13. Strain Monitoring in Stiffened Composite Panels Using Embedded Fibre Optical and Strain Gauge Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Růžek, Roman; Kadlec, Martin; Tserpes, Konstantinos; Karachalios, Evanggelos

    2014-01-01

    International audience This paper describes an implemented structural health monitoring (SHM) system based on Fibre Optic Bragg Grating (FOBG) sensors and standard resistance strain gauges (SGs) placed onto/into a stiffened carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) fuselage panel. The role of the FOBG sensor system was to monitor the structural integrity of the reference, impacted and fatigued panels under compression loading. The FOBG and/or SG sensors were placed (embedded or bonded) at var...

  14. Thermomechanical and Rheological Behaviours of Waste Glass Fibre-Filled Polypropylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriporn Damrongsukkul

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The composites between the reinforced glass fibre wastes obtained from surfboard manufacturing industry and polypropylene were developed for value adding and environmental reasons. The thermomechanical and rheological behaviours of the composites were investigated. Glass fibre contents were varied from 5 to 30wt%. The effects of maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MA-PP compatibilizer on the behaviours were also determined. The results revealed that the addition of glass fibre was able to reduce the heat of fusion of the composite. Additionally, the tensile and flexural properties were increased with increasing the glass fibre contents following the rule of mixtures. The addition of MA-PP led to enhance tensile and flexural properties due to the improvement of the adhesion between matrix and glass fibre, which is correlated with morphological observations. From the rheological studies, the apparent flow activation energy revealed that the addition of glass fibre decreased the fluidity of the molten composite materials; however, it could be slightly improved by using MA-PP.

  15. Fatigue behaviour of uni-directional flax fibre/epoxy composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ueki, Yosuke; Lilholt, Hans; Madsen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    A study related to the fatigue behaviour of natural fibre-reinforced composites was conducted to expand their range of product applications. A uni-directional flax-epoxy composite was fabricated and several conditions of tension-tension fatigue tests were performed. During fatigue testing......, the composite showed an increase of stiffness, a typical observation for natural fibre-reinforced composites, and this was found to be accompanied by accumulation of residual strain. A clear linear relationship was found between the stiffening effect and the residual strain. In addition, it was revealed...... that the fatigue behaviour was clearly influenced by the frequency of cyclic loading. Lower frequencies induced more significant stiffening and shorter fatigue life. These results suggest that fatigue damaging is progressing simultaneously with the stiffening effect in natural fibre-reinforced composites...

  16. Proposition of an Accelerated Ageing Method for Natural Fibre/Polylactic Acid Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandvliet, Clio; Bandyopadhyay, N. R.; Ray, Dipa

    2015-10-01

    Natural fibre composite based on polylactic acid (PLA) composite is of special interest because it is entirely from renewable resources and biodegradable. Some samples of jute/PLA composite and PLA alone made 6 years ago and kept in tropical climate on a shelf shows too fast ageing degradation. In this work, an accelerated ageing method for natural fibres/PLA composite is proposed and tested. Experiment was carried out with jute and flax fibre/PLA composite. The method was compared with the standard ISO 1037-06a. The residual flexural strength after ageing test was compared with the one of common wood-based panels and of real aged samples prepared 6 years ago.

  17. Effect of Post Spinning Modification on the PAN Precursors and Resulting Carbon Fibres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-zhi; ZHANG Wang-xi; SUN Chun-feng

    2007-01-01

    The impregnation of a special grade polyacrylonitrile(PAN) precursor fibres was carried out in a 8 wt.% KMnO4 aqueous solution to obtain modified PAN precusor fibres.The focus is primarily on the effects of modification on the structure and the pbysical properties of precursor fibres,thermal stabilised and their resulting carbon fibres,which were characterized by the combination use of densities,wide-angle X-ray diffraction(WAXD),X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS),Elemental analysis(EA),Fourier transform infrared(FT-IR) and seaming electron microscope(SEM),etc.KMnO4 as a strong oxidizer can swell,oxidize and corrode the skin of a precursor ibre,transform partly C≡N groups to C=N ones,decrease the crystal size,increase the orientation index,increase the crystallinity irdex,furthemore ircrease the densities of modified PAN precursors and resulting thermal stabilised fibres.As a result,the carbon fibres dcveloped from modified PAN fibres show,an improvment in tensile strength of 31.25% and an improvement in elongation of 77.78%,but a decrease of 16.52% in Young's modulus.

  18. Research of glass fibre used in the electromagnetic wave shielding and absorption composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M.; Jia, F.; Bao, H. Q.; Cui, K.; Zhang, F.

    2016-07-01

    Electromagnetic shielding and absorption composite material plays an important role in the defence and economic field. Comparing with other filler, Glass fibre and its processed product—metal-coated glass fibre can greatly reduce the material's weight and costs, while it still remains the high strength and the electromagnetic shielding effectiveness. In this paper, the electromagnetic absorption mechanism and the reflection mechanism have been investigated as a whole, and the shielding effectiveness of the double-layer glass fibre composite material is mainly focused. The relationship between the shielding effectiveness and the filled glass fibre as well as its metal-coated product's parameters has also been studied. From the subsequent coaxial flange and anechoic chamber analysis, it can be confirmed that the peak electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of this double-layer material can reach -78dB while the bandwidth is from 2GHz to 18GHz.

  19. Steel fibre reinforced self-compacting concrete (from micromechanics to composite behavior)

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Vitor M. C. F.

    2010-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Engenharia Civil The use of steel fibre reinforced self-compacting concrete, SFRSCC, probably, will swiftly increase in the next years, since this composite material introduces several advantages on the concrete technology. In fact, the partial or total replacement of the conventional bar reinforcement by discrete fibres optimizes the construction process. The assembly of the reinforcement bars in the construction of concrete structures has a significant economical ...

  20. The effects of fibre architecture on fatigue life-time of composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zangenberg Hansen, J.

    2013-09-15

    Wind turbine rotor blades are among the largest composite structures manufactured of fibre reinforced polymer. During the service life of a wind turbine rotor blade, it is subjected to cyclic loading that potentially can lead to material failure, also known as fatigue. With reference to glass fibre reinforced composites used for the main laminate of a wind turbine rotor blade, the problem addressed in the present work is the effect of the fibre and fabric architecture on the fatigue life-time under tension-tension loading. Fatigue of composite materials has been a central research topic for the last decades; however, a clear answer to what causes the material to degrade, has not been given yet. Even for the simplest kind of fibre reinforced composites, the axially loaded unidirectional material, the fatigue failure modes are complex, and require advanced experimental techniques and characterisation methodologies in order to be assessed. Furthermore, numerical evaluation and predictions of the fatigue damage evolution are decisive in order to make future improvements. The present work is focused around two central themes: fibre architecture and fatigue failure. The fibre architecture is characterised using real material samples and numerical simulations. Experimental fatigue tests identify, quantify, and analyse the cause of failure. Different configurations of the fibre architecture are investigated in order to determine and understand the tension-tension fatigue failure mechanisms. A numerical study is used to examine the onset of fatigue failure. Topics treated include: experimental fatigue investigations, scanning electron microscopy, numerical simulations, advanced measurements techniques (micro computed tomography and thermovision), design of test specimens and preforms, and advanced materials characterisation. The results of the present work show that the fibre radii distribution has limited effect on the fibre architecture. This raises the question of which

  1. Abrasive wear: The efects of fibres size on oil palm empty fruit bunch polyester composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasolang, S.; Kalam, A.; Ahmad, M. A.; Rahman, N. A.; Suhadah, W. N.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation carried out to determine the effect of palm oil empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fibre size in dry sliding testing of polyester composite. These composite samples were produced by mixing raw OPEFB fibre with resin. The samples were prepared at different sizes of fibre (100, 125, 180 and 250μm). Abrasion Resistance Tester (TR-600) was used to carried out abrasive wear tests in dry sliding conditions. These tests were performed at room temperature for two different loads (10 and 30N) and at a constant sliding velocity of 1.4m/s. The specific wear rates of OPEFB polyester composites were obtained. The morphology of composite surface before and after tests was also examined using 3D microscope imaging. Preliminary work on thermal distribution at the abrasive wheel point was also conducted for selected samples.

  2. Fatigue Damage Monitoring of a Composite Step Lap Joint Using Distributed Optical Fibre Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Wong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, there has been a considerable interest in the use of distributed optical fibre sensors (DOFS for structural health monitoring of composite structures. In aerospace-related work, health monitoring of the adhesive joints of composites has become more significant, as they can suffer from cracking and delamination, which can have a significant impact on the integrity of the joint. In this paper, a swept-wavelength interferometry (SWI based DOFS technique is used to monitor the fatigue in a flush step lap joint composite structure. The presented results will show the potential application of distributed optical fibre sensor for damage detection, as well as monitoring the fatigue crack growth along the bondline of a step lap joint composite structure. The results confirmed that a distributed optical fibre sensor is able to enhance the detection of localised damage in a structure.

  3. Design of Carbon Composite Driveshaft for Ultralight Aircraft Propulsion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Poul

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design of the carbon fibre composite driveshaft. This driveshaft will be used for connection between piston engine and propulsor of the type of axial-flow fan. Three different versions of driveshaft were designed and produced. Version 1 if completely made of Al alloy. Version 2 is of hybrid design where the central part is made of high strength carbon composite and flanges are made of Al alloy. Adhesive bond is used for connection between flanges and the central CFRP tube. Version 3 differs from the version 2 by aplication of ultrahigh-strength carbon fibre on the central part. Dimensions and design conditions are equal for all three versions to obtain simply comparable results. Calculations of driveshafts are described in the paper. 

  4. CARBON-FIBRE-REINFORCED POLYMER PARTS EFFECT ON SPACECRAFT OPTOELECTRONIC MODULE LENS SCATTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kolasha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spacecraft optoelectronic modules traditionally have aluminum alloy or titanium alloy casing which substantial weight increases fuel consumption required to put them into orbit and, consequently, total cost of the project. Carbon fiber reinforced polymer based composite constructive materials is an efficient solution that allows reducing weight and dimensions of large optoelectronic modules 1,5–3 times and the coefficient of linear thermal expansion 15–20 times if compared with metals. Optical characteristic is a crucial feature of carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer that determines composite material interaction with electromagnetic emission within the optical range. This work was intended to develop a method to evaluate Carbon fiber reinforced polymer optoelectronic modules casing effect on lens scattering by computer simulation with Zemax application software package. Degrees of scattered, reflected and absorbed radiant flux effect on imaging quality are described here. The work included experimental study in order to determine bidirectional reflectance distribution function by goniometric method for LUP-0.1 carbon fabric check test pieces of EDT-69U epoxy binder with EPOFLEX-0.4 glue layer and 5056-3.5-23-A aluminium honeycomb filler. The scattered emission was registered within a hemisphere above the check test piece surface. Optical detection direction was determined with zenith (0º < θ < 90º and azimuth (0º < φ < 180º angles with 10° increment. The check test piece surface was proved to scatter emission within a narrow angle range (approximately 20° with clear directivity. Carbon fiber reinforced polymers was found to feature integrated reflectance coefficient 3 to 4 times greater than special coatings do. 

  5. Carbon nanofibre composites, preparation and use, EP application 04076211.4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    The invention is directed to a carbon nanofibre composite having a bulk density of at least 800kg/m3, obtainable by the process of growing carbon nanofibres on the surface of a supported carbon fibre producing metal catalyst, such as a catalyst based on nickel, cobalt, iron, ruthenium or combination

  6. Corn gluten meal as a biodegradable matrix material in wood fibre reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to investigate corn gluten meal (CGM) as a biodegradable matrix material for wood fibre reinforced composites. CGM was used alone, as well as hybridized with polypropylene, and reinforced with radiata pine (Pinus Radiata) fibre using a twin-screw extruder followed by injection moulding. Tensile testing, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were carried out to assess the composites. For composites from CGM and wood fibres, extrusion was carried out with the aid of the following plasticizers: octanoic acid, glycerol, polyethylene glycol and water. Windows of processability for the different plasticizers were obtained for all plasticizers. These were found to lie between 20 and 50 wt.% of plasticizer with a maximum of approximately 20% wood fibre reinforcement. The best mechanical properties were obtained with a matrix containing 10 wt.% octanoic acid and 30 wt.% water, which gave a tensile strength and Young's modulus of 18.7 MPa and 4 GPa, respectively. Hybrid matrix composites were compounded with a maleated polypropylene coupling agent and benzoyl peroxide as a cross-linking agent. The highest tensile strength and Young's modulus obtained from hybrid matrix composites were 36.9 MPa and 5.8 GPa with 50 wt.% fibre

  7. Corn gluten meal as a biodegradable matrix material in wood fibre reinforced composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beg, M.D.H. [Department of Materials and Process Engineering, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand); Pickering, K.L. [Department of Materials and Process Engineering, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand)]. E-mail: klp@waikato.ac.nz; Weal, S.J. [Department of Materials and Process Engineering, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2005-12-05

    This study was undertaken to investigate corn gluten meal (CGM) as a biodegradable matrix material for wood fibre reinforced composites. CGM was used alone, as well as hybridized with polypropylene, and reinforced with radiata pine (Pinus Radiata) fibre using a twin-screw extruder followed by injection moulding. Tensile testing, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were carried out to assess the composites. For composites from CGM and wood fibres, extrusion was carried out with the aid of the following plasticizers: octanoic acid, glycerol, polyethylene glycol and water. Windows of processability for the different plasticizers were obtained for all plasticizers. These were found to lie between 20 and 50 wt.% of plasticizer with a maximum of approximately 20% wood fibre reinforcement. The best mechanical properties were obtained with a matrix containing 10 wt.% octanoic acid and 30 wt.% water, which gave a tensile strength and Young's modulus of 18.7 MPa and 4 GPa, respectively. Hybrid matrix composites were compounded with a maleated polypropylene coupling agent and benzoyl peroxide as a cross-linking agent. The highest tensile strength and Young's modulus obtained from hybrid matrix composites were 36.9 MPa and 5.8 GPa with 50 wt.% fibre.

  8. Self-Sensing Composites: In-Situ Detection of Fibre Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Shoaib A.; Wang, Liwei; Curtis, Paul T.; Fernando, Gerard F.

    2016-01-01

    The primary load-bearing component in a composite material is the reinforcing fibres. This paper reports on a technique to study the fracture of individual reinforcing fibres or filaments in real-time. Custom-made small-diameter optical fibres with a diameter of 12 (±2) micrometres were used to detect the fracture of individual filaments during tensile loading of unreinforced bundles and composites. The unimpregnated bundles were end-tabbed and tensile tested to failure. A simple technique based on resin-infusion was developed to manufacture composites with a negligible void content. In both cases, optical fibre connectors were attached to the ends of the small-diameter optical fibre bundles to enable light to be coupled into the bundle via one end whilst the opposite end was photographed using a high-speed camera. The feasibility of detecting the fracture of each of the filaments in the bundle and composite was demonstrated. The in-situ damage detection technique was also applied to E-glass bundles and composites; this will be reported in a subsequent publication. PMID:27136555

  9. Defect localization in fibre-reinforced composites by computing external volume forces from surface sensor measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We suggest a prospective method for detecting and visualizing defects in fibre-reinforced composites by computing external volume forces from measurements acquired by sensors that are integrated on the surface of the structure. Anisotropic materials like carbon fibre-reinforced composites are widely used in light weight construction which can exhibit damages that are not optically detectable. The key idea of our method is the interpretation of defects in such structures as if they were induced by an external volume force. This idea is based on the observation that a propagating elastic wave interferes with a damaged area by reflecting the wave. In that sense a damage can be seen as an additional source. Thus identifying the external volume force which has caused this wave is supposed to reveal the location of the defect. This approach leads to the inverse problem of determining the inhomogeneity of a hyperbolic initial-boundary value problem. We tackle this ill-posed problem by minimizing a Tikhonov functional which takes the oberservation points of our surface measurements into account. In the article we address the solvability of the direct problem, state and analyze the PDE-based optimization problem that aims for computing the external force and develop a numerical realization of its solution using the conjugate gradient method. First numerical results for a simple model case with different sensor adjustments show that the defects in fact are detectable. In that sense this article might be seen as starting point of future research which should comprehend deeper numerical studies and analysis of the problem. (paper)

  10. Effect of degumming time on silkworm silk fibre for biodegradable polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Mei-po; Wang, Hao; Lau, Kin-tak

    2012-02-01

    Recently, many studies have been conducted on exploitation of natural materials for modern product development and bioengineering applications. Apart from plant-based materials (such as sisal, hemp, jute, bamboo and palm fibre), animal-based fibre is a kind of sustainable natural materials for making novel composites. Silkworm silk fibre extracted from cocoon has been well recognized as a promising material for bio-medical engineering applications because of its superior mechanical and bioresorbable properties. However, when producing silk fibre reinforced biodegradable/bioresorbable polymer composites, hydrophilic sericin has been found to cause poor interfacial bonding with most polymers and thus, it results in affecting the resultant properties of the composites. Besides, sericin layers on fibroin surface may also cause an adverse effect towards biocompatibility and hypersensitivity to silk for implant applications. Therefore, a proper pre-treatment should be done for sericin removal. Degumming is a surface modification process which allows a wide control of the silk fibre's properties, making the silk fibre possible to be used for the development and production of novel bio-composites with unique/specific mechanical and biodegradable properties. In this paper, a cleaner and environmentally friendly surface modification technique for tussah silk in polymer based composites is proposed. The effectiveness of different degumming parameters including degumming time and temperature on tussah silk is discussed through the analyses of their mechanical and morphological properties. Based on results obtained, it was found that the mechanical properties of tussah silk are affected by the degumming time due to the change of the fibre structure and fibroin alignment.

  11. Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of glass fibre composite for adhesion improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Mortensen, H.; Stenum, Bjarne;

    2007-01-01

    Glass-fibre-reinforced polyester composite plates were treated with an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge. Synthetic air was used as the treatment gas. The water contact angle dropped markedly from 84 to 22° after a 2-s treatment, and decreased to 0° when the composite plates were...

  12. Hydrogen evolution reaction at Ru-modified nickel-coated carbon fibre in 0.1 M NaOH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierożyński Bogusław

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical activity towards hydrogen evolution reaction (HER was studied on commercially available (Toho-Tenax and Ru-modified nickel-coated carbon fibre (NiCCF materials. Quality and extent of Ru electrodeposition on NiCCF tows were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Kinetics of the hydrogen evolution reaction were investigated at room temperature, as well as over the temperature range: 20-50°C in 0.1 M NaOH solution for the cathodic overpotential range: -100 to -300 mV vs. RHE. Corresponding values of charge-transfer resistance, exchange current-density for the HER and other electrochemical parameters for the examined fibre tow composites were recorded.

  13. Metabolic response to dietary fibre composition in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brøkner, C; Austbø, D; Næsset, J A; Blache, D; Bach Knudsen, K E; Tauson, A H

    2016-07-01

    The hypothesis for this study was that a higher dietary proportion of soluble fibre would result in stable and constant plasma metabolite and regulatory hormone concentrations. The study was a 4×4 Latin Square design with a sequence of 17 days adaptation to the ration followed by 8 sampling days. The feed rations consisted of only timothy hay (H), hay plus molassed sugar beet pulp combined with either whole oats (OB) or barley (BB) and hay plus a loose chaff-based concentrate (M). Four horses were fitted with permanent caecal cannulas and liquid caecal content was withdrawn manually and blood was drawn from the jugular vein at 0, 3 and 9 h postprandial. The horses were exercised daily at medium level for about 1 h. Samples were analysed for short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and metabolic traits. Caecal SCFA and propionic acid concentrations increased with increased dietary starch and soluble fibre. The diet highest in soluble fibre (M) resulted in the highest plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in the morning, which then remained stable and constant throughout the day. A strong interaction (P<0.01) between time and diet was measured for plasma urea, glucose, insulin and leptin. The greatest variations in plasma glycaemic and insulinaemic responses were associated with the cereal grain diets (OB and BB). There were indications of a negative energy balance, which was reflected in a significantly higher plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentration and a numerically higher non-esterified fatty acid concentration. In conclusion, this study found that inclusion of soluble fibre resulted in increased total caecal SCFA and propionic acid concentrations. This consequently resulted in stable and constant plasma glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. Diets with a high content of soluble fibre provided enough energy for horses at medium work level. PMID:26755337

  14. Effect of carbon nanofibre addition on the mechanical properties of different f carbon-epoxy composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I Srikanth; Suresh Kumar; Vajinder Singh; B Rangababu; Partha Ghosal; Ch Subrahmanyam

    2015-04-01

    Carbon-epoxy (C-epoxy) laminated composites having different fibre volume fractions (40, 50, 60 and 70) were fabricated with and without the addition of aminofunctionalized carbon nanofibres (A-CNF). Flexural strength, interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) and tensile strength of the composite laminates were determined. It was observed that, the ability of A-CNF to enhance the mechanical properties of C-epoxy diminished significantly as the fibre volume fraction (f) of the C-epoxy increased from 40 to 60. At 70f, the mechanical properties of the A-CNF reinforced C-epoxy were found to be lower compared to the C-epoxy composite made without the addition of A-CNF. In this paper suitable mechanisms for the observed trends are proposed on the basis of the fracture modes of the composite.

  15. Effects of Graphitized Carbon Black on Electrical Properties of Glass Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Resin Composite%导电炭黑对玻璃纤维增强环氧树脂复合材料电性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付兴中; 邓建鹏; 姜德川

    2014-01-01

    Graphitized carbon black was filled into glass fibre reinforced epoxy resin composite,and the electrostatic shielding voltage,electrostatic decay time and surface electrical resistivity of the composites were determined. The main affecting factors on electrical properties were studied. The results show that electrical properties of graphitized carbon black filled composites are significantly effective.Suitable graphitized carbon black dosage is 1.1-1.2 portions;granularity is 7-9 nm. Graphitized carbon black is directly put into epoxy resin system and they are mixed by a high speed dispersion machine for 10-15 minutes.%以导电炭黑填充玻璃纤维增强环氧树脂复合材料,通过测定复合材料的静电屏蔽电压、静电衰减时间、表面电阻率数值,对影响电性能的几个主要因素进行了研究。结果表明,导电炭黑填充复合材料的防静电效果显著,导电炭黑适宜用量为1.1~1.2份,粒度为7~9 nm;填充时,将导电炭黑直接加入到环氧树脂体系中,然后用高速分散机搅拌10~15 min。

  16. A high-porosity carbon molybdenum sulphide composite with enhanced electrochemical hydrogen evolution and stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anders B.; Vesborg, Peter C. K.; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2013-01-01

    This work describes a highly active and stable acid activated carbon fibre and amorphous MoSx composite hydrogen evolution catalyst. The increased electrochemical-surface area is demonstrated to cause increased catalyst electrodeposition and activity. These composite electrodes also show an impro......This work describes a highly active and stable acid activated carbon fibre and amorphous MoSx composite hydrogen evolution catalyst. The increased electrochemical-surface area is demonstrated to cause increased catalyst electrodeposition and activity. These composite electrodes also show...

  17. In-situ polymerisation of fully bioresorbable polycaprolactone/phosphate glass fibre composites: In vitro degradation and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Menghao; Parsons, Andrew J; Felfel, Reda M; Rudd, Christopher D; Irvine, Derek J; Ahmed, Ifty

    2016-06-01

    Fully bioresorbable composites have been investigated in order to replace metal implant plates used for hard tissue repair. Retention of the composite mechanical properties within a physiological environment has been shown to be significantly affected due to loss of the integrity of the fibre/matrix interface. This study investigated phosphate based glass fibre (PGF) reinforced polycaprolactone (PCL) composites with 20%, 35% and 50% fibre volume fractions (Vf) manufactured via an in-situ polymerisation (ISP) process and a conventional laminate stacking (LS) followed by compression moulding. Reinforcing efficiency between the LS and ISP manufacturing process was compared, and the ISP composites revealed significant improvements in mechanical properties when compared to LS composites. The degradation profiles and mechanical properties were monitored in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 37°C for 28 days. ISP composites revealed significantly less media uptake and mass loss (pcomposites were substantially higher (pcomposites, which showed that the ISP manufacturing process provided a significantly enhanced reinforcement effect than the LS process. During the degradation study, statistically higher flexural property retention profiles were also seen for the ISP composites compared to LS composites. SEM micrographs of fracture surfaces for the LS composites revealed dry fibre bundles and poor fibre dispersion with polymer rich zones, which indicated poor interfacial bonding, distribution and adhesion. In contrast, evenly distributed fibres without dry fibre bundles or polymer rich zones, were clearly observed for the ISP composite samples, which showed that a superior fibre/matrix interface was achieved with highly improved adhesion.

  18. Shear Strengthening of Corbels with Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaz, A.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Corbels constitute what are known as “disturbed” regions in concrete structures, where typical shear failure may be anticipated on the grounds of small shear span-to-depth ratios. The concentration of stress induced by the weight of girders on the very small loadbearing areas in corbels often causes cracking in bridges and other structures. Little experimental research can be found in the literature on the shear strengthening of corbels. In the present study, nine such members were tested. Two had no carbon fibre reinforced polymers attached, while CFRP laminates were externally bonded to the other seven, in a number of different spatial arrangements. Ultimate shear strength was found and compared for all specimens. The results showed that CFRP configuration and geometry directly affected corbel shear strength, which was higher in all the CFRPstrengthened corbels than in the controls. The highest strength values were recorded for specimens whose shear-critical area was wrapped in CFRP.

    Las ménsulas constituyen lo que conocemos como regiones de “distorsión” en las estructuras de hormigón, zonas en que pueden preverse roturas por cortante debido a las bajas relaciones luz de cortante-canto presentes en ellas. La concentración de solicitaciones producida por el peso de las vigas sobre superficies de carga muy reducidas en las ménsulas a menudo provoca el agrietamiento de puentes y otras estructuras de obra civil. En la literatura especializada sobre el refuerzo a cortante de las ménsulas existen escasos ejemplos de estudios experimentales. Para la presente investigación se han realizado ensayos con nueve elementos de este tipo. Dos de ellos no incluían polímeros reforzados con fibra de carbono (CFRP, mientras que los siete restantes llevaban láminas externas de CFRP, dispuestas siguiendo distintas configuraciones espaciales. Los resultados indican que la configuración y la disposición geométrica de los CFRP repercuten

  19. Carbon fibre tips for scanning probe microscopy based on quartz tuning fork force sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellanos-Gomez, A; Agrait, N; Rubio-Bollinger, G, E-mail: gabino.rubio@uam.es [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada (C-III), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-04-09

    We report the fabrication and the characterization of carbon fibre tips for use in combined scanning tunnelling and force microscopy based on piezoelectric quartz tuning fork force sensors. We find that the use of carbon fibre tips results in a minimum impact on the dynamics of quartz tuning fork force sensors, yielding a high quality factor and, consequently, a high force gradient sensitivity. This high force sensitivity, in combination with high electrical conductivity and oxidation resistance of carbon fibre tips, make them very convenient for combined and simultaneous scanning tunnelling microscopy and atomic force microscopy measurements. Interestingly, these tips are quite robust against occasionally occurring tip crashes. An electrochemical fabrication procedure to etch the tips is presented that produces a sub-100-nm apex radius in a reproducible way which can yield high resolution images.

  20. Urea Formaldehyde Composites Reinforced with Sago Fibres Analysis by FTIR, TGA, and DSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tay Chen Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural material or biomaterial plays an important role in the field of fibre-reinforced polymeric materials with their new range of applications and achieves the ecological objective. Composition and structure of the nature fibre and matrix must be taken into consideration for the end use. In this project, Sago fibre particleboard bonds with Urea Formaldehyde to form composite. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectra are used to characterize the Sago/Urea Formaldehyde composite in terms of their functional group and bonding. Sago/UF composite with smaller particle and higher loading of fibre with 15 wt% of UF matrix has the higher curing properties. The composite will have a denser structure by adopting bigger particle and higher loading of UF matrix. The Sago/UF composite only endures a single stage of decomposition. Thermal stability results indicate that particle size, particle/matrix interface adhesion, and particle loading have great influence on the thermal properties of the composites.

  1. Woven hybrid composites: Tensile and flexural properties of oil palm-woven jute fibres based epoxy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawaid, M. [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Abdul Khalil, H.P.S., E-mail: akhalilhps@gmail.com [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Abu Bakar, A. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} Woven hybrid composites show good tensile and flexural properties. {yields} Hybridization with 20% woven jute gives rise to sufficient modulus to composites. {yields} Layering pattern affect mechanical properties of hybrid composites. {yields} Statistical analysis shows that there is significant difference between composites. - Abstract: In this research, tensile and flexural performance of tri layer oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB)/woven jute (Jw) fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites subjected to layering pattern has been experimentally investigated. Sandwich composites were fabricated by hand lay-up technique in a mould and cured with 105 deg. C temperatures for 1 h by using hot press. Pure EFB and woven jute composites were also fabricate for comparison purpose. Results showed that tensile and flexural properties of pure EFB composite can be improved by hybridization with woven jute fibre as extreme woven jute fibre mat. It was found that tensile and flexural properties of hybrid composite is higher than that of EFB composite but less than woven jute composite. Statistical analysis of composites done by ANOVA-one way, it showed significant differences between the results obtained. The fracture surface morphology of the tensile samples of the hybrid composites was performed by using scanning electron microscopy.

  2. Woven hybrid composites: Tensile and flexural properties of oil palm-woven jute fibres based epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Woven hybrid composites show good tensile and flexural properties. → Hybridization with 20% woven jute gives rise to sufficient modulus to composites. → Layering pattern affect mechanical properties of hybrid composites. → Statistical analysis shows that there is significant difference between composites. - Abstract: In this research, tensile and flexural performance of tri layer oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB)/woven jute (Jw) fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites subjected to layering pattern has been experimentally investigated. Sandwich composites were fabricated by hand lay-up technique in a mould and cured with 105 deg. C temperatures for 1 h by using hot press. Pure EFB and woven jute composites were also fabricate for comparison purpose. Results showed that tensile and flexural properties of pure EFB composite can be improved by hybridization with woven jute fibre as extreme woven jute fibre mat. It was found that tensile and flexural properties of hybrid composite is higher than that of EFB composite but less than woven jute composite. Statistical analysis of composites done by ANOVA-one way, it showed significant differences between the results obtained. The fracture surface morphology of the tensile samples of the hybrid composites was performed by using scanning electron microscopy.

  3. Constructive applications of composite gypsum reinforced with Typha Latifolia fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Santos, A.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research analyses the possibility to reinforce gypsum using enea fibres (Typha Latifolia creating a compound material in wich the fibres contribute to increase mechanical resistance, producing as well a reduction of the weight and a possible regulation of the set time.

    La investigación presente analiza la posibilidad de reforzar los morteros de escayola mediante la utilización dé fibras de Typha Latifolia, creando un material compuesto en el que las fibras contribuyen al aumento de resistencia mecánica, a la vez que se produce una reducción del peso y una regulación de los tiempos de fraguado. Las propiedades de estos materiales hacen que, en determinadas aplicaciones, su utilización resulte ventajosa con respecto a materiales tradicionales.

  4. STRAIN HARDENING PROPERTIES OF STEEL FIBRE REINFORCED LATEX CONCRETE COMPOSITE

    OpenAIRE

    V.M. Sounthararajan; Deependra Singh; Shreyansh Parakh; S. Thirumurugan; A. Sivakumar

    2013-01-01

    Steel fibre addition in concrete possesses high merits in terms of achieving homogeneity and tensile strength properties. Polymeric addition in concrete has high advantages in terms of pore fillingeffect and subsequent increase in durability index. The combined addition of steel and polymeric latex additions in concrete leads to increased strength, durability, toughness, resistance to cracking and crack propagation. Studies were conducted in the present study to analyse the properties of conc...

  5. A Spray Pyrolysis Method to Grow Carbon Nanotubes on Carbon Fibres, Steel and Ceramic Bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilatela, Juan J; Rabanal, M E; Cervantes-Sodi, Felipe; García-Ruiz, Máximo; Jiménez-Rodríguez, José A; Reiband, Gerd; Terrones, Mauricio

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate a spray pyrolysis method to grow carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with high degree of crystallinity, aspect ratio and degree of alignment on a variety of different substrates, such as conventional steel, carbon fibres (CF) and ceramics. The process consists in the chemical vapour deposition of both a thin SiO2 layer and CNTs that subsequently grow on this thin layer. After CNT growth, increases in specific surface by factors of 1000 and 30 for the steel and CF samples, respectively, are observed. CNTs growth on ceramic surfaces results in a surface resistance of 37.5 Ohm/sq. When using conventional steel as a rector tube, we observed CNTs growth rates of 0.6 g/min. Details of nanotube morphology and the growth mechanism are discussed. Since the method discussed here is highly versatile, it opens up a wide variety of applications in which specific substrates could be used in combination with CNTs.

  6. A Spray Pyrolysis Method to Grow Carbon Nanotubes on Carbon Fibres, Steel and Ceramic Bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilatela, Juan J; Rabanal, M E; Cervantes-Sodi, Felipe; García-Ruiz, Máximo; Jiménez-Rodríguez, José A; Reiband, Gerd; Terrones, Mauricio

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate a spray pyrolysis method to grow carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with high degree of crystallinity, aspect ratio and degree of alignment on a variety of different substrates, such as conventional steel, carbon fibres (CF) and ceramics. The process consists in the chemical vapour deposition of both a thin SiO2 layer and CNTs that subsequently grow on this thin layer. After CNT growth, increases in specific surface by factors of 1000 and 30 for the steel and CF samples, respectively, are observed. CNTs growth on ceramic surfaces results in a surface resistance of 37.5 Ohm/sq. When using conventional steel as a rector tube, we observed CNTs growth rates of 0.6 g/min. Details of nanotube morphology and the growth mechanism are discussed. Since the method discussed here is highly versatile, it opens up a wide variety of applications in which specific substrates could be used in combination with CNTs. PMID:26353505

  7. Compatibility of Pretreated Coir Fibres (Cocos nucifera L. with Portland Cement to Produce Mineral Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana M. Ferraz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present work were to evaluate the chemical compatibility between coir (Cocos nucifera L. and cement and to study treatment methods to improve this compatibility. In the inhibition test, cement hydration temperature evolution was measured in the absence and presence of untreated and treated coir fibres (cold water, hot water and NaOH, besides the addition of 4% of CaCl2. The chemical characterization of untreated and treated coir fibres was done by determining the content of extractives, lignin, and holocellulose. The inhibition test graded the untreated fibre as “extreme inhibition,” ratifying the need to provide it a treatment. Treatments done on coir fibres affected positively the compatibility between cement and fibre, reducing the inhibition. The treatments reduced the lignin coir fibres’ and extractives proportion, whose variation was significantly correlated with the reduction of the inhibitory index. These results indicate a possibility for future incorporation of these fibres into the production of mineral composites.

  8. Effects of dietary fibre source on microbiota composition in the large intestine of suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingli; Mu, Chunlong; He, Xiangyu; Su, Yong; Mao, Shengyong; Zhang, Jing; Smidt, Hauke; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary fibre sources on the gut microbiota in suckling piglets, and to test the hypothesis that a moderate increase of dietary fibre may affect the gut microbiota during the suckling period. Suckling piglets were fed different fibre-containing diets or a control diet from postnatal day 7 to 22. Digesta samples from cecum, proximal colon and distal colon were used for Pig Intestinal Tract Chip analysis. The data showed that the effects of fibre-containing diet on the gut microbiota differed in the fibre source and gut location. The alfalfa diet increased Clostridium cluster XIVb and Sporobacter termitidis in the cecum compared to the pure cellulose diet. Compared to the control diet, the alfalfa diet also increased Coprococcus eutactus in the distal colon, while the pure cellulose diet decreased Eubacterium pyruvativorans in the cecum. The pure cellulose diet increased Prevotella ruminicola compared to the wheat bran diet. Interestingly, the alfalfa group had the lowest abundance of the potential pathogen Streptococcus suis in the cecum and distal colon. These results indicated that a moderate increase in dietary fibres affected the microbial composition in suckling piglets, and that the alfalfa inclusion produced some beneficial effects on the microbial communities. PMID:27231242

  9. The mechanical properties, deformation and thermomechanical properties of alkali treated and untreated Agave continuous fibre reinforced epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → New renewable and biodegradable Agave americana fibre. → Environmentally free materials. → Good mechanical properties of Agave fibre reinforced epoxy composite materials. → Surface modification of the fibre (Alkali treatment) imported good mechanical properties. → Future scope in light weight materials manufacture. -- Abstract: The mechanical properties such as tensile, compressive, flexural, impact strength and water absorption of the alkali treated continuous Agave fibre reinforced epoxy composite (TCEC) and untreated continuous Agave fibre reinforced epoxy composite (UTCEC) were analysed. A comparison of the surfaces of TCEC and UTCEC composites was carried out by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thermomechanical properties of the composite reinforced with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treated Agave fibres were considerably good as the shrinkage of the fibre during alkali treatment had facilitated more points of fibre resin interface. The SEM micrograph and FTIR spectra of the impact fracture surfaces of TCEC clearly demonstrate the better interfacial adhesion between fibre and the matrix. In both analyses the TCEC gave good performance than UTCEC and, thus, there is a scope for its application in light weight manufacture in future.

  10. Behaviour of -glass fibre reinforced vinylester resin composites under impact fatigue

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rita Roy; B K Sarkar; N R Bose

    2001-04-01

    An impact fatigue study has been made for the first time on 63.5% glass fibre reinforced vinylester resin notched composites. The study was conducted in a pendulum type repeated impact apparatus especially designed and fabricated for determining single and repeated impact strengths. A well-defined impact fatigue (S–N) behaviour, having a progressive endurance below the threshold single cycle impact fracture stress with decreasing applied stress has been demonstrated. Fractographic analysis revealed fracture by primary debonding having fibre breakage and pullout at the tensile zone, but a shear fracture of fibre bundles at the compressive zone of the specimen. The residual strength, modulus and toughness showed retention of the properties at high impact stress levels up to 1000 impacts followed by a sharp drop. Cumulative residual stresses with each number of impacts not withstanding the static fatigue failure at long endurances have been ascribed for the composite failures under the repeated impact stresses.

  11. An analytical solution for transverse thermal conductivities of unidirectional fibre composites with thermal barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou Mingqing; Zhang Duanming; Yu Boming [Department of Physics and the State Key Laboratory of Laser, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)]. E-mail: yu3838@public.wh.hb.cn

    2002-08-07

    In this paper, an analytical expression for transverse thermal conductivities of unidirectional fibre composites with thermal barrier is derived based on the electrical analogy technique and on the cylindrical filament-square packing array unit cell model (C-S model). The present analytical expressions both with and without thermal barrier between fibre and matrix are presented. The present theoretical predictions without thermal barrier are found to be in excellent agreement with the existing analytical model and nomogram from the finite difference method (FDM), and in good agreement with existing experimental data. Furthermore, the present analytical predictions with thermal barrier can best fit the experimental data and can provide a higher accuracy than the finite element method (FEM). The validity of the present analytical solution is thus verified for transverse thermal conductivities of unidirectional fibre composites with thermal barrier. (author)

  12. An analytical solution for transverse thermal conductivities of unidirectional fibre composites with thermal barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, an analytical expression for transverse thermal conductivities of unidirectional fibre composites with thermal barrier is derived based on the electrical analogy technique and on the cylindrical filament-square packing array unit cell model (C-S model). The present analytical expressions both with and without thermal barrier between fibre and matrix are presented. The present theoretical predictions without thermal barrier are found to be in excellent agreement with the existing analytical model and nomogram from the finite difference method (FDM), and in good agreement with existing experimental data. Furthermore, the present analytical predictions with thermal barrier can best fit the experimental data and can provide a higher accuracy than the finite element method (FEM). The validity of the present analytical solution is thus verified for transverse thermal conductivities of unidirectional fibre composites with thermal barrier. (author)

  13. Tensile properties of unidirectional glass/epoxy composites at different orientations of fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Hegde

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Diglycidyl Ether of BisphenolA(DGEBA / TriEthylene Tetra Amine(TETA system is used as the epoxy matrix and unidirectional glass fabric is used to reinforce with the polymer matrix by hand layup and vacuum bagging process. The glass fibre reinforced composites are prepared with fibre orientations of 0°, 45° and 90°. The specimens, after preparation, are tested for various tensile properties at different angles of the laminate. The tensile properties studied in this case are Tensile Strength, Tensile Modulus, Specific Tensile Strength and Specific Tensile Modulus. The result shave then been tabulated and studied to understand variation in the properties with orientation of fibre in the composite. Experimental procedure is carried out as per ASTM D3039 standards.

  14. The Influence of Chemical Treatment on the Mechanical Behaviour of Animal Fibre-Reinforced High Density Polyethylene Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Isiaka O. Oladele; Jimmy L. Olajide; Adekunle S. Ogunbadejo

    2015-01-01

    This research work has investigated the influence of chemical treatment on the mechanical behaviour of animal fibre-reinforced high density polyethylene composites. The animal fibres used for this present study were chicken feather and cow hair fibres procured from local poultries and abattoirs. Prior to the development of the composite materials, the animal fibres were washed and dried, cut into 10 mm and divided into two portions; one portion was treated with 0.25 M NaOH maintained at 60 0C...

  15. Ballistic Applications of Glass and Kevlar Fibre Vinylester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Panda

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Void-free E-glass and Kevlar-49 fibre reinforced vinylester laminates prepared under compression moulding were found to have Charpy impact strength of 576 KJlm2 and 304 KJlm2, respectively. Ballistic immunisation tests carried out on the glass reinforced vinylester laminates with thickness ranging from 12 mm to 54 mm against 7.62 mm rifle bullets produced an exponential relationship between the per cent attenuation in bullet velocity and the areal density of the laminates; whereas the relationship was linear for 9 mm carbine fire with laminate thicknessvarying from 5.5 mm to 12 mm .

  16. Metabolic response to dietary fibre composition in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøkner, C.; Austbø, D.; Næsset, J. A.;

    2016-01-01

    . The feed rations consisted of only timothy hay (H), hay plus molassed sugar beet pulp combined with either whole oats (OB) or barley (BB) and hay plus a loose chaff-based concentrate (M). Four horses were fitted with permanent caecal cannulas and liquid caecal content was withdrawn manually and blood...... was drawn from the jugular vein at 0, 3 and 9 h postprandial. The horses were exercised daily at medium level for about 1 h. Samples were analysed for short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and metabolic traits. Caecal SCFA and propionic acid concentrations increased with increased dietary starch and soluble fibre...... energy for horses at medium work level....

  17. Effect of fibre content and alkali treatment on mechanical properties of Roystonea regia-reinforced epoxy partially biodegradable composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Govardhan Goud; R N Rao

    2011-12-01

    The present paper investigates the effect of fibre content and alkali treatment on tensile, flexural and impact properties of unidirectional Roystonea regia natural-fibre-reinforced epoxy composites which are partially biodegradable. The reinforcement Roystonea regia (royal palm) fibre was collected from the foliage of locally available royal palm tree through the process of water retting and mechanical extraction. The poor adhesion between fibre and matrix is commonly encountered problem in natural-fibre-reinforced composites. To overcome this problem, specific physical and chemical treatments were suggested for surface modification of fibres by investigators. Alkali treatment is one of the simple and effective surface modification techniques which is widely used in natural fibre composites. In the present study both untreated and alkali-treated fibres were used as reinforcement in Roystonea regia epoxy composites and the tensile, flexural and impact properties were determined at different fibre contents. The alkali treatment found to be effective in improving the tensile and flexural properties while the impact strength decreased.

  18. A Preliminary Study on Ultrasonic Cutting Process for Carbon Fibre Prepreg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In ultrasonic cutting process, the cutting pressure is still essential for achieving good quality cut edge compared with traditional mechanical cutting process. With the increase of the cutting power, the cutting pressure demand decreases. The cutting velocity range is extended broadly. The experiment results show that ultrasonic cutting technique is an effective, clean and controllable method for machining of carbon fibre prepreg.

  19. Pulse-Width Increase of Reflex Triode Vircator Using the Carbon Fibre Cathode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lie; LI Li-Min; ZHANG Xiao-Ping; WEN Jian-Chun; WAN Hong

    2006-01-01

    @@ We present the investigation on the reflex triode virtual cathode oscillator in which performances of carbonfibre and stainless-steel cathodes are compared with each other. The experimental results and analyses show that surface tracking induces the electron emission of the carbon fibre cathode.

  20. The application of the eshelby method of internal stress determination to short fibre metal matrix composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Withers, P.J.; Stobbs, W.M.; Pedersen, O.B.

    1989-01-01

    Eshelby's equivalent inclusion approach is used to provide a rigorous theoretical basis for the prediction of the mechanical properties of short fibre composites. The equivalent inclusion construction which is central to this method is described in detail. The elastic, thermoelastic and plastic b...

  1. Effects of chemical-physical pre-treatment processes on hemp fibres for reinforcement of composites and textiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Thygesen, Anders; Bohn, Vibeke;

    2006-01-01

    of base and oxidant. These treatments were performed to make fibres that are useful as reinforcement in composite materials and for textiles. All pre-treatments tested increased the content of cellulose in the fibres by degrading and dissolving non-cell wall material (NCWM, e.g., pectin and waxes), lignin......, the pre-treatments gave fibre colours ranging from white to dark brown. Alkaline wet oxidation produced the brightest fibres with potential for use in textiles. Use of retted fibres in the pre-treatment resulted in fibres with high cellulose content (86-90%) of potential as reinforcement in composite...... and to some degree hemicellulose. A high loss of dry matter in the process was connected with a high loss of cellulose since cellulose is the main component. Generally losses were bigger for steam explosion than for wet oxidation and hydrothermal treatment. All the pre-treatments with base gave cellulose...

  2. Carbon nanotube composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2015-03-24

    A material consisting essentially of a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes dissolved in a solvent. Un-functionalized carbon nanotube concentrations up to 30 wt % and hydroxylated carbon nanotube concentrations up to 40 wt % can be used with even small concentrations of each (less than 2 wt %) useful in producing enhanced conductivity properties of formed thin films.

  3. Determination of the parameters of crystallization of maleic anhydride modified polypropylene in model composites with glass fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Janevski, Aco; Bogoeva-Gaceva, Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Isothermal and nonisothermal crystallizations of maleic anhydride-modified iPP in glass fibres model composites with unsized and sized glass fibres were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), to evaluate the influence of glass fibres on crystallization behavior. Isothermal crystallization was followed in the temperature range from 391 K to 403 K, and the rate constant and Avrami exponents were determined. Nonisothermal crystallization was carried out at different cooling rates (1...

  4. A planar model study of creep in metal matrix composites with misaligned short fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, N.J.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of fibre misalignment on the creep behaviour of metal matrix composites is modelled, including hardening behaviour (stage 1), dynamic recovery and steady state creep (stage 2) of the matrix material, using an internal variable constitutive model for the creep behaviour of the metal...... matrix. Numerical plane strain results in terms of average properties and detailed local deformation behaviour up to large strains are needed to show effects of fibre misalignment on the development of inelastic strains and the resulting over-all creep resistance of the material. The creep resistance...

  5. Caractérisation microstructurale et mécanique d’un composite cimentaire renforcé par des fibres de lin Characterizations mechanical and microstructural of flax fibre cement composite reinforced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutouil M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dans la perspective de valorisation des fibres de lin dans les matériaux de construction, la présente étude s’intéresse à la caractérisation microstructurale et mécanique d’un composite cimentaire renforcé par des fibres de lin. Les analyses microstructurales au MEB ont été menées pour évaluer l’homogénéité de la distribution des fibres, la qualité de l’interaction fibre/matrice et l’influence de leur présence sur les défauts microstructuraux. Le comportement mécanique en flexion du mortier renforcé par les fibres de lin est étudié en fonction de la longueur et la teneur en fibres. Les résultats indiquent une bonne adhésion entre les fibres et la matrice à l’état frais. Mais les fibres étant hydrophiles, elles gonflent pendant la prise du ciment et le retrait lors du séchage engendre alors des déchaussements. Les résultats de caractérisation mécanique sont encourageants. Tout d’abord, la fissuration du mortier due au retrait au jeune âge est fortement réduite du fait de la présence des fibres. Ensuite, la rupture brutale de la matrice en monolithe laisse place à un comportement quasi-ductile quand la teneur ou la longueur de fibre augmente. Ce changement de comportement, analysé en termes d’indice de ténacité, illustre la capacité remarquable des fibres de lin à renforcer les matrices cimentaires du fait de leurs bonnes propriétés mécaniques. With the purpose of the flax fibre valuing in construction materials, this study focuses on the characterizations mechanical and microstructural of flax fibre cement composite reinforced. The mechanical strength was studied as the function of fibre volume ratio and length. Meanwhile, the microstructural analysis investigated the homogeneity of fibre scattering, the interaction fibre/cement matrix and the influence of flax fibres on the defects microstructures. The results show the interesting mechanical properties of flax fibre in comparison with

  6. Mercury Removal from Aqueous Solution and Flue Gas by Adsorption on Activated Carbon Fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Nabais, Joao; Carrott, Peter; Ribeiro Carrott, Manuela

    2006-01-01

    The use of two activated carbon fibres, one laboratorial sample prepared from a commercial acrylic textile fibre and one commercial sample of Kynol1, as prepared/received and modified by reaction with powdered sulfur and H2S gas in order to increase the sulfur content were studied for the removal of mercury from aqueous solution and from flue gases from a fluidized bed combustor. The sulfur introduced ranged from 1 to 6 wt.% depending on the method used. The most important parameter ...

  7. Mechanical behaviour of chicken quills and chicken feather fibres reinforced polymeric composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Uzun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this study is to utilise and evaluate the mechanical properties of the chicken feather quill and fibre reinforced vinylester and polyester composites.Design/methodology/approach: Prior to production of the composites, the chicken feather fibres (CFF were cleaned, tested and analyzed in terms of physical properties; linear density and tensile behaviour. The unidirectional CFF reinforced composites were produced with vinylester and polyester resins with three fibre reinforcement loadings (2.5, 6, 10wt%. Following experiments were conducted to determine physical properties of the control (0% and CFF reinforced composites; tensile, flexural and Charpy impact testing.Findings: It was found that the impact properties of the CFF reinforced composites are significantly better than the control composites however both the tensile and the flexural properties of the CFF reinforced composites have poorer values compared to the control composites. For the 10% CFF reinforced vinylester composite, Charpy impact value was 4.42 kgj/mm2 which was 25% higher than the control vinylester composites (3.31 kgj/mm2 and also for the 10% CFF reinforced polyester (4.56 kgj/mm2 composite had three times better impact resistance than the control composite (1.85 kgj/mm2.Practical implications: The CFF reinforced composite have potential applications due to its improved impact behaviour.Originality/value: If the poultry waste can be utilised and used any engineering applications they will be preferred due to low-cost and superior characteristics and the most importantly they will not cause ecological and health problems.

  8. Micro-macro understanding of fatigue of fibre composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.

    2014-01-01

    Degradation of composite materials during cyclic loading is being better understood. Better understanding enables better material models and the development of more durable composite materials that have longer life for e.g. wind turbine rotor blades...

  9. Finite element investigations on the microstructure of fibre-reinforced composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of residual stress due to the curing process on damage evolution in unidirectional (UD fibre-reinforced polymer-matrix composites under longitudinal and transverse loading has been investigated using a three-dimensional micromechanical representative volume element (RVE model with a hexagonal packing geometry and the finite element method. Residual stress has been determined by considering two contributions: volume shrinkage of matrix resin from the crosslink polymerization during isothermal curing and thermal contraction of both resin and fibre as a result of cooling from the curing temperature to room temperature. To examine the effect of residual stress on failure, a study based on different failure criteria and a stiffness degradation technique has been used for damage analysis of the RVE subjected to mechanical loading after curing for a range of fibre volume fractions. Predicted damage initiation and evolution are clearly influenced by the presence of residual stress.

  10. Advanced fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites with reduced processing times by use of nanoscale fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockerhoff, Georg; Brüll, Robert; Vonberg, Klaus; Seide, Gunnar; Gries, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The industrial standard for the manufacturing of fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites (FRTCs) is the film stacking method. An alternative to this is commingling thermoplastic fibres with reinforcing fibres into hybrid rovings. These rovings are woven into weaves and consolidated through compression moulding. This paper evaluates the effects of 5 weight percent (wt.-%) titanium dioxide (TiO2) in commingled polyamide 6 (PA6) on the cycle time during the consolidation process and the mechanical properties. A product representing the industrial standard is used as reference. In order to achieve a good comparability with this product, the film stacking process is also reproduced. Finally, the three plate types are compared regarding their consolidation, tensile and flexural strength. The results show that the hybrid roving FRTC is more consolidated, has better mechanical properties and enables shorter cycle times when compared to the film stacking process.

  11. Modelling the influence of steel fibres on the electrical resistivity of cementitious composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solgaard, Anders Ole Stubbe; Michel, Alexander; Stang, Henrik;

    2009-01-01

    the overall resistivity of the material and thereby the corrosion rate of the embedded reinforcement. To the knowledge of the authors, only preliminary studies have been made on the influence of corrosion of the reinforcement bars from the addition of the electrical conductive steel fibres. Thus the present......One of the governing factors on the corrosion of embedded reinforcement is the electrical resistivity of the concrete. The combination of steel fibres and conventional reinforcement bars has been used in a number of structures. However, the addition of electrical con-ductive fibres might influence...... work concerns the electrical resistivity of cementitious composites and some of the parameters influencing it in order to get a more thorough understanding of the factors governing the overall resistivity. The basis of the present study is an experimental investigation of the electrical resistivity...

  12. Development of high temperature resistant ceramic matrix composites based on SiC- and novel SiBNC-fibres; Entwicklung hochtemperaturbestaendiger keramischer Faserverbundwerkstoffe auf der Basis von SiC- und neuartigen SiBNC-Fasern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daenicke, Enrico

    2014-10-01

    Novel ceramic fibres in the quaternary system Si-B-C-N exhibit excellent high temperature stability and creep resistance. In th is work it was investigated, to what extent these outstanding properties of SiBNC-fibres can be transferred into ceramic matrix composites (CMC) in comparison to commercial silicon carbide (SiC) fibres. For the CMC development the liquid silicon infiltration (LSI) as well as the polymer infiltration and pyrolysis process (PIP) was applied. Extensive correlations between fibre properties, fibre coating (without, pyrolytic carbon, lanthanum phosphate), process parameters of the CMC manufacturing method and the mechanical and microstructural properties of the CMC before and after exposure to air could be established. Hence, the potential of novel CMCs can be assessed and application fields can be derived.

  13. Mechanical Characterization and Water Absorption Behaviour of Interwoven Kenaf/PET Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Hybrid Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakubu Dan-mallam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of interwoven fabric for composite production is a novel approach that can be adopted to address the challenges of balanced mechanical properties and water absorption behaviour of polymer composites. In this paper, kenaf and PET (polyethylene terephthalate fibre were selected as reinforcing materials to develop the woven fabric, and low viscosity epoxy resin was chosen as the matrix. Vacuum infusion process was adopted to produce the hybrid composite due to its superior advantages over hand lay-up technique. The weight percentage composition of the Epoxy/kenaf/PET hybrid composite was maintained at 70/15/15 and 60/20/20, respectively. A significant increase in tensile strength and elastic modulus of approximately 73% and 53% was recorded in relation to neat epoxy. Similarly, a substantial increase in flexural, impact, and interlaminar properties was also realized in relation to neat epoxy. This enhancement in mechanical properties may be attributed to the interlocking structure of the interwoven fabric, individual properties of kenaf and PET fibres, strong interfacial bonding, and resistance of the fibres to impact loading. The water absorption of the composites was studied by prolonged exposure in distilled water, and the moisture absorption pattern was found to follow Fickian behaviour.

  14. Glass fibre polyester composite with in vivo vascular channel for use in self-healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The embedment of adhesive-filled hollow glass fibres (HGF) has been reported as a way of combating micro-crack development in fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) structures. However, hollow fibres can critically undermine the effectiveness of self-healing systems and have been reported to be a potential impediment to the healing agent flow path. On the other hand, attempting to use non-hollow vascular systems in higher dimensions has largely been restricted to bulk polymers that lack reinforcing fibres. This paper investigates an alternative technique where a simple two-dimensional (2D) network of hollow channels is created within a glass-fibre-reinforced polyester-composite structure. The network is created using a fugitive preforming material at the ply level of interest, similar to a direct ink writing procedure. The temporary structure is extracted as a part of the curing and post-curing processes. The channels formed are used to deliver cyanoacrylate adhesive (CA) to areas that have been damaged under a flexural three-point bending test. Subsequent post-repair mechanical testing, under the same mode, evaluates the success of the repair process. The results show good recovery of the stiffness, a paramount mechanical property, and indicate how the grade of the repairing agent used influences the recovered loading strength of the FRP samples. (paper)

  15. Dynamic densification of metal matrix-coated fibre composites: modelling and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consolidation processing of Ti-6Al-4V matrix-coated fibre (MCF) composite under vacuum hot pressing (VHP) has been investigated. A new test methodology has been developed for the determination of in situ matrix coating creep properties. In using the methodology, only a single, simple test is required, together with finite element modelling of the single fibre compression test. The creep coefficient and stress index have been determined for electron beam evaporated physical vapour deposited Ti-6Al-4V at 900 deg. C to be 1.23 x 10-5 and 1.3, respectively. Consolidation experiments have been carried out on multi-ply MCF arrays under vacuum hot pressing. Finite element models have been developed for the dynamic consolidation of both square and hexagonal fibre packings. The creep constants for the Ti-6Al-4V, determined using the single fibre test, were assigned to the coating in the finite element models. Excellent agreement between predicted and experimental results was achieved, providing verification of the single fibre test methodology for the determination of creep constants

  16. Glass fibre polyester composite with in vivo vascular channel for use in self-healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifo, Omosola; Ryan, Kevin; Basu, Biswajit

    2014-09-01

    The embedment of adhesive-filled hollow glass fibres (HGF) has been reported as a way of combating micro-crack development in fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) structures. However, hollow fibres can critically undermine the effectiveness of self-healing systems and have been reported to be a potential impediment to the healing agent flow path. On the other hand, attempting to use non-hollow vascular systems in higher dimensions has largely been restricted to bulk polymers that lack reinforcing fibres. This paper investigates an alternative technique where a simple two-dimensional (2D) network of hollow channels is created within a glass-fibre-reinforced polyester-composite structure. The network is created using a fugitive preforming material at the ply level of interest, similar to a direct ink writing procedure. The temporary structure is extracted as a part of the curing and post-curing processes. The channels formed are used to deliver cyanoacrylate adhesive (CA) to areas that have been damaged under a flexural three-point bending test. Subsequent post-repair mechanical testing, under the same mode, evaluates the success of the repair process. The results show good recovery of the stiffness, a paramount mechanical property, and indicate how the grade of the repairing agent used influences the recovered loading strength of the FRP samples.

  17. Effects of activated carbon fibre-supported metal oxide characteristics on toluene removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen-Shu; Peng, Yu-Hui; Li, Wen-Kai

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the use of activated carbon fibres (ACFs) impregnated with metal oxides for the catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Thus, the effects of the ACF-supported metal oxides on toluene removal are determined in this study. Three catalysts, namely, Ce, Mn, and Cu, two pretreatment solutions NaOH and H2O2, and three reaction temperatures of 250 degrees C, 300 degrees C, and 350 degrees C, were employed to determine toluene removal. The composition and morphology of the catalysts were analysed using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), transmission electron microscope (TEM), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), and thermo-gravimetric analyser (TGA) to study the effects of the catalyst's characteristics on toluene removal. The results demonstrated that the metal catalysts supported on the ACFs could significantly increase toluene removal. The Mn/ACFs and Cu/ACFs were observed to be most active in toluene removal at a reaction temperature of 250 degrees C with 10% oxygen content. Moreover, the data also indicated that toluene removal was slightly improved after pretreating the ACFs with NaOH and H2O2. The results suggested that surface-metal loading and the surface characteristics of the ACFs were the determinant parameters for toluene removal. Furthermore, the removal of toluene over Mn/ACFs-H202 decreased when the reaction temperature considered was > 300 degrees C.

  18. Influence of fibre distribution and grain size on the mechanical behaviour of friction stir processed Mg–C composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertens, A., E-mail: anne.mertens@ulg.ac.be [Université de Liège, Faculty of Applied Science, A& M Department, Metallic Materials Science Unit (Belgium); Simar, A. [Université catholique de Louvain, Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering (Belgium); Adrien, J.; Maire, E. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon (INSA Lyon), MATEIS Laboratory (France); Montrieux, H.-M. [Université de Liège, Faculty of Applied Science, A& M Department, Metallic Materials Science Unit (Belgium); Delannay, F. [Université catholique de Louvain, Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering (Belgium); Lecomte-Beckers, J. [Université de Liège, Faculty of Applied Science, A& M Department, Metallic Materials Science Unit (Belgium)

    2015-09-15

    Short C fibres–Mg matrix composites have been produced by friction stir processing sandwiches made of a layer of C fabric stacked between two sheets of Mg alloy AZ31B or AZ91D. This novel processing technique can allow the easy production of large-scale metal matrix composites. The paper investigates the microstructure of FSPed C fibre–Mg composites in relation with the fragmentation of the C fibres during FSP and their influence on the tensile properties. 3D X-ray tomography reveals that the fibres orient like onion rings and are more or less fragmented depending on the local shear stress during the process. The fibre volume fraction can be increased from 2.3% to 7.1% by reducing the nugget volume, i.e. by using a higher advancing speed in AZ31B alloy or a stronger matrix alloy, like AZ91D alloy. A higher fibre volume fraction leads to a smaller grain size which brings about an increase of the composite yield strength by 15 to 25%. However, a higher fibre volume fraction also leads to a lower fracture strain. Fracture surface observations reveal that damage occurs by fibre/matrix decohesion along fibres oriented perpendicularly to the loading direction. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • C–Mg MMCs were produced by FSP sandwiches made of a C fabric between Mg sheets. • Fibre fragmentation and erosion is larger when the temperature reached during FSP is lower. • A lower advancing speed brings a lower fibre volume fraction and a lower grain size. • X-ray tomography reveals that fibres orient along the FSP material flow. • The fibres and grain size reduction increase the yield strength by 15 to 25%.

  19. Injection moulding of long glass fibre reinforced poly(ethylene terephtalate: Influence of carbon black and nucleating agents on impact properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lafranche

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at highlighting the influence of different additives (carbon black and nucleating agents on both the notched and unnotched Charpy impact properties of long glass fibre reinforced poly(ethylene terephtalate injection mouldings. The relationship with the polymer matrix and composite microstructure modifications (variations of crystalline morphology and local fibre content was investigated. Adding carbon black alone decreases the impact performances. This highly conductive additive actually increases the cooling rate, and therefore the fibre ‘frettage’ effect (higher internal stresses. It also acts as filler, which increases the material brittleness. The nucleating agents allow reducing the mould temperature, but their effect on the impact strength may be favourable or not depending on the processing temperatures. The addition of such additives induces perturbations of the polymer melt rheology in the mould cavity and of the cooling kinetics of the part, which both act on the fibre distribution during mould filling and on the degree of crystallinity of the composite parts.

  20. Thermoplastic impact property improvement in hybrid natural fibre epoxy composite bumper beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, M. M.; Sapuan, S. M.; Ali, Aidy; Ahmad, D.; Khalina, A.

    2010-05-01

    Utilization of thermoset resin as a bumper beam composite matrix is currently more dominated in car manufacturer suppliers, because of availability, easy processing, low material cost and production equipment investment. Moreover, low viscosity, shrinkage and excellent flow facilitate better fibre impregnation and proper surface resin wetting. Three-dimensional cross linking curing increase impact, creep and environmental stress cracking resistance properties. Low impact properties of natural fibre epoxy composite, are main issues in its employment for automotive structural components. Impact properties in epoxy composite bumper beam could be increased by modifying the resin, reinforcement and manufacturing process as well as geometry parameters such as cross section, thickness, added ribs and fixing method optimizations could strengthen impact resistance. There are two main methods, flexibilisation and toughening, as modifying the resin in order to improve the impact properties of epoxy composite, which form single phase or two-phase morphology to make modifier as epoxy or from separate phase to keep the thermo-mechanical properties. Liquid rubber, thermoplastic, core shell particle and rigid particle are different methods of toughening improvements. In this research, thermoplastic toughening has used to improve impact properties in hybrid natural fibre epoxy composite for automotive bumper beam and has achieved reasonable impact improvements.

  1. Tannin-based flax fibre reinforced composites for structural applications in vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innovation is often driven by changes in government policies regulating the industries, especially true in case of the automotive. Except weight savings, the strict EU regulation of 95% recyclable material-made vehicles drives the manufactures and scientists to seek new 'green materials' for structural applications. With handing at two major drawbacks (production cost and safety), ECHOSHELL is supported by EU to develop and optimise structural solutions for superlight electric vehicles by using bio-composites made of high-performance natural fibres and resins, providing enhanced strength and bio-degradability characteristics. Flax reinforced tannin-based composite is selected as one of the candidates and were firstly investigated with different fabric lay-up angles (non-woven flax mat, UD, [0, 90°]4 and [0, +45°, 90°, −45°]2) through authors' work. Some of the obtained results, such as tensile properties and SEM micrographs were shown in this conference paper. The UD flax reinforced composite exhibits the best tensile performance, with tensile strength and modulus of 150 MPa and 9.6 MPa, respectively. It was observed that during tension the oriented-fabric composites showed some delamination process, which are expected to be eliminated through surface treatment (alkali treatment etc.) and nanotechnology, such as the use of nano-fibrils. Failure mechanism of the tested samples were identified through SEM results, indicating that the combination of fibre pull-out, fibre breakage and brittle resins failure mainly contribute to the fracture failure of composites.

  2. Thermoplastic impact property improvement in hybrid natural fibre epoxy composite bumper beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilization of thermoset resin as a bumper beam composite matrix is currently more dominated in car manufacturer suppliers, because of availability, easy processing, low material cost and production equipment investment. Moreover, low viscosity, shrinkage and excellent flow facilitate better fibre impregnation and proper surface resin wetting. Three-dimensional cross linking curing increase impact, creep and environmental stress cracking resistance properties. Low impact properties of natural fibre epoxy composite, are main issues in its employment for automotive structural components. Impact properties in epoxy composite bumper beam could be increased by modifying the resin, reinforcement and manufacturing process as well as geometry parameters such as cross section, thickness, added ribs and fixing method optimizations could strengthen impact resistance. There are two main methods, flexibilisation and toughening, as modifying the resin in order to improve the impact properties of epoxy composite, which form single phase or two-phase morphology to make modifier as epoxy or from separate phase to keep the thermo-mechanical properties. Liquid rubber, thermoplastic, core shell particle and rigid particle are different methods of toughening improvements. In this research, thermoplastic toughening has used to improve impact properties in hybrid natural fibre epoxy composite for automotive bumper beam and has achieved reasonable impact improvements.

  3. Tannin-based flax fibre reinforced composites for structural applications in vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J.; Abhyankar, H.; Nassiopoulos, E.; Njuguna, J.

    2012-09-01

    Innovation is often driven by changes in government policies regulating the industries, especially true in case of the automotive. Except weight savings, the strict EU regulation of 95% recyclable material-made vehicles drives the manufactures and scientists to seek new 'green materials' for structural applications. With handing at two major drawbacks (production cost and safety), ECHOSHELL is supported by EU to develop and optimise structural solutions for superlight electric vehicles by using bio-composites made of high-performance natural fibres and resins, providing enhanced strength and bio-degradability characteristics. Flax reinforced tannin-based composite is selected as one of the candidates and were firstly investigated with different fabric lay-up angles (non-woven flax mat, UD, [0, 90°]4 and [0, +45°, 90°, -45°]2) through authors' work. Some of the obtained results, such as tensile properties and SEM micrographs were shown in this conference paper. The UD flax reinforced composite exhibits the best tensile performance, with tensile strength and modulus of 150 MPa and 9.6 MPa, respectively. It was observed that during tension the oriented-fabric composites showed some delamination process, which are expected to be eliminated through surface treatment (alkali treatment etc.) and nanotechnology, such as the use of nano-fibrils. Failure mechanism of the tested samples were identified through SEM results, indicating that the combination of fibre pull-out, fibre breakage and brittle resins failure mainly contribute to the fracture failure of composites.

  4. Tribological Evaluations of Polyester Composites Considering Three Orientations of CSM Glass Fibres Using BOR Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, B. F.; El-Tayeb, N. S. M.

    2007-03-01

    In the current work, the effects of chopped strand mat (CSM) glass fibre 450 g/m2 on tribo-properties of unsaturated polyester are evaluated. Experimental tests were performed by using Block on Ring (BOR) machine against polished stainless steel under dry contact condition. Three principle orientations of CSM glass fibre in the matrix were considered, i.e. namely Parallel (P-O), Anti-Parallel (AP-O) and Normal (N-O). Specific wear rate, friction coefficient and interface temperature were determined and presented as a function of applied load (30 100 N), and sliding distance (0 14 km) at two different sliding velocities (2.8 and 3.9 m/s). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the damages features on the worn surfaces. The results showed that the orientations of CSM glass fibre significantly influenced the tribological performance of polyester composite. Better tribo performance were achieved when the polyester was reinforced with CSM glass fibre and tested at Parallel orientation. Moreover, specific wear rate and friction coefficient of polyester was reduced by 75%, and 55% at P-O of CGRP composite. The damage features were predominated by debonding of fibers, matrix deformation and polyester debris transfer.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of biodegradable starch/PVA composite films reinforced with cellulosic fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Bhanu; Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Pathania, Deepak; Singha, Amar Singh

    2014-08-30

    Cellulosic fibres reinforced composite blend films of starch/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were prepared by using citric acid as plasticizer and glutaraldehyde as the cross-linker. The mechanical properties of cellulosic fibres reinforced composite blend were compared with starch/PVA crossed linked blend films. The increase in the tensile strength, elongation percentage, degree of swelling and biodegradability of blend films was evaluated as compared to starch/PVA crosslinked blend films. The value of different evaluated parameters such as citric acid, glutaraldehyde and reinforced fibre to starch/PVA (5:5) was found to be 25 wt.%, 0.100 wt.% and 20 wt.%, respectively. The blend films were characterized using Fourier transform-infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTA/DTG). Scanning electron microscopy illustrated a good adhesion between starch/PVA blend and fibres. The blend films were also explored for antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results confirmed that the blended films may be used as exceptional material for food packaging.

  6. The Influence of Chemical Treatment on the Mechanical Behaviour of Animal Fibre-Reinforced High Density Polyethylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isiaka O. Oladele

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research work has investigated the influence of chemical treatment on the mechanical behaviour of animal fibre-reinforced high density polyethylene composites. The animal fibres used for this present study were chicken feather and cow hair fibres procured from local poultries and abattoirs. Prior to the development of the composite materials, the animal fibres were washed and dried, cut into 10 mm and divided into two portions; one portion was treated with 0.25 M NaOH maintained at 60 0C for 1 hour in a water bath, rinsed with distilled water and dried in the oven while the other portion was left untreated. Both portions were then used to reinforce the high density polyethylene polymer at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 % fibre loading respectively from which, the flexural and tensile test samples were produced by hot compression moulding. From the test results, it was observed that the chemically treated cow hair and chicken feather fibre reinforced high density polyethylene composites gave the best flexural properties for most fibre loading percentages compared to their untreated animal fibre-reinforced high density polyethylene composites counterparts and the neat high density polyethylene matrix. However, the tensile properties of all the animal fibre-reinforced high density polyethylene composites were not enhanced. Chicken feather and cow hair fibres were chosen for this research work to consider their potential applications as reinforcement for polymeric materials with a view to curtail the environmental pollution they generate by means of their disposal, as they are considered as unusable animal waste.

  7. The effect of ion implantation on the tribomechanical properties of carbon fibre reinforced polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistica, R.; Sood, D.K. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Janardhana, M.N. [Deakin University, Geelong, VIC (Australia). School of Engineering and Technology

    1993-12-31

    Graphite fibre reinforced epoxy composite material (GFRP) is used extensively in the aerospace and other industries for structural application. The trend is to address the 20 to 30 year life endurance of this material in service. Mechanical joints in air crafts are exposed to dynamic loads during service and wear may be experienced by the composite material joint. Generally it has been shown that graphite fibre reinforced polymers have superior wear and friction properties as compared with the unfilled polymers. In the described experiment, ion implantation was used as a novel surface treatment. Wear and friction of a polymer composite material (GFRP) was studied and ion implantation was used in order to observe the effect on the tribomechanical properties of the material. It was found that ion implantation of C on GFRP sliding against Ti changes the tribological properties of the system, and in particular decreases the coefficient of friction and wear. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Plant Fibre: Molecular Structure and Biomechanical Properties, of a Complex Living Material, Influencing Its Deconstruction towards a Biobased Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Sorieul

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell walls form an organic complex composite material that fulfils various functions. The hierarchical structure of this material is generated from the integration of its elementary components. This review provides an overview of wood as a composite material followed by its deconstruction into fibres that can then be incorporated into biobased composites. Firstly, the fibres are defined, and their various origins are discussed. Then, the organisation of cell walls and their components are described. The emphasis is on the molecular interactions of the cellulose microfibrils, lignin and hemicelluloses in planta. Hemicelluloses of diverse species and cell walls are described. Details of their organisation in the primary cell wall are provided, as understanding of the role of hemicellulose has recently evolved and is likely to affect our perception and future study of their secondary cell wall homologs. The importance of the presence of water on wood mechanical properties is also discussed. These sections provide the basis for understanding the molecular arrangements and interactions of the components and how they influence changes in fibre properties once isolated. A range of pulping processes can be used to individualise wood fibres, but these can cause damage to the fibres. Therefore, issues relating to fibre production are discussed along with the dispersion of wood fibres during extrusion. The final section explores various ways to improve fibres obtained from wood.

  9. A preliminary biomechanical study of a novel carbon-fibre hip implant versus standard metallic hip implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougherara, Habiba; Zdero, Rad; Dubov, Anton; Shah, Suraj; Khurshid, Shaheen; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2011-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty is a widespread surgical approach for treating severe osteoarthritis of the human hip. Aseptic loosening of standard metallic hip implants due to stress shielding and bone loss has motivated the development of new materials for hip prostheses. Numerically, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model that mimicked hip implants was used to compare a new hip stem to two commercially available implants. The hip implants simulated were a novel CF/PA12 carbon-fibre polyamide-based composite hip stem, the Exeter hip stem (Stryker, Mahwah, NJ, USA), and the Omnifit Eon (Stryker, Mahwah, NJ, USA). A virtual axial load of 3 kN was applied to the FE model. Strain and stress distributions were computed. Experimentally, the three hip stems had their distal portions rigidly mounted and had strain gauges placed along the surface at 3 medial and 3 lateral locations. Axial loads of 3 kN were applied. Measurements of axial stiffness and strain were taken and compared to FE analysis. The overall linear correlation between FE model versus experimental strains showed reasonable results for the lines-of-best-fit for the Composite (Pearson R(2)=0.69, slope=0.82), Exeter (Pearson R(2)=0.78, slope=0.59), and Omnifit (Pearson R(2)=0.66, slope=0.45), with some divergence for the most distal strain locations. From FE analysis, the von Mises stress range for the Composite stem was much lower than that in the Omnifit and Exeter implants by 200% and 45%, respectively. The preliminary experiments showed that the Composite stem stiffness (1982 N/mm) was lower than the metallic hip stem stiffnesses (Exeter, 2460 N/mm; Omnifit, 2543 N/mm). This is the first assessment of stress, strain, and stiffness of the CF/PA12 carbon-fibre hip stem compared to standard commercially-available devices.

  10. Natural fibre high-density polyethylene and lead oxide composites for radiation shielding

    CERN Document Server

    El-Sayed, A; Ismail, M R

    2003-01-01

    Study has been made of the radiation shielding provided by recycled agricultural fibre and industrial plastic wastes produced as composite materials. Fast neutron and gamma-ray spectra behind composites of fibre-plastic (rho = 1.373 g cm sup - sup 3) and fibre-plastic-lead (rho = 2.756 g cm sup - sup 3) have been measured using a collimated reactor beam and neutron-gamma spectrometer with a stilbene scintillator. The pulse shape discriminating technique based on the zero-cross-over method was used to discriminate between neutron and gamma-ray pulses. Slow neutron fluxes have been measured using a collimated reactor beam and BF sub 3 counter, leading to determination of the macroscopic cross-section (SIGMA). The removal cross-sections (SIGMA sub R) of fast neutrons have been determined from measured results and elemental composition of the composites. For gamma-rays, total linear attenuation coefficients (mu) and total mass attenuation coefficients (mu/rho) have been determined from use of the XCOM code and me...

  11. Natural fibre high-density polyethylene and lead oxide composites for radiation shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study has been made of the radiation shielding provided by recycled agricultural fibre and industrial plastic wastes produced as composite materials. Fast neutron and gamma-ray spectra behind composites of fibre-plastic (ρ = 1.373 g cm-3) and fibre-plastic-lead (ρ = 2.756 g cm-3) have been measured using a collimated reactor beam and neutron-gamma spectrometer with a stilbene scintillator. The pulse shape discriminating technique based on the zero-cross-over method was used to discriminate between neutron and gamma-ray pulses. Slow neutron fluxes have been measured using a collimated reactor beam and BF3 counter, leading to determination of the macroscopic cross-section (Σ). The removal cross-sections (ΣR) of fast neutrons have been determined from measured results and elemental composition of the composites. For gamma-rays, total linear attenuation coefficients (μ) and total mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ) have been determined from use of the XCOM code and measured results. Reasonable agreement was found between measured and calculated results

  12. Natural fibre high-density polyethylene and lead oxide composites for radiation shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed Abdo, A.; Ali, M. A. M.; Ismail, M. R.

    2003-03-01

    Study has been made of the radiation shielding provided by recycled agricultural fibre and industrial plastic wastes produced as composite materials. Fast neutron and gamma-ray spectra behind composites of fibre-plastic ( ρ = 1.373 g cm -3) and fibre-plastic-lead ( ρ = 2.756 g cm -3) have been measured using a collimated reactor beam and neutron-gamma spectrometer with a stilbene scintillator. The pulse shape discriminating technique based on the zero-cross-over method was used to discriminate between neutron and gamma-ray pulses. Slow neutron fluxes have been measured using a collimated reactor beam and BF 3 counter, leading to determination of the macroscopic cross-section ( Σ). The removal cross-sections ( ΣR) of fast neutrons have been determined from measured results and elemental composition of the composites. For gamma-rays, total linear attenuation coefficients ( μ) and total mass attenuation coefficients ( μ/ ρ) have been determined from use of the XCOM code and measured results. Reasonable agreement was found between measured and calculated results.

  13. Damage tolerance of continuous fibre composites: material and environmental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibo, G.A.; Hogg, P.J. [Queen Mary and Westfield Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials

    1998-05-01

    Aerospace design philosophies are used to discuss critically, the suitability of composite materials to primary structural applications. The principal issues limiting the use of composites, compression after impact performance and high cost, are examined in terms of material/manufacturing form and environmental conditioning. The material types investigated consist of thermoset and thermoplastic matrix reinforced unidirectional prepreg tape and textile manufactured architectures. (orig.) 141 refs.

  14. High performance carbon-carbon composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lalit M Manocha

    2003-02-01

    Carbon-carbon composites rank first among ceramic composite materials with a spectrum of properties and applications in various sectors. These composites are made of fibres in various directions and carbonaceous polymers and hydrocarbons as matrix precursors. Their density and properties depend on the type and volume fraction of reinforcement, matrix precursor used and end heat treatment temperature. Composites made with thermosetting resins as matrix precursors possess low densities (1.55–1.75 g/cm3) and well-distributed microporosity whereas those made with pitch as the matrix precursor, after densification exhibit densities of 1.8–2.0 g/cm3 with some mesopores, and those made by the CVD technique with hydrocarbon gases, possess intermediate densities and matrices with close porosities. The former (resin-based) composites exhibit high flexural strength, low toughness and low thermal conductivity, whereas the latter (pitch- and CVD-based) can be made with very high thermal conductivity (400–700 W/MK) in the fibre direction. Carbon-carbon composites are used in a variety of sectors requiring high mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, good frictional properties for brake pads in high speed vehicles or high thermal conductivity for thermal management applications. However, for extended life applications, these composites need to be protected against oxidation either through matrix modification with Si, Zr, Hf etc. or by multilayer oxidation protection coatings consisting of SiC, silica, zircon etc.

  15. An engineering analysis of penetration of metal ball into fibre-reinforced composite targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-chi LI; Zhi-hai WANG; Xiao-jun WANG; Xiu-zhang HU

    2009-01-01

    An engineering analysis of computing the penetration problem of a steel ball penetrating into fibre-reinforced composite targets is presented. Assume the metal ball is a rigid body, and the composite target is a transversely isotropic elasto-plastic material. In the analysis, a spherical cavity dilatation model is incorporated in the cylindrical cavity penetration method. Simulation results based on the modified model are in good agreement with the results for 3-D Kevlar woven (3DKW) composite anti-penetration experiments. Effects of the target material parameters and impact parameters on the penetration problem are also studied.

  16. Fracture characteristics of carbon fibre, ceramic and non-palladium endodontic post systems at monotonously increasing loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottl, P; Hahn, L; Lauer, H Ch; Fay, M

    2002-02-01

    A carbon fibre post system, three non-palladium and one palladium metal post systems, two ceramic post systems, and a metal post system with a ceramic core were studied in vitro. The control group consisted of root-filled test teeth without posts. The test teeth were identical artificial roots of an upper central incisor made from a posterior composite whose module of elasticity was similar to that of natural dentine. All posts were cemented in the roots using Panavia 21 TC. Subsequently, standardized full crowns were cemented onto all roots. On a universal testing machine, the test teeth were loaded palatally at monotonously increasing loads until root fracture. The highest mean fracture loads were found for the carbon fibre post system (312.5 +/- 58.8 N). The fracture load of non-palladium metal posts (242.3-300.4 N) did not differ significantly from that of the Perma-dor post (265.9 N), which does contain palladium. Values of 300.3 +/- 89.3 N (aluminium oxide ceramics) and 193.5 +/-57.0 N (zirconia ceramics) were found for the ceramic posts. The control group exhibited a fracture load of 228.8 +/- 35.7 N. The mean distance between the vestibular end of the fracture gap and the point of force application was between 10.1 +/- 2.3 and 14.7 +/- 1.2 mm.

  17. Thermal shock resistance of ceramic fibre composites characterized by non-destructive methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dimitrijević

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Alumina based ceramic fibres and alumina based ceramic were used to produce composite material. Behaviour of composite ceramics after thermal shock treatments was investigated. Thermal shock of the samples was evaluated using water quench test. Surface deterioration level of samples was monitored by image analysis before and after a number of quenching cycles. Ultrasonic measurements were done on samples after quench tests. Dynamic Young modulus of elasticity and strength degradation were calculated using measured values of ultrasonic velocities. Strengths deterioration was calculated using the non-destructive measurements and correlated to degradation of surface area and number of quenches. The addition of small amount of ceramic fibres improves the strengths and diminishes the loss of mechanical properties of samples during thermal shock experiments.

  18. Temperature Distribution in Fibre-glass Composite Impregnated with Epoxy-Cyanate ester Blend

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka Brahmbhatt; Moni Banaudha; Subrata Pradhan

    2014-01-01

    Cyanate ester and epoxy blends have been identified as an attractive insulating material for fusion grade magnet winding packs. An insulation system comprising of fibre glass composites and cyanate ester and blend has been analyzed during its vacuum pressure impregnation and curing. The transient one dimensional distribution of temperature and extent of cure has been evaluated both analytically and experimentally in this paper. The one dimensional transient (1-D) heat transfer cha...

  19. Photoluminescence of Electrospun Poly-Methyl-Methacrylate:Alq3 Composite Fibres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Ke-Qin; XU Chun-Xian; WANG Qiong; GU Bao-Xiang; ZHENG Ke; YE Li-Hua; LI Xin-Song

    2008-01-01

    @@ Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium doped poly-methyl-methactylate (PMMA:AIq3) composite nanofibres are fabricated by electrospinning.The morphology of fibres is characterized by scanning electron microscopy.The photoluminescenee of a series of the nanofibres with various contents of Alq3 to PMMA is investigated.UV-visible absorption and the PL spectra analysis are employed to analyse the interaction between the polymer and the luminescent molecule.

  20. Prediction of stiffness and stresses in z-fibre reinforced composite laminates

    OpenAIRE

    Grassi, Marcello; Zhang, Xiang; Meo, Michele

    2002-01-01

    The mechanical properties of z-pinned composite laminates were examined numerically. Finite element calculations have been performed to understand how the through-thickness reinforcement modifies the engineering elastic constants and local stress distributions. Solutions were found for four basic laminate stacking sequences, all having two percent volume fraction of z-fibres. For the stiffness analysis, a micromechanicalfinite element model was employed that was based on the...

  1. Processing, characterization and modeling of recycled polypropylene/glass fibre/wood flour composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polypropylene (PP) is one of the most common thermoplastic materials in the world. There is a need to recycle the large amount of this used material. To overcome the environmental problems, related to the polymer waste, PP was recycled and used as a matrix material in different composites that can be used in high value applications. In this paper, composites made of recycled polypropylene (RPP) reinforced by glass fibres and/or wood flour of the palm tree were prepared, characterized and modeled. The mechanical and thermal properties of these recycled polymer matrix composites (RPMCs) were measured experimentally and modeled theoretically. The mechanical properties included tensile modulus, tensile strength and hardness, whereas thermal properties included thermal stability, melting and crystallinity percentage content were studied. In addition we applied the functionally graded materials concept, the elastic finite element analysis of a layered functionally graded pressurized pipe, which is one of the practical industrial applications, was accomplished in order to have some insight on the performance of such RPMCs. The results reveal that the desired mechanical and thermal properties met the requirements of a wide range of practical applications which can be attained by adding the considered fillers. Also, the proper selection of the layers of the pressurized pipe, which was made of RPMCs, led to decrease of the induced stresses and accordingly increased the operational safety. - Highlights: • Recycled polymer matrix composites were prepared with wood flour and glass fibre. • Finite elemental analysis was used for the analysis of layered functionally graded pressurized pipe. • Glass fibres acted as nucleating agents that increased crystallinity % and improved thermal stability. • Mechanical, thermal properties of RPP were improved by wood and glass fibre

  2. Fibre Optic Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Aircraft Composite Structures: Recent Advances and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Raffaella Di Sante

    2015-01-01

    In-service structural health monitoring of composite aircraft structures plays a key role in the assessment of their performance and integrity. In recent years, Fibre Optic Sensors (FOS) have proved to be a potentially excellent technique for real-time in-situ monitoring of these structures due to their numerous advantages, such as immunity to electromagnetic interference, small size, light weight, durability, and high bandwidth, which allows a great number of sensors to operate in the same s...

  3. Monitoring damage development in composite repairs using chirped fibre Bragg grating sensors.

    OpenAIRE

    Rito, Rodolfo N.L.

    2015-01-01

    Composite repairs are often used for damaged structures in order to recover the mechanical properties of the original structure. During service, there is the possibility that damage will occur in the repaired region and hence it would be useful to be able to monitor such repairs. This research investigates the use of chirped fibre Bragg grating (CFBG) sensors to monitor the development of fatigue damage initiation and growth in the repaired region of three different repair systems, i.e. glass...

  4. Influence of bulk fibre properties of PAN-based carbon felts on their performance in vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiss, Rüdiger

    2015-03-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon felts with different fibre properties were studied in terms of their suitability as porous flow-through electrode materials in all vanadium redox flow batteries. The crystallinity and their bulk hetero element content (in particular nitrogen) of the carbon fibres was shown to produce a significant effect on the electrocatalytical properties of the electrodes towards vanadium species. Similar effects were seen on the capacity losses associated with concomitant hydrogen evolution. Adjustments of fibre properties offer the potential of manufacturing improved electrode materials, potentially without additional steps such as surface activation or decoration with catalytically active species.

  5. Predicting the mechanical behaviour of carbon fibre reinforced silicon carbide with interlaminar manufacturing defects

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann Severin; Koch Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    A finite element approach based on experimental material data is presented in order to compute the mechanical reliability of carbon fibre reinforced silicon carbide, C/C-SiC, taking interlaminar manufacturing defects into account. The approach is evaluated on sample scale by modelling the flexural behaviour of C/C-SiC samples containing delaminations after liquid silicon infiltration (LSI) processing. The non-destructive evaluation methods, determination of fracture mechanical input data and ...

  6. EFFECTS OF GEOMETRIC RATIOS AND FIBRE ORIENTATION ON THE NATURAL FREQUENCIES OF LAMINATED COMPOSITE PLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Attaf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to examine the influence of geometric ratios and fibre orientation on the natural frequencies of fibre-reinforced laminated composite plates using finite element method based on Yang’s theory and his collaborators. The transverse shear and rotatory inertia effects were taken into consideration in the developed Fortran computer program. It has been shown that the use of first-order displacement field provides the same accuracy as higher-order displacement field when the number of elements representing the plate structure is increased (refined mesh. However, poor precision may appear for plates with high thickness-to-side ratio h/a (thickness/side length. This discrepancy limits the application of the developed theory to thick plates (h/a<0.5. The various curves show the evolution of the dimensionless frequency (w* versus fibre orientation angle (q and illustrate the apparition of a “triple-point” phenomenon engendered by the increase of the plate aspect ratio a/b (length/width for a specific value of h/a. This point defines the maximum natural frequency and the associated fibre orientation. Also, results show that for high and/or low aspect ratios, the triple-point phenomenon does not occur. This latter is rapidly reached for thick plates than thin plates when the plate aspect ratio a/b is progressively increased.

  7. Development of epoxidized soybean oil and soy fibre composites with Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS) nano reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Ryan Sietze

    Soy fibre and soybean oil were utilized to produce a bio-composite targeted as a substitute for conventional petroleum-based materials. The study was divided into two parts; the first was the development of a bio-epoxy that consisted of conventional epoxy, epoxidized soybean oil, and two types of functionalized POSS. The second part of the study involved blending of the bio-epoxy with titanate treated soy fibre. Combined incorporation of epoxide and amine functionalized POSS in the bio-epoxy matrix resulted in a 29% impact strength improvement compared to the petroleum-based epoxy. Incorporation of the epoxide functionalized POSS resulted in improvements in tensile strength by 8%, tensile modulus by 2%, and an increase in the glass transition temperature by 4% compared to the petroleum-based epoxy and epoxidized soybean oil hybrid. The coupling of titanate to soy fibre in comparison to the soy fibre without titanate treatment resulted in an impact strength improvement of 37%. Furthermore, the coupling of titanate increased the tensile strength and tensile modulus by 24% and 22% respectively, and reduced the water absorption by 70%.

  8. Damage detection in composite structures based on optical fibre strain sensing and finite element model updating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosenzo, G.; Dalton, T. [Stokes Research Inst., Univ. of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Whelan, M.P. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    A prototype system for condition monitoring of composite structures is described that relies on the on-line measurement of dynamic strains in order to detect any deterioration in performance due to the accumulation of damage. Strain data from both long gauge and point optical fibre sensors are employed to update finite element models of the analysed structures. Together with Bragg grating point sensors, an innovative Fabry-Perot interferometric long gauge strain sensor is proposed. The cavity of these sensors consists of a pair of matched Bragg grating reflectors allowing a number of sensors of the desired length to be wavelength multiplexed on a single fibre, with the advantage of minimum intrusivity in composite materials while retaining sensing capability over the whole structure. A heterodyne based demodulation system, tailored for these sensors, has been employed. Gradient based optimisation algorithms have been utilised to update structural Finite Elements models based on the output from the fibre optic sensors and strain based modal analyses. These procedures were used to detect the location of areas with known modifications of the stiffness properties in composite structures and showed good results, as the damaged areas have been correctly located. The comparison with results obtained using more conventional updating techniques shows the validity of the dynamic strain data approach in the damage detection field. (orig.)

  9. Vacuum performance of a carbon fibre cryosorber for the LHC LSS beam screen

    CERN Document Server

    Anashin, V V; Dostovalov, R V; Korotaeva, Z A; Krasnov, A A; Malyshev, O B; Poluboyarov, V A

    2004-01-01

    A new carbon fibre material was developed at the Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry at the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science (SB RAS) to meet the large hadron collider (LHC) vacuum chamber. The material must have a large sorbing capacity, a certain pumping speed, a working temperature range between 5 and 20K, a low activation temperature (below room temperature), a certain size in order to fit into the limited space available and it should be easy to mount. The vacuum parameters of the LHC vacuum chamber prototype with a carbon fibre cryosorber mounted onto the beam screen were studied in the beam screen temperature range from 14 to 25K at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS. This carbon fibre material has shown sufficient sorption capacity for hydrogen at operational temperatures of the beam screen in the LHC long straight sections. It is also very important that this material does not crumble and makes a convenient fixation onto the beam screen in comparison t...

  10. Etude de fibres nickel-titane superelastiques et mise en forme d'un composite avec ces fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedboeuf, Marie Christine

    1997-11-01

    Generally, in a matrix composite, the introduction of the fibre reinforcement, while increasing the strength, reduces the energy absorption of the matrix. The use of a certain amount of SMA reinforcement, with a damping coefficient to some of the polymers, should give better damping capacities while maintaining a high strength. The main goal of this research is thus to study this possibility while gaining a better understanding of the SMA fibers and of their behaviour while embedded in a polymeric matrix. The first part of this project is the throughout study of the behaviour of the SMA fibers while the second part is the preparation and the study of the NiTi/PU composite. In order to be used as fiber reinforcement, very small diameter wires are needed and 100 mum NiTi wires were chosen. These wires are austenitic at room temperature, and thus have a superelastic behaviour. The first part of the research is the study of the behaviour of these wires. They are tested in tensile solicitation, this being the simplest solicitation to study. All the samples are precycled to stabilize the superelastic effect. The results show that the effect of an increase in temperature is to increase the transformation stresses as predicted by the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Strain rate effects observed in shape memory alloy are usually attributed to a temperature effect resulting from the exo-, endothermic phase transformation. To determine the contribution of temperature effect to the observed strain rate effect, a thermal analysis is performed in chapter 3. To study their damping capacity, these wires are tested in harmonic tensile solicitation and the dissipated energy as well as the loss factor are measured. An extensive study of the effect of frequency and strain amplitude as well as the temperature on these parameters is done in chapter 4. For the last part of the research, NiTi/PU composites are prepared and tested in tensile solicitation to the same strain rate as well as

  11. Gbit/s Data Transmission on Carbon Fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Flick, Tobias; Kappen, Götz C; Mättig, Peter; Möller, Judith; Sanny, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Data transmission at the upgraded Large Hadron Collider experiments, foreseen for mid 2020s will be in the multi Gbit/s range per connection for the innermost detector layers. This paper reports on first tests on the possible use of carbon cables for electrical data transmission close to the interaction point. Carbon cables have the potential advantage of being light, having a low activation and easy integration into the detector components close to the interaction point. In these tests commercially available carbon cables were used, in which the filaments had a very thin nickel coating. For these cables data rates beyond 1 Gbit/s over more than 1m with an error rate of less than 10^{-12} could be transmitted. The characteristics of the cables have been measured in terms of S-parameters and could be reproduced with a Spice model. Some outlook on potential further improvements is presented.

  12. New Plaster Composite with Mineral Wool Fibres from CDW Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Romaniega Piñeiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade the intense activity of the building sector has generated large quantities of construction and demolition waste (CDW. In particular, in Europe around 890 million tons of CDW is generated every year; however, only 50% of them are recycled. In Spain, over the last years 40 millions of tons of construction and demolition waste have been generated. On the other hand, since the implementation of the Technical Building Code regulation the use of mineral wools as building insulation materials has become a widespread solution in both rehabilitation and new construction works, and because of that, this kind of insulation waste is increasing. This research analyzes the potential of a new composite (gypsum and fiber waste including several mineral wools waste into a plaster matrix. For this purpose, an experimental plan, characterizing the physical and mechanical behaviour as well as the Shore C hardness of the new composite, was elaborated fulfilling UNE Standards.

  13. Thermal Properties of Jute Nano Fibre Reinforced Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. T. B . Padal, K. Ramji, V. V. S. Prasad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Polymer based nanocomposites have been subject of investigation by the dispersion of jute nanofibres within epoxy polymer matrix. Thermal properties of a composite play a vital role in evaluating the product performance as well as predicting the processibility characteristics in polymers in specific applications. The thermal behaviour of the interface between nanofibres reinforcement have been studied by thermogravemetric analysis and Differential scanning calorimetry. The addition of nanofibres with different weight percentages has been (1wt.% to 5wt.% studied and compared with base composites. The thermal stability of nanocomposite is significantly improved due to incorporation of jute nanofibres. These nanofibre reinforcement between the matrix resin molecules offered some resistance towards the thermal degradation.

  14. Effect of fibre-reinforced composite on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsevik, Abdul Semih; Yildirim, Cihan; Aydin, Ugur; Culha, Emre; Surmelioglu, Derya

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the fracture resistance of root-filled teeth restored with fibre-reinforced composite (everX posterior). Fifty mandibular molars were divided into five groups (n = 10). Group 1: no treatment was applied (intact teeth). Group 2-5: canals were prepared and root filled. Group 2: no coronal restoration was placed. Group 3: teeth were coronally restored with composite. Group 4: composite restorations were performed following polyethylene fibre insertion at the cavity base. Group 5: composite resin placed over everX posterior. After thermocycling (5-55°C, 5000×), fracture resistance was measured. Mean force load for each sample was recorded in Newtons (N). Results were statistically analysed with one-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey's tests. The mean force required to fracture samples and standard deviations are as follows: group 1: 2859.5 ± 551.27 N, group 2: 318.97 ± 108.67 N, group 3: 1489.5 ± 505.04 N, group 4: 1958.3 ± 362.94 N, group 5: 2550.7 ± 586.1 N. everX posterior (group 5) was higher than groups 2, 3 and 4 (P  0.05). Placing fibre-reinforced composite under composite increased the fracture strength of root-filled teeth to the level of intact teeth.

  15. Characterizing delamination of fibre composites by mixed mode cohesive laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jacobsen, Torben K.

    2009-01-01

    cohesive stresses were found to depend on both the normal and tangential crack opening displacements. The bridging laws, which are to be used together with a mode mixity dependent crack tip fracture energy, were found to possess relative low bridging stresses; the peak normal bridging stress was......A novel method is used for the determination of mixed mode cohesive laws and bridging laws for the characterisation of crack bridging in composites. The approach is based on an application of the J integral. The obtained cohesive laws were found to possess high peak stress values. Mixed mode...

  16. Self-healing of damage in fibre-reinforced polymer-matrix composites

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, S.A; Zhang, W; Branthwaite, M; Jones, F R

    2007-01-01

    Self-healing resin systems have been discussed for over a decade and four different technologies had been proposed. However, little work on their application as composite matrices has been published although this was one of the stated aims of the earliest work in the field. This paper reports on the optimization of a solid-state self-healing resin system and its subsequent use as a matrix for high volume fraction glass fibre-reinforced composites. The resin system was optimized using Charpy i...

  17. Application of bridging-law concepts to short-fibre composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhagen, J.E.; Gamstedt, Kristofer; Berglund, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the third paper in a series of four where notch sensitivity, fracture energy and bridging laws are studied in short-fibre polymer composites. Here, bridging laws are derived from experimental crack-opening profiles in centre-hole notched tensile specimens. The materials studied are three...... types of commercial glass-mat composites with different reinforcement structures and matrices. The materials have softening bridging laws and the calculated fracture energies from bridging laws are in good agreement with values determined directly by experiment. The calculated maximum local bridging...

  18. Magnetic properties and microwave absorption properties of short carbon fibres coated by Ni–Fe alloy coatings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ying Liu; Chengwen Qiang

    2015-12-01

    Ni–Fe alloy coatings were successfully prepared on carbon fibre (CF) surfaces bymeans of electroplating at 25°C for 560 s. The structures and morphologies of the composite were characterized using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The coercivity () and saturation magnetization () of the Fe0.45Ni0.55/CF composites were 45.19 Oe and 1513.59 emu g−1, respectively. The reflectivity of Fe0.45Ni0.55/CF composites was less than −5 dB over the range of 1.1–5.4 GHz. The reflectivity of Fe0.45Ni0.55/CF composites was less than −10 dB over the range of 1.6–2.1 GHz. The lowest reflectivity of the Fe0.45Ni0.55/CF composites was −14.7 dB at 2.0 GHz and the corresponding thickness was 3.3 mm.

  19. Recycling carbon fibre reinforced polymers for structural applications: technology review and market outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Soraia; Pinho, Silvestre T

    2011-02-01

    Both environmental and economic factors have driven the development of recycling routes for the increasing amount of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) waste generated. This paper presents a review of the current status and outlook of CFRP recycling operations, focusing on state-of-the-art fibre reclamation and re-manufacturing processes, and on the commercialisation and potential applications of recycled products. It is shown that several recycling and re-manufacturing processes are reaching a mature stage, with implementations at commercial scales in operation, production of recycled CFRPs having competitive structural performances, and demonstrator components having been manufactured. The major challenges for the sound establishment of a CFRP recycling industry and the development of markets for the recyclates are summarised; the potential for introducing recycled CFRPs in structural components is discussed, and likely promising applications are investigated.

  20. Development of carbon composites cured by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -Developments of the new process in the manufacture of composites - Developments of a necessary technics for the manufacture of an export embargo components - Developments of the green process in the manufacture of composites - Developments and applications of the radiation curing technics in the manufacture of various composites - Developments of the manufacturing process for carbon/carbon(carbon/silicon carbide) composites

  1. Impact of chemical treatments on the mechanical and water absorption properties of coconut fibre (Cocos nucifera reinforced polypropylene composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isiaka O. OLADELE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, chemically treated coconut fibres were used to reinforce Homopolymer Polypropylene in order to ascertain the effect of the treatments on the mechanical and water absorption properties of the composites produced. Coconut fibre was first extracted from its husk by soaking it in water and was dried before it was cut into 10 mm lengths. It was then chemically treated in alkali solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH and potassium hydroxide (KOH in a shaker water bath. The treated coconut fibres were used as reinforcements in polypropylene matrix to produce composites of varied fibre weight contents; 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 wt.%. Tensile and flexural properties were investigated using universal testing machine while water absorption test was carried out on the samples for 7 days. It was observed from the results that, NaOH treated samples gave the best tensile properties while KOH treated samples gave the best flexural and water repellent properties.

  2. Particulate Filled Composite Plastic Materials from Recycled Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aare ARUNIIT

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP scrap consisted of acrylic plastic with glass fibre reinforcement in polyester resin matrix was used in our experiments. The multi-functional DS-series disintegrator mills were used for mechanical processing of GFRP scrap. Preceding from the results characterization of the milled powder particles size, shape and other properties the numerical algorithm for modelling of the density of the new filler material was developed. The main goal of the current study is to develop new particulate filled composite plastic material from recycled GFRP scrap. With recovered plastic powder material the higher filler content in polyester resin matrix can be achieved. The new composite is modelled on basis of the properties of new material. Such an approach requires tests of the new material. The considered target characteristics of the new material are the tensile strength, elongation at break and the cost. The multicriteria optimization problem has been formulated and solved by use of physical programming techniques and Pareto optimality concept. The designed new composites were manufactured in different mixing ratios of powder and binder agent. The strength and stiffness properties of new composite material were tested. http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.3.593

  3. The reinforcement effect of polyethylene fibre and composite impregnated glass fibre on fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Luthria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary premolars with wide mesio-occluso-distal (MOD cavities restored with either composite resin, or composite resin reinforced with different types of fibres. Materials and Methods: Fifty human maxillary premolars were selected. Five intact teeth served as positive controls. Endodontic therapy was carried out in the remaining forty-five teeth. Standardized MOD cavities were prepared in all the teeth. The teeth were restored with a nanocomposite using an incremental technique. These forty five teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups (Group A, B and C (n = 15. The teeth in Group A did not undergo any further procedures. The teeth in Group B and C were reinforced with composite impregnated glass fibre and polyethylene fibre, respectively. Fracture resistance was measured in Newtons (N. Results: The positive controls showed the highest mean fracture resistance (811.90 N, followed by Group B (600.49N, Group A (516.96N and Group C (514.64N, respectively. One Way analysis of variance (ANOVA test revealed a statistically significant difference between all the groups (P = 0.001. Post-hoc Tukey test revealed a moderately significant difference (P = 0.034 between Control and Group B, and a strongly significant difference between Control and Group A (P = 0.002, and Control and Group C (P = 0.001. Conclusions: Endodontic therapy and MOD cavity preparation significantly reduced the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary premolars (P = 0.001. No statistically significant difference was found between the experimental groups (Group A, B and C (P > 0.1. However, the fracture resistance of the composite impregnated glass fibre reinforced group was much higher than the others.

  4. In-situ monitoring of carbon dioxide emissions from a diesel engine using a mid-infrared optical fibre sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Elfed; Clifford, John; Fitzpatrick, Colin; Dooly, Gerard; Zhao, Weizhong; Sun, Tong; Grattan, Ken; Lucas, James; Degner, Martin; Ewald, Hartmut; Lochmann, Steffan; Bramann, Gero; Merlone-Borla, Edoardo; Gili, Flavio

    2011-05-01

    A robust optical fibre based CO2 exhaust gas sensor operating in the mid infrared spectral range is described. It is capable of detecting on board carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from both diesel and petrol engines. The optical fibre sensor is not cross sensitive to other gaseous species in the exhaust such as water vapour (H2O), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) or oxides of sulphur (SOx).The response of the sensor to carbon dioxide present in the exhaust of Fiat Croma diesel engine are presented.

  5. Nanographene reinforced carbon/carbon composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Dhruv

    Carbon/Carbon Composites (CCC) are made of carbon reinforcement in carbon matrix and have high thermal stability and fatigue resistance. CCC are used in nose cones, heat shields and disc brakes of aircrafts due to their exceptional mechanical properties at high temperature. The manufacturing process of CCC involves a carbonization stage in which unwanted elements, except carbon, are eliminated from the polymer precursor. Carbonization results in the formation of voids and cracks due to the thermal mismatch between the reinforcement and the matrix and expulsion of volatiles from the polymer matrix. Thermal cracks and voids decrease the density and mechanical properties of the manufactured CCC. In this work, Nanographene Platelets (NGP) were explored as nanofillers to fill the voids/cracks and reduce thermal shrinkage in CCC. They were first compared with Vapor Grown Carbon Nanofibers (VGCNF) by dispersion of different concentrations (0.5wt%, 1.5wt%, 3wt%) in resole-type phenolic resin and were characterized to explore their effect on rheology, heat of reaction and wetting behavior. The dispersions were then cured to form nanocomposites and were characterized for morphology, flexure and thermal properties. Finally, NGP were introduced into the carbon/carboncomposites in two stages, first by spraying in different concentrations (0.5wt%, 1.5wt%, 3wt%, 5wt %) during the prepreg formation and later during densification by directly mixing in the corresponding densification mix. The manufactured NGP reinforced CCC were characterized for microstructure, porosity, bulk density and mechanical properties (Flexure and ILSS) which were further cross-checked by non-destructive techniques (vibration and ultrasonic). In this study, it was further found that at low concentration (≤ 1.5 wt%) NGP were more effective in increasing the heat of reaction and in decreasing the viscosity of the phenolic resin. The decrease in viscosity led to better wetting properties of NGP / phenolic

  6. Comportement en compression d'une fibre de carbone dans un composite modèle monofilamentaire : simulation des images observées en photoélasticité

    OpenAIRE

    Vigouroux, A.; Andrieux, M; Sixou, P.

    1996-01-01

    Based on a compressed single embedded fiber composite, constituted with a 7 μm or 49 μm fiber in an epoxy matrix, photoelasticity observables images are calculated. The microbuckling model, first developped by Lee and Harris [21] and then completed by Grandsire-Vinçon [14] (O.N.E.R.A.) is used. From it, it is possible to obtain the principal deformations, their difference as well as the principal directions. In addition to the active layer which contains the fiber microbuckling plane, some ad...

  7. Mechanical testing and modelling of carbon-carbon composites for aircraft disc brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Luke R.

    The objective of this study is to improve the understanding of the stress distributions and failure mechanisms experienced by carbon-carbon composite aircraft brake discs using finite element (FE) analyses. The project has been carried out in association with Dunlop Aerospace as an EPSRC CASE studentship. It therefore focuses on the carbon-carbon composite brake disc material produced by Dunlop Aerospace, although it is envisaged that the approach will have broader applications for modelling and mechanical testing of carbon-carbon composites in general. The disc brake material is a laminated carbon-carbon composite comprised of poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) derived carbon fibres in a chemical vapour infiltration (CVI) deposited matrix, in which the reinforcement is present in both continuous fibre and chopped fibre forms. To pave the way for the finite element analysis, a comprehensive study of the mechanical properties of the carbon-carbon composite material was carried out. This focused largely, but not entirely, on model composite materials formulated using structural elements of the disc brake material. The strengths and moduli of these materials were measured in tension, compression and shear in several orientations. It was found that the stress-strain behaviour of the materials were linear in directions where there was some continuous fibre reinforcement, but non-linear when this was not the case. In all orientations, some degree of non-linearity was observed in the shear stress-strain response of the materials. However, this non-linearity was generally not large enough to pose a problem for the estimation of elastic moduli. Evidence was found for negative Poisson's ratio behaviour in some orientations of the material in tension. Additionally, the through-thickness properties of the composite, including interlaminar shear strength, were shown to be positively related to bulk density. The in-plane properties were mostly unrelated to bulk density over the range of

  8. Kinetic Adsorption of Cd onto Nanometer Al2O3/Carbon Fibre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu; WANG Yue; HAN Wei; LI Su-wen; ZHAO Hui; ZHU Chang-yun; WANG Heng

    2005-01-01

    A new nanometer material, nano-Al2O3 with carbon fibre as the carrier, was employed for the removal of Cd with low concentrations from polluted water. The characterization of the material was carried out by means of SEM and TEM. Batch adsorption and elution experiments were carried out to determine the adsorption properties of Cd on the new adsorbent. The classical Thomas model was applied to estimating the equilibrium coefficients of Cd adsorption and the saturated adsorption ability. The results show that the Thomas model is fit for describing the kinetic adsorption process, and the maximum adsorption capacity of the nanometer Al2O3/carbon is 69.29 mg/g. The resulting information also indicates that the desorption of Cd eluted with de-ionized water at a rate of 9.8 mL/min can be neglected. With the advantage of a high adsorption capacity for removing low concentration Cd, the Al2O3/carbon fibre possesses the potentiality to be an effective adsorbent for the removal of Cd from polluted water.

  9. Effect of loading rate on tensile properties and failure behavior of glass fibre/epoxy composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, K. K.; Biswal, M.; Rathore, D. K.; Prusty, R. K.; Dutta, K.; Ray, B. C.

    2016-02-01

    Fibre reinforced polymeric (FRP) composite materials are subjected to different range of loading rates during their service life. Present investigation is focused on to study the effects of variation of loading rates on mechanical behavior and various dominating failure modes of these potential materials when subjected to tensile loading. The results revealed that on the variation of loading rates the ultimate tensile strength varies but the tensile modulus is mostly unaffected. Furthermore, the strain to failure is also increasing with increase in loading rates. Different failure patterns of glass/epoxy composite tested at 1, 10,100, 500 and 1000 mm/min loading rates are identified. Scanning electron micrographs shows various dominating failures modes in the glass/epoxy composite.

  10. Assessing the Environmental Impact of Flax Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composite from a Consequential Life Cycle Assessment Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelin Deng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study implements the consequential life cycle assessment (CLCA to provide a market based perspective on how overall environmental impact will change when shifting glass fibres to flax fibres as reinforcements in composite fabrication. With certain assumptions, the marginal flax fibre supply is identified to be a combination of Chinese flax fibre (70% and French flax fibre (30%. Due to inferior cultivars and coal-fired electricity in Chinese flax cultivation, the CLCA study reveals that flax mat-PP has 0.8–2 times higher environmental impact values than the glass mat-PP in most environmental impact categories over the production and end-of-life (EoL phases. For purpose of providing potential trajectories of marginal flax fibre supply, additional scenarios: the “all French fibre”, and “all Chinese fibre” are evaluated formulating the lower and upper boundaries in terms of environmental impact change, respectively. A “the attributional fibre supply mix” scenario is supplied as well. All of these scenarios are useful for policy analysis.

  11. Recycling and Fibre Reinforcement of Thermoplastic Wastes to Produce Composites for Construction Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Wambua

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastics are among polymers that biodegrades very slowly over a very long period and can be regarded as nonbiodegradable despite their rapid accumulation in the environment. The use of plant natural fibres as reinforcement for thermoplastics to produce composites is an important area for research. In this study, composites of high density polyethylene wastes reinforced with wood flour, rice husks and bagasse fibers were prepared. The fibers were heated to reduce their moisture content and improve their compatibilities with heated high density polyethylene wastes so as to increase adhesion at the interface. Binders were used to improve interfacial strength of the composite. Composites were prepared by extrusion. From preliminary laboratory test results based on Fratios using ANOVA, optimal coupon was found to be wood flour mixed with high density polyethylene and polyurethane resin (X 17 heated to 210ºC and extruded at 140ºC. The final test results for mechanical properties for optimal wood flour, rice husks and bagasse composites respectively were: Tensile strength; 83.87, 74, and 62.73 MPa. Flexural strength; 26.73, 39and 15.22 MPa. Compressive; 225, 190.5 and 140 MPa and Impact; 78, 81 and 66 J/mm2. The use of binders significantly improved impact strengths and widely expanded the usage of such product to include light load structural applications thus offering alternative source of construction materials to supplement timber and hence save forests. The technology can create employment to thermoplastic waste collectors, fibre collectors and composite producers.

  12. Chopped basalt fibres: A new perspective in reinforcing poly(lactic acid to produce injection moulded engineering composites from renewable and natural resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tamas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reinforcing of Poly(lactic acid with chopped basalt fibres by using silane treated and untreated basalt fibres. Composite materials with 5–10–15–20–30–40 wt% basalt fibre contents were prepared from silane sized basalt fibres using extrusion, and injection moulding, while composites with 5–10–15 wt% basalt fibre contents were also prepared by using untreated basalt fibres as control. The properties of the injection moulded composites were extensively examined by using quasi-static (tensile, three-point bending and dynamic mechanical tests (notched and unnotched Charpy impact tests, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, heat deflection temperature (HDT analysis, dimensional stability test, as well as melt flow index (MFI analysis and scanning electron microscopic (SEM observations. It was found that silane treated chopped basalt fibres are much more effective in reinforcing Poly(lactic acid than natural fibres; although basalt fibres are not biodegradable but they are still considered as natural (can be found in nature in the form of volcanic rocks and biologically inert. It is demonstrated in this paper that by using basalt fibre reinforcement, a renewable and natural resource based composite can be produced by injection moulding with excellent mechanical properties suitable even for engineering applications. Finally it was shown that by using adequate drying of the materials, composites with higher mechanical properties can be achieved compared to literature data.

  13. RESIDUAL STRENGTH OF CHOPPED STRAND MAT GLASS FIBRE/EPOXY COMPOSITE STRUCTURES: EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND WATER ABSORPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The residual strength of chopped strand mat glass fibre/epoxy composites following exposure to different hygrothermal conditions was investigated. All residual tests were carried out according to ASTM D 3479 and D 3039 on tension-tension fatigue with a frequency of 5 Hz, a stress ratio of R= 0.5and maximum stress σmax = 60 MPa. The residual strength curves were used to investigate the strength of chopped strand mat glass fibre/epoxy under the effect of temperature and the interactive environment of water absorption and temperature. The results showed that the chopped strand mat glass fibre/epoxy had high resistance toward tension-tension fatigue loading. However, the degradation of the tensile residual strength of chopped strand mat glass fibre/epoxy was significant with high water absorption at an elevated temperature.

  14. Biomechanical properties of a structurally optimized carbon-fibre/epoxy intramedullary nail for femoral shaft fracture fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiezadeh, Saeid; Fawaz, Zouheir; Bougherara, Habiba

    2016-03-01

    Intramedullary nails are the golden treatment option for diaphyseal fractures. However, their high stiffness can shield the surrounding bone from the natural physiologic load resulting in subsequent bone loss. Their stiff structure can also delay union by reducing compressive loads at the fracture site, thereby inhibiting secondary bone healing. Composite intramedullary nails have recently been introduced to address these drawbacks. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the mechanical properties of a previously developed composite IM nail made of carbon-fibre/epoxy whose structure was optimized based on fracture healing requirements using the selective stress shielding approach. Following manufacturing, the cross-section of the composite nail was examined under an optical microscope to find the porosity of the structure. Mechanical properties of the proposed composite intramedullary nail were determined using standard tension, compression, bending, and torsion tests. The failed specimens were then examined to obtain the modes of failure. The material showed high strength in tension (403.9±7.8MPa), compression (316.9±10.9MPa), bending (405.3±8.1MPa), and torsion (328.5±7.3MPa). Comparing the flexural modulus (41.1±0.9GPa) with the compressive modulus (10.0±0.2GPa) yielded that the material was significantly more flexible in compression than in bending. This customized flexibility along with the high torsional stiffness of the nail (70.7±2.0Nm(2)) has made it ideal as a fracture fixation device since this unique structure can stabilize the fracture while allowing for compression of fracture ends. Negligible moisture absorption (~0.5%) and low porosity of the laminate structure (carbon-fibre/epoxy intramedullary nail is flexible axially while being relatively rigid in bending and torsion and is strong enough in all types of physiologic loading, making it a potential candidate for use as an alternative to the conventional titanium-alloy intramedullary nails.

  15. The first chemical fibre enterprises obtained the carbon-footprint certificate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Recently recommended by China Chemical Fibre Industry Association(CCFA),four companies of Jiangsu Shenghong Chemical Fibre Co.,Ltd.,Jiangsu Hengli Chemical Fibre Co.,Ltd.,Jiangsu Yingxiang Chemical Fibre Company Limited,Jiangsu Xinmin Technology Co.,Ltd.became

  16. Scalable synthesis of hierarchically structured carbon nanotube-graphene fibres for capacitive energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dingshan; Goh, Kunli; Wang, Hong; Wei, Li; Jiang, Wenchao; Zhang, Qiang; Dai, Liming; Chen, Yuan

    2014-07-01

    Micro-supercapacitors are promising energy storage devices that can complement or even replace batteries in miniaturized portable electronics and microelectromechanical systems. Their main limitation, however, is the low volumetric energy density when compared with batteries. Here, we describe a hierarchically structured carbon microfibre made of an interconnected network of aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes with interposed nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide sheets. The nanomaterials form mesoporous structures of large specific surface area (396 m(2) g(-1)) and high electrical conductivity (102 S cm(-1)). We develop a scalable method to continuously produce the fibres using a silica capillary column functioning as a hydrothermal microreactor. The resultant fibres show a specific volumetric capacity as high as 305 F cm(-3) in sulphuric acid (measured at 73.5 mA cm(-3) in a three-electrode cell) or 300 F cm(-3) in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/H(3)PO(4) electrolyte (measured at 26.7 mA cm(-3) in a two-electrode cell). A full micro-supercapacitor with PVA/H(3)PO(4) gel electrolyte, free from binder, current collector and separator, has a volumetric energy density of ∼6.3 mWh cm(-3) (a value comparable to that of 4 V-500 µAh thin-film lithium batteries) while maintaining a power density more than two orders of magnitude higher than that of batteries, as well as a long cycle life. To demonstrate that our fibre-based, all-solid-state micro-supercapacitors can be easily integrated into miniaturized flexible devices, we use them to power an ultraviolet photodetector and a light-emitting diode.

  17. Controlled retting of hemp fibres: Effect of hydrothermal pre-treatmen tand enzymatic retting on the mechanical properties of unidirectiona lhemp/epoxy composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Silva, Diogo Alexandre Santos; Fernando, Dinesh;

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the use of hydrothermal pre-treatment and enzymatic retting to remove non-cellulosic compounds and thus improve the mechanical properties of hemp fibre/epoxy composites. Hydrothermal pre-treatment at 100 kPa and 121 °C combined with enzymatic retting...... produced fibres with the highest ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 780 MPa. Compared to untreated fibres, this combined treatment exhibited a positive effect on the mechanical properties of hemp fibre/epoxy composites, resulting in high quality composites with low porosity factor (αpf) of 0.08.Traditional...

  18. Carbon fibre and nitinol needles for MRI-guided interventions: First in vitro and in vivo application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Christoph, E-mail: Christoph.thomas@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Wojtczyk, Hanne [Section of Experimental Radiology, University of Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Rempp, Hansjoerg; Clasen, Stephan; Horger, Marius [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Lassberg, Christoph von [Department of Sports Medicine, University of Tuebingen, Silcherstrasse 5, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Fritz, Jan [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Claussen, Claus D. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Pereira, Philippe L. [Department of Radiology, Minimally Invasive Therapies and Nuclearmedicine, SLK-Kliniken Heilbronn GmbH, Am Gesundbrunnen 20-26, 74078 Heilbronn (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Objective: To assess the artefact properties of a MR-compatible carbon fibre needle with a nitinol mandrin in vitro and to report first clinical experiences. Materials and methods: In vitro, the carbon fibre/nitinol needle was imaged at different angles against the main magnetic field (1.5 T open bore magnet). A gradient echo MR fluoroscopy sequence (GRE: TR 9.3 ms, TE 3.12 ms, bandwidth 200 Hz/pixel, flip-angle 12{sup o}) and a fast turbo spin echo sequence (FSE: TR 412 ms, TE 9.7 ms, bandwidth 200 Hz/pixel, flip-angle 150{sup o}) were used. Artefact width, needle intensity contrast and needle tip location errors were assessed. In vivo, lumbar periradicular corticosteroid injections and one sclerotherapy were performed with carbon fibre needles (10 procedures) and with titanium alloy needles (2 procedures). The artefact sizes and contrasts were measured. Results: In vitro, artefact diameters of the carbon fibre needle ranged from 3.3 to 4.6 mm, contrasts from 0.11 to 0.52, with larger artefact contrasts and widths with the GRE sequence. Needle tip location errors of -2.1 to -2.8 mm were observed. Decreasing angles to the main field lead to smaller artefacts. In vivo, the carbon fibre/nitinol needle produced smaller artefacts (mean width FSE/GRE: 2.8 mm/4.6 mm) with lower contrast (0.30-0.42) than the titanium alloy needle (mean width FSE/GRE: 4.1 mm/7.5 mm, contrast 0.60-0.73). Conclusions: The carbon fibre/nitinol needle is useful for performing MR-guided interventions at 1.5 T, producing more subtle artefacts than a titanium alloy needle, but with an incomplete depiction and thus inaccurate localization of the needle tip.

  19. Mechanical and thermal characterisation of poly (l-lactide) composites reinforced with hemp fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoor, A.; Muhammad, R.; Thomas, N. L.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2013-07-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is the most promising in the bio-derived polymer's family. But its use can be constrained by its poor mechanical properties, poor thermal stability and processing difficulties. The objective of this research is to investigate and improve mechanical and dynamic thermal properties of PLA by developing PLA composites reinforced with natural fibres (hemp). Composites were prepared by melt blending of PLA with hemp fibres. Their properties were investigated using mechanical and dynamic thermal analysis. The elastic modulus increased significantly - from 4.1 ± 0.74 to 9.32 ± 0.86 (GPA) - when the weight fraction of hemp increased from 0 to 30(wt %). The storage modulus obtained by dynamic mechanical analysis increased from 2.20 to 4.58 (GPA) for the same change in the volume fraction of hemp. FE simulation of tensile testing and DMA were carried out to investigate the effect of strain rate and temperature on the observed properties respectively. The model was developed in the commercially available code MSC Marc mentate. The model validated all experimental results.

  20. Finite element analysis of stress transfer in carbon nanotube reinforced magnesium matrix composites

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Sinian; Wang, Yang; Rümmeli, M. H.; Vlček, Jaroslav; Pištora, Jaromír; Lesňák, Michal

    2010-01-01

    A simplified finite element model was established to simulate deformation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) reinforcing magnesium matrix composites during the tensile test. The stress and strain of matrix and reinforcement agent and the effect of interface on mechanical behaviour of composites were specially studied. The simulation results showed that for uniformly distributed CNTs a stress concentration occurs from the fibre axis towards the interface. The simulations proved that the destruction of...

  1. On the elastic properties of carbon nanotube-based composites: modelling and characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Thostenson, E T

    2003-01-01

    The exceptional mechanical and physical properties observed for carbon nanotubes has stimulated the development of nanotube-based composite materials, but critical challenges exist before we can exploit these extraordinary nanoscale properties in a macroscopic composite. At the nanoscale, the structure of the carbon nanotube strongly influences the overall properties of the composite. The focus of this research is to develop a fundamental understanding of the structure/size influence of carbon nanotubes on the elastic properties of nanotube-based composites. Towards this end, the nanoscale structure and elastic properties of a model composite system of aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes embedded in a polystyrene matrix were characterized, and a micromechanical approach for modelling of short fibre composites was modified to account for the structure of the nanotube reinforcement to predict the elastic modulus of the nanocomposite as a function of the constituent properties, reinforcement geometry and nanot...

  2. Electrospun Fibres of Polyhydroxybutyrate Synthesized by Ralstonia eutropha from Different Carbon Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor U. Irorere

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of PHB may be affected by the carbon source used in its production and this may affect nanofibres made from this polymer by electrospinning. In this study, P(3-HB was produced from glucose, rapeseed oil, and olive oil by Ralstonia eutropha H16. Cell growth and polymer production were higher in olive or rapeseed oil supplemented media compared to glucose supplemented media. FT-IR, 1H-, 13C-NMR, and ESI/MSn confirmed that the synthesized polymers were P(3-HB. SEM micrograph showed the formation of nanofibres from P(3-HB samples with the fibre diameters dependent on the source of the carbon used in polymer synthesis and the concentration of the polymer in the electrospinning solution. GPC showed that P(3-HB from glucose (G-PHB had a higher molecular weight (7.35×105 gmol−1 compared to P(3-HB from rapeseed (R-PHB and olive (O-PHB oil. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC showed that the crystallinity of the electrospun polymers reduces with decreasing polymer concentration with R-PHB having lower crystallinity at all concentrations used. These observation shows that more PHB yield can be obtained using either rapeseed or olive oil compared to glucose with glucose producing polymers of higher molecular weight. It also show that electrospinning could be used to reduce the crystallinity of PHB fibres.

  3. Development of Activated Carbon from Cotton Fibre Waste as Potential Mercury Adsorbent: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatindra N. Bhakta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study attempted to develop the activated carbon of cotton fibre (ACCF from cotton waste as a high Hg2+ adsorbent media and characterize physicochemical properties using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS and Hg2+ adsorption kinetic by batch adsorption study with the function of contact time, solution pH, dosages of ACCF, and Hg concentration. The SEM-EDS study revealed that ACCF is composed of carbon (95.1% and phosphorus pentoxide (4.9%. Obtained results of adsorption kinetics showed that 15 min of contact time is required to achieve the equilibrium state and wide range of pH (4.08–7 is favourable for maximum Hg adsorption. The Hg2+ adsorption capacity showed a decreasing trend with increasing dose of ACCF, whereas a reverse response of adsorption capacity was pronounced with increasing Hg concentration. The data was well described by Freundlich isotherm model and determined the high Hg2+ adsorption capacity of ACCF (169.2 mg/g. To our knowledge, the application of ACCF in removing Hg2+ is the first study. High Hg2+ adsorption capacity, economic feasibility, availability of cotton fibre waste, and simple preparation method concluded that it could be used as a novel low-cost and environmentally sound adsorbent media for removing high rate of Hg2+ from aqueous phase.

  4. Use of micro-tomography for validation of method to identify interfacial shear strength from tensile tests of short regenerated cellulose fibre composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajlane, A.; Miettinen, A.; Madsen, B.; Beauson, J.; Joffe, R.

    2016-07-01

    The interfacial shear strength of short regenerated cellulose fibre/polylactide composites was characterized by means of an industry-friendly adhesion test method. The interfacial shear strength was back-calculated from the experimental tensile stress-strain curves of composites by using a micro-mechanical model. The parameters characterizing the microstructure of the composites, e.g. fibre length and orientation distributions, used as input in the model were obtained by micro-tomography. The investigation was carried out on composites with untreated and surface treated fibres with various fibre weight contents (5wt%, 10wt%, and 15wt% for untreated fibres, and 15wt% for treated fibres). The properties of fibres were measured by an automated single fibre tensile test method. Based on these results, the efficiency of the fibre treatment to improve fibre/matrix adhesion is evaluated, and the applicability of the method to measure the interfacial shear strength is discussed. The results are compared with data from previous work, and with other results from the literature.

  5. Enhanced toughness and stable crack propagation in a novel tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composite produced by chemical vapour infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesch, J.; Höschen, T.; Linsmeier, Ch; Wurster, S.; You, J.-H.

    2014-04-01

    Tungsten is a promising candidate for the plasma-facing components of a future fusion reactor, but its use is strongly restricted by its inherent brittleness. An innovative concept to overcome this problem is tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composite. In this paper we present the first mechanical test of such a composite material using a sample containing multiple fibres. The in situ fracture experiment was performed in a scanning electron microscope for close observation of the propagating crack. Stable crack propagation accompanied with rising load bearing capacity is observed. The fracture toughness is estimated using the test results and the surface observation.

  6. GRC: Composite material from an inorganic matrix reinforced with AR glass fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comino Almenara, P. I.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the historical background of Cem-FIL. Alkali Resistant Glass Fibre, as well as the composite characteristics of the element they generate: GRC. The most important advantages and properties of this type of Composite Material are also detailed.

    En este artículo se detallan cuáles son las bases históricas de las Fibras de Vidrio Álcali-Resistentes Cem-FIL así como las características del elemento compuesto que ellas generan: GRC. En este documento también se pueden encontrar indicaciones sobre las principales ventajas y propiedades de este tipo de Material Compuesto.

  7. A novel biaxial specimen for inducing residual stresses in thermoset polymers and fibre composite material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Johnny; Andreasen, Jens Henrik; Jensen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A new type of specimen configuration with the purpose of introducing a well-defined biaxial residual (axisymmetric) stress field in a neat thermoset or a fibre composite material is presented. The ability to experimentally validate residual stress predictions is an increasing need for design...... engineers when they challenge the material limits in present and future thermoset and composite component. In addition to the new specimen configuration, this paper presents an analytical solution for the residual stress state in the specimen. The analytical solution assumes linear elastic and isotropic...... material behaviour. Experimental strain release measurements and the analytical solution determine the residual stress state present in the material. A demonstration on neat epoxy is conducted and residual stress predictions of high accuracy and repeatability have been achieved. The precise determination...

  8. Fibre Optic Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Aircraft Composite Structures: Recent Advances and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Di Sante

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In-service structural health monitoring of composite aircraft structures plays a key role in the assessment of their performance and integrity. In recent years, Fibre Optic Sensors (FOS have proved to be a potentially excellent technique for real-time in-situ monitoring of these structures due to their numerous advantages, such as immunity to electromagnetic interference, small size, light weight, durability, and high bandwidth, which allows a great number of sensors to operate in the same system, and the possibility to be integrated within the material. However, more effort is still needed to bring the technology to a fully mature readiness level. In this paper, recent research and applications in structural health monitoring of composite aircraft structures using FOS have been critically reviewed, considering both the multi-point and distributed sensing techniques.

  9. Fibre Optic Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Aircraft Composite Structures: Recent Advances and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sante, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    In-service structural health monitoring of composite aircraft structures plays a key role in the assessment of their performance and integrity. In recent years, Fibre Optic Sensors (FOS) have proved to be a potentially excellent technique for real-time in-situ monitoring of these structures due to their numerous advantages, such as immunity to electromagnetic interference, small size, light weight, durability, and high bandwidth, which allows a great number of sensors to operate in the same system, and the possibility to be integrated within the material. However, more effort is still needed to bring the technology to a fully mature readiness level. In this paper, recent research and applications in structural health monitoring of composite aircraft structures using FOS have been critically reviewed, considering both the multi-point and distributed sensing techniques. PMID:26263987

  10. Multi scale analysis by acoustic emission of damage mechanisms in natural fibre woven fabrics/epoxy composites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touchard F.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to develop an experimental program to characterize the type and the development of damage in composite with complex microstructure. A multi-scale analysis by acoustic emission has been developed and applied to hemp fibre woven fabrics/epoxy composite. The experimental program consists of tensile tests performed on single yarn, neat epoxy resin and composite materials to identify their AE amplitude signatures. A statistical analysis of AE amplitude signals has been realised and correlated with microscopic observations. Results have enabled to identify three types of damage in composites and their associated AE amplitudes: matrix cracking, interfacial debonding and reinforcement damage and fracture. Tracking of these damage mechanisms in hemp/epoxy composites has been performed to show the process of damage development in natural fibre reinforced composites.

  11. Chemical resistance, void content and tensile properties of oil palm/jute fibre reinforced polymer hybrid composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tri layer hybrid composites of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and jute fibres was prepared by keeping oil palm EFB as skin material and jute as the core material and vice versa. The chemical resistance, void content and tensile properties of oil palm EFB/Jute composites was investigated with reference to the relative weight of oil palm EFB/Jute, i.e. 4:1, the fibre loading was optimized and different layering pattern were investigated. It is found from the chemical resistance test that all the composites are resistant to various chemicals. It was observed that marked reduction in void content of hybrid composites in different layering pattern. From the different layering pattern, the tensile properties were slightly higher for the composite having jute as skin and oil palm EFB as core material. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study tensile fracture surfaces of different composites.

  12. A Progressive Damage Model for unidirectional Fibre Reinforced Composites with Application to Impact and Penetration Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschbaum, M.; Hopmann, C.

    2016-06-01

    The computationally efficient simulation of the progressive damage behaviour of continuous fibre reinforced plastics is still a challenging task with currently available computer aided engineering methods. This paper presents an original approach for an energy based continuum damage model which accounts for stress-/strain nonlinearities, transverse and shear stress interaction phenomena, quasi-plastic shear strain components, strain rate effects, regularised damage evolution and consideration of load reversal effects. The physically based modelling approach enables experimental determination of all parameters on ply level to avoid expensive inverse analysis procedures. The modelling strategy, implementation and verification of this model using commercially available explicit finite element software are detailed. The model is then applied to simulate the impact and penetration of carbon fibre reinforced cross-ply specimens with variation of the impact speed. The simulation results show that the presented approach enables a good representation of the force-/displacement curves and especially well agreement with the experimentally observed fracture patterns. In addition, the mesh dependency of the results were assessed for one impact case showing only very little change of the simulation results which emphasises the general applicability of the presented method.

  13. Hydrogel–fibre composites with independent control over cell adhesion to gel and fibres as an integral approach towards a biomimetic artificial ECM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the body, cells are surrounded by an interconnected mesh of insoluble, bioactive protein fibres to which they adhere in a well-controlled manner, embedded in a hydrogel-like highly hydrated matrix. True morphological and biochemical mimicry of this so-called extracellular matrix (ECM) remains a challenge but appears decisive for a successful design of biomimetic three-dimensional in vitro cell culture systems. Herein, an approach is presented which describes the fabrication and in vitro assessment of an artificial ECM which contains two major components, i.e. specifically biofunctionalized fibres and a semi-synthetic hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel, which allows control over cell adhesion towards both components. As proof of principle for the control of cell adhesion, RGD as well-known cell adhesive cue and the control sequence RGE are immobilized in the system. In vitro studies with primary human dermal fibroblasts were conducted to evaluate the specificity of cell adhesion and the potential of the composite system to support cell growth. Finally, one possible application example for guided cell growth is shown by the use of oriented fibres in a hydrogel matrix. (paper)

  14. Carbon felt supported carbon nanotubes catalysts composite electrode for vanadium redox flow battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guanjie; Jia, Chuankun; Liu, Jianguo; Yan, Chuanwei

    2012-12-01

    A modified electrode for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) has been developed in this paper. The electrode is based on a traditional carbon felt (CF) grafted with the short-carboxylic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The microstructure and electrochemical property of the modified electrode as well as the performance of the VRFB single cell with it have been characterized. The results show that the MWCNTs are evenly dispersed and adhere to the surface of carbon fibres in the CF. The electrochemical activities of the modified CF electrode have been improved dramatically and the reversibility of the VO2+/VO2+ and V3+/V2+ redox couples increased greatly. The VRFB single cell with the modified CF exhibits higher coulombic efficiency (93.9%) and energy efficiency (82.0%) than that with the pristine CF. The SEM analysis shows that the MWCNTs still cohere with carbon fibres after charge and discharge test, indicating the stability of the MWCNTs in flowing electrolyte. Therefore, the composite electrode presents considerable potential for the commercial application of CF in VRFB.

  15. Machinability Study of Hybrid Nanoclay-Glass Fibre Reinforced Polyester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Prabhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass fibre reinforced polyester composites (GRP and hybrid nanoclay and glass fibre reinforced polyester nanocomposites (CGRP are fabricated by vacuum assisted resin infusion technique. The optimum mechanical properties are obtained for CGRP with 3 wt.% nanoclay. Three types of drills (carbide twist drill D 5407060, HSS twist drill BS-328, and HSS end mill (4 flutes “N”-type end mill RH-helical flute of 6 mm diameters are used to drill holes on GRP and CGRP. Three different speeds (600, 852, and 1260 rpm and two different feeds (0.045, 0.1 mm/rev are selected as process parameters. The effect of process parameter on thrust force and delamination during drilling CGRP is analyzed for optimizing the machining parameters. The delamination factor is low for the optimum process parameter (feed = 0.1 mm/rev and speed 852 rpm. Microstructural analysis confirms that at higher feeds, delamination is low for CGRP drilled with carbide tools. In order to analyze the effect of nanoclay in CGRP on tool wear, 200 holes were drilled on CGRP samples with 3 wt.% nanoclay, and the tool wear is analyzed under optimized parametric condition. Tool wear is high in HSS twist drill compared with carbide drill. The presence of nanoclay also accelerates the tool wear.

  16. SEM and EDS investigation of a pyrolytic carbon covered C/C composite maxillofacial implant retrieved from the human body after 8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebők, Béla; Kiss, Gábor; Szabó, Péter J; Rigler, Dániel; Molnár, Milán L; Dobos, Gábor; Réti, Ferenc; Szőcs, Hajnal; Joób, Arpád F; Bogdán, Sándor; Szabó, György

    2013-03-01

    The long term effect of the human body on a pyrolytic carbon covered C/C composite maxillofacial implant (CarBulat(Tm)) was investigated by comparing the structure, the surface morphology and composition of an implant retrieved after 8 years to a sterilized, but not implanted one. Although the thickness of the carbon fibres constituting the implants did not change during the 8 year period, the surface of the implant retrieved was covered with a thin surface layer not present on the unimplanted implant. The composition of this layer is identical to the composition of the underlying carbon fibres. Calcium can only be detected on the surface as a trace element implying that the new layer is not formed by bone tissue. Residual soft tissue penetrating the bulk material between the carbon fibre bunches was found on the retrieved implant indicating the importance of the surface morphology in tissue growth and adhering to implants.

  17. Assessment of microcapsule—catalyst particles healing system in high performance fibre reinforced polymer composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolimowski, P. A.; Wass, D. F.; Bond, I. P.

    2016-08-01

    Autonomous self-healing in carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) is demonstrated using epoxy resin filled microcapsules and a solid-state catalyst. Microcapsules filled with oligomeric epoxy resin (20-450 μm) and particles of Sc(OTf)3 are embedded in an interleave region of a unidirectional CFRP laminate and tested under mode I loading. Double cantilever beam (DCB) test specimens containing variable concentrations of microcapsules and catalyst were prepared, tested and compared to those healed by manual injection with corresponding healing resin formulation. The healing efficiency was evaluated by comparing the maximum peak load recorded on load-displacement curves for pristine and healed specimens. A 44% maximum recovery was observed for specimens containing 10 wt% of solid phase catalyst and 11 wt% of epoxy microcapsules. However, a significant (80%) decrease in initial strain energy release rate (G IC) was observed for specimens with the embedded healing chemistries.

  18. Assessment of microcapsule—catalyst particles healing system in high performance fibre reinforced polymer composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolimowski, P. A.; Wass, D. F.; Bond, I. P.

    2016-08-01

    Autonomous self-healing in carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) is demonstrated using epoxy resin filled microcapsules and a solid-state catalyst. Microcapsules filled with oligomeric epoxy resin (20–450 μm) and particles of Sc(OTf)3 are embedded in an interleave region of a unidirectional CFRP laminate and tested under mode I loading. Double cantilever beam (DCB) test specimens containing variable concentrations of microcapsules and catalyst were prepared, tested and compared to those healed by manual injection with corresponding healing resin formulation. The healing efficiency was evaluated by comparing the maximum peak load recorded on load–displacement curves for pristine and healed specimens. A 44% maximum recovery was observed for specimens containing 10 wt% of solid phase catalyst and 11 wt% of epoxy microcapsules. However, a significant (80%) decrease in initial strain energy release rate (G IC) was observed for specimens with the embedded healing chemistries.

  19. Fretting Fatigue Behaviour of Pin-Loaded Thermoset Carbon-Fibre-Reinforced Polymer (CFRP Straps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Baschnagel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the fretting fatigue behaviour of pin-loaded carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP straps studied as models for rigging systems in sailing yachts, for suspenders of arch bridges and for pendent cables in cranes. Eight straps were subjected to an ultimate tensile strength test. In total, 26 straps were subjected to a fretting fatigue test, of which ten did not fail. An S–N curve was generated for a load ratio R of 0.1 and a frequency f of 10 Hz, showing a fatigue limit stress of the straps around the matrix fatigue limit, corresponding to 46% of the straps’ ultimate tensile strength (σUTS. The fatigue limit was defined as 3 million load cycles (N = 3 × 106, but tests were even conducted up to N = 11.09 × 106. Catastrophic failure of the straps was initiated in their vertex areas. Investigations on the residual strength and stiffness properties of straps tested around the fatigue limit stress (for N ≥ 1 × 106 showed little influence of the fatigue loading on these properties. Quasi-static finite element analyses (FEA were conducted. The results obtained from the FEA are in good agreement with the experiments and demonstrate a fibre parallel stress concentration in the vertex area of factor 1.3, under the realistic assumption of a coefficient of friction (cof between pin and strap of 0.5.

  20. Can carbon fibres work as tool electrodes in micro electrical discharge machining?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trych-Wildner, Anna; Kudla, Leszek

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a basic study of the possible application of carbon fibres as tool electrodes in micro electrical discharge machining. The purpose of the experiments with this novel material was to gain knowledge about the operation of the new tool electrode. In the paper, the procedure for adapting a single fibre to such a function is described, with detailed steps on preparing the shanks essential for the mounting operation in the experimental setup. The design setup is also presented and the experimental conditions of each test are shown. Furthermore, tests with the prepared electrodes concerning the general observations of the process and the results on the machined surface and on the tool are presented. The shape cavity fabrication and tests with the reverse polarity of the electrodes are also introduced. Next, the influence of single discharge energy is considered and the geometry of the obtained microholes is discussed. Detailed data about the wear of the tool, which can be up to 90% of the entire eroded material, in comparison with the material removal rate from the workpiece, which can be at a level of 10%, is gathered. Then, the geometrical analysis of the cavities is described showing that their depths are in the range of a few micrometres.

  1. A comprehensive characterisation of the fibre composition and properties of a limb (Flexor digitorum superficialis, membri thoraci and a trunk (Psoas major muscle in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rueda Julia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fibre type attributes and the relationships among their properties play an important role in the differences in muscle capabilities and features. Comprehensive characterisation of the skeletal muscles should study the degree of association between them and their involvement in muscle functionality. The purposes of the present study were to characterise the fibre type composition of a trunk (Psoas major, PM and a limb (Flexor digitorum, membri thoraci, FD muscle in the bovine species and to study the degree of coordination among contractile, metabolic and histological properties of fibre types. Immunohistochemical, histochemical and histological techniques were used. Results The fibre type composition was delineated immunohistochemically in calf muscle samples, identifying three pure (I, IIA, and IIX and two hybrid type fibres (I+IIA, and IIAX. Most of the fibres in FD were types I and IIA, while pure IIX were absent. All fibre types were found in PM, the IIX type being the most frequent. Compared to other species, small populations of hybrid fibres were detected. The five fibre types, previously identified, were ascribed to three different acid and alkaline mATPase activity patterns. Type I fibres had the highest oxidative capacity and the lowest glycolytic capacity. The reverse was true for the IIX fibres, whereas the type IIA fibres showed intermediate properties. Regarding the histological properties, type I fibres tended to be more capillarised than the II types. Correlations among contractile, metabolic and histological features on individual fibres were significantly different from zero (r values varied between -0.31 and 0.78. Hybrid fibre values were positioned between their corresponding pure types, and their positions were different regarding their metabolic and contractile properties. Conclusion Coordination among the contractile, metabolic and histological properties of fibres has been observed. However, the

  2. Three-dimensional porous hollow fibre copper electrodes for efficient and high-rate electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kas, Recep; Hummadi, Khalid Khazzal; Kortlever, Ruud; Wit, de Patrick; Milbrat, Alexander; Luiten-Olieman, Mieke W.J.; Benes, Nieck E.; Koper, Marc T.M.; Mul, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Aqueous-phase electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide requires an active, earth-abundant electrocatalyst, as well as highly efficient mass transport. Here we report the design of a porous hollow fibre copper electrode with a compact three-dimensional geometry, which provides a large area, three-

  3. Study on Sound Absorption Properties of Coconut Coir Fibre Reinforced Composite with Added Recycled Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahzan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Sound pollutions have become worsen and creating concerns for many peoples. Conventionally, expensive sound absorption materials are employed to control noise disturbances. However, recent developments on natural fibres have created interest for researchers especially for acoustics application purposes. This paper investigates the viability of coconut coir added with recycled rubber to be implemented as sound absorption panel. The composite is constructed at prescribed percentages of fillers and polyurethane as resin. The two-microphone method was applied to obtain the acoustic properties of the samples. The samples were also tested for physical properties such as density and porosity, as well as the microstructures. The results demonstrate good acoustics performances and highlight the potential of the coconut coir reinforced with recycled rubber as the sound absorption panel.

  4. Biomechanical properties of a structurally optimized carbon-fibre/epoxy intramedullary nail for femoral shaft fracture fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiezadeh, Saeid; Fawaz, Zouheir; Bougherara, Habiba

    2016-03-01

    Intramedullary nails are the golden treatment option for diaphyseal fractures. However, their high stiffness can shield the surrounding bone from the natural physiologic load resulting in subsequent bone loss. Their stiff structure can also delay union by reducing compressive loads at the fracture site, thereby inhibiting secondary bone healing. Composite intramedullary nails have recently been introduced to address these drawbacks. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the mechanical properties of a previously developed composite IM nail made of carbon-fibre/epoxy whose structure was optimized based on fracture healing requirements using the selective stress shielding approach. Following manufacturing, the cross-section of the composite nail was examined under an optical microscope to find the porosity of the structure. Mechanical properties of the proposed composite intramedullary nail were determined using standard tension, compression, bending, and torsion tests. The failed specimens were then examined to obtain the modes of failure. The material showed high strength in tension (403.9±7.8MPa), compression (316.9±10.9MPa), bending (405.3±8.1MPa), and torsion (328.5±7.3MPa). Comparing the flexural modulus (41.1±0.9GPa) with the compressive modulus (10.0±0.2GPa) yielded that the material was significantly more flexible in compression than in bending. This customized flexibility along with the high torsional stiffness of the nail (70.7±2.0Nm(2)) has made it ideal as a fracture fixation device since this unique structure can stabilize the fracture while allowing for compression of fracture ends. Negligible moisture absorption (~0.5%) and low porosity of the laminate structure (flexible axially while being relatively rigid in bending and torsion and is strong enough in all types of physiologic loading, making it a potential candidate for use as an alternative to the conventional titanium-alloy intramedullary nails. PMID:26703226

  5. Three-Phase Carbon Fiber Amine Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes Epoxy Composite: Processing, Characterisation, and Multiscale Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the key issues of carbon nanotube (CNT dispersion and effect of functionalisation on the mechanical properties of multiscale carbon epoxy composites. In this study, CNTs were added in epoxy matrix and further reinforced with carbon fibres. Predetermined amounts of optimally amine functionalised CNTs were dispersed in epoxy matrix, and unidirectional carbon fiber laminates were produced. The effect of the presence of CNTs (1.0 wt% in the resin was reflected by pronounced increase in Young’s modulus, inter-laminar shear strength, and flexural modulus by 51.46%, 39.62%, and 38.04%, respectively. However, 1.5 wt% CNT loading in epoxy resin decreased the overall properties of the three-phase composites. A combination of Halpin-Tsai equations and micromechanics modeling approach was also used to evaluate the mechanical properties of multiscale composites and the differences between the predicted and experimental values are reported. These multiscale composites are likely to be used for potential missile and aerospace structural applications.

  6. Preparation and properties of unidirectional boron nitride fibre reinforced boron nitride matrix composites via precursor infiltration and pyrolysis route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → BN fibres degrade little when exposed at elevated temperatures. → Precursor infiltration and pyrolysis route is useful to prepare BNf/BN composites. → Few reports have related to the preparation and properties of BNf/BN composites. → BNf/BN composites have desirable high-temperature mechanical properties. → BNf/BN composites have excellent dielectric properties at 2-18 GHz. - Abstract: The unidirectional boron nitride fibre reinforced boron nitride matrix (BNf/BN) composites were prepared via the precursor infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP) route, and the structure, composition, mechanical and dielectric properties were studied. The composites have a high content and fine crystallinity of BN. The density is 1.60 g cm-3 with a low open porosity of 4.66%. The composites display good mechanical properties with the average flexural strength, elastic modulus and fracture toughness being 53.8 MPa, 20.8 GPa and 6.88 MPa m1/2, respectively. Lots of long fibres pull-out from the fracture surface, suggesting a good fibre/matrix interface. As temperature increases, both of the flexural strength and elastic modulus exhibit a decreasing trend, with the lowest values being 36.2 MPa and 8.6 GPa at 1000 deg. C, respectively. The desirable residual ratios of the flexural strength and elastic modulus at 1000 deg. C are 67.3% and 41.3%, respectively. The composites have excellent dielectric properties, with the average dielectric constant and loss tangent being 3.07 and 0.0044 at 2-18 GHz, respectively.

  7. Cutting forces in ultrasonically assisted drilling of carbon fibre-reinforced plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhdum, Farrukh; Jennings, Luke T.; Roy, Anish; Silberschmidt, Vadim V.

    2012-08-01

    Ultrasonically assisted drilling (UAD) is a non-traditional hybrid machining process, which combines features of conventional drilling and vibratory machining techniques to obtain remarkable improvements in machinability of advanced materials. The experiments are conducted on commercially available samples of a carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP) at a feed rate of 16 mm/min. In this study, a thrust force reduction in excess of 60% is observed in UAD when compared to conventional drilling (CD). Lower delamination was observed when compared to CD techniques. Optical microscopy revealed that the material is removed as a continuous chip in UAD whereas in case of CD we observe powdered dust. Light and scanning electron microscopy of CFRP chips obtained in drilling elucidate fundamental differences in the underlying machining processes in UAD of CFRP.

  8. Cutting forces in ultrasonically assisted drilling of carbon fibre-reinforced plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonically assisted drilling (UAD) is a non-traditional hybrid machining process, which combines features of conventional drilling and vibratory machining techniques to obtain remarkable improvements in machinability of advanced materials. The experiments are conducted on commercially available samples of a carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP) at a feed rate of 16 mm/min. In this study, a thrust force reduction in excess of 60% is observed in UAD when compared to conventional drilling (CD). Lower delamination was observed when compared to CD techniques. Optical microscopy revealed that the material is removed as a continuous chip in UAD whereas in case of CD we observe powdered dust. Light and scanning electron microscopy of CFRP chips obtained in drilling elucidate fundamental differences in the underlying machining processes in UAD of CFRP.

  9. Predicting the mechanical behaviour of carbon fibre reinforced silicon carbide with interlaminar manufacturing defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmann Severin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A finite element approach based on experimental material data is presented in order to compute the mechanical reliability of carbon fibre reinforced silicon carbide, C/C-SiC, taking interlaminar manufacturing defects into account. The approach is evaluated on sample scale by modelling the flexural behaviour of C/C-SiC samples containing delaminations after liquid silicon infiltration (LSI processing. The non-destructive evaluation methods, determination of fracture mechanical input data and the numerical cohesive zone approach are described. The numerical predictions of flexural stiffness and strength of samples with and without interlaminar defects were validated by bending tests of the respective samples. The difference between tensile and bending behaviour is explained by FE modelling for this group of CMC materials.

  10. Flexural testing on carbon fibre laminates taking into account their different behaviour under tension and compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna Moreno, M. C.; Romero Gutierrez, A.; Martínez Vicente, J. L.

    2016-07-01

    An analytical model has been derived for describing the results of three-point-bending tests in materials with different behaviour under tension and compression. The shift of the neutral plane and the damage initiation mode and its location have been defined. The validity of the equations has been reviewed by testing carbon fibre-reinforced polymers (CFRP), typically employed in different weight-critical applications. Both unidirectional and cross-ply laminates have been studied. The initial failure mode produced depends directly on the beam span- thickness relation. Therefore, specimens with different thicknesses have been analysed for examining the damage initiation due to either the bending moment or the out-of-plane shear load. The experimental description of the damage initiation and evolution has been shown by means of optical microscopy. The good agreement between the analytical estimations and the experimental results shows the validity of the analytical model exposed.

  11. Rigidity and retention of carbon fibre versus stainless steel root canal posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purton, D G; Love, R M

    1996-07-01

    Two of the main requirements of a root canal post are that it is rigid so as to resist flexing under functional load, and that it is well retained in the root. This study compared these properties in two different 1-mm diameter root canal posts--smooth carbon fibre posts (Endopost) and serrated stainless steel posts (Parapost). Ten posts of each type were tested for rigidity in a three-point bend test. Ten posts of each type were cemented with resin cement into the roots of endodontically treated, extracted teeth. The tensile force required to remove the posts was recorded. The Paraposts proved to be significantly more rigid under load (P canals.

  12. Three-dimensional porous hollow fibre copper electrodes for efficient and high-rate electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Kas, Recep; Hummadi, Khalid Khazzal; Kortlever, Ruud; de Wit, Patrick; Milbrat, Alexander; Luiten-Olieman, Mieke W.J.; Benes, Nieck E; Koper, Marc T. M.; Mul, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Aqueous-phase electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide requires an active, earth-abundant electrocatalyst, as well as highly efficient mass transport. Here we report the design of a porous hollow fibre copper electrode with a compact three-dimensional geometry, which provides a large area, three-phase boundary for gas–liquid reactions. The performance of the copper electrode is significantly enhanced; at overpotentials between 200 and 400 mV, faradaic efficiencies for carbon dioxide reduct...

  13. Recycling solid residues recovered from glass fibre-reinforced composites – A review applied to wind turbine blade materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauson, Justine; Lilholt, Hans; Brøndsted, Povl

    2014-01-01

    and recovered glass fibre (GF) into new polymer composite. WT blades are mainly made of glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) using thermosetting resins. Shredding this material and recovering GF are possible recycling solutions for WT blade. Based on a detailed literature review, the formulations of new...... to face large amount of future wind turbine (WT) blades coming to EoL. Among the EoL solutions available for WT blades, i.e. reuse, remanufacturing, recycling, incineration or disposal, this literature review focuses on recycling and particularly the recycling of shredded composite (SC) materials...... composites elaborated with the residues are presented in a novel standardized way based on weight fractions. The mechanical properties of the composite manufactured are thereafter compared and discussed....

  14. Method for fabricating composite carbon foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy.

  15. Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1999-04-27

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  16. Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid partides being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy.

  17. Effect of pMDI isocyanate additive on mechanical and thermal properties of Kenaf fibre reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y A El-Shekeil; S M Sapuan; K Abdan; E S Zainudin; O M Al-Shuja’a

    2012-12-01

    The effect of polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI) on mechanical and thermal properties of Kenaf fibre (KF) reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composites was studied. Various percentages viz. 2%, 4% and 6%, were studied. The composites were characterized by using tensile testing, thermogravimetric analysis (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It was noticed that the addition of pMDI 2%, 4%and 6% did not induce a better tensile nor thermal properties.

  18. A composite-appropriate integration method of thick functional components in fibre-reinforced plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippatos, A.; Höhne, R.; Kliem, M.; Gude, M.

    2016-03-01

    The use of integrated structural health monitoring systems for critical composite parts, such as wind turbine blades, fuselage and wing parts, is an promising approach to guarantee a safe and efficient operational lifetime of such components. Therefore, the integration of thick functional components like sensors, actuators and electronic components is often necessary. An optimal integration of such components should be ensured without material imperfections in the composite structure, i.e. voids and resin rich areas, and failure of the functional components. In this paper, first investigations were undertaken for a basic understanding of the mechanical performance of a fibre reinforced plastic component with integrated functional elements. The influence of different materials and treatment methods for the encapsulation of electronic components was experimentally investigated under static and dynamic loading tests. By means of a parametric finite element model, the effects of an encapsulation and various parameters such as the shape and orientation of the electronic components were examined. Several encapsulation variants were investigated in order to minimise the chance of failure initiations. Based both on experimental and numerical results, a preferred composite integration concept was selected for an electronic board and some first recommendations for an optimal integration were derived.

  19. An Experimental and Numerical Study of Low Velocity Impact of Unsaturated Polyester/Glass Fibre Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanita ZIKE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper validation of experimental and numerical results of low-velocity impact tests of unsaturated polyester/glass fibre composite laminate has been carried out. Impact response of composite laminates was experimentally studied with drop-tower Instron 9250HV determining impact force, energy absorption and deflection. In addition, quasi-static testing equipment Zwick Z100 has been used to determine material mechanical properties to ensure good input data for numerical predictions. Numerical model has been created with the finite element commercial code ANSYS/LS-DYNA to simulate impact response of composite laminate. Also non-destructive ultrasonic B- and C- scan imagining with USPC 3010 system has been used to identify the deformation regions in the specimens and compare to simulation results. During the impact test all samples were perforated, showing brittle response followed by matrix cracking and delamination. Overall good agreement between experimental and simulation results was achieved, comparing impact characterizing parameters as load, energy and deflection. Discrepancy has been observed between ultrasonic scanning and simulation code ANSYS/LS-DYNA results of rupture and delamination. Simulation shows less uniform and larger deformation than it was experimentally observed.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.4.773

  20. Carbon nanostructure composite for electromagnetic interference shielding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anupama Joshi; Suwarna Datar

    2015-06-01

    This communication reviews current developments in carbon nanostructure-based composite materials for electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding. With more and more electronic gadgets being used at different frequencies, there is a need for shielding them from one another to avoid interference. Conventionally, metal-based shielding materials have been used. But due to the requirement of light weight, corrosion resistive materials, lot of work is being done on composite materials. In this research the forerunner is the nanocarbon-based composite material whose different forms add different characteristics to the composite. The article focusses on composites based on graphene, graphene oxide, carbon nanotubes, and several other novel forms of carbon.