WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon exchange dynamics

  1. Environmental variation, vegetation distribution, carbon dynamics and water/energy exchange at high latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, A.D.; Wirth, C.; Apps, M.; Beringer, J.; Clein, J.; Epstein, H.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Bhatti, J.; Chapin, F. S.; De Groot, B.; Efremov, D.; Eugster, W.; Fukuda, M.; Gower, T.; Hinzman, L.; Huntley, B.; Jia, G.J.; Kasischke, E.; Melillo, J.; Romanovsky, V.; Shvidenko, A.; Vaganov, E.; Walker, D.

    2002-01-01

    The responses of high latitude ecosystems to global change involve complex interactions among environmental variables, vegetation distribution, carbon dynamics, and water and energy exchange. These responses may have important consequences for the earth system. In this study, we evaluated how vegetation distribution, carbon stocks and turnover, and water and energy exchange are related to environmental variation spanned by the network of the IGBP high latitude transects. While the most notable feature of the high latitude transects is that they generally span temperature gradients from southern to northern latitudes, there are substantial differences in temperature among the transects. Also, along each transect temperature co-varies with precipitation and photosynthetically active radiation, which are also variable among the transects. Both climate and disturbance interact to influence latitudinal patterns of vegetation and soil carbon storage among the transects, and vegetation distribution appears to interact with climate to determine exchanges of heat and moisture in high latitudes. Despite limitations imposed by the data we assembled, the analyses in this study have taken an important step toward clarifying the complexity of interactions among environmental variables, vegetation distribution, carbon stocks and turnover, and water and energy exchange in high latitude regions. This study reveals the need to conduct coordinated global change studies in high latitudes to further elucidate how interactions among climate, disturbance, and vegetation distribution influence carbon dynamics and water and energy exchange in high latitudes.

  2. Modeling Carbon Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Piers

    2012-01-01

    Model results will be reviewed to assess different methods for bounding the terrestrial role in the global carbon cycle. It is proposed that a series of climate model runs could be scoped that would tighten the limits on the "missing sink" of terrestrial carbon and could also direct future satellite image analyses to search for its geographical location and understand its seasonal dynamics.

  3. Dynamics in carbon exchange fluxes for a grazed semi-arid savanna ecosystem in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagesson, Torbern; Fensholt, Rasmus; Cropley, Ford

    2015-01-01

    variable in scaling carbon fluxes from ground observations using earth observation data. The net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) 2010-2013 was measured using the eddy covariance technique at a grazed semi-arid savanna site in Senegal, West Africa. Night-time NEE was not related to temperature......-arid savanna sites; half-hourly GPP and Reco peaked at -43μmol CO2m-2s-1 and 20μmol CO2m-2s-1, and daily GPP and Reco peaked at -15gCm-2 and 12gCm-2, respectively. Possible explanations for the high CO2 fluxes are a high fraction of C4 species, alleviated water stress conditions, and a strong grazing pressure...

  4. Scaling up of Carbon Exchange Dynamics from AmeriFlux Sites to a Super-Region in the Eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Peter Schmid; Craig Wayson

    2009-05-05

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate carbon exchange dynamics across a region of North America between the Great Plains and the East Coast. This region contains about 40 active carbon cycle research (AmeriFlux) sites in a variety of climatic and landuse settings, from upland forest to urban development. The core research involved a scaling strategy that uses measured fluxes of CO{sub 2}, energy, water, and other biophysical and biometric parameters to train and calibrate surface-vegetation-atmosphere models, in conjunction with satellite (MODIS) derived drivers. To achieve matching of measured and modeled fluxes, the ecosystem parameters of the models will be adjusted to the dynamically variable flux-tower footprints following Schmid (1997). High-resolution vegetation index variations around the flux sites have been derived from Landsat data for this purpose. The calibrated models are being used in conjunction with MODIS data, atmospheric re-analysis data, and digital land-cover databases to derive ecosystem exchange fluxes over the study domain.

  5. Exchange Rate and Inflation Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Eatzaz Ahmad; Saima Ahmed Ali

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies simultaneous determination of nominal exchange rate and domestic price level in Pakistan. The estimated model contains sufficient built-in dynamics to trace the pattern and speed of adjustment in the two variables in response to temporary or permanent shocks. The two domestic shocks considered in the paper are monetary and real shocks, while the three external shocks considered are import price, export price and foreign exchange reserves shocks. The study finds that the imp...

  6. Unifying Dynamic Prognostic Phenology, Heterogeneous Soil and Vegetation Fluxes, and Ecosystem Biomass and Carbon Stocks To Predict the Terrestrial Carbon Cycle and Land-Atmosphere Exchanges in the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, K. D.; Baker, I. T.; Denning, S.

    2016-12-01

    Future climate projections require process-based models that incorporate the mechanisms and feedbacks controlling the carbon cycle. Over the past three decades, land surface models have been key contributors to Earth system models, evolving from predicting latent (LE) and sensible (SH) heat fluxes to energy and water budgets, momentum transfer, and terrestrial carbon exchange and storage. This study presents the latest version of the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB4), which builds on a compilation of previous versions and adds a new mechanistic-based scheme that fully predicts the terrestrial carbon cycle. The main SiB4 updates can be summarized as follows: (i) Incorporation of carbon pools that use new respiration and transfer methods, (ii) Creation of a new dynamic phenology scheme that uses mechanistic-based seasonal stages, and (iii) Unification of carbon pools, phenology and disturbance to close the carbon cycle. SiB4 removes the dependence on satellite-based vegetation indices, and instead uses a single mathematical framework to prognose self-consistent land-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, water, energy, radiation, and momentum, as well as carbon storage. Since grasslands cover 30% of land and are highly seasonal, we investigated forty grass sites. Diurnal cycles of gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (RE), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), LE and SH have third-quartile root mean squared (RMS) errors less than 2.0 µmol m-2 s-1, 1.9 µmol m-2 s-1, 2.0 µmol m-2 s-1, 42 W m-2, and 78 W m-2, respectively. On the synoptic timeframe, all sites have significant LE correlation coefficients of non-seasonal daily data; and all but one have significant SH correlations. Mean seasonal cycles for leaf area index (LAI), GPP, RE, LE, and SH have third-quartile normalized RMS errors less than 32%, 25%, 28%, 16%, and 48%, respectively. On multi-year timescales, daily correlations of LAI, GPP, RE, and LE are all statistically significant, with third-quartile RMS

  7. Dynamics of oxygen and carbon dioxide in rhizospheres of Lobelia dortmanna - a planar optode study of belowground gas exchange between plants and sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzewski, Nikola; Mueller, Peter; Meier, Robert Johannes; Liebsch, Gregor; Jensen, Kai; Koop-Jakobsen, Ketil

    2018-04-01

    Root-mediated CO 2 uptake, O 2 release and their effects on O 2 and CO 2 dynamics in the rhizosphere of Lobelia dortmanna were investigated. Novel planar optode technology, imaging CO 2 and O 2 distribution around single roots, provided insights into the spatiotemporal patterns of gas exchange between roots, sediment and microbial community. In light, O 2 release and CO 2 uptake were pronounced, resulting in a distinct oxygenated zone (radius: c. 3 mm) and a CO 2 -depleted zone (radius: c. 2 mm) around roots. Simultaneously, however, microbial CO 2 production was stimulated within a larger zone around the roots (radius: c. 10 mm). This gave rise to a distinct pattern with a CO 2 minimum at the root surface and a CO 2 maximum c. 2 mm away from the root. In darkness, CO 2 uptake ceased, and the CO 2 -depleted zone disappeared within 2 h. By contrast, the oxygenated root zone remained even after 8 h, but diminished markedly over time. A tight coupling between photosynthetic processes and the spatiotemporal dynamics of O 2 and CO 2 in the rhizosphere of Lobelia was demonstrated, and we suggest that O 2 -induced stimulation of the microbial community in the sediment increases the supply of inorganic carbon for photosynthesis by building up a CO 2 reservoir in the rhizosphere. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Quark exchange and nuclear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moniz, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper gives a qualitative understanding of hadronic phenomena in terms of quark degrees of freedom. The basic model which incorporates saturating confining interactions and the study of hadron-hadron scattering has been carried through in collaboration with F. Lenz, J.T. Londergan, R. Rosenfelder, M. Stingl and K. Yazaki. It is shown that minimal confining dynamics together with exchange symmetry indeed leads to a remarkable range of phenomena at both the nuclear and particle energy scales. Most observables are well described by an effective hadron theory, the quark momentum distribution being the major exception. These features emerge even in the simplest model, namely, U(1) color and hadrons composed of two quarks (anti qq or qq). The author concentrates here on this model. In the concluding section, he remarks on the SU(N) results, particularly on the extent to which the color-hidden dynamics are constrained by examining the systematics of nuclear and hadronic phenomena. (Auth.)

  9. Chemistry of carbon in dynamic sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lievens, F.; Casteels, F.

    1980-01-01

    The chemistry of carbon in sodium is described by its chemical activity measurements using alloy monitor foils, by its behaviour in the heat exchanger of the Na 2 sodium loop after 60,000 hours of operation, and by measurements with on-line meters. Efforts toward the identification of the carbon chemical states present in dynamic sodium, and responsible for the carbon chemical activity, are described. (author)

  10. Chemistry of carbon in dynamic sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lievens, F; Casteels, F [SCK/CEN, Mol (Belgium)

    1980-05-01

    The chemistry of carbon in sodium is described by its chemical activity measurements using alloy monitor foils, by its behaviour in the heat exchanger of the Na 2 sodium loop after 60,000 hours of operation, and by measurements with on-line meters. Efforts toward the identification of the carbon chemical states present in dynamic sodium, and responsible for the carbon chemical activity, are described. (author)

  11. Ozone uptake, water loss and carbon exchange dynamics in annually drought-stressed Pinus ponderosa forests: measured trends and parameters for uptake modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, Jeanne A

    2004-03-01

    This paper describes 3 years of physiological measurements on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) growing along an ozone concentration gradient in the Sierra Nevada, California, including variables necessary to parameterize, validate and modify photosynthesis and stomatal conductance algorithms used to estimate ozone uptake. At all sites, gas exchange was under tight stomatal control during the growing season. Stomatal conductance was strongly correlated with leaf water potential (R2=0.82), which decreased over the growing season with decreasing soil water content (R2=0.60). Ozone uptake, carbon uptake, and transpirational water loss closely followed the dynamics of stomatal conductance. Peak ozone and CO2 uptake occurred in early summer and declined progressively thereafter. As a result, periods of maximum ozone uptake did not correspond to periods of peak ozone concentration, underscoring the inappropriateness of using current metrics based on concentration (e.g., SUM0, W126 and AOT40) for assessing ozone exposure risk to plants in this climate region. Both Jmax (maximum CO2-saturated photosynthetic rate, limited by electron transport) and Vcmax (maximum rate of Rubisco-limited carboxylation) increased toward the middle of the growing season, then decreased in September. Intrinsic water-use efficiency rose with increasing drought stress, as expected. The ratio of Jmax to Vcmax was similar to literature values of 2.0. Nighttime respiration followed a Q10 of 2.0, but was significantly higher at the high-ozone site. Respiration rates decreased by the end of the summer as a result of decreased metabolic activity and carbon stores.

  12. Carbon dynamics and CO2 air-sea exchanges in the eutrophied coastal waters of the Southern Bight of the North Sea: a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gypens

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A description of the carbonate system has been incorporated in the MIRO biogeochemical model to investigate the contribution of diatom and Phaeocystis blooms to the seasonal dynamics of air-sea CO2 exchanges in the Eastern Channel and Southern Bight of the North Sea, with focus on the eutrophied Belgian coastal waters. For this application, the model was implemented in a simplified three-box representation of the hydrodynamics with the open ocean boundary box ‘Western English Channel’ (WCH and the ‘French Coastal Zone’ (FCZ and ‘Belgian Coastal Zone’ (BCZ boxes receiving carbon and nutrients from the rivers Seine and Scheldt, respectively. Results were obtained by running the model for the 1996–1999 period. The simulated partial pressures of CO2 (pCO2 were successfully compared with data recorded over the same period in the central BCZ at station 330 (51°26.05′ N; 002°48.50′ E. Budget calculations based on model simulations of carbon flow rates indicated for BCZ a low annual sink of atmospheric CO2 (−0.17 mol C m-2 y-1. On the opposite, surface water pCO2 in WCH was estimated to be at annual equilibrium with respect to atmospheric CO2. The relative contribution of biological, chemical and physical processes to the modelled seasonal variability of pCO2 in BCZ was further explored by running model scenarios with separate closures of biological activities and/or river inputs of carbon. The suppression of biological processes reversed direction of the CO2 flux in BCZ that became, on an annual scale, a significant source for atmospheric CO2 (+0.53 mol C m-2 y-1. Overall biological activity had a stronger influence on the modelled seasonal cycle of pCO2 than temperature. Especially Phaeocystis colonies which growth in spring were associated with an important sink of atmospheric CO2 that counteracted the temperature-driven increase of pCO2 at this period of the year. However, river inputs of organic and inorganic carbon were

  13. Equal exchange: Determining a fair price for carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodes, G.; Kamel, S.

    2007-12-14

    This first volume in the new series CD4CDM Perspective Series focuses on determining an equal exchange between carbon buyers and sellers in CDM transactions. Contributors to this volume represent a wide spectrum of the various market actors that are interacting in order to realize both successful and equitable carbon transactions. The following issues are discussed: Global carbon price dynamics; CDM project risk profiles and/or premiums; Importance of time factors and delivery guarantees; Impact of regulatory drivers and post-Kyoto outlook; Region-specific outlooks; Strategies, contracting models and approaches. (BA)

  14. Nonadiabatic exchange dynamics during adiabatic frequency sweeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, Thomas M

    2016-04-01

    A Bloch equation analysis that includes relaxation and exchange effects during an adiabatic frequency swept pulse is presented. For a large class of sweeps, relaxation can be incorporated using simple first order perturbation theory. For anisochronous exchange, new expressions are derived for exchange augmented rotating frame relaxation. For isochronous exchange between sites with distinct relaxation rate constants outside the extreme narrowing limit, simple criteria for adiabatic exchange are derived and demonstrate that frequency sweeps commonly in use may not be adiabatic with regard to exchange unless the exchange rates are much larger than the relaxation rates. Otherwise, accurate assessment of the sensitivity to exchange dynamics will require numerical integration of the rate equations. Examples of this situation are given for experimentally relevant parameters believed to hold for in-vivo tissue. These results are of significance in the study of exchange induced contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Air-sea exchange of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, D C.E.; De Baar, H J.W.; De Jong, E; Koning, F A [Netherlands Institute for Sea Research NIOZ, Den Burg Texel (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    The greenhouse gas carbon dioxide is emitted by anthropogenic activities. The oceans presumably serve as a net sink for 17 to 39% of these emissions. The objective of this project is to quantify more accurately the locality, seasonality and magnitude of the net air-sea flux of CO2 with emphasis on the South Atlantic Ocean. In situ measurements of the fugacity of CO2 in surface water and marine air, of total dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity and of air-sea exchange of CO2 have been made at four Atlantic crossings, in the Southern Ocean, in a Norwegian fjord and in the Dutch coastal zone. Skin temperature was detected during several of the cruises. The data collected in the course of the project support and refine previous findings. Variability of dissolved CO2 in surface water is related in a complex way to biological and physical factors. The carbonate equilibria cause dissolved gaseous CO2 to react in an intricate manner to disturbances. Dissolved gaseous CO2 hardly ever attains equilibrium with the atmospheric CO2 content by means of air-sea exchange, before a new disturbance occurs. Surface water fCO2 changes could be separated in those caused by seasonal warming and those by biological uptake in a Southern Ocean spring. Incorporation of a thermal skin effect and a change of the wind speed interval strongly increased the small net oceanic uptake for the area. The Atlantic crossings point to a relationship between water mass history and surface water CO2 characteristics. In particular, current flow and related heat fluxes leave their imprint on the concentration dissolved gaseous CO2 and on air-sea exchange. In the Dutch coastal zone hydrography and inorganic carbon characteristics of the water were heterogeneous, which yielded variable air-sea exchange of CO2. figs., tabs., refs.

  16. Marriage exchanges, seed exchanges, and the dynamics of manioc diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delêtre, Marc; McKey, Doyle B; Hodkinson, Trevor R

    2011-11-08

    The conservation of crop genetic resources requires understanding the different variables-cultural, social, and economic-that impinge on crop diversity. In small-scale farming systems, seed exchanges represent a key mechanism in the dynamics of crop genetic diversity, and analyzing the rules that structure social networks of seed exchange between farmer communities can help decipher patterns of crop genetic diversity. Using a combination of ethnobotanical and molecular genetic approaches, we investigated the relationships between regional patterns of manioc genetic diversity in Gabon and local networks of seed exchange. Spatially explicit Bayesian clustering methods showed that geographical discontinuities of manioc genetic diversity mirror major ethnolinguistic boundaries, with a southern matrilineal domain characterized by high levels of varietal diversity and a northern patrilineal domain characterized by low varietal diversity. Borrowing concepts from anthropology--kinship, bridewealth, and filiation--we analyzed the relationships between marriage exchanges and seed exchange networks in patrilineal and matrilineal societies. We demonstrate that, by defining marriage prohibitions, kinship systems structure social networks of exchange between farmer communities and influence the movement of seeds in metapopulations, shaping crop diversity at local and regional levels.

  17. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Chuixiang; Ricciuto, Daniel; Li, Runze

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate–carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships betwe...

  18. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yi, C.; Ricciuto, D.; Li, R.; Hendriks, D.M.D.; Moors, E.J.; Valentini, R.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between

  19. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yi, C.; Jacobs, C.M.J.; Moors, E.J.; Elbers, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate–carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between

  20. Variability in carbon exchange of European croplands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eddy J, Moors; Jacobs, Cor; Jans, Wilma

    2010-01-01

    The estimated net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 based on measurements at 17 flux sites in Europe for 45 cropping periods showed an average loss of -38 gC m-2 per cropping period. The cropping period is defined as the period after sowing or planting until harvest. The variability taken as the st......The estimated net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 based on measurements at 17 flux sites in Europe for 45 cropping periods showed an average loss of -38 gC m-2 per cropping period. The cropping period is defined as the period after sowing or planting until harvest. The variability taken...... as the standard deviation of these cropping periods was 251 gC m-2. These numbers do not include lateral inputs such as the carbon content of applied manure, nor the carbon exchange out of the cropping period. Both are expected to have a major effect on the C budget of high energy summer crops such as maize. NEE...... and gross primary production (GPP) can be estimated by crop net primary production based on inventories of biomass at these sites, independent of species and regions. NEE can also be estimated by the product of photosynthetic capacity and the number of days with the average air temperature >5 °C. Yield...

  1. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuixiang Yi; Daniel Ricciuto; Runze Li; John Wolbeck; Xiyan Xu; Mats Nilsson; John Frank; William J. Massman

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere across biomes...

  2. Quantitative aspects of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative aspects of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange through the ... ceratophthalmus (Crustacea: Decapoda) during rest and exercise in water and ... intersects zero time on the x-axis, indicating rapid gas exchange at the lung surface.

  3. Carbon cycling and gas exchange in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumbore, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis summaries three independent projects, each of which describes a method which can be used to study the role of soils in regulating the atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 and other trace gases. The first chapter uses the distribution of natural and bomb produced radiocarbon in fractionated soil organic matter to quantify the turnover of carbon in soils. A comparison of 137 Cs and 14 C in the modern soil profiles indicates that carbon is transported vertically in the soil as dissolved organic material. The remainder of the work reported is concerned with the use of inert trace gases to explore the physical factors which control the seasonal to diel variability in the fluxes of CO 2 and other trace gases from soils. Chapter 2 introduces a method for measuring soil gas exchange rates in situ using sulfur hexafluoride as a purposeful tracer. The measurement method uses standard flux box technology, and includes simultaneous determination of the fluxes and soil atmosphere concentrations of CO 2 and CH 4 . In Chapter 3, the natural tracer 222 Rn is used as an inert analog for exchange both in the soils and forest canopy of the Amazon rain forest

  4. Pion double charge exchange and hadron dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will review theoretical results to show how pion double charge exchange is contributing to our understanding of hadron dynamics in nuclei. The exploitation of the nucleus as a filter is shown to be essential in facilitating the comparison between theory and experiment. 23 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Carbon dioxide exchange rates from short- and long-hydroperiod Everglades freshwater marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. L. Jimenez; G. Starr; C. L. Staudhammer; J. L. Schedlbauer; H. W. Loescher; Sparkle L Malone; S. F. Oberbauer

    2012-01-01

    Everglades freshwater marshes were once carbon sinks, but human-driven hydrologic changes have led to uncertainty about the current state of their carbon dynamics. To investigate the effect of hydrology on CO2 exchange, we used eddy covariance measurements for 2 years (2008-2009) in marl (short-hydroperiod) and peat (long-hydroperiod) wetlands in Everglades National...

  6. Estimation of Global 1km-grid Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Part II: Evaluations and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, K.; Sasai, T.; Kato, S.; Niwa, Y.; Saito, M.; Takagi, H.; Matsunaga, T.; Hiraki, K.; Maksyutov, S. S.; Yokota, T.

    2015-12-01

    Global terrestrial carbon cycle largely depends on a spatial pattern in land cover type, which is heterogeneously-distributed over regional and global scales. Many studies have been trying to reveal distribution of carbon exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and atmosphere for understanding global carbon cycle dynamics by using terrestrial biosphere models, satellite data, inventory data, and so on. However, most studies remained within several tens of kilometers grid spatial resolution, and the results have not been enough to understand the detailed pattern of carbon exchanges based on ecological community and to evaluate the carbon stocks by forest ecosystems in each countries. Improving the sophistication of spatial resolution is obviously necessary to enhance the accuracy of carbon exchanges. Moreover, the improvement may contribute to global warming awareness, policy makers and other social activities. We show global terrestrial carbon exchanges (net ecosystem production, net primary production, and gross primary production) with 1km-grid resolution. The methodology for these estimations are shown in the 2015 AGU FM poster "Estimation of Global 1km-grid Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Part I: Developing Inputs and Modelling". In this study, we evaluated the carbon exchanges in various regions with other approaches. We used the satellite-driven biosphere model (BEAMS) as our estimations, GOSAT L4A CO2 flux data, NEP retrieved by NICAM and CarbonTracer2013 flux data, for period from Jun 2001 to Dec 2012. The temporal patterns for this period were indicated similar trends between BEAMS, GOSAT, NICAM, and CT2013 in many sub-continental regions. Then, we estimated the terrestrial carbon exchanges in each countries, and could indicated the temporal patterns of the exchanges in large carbon stock regions.Global terrestrial carbon cycle largely depends on a spatial pattern of land cover type, which is heterogeneously-distributed over regional and global scales. Many

  7. A dynamic leaf gas-exchange strategy is conserved in woody plants under changing ambient CO2: evidence from carbon isotope discrimination in paleo and CO2 enrichment studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising atmospheric [CO2], ca, is expected to affect stomatal regulation of leaf gas-exchange of woody plants, thus influencing energy fluxes as well as carbon (C), water and nutrient cycling of forests. Researchers have reported that stomata regulate leaf gas-exchange around “set...

  8. Kinetics from Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzl, Lukas S; Hummer, Gerhard

    2017-08-08

    Transitions between metastable states govern many fundamental processes in physics, chemistry and biology, from nucleation events in phase transitions to the folding of proteins. The free energy surfaces underlying these processes can be obtained from simulations using enhanced sampling methods. However, their altered dynamics makes kinetic and mechanistic information difficult or impossible to extract. Here, we show that, with replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD), one can not only sample equilibrium properties but also extract kinetic information. For systems that strictly obey first-order kinetics, the procedure to extract rates is rigorous. For actual molecular systems whose long-time dynamics are captured by kinetic rate models, accurate rate coefficients can be determined from the statistics of the transitions between the metastable states at each replica temperature. We demonstrate the practical applicability of the procedure by constructing master equation (Markov state) models of peptide and RNA folding from REMD simulations.

  9. Carbon dioxide exchange in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Nynne Marie Rand

    in further warming. This PhD thesis addresses different aspects of climate change effects on C dynamics in the Arctic. The focus has been on i) changes in ER, age of the C sources, GEP and the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in response to long- and short-term climate manipulations and ii) comparisons of CO2...... warming indications of emission of old C were observed, though most pronounced in the spring. I found no short-term response of summer warming on GEP at the low arctic heath and the measurements of NEE showed an increased emission of CO2 to the atmosphere during two snow free seasons. Increased winter......-term warming can cause GEP to increase and leave NEE unaltered. Hence, the risk of warming induced long-term positive feedback on climate change might be reduced. The new balance in the C cycling might though be sensitive to limitations of GEP due to for instance late snowmelt or herbivory....

  10. 'Carbon-Money Exchange' to contain global warming and deforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Kozo

    2005-01-01

    This paper builds a basic theory of 'Carbon-Money Exchange' in which carbon as currency in nature's household (ecosystems) and money as currency in humankind's household (economy) are exchanged just like in a foreign exchange. The simple chemical equation below makes it possible (CO 2 →C+O 2 =C+O 2 →CO 2 ). The left-hand side represents the work of plants to remove atmospheric CO 2 . The right-hand side represents the work of humans as fossil fuel consumers to produce it. The exchange of the two currencies is possible by copying the fossil fuel market. The paper concludes that this new exchange can automatically contain global warming and deforestation, replacing onerous emissions trading. Moreover, it could revolutionize the conventional economy, creating counter-capitalism, or 'carbonism'

  11. Kinetics of the exchange of oxygen between carbon dioxide and carbonate in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, C.K.; Silverman, D.N.

    1975-01-01

    A kinetic analysis of the exchange of oxygen between carbon dioxide and carbonate ion in alkaline, aqueous solutions is presented. The exchange was observed by placing 18 O-labeled carbonate, not enriched in 13 C, into solution with 13 C-enriched carbonate, not enriched in 18 O. The rate of depletion of 18 O from the 12 C-containing species and the rate of appearance of 18 O in the 13 C-containing species was measured by mass spectrometry. From these data, the second-order rate constant for the reaction between carbon dioxide and carbonate which results in the exchange of oxygen at 25 0 is 114 +- 11 M -1 sec -1 . It is emphasized that this exchange of oxygen between species of CO 2 in solution must be recognized in studies using 18 O labels to determine the fate of CO 2 in biochemical and physiological processes. (auth)

  12. Carbon nanofiber growth on carbon paper for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celebi, S.; Nijhuis, T.A.; Schaaf, van der J.; Bruijn, de F.A.; Schouten, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Homogeneous deposition precipitation (HDP) of nickel has been investigated for the growth of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on carbon paper for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells as a gas diffusion layer. Selective CNF growth on only one side of carbon paper is required to transfer the generated

  13. Extensions to the Dynamic Aerospace Vehicle Exchange Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Geoffrey J.; Jackson, E. Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The Dynamic Aerospace Vehicle Exchange Markup Language (DAVE-ML) is a syntactical language for exchanging flight vehicle dynamic model data. It provides a framework for encoding entire flight vehicle dynamic model data packages for exchange and/or long-term archiving. Version 2.0.1 of DAVE-ML provides much of the functionality envisioned for exchanging aerospace vehicle data; however, it is limited in only supporting scalar time-independent data. Additional functionality is required to support vector and matrix data, abstracting sub-system models, detailing dynamics system models (both discrete and continuous), and defining a dynamic data format (such as time sequenced data) for validation of dynamics system models and vehicle simulation packages. Extensions to DAVE-ML have been proposed to manage data as vectors and n-dimensional matrices, and record dynamic data in a compatible form. These capabilities will improve the clarity of data being exchanged, simplify the naming of parameters, and permit static and dynamic data to be stored using a common syntax within a single file; thereby enhancing the framework provided by DAVE-ML for exchanging entire flight vehicle dynamic simulation models.

  14. Isotopic exchange of carbon-bound hydrogen over geologic timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessions, Alex L.; Sylva, Sean P.; Summons, Roger E.; Hayes, John M.

    2004-04-01

    The increasing popularity of compound-specific hydrogen isotope (D/H) analyses for investigating sedimentary organic matter raises numerous questions about the exchange of carbon-bound hydrogen over geologic timescales. Important questions include the rates of isotopic exchange, methods for diagnosing exchange in ancient samples, and the isotopic consequences of that exchange. This article provides a review of relevant literature data along with new data from several pilot studies to investigate such issues. Published experimental estimates of exchange rates between organic hydrogen and water indicate that at warm temperatures (50-100°C) exchange likely occurs on timescales of 104 to 108 yr. Incubation experiments using organic compounds and D-enriched water, combined with compound-specific D/H analyses, provide a new and highly sensitive method for measuring exchange at low temperatures. Comparison of δD values for isoprenoid and n-alkyl carbon skeletons in sedimentary organic matter provides no evidence for exchange in young (exchange in ancient (>350 Ma) rocks. Specific rates of exchange are probably influenced by the nature and abundance of organic matter, pore-water chemistry, the presence of catalytic mineral surfaces, and perhaps even enzymatic activity. Estimates of equilibrium fractionation factors between organic H and water indicate that typical lipids will be depleted in D relative to water by ∼75 to 140‰ at equilibrium (30°C). Thus large differences in δD between organic molecules and water cannot be unambiguously interpreted as evidence against hydrogen exchange. A better approach may be to use changes in stereochemistry as a proxy for hydrogen exchange. For example, estimated rates of H exchange in pristane are similar to predicted rates for stereochemical inversion in steranes and hopanes. The isotopic consequences of this exchange remain in question. Incubations of cholestene with D2O indicate that the number of D atoms incorporated during

  15. Endogenous circadian regulation of carbon dioxide exchange in terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tested the hypothesis that diurnal changes in terrestrial CO2 exchange are driven exclusively by the direct effect of the physical environment on plant physiology. We failed to corroborate this assumption, finding instead large diurnal fluctuations in whole ecosystem carbon assimilation across a ...

  16. Are international fund flows related to exchange rate dynamics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Suxiao; de Haan, Jakob; Scholtens, Bert

    2018-01-01

    Employing monthly data for 53 countries between 1996 and 2015, we investigate the relationship between international fund flows and exchange rate dynamics. We find strong co-movement between funds flows (as measured with the EPFR Global data base) and bilateral real exchange rates vis-à-vis the USD.

  17. Heat exchange performance of stainless steel and carbon foams modified with carbon nano fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuzovskaya, I.; Pacheco Benito, Sergio; Chinthaginjala, J.K.; Reed, C.P.; Lefferts, Leonardus; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNF), with fishbone and parallel wall structures, were grown by catalytic chemical vapor deposition on the surface of carbon foam and stainless steel foam, in order to improve their heat exchange performance. Enhancement in heat transfer efficiency between 30% and 75% was achieved

  18. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Chuixiang; Wolbeck, John; Xu Xiyan [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Queens College, City University of New York, NY 11367 (United States); Ricciuto, Daniel [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Li Runze [Department of Statistics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Nilsson, Mats [Department of Forest Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeaa (Sweden); Aires, Luis [CESAM and Department of Environmental Engineering, School of Technology and Management, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria (Portugal); Albertson, John D [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 22708-0287 (United States); Ammann, Christof [Federal Research Station Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon, Reckenholzstrasse 191, 8046 Zuerich (Switzerland); Arain, M Altaf [School of Geography and Earth Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1 (Canada); De Araujo, Alessandro C [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Programa LBA, Campus-II, Manaus-Amazonas 69060 (Brazil); Aubinet, Marc [University of Liege, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Unit of Biosystem Physics, 2 Passage des Deportes, 5030 Gembloux (Belgium); Aurela, Mika [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Climate Change Research, FI-00101 Helsinki (Finland); Barcza, Zoltan [Department of Meteorology, Eoetvoes Lorand University, H-1117 Budapest, Pazmany setany 1/A (Hungary); Barr, Alan [Climate Research Division, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 3H5 (Canada); Berbigier, Paul [INRA, UR1263 EPHYSE, Villenave d' Ornon F-33883 (France); Beringer, Jason [School of Geography and Environmental Science, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Bernhofer, Christian [Institute of Hydrology and Meteorology, Dresden University of Technology, Pienner Strasse 23, D-01737, Tharandt (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO{sub 2} exchange with the atmosphere across biomes and continents are lacking. Here we present data describing the relationships between net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) and climate factors as measured using the eddy covariance method at 125 unique sites in various ecosystems over six continents with a total of 559 site-years. We find that NEE observed at eddy covariance sites is (1) a strong function of mean annual temperature at mid- and high-latitudes, (2) a strong function of dryness at mid- and low-latitudes, and (3) a function of both temperature and dryness around the mid-latitudinal belt (45 deg. N). The sensitivity of NEE to mean annual temperature breaks down at {approx} 16 deg. C (a threshold value of mean annual temperature), above which no further increase of CO{sub 2} uptake with temperature was observed and dryness influence overrules temperature influence.

  19. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Chuixiang; Wolbeck, John; Xu Xiyan; Ricciuto, Daniel; Li Runze; Nilsson, Mats; Aires, Luis; Albertson, John D; Ammann, Christof; Arain, M Altaf; De Araujo, Alessandro C; Aubinet, Marc; Aurela, Mika; Barcza, Zoltan; Barr, Alan; Berbigier, Paul; Beringer, Jason; Bernhofer, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO 2 exchange with the atmosphere across biomes and continents are lacking. Here we present data describing the relationships between net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) and climate factors as measured using the eddy covariance method at 125 unique sites in various ecosystems over six continents with a total of 559 site-years. We find that NEE observed at eddy covariance sites is (1) a strong function of mean annual temperature at mid- and high-latitudes, (2) a strong function of dryness at mid- and low-latitudes, and (3) a function of both temperature and dryness around the mid-latitudinal belt (45 deg. N). The sensitivity of NEE to mean annual temperature breaks down at ∼ 16 deg. C (a threshold value of mean annual temperature), above which no further increase of CO 2 uptake with temperature was observed and dryness influence overrules temperature influence.

  20. Tidal Wetlands and Coastal Ocean Carbon Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, C.; Wang, S. R.; Forbrich, I.; Giblin, A. E.; Cai, W. J.

    2017-12-01

    Recent overviews of coastal ocean C dynamics have tidal wetlands in a prominent position: a local sink for atmospheric CO2, a local store of OC, and a source of DIC and OC for the adjacent estuary and nearshore ocean. Over the past decade there have been great strides made in quantifying and understanding these flows and linkages. GPP and R of the wetlands are not nearly as imbalanced as thought 30 yrs ago. Heterotrophy of adjacent estuarine waters is not solely due to the respiration of OC exported from the marsh, rather we see the marsh directly respiring into the water during tidal inundation and accumulated marsh DIC draining into tidal creeks. Organic carbon burial on the marsh is still a relatively minor flux, but it is large relative to marsh NEE. Using literature and unpublished data on marsh DIC export, we used examples from Sapelo Island GA USA and Plum Island MA USA to constrain estimates of NEP and potential OC export. P. There remain large uncertainties in quantifying C dynamics of coupled wetland - estuary systems. Gas exchange from the water to atmosphere is one of the largest uncertainties. Work at Sapelo suggests that upwards of 40% of all daily exchange occurs from water flooding the marsh, which is but a few hours a day. This estimate is based on the intercept value for gas exchange vs wind velocity. Another major uncertainty comes from converting between O2 based estimates of metabolism to C. At Sapelo we find PQ and RQ values diverging greatly from Redfield. Finally, C dynamics of the coastal ocean, especially the role of tidal wetlands is likely to change substantially in the future. Studies at Plum Island show a reversal of the 4000 yr process of marsh progradation with marshes eroding away at their edges because of inadequate sediment supply and rising sea level. The fate of eroded OC is questionable. Landward transgression with SLR is the only likely counter to continued wetland loss - but that's a complex social issue requiring new

  1. Terahertz Dynamics in Carbon Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Junichiro

    2012-02-01

    This NSF Partnerships for International Research and Education (PIRE) project supports a unique interdisciplinary and international partnership investigating terahertz (THz) dynamics in nanostructures. The 0.1 to 10 THz frequency range of the electromagnetic spectrum is where electrical transport and optical transitions merge, offering exciting opportunities to study a variety of novel physical phenomena in condensed matter. By combining THz technology and nanotechnology, we can advance our understanding of THz physics while improving and developing THz devices. Specifically, this PIRE research explores THz dynamics of electrons in carbon nanomaterials, namely, nanotubes and graphene --- low-dimensional, sp^2-bonded carbon systems with unique finite-frequency properties. Japan and the U.S. are global leaders in both THz research and carbon research, and stimulating cooperation is critical to further advance THz science and to commercialize products developed in the lab. However, obstacles exist for international collaboration --- primarily linguistic and cultural barriers --- and this PIRE project aims to address these barriers through the integration of our research and education programs. Our strong educational portfolio endeavours to cultivate interest in nanotechnology amongst young U.S. undergraduate students and encourage them to pursue graduate study and academic research in the physical sciences, especially those from underrepresented groups. Our award-winning International Research Experience for Undergraduates Program, NanoJapan, provides structured research internships in Japanese university laboratories with Japanese mentors --- recognized as a model international education program for science and engineering students. The project builds the skill sets of nanoscience researchers and students by cultivating international and inter-cultural awareness, research expertise, and specific academic interests in nanotechnology. U.S. project partners include Rice

  2. A dynamic leaf gas-exchange strategy is conserved in woody plants under changing ambient CO2: evidence from carbon isotope discrimination in paleo and CO2 enrichment studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Steven L.; Brooks, J. Renée; Meinzer, Frederick C.; Anderson, Rebecca D.; Bader, Martin K.-F.; Battipaglia, Giovanna; Becklin, Katie M.; Beerling, David; Bert, Didier; Betancourt, Julio L.; Dawson, Todd E.; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Guyette, Richard P.; Körner, Christian; Leavitt, Steven W.; Linder, Sune; Marshall, John D.; Mildner, Manuel; Ogée, Jérôme; Panyushkina, Irina P.; Plumpton, Heather J.; Pregitzer, Kurt S.; Saurer, Matthias; Smith, Andrew R.; Siegwolf, Rolf T.W.; Stambaugh, Michael C.; Talhelm, Alan F.; Tardif, Jacques C.; Van De Water, Peter K.; Ward, Joy K.; Wingate, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric [CO2], ca, is expected to affect stomatal regulation of leaf gas-exchange of woody plants, thus influencing energy fluxes as well as carbon (C), water, and nutrient cycling of forests. Researchers have proposed various strategies for stomatal regulation of leaf gas-exchange that include maintaining a constant leaf internal [CO2], ci, a constant drawdown in CO2(ca − ci), and a constant ci/ca. These strategies can result in drastically different consequences for leaf gas-exchange. The accuracy of Earth systems models depends in part on assumptions about generalizable patterns in leaf gas-exchange responses to varying ca. The concept of optimal stomatal behavior, exemplified by woody plants shifting along a continuum of these strategies, provides a unifying framework for understanding leaf gas-exchange responses to ca. To assess leaf gas-exchange regulation strategies, we analyzed patterns in ci inferred from studies reporting C stable isotope ratios (δ13C) or photosynthetic discrimination (∆) in woody angiosperms and gymnosperms that grew across a range of ca spanning at least 100 ppm. Our results suggest that much of the ca-induced changes in ci/ca occurred across ca spanning 200 to 400 ppm. These patterns imply that ca − ci will eventually approach a constant level at high ca because assimilation rates will reach a maximum and stomatal conductance of each species should be constrained to some minimum level. These analyses are not consistent with canalization toward any single strategy, particularly maintaining a constant ci. Rather, the results are consistent with the existence of a broadly conserved pattern of stomatal optimization in woody angiosperms and gymnosperms. This results in trees being profligate water users at low ca, when additional water loss is small for each unit of C gain, and increasingly water-conservative at high ca, when photosystems are saturated and water loss is large for each unit C gain.

  3. Cardioplegia heat exchanger design modelling using computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driel, M R

    2000-11-01

    A new cardioplegia heat exchanger has been developed by Sorin Biomedica. A three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) model was optimized using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling. CFD optimization techniques have commonly been applied to velocity flow field analysis, but CFD analysis was also used in this study to predict the heat exchange performance of the design before prototype fabrication. The iterative results of the optimization and the actual heat exchange performance of the final configuration are presented in this paper. Based on the behaviour of this model, both the water and blood fluid flow paths of the heat exchanger were optimized. The simulation predicted superior heat exchange performance using an optimal amount of energy exchange surface area, reducing the total contact surface area, the device priming volume and the material costs. Experimental results confirm the empirical results predicted by the CFD analysis.

  4. Northern peatland carbon biogeochemistry. The influence of vascular plants and edaphic factors on carbon dioxide and methane exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oequist, M.

    2001-01-01

    The findings reported in this thesis and in the accompanying papers are based on both laboratory and field investigations of carbon transformation dynamics on the process scale and at the resolution of individual peatland plant communities. The data from one of the studies also is extrapolated in an attempt to identify environmental controls on regional scales in order to predict the response of northern peatlands to climate warming. The laboratory experiments focus on how climate variations, inducing fluctuations in groundwater level and also soil freeze-thaw cycles, influences organic matter mineralisation to carbon dioxide and methane. The field studies investigate year-to-year variations and interdecadal differences in carbon gas exchange at a subarctic peatland, and also how the physiological activities of vascular plants control methane emission rates. The main conclusions presented include: Soil freeze-thaw events may be very important for the annual carbon balance in northern peatlands, because they have the potential to increase mineralisation rates and alter biogeochemical degradation pathways. Vascular plants exert a strong influence on methane flux dynamics during the growing season, both by mediating methane transport and through substrate-based interactions with the soil microbial community. However, there are important species-related factors that govern the nature and extent of this influence. Caution has to be taken when extrapolating field data to estimate regional carbon exchange because the relevance of the specific environmental parameters that control this exchange varies depending on resolution. On broad spatial and temporal scales the best predictor of peatland methane emissions is mean soil temperature, but also microbial substrate availability (expressed as the organic acid concentration in peat water) is of importance. This temperature sensitivity represents a strong potential feedback mechanism on climate change

  5. Modeling of the Bosphorus exchange flow dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sözer, Adil; Özsoy, Emin

    2017-04-01

    The fundamental hydrodynamic behavior of the Bosphorus Strait is investigated through a numerical modeling study using alternative configurations of idealized or realistic geometry. Strait geometry and basin stratification conditions allow for hydraulic controls and are ideally suited to support the maximal-exchange regime, which determines the rate of exchange of waters originating from the adjacent Black and Mediterranean Seas for a given net transport. Steady-state hydraulic controls are demonstrated by densimetric Froude number calculations under layered flow approximations when corrections are applied to account for high velocity shears typically observed in the Bosphorus. Analyses of the model results reveal many observed features of the strait, including critical transitions at hydraulic controls and dissipation by turbulence and hydraulic jumps. It is found that the solution depends on initialization, especially with respect to the basin initial conditions. Significant differences between the controlled maximal-exchange and drowned solutions suggest that a detailed modeling implementation involving coupling with adjacent basins needs to take full account of the Bosphorus Strait in terms of the physical processes to be resolved.

  6. Information Exchange, Market Transparency and Dynamic Oligopoly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Per Baltzer; Møllgaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    In the economics literature, various views on the likely (efficiency) effects of information exchange,communication between firms and market transparency present themselves. Often these views oninformation flows are highly conflicting. On the one hand, it is argued that increased...... informationdissemination improves firm planning to the benefit of society (including customers) and/or allowspotential customers to make the right decisions given their preferences. On the other hand, theliterature also suggests that increased information dissemination can have significant coordinating orcollusive......, where informational issues have played a significant role....

  7. Absorption of carbon dioxide and isotope exchange rate of carbon in a reaction system between carbon dioxide and carbamic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Kenji; Kitamoto, Asashi

    1985-01-01

    The performance of isotope separation of carbon-13 by chemical exchange between carbon dioxide and carbamic acid was studied. The working fluid used in the study was a solution of DNBA, (C 4 H 9 ) 2 NH and n-octane mixture. Factors related to the isotope exchange rate were measured, such as the absorption rate of carbon dioxide into the solution of DNBA and n-octane, the isotope exchange rate and the separation factor in the reaction between CO 2 and carbamic acid. The absorption of CO 2 into the working fluid was the sum of chemical absorption by DNBA and physical absorption by n-octane. The absorption of carbon dioxide into the working fluid was negligible at temperatures over 90 0 C, but increased gradually at lower temperatures. Carbon dioxide was absorbed into DNBA by chemical absorption, and DNBA was converted to carbamic acid by the reaction. The reaction for synthesis and decomposition of carbamic acid was reversible. The separation factor in equilibrium reached a large value at lower temperatures. The isotope exchange rate between gas and liquid was proportional to the product of the concentration of carbamic acid and the concentration of CO 2 by physical absorption. The isotope separation of carbon by chemical exchange reaction is better operated under the conditions of lower temperature and higher pressure. (author)

  8. The exchange of inorganic carbon on the Canadian Beaufort Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Jacoba; Thomas, Helmuth; Hu, Xianmin; Myers, Paul G.

    2017-04-01

    The Mackenzie Shelf in the southeastern Beaufort Sea is an area that has experienced large changes in the past several decades as warming, sea-ice loss, and increased river discharge have altered carbon cycling. Upwelling and downwelling events are common on the shelf, caused by strong, fluctuating along-shore winds and resulting cross-shelf Ekman transport. Downwelling carries inorganic carbon and other remineralization products off the shelf and into the deep basin for possible long-term storage in the world oceans. Upwelling carries water high in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and nutrients from the Pacific-origin upper halocline layer (UHL) onto the shelf. Profiles of DIC and total alkalinity (TA) taken in August and September of 2014 are used to investigate the cycling of inorganic carbon on the Mackenzie Shelf. The along-shore and cross-shelf transport of inorganic carbon is quantified using velocity field output from a simulation of the Arctic and Northern Hemisphere Atlantic (ANHA4) configuration of the Nucleus of European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) model. A strong upwelling event prior to sampling on the Mackenzie Shelf is analyzed and the resulting influence on the carbonate system, including the saturation state of aragonite and pH levels, is investigated. TA and δ18O are used to examine water mass distributions in the study area and analyze the influence of Pacific Water, Mackenzie River freshwater, and sea-ice melt on carbon dynamics and air-sea fluxes of CO2 in the surface mixed layer. Understanding carbon transfer in this seasonally dynamic environment is key in order to quantify the importance of Arctic shelf regions to the global carbon cycle and to provide a basis for understanding how its role will respond to the aforementioned changes in the regional marine system.

  9. Current Account and Real Exchange Rate Dynamics in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firman Mochtar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the role of both permanent and temporary factors in affecting the Indonesian current account and real exchange dynamics before and after 2000. Adopting Lee and Chinn (1998; 2006 approach as well as Chinn et al. (2007, two results stand out. First, we confirm that the behavior of the real exchange rate has altered since 2000. Identifications show that permanent shocks are the primary causes for the movement of the real exchange rate after 2000, while in the period before 2000, the Indonesian real exchange rate changes are characterized by greater dominance of temporary shocks. The apparent change in the real exchange rate behavior may be strongly justified by the implementation of free-floating exchange rate system since August 1997. Second, the shift of the real exchange rate behavior after 2000 does not necessarily affect the current account dynamics. Empirical evidence confirms that the variance of current account post 2000 remains largely due to temporary shocks. Albeit having increasing influence, permanent shocks have insignificant effect in explaining fluctuations of the current account. In this sense, the current account surplus after 2000 is attributed largely to nominal variables such as price increase, while the impact of productivity improvement is still limited.

  10. Long-memory exchange rate dynamics in the euro era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkoulas, John T.; Barilla, Anthony G.; Wells, William

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the long-run dynamics of a system of eight major exchange rates in the euro era using both integer and fractional cointegration methodologies. Contrary to the fragile evidence in the pre-euro era, robust evidence of linear cointegratedness is obtained in the foreign exchange market during the euro era. Upon closer examination, deviations from the cointegrating relationship exhibit nonstationary, long-memory dynamic behavior (Joseph effect). We find the long-memory evidence to be temporally stable in the most recent era. Finally, the foreign exchange system dynamics appears to be characterized by less persistence (smaller fractional exponent) in the euro era (as compared to pre-euro time periods), potentially indicating increased policy coordination by central banks in the recent period.

  11. A Multicontrolled Enamine Configurational Switch Undergoing Dynamic Constitutional Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yansong; Svensson, Per H; Ramström, Olof

    2018-05-22

    A multiresponsive enamine-based molecular switch is presented, in which forward/backward configurational rotation around the C=C bond could be precisely controlled by the addition of an acid/base or metal ions. Fluorescence turn-on/off effects and large Stokes shifts were observed while regulating the switching process with Cu II . The enamine functionality furthermore enabled double dynamic regimes, in which configurational switching could operate in conjunction with constitutional enamine exchange of the rotor part. This behavior was used to construct a prototypical dynamic covalent switch system through enamine exchange with primary amines. The dynamic exchange process could be readily turned on/off by regulating the switch status with pH. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Dynamic phonon exchange requires consistent dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahne, F.J.W.; Engelbrecht, C.A.; Heiss, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that states with undersirable properties (such as ghosts, states with complex eigenenergies and states with unrestricted normalization) emerge from two-body calculations using dynamic effective interactions if one is not careful in introducing single-particle self-energy insertions in a consistent manner

  13. Information Exchange, Market Transparency and Dynamic Oligopoly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, H. Peter; Overgaard, Per Baltzer

    Economic literature often offers conflicting views on the likely efficiency effects of information exchanges, communication between firms, and market transparency. On the one hand, it is argued that increased information dissemination improves firm planning to the benefit of society (including...... buyers) and allows potential buyers to make correct decisions given their preferences. On the other hand, economic literature also shows that increased information dissemination can raise prices through tacit or explicit collusion to the benefit of firms but at the expense of society at large....... This chapter provides a general analytical framework to reconcile these views and presents some basic conclusions for antitrust practice. In addition, the chapter reviews cases from both sides of the Atlantic where informational issues have played a significant role....

  14. Characterizing Slow Chemical Exchange in Nucleic Acids by Carbon CEST and Low Spin-Lock Field R1ρ NMR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Hansen, Alexandar L.; Zhang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative characterization of dynamic exchange between various conformational states provides essential insights into the molecular basis of many regulatory RNA functions. Here, we present an application of nucleic-acid-optimized carbon chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and low spin-lock field R1ρ relaxation dispersion (RD) NMR experiments in characterizing slow chemical exchange in nucleic acids that is otherwise difficult if not impossible to be quantified by the ZZ-exchange NMR experiment. We demonstrated the application on a 47-nucleotide fluoride riboswitch in the ligand-free state, for which CEST and R1ρ RD profiles of base and sugar carbons revealed slow exchange dynamics involving a sparsely populated (p ~ 10%) and shortly lived (τ ~ 10 ms) NMR “invisible” state. The utility of CEST and low spin-lock field R1ρ RD experiments in studying slow exchange was further validated in characterizing an exchange as slow as ~60 s−1. PMID:24299272

  15. Characterizing slow chemical exchange in nucleic acids by carbon CEST and low spin-lock field R(1ρ) NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Hansen, Alexandar L; Zhang, Qi

    2014-01-08

    Quantitative characterization of dynamic exchange between various conformational states provides essential insights into the molecular basis of many regulatory RNA functions. Here, we present an application of nucleic-acid-optimized carbon chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and low spin-lock field R(1ρ) relaxation dispersion (RD) NMR experiments in characterizing slow chemical exchange in nucleic acids that is otherwise difficult if not impossible to be quantified by the ZZ-exchange NMR experiment. We demonstrated the application on a 47-nucleotide fluoride riboswitch in the ligand-free state, for which CEST and R(1ρ) RD profiles of base and sugar carbons revealed slow exchange dynamics involving a sparsely populated (p ~ 10%) and shortly lived (τ ~ 10 ms) NMR "invisible" state. The utility of CEST and low spin-lock field R(1ρ) RD experiments in studying slow exchange was further validated in characterizing an exchange as slow as ~60 s(-1).

  16. Examining responses of ecosystem carbon exchange to environmental changes using particle filtering mathod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokozawa, M.

    2017-12-01

    Attention has been paid to the agricultural field that could regulate ecosystem carbon exchange by water management and residual treatments. However, there have been less known about the dynamic responses of the ecosystem to environmental changes. In this study, focussing on paddy field, where CO2 emissions due to microbial decomposition of organic matter are suppressed and alternatively CH4 emitted under flooding condition during rice growth season and subsequently CO2 emission following the fallow season after harvest, the responses of ecosystem carbon exchange were examined. We conducted model data fusion analysis for examining the response of cropland-atmosphere carbon exchange to environmental variation. The used model consists of two sub models, paddy rice growth sub-model and soil decomposition sub-model. The crop growth sub-model mimics the rice plant growth processes including formation of reproductive organs as well as leaf expansion. The soil decomposition sub-model simulates the decomposition process of soil organic carbon. Assimilating the data on the time changes in CO2 flux measured by eddy covariance method, rice plant biomass, LAI and the final yield with the model, the parameters were calibrated using a stochastic optimization algorithm with a particle filter method. The particle filter method, which is one of the Monte Carlo filters, enable us to evaluating time changes in parameters based on the observed data until the time and to make prediction of the system. Iterative filtering and prediction with changing parameters and/or boundary condition enable us to obtain time changes in parameters governing the crop production as well as carbon exchange. In this study, we focused on the parameters related to crop production as well as soil carbon storage. As the results, the calibrated model with estimated parameters could accurately predict the NEE flux in the subsequent years. The temperature sensitivity, denoted by Q10s in the decomposition rate of

  17. Ultrafast dynamics of hydrogen bond exchange in aqueous ionic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungnam; Odelius, Michael; Gaffney, Kelly J

    2009-06-04

    The structural and dynamical properties of aqueous ionic solutions influence a wide range of natural and biological processes. In these solutions, water has the opportunity to form hydrogen bonds with other water molecules and anions. Knowing the time scale with which these configurations interconvert represents a key factor to understanding the influence of molecular scale heterogeneity on chemical events in aqueous ionic solutions. We have used ultrafast IR spectroscopy and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations to investigate the hydrogen bond (H-bond) structural dynamics in aqueous 6 M sodium perchlorate (NaClO4) solution. We have measured the H-bond exchange dynamics between spectrally distinct water-water and water-anion H-bond configurations with 2DIR spectroscopy and the orientational relaxation dynamics of water molecules in different H-bond configurations with polarization-selective IR pump-probe experiments. The experimental H-bond exchange time correlates strongly with the experimental orientational relaxation time of water molecules. This agrees with prior observations in water and aqueous halide solutions, and has been interpreted within the context of an orientational jump model for the H-bond exchange. The CPMD simulations performed on aqueous 6 M NaClO4 solution clearly demonstrate that water molecules organize into two radially and angularly distinct structural subshells within the first solvation shell of the perchlorate anion, with one subshell possessing the majority of the water molecules that donate H-bonds to perchlorate anions and the other subshell possessing predominantly water molecules that donate two H-bonds to other water molecules. Due to the high ionic concentration used in the simulations, essentially all water molecules reside in the first ionic solvation shells. The CPMD simulations also demonstrate that the molecular exchange between these two structurally distinct subshells proceeds more slowly than the H

  18. Soil organic carbon dynamics jointly controlled by climate, carbon inputs, soil properties and soil carbon fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhongkui; Feng, Wenting; Luo, Yiqi; Baldock, Jeff; Wang, Enli

    2017-10-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics are regulated by the complex interplay of climatic, edaphic and biotic conditions. However, the interrelation of SOC and these drivers and their potential connection networks are rarely assessed quantitatively. Using observations of SOC dynamics with detailed soil properties from 90 field trials at 28 sites under different agroecosystems across the Australian cropping regions, we investigated the direct and indirect effects of climate, soil properties, carbon (C) inputs and soil C pools (a total of 17 variables) on SOC change rate (r C , Mg C ha -1  yr -1 ). Among these variables, we found that the most influential variables on r C were the average C input amount and annual precipitation, and the total SOC stock at the beginning of the trials. Overall, C inputs (including C input amount and pasture frequency in the crop rotation system) accounted for 27% of the relative influence on r C , followed by climate 25% (including precipitation and temperature), soil C pools 24% (including pool size and composition) and soil properties (such as cation exchange capacity, clay content, bulk density) 24%. Path analysis identified a network of intercorrelations of climate, soil properties, C inputs and soil C pools in determining r C . The direct correlation of r C with climate was significantly weakened if removing the effects of soil properties and C pools, and vice versa. These results reveal the relative importance of climate, soil properties, C inputs and C pools and their complex interconnections in regulating SOC dynamics. Ignorance of the impact of changes in soil properties, C pool composition and C input (quantity and quality) on SOC dynamics is likely one of the main sources of uncertainty in SOC predictions from the process-based SOC models. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Controls of Carbon Exchange in a Boreal Minerogenic Mire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, M.; Sagerfors, J.; Buffam, I.; Eriksson, T.; Grelle, A.; Klemedtsson, L.; Weslien, P.; Laudon, H.; Lindroth, A.

    2008-12-01

    Based on theories on both mire development and their response to environmental change, the current role of mires as a net carbon sink has been questioned. A rigorous evaluation of the contemporary net C-exchange in mires requires direct measurements of all relevant fluxes. We use data on carbon exchange from a boreal minerogenic oligotrophic mire (Degerö Stormyr, 64°11' N, 19°33E) to derive a contemporary carbon budget and to analyze the main controls on the C exchange. Data on the following fluxes were collected: land-atmosphere CO2 (continuous Eddy Covariance measurements, 7 years) and CH4 (static chambers during the snow free period, 4 years) exchange; DOC in precipitation; loss of TOC, CO2 and CH4 through water runoff, 4 years (continuous discharge measurement and regular C-content measurements). The annual land atmosphere exchange of CO2 (NEE) was fairly constant between years and varied between -48 - -61 gCm-2yr-1 during six out of the seven years, despite a large variation in weather combinations, the average being -53 ± 5 gCm-2yr-1. Of the net fixation of atmospheric CO2-C during the net uptake period, i.e. the growing season, approximately a third was lost during the net source period, i.e. the winter period. During the four years with measurements of methane and runoff C-export another third of the growing season uptake was lost from the mire ecosystem as methane and runoff C. While the balance between the length of the NEE uptake and the NEE loss period are most important for the annual net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) it is central to understand the controls of the spring-summer, and the summer-autumn transitions. The onset of the net C uptake period was controlled by the interaction between the water content and the temperature of the peat moss surface. We interpret this as mainly being a control of the CO2 photosynthesis uptake by the Sphagnum mosses. The transition from being a net C sink to being a net C source is in contrast only controlled

  20. Combined Steady-State and Dynamic Heat Exchanger Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyben, William L.; Tuzla, Kemal; Bader, Paul N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a heat-transfer experiment that combines steady-state analysis and dynamic control. A process-water stream is circulated through two tube-in-shell heat exchangers in series. In the first, the process water is heated by steam. In the second, it is cooled by cooling water. The equipment is pilot-plant size: heat-transfer areas…

  1. Flight Dynamic Model Exchange using XML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, E. Bruce; Hildreth, Bruce L.

    2002-01-01

    The AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technical Committee has worked for several years to develop a standard by which the information needed to develop physics-based models of aircraft can be specified. The purpose of this standard is to provide a well-defined set of information, definitions, data tables and axis systems so that cooperating organizations can transfer a model from one simulation facility to another with maximum efficiency. This paper proposes using an application of the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) to implement the AIAA simulation standard. The motivation and justification for using a standard such as XML is discussed. Necessary data elements to be supported are outlined. An example of an aerodynamic model as an XML file is given. This example includes definition of independent and dependent variables for function tables, definition of key variables used to define the model, and axis systems used. The final steps necessary for implementation of the standard are presented. Software to take an XML-defined model and import/export it to/from a given simulation facility is discussed, but not demonstrated. That would be the next step in final implementation of standards for physics-based aircraft dynamic models.

  2. Ligand and proton exchange dynamics in recombinant human myoglobin mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambright, D G; Balasubramanian, S; Boxer, S G

    1989-05-05

    Site-specific mutants of human myoglobin have been prepared in which lysine 45 is replaced by arginine (K45R) and aspartate 60 by glutamate (D60E), in order to examine the influence of these residues and their interaction on the dynamics of the protein. These proteins were studied by a variety of methods, including one and two-dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, exchange kinetics for the distal and proximal histidine NH protons as a function of pH in the met cyano forms, flash photolysis of the CO forms, and ligand replacement kinetics. The electronic absorption and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the CO forms of these proteins are virtually identical, indicating that the structure of the heme pocket is unaltered by these mutations. There are, however, substantial changes in the dynamics of both CO binding and proton exchange for the mutant K45R, whereas the mutant D60E exhibits behavior indistinguishable from the reference human myoglobin. K45R has a faster CO bimolecular recombination rate and slower CO off-rate relative to the reference. The kinetics for CO binding are independent of pH (6.5 to 10) as well as ionic strength (0 to 1 M-NaCl). The exchange rate for the distal histidine NH is substantially lower for K45R than the reference, whereas the proximal histidine NH exchange rate is unaltered. The exchange behavior of the human proteins is similar to that reported for a comparison of the exchange rates for myoglobins having lysine at position 45 with sperm whale myoglobin, which has arginine at this position. This indicates that the differences in exchange rates reflects largely the Lys----Arg substitution. The lack of a simple correlation for the CO kinetics with this substitution means that these are sensitive to other factors as well. Specific kinetic models, whereby substitution of arginine for lysine at position 45 can affect ligand binding dynamics, are outlined. These experiments demonstrate that a relatively

  3. Carbon dynamics in wetland restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, K.; Ciborowski, J.; Gardner-Costa, J.; Slama, C. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada); Daly, C.; Hornung, J. [Suncor Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada); Dixon, G.; Farwell, A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada); Foote, L.; Frederick, K.; Roy, M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Smits, J. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Wytrykush, C. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This study focused on the reclamation of wetland ecosystems impacted by oil sands development in the boreal wetlands. Although these wetlands play an important role in global carbon balance, their ecosystem function is compromised by direct and regional anthropogenic disturbance and climate change. Large oil sand mining areas that require reclamation generate substantial quantities of extraction process-affected materials. In order to determine if the reclaimed wetlands were restored to equivalent ecosystem function, this study evaluated carbon flows and food web structure in oil sands-affected wetlands. The purpose was to determine whether a prescribed reclamation strategy or topsoil amendment accelerates reclaimed wetland development to produce self-sustaining peatlands. In addition to determining carbon fluxes, this study measured compartment standing stocks for residual hydrocarbons, organic substrate, bacterioplankton, phytoplankton, biofilm, macrophytes, detritus, zoobenthos and aquatic-terrestrial exports. Most biotic 28 compartments differed between oil-sands-affected and reference wetlands, but the difference lessened with age. Macroinvertebrate trophic diversity was lower in oil sands-affected wetlands. Peat amendment seemed to speed convergence for some compartments but not others. These results were discussed in the context of restoration of ecosystem function and optimization of reclamation strategies.

  4. Why the long hours? Job demands and social exchange dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genin, Emilie; Haines, Victor Y; Pelletier, David; Rousseau, Vincent; Marchand, Alain

    2016-11-22

    This study investigates the determinants of long working hours from the perspectives of the demand-control model [Karasek, 1979] and social exchange theory [Blau, 1964; Goulder, 1960]. These two theoretical perspectives are tested to understand why individuals work longer (or shorter) hours. The hypotheses are tested with a representative sample of 1,604 employed Canadians. In line with Karasek's model, the results support that high job demands are positively associated with longer work hours. The social exchange perspective would predict a positive association between skill discretion and work hours. This hypothesis was supported for individuals with a higher education degree. Finally, the results support a positive association between active jobs and longer work hours. Our research suggests that job demands and social exchange dynamics need to be considered together in the explanation of longer (or shorter) work hours.

  5. Preliminary results of statistical dynamic experiments on a heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corran, E.R.; Cummins, J.D.

    1962-10-01

    The inherent noise signals present in a heat exchanger have been recorded and analysed in order to determine some of the statistical dynamic characteristics of the heat exchanger. These preliminary results show that the primary side temperature frequency response may be determined by analysing the inherent noise. The secondary side temperature frequency response and cross coupled temperature frequency responses between primary and secondary are poorly determined because of the presence of a non-stationary noise source in the secondary circuit of this heat exchanger. This may be overcome by correlating the dependent variables with an externally applied noise signal. Some preliminary experiments with an externally applied random telegraph type of signal are reported. (author)

  6. Net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange in tropical rainforests - sensitivity to environmental drivers and flux measurement methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Z.; Stoy, P. C.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical rainforests play a central role in the Earth system services of carbon metabolism, climate regulation, biodiversity maintenance, and more. They are under threat by direct anthropogenic effects including deforestation and indirect anthropogenic effects including climate change. A synthesis of the factors that determine the net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) across multiple time scales in different tropical rainforests has not been undertaken to date. Here, we study NEE and its components, gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE), across thirteen tropical rainforest research sites with 63 total site-years of eddy covariance data. Results reveal that the five ecosystems that have greater carbon uptakes (with the magnitude of GPP greater than 3000 g C m-2 y-1) sequester less carbon - or even lose it - on an annual basis at the ecosystem scale. This counterintuitive result is because high GPP is compensated by similar magnitudes of RE. Sites that provided subcanopy CO2 storage observations had higher average magnitudes of GPP and RE and consequently lower NEE, highlighting the importance of measurement methodology for understanding carbon dynamics in tropical rainforests. Vapor pressure deficit (VPD) constrained GPP at all sites, but to differing degrees. Many environmental variables are significantly related to NEE at time scales greater than one year, and NEE at a rainforest in Malaysia is significantly related to soil moisture variability at seasonal time scales. Climate projections from 13 general circulation models (CMIP5) under representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5 suggest that many current tropical rainforest sites on the cooler end of the current temperature range are likely to reach a climate space similar to present-day warmer sites by the year 2050, and warmer sites will reach a climate space not currently experienced. Results demonstrate the need to quantify if mature tropical trees acclimate to heat and

  7. Methane and carbon dioxide exchange in a post-extraction, unrestored peatland in Eastern Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Tracy; Strachan, Ian; Strack, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands, in their pristine state, are important long-term sinks of carbon. The extraction of peat for agricultural purposes or for biofuel leads to a shift in the carbon dynamics. Changes in environmental conditions post extraction may also allow for invasive species to establish and spread across the peatland. Many studies have shown the benefits and advantages of various restoration management practices, but few studies have explored the carbon exchange from unrestored peatlands. Our study reports the methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes from a post-extraction, unrestored peatland in Eastern Québec at both the plant community scale using static chambers, and at the ecosystem scale using an eddy covariance flux tower, over two complete years. Extraction of the Saint-Alexandre-de-Kamouraska peatland (SAK) started in the early 1970's and was halted in 1999. No restoration efforts have been implemented and the remnant ditches remain unblocked. The site consists of sparse patches of Eriophorum and a vast area of bare peat. Consequently, SAK is an overall source of carbon to the atmosphere, releasing an annual total of 153 g C m-2 and 241 g C m-2 in CO2 emissions for 2014 and 2015, respectively, and an average annual total of 1 g C m-2yr-1 in CH4 emissions. Phragmites and Typha, both invasive species, have established themselves in the ditches and are sources of methane; partly explaining the increased emissions in carbon fluxes to the atmosphere post extraction. Results from this study will help managers assess the importance of post-extraction peatland restoration, by comparing the differences in CO2 and CH4 exchange between restored and unrestored peatlands.

  8. Carbon gas exchange of a re-vegetated cut-away peatland five decades after abandonment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yli-Petaeys, M.; Laine, J.; Vasander, H.; Tuittila, E.-S.

    2007-01-01

    Only little is known about the long-term carbon dynamics related to peatland restoration. We studied CO 2 and CH 4 dynamics of spontaneously regenerated peat trenches five decades after peat harvesting had ceased. We used non-linear regression models and interpolation for simulating gas exchange of four regenerating plant communities during two growing seasons and one winter. The studied communities all acted as seasonal (June-September) sinks of CO 2 between 14 and 118 g C m -2 , while the emissions of CH 4 ranged from -4.9 to -28.8 g C m -2 . When the winter time losses of carbon and the estimated leaching were subtracted, the balance was very low or negative: between -67 and 31 g C m -2 . The low or even negative annual carbon balance in all communities may suggest a decrease in carbon sink strength in the advanced regeneration after the previously observed strong sink in the first regeneration stages caused by mass colonization by Eriophorum. (orig.)

  9. Diurnal Variation in Gas Exchange: The Balance between Carbon Fixation and Water Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Jack S A; Vialet-Chabrand, Silvere R M; Lawson, Tracy

    2017-06-01

    Stomatal control of transpiration is critical for maintaining important processes, such as plant water status, leaf temperature, as well as permitting sufficient CO 2 diffusion into the leaf to maintain photosynthetic rates ( A ). Stomatal conductance often closely correlates with A and is thought to control the balance between water loss and carbon gain. It has been suggested that a mesophyll-driven signal coordinates A and stomatal conductance responses to maintain this relationship; however, the signal has yet to be fully elucidated. Despite this correlation under stable environmental conditions, the responses of both parameters vary spatially and temporally and are dependent on species, environment, and plant water status. Most current models neglect these aspects of gas exchange, although it is clear that they play a vital role in the balance of carbon fixation and water loss. Future efforts should consider the dynamic nature of whole-plant gas exchange and how it represents much more than the sum of its individual leaf-level components, and they should take into consideration the long-term effect on gas exchange over time. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Deforestation in Amazonia impacts riverine carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langerwisch, Fanny; Walz, Ariane; Rammig, Anja; Tietjen, Britta; Thonicke, Kirsten; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    Fluxes of organic and inorganic carbon within the Amazon basin are considerably controlled by annual flooding, which triggers the export of terrigenous organic material to the river and ultimately to the Atlantic Ocean. The amount of carbon imported to the river and the further conversion, transport and export of it depend on temperature, atmospheric CO2, terrestrial productivity and carbon storage, as well as discharge. Both terrestrial productivity and discharge are influenced by climate and land use change. The coupled LPJmL and RivCM model system (Langerwisch et al., 2016) has been applied to assess the combined impacts of climate and land use change on the Amazon riverine carbon dynamics. Vegetation dynamics (in LPJmL) as well as export and conversion of terrigenous carbon to and within the river (RivCM) are included. The model system has been applied for the years 1901 to 2099 under two deforestation scenarios and with climate forcing of three SRES emission scenarios, each for five climate models. We find that high deforestation (business-as-usual scenario) will strongly decrease (locally by up to 90 %) riverine particulate and dissolved organic carbon amount until the end of the current century. At the same time, increase in discharge leaves net carbon transport during the first decades of the century roughly unchanged only if a sufficient area is still forested. After 2050 the amount of transported carbon will decrease drastically. In contrast to that, increased temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration determine the amount of riverine inorganic carbon stored in the Amazon basin. Higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations increase riverine inorganic carbon amount by up to 20 % (SRES A2). The changes in riverine carbon fluxes have direct effects on carbon export, either to the atmosphere via outgassing or to the Atlantic Ocean via discharge. The outgassed carbon will increase slightly in the Amazon basin, but can be regionally reduced by up to 60 % due to

  11. Dynamics of the cross flow heat exchanger for heating purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, K [Karlsruhe Univ. (TH) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Mess- und Regelungstechnik mit Maschinenlaboratorium

    1980-09-01

    A series of publications is available on the dynamic behaviour of heat exchangers (or heat transmitters, respectively), the subject of which is to deal with direct methods or with refined starting models for this general theme. The bridging between both these manners of advance remained as a problem. The author tried in his own investigation to solve the problem, and indeed by the selection of the correct starting model. He succeeded in this way, in that he removed conceptually a finned pipe from an arbitrary place of a heat exchanger and, furthermore, cut out from this particular pipe an arbitrary section. This section now does not stand alone for itself because the processes, which occur upstream of this section at the air-side and the water-side, are the input quantities of the section, which changes them due to its static and dynamic behaviour and emits them again as output quantities. The author, therefore, treats at first the dynamic behaviour of the section, which is represented in a signal flow diagram and which is used to derive approximate solutions from it. Furthermore, the author discusses the evident derivation of the total behaviour of heat exchangers.

  12. Geography of Global Forest Carbon Stocks & Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatchi, S. S.; Yu, Y.; Xu, L.; Yang, Y.; Fore, A.; Ganguly, S.; Nemani, R. R.; Zhang, G.; Lefsky, M. A.; Sun, G.; Woodall, C. W.; Naesset, E.; Seibt, U. H.

    2014-12-01

    Spatially explicit distribution of carbon stocks and dynamics in global forests can greatly reduce the uncertainty in the terrestrial portion of the global carbon cycle by improving estimates of emissions and uptakes from land use activities, and help with green house gas inventory at regional and national scales. Here, we produce the first global distribution of carbon stocks in living woody biomass at ~ 100 m (1-ha) resolution for circa 2005 from a combination of satellite observations and ground inventory data. The total carbon stored in live woody biomass is estimated to be 337 PgC with 258 PgC in aboveground and 79 PgC in roots, and partitioned globally in boreal (20%), tropical evergreen (50%), temperate (12%), and woodland savanna and shrublands (15%). We use a combination of satellite observations of tree height, remote sensing data on deforestation and degradation to quantify the dynamics of these forests at the biome level globally and provide geographical distribution of carbon storage dynamics in terms sinks and sources globally.

  13. Estimation of Global 1km-grid Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Part I: Developing Inputs and Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, T.; Murakami, K.; Kato, S.; Matsunaga, T.; Saigusa, N.; Hiraki, K.

    2015-12-01

    Global terrestrial carbon cycle largely depends on a spatial pattern in land cover type, which is heterogeneously-distributed over regional and global scales. However, most studies, which aimed at the estimation of carbon exchanges between ecosystem and atmosphere, remained within several tens of kilometers grid spatial resolution, and the results have not been enough to understand the detailed pattern of carbon exchanges based on ecological community. Improving the sophistication of spatial resolution is obviously necessary to enhance the accuracy of carbon exchanges. Moreover, the improvement may contribute to global warming awareness, policy makers and other social activities. In this study, we show global terrestrial carbon exchanges (net ecosystem production, net primary production, and gross primary production) with 1km-grid resolution. As methodology for computing the exchanges, we 1) developed a global 1km-grid climate and satellite dataset based on the approach in Setoyama and Sasai (2013); 2) used the satellite-driven biosphere model (Biosphere model integrating Eco-physiological And Mechanistic approaches using Satellite data: BEAMS) (Sasai et al., 2005, 2007, 2011); 3) simulated the carbon exchanges by using the new dataset and BEAMS by the use of a supercomputer that includes 1280 CPU and 320 GPGPU cores (GOSAT RCF of NIES). As a result, we could develop a global uniform system for realistically estimating terrestrial carbon exchange, and evaluate net ecosystem production in each community level; leading to obtain highly detailed understanding of terrestrial carbon exchanges.

  14. Seasonal Precipitation Variability Effects on Carbon Exchange in a Tropical Dry Forest of Northwest Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verduzco, V.; Garatuza-Payan, J.; Yépez, E. A.; Watts, C. J.; Rodriguez, J. C.; Robles-Morua, A.; Vivoni, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Tropical Dry Forest (TDF) cover a large area in tropical and subtropical regions in the Americas and its productivity is thought to have an important contribution to the atmospheric carbon fluxes. However, due to this ecosystem complex dynamics, our understanding about the mechanisms controlling net ecosystem exchange is limited. In this study, five years of continue water and carbon fluxes measurements from eddy covariance complemented with remotely sensed vegetation greenness were used to investigate the ecosystem carbon balance of a TDF in the North American Monsoon region under different hydro climatic conditions. We identified a large CO2 efflux at the start of the summer season that is strongly related to the preceding winter precipitation and greenness. Since this CO2 efflux occurs prior to vegetation green-up, we infer a predominant heterotrophic control owed to high decomposition of accumulated labile soil organic matter from prior growing season. Overall, ecosystem respiration has an important effect on the net ecosystem production over the year, but can be overwhelmed by the strength of the primary productivity during the monsoon season. Precipitation characteristics during the monsoon have significant controls on sustaining carbon fixation in the TDF ecosystem into the fall season. A threshold of ~350 to 400 mm of summer precipitation was identify to switch the annual carbon balance in the TDF ecosystem from a net source (+102 g C/m2/yr) to a net sink (-249 g C/m2/yr). This research points at the needs for understanding the potential effects of changing seasonal precipitation patterns on ecosystem dynamics and carbon sequestration in subtropical regions.

  15. Spin and orbital exchange interactions from Dynamical Mean Field Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secchi, A., E-mail: a.secchi@science.ru.nl [Radboud University, Institute for Molecules and Materials, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lichtenstein, A.I., E-mail: alichten@physnet.uni-hamburg.de [Universitat Hamburg, Institut für Theoretische Physik, Jungiusstraße 9, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Katsnelson, M.I., E-mail: m.katsnelson@science.ru.nl [Radboud University, Institute for Molecules and Materials, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2016-02-15

    We derive a set of equations expressing the parameters of the magnetic interactions characterizing a strongly correlated electronic system in terms of single-electron Green's functions and self-energies. This allows to establish a mapping between the initial electronic system and a spin model including up to quadratic interactions between the effective spins, with a general interaction (exchange) tensor that accounts for anisotropic exchange, Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction and other symmetric terms such as dipole–dipole interaction. We present the formulas in a format that can be used for computations via Dynamical Mean Field Theory algorithms. - Highlights: • We give formulas for the exchange interaction tensor in strongly correlated systems. • Interactions are written in terms of electronic Green's functions and self-energies. • The method is suitable for a Dynamical Mean Field Theory implementation. • No quenching of the orbital magnetic moments is assumed. • Spin and orbital contributions to magnetism can be computed separately.

  16. Carbon dioxide exchange in Norway spruce at the shoot, tree and ecosystem scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, G; Linder, S; Lindroth, A; Räntfors, M; Flemberg, S; Grelle, A

    2001-08-01

    Net CO2 exchange in a 35-year-old boreal Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forest in northern Sweden was measured at the shoot (NSE), tree (NTE) and ecosystem levels (NEE) by means of shoot cuvettes, whole-tree chambers and the eddy covariance technique, respectively. We compared the dynamics of gross primary production (GPP) at the three levels during the course of a single week. The diurnal dynamics of GPP at each level were estimated by subtracting half-hourly or hourly model-estimated values of total respiration (excluding light-dependent respiration) from net CO(2) exchange. The relationship between temperature and total respiration at each level was derived from nighttime measurements of NSE, NTE and NEE over the course of 1 month. There was a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.93) between the hourly estimates of GPP at the shoot and tree levels, but the correlation between shoot- and ecosystem-level GPP was weaker (r2 = 0.69). However, the correlation between shoot- and ecosystem-level GPP was improved (r2 = 0.88) if eddy covariance measurements were restricted to periods when friction velocity was > or = 0.5 m s(-1). Daily means were less dependent on friction velocity, giving an r2 value of 0.94 between shoot- and ecosystem-level GPP. The correlation between shoot and tree levels also increased when daily means were compared (r2 = 0.98). Most of the measured variation in carbon exchange rate among the shoot, tree and ecosystem levels was the result of periodic low coupling between vegetation and the atmosphere at the ecosystem level. The results validate the use of measurements at the shoot and tree level for analyzing the contribution of different compartments to net ecosystem CO2 exchange.

  17. Dynamical analysis on carbon transfer in liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Tadayuki; Matsumoto, Keishi

    1979-01-01

    The dynamical analysis was undertaken on the exchange of carbon taking place between the structural steels and sodium for the case of a bi-metallic secondary system constituted of type 304 stainless and 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steels, representing the secondary system of a liquid sodium cooled fast breeder reactor. The analysis brought to light the effects to be expected on the long terms carbon transfer behavior of: (a) the surface areas of structural steels in contact with flowing sodium, (b) the thickness of the sodium-boundary layer, (c) the initial carbon concentration in the sodium, and (d) the rate of carbon contamination of the sodium. (author)

  18. Studying biosphere-atmosphere exchange of CO2 through Carbon-13 stable isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der I.R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Thesis ‘Studying biosphere-atmosphere exchange of CO2 through

    carbon-13 stable isotopes’

    Ivar van der Velde

    Making predictions of future climate is difficult, mainly due to large uncertainties in the carbon cycle. The rate at which carbon is stored in the oceans and

  19. Investigations into the dynamic behaviour of finned tube heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandbrink, J.; Stegemann, D.

    1981-01-01

    Atmospheric disturbances due to thunder storms, side wind effects on the shell or ground inversion can impair the heat dissipation of a cooling tower. These effects react on the overall power plant, which is reflected in the varied electrical output. This uncontrolled behaviour has been investigated in detail for the case of a boiling water reactor nuclear power station with indirect natural draught dry cooling and compared with controlled performance. A computer model, which has been checked out by means of experimental investigations on three different types of tube, is presented to describe the dynamic behaviour of finned tube heat exchangers. (orig.) [de

  20. Dynamic analysis of complex tube systems in heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouba, J.; Dvorak, P.

    1985-01-01

    Using a computation model, a dynamic analysis was made of tube assemblies of heat exchanger bundles by the finite element method. The algorithm is presented for determining the frequency mode properties, based on the Sturm sequences combined with inverse vector iteration. The results obtained using the method are compared with those obtained by analytical solution and by the transfer matrix method, this for the cases of both eigenvibrations and resonance vibrations. The results are in very good agreement. For the first four eigenfrequencies, the calculation error is less than 1.5% as against the analytical solution. (J.B.). 4 tabs., 8 figs., 5 refs

  1. Studies on sorption of plutonium on inorganic exchangers from sodium carbonate medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pius, I C; Charyulu, M M; Sivaramakrishnan, C K [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Venkataramani, B [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Sorption of Pu(IV) from sodium carbonate medium has been investigated by using different inorganic exchangers alumina, silica gel and hydrous titanium oxide. Distribution ratios of Pu(IV) for its sorption on these exchangers from sodium carbonate medium were found to be sufficiently high indicating the suitability of these exchangers for the removal of Pu(IV). The presence of uranium and dibutyl phosphate do not have any effect on distribution ratio. The 10% Pu(IV) breakthrough capacities for above exchangers have been determined with 5 ml bed at a flow rate of 30 ml/hour. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Vortex dynamics mediated by exchange coupling in permalloy double disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yan; Hu Yong; Du An

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of magnetic vortices in double disks coupled with a bridge are studied by micromagnetic simulations. There are three types of magnetic configurations being found, which depend on the size of the bridge and the chiralities of the vortices. The exchange coupling between the vortices, which is mediated by the magnetizations in the bridge, influences the trajectories and oscillation frequencies of the vortices. Moreover, the frequency depends on the configurations of the double disks and the bridge size. - Highlights: ► Dynamics of vortices in double Permalloy disks coupled with a bridge are studied. ► Three types of equilibrium configurations are observed for the model. ► Oscillation of the cores depends on the magnetic configuration of the double disks. ► Variation of oscillating frequency with bridge length depends on polarity combination. ► Oscillating frequency decreases with the increasing of the bridge width.

  3. A dynamic model for helium core heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiesser, W.E.; Shih, H.J.; Hartozog, D.G.; Herron, D.M.; Nahmias, D.; Stuber, W.G.; Hindmarsh, A.C.

    1990-04-01

    To meet the helium (He) requirements of the superconducting supercollider (SSC), the cryogenic plants must be able to respond to time-varying loads. Thus the design and simulation of the cryogenic plants requires dynamic models of their principal components, and in particular, the core heat exchangers. In this paper, we detail the derivation and computer implementation of a model for core heat exchangers consisting of three partial differential equations (PDES) for each fluid stream (the continuity, energy and momentum balances for the He), and one PDE for each parting sheet (the energy balance for the parting sheet metal); the PDEs have time and axial position along the exchanger as independent variables. The computer code can accommodate any number of fluid streams and parting sheets in an adiabatic group. Features of the code include: rigorous or approximate thermodynamic properties for He, upwind and downwind approximation of the PDE spatial derivatives, and sparse matrix time integration. The outputs from the code include the time-dependent axial profiles of the fluid He mass flux, density, pressure, temperature, internal energy and enthalpy. The code is written in transportable Fortran 77, and can therefore be executed on essentially any computer

  4. A dynamic model for helium core heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiesser, W.E.; Shih, H.J.; Hartzog, D.G.; Herron, D.M.; Nahmias, D.; Stuber, W.G.; Hindmarsh, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    To meet the helium (He) requirements of the superconducting supercollider (SSC), the cryogenic plants must be able to respond to time-varying loads. Thus the design and simulation of the cryogenic plants requires dynamic models of their principal components, and in particular, the core heat exchangers. In this paper, we detail the derivation and computer implementation of a model for core heat exchangers consisting of three partial differential equations (PDEs) for each fluid stream (the continuity, energy and momentum balances for the He), and one PDE for each parting sheet (the energy balance for the parting sheet metal); the PDEs have time and axial position along the exchanger as independent variables. The computer code can accommodate any number of fluid streams and parting sheets in an adiabatic group. Features of the code include: rigorous or approximate thermodynamic properties for He, upwind and downwind approximation of the PDE spatial derivatives, and sparse matrix time integration. The outputs from the code include the time-dependent axial profiles of the fluid He mass flux, density, pressure, temperature, internal energy and enthalpy. The code is written in transportable Fortran 77, and can therefore be executed on essentially any computer. 10 refs., 10 figs

  5. Sensitivity of molecular vibrational dynamics to energy exchange rate constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billing, G D; Coletti, C; Kurnosov, A K; Napartovich, A P

    2003-01-01

    The sensitivity of molecular vibrational population dynamics, governing the CO laser operated in fundamental and overtone transitions, to vibration-to-vibration rate constants is investigated. With this aim, three rate constant sets have been used, differing in their completeness (i.e. accounting for single-quantum exchange only, or for multi-quantum exchange with a limited number of rate constants obtained by semiclassical calculations, and, finally, with an exhaustive set of rate constants including asymmetric exchange processes, as well) and in the employed interaction potential. The most complete set among these three is introduced in this paper. An existing earlier kinetic model was updated to include the latter new data. Comparison of data produced by kinetic modelling with the above mentioned sets of rate constants shows that the vibrational distribution function, and, in particular, the CO overtone laser characteristics, are very sensitive to the choice of the model. The most complete model predicts slower evolution of the vibrational distribution, in qualitative agreement with experiments

  6. Thermodynamics of calcium-isotope-exchange reactions. 1. Exchange between isotopic calcium carbonates and aqueous calcium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, R.S.; Nash, C.P.; Rock, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports the authors results for the direct experimental determination of the equilibrium constant for the calcium-isotope-exchange reaction 40 CaCO 3 (s) + 44 CaCl 2 (aq) reversible 44 CaCO 2 (s) + 40 CaCl 2 (aq). The reaction was studied in electrochemical double cells without liquid junction of the type shown in eq 2. The experimental value of the equilibrium constant at 295 +/- 2 K is K = 1.08 +/- 0.02. The experimental value for K is compared with the values of K calculated for various model reactions according to the statistical thermodynamic theory of isotope effects. The isotopic solid carbonates were modeled according to both the Debye and Kieffer theories. No structured models of solvated isotopic aqueous calcium ions yield calculated equilibrium constants in agreement with their experimental results. This conclusion is in agreement with published molecular dynamics calculations which show that the aqueous solvation of Ca 2 =(aq) is essentially unstructured

  7. Next Generation Carbon-Nitrogen Dynamics Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Fisher, R. A.; Vrugt, J. A.; Wullschleger, S. D.; McDowell, N. G.

    2012-12-01

    Nitrogen is a key regulator of vegetation dynamics, soil carbon release, and terrestrial carbon cycles. Thus, to assess energy impacts on the global carbon cycle and future climates, it is critical that we have a mechanism-based and data-calibrated nitrogen model that simulates nitrogen limitation upon both above and belowground carbon dynamics. In this study, we developed a next generation nitrogen-carbon dynamic model within the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM). This next generation nitrogen-carbon dynamic model utilized 1) a mechanistic model of nitrogen limitation on photosynthesis with nitrogen trade-offs among light absorption, electron transport, carboxylation, respiration and storage; 2) an optimal leaf nitrogen model that links soil nitrogen availability and leaf nitrogen content; and 3) an ecosystem demography (ED) model that simulates the growth and light competition of tree cohorts and is currently coupled to CLM. Our three test cases with changes in CO2 concentration, growing temperature and radiation demonstrate the model's ability to predict the impact of altered environmental conditions on nitrogen allocations. Currently, we are testing the model against different datasets including soil fertilization and Free Air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments across different forest types. We expect that our calibrated model will considerably improve our understanding and predictability of vegetation-climate interactions.itrogen allocation model evaluations. The figure shows the scatter plots of predicted and measured Vc,max and Jmax scaled to 25 oC (i.e.,Vc,max25 and Jmax25) at elevated CO2 (570 ppm, test case one), reduced radiation in canopy (0.1-0.9 of the radiation at the top of canopy, test case two) and reduced growing temperature (15oC, test case three). The model is first calibrated using control data under ambient CO2 (370 ppm), radiation at the top of the canopy (621 μmol photon/m2/s), the normal growing temperature (30oC). The fitted model

  8. Importance of vegetation dynamics for future terrestrial carbon cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlström, Anders; Smith, Benjamin; Xia, Jianyang; Luo, Yiqi; Arneth, Almut

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems currently sequester about one third of anthropogenic CO 2 emissions each year, an important ecosystem service that dampens climate change. The future fate of this net uptake of CO 2 by land based ecosystems is highly uncertain. Most ecosystem models used to predict the future terrestrial carbon cycle share a common architecture, whereby carbon that enters the system as net primary production (NPP) is distributed to plant compartments, transferred to litter and soil through vegetation turnover and then re-emitted to the atmosphere in conjunction with soil decomposition. However, while all models represent the processes of NPP and soil decomposition, they vary greatly in their representations of vegetation turnover and the associated processes governing mortality, disturbance and biome shifts. Here we used a detailed second generation dynamic global vegetation model with advanced representation of vegetation growth and mortality, and the associated turnover. We apply an emulator that describes the carbon flows and pools exactly as in simulations with the full model. The emulator simulates ecosystem dynamics in response to 13 different climate or Earth system model simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 ensemble under RCP8.5 radiative forcing. By exchanging carbon cycle processes between these 13 simulations we quantified the relative roles of three main driving processes of the carbon cycle; (I) NPP, (II) vegetation dynamics and turnover and (III) soil decomposition, in terms of their contribution to future carbon (C) uptake uncertainties among the ensemble of climate change scenarios. We found that NPP, vegetation turnover (including structural shifts, wild fires and mortality) and soil decomposition rates explained 49%, 17% and 33%, respectively, of uncertainties in modelled global C-uptake. Uncertainty due to vegetation turnover was further partitioned into stand-clearing disturbances (16%), wild fires (0%), stand

  9. Preserving the Boltzmann ensemble in replica-exchange molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Ben; Schmidler, Scott C

    2008-10-28

    We consider the convergence behavior of replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) [Sugita and Okamoto, Chem. Phys. Lett. 314, 141 (1999)] based on properties of the numerical integrators in the underlying isothermal molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We show that a variety of deterministic algorithms favored by molecular dynamics practitioners for constant-temperature simulation of biomolecules fail either to be measure invariant or irreducible, and are therefore not ergodic. We then show that REMD using these algorithms also fails to be ergodic. As a result, the entire configuration space may not be explored even in an infinitely long simulation, and the simulation may not converge to the desired equilibrium Boltzmann ensemble. Moreover, our analysis shows that for initial configurations with unfavorable energy, it may be impossible for the system to reach a region surrounding the minimum energy configuration. We demonstrate these failures of REMD algorithms for three small systems: a Gaussian distribution (simple harmonic oscillator dynamics), a bimodal mixture of Gaussians distribution, and the alanine dipeptide. Examination of the resulting phase plots and equilibrium configuration densities indicates significant errors in the ensemble generated by REMD simulation. We describe a simple modification to address these failures based on a stochastic hybrid Monte Carlo correction, and prove that this is ergodic.

  10. 'Carbon-Money Exchange' to contain global warming and deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagase, Kozo E-mail: nagase@de.mbn.or.jp

    2005-07-01

    This paper builds a basic theory of 'Carbon-Money Exchange' in which carbon as currency in nature's household (ecosystems) and money as currency in humankind's household (economy) are exchanged just like in a foreign exchange. The simple chemical equation below makes it possible (CO{sub 2}{yields}C+O{sub 2}=C+O{sub 2}{yields}CO{sub 2}). The left-hand side represents the work of plants to remove atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The right-hand side represents the work of humans as fossil fuel consumers to produce it. The exchange of the two currencies is possible by copying the fossil fuel market. The paper concludes that this new exchange can automatically contain global warming and deforestation, replacing onerous emissions trading. Moreover, it could revolutionize the conventional economy, creating counter-capitalism, or 'carbonism'.

  11. Geographic distribution of soluble salts, exchangeable sodium and calcium carbonate in the Caribbean Region of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulido, Carlos E

    2000-01-01

    A research was carried out to establish the distribution of soluble salts, exchangeable sodium and calcium carbonate in the soils of the Caribbean Region. The results show that 28,3% (3.506.033 ha) of the soils have problems related to salinity. The soils of the arid and semiarid zones and those belonging to the sea plain are affected severely by soluble salts, exchangeable sodium and calcium carbonate

  12. Mineral carbonation of gaseous carbon dioxide using a clay-hosted cation exchange reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Il-Mo; Roh, Ki-Min

    2013-01-01

    The mineral carbonation method is still a challenge in practical application owing to: (1) slow reaction kinetics, (2) high reaction temperature, and (3) continuous mineral consumption. These constraints stem from the mode of supplying alkaline earth metals through mineral acidification and dissolution. Here, we attempt to mineralize gaseous carbon dioxide into calcium carbonate, using a cation exchange reaction of vermiculite (a species of expandable clay minerals). The mineralization is operated by draining NaCI solution through vermiculite powders and continuously dropping into the pool of NaOH solution with CO2 gas injected. The mineralization temperature is regulated here at 293 and 333 K for 15 min. As a result of characterization, using an X-ray powder diffractometer and a scanning electron microscopy, two types of pure CaCO3 polymorphs (vaterite and calcite) are identified as main reaction products. Their abundance and morphology are heavily dependent on the mineralization temperature. Noticeably, spindle-shaped vaterite, which is quite different from a typical vaterite morphology (polycrystalline spherulite), forms predominantly at 333 K (approximately 98 wt%).

  13. Endogenous circadian regulation of carbon dioxide exchange in terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor Resco de Dios; Michael L. Goulden; Kiona Ogle; Andrew D. Richardson; David Y. Hollinger; Eric A. Davidson; Josu G. Alday; Greg A. Barron-Gafford; Arnaud Carrara; Andrew S. Kowalski; Walt C. Oechel; Borja R. Reverter; Russell L. Scott; Ruth K. Varner; Ruben Diaz-Sierra; Jose M. Moreno

    2012-01-01

    It is often assumed that daytime patterns of ecosystem carbon assimilation are mostly driven by direct physiological responses to exogenous environmental cues. Under limited environmental variability, little variation in carbon assimilation should thus be expected unless endogenous plant controls on carbon assimilation, which regulate photosynthesis in time, are active...

  14. Wealth distribution of simple exchange models coupled with extremal dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagatella-Flores, N.; Rodríguez-Achach, M.; Coronel-Brizio, H. F.; Hernández-Montoya, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Punctuated Equilibrium (PE) states that after long periods of evolutionary quiescence, species evolution can take place in short time intervals, where sudden differentiation makes new species emerge and some species extinct. In this paper, we introduce and study the effect of punctuated equilibrium on two different asset exchange models: the yard sale model (YS, winner gets a random fraction of a poorer player's wealth) and the theft and fraud model (TF, winner gets a random fraction of the loser's wealth). The resulting wealth distribution is characterized using the Gini index. In order to do this, we consider PE as a perturbation with probability ρ of being applied. We compare the resulting values of the Gini index at different increasing values of ρ in both models. We found that in the case of the TF model, the Gini index reduces as the perturbation ρ increases, not showing dependence with the agents number. While for YS we observe a phase transition which happens around ρc = 0.79. For perturbations ρ <ρc the Gini index reaches the value of one as time increases (an extreme wealth condensation state), whereas for perturbations greater than or equal to ρc the Gini index becomes different to one, avoiding the system reaches this extreme state. We show that both simple exchange models coupled with PE dynamics give more realistic results. In particular for YS, we observe a power low decay of wealth distribution.

  15. Leveraged exchange-traded funds price dynamics and options valuation

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an analysis, under both discrete-time and continuous-time frameworks, on the price dynamics of leveraged exchange-traded funds (LETFs), with emphasis on the roles of leverage ratio, realized volatility, investment horizon, and tracking errors. This study provides new insights on the risks associated with LETFs. It also leads to the discussion of new risk management concepts, such as admissible leverage ratios and admissible risk horizon, as well as the mathematical and empirical analyses of several trading strategies, including static portfolios, pairs trading, and stop-loss strategies involving ETFs and LETFs. The final part of the book addresses the pricing of options written on LETFs. Since different LETFs are designed to track the same reference index, these funds and their associated options share very similar sources of randomness. The authors provide a no-arbitrage pricing approach that consistently value options on LETFs with different leverage ratios with stochastic volatility and ...

  16. Dynamic Group Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange under standard assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresson, Emmanuel; Chevassut, Olivier; Pointcheval, David

    2002-01-01

    Authenticated Diffie-Hellman key exchange allows two principals communicating over a public network, and each holding public-private keys, to agree on a shared secret value. In this paper we study the natural extension of this cryptographic problem to a group of principals. We begin from existing formal security models and refine them to incorporate major missing details (e.g., strong-corruption and concurrent sessions). Within this model we define the execution of a protocol for authenticated dynamic group Diffie-Hellman and show that it is provably secure under the decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption. Our security result holds in the standard model and thus provides better security guarantees than previously published results in the random oracle model

  17. Reconstruction of annual carbon dynamics and balance for an oligotrophic pine fen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, J; Silvola, J; Aaltonen, H [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Talanov, A; Ikkonen, E [Karelian Research Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation). Inst. of Biology; Nykaenen, H; Martikainen, P J [National Public Health Inst. Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Microbiology

    1997-12-31

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is bound by mire vegetation in photosynthesis during the growing season, and is re-released by respiration of plants, soil animals and microorganisms consuming dead organic matter. A small proportion of annual primary production may fall below the water table to anoxic conditions and thus escapes the oxidative decomposition. Also from anoxic peat, carbon is released with clear seasonal and spatial variation as methane (CH{sub 4}.). The rate of carbon accumulation in peat depends on the annual inbalance of plant production and litter decomposition. Exchange of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} between peat, vegetation and the atmosphere thus reflects the dynamics of carbon flows in the ecosystem. Net ecosystem CO{sub 2} exchange (PN), total CO{sub 2} release (RTOT) and CH{sub 4} release (D) from different treeless surfaces of low-sedge Sphagnum papillosum pine fen was studied in eastern Finland. (8 refs.)

  18. Reconstruction of annual carbon dynamics and balance for an oligotrophic pine fen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, J.; Silvola, J.; Aaltonen, H. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Talanov, A.; Ikkonen, E. [Karelian Research Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation). Inst. of Biology; Nykaenen, H.; Martikainen, P.J. [National Public Health Inst. Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Microbiology

    1996-12-31

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is bound by mire vegetation in photosynthesis during the growing season, and is re-released by respiration of plants, soil animals and microorganisms consuming dead organic matter. A small proportion of annual primary production may fall below the water table to anoxic conditions and thus escapes the oxidative decomposition. Also from anoxic peat, carbon is released with clear seasonal and spatial variation as methane (CH{sub 4}.). The rate of carbon accumulation in peat depends on the annual inbalance of plant production and litter decomposition. Exchange of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} between peat, vegetation and the atmosphere thus reflects the dynamics of carbon flows in the ecosystem. Net ecosystem CO{sub 2} exchange (PN), total CO{sub 2} release (RTOT) and CH{sub 4} release (D) from different treeless surfaces of low-sedge Sphagnum papillosum pine fen was studied in eastern Finland. (8 refs.)

  19. Energy exchange dynamics across L-H transitions in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, A.; Banerjee, S.; Zweben, S. J.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.

    2017-06-01

    We studied the energy exchange dynamics across the low-to-high-confinement (L-H) transition in NSTX discharges using the gas-puff imaging (GPI) diagnostic. The investigation focused on the energy exchange between flows and turbulence to help clarify the mechanism of the L-H transition. We applied this study to three types of heating schemes, including a total of 17 shots from the NSTX 2010 campaign run. Results show that the edge fluctuation characteristics (fluctuation levels, radial and poloidal correlation lengths) measured using GPI do not vary just prior to the H-mode transition, but change after the transition. Using a velocimetry approach (orthogonal-dynamics programming), velocity fields of a 24× 30 cm GPI view during the L-H transition were obtained with good spatial (˜1 cm) and temporal (˜2.5 μs) resolutions. Analysis using these velocity fields shows that the production term is systematically negative just prior to the L-H transition, indicating a transfer from mean flows to turbulence, which is inconsistent with the predator-prey paradigm. Moreover, the inferred absolute value of the production term is two orders of magnitude too small to explain the observed rapid L-H transition. These discrepancies are further reinforced by consideration of the ratio between the kinetic energy in the mean flow to the thermal free energy, which is estimated to be much less than 1, suggesting again that the turbulence depletion mechanism may not play an important role in the transition to the H-mode. Although the Reynolds work therefore appears to be too small to directly deplete the turbulent free energy reservoir, order-of-magnitude analysis shows that the Reynolds stress may still make a non-negligible contribution to the observed poloidal flows.

  20. Impacts of tropospheric ozone and climate change on net primary productivity and net carbon exchange of China’s forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei Ren; Hanqin Tian; Bo Tao; Art Chappelka; Ge Sun; et al

    2011-01-01

    Aim We investigated how ozone pollution and climate change/variability have interactively affected net primary productivity (NPP) and net carbon exchange (NCE) across China’s forest ecosystem in the past half century. Location Continental China. Methods Using the dynamic land ecosystem model (DLEM) in conjunction with 10-km-resolution gridded historical data sets (...

  1. North American coastal carbon stocks and exchanges among the coupled ecosystems of tidal wetlands and estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham-Myers, L.; Cai, W. J.

    2017-12-01

    The development of the 2nd State of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR-2) has recognized a significant role of aquatic ecosystems, including coastal zones, in reconciling some of the gaps associated with the North American carbon (C) budget. Along with a large community of coauthors, we report major C stocks and fluxes for tidal wetlands and estuaries of Canada, Mexico and the United States. We find divergent patterns between these coupled ecosystems, with tidal wetlands largely serving as CO2 sinks (net autotrophic), and open-water estuaries largely serving as CO2 sources (net heterotrophic). We summarized measurements across 4 continental regions - East Coast, Gulf of Mexico, West Coast, and High Latitudes - to assess spatial variability and datagaps in our understanding of coastal C cycling. Subtracting estuarine outgassing of 10 ± 10 Tg C yr-1 from the tidal wetland uptake of 23 ± 10 Tg C yr-1 leaves a net uptake of the combined system of 13 ± 14 Tg C yr-1. High uncertainty for net atmospheric C exchange in this combined coastal system is further complicated by spatially and temporally dynamic boundaries, as well as terrestrial C sources. Tidal wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems on earth and are capable of continuously accumulating organic C in their sediments as a result of environmental conditions that inhibit organic matter decomposition. Estuaries have more interannual variability in C dynamics than those of tidal wetlands, reflecting the estuarine balance of exchanges with terrestrial watersheds, tidal wetlands, and the continental shelf. Whereas tidal, subtidal and estuarine maps are of limited accuracy at larger scales, North America likely represents less than 1/10 of global distributions of coastal wetland habitats. Coupled land-ocean C flux models are increasingly robust but lacking much of the data needed for parameterization and validation. Accurate boundary maps and synoptic monitoring data on air-water CO2 exchange may be developed

  2. Electrochemically Controlled Ion-exchange Property of Carbon Nanotubes/Polypyrrole Nanocomposite in Various Electrolyte Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Daiwon [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Zhu, Chengzhou [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2920 United States; Fu, Shaofang [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2920 United States; Du, Dan [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2920 United States; Engelhard, Mark H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Lin, Yuehe [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2920 United States

    2016-09-15

    The electrochemically controlled ion-exchange properties of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT)/electronically conductive polypyrrole (PPy) polymer composite in the various electrolyte solutions have been investigated. The ion-exchange behavior, rate and capacity of the electrochemically deposited polypyrrole with and without carbon nanotube (CNT) were compared and characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It has been found that the presence of carbon nanotube backbone resulted in improvement in ion-exchange rate, stability of polypyrrole, and higher anion loading capacity per PPy due to higher surface area, electronic conductivity, porous structure of thin film, and thinner film thickness providing shorter diffusion path. Chronoamperometric studies show that electrically switched anion exchange could be completed more than 10 times faster than pure PPy thin film. The anion selectivity of CNT/PPy film is demonstrated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  3. Flow vibrations and dynamic instability of heat exchanger tube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granger, S.; Langre, E. de

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a review of external-flow-induced vibration of heat exchanger tube bundles. Attention is focused on a dynamic instability, known as ''fluidelastic instability'', which can develop when flow is transverse to the tube axis. The main physical models proposed in the literature are successively reviewed in a critical way. As a consequence, some concepts are clarified, some a priori plausible misinterpretations are rejected and finally, certain basic mechanisms, induced by the flow-structure interaction and responsible for the ultimate onset of fluidelastic instability, are elucidated. Design tools and methods for predictive analysis of industrial cases are then presented. The usual design tool is the ''stability map'', i.e. an empirical correlation which must be interpreted in a conservative way. Of course, when using this approach, the designer must also consider reasonable safety margins. In the area of predictive analysis, the ''unsteady semi-analytical models'' seem to be a promising and efficient methodology. A modern implementation of these ideas mix an original experimental approach for taking fluid dynamic forces into account, together with non-classical numerical methods of mechanical vibration. (authors). 20 refs., 9 figs

  4. The effect of charge exchange with neutral deuterium on carbon emission in JET divertor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggi, C.; Horton, L.; Summers, H.

    1999-11-01

    High density, low temperature divertor plasma operation in tokamaks results in large neutral deuterium concentrations in the divertor volume. In these conditions, low energy charge transfer reactions between neutral deuterium and the impurity ions can in principle enhance the impurity radiative losses and thus help to reduce the maximum heat load to the divertor target. A quantitative study of the effect of charge exchange on carbon emission is presented, applied to the JET divertor. Total and state selective effective charge exchange recombination rate coefficients were calculated in the collisional radiative picture. These coefficients were coupled to divertor and impurity transport models to study the effect of charge exchange on the measured carbon spectral emission in JET divertor discharges. The sensitivity of the effect of charge exchange to the assumptions in the impurity transport model was also investigated. A reassessment was made of fundamental charge exchange cross section data in support of this study. (author)

  5. Project Summary (2012-2015) – Carbon Dynamics of the Greater Everglades Watershed and Implications of Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, Ross [University of Central Florida; Benscoter, Brian [Florida Atlantic University; Comas, Xavier [Florida Atlantic University; Sumner, David [USGS; DeAngelis, Donald [USGS

    2015-04-07

    Carbon Dynamics of the Greater Everglades Watershed and Implications of Climate Change The objectives of this project are to: 1) quantify above- and below-ground carbon stocks of terrestrial ecosystems along a seasonal hydrologic gradient in the headwaters region of the Greater Everglades watershed; 2) develop budgets of ecosystem gaseous carbon exchange (carbon dioxide and methane) across the seasonal hydrologic gradient; 3) assess the impact of climate drivers on ecosystem carbon exchange in the Greater Everglades headwater region; and 4) integrate research findings with climate-driven terrestrial ecosystem carbon models to examine the potential influence of projected future climate change on regional carbon cycling. Note: this project receives a one-year extension past the original performance period - David Sumner (USGS) is not included in this extension.

  6. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yi, C.; Ricciuto, D.; Marek, Michal V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2010), s. 034007 ISSN 1748-9326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : NEE * climate control * terrestrial carbon sequestration * temperature * dryness * eddy flux * biomes * photosynthesis * respiration * global carbon cycle Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.049, year: 2010

  7. Estimation of net ecosystem carbon exchange for the conterminous United States by combining MODIS and AmeriFlux data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingfeng Xiao; Qianlai Zhuang; Dennis D. Baldocchi; Beverly E. Law; Andrew D. Richardson; Jiquan Chen; Ram Oren; Gegory Starr; Asko Noormets; Siyan Ma; Sashi B. Verma; Sonia Wharton; Steven C. Wofsy; Paul V. Bolstad; Sean P. Burns; David R. Cook; Peter S. Curtis; Bert G. Drake; Matthias Falk; MArc L. Fischer; David R. Foster; Lianhong Gu; Julian L. Hadley; David Y. Hollinger; Gabriel G. Katul; Marcy Litvak; Timothy Martin; Roser Matamala; Steve McNulty; Tilden P. Meyers; Russell K. Monson; J. William Munger; Walter C. Oechel; Kyaw Tha Paw U; Hans Peter Schmid; Russell L. Scott; Ge Sun; Andrew E. Suyker; Margaret S. Torn

    2008-01-01

    Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) for a wide range of climate and biome types. However, these measurements only represent the carbon fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. To quantify the net exchange of carbon dioxide between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere for regions or continents,...

  8. Modeling dynamic exchange of gaseous elemental mercury at polar sunrise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastoor, Ashu P; Davignon, Didier; Theys, Nicolas; Van Roozendael, Michel; Steffen, Alexandra; Ariya, Parisa A

    2008-07-15

    At polar sunrise, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) undergoes an exceptional dynamic exchange in the air and at the snow surface during which GEM can be rapidly removed from the atmosphere (the so-called atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs)) as well as re-emitted from the snow within a few hours to days in the Polar Regions. Although high concentrations of total mercury in snow following AMDEs is well documented, there is very little data available on the redox transformation processes of mercury in the snow and the fluxes of mercury at the air/snow interface. Therefore, the net gain of mercury in the Polar Regions as a result of AMDEs is still an open question. We developed a new version of the global mercury model, GRAHM, which includes for the first time bidirectional surface exchange of GEM in Polar Regions in spring and summer by developing schemes for mercury halogen oxidation, deposition, and re-emission. Also for the first time, GOME satellite data-derived boundary layer concentrations of BrO have been used in a global mercury model for representation of halogen mercury chemistry. Comparison of model simulated and measured atmospheric concentrations of GEM at Alert, Canada, for 3 years (2002-2004) shows the model's capability in simulating the rapid cycling of mercury during and after AMDEs. Brooks et al. (1) measured mercury deposition, reemission, and net surface gain fluxes of mercury at Barrow, AK, during an intensive measurement campaign for a 2 week period in spring (March 25 to April 7, 2003). They reported 1.7, 1.0 +/- 0.2, and 0.7 +/- 0.2 microg m(-2) deposition, re-emission, and net surface gain, respectively. Using the optimal configuration of the model, we estimated 1.8 microg m(-2) deposition, 1.0 microg m(-2) re-emission, and 0.8 microg m(-2) net surface gain of mercury for the same time period at Barrow. The estimated net annual accumulation of mercury within the Arctic Circle north of 66.5 degrees is approximately 174 t with +/-7 t of

  9. Real Exchange Rate Dynamics in a Small, Primary-Exporting Country

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsin S. Khan; Peter J. Montiel

    1987-01-01

    Although the nominal exchange rate is often used as a policy instrument in small, primary-commodity-exporting countries, the real exchange rate is an endogenous variable that responds to both exogenous and policyinduced shocks. This paper examines the dynamic effects on the real exchange rate of various shocks, such as devaluation, fiscal and trade policies, and changes in the terms of trade and foreign real interest rates. Because the path of the real exchange rate differs for different type...

  10. Aggregate and soil organic carbon dynamics in South Chilean Andisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Huygens

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC to climate and land use change warrants further research in different terrestrial ecosystems. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between aggregate and SOC dynamics in a chronosequence of three different land uses of a south Chilean Andisol: a second growth Nothofagus obliqua forest (SGFOR, a grassland (GRASS and a Pinus radiata plantation (PINUS. Total carbon content of the 0-10cm soil layer was higher for GRASS (6.7 kg C m-2 than for PINUS (4.3 kg C m-2, while TC content of SGFOR (5.8 kg C m-2 was not significantly different from either one. High extractable oxalate and pyrophosphate Al concentrations (varying from 20.3-24.4 g kg-1, and 3.9-11.1 g kg-1, respectively were found in all sites. In this study, SOC and aggregate dynamics were studied using size and density fractionation experiments of the SOC, δ13C and total carbon analysis of the different SOC fractions, and C mineralization experiments. The results showed that electrostatic sorption between and among amorphous Al components and clay minerals is mainly responsible for the formation of metal-humus-clay complexes and the stabilization of soil aggregates. The process of ligand exchange between SOC and Al would be of minor importance resulting in the absence of aggregate hierarchy in this soil type. Whole soil C mineralization rate constants were highest for SGFOR and PINUS, followed by GRASS (respectively 0.495, 0.266 and 0.196 g CO2-Cm-2d-1 for the top soil layer. In contrast, incubation experiments of isolated macro organic matter fractions gave opposite results, showing that the recalcitrance of the SOC decreased in another order: PINUS>SGFOR>GRASS. We deduced that electrostatic sorption processes and physical protection of SOC in soil aggregates were the main processes determining SOC stabilization. As a result, high aggregate carbon concentrations, varying from 148 till 48 g kg-1, were encountered for all land use

  11. Carbon source/sink function of a subtropical, eutrophic lake determined from an overall mass balance and a gas exchange and carbon burial balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong; Xing Yangping; Xie Ping; Ni Leyi; Rong Kewen

    2008-01-01

    Although studies on carbon burial in lake sediments have shown that lakes are disproportionately important carbon sinks, many studies on gaseous carbon exchange across the water-air interface have demonstrated that lakes are supersaturated with CO 2 and CH 4 causing a net release of CO 2 and CH 4 to the atmosphere. In order to more accurately estimate the net carbon source/sink function of lake ecosystems, a more comprehensive carbon budget is needed, especially for gaseous carbon exchange across the water-air interface. Using two methods, overall mass balance and gas exchange and carbon burial balance, we assessed the carbon source/sink function of Lake Donghu, a subtropical, eutrophic lake, from April 2003 to March 2004. With the overall mass balance calculations, total carbon input was 14 905 t, total carbon output was 4950 t, and net carbon budget was +9955 t, suggesting that Lake Donghu was a great carbon sink. For the gas exchange and carbon burial balance, gaseous carbon (CO 2 and CH 4 ) emission across the water-air interface totaled 752 t while carbon burial in the lake sediment was 9477 t. The ratio of carbon emission into the atmosphere to carbon burial into the sediment was only 0.08. This low ratio indicates that Lake Donghu is a great carbon sink. Results showed good agreement between the two methods with both showing Lake Donghu to be a great carbon sink. This results from the high primary production of Lake Donghu, substantive allochthonous carbon inputs and intensive anthropogenic activity. Gaseous carbon emission accounted for about 15% of the total carbon output, indicating that the total output would be underestimated without including gaseous carbon exchange. - Due to high primary production, substantive allochthonous carbon inputs and intensive anthropogenic acitivity, subtropical, eutrophic Lake Donghu is a great carbon sink

  12. Longitudinal exchange: an alternative strategy towards quantification of dynamics parameters in ZZ exchange spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloiber, Karin; Spitzer, Romana; Grutsch, Sarina; Kreutz, Christoph; Tollinger, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal exchange experiments facilitate the quantification of the rates of interconversion between the exchanging species, along with their longitudinal relaxation rates, by analyzing the time-dependence of direct correlation and exchange cross peaks. Here we present a simple and robust alternative to this strategy, which is based on the combination of two complementary experiments, one with and one without resolving exchange cross peaks. We show that by combining the two data sets systematic errors that are caused by differential line-broadening of the exchanging species are avoided and reliable quantification of kinetic and relaxation parameters in the presence of additional conformational exchange on the ms–μs time scale is possible. The strategy is applied to a bistable DNA oligomer that displays different line-broadening in the two exchanging species.

  13. Monthly dynamics of carbon dioxide exchange across the sea surface of the Arctic Ocean in response to changes in gas transfer velocity and partial pressure of CO2 in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Wrobel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic Ocean (AO is an important basin for global oceanic carbon dioxide (CO2 uptake, but the mechanisms controlling air–sea gas fluxes are not fully understood, especially over short and long timescales. The oceanic sink of CO2 is an important part of the global carbon budget. Previous studies have shown that in the AO differences in the partial pressure of CO2 (ΔpCO2 and gas transfer velocity (k both contribute significantly to interannual air–sea CO2 flux variability, but that k is unimportant for multidecadal variability. This study combined Earth Observation (EO data collected in 2010 with the in situ pCO2 dataset from Takahashi et al. (2009 (T09 using a recently developed software toolbox called FluxEngine to determine the importance of k and ΔpCO2 on CO2 budgets in two regions of the AO – the Greenland Sea (GS and the Barents Sea (BS with their continental margins. Results from the study indicate that the variability in wind speed and, hence, the gas transfer velocity, generally play a major role in determining the temporal variability of CO2 uptake, while variability in monthly ΔpCO2 plays a major role spatially, with some exceptions.

  14. Fluctuation Dynamics of Exchange Rates on Indian Financial Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, A.; Barat, P.

    Here we investigate the scaling behavior and the complexity of the average daily exchange rate returns of the Indian Rupee against four foreign currencies namely US Dollar, Euro, Great Britain Pound and Japanese Yen. Our analysis revealed that the average daily exchange rate return of the Indian Rupee against the US Dollar exhibits a persistent scaling behavior and follow Levy stable distribution. On the contrary the average daily exchange rate returns of the other three foreign currencies show randomness and follow Gaussian distribution. Moreover, it is seen that the complexity of the average daily exchange rate return of the Indian Rupee against US Dollar is less than the other three exchange rate returns.

  15. ISLSCP II Air-Sea Carbon Dioxide Gas Exchange

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the calculated net ocean-air carbon dioxide (CO2) flux and sea-air CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) difference. The estimates are based on...

  16. Identifying Differences in Carbon Exchange among Arctic Ecosystem Types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, M.; Street, L.E.; Wijk, van M.T.; Shaver, G.R.

    2006-01-01

    Our objective was to determine how varied is the response of C cycling to temperature and irradiance in tundra vegetation. We used a large chamber to measure C exchange at 23 locations within a small arctic catchment in Alaska during summer 2003 and 2004. At each location, we determined light

  17. Multiscale implementation of infinite-swap replica exchange molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tang-Qing; Lu, Jianfeng; Abrams, Cameron F; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric

    2016-10-18

    Replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) is a popular method to accelerate conformational sampling of complex molecular systems. The idea is to run several replicas of the system in parallel at different temperatures that are swapped periodically. These swaps are typically attempted every few MD steps and accepted or rejected according to a Metropolis-Hastings criterion. This guarantees that the joint distribution of the composite system of replicas is the normalized sum of the symmetrized product of the canonical distributions of these replicas at the different temperatures. Here we propose a different implementation of REMD in which (i) the swaps obey a continuous-time Markov jump process implemented via Gillespie's stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA), which also samples exactly the aforementioned joint distribution and has the advantage of being rejection free, and (ii) this REMD-SSA is combined with the heterogeneous multiscale method to accelerate the rate of the swaps and reach the so-called infinite-swap limit that is known to optimize sampling efficiency. The method is easy to implement and can be trivially parallelized. Here we illustrate its accuracy and efficiency on the examples of alanine dipeptide in vacuum and C-terminal β-hairpin of protein G in explicit solvent. In this latter example, our results indicate that the landscape of the protein is a triple funnel with two folded structures and one misfolded structure that are stabilized by H-bonds.

  18. Estimating net ecosystem exchange of carbon using the normalized difference vegetation index and an ecosystem model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veroustraete, F.; Patyn, J.; Myneni, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    The evaluation and prediction of changes in carbon dynamics at the ecosystem level is a key issue in studies of global change. An operational concept for the determination of carbon fluxes for the Belgian territory is the goal of the presented study. The approach is based on the integration of remotely sensed data into ecosystem models in order to evaluate photosynthetic assimilation and net ecosystem exchange (NEE). Remote sensing can be developed as an operational tool to determine the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (feAR). A review of the methodological approach of mapping fPAR dynamics at the regional scale by means of NOAA11-A VHRR / 2 data for the year 1990 is given. The processing sequence from raw radiance values to fPAR is presented. An interesting aspect of incorporating remote sensing derived fPAR in ecosystem models is the potential for modeling actual as opposed to potential vegetation. Further work should prove whether the concepts presented and the assumptions made in this study are valid. (NEE). Complex ecosystem models with a highly predictive value for a specific ecosystem are generally not suitable for global or regional applications, since they require a substantial set of ancillary data becoming increasingly larger with increasing complexity of the model. The ideal model for our purpose is one that is simple enough to be used in global scale modeling, and which can be adapted for different ecosystems or vegetation types. The fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR) during the growing season determines in part net photosynthesis and phytomass production (Ruimy, 1995). Remotely measured red and near-infrared spectral reflectances can be used to estimate fPAR. Therefore, a possible approach is to estimate net photosynthesis, phytomass, and NEE from a combination of satellite data and an ecosystem model that includes carbon dynamics. It has to be stated that some parts of the work presented in this

  19. Carbon exchange in Western Siberian watershed mires and implication for the greenhouse effect. A spatial temporal modeling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borren, W.

    2007-01-01

    The vast watershed mires of Western Siberia formed a significant sink of carbon during the Holocene. Because of their large area these mires might play an important role in the carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. However, estimation of the Holocene and future carbon balance of whole Western Siberian mires is hampered by the lack of spatially resolved models. The main objective was to assess the carbon exchange fluxes of the mires using a 3-D dynamic approach. These exchange fluxes comprise the sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) by peat growth, the emission of methane (CH4) by anaerobic peat decay and the emission of CO2 by aerobic peat decay. From the detailed analysis of peat cores from different sites in the southern taiga of Western Siberia, it emerged that Holocene peat growth and carbon accumulation had different trends, caused by variations in vegetation succession. These differences were strongly influenced by the position in the landscape. Therefore, the effect of climatic change on mire development varied spatially. The indirect effects of climate change through local hydrology appeared to be more important than direct influences of changes in precipitation and temperature. Mire development is closely connected to hydrological dynamics. In the thesis a 3-D dynamic modeling approach is described that makes use of groundwater modeling. In successive timesteps peat growth and decay as well as mire type distribution were calculated, depending on hydrological conditions. The model was forced with a paleo-precipitation record to include variable climatic input. The model results show the Holocene development of a watershed mire from a few small spots to a contiguous mire landscape. As hydrology is the major limiting factor, the mire development is most sensitive to precipitation and evapotranspiration. Under unchanged conditions the mire will grow further, eventually reaching its maximum peat thickness around 11400 yr A.D. Under

  20. Carbon exchange in Western Siberian watershed mires and implication for the greenhouse effect. A spatial temporal modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borren, W.

    2007-01-19

    The vast watershed mires of Western Siberia formed a significant sink of carbon during the Holocene. Because of their large area these mires might play an important role in the carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. However, estimation of the Holocene and future carbon balance of whole Western Siberian mires is hampered by the lack of spatially resolved models. The main objective was to assess the carbon exchange fluxes of the mires using a 3-D dynamic approach. These exchange fluxes comprise the sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) by peat growth, the emission of methane (CH4) by anaerobic peat decay and the emission of CO2 by aerobic peat decay. From the detailed analysis of peat cores from different sites in the southern taiga of Western Siberia, it emerged that Holocene peat growth and carbon accumulation had different trends, caused by variations in vegetation succession. These differences were strongly influenced by the position in the landscape. Therefore, the effect of climatic change on mire development varied spatially. The indirect effects of climate change through local hydrology appeared to be more important than direct influences of changes in precipitation and temperature. Mire development is closely connected to hydrological dynamics. In the thesis a 3-D dynamic modeling approach is described that makes use of groundwater modeling. In successive timesteps peat growth and decay as well as mire type distribution were calculated, depending on hydrological conditions. The model was forced with a paleo-precipitation record to include variable climatic input. The model results show the Holocene development of a watershed mire from a few small spots to a contiguous mire landscape. As hydrology is the major limiting factor, the mire development is most sensitive to precipitation and evapotranspiration. Under unchanged conditions the mire will grow further, eventually reaching its maximum peat thickness around 11400 yr A.D. Under

  1. Separation of uranium from sodium carbonate - sodium bicarbonate eluate by ion exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakane, Kohji; Hirotsu, Takahiro; Fujii, Ayako; Katoh, Shunsaku; Sugasaka, Kazuhiko

    1982-01-01

    The ion exchange method was used for separating uranium from the eluate (0.5 N Na 2 CO 3 -0.5 N NaHCO 3 ) that was obtained in the extraction process of uranium from natural sea water by using the titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent. Uranium in the eluate containing 3 mg/1 uranium was adsorbed by ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400), and was eluted with the eluant (5 % NaCl-0.5 % Na 2 CO 3 ). The concentration ratio of uranium in the final concentrated-eluate became more than 20 times. The eluting solution to the adsorbent and the eluant to the resin could be repeatedly used in the desorption-ion exchange process. Sodium carbonate was consumed at the desorption step, and sodium bicarbonate was consumed at the ion exchange step. The concentration ratio of uranium was found to decrease as chloride ion in the eluate increased. (author)

  2. Separation of uranium from sodium carbonate-sodium bicarbonate eluate by ion exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakane, Kohji; Hirotsu, Takahiro; Fujii, Ayako; Katoh, Shunsaku; Sugasaka, Kazuhiko

    1982-01-01

    The ion exchange method was used for separating uranium from the eluate (0.5 N Na 2 CO 3 -0.5 N NaHCO 3 ) that was obtained in the extraction process of uranium from natural sea water by using the titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent. Uranium in the eluate containing 3 mg/l uranium was adsorbed by ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400), and was eluted with the eluent (5% NaCl-0.5% Na 2 CO 3 ). The concentration ratio of uranium in the final concentrated-eluate became more than 20 times. The eluting solution to the adsorbent and the eluant to the resin could be repeatedly used in the desorption-ion exchange process. Sodium carbonate was consumed at the desorption step, and sodium bicarbonate was consumed at the ion exchange step. The concentration ratio of uranium was found to decrease as chloride ion in the eluate increased. (author)

  3. Bicarbonate adsorption band of the chromatography for carbon isotope separation using anion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kunihiko; Obanawa, Heiichiro; Hata, Masahisa; Sato, Katsuya

    1985-01-01

    The equilibria of bicarbonate ion between two phases were studied for the carbon isotope separation using anion exchangers. The condition of the formation of a bicarbonate adsorption band was quantitatively discussed. The formation of the adsorption band depends on the difference of S-potential which is the sum of the standard redection chemical potentials and L-potential which is the sum of the reduction chemical potential. The isotopic separation factor observed was about 1.012, independent of the concentrations of acid and alkali in the solutions. The isotopic separation factor was considered to be determined by the reaction of bicarbonate ion on anion exchangers and carbon dioxide dissolved in solutions. The enriched carbon isotope whose isotopic abundance ratio ( 13 C/ 12 C) was 1.258 was obtained with the column packed with anion exchangers. (author)

  4. Insight into climate change from the carbon exchange of biocrusts utilizing non-rainfall water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Hailong; Hu, Chunxiang

    2017-05-31

    Biocrusts are model ecosystems of global change studies. However, light and non-rainfall water (NRW) were previously few considered. Different biocrust types further aggravated the inconsistence. So carbon-exchange of biocrusts (cyanobacteria crusts-AC1/AC2; cyanolichen crust-LC1; chlorolichen crust-LC2; moss crust-MC) utilizing NRW at various temperatures and light-intensities were determined under simulated and insitu mesocosm experiments. Carbon input of all biocrusts were negatively correlated with experimental temperature under all light-intensity with saturated water and stronger light with equivalent NRW, but positively correlated with temperature under weak light with equivalent NRW. LCPs and R/Pg of AC1 were lowest, followed in turn by AC2, LC2 and MC. Thus AC1 had most opportunities to use NRW, and 2.5 °C warming did cause significant changes of carbon exchange. Structural equation models further revealed that air-temperature was most important for carbon-exchange of ACs, but equally important as NRW for LC2 and MC; positive influence of warming on carbon-input in ACs was much stronger than the latter. Therefore, temperature effect on biocrust carbon-input depends on both moisture and light. Meanwhile, the role of NRW, transitional states between ACs, and obvious carbon-fixation differences between lichen crusts should be fully considered in the future study of biocrusts responding to climate change.

  5. Investigation of uranium sorption from carbonate solutions by different ion exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekrasova, N.A.; Kudryavtseva, S.P.; Milyutin, V.V.; Chuveleva, Eh.A.; Firsova, L.A.; Gelis, V.M.

    2008-01-01

    One studied the uranium sorption from the reference carbonate solutions based on the ion-exchange resins varying in the rank. The PFA-300, the A-560, the AB-17x8 highly basic anionites and the ampholytes (S-930, S-922, S-957, ANKB-35) were shown to manifest the best sorption characteristics as to U. One determined the dependences of the static exchange capacity of the PFA-300, the A-560 and the S-922 resins as to the uranium on the carbonate solution pH, as well as the absorbed uranium desorption conditions [ru

  6. Simultaneous reproduction of global carbon exchange and storage of terrestrial forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, M.; Ichii, K.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the mechanism of the terrestrial carbon cycle is essential for assessing the impact of climate change. Quantification of both carbon exchange and storage is the key to the understanding, but it often associates with difficulties due to complex entanglement of environmental and physiological factors. Terrestrial ecosystem models have been the major tools to assess the terrestrial carbon budget for decades. Because of its strong association with climate change, carbon exchange has been more rigorously investigated by the terrestrial biosphere modeling community. Seeming success of model based assessment of carbon budge often accompanies with the ill effect, substantial misrepresentation of storage. In practice, a number of model based analyses have paid attention solely on terrestrial carbon fluxes and often neglected carbon storage such as forest biomass. Thus, resulting model parameters are inevitably oriented to carbon fluxes. This approach is insufficient to fully reduce uncertainties about future terrestrial carbon cycles and climate change because it does not take into account the role of biomass, which is equivalently important as carbon fluxes in the system of carbon cycle. To overcome this issue, a robust methodology for improving the global assessment of both carbon budget and storage is needed. One potentially effective approach to identify a suitable balance of carbon allocation proportions for each individual ecosystem. Carbon allocations can influence the plant growth by controlling the amount of investment acquired from photosynthesis, as well as carbon fluxes by controlling the carbon content of leaves and litter, both are active media for photosynthesis and decomposition. Considering those aspects, there may exist the suitable balance of allocation proportions enabling the simultaneous reproduction of carbon budget and storage. The present study explored the existence of such suitable balances of allocation proportions, and examines the

  7. Temporal Dynamics of Social Exchange and the Development of Solidarity: "Testing the Waters" versus "Taking a Leap of Faith"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Ko; Sheldon, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    In their concerted efforts to unpack the microprocesses that transform repeated exchanges into an exchange relation, exchange theorists have paid little attention to how actors perceive changes and dynamics in exchanges over time. We help fill this gap by studying how temporal patterns of exchange affect the development of cohesion. Some exchange…

  8. Ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of carbon in a heathland under future climatic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsted, Merete Bang

    on ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of carbon in a heathland under future climatic conditions, shows that extended summer drought in combination with elevated temperature will ensure permanent dryer soil conditions, which decreases carbon turnover, while elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations will increase...... carbon turnover. In the full future climate scenario, carbon turnover is over all expected to increase and the heathland to become a source of atmospheric CO2. The methodology of static chamber CO2 flux measurements and applying the technology in a FACE (free air CO2 enrichment) facility is a challenge...... on the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Photosynthesis and respiration run in parallel during measurements of net ecosystem exchange, and these measurements should therefore be performed with care to both the atmospheric CO2 concentration and the CO2 soil-atmosphere gradient....

  9. Ignoring detailed fast-changing dynamics of land use overestimates regional terrestrial carbon sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Q. Zhao

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Land use change is critical in determining the distribution, magnitude and mechanisms of terrestrial carbon budgets at the local to global scales. To date, almost all regional to global carbon cycle studies are driven by a static land use map or land use change statistics with decadal time intervals. The biases in quantifying carbon exchange between the terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere caused by using such land use change information have not been investigated. Here, we used the General Ensemble biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS, along with consistent and spatially explicit land use change scenarios with different intervals (1 yr, 5 yrs, 10 yrs and static, respectively, to evaluate the impacts of land use change data frequency on estimating regional carbon sequestration in the southeastern United States. Our results indicate that ignoring the detailed fast-changing dynamics of land use can lead to a significant overestimation of carbon uptake by the terrestrial ecosystem. Regional carbon sequestration increased from 0.27 to 0.69, 0.80 and 0.97 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 when land use change data frequency shifting from 1 year to 5 years, 10 years interval and static land use information, respectively. Carbon removal by forest harvesting and prolonged cumulative impacts of historical land use change on carbon cycle accounted for the differences in carbon sequestration between static and dynamic land use change scenarios. The results suggest that it is critical to incorporate the detailed dynamics of land use change into local to global carbon cycle studies. Otherwise, it is impossible to accurately quantify the geographic distributions, magnitudes, and mechanisms of terrestrial carbon sequestration at the local to global scales.

  10. A Unified Approach to Dynamic Matching and Barter Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    similar participants (e.g., the National Odd Shoe Exchange [164]); • Shift exchange, where nurses or other shift workers swap shifts (typically an ad...surgery. For example, if the candidate comes down with a cold or flu days before surgery, the surgery may need to be rescheduled or permanently

  11. Spatiotemporal variability in carbon exchange fluxes across the Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagesson, Håkan Torbern; Fensholt, Rasmus; Cappelaere, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    for semi-arid ecosystems. We have synthesized data on the land-atmosphere exchange of CO2 measured with the eddy covariance technique from the six existing sites across the Sahel, one of the largest semi-arid regions in the world. The overall aim of the study is to analyse and quantify the spatiotemporal...... variability in these fluxes and to analyse to which degree spatiotemporal variation can be explained by hydrological, climatic, edaphic and vegetation variables. All ecosystems were C sinks (average ± total error -162 ± 48 g C m-2 y-1), but were smaller when strongly impacted by anthropogenic influences...

  12. Carbon dioxide and methane dynamics in estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alberto V.; Abril, Gwenaël.

    2010-05-01

    We carried out a literature overview to synthesize current knowledge on CO2 and CH4 dynamics and fluxes with the atmosphere in estuarine environments. Estuarine systems are highly dynamic in terms of carbon cycling and emit CO2 to the atmosphere at rates that are quantitatively significant for the global C cycle. This emission of CO2 to the atmosphere is strongly supported by the net heterotrophic nature of these ecosystems. The robustness of the evaluation of the emission of CO2 from estuarine ecosystems has increased in last years due to increasing data availability and improvements in the surface area estimates by types. At present, the lack of sufficient data is the major limitation in the quantification of the spatial and temporal variability of CO2 fluxes in estuarine environments. Regarding future observations, there is also a need for sustained measurements to unravel inter-annual variability and long-term trends of CO2 and CH4 in estuarine environments. Indeed, due to the strong linkage with river catchements, inter-annual variability of CO2 and CH4 in estuarine environments is expected to be strong. Data used in the present synthesis were either obtained by the authors, data mined from publications or communicated by colleagues. There is a need for publicly available and quality checked data-bases for CO2 and CH4 in estuarine environments. Not only cross-system meta-analysis of data (CO2, CH4, O2, …) can be enlightening as explored in the present work, but also considering the uncertainties in the evaluation of the gas transfer velocity, there could be a need for future re-evaluations of air-water CO2 and CH4 fluxes, requiring access to the raw pCO2 and [CH4] data.

  13. Carbon Corrosion at Pt/C Interface in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Min Ho; Beam, Won Jin; Park, Chan Jin

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the carbon corrosion at Pt/C interface in proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment. The Pt nano particles were electrodeposited on carbon substrate, and then the corrosion behavior of the carbon electrode was examined. The carbon electrodes with Pt nano electrodeposits exhibited the higher oxidation rate and lower oxidation overpotential compared with that of the electrode without Pt. This phenomenon was more active at 75 .deg. C than 25 .deg. C. In addition, the current transients and the corresponding power spectral density (PSD) of the carbon electrodes with Pt nano electrodeposits were much higher than those of the electrode without Pt. The carbon corrosion at Pt/C interface was highly accelerated by Pt nano electrodeposits. Furthermore, the polarization and power density curves of PEMFC showed degradation in the performance due to a deterioration of cathode catalyst material and Pt dissolution

  14. Spontaneous oxygen isotope exchange between carbon dioxide and\

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knížek, Antonín; Zukalová, Markéta; Kavan, Ladislav; Zukal, Arnošt; Kubelík, Petr; Rojík, P.; Skřehot, P.; Ferus, Martin; Civiš, Svatopluk

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 137, MAR 2017 (2017), s. 6-10 ISSN 0169-1317 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD14115; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12010S; GA ČR GA13-07724S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015073 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : clay * carbon dioxide * FTIR spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 3.101, year: 2016

  15. Climate indices strongly influence old-growth forest carbon exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia Wharton; Matthias Falk

    2016-01-01

    We present a decade and a half (1998–2013) of carbon dioxide fluxes from an old-growth stand in the American Pacific Northwest to identify ecosystem-level responses to Pacific teleconnection patterns, including the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This study provides the longest, continuous record of old-growth eddy flux data to date from one of the longest running...

  16. Macroeconomic Effects of Nominal Exchange Rate Regimes: New Insights into the Role of Price Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Kollmann, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This Paper analyses the effects of pegged and floating exchange rates using a two-country dynamic general equilibrium model that is calibrated to the US and a European aggregate. The model assumes shocks to money, productivity and the interest parity condition. It captures the fact that the sharp increase in nominal exchange rate volatility after the abandonment of the Bretton Woods (BW) system was accompanied by a commensurate rise in real exchange rate volatility, but had no pronounced effe...

  17. Carbon dioxide exchange over agricultural landscape using eddy correlation and footprint modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, H.; Jensen, N.O.; Bøgh, E.

    2003-01-01

    Within an agricultural landscape of western Denmark, the carbon dioxide exchange was studied throughout a year (April 1998-March 1999). During the growing season, five eddy correlation systems were operated in parallel over some of the more important crops (winter wheat, winter barley, spring...

  18. Covered Interest Parity, Uncovered Interest Parity, and Exchange Rate Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Eaton, Jonathan; Turnovsky, Stephen J.

    1981-01-01

    A number of macroeconomic models of open economies under flexible exchange rate assume a strong version of perfect capital mobility which implies that currency speculation commands no risk premium. If this assumption is dropped a number of important results no longer obtain. First, the exchange rate and interest rate cannot be in steady state unless both the government deficit and current account equal zero, not simply their sum, as would otherwise be the case. Second, even in steady state th...

  19. Real Effective Exchange Rate Dynamics in Malawi and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kisu Simwaka

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the main determinants of real effective exchange rate in Malawi and South Africa. In our empirical analysis, we conducted unit root and cointegration test in order to determine the time series properties of the data and establish whether there is a long run relationship between real effective exchange rate and explanatory variables. Having ascertained that almost all variiables are integrated of order one and cointegrated, an error correction model is formulated and es...

  20. Calculation of vessels and heat exchangers submitted to dynamic efforts caused by postulated ruptures in pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, L.D.B.; Amaral, J.A.R. do; Alves, M.C.T.

    1984-01-01

    An example of dynamic analysis of a heat exchanger subjected to pipe break transient loadings is shown. The contribution of the type of loading and component's model is discussed. Simplified verification methods are also presented. (Author) [pt

  1. Ethylene and carbon dioxide exchange in leaves and whole plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodrow, L

    1989-01-01

    This investigation addresses the interactions between CO{sub 2}, ethylene, and photosynthetic carbon metabolism in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. and Xanthium strumarium L. Rates of ethylene release were examined at alternate leaf positions on vegetative tomato plants. The rates of endogenous and ACC-stimulated ethylene release per unit leaf area were highest in the young, rapidly expanding leaves. When plants were grown under CO{sub 2} enrichment rates of ethylene release from the leaf tissue were consistently higher than from tissue grown at ambient levels. Elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations during short-term incubations further enhanced the rates of ethylene release. Ethylene release from ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) applied to intact tomato plants provided a model system in which to study the effects of ethylene on photosynthetic metabolism and carbon partitioning. The ethephon treated plants exhibited leaf epinasty, flower bud abscission, inhibition of leaf expansion, adventitious root development, and reduction of dry matter accumulation and growth over time. Rates of steady state photosynthesis, respiration, photorespiration, transpiration, and partitioning of recently fixed {sup 14}C into neutral, acidic, basic, and insoluble leaf fractions were unaltered 24 h after ethephon application.

  2. Terrestrial carbon storage dynamics: Chasing a moving target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.; Shi, Z.; Jiang, L.; Xia, J.; Wang, Y.; Kc, M.; Liang, J.; Lu, X.; Niu, S.; Ahlström, A.; Hararuk, O.; Hastings, A.; Hoffman, F. M.; Medlyn, B. E.; Rasmussen, M.; Smith, M. J.; Todd-Brown, K. E.; Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems have been estimated to absorb roughly 30% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Past studies have identified myriad drivers of terrestrial carbon storage changes, such as fire, climate change, and land use changes. Those drivers influence the carbon storage change via diverse mechanisms, which have not been unified into a general theory so as to identify what control the direction and rate of terrestrial carbon storage dynamics. Here we propose a theoretical framework to quantitatively determine the response of terrestrial carbon storage to different exogenous drivers. With a combination of conceptual reasoning, mathematical analysis, and numeric experiments, we demonstrated that the maximal capacity of an ecosystem to store carbon is time-dependent and equals carbon input (i.e., net primary production, NPP) multiplying by residence time. The capacity is a moving target toward which carbon storage approaches (i.e., the direction of carbon storage change) but usually does not attain. The difference between the capacity and the carbon storage at a given time t is the unrealized carbon storage potential. The rate of the storage change is proportional to the magnitude of the unrealized potential. We also demonstrated that a parameter space of NPP, residence time, and carbon storage potential can well characterize carbon storage dynamics quantified at six sites ranging from tropical forests to tundra and simulated by two versions (carbon-only and coupled carbon-nitrogen) of the Australian Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Land Ecosystem (CABLE) Model under three climate change scenarios (CO2 rising only, climate warming only, and RCP8.5). Overall this study reveals the unified mechanism unerlying terrestrial carbon storage dynamics to guide transient traceability analysis of global land models and synthesis of empirical studies.

  3. Regeneration of the iodine isotope-exchange efficiency for nuclear-grade activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitz, V.R.

    1985-01-01

    The removal of radioactive iodine from air flows passing through impregnated activated carbons depends on a minimum of three distinguishable reactions: (1) adsorption on the carbon networks of the activated carbons, (2) iodine isotope exchange with impregnated iodine-127, and (3) chemical combination with impregnated tertiary amines when present. When a carbon is new, all three mechanisms are at peak performance and it is not possible to distinguish among the three reactions by a single measurement; the retention of methyl iodide-127 is usually equal to the retention of methyl iodide-131. After the carbon is placed in service, the three mechanisms of iodine removal are degraded by the contaminants of the air at different rates; the adsorption process degrades faster than the other two. This behavior will be shown by comparisons of methyl iodide-127 and methyl iodide-131 penetration tests. It was found possible to regenerate the iodine isotope-exchange efficiency by reaction with airborne chemical reducing agents with little or no improvement in methyl iodine-127 retention. Examples will be given of the chemical regeneration of carbons after exhaustion with known contaminants as well as for many carbons removed from nuclear power operations. The depth profile of methyl iodide-131 penetration was determined in 2-inch deep layers before and after chemical treatments

  4. Dynamic interaction between localized magnetic moments in carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A T; Muniz, R B; Ferreira, M S

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic moments dilutely dispersed in a metallic host tend to be coupled through the conduction electrons of the metal. This indirect exchange coupling (IEC), known to occur for a variety of magnetic materials embedded in several different metallic structures, is of rather long range, especially for low-dimensional structures like carbon nanotubes. Motivated by recent claims that the indirect coupling between magnetic moments in precessional motion has a much longer range than its static counterpart, we consider here how magnetic atoms adsorbed to the walls of a metallic nanotube respond to a time-dependent perturbation that induces their magnetic moments to precess. By calculating the frequency-dependent spin susceptibility, we are able to identify resonant peaks whose respective widths provide information about the dynamic aspect of the IEC. We show that by departing from a purely static representation to another in which the moments are allowed to precess, we change from what is already considered a long-range interaction to another whose range is far superior. In other words, localized magnetic moments embedded in a metallic structure can feel each other's presence more easily when they are set in precessional motion. We argue that such an effect can have useful applications leading to large-scale spintronics devices

  5. Multiple Reserve Requirements, Exchange Rates, Sudden Stops and Equilibrium Dynamics in a Small Open Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Hernandez-Verme; Wen-Yao Wang

    2009-01-01

    We model a typical Asian-crisis-economy using dynamic general equilibrium tech-niques. Exchange rates obtain from nontrivial fiat-currencies demands. Sudden stops/bank-panics are possible, and key for evaluating the merits of alternative ex-change rate regimes. Strategic complementarities contribute to the severe indetermi-nacy of the continuum of equilibria. The scope for existence and indeterminacy of equilibria and dynamic properties are associated with the underlying policy regime. Bindin...

  6. Spatially explicit simulation of peatland hydrology and carbon dioxide exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnentag, O.

    2008-01-01

    A recent version of the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) was extended and modified to include northern peatlands. This thesis evaluated the BEPS-TerrainLab using observations made at the Mer Bleue bog located near Ottawa, Ontario, and the Sandhill fen located near Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. The code was revised to represent the multi-layer canopy and processes related to energy, water vapour and carbon dioxide fluxes through remotely-sensed leaf area index (LAI) maps. A quick and reliable method was also developed to determine shrub LAI with the LAI-2000 plant canopy analyzer. A large number of LAI data was collected at the Mer Bleue bog for the development of a new remote sensing-based methodology using multiple end member spectral unmixing to allow for separate tree and shrub LAI mapping in ombrotrophic peatlands. The methodology was also adapted for use in minerotrophic peatlands and their surrounding landscapes. These LAI maps within the BEPS-TerrainLab represented the tree and shrub layers of the Mer Bleue bog and the tree and shrub/sedge layers of the Sandhill fen. The study examined the influence of mesoscale topography (Mer Bleue bog) and macro- and mesoscale topography (Sandhill fen) on wetness, evapotranspiration, and gross primary productivity during the snow-free period of 2004. The results suggested that a peatland type-specific differentiation of macro- and mesoscale topographic effects on hydrology should be included in future peatland ecosystem modelling efforts in order to allow for a more realistic simulation of the soil water balance in peatlands and to reduce uncertainties in carbon dioxide and methane annual fluxes from wetlands

  7. Spatially explicit simulation of peatland hydrology and carbon dioxide exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnentag, O.

    2008-08-01

    A recent version of the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) was extended and modified to include northern peatlands. This thesis evaluated the BEPS-TerrainLab using observations made at the Mer Bleue bog located near Ottawa, Ontario, and the Sandhill fen located near Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. The code was revised to represent the multi-layer canopy and processes related to energy, water vapour and carbon dioxide fluxes through remotely-sensed leaf area index (LAI) maps. A quick and reliable method was also developed to determine shrub LAI with the LAI-2000 plant canopy analyzer. A large number of LAI data was collected at the Mer Bleue bog for the development of a new remote sensing-based methodology using multiple end member spectral unmixing to allow for separate tree and shrub LAI mapping in ombrotrophic peatlands. The methodology was also adapted for use in minerotrophic peatlands and their surrounding landscapes. These LAI maps within the BEPS-TerrainLab represented the tree and shrub layers of the Mer Bleue bog and the tree and shrub/sedge layers of the Sandhill fen. The study examined the influence of mesoscale topography (Mer Bleue bog) and macro- and mesoscale topography (Sandhill fen) on wetness, evapotranspiration, and gross primary productivity during the snow-free period of 2004. The results suggested that a peatland type-specific differentiation of macro- and mesoscale topographic effects on hydrology should be included in future peatland ecosystem modelling efforts in order to allow for a more realistic simulation of the soil water balance in peatlands and to reduce uncertainties in carbon dioxide and methane annual fluxes from wetlands.

  8. Dynamics of oil price, precious metal prices, and exchange rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, Ramazan; Soytas, Ugur; Hammoudeh, Shawkat

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the co-movements and information transmission among the spot prices of four precious metals (gold, silver, platinum, and palladium), oil price, and the US dollar/euro exchange rate. We find evidence of a weak long-run equilibrium relationship but strong feedbacks in the short run. The spot precious metal markets respond significantly (but temporarily) to a shock in any of the prices of the other metal prices and the exchange rate. Furthermore, we discover some evidence of market overreactions in the palladium and platinum cases as well as in the exchange rate market. In conclusion, whether there are overreactions and re-adjustments or not, investors may diversify at least a portion of the risk away by investing in precious metals, oil, and the euro. Policy implications are provided. (author)

  9. Boreal forests and atmosphere - Biosphere exchange of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arrigo, Rosanne; Jacoby, Gordon C.; Fung, Inez Y.

    1987-01-01

    Two approaches to investigating the role of boreal forests in the global carbon cycle are presented. First, a tracer support model which incorporates the normalized-difference vegetation index obtained from advanced, very high resolution radiometer radiances was used to simulate the annual cycle of CO2 in the atmosphere. Results indicate that the seasonal growth of the combined boreal forests of North America and Eurasia accounts for about 50 percent of the mean seasonal CO2 amplitude recorded at Pt. Barrow, Alaska and about 30 percent of the more globally representative CO2 signal at Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Second, tree-ring width data from four boreal treeline sites in northern Canada were positively correlated with Pt. Barrow CO2 drawdown for the period 1971-1982. These results suggest that large-scale changes in the growth of boreal forests may be contributing to the observed increasing trend in CO2 amplitude. They further suggest that tree-ring data may be applicable as indices for CO2 uptake and remote sensing estimates of photosynthetic activity.

  10. Study of uranium (VI) in carbonate solution by potentiometric titrations and ion-exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billon, A.

    1968-04-01

    The present work is devoted to the fixation of uranium (VI) on the conventional anion-exchange resin Dowex 2 X 8 in carbonate and hydrogen-carbonate media. Both media were successfully used for the recuperation of uranium (VI) from very dilute solutions. Equilibrium constant of the exchange [UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 4+ ] S + 2 [CO 3 2- ] R ↔ [UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 4- ] R + 2[CO 3 2- ] S is determined for carbonate concentration range 0.1 M to 0.6 M from partition curves. A markedly increase in the relative fixation of uranium results with: - increasing free carbonate concentration of the solution, - decreasing uranium concentration. A study in the same conditions of the fixation of molybdenum has made it possible to separate the latter from uranium by elution, the carbonate concentration being molar. It is suggested a possibility of separation on a larger scale, based upon molybdenum displacement by uranium in hydrogen-carbonate medium. (author) [fr

  11. Monetary policy and exchange rate dynamics: the exchange rate as a shock absorber

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Audzei, Volha; Brázdik, F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 5 (2015), s. 391-410 ISSN 0015-1920 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : Czech Republic * exchange rates * sign restrictions Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.449, year: 2015 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1340_audzei.pdf

  12. Absorbing a windfall of foreign exchange: Dutch disease dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, F.; Venables, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The permanent income rule is seldom the optimal response to a windfall of foreign exchange, such as that from a resource discovery. Absorptive capacity constraints require domestic investment, and investment in structures requires non-traded inputs the supply of which is constrained by the initial

  13. A Carbon Flux Super Site. New Insights and Innovative Atmosphere-Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Measurements and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclerc, Monique Y. [The University of Georgia Research Foundation, Athens, GA (United States)

    2014-11-17

    This final report presents the main activities and results of the project “A Carbon Flux Super Site: New Insights and Innovative Atmosphere-Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Measurements and Modeling” from 10/1/2006 to 9/30/2014. It describes the new AmeriFlux tower site (Aiken) at Savanna River Site (SC) and instrumentation, long term eddy-covariance, sodar, microbarograph, soil and other measurements at the site, and intensive field campaigns of tracer experiment at the Carbon Flux Super Site, SC, in 2009 and at ARM-CF site, Lamont, OK, and experiments in Plains, GA. The main results on tracer experiment and modeling, on low-level jet characteristics and their impact on fluxes, on gravity waves and their influence on eddy fluxes, and other results are briefly described in the report.

  14. Carbon exchange in Western Siberian watershed mires and implication for the greenhouse effect : A spatial temporal modeling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borren, W.

    2007-01-01

    The vast watershed mires of Western Siberia formed a significant sink of carbon during the Holocene. Because of their large area these mires might play an important role in the carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. However, estimation of the Holocene and future carbon

  15. Cyclic occurrence of fire and its role in carbon dynamics along an edaphic moisture gradient in longleaf pine ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Whelan

    Full Text Available Fire regulates the structure and function of savanna ecosystems, yet we lack understanding of how cyclic fire affects savanna carbon dynamics. Furthermore, it is largely unknown how predicted changes in climate may impact the interaction between fire and carbon cycling in these ecosystems. This study utilizes a novel combination of prescribed fire, eddy covariance (EC and statistical techniques to investigate carbon dynamics in frequently burned longleaf pine savannas along a gradient of soil moisture availability (mesic, intermediate and xeric. This research approach allowed us to investigate the complex interactions between carbon exchange and cyclic fire along the ecological amplitude of longleaf pine. Over three years of EC measurement of net ecosystem exchange (NEE show that the mesic site was a net carbon sink (NEE = -2.48 tonnes C ha(-1, while intermediate and xeric sites were net carbon sources (NEE = 1.57 and 1.46 tonnes C ha(-1, respectively, but when carbon losses due to fuel consumption were taken into account, all three sites were carbon sources (10.78, 7.95 and 9.69 tonnes C ha(-1 at the mesic, intermediate and xeric sites, respectively. Nonetheless, rates of NEE returned to pre-fire levels 1-2 months following fire. Consumption of leaf area by prescribed fire was associated with reduction in NEE post-fire, and the system quickly recovered its carbon uptake capacity 30-60 days post fire. While losses due to fire affected carbon balances on short time scales (instantaneous to a few months, drought conditions over the final two years of the study were a more important driver of net carbon loss on yearly to multi-year time scales. However, longer-term observations over greater environmental variability and additional fire cycles would help to more precisely examine interactions between fire and climate and make future predictions about carbon dynamics in these systems.

  16. Continuous In-situ Measurements of Carbonyl Sulfide (OCS) and Carbon Dioxide Isotopes to Constrain Ecosystem Carbon and Water Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, B.; Still, C. J.; Noone, D. C.; Berkelhammer, M. B.; Whelan, M.; Lai, C. T.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Gupta, M.; Leen, J. B.; Huang, Y. W.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the processes that control the terrestrial exchange of carbon and water are critical for examining the role of forested ecosystems in changing climates. A small but increasing number of studies have identified Carbonyl Sulfide (OCS) as a potential tracer for photosynthesis. OCS is hydrolyzed by an irreversible reaction in leaf mesophyll cells that is catalyzed by the enzyme, carbonic anhydrase. Leaf- level field and greenhouse studies indicate that OCS uptake is controlled by stomatal activity and that the ratio of OCS and CO2 uptake is reasonably constant. Existing studies on ecosystem OCS exchange have been based on laboratory measurements or short field campaigns and therefore little information on OCS exchange in a natural ecosystem over longer timescales is available. The objective of this study is to further assess the stability of OCS as a tracer for canopy photosynthesis in an active forested ecosystem and also to assess its utility for constraining transpiration, since both fluxes are mediated by canopy stomatal conductance. An off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy analyzer (Los Gatos Research Inc.) was deployed at the Wind River Experimental Forest in Washington (45.8205°N, 121.9519°W). Canopy air was sampled from four heights as well as the soil to measure vertical gradients of OCS within the canopy, and OCS exchange between the forest and the atmosphere for the growing season. Here we take advantage of simultaneous measurements of the stable isotopologues of H2O and CO2 at corresponding heights as well as NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) from eddy covariance measurements to compare GPP (Gross Primary Production) and transpiration estimates from a variety of independent techniques. Our findings also seek to allow assessment of the environmental and ecophysicological controls on evapotranspiration rates, which are projected to change in coming decades, and are otherwise poorly constrained.

  17. Carbon Nitride Materials as Efficient Catalyst Supports for Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolyzers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belen Jorge

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nitride materials with graphitic to polymeric structures (gCNH were investigated as catalyst supports for the proton exchange membrane (PEM water electrolyzers using IrO2 nanoparticles as oxygen evolution electrocatalyst. Here, the performance of IrO2 nanoparticles formed and deposited in situ onto carbon nitride support for PEM water electrolysis was explored based on previous preliminary studies conducted in related systems. The results revealed that this preparation route catalyzed the decomposition of the carbon nitride to form a material with much lower N content. This resulted in a significant enhancement of the performance of the gCNH-IrO2 (or N-doped C-IrO2 electrocatalyst that was likely attributed to higher electrical conductivity of the N-doped carbon support.

  18. The Southern Ocean's role in carbon exchange during the last deglaciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Andrea; Robinson, Laura F

    2012-02-03

    Changes in the upwelling and degassing of carbon from the Southern Ocean form one of the leading hypotheses for the cause of glacial-interglacial changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide. We present a 25,000-year-long Southern Ocean radiocarbon record reconstructed from deep-sea corals, which shows radiocarbon-depleted waters during the glacial period and through the early deglaciation. This depletion and associated deep stratification disappeared by ~14.6 ka (thousand years ago), consistent with the transfer of carbon from the deep ocean to the surface ocean and atmosphere via a Southern Ocean ventilation event. Given this evidence for carbon exchange in the Southern Ocean, we show that existing deep-ocean radiocarbon records from the glacial period are sufficiently depleted to explain the ~190 per mil drop in atmospheric radiocarbon between ~17 and 14.5 ka.

  19. Dynamics of carbon 14 in soils: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamponnet, C.

    2004-01-01

    In terrestrial ecosystems, soil is the main interface between atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Its interactions with carbon cycle are primordial. Information about carbon 14 dynamics in soils is quite dispersed and an up-to-date status is therefore presented in this paper. Carbon 14 dynamics in soils are governed by physical processes (soil structure, soil aggregation, soil erosion) chemical processes (sequestration by soil components either mineral or organic), and soil biological processes (soil microbes, soil fauna, soil biochemistry). The relative importance of such processes varied remarkably among the various biomes (tropical forest, temperate forest, boreal forest, tropical savannah, temperate pastures, deserts, tundra, marshlands, agro ecosystems) encountered in the terrestrial eco-sphere. Moreover, application for a simplified modelling of carbon 14 dynamics in soils is proposed. (author)

  20. Dynamics of liquids, molecules, and proteins measured with ultrafast 2D IR vibrational echo chemical exchange spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayer, M D

    2009-01-01

    A wide variety of molecular systems undergo fast structural changes under thermal equilibrium conditions. Such transformations are involved in a vast array of chemical problems. Experimentally measuring equilibrium dynamics is a challenging problem that is at the forefront of chemical research. This review describes ultrafast 2D IR vibrational echo chemical exchange experiments and applies them to several types of molecular systems. The formation and dissociation of organic solute-solvent complexes are directly observed. The dissociation times of 13 complexes, ranging from 4 ps to 140 ps, are shown to obey a relationship that depends on the complex's formation enthalpy. The rate of rotational gauche-trans isomerization around a carbon-carbon single bond is determined for a substituted ethane at room temperature in a low viscosity solvent. The results are used to obtain an approximate isomerization rate for ethane. Finally, the time dependence of a well-defined single structural transformation of a protein is measured.

  1. Integrating microbial diversity in soil carbon dynamic models parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Benjamin; Menasseri-Aubry, Safya; Leterme, Philippe; Maron, Pierre-Alain; Viaud, Valérie

    2015-04-01

    Faced with the numerous concerns about soil carbon dynamic, a large quantity of carbon dynamic models has been developed during the last century. These models are mainly in the form of deterministic compartment models with carbon fluxes between compartments represented by ordinary differential equations. Nowadays, lots of them consider the microbial biomass as a compartment of the soil organic matter (carbon quantity). But the amount of microbial carbon is rarely used in the differential equations of the models as a limiting factor. Additionally, microbial diversity and community composition are mostly missing, although last advances in soil microbial analytical methods during the two past decades have shown that these characteristics play also a significant role in soil carbon dynamic. As soil microorganisms are essential drivers of soil carbon dynamic, the question about explicitly integrating their role have become a key issue in soil carbon dynamic models development. Some interesting attempts can be found and are dominated by the incorporation of several compartments of different groups of microbial biomass in terms of functional traits and/or biogeochemical compositions to integrate microbial diversity. However, these models are basically heuristic models in the sense that they are used to test hypotheses through simulations. They have rarely been confronted to real data and thus cannot be used to predict realistic situations. The objective of this work was to empirically integrate microbial diversity in a simple model of carbon dynamic through statistical modelling of the model parameters. This work is based on available experimental results coming from a French National Research Agency program called DIMIMOS. Briefly, 13C-labelled wheat residue has been incorporated into soils with different pedological characteristics and land use history. Then, the soils have been incubated during 104 days and labelled and non-labelled CO2 fluxes have been measured at ten

  2. Dynamic simulation of the carbon-in-pulp and carbon-in-leach processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. P. de Andrade Lima

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon-in-leach and carbon-in-pulp are continuous processes that use activated carbon in a cascade of large agitated tanks, which have been widely used to recover or concentrate precious metals in gold extraction plants. In the carbon-in-pulp process adsorption occurs after the leaching cascade section of the plant, and in the carbon-in-leach process leaching and adsorption occur simultaneously. In both processes the activated carbon is moved from one tank to another in countercurrent with the ore pulp until the recovery of the loaded carbon in the first tank. This paper presents a dynamic model that describes, with minor changes, the carbon-in-leach, the carbon-in-pulp, and the gold leaching processes. The model is numerically solved and calibrated with experimental data from a plant and used to perform a study of the effect of the activated carbon transfer strategy on the performance of the adsorption section of the plant. Based on the calculated values of the gold loss in the liquid and of the gold recovered in the loaded activated carbon that leaves the circuit, the results indicate that strategies in which a significant amount of activated carbon is held in the first tank and the contact time between the carbon and the pulp is longer are the best carbon transfer strategies for these processes.

  3. Carbon dioxide exchange in the High Arctic - examples from terrestrial ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndahl, L.

    of the growing season, which in combination with high temperatures increased uptake rates. The dry heath ecosystem in general gained carbon during the summer season in the order of magnitude -1.4 gCm-2 up to 32 gCm-2. This result is filling out a gap of knowledge on the response of high Arctic ecosystems...... the measurements conducted in the valley to a regional level. Including information on temporal and spatial variability in air temperature and radiation, together with NDVI and a vegetation map a regional estimate of the CO2 exchange during the summer was provided, elaborating the NDVI based estimate on net carbon...

  4. Random walk theory and exchange rate dynamics in transition economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradojević Nikola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the validity of the random walk theory in the Euro-Serbian dinar exchange rate market. We apply Andrew Lo and Archie MacKinlay's (1988 conventional variance ratio test and Jonathan Wright's (2000 non-parametric ranks and signs based variance ratio tests to the daily Euro/Serbian dinar exchange rate returns using the data from January 2005 - December 2008. Both types of variance ratio tests overwhelmingly reject the random walk hypothesis over the data span. To assess the robustness of our findings, we examine the forecasting performance of a non-linear, nonparametric model in the spirit of Francis Diebold and James Nason (1990 and find that it is able to significantly improve upon the random walk model, thus confirming the existence of foreign exchange market imperfections in a small transition economy such as Serbia. In the last part of the paper, we conduct a comparative study on how our results relate to those of other transition economies in the region.

  5. Low-cost photonic sensors for carbon dioxide exchange rate measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieda, Marcin S.; Sobotka, Piotr; Lesiak, Piotr; Woliński, Tomasz R.

    2017-10-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement has an important role in atmosphere monitoring. Usually, two types of measurements are carried out. The first one is based on gas concentration measurement while the second involves gas exchange rate measurement between earth surface and atmosphere [1]. There are several methods which allow gas concentration measurement. However, most of them require expensive instrumentation or large devices (i.e. gas chambers). In order to precisely measure either CO2 concentration or CO2 exchange rate, preferably a sensors network should be used. These sensors must have small dimensions, low power consumption, and they should be cost-effective. Therefore, this creates a great demand for a robust low-power and low-cost CO2 sensor [2,3]. As a solution, we propose a photonic sensor that can measure CO2 concentration and also can be used to measure gas exchange by using the Eddy covariance method [1].

  6. Carbon exchange between ecosystems and atmosphere in the Czech Republic is affected by climate factors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, Michal V.; Janouš, Dalibor; Taufarová, Klára; Havránková, Kateřina; Pavelka, Marian; Kaplan, Věroslav; Marková, I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 5 (2011), s. 1035-1039 ISSN 0269-7491 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1A6/108/07; GA MŠk 2B06068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : carbon fluxes * net ecosystem exchange * spruce forest * beech forest * Grassland * agroecosystem * wetland * climate factors Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.746, year: 2011

  7. Correlation between charge transfer and exchange coupling in carbon-based magnetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Anh Tuan, E-mail: tuanna@hus.edu.vn [Faculty of Physics, VNU University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Science and Technology Department, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, 144 Xuan Thuy, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1, Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa, 923-1292 Japan (Japan); Nguyen, Van Thanh; Nguyen, Huy Sinh [Faculty of Physics, VNU University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Pham, Thi Tuan Anh [Faculty of Physics, VNU University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Faculty of Science, College of Hai Duong, Nguyen Thi Due, Hai Duong (Viet Nam); Do, Viet Thang [Faculty of Physics, VNU University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Faculty of Science, Haiphong University, 171 Phan Dang Luu, Kien An, Hai Phong (Viet Nam); Dam, Hieu Chi [Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1, Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa, 923-1292 Japan (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Several forms of carbon-based magnetic materials, i.e. single radicals, radical dimers, and alternating stacks of radicals and diamagnetic molecules, have been investigated using density-functional theory with dispersion correction and full geometry optimization. Our calculated results demonstrate that the C{sub 31}H{sub 15} (R{sub 4}) radical has a spin of ½. However, in its [R{sub 4}]{sub 2} dimer structure, the net spin becomes zero due to antiferromagnetic spin-exchange between radicals. To avoid antiferromagnetic spin-exchange of identical face-to-face radicals, eight alternating stacks, R{sub 4}/D{sub 2m}/R{sub 4} (with m = 3-10), were designed. Our calculated results show that charge transfer (Δn) between R{sub 4} radicals and the diamagnetic molecule D{sub 2m} occurs with a mechanism of spin exchange (J) in stacks. The more electrons that transfer from R{sub 4} to D{sub 2m}, the stronger the ferromagnetic spin-exchange in stacks. In addition, our calculated results show that Δn can be tailored by adjusting the electron affinity (E{sub a}) of D{sub 2m}. The correlation between Δn, E{sub a}, m, and J is discussed. These results give some hints for the design of new ferromagnetic carbon-based materials.

  8. Separation of uranium from sodium carbonate - sodium bicarbonate eluate by ion exchange method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakane, Kohji; Hirotsu, Takahiro; Fujii, Ayako; Katoh, Shunsaku; Sugasaka, Kazuhiko (Government Industrial Research Inst., Shikoku, Takamatsu (Japan))

    1982-09-01

    The ion exchange method was used for separating uranium from the eluate (0.5 N Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-0.5 N NaHCO/sub 3/) that was obtained in the extraction process of uranium from natural sea water by using the titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent. Uranium in the eluate containing 3 mg/1 uranium was adsorbed by ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400), and was eluted with the eluant (5 % NaCl-0.5 % Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/). The concentration ratio of uranium in the final concentrated-eluate became more than 20 times. The eluting solution to the adsorbent and the eluant to the resin could be repeatedly used in the desorption-ion exchange process. Sodium carbonate was consumed at the desorption step, and sodium bicarbonate was consumed at the ion exchange step. The concentration ratio of uranium was found to decrease as chloride ion in the eluate increased.

  9. Separation of uranium from sodium carbonate-sodium bicarbonate eluate by ion exchange method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakane, K.; Hirotsu, T.; Fujii, A.; Katoh, S.; Sugasaka, K. (Government Industrial Research. Inst., Shikoku, Takamatsu (Japan))

    1982-01-01

    The ion exchange method was used for separating uranium from the eluate (0.5 N Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-0.5 N NaHCO/sub 3/) that was obtained in the extraction process of uranium from natural sea water by using the titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent. Uranium in the eluate containing 3 mg/l uranium was adsorbed by ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400), and was eluted with the eluent (5% NaCl-0.5% Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/). The concentration ratio of uranium in the final concentrated-eluate became more than 20 times. The eluting solution to the adsorbent and the eluant to the resin could be repeatedly used in the desorption-ion exchange process. Sodium carbonate was consumed at the desorption step, and sodium bicarbonate was consumed at the ion exchange step. The concentration ratio of uranium was found to decrease as chloride ion in the eluate increased.

  10. Net carbon exchange across the Arctic tundra-boreal forest transition in Alaska 1981-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Catharine Copass; McGuire, A.D.; Clein, Joy S.; Chapin, F. S.; Beringer, J.

    2006-01-01

    Shifts in the carbon balance of high-latitude ecosystems could result from differential responses of vegetation and soil processes to changing moisture and temperature regimes and to a lengthening of the growing season. Although shrub expansion and northward movement of treeline should increase carbon inputs, the effects of these vegetation changes on net carbon exchange have not been evaluated. We selected low shrub, tall shrub, and forest tundra sites near treeline in northwestern Alaska, representing the major structural transitions expected in response to warming. In these sites, we measured aboveground net primary production (ANPP) and vegetation and soil carbon and nitrogen pools, and used these data to parameterize the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model. We simulated the response of carbon balance components to air temperature and precipitation trends during 1981-2000. In areas experiencing warmer and dryer conditions, Net Primary Production (NPP) decreased and heterotrophic respiration (R H ) increased, leading to a decrease in Net Ecosystem Production (NEP). In warmer and wetter conditions NPP increased, but the response was exceeded by an increase in R H ; therefore, NEP also decreased. Lastly, in colder and wetter regions, the increase in NPP exceeded a small decline in R H , leading to an increase in NEP. The net effect for the region was a slight gain in ecosystem carbon storage over the 20 year period. This research highlights the potential importance of spatial variability in ecosystem responses to climate change in assessing the response of carbon storage in northern Alaska over the last two decades. ?? Springer 2005.

  11. Boreal mire carbon exchange: sensitivity to climate change and anthropogenic nitrogen and sulfur deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Tobias

    2010-07-01

    Boreal peatlands are important long-term sinks of atmospheric carbon and in the same time the largest natural source of methane to the atmosphere. A changing climate as well as deposition of anthropogenically derived pollutants, such as nitrogen and sulfur, has the potential to affect the processes that control the carbon exchange in peatlands. Many of the biogeochemical responses to changed environmental conditions, such as changed plant community composition, are slow and therefore long-term studies are required. In this thesis I have investigated the long-term effects of nitrogen addition, sulfur addition and greenhouse enclosures on carbon exchange by using a field manipulation experiment in a boreal minerogenic, oligotrophic mire after 10-12 years of treatment. Treatment effects on CH{sub 4} emissions, gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Reco) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) were estimated from 1-2 seasons of chamber flux measurements. Treatment effects on potential CH{sub 4} production and oxidation were estimated in incubations of peat from different depth intervals. The effect of nitrogen deposition on carbon accumulation was evaluated in peat cores at different depth intervals. The long-term nitrogen additions have: shifted plant community composition from being dominated by Sphagnum to being dominated by sedges and dwarf shrubs; changed mire surface microtopography so that mean water table is closer to the surface in plots with high nitrogen; increased CH{sub 4} production and emission; increased Reco slightly but have not affected GPP or NEE; reduced the peat height increment, but increased both peat bulk density and carbon content, leading to an unchanged carbon accumulation. The long-term sulfur additions have not reduced CH{sub 4} emissions, only slightly reduced CH{sub 4} production and did not have any effect on the CO{sub 2} carbon exchange. The greenhouse treatment, manifested in increased air and soil temperatures, reduced

  12. Short-run Exchange-Rate Dynamics: Theory and Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, John A.; Dahl, Christian Møller; Osler, Carol L.

    Recent research has revealed a wealth of information about the microeconomics of currency markets and thus the determination of exchange rates at short horizons. This information is valuable to us as scientists since, like evidence of macroeconomic regularities, it can provide critical guidance...... of currency markets, it accurately reflects the constraints and objectives faced by the major participants, and it fits key stylized facts concerning returns and order flow. With respect to macroeconomics, the model is consistent with most of the major puzzles that have emerged under floating rates....

  13. Benthic solute exchange and carbon mineralization in two shallow subtidal sandy sediments: Effect of advective pore-water exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Perran L. M.; Wenzhofer, Frank; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2007-01-01

    within the range measured in the chambers. The contribution of advection to solute exchange was highly variable and dependent on sediment topography. Advective processes also had a pronounced influence on the in situ distribution of O-2 within the sediment, with characteristic two-dimensional patterns...... of O-2 distribution across ripples, and also deep subsurface O-2 pools, being observed. Mineralization pathways were predominantly aerobic when benthic mineralization rates were low and advective pore-water flow high as a result of well-developed sediment topography. By contrast, mineralization...... proceeded predominantly through sulfate reduction when benthic mineralization rates were high and advective pore-water flow low as a result of poorly developed topography. Previous studies of benthic mineralization in shallow sandy sediments have generally ignored these dynamics and, hence, have overlooked...

  14. An atmospheric perspective on North American carbon dioxide exchange: CarbonTracker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, W.; Jacobson, A.R.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, A.E.; Conway, T.J.; Masarie, K.; Miller, J.B.; Bruhwiler, L.M.P.; Petron, G.; Hirsch, A.I.; Worthy, D.E.J.; Werf, van der G.R.; Randerson, J.T.; Wennberg, P.O.; Krol, M.C.; Tans, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    We present an estimate of net CO2 exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere across North America for every week in the period 2000 through 2005. This estimate is derived from a set of 28,000 CO2 mole fraction observations in the global atmosphere that are fed into a

  15. Comparison and validation of dynamic characteristic analytical method for tubular heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qing; Xu Dinggeng; Chen Meng; Shen Rui

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the natural frequencies of Normal Residual Heat Removal Heat Exchangers are evaluated based on the beam and shell-beam finite element models. The corresponding results are compared and some discrepancies are observed. These discrepancies are analyzed in terms of the analysis of a cylindrical shell and the unreasonable treatment of boundary conditions is accordingly pointed out. The experimental data of the natural frequencies of heat exchangers used for Qinshan Phase Ⅰ Nuclear Power Plant are compared with the computational results from the shell-beam models for corresponding heat exchangers of C-2 program. The experimental and numerical results agree quite well, which implies that the shell-beam finite element simplification is applicable to the heat exchangers. The results indicate that the procedures introduced in this article apply to the dynamic analysis of other similar heat exchangers. (authors)

  16. A nuclear magnetic relaxation study of hydrogen exchange and water dynamics in aqueous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankhorst, D.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis exchange of water protons in solutions of some weak electrolytes and polyelectrolytes is studied. Also the dynamical behaviour of water molecules in pure water is investigated. For these purposes nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation measurements, in solutions of oxygen-17 enriched water, are interpreted. The exchange rate of the water protons is derived from the contribution of 1 H- 17 O scalar coupling to the proton transverse relaxation rate. This rate is measured by the Carr-Purcell technique. (Auth.)

  17. Cluster fusion-fission dynamics in the Singapore stock exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Boon Kin; Cheong, Siew Ann

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate how the cross-correlations between stocks in the Singapore stock exchange (SGX) evolve over 2008 and 2009 within overlapping one-month time windows. In particular, we examine how these cross-correlations change before, during, and after the Sep-Oct 2008 Lehman Brothers Crisis. To do this, we extend the complete-linkage hierarchical clustering algorithm, to obtain robust clusters of stocks with stronger intracluster correlations, and weaker intercluster correlations. After we identify the robust clusters in all time windows, we visualize how these change in the form of a fusion-fission diagram. Such a diagram depicts graphically how the cluster sizes evolve, the exchange of stocks between clusters, as well as how strongly the clusters mix. From the fusion-fission diagram, we see a giant cluster growing and disintegrating in the SGX, up till the Lehman Brothers Crisis in September 2008 and the market crashes of October 2008. After the Lehman Brothers Crisis, clusters in the SGX remain small for few months before giant clusters emerge once again. In the aftermath of the crisis, we also find strong mixing of component stocks between clusters. As a result, the correlation between initially strongly-correlated pairs of stocks decay exponentially with average life time of about a month. These observations impact strongly how portfolios and trading strategies should be formulated.

  18. Carbon dynamics in trees: feast or famine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna Sala; David R. Woodruff; Fredrick C. Meinzer

    2012-01-01

    Research on the degree to which carbon (C) availability limits growth in trees, as well as recent trends in climate change and concurrent increases in drought related tree mortality, have led to a renewed focus on the physiological mechanisms associated with tree growth responses to current and future climate. This has led to some dispute over the role of stored...

  19. Elucidating Carbon Exchange at the Regional Scale Via Airborne Eddy Covariance Flux Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannun, R. A.; Wolfe, G. M.; Kawa, S. R.; Newman, P. A.; Hanisco, T. F.; Diskin, G. S.; DiGangi, J. P.; Nowak, J. B.; Barrick, J. D. W.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Noormets, A.; Vargas, R.; Clark, K. L.; Kustas, W. P.

    2017-12-01

    Direct flux observations from aircraft provide a unique tool for probing greenhouse gas (GHG) sources and sinks on a regional scale. Airborne eddy covariance, which relies on high-frequency, simultaneous measurements of fluctuations in concentration and vertical wind speed, is a robust method for quantifying surface-atmosphere exchange. We have assembled and flown an instrument payload onboard the NASA C-23 Sherpa aircraft capable of measuring CO2, CH4, H2O, and heat fluxes. Flights for the Carbon Airborne Flux Experiment (CARAFE) took place during September 2016 and May 2017 based out of Wallops Flight Facility, VA. Flight tracks covered a variety of ecosystems and land-use types in the Mid-Atlantic, including forests, croplands, and wetlands. Carbon fluxes are derived using eddy covariance and wavelet analysis. Our results show a strong drawdown of CO2 and near-zero CH4 emissions from crops and dry-land forest, but seasonally strong CH4 flux from wetland forest. CARAFE flux data will also be compared with observations from several flux towers along the flight path to complement the airborne measurements. We will further assess the effects of land surface type and seasonal variability in carbon exchange. Regional-scale flux observations from CARAFE supply a useful constraint for improving top-down and bottom up estimates of carbon sources and sinks.

  20. Simultaneous Disulfide and Boronic Acid Ester Exchange in Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna L. Diemer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic combinatorial chemistry has emerged as a promising tool for the discovery of complex receptors in supramolecular chemistry. At the heart of dynamic combinatorial chemistry are the reversible reactions that enable the exchange of building blocks between library members in dynamic combinatorial libraries (DCLs ensuring thermodynamic control over the system. If more than one reversible reaction operates in a single dynamic combinatorial library, the complexity of the system increases dramatically, and so does its possible applications. One can imagine two reversible reactions that operate simultaneously or two reversible reactions that operate independently. Both these scenarios have advantages and disadvantages. In this contribution, we show how disulfide exchange and boronic ester transesterification can function simultaneous in dynamic combinatorial libraries under appropriate conditions. We describe the detailed studies necessary to establish suitable reaction conditions and highlight the analytical techniques appropriate to study this type of system.

  1. Coupled acoustic-gravity field for dynamic evaluation of ion exchange with a single resin bead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazaki, Takahiro; Hirawa, Shungo; Harada, Makoto; Okada, Tetsuo

    2010-06-01

    A coupled acoustic-gravity field is efficient for entrapping a particle at the position determined by its acoustic properties rather than its size. This field has been applied to the dynamic observation of ion-exchange reactions occurring in a single resin bead. The replacement of counterions in an ion-exchange resin induces changes in its acoustic properties, such as density and compressibility. Therefore, we can visually trace the advancement of an ion-exchange reaction as a time change in the levitation position of a resin bead entrapped in the field. Cation-exchange reactions occurring in resin beads with diameters of 40-120 microm are typically completed within 100-200 s. Ion-exchange equilibrium or kinetics is often evaluated with off-line chemical analyses, which require a batch amount of ion exchangers. Measurements with a single resin particle allow us to evaluate ion-exchange dynamics and kinetics of ions including those that are difficult to measure by usual off-line analyses. The diffusion properties of ions in resins have been successfully evaluated from the time change in the levitation positions of resin beads.

  2. Seasonal variations in carbon dioxide exchange in an alpine wetland meadow on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Alpine wetland meadow could functions as a carbon sink due to it high soil organic content and low decomposition. However, the magnitude and dynamics of carbon stock in alpine wetland ecosystems are not well quantified. Therefore, understanding how environmental variables affect the processes that regulate carbon fluxes in alpine wetland meadow on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is critical. To address this issue, Gross Primary Production (GPP, Ecosystem Respiration (Reco, and Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE were examined in an alpine wetland meadow using the eddy covariance method from October 2003 to December 2006 at the Haibei Research Station of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Seasonal patterns of GPP and Reco were closely associated with leaf area index (LAI. The Reco showed a positive exponential to soil temperature and relatively low Reco occurred during the non-growing season after a rain event. This result is inconsistent with the result observed in alpine shrubland meadow. In total, annual GPP were estimated at 575.7, 682.9, and 630.97 g C m−2 in 2004, 2005, and 2006, respectively. Meanwhile, the Reco were equal to 676.8, 726.4, 808.2 g C m−2, and thus the NEE were 101.1, 44.0 and 173.2 g C m−2. These results indicated that the alpine wetland meadow was a moderately source of carbon dioxide (CO2. The observed carbon dioxide fluxes in the alpine wetland meadow were higher than other alpine meadow such as Kobresia humilis meadow and shrubland meadow.

  3. Formation of vertically aligned carbon nanostructures in plasmas: numerical modelling of growth and energy exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denysenko, I; Azarenkov, N A, E-mail: idenysenko@yahoo.com [School of Physics and Technology, V N Karazin Kharkiv National University, 4 Svobody sq., 61077 Kharkiv (Ukraine)

    2011-05-04

    Results on modelling of the plasma-assisted growth of vertically aligned carbon nanostructures and of the energy exchange between the plasma and the growing nanostructures are reviewed. Growth of carbon nanofibres and single-walled carbon nanotubes is considered. Focus is made on studies that use the models based on mass balance equations for species, which are adsorbed on catalyst nanoparticles or walls of the nanostructures. It is shown that the models can be effectively used for the study and optimization of nanostructure growth in plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition. The results from these models are in good agreement with the available experimental data on the growth of nanostructures. It is discussed how input parameters for the models may be obtained.

  4. Temporal carbon dynamics of forests in Washington, US: implications for ecological theory and carbon management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal L. Raymond; Donald. McKenzie

    2014-01-01

    We quantified carbon (C) dynamics of forests in Washington, US using theoretical models of C dynamics as a function of forest age. We fit empirical models to chronosequences of forest inventory data at two scales: a coarse-scale ecosystem classification (ecosections) and forest types (potential vegetation) within ecosections. We hypothesized that analysis at the finer...

  5. Carbon exchanges and their responses to temperature and precipitation in forest ecosystems in Yunnan, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Xuehai; Song, Qinghai; Zhang, Yiping; Liu, Yuntong; Sha, Liqing; Yu, Guirui; Zhang, Leiming; Duan, Changqun; Deng, Yun; Wu, Chuansheng; Lu, Zhiyun; Luo, Kang; Chen, Aiguo; Xu, Kun; Liu, Weiwei; Huang, Hua; Jin, Yanqiang; Zhou, Ruiwu; Li, Jing; Lin, Youxing; Zhou, Liguo; Fu, Yane; Bai, Xiaolong; Tang, Xianhui; Gao, Jinbo; Zhou, Wenjun; Grace, John

    2018-03-01

    Forest ecosystems play an increasingly important role in the global carbon cycle. However, knowledge on carbon exchanges, their spatio-temporal patterns, and the extent of the key controls that affect carbon fluxes is lacking. In this study, we employed 29-site-years of eddy covariance data to observe the state, spatio-temporal variations and climate sensitivity of carbon fluxes (gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (R eco ), and net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE)) in four representative forest ecosystems in Yunnan. We found that 1) all four forest ecosystems were carbon sinks (the average NEE was -3.40tCha -1 yr -1 ); 2) contrasting seasonality of the NEE among the ecosystems with a carbon sink mainly during the wet season in the Yuanjiang savanna ecosystem (YJ) but during the dry season in the Xishuangbanna tropical rainforest ecosystem (XSBN), besides an equivalent NEE uptake was observed during the wet/dry season in the Ailaoshan subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest ecosystem (ALS) and Lijiang subalpine coniferous forest ecosystem (LJ); 3) as the GPP increased, the net ecosystem production (NEP) first increased and then decreased when the GPP>17.5tCha -1 yr -1 ; 4) the precipitation determines the carbon sinks in the savanna ecosystem (e.g., YJ), while temperature did so in the tropical forest ecosystem (e.g., XSBN); 5) overall, under the circumstances of warming and decreased precipitation, the carbon sink might decrease in the YJ but maybe increase in the ALS and LJ, while future strength of the sink in the XSBN is somewhat uncertain. However, based on the redundancy analysis, the temperature and precipitation combined together explained 39.7%, 32.2%, 25.3%, and 29.6% of the variations in the NEE in the YJ, XSBN, ALS and LJ, respectively, which indicates that considerable changes in the NEE could not be explained by variations in the temperature and precipitation. Therefore, the effects of other factors (e.g., CO 2 concentration, N

  6. Jealousy and Trust: Unexplored Dimensions of Social Exchange Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Gerald W.; Osmond, Marie Withers

    Little effort has been made to systematically assess the determinants and consequences of marital jealousy which affect marital, familial and extra-familial expectations, interactions and behavior. A preliminary attempt to rectify this omission provides a conceptual/theoretical perspective on jealousy dynamics in marriage. Marital jealousy, a…

  7. Continuous In-situ Measurements of Carbonyl Sulfide to Constrain Ecosystem Carbon and Water Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, B.; Kim, Y.; Berkelhammer, M. B.; Noone, D. C.; Lai, C. T.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Bible, K.; Leen, J. B.; Gupta, M.; Still, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the processes that control the terrestrial exchange of carbon and water are critical for examining the role of forested ecosystems in changing climates. A small but increasing number of studies have identified Carbonyl Sulfide (OCS) as a potential tracer for photosynthesis. OCS is hydrolyzed by an irreversible reaction in leaf mesophyll cells that is catalyzed by the enzyme, carbonic anhydrase. Leaf-level field and greenhouse studies indicate that OCS uptake is controlled by stomatal activity and that the ratio of OCS and CO2 uptake is reasonably constant. Existing studies on ecosystem OCS exchange have been based on laboratory measurements or short field campaigns and therefore little information on OCS exchange in a natural ecosystem over longer timescales is available. The objective of this study is to further assess the stability of OCS as a tracer for canopy photosynthesis in an active forested ecosystem and also to assess its utility for constraining transpiration, since both fluxes are mediated by canopy stomatal conductance. An off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy analyzer (Los Gatos Research Inc.) was deployed at the Wind River Experimental Forest in Washington (45.8205°N, 121.9519°W). Canopy air was sampled from three heights to measure vertical gradients of OCS within the canopy, and OCS exchange between the forest and the atmosphere. Here we take advantage of simultaneous measurements of the stable isotopologues of H2O and CO2 at corresponding heights as well as NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) from eddy covariance measurements to compare GPP (Gross Primary Production) and transpiration estimates from a variety of independent techniques. Our findings seek to allow assessment of the environmental and ecophysicological controls on evapotranspiration rates, which are projected to change in coming decades, and are otherwise poorly constrained.

  8. Carbon dioxide and water vapour exchange in a tropical dry forest as influenced by the North American Monsoon System (NAMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand the effects and relationship between precipitation, net ecosystem carbon dioxide (NEE) and water vapor exchange (ET), we report a study conducted in the tropical dry forest (TDF) in the northwest of Mexico. Ecosystem gas exchange was measured using the eddy correlation technique...

  9. Measurement of pion double charge exchange on carbon-13, carbon-14, magnesium-26, and iron-56

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, P.A.

    1985-02-01

    Cross sections for the /sup 13,14/C, 26 Mg, 56 Fe(π + ,π - )/sup 13,14/O, 26 Si, 56 Ni reactions were measured with the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility for 120 less than or equal to T/sub π/ less than or equal to 292 MeV and 0 less than or equal to theta less than or equal to 50. The double isobaric analog states (DIAS) are of primary interest. In addition, cross sections for transitions to 14 O(0 + , 5.92 MeV), 14 O(2 + , 7.77 MeV), 56 Ni(gs), 13 O(gs), and 13 O(4.21 MeV) are presented. The 13 O(4.21 MeV) state is postulated to have J/sup π/ = 1/2 - . The data are compared to previously measured double-charge-exchange cross sections on other nuclei, and the systematics of double charge exchange on T greater than or equal to 1 target nuclei leading to the DIAS are studied. Near the Δ 33 resonance, cross sections for the DIAS transitions are in disagreement with calculations in which the reaction is treated as sequential charge exchange through the free pion-nucleon amplitude, while for T/sub π/ > 200 MeV the anomalous features of the 164 MeV data are not apparent. This is evidence for significant higher order contributions to the double-charge-exchange amplitude near the reasonable energy. Two theoretical approaches that include two nucleon processes are applied to the DIAS data. 64 references

  10. Comparative carbon cycle dynamics of the present and last interglacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovkin, Victor; Brücher, Tim; Kleinen, Thomas; Zaehle, Sönke; Joos, Fortunat; Roth, Raphael; Spahni, Renato; Schmitt, Jochen; Fischer, Hubertus; Leuenberger, Markus; Stone, Emma J.; Ridgwell, Andy; Chappellaz, Jérôme; Kehrwald, Natalie; Barbante, Carlo; Blunier, Thomas; Dahl Jensen, Dorthe

    2016-04-01

    Changes in temperature and carbon dioxide during glacial cycles recorded in Antarctic ice cores are tightly coupled. However, this relationship does not hold for interglacials. While climate cooled towards the end of both the last (Eemian) and present (Holocene) interglacials, CO2 remained stable during the Eemian while rising in the Holocene. We identify and review twelve biogeochemical mechanisms of terrestrial (vegetation dynamics and CO2 fertilization, land use, wildfire, accumulation of peat, changes in permafrost carbon, subaerial volcanic outgassing) and marine origin (changes in sea surface temperature, carbonate compensation to deglaciation and terrestrial biosphere regrowth, shallow-water carbonate sedimentation, changes in the soft tissue pump, and methane hydrates), which potentially may have contributed to the CO2 dynamics during interglacials but which remain not well quantified. We use three Earth System Models (ESMs) of intermediate complexity to compare effects of selected mechanisms on the interglacial CO2 and δ13CO2 changes, focusing on those with substantial potential impacts: namely carbonate sedimentation in shallow waters, peat growth, and (in the case of the Holocene) human land use. A set of specified carbon cycle forcings could qualitatively explain atmospheric CO2 dynamics from 8 ka BP to the pre-industrial. However, when applied to Eemian boundary conditions from 126 to 115 ka BP, the same set of forcings led to disagreement with the observed direction of CO2 changes after 122 ka BP. This failure to simulate late-Eemian CO2 dynamics could be a result of the imposed forcings such as prescribed CaCO3 accumulation and/or an incorrect response of simulated terrestrial carbon to the surface cooling at the end of the interglacial. These experiments also reveal that key natural processes of interglacial CO2 dynamics - shallow water CaCO3 accumulation, peat and permafrost carbon dynamics - are not well represented in the current ESMs. Global

  11. Formation of carbon nanosheets via simultaneous activation and catalytic carbonization of macroporous anion-exchange resin for supercapacitors application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui; Ma, Guofu; Sun, Kanjun; Mu, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhe; Lei, Ziqiang

    2014-12-10

    Two-dimensional mesoporous carbon nanosheets (CNSs) have been prepared via simultaneous activation and catalytic carbonization route using macroporous anion-exchange resin (AER) as carbon precursor and ZnCl2 and FeCl3 as activating agent and catalyst, respectively. The iron catalyst in the skeleton of the AER may lead to carburization to form a sheetlike structure during the carbonization process. The obtained CNSs have a large number of mesopores, a maximum specific surface area of 1764.9 m(2) g(-1), and large pore volume of 1.38 cm(3) g(-1). As an electrode material for supercapacitors application, the CNSs electrode possesses a large specific capacitance of 283 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) and excellent rate capability (64% retention ratio even at 50 A g(-1)) in 6 mol L(-1) KOH. Furthermore, CNSs symmetric supercapacitor exhibits specific energies of 17.2 W h kg(-1) at a power density of 224 W kg(-1) operated in the voltage range of 0-1.8 V in 0.5 mol L(-1) Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte, and outstanding cyclability (retains about 96% initial capacitance after 5000 cycles).

  12. Methanol exchange dynamics between a temperate cropland soil and the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachy, A.; Aubinet, M.; Amelynck, C.; Schoon, N.; Bodson, B.; Moureaux, C.; Delaplace, P.; De Ligne, A.; Heinesch, B.

    2018-03-01

    Soil methanol (CH3OH) exchange is often considered as several orders of magnitude smaller than plant methanol exchange. However, for some ecosystems, it is significant in regard with plant exchange and worth thus better consideration. Our study sought to gain a better understanding of soil exchange. Methanol flux was measured at the ecosystem scale on a bare agricultural soil over two contrasted periods using the disjunct eddy covariance by mass scanning technique. A proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer was used for the methanol ambient mixing ratio measurements. Bi-directional exchange dynamics were observed. Methanol emission occurred under dry and warm conditions and correlated best with soil surface temperature, whereas methanol uptake occurred under wet and mild conditions and correlated well with the methanol ambient concentration. After having tested a physical adsorption-desorption model and by confronting our data with the literature, we propose that the exchange was ruled by both a physical adsorption/desorption mechanism and by a methanol source, which still needs to be identified. The soil emission decreased when the vegetation developed. The reasons for the decrease still need to be determined. Overall, the dynamics observed at our site were similar to those reported by other studies for both cropland and forest ecosystems. The mechanism proposed in our work can thus be possibly applied to other sites or ecosystems. In addition, the methanol exchange rate was in the upper range of the exchange rates reported by other soil studies, suggesting that cropland soils are more important methanol exchangers than those in other ecosystems and should therefore be further investigated.

  13. Estimating Carbon Stocks and Atmospheric Exchange of Depressional Marshes on the Central Florida Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benscoter, B.; McClellan, M. D.; Benavides, V.; Harshbarger, D.; Comas, X.

    2014-12-01

    Depressional marshes are ubiquitous throughout central and south Florida. Often distributed within a matrix of sandy pine flatwoods and hammocks, these wetlands have a seasonally variable water table, alternating between inundation and complete drydown. Though these landforms are typically small individually, they comprise a substantial component of the landscape and provide vital habitat for an array of flora and fauna. Given their fluctuating hydrology, conditions for soil and plant carbon (C) exchange mechanisms can vary greatly both spatially and temporally. In this study, we are developing a C budget for depressional marsh landforms by assessing ecosystem carbon exchange along an ecotone gradient and quantifying belowground C stocks using non-invasive geophysical methods (ground penetrating radar, GPR) at the Disney Wilderness Preserve (DWP) in Kissimmee, FL, USA. Using a series of closed chambers transecting the marsh from the center outward into the surrounding flatwoods, we are quantifying the effects of seasonal water table change on the magnitude of C exchange. Three dimensional GPR surveys were used to quantify peat layer thickness, and were constrained with direct core sampling to verify subsurface lithology and to assess peat C content. Using the relationship between landform surface area and belowground C volume, we assessed the cumulative C storage in depressional marshes across the DWP landscape. In conjunction with a nearby eddy covariance tower and seasonal hydrologic data, these response functions will help to evaluate the contribution of these small but widespread landscape features on regional C cycling.

  14. Analyzing energy-water exchange dynamics in the Thar desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, P.; Singh, Nilendu; Srinivas, C. V.; Singhal, Mohit; Chauhan, Pankaj; Singh, Maharaj; Sinha, N. K.

    2017-07-01

    Regions of strong land-atmosphere coupling will be more susceptible to the hydrological impacts in the intensifying hydrological cycle. In this study, micrometeorological experiments were performed to examine the land-atmosphere coupling strength over a heat low region (Thar desert, NW India), known to influence the Indian summer monsoon (ISM). Within the vortex of Thar desert heat low, energy-water exchange and coupling behavior were studied for 4 consecutive years (2011-2014) based on sub-hourly measurements of radiative-convective flux, state parameters and sub-surface thermal profiles using lead-lag analysis between various E-W balance components. Results indicated a strong (0.11-0.35) but variable monsoon season (July-September) land-atmosphere coupling events. Coupling strength declined with time, becomes negative beyond 10-day lag. Evapotranspiration (LE) influences rainfall at the monthly time-scale (20-40 days). Highly correlated monthly rainfall and LE anomalies (r = 0.55, P < 0.001) suggested a large precipitation memory linked to the local land surface state. Sensible heating (SH) during March and April are more strongly (r = 0.6-0.7) correlated to ISM rainfall than heating during May or June (r = 0.16-0.36). Analyses show strong and weak couplings among net radiation (Rn)-vapour pressure deficit (VPD), LE-VPD and Rn-LE switching between energy-limited to water-limited conditions. Consistently, +ve and -ve residual energy [(dE) = (Rn - G) - (SH + LE)] were associated with regional wet and dry spells respectively with a lead of 10-40 days. Dew deposition (18.8-37.9 mm) was found an important component in the annual surface water balance. Strong association of variation of LE and rainfall was found during monsoon at local-scale and with regional-scale LE (MERRA 2D) but with a lag which was more prominent at local-scale than at regional-scale. Higher pre-monsoon LE at local-scale as compared to low and monotonous variation in regional-scale LE led to

  15. The exchange of acetaldehyde between plants and the atmosphere: Stable carbon isotope and flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Kolby Jeremiah

    The exchange of acetaldehyde between plant canopies and the atmosphere may significantly influence regional atmospheric chemistry and plant metabolism. While plants are known to both produce and consume acetaldehyde, the exchange of this compound with forested ecosystems is complicated by physical, biological, and chemical processes that range from being poorly understood to completely unknown. This precludes a quantitative understanding of acetaldehyde exchange rates between the atmosphere and the biosphere. In this study, the processes controlling the exchange of acetaldehyde with plant canopies was investigated using concentration, flux, and natural abundance 13C measurements of gas phase acetaldehyde from individual plants, soils, and entire ecosystems. Although previously only considered important in anoxic tissues, it was discovered that acetaldehyde is produced and consumed in leaves through ethanolic fermentation coupled to the pyruvate dehydrogenase bypass system under normal aerobic conditions. These coupled pathways determine the acetaldehyde compensation point, a major factor controlling its exchange with the atmosphere. Carbon isotope analysis suggests a new pathway for acetaldehyde production from plants under stress involving the peroxidation of membrane fatty acids. This pathway may be a major source of acetaldehyde to the atmosphere from plants under biotic and abiotic stresses. Plant stomata were found to be the dominant pathway for the exchange of acetaldehyde with the atmosphere with stomatal conductance influencing both emission and uptake fluxes. In addition, increasing temperature and solar radiation was found to increase the compensation point by increasing the rates of acetaldehyde production relative to consumption. Under ambient conditions, bare soil was neutral to the exchange of acetaldehyde while senescing and decaying leaves were found to be strong source of acetaldehyde to the atmosphere due to increased decomposition processes and

  16. Quantifying Km-scale Hydrological Exchange Flows under Dynamic Flows and Their Influences on River Corridor Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Song, X.; Shuai, P.; Hammond, G. E.; Ren, H.; Zachara, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrologic exchange flows (HEFs) in rivers play vital roles in watershed ecological and biogeochemical functions due to their strong capacity to attenuate contaminants and process significant quantities of carbon and nutrients. While most of existing HEF studies focus on headwater systems with the assumption of steady-state flow, there is lack of understanding of large-scale HEFs in high-order regulated rivers that experience high-frequency stage fluctuations. The large variability of HEFs is a result of interactions between spatial heterogeneity in hydrogeologic properties and temporal variation in river discharge induced by natural or anthropogenic perturbations. Our 9-year spatially distributed dataset (water elevation, specific conductance, and temperature) combined with mechanistic hydrobiogeochemical simulations have revealed complex spatial and temporal dynamics in km-scale HEFs and their significant impacts on contaminant plume mobility and hyporheic biogeochemical processes along the Hanford Reach. Extended multidirectional flow behaviors of unconfined, river corridor groundwater were observed hundreds of meters inland from the river shore resulting from discharge-dependent HEFs. An appropriately sized modeling domain to capture the impact of regional groundwater flow as well as knowledge of subsurface structures controlling intra-aquifer hydrologic connectivity were essential to realistically model transient storage in this large-scale river corridor. This work showed that both river water and mobile groundwater contaminants could serve as effective tracers of HEFs, thus providing valuable information for evaluating and validating the HEF models. Multimodal residence time distributions with long tails were resulted from the mixture of long and short exchange pathways, which consequently impact the carbon and nutrient cycling within the river corridor. Improved understanding of HEFs using integrated observational and modeling approaches sheds light on

  17. Quantum-Dynamical Theory of Electron Exchange Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke Ritchie

    2013-01-01

    aggregate, is elucidated. The relationship depends on the use of spin-dependent quantum trajectories (SDQT to evaluate Coulomb’s law between any two electrons as an instantaneous interaction in space and time rather than as a quantum-mean interaction in the form of screening and exchange potentials. Hence FDS depends in an ab initio sense on the inference of SDQT from Dirac’s equation, which provides for relativistic Lorentz invariance and a permanent magnetic moment (or spin in the electron’s equation of motion. Schroedinger’s time-dependent equation can be used to evaluate the SDQT in the nonrelativistic regime of electron velocity. Remarkably FDS is a relativistic property of an ensemble of electron, even though it is of order c0 in the nonrelativistic limit, in agreement with experimental observation. Finally it is shown that covalent versus separated-atoms limits can be characterized by the SDQT. As an example of the use of SDQT in a canonical structure problem, the energies of the 1Σg and 3Σu states of H2 are calculated and compared with the accurate variational energies of Kolos and Wolniewitz.

  18. Ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of carbon in a heathland under future climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang Selsted, M

    2010-07-15

    Global change is a reality. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels are rising as well as mean global temperature and precipitation patterns are changing. These three environmental factors have separately and in combination effect on ecosystem processes. Terrestrial ecosystems hold large amounts of carbon, why understanding plant and soil responses to such changes are necessary, as ecosystems potentially can ameliorate or accelerate global change. To predict the feedback of ecosystems to the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations experiments imitating global change effects are therefore an important tool. This work on ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of carbon in a heathland under future climatic conditions, shows that extended summer drought in combination with elevated temperature will ensure permanent dryer soil conditions, which decreases carbon turnover, while elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations will increase carbon turnover. In the full future climate scenario, carbon turnover is over all expected to increase and the heathland to become a source of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The methodology of static chamber CO{sub 2} flux measurements and applying the technology in a FACE (free air CO{sub 2} enrichment) facility is a challenge. Fluxes of CO{sub 2} from soil to atmosphere depend on a physical equilibrium between those two medias, why it is important to keep the CO{sub 2} gradient between soil and atmosphere unchanged during measurement. Uptake to plants via photosynthesis depends on a physiological process, which depends strongly on the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration. Photosynthesis and respiration run in parallel during measurements of net ecosystem exchange, and these measurements should therefore be performed with care to both the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and the CO{sub 2} soil-atmosphere gradient. (author)

  19. Energy Exchange Dynamics across L-H transitions in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    H-mode is planned for future devices such as ITER, and is preceded by a low (L) to high (H) transition. A key question remains. What is the mechanism behind the L-H transition? Most theoretical descriptions of the L-H transition are based on the shear of the radial electric field and coincident ExB poloidal flow shear, which is thought to be responsible for the onset of the anomalous transport suppression that leads to the L-H transition. This talk will focus on the analysis of the flow dynamics across the L-H transition in NSTX. We analyze the L-H transition dynamics using the velocimetry of 2D edge turbulence data from gas-puff imaging (GPI). We determine the velocity components at the edge across the L-H transition for 17 discharges with three types of heating power (NBI, ohmic, and RF). Using a reduced model equation of edge flows and turbulence, the energy transfer dynamics is compared with the turbulence depletion hypothesis of the predator-prey model. In order for Reynolds work to suppress the turbulence, it must deplete the total turbulent free energy, including the thermal free-energy term. For this to occur, the increase in kinetic energy in the mean flow over the L-H transition must be comparable to the pre-transition thermal free energy. However, this ratio was found to be of order 10-2. Although there are significant simplifications in the theoretical model, they are unlikely to cause inaccuracy by two orders of magnitude, suggesting that direct turbulence depletion by the Reynolds work may not be large enough to explain the L-H transition on NSTX, contrary to the predator-prey model. This work is supported by the US DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  20. Silver-coated ion exchange membrane electrode applied to electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Y.; Ito, H.; Okano, K.; Nagasu, K.; Sato, S.

    2003-01-01

    Silver-coated ion exchange membrane electrodes (solid polymer electrolyte, SPE) were prepared by electroless deposition of silver onto ion exchange membranes. The SPE electrodes were used for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) reduction with 0.2 M K 2 SO 4 as the electrolyte with a platinum plate (Pt) for the counterelectrode. In an SPE electrode system prepared from a cation exchange membrane (CEM), the surface of the SPE was partly ruptured during CO 2 reduction, and the reaction was rapidly suppressed. SPE electrodes made of an anion exchange membrane (SPE/AEM) sustained reduction of CO 2 to CO for more than 2 h, whereas, the electrode potential shifted negatively during the electrolysis. The reaction is controlled by the diffusion of CO 2 through the metal layer of the SPE electrode at high current density. Ultrasonic radiation, applied to the preparation of SPE/AEM, was effective to improve the electrode properties, enhancing the electrolysis current of CO 2 reduction. Observation by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that the electrode metal layer became more porous by the ultrasonic radiation treatment. The partial current density of CO 2 reduction by SPE/AEM amounted to 60 mA cm -2 , i.e. three times the upper limit of the conventional electrolysis by a plate electrode. Application of SPE device may contribute to an advancement of CO 2 fixation at ambient temperature and pressure

  1. Testing the performance of a Dynamic Global Ecosystem Model: Water balance, carbon balance, and vegetation structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharik, Christopher J.; Foley, Jonathan A.; Delire, Christine; Fisher, Veronica A.; Coe, Michael T.; Lenters, John D.; Young-Molling, Christine; Ramankutty, Navin; Norman, John M.; Gower, Stith T.

    2000-09-01

    While a new class of Dynamic Global Ecosystem Models (DGEMs) has emerged in the past few years as an important tool for describing global biogeochemical cycles and atmosphere-biosphere interactions, these models are still largely untested. Here we analyze the behavior of a new DGEM and compare the results to global-scale observations of water balance, carbon balance, and vegetation structure. In this study, we use version 2 of the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS), which includes several major improvements and additions to the prototype model developed by Foley et al. [1996]. IBIS is designed to be a comprehensive model of the terrestrial biosphere; the model represents a wide range of processes, including land surface physics, canopy physiology, plant phenology, vegetation dynamics and competition, and carbon and nutrient cycling. The model generates global simulations of the surface water balance (e.g., runoff), the terrestrial carbon balance (e.g., net primary production, net ecosystem exchange, soil carbon, aboveground and belowground litter, and soil CO2 fluxes), and vegetation structure (e.g., biomass, leaf area index, and vegetation composition). In order to test the performance of the model, we have assembled a wide range of continental and global-scale data, including measurements of river discharge, net primary production, vegetation structure, root biomass, soil carbon, litter carbon, and soil CO2 flux. Using these field data and model results for the contemporary biosphere (1965-1994), our evaluation shows that simulated patterns of runoff, NPP, biomass, leaf area index, soil carbon, and total soil CO2 flux agree reasonably well with measurements that have been compiled from numerous ecosystems. These results also compare favorably to other global model results.

  2. Modelling the transport of carbonic acid anions through anion-exchange membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonenko, V.; Lebedev, K.; Manzanares, J.A.; Pourcelly, G.

    2003-01-01

    Electrodiffusion of carbonate and bicarbonate anions through anion-exchange membranes (AEM) is described on the basis of the Nernst-Planck equations taking into account coupled hydrolysis reactions in the external diffusion boundary layers (DBLs) and internal pore solution. The model supposes local electroneutrality as well as chemical and thermodynamic equilibrium. The transport is considered in three layers being an anion exchange membrane and two adjoining diffusion layers. A mechanism of competitive transport of HCO 3 - and CO 3 2- anions through the membrane which takes into account Donnan exclusion of H + ions is proposed. It is predicted that the pH of the depleting solution decreases and that of the concentrating solution increases during electrodialysis (ED). Eventual deviations from local electroneutrality and local chemical equilibrium are discussed

  3. NMR magnetization exchange dynamics for three spin-1/2 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demco, D.E.; Filip, X.; Filip, C.

    1997-01-01

    The magnetization exchange dynamics in one-dimensional NMR exchange experiments performed with static samples is analyzed for the relevant case of three spin systems. The magnetization decays recorded in the experiments performed with different chemical shift filters for the short mixing times are derived analytically. In this regime the decay rates depend on the dipolar coupling between the spins belonging to different functional groups. The predictions of the theoretical model are compared with the magnetization exchange data obtained for cross-linked poly(styrene-co-butadiene) samples. The residual dipolar coupling between the functional CH- and CH2-groups of butadiene are measured from the magnetization exchange experiments in the short mixing time regime. (authors)

  4. Dynamic control for a quadruped locomotion robot in consideration of the leg-support-exchange phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Akihito; Furusho, Junji; Okajima, Yosuke

    1988-01-01

    This paper proposes a new control method for quardruped walking robots in which the leg-support-exchange is lithely implemented. First, the authors formulate the leg-support-exchange phenomenon in 'Trot' using Lagrange's collision equation. Then the continuous walking can be numerically analyzed. Secondly, we propose a new control algorithm for leg-support-exchange. The conventional high gain local feedback causes many problems such as slip and excessive high torque in the leg-support-exchange phase of dynamic walking since it is impossible in this phase to prepare the proper reference values beforehand. In this algorithm, the control law is changed to 'free mode' or 'constant current mode' in order to adjust to the environment. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is confirmed by computer simulation and experiments using the walking robot 'COLT-1.' (author)

  5. Dynamics and energetics of the mammalian phosphatidylinositol transfer protein phospholipid exchange cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grabon, Aby; Orłowski, Adam; Tripathi, Ashutosh

    2017-01-01

    . However, the details of the PITP-mediated lipid exchange cycle remain entirely obscure. Here, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the mammalian StART-like PtdIns/phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) transfer protein PITPα, both on membrane bilayers and in solvated systems, informed downstream biochemical...... analyses that tested key aspects of the hypotheses generated by the molecular dynamics simulations. These studies provided five key insights into the PITPα lipid exchange cycle: (i) interaction of PITPα with the membrane is spontaneous and mediated by four specific protein substructures; (ii) the ability......Phosphatidylinositol-transfer proteins (PITPs) regulate phosphoinositide signaling in eukaryotic cells. The defining feature of PITPs is their ability to exchange phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) molecules between membranes, and this property is central to PITP-mediated regulation of lipid signaling...

  6. Exchange rate dynamics and its effect on macroeconomic volatility in selected CEE countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Audzei, Volha; Brázdik, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2017), s. 15-19 ISSN 1803-7089 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : exchange rate dynamics * macroeconomic volatility Subject RIV: AH - Economic s http://www.cnb.cz/miranda2/export/sites/www.cnb.cz/en/research/research_publications/erb/download/ERB_No1_2017.pdf

  7. A computational fluid dynamics model for designing heat exchangers based on natural convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkse, M.H.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Walle, van der T.; Speetjens, S.L.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2006-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics model was created for the design of a natural convection shell-and-tube heat exchanger with baffles. The flow regime proved to be turbulent and this was modelled using the k¿¿ turbulence model. The features of the complex geometry were simplified considerably resulting

  8. Dynamical implications of bi-directional resource exchange within a meta-ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Marisabel Rodriguez; Kopp, Darin; Allen, Daniel; Kang, Yun

    2018-05-05

    The exchange of resources across ecosystem boundaries can have large impacts on ecosystem structures and functions at local and regional scales. In this article, we develop a simple model to investigate dynamical implications of bi-directional resource exchanges between two local ecosystems in a meta-ecosystem framework. In our model, we assume that (1) Each local ecosystem acts as both a resource donor and recipient, such that one ecosystem donating resources to another results in a cost to the donating system and a benefit to the recipient; and (2) The costs and benefits of the bi-directional resource exchange between two ecosystems are correlated in a nonlinear fashion. Our model could apply to the resource interactions between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems that are supported by the literature. Our theoretical results show that bi-directional resource exchange between two ecosystems can indeed generate complicated dynamical outcomes, including the coupled ecosystems having amensalistic, antagonistic, competitive, or mutualistic interactions, with multiple alternative stable states depending on the relative costs and benefits. In addition, if the relative cost for resource exchange for an ecosystem is decreased or the relative benefit for resource exchange for an ecosystem is increased, the production of that ecosystem would increase; however, depending on the local environment, the production of the other ecosystem may increase or decrease. We expect that our work, by evaluating the potential outcomes of resource exchange theoretically, can facilitate empirical evaluations and advance the understanding of spatial ecosystem ecology where resource exchanges occur in varied ecosystems through a complicated network. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Tundra shrub effects on growing season energy and carbon dioxide exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafleur, Peter M.; Humphreys, Elyn R.

    2018-05-01

    Increased shrub cover on the Arctic tundra is expected to impact ecosystem-atmosphere exchanges of carbon and energy resulting in feedbacks to the climate system, yet few direct measurements of shrub tundra-atmosphere exchanges are available to corroborate expectations. Here we present energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes measured using the eddy covariance technique over six growing seasons at three closely located tundra sites in Canada’s Low Arctic. The sites are dominated by the tundra shrub Betula glandulosa, but percent cover varies from 17%–60% and average shrub height ranges from 18–59 cm among sites. The site with greatest percent cover and height had greater snow accumulation, but contrary to some expectations, it had similar late-winter albedo and snow melt dates compared to the other two sites. Immediately after snowmelt latent heat fluxes increased more slowly at this site compared to the others. Yet by the end of the growing season there was little difference in cumulative latent heat flux among the sites, suggesting evapotranspiration was not increased with greater shrub cover. In contrast, lower albedo and less soil thaw contributed to greater summer sensible heat flux at the site with greatest shrub cover, resulting in greater total atmospheric heating. Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 revealed the potential for enhanced carbon cycling rates under greater shrub cover. Spring CO2 emissions were greatest at the site with greatest percent cover of shrubs, as was summer net uptake of CO2. The seasonal net sink for CO2 was ~2 times larger at the site with the greatest shrub cover compared to the site with the least shrub cover. These results largely agree with expectations that the growing season feedback to the atmosphere arising from shrub expansion in the Arctic has the potential to be negative for CO2 fluxes but positive for turbulent energy fluxes.

  10. Drivers of leaf carbon exchange capacity across biomes at the continental scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas G; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2018-04-29

    Realistic representations of plant carbon exchange processes are necessary to reliably simulate biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks. These processes are known to vary over time and space, though the drivers of the underlying rates are still widely debated in the literature. Here, we measured leaf carbon exchange in >500 individuals of 98 species from the neotropics to high boreal biomes to determine the drivers of photosynthetic and dark respiration capacity. Covariate abiotic (long- and short-term climate) and biotic (plant type, plant size, ontogeny, water status) data were used to explore significant drivers of temperature-standardized leaf carbon exchange rates. Using model selection, we found the previous week's temperature and soil moisture at the time of measurement to be a better predictor of photosynthetic capacity than long-term climate, with the combination of high recent temperatures and low soil moisture tending to decrease photosynthetic capacity. Non-trees (annual and perennials) tended to have greater photosynthetic capacity than trees, and, within trees, adults tended to have greater photosynthetic capacity than juveniles, possibly as a result of differences in light availability. Dark respiration capacity was less responsive to the assessed drivers than photosynthetic capacity, with rates best predicted by multi-year average site temperature alone. Our results suggest that, across large spatial scales, photosynthetic capacity quickly adjusts to changing environmental conditions, namely light, temperature, and soil moisture. Respiratory capacity is more conservative and most responsive to longer-term conditions. Our results provide a framework for incorporating these processes into large-scale models and a dataset to benchmark such models. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamic energy models and carbon mitigation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Luke A.

    In this dissertation I examine a specific class of energy models and their implications for carbon mitigation policies. The class of models includes a production function capable of reproducing the empirically observed phenomenon of short run rigidity of energy use in response to energy price changes and long run exibility of energy use in response to energy price changes. I use a theoretical model, parameterized using empirical data, to simulate economic performance under several tax regimes where taxes are levied on capital income, investment, and energy. I also investigate transitions from one tax regime to another. I find that energy taxes intended to reduce energy use can successfully achieve those goals with minimal or even positive impacts on macroeconomic performance. But the transition paths to new steady states are lengthy, making political commitment to such policies very challenging.

  12. Current-induced dynamics in carbon atomic contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jing Tao; Gunst, Tue; Brandbyge, Mads

    2011-01-01

    voltage, which can be used to explore current-induced vibrational instabilities due the NC/BP forces. Furthermore, using tight-binding and the Brenner potential we illustrate how Langevin-type molecular-dynamics calculations including the Joule heating effect for the carbon-chain systems can be performed...... be used to explore current-induced dynamics and instabilities. We find instabilities at experimentally relevant bias and gate voltages for the carbon-chain system. © 2011 Lü et al....... carbon chain connecting electrically gated graphene electrodes. This illustrates how the device stability can be predicted solely from the modes obtained from the Langevin equation, including the current-induced forces. We point out that the gate offers control of the current, independent of the bias...

  13. FTIR study of carbon monoxide adsorption on ion-exchanged X, Y and mordenite type zeolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. HERCIGONJA

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work Fourier transform infrared (FTIR study has been applied to study the adsorption of carbon monoxide on transition metal (Mn+, Co2+, Ni2+ ion-exchanged zeolites type Y, X and mordenites. The adsorption of CO at room temperature produces overlapping IR absorption bands in the 2120–2200 cm-1 region. The frequency of the band around 2200 cm-1 is found to be dependent not only on the charge-balancing transition metal cation, but also on the framework composition. The frequencies of the band near 1600 cm-1 was found to be dependent on the Si/Al ratio of the investigated zeolites.

  14. Molecular dynamics simulation of carbon nanostructures: The C60 buckminsterfullerene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszlo, Istvan; Zsoldos, Ibolya

    2012-01-01

    Molecular dynamics calculations can reveal the physical and chemical properties of various carbon nanostructures or can help to devise the possible formation pathways. In our days the most well-known carbon nanostructures are the fullerenes, the nanotubes, and the graphene. The fullerenes and nanotubes can be thought of as being formed from graphene sheets, i.e., single layers of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice. Usually the nature does not follow the mathematical constructions. Although the first time the C 60 and the C 70 were produced by laser irradiated graphite, the fullerene formation theories are based on various fragments of carbon chains and networks of pentagonal and hexagonal rings. In the present article various formation pathways for the buckminsterfullerene C 60 molecule will be presented. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Improved Electrodes for High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells using Carbon Nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Héctor; Plaza, Jorge; Cañizares, Pablo; Lobato, Justo; Rodrigo, Manuel A

    2016-05-23

    This work evaluates the use of carbon nanospheres (CNS) in microporous layers (MPL) of high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) electrodes and compares the characteristics and performance with those obtained using conventional MPL based on carbon black. XRD, hydrophobicity, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller theory, and gas permeability of MPL prepared with CNS were the parameters evaluated. In addition, a short life test in a fuel cell was carried out to evaluate performance under accelerated stress conditions. The results demonstrate that CNS is a promising alternative to traditional carbonaceous materials because of its high electrochemical stability and good electrical conductivity, suitable to be used in this technology. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Carbon and Water Exchanges in a Chronosequence of Temperate White Pine Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, M.; Restrepo, N.; Pejam, M.; Khomik, M.

    2003-12-01

    Quantification of carbon sink or source strengths of temperate forest ecosystems, growing in northern mid-latitudes, is essential to resolve uncertainties in carbon balance of the world's terrestrial ecosystems. Long-term flux measurements are needed to quantify seasonal and annual variability of carbon and water exchanges from these ecosystems and to relate the variability to environmental and physiological factors. Such long-term measurements are of particular interest for different stand developmental stages. An understanding of environmental control factors is necessary to improve predictive capabilities of terrestrial carbon and water cycles. A long-term year-round measurement program has been initiated to observe energy, water vapour, and carbon dioxide fluxes in a chronosequence of white pine (Pinus Strobus) forests in southeastern Canada. White pine is an important species in the North American landscape because of its ability to adapt to dry environments. White pine efficiently grows on coarse and sandy soils, where other deciduous and conifer species cannot survive. Generally, it is the first woody species to flourish after disturbances such as fire and clearing. The climate at the study site is temperate, with a mean annual temperature of 8 degree C and a mean annual precipitation of about 800 mm. The growing season is one of the longest in Canada, with at least 150 frost-free days. Measurements at the site began in June 2002 and are continuing at present. Flux measurements at the 60 year old stand are being made using a close-path eddy covariance (EC) system, while fluxes at the three younger stands (30, 15 and 1 year old) are being measured over 10 to 20 day periods using a roving open-path EC system Soil respiration is being measured every 2-weeks across 50-m transects at all four sites using a mobile chamber system (LI-COR 6400). The mature stand was a sink of carbon with annual NEP value of 140 g C m-2 from June 2002 to May 2003. Gross ecosystem

  17. Dynamic metabolic exchange governs a marine algal-bacterial interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Einat; Wyche, Thomas P; Kim, Ki Hyun; Petersen, Jörn; Ellebrandt, Claire; Vlamakis, Hera; Barteneva, Natasha; Paulson, Joseph N; Chai, Liraz; Clardy, Jon; Kolter, Roberto

    2016-11-18

    Emiliania huxleyi is a model coccolithophore micro-alga that generates vast blooms in the ocean. Bacteria are not considered among the major factors influencing coccolithophore physiology. Here we show through a laboratory model system that the bacterium Phaeobacter inhibens , a well-studied member of the Roseobacter group, intimately interacts with E. huxleyi. While attached to the algal cell, bacteria initially promote algal growth but ultimately kill their algal host. Both algal growth enhancement and algal death are driven by the bacterially-produced phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid. Bacterial production of indole-3-acetic acid and attachment to algae are significantly increased by tryptophan, which is exuded from the algal cell. Algal death triggered by bacteria involves activation of pathways unique to oxidative stress response and programmed cell death. Our observations suggest that bacteria greatly influence the physiology and metabolism of E. huxleyi. Coccolithophore-bacteria interactions should be further studied in the environment to determine whether they impact micro-algal population dynamics on a global scale.

  18. Quantifying hyporheic exchange dynamics in a highly regulated large river reach.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Glenn Edward; Zhou, T; Huang, M; Hou, Z; Bao, J; Arntzen, E; Mackley, R; Harding, S; Titzler, S; Murray, C; Perkins, W; Chen, X; Stegen, J; Thorne, P; Zachara, J

    2017-03-01

    Hyporheic exchange is an important mechanism taking place in riverbanks and riverbed sediments, where river water and shallow groundwater mix and interact with each other. The direction, magnitude, and residence time of the hyporheic flux that penetrates the river bed are critical for biogeochemical processes such as carbon and nitrogen cycling, and biodegradation of organic contaminants. Many approaches including field measurements and numerical methods have been developed to quantify the hyporheic exchanges in relatively small rivers. However, the spatial and temporal distributions of hyporheic exchanges in a large, regulated river reach remain less explored due to the large spatial domains, complexity of geomorphologic features and subsurface properties, and the great pressure gradient variations at the riverbed created by dam operations.

  19. Connecting above and below: the impacts of large wildlife loss and pastoralism on savanna carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, E. S.; Young, H. S.; Young, T.; Schimel, J.

    2016-12-01

    There is widespread evidence that large wildlife species contribute to ecosystem carbon efflux; however, their influence is not incorporated into traditional carbon models. As large wildlife loss continues in the Anthropocene and in the face of climate change, it becomes increasingly important to understand the impacts of their loss on ecosystem carbon. The charismatic, threatened wildlife in central Kenya's savanna provide an ideal framework for these questions. We compared differences in carbon efflux in the presence or absence of native herbivores and/or cattle, as a proxy for wildlife loss and the interaction of pastoralism. We measured carbon dynamics in situ with a closed-chamber system and microbial respiration rates in lab by incubating sampled soil. We discovered a significant effect of herbivore presence/absence on carbon efflux: incubated soils collected from plots with cattle only exhibit greater carbon accumulation and faster initial respiration rates than soils collected from plots with native herbivores and no cattle, native herbivores and cattle, and neither native herbivores nor cattle. When measured in situ, plots with no herbivores show higher efflux than plots with only native herbivores, and plots with both. The data also suggest that grazing pressure results in successively lower efflux. The differences in these studies imply that the impacts of large wildlife loss differ on microbial respiration as an isolated mechanism in ecosystem carbon exchange, and total carbon efflux. This is most likely because in situ efflux measurements encompass environmental variables as well as soil microbial respiration. The lab data suggest that cattle as the only herbivore causes greater soil microbial efflux compared to native herbivores alone, native herbivores with cattle, or no herbivores. The in situ data show that no herbivores results in increased carbon efflux, and suggest that increasing numbers of herbivores lowers efflux.These studies demonstrate

  20. Simulating forest productivity and surface-atmosphere carbon exchange in the BOREAS study region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, J.S.; Thornton, P.E.; White, M.A.; Running, S.W. [Montana Univ., Missoula, MT (United States). School of Forestry

    1997-12-31

    Studies have shown that the boreal forest region is in danger of experiencing significant warming and drying in response to increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and other greenhouse gases. Since the boreal forest region contains 16-24 per cent of the world`s soil carbon, warming in this region could result in a rapid, large-scale displacement and redistribution of boreal forest, enhanced release of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere, and an intensification of global warming. A study was conducted in which a process-based, general ecosystem model (BIOME-BGC) was used to simulate daily gross primary production, maintenance and heterotrophic respiration, net primary production and net ecosystem carbon exchange of boreal aspen, jack pine and black spruce. The objective was to integrate point measurements across multiple spatial and temporal scales using process level models of the boreal forest water, energy and biogeochemical cycles. Climate characteristics that control simulated carbon fluxes were also studied. Results showed that trees with large daily evapotranspiration rates and those situated on sandy soils with low water holding capacities were especially vulnerable to increased temperature and drought conditions. Trees subject to frequent water stress during the growing season, particularly older trees that exhibit low photosynthetic and high respiration rates, were on the margin between being annual net sources or sinks for atmospheric carbon. 71 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  1. Dynamic environmental transmission electron microscopy observation of platinum electrode catalyst deactivation in a proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kenta; Xudong, Zhang; Bright, Alexander N; Saitoh, Koh; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2013-02-15

    Spherical-aberration-corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy (AC-ETEM) was applied to study the catalytic activity of platinum/amorphous carbon electrode catalysts in proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). These electrode catalysts were characterized in different atmospheres, such as hydrogen and air, and a conventional high vacuum of 10(-5) Pa. A high-speed charge coupled device camera was used to capture real-time movies to dynamically study the diffusion and reconstruction of nanoparticles with an information transfer down to 0.1 nm, a time resolution below 0.2 s and an acceleration voltage of 300 kV. With such high spatial and time resolution, AC-ETEM permits the visualization of surface-atom behaviour that dominates the coalescence and surface-reconstruction processes of the nanoparticles. To contribute to the development of robust PEMFC platinum/amorphous carbon electrode catalysts, the change in the specific surface area of platinum particles was evaluated in hydrogen and air atmospheres. The deactivation of such catalysts during cycle operation is a serious problem that must be resolved for the practical use of PEMFCs in real vehicles. In this paper, the mechanism for the deactivation of platinum/amorphous carbon electrode catalysts is discussed using the decay rate of the specific surface area of platinum particles, measured first in a vacuum and then in hydrogen and air atmospheres for comparison.

  2. Carbon dioxide and methane dynamics in Russian tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Paul Torbjörn; Kiepe, Isabell; Herbst, Mathias

    Russia. The area is situated at 67°N in the European part of northeast Russia within the Pechora basin. The Russian tundra region is an area which has recently been subject to many speculations in relation to climatic change effects and greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange but still little scientific......, and discuss possible implications of climatic change on this lowland tundra ecosystem. This study have been conducted as a part of the CARBO-North project (2006-2010), a project within the EU 6th framework programme, aiming at quantifying the carbon budget in Northern Russia across temporal and spatial scales....

  3. Dynamic topography and the Cenozoic carbonate compensation depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, S. M.; Moucha, R.; Raymo, M. E.; Derry, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    The carbonate compensation depth (CCD), the ocean depth at which the calcium carbonate accumulation rate goes to zero, can provide valuable insight into climatic and weathering conditions over the Cenozoic. The paleoposition of the CCD can be inferred from sediment core data. As the carbonate accumulation rate decreases linearly with depth between the lysocline and CCD, the CCD can be calculated using a linear regression on multiple sediment cores with known carbonate accumulation rates and paleodepths. It is therefore vital to have well-constrained estimates of paleodepths. Paleodepths are typically calculated using models of thermal subsidence and sediment loading and compaction. However, viscous convection-related stresses in the mantle can warp the ocean floor by hundreds of meters over broad regions and can also vary significantly over millions of years. This contribution to paleobathymetry, termed dynamic topography, can be calculated by modeling mantle flow backwards in time. Herein, we demonstrate the effect dynamic topography has on the inference of the late Cenozoic CCD with an example from the equatorial Pacific, considering sites from IODP Expeditions 320/321. The equatorial Pacific, given its large size and high productivity, is closely tied to the global carbon cycle. Accordingly, long-term changes in the equatorial Pacific CCD can be considered to reflect global changes in weathering fluxes and the carbon cycle, in addition to more regional changes in productivity and thermohaline circulation. We find that, when the dynamic topography contribution to bathymetry is accounted for, the equatorial Pacific CCD is calculated to be appreciably shallower at 30 Ma than previous estimates would suggest, implying a greater deepening of the Pacific CCD over the late Cenozoic.

  4. On the dynamic spatial response of a heat exchanger tube with intermittent baffle contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, R.J.; Pick, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Flow-induced vibration in heat exchanger tubes can result in fretting wear at the baffle supports and subsequent tube failure. As one step in correlating the random flow excitation to the rate of fretting wear, this paper presents a dynamic finite element technique for predicting the motions and baffle contact forces of a single heat exchanger tube. Using a modal superposition approach, the modal equations of motion are generated and numerically integrated. The predicted results are compared with experimental data for both planar and spatial vibration of harmonically excited cantilevered beams with a clearance support at the free end. (Auth.)

  5. Exact time-dependent exchange-correlation potentials for strong-field electron dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lein, Manfred; Kuemmel, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    By solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation and inverting the time-dependent Kohn-Sham scheme we obtain the exact time-dependent exchange-correlation potential of density-functional theory for the strong-field dynamics of a correlated system. We demonstrate that essential features of the exact exchange-correlation potential can be related to derivative discontinuities in stationary density-functional theory. Incorporating the discontinuity in a time-dependent density-functional calculation greatly improves the description of the ionization process

  6. Competition between abstraction and exchange channels in H + HCN reaction: Full-dimensional quantum dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Bin; Guo, Hua, E-mail: hguo@unm.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)

    2013-12-14

    Dynamics of the title reaction is investigated on an ab initio based potential energy surface using a full-dimensional quantum wave packet method within the centrifugal sudden approximation. It is shown that the reaction between H and HCN leads to both the hydrogen exchange and hydrogen abstraction channels. The exchange channel has a lower threshold and larger cross section than the abstraction channel. It also has more oscillations due apparently to quantum resonances. Both channels are affected by long-lived resonances supported by potential wells. Comparison with experimental cross sections indicates underestimation of the abstraction barrier height.

  7. Carbon dioxide exchange in subarctic ecosystems measured by a micrometeorological technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurela, M.

    2005-01-01

    The atmospheric CO 2 concentration and the surface air temperatures have increased since the pre-industrial era, and the increase in both is predicted to continue during the 21st century. The feedback mechanisms between the changing climate and the carbon cycle are complex, and more information is needed about carbon exchange in different ecosystems. Northern Finland lies in the transition zone between boreal forest and tundra where the ecosystems are especially sensitive to any changes in the climate. In 1995-2004, micrometeorological eddy covariance measurements were conducted to yield continuous data on the CO 2 exchange between the atmosphere and the biosphere in northern Finland on four different ecosystems: an aapa mire, a mountain birch forest, a Scots pine forest and a Norway spruce forest. A measurement system enabling year-round measurements in the harsh subarctic conditions was developed and shown to be suitable for long-term exchange studies. A comparison of the CO 2 flux components, photosynthesis and respiration, at different ecosystems in the European subarctic and arctic regions showed that the leaf area index (LAI) is the key determinant of the gross photosynthetic rates, explaining greatest part of the variation between these ecosystems. Respiration did not show such a strong correlation with LAI, but in general, high respiration rates were related to high values of LAI. The first continuous round-the-year measurements of net ecosystem CO 2 exchange on a subarctic wetland were conducted at Kaamanen. The winter-time CO 2 efflux (of about 90 g CO 2 m -2 yr -1 ) was shown to constitute an essential part of the annual CO 2 balance (of -79 g CO 2 m -2 yr -1 in 1997-2002). The annual CO 2 balances at all sites in northern Finland were relatively small compared with those in lower latitudes. The interannual variation of the CO 2 balance at Kaamanen was marked (-15 to -195 g CO 2 m -2 yr -1 ) during the years 1997-2002. The most important factor

  8. Simulating forest productivity and surface-atmosphere carbon exchange in the BOREAS study region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, John S.; Thornton, Peter E.; White, Mike A.; Running, Steven W.

    1997-01-01

    A process-based, general ecosystem model (BIOME-BGC) was used to simulate daily gross primary production, maintenance and heterotrophic respiration, net primary production and net ecosystem carbon exchange of boreal aspen, jack pine and black spruce stands. Model simulations of daily net carbon exchange of the ecosystem (NEE) explained 51.7% (SE = 1.32 g C m(-2) day(-1)) of the variance in daily NEE derived from stand eddy flux measurements of CO(2) during 1994. Differences between measured and simulated results were attributed to several factors including difficulties associated with measuring nighttime CO(2) fluxes and model assumptions of site homogeneity. However, comparisons between simulations and field data improved markedly at coarser time-scales. Model simulations explained 66.1% (SE = 0.97 g C m(-2) day(-1)) of the variance in measured NEE when 5-day means of daily results were compared. Annual simulations of aboveground net primary production ranged from 0.6-2.4 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1) and were concurrent with results derived from tree increment core measurements and allometric equations. Model simulations showed that all of the sites were net sinks (0.1-4.1 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1)) of atmospheric carbon for 1994. Older conifer stands showed narrow margins between uptake of carbon by net photosynthesis and carbon release through respiration. Younger stands were more productive than older stands, primarily because of lower maintenance respiration costs. However, all sites appeared to be less productive than temperate forests. Productivity simulations were strongly linked to stand morphology and site conditions. Old jack pine and aspen stands showed decreased productivity in response to simulated low soil water contents near the end of the 1994 growing season. Compared with the aspen stand, the jack pine stand appeared better adapted to conserve soil water through lower daily evapotranspiration losses but also exhibited a narrower margin between daily net

  9. The effect of alkaline cations on the Intercalation of Carbon Dioxide in Sepiolite Minerals: a Molecular Dynamics Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavanti, Francesco; Muniz-Miranda, Francesco; Pedone, Alfonso

    2018-03-01

    The ability of the sepiolite mineral to intercalate CO2 molecules inside its channels in the presence of different alkaline cations (K+, Na+ and Li+) has been studied by classical Molecular Dynamics simulations. Starting from an alkaline-free sepiolite crystalline model we built three models with stoichiometry Mg320Si440Al40O1200(OH)160X+40•480H2O. On these models, we gradually replaced the water molecules present in the channels with carbon dioxide and determined the energy of this exchange reaction as well as the structural organization and dynamics of carbon dioxide in the channels. The adsorption energy shows that the Li-containing sepiolite mineral retains more carbon dioxide with respect to those with sodium and potassium cations in the channels. Moreover, the ordered patterns of CO2 molecules observed in the alkaline-free sepiolite mineral are in part destabilized by the presence of cations decreasing the adsorption capacity of this clay mineral.

  10. Modeling coupled interactions of carbon, water, and ozone exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. I: Model description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolov, Ned; Zeller, Karl F.

    2003-01-01

    A new biophysical model (FORFLUX) is presented to link ozone deposition with carbon and water cycles in terrestrial ecosystems. - A new biophysical model (FORFLUX) is presented to study the simultaneous exchange of ozone, carbon dioxide, and water vapor between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The model mechanistically couples all major processes controlling ecosystem flows trace gases and water implementing recent concepts in plant eco-physiology, micrometeorology, and soil hydrology. FORFLUX consists of four interconnected modules-a leaf photosynthesis model, a canopy flux model, a soil heat-, water- and CO 2 - transport model, and a snow pack model. Photosynthesis, water-vapor flux and ozone uptake at the leaf level are computed by the LEAFC3 sub-model. The canopy module scales leaf responses to a stand level by numerical integration of the LEAFC3 model over canopy leaf area index (LAI). The integration takes into account (1) radiative transfer inside the canopy, (2) variation of foliage photosynthetic capacity with canopy depth, (3) wind speed attenuation throughout the canopy, and (4) rainfall interception by foliage elements. The soil module uses principles of the diffusion theory to predict temperature and moisture dynamics within the soil column, evaporation, and CO 2 efflux from soil. The effect of soil heterogeneity on field-scale fluxes is simulated employing the Bresler-Dagan stochastic concept. The accumulation and melt of snow on the ground is predicted using an explicit energy balance approach. Ozone deposition is modeled as a sum of three fluxes- ozone uptake via plant stomata, deposition to non-transpiring plant surfaces, and ozone flux into the ground. All biophysical interactions are computed hourly while model projections are made at either hourly or daily time step. FORFLUX represents a comprehensive approach to studying ozone deposition and its link to carbon and water cycles in terrestrial ecosystems

  11. Carbon dioxide and methane emission dynamics in central London (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfter, Carole; Nemitz, Eiko; Barlow, Janet F.; Wood, Curtis R.

    2013-04-01

    London, with a population of 8.2 million, is the largest city in Europe. It is heavily built-up (typically 8% vegetation cover within the central boroughs) and boasts some of the busiest arteries in Europe despite efforts to reduce traffic in the city centre with the introduction of a congestion charging scheme in 2007. We report on two substantial pollution monitoring efforts in the heart of London between October 2006 and present. Fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) were measured continuously by eddy-covariance in central London from October 2006 until May 2008 from a 190 m telecommunication tower (BT tower; 51° 31' 17.4'' N 0° 8' 20.04'' W). The eddy-covariance system consisted of a Gill R3-50 ultrasonic anemometer operated at 20 Hz and a LI-COR 6262 infrared gas analyser. Air was sampled 0.3 m below the sensor head of the ultrasonic anemometer - which was itself mounted on a 3 m mast to the top of a 15 m lattice tower situated on the roof of the tower (instrument head at 190 m above street level) - and pulled down 45 m of 12.7 mm OD Teflon tubing. In addition, meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, pressure, precipitation, wind speed and direction) were also measured with a multi-sensor (Weather Transmitter WXT510, Vaisala). Eddy-covariance measurements at the BT tower location were reinstated in July 2011 and include methane (CH4), CO2 and H2O concentrations measured by a Picarro fast methane analyser (G2301-f). CO2 emissions were found to be mainly controlled by fossil fuel combustion (e.g. traffic, commercial and domestic heating). Diurnal averages of CO2 fluxes were found to be highly correlated to traffic. However changes in heating-related natural gas consumption and, to a lesser extent, photosynthetic activity in two large city centre green spaces (Hyde Park and Regent's Park) explained the seasonal variability. Annual estimates of net exchange of CO2 obtained by eddy-covariance agreed well with up-scaled data from the UK

  12. Fire and Microtopography in Peatlands: Feedbacks and Carbon Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benscoter, B.; Turetsky, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    Fire is the dominant natural disturbance in peatland ecosystems. Over the past decade, peat fires have emerged as an important issue for global climate change, human health, and economic loss, largely due to the extreme peat fire events in Indonesia and Russia that severely impacted metropolitan areas and social infrastructure. However, the impact and importance of fire in peatland ecosystems are more far-reaching. Combustion of vegetation and soil organic matter releases an average of 2.2 kg C m-2 to the atmosphere, primarily as CO2, as well as a number of potentially harmful emissions such as fine particulate matter and mercury. Additionally, while peatlands are generally considered to be net sinks of atmospheric carbon, the removal of living vegetation by combustion halts primary production following fire resulting in a net loss of ecosystem carbon to the atmosphere for several years. The recovery of carbon sink function is linked to plant community succession and development, which can vary based on combustion severity and the resulting post-fire microhabitat conditions. Microtopography has a strong influence on fire behavior and combustion severity during peatland wildfires. In boreal continental peatlands, combustion severity is typically greatest in low-lying hollows while raised hummocks are often lightly burned or unburned. The cross-scale influence of microtopography on landscape fire behavior is due to differences in plant community composition between microforms. The physiological and ecohydrological differences among plant communities result in spatial patterns in fuel availability and condition, influencing the spread, severity, and type of combustion over local to landscape scales. In addition to heterogeneous combustion loss of soil carbon, this differential fire behavior creates variability in post-fire microhabitat conditions, resulting in differences in post-fire vegetation succession and carbon exchange trajectories. These immediate and legacy

  13. Excitons in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Their Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amori, Amanda R.; Hou, Zhentao; Krauss, Todd D.

    2018-04-01

    Understanding exciton dynamics in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is essential to unlocking the many potential applications of these materials. This review summarizes recent progress in understanding exciton photophysics and, in particular, exciton dynamics in SWCNTs. We outline the basic physical and electronic properties of SWCNTs, as well as bright and dark transitions within the framework of a strongly bound one-dimensional excitonic model. We discuss the many facets of ultrafast carrier dynamics in SWCNTs, including both single-exciton states (bright and dark) and multiple-exciton states. Photophysical properties that directly relate to excitons and their dynamics, including exciton diffusion lengths, chemical and structural defects, environmental effects, and photoluminescence photon statistics as observed through photon antibunching measurements, are also discussed. Finally, we identify a few key areas for advancing further research in the field of SWCNT excitons and photonics.

  14. Simultaneous Blood–Tissue Exchange of Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, Bicarbonate, and Hydrogen Ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Ranjan K.; Bassingthwaighte, James B.

    2014-01-01

    A detailed nonlinear four-region (red blood cell, plasma, interstitial fluid, and parenchymal cell) axially distributed convection-diffusion-permeation-reaction-binding computational model is developed to study the simultaneous transport and exchange of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the blood–tissue exchange system of the heart. Since the pH variation in blood and tissue influences the transport and exchange of O2 and CO2 (Bohr and Haldane effects), and since most CO2 is transported as HCO3- (bicarbonate) via the CO2 hydration (buffering) reaction, the transport and exchange of HCO3- and H+ are also simulated along with that of O2 and CO2. Furthermore, the model accounts for the competitive nonlinear binding of O2 and CO2 with the hemoglobin inside the red blood cells (nonlinear O2–CO2 interactions, Bohr and Haldane effects), and myoglobin-facilitated transport of O2 inside the parenchymal cells. The consumption of O2 through cytochrome-c oxidase reaction inside the parenchymal cells is based on Michaelis–Menten kinetics. The corresponding production of CO2 is determined by respiratory quotient (RQ), depending on the relative consumption of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. The model gives a physiologically realistic description of O2 transport and metabolism in the microcirculation of the heart. Furthermore, because model solutions for tracer transients and steady states can be computed highly efficiently, this model may be the preferred vehicle for routine data analysis where repetitive solutions and parameter optimization are required, as is the case in PET imaging for estimating myocardial O2 consumption. PMID:16775761

  15. Carbon sequestration potential of the Habanero reservoir when carbon dioxide is used as the heat exchange fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoshui Xu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of sequestered carbon dioxide (CO2 as the heat exchange fluid in enhanced geothermal system (EGS has significant potential to increase their productivity, contribute further to reducing carbon emissions and increase the economic viability of geothermal power generation. Coupled CO2 sequestration and geothermal energy production from hot dry rock (HDR EGS were first proposed 15 years ago but have yet to be practically implemented. This paper reviews some of the issues in assessing these systems with particular focus on the power generation and CO2 sequestration capacity. The Habanero geothermal field in the Cooper Basin of South Australia is assessed for its potential CO2 storage capacity if supercritical CO2 is used as the working fluid for heat extraction. The analysis suggests that the major CO2 sequestration mechanisms are the storage in the fracture-stimulation damaged zone followed by diffusion into the pores within the rock matrix. The assessment indicates that 5% of working fluid loss commonly suggested as the storage capacity might be an over-estimate of the long-term CO2 sequestration capacity of EGS in which supercritical CO2 is used as the circulation fluid.

  16. Northern peatland carbon stocks and dynamics: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. C. Yu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands contain a large belowground carbon (C stock in the biosphere, and their dynamics have important implications for the global carbon cycle. However, there are still large uncertainties in C stock estimates and poor understanding of C dynamics across timescales. Here I review different approaches and associated uncertainties of C stock estimates in the literature, and on the basis of the literature review my best estimate of C stocks and uncertainty is 500 ± 100 (approximate range gigatons of C (Gt C in northern peatlands. The greatest source of uncertainty for all the approaches is the lack or insufficient representation of data, including depth, bulk density and carbon accumulation data, especially from the world's large peatlands. Several ways to improve estimates of peat carbon stocks are also discussed in this paper, including the estimates of C stocks by regions and further utilizations of widely available basal peat ages.

    Changes in peatland carbon stocks over time, estimated using Sphagnum (peat moss spore data and down-core peat accumulation records, show different patterns during the Holocene, and I argue that spore-based approach underestimates the abundance of peatlands in their early histories. Considering long-term peat decomposition using peat accumulation data allows estimates of net carbon sequestration rates by peatlands, or net (ecosystem carbon balance (NECB, which indicates more than half of peat carbon (> 270 Gt C was sequestrated before 7000 yr ago during the Holocene. Contemporary carbon flux studies at 5 peatland sites show much larger NECB during the last decade (32 ± 7.8 (S.E. g C m−2 yr–1 than during the last 7000 yr (∼ 11 g C m−2 yr–1, as modeled from peat records across northern peatlands. This discrepancy highlights the urgent need for carbon accumulation data and process understanding, especially at decadal and centennial timescales

  17. Dynamics of anion exchange of lanthanides in aqueous-organic complexing media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheveleva, I.V.; Bogatyrev, I.O.

    1987-01-01

    Effect of organic solvents (ethanol, acetone, acetonitrile) on change in kinetic parameters of the anion exchange process (anion-exchange column chromatography) of r.e.e. (europium and gadolinium) in complexing nitric acid media has been studied. It is established that complex LnA 4 anion is the only sorbing form of europium and gadolinium on anionite. When the organic component content of the solution being the same, the dynamic parameters of lanthanide exchange have higher values in aqueous-acetonitrile and aqueous-acetone media in comparison with aqueous-enthanol solutions of nitric acid. Lesser mobility of complex lanthanide anions in aqueous-alcoholic solutions can be explained by stronger solvation in the presence of solvents with higher acceptor properties

  18. Evaluation and Certification of Ambersorb 4652 for use in Activated Carbon Ion Exchange Filters for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Niklas; Cox, Trey; Larner, Katherine; Carter, Donald; Kouba, Coy

    2017-01-01

    In order to reduce the infiltration of dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) and other organosilicon containing species through the Multifiltration Beds (MF Beds), an alternate activated carbon was found to replace the obsolete Barnabey Cheney 580-26 activated carbon. The carbon that removed the most organosilicon compounds in testing1 was a synthetic activated carbon named Schunk 4652 which later became Ambersorb 4652. Since activated carbon has a large capacity for iodine (I2), and is used in the Activated Carbon Ion Exchange (ACTEX) filters on the International Space Station (ISS), testing was performed on the Ambersorb 4652 carbon to determine the effectiveness of the material for use in ACTEX filters to remove iodine. This work summarizes the testing and the certification of Ambersorb 4652 for use in the ACTEX filters for the ISS.

  19. Soil organic matter dynamics and the global carbon cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, W.M.; Emanuel, W.R.; King, A.W.

    1992-01-01

    The large size and potentially long residence time of the soil organic matter pool make it an important component of the global carbon cycle. Net terrestrial primary production of about 60 Pg C·yr -1 is, over a several-year period of time, balanced by an equivalent flux of litter production and subsequent decomposition of detritus and soil organic matter. We will review many of the major factors that influence soil organic matter dynamics that need to be explicitly considered in development of global estimates of carbon turnover in the world's soils. We will also discuss current decomposition models that are general enough to be used to develop a representation of global soil organic matter dynamics

  20. Molecular dynamics simulations of a lithium/sodium carbonate mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottochian, Alistar; Ricca, Chiara; Labat, Frederic; Adamo, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    The diffusion and ionic conductivity of Li x Na1-x CO3 salt mixtures were studied by means of Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations, using the Janssen and Tissen model (Janssen and Tissen, Mol Simul 5:83-98; 1990). These salts have received particular attention due to their central role in fuel cells technology, and reliable numerical methods that could perform as important interpretative tool of experimental data are thus required but still lacking. The chosen computational model nicely reproduces the main structural behaviour of the pure Li2CO3, Na2CO3 and K2CO3 carbonates, but also of their Li/K and Li/Na mixtures. However, it fails to accurately describe dynamic properties such as activation energies of diffusion and conduction processes, outlining the need to develop more accurate models for the simulation of molten salt carbonates.

  1. Dynamic replacement and loss of soil carbon on eroding cropland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, J.W.; Sharpe, J.M.; Parton, W.J.; Ojima, D.S.; Fries, T.L.; Huntington, T.G.; Dabney, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    Links between erosion/sedimentation history and soil carbon cycling were examined in a highly erosive setting in Mississippi loess soils. We sampled soils on (relatively) undisturbed and cropped hillslopes and measured C, N, 14C, and CO2 flux to characterize carbon storage and dynamics and to parameterize Century and spreadsheet 14C models for different erosion and tillage histories. For this site, where 100 years of intensive cotton cropping were followed by fertilization and contour plowing, there was an initial and dramatic decline in soil carbon content from 1870 to 1950, followed by a dramatic increase in soil carbon. Soil erosion amplifies C loss and recovery: About 100% of the original, prehistoric soil carbon was likely lost over 127 years of intensive land use, but about 30% of that carbon was replaced after 1950. The eroded cropland was therefore a local sink for CO2 since the 1950s. However, a net CO2 sink requires a full accounting of eroded carbon, which in turn requires that decomposition rates in lower slopes or wetlands be reduced to about 20% of the upland value. As a result, erosion may induce unaccounted sinks or sources of CO2, depending on the fate of eroded carbon and its protection from decomposition. For erosion rates typical of the United States, the sink terms may be large enough (1 Gt yr-1, back-of-the-envelope) to warrant a careful accounting of site management, cropping, and fertilization histories, as well as burial rates, for a more meaningful global assessment.

  2. The consideration of dynamics and control in the design of heat exchanger networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimann, K.A.

    1986-03-01

    The heat exchanger network method is a way of abstracting the enthalpy and heat flows from the blueprints of a planned or existing processing plant. It enables a systematic design of a plant-wide heat recovery system which is optimal with regard to energy costs, capital costs and operational requirements. A heat exchanger network is a representation of all heat transfer relations between hot process streams and cold process streams within a plant. During the past ten years, the optimal design of heat exchanger networks (i.e. the optimal arrangement of heat transfer relations within a plant) has developed into a field of research of its own. Both, static methods ('interaction analysis') and dynamic methods ('process reaction curve analysis') from control theory have been used to explore the new field of heat exchanger network dynamics. As a major tool, an interactive, portable computer program for network simulation and controllability assessment has been developed (it is available as a design tool within the frame of the International Energy Agency). Based on the well-understood global parameters: effectiveness and NTU, which follow from the network design, some straightforward methods covering the following topics are presented: - 'paths' for control and disturbance signal transfer across the network, - locations of control bypasses around heat exchangers, and their capacity of emitting control signals or absorbing disturbances, - influence of the equipment besides the heat exchangers (which can be regarded as 'surrounding' the network, thus forming an 'associated' network). It has been found that networks which are designed according to the 'pinch-based' method have a potential for good controllability. It is shown how, using the freedoms given in the 'pinch-based' design and the above-mentioned methods, that potential is put into effect. (author)

  3. Constraining the Exchange of Carbon and Nitrogen in Eastern Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, A.; Warren, J. K.; Vlahos, P.; Whitney, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    Long Island Sound (LIS) is an urban estuary on the US east coast that undergoes seasonal hypoxia in its western and central regions. Currently, the budgets of both carbon and nitrogen in LIS remain unbalanced, despite their importance to the efficient and strategic management of the health of coastal and aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated the exchange values of C and N at the mouth of LIS (the Race), in order to constrain export through this important boundary. Discreet water samples were collected during four 15 km transects over the Race at five stations and three depths each station to resolve the temporal variability over a complete tidal cycle, in order to assess both net flux and variations across the tidal period. By evaluating both the particulate and dissolved pools of carbon (POC, PIC, DOC, DIC) and nitrogen (PON, DON, DIN) during the spring, summer and winter (high and low flow conditions) and pairing these measurements with physical data, we were able to identify a variety of forcing and export regimes. Preliminary results indicate the importance of spatial and tidal variability on flux estimates and show little or no export (and sometimes import) of nitrogen and significant export of organic carbon.

  4. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell With Enhanced Durability Using Fluorinated Carbon As Electrocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Yasser

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the fluorination of a carbon aerogel and its effects on the durability of the resulting electrocatalyst for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC. Fluorine has been introduced before or after platinum deposition. The different electrocatalysts are physico-chemically and electrochemically characterized, and the results discussed by comparison with commercial Pt/XC72 from E-Tek. The results demonstrate that the level of fluorination of the carbon aerogel can be controlled. The fluorination modifies the texture of the carbons by increasing the pore size and decreasing the specific surface area, but the textures remain appropriate for PEMFC applications. Two fluorination sites are observed, leading to both high covalent C-F bond and weakened ones, the quantity of which depends on whether the treatment is done before or after platinum deposition. The order of the different treatments is very important. The presence of platinum contributes to the fluorination mechanism, but leads to amorphous platinum rather inactive towards the Oxygen Reduction Reaction. Finally, a better durability was demonstrated for the fluorinated then platinized catalyst compared both to the same but not fluorinated catalyst and to the reference commercial material (based on the loss of the electrochemical real surface area after accelerated stress tests.

  5. Halloysite-derived nitrogen doped carbon electrocatalysts for anion exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yaxiang; Wang, Lianqin; Preuß, Kathrin; Qiao, Mo; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena; Varcoe, John; Cai, Qiong

    2017-12-01

    Developing the low-cost, highly active carbonaceous materials for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts has been a high-priority research direction for durable fuel cells. In this paper, two novel N-doped carbonaceous materials with flaky and rod-like morphology using the natural halloysite as template are obtained from urea nitrogen source as well as glucose (denoted as GU) and furfural (denoted as FU) carbon precursors, respectively, which can be directly applied as metal-free electrocatalysts for ORR in alkaline electrolyte. Importantly, compared with a benchmark Pt/C (20wt%) catalyst, the as-prepared carbon catalysts demonstrate higher retention in diffusion limiting current density (after 3000 cycles) and enhanced methanol tolerances with only 50-60mV negative shift in half-wave potentials. In addition, electrocatalytic activity, durability and methanol tolerant capability of the two N-doped carbon catalysts are systematically evaluated, and the underneath reasons of the outperformance of rod-like catalysts over the flaky are revealed. At last, the produced carbonaceous catalysts are also used as cathodes in the single cell H2/O2 anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC), in which the rod-like FU delivers a peak power density as high as 703 mW cm-2 (vs. 1106 mW cm-2 with a Pt/C benchmark cathode catalyst).

  6. Acute wood or coal exposure with carbon monoxide intoxication induces sister chromatid exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, S.; Vatansever, S.; Cefle, K.; Palanduz, S.; Guler, K.; Erten, N.; Erk, O.; Karan, M.A.; Tascioglu, C. [University of Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey). Istanbul Faculty of Medicine

    2002-07-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the genotoxic effect of acute overexposure to combustion products originating from coal or wood stoves in patients presenting with acute carbon monoxide intoxication. The authors analyzed the frequency of sister chromatid exchange and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration in 20 consecutive patients without a history of smoking or drug use who had been treated in the Emergency Care Unit of Istanbul Medical Faculty due to acute carbon monoxide intoxication. All of these cases were domestic accidents due to dysfunctioning coal or wood stoves. The results were compared with a control group of 20 nonsmoking, nondrug-using healthy individuals matched for age, sex, and absence of other chemical exposure. It was concluded that acute exposure to combustion products of wood or coal is genotoxic to DNA. Potential causes of genotoxicity include known mutagenic compounds present in coal or wood smoke and ash, oxygen radicals formed during combustion, as well as hypoxic and reperfusion injury mechanisms initiated by carbon monoxide intoxication.

  7. Use of a combined oxygen and carbon dioxide transcutaneous electrode in the estimation of gas exchange during exercise.

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar, M K; Carter, R; Moran, F; Banham, S W

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Accurate and reliable measurement of gas exchange during exercise has traditionally involved arterial cannulation. Non-invasive devices to estimate arterial oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) tensions are now available. A method has been devised and evaluated for measuring gas exchange during exercise with a combined transcutaneous O2 and CO2 electrode. METHODS--Symptom limited exercise tests were carried out in 24 patients reporting effort intolerance and breathlessness. Exerci...

  8. Carbon Transformations and Source - Sink Dynamics along a River, Marsh, Estuary, Ocean Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, I. C.; Crosswell, J.; Czapla, K.; Van Dam, B.

    2017-12-01

    Estuaries, the transition zone between land and the coastal ocean, are highly dynamic systems in which carbon sourced from watersheds, marshes, atmosphere, and ocean may be transformed, sequestered, or exported. The net fate of carbon in estuaries, governed by the interactions of biotic and physical drivers varying on spatial and temporal scales, is currently uncertain because of limited observational data. In this study, conducted in a temperate, microtidal, and shallow North Carolina USA estuary, carbon exchanges via river, tributary, and fringing salt marsh, air-water fluxes, sediment C accumulation, and metabolism were monitored over two-years, with sharply different amounts of rainfall. Air-water CO2 fluxes and metabolic variables were simultaneously measured in channel and shoal by conducting high-resolution surveys at dawn, dusk and the following dawn. Marsh CO2 exchanges, sediment C inputs, and lateral exports of DIC and DOC were also measured. Carbon flows between estuary regions and export to the coastal ocean were calculated by quantifying residual transport of DIC and TOC down-estuary as flows were modified by sources, sinks and internal transformations. Variation in metabolic rates, CO2, TOC and DIC exchanges were large when determined for short time and limited spatial scales. However, when scaled to annual and whole estuarine scales, variation tended to decrease because of counteracting metabolic rates and fluxes between channel and shoal or between seasons. Although overall salt marshes accumulated OC, they were a negligible source of DIC and DOC to the estuary, and net inputs of C to the marsh were mainly derived from sediment OC. These results, as observed in other observational studies of estuaries, show that riverine input, light, temperature and metabolism are major controls on carbon cycling. Comparison of our results with other types of estuaries varying in depth, latitude, and nutrification demonstrates large discrepancies underscoring the

  9. Irradiation of carbon nanotubes with carbon projectiles: A molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Cristian D. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Alicante, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Heredia-Avalos, Santiago; Moreno-Marin, Juan Carlos [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, 03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2013-04-15

    The irradiation of carbon based nanostructures with ions and electrons has been shown to be an appropriate tool to tailor their properties. The defects induced in the nanostructures during irradiation are able to modify their mechanical and electronic properties. Here we simulate the irradiation of carbon nanotubes with carbon ions using a molecular dynamics code. We use the Tersoff potential joined smoothly to the Universal Ziegler-Biersack-Littmark potential at short distances. We study the number of defects produced after irradiation with a single carbon ion finding a saturation with its energy at {proportional_to} 3 keV. We observe, after continuum irradiation with low energy ions, the formation of bumps in the irradiated region. For larger energy ions we find that the diameter of the nanotube shrinks as shown in previous works. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Stable and radioactive carbon in Indian soils: implications to soil carbon dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskar, A.H.; Yadava, M.G.; Ramesh, R.

    2011-01-01

    Radiocarbon is a very useful tool to study soil carbon dynamic. The mean residence time of SOC in Indian soils is about a century at the top 0-15 cm, increases linearly to reach values ranging from 2000 to 4000 yrs at a depth of 100 cm. It mainly depends on the clay content indicating that the clay is the main governing factor for SOC stabilization. Stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in soil carbonates and SOC are good proxies for paleoclimate and paleovegetation reconstruction. The present day sub-humid climate in the lower Narmada valley has been established prior to ∼ 3 ka. Two comparatively arid phases around 2.1 and 1.3 ka are recorded by oxygen isotopes of soil carbonates; consistent with other proxy records showing its regional significance

  11. Simulated impacts of insect defoliation on forest carbon dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvigy, D; Clark, K L; Skowronski, N S; Schäfer, K V R

    2012-01-01

    Many temperate and boreal forests are subject to insect epidemics. In the eastern US, over 41 million meters squared of tree basal area are thought to be at risk of gypsy moth defoliation. However, the decadal-to-century scale implications of defoliation events for ecosystem carbon dynamics are not well understood. In this study, the effects of defoliation intensity, periodicity and spatial pattern on the carbon cycle are investigated in a set of idealized model simulations. A mechanistic terrestrial biosphere model, ecosystem demography model 2, is driven with observations from a xeric oak–pine forest located in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. Simulations indicate that net ecosystem productivity (equal to photosynthesis minus respiration) decreases linearly with increasing defoliation intensity. However, because of interactions between defoliation and drought effects, aboveground biomass exhibits a nonlinear decrease with increasing defoliation intensity. The ecosystem responds strongly with both reduced productivity and biomass loss when defoliation periodicity varies from 5 to 15 yr, but exhibits a relatively weak response when defoliation periodicity varies from 15 to 60 yr. Simulations of spatially heterogeneous defoliation resulted in markedly smaller carbon stocks than simulations with spatially homogeneous defoliation. These results show that gypsy moth defoliation has a large effect on oak–pine forest biomass dynamics, functioning and its capacity to act as a carbon sink. (letter)

  12. Energy exchange analysis in droplet dynamics via the Navier–Stokes–Cahn–Hilliard model

    KAUST Repository

    Espath, L. F. R.

    2016-05-23

    We develop the energy budget equation of the coupled Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard (NSCH) system. We use the NSCH equations to model the dynamics of liquid droplets in a liquid continuum. Buoyancy effects are accounted for through the Boussinesq assumption. We physically interpret each quantity involved in the energy exchange to gain further insight into the model. Highly resolved simulations involving density-driven flows and the merging of droplets allow us to analyse these energy budgets. In particular, we focus on the energy exchanges when droplets merge, and describe flow features relevant to this phenomenon. By comparing our numerical simulations to analytical predictions and experimental results available in the literature, we conclude that modelling droplet dynamics within the framework of NSCH equations is a sensible approach worthy of further research. © 2016 Cambridge University Press.

  13. Energy exchange analysis in droplet dynamics via the Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espath, L. F. R.; Sarmiento, A. F.; Vignal, P.; Varga, B. O. N.; Cortes, A. M. A.; Dalcin, L.; Calo, V. M.

    2016-06-01

    We develop the energy budget equation of the coupled Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard (NSCH) system. We use the NSCH equations to model the dynamics of liquid droplets in a liquid continuum. Buoyancy effects are accounted for through the Boussinesq assumption. We physically interpret each quantity involved in the energy exchange to further insight into the model. Highly resolved simulations involving density-driven flows and merging of droplets allow us to analyze these energy budgets. In particular, we focus on the energy exchanges when droplets merge, and describe flow features relevant to this phenomenon. By comparing our numerical simulations to analytical predictions and experimental results available in the literature, we conclude that modeling droplet dynamics within the framework of NSCH equations is a sensible approach worth further research.

  14. Revealing the Solvation Structure and Dynamics of Carbonate Electrolytes in Lithium-Ion Batteries by Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectrum Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chungwen; Kwak, Kyungwon; Cho, Minhaeng

    2017-12-07

    Carbonate electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries play a crucial role in conducting lithium ions between two electrodes. Mixed solvent electrolytes consisting of linear and cyclic carbonates are commonly used in commercial lithium-ion batteries. To understand how the linear and cyclic carbonates introduce different solvation structures and dynamics, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of two representative electrolyte systems containing either linear or cyclic carbonate solvents. We then modeled their two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectra of the carbonyl stretching mode of these carbonate molecules. We found that the chemical exchange process involving formation and dissociation of lithium-ion/carbonate complexes is responsible for the growth of 2DIR cross peaks with increasing waiting time. In addition, we also found that cyclic carbonates introduce faster dynamics of dissociation and formation of lithium-ion/carbonate complexes than linear carbonates. These findings provide new insights into understanding the lithium-ion mobility and its interplay with solvation structure and ultrafast dynamics in carbonate electrolytes used in lithium-ion batteries.

  15. Carbon dynamics after forest harvest in Central Siberia: the ZOTTO footprint area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, Alexey; Zrazhevskaya, Galina; Shibistova, Olga; Onuchin, Alexander; Heimann, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Temperate and boreal forests of the Northern Hemisphere have been recognized as important carbon sinks. Accurate calculation of forest carbon budget and estimation of the temporal variations of forest net carbon fluxes are important topics to elucidate the ''missing sink'' question and follow up the changing carbon dynamics in forests. In the frame of the ongoing Russian-German partner project the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO; www.zottoproject.org) a unique international research platform for large-scale climatic observations is operational about 20 km west of the Yenisei river (60.8°N; 89.35°E). The data of the ongoing greenhouse gas and aerosol measurements at the tall tower are used in atmospheric inversions studies to infer the distribution of carbon sinks and sources over the whole Northern Eurasia. The tall tower footprint area estimates of carbon stocks and fluxes are highly demanded for bottom-up validation of inversion estimates. The ZOTTO site lies in a vast region of forests and wetlands, still relatively undisturbed by anthropogenic influences, but a moderate human impact on vegetation, represented mainly by logging activities, becomes essential. Therefore, accurate estimates of carbon pools in vegetation and soil following harvesting are essential to inversion studies for ZOTTO and critical to predictions of both local ecosystem sustainability and global C exchange with the atmosphere. We present our investigation of carbon dynamics after forest harvest in the tall tower footprint area (~1000 km2). The changes in C pools and annual sequestration were quantified among several clear-cut lichen pine (Pinus sylvestris Lamb.) stands representing various stages of secondary succession with a "space-for-time substitution" technique. When viewed as a chronosequence, these stands represent snapshots showing how the effects of logging may propagate through time. The study concluded that ecosystems during the first 15 yrs after forest harvest become C

  16. Exact-exchange time-dependent density-functional theory for static and dynamic polarizabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, So; Ivanov, Stanislav; Bartlett, Rodney J.; Grabowski, Ireneusz

    2005-01-01

    Time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) employing the exact-exchange functional has been formulated on the basis of the optimized-effective-potential (OEP) method of Talman and Shadwick for second-order molecular properties and implemented into a Gaussian-basis-set, trial-vector algorithm. The only approximation involved, apart from the lack of correlation effects and the use of Gaussian-type basis functions, was the consistent use of the adiabatic approximation in the exchange kernel and in the linear response function. The static and dynamic polarizabilities and their anisotropy predicted by the TDDFT with exact exchange (TDOEP) agree accurately with the corresponding values from time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory, the exact-exchange counterpart in the wave function theory. The TDOEP is free from the nonphysical asymptotic decay of the exchange potential of most conventional density functionals or from any other manifestations of the incomplete cancellation of the self-interaction energy. The systematic overestimation of the absolute values and dispersion of polarizabilities that plagues most conventional TDDFT cannot be seen in the TDOEP

  17. Net ecosystem carbon exchange in three contrasting Mediterranean ecosystems – the effect of drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. David

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Droughts reduce gross primary production (GPP and ecosystem respiration (Reco, contributing to most of the inter-annual variability in terrestrial carbon sequestration. In seasonally dry climates (Mediterranean, droughts result from reductions in annual rainfall and changes in rain seasonality. We compared carbon fluxes measured by the eddy covariance technique in three contrasting ecosystems in southern Portugal: an evergreen oak woodland (savannah-like with ca.~21% tree crown cover, a grassland dominated by herbaceous annuals and a coppiced short-rotation eucalyptus plantation. During the experimental period (2003–2006 the eucalyptus plantation was always the strongest sink for carbon: net ecosystem exchange rate (NEE between −861 and −399 g C m−2 year−1. The oak woodland and the grassland were much weaker sinks for carbon: NEE varied in the oak woodland between −140 and −28 g C m−2 year−1 and in the grassland between −190 and +49 g C m−2 year−1. The eucalyptus stand had higher GPP and a lower proportion of GPP spent in respiration than the other systems. The higher GPP resulted from high leaf area duration (LAD, as a surrogate for the photosynthetic photon flux density absorbed by the canopy. The eucalyptus had also higher rain use efficiency (GPP per unit of rain volume and light use efficiency (the daily GPP per unit incident photosynthetic photon flux density than the other two ecosystems. The effects of a severe drought could be evaluated during the hydrological-year (i.e., from October to September of 2004–2005. Between October 2004 and June 2005 the precipitation was only 40% of the long-term average. In 2004–2005 all ecosystems had GPP lower than in wetter years and carbon sequestration was strongly restricted (less negative NEE. The grassland was a net source of carbon dioxide (+49 g C m−2 year−1. In the oak woodland a large proportion of GPP resulted from carbon assimilated by its annual vegetation

  18. Meson exchange current corrections to magnetic moments in quantum hadro-dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, T M; Price, C E; Shepard, J R [Colorado Univ., Boulder (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1990-11-15

    We have calculated pion exchange current corrections to the magnetic moments of closed shell {plus minus}1 particle nuclei near A=16 and 40 within the framework of quantum hadro-dynamics (QHD). We find that the correction is significant and that, in general, the agreement of the QHD isovector moments with experiment is worsened. Comparisons to previous non-relativistic calculations are also made. (orig.).

  19. Dynamic Model of the High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2009-01-01

    The present work involves the development of a model for predicting the dynamic temperature of a high temperature proton exchange membrane (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. The model is developed to test different thermal control strategies before implementing them in the actual system. The test system co...... elements for start-up, heat conduction through stack insulation, cathode air convection, and heating of the inlet gases in the manifold. Various measurements are presented to validate the model predictions of the stack temperatures....

  20. Oscillatory Energy Exchange Between Waves Coupled by a Dynamic Artificial Crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Karenowska, Alexy D.; Tiberkevich, Vasil S.; Chumak, Andrii V.; Serga, Alexander A.; Gregg, John F.; Slavin, Andrei N.; Hillebrands, Burkard

    2011-01-01

    We describe a general mechanism of controllable energy exchange between waves propagating in a dynamic artificial crystal. We show that if a spatial periodicity is temporarily imposed on the transmission properties of a wave-carrying medium whilst a wave is inside, this wave is coupled to a secondary counter-propagating wave and energy oscillates between the two. The oscillation frequency is determined by the width of the spectral band gap created by the periodicity and the frequency differen...

  1. Multiyear high-resolution carbon exchange over European croplands from the integration of observed crop yields into CarbonTracker Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combe, Marie; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Jordi; de Wit, Allard; Peters, Wouter

    2016-04-01

    Carbon exchange over croplands plays an important role in the European carbon cycle over daily-to-seasonal time scales. Not only do crops occupy one fourth of the European land area, but their photosynthesis and respiration are large and affect CO2 mole fractions at nearly every atmospheric CO2 monitoring site. A better description of this crop carbon exchange in our CarbonTracker Europe data assimilation system - which currently treats crops as unmanaged grasslands - could strongly improve its ability to constrain terrestrial carbon fluxes. Available long-term observations of crop yield, harvest, and cultivated area allow such improvements, when combined with the new crop-modeling framework we present. This framework can model the carbon fluxes of 10 major European crops at high spatial and temporal resolution, on a 12x12 km grid and 3-hourly time-step. The development of this framework is threefold: firstly, we optimize crop growth using the process-based WOrld FOod STudies (WOFOST) agricultural crop growth model. Simulated yields are downscaled to match regional crop yield observations from the Statistical Office of the European Union (EUROSTAT) by estimating a yearly regional parameter for each crop species: the yield gap factor. This step allows us to better represent crop phenology, to reproduce the observed multiannual European crop yields, and to construct realistic time series of the crop carbon fluxes (gross primary production, GPP, and autotrophic respiration, Raut) on a fine spatial and temporal resolution. Secondly, we combine these GPP and Raut fluxes with a simple soil respiration model to obtain the total ecosystem respiration (TER) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE). And thirdly, we represent the horizontal transport of carbon that follows crop harvest and its back-respiration into the atmosphere during harvest consumption. We distribute this carbon using observations of the density of human and ruminant populations from EUROSTAT. We assess the model

  2. Dynamics of riverine CO2 in the Yangtze River fluvial network and their implications for carbon evasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Lishan; Lu, Xi Xi; Liu, Shaoda

    2017-04-01

    Understanding riverine carbon dynamics is critical for not only better estimates of various carbon fluxes but also evaluating their significance in the global carbon budget. As an important pathway of global land-ocean carbon exchange, the Yangtze River has received less attention regarding its vertical carbon evasion compared with lateral transport. Using long-term water chemistry data, we calculated CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) from pH and alkalinity and examined its spatial and temporal dynamics and the impacts of environmental settings. With alkalinity ranging from 415 to > 3400 µeq L-1, the river waters were supersaturated with dissolved CO2, generally 2-20-fold the atmospheric equilibrium (i.e., 390 µatm). Changes in pCO2 were collectively controlled by carbon inputs from terrestrial ecosystems, hydrological regime, and rock weathering. High pCO2 values were observed spatially in catchments with abundant carbonate presence and seasonally in the wet season when recently fixed organic matter was exported into the river network. In-stream processing of organic matter facilitated CO2 production and sustained the high pCO2, although the alkalinity presented an apparent dilution effect with water discharge. The decreasing pCO2 from the smallest headwater streams through tributaries to the mainstem channel illustrates the significance of direct terrestrial carbon inputs in controlling riverine CO2. With a basin-wide mean pCO2 of 2662 ± 1240 µatm, substantial CO2 evasion from the Yangtze River fluvial network is expected. Future research efforts are needed to quantify the amount of CO2 evasion and assess its biogeochemical implications for watershed-scale carbon cycle. In view of the Yangtze River's relative importance in global carbon export, its CO2 evasion would be significant for global carbon budget.

  3. Structural Dynamics Control Allosteric Activation of Cytohesin Family Arf GTPase Exchange Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaby, Andrew W.; Das, Sanchaita; Chakravarthy, Srinivas; Irving, Thomas C.; Bilsel, Osman; Lambright, David G.

    2018-01-01

    Membrane dynamic processes including vesicle biogenesis depend on Arf guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) containing a catalytic Sec7 domain and a membrane-targeting module such as a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. The catalytic output of cytohesin family Arf GEFs is controlled by autoinhibitory interactions that impede accessibility of the exchange site in the Sec7 domain. These restraints can be relieved through activator Arf-GTP binding to an allosteric site comprising the PH domain and proximal autoinhibitory elements (Sec7-PH linker and C-terminal helix). Small-angle X-ray scattering and negative-stain electron microscopy were used to investigate the structural organization and conformational dynamics of cytohesin-3 (Grp1) in autoinhibited and active states. The results support a model in which hinge dynamics in the autoinhibited state expose the activator site for Arf-GTP binding, while subsequent C-terminal helix unlatching and repositioning unleash conformational entropy in the Sec7-PH linker to drive exposure of the exchange site.

  4. Functional Dynamics of Hexameric Helicase Probed by Hydrogen Exchange and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radou, Gaël; Dreyer, Frauke N.; Tuma, Roman; Paci, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    The biological function of large macromolecular assemblies depends on their structure and their dynamics over a broad range of timescales; for this reason, it is a significant challenge to investigate these assemblies using conventional experimental techniques. One of the most promising experimental techniques is hydrogen-deuterium exchange detected by mass spectrometry. Here, we describe to our knowledge a new computational method for quantitative interpretation of deuterium exchange kinetics and apply it to a hexameric viral helicase P4 that unwinds and translocates RNA into a virus capsid at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. Room-temperature dynamics probed by a hundred nanoseconds of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations is sufficient to predict the exchange kinetics of most sequence fragments and provide a residue-level interpretation of the low-resolution experimental results. The strategy presented here is also a valuable tool to validate experimental data, e.g., assignments, and to probe mechanisms that cannot be observed by x-ray crystallography, or that occur over timescales longer than those that can be realistically simulated, such as the opening of the hexameric ring. PMID:25140434

  5. Biological Apatite Formed from Polyphosphate and Alkaline Phosphatase May Exchange Oxygen Isotopes from Water through Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelon, S. J.; Stanley, S. Y.; Gorelikov, I.; Matsuura, N.

    2011-12-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition in bone mineral phosphate is known to reflect the local water composition, environmental humidity, and diet1. Once ingested, biochemical processes presumably equilibrate PO43- with "body water" by the many biochemical reactions involving PO43- 2. Blake et al. demonstrated that enzymatic release of PO43- from organophosphorus compounds, and microbial metabolism of dissolved orthophosphate, significantly exchange the oxygen in precipitated apatite within environmental water3,4, which otherwise does not exchange with water at low temperatures. One of the enzymes that can cleave phosphates from organic substrates is alkaline phosphastase5, the enzyme also associated with bone mineralization. The literature often states that the mineral in bone in hydroxylapatite, however the mineral in bone is carbonated apatite that also contains some fluoride6. Deprotonation of HPO32- occurs at pH 12, which is impossibly high for biological system, and the predominate carbonate species in solution at neutral pH is HCO3-. To produce an apatite mineral without a significant hydroxyl content, it is possible that apatite biomineralization occurs through a polyphosphate pathway, where the oxygen atom required to transform polyphosphate into individual phosphate ions is from carbonate: [PO3-]n + CO32- -> [PO3-]n-1 + PO43- + CO2. Alkaline phosphatase can depolymerise polyphosphate into orthophosphate5. If alkaline phosphatase cleaves an oxygen atom from a calcium-carbonate complex, then there is no requirement for removing a hydrogen atom from the HCO3- or HPO43- ions of body water to form bioapatite. A mix of 1 mL of 1 M calcium polyphosphate hydogel, or nano-particles of calcium polyphosphate, and amorphous calcium carbonate were reacted with alkaline phosphatase, and maintained at neutral to basic pH. After two weeks, carbonated apatite and other calcium phosphate minerals were identified by powder x-ray diffraction. Orthophosphate and unreacted

  6. Assessing net ecosystem carbon exchange of U S terrestrial ecosystems by integrating eddy covariance flux measurements and satellite observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Qianlai [Purdue University; Law, Beverly E. [Oregon State University; Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley; Ma, Siyan [University of California, Berkeley; Chen, Jiquan [University of Toledo, Toledo, OH; Richardson, Andrew [Harvard University; Melillo, Jerry [Marine Biological Laboratory; Davis, Ken J. [Pennsylvania State University; Hollinger, D. [USDA Forest Service; Wharton, Sonia [University of California, Davis; Falk, Matthias [University of California, Davis; Paw, U. Kyaw Tha [University of California, Davis; Oren, Ram [Duke University; Katulk, Gabriel G. [Duke University; Noormets, Asko [North Carolina State University; Fischer, Marc [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Verma, Shashi [University of Nebraska; Suyker, A. E. [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Cook, David R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Sun, G. [USDA Forest Service; McNulty, Steven G. [USDA Forest Service; Wofsy, Steve [Harvard University; Bolstad, Paul V [University of Minnesota; Burns, Sean [University of Colorado, Boulder; Monson, Russell K. [University of Colorado, Boulder; Curtis, Peter [Ohio State University, The, Columbus; Drake, Bert G. [Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD; Foster, David R. [Harvard University; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL; Hadley, Julian L. [Harvard University; Litvak, Marcy [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Martin, Timothy A. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Matamala, Roser [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Meyers, Tilden [NOAA, Oak Ridge, TN; Oechel, Walter C. [San Diego State University; Schmid, H. P. [Indiana University; Scott, Russell L. [USDA ARS; Torn, Margaret S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2011-01-01

    More accurate projections of future carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere and associated climate change depend on improved scientific understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Despite the consensus that U.S. terrestrial ecosystems provide a carbon sink, the size, distribution, and interannual variability of this sink remain uncertain. Here we report a terrestrial carbon sink in the conterminous U.S. at 0.63 pg C yr 1 with the majority of the sink in regions dominated by evergreen and deciduous forests and savannas. This estimate is based on our continuous estimates of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) with high spatial (1 km) and temporal (8-day) resolutions derived from NEE measurements from eddy covariance flux towers and wall-to-wall satellite observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We find that the U.S. terrestrial ecosystems could offset a maximum of 40% of the fossil-fuel carbon emissions. Our results show that the U.S. terrestrial carbon sink varied between 0.51 and 0.70 pg C yr 1 over the period 2001 2006. The dominant sources of interannual variation of the carbon sink included extreme climate events and disturbances. Droughts in 2002 and 2006 reduced the U.S. carbon sink by 20% relative to a normal year. Disturbances including wildfires and hurricanes reduced carbon uptake or resulted in carbon release at regional scales. Our results provide an alternative, independent, and novel constraint to the U.S. terrestrial carbon sink.

  7. Extraction of Co ions from ion-exchange resin by supercritical carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Min Su; Koh, Moon Sung; Yang, Sung Woo; Park, Kwang Heon; Kim, Hak Won; Kim, Hong Doo

    2005-01-01

    There are a number of liquid treatment processes for eliminating radioactive ionic contaminants in nuclear facilities. One of the most common treatment methods for aqueous streams is the use of ion exchange, which is a well-developed technique that has been employed for many years in the nuclear industry. More specifically speaking, systems that ion exchange method is applied to in nuclear power plants are liquid radioactive waste treatment system, chemical and volume control system, steam generator blowdown treatment system, and service water supply system. During the operation of nuclear power plants, radioactive contaminants such as Co-60, Mn-54, Fe-59 and Cs-137 are contained in liquid radioactive wastes. And the wastes containing small amount of uranium are generated in nuclear fuel cycle facilities. To treat the liquid radioactive waste, we usually install ion exchangers rather than evaporators due to their simplicity and effectiveness, and this trend is increasing. However, the ion exchange process produces large volume of spent organic resin, and has some problems of radiation damage and thermal instability. And the reuse of the resin is limited due to the degradation of ion-exchanging ability. For this reason, were should consider a better method to expand the lifetime of the resin or to reduce the volume of radioactive resin wastes by extracting radioactive contaminants located in the resin. Supercritical fluid CO 2 has many good points as a process solvent that include low viscosity, negligible surface tension, and variable selectivity. And supercritical fluids have physical properties of both liquid and gas such as good penetration with a high dissolution capability. Supercritical fluids have been widely used in extraction, purification, and recovery processes. A number of workers applied supercritical CO 2 solvent for cleaning of precision devices and waste treatments. Since supercritical CO 2 has its mild critical point at 31 and 73.8bar as .deg. C

  8. Human impacts on 20th century fire dynamics and implications for global carbon and water trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Lawrence, David M.; Bond-Lamberty, Ben

    2018-03-01

    Fire is a fundamental Earth system process and the primary ecosystem disturbance on the global scale. It affects carbon and water cycles through changing terrestrial ecosystems, and at the same time, is regulated by weather and climate, vegetation characteristics, and, importantly, human ignitions and suppression (i.e., the direct human effect on fire). Here, we utilize the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) to quantify the impacts of changes in human ignition and suppression on fire dynamics and associated carbon and water cycles. We find that the impact is to significantly reduce the 20th century global burned area by a century average of 38 Mha/yr and by 103 Mha/yr at the end of the century. Land carbon gain is weakened by 17% over the 20th century, mainly due to increased human deforestation fires and associated escape fires (i.e., degradation fires) in the tropical humid forests, even though the decrease in burned area in many other regions due to human fire suppression acts to increase land carbon gain. The direct human effect on fire weakens the upward trend in global runoff throughout the century by 6% and enhances the upward trend in global evapotranspiration since 1945 by 7%. In addition, the above impacts in densely populated, highly developed (if population density > 0.1 person/km2), or moderately populated and developed regions are of opposite sign to those in other regions. Our study suggests that particular attention should be paid to human deforestation and degradation fires in the tropical humid forests when reconstructing and projecting fire carbon emissions and net atmosphere-land carbon exchange and estimating resultant impacts of direct human effect on fire.

  9. Human impacts on 20th century fire dynamics and implications for global carbon and water trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fang; Lawrence, David M.; Bond-Lamberty, Ben

    2018-03-01

    Fire is a fundamental Earth system process and the primary ecosystem disturbance on the global scale. It affects carbon and water cycles through changing terrestrial ecosystems, and at the same time, is regulated by weather and climate, vegetation characteristics, and, importantly, human ignitions and suppression (i.e., the direct human effect on fire). Here, we utilize the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) to quantify the impacts of changes in human ignition and suppression on fire dynamics and associated carbon and water cycles. We find that the impact is to significantly reduce the 20th century global burned area by a century average of 38 Mha/yr and by 103 Mha/yr at the end of the century. Land carbon gain is weakened by 17% over the 20th century, mainly due to increased human deforestation fires and associated escape fires (i.e., degradation fires) in the tropical humid forests, even though the decrease in burned area in many other regions due to human fire suppression acts to increase land carbon gain. The direct human effect on fire weakens the upward trend in global runoff throughout the century by 6% and enhances the upward trend in global evapotranspiration since ~ 1945 by 7%. In addition, the above impacts in densely populated, highly developed (if population density > 0.1 person/km2), or moderately populated and developed regions are of opposite sign to those in other regions. Our study suggests that particular attention should be paid to human deforestation and degradation fires in the tropical humid forests when reconstructing and projecting fire carbon emissions and net atmosphere-land carbon exchange and estimating resultant impacts of direct human effect on fire.

  10. Merging constitutional and motional covalent dynamics in reversible imine formation and exchange processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaříček, Petr; Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2012-06-06

    The formation and exchange processes of imines of salicylaldehyde, pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, and benzaldehyde have been studied, showing that the former has features of particular interest for dynamic covalent chemistry, displaying high efficiency and fast rates. The monoimines formed with aliphatic α,ω-diamines display an internal exchange process of self-transimination type, inducing a local motion of either "stepping-in-place" or "single-step" type by bond interchange, whose rate decreases rapidly with the distance of the terminal amino groups. Control of the speed of the process over a wide range may be achieved by substituents, solvent composition, and temperature. These monoimines also undergo intermolecular exchange, thus merging motional and constitutional covalent behavior within the same molecule. With polyamines, the monoimines formed execute internal motions that have been characterized by extensive one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and EXSY proton NMR studies. In particular, with linear polyamines, nondirectional displacement occurs by shifting of the aldehyde residue along the polyamine chain serving as molecular track. Imines thus behave as simple prototypes of systems displaying relative motions of molecular moieties, a subject of high current interest in the investigation of synthetic and biological molecular motors. The motional processes described are of dynamic covalent nature and take place without change in molecular constitution. They thus represent a category of dynamic covalent motions, resulting from reversible covalent bond formation and dissociation. They extend dynamic covalent chemistry into the area of molecular motions. A major further step will be to achieve control of directionality. The results reported here for imines open wide perspectives, together with other chemical groups, for the implementation of such features in multifunctional molecules toward the design of molecular devices presenting a complex combination of

  11. The dynamic response of carbon fiber-filled polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson B.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic (shock responses of two carbon fiber-filled polymer composites have been quantified using gas gun-driven plate impact experimentation. The first composite is a filament-wound, highly unidirectional carbon fiber-filled epoxy with a high degree of porosity. The second composite is a chopped carbon fiber- and graphite-filled phenolic resin with little-to-no porosity. Hugoniot data are presented for the carbon fiber-epoxy (CE composite to 18.6 GPa in the through-thickness direction, in which the shock propagates normal to the fibers. The data are best represented by a linear Rankine-Hugoniot fit: Us = 2.87 + 1.17 ×up(ρ0 = 1.536g/cm3. The shock wave structures were found to be highly heterogeneous, both due to the anisotropic nature of the fiber-epoxy microstructure, and the high degree of void volume. Plate impact experiments were also performed on a carbon fiber-filled phenolic (CP composite to much higher shock input pressures, exceeding the reactants-to-products transition common to polymers. The CP was found to be stiffer than the filament-wound CE in the unreacted Hugoniot regime, and transformed to products near the shock-driven reaction threshold on the principal Hugoniot previously shown for the phenolic binder itself. [19] On-going research is focused on interrogating the direction-dependent dyanamic response and dynamic failure strength (spall for the CE composite in the TT and 0∘ (fiber directions.

  12. Simulating carbon exchange using a regional atmospheric model coupled to an advanced land-surface model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ter Maat, H.W.; Hutjes, R.W.A.; Miglietta, F.; Gioli, B.; Bosveld, F.C.; Vermeulen, A.T.; Fritsch, H.

    2010-08-01

    This paper is a case study to investigate what the main controlling factors are that determine atmospheric carbon dioxide content for a region in the centre of The Netherlands. We use the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS), coupled with a land surface scheme simulating carbon, heat and momentum fluxes (SWAPS-C), and including also submodels for urban and marine fluxes, which in principle should include the dominant mechanisms and should be able to capture the relevant dynamics of the system. To validate the model, observations are used that were taken during an intensive observational campaign in central Netherlands in summer 2002. These include flux-tower observations and aircraft observations of vertical profiles and spatial fluxes of various variables.

  13. Seasonal variation in carbon dioxide exchange over a Mediterranean annual grassland in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, L; Baldocchi, D

    2004-05-01

    Understanding how environmental variables affect the processes that regulate the carbon flux over grassland is critical for large-scale modeling research, since grasslands comprise almost one-third of the earth's natural vegetation. To address this issue, fluxes of CO{sub 2} (F{sub c}, flux toward the surface is negative) were measured over a Mediterranean, annual grassland in California, USA for 2 years with the eddy covariance method. To interpret the biotic and abiotic factors that modulate F{sub c} over the course of a year we decomposed net ecosystem CO{sub 2} exchange into its constituent components, ecosystem respiration (R{sub eco}) and gross primary production (GPP). Daytime R{sub eco} was extrapolated from the relationship between temperature and nighttime F{sub c} under high turbulent conditions. Then, GPP was estimated by subtracting daytime values of F{sub c} from daytime estimates of R{sub eco}. Results show that most of carbon exchange, both photosynthesis and respiration, was limited to the wet season (typically from October to mid-May). Seasonal variations in GPP followed closely to changes in leaf area index, which in turn was governed by soil moisture, available sunlight and the timing of the last frost. In general, R{sub eco} was an exponential function of soil temperature, but with season-dependent values of Q{sub 10}. The temperature-dependent respiration model failed immediately after rain events, when large pulses of R{sub eco} were observed. Respiration pulses were especially notable during the dry season when the grass was dead and were the consequence of quickly stimulated microbial activity. Integrated values of GPP, R{sub eco}, and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) were 867, 735, and -132g C m{sup -2}, respectively, for the 2000-2001 season, and 729, 758, and 29g C m{sup -2} for the 2001-2002 season. Thus, the grassland was a moderate carbon sink during the first season and a weak carbon source during the second season. In contrast to a

  14. The Role of Stream Water Carbon Dynamics and Export in the Carbon Balance of a Tropical Seasonal Rainforest, Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Schaefer, Douglas A.; Sha, Li-Qing; Deng, Yun; Deng, Xiao-Bao; Dai, Kai-Jie

    2013-01-01

    A two-year study (2009 ∼ 2010) was carried out to investigate the dynamics of different carbon (C) forms, and the role of stream export in the C balance of a 23.4-ha headwater catchment in a tropical seasonal rainforest at Xishuangbanna (XSBN), southwest China. The seasonal volumetric weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of total inorganic C (TIC) and dissolved inorganic C (DIC) were higher, and particulate inorganic C (PIC) and organic C (POC) were lower, in the dry season than the rainy season, while the VWM concentrations of total organic C (TOC) and dissolved organic C (DOC) were similar between seasons. With increased monthly stream discharge and stream water temperature (SWT), only TIC and DIC concentrations decreased significantly. The most important C form in stream export was DIC, accounting for 51.8% of the total C (TC) export; DOC, POC, and PIC accounted for 21.8%, 14.9%, and 11.5% of the TC export, respectively. Dynamics of C flux were closely related to stream discharge, with the greatest export during the rainy season. C export in the headwater stream was 47.1 kg C ha−1 yr−1, about 2.85% of the annual net ecosystem exchange. This finding indicates that stream export represented a minor contribution to the C balance in this tropical seasonal rainforest. PMID:23437195

  15. The role of stream water carbon dynamics and export in the carbon balance of a tropical seasonal rainforest, southwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jun Zhou

    Full Text Available A two-year study (2009 ~ 2010 was carried out to investigate the dynamics of different carbon (C forms, and the role of stream export in the C balance of a 23.4-ha headwater catchment in a tropical seasonal rainforest at Xishuangbanna (XSBN, southwest China. The seasonal volumetric weighted mean (VWM concentrations of total inorganic C (TIC and dissolved inorganic C (DIC were higher, and particulate inorganic C (PIC and organic C (POC were lower, in the dry season than the rainy season, while the VWM concentrations of total organic C (TOC and dissolved organic C (DOC were similar between seasons. With increased monthly stream discharge and stream water temperature (SWT, only TIC and DIC concentrations decreased significantly. The most important C form in stream export was DIC, accounting for 51.8% of the total C (TC export; DOC, POC, and PIC accounted for 21.8%, 14.9%, and 11.5% of the TC export, respectively. Dynamics of C flux were closely related to stream discharge, with the greatest export during the rainy season. C export in the headwater stream was 47.1 kg C ha(-1 yr(-1, about 2.85% of the annual net ecosystem exchange. This finding indicates that stream export represented a minor contribution to the C balance in this tropical seasonal rainforest.

  16. The influence of macroeconomic factors to the dynamics of stock exchange in the republic of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakizada Uteulievna Niyazbekova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the influence of macroeconomic factors on Kazakhstan Stock Exchange Market by using data from 2005 to 2014. Engle-Granger cointegration test has shown that stock index is cointegrated with the exchange rate, interest rate, CPI and oil price. Vector error correction model has confirmed that macroeconomic variables and the stock index has a long-term equilibrium relationship. Moreover, empirical results have shown that stock index can be used as a leading indicator of the economic situation in Kazakhstan. Therefore, the authors decided to consider the impact of major macroeconomic indicators to the dynamics of the stock market of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The Engle-Granger cointegration test results show that the following variables such as exchange rate, 10-years long-term bond rate, the consumer price index and the Brent oil price are cointegrated with stock index, which means that there is a long-term relationship between this stock market index and these variables. With the help of econometric models, the authors have found the factors such as the exchange rate, the 10-year long-term bonds rate, the consumer price index and the Brent oil price (these factors have the long-term relationship with stock market index. Changes in the dynamics of the stock market index in Kazakhstan are caused by changes in the dynamics of Central bank's reserves and export. The analysis has shown that the economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan (the index reflects the situation in the real sector of the economy remains dependent on world oil prices, the volume of exports and the rate of the national currency

  17. Dynamic Response of Functionally Graded Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Sandwich Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehar, Kulmani; Panda, Subrata Kumar

    2018-03-01

    In this article, the dynamic response of the carbon nanotube-reinforced functionally graded sandwich composite plate has been studied numerically with the help of finite element method. The face sheets of the sandwich composite plate are made of carbon nanotube- reinforced composite for two different grading patterns whereas the core phase is taken as isotropic material. The final properties of the structure are calculated using the rule of mixture. The geometrical model of the sandwich plate is developed and discretized suitably with the help of available shell element in ANSYS library. Subsequently, the corresponding numerical dynamic responses computed via batch input technique (parametric design language code in ANSYS) of ANSYS including Newmark’s integration scheme. The stability of the sandwich structural numerical model is established through the proper convergence study. Further, the reliability of the sandwich model is checked by comparison study between present and available results from references. As a final point, some numerical problems have been solved to examine the effect of different design constraints (carbon nanotube distribution pattern, core to face thickness ratio, volume fractions of the nanotube, length to thickness ratio, aspect ratio and constraints at edges) on the time-responses of sandwich plate.

  18. A diagnostic study of temperature controls on global terrestrial carbon exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukicevic, Tomislava; Schimel, David

    2001-01-01

    The observed interannual variability of atmospheric CO 2 reflects short-term variability in sources and sinks of CO 2 . Analyses using 13 C and O 2 suggest that much of the observed interannual variability is due to changes in terrestrial CO 2 exchange. First principles, empirical correlations and process models suggest a link between climate variation and net ecosystem exchange, but the scaling of ecological process studies to the globe is notoriously difficult. We sought to identify a component of global CO 2 exchange that varied coherently with land temperature anomalies using an inverse modeling approach. We developed a family of simplified spatially aggregated ecosystem models (designated K-model versions) consisting of five compartments: atmospheric CO 2 , live vegetation, litter, and two soil pools that differ in turnover times. The pools represent cumulative differences from mean storage due to temperature variability and can thus have positive or negative values. Uptake and respiration of CO 2 are assumed to be linearly dependent on temperature. One model version includes a simple representation of the nitrogen cycle in which changes in the litter and soil carbon pools result in stoichiometric release of plant-available nitrogen, the other omits the nitrogen feedback. The model parameters were estimated by inversion of the model against global temperature and CO 2 anomaly data using the variational method. We found that the temperature sensitivity of carbon uptake (NPP) was less than that of respiration in all model versions. Analyses of model and data also showed that temperature anomalies trigger ecosystem changes on multiple, lagged time-scales. Other recent studies have suggested a more active land biosphere at Northern latitudes in response to warming and longer growing seasons. Our results indicate that warming should increase NPP, consistent with this theory, but that respiration should increase more than NPP, leading to decreased or negative NEP. A

  19. Effect of exchangeable cation concentration on sorption and desorption of dissolved organic carbon in saline soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Raj; Rengasamy, Pichu; Marschner, Petra

    2013-11-01

    Sorption is a very important factor in stabilization of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in soils and thus C sequestration. Saline soils have significant potential for C sequestration but little is known about the effect of type and concentration of cations on sorption and release of DOC in salt-affected soils. To close this knowledge gap, three batch sorption and desorption experiments were conducted using soils treated with solutions either low or high in salinity. In Experiment 1, salinity was developed with either NaCl or CaCl2 to obtain an electrical conductivity (EC) in a 1:5 soil: water extract (EC1:5) of 2 and 4 dS m(-1). In Experiments 2 and 3, NaCl and CaCl2 were added in various proportions (between 25 and 100%) to obtain an EC1:5 of 0.5 and 4 dS m(-1), respectively. At EC1:5 of 4 dS m(-1), the sorption of DOC (derived from wheat straw) was high even at a low proportion of added Ca(2+) and did not change with proportion of Ca added, but at EC1:5 of 0.5 dS m(-1) increasing proportion of Ca(2+) added increased DOC sorption. This can be explained by the differences in exchangeable Ca(2+) at the two salinity levels. At EC1:5 of 4 dS m(-1), the exchangeable Ca(2+) concentration did not increase beyond a proportion of 25% Ca(2+), whereas it increased with increasing Ca(2+) proportion in the treatments at EC1:5 of 0.5 dS m(-1). The DOC sorption was lowest with a proportion of 100% as Na(+). When Ca(2+) was added, DOC sorption was highest, but least was desorbed (with deionised water), thus sorption and desorption of added DOC were inversely related. The results of this study suggest that DOC sorption in salt-affected soils is mainly controlled by the levels of exchangeable Ca(2+) irrespective of the Ca(2+) concentration in the soil solution which has implications on carbon stabilization in salt-affected soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Inter-Annual Variability Analysis of Carbon Exchange in Low Artic Fen Uncovers The Climate Sensitivity And The Uncertainties Around Net Ecosystem Exchange Partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, E. L.; Lund, M.; Williams, M. D.; Christensen, T. R.; Tamstorf, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    An improvement in our process-based understanding of CO2 exchanges in the Arctic, and their climate sensitivity, is critical for examining the role of tundra ecosystems in changing climates. Arctic organic carbon storage has seen increased attention in recent years due to large potential for carbon releases following thaw. Our knowledge about the exact scale and sensitivity for a phase-change of these C stocks are, however, limited. Minor variations in Gross Primary Production (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (Reco) driven by changes in the climate can lead to either C sink or C source states, which likely will impact the overall C cycle of the ecosystem. Eddy covariance data is usually used to partition Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) into GPP and Reco achieved by flux separation algorithms. However, different partitioning approaches lead to different estimates. as well as undefined uncertainties. The main objectives of this study are to use model-data fusion approaches to (1) determine the inter-annual variability in C source/sink strength for an Arctic fen, and attribute such variations to GPP vs Reco, (2) investigate the climate sensitivity of these processes and (3) explore the uncertainties in NEE partitioning. The intention is to elaborate on the information gathered in an existing catchment area under an extensive cross-disciplinary ecological monitoring program in low Arctic West Greenland, established under the auspices of the Greenland Ecosystem Monitoring (GEM) program. The use of such a thorough long-term (7 years) dataset applied to the exploration in inter-annual variability of carbon exchange, related driving factors and NEE partition uncertainties provides a novel input into our understanding about land-atmosphere CO2 exchange.

  1. Ozone effects on Sphagnum mosses, carbon dioxide exchange and methane emission in boreal peatland microcosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, Riikka; Holopainen, Toini; Martikainen, Pertti J.; Silvola, Jouko

    2002-01-01

    Microcosms of a boreal peatland originating from an oligotrophic fen in Eastern Finland were fumigated under four ozone concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 150 ppb O 3 ) in laboratory growth chambers during two separate experiments (autumn and summer) for 4 and 6 weeks, respectively. Ozone effects on Sphagnum mosses and the fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane were evaluated. In both experiments, the three Sphagnum species studied showed only a few significant responses to ozone. In the autumn experiment, membrane permeability of S. angustifolium, measured as conductivity and magnesium leakage, was significantly higher under ozone fumigation (P=0.005 and 2 exchange during the 6-week-long summer experiment, but dark ecosystem respiration was transiently increased by ozone concentration of 100 ppb after 14 days of exposure (P<0.05). Fumigation with 100 ppb of ozone, however, more than doubled (P<0.05) methane emission from the peatland monoliths. Our results suggest that increasing tropospheric ozone concentration may cause substantial changes in the carbon gas cycling of boreal peatlands, even though these changes are not closely associated with the changes in Sphagnum vegetation

  2. Erythrocyte-like hollow carbon capsules and their application in proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Ho; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2010-12-14

    Hierarchical nanostructured erythrocyte-like hollow carbon (EHC) with a hollow hemispherical macroporous core of ca. 230 nm in diameter and 30-40 nm thick mesoporous shell was synthesized and explored as a cathode catalyst support in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The morphology control of EHC was successfully achieved using solid core/mesoporous shell (SCMS) silica template and different styrene/furfuryl alcohol mixture compositions by a nanocasting method. The EHC-supported Pt (20 wt%) cathodes prepared have demonstrated markedly enhanced catalytic activity towards oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) and greatly improved PEMFC polarization performance compared to carbon black Vulcan XC-72 (VC)-supported ones, probably due to the superb structural characteristics of the EHC such as uniform size, well-developed porosity, large specific surface area and pore volume. In particular, Pt/EHC cathodes exhibited ca. 30-60% higher ORR activity than a commercial Johnson Matthey Pt catalyst at a low catalyst loading of 0.2 mg Pt cm(-2).

  3. Modeling net ecosystem carbon exchange of alpine grasslands with a satellite-driven model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yan

    Full Text Available Estimate of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems, the balance of gross primary productivity (GPP and ecosystem respiration (Reco has significant importance for studying the regional and global carbon cycles. Using models driven by satellite data and climatic data is a promising approach to estimate NEE at regional scales. For this purpose, we proposed a semi-empirical model to estimate NEE in this study. In our model, the component GPP was estimated with a light response curve of a rectangular hyperbola. The component Reco was estimated with an exponential function of soil temperature. To test the feasibility of applying our model at regional scales, the temporal variations in the model parameters derived from NEE observations in an alpine grassland ecosystem on Tibetan Plateau were investigated. The results indicated that all the inverted parameters exhibit apparent seasonality, which is in accordance with air temperature and canopy phenology. In addition, all the parameters have significant correlations with the remote sensed vegetation indexes or environment temperature. With parameters estimated with these correlations, the model illustrated fair accuracy both in the validation years and at another alpine grassland ecosystem on Tibetan Plateau. Our results also indicated that the model prediction was less accurate in drought years, implying that soil moisture is an important factor affecting the model performance. Incorporating soil water content into the model would be a critical step for the improvement of the model.

  4. Dynamic adsorption property of xenon on activated carbon and carbon molecular sieves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Shujuan; Zhou Guoqing; Jin Yuren; Zhou Chongyang

    2010-01-01

    In order to select well adsorptive xenon adsorbent, the dynamic adsorption property of xenon on activated carbon and carbon molecular sieves (CMS) was studied by measuring the xenon dynamic adsorption coefficient as a function velocity of gas, temperature, carrier gas, pressure and concentration of CO 2 . The results show that the highest value of xenon dynamic adsorption coefficient is on CMS1, and the second highest value is on CMS2; when the xenon concentration is less than 10 -5 mol/L or concentration of CO 2 is less than 5 x 10 -5 mol/L, the xenon dynamic adsorption coefficient nearly keeps constant at the specific experimental flow rate. Then the xenon dynamic adsorption coefficient would vary when it was mixed with different kind of carrier gas and become less at more than 5 x 10 -5 mol/L concentration of CO 2 . And the maximal effect factors are temperature and pressure. Therefore, the feasible measures to improve the xenon capability are to cool the adsorbent and increase adsorption pressure. (authors)

  5. Quantitative chemical exchange saturation transfer with hyperpolarized nuclei (qHyper-CEST): sensing xenon-host exchange dynamics and binding affinities by NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunth, M; Witte, C; Schröder, L

    2014-11-21

    The reversible binding of xenon to host molecules has found numerous applications in nuclear magnetic resonance studies. Quantitative characterization of the Xe exchange dynamics is important to understand and optimize the physico-chemical behavior of such Xe hosts, but is often challenging to achieve at low host concentrations. We have investigated a sensitive quantification technique based on chemical exchange saturation transfer with hyperpolarized nuclei, qHyper-CEST. Using simulated signals we demonstrated that qHyper-CEST yielded accurate and precise results and was robust in the presence of large amounts of noise (10%). This is of particular importance for samples with completely unknown exchange rates. Using these findings we experimentally determined the following exchange parameters for the Xe host cryptophane-A monoacid in dimethyl sulfoxide in one type of experiment: the ratio of bound and free Xe, the Xe exchange rate, the resonance frequencies of free and bound Xe, the Xe host occupancy, and the Xe binding constant. Taken together, qHyper-CEST facilitates sensitive quantification of the Xe exchange dynamics and binding to hydrophobic cavities and has the potential to analyze many different host systems or binding sites. This makes qHyper-CEST an indispensable tool for the efficient design of highly specific biosensors.

  6. Growing up with stress - carbon sequestration and allocation dynamics of a broadleaf evergreen forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebel, Anne; Bennett, Lauren T.; Arndt, Stefan K.

    2016-04-01

    Evergreen forests have the potential to sequester carbon year-round due to the presence of leaves with a multi-year lifespan. Eucalypt forests occur in warmer climates where temperature and radiation are not imposing a strong seasonality. Thus, unlike deciduous or many coniferous trees, many eucalypts grow opportunistically as conditions allow. As such, many eucalypts do not produce distinct growth rings, which present challenges to the implementation of standard methods and data interpretation approaches for monitoring and explaining carbon allocation dynamics in response to climatic stress. As a consequence, there is a lack of detailed understanding of seasonal growth dynamics of evergreen forests as a whole, and, in particular, of the influence of climatic drivers on carbon allocation to the various biomass pools. We used a multi-instrument approach in a mixed species eucalypt forest to investigate the influence of climatic drivers on the seasonal growth dynamics of a predominantly temperate and moisture-regulated environment in south-eastern Australia. Ecosystem scale observations of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from a flux tower in the Wombat forest near Melbourne indicated that the ecosystem is a year-round carbon sink, but that intra-annual variations in temperature and moisture along with prolonged heat waves and dry spells resulted in a wide range of annual sums over the past three years (NEE ranging from ~4 to 12 t C ha-1 yr-1). Dendrometers were used to monitor stem increments of the three dominant eucalypt species. Stem expansion was generally opportunistic with the greatest increments under warm but moist conditions (often in spring and autumn), and the strongest indicators of stem growth dynamics being radiation, vapour pressure deficit and a combined heat-moisture index. Differences in the seasonality of stem increments between species were largely due to differences in the canopy position of sampled individuals. The greatest stem increments were

  7. Coupled carbon-water exchange of the Amazon rain forest. I. Model description, parameterization and sensitivity analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, E.; Meixner, F.X.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2005-01-01

    Detailed one-dimensional multilayer biosphere-atmosphere models, also referred to as CANVEG models, are used for more than a decade to describe coupled water-carbon exchange between the terrestrial vegetation and the lower atmosphere. Within the present study, a modified CANVEG scheme is described.

  8. Replica Exchange Gaussian Accelerated Molecular Dynamics: Improved Enhanced Sampling and Free Energy Calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Ming M; McCammon, J Andrew; Miao, Yinglong

    2018-04-10

    Through adding a harmonic boost potential to smooth the system potential energy surface, Gaussian accelerated molecular dynamics (GaMD) provides enhanced sampling and free energy calculation of biomolecules without the need of predefined reaction coordinates. This work continues to improve the acceleration power and energy reweighting of the GaMD by combining the GaMD with replica exchange algorithms. Two versions of replica exchange GaMD (rex-GaMD) are presented: force constant rex-GaMD and threshold energy rex-GaMD. During simulations of force constant rex-GaMD, the boost potential can be exchanged between replicas of different harmonic force constants with fixed threshold energy. However, the algorithm of threshold energy rex-GaMD tends to switch the threshold energy between lower and upper bounds for generating different levels of boost potential. Testing simulations on three model systems, including the alanine dipeptide, chignolin, and HIV protease, demonstrate that through continuous exchanges of the boost potential, the rex-GaMD simulations not only enhance the conformational transitions of the systems but also narrow down the distribution width of the applied boost potential for accurate energetic reweighting to recover biomolecular free energy profiles.

  9. Isovector meson-exchange currents in the light-front dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desplanques, B.; Karmanov, V.A.; Mathiot, J.F.

    1994-09-01

    In the light-front dynamics, there is no pair term that plays the role of the dominant isovector pion exchange current. This current gives rise to the large and experimentally observed contribution to the deuteron electrodisintegration cross-section near threshold for pseudo-scalar πNN coupling. It is analytically shown that in leading 1/m order the amplitude in the light-front dynamics coincides, however, with the one given by the pair term. At high Q 2 , it consists of two equal parts. One comes from extra components of the deuteron and final state relativistic wave functions. The other results from the contact NNπγ interaction which appears in the light-front dynamics. This provides a transparent link between relativistic and non-relativistic approaches. (author). 16 refs., 4 figs

  10. Global investigation of the nonlinear dynamics of carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Tiantian

    2016-11-17

    Understanding the complex nonlinear dynamics of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is essential to enable utilization of these structures in devices and practical applications. We present in this work an investigation of the global nonlinear dynamics of a slacked CNT when actuated by large electrostatic and electrodynamic excitations. The coexistence of several attractors is observed. The CNT is modeled as an Euler–Bernoulli beam. A reduced-order model based on the Galerkin method is developed and utilized to simulate the static and dynamic responses. Critical computational challenges are posed due to the complicated form of the electrostatic force, which describes the interaction between the upper electrode, consisting of the cylindrically shaped CNT, and the lower electrode. Toward this, we approximate the electrostatic force using the Padé expansion. We explore the dynamics near the primary and superharmonic resonances. The nanostructure exhibits several attractors with different characteristics. To achieve deep insight and describe the complexity and richness of the behavior, we analyze the nonlinear response from an attractor-basins point of view. The competition of attractors is highlighted. Compactness and/or fractality of their basins are discussed. Both the effects of varying the excitation frequency and amplitude are examined up to the dynamic pull-in instability.

  11. Dynamic recrystallization behavior of a medium carbon vanadium microalloyed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Hai-lian; Liu, Guo-quan; Xiao, Xiang; Zhang, Ming-he

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic recrystallization behavior of a medium carbon vanadium microalloyed steel was systematically investigated at the temperatures from 900 °C to 1100 °C and strain rates from 0.01 s −1 to 10 s −1 on a Gleeble-1500 thermo-simulation machine. The flow stress constitutive equation of hot deformation for this steel was developed with the activation energy Q being about 273 kJ/mol, which is in reasonable agreement with those reported before. Activation energy analysis showed that vanadium addition in microalloyed steels seemed not to affect the activation energy much. The effect of Zener–Hollomon parameter on the characteristic points of flow curves was studied using the power law relation, and the dependence of critical strain (stress) on peak strain (stress) obeyed a linear equation. Dynamic recrystallization is the most important softening mechanism for the experimental steel during hot compression. The dynamic recrystallization kinetics model of this steel was established based on flow stress and a frequently-used dynamic recrystallization kinetics equation. Dynamic recrystallization microstructure under different deformation conditions was also observed and the dependence of steady-state grain size on the Zener–Hollomon parameter was plotted

  12. Short-term acclimation to warmer temperatures accelerates leaf carbon exchange processes across plant types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas G; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2017-11-01

    While temperature responses of photosynthesis and plant respiration are known to acclimate over time in many species, few studies have been designed to directly compare process-level differences in acclimation capacity among plant types. We assessed short-term (7 day) temperature acclimation of the maximum rate of Rubisco carboxylation (V cmax ), the maximum rate of electron transport (J max ), the maximum rate of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase carboxylation (V pmax ), and foliar dark respiration (R d ) in 22 plant species that varied in lifespan (annual and perennial), photosynthetic pathway (C 3 and C 4 ), and climate of origin (tropical and nontropical) grown under fertilized, well-watered conditions. In general, acclimation to warmer temperatures increased the rate of each process. The relative increase in different photosynthetic processes varied by plant type, with C 3 species tending to preferentially accelerate CO 2 -limited photosynthetic processes and respiration and C 4 species tending to preferentially accelerate light-limited photosynthetic processes under warmer conditions. R d acclimation to warmer temperatures caused a reduction in temperature sensitivity that resulted in slower rates at high leaf temperatures. R d acclimation was similar across plant types. These results suggest that temperature acclimation of the biochemical processes that underlie plant carbon exchange is common across different plant types, but that acclimation to warmer temperatures tends to have a relatively greater positive effect on the processes most limiting to carbon assimilation, which differ by plant type. The acclimation responses observed here suggest that warmer conditions should lead to increased rates of carbon assimilation when water and nutrients are not limiting. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Evaluation and inversion of a net ecosystem carbon exchange model for grasslands and croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, M.; Klosterhalfen, A.; Weihermueller, L.; Graf, A.; Schmidt, M.; Huisman, J. A.; Vereecken, H.

    2017-12-01

    A one-dimensional soil water, heat, and CO2 flux model (SOILCO2), a pool concept of soil carbon turnover (RothC), and a crop growth module (SUCROS) was coupled to predict the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon. This model, further referred to as AgroC, was extended with routines for managed grassland as well as for root exudation and root decay. In a first step, the coupled model was applied to two winter wheat sites and one upland grassland site in Germany. The model was calibrated based on soil water content, soil temperature, biometric, and soil respiration measurements for each site, and validated in terms of hourly NEE measured with the eddy covariance technique. The overall model performance of AgroC was acceptable with a model efficiency >0.78 for NEE. In a second step, AgroC was optimized with the eddy covariance NEE measurements to examine the effect of various objective functions, constraints, and data-transformations on estimated NEE, which showed a distinct sensitivity to the choice of objective function and the inclusion of soil respiration data in the optimization process. Both, day and nighttime fluxes, were found to be sensitive to the selected optimization strategy. Additional consideration of soil respiration measurements improved the simulation of small positive fluxes remarkably. Even though the model performance of the selected optimization strategies did not diverge substantially, the resulting annual NEE differed substantially. We conclude that data-transformation, definition of objective functions, and data sources have to be considered cautiously when using a terrestrial ecosystem model to determine carbon balances by means of eddy covariance measurements.

  14. Hot spot dynamics in carbon nanotube array devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Michael; Steiner, Mathias; Seo, Jung-Woo T; Hersam, Mark C; Avouris, Phaedon

    2015-03-11

    We report on the dynamics of spatial temperature distributions in aligned semiconducting carbon nanotube array devices with submicrometer channel lengths. By using high-resolution optical microscopy in combination with electrical transport measurements, we observe under steady state bias conditions the emergence of time-variable, local temperature maxima with dimensions below 300 nm, and temperatures above 400 K. On the basis of time domain cross-correlation analysis, we investigate how the intensity fluctuations of the thermal radiation patterns are correlated with the overall device current. The analysis reveals the interdependence of electrical current fluctuations and time-variable hot spot formation that limits the overall device performance and, ultimately, may cause device degradation. The findings have implications for the future development of carbon nanotube-based technologies.

  15. Satellite observation of particulate organic carbon dynamics in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate organic carbon (POC) plays an important role in coastal carbon cycling and the formation of hypoxia. Yet, coastal POC dynamics are often poorly understood due to a lack of long-term POC observations and the complexity of coastal hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes that influence POC sources and sinks. Using field observations and satellite ocean color products, we developed a nw multiple regression algorithm to estimate POC on the Louisiana Continental Shelf (LCS) from satellite observations. The algorithm had reliable performance with mean relative error (MRE) of ?40% and root mean square error (RMSE) of ?50% for MODIS and SeaWiFS images for POC ranging between ?80 and ?1200 mg m23, and showed similar performance for a large estuary (Mobile Bay). Substantial spatiotemporal variability in the satellite-derived POC was observed on the LCS, with high POC found on the inner shelf (satellite data with carefully developed algorithms can greatly increase

  16. Productivity and carbon dioxide exchange of leguminous crops: estimates from flux tower measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanov, Tagir G.; Baker, John M.; Bernacchi, Carl J.; Billesbach, David P.; Burba, George G.; Castro, Saulo; Chen, Jiquan; Eugster, Werner; Fischer, Marc L.; Gamon, John A.; Gebremedhin, Maheteme T.; Glenn, Aaron J.; Griffis, Timothy J.; Hatfield, Jerry L.; Heuer, Mark W.; Howard, Daniel M.; Leclerc, Monique Y.; Loescher, Henry W.; Marloie, Oliver; Meyers, Tilden P.; Olioso, Albert; Phillips, Rebecca L.; Prueger, John H.; Skinner, R. Howard; Suyker, Andrew E.; Tenuta, Mario; Wylie, Bruce K.

    2014-01-01

    Net CO2 exchange data of legume crops at 17 flux tower sites in North America and three sites in Europe representing 29 site-years of measurements were partitioned into gross photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration by using the nonrectangular hyperbolic light-response function method. The analyses produced net CO2 exchange data and new ecosystem-scale ecophysiological parameter estimates for legume crops determined at diurnal and weekly time steps. Dynamics and annual totals of gross photosynthesis, ecosystem respiration, and net ecosystem production were calculated by gap filling with multivariate nonlinear regression. Comparison with the data from grain crops obtained with the same method demonstrated that CO2 exchange rates and ecophysiological parameters of legumes were lower than those of maize (Zea mays L.) but higher than for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crops. Year-round annual legume crops demonstrated a broad range of net ecosystem production, from sinks of 760 g CO2 m–2 yr–1 to sources of –2100 g CO2 m–2 yr–1, with an average of –330 g CO2 m–2 yr–1, indicating overall moderate CO2–source activity related to a shorter period of photosynthetic uptake and metabolic costs of N2 fixation. Perennial legumes (alfalfa, Medicago sativa L.) were strong sinks for atmospheric CO2, with an average net ecosystem production of 980 (range 550–1200) g CO2 m–2 yr–1.

  17. Dynamics of leaf gas exchange, xylem and phloem transport, water potential and carbohydrate concentration in a realistic 3-D model tree crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikinmaa, Eero; Sievänen, Risto; Hölttä, Teemu

    2014-09-01

    Tree models simulate productivity using general gas exchange responses and structural relationships, but they rarely check whether leaf gas exchange and resulting water and assimilate transport and driving pressure gradients remain within acceptable physical boundaries. This study presents an implementation of the cohesion-tension theory of xylem transport and the Münch hypothesis of phloem transport in a realistic 3-D tree structure and assesses the gas exchange and transport dynamics. A mechanistic model of xylem and phloem transport was used, together with a tested leaf assimilation and transpiration model in a realistic tree architecture to simulate leaf gas exchange and water and carbohydrate transport within an 8-year-old Scots pine tree. The model solved the dynamics of the amounts of water and sucrose solute in the xylem, cambium and phloem using a fine-grained mesh with a system of coupled ordinary differential equations. The simulations predicted the observed patterns of pressure gradients and sugar concentration. Diurnal variation of environmental conditions influenced tree-level gradients in turgor pressure and sugar concentration, which are important drivers of carbon allocation. The results and between-shoot variation were sensitive to structural and functional parameters such as tree-level scaling of conduit size and phloem unloading. Linking whole-tree-level water and assimilate transport, gas exchange and sink activity opens a new avenue for plant studies, as features that are difficult to measure can be studied dynamically with the model. Tree-level responses to local and external conditions can be tested, thus making the approach described here a good test-bench for studies of whole-tree physiology.

  18. Effect of tube-support interaction on the dynamic responses of heat exchanger tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.S.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    Operating heat exchangers have experienced tube damages due to excessive flow-induced vibration. The relatively small inherent tube-to-baffle hole clearances associated with manufacturing tolerances in heat exchangers affect the tube vibrational characteristics. In attempting a theoretical analysis, questions arise as to the effects of tube-baffle impacting on dynamic responses. Experiments were performed to determine the effects of tube-baffle impacting in vertical/horizontal tube orientation, and in air/water medium on the vibrational characteristics (resonant frequencies, mode shapes, and damping) and displacement response amplitudes of a seven-span tube model. The tube and support conditions were prototypic, and overall length approximately one-third that of a straight tube segment of the steam generator designed for the CRBR. The test results were compared with the analytical results based on the multispan beam with ''knife-edge'' supports

  19. Dynamical contribution to the heat conductivity in stochastic energy exchanges of locally confined gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspard, Pierre; Gilbert, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    We present a systematic computation of the heat conductivity of the Markov jump process modeling the energy exchanges in an array of locally confined hard spheres at the conduction threshold. Based on a variational formula (Sasada 2016 (arXiv:1611.08866)), explicit upper bounds on the conductivity are derived, which exhibit a rapid power-law convergence towards an asymptotic value. We thereby conclude that the ratio of the heat conductivity to the energy exchange frequency deviates from its static contribution by a small negative correction, its dynamic contribution, evaluated to be -0.000 373 in dimensionless units. This prediction is corroborated by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations which were substantially improved compared to earlier results.

  20. Deciphering the Dynamic Interaction Profile of an Intrinsically Disordered Protein by NMR Exchange Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaforge, Elise; Kragelj, Jaka; Tengo, Laura; Palencia, Andrés; Milles, Sigrid; Bouvignies, Guillaume; Salvi, Nicola; Blackledge, Martin; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing

    2018-01-24

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) display a large number of interaction modes including folding-upon-binding, binding without major structural transitions, or binding through highly dynamic, so-called fuzzy, complexes. The vast majority of experimental information about IDP binding modes have been inferred from crystal structures of proteins in complex with short peptides of IDPs. However, crystal structures provide a mainly static view of the complexes and do not give information about the conformational dynamics experienced by the IDP in the bound state. Knowledge of the dynamics of IDP complexes is of fundamental importance to understand how IDPs engage in highly specific interactions without concomitantly high binding affinity. Here, we combine rotating-frame R 1ρ , Carr-Purcell-Meiboom Gill relaxation dispersion as well as chemical exchange saturation transfer to decipher the dynamic interaction profile of an IDP in complex with its partner. We apply the approach to the dynamic signaling complex formed between the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38α and the intrinsically disordered regulatory domain of the MAPK kinase MKK4. Our study demonstrates that MKK4 employs a subtle combination of interaction modes in order to bind to p38α, leading to a complex displaying significantly different dynamics across the bound regions.

  1. Dynamics and energetics of the mammalian phosphatidylinositol transfer protein phospholipid exchange cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabon, Aby; Orłowski, Adam; Tripathi, Ashutosh; Vuorio, Joni; Javanainen, Matti; Róg, Tomasz; Lönnfors, Max; McDermott, Mark I; Siebert, Garland; Somerharju, Pentti; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Bankaitis, Vytas A

    2017-09-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-transfer proteins (PITPs) regulate phosphoinositide signaling in eukaryotic cells. The defining feature of PITPs is their ability to exchange phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) molecules between membranes, and this property is central to PITP-mediated regulation of lipid signaling. However, the details of the PITP-mediated lipid exchange cycle remain entirely obscure. Here, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the mammalian StART-like PtdIns/phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) transfer protein PITPα, both on membrane bilayers and in solvated systems, informed downstream biochemical analyses that tested key aspects of the hypotheses generated by the molecular dynamics simulations. These studies provided five key insights into the PITPα lipid exchange cycle: (i) interaction of PITPα with the membrane is spontaneous and mediated by four specific protein substructures; (ii) the ability of PITPα to initiate closure around the PtdCho ligand is accompanied by loss of flexibility of two helix/loop regions, as well as of the C-terminal helix; (iii) the energy barrier of phospholipid extraction from the membrane is lowered by a network of hydrogen bonds between the lipid molecule and PITPα; (iv) the trajectory of PtdIns or PtdCho into and through the lipid-binding pocket is chaperoned by sets of PITPα residues conserved throughout the StART-like PITP family; and (v) conformational transitions in the C-terminal helix have specific functional involvements in PtdIns transfer activity. Taken together, these findings provide the first mechanistic description of key aspects of the PITPα PtdIns/PtdCho exchange cycle and offer a rationale for the high conservation of particular sets of residues across evolutionarily distant members of the metazoan StART-like PITP family. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Design and thermal dynamic analyses on the intermediate heat exchanger for HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, M.; Mizuno, M.; Ito, M.; Urabe, S.

    1986-01-01

    The intermediate heat exchanger (IHX), one of the most important components in the high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR), is a high performance helium/helium (He/He) heat exchanger operated at a very high temperature above 900 0 C to transmit the nuclear heat from the reactor core to the nuclear heat utilization systems such as the chemical plant. Having to meet, in addition, the requirement of the pressure boundary as the Class-1 it demands the accurate estimation of thermal performance and analytical prediction of thermal behaviors to secure its integrity throughout the service life. In the present works, the newly-developed analytical codes carry out designing thermal performance and analyzing dynamic thermal behaviors of the IHX. These codes have been developed on a great deal of data and studies related to the research and development on the 1.5 MWt- and the 25 MWt-IHXs. This paper shows the design on the IHX, the results of the dynamic analyses on the 1.5 MWt-IHX with the comparison to the experimental data and the analytical predictions of the dynamic thermal behaviors on the 25 MWt-IHX. The results calculated are in fairly good agreement with the experimental data on the 1.5 MWt-IHX, the fact that has verified the analytical codes to be reasonable and much useful for the thermal design of the IHX. These presented results and data are available for the design of the IHX of HTGR

  3. Simulating carbon exchange using a regional atmospheric model coupled to an advanced land-surface model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. W. Ter Maat

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a case study to investigate what the main controlling factors are that determine atmospheric carbon dioxide content for a region in the centre of The Netherlands. We use the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS, coupled with a land surface scheme simulating carbon, heat and momentum fluxes (SWAPS-C, and including also submodels for urban and marine fluxes, which in principle should include the dominant mechanisms and should be able to capture the relevant dynamics of the system. To validate the model, observations are used that were taken during an intensive observational campaign in central Netherlands in summer 2002. These include flux-tower observations and aircraft observations of vertical profiles and spatial fluxes of various variables.

    The simulations performed with the coupled regional model (RAMS-SWAPS-C are in good qualitative agreement with the observations. The station validation of the model demonstrates that the incoming shortwave radiation and surface fluxes of water and CO2 are well simulated. The comparison against aircraft data shows that the regional meteorology (i.e. wind, temperature is captured well by the model. Comparing spatially explicitly simulated fluxes with aircraft observed fluxes we conclude that in general latent heat fluxes are underestimated by the model compared to the observations but that the latter exhibit large variability within all flights. Sensitivity experiments demonstrate the relevance of the urban emissions of carbon dioxide for the carbon balance in this particular region. The same tests also show the relation between uncertainties in surface fluxes and those in atmospheric concentrations.

  4. Nonlinear Dynamics of Carbon Nanotubes Under Large Electrostatic Force

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Tiantian

    2015-06-01

    Because of the inherent nonlinearities involving the behavior of CNTs when excited by electrostatic forces, modeling and simulating their behavior is challenging. The complicated form of the electrostatic force describing the interaction of their cylindrical shape, forming upper electrodes, to lower electrodes poises serious computational challenges. This presents an obstacle against applying and using several nonlinear dynamics tools typically used to analyze the behavior of complicated nonlinear systems undergoing large motion, such as shooting, continuation, and integrity analysis techniques. This works presents an attempt to resolve this issue. We present an investigation of the nonlinear dynamics of carbon nanotubes when actuated by large electrostatic forces. We study expanding the complicated form of the electrostatic force into enough number of terms of the Taylor series. Then, we utilize this form along with an Euler-Bernoulli beam model to study for the first time the dynamic behavior of CNTs when excited by large electrostatic force. The geometric nonlinearity and the nonlinear electrostatic force are considered. An efficient reduced-order model (ROM) based on the Galerkin method is developed and utilized to simulate the static and dynamic responses of the CNTs. Several results are generated demonstrating softening and hardening behavior of the CNTs near their primary and secondary resonances. The effects of the DC and AC voltage loads on the behavior have been studied. The impacts of the initial slack level and CNT diameter are also demonstrated.

  5. NONLINEAR DYNAMICS OF CARBON NANOTUBES UNDER LARGE ELECTROSTATIC FORCE

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Tiantian

    2015-06-01

    Because of the inherent nonlinearities involving the behavior of CNTs when excited by electrostatic forces, modeling and simulating their behavior is challenging. The complicated form of the electrostatic force describing the interaction of their cylindrical shape, forming upper electrodes, to lower electrodes poises serious computational challenges. This presents an obstacle against applying and using several nonlinear dynamics tools typically used to analyze the behavior of complicated nonlinear systems undergoing large motion, such as shooting, continuation, and integrity analysis techniques. This works presents an attempt to resolve this issue. We present an investigation of the nonlinear dynamics of carbon nanotubes when actuated by large electrostatic forces. We study expanding the complicated form of the electrostatic force into enough number of terms of the Taylor series. Then, we utilize this form along with an Euler-Bernoulli beam model to study for the first time the dynamic behavior of CNTs when excited by large electrostatic force. The geometric nonlinearity and the nonlinear electrostatic force are considered. An efficient reduced-order model (ROM) based on the Galerkin method is developed and utilized to simulate the static and dynamic responses of the CNTs. Several results are generated demonstrating softening and hardening behavior of the CNTs near their primary and secondary resonances. The effects of the DC and AC voltage loads on the behavior have been studied. The impacts of the initial slack level and CNT diameter are also demonstrated.

  6. Enhanced Sampling in Molecular Dynamics Using Metadynamics, Replica-Exchange, and Temperature-Acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Abrams

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We review a selection of methods for performing enhanced sampling in molecular dynamics simulations. We consider methods based on collective variable biasing and on tempering, and offer both historical and contemporary perspectives. In collective-variable biasing, we first discuss methods stemming from thermodynamic integration that use mean force biasing, including the adaptive biasing force algorithm and temperature acceleration. We then turn to methods that use bias potentials, including umbrella sampling and metadynamics. We next consider parallel tempering and replica-exchange methods. We conclude with a brief presentation of some combination methods.

  7. A system dynamics evaluation model: implementation of health information exchange for public health reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Jacqueline A; Deegan, Michael; Wilson, Rosalind V; Kaushal, Rainu; Fredericks, Kimberly

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the complex dynamics involved in implementing electronic health information exchange (HIE) for public health reporting at a state health department, and to identify policy implications to inform similar implementations. Qualitative data were collected over 8 months from seven experts at New York State Department of Health who implemented web services and protocols for querying, receipt, and validation of electronic data supplied by regional health information organizations. Extensive project documentation was also collected. During group meetings experts described the implementation process and created reference modes and causal diagrams that the evaluation team used to build a preliminary model. System dynamics modeling techniques were applied iteratively to build causal loop diagrams representing the implementation. The diagrams were validated iteratively by individual experts followed by group review online, and through confirmatory review of documents and artifacts. Three casual loop diagrams captured well-recognized system dynamics: Sliding Goals, Project Rework, and Maturity of Resources. The findings were associated with specific policies that address funding, leadership, ensuring expertise, planning for rework, communication, and timeline management. This evaluation illustrates the value of a qualitative approach to system dynamics modeling. As a tool for strategic thinking on complicated and intense processes, qualitative models can be produced with fewer resources than a full simulation, yet still provide insights that are timely and relevant. System dynamics techniques clarified endogenous and exogenous factors at play in a highly complex technology implementation, which may inform other states engaged in implementing HIE supported by federal Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) legislation.

  8. Modeling the dynamics of carbon dioxide removal in the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The temperature of Earth's surface is increasing over the past few years due to emission of global warming gases such as CO2, CH4 and NOx from industries, power plants, etc., leading to several adverse effects on human and his environment. Therefore, the question of their removal/reduction from the atmosphere is very important. In this paper, a nonlinear mathematical model to study the removal/reduction of carbon dioxide by using suitable absorbent (such as aqueous ammonia solution, amines, sodium hydroxide, etc. near the source of emission and externally introducing liquid species in the atmosphere is presented. Dynamical properties of the model which include local and global stabilities for the equilibrium are analyzed carefully. Model analysis is performed by considering three physical situations i.e. when both absorbent and the liquid species are used, only absorbent is used and only liquid species is used. It is shown that the concentration of carbon dioxide decreases as the rate of introduction of absorbent in the absorber increases. It decreases further as the rate of introduction of liquid species. Thus, the concentration of carbon dioxide would be reduced by a large amount if adequate amount of absorbent is used near the source of emission. The remaining amount can be reduced further by infusing liquid drops in the atmosphere. Numerical simulations are also carried out to support the analytical results.

  9. Seagrass metabolism and carbon dynamics in a tropical coastal embayment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Dipnarayan; Singh, Gurmeet; Ramachandran, Purvaja; Selvam, Arumughan Paneer; Banerjee, Kakolee; Ramachandran, Ramesh

    2017-10-01

    Net ecosystem metabolism and subsequent changes in environmental variables were studied seasonally in the seagrass-dominated Palk Bay, located along the southeast coast of India. The results showed that although the water column was typically net heterotrophic, the ecosystem as a whole displayed autotrophic characteristics. The mean net community production from the seagrass meadows was 99.31 ± 45.13 mM C m -2  d -1 , while the P/R ratio varied between 1.49 and 1.56. Oxygen produced through in situ photosynthesis, exhibited higher dependence over dissolved CO 2 and available light. Apportionment of carbon stores in biomass indicated that nearly three-fourths were available belowground compared to aboveground. However, the sediment horizon accumulated nearly 40 times more carbon than live biomass. The carbon storage capacities of the sediments and seagrass biomass were comparable with the global mean for seagrass meadows. The results of this study highlight the major role of seagrass meadows in modification of seawater chemistry. Though the seagrass meadows of Palk Bay are increasingly subject to human impacts, with coupled regulatory and management efforts focused on improved water quality and habitat conservation, these key coastal ecosystems will continue to be valuable for climate change mitigation, considering their vital role in C dynamics and interactions with the overlying water column.

  10. Abiotic and biotic determinants of leaf carbon exchange capacity from tropical to high boreal biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, N. G.; Dukes, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    , provide paths forward for improving model structure and parameterization of leaf carbon exchange at large spatial scales.

  11. How intensive agriculture affects surface-atmosphere exchange of nitrogen and carbon compounds over peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, C.; Richter, U.; Schrader, F.; Hurkuck, M.; Kutsch, W. L.

    2016-12-01

    Mid-latitude peatlands are often exposed to high atmospheric nitrogen deposition when located in close vicinity to agricultural land. As the impacts of altered deposition rates on nitrogen-limited ecosystems are poorly understood, we investigated the surface-atmosphere exchange of several nitrogen and carbon compounds using multiple high-resolution measurement techniques and modeling. Our study site was a protected semi-natural bog ecosystem. Local wind regime and land use in the adjacent area clearly regulated whether total reactive nitrogen (∑Nr) concentrations were ammonia (NH3) or NOx-dominated. Eddy-covariance measurements of NH3 and ∑Nr revealed concentration, temperature and surface wetness-dependent deposition rates. Intermittent periods of NH3 and ∑Nr emission likely attributed to surface water re-emission and soil efflux, respectively, were found, thereby indicating nitrogen oversaturation in this originally N-limited ecosystem. Annual dry plus wet deposition resulted in 20 to 25 kg N ha-1 depending on method and model used, which translated into a four- to fivefold exceedance of the ecosystem-specific critical load. As the bog site had likely been exposed to the observed atmospheric nitrogen burden over several decades, a shift in grass species' composition towards a higher number of nitrophilous plants was already visible. Three years of CO2 eddy flux measurements showed that the site was a small net sink in the range of 33 to 268 g CO2 m-2 yr-1. Methane emissions of 32 g CO2-eq were found to partly offset the sequestered carbon through CO2. Our study demonstrates the applicability of novel micrometeorological measurement techniques in biogeochemical sciences and stresses the importance of monitoring long-term changes in vulnerable ecosystems under anthropogenic pressure and climate change.

  12. The effect of tube-support interaction on the dynamic response of heat exchanger tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.S.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    To avoid detrimental tube vibration in heat exchangers, resonant conditions and instabilitites must be avoided, and/or peak dynamic amplitudes must not exceed allowable limits. In attempting a theoretical analysis, questions arise as to the effects of tube/support interaction on tube vibrational characteristics (i.e. resonant frequencies, modes, damping) and response amplitude. As a part of ANL's Flow-Induced Vibration Program in support of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) steam generator design activity, tube/support interaction experiments are being performed not only to gain the insight into the dynamic behavior of CRBRP steam generator tubes, but also to provide the basis for developing design guidance. Test results were compared with anaytical results based on multispan tube with 'knife-edge' supports at the support locations. (Auth.)

  13. Analyzing Space-Time Dynamics of Theft Rates Using Exchange Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yicheng Tang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical issue in the geography of crime is the quantitative analysis of the spatial distribution of crimes which usually changes over time. In this paper, we use the concept of exchange mobility across different time periods to determine the spatial distribution of the theft rate in the city of Wuhan, China, in 2016. To this end, we use a newly-developed spatial dynamic indicator, the Local Indicator of Mobility Association (LIMA, which can detect differences in the spatial distribution of theft rate rankings over time from a distributional dynamics perspective. Our results provide a scientific reference for the evaluation of the effects of crime prevention efforts and offer a decision-making tool to enhance the application of temporal and spatial analytical methods.

  14. Flow and Residence Times of Dynamic River Bank Storage and Sinuosity-Driven Hyporheic Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Velez, J. D.; Wilson, J. L.; Cardenas, M. B.; Harvey, J. W.

    2017-10-01

    Hydrologic exchange fluxes (HEFs) vary significantly along river corridors due to spatiotemporal changes in discharge and geomorphology. This variability results in the emergence of biogeochemical hot-spots and hot-moments that ultimately control solute and energy transport and ecosystem services from the local to the watershed scales. In this work, we use a reduced-order model to gain mechanistic understanding of river bank storage and sinuosity-driven hyporheic exchange induced by transient river discharge. This is the first time that a systematic analysis of both processes is presented and serves as an initial step to propose parsimonious, physics-based models for better predictions of water quality at the large watershed scale. The effects of channel sinuosity, alluvial valley slope, hydraulic conductivity, and river stage forcing intensity and duration are encapsulated in dimensionless variables that can be easily estimated or constrained. We find that the importance of perturbations in the hyporheic zone's flux, residence times, and geometry is mainly explained by two-dimensionless variables representing the ratio of the hydraulic time constant of the aquifer and the duration of the event (Γd) and the importance of the ambient groundwater flow (Δh∗). Our model additionally shows that even systems with small sensitivity, resulting in small changes in the hyporheic zone extent, are characterized by highly variable exchange fluxes and residence times. These findings highlight the importance of including dynamic changes in hyporheic zones for typical HEF models such as the transient storage model.

  15. Apneic oxygenation combined with extracorporeal arteriovenous carbon dioxide removal provides sufficient gas exchange in experimental lung injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Dalsgaard; Kjærgaard, Benedict; Nielsen, Jakob Koefoed

    In this porcine lung injury model, apneic oxygenation with arteriovenous CO2 removal provided sufficient gas exchange and stable hemodynamics, indicating that the method might have a potential in the treatment of severe ARDS.   Acknowledgements The membrane lungs were kindly provided by Novalung GmbH, Germany.......Background and aim of study We hypothesized that continuous high airway pressure without ventilatory movements (apneic oxygenation), using an open lung approach, combined with extracorporeal, pumpless, arterio-venous, carbon dioxide (CO2) removal would provide adequate gas exchange in acute lung...

  16. Estimating Carbon Dynamics in an Intact Lowland Mixed Dipterocarp Forest Using a Forest Carbon Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongyeol Lee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Intact dipterocarp forests in Asia act as crucial carbon (C reservoirs, and it is therefore important to investigate the C dynamics in these forests. We estimated C dynamics, together with net ecosystem production (NEP, in an intact tropical dipterocarp forest of Brunei Darussalam. Fifty-four simulation units (plots; 20 m × 20 m were established and initial C stocks were determined via direct field measurement. The C dynamics were annually simulated with a regression model and the Forest Biomass and Dead organic matter Carbon (FBDC model. The initial C stock (Mg C·ha−1 of biomass, litter, dead wood and mineral soil were 213.1 ± 104.8, 2.0 ± 0.8, 31.3 ± 38.8, and 80.7 ± 15.5, respectively. Their annual changes (Mg C·ha−1·year−1 were 3.2 ± 1.1, 0.2 ± 0.2, −3.7 ± 6.1, and −0.3 ± 1.1, respectively. NEP was −0.6 ± 6.1 Mg C·ha−1·year−1, showing large heterogeneity among the plots. The initial C stocks of biomass and dead wood, biomass turnover rates and dead wood decay rates were elucidated as dominant factors determining NEP in a sensitivity analysis. Accordingly, investigation on those input data can constrain an uncertainty in determining NEP in the intact tropical forests.

  17. Spatiotemporal variations in CO2 flux in a fringing reef simulated using a novel carbonate system dynamics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Nadaoka, K.; Maeda, Y.; Miyajima, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Blanco, A. C.

    2013-03-01

    A carbonate system dynamics (CSD) model was developed in a fringing reef on the east coast of Ishigaki Island, southwest Japan, by incorporating organic and inorganic carbon fluxes (photosynthesis and calcification), air-sea gas exchanges, and benthic cover of coral and seagrass into a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The CSD model could reproduce temporal variations in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity in coral zones, but not in seagrass meadows. The poor reproduction in seagrass meadows can be attributed to significant contributions of submarine groundwater discharge as well as misclassification of remotely sensed megabenthos in this area. In comparison with offshore areas, the reef acted as a CO2 sink during the observation period when it was averaged over 24 h. The CSD model also indicated large spatiotemporal differences in the carbon dioxide (CO2) sink/source, possibly related to hydrodynamic features such as effective offshore seawater exchange and neap/spring tidal variation. This suggests that the data obtained from a single point observation may lead to misinterpretation of the overall trend and thus should be carefully considered. The model analysis also showed that the advective flux of DIC from neighboring grids is several times greater than local biological flux of DIC and is three orders of magnitude greater than the air-sea gas flux at the coral zone. Sensitivity tests in which coral or seagrass covers were altered revealed that the CO2 sink potential was much more sensitive to changes in coral cover than seagrass cover.

  18. Perchlorate adsorption and desorption on activated carbon and anion exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, In-Ho; Meng, Xiaoguang; Wang, Chao; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Bang, Sunbaek; Choe, Eunyoung; Lippincott, Lee

    2009-05-15

    The mechanisms of perchlorate adsorption on activated carbon (AC) and anion exchange resin (SR-7 resin) were investigated using Raman, FTIR, and zeta potential analyses. Batch adsorption and desorption results demonstrated that the adsorption of perchlorate by AC and SR-7 resin was reversible. The reversibility of perchlorate adsorption by the resin was also proved by column regeneration test. Solution pH significantly affected perchlorate adsorption and the zeta potential of AC, while it did not influence perchlorate adsorption and the zeta potential of resin. Zeta potential measurements showed that perchlorate was adsorbed on the negatively charged AC surface. Raman spectra indicated the adsorption resulted in an obvious position shift of the perchlorate peak, suggesting that perchlorate was associated with functional groups on AC at neutral pH through interactions stronger than electrostatic interaction. The adsorbed perchlorate on the resin exhibited a Raman peak at similar position as the aqueous perchlorate, indicating that perchlorate was adsorbed on the resin through electrostatic attraction between the anion and positively charged surface sites.

  19. Measurement of labile copper in wine by medium exchange stripping potentiometry utilising screen printed carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew C; Kontoudakis, Nikolaos; Barril, Celia; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Scollary, Geoffrey R

    2016-07-01

    The presence of copper in wine is known to impact the reductive, oxidative and colloidal stability of wine, and techniques enabling measurement of different forms of copper in wine are of particular interest in understanding these spoilage processes. Electrochemical stripping techniques developed to date require significant pretreatment of wine, potentially disturbing the copper binding equilibria. A thin mercury film on a screen printed carbon electrode was utilised in a flow system for the direct analysis of labile copper in red and white wine by constant current stripping potentiometry with medium exchange. Under the optimised conditions, including an enrichment time of 500s and constant current of 1.0μA, the response range was linear from 0.015 to 0.200mg/L. The analysis of 52 red and white wines showed that this technique generally provided lower labile copper concentrations than reported for batch measurement by related techniques. Studies in a model system and in finished wines showed that the copper sulfide was not measured as labile copper, and that loss of hydrogen sulfide via volatilisation induced an increase in labile copper within the model wine system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrothermal carbon nanosphere-based agglomerated anion exchanger for ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiming; Wu, Shuchao; Zhang, Kai; Lou, Chaoyan; Zhang, Peiming; Zhu, Yan

    2016-10-14

    This work reports the application of hydrothermal carbon nanospheres (HCNSs) as stationary phases in ion chromatography. HCNSs were facilely quaternized through polycondensation of methylamine and 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether. The quaternization was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Owing to the electrostatic interaction, quaternized HCNSs were equably attached onto the surface of sulfonated polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) beads to construct the anion exchangers. The aggregation was verified by scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis. Common anions, aliphatic monocarboxylic acids, polarizable anions, and aromatic acids were well separated on the stationary phases with good stability and symmetry. The prepared column was further applied to detect phosphate content in Cola drink samples. The limit of detection (S/N=3) was 0.09mg/L, and the relative standard deviation (n=10) of retention time was 0.31%. The average recovery was 99.58%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The effects of lead on the gaseous exchange and photosynthetic carbon metabolism of pea seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy W. Poskuta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Roots of whole 3 week-old pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L. var. "Bordi" were immersed for 24 h in solutions of lead chloride at Pb copcentrations of 200, 400, 800,12000 mg dm3. Accumulation of lead in roots was independent of the Pb concentration, whereas the accumulation of Pb in shoots was an almost linear function of the concentration of this element in the root medium. This treatment caused Pb concentration-dependent inhibition of apparent photosynthesis (APS, photorespiration (PR, 14CO2 uptake, stomatal opening and transpiration of shoots and also germination of seeds. The most sensitive to Pb contamination was CO2 exchange, then transpiration and to a lesser degree germination of seeds. Lead caused a considerable alteration of photosynthetic and photorespiratory carbon metabolism, restricted the 14C-labeling of: phosphoglycerate, ribose+ribulose, sucrose, glycolate and glycine+serine. Under conditions of C02 uptake limited by lead, an enhancement of the 14C-labeling of malate+citrate, alanine and glucose was observed.

  2. Determining the Impact of Forest Mortality in Semi-Arid Woodlands on Local and Regional Carbon Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvak, Marcy [University of New Mexico

    2018-04-09

    We received funds in July 2012, and with supplemental funds, this funding ended in July 2017. Our overall project goals were to quantify the consequences of pinon mortality for carbon, water and energy exchange in pinon-juniper woodlands. To do this, we have been continuously measuring carbon, water and energy exchange using eddy covariance, over two pinon-juniper woodlands in central New Mexico. In one site, we girdled 1632 trees in the 4 ha surrounding the tower in Sept 2009. The other site, only 5 km away on the same plateau, was left intact, to serve as a control. We used this paired tower approach so we could directly evaluate the differences between how fluxes from disturbed and intact woodlands respond to the exact same climate conditions. In addition to eddy covariance measured fluxes from the two woodlands, we also made sap flux measurements, biomass, gas exchange, and soil respiration fluxes simultaneously in the two sites. The overall objective of this proposal is to measure the carbon and climate forcing consequences of widespread coniferous mortality events in the Southwestern US. We will incorporate these findings into a land surface model to understand the long term carbon dynamics of these mortality events and use remote sensing maps of mortality in PJ woodlands in NM to scale the implications of these events to regional carbon dynamics and atmospheric CO2. In 2013, our control PJ woodland experienced a natural pinon mortality event as bark beetles invaded the area. We received supplemental funds to quantify the extent of the mortality and how it progresses, and to add remotely sensed imagery to aid in this and estimate the loss of biomass at the site due to mortality. Finally, we have been exploring the use of both CLM and SIPNET to analyze how well these models to in representing how these woodlands change following pinon mortality. Here, I present the results of what we have learned in these areas: 1) how carbon, water and energy fluxes, have

  3. Modeling the dynamic operation of a small fin plate heat exchanger – parametric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motyliński Konrad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Given its high efficiency, low emissions and multiple fuelling options, the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC offer a promising alternative for stationary power generators, especially while engaged in micro-combined heat and power (μ-CHP units. Despite the fact that the fuel cells are a key component in such power systems, other auxiliaries of the system can play a critical role and therefore require a significant attention. Since SOFC uses a ceramic material as an electrolyte, the high operating temperature (typically of the order of 700–900 °C is required to achieve sufficient performance. For that reason both the fuel and the oxidant have to be preheated before entering the SOFC stack. Hot gases exiting the fuel cell stack transport substantial amount of energy which has to be partly recovered for preheating streams entering the stack and for heating purposes. Effective thermal integration of the μ-CHP can be achieved only when proper technical measures are used. The ability of efficiently preheating the streams of oxidant and fuel relies on heat exchangers which are present in all possible configurations of power system with solid oxide fuel cells. In this work a compact, fin plate heat exchanger operating in the high temperature regime was under consideration. Dynamic model was proposed for investigation of its performance under the transitional states of the fuel cell system. Heat exchanger was simulated using commercial modeling software. The model includes key geometrical and functional parameters. The working conditions of the power unit with SOFC vary due to the several factors, such as load changes, heating and cooling procedures of the stack and others. These issues affect parameters of the incoming streams to the heat exchanger. The mathematical model of the heat exchanger is based on a set of equations which are simultaneously solved in the iterative process. It enables to define conditions in the outlets of both the hot and the

  4. Modeling the airside dynamic behavior of a heat exchanger under frosting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Tieyu; Gong, Jianying

    2011-01-01

    A general distributed model with a non-steady-state heat exchanger model coupled with a frost model was developed to study the dynamic behavior of an airside heat exchanger in an air-to-water heat pump heater/chiller unit. The effects of water vapor diffusion and uneven fin temperature distribution were considered. The model was found to agree well with reported experimental results. Compared with the routine model, the present model has higher precision of frost layer thickness especially on the fin surface. Results include the propagation of frost formation along the tube and its effect on the dynamic characteristics of refrigerant, air, and tube sides. According to the results, the temperature difference between air and tube surface temperature was proposed to be the main driving force of frosting. Tube surface temperature is the most important factor affecting frosting when there is little variation in air humidity. Frost at the fin base was found to be thicker than that at the fin tip due to the fact that the frost layer grows faster with lower tube surface temperature

  5. Modelling, simulation and dynamic analysis of the time delay model of the recuperative heat exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debeljković Dragutin Lj.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The heat exchangers are frequently used as constructive elements in various plants and their dynamics is very important. Their operation is usually controlled by manipulating inlet fluid temperatures or mass flow rates. On the basis of the accepted and critically clarified assumptions, a linearized mathematical model of the cross-flow heat exchanger has been derived, taking into account the wall dynamics. The model is based on the fundamental law of energy conservation, covers all heat accumulation storages in the process, and leads to the set of partial differential equations (PDE, which solution is not possible in closed form. In order to overcome this problem the approach based on physical discretization was applied with associated time delay on the positions where it was necessary and unavoidable. This is quite new approach, which represent the further extension of previous results which did not include significant time delay existing in the working media. Simulation results, were derived, showing progress in building such a model suitable for further treatment from the position of analysis as well as the needs for control synthesis problem.

  6. Carbon and Nitrogen dynamics in deciduous and broad leaf trees under drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jobin; Schaub, Marcus; Arend, Matthias; Saurer, Matthias; siegwolf, Rolf; Weiler, Markus; Gessler, Arthur

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is projected to lead to an increased frequency and duration of severe drought events in future. Already within the last twenty years, however, drought stress related forest mortality has been increasing across the globe. Tree and forest die off events have multiple adverse effects on ecosystem functioning and might convert previous carbon sinks to act as carbon sources instead and can thus intensify the effect of climate change and global warming. Current predictions of forest's functioning under drought and thus forest mortality under future climatic conditions are constrained by a still incomplete picture of the trees' physiological reactions that allows some trees to survive drought periods while others succumb. Concerning the effects of drought on the carbon balance and on tree hydraulics our picture is getting more complete, but still interactions between abiotic factors and pest and diseases as well as the interaction between carbon and nutrient balances as factors affecting drought induced mortality are not well understood. Reduced carbon allocation from shoots to roots might cause a lack of energy for root nutrient uptake and to a shortage of carbon skeletons for nitrogen assimilation and thus to an impaired nutrient status of trees. To tackle these points, we have performed a drought stress experiment with six different plant species, 3 broad leaf (maple, beech and oak) and 3 deciduous (pine, fir and spruce). Potted two-year-old seedlings were kept inside a greenhouse for 5 months and 3 levels of drought stress (no stress (control), intermediate and intensive drought stress) were applied by controlling water supply. Gas exchange measurements were performed periodically to monitor photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance. At the pinnacle of drought stress, we applied isotopic pulse labelling: On the one hand we exposed trees to 13CO2 to investigate on carbon dynamics and the allocation of new assimilates within the plant. Moreover

  7. Seasonal Dynamics of River Corridor Exchange Across the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Velez, J. D.; Harvey, J. W.; Scott, D.; Boyer, E. W.; Schmadel, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    River corridors store and convey mass and energy from landscapes to the ocean, altering water quality and ecosystem functioning at the local, reach, and watershed scales. As water moves through river corridors from headwaters streams to coastal estuaries, dynamic exchange between the river channel and its adjacent riparian, floodplain, and hyporheic zones, combined with ponded waters such as lakes and reservoirs, results in the emergence of hot spots and moments for biogeochemical transformations. In this work, we used the model Networks with EXchange and Subsurface Storage (NEXSS) to estimate seasonal variations in river corridor exchange fluxes and residence times along the continental United States. Using a simple routing scheme, we translate these estimates into a cumulative measure of river corridor connectivity at the watershed scale, differentiating the contributions of hyporheic zones, floodplains, and ponded waters. We find that the relative role of these exchange subsystems changes seasonally, driven by the intra-seasonal variability of discharge. In addition, we find that seasonal variations in discharge and the biogeochemical potential of hyporheic zones are out of phase. This behavior results in a significant reduction in hyporheic water quality functions during high flows and emphasizes the potential importance of reconnecting floodplains for managing water quality during seasonal high flows. Physical parameterizations of river corridor processes are critical to model and predict water quality and to sustainably manage water resources under present and future socio-economic and climatic conditions. Parsimonious models like NEXSS can play a key role in the design, implementation, and evaluation of sustainable management practices that target both water quantity and quality at the scale of the nation. This research is a product of the John Wesley Powell Center River Corridor Working Group.

  8. Data-driven diagnostics of terrestrial carbon dynamics over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingfeng Xiao; Scott V. Ollinger; Steve Frolking; George C. Hurtt; David Y. Hollinger; Kenneth J. Davis; Yude Pan; Xiaoyang Zhang; Feng Deng; Jiquan Chen; Dennis D. Baldocchi; Bevery E. Law; M. Altaf Arain; Ankur R. Desai; Andrew D. Richardson; Ge Sun; Brian Amiro; Hank Margolis; Lianhong Gu; Russell L. Scott; Peter D. Blanken; Andrew E. Suyker

    2014-01-01

    The exchange of carbon dioxide is a key measure of ecosystem metabolism and a critical intersection between the terrestrial biosphere and the Earth's climate. Despite the general agreement that the terrestrial ecosystems in North America provide a sizeable carbon sink, the size and distribution of the sink remain uncertain. We use a data-driven approach to upscale...

  9. Diverse Soil Carbon Dynamics Expressed at the Molecular Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voort, T. S.; Zell, C. I.; Hagedorn, F.; Feng, X.; McIntyre, C. P.; Haghipour, N.; Graf Pannatier, E.; Eglinton, T. I.

    2017-12-01

    The stability and potential vulnerability of soil organic matter (SOM) to global change remain incompletely understood due to the complex processes involved in its formation and turnover. Here we combine compound-specific radiocarbon analysis with fraction-specific and bulk-level radiocarbon measurements in order to further elucidate controls on SOM dynamics in a temperate and subalpine forested ecosystem. Radiocarbon contents of individual organic compounds isolated from the same soil interval generally exhibit greater variation than those among corresponding operationally defined fractions. Notably, markedly older ages of long-chain plant leaf wax lipids (n-alkanoic acids) imply that they reflect a highly stable carbon pool. Furthermore, marked 14C variations among shorter- and longer-chain n-alkanoic acid homologues suggest that they track different SOM pools. Extremes in SOM dynamics thus manifest themselves within a single compound class. This exploratory study highlights the potential of compound-specific radiocarbon analysis for understanding SOM dynamics in ecosystems potentially vulnerable to global change.

  10. An experimental study on the effect of carbonic anhydrase on the oxygen isotope exchange kinetics and equilibrium in the carbonic acid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikawa, J.; Zeebe, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Stable oxygen isotopes of marine biogenic carbonates are often depleted in 18O relative to the values expected for thermodynamic equilibrium with ambient seawater. One possibility is that 18O-depletion in carbonates is kinetically controlled. The kinetic isotope effect associated with the hydration of CO2 results in 18O-depleted HCO3-. If the HCO3- is utilized before re-establishing equilibrium with ambient water under rapid calcification, the 18O-depletion will be recorded in carbonates. But one caveat in this kinetic model is the fact that many marine calcifiers posses carbonic anhydrase, a zinc-bearing enzyme that catalyzes the CO2 hydration reaction. It is expected that this enzyme accelerates 18O-equilibration in the carbonic acid system by facilitating direct oxygen isotope exchange between HCO3- and H2O via CO2 hydration. Clearly this argues against the conceptual framework of the kinetic model. Yet the critical variable here is the effectiveness of the carbonic anhydrase, which is likely to depend on its concentration and the carbonate chemistry of the aqueous medium. It is also hitherto unknown whether the presence of carbonic anhydrase alters the equilibrium oxygen isotope fractionations between dissolved carbonate species and water. We performed a series of quantitative inorganic carbonate precipitation experiments to examine the changes in the oxygen isotope equilibration time as a function of carbonic anhydrase concentrations. We conducted experiments at pH 8.3 and 8.9. These pH values are similar to the average surface ocean pH and the elevated pH levels observed within calcification microenvironments of certain corals and planktonic foraminifera. A summary of our new experimental results will be presented.

  11. Investigating the effects of proton exchange membrane fuel cell conditions on carbon supported platinum electrocatalyst composition and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Anant; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Atanassov, Plamen; Colbow, Vesna; Dutta, Monica; Harvey, Davie; Wessel, Silvia

    2011-12-01

    Changes that carbon-supported platinum electrocatalysts undergo in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment were simulated by ex situ heat treatment of catalyst powder samples at 150 C and 100% relative humidity. In order to study modifications that are introduced to chemistry, morphology, and performance of electrocatalysts, XPS, HREELS and three-electrode rotating disk electrode experiments were performed. Before heat treatment, graphitic content varied by 20% among samples with different types of carbon supports, with distinct differences between bulk and surface compositions within each sample. Following the aging protocol, the bulk and surface chemistry of the samples were similar, with graphite content increasing or remaining constant and Pt-carbide decreasing for all samples. From the correlation of changes in chemical composition and losses in performance of the electrocatalysts, we conclude that relative distribution of Pt particles on graphitic and amorphous carbon is as important for electrocatalytic activity as the absolute amount of graphitic carbon present

  12. Investigating the effects of proton exchange membrane fuel cell conditions on carbon supported platinum electrocatalyst composition and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Patel; K. Artyushkova; P. Atanassov; V. Colbow; M. Dutta; D. Harvey; S. Wessel

    2012-04-30

    Changes that carbon-supported platinum electrocatalysts undergo in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment were simulated by ex situ heat treatment of catalyst powder samples at 150 C and 100% relative humidity. In order to study modifications that are introduced to chemistry, morphology, and performance of electrocatalysts, XPS, HREELS and three-electrode rotating disk electrode experiments were performed. Before heat treatment, graphitic content varied by 20% among samples with different types of carbon supports, with distinct differences between bulk and surface compositions within each sample. Following the aging protocol, the bulk and surface chemistry of the samples were similar, with graphite content increasing or remaining constant and Pt-carbide decreasing for all samples. From the correlation of changes in chemical composition and losses in performance of the electrocatalysts, we conclude that relative distribution of Pt particles on graphitic and amorphous carbon is as important for electrocatalytic activity as the absolute amount of graphitic carbon present

  13. Endotoxemia reduces cerebral perfusion but enhances dynamic cerebrovascular autoregulation at reduced arterial carbon dioxide tension*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brassard, Patrice; Kim, Yu-Sok; van Lieshout, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: The administration of endotoxin to healthy humans reduces cerebral blood flow but its influence on dynamic cerebral autoregulation remains unknown. We considered that a reduction in arterial carbon dioxide tension would attenuate cerebral perfusion and improve dynamic cerebral autoreg...

  14. Drivers of inorganic carbon dynamics in first-year sea ice: A model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Sébastien; Vancoppenolle, Martin; Delille, Bruno; Tison, Jean-Louis; Zhou, Jiayun; Kotovich, Marie; Thomas, David; Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier; Goosse, Hugues

    2015-04-01

    Sea ice is an active source or a sink for carbon dioxide (CO2), although to what extent is not clear. Here, we analyze CO2 dynamics within sea ice using a one-dimensional halo-thermodynamic sea ice model including gas physics and carbon biogeochemistry. The ice-ocean fluxes, and vertical transport, of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) are represented using fluid transport equations. Carbonate chemistry, the consumption and release of CO2 by primary production and respiration, the precipitation and dissolution of ikaite (CaCO3•6H2O) and ice-air CO2 fluxes, are also included. The model is evaluated using observations from a 6-month field study at Point Barrow, Alaska and an ice-tank experiment. At Barrow, results show that the DIC budget is mainly driven by physical processes, wheras brine-air CO2 fluxes, ikaite formation, and net primary production, are secondary factors. In terms of ice-atmosphere CO2 exchanges, sea ice is a net CO2 source and sink in winter and summer, respectively. The formulation of the ice-atmosphere CO2 flux impacts the simulated near-surface CO2 partial pressure (pCO2), but not the DIC budget. Because the simulated ice-atmosphere CO2 fluxes are limited by DIC stocks, and therefore < 2 mmol m-2 day-1, we argue that the observed much larger CO2 fluxes from eddy covariance retrievals cannot be explained by a sea ice direct source and must involve other processes or other sources of CO2. Finally, the simulations suggest that near surface TA/DIC ratios of ~2, sometimes used as an indicator of calcification, would rather suggest outgassing.

  15. Environmental controls of daytime leaf carbon exchange: Implications for estimates of ecosystem fluxes in a deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heskel, M.; Tang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Leaf-level photosynthesis and respiration are sensitive to short- and long-term changed in temperature, and how these processes respond to phenological and seasonal transitions and daily temperature variation dictate how carbon is first assimilated and released in terrestrial ecosystems. We examined the short-term temperature response of daytime leaf carbon exchange at Harvard Forest across growing season, with the specific objective to quantify the light inhibition of dark respiration and photorespiration in leaves and use this to better inform daytime carbon assimilation and efflux estimates at the canopy scale. Dark and light respiration increased with measurement temperature and varied seasonally in a proportional manner, with the level of inhibition remaining relatively constant through the growing season. Higher rates of mitochondrial respiration and photorespiration at warmer temperatures drove a lower carbon use efficiency. Using temperature, light, and canopy leaf area index values to drive models, we estimate partitioned ecosystem fluxes and re-calculate gross primary production under multiple scenarios that include and exclude the impact of light inhibition, thermal acclimation, and seasonal variation in physiology. Quantifying the contribution of these `small fluxes' to ecosystem carbon exchange in forests provides a nuanced approach for integrating physiology into regional model estimates derived from eddy covariance and remote-sensing methods.

  16. Evaluation of atmospheric aerosol and tropospheric ozone effects on global terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min

    The increasing human activities have produced large amounts of air pollutants ejected into the atmosphere, in which atmospheric aerosols and tropospheric ozone are considered to be especially important because of their negative impacts on human health and their impacts on global climate through either their direct radiative effect or indirect effect on land-atmosphere CO2 exchange. This dissertation dedicates to quantifying and evaluating the aerosol and tropospheric ozone effects on global terrestrial ecosystem dynamics using a modeling approach. An ecosystem model, the integrated Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (iTem), is developed to simulate biophysical and biogeochemical processes in terrestrial ecosystems. A two-broad-band atmospheric radiative transfer model together with the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measured atmospheric parameters are used to well estimate global downward solar radiation and the direct and diffuse components in comparison with observations. The atmospheric radiative transfer modeling framework were used to quantify the aerosol direct radiative effect, showing that aerosol loadings cause 18.7 and 12.8 W m -2 decrease of direct-beam Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) and Near Infrared Radiation (NIR) respectively, and 5.2 and 4.4 W m -2 increase of diffuse PAR and NIR, respectively, leading to a total 21.9 W m-2 decrease of total downward solar radiation over the global land surface during the period of 2003-2010. The results also suggested that the aerosol effect may be overwhelmed by clouds because of the stronger extinction and scattering ability of clouds. Applications of the iTem with solar radiation data and with or without considering the aerosol loadings shows that aerosol loading enhances the terrestrial productions [Gross Primary Production (GPP), Net Primary Production (NPP) and Net Ecosystem Production (NEP)] and carbon emissions through plant respiration (RA) in global terrestrial ecosystems over the

  17. Soil carbon dynamics inferred from carbon isotope compositions of soil organic matter and soil respiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koarashi, Jun; Asano, Tomohiro; Iida, Takao; Moriizumi, Jun

    2004-01-01

    To better understand 14 C cycling in terrestrial ecosystems, 14 C abundances were evaluated for fractionated soil organic matter (SOM) and soil respiration in an urban forest. In 2001 soil profile, Δ 14 C values of litter and bulk SOM increased rapidly from litter surface (62.7 per mille) to uppermost mineral soil layer (244.9 per mille), and then decreased sharply to 6 cm depth of mineral soil (125.0 per mille). Carbon enriched in 14 C by atmospheric nuclear weapons testing had penetrated to at least 16 cm depth of mineral soil. The average Δ 14 C in atmospheric CO 2 was 58.8 per mille in August 2001, suggesting recent carbon input to the topmost litter layer. Although a similar depth distribution was observed for Δ 14 C values of residual SOM after acid hydrolysis, the Δ 14 C values were slightly lower than those in bulk SOM. This indicates input of 'bomb' C into this organic fraction and higher 14 C abundance in acid-soluble SOM. The most of CO 2 may be derived from the microbial decomposition of the acid-soluble, or labile, SOM. Therefore, the labile SOM may become most influential pool for soil carbon cycling. In contrast, carbon in base-insoluble SOM remained considerably low in 14 C abundance at all depths, suggesting no or little incorporation of 'bomb' C to this fraction. Values of Δ 14 C in soil respiration ranged from 91.9 to 146.4 per mille in August 2001, showing a significant contribution from decomposition of SOM fixed over past 2-40 years. These results indicate that the use of bulk SOM as a representative of soil carbon pool would lead to severe misunderstand of the soil C dynamics on decadal and shorter time scales. (author)

  18. Carbon dynamics in corn-soybean sequences as estimated from natural carbon-13 abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggins, D.R.; Clapp, C.E.; Allmaras, R.R.; Lamb, J.A.; Layese, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon flow in terrestrial ecosystems regulates partitioning between soil organic C (SOC) and atmospheric CO2. Our objectives were to assess SOC dynamics using natural 13C abundance in corn (Zea mays L., a C4 species)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr., a C3 species] sequences. Fifteen treatments of continuous corn, continuous soybean, various sequences of corn and soybean, and fallow were initiated in 1981 at Lamberton, MN, on a Webster clay loam (fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Typic Haplaquoll). In 1991, soil and aboveground shoot samples from all treatments were analyzed for total organic C and delta 13C. Carbon inputs, delta 13C, and SOC were integrated into a two-pool model to evaluate C dynamics of corn and soybean. Total SOC was similar across all treatments after 10 yr; however, differences in soil delta 13C occurred between continuous corn (delta 13C = -17.2 per thous and) and continuous soybean (delta 13C = -18.2 per thousand). Modeled C dynamics showed SOC decay rates of 0.011 yr-1 for C4-derived C and 0.007 yr-1 for C3-derived C, and humification rates of 0.16 yr-1 for corn and 0.11 yr-1 for soybean. Decay and humification rates were slightly lower than those found in other Corn Belt studies. Levels of SOC were predicted to decline an additional 7 to 18% with current C inputs from either corn or soybean, respectively. Annual C additions required for SOC maintenance averaged 5.6 Mg C ha-1, 1.4 to 2.1 times greater than previously reported estimates. Controlled variation in natural 13C abundance in corn-soybean rotations during a 10-yr period adequately traced C dynamics

  19. The long-run dynamic relationship between exchange rate and its attention index: Based on DCCA and TOP method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Guo, Kun; Lu, Xiaolin

    2016-07-01

    The behavior information of financial market plays a more and more important role in modern economic system. The behavior information reflected in INTERNET search data has already been used in short-term prediction for exchange rate, stock market return, house price and so on. However, the long-run relationship between behavior information and financial market fluctuation has not been studied systematically. Further, most traditional statistic methods and econometric models could not catch the dynamic and non-linear relationship. An attention index of CNY/USD exchange rate is constructed based on search data from 360 search engine of China in this paper. Then the DCCA and Thermal Optimal Path methods are used to explore the long-run dynamic relationship between CNY/USD exchange rate and the corresponding attention index. The results show that the significant interdependency exists and the change of exchange rate is 1-2 days lag behind the attention index.

  20. Where Does The Carbon Go? Carbon Dynamics And Fire of a North Australian Tropical Savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutley, L. B.; Beringer, J.; Tapper, N. J.; Cernusak, L.

    2007-12-01

    The role of fire as one of the primary natural carbon cycling mechanisms is a key issue in considering global change feedbacks. In north Australia, the dominant ecosystem is tropical savanna and for mesic savannas within 100 km of the northern coastline, fire, storms and cyclones all impact carbon stocks. Fire is the most frequent disturbance agent as fires burn with a near annual frequency in these systems. We aimed to determine the annual net ecosystem productivity (NEP) from these savannas and the impact of fire on productivity. We established a long-term eddy covariance flux tower at Howard Springs, Australia and present here 5 years of data from 2001 to 2005. Fire has direct impacts through emissions but also has indirect effects through the loss of productivity due to reduced functional leaf area index and the carbon costs of rebuilding the canopy. The impact of fire on the canopy latent energy exchange was evident for 40 days while the canopy was rebuilt; however, the carbon balance took approximately 70 days to recover. The annual fire free NEP at Howard Springs was estimated at -4.3 t C ha-1 y-1 with a range of -3.5 to -5.1 t C ha-1 y-1 across years. We calculated the average annual indirect fire effect as 0.7 t C ha-1 y-1 using a neural network model approach and estimated average emissions of fine and coarse fuels as 1.6 t C ha-1 y-1. This allowed us to calculate a net biome production of 2.0 t C ha-1 y-1. We then partitioned this remaining sink and suggest that most of this can be accounted for by woody increment (1.2 t C ha-1 y-1) and shrub encroachment (0.5 t C ha-1 y-1). Given the consistent sink at this site, even under an almost annual fire regime, there may be management options to increase carbon sequestration by reducing fire frequency.

  1. Dynamic simulation of a direct carbonate fuel cell power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest, J.B. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Ghezel-Ayagh, H.; Kush, A.K. [Fuel Cell Engineering, Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) is commercializing a 2.85 MW Direct carbonate Fuel Cell (DFC) power plant. The commercialization sequence has already progressed through construction and operation of the first commercial-scale DFC power plant on a U.S. electric utility, the 2 MW Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP), and the completion of the early phases of a Commercial Plant design. A 400 kW fuel cell stack Test Facility is being built at Energy Research Corporation (ERC), FCE`s parent company, which will be capable of testing commercial-sized fuel cell stacks in an integrated plant configuration. Fluor Daniel, Inc. provided engineering, procurement, and construction services for SCDP and has jointly developed the Commercial Plant design with FCE, focusing on the balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment outside of the fuel cell modules. This paper provides a brief orientation to the dynamic simulation of a fuel cell power plant and the benefits offered.

  2. Overhauser shift and dynamic nuclear polarization on carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herb, Konstantin; Denninger, Gert

    2018-06-01

    We report on the first experimental magnetic resonance determination of the coupling between electrons and nuclear spins (1H, 13C) in carbon fibers. Our results strongly support the assumption that the electronic spins are delocalized on graphene like structures in the fiber. The coupling between these electrons and the nuclei of the lattice results in dynamic nuclear polarization of the nuclei (DNP), enabling very sensitive NMR experiments on these nuclear spins. For possible applications of graphene in spintronics devices the coupling between nuclei and electrons is essential. We were able to determine the interactions down to 30 × 10-9(30 ppb) . We were even able to detect the coupling of the electrons to 13C (in natural abundance). These experiments open the way for a range of new double resonance investigations with possible applications in the field of material science.

  3. Kinetic bottlenecks to chemical exchange rates for deep-sea animals II: Carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, A. F.; Peltzer, E. T.; Brewer, P. G.

    2012-11-01

    Increased ocean acidification from fossil fuel CO2 invasion, from temperature-driven changes in respiration, and from possible leakage from sub-seabed geologic CO2 disposal has aroused concern over the impacts of elevated CO2 concentrations on marine life. Discussion of these impacts has so far focused only on changes in the oceanic bulk fluid properties (ΔpH, Δ[∑CO2] etc.) as the critical variable and with a major focus on carbonate shell dissolution. Here we describe the rate problem for animals that must export CO2 at about the same rate at which O2 is consumed. We analyze the basic properties controlling CO2 export within the diffusive boundary layer around marine animals in an ocean changing in temperature (T) and CO2 concentration in order to compare the challenges posed by O2 uptake under stress with the equivalent problem of CO2 expulsion. The problem is more complex than that for a non-reactive gas since, as with gas exchange of CO2 at the air-sea interface, the influence of the ensemble of reactions within the CO2-HCO3--CO32- acid-base system needs to be considered. These reactions significantly facilitate CO2 efflux compared to O2 intake at equal temperature, pressure and flow rate under typical oceanic concentrations.The effect of these reactions can be described by an enhancement factor. For organisms, this means mechanically increasing flow over their surface to thin the boundary layer as is required to alleviate O2 stress seems not necessary to facilitate CO2 efflux. Nevertheless the elevated pCO2 cost most likely is non-zero. Regionally as with O2 the combination of T, P, and pH/pCO2 creates a zone of maximum CO2 stress at around 1000 m depth. But the net result is that, for the problem of gas exchange with the bulk ocean, the combination of an increasing T combined with declining O2 poses a greater challenge to marine life than does increasing CO2. The relationships developed here allow a more accurate prediction of the impacts on marine life

  4. Seasonal Carbon Dynamics on Selected Fen Peatland Sites in NE-Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebels, Michael; Beyer, Madlen; Augustin, Jürgen; Minke, Merten; Juszczak, Radoszlav; Serba, Tomasz

    2010-05-01

    In Germany more than 99 % of fens have lost their carbon and nutrient sink function due to heavy drainage and agricultural land use especially during the last decades and thus resulted in compression and heavy peat loss (CHARMAN 2002; JOOSTEN & CLARKE 2002; SUCCOW & JOOSTEN 2001; AUGUSTIN et al. 1996; KUNTZE 1993). Therefore fen peatlands play an important part (4-5 %) in the national anthropogenic trace gas budget. But only a small part of drained and agricultural used fens in NE Germany can be restored. Knowledge of the influence of land use to trace gas exchange is important for mitigation of the climate impact of the anthropogenic peatland use. We study carbon exchanges of several fen peatland use areas between soil and atmosphere at different sites in NE-Germany. Our research covers peatlands of supposed strongly climate forcing land use (cornfield and intensive pasture) and of probably less forcing, alternative types (meadow and extensive pasture) as well as rewetted (formerly drained) areas and near-natural sites like a low-degraded fen and a wetted alder woodland. We measured trace gas fluxes with manual and automatic chambers in periodic routines since spring 2007. The used chamber technique bases on DROESLER (2005). In total we now do research at 22 sites situated in 5 different locations covering agricultural, varying states of rewetted and near-natural treatments. We present results of at least 2 years of measurements and show significant differences in their annual carbon balances depending on the genesis of the observed sites and the seasonal dynamics. Crosswise comparison of different site treatments combined with the seasonal environmental observations give good hints for the identification of main flux driving parameters. That is that a reduced intensity in land use as a supposed mitigating treatment did not show the expected effect, though a normal meadow treatment surprisingly resulted in the lowest CO2 balances in both years. For implementing a

  5. An application of plot-scale NDVI in predicting carbon dioxide exchange and leaf area index in heterogeneous subarctic tundra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagg, J.; Lafleur, P.

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that examined the flow of carbon into and out of tundra ecosystems. It is necessary to accurately predict carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) exchange in the Tundra because of the impacts of climate change on carbon stored in permafrost. Understanding the relationships between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and vegetation and CO{sub 2} exchange may explain how small-scale variation in vegetation community extends to remotely sensed estimates of landscape characteristics. In this study, CO{sub 2} fluxes were measured with a portable chamber in a range of Tundra vegetation communities. Biomass and leaf area were measured with destructive harvest, and NDVI was obtained using a hand-held infrared camera. There was a weak correlation between NDVI and leaf area index in some vegetation communities, but a significant correlation between NDVI and biomass, including mosses. NDVI was found to be strongly related to photosynthetic activity and net CO{sub 2} uptake in all vegetation groups. However, NDVI related to ecosystem respiration only in wet sedge. It was concluded that at plot scale, the ability of NDVI to predict ecosystem properties and CO{sub 2} exchange in heterogeneous Tundra vegetation is variable.

  6. An application of plot-scale NDVI in predicting carbon dioxide exchange and leaf area index in heterogeneous subarctic tundra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagg, J.; Lafleur, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reported on a study that examined the flow of carbon into and out of tundra ecosystems. It is necessary to accurately predict carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) exchange in the Tundra because of the impacts of climate change on carbon stored in permafrost. Understanding the relationships between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and vegetation and CO 2 exchange may explain how small-scale variation in vegetation community extends to remotely sensed estimates of landscape characteristics. In this study, CO 2 fluxes were measured with a portable chamber in a range of Tundra vegetation communities. Biomass and leaf area were measured with destructive harvest, and NDVI was obtained using a hand-held infrared camera. There was a weak correlation between NDVI and leaf area index in some vegetation communities, but a significant correlation between NDVI and biomass, including mosses. NDVI was found to be strongly related to photosynthetic activity and net CO 2 uptake in all vegetation groups. However, NDVI related to ecosystem respiration only in wet sedge. It was concluded that at plot scale, the ability of NDVI to predict ecosystem properties and CO 2 exchange in heterogeneous Tundra vegetation is variable.

  7. Seasonal reversal of temperature-moisture response of net carbon exchange of biocrusted soils in a cool desert ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, C.; Reed, S.; Howell, A.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon cycling associated with biological soil crusts, which occur in interspaces between vascular plants in drylands globally, may be an important part of the coupled climate-carbon cycle of the Earth system. A major challenge to understanding CO2 fluxes in these systems is that much of the biotic and biogeochemical activity occurs in the upper few mm of the soil surface layer (i.e., the `mantle of fertility'), which exhibits highly dynamic and difficult to measure temperature and moisture fluctuations. Here, we report data collected in a cool desert ecosystem over one year using a multi-sensor approach to simultaneously measuring temperature and moisture of the biocrust surface layer (0-2 mm), and the deeper soil profile (5-20 cm), concurrent with automated measurement of surface soil CO2 effluxes. Our results illuminate robust relationships between microclimate and field CO2 pulses that have previously been difficult to detect and explain. The temperature of the biocrust surface layer was highly variable, ranging from minimum of -9 °C in winter to maximum of 77 °C in summer with a maximum diurnal range of 61 °C. Temperature cycles were muted deeper in the soil profile. During summer, biocrust and soils were usually hot and dry and CO2 fluxes were tightly coupled to pulse wetting events experienced at the biocrust surface, which consistently resulted in net CO2 efflux (i.e., respiration). In contrast, during the winter, biocrust and soils were usually cold and moist, and there was sustained net CO2 uptake via photosynthesis by biocrust organisms, although during cold dry periods CO2 fluxes were minimal. During the milder spring and fall seasons, short wetting events drove CO2 loss, while sustained wetting events resulted in net CO2 uptake. Thus, the upper and lower bounds of net CO2 exchange at a point in time were functions of the seasonal temperature regime, while the actual flux within those bounds was determined by the magnitude and duration of biocrust

  8. Paired comparison of water, energy and carbon exchanges over two young maritime pine stands (Pinus pinaster Ait.): effects of thinning and weeding in the early stage of tree growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreaux, Virginie; Lamaud, Eric; Bosc, Alexandre; Bonnefond, Jean-Marc; Medlyn, Belinda E; Loustau, Denis

    2011-09-01

    The effects of management practices on energy, water and carbon exchanges were investigated in a young pine plantation in south-west France. In 2009-10, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), H(2)O and heat fluxes were monitored using the eddy covariance and sap flow techniques in a control plot (C) with a developed gorse layer, and an adjacent plot that was mechanically weeded and thinned (W). Despite large differences in the total leaf area index and canopy structure, the annual net radiation absorbed was only 4% lower in plot W. We showed that higher albedo in this plot was offset by lower emitted long-wave radiation. Annual evapotranspiration (ET) from plot W was 15% lower, due to lower rainfall interception and transpiration by the tree canopy, partly counterbalanced by the larger evaporation from both soil and regrowing weedy vegetation. The drainage belowground from plot W was larger by 113 mm annually. The seasonal variability of ET was driven by the dynamics of the soil and weed layers, which was more severely affected by drought in plot C. Conversely, the temporal changes in pine transpiration and stem diameter growth were synchronous between sites despite higher soil water content in the weeded plot. At the annual scale, both plots were carbon sinks, but thinning and weeding reduced the carbon uptake by 73%: annual carbon uptake was 243 and 65 g C m(-2) on plots C and W, respectively. Summer drought dramatically impacted the net ecosystem exchange: plot C became a carbon source as the gross primary production (GPP) severely decreased. However, plot W remained a carbon sink during drought, as a result of decreases in both GPP and ecosystem respiration (R(E)). In winter, both plots were carbon sources, plots C and W emitting 67.5 and 32.4 g C m(-2), respectively. Overall, this study highlighted the significant contribution of the gorse layer to mass and energy exchange in young pine plantations.

  9. Dynamic model of counter flow air to air heat exchanger for comfort ventilation with condensation and frost formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Rose, Jørgen; Kragh, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    must be calculated under conditions with condensation and freezing. This article presents a dynamic model of a counter flow air to air heat exchanger taking into account condensation and freezing and melting of ice. The model is implemented in Simulink and results are compared to measurements......In cold climates heat recovery in the ventilation system is essential to reduce heating energy demand. Condensation and freezing occur often in efficient heat exchangers used in cold climates. To develop efficient heat exchangers and defrosting strategies for cold climates, heat and mass transfer...

  10. Direct and quantitative characterization of dynamic ligand exchange between coordination-driven self-assembled supramolecular polygons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yao-Rong; Stang, Peter J

    2009-03-18

    The direct observation of dynamic ligand exchange between Pt-N coordination-driven self-assembled supramolecular polygons (triangles and rectangles) has been achieved using stable (1)H/(2)D isotope labeling of the pyridyl donors and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry combined with NMR spectroscopy. Both the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of such exchange processes have been established on the basis of quantitative mass spectral results. Further investigation has shown that the exchange is highly dependent on experimental conditions such as temperature, solvent, and the counteranions.

  11. LCE: leaf carbon exchange data set for tropical, temperate, and boreal species of North and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas G; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2017-11-01

    Leaf canopy carbon exchange processes, such as photosynthesis and respiration, are substantial components of the global carbon cycle. Climate models base their simulations of photosynthesis and respiration on an empirical understanding of the underlying biochemical processes, and the responses of those processes to environmental drivers. As such, data spanning large spatial scales are needed to evaluate and parameterize these models. Here, we present data on four important biochemical parameters defining leaf carbon exchange processes from 626 individuals of 98 species at 12 North and Central American sites spanning ~53° of latitude. The four parameters are the maximum rate of Rubisco carboxylation (V cmax ), the maximum rate of electron transport for the regeneration of Ribulose-1,5,-bisphosphate (J max ), the maximum rate of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase carboxylation (V pmax ), and leaf dark respiration (R d ). The raw net photosynthesis by intercellular CO 2 (A/C i ) data used to calculate V cmax , J max , and V pmax rates are also presented. Data were gathered on the same leaf of each individual (one leaf per individual), allowing for the examination of each parameter relative to others. Additionally, the data set contains a number of covariates for the plants measured. Covariate data include (1) leaf-level traits (leaf mass, leaf area, leaf nitrogen and carbon content, predawn leaf water potential), (2) plant-level traits (plant height for herbaceous individuals and diameter at breast height for trees), (3) soil moisture at the time of measurement, (4) air temperature from nearby weather stations for the day of measurement and each of the 90 d prior to measurement, and (5) climate data (growing season mean temperature, precipitation, photosynthetically active radiation, vapor pressure deficit, and aridity index). We hope that the data will be useful for obtaining greater understanding of the abiotic and biotic determinants of these important biochemical

  12. Large interannual variability in net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange of a disturbed temperate peatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan-Sungur, Guler; Lee, Xuhui; Evrendilek, Fatih; Karakaya, Nusret

    2016-06-01

    Peatland ecosystems play an important role in the global carbon (C) cycle as significant C sinks. However, human-induced disturbances can turn these sinks into sources of atmospheric CO2. Long-term measurements are needed to understand seasonal and interannual variability of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and effects of hydrological conditions and their disturbances on C fluxes. Continuous eddy-covariance measurements of NEE were conducted between August 2010 and April 2014 at Yenicaga temperate peatland (Turkey), which was drained for agricultural usage and for peat mining until 2009. Annual NEE during the three full years of measurement indicated that the peatland acted as a CO2 source with large interannual variability, at rates of 246, 244 and 663 g Cm(-2)yr(-1) for 2011, 2012, and 2013 respectively, except for June 2011, and May to July 2012. The emission strengths were comparable to those found for severely disturbed tropical peatlands. The peak CO2 emissions occurred in the dry summer of 2013 when water table level (WTL) was below a threshold value of -60 cm and soil water content (SCW) below a threshold value of 70% by volume. Water availability index was found to have a stronger explanatory power for variations in monthly ecosystem respiration (ER) than the traditional water status indicators (SCW and WTL). Air temperature, evapotranspiration and vapor pressure deficient were the most significant variables strongly correlated with NEE and its component fluxes of gross primary production and ER. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Landscape heterogeneity, soil climate, and carbon exchange in a boreal black spruce forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Allison L; Wofsy, Steven C; v H Bright, Alfram

    2009-03-01

    We measured soil climate and the turbulent fluxes of CO2, H2O, heat, and momentum on short towers (2 m) in a 160-yr-old boreal black spruce forest in Manitoba, Canada. Two distinct land cover types were studied: a Sphagnum-dominated wetland, and a feathermoss (Pleurozium and Hylocomium)-dominated upland, both lying within the footprint of a 30-m tower, which has measured whole-forest carbon exchange since 1994. Peak summertime uptake of CO2, was higher in the wetland than for the forest as a whole due to the influence of deciduous shrubs. Soil respiration rates in the wetland were approximately three times larger than in upland soils, and 30% greater than the mean of the whole forest, reflecting decomposition of soil organic matter. Soil respiration rates in the wetland were regulated by soil temperature, which was in turn influenced by water table depth through effects on soil heat capacity and conductivity. Warmer soil temperatures and deeper water tables favored increased heterotrophic respiration. Wetland drainage was limited by frost during the first half of the growing season, leading to high, perched water tables, cool soil temperatures, and much lower respiration rates than observed later in the growing season. Whole-forest evapotranspiration increased as water tables dropped, suggesting that photosynthesis in this forest was rarely subject to water stress. Our data indicate positive feedback between soil temperature, seasonal thawing, heterotrophic respiration, and evapotranspiration. As a result, climate warming could cause covariant changes in soil temperature and water table depths that may stimulate photosynthesis and strongly promote efflux of CO2 from peat soils in boreal wetlands.

  14. Plasticity of 150-loop in influenza neuraminidase explored by Hamiltonian replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanyu Han

    Full Text Available Neuraminidase (NA of influenza is a key target for antiviral inhibitors, and the 150-cavity in group-1 NA provides new insight in treating this disease. However, NA of 2009 pandemic influenza (09N1 was found lacking this cavity in a crystal structure. To address the issue of flexibility of the 150-loop, Hamiltonian replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations were performed on different groups of NAs. Free energy landscape calculated based on the volume of 150-cavity indicates that 09N1 prefers open forms of 150-loop. The turn A (residues 147-150 of the 150-loop is discovered as the most dynamical motif which induces the inter-conversion of this loop among different conformations. In the turn A, the backbone dynamic of residue 149 is highly related with the shape of 150-loop, thus can function as a marker for the conformation of 150-loop. As a contrast, the closed conformation of 150-loop is more energetically favorable in N2, one of group-2 NAs. The D147-H150 salt bridge is found having no correlation with the conformation of 150-loop. Instead the intimate salt bridge interaction between the 150 and 430 loops in N2 variant contributes the stabilizing factor for the closed form of 150-loop. The clustering analysis elaborates the structural plasticity of the loop. This enhanced sampling simulation provides more information in further structural-based drug discovery on influenza virus.

  15. Investment Strategy on the Zagreb Stock Exchange Based on Dynamic DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihana Škrinjarić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a growing interest in the application of quantitative methods in portfolio management, as the results of their application can be used as guidelines for managing a successful investment portfolio, i.e., a portfolio that outperforms the market. This paper deals with the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA approach and a Dynamic Slacks-Based Measure as a method of forming a portfolio which would predominantly outperform the market. In order to test the strategy, data on stocks listed on the Zagreb Stock Exchange were gathered for the period April 2009 – June 2012. Using the quarterly returns, standard deviations and coefficients of skewness as links, a dynamic slacks-based measure approach was applied to evaluate the relative efficiency of stocks in each quarter. The findings indicate that a portfolio based on the results of the optimization beats the market in terms of both returns and risk. This is the first implementation of the dynamic DEA model in stock trading. The results suggest that it is superior to basic DEA models.

  16. Ganglion dynamics and its implications to geologic carbon dioxide storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifeng; Bryan, Charles; Dewers, Thomas; Heath, Jason E; Jove-Colon, Carlos

    2013-01-02

    Capillary trapping of a nonwetting fluid phase in the subsurface has been considered as an important mechanism for geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO(2)). This mechanism can potentially relax stringent requirements for the integrity of cap rocks for CO(2) storage and therefore can significantly enhance storage capacity and security. We here apply ganglion dynamics to understand the capillary trapping of supercritical CO(2) (scCO(2)) under relevant reservoir conditions. We show that, by breaking the injected scCO(2) into small disconnected ganglia, the efficiency of capillary trapping can be greatly enhanced, because the mobility of a ganglion is inversely dependent on its size. Supercritical CO(2) ganglia can be engineered by promoting CO(2)-water interface instability during immiscible displacement, and their size distribution can be controlled by injection mode (e.g., water-alternating-gas) and rate. We also show that a large mobile ganglion can potentially break into smaller ganglia due to CO(2)-brine interface instability during buoyant rise, thus becoming less mobile. The mobility of scCO(2) in the subsurface is therefore self-limited. Vertical structural heterogeneity within a reservoir can inhibit the buoyant rise of scCO(2) ganglia. The dynamics of scCO(2) ganglia described here provides a new perspective for the security and monitoring of subsurface CO(2) storage.

  17. Dynamic mechanical analysis of carbon nanotube-reinforced nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Lin, Kuan-Yu

    2017-06-16

    To predict the mechanical properties of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-reinforced polymers, it is necessary to understand the role of the nanotube-polymer interface with regard to load transfer and the formation of the interphase region. The main objective of this study was to explore and attempt to clarify the reinforcement mechanisms of MWCNTs in epoxy matrix. Nanocomposites were fabricated by adding different amounts of MWCNTs to epoxy resin. Tensile test and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) were conducted to investigate the effect of MWCNT contents on the mechanical properties and thermal stability of nanocomposites. Compared with the neat epoxy, nanocomposite reinforced with 1 wt% of MWCNTs exhibited an increase of 152% and 54% in Young's modulus and tensile strength, respectively. Dynamic mechanical analysis demonstrates that both the storage modulus and glass transition temperature tend to increase with the addition of MWCNTs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations reveal that uniform dispersion and strong interfacial adhesion between the MWCNTs and epoxy are achieved, resulting in the improvement of mechanical properties and thermal stability as compared with neat epoxy.

  18. Dynamic properties of interstitial carbon and carbon-carbon pair defects in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leary, P.; Jones, R.; Oeberg, S.; Torres, V.J.

    1997-01-01

    Interstitial carbon, C i , defects in Si exhibit a number of unexplained features. The C i defect in the neutral charge state gives rise to two almost degenerate vibrational modes at 920 and 931 cm -1 whose 2:1 absorption intensity ratio naturally suggests a trigonal defect in conflict with uniaxial stress measurements. The dicarbon, C s -C i , defect is bistable, and the energy difference between its A and B forms is surprisingly small even though the bonding is very different. In the B form appropriate to the neutral charge state, a silicon interstitial is believed to be located near a bond-centered site between two C s atoms. This must give rise to vibrational modes which involve the motion of both C atoms in apparent conflict with the results of photoluminescence experiments. We use an ab initio local density functional cluster method, AIMPRO, to calculate the structure and vibrational modes of these defects and find that the ratio of the absorption intensities of the local modes of C i is in reasonable agreement with experiment even though the structure of the defect is not trigonal. We also show that modes in the vicinity of those detected by photoluminescence for the B form of the dicarbon center involve independent movements of the two C atoms. Finally, the trends in the relative energies of the A and B forms in three charge states are investigated. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  19. Spatially explicit simulation of peatland hydrology and carbon dioxide exchange: Influence of mesoscale topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, O.; Chen, J. M.; Roulet, N. T.; Ju, W.; Govind, A.

    2008-06-01

    Carbon dynamics in peatlands are controlled, in large part, by their wetness as defined by water table depth and volumetric liquid soil moisture content. A common type of peatland is raised bogs that typically have a multiple-layer canopy of vascular plants over a Sphagnum moss ground cover. Their convex form restricts water supply to precipitation and water is shed toward the margins, usually by lateral subsurface flow. The hydraulic gradient for lateral subsurface flow is governed by the peat surface topography at the mesoscale (˜200 m to 5 km). To investigate the influence of mesoscale topography on wetness, evapotranspiration (ET), and gross primary productivity (GPP) in a bog during the snow-free period, we compare the outputs of a further developed version of the daily Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) with observations made at the Mer Bleue peatland, located near Ottawa, Canada. Explicitly considering mesoscale topography, simulated total ET and GPP correlate well with measured ET (r = 0.91) and derived gross ecosystem productivity (GEP; r = 0.92). Both measured ET and derived GEP are simulated similarly well when mesoscale topography is neglected, but daily simulated values are systematically underestimated by about 10% and 12% on average, respectively, due to greater wetness resulting from the lack of lateral subsurface flow. Owing to the differences in moss surface conductances of water vapor and carbon dioxide with increasing moss water content, the differences in the spatial patterns of simulated total ET and GPP are controlled by the mesotopographic position of the moss ground cover.

  20. Fluid Dynamics of Carbon Dioxide Disposal into Saline Aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Julio Enrique [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into saline aquifers has been proposed as a means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (geological carbon sequestration). Large-scale injection of CO2 will induce a variety of coupled physical and chemical processes, including multiphase fluid flow, fluid pressurization and changes in effective stress, solute transport, and chemical reactions between fluids and formation minerals. This work addresses some of these issues with special emphasis given to the physics of fluid flow in brine formations. An investigation of the thermophysical properties of pure carbon dioxide, water and aqueous solutions of CO2 and NaCl has been conducted. As a result, accurate representations and models for predicting the overall thermophysical behavior of the system CO2-H2O-NaCl are proposed and incorporated into the numerical simulator TOUGH2/ECO2. The basic problem of CO2 injection into a radially symmetric brine aquifer is used to validate the results of TOUGH2/ECO2. The numerical simulator has been applied to more complex flow problem including the CO2 injection project at the Sleipner Vest Field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea and the evaluation of fluid flow dynamics effects of CO2 injection into aquifers. Numerical simulation results show that the transport at Sleipner is dominated by buoyancy effects and that shale layers control vertical migration of CO2. These results are in good qualitative agreement with time lapse surveys performed at the site. High-resolution numerical simulation experiments have been conducted to study the onset of instabilities (viscous fingering) during injection of CO2 into saline aquifers. The injection process can be classified as immiscible displacement of an aqueous phase by a less dense and less viscous gas phase. Under disposal conditions (supercritical CO2) the viscosity of carbon

  1. Interannual variation of carbon fluxes from three contrasting evergreen forests: the role of forest dynamics and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Carlos A; Loescher, Henry W; Harmon, Mark E; Richardson, Andrew D; Hollinger, David Y; Perakis, Steven S

    2009-10-01

    Interannual variation of carbon fluxes can be attributed to a number of biotic and abiotic controls that operate at different spatial and temporal scales. Type and frequency of disturbance, forest dynamics, and climate regimes are important sources of variability. Assessing the variability of carbon fluxes from these specific sources can enhance the interpretation of past and current observations. Being able to separate the variability caused by forest dynamics from that induced by climate will also give us the ability to determine if the current observed carbon fluxes are within an expected range or whether the ecosystem is undergoing unexpected change. Sources of interannual variation in ecosystem carbon fluxes from three evergreen ecosystems, a tropical, a temperate coniferous, and a boreal forest, were explored using the simulation model STANDCARB. We identified key processes that introduced variation in annual fluxes, but their relative importance differed among the ecosystems studied. In the tropical site, intrinsic forest dynamics contributed approximately 30% of the total variation in annual carbon fluxes. In the temperate and boreal sites, where many forest processes occur over longer temporal scales than those at the tropical site, climate controlled more of the variation among annual fluxes. These results suggest that climate-related variability affects the rates of carbon exchange differently among sites. Simulations in which temperature, precipitation, and radiation varied from year to year (based on historical records of climate variation) had less net carbon stores than simulations in which these variables were held constant (based on historical records of monthly average climate), a result caused by the functional relationship between temperature and respiration. This suggests that, under a more variable temperature regime, large respiratory pulses may become more frequent and high enough to cause a reduction in ecosystem carbon stores. Our results

  2. Interannual variation of carbon fluxes from three contrasting evergreen forests: The role of forest dynamics and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, C.A.; Loescher, H.W.; Harmon, M.E.; Richardson, A.D.; Hollinger, D.Y.; Perakis, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Interannual variation of carbon fluxes can be attributed to a number of biotic and abiotic controls that operate at different spatial and temporal scales. Type and frequency of disturbance, forest dynamics, and climate regimes are important sources of variability. Assessing the variability of carbon fluxes from these specific sources can enhance the interpretation of past and current observations. Being able to separate the variability caused by forest dynamics from that induced by climate will also give us the ability to determine if the current observed carbon fluxes are within an expected range or whether the ecosystem is undergoing unexpected change. Sources of interannual variation in ecosystem carbon fluxes from three evergreen ecosystems, a tropical, a temperate coniferous, and a boreal forest, were explored using the simulation model STANDCARB. We identified key processes that introduced variation in annual fluxes, but their relative importance differed among the ecosystems studied. In the tropical site, intrinsic forest dynamics contributed ?? 30% of the total variation in annual carbon fluxes. In the temperate and boreal sites, where many forest processes occur over longer temporal scales than those at the tropical site, climate controlled more of the variation among annual fluxes. These results suggest that climate-related variability affects the rates of carbon exchange differently among sites. Simulations in which temperature, precipitation, and radiation varied from year to year (based on historical records of climate variation) had less net carbon stores than simulations in which these variables were held constant (based on historical records of monthly average climate), a result caused by the functional relationship between temperature and respiration. This suggests that, under a more variable temperature regime, large respiratory pulses may become more frequent and high enough to cause a reduction in ecosystem carbon stores. Our results also show

  3. The dynamic behaviour of heat exchangers; Etude du comportement dynamique des echangeurs de chaleur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonteray, J; Rozenholc, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    In order to study the dynamics of nuclear power plants, one needs mathematical models made up of ordinary differential equations. This report deals with models for heat exchangers. These models allow exact evaluations of the temperatures for any steady state. The deformation of the temperature maps during transients is taken into account. To do this, average temperatures are evaluated keeping In mind, on one hand the partial differential equations, on the other hand, the physical phenomenons which are involved. Seven ordinary differential equations at most, are necessary for one heat exchanger. Theses models were compared with mathematically exact ones and also with experimental results, that EDF was able to measure on EDF-1 heat exchangers. The results appear to be correct. (authors) [French] Les etudes de dynamique sur les centrales nucleaires exigent l'elaboration de modeles apparaissant sous forme d'equations differentlelles ordinaires. Ce rapport est consacre a la recherche de modeles d'echangeurs. Dans ces modeles les temperatures sont calculees exactement pour n'importe quel regime permanent. Pour tenir compte de la deformation des distributions de temperature en regime transitoire, on evalue les temperatures moyennes dans l'echangeur en s'appuyant, d'une part, sur les equations aux derivees partielles et, d'autre part, sur une analyse des phenomenes physiques. Les modeles contiennent au plus sept equations differentielles ordinaires. Ces modeles ont ete compares aux modeles mathematiques exacts et aussi a des resultats experimentaux, obtenus par l'EDF, sur les echangeurs d'EDF-1. Les resultats paraissent satisfaisants. (auteurs)

  4. Plasmon dispersion and dynamic exchange-correlation potential from two-pair excitations in degenerate plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, H.M.; Conti, S.; Tosi, M.P.

    1995-11-01

    Electron energy loss experiments have shown a rapid softening of the bulk plasmon dispersion across the series of the alkali metals. Motivated by these observations, we reconsider the evaluation of the dynamic, long-wavelength exchange-correlation potential f xc (ω) in the electron fluid, which is of interest for applications in time-dependent density functional theory. The value of Re[f xc (ω pl )] at the plasma frequency ω pl determines the exchange-correlation contribution to the leading plasmon dispersion coefficient in the homogeneous electron fluid. Whereas an interpolation scheme originally proposed by Gross and Kohn assumes a monotonic increase of Re[f xc (ω) - f xc (0)] across the plasma frequency, we examine the possibility of strongly non-monotonic behaviour arising from a resonance process between plasmons and two-pair excitations. This process is evaluated with the help of sum rules and selfconsistency requirements with a single-pole approximation of the dielectric function. The cases of a fermion plasma and of a boson plasma are treated in parallel and the reliability of the results for the fermion plasma at low coupling is tested by calculations within a random phase approximation for the dielectric function. In all cases it is found that the resonance process accumulates oscillator strength in the neighbourhood of 2ω pl , thus decreasing the value of Re[f xc (ω pl )] below the static value f xc (0) fixed by the compressibility sum rule. Although this lowering does not suffice to account by itself for the measured plasmon dispersion coefficient in the low-density alkali metals, our results provide useful input for combined band-structure and exchange-correlation calculations. (author). 40 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  5. The topology of non-linear global carbon dynamics: from tipping points to planetary boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderies, J M; Carpenter, S R; Steffen, Will; Rockström, Johan

    2013-01-01

    We present a minimal model of land use and carbon cycle dynamics and use it to explore the relationship between non-linear dynamics and planetary boundaries. Only the most basic interactions between land cover and terrestrial, atmospheric, and marine carbon stocks are considered in the model. Our goal is not to predict global carbon dynamics as it occurs in the actual Earth System. Rather, we construct a conceptually reasonable heuristic model of a feedback system between different carbon stocks that captures the qualitative features of the actual Earth System and use it to explore the topology of the boundaries of what can be called a ‘safe operating space’ for humans. The model analysis illustrates the existence of dynamic, non-linear tipping points in carbon cycle dynamics and the potential complexity of planetary boundaries. Finally, we use the model to illustrate some challenges associated with navigating planetary boundaries. (letter)

  6. The topology of non-linear global carbon dynamics: from tipping points to planetary boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderies, J. M.; Carpenter, S. R.; Steffen, Will; Rockström, Johan

    2013-12-01

    We present a minimal model of land use and carbon cycle dynamics and use it to explore the relationship between non-linear dynamics and planetary boundaries. Only the most basic interactions between land cover and terrestrial, atmospheric, and marine carbon stocks are considered in the model. Our goal is not to predict global carbon dynamics as it occurs in the actual Earth System. Rather, we construct a conceptually reasonable heuristic model of a feedback system between different carbon stocks that captures the qualitative features of the actual Earth System and use it to explore the topology of the boundaries of what can be called a ‘safe operating space’ for humans. The model analysis illustrates the existence of dynamic, non-linear tipping points in carbon cycle dynamics and the potential complexity of planetary boundaries. Finally, we use the model to illustrate some challenges associated with navigating planetary boundaries.

  7. Ecosystem-Atmosphere Exchange of Carbon, Water and Energy over a Mixed Deciduous Forest in the Midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilo Dragoni; Hans Peter Schmid; C.S.B. Grimmond; J.C. Randolph; J.R. White

    2012-12-17

    During the project period we continued to conduct long-term (multi-year) measurements, analysis, and modeling of energy and mass exchange in and over a deciduous forest in the Midwestern United States, to enhance the understanding of soil-vegetation-atmosphere exchange of carbon. At the time when this report was prepared, results from nine years of measurements (1998 - 2006) of above canopy CO2 and energy fluxes at the AmeriFlux site in the Morgan-Monroe State Forest, Indiana, USA (see Table 1), were available on the Fluxnet database, and the hourly CO2 fluxes for 2007 are presented here (see Figure 1). The annual sequestration of atmospheric carbon by the forest is determined to be between 240 and 420 g C m-2 a-1 for the first ten years. These estimates are based on eddy covariance measurements above the forest, with a gap-filling scheme based on soil temperature and photosynthetically active radiation. Data gaps result from missing data or measurements that were rejected in qua)lity control (e.g., during calm nights). Complementary measurements of ecological variables (i.e. inventory method), provided an alternative method to quantify net carbon uptake by the forest, partition carbon allocation in each ecosystem components, and reduce uncertainty on annual net ecosystem productivity (NEP). Biometric datasets are available on the Fluxnext database since 1998 (with the exclusion of 2006). Analysis for year 2007 is under completion.

  8. NMR characterization of segmental dynamics in poly(alkyl methacrylate) using CODEX and PUREX exchange techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker-Guedes, Fabio; Azevedo, Eduardo R. de; Bonagamba, Tito J.; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    Slow side group dynamics in a series of five poly(alkyl methacrylate)s with varying side group sizes (PMAA, PMMA, PEMA, PiBMA, and PcHMA, with -H, -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 CH(CH 3 ) 2 , and -cyclohexyl alkyl substituents, respectively) have been studied quantitatively by center band-only detection of exchange (CODEX) and pure exchange (PUREX) 13 C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Flips and small-angle motions of the ester groups associated with the β-relaxation are observed distinctly, and the fraction of slowly flipping groups has been measured with 3% precision. In PMMA, 34% of side groups flip, while the fraction is 31% in PEMA at 25 C. Even the large isobutyl ether and cyclohexylester side groups can flip in the glassy state, although the flipping fraction is reduced to 22% and ∼10%, respectively. In poly methacrylic acid, no slow side group flips are detected. In PMMA, the flipping fraction is temperature-independent between 25 C and 80 C, while in Pemal it increases continuously from 31 to 60% between 25 C and 60 C. A similar doubling is also observed in Pi BMA. (author)

  9. Fluid Analysis and Improved Structure of an ATEG Heat Exchanger Based on Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Z. B.; Deng, Y. D.; Su, C. Q.; Yuan, X. H.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, a numerical model has been employed to analyze the internal flow field distribution in a heat exchanger applied for an automotive thermoelectric generator based on computational fluid dynamics. The model simulates the influence of factors relevant to the heat exchanger, including the automotive waste heat mass flow velocity, temperature, internal fins, and back pressure. The result is in good agreement with experimental test data. Sensitivity analysis of the inlet parameters shows that increase of the exhaust velocity, compared with the inlet temperature, makes little contribution (0.1 versus 0.19) to the heat transfer but results in a detrimental back pressure increase (0.69 versus 0.21). A configuration equipped with internal fins is proved to offer better thermal performance compared with that without fins. Finally, based on an attempt to improve the internal flow field, a more rational structure is obtained, offering a more homogeneous temperature distribution, higher average heat transfer coefficient, and lower back pressure.

  10. Conformational sampling enhancement of replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations using swarm particle intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamberaj, Hiqmet

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method based on swarm particle social intelligence for use in replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations. In this method, the replicas (representing the different system configurations) are allowed communicating with each other through the individual and social knowledge, in additional to considering them as a collection of real particles interacting through the Newtonian forces. The new method is based on the modification of the equations of motion in such way that the replicas are driven towards the global energy minimum. The method was tested for the Lennard-Jones clusters of N = 4,  5, and 6 atoms. Our results showed that the new method is more efficient than the conventional replica exchange method under the same practical conditions. In particular, the new method performed better on optimizing the distribution of the replicas among the thermostats with time and, in addition, ergodic convergence is observed to be faster. We also introduce a weighted histogram analysis method allowing analyzing the data from simulations by combining data from all of the replicas and rigorously removing the inserted bias

  11. Dynamic thermal baffle on lower head of FBR sodium-sodium intermediate heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonnel, A.; Foussat, C.

    1981-01-01

    The cover head of the heat exchanger is bathed on the one side by the primary sodium of the 'cold' header of the vessel and on the other side by the secondary sodium which feeds the heat exchange tube bank through the lower tubesheet. In the case of transient or permanent operating conditions at partial ratings, there are large temperature differences between the inner sodium (inlet temperature conditions of secondary sodium) and the outer sodium (mean temperature conditions in the primary sodium outlet port), hence the necessity of designing a thermal baffle which protects the head and its connection to the tubesheet. A 'static' thermal baffle consisting of a thick steel plate enclosing static sodium around the head proves inadequate during transient operating conditions. This is why a 'dynamic' thermal baffle is used whose design is based on the fact that the primary sodium in the lower part of the outlet port is always at a temperature close to that of the secondary sodium in the inlet header and the head. The primary sodium is taken from the bottom of the outlet port by a ring deflector and circulates in an annulus created by a double housing and the head. It flows out through openings in the lower part of the housing. (orig./GL)

  12. Horizontal Air-Ground Heat Exchanger Performance and Humidity Simulation by Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Maria Congedo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Improving energy efficiency in buildings and promoting renewables are key objectives of European energy policies. Several technological measures are being developed to enhance the energy performance of buildings. Among these, geothermal systems present a huge potential to reduce energy consumption for mechanical ventilation and cooling, but their behavior depending on varying parameters, boundary and climatic conditions is not fully established. In this paper a horizontal air-ground heat exchanger (HAGHE system is studied by the development of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD model. Summer and winter conditions representative of the Mediterranean climate are analyzed to evaluate operation and thermal performance differences. A particular focus is given to humidity variations as this parameter has a major impact on indoor air quality and comfort. Results show the benefits that HAGHE systems can provide in reducing energy consumption in all seasons, in summer when free-cooling can be implemented avoiding post air treatment using heat pumps.

  13. Modelling and dynamics analysis of heat exchanger as a distributed parameter process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savic, B.; Debeljkovic, D.Lj.

    2004-01-01

    A non-linear and afterwards linearized mathematical model of fuel oil cooling chamber has been developed. This chamber is a part of a recuperative heat exchanger of a tube-in-tube type and of opposite-direction acting, set in a heavy oil fraction discharge tubing. The model is defined as a range of assumptions and simplifications from which energy balance equations under non-stationary operating conditions are derived. The model is in the form of a set of partial differential equations with constant coefficients. Using appropriate numerical simulation of the transfer function, the dynamic of this process has been shown in the form of appropriate transient process responses which quite well correspond to the real process behavior

  14. Considerably Unfolded Transthyretin Monomers Preceed and Exchange with Dynamically Structured Amyloid Protofibrils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groenning, Minna; Campos, Raul I; Hirschberg, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    describe an unexpectedly dynamic TTR protofibril structure which exchanges protomers with highly unfolded monomers in solution. The protofibrils only grow to an approximate final size of 2,900 kDa and a length of 70 nm and a comparative HXMS analysis of native and aggregated samples revealed a much higher...... average solvent exposure of TTR upon fibrillation. With SAXS, we reveal the continuous presence of a considerably unfolded TTR monomer throughout the fibrillation process, and show that a considerable fraction of the fibrillating protein remains in solution even at a late maturation state. Together......, these data reveal that the fibrillar state interchanges with the solution state. Accordingly, we suggest that TTR fibrillation proceeds via addition of considerably unfolded monomers, and the continuous presence of amyloidogenic structures near the protofibril surface offers a plausible explanation...

  15. Modelling and dynamics analysis of heat exchanger as a distributed parameter process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savic, B.; Debeljkovic, D.Lj. [University of Belgrade, Department of Control Engineering, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    2004-07-01

    A non-linear and afterwards linearized mathematical model of fuel oil cooling chamber has been developed. This chamber is a part of a recuperative heat exchanger of a tube-in-tube type and of opposite-direction acting, set in a heavy oil fraction discharge tubing. The model is defined as a range of assumptions and simplifications from which energy balance equations under non-stationary operating conditions are derived. The model is in the form of a set of partial differential equations with constant coefficients. Using appropriate numerical simulation of the transfer function, the dynamic of this process has been shown in the form of appropriate transient process responses which quite well correspond to the real process behavior.

  16. Dynamic adsorption of CO2/N2 on cation-exchanged chabazite SSZ-13: A breakthrough analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, Jamey K.; Barpaga, Dushyant; Prodinger, Sebastian; Krishna, Rajamani; Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, Bernard P.; Derewinski, Miroslaw A.; Motkuri, Radha K.

    2018-04-17

    Alkali exchanged SSZ-13 adsorbents were investigated for their applicability in separating N2 from CO2 in flue gas streams using a dynamic breakthrough method. In contrast to IAST calculations based on equilibrium isotherms, K+ exchanged SSZ-13 was found to yield the best N2 productivity under dynamic conditions where diffusion properties play a significant role. This was attributed to the selective, partial blockage of access to the CHA cavities enhancing the separation potential in a 15/85 CO2/N2 binary gas mixture.

  17. Separating the Effects of Tropical Atlantic and Pacific SST-driven Climate Variability on Amazon Carbon Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptak, J.; Keppel-Aleks, G.

    2016-12-01

    Amazon forests store an estimated 25% percent of global terrestrial carbon per year1, 2, but the responses of Amazon carbon uptake to climate change is highly uncertain. One source of this uncertainty is tropical sea surface temperature variability driven by teleconnections. El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a key driver of year-to-year Amazon carbon exchange, with associated temperature and precipitation changes favoring net carbon storage in La Nina years, and net carbon release during El Nino years3. To determine how Amazon climate and terrestrial carbon fluxes react to ENSO alone and in concert with other SST-driven teleconnections such as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), we force the atmosphere (CAM5) and land (CLM4) components of the CESM(BGC) with prescribed monthly SSTs over the period 1950—2014 in a Historical control simulation. We then run an experiment (PAC) with time-varying SSTs applied only to the tropical equatorial Pacific Ocean, and repeating SST seasonal cycle climatologies elsewhere. Limiting SST variability to the equatorial Pacific indicates that other processes enhance ENSO-driven Amazon climate anomalies. Compared to the Historical control simulation, warming, drying and terrestrial carbon loss over the Amazon during El Nino periods are lower in the PAC simulation, especially prior to 1990 during the cool phase of the AMO. Cooling, moistening, and net carbon uptake during La Nina periods are also reduced in the PAC simulation, but differences are greater after 1990 during the warm phase of the AMO. By quantifying the relationships among climate drivers and carbon fluxes in the Historical and PAC simulations, we both assess the sensitivity of these relationships to the magnitude of ENSO forcing and quantify how other teleconnections affect ENSO-driven Amazon climate feedbacks. We expect that these results will help us improve hypotheses for how Atlantic and Pacific climate trends will affect future Amazon carbon carbon

  18. Dynamic Characteristics of Ventilatory and Gas Exchange during Sinusoidal Walking in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Fukuoka

    Full Text Available Our present study investigated whether the ventilatory and gas exchange responses show different dynamics in response to sinusoidal change in cycle work rate or walking speed even if the metabolic demand was equivalent in both types of exercise. Locomotive parameters (stride length and step frequency, breath-by-breath ventilation (V̇E and gas exchange (CO2 output (V̇CO2 and O2 uptake (V̇O2 responses were measured in 10 healthy young participants. The speed of the treadmill was sinusoidally changed between 3 km·h-1 and 6 km·h-1 with various periods (from 10 to 1 min. The amplitude of locomotive parameters against sinusoidal variation showed a constant gain with a small phase shift, being independent of the oscillation periods. In marked contrast, when the periods of the speed oscillations were shortened, the amplitude of V̇E decreased sharply whereas the phase shift of V̇E increased. In comparing walking and cycling at the equivalent metabolic demand, the amplitude of V̇E during sinusoidal walking (SW was significantly greater than that during sinusoidal cycling (SC, and the phase shift became smaller. The steeper slope of linear regression for the V̇E amplitude ratio to V̇CO2 amplitude ratio was observed during SW than SC. These findings suggested that the greater amplitude and smaller phase shift of ventilatory dynamics were not equivalent between SW and SC even if the metabolic demand was equivalent between both exercises. Such phenomenon would be derived from central command in proportion to locomotor muscle recruitment (feedforward and muscle afferent feedback.

  19. Lanthanide paramagnetic probes for NMR spectroscopic studies of fast molecular conformational dynamics and temperature control. Effective six-site proton exchange in 18-crown-6 by exchange spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babailov, Sergey P

    2012-02-06

    (1)H and (13)C NMR measurements are reported for the CDCl(3) and CD(2)Cl(2) solutions of [La(18-crown-6)(NO(3))(3)] (I), [Pr(18-crown-6) (NO(3))(3)] (II), [Ce(18-crown-6)(NO(3))(3)] (III), and [Nd(18-crown-6)(NO(3))(3)] (IV) complexes. Temperature dependencies of the (1)H NMR spectra of paramagnetic II-IV have been analyzed using the dynamic NMR (DNMR) methods for six-site exchange. Two types of conformational dynamic processes were identified (the first one is conditioned by interconversion of complex enantiomeric forms and pseudorotation of a macrocycle molecule upon the C(2) symmetry axis; the second one is conditioned by macrocycle molecule inversion). Application of exchange spectroscopy (2D-EXSY) of DNMR for investigation of this dynamic system (II-IV) simplifies the assignment of the NMR signals and represents the first experimental study of multisite exchange. In the present work, the methodology of paramagnetic 4f (Ce, Pr, and Nd) probe applications for the study of free-energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes in chemical exchange processes, as well as the advantages of this method in a comparison with DNMR studies of diamagnetic substances, is discussed. In particular, as a result of paramagnetic chemical shifts in 4f complexes, the range of measurable rate constants expands considerably compared to the analogous range in diamagnetic compounds. Coordination compounds investigated in the paper represent new types of thermometric NMR sensors and lanthanide paramagnetic probes for in situ temperature control in solution.

  20. Carbon dynamics in lakes of the boreal forest under a changing climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benoy, G.; Wrona, F. [Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). National Water Research Inst.; Cash, K. [Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Prairie and Northern Wildlife Research Centre; McCauley, E. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2007-09-15

    This article reviewed factors influencing lake ecosystem carbon dynamics in boreal forest regions and identified research areas needed to accurately forecast the impacts of climate change on carbon pools and flux rates. The review suggested that carbon pools in profundal and littoral sediments across the boreal forest should be identified. Climate change experiments should be conducted to quantify ecosystem carbon dynamics as well as changes in aquatic food web structures. Whole system experiments are also needed to examine the hydrologic and bio-geochemical conditions in which allochthonous carbon is integrated into food webs in potentially drier climates. Results also indicated the need for a watershed-scale assessment of carbon budgets for lakes in transitional zones between boreal forests, prairies, parklands, forests, and tundra. It was concluded that studies are also needed to investigate the integration of lacustrine carbon pools and flux rates on carbon budgets at both the local watershed and boreal forest biome scale. 113 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Nexus Thinking on Soil Carbon Dynamics and Soil Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, R.

    2016-12-01

    Anthropocene is driven by global population of 7.5 billion in 2016, increasing annually by 80 million and projected to be 9.7 billion by 2050. The ecological impact (I=PAT, where P is population, A is affluence, and T is technology) of the population is similar to that of a geological force. Thus, humanity's impact is driven by demands for food, water, energy, and services derived from soil. Soil health, its capacity to function as a vital living system, is determined by quantity and quality of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the root zone ( 50cm). Maintenance of SOC at above the threshold level (1.5 to 2.0% by weight in the root zone) is critical to performing numerous ecosystem services for human wellbeing and nature conservancy. These services and functions strongly depend on nexus or inter-connectivity of biological processes within the pedosphere. The nexus is strongly governed by coupled biogeochemical cycling of water (H2O), carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulfur (S). Further, it is the nexus between pedological and biological processes that renews and purifies water by denaturing and filtering pollutants; circulates C among biotic and abiotic pools in close association with other elements (N, P, S); provides habitat and energy source for soil biota (macro, meso, and micro flora and fauna), facilitates exchanges of gases between soil and the atmosphere and moderates climate, and creates favorable rhizospheric processes that promote plant growth and enhance net primary productivity. Soil health, governed by SOC quality and quantity, determines the provisioning of numerous ecosystem services and the importance of nexus thinking is highlighted by the truism that "health of soil, plants, animals, human and ecosystem is one and indivisible." The sequestration of SOC depends on land use and soil management strategies which create a positive C budget. Thus, input of biomass-C into the soil must exceed the losses by erosion, mineralization and leaching

  2. Uncertainties and novel prospects in the study of the soil carbon dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wang; Yuch-Ping Hsieh

    2002-01-01

    Establishment of the Kyoto Protocol has resulted in an effort to look towards living biomass and soils for carbon sequestration. In order for carbon credits to be meaningful, sustained carbon sequestration for decades or longer is required. It has been speculated that improved land management could result in sequestration of a substantial amount of carbon in soils within several decades and therefore can be an important option in reducing atmospheric CO 2 concentration. However, evaluation of soil carbon sources and sinks is difficult because the dynamics of soil carbon storage and release is complex and still not well understood. There has been rapid development of quantitative techniques over the past two decades for measuring the component fluxes of the global carbon cycle and for studying the soil carbon cycle. Most significant development in the soil carbon cycle study is the application of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in radiocarbon measurements. This has made it possible to unravel rates of carbon cycling in soils, by studying natural levels of radiocarbon in soil organic matter and soil CO 2 . Despite the advances in the study of the soil carbon cycle in the recent decades, tremendous uncertainties exist in the sizes and turnover times of soil carbon pools. The uncertainties result from lack of standard methods and incomplete understanding of soil organic carbon dynamics, compounded by natural variability in soil carbon and carbon isotopic content even within the same ecosystem. Many fundamental questions concerning the dynamics of the soil carbon cycle have yet to be answered. This paper reviews and synthesizes the isotopic approaches to the study of the soil carbon cycle. We will focus on uncertainties and limitations associated with these approaches and point out areas where more research is needed to improve our understanding of this important component of the global carbon cycle. (author)

  3. Quantifying terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics in the Jinsha watershed, Upper Yangtze, China from 1975 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuqing; Liu, Shuguang; Yin, Runsheng; Li, Zhengpeng; Deng, Yulin; Tan, Kun; Deng, Xiangzheng; Rothstein, David; Qi, Jiaguo

    2010-01-01

    Quantifying the spatial and temporal dynamics of carbon stocks in terrestrial ecosystems and carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is critical to our understanding of regional patterns of carbon budgets. Here we use the General Ensemble biogeochemical Modeling System to simulate the terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics in the Jinsha watershed of China’s upper Yangtze basin from 1975 to 2000, based on unique combinations of spatial and temporal dynamics of major driving forces, such as climate, soil properties, nitrogen deposition, and land use and land cover changes. Our analysis demonstrates that the Jinsha watershed ecosystems acted as a carbon sink during the period of 1975–2000, with an average rate of 0.36 Mg/ha/yr, primarily resulting from regional climate variation and local land use and land cover change. Vegetation biomass accumulation accounted for 90.6% of the sink, while soil organic carbon loss before 1992 led to a lower net gain of carbon in the watershed, and after that soils became a small sink. Ecosystem carbon sink/source patterns showed a high degree of spatial heterogeneity. Carbon sinks were associated with forest areas without disturbances, whereas carbon sources were primarily caused by stand-replacing disturbances. It is critical to adequately represent the detailed fast-changing dynamics of land use activities in regional biogeochemical models to determine the spatial and temporal evolution of regional carbon sink/source patterns.

  4. Helium Adsorption on Carbon Nanotube Bundles with Different Diameters:. Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, R.; Karami, A. R.

    2013-05-01

    We have used molecular dynamics simulation to study helium adsorption capacity of carbon nanotube bundles with different diameters. Homogeneous carbon nanotube bundles of (8,8), (9,9), (10,10), (11,11), and (12,12) single walled carbon nanotubes have been considered. The results indicate that the exohedral adsorption coverage does not depend on the diameter of carbon nanotubes, while the endohedral adsorption coverage is increased by increasing the diameter.

  5. The Arctic Ocean marine carbon cycle: evaluation of air-sea CO2 exchanges, ocean acidification impacts and potential feedbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Bates

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available At present, although seasonal sea-ice cover mitigates atmosphere-ocean gas exchange, the Arctic Ocean takes up carbon dioxide (CO2 on the order of −66 to −199 Tg C year−1 (1012 g C, contributing 5–14% to the global balance of CO2 sinks and sources. Because of this, the Arctic Ocean has an important influence on the global carbon cycle, with the marine carbon cycle and atmosphere-ocean CO2 exchanges sensitive to Arctic Ocean and global climate change feedbacks. In the near-term, further sea-ice loss and increases in phytoplankton growth rates are expected to increase the uptake of CO2 by Arctic Ocean surface waters, although mitigated somewhat by surface warming in the Arctic. Thus, the capacity of the Arctic Ocean to uptake CO2 is expected to alter in response to environmental changes driven largely by climate. These changes are likely to continue to modify the physics, biogeochemistry, and ecology of the Arctic Ocean in ways that are not yet fully understood. In surface waters, sea-ice melt, river runoff, cooling and uptake of CO2 through air-sea gas exchange combine to decrease the calcium carbonate (CaCO3 mineral saturation states (Ω of seawater while seasonal phytoplankton primary production (PP mitigates this effect. Biological amplification of ocean acidification effects in subsurface waters, due to the remineralization of organic matter, is likely to reduce the ability of many species to produce CaCO3 shells or tests with profound implications for Arctic marine ecosystems

  6. Simulating boreal forest carbon dynamics after stand-replacing fire disturbance: insights from a global process-based vegetation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, C.; Ciais, P.; Luyssaert, S.; Cadule, P.; Harden, J.; Randerson, J.; Bellassen, V.; Wang, T.; Piao, S.L.; Poulter, B.; Viovy, N.

    2013-01-01

    Stand-replacing fires are the dominant fire type in North American boreal forests. They leave a historical legacy of a mosaic landscape of different aged forest cohorts. This forest age dynamics must be included in vegetation models to accurately quantify the role of fire in the historical and current regional forest carbon balance. The present study adapted the global process-based vegetation model ORCHIDEE to simulate the CO2 emissions from boreal forest fire and the subsequent recovery after a stand-replacing fire; the model represents postfire new cohort establishment, forest stand structure and the self-thinning process. Simulation results are evaluated against observations of three clusters of postfire forest chronosequences in Canada and Alaska. The variables evaluated include: fire carbon emissions, CO2 fluxes (gross primary production, total ecosystem respiration and net ecosystem exchange), leaf area index, and biometric measurements (aboveground biomass carbon, forest floor carbon, woody debris carbon, stand individual density, stand basal area, and mean diameter at breast height). When forced by local climate and the atmospheric CO2 history at each chronosequence site, the model simulations generally match the observed CO2 fluxes and carbon stock data well, with model-measurement mean square root of deviation comparable with the measurement accuracy (for CO2 flux ~100 g C m−2 yr−1, for biomass carbon ~1000 g C m−2 and for soil carbon ~2000 g C m−2). We find that the current postfire forest carbon sink at the evaluation sites, as observed by chronosequence methods, is mainly due to a combination of historical CO2 increase and forest succession. Climate change and variability during this period offsets some of these expected carbon gains. The negative impacts of climate were a likely consequence of increasing water stress caused by significant temperature increases that were not matched by concurrent increases in precipitation. Our simulation

  7. Predicting Reactive Transport Dynamics in Carbonates using Initial Pore Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, H. P.; Nunes, J. P. P.; Blunt, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding rock-fluid interaction at the pore-scale is imperative for accurate predictive modelling of carbon storage permanence. However, coupled reactive transport models are computationally expensive, requiring either a sacrifice of resolution or high performance computing to solve relatively simple geometries. Many recent studies indicate that initial pore structure many be the dominant mechanism in determining the dissolution regime. Here we investigate how well the initial pore structure is predictive of distribution and amount of dissolution during reactive flow using particle tracking on the initial image. Two samples of carbonate rock with varying initial pore space heterogeneity were reacted with reservoir condition CO2-saturated brine and scanned dynamically during reactive flow at a 4-μm resolution between 4 and 40 times using 4D X-ray micro-tomography over the course of 1.5 hours using μ-CT. Flow was modelled on the initial binarized image using a Navier-Stokes solver. Particle tracking was then run on the velocity fields, the streamlines were traced, and the streamline density was calculated both on a voxel-by-voxel and a channel-by-channel basis. The density of streamlines was then compared to the amount of dissolution in subsequent time steps during reaction. It was found that for the flow and transport regimes studied, the streamline density distribution in the initial image accurately predicted the dominant pathways of dissolution and gave good indicators of the type of dissolution regime that would later develop. This work suggests that the eventual reaction-induced changes in pore structure are deterministic rather than stochastic and can be predicted with high resolution imaging of unreacted rock.

  8. Seven years of recent European net terrestrial carbon dioxide exchange constrained by atmospheric observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, W.; Krol, M. C.; van der Werf, G. R.; Houweling, S.; Jones, C. D.; Hughes, J.; Schaefer, K.; Masarie, K. A.; Jacobson, A. R.; Miller, J. B.; Cho, C. H.; Ramonet, M.; Schmidt, M.; Ciattaglia, L.; Apadula, F.; Heltai, D.; Meinhardt, F.; di Sarra, A. G.; Piacentino, S.; Sferlazzo, D.; Aalto, T.; Hatakka, J.; StröM, J.; Haszpra, L.; Meijer, H. A J; van Der Laan, S.; Neubert, R. E M; Jordan, A.; Rodó, X.; Morguí, J. A.; Vermeulen, A. T.; Popa, Maria Elena; Rozanski, K.; Zimnoch, M.; Manning, A. C.; Leuenberger, M.; Uglietti, C.; Dolman, A. J.; Ciais, P.; Heimann, M.; Tans, P.

    2010-01-01

    We present an estimate of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 in Europe for the years 2001-2007. It is derived with a data assimilation that uses a large set of atmospheric CO2 mole fraction observations (∼70 000) to guide relatively simple descriptions of terrestrial and oceanic net exchange, while

  9. Seven years of recent European net terrestrial carbon dioxide exchange constrained by atmospheric observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, W.; Krol, M.C.; Werf, van der G.R.; Houweling, S.; Jones, C.D.; Hughes, J.; Schaefer, K.; Masarie, K.A.

    2010-01-01

    We present an estimate of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 in Europe for the years 2001–2007. It is derived with a data assimilation that uses a large set of atmospheric CO2 mole fraction observations (~70 000) to guide relatively simple descriptions of terrestrial and oceanic net exchange, while

  10. Sensitivity of temperate desert steppe carbon exchange to seasonal droughts and precipitation variations in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fulin; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2013-01-01

    Arid grassland ecosystems have significant interannual variation in carbon exchange; however, it is unclear how environmental factors influence carbon exchange in different hydrological years. In this study, the eddy covariance technique was used to investigate the seasonal and interannual variability of CO₂ flux over a temperate desert steppe in Inner Mongolia, China from 2008 to 2010. The amounts and times of precipitation varied significantly throughout the study period. The precipitation in 2009 (186.4 mm) was close to the long-term average (183.9±47.6 mm), while the precipitation in 2008 (136.3 mm) and 2010 (141.3 mm) was approximately a quarter below the long-term average. The temperate desert steppe showed carbon neutrality for atmospheric CO₂ throughout the study period, with a net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange (NEE) of -7.2, -22.9, and 26.0 g C m⁻² yr⁻¹ in 2008, 2009, and 2010, not significantly different from zero. The ecosystem gained more carbon in 2009 compared to other two relatively dry years, while there was significant difference in carbon uptake between 2008 and 2010, although both years recorded similar annual precipitation. The results suggest that summer precipitation is a key factor determining annual NEE. The apparent quantum yield and saturation value of NEE (NEE(sat)) and the temperature sensitivity coefficient of ecosystem respiration (R(eco)) exhibited significant variations. The values of NEE(sat) were -2.6, -2.9, and -1.4 µmol CO₂ m⁻² s⁻¹ in 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively. Drought suppressed both the gross primary production (GPP) and R(eco), and the drought sensitivity of GPP was greater than that of R(eco). The soil water content sensitivity of GPP was high during the dry year of 2008 with limited soil moisture availability. Our results suggest the carbon balance of this temperate desert steppe was not only sensitive to total annual precipitation, but also to its seasonal distribution.

  11. Sensitivity of temperate desert steppe carbon exchange to seasonal droughts and precipitation variations in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulin Yang

    Full Text Available Arid grassland ecosystems have significant interannual variation in carbon exchange; however, it is unclear how environmental factors influence carbon exchange in different hydrological years. In this study, the eddy covariance technique was used to investigate the seasonal and interannual variability of CO₂ flux over a temperate desert steppe in Inner Mongolia, China from 2008 to 2010. The amounts and times of precipitation varied significantly throughout the study period. The precipitation in 2009 (186.4 mm was close to the long-term average (183.9±47.6 mm, while the precipitation in 2008 (136.3 mm and 2010 (141.3 mm was approximately a quarter below the long-term average. The temperate desert steppe showed carbon neutrality for atmospheric CO₂ throughout the study period, with a net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange (NEE of -7.2, -22.9, and 26.0 g C m⁻² yr⁻¹ in 2008, 2009, and 2010, not significantly different from zero. The ecosystem gained more carbon in 2009 compared to other two relatively dry years, while there was significant difference in carbon uptake between 2008 and 2010, although both years recorded similar annual precipitation. The results suggest that summer precipitation is a key factor determining annual NEE. The apparent quantum yield and saturation value of NEE (NEE(sat and the temperature sensitivity coefficient of ecosystem respiration (R(eco exhibited significant variations. The values of NEE(sat were -2.6, -2.9, and -1.4 µmol CO₂ m⁻² s⁻¹ in 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively. Drought suppressed both the gross primary production (GPP and R(eco, and the drought sensitivity of GPP was greater than that of R(eco. The soil water content sensitivity of GPP was high during the dry year of 2008 with limited soil moisture availability. Our results suggest the carbon balance of this temperate desert steppe was not only sensitive to total annual precipitation, but also to its seasonal distribution.

  12. Bayesian Evaluation of Dynamical Soil Carbon Models Using Soil Carbon Flux Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, H. W.; Romero-Olivares, A.; Guindani, M.; Allison, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    2016 was Earth's hottest year in the modern temperature record and the third consecutive record-breaking year. As the planet continues to warm, temperature-induced changes in respiration rates of soil microbes could reduce the amount of carbon sequestered in the soil organic carbon (SOC) pool, one of the largest terrestrial stores of carbon. This would accelerate temperature increases. In order to predict the future size of the SOC pool, mathematical soil carbon models (SCMs) describing interactions between the biosphere and atmosphere are needed. SCMs must be validated before they can be chosen for predictive use. In this study, we check two SCMs called CON and AWB for consistency with observed data using Bayesian goodness of fit testing that can be used in the future to compare other models. We compare the fit of the models to longitudinal soil respiration data from a meta-analysis of soil heating experiments using a family of Bayesian goodness of fit metrics called information criteria (IC), including the Widely Applicable Information Criterion (WAIC), the Leave-One-Out Information Criterion (LOOIC), and the Log Pseudo Marginal Likelihood (LPML). These IC's take the entire posterior distribution into account, rather than just one outputted model fit line. A lower WAIC and LOOIC and larger LPML indicate a better fit. We compare AWB and CON with fixed steady state model pool sizes. At equivalent SOC, dissolved organic carbon, and microbial pool sizes, CON always outperforms AWB quantitatively by all three IC's used. AWB monotonically improves in fit as we reduce the SOC steady state pool size while fixing all other pool sizes, and the same is almost true for CON. The AWB model with the lowest SOC is the best performing AWB model, while the CON model with the second lowest SOC is the best performing model. We observe that AWB displays more changes in slope sign and qualitatively displays more adaptive dynamics, which prevents AWB from being fully ruled out for

  13. Carbon exchange of a maize (Zea mays L.) crop: Influence of phenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jans, W.W.P.; Jacobs, C.M.J.; Kruijt, B.; Elbers, J.A.; Barendse, S.C.A.; Moors, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    A study was carried out to quantify the carbon budget of a maize (Zea mays L.) crop followed by a rye cover crop in the Netherlands, and to determine the importance of the phenological phases and the fallow phase when modelling the carbon budget. Measurements were made of carbon fluxes, soil

  14. Impacts of Precipitation Diurnal Timing on Ecosystem Carbon Exchanges in Grasslands: A Synthesis of AmeriFlux Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, X.; Xu, X.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Drylands have been found playing an important role regulating the seasonality of global atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Precipitation is a primary control of ecosystem carbon exchanges in drylands where a large proportion of the annual total rainfall arrives through a small number of episodic precipitation events. While a large number of studies use the concept of "precipitation pulses" to explore the effects of short-term precipitation events on dryland ecosystem function, few have specifically evaluated the importance of the diurnal timing of these events. The primary goal of this study was to determine how the diurnal timing of rainfall events impacts land-atmosphere net ecosystem CO2 exchanges (NEE) and ecosystem respiration in drylands. Our research leverages a substantial and existing long-term database (AmeriFlux) that describes NEE, Reco and meteorological conditions at 11 sites situated in different dryland ecosystems in South West America. All sites employ the eddy covariance technique to measure land-atmosphere the CO2 exchange rates between atmosphere and ecosystem. Data collected at these sites range from 4 to 10 years, totaling up to 73 site-years. We found that episodic precipitation events stimulate not only vegetation photosynthesis but also ecosystem respiration. Specifically, the morning precipitation events decrease photosynthesis function at daytime and increase ecosystem respiration at nighttime; the afternoon precipitation events do not stimulate ecosystem photosynthesis at daytime, while stimulate ecosystem respiration; the night precipitations suppress photosynthesis at daytime, and enhance ecosystem respiration at nighttime.

  15. The effect of additional dead space on respiratory exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production due to training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, Lukasz; Borkowski, Jacek; Zaton, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training. The primary outcome measures were respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2). Two groups of young healthy males: Experimental (Exp, n = 15) and Control (Con, n = 15), participated in this study. The training consisted of 12 sessions, performed twice a week for 6 weeks. A single training session consisted of continuous, constant-rate exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max which was maintained for 30 minutes. Subjects in Exp group were breathing through additional respiratory dead space (1200ml), while subjects in Con group were breathing without additional dead space. Pre-test and two post-training incremental exercise tests were performed for the detection of gas exchange variables. In all training sessions, pCO2 was higher and blood pH was lower in the Exp group (p exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production.In all training sessions, respiratory acidosis was gained by experimental group only.No significant difference in RER and VCO2 between experimental and control group due to the trainings.The lack of difference in post-training values of RER and VCO2 between groups means absence of inhibition in glycolysis and glycogenolysis during exercise with additional dead space.

  16. Perovskite Quantum Dots Modeled Using ab Initio and Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Buin, Andrei; Comin, Riccardo; Ip, Alexander H.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Organometal halide perovskites have recently attracted tremendous attention at both the experimental and theoretical levels. Much of this work has been dedicated to bulk material studies, yet recent experimental work has shown the formation of highly efficient quantum-confined nanocrystals with tunable band edges. Here we investigate perovskite quantum dots from theory, predicting an upper bound of the Bohr radius of 45 Å that agrees well with literature values. When the quantum dots are stoichiometric, they are trap-free and have nearly symmetric contributions to confinement from the valence and conduction bands. We further show that surface-associated conduction bandedge states in perovskite nanocrystals lie below the bulk states, which could explain the difference in Urbach tails between mesoporous and planar perovskite films. In addition to conventional molecular dynamics (MD), we implement an enhanced phase-space sampling algorithm, replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD). We find that in simulation of methylammonium orientation and global minima, REMD outperforms conventional MD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first REMD implementation for realistic-sized systems in the realm of DFT calculations.

  17. Perovskite Quantum Dots Modeled Using ab Initio and Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Buin, Andrei

    2015-06-18

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Organometal halide perovskites have recently attracted tremendous attention at both the experimental and theoretical levels. Much of this work has been dedicated to bulk material studies, yet recent experimental work has shown the formation of highly efficient quantum-confined nanocrystals with tunable band edges. Here we investigate perovskite quantum dots from theory, predicting an upper bound of the Bohr radius of 45 Å that agrees well with literature values. When the quantum dots are stoichiometric, they are trap-free and have nearly symmetric contributions to confinement from the valence and conduction bands. We further show that surface-associated conduction bandedge states in perovskite nanocrystals lie below the bulk states, which could explain the difference in Urbach tails between mesoporous and planar perovskite films. In addition to conventional molecular dynamics (MD), we implement an enhanced phase-space sampling algorithm, replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD). We find that in simulation of methylammonium orientation and global minima, REMD outperforms conventional MD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first REMD implementation for realistic-sized systems in the realm of DFT calculations.

  18. Exchange-dynamics of a neutral hydrophobic dye in micellar solutions studied by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordello, Jorge; Novo, Mercedes; Al-Soufi, Wajih

    2010-05-15

    The dynamics of the exchange of the moderately hydrophobic neutral dye Coumarine 152 between the aqueous phase and the phase formed by neutral Triton X-100 micelles is studied by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy. The changes in the photophysical properties of the dye in presence of the micelles are discussed. The low quantum yield, the low saturation threshold and the necessary high energetic excitation of this dye requires a careful selection of the experimental conditions in order to obtain dynamic and diffusional properties with reasonable precision. It is shown that the contrast between the brightness of free and bound dye has a strong influence on the sensitivity of the FCS experiment. The entry rate constant of the dye to the micelles, k(+)=(0.8±0.3)×10(10) M(-1) s(-1), is very near to the diffusion controlled limit. The high association equilibrium constant of K=(129±3)×10(3) M(-1) is mainly determined by the low exit rate constant, k(-)=(0.6±0.2)×10(5) s(-1). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Two-photon Photoactivation to Measure Histone Exchange Dynamics in Plant Root Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Stefanie; Shaw, Peter

    2015-10-20

    Chromatin-binding proteins play a crucial role in chromatin structure and gene expression. Direct binding of chromatin proteins both maintains and regulates transcriptional states. It is therefore important to study the binding properties of these proteins in vivo within the natural environment of the nucleus. Photobleaching, photoactivation and photoconversion (photoswitching) can provide a non-invasive experimental approach to study dynamic properties of living cells and organisms. We used photoactivation to determine exchange dynamics of histone H2B in plant stem cells of the root (Rosa et al. , 2014). The stem cells of the root are located in the middle of the tissue, which made it impossible to carry out photoactivation of sufficiently small and well-defined sub-cellular regions with conventional laser illumination in the confocal microscope, mainly because scattering and refraction effects within the root tissue dispersed the focal spot and caused photoactivation of too large a region. We therefore used 2-photon activation, which has much better inherent resolution of the illuminated region. This is because the activation depends on simultaneous absorption of two or more photons, which in turns depends on the square (or higher power) of the intensity-a much sharper peak. In this protocol we will describe the experimental procedure to perform two-photon photoactivation experiments and the corresponding image analysis. This protocol can be used for nuclear proteins tagged with photoactivable GFP (PA-GFP) expressed in root tissues.

  20. Short-term dissolved organic carbon dynamics reflect water management and precipitation patterns in a subtropical estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Regier

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Estuaries significantly impact the global carbon cycle by regulating the exchange of organic matter, primarily in the form of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, between terrestrial and marine carbon pools. Estuarine DOC dynamics are complex as tides and other hydrological and climatic drivers can affect carbon fluxes on short and long time scales. While estuarine and coastal DOC dynamics have been well studied, variations on short time scales are less well constrained. Recent advancements in sonde technology enable autonomous in situ collection of high frequency DOC data using fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM as a proxy, dramatically improving our capacity to characterize rapid changes in DOC, even in remote ecosystems. This study utilizes high-frequency fDOM measurements to untangle rapid and complex hydrologic drivers of DOC in the Shark River estuary, the main drainage of Everglades National Park, Florida. Non-conservative mixing of fDOM along the salinity gradient suggested mangrove inputs accounted for 6% of the total DOC pool. Average changes in fDOM concentrations through individual tidal cycles ranged from less than 10% to greater than 50% and multi-day trends greater than 100% change in fDOM concentration were observed. Salinity and water level both inversely correlated to fDOM at sub-hourly and daily resolutions, while freshwater controls via precipitation and water management were observed at diel to monthly time-scales. In particular, the role of water management in rapidly shifting estuarine salinity gradients and DOC export regimes at sub-weekly time-scales was evident. Additionally, sub-hourly spikes in ebb-tide fDOM indicated rapid exchange of DOC between mangrove sediments and the river channel. DOC fluxes calculated from high-resolution fDOM measurements were compared to monthly DOC measurements with high-resolution fluxes considerably improving accuracy of fluxes (thereby constraining carbon budgets. This study provides

  1. Forest floor carbon exchange of a boreal black spruce forest in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, O.; Margolis, H. A.; Coursolle, C.

    2009-09-01

    This study reports continuous automated measurements of forest floor carbon (C) exchange over feathermoss, lichen, and sphagnum micro-sites in a black spruce forest in eastern North America during snow-free periods over three years. The response of soil respiration (Rs-auto) and forest floor photosynthesis (Pff) to environmental factors was determined. The seasonal contributions of scaled up Rs-auto adjusted for spatial representativeness (Rs-adj) and Pff (Pff-eco) relative to that of total ecosystem respiration (Re) and photosynthesis (Peco), respectively, were also quantified. Shallow (5 cm) soil temperature explained 67-86% of the variation in Rs-auto for all ground cover types, while deeper (50 and 100 cm) soil temperatures were related to Rs-auto only for the feathermoss micro-sites. Base respiration was consistently lower under feathermoss, intermediate under sphagnum, and higher under lichen during all three years. The Rs-adj/Re ratio increased from spring through autumn and ranged from 0.85 to 0.87 annually for the snow-free period. The Rs-adj/Re ratio was negatively correlated with the difference between air and shallow soil temperature and this correlation was more pronounced in autumn than summer and spring. Maximum photosynthetic capacity of the forest floor (Pff-max) saturated at low irradiance levels (~200 μmol m-2 s-1) and decreased with increasing air temperature and vapor pressure deficit for all three ground cover types, suggesting that Pff was more limited by desiccation than by light availability. Pff-max was lowest for sphagnum, intermediate for feathermoss, and highest for lichen for two of the three years. Pff normalized for light peaked at air temperatures of 5-8°C, suggesting that this is the optimal temperature range for Pff. The Pff-eco/Peco ratio varied from 13 to 24% over the snow-free period and reached a minimum in mid-summer when both air temperature and Peco were at their maximum. On an annual basis, Pff-eco accounted for 17

  2. Forest Floor Carbon Exchange of a Boreal Black Spruce Forest in Eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, O.; Margolis, H. A.; Coursolle, C.

    2009-06-01

    This study reports continuous automated measurements of forest floor carbon (C) exchange over feathermoss, lichen, and sphagnum micro-sites in a black spruce forest in eastern North America during snow-free periods over three years. The response of soil respiration (Rs-auto) and forest floor photosynthesis (Pff) to environmental factors was determined. The seasonal contributions of scaled up Rs-auto adjusted for spatial representativeness (Rs-adj) and Pff (Pff-eco) relative to that of total ecosystem respiration (Re) and photosynthesis (Peco), respectively, were also quantified. Shallow soil temperature explained 67-86% of the variation in Rs-auto for all ground cover types, while deeper soil temperatures were related to Rs-auto only for the feathermoss micro-sites. Base respiration was consistently lower under feathermoss, intermediate under sphagnum, and higher under lichen during all three years. The Rs-adj/Re ratio increased from spring through autumn and ranged from 0.85 to 0.87 annually for the snow-free period. The Rs-adj/Re ratio was negatively correlated with the difference between air and shallow soil temperature and this correlation was more pronounced in autumn than summer and spring. Maximum photosynthetic capacity of the forest floor (Pffmax) saturated at low irradiance levels (~200 μmol m-2 s-1) and decreased with increasing air temperature and vapor pressure deficit for all three ground cover types, suggesting that Pff was more limited by desiccation than by light availability. Pffmax was lowest for sphagnum, intermediate for feathermoss, and highest for lichen for two of the three years. Pff normalized for light peaked at air temperatures of 5-8°C, suggesting that this is the optimal temperature range for Pff. The Pff-eco/Peco ratio varied seasonally from 13 to 24% and reached a minimum in mid-summer when both air temperature and Peco were at their maximum. On an annual basis, Pff-eco accounted for 17-18% of Peco depending on the year and the

  3. Stable carbon isotope depth profiles and soil organic carbon dynamics in the lower Mississippi Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, J.G.; Harden, J.W.; Fries, T.L.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of depth trends of 13C abundance in soil organic matter and of 13C abundance from soil-respired CO2 provides useful indications of the dynamics of the terrestrial carbon cycle and of paleoecological change. We measured depth trends of 13C abundance from cropland and control pairs of soils in the lower Mississippi Basin, as well as the 13C abundance of soil-respired CO2 produced during approximately 1-year soil incubation, to determine the role of several candidate processes on the 13C depth profile of soil organic matter. Depth profiles of 13C from uncultivated control soils show a strong relationship between the natural logarithm of soil organic carbon concentration and its isotopic composition, consistent with a model Rayleigh distillation of 13C in decomposing soil due to kinetic fractionation during decomposition. Laboratory incubations showed that initially respired CO 2 had a relatively constant 13C content, despite large differences in the 13C content of bulk soil organic matter. Initially respired CO2 was consistently 13C-depleted with respect to bulk soil and became increasingly 13C-depleted during 1-year, consistent with the hypothesis of accumulation of 13C in the products of microbial decomposition, but showing increasing decomposition of 13C-depleted stable organic components during decomposition without input of fresh biomass. We use the difference between 13C / 12C ratios (calculated as ??-values) between respired CO 2 and bulk soil organic carbon as an index of the degree of decomposition of soil, showing trends which are consistent with trends of 14C activity, and with results of a two-pooled kinetic decomposition rate model describing CO2 production data recorded during 1 year of incubation. We also observed inconsistencies with the Rayleigh distillation model in paired cropland soils and reasons for these inconsistencies are discussed. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dynamic communities in multichannel data: an application to the foreign exchange market during the 2007-2008 credit crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Daniel J; Porter, Mason A; McDonald, Mark; Williams, Stacy; Johnson, Neil F; Jones, Nick S

    2009-09-01

    We study the cluster dynamics of multichannel (multivariate) time series by representing their correlations as time-dependent networks and investigating the evolution of network communities. We employ a node-centric approach that allows us to track the effects of the community evolution on the functional roles of individual nodes without having to track entire communities. As an example, we consider a foreign exchange market network in which each node represents an exchange rate and each edge represents a time-dependent correlation between the rates. We study the period 2005-2008, which includes the recent credit and liquidity crisis. Using community detection, we find that exchange rates that are strongly attached to their community are persistently grouped with the same set of rates, whereas exchange rates that are important for the transfer of information tend to be positioned on the edges of communities. Our analysis successfully uncovers major trading changes that occurred in the market during the credit crisis.

  5. Temperature dependence of exchange bias in (NiFe/IrMn)n multilayer films studied through static and dynamic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Daniel J.; Khanal, Shankar; Khan, Mohammad Asif; Maksymov, Artur; Spinu, Leonard

    2018-05-01

    The in-plane temperature dependence of exchange bias was studied through both dc magnetometry and ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy in a series of [NiFe/IrMn]n multilayer films, where n is the number of layer repetitions. Major hysteresis loops were recorded in the temperature range of 300 K to 2 K to reveal the effect of temperature on the exchange bias in the static regime while temperature-dependent continuous-wave ferromagnetic resonance for frequencies from 3 to 16 GHz was used to determine the exchange bias dynamically. Strong divergence between the values of exchange bias determined using the two different types of measurements as well as a peak in temperature dependence of the resonance linewidth were observed. These results are explained in terms of the slow-relaxer mechanism.

  6. Dynamic communities in multichannel data: An application to the foreign exchange market during the 2007-2008 credit crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Daniel J.; Porter, Mason A.; McDonald, Mark; Williams, Stacy; Johnson, Neil F.; Jones, Nick S.

    2009-09-01

    We study the cluster dynamics of multichannel (multivariate) time series by representing their correlations as time-dependent networks and investigating the evolution of network communities. We employ a node-centric approach that allows us to track the effects of the community evolution on the functional roles of individual nodes without having to track entire communities. As an example, we consider a foreign exchange market network in which each node represents an exchange rate and each edge represents a time-dependent correlation between the rates. We study the period 2005-2008, which includes the recent credit and liquidity crisis. Using community detection, we find that exchange rates that are strongly attached to their community are persistently grouped with the same set of rates, whereas exchange rates that are important for the transfer of information tend to be positioned on the edges of communities. Our analysis successfully uncovers major trading changes that occurred in the market during the credit crisis.

  7. Dynamic adsorption properties of xenon on activated carbons and their structure characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Suiqing; Liu Jing; Qian Yuan; Zeng Youshi; Du Lin; Pi Li; Liu Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background: In recent years, adsorption of radioactive xenon by activated carbon has been increasingly applied to the treatment of off-gas in nuclear power project. Though pore structure of activated carbon has a great impact on its dynamic adsorption coefficients for xenon, the concerned research is rare. Purpose: It is very necessary to figure out the relationship between the pore structure and the dynamic adsorption coefficients for the purpose of the selection and development of activated carbon. Methods: In this study, the dynamic adsorption coefficients of xenon on four kinds of activated carbons were measured on a dynamic adsorption platform under the condition of 25℃, OMPa (gauge pressure). And these four kinds of activated carbons were characterized by nitrogen adsorption and SEM. Results: The results show that the activated carbon of JH12-16 with the specific surface area of 991.9 m 2 ·g -1 has the largest xenon dynamic adsorption coefficient among these activated carbons. Conclusions: The dynamic adsorption coefficient of xenon on activated carbon doesn't increase with the specific surface area or the pore volume. The mesopore and macropore only play the role of passageway for xenon adsorption. The most suitable pore for xenon adsorption is the pore with the pore size ranged from 0.55 to 0.6 nm. (authors)

  8. Carbon exchange between ecosystems and atmosphere in the Czech Republic is affected by climate factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marek, Michal V.; Janous, Dalibor; Taufarova, Klara; Havrankova, Katerina; Pavelka, Marian; Kaplan, Veroslav; Markova, Irena

    2011-01-01

    By comparing five ecosystem types in the Czech Republic over several years, we recorded the highest carbon sequestration potential in an evergreen Norway spruce forest (100%) and an agroecosystem (65%), followed by European beech forest (25%) and a wetland ecosystem (20%). Because of a massive ecosystem respiration, the final carbon gain of the grassland was negative. Climate was shown to be an important factor of carbon uptake by ecosystems: by varying the growing season length (a 22-d longer season in 2005 than in 2007 increased carbon sink by 13%) or by the effect of short- term synoptic situations (e.g. summer hot and dry days reduced net carbon storage by 58% relative to hot and wet days). Carbon uptake is strongly affected by the ontogeny and a production strategy which is demonstrated by the comparison of seasonal course of carbon uptake between coniferous (Norway spruce) and deciduous (European beech) stands. - Highlights: → Highest carbon sequestration potential in evergreen Norway spruce forest (100%) and an agroecosystem (65%), followed by European beech forest (25%) and a wetland ecosystem (20%). → The final carbon gain of the grassland was negative (massive ecosystem respiration). → Climate is important factor of net primary productivity. → Carbon uptake is strongly affected by the ontogeny and a production strategy of ecosystem. - Identification of the apparent differences in the carbon storage by different ecosystem types.

  9. Carbon exchange between ecosystems and atmosphere in the Czech Republic is affected by climate factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Michal V; Janouš, Dalibor; Taufarová, Klára; Havránková, Kateřina; Pavelka, Marian; Kaplan, Věroslav; Marková, Irena

    2011-05-01

    By comparing five ecosystem types in the Czech Republic over several years, we recorded the highest carbon sequestration potential in an evergreen Norway spruce forest (100%) and an agroecosystem (65%), followed by European beech forest (25%) and a wetland ecosystem (20%). Because of a massive ecosystem respiration, the final carbon gain of the grassland was negative. Climate was shown to be an important factor of carbon uptake by ecosystems: by varying the growing season length (a 22-d longer season in 2005 than in 2007 increased carbon sink by 13%) or by the effect of short- term synoptic situations (e.g. summer hot and dry days reduced net carbon storage by 58% relative to hot and wet days). Carbon uptake is strongly affected by the ontogeny and a production strategy which is demonstrated by the comparison of seasonal course of carbon uptake between coniferous (Norway spruce) and deciduous (European beech) stands. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamic behavior of liquid water transport in a tapered channel of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell cathode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akhtar, N.; Kerkhof, P.J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    A numerical model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cathode with a tapered channel design has been developed in order to examine the dynamic behavior of liquid water transport. Three-dimensional, transient simulations employing the level-set method (available in COMSOL 3.5a, a

  11. Protein structural dynamics at the gas/water interface examined by hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yiming; Konermann, Lars

    2015-08-01

    Gas/water interfaces (such as air bubbles or foam) are detrimental to the stability of proteins, often causing aggregation. This represents a potential problem for industrial processes, for example, the production and handling of protein drugs. Proteins possess surfactant-like properties, resulting in a high affinity for gas/water interfaces. The tendency of previously buried nonpolar residues to maximize contact with the gas phase can cause significant structural distortion. Most earlier studies in this area employed spectroscopic tools that could only provide limited information. Here we use hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry (MS) for probing the conformational dynamics of the model protein myoglobin (Mb) in the presence of N(2) bubbles. HDX/MS relies on the principle that unfolded and/or highly dynamic regions undergo faster deuteration than tightly folded segments. In bubble-free solution Mb displays EX2 behavior, reflecting the occurrence of short-lived excursions to partially unfolded conformers. A dramatically different behavior is seen in the presence of N(2) bubbles; EX2 dynamics still take place, but in addition the protein shows EX1 behavior. The latter results from interconversion of the native state with conformers that are globally unfolded and long-lived. These unfolded species likely correspond to Mb that is adsorbed to the surface of gas bubbles. N(2) sparging also induces aggregation. To explain the observed behavior we propose a simple model, that is, "semi-unfolded" ↔ "native" ↔ "globally unfolded" → "aggregated". This model quantitatively reproduces the experimentally observed kinetics. To the best of our knowledge, the current study marks the first exploration of surface denaturation phenomena by HDX/MS. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  12. Advanced numerical methods for uncertainty reduction when predicting heat exchanger dynamic stability limits: Review and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longatte, E.; Baj, F.; Hoarau, Y.; Braza, M.; Ruiz, D.; Canteneur, C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Proposal of hybrid computational methods for investigating dynamical system stability. ► Modeling turbulence disequilibrium due to interaction with moving solid boundaries. ► Providing computational procedure for large size system solution approximation through model reduction. -- Abstract: This article proposes a review of recent and current developments in the modeling and advanced numerical methods used to simulate large-size systems involving multi-physics in the field of mechanics. It addresses the complex issue of stability analysis of dynamical systems submitted to external turbulent flows and aims to establish accurate stability maps applicable to heat exchanger design. The purpose is to provide dimensionless stability limit modeling that is suitable for a variety of configurations and is as accurate as possible in spite of the large scale of the systems to be considered. The challenge lies in predicting local effects that may impact global systems. A combination of several strategies that are suited concurrently to multi-physics, multi-scale and large-size system computation is therefore required. Based on empirical concepts, the heuristic models currently used in the framework of standard stability analysis suffer from a lack of predictive capabilities. On the other hand, numerical approaches based on fully-coupled fluid–solid dynamics system computation remain expensive due to the multi-physics patterns of physics and the large number of degrees of freedom involved. In this context, since experimentation cannot be achieved and numerical simulation is unavoidable but prohibitive, a hybrid strategy is proposed in order to take advantage of both numerical local solutions and empirical global solutions

  13. Carbon dynamics in topsoil and subsoil along a cultivated toposequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngoni; Elsgaard, Lars; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2014-01-01

    SOC dynamics in topsoil (5 cm) and subsoil horizons (40 and 80 cm) at shoulderslope and footslope positions in a toposequence in a Danish winter wheat field. In addition, SOC was quantified for 20-cm depth intervals to 100 cm depths. Over a 1 year period, gas samples for carbon dioxide (CO2......) and oxygen (O2) analyses were collected from seven different soil depths (5 to 80 cm) at the shoulder- and footslope positions. Soil surface CO2 fluxes were measured over a shorter period (January to June 2012). Soil samples from 5 and 40 cm depths were incubated at 5 to 34 °C to determine the temperature......- and footslope positions. Temperature sensitivity of C turnover was similar in topsoil at shoulderslope (Q10 = 2.5) and footslope (Q10 = 2.6) positions; in subsoil (40 cm), however, Q10 was lower at shoulderslope (Q10 = 2.0) than footslope (Q10 = 3.2) positions. Further, shoulderslope subsoil had less non...

  14. Modeling and simulation of the dynamic behavior of portable proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, C.

    2005-07-01

    In order to analyze the operational behavior, a mathematical model of planar self-breathing fuel cells is developed and validated in Chapter 3 of this thesis. The multicomponent transport of the species is considered as well as the couplings between the transport processes of heat, charge, and mass and the electrochemical reactions. Furthermore, to explain the oxygen mass transport limitation in the porous electrode of the cathode side an agglomerate model for the oxygen reduction reaction is developed. In Chapter 4 the important issue of liquid water generation and transport in PEMFCs is addressed. One of the major tasks when operating this type of fuel cell is avoiding the complete flooding of the PEMFC during operation. A one-dimensional and isothermal model is developed that is based on a coupled system of partial differential equations. The model contains a dynamic and two-phase description of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell. The mass transport in the gas phase and in the liquid phase is considered as well as the phase transition between liquid water and water vapor. The transport of charges and the electrochemical reactions are part of the model. Flooding effects that are caused by liquid water accumulation are described by this model. Moreover, the model contains a time-dependent description of the membrane that accounts for Schroeder's paradox. The model is applied to simulate cyclic voltammograms. Chapter 5 is focused on the dynamic investigation of PEMFC stacks. Understanding the dynamic behavior of fuel cell stacks is important for the operation and control of fuel cell stacks. Using the single cell model of Chapter 3 and the dynamic model of Chapter 4 as basis, a mathematical model of a PEMFC stack is developed. However, due to the complexity of a fuel cell stack, the spatial resolution and dynamic description of the liquid water transport are not accounted for. These restrictions allow for direct comparison between the solution variables of

  15. Organic carbon dynamics in mangrove ecosystems: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristensen, E.; Bouillon, S.; Dittmar, T.; Marchand, C.

    2008-01-01

    Our current knowledge on production, composition, transport, pathways and transformations of organic carbon in tropical mangrove environments is reviewed and discussed. Organic carbon entering mangrove foodwebs is either produced autochthonously or imported by tides and/or rivers. Mangrove litter

  16. Increasing of prediction reliability of calcium carbonate scale formation in heat exchanger of secondary coolant circuits of thermal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tret'yakov, O.V.; Kritskij, V.G.; Styazhkin, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    Calcium carbonate scale formation in the secondary circuit heat exchanger of thermal and nuclear power plants is investigated. A model of calcium-carbonate scale formation providing quite reliable prediction of process running and the possibility of its control affecting the parameters of hydrochemical regime (HCR) is developed. The results can be used when designing the automatic-control system of HCR

  17. Carbon monoxide adsorption on alkali and proton-exchanged chabazite: an ab-initio periodic study using the CRYSTAL code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugliengo, P.; Busco, C.; Civalleri, B.; Zicovich-Wilson, C. M.

    Ab initio periodic calculations based on local Gaussian basis sets as coded in the CRYSTAL program have been performed to investigate the structure, the binding energy and the vibrational features of carbon monoxide adsorbed on H+, Li+, Na+ and K+-exchanged chabazite (Si/Al = 11/1, i.e. one Al atom per unit cell). The hybrid B3LYP functional has been adopted for all calculations with a polarized double-zeta quality basis set. The B3LYP binding energies (BSSE corrected) are 16.0, 24.6, 20.4 and 5.1 kJ/mol for H+, Li+, Na+ and K+-exchanged chabazite, respectively. Corresponding CO hypsochromic stretching frequency shifts are 47, 68, 43 and 33 cm-1, respectively. Comparison with the case of CO interacting with bare alkali cations and the available experimental data on a variety of zeolites has also been addressed.

  18. Soil Organic Carbon dynamics in agricultural soils of Veneto Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampa, F. B.; Morari, F. M.; Hiederer, R. H.; Toth, G. T.; Giandon, P. G.; Vinci, I. V.; Montanarella, L. M.; Nocita, M.

    2012-04-01

    One of the eight soil threats expressed in the European Commission's Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection (COM (2006)231 final) it's the decline in Soil Organic Matter (SOM). His preservation is recognized as with the objective to ensure that the soils of Europe remain healthy and capable of supporting human activities and ecosystems. One of the key goals of the strategy is to maintain and improve Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) levels. As climate change is identified as a common element in many of the soil threats, the European Commission (EC) intends to assess the actual contribution of the soil protection to climate change mitigation and the effects of climate change on the possible depletion of SOM. A substantial proportion of European land is occupied by agriculture, and consequently plays a crucial role in maintaining natural resources. Organic carbon preservation and sequestration in the EU's agricultural soils could have some potential to mitigate the effects of climate change, particularly linked to preventing certain land use changes and maintaining SOC stocks. The objective of this study is to assess the SOC dynamics in agricultural soils (cropland and grassland) at regional scale, focusing on changes due to land use. A sub-objective would be the evaluation of the most used land management practices and their effect on SOC content. This assessment aims to determine the geographical distribution of the potential GHG mitigation options, focusing on hot spots in the EU, where mitigation actions would be particularly efficient and is linked with the on-going work in the JRC SOIL Action. The pilot area is Veneto Region. The data available are coming from different sources, timing and involve different variables as: soil texture, climate, soil disturbance, managements and nutrients. The first source of data is the LUCAS project (Land Use/Land Cover Area Frame statistical Survey). Started in 2001, the LUCAS project aims to monitor changes in land cover/use and

  19. Processing arctic eddy-flux data using a simple carbon-exchange model embedded in the ensemble Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastetter, Edward B; Williams, Mathew; Griffin, Kevin L; Kwiatkowski, Bonnie L; Tomasky, Gabrielle; Potosnak, Mark J; Stoy, Paul C; Shaver, Gaius R; Stieglitz, Marc; Hobbie, John E; Kling, George W

    2010-07-01

    Continuous time-series estimates of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) are routinely made using eddy covariance techniques. Identifying and compensating for errors in the NEE time series can be automated using a signal processing filter like the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). The EnKF compares each measurement in the time series to a model prediction and updates the NEE estimate by weighting the measurement and model prediction relative to a specified measurement error estimate and an estimate of the model-prediction error that is continuously updated based on model predictions of earlier measurements in the time series. Because of the covariance among model variables, the EnKF can also update estimates of variables for which there is no direct measurement. The resulting estimates evolve through time, enabling the EnKF to be used to estimate dynamic variables like changes in leaf phenology. The evolving estimates can also serve as a means to test the embedded model and reconcile persistent deviations between observations and model predictions. We embedded a simple arctic NEE model into the EnKF and filtered data from an eddy covariance tower located in tussock tundra on the northern foothills of the Brooks Range in northern Alaska, USA. The model predicts NEE based only on leaf area, irradiance, and temperature and has been well corroborated for all the major vegetation types in the Low Arctic using chamber-based data. This is the first application of the model to eddy covariance data. We modified the EnKF by adding an adaptive noise estimator that provides a feedback between persistent model data deviations and the noise added to the ensemble of Monte Carlo simulations in the EnKF. We also ran the EnKF with both a specified leaf-area trajectory and with the EnKF sequentially recalibrating leaf-area estimates to compensate for persistent model-data deviations. When used together, adaptive noise estimation and sequential recalibration substantially improved filter

  20. Carbon dioxide exchange of the Arctic tundra in the northern part of European Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiepe, Isabell; Johansson, Paul Torbjörn; Friborg, Thomas

    Northern Russia has been subject to many speculations in relation to climatic change effects and greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange but still little scientific evidence is available for this region. There is low abundance of continuous Arctic GHG exchange measurements deploying eddy covariance technique...... 70 cm in the hummocky areas. The climate is continental with a mean annual air temperature (1995-2007) of about -9.4 °C (Vorkuta). To determine the greenhouse balance of this area the eddy covariance technique was used in the late period of the growing season of 2007. In this study we focus...... on the transition period at the end of the growth season, which is a part of the year when predicted changes in temperature is likely to have the most pronounced effects on the exchange of GHGs. The net ecosystem CO2 exchange reflects two important influences on the opposed fluxes, gross photosynthesis...

  1. Mimicking the action of folding chaperones by Hamiltonian replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations : Application in the refinement of de novo models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Hao; Periole, Xavier; Mark, Alan E.

    The efficiency of using a variant of Hamiltonian replica-exchange molecular dynamics (Chaperone H-replica-exchange molecular dynamics [CH-REMD]) for the refinement of protein structural models generated de novo is investigated. In CH-REMD, the interaction between the protein and its environment,

  2. An investigation into carbon nanostructured materials as catalyst support in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veltzé, Sune

    acid treatment on the Vapour Grown Carbon Fibers™ manufactured by Showa Denko K. K. From these fibres, twelve platinised samples were investigated, of which one was platinised by a platinum phtalocyanine impregnation method, two were platinised by the polyol method and the remaining by the Bönnemann......Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) are among the key research areas concerning clean cost-effective energy. Carbon nano fibres (CNF), single walled carbon nano tubes (SWCNT), multi walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNT) and other related materials are among the possible successors to standard carbon...... black support materials for low platinum containing electrocatalyst. This is partly due to their high electronic conductivity. Partly due to their high surface area needed for the dispersion of nanoparticulate metal-clusters. In addition carbon nano-structures (CNF, SWCNT, MWCNT etc.) are more durable...

  3. The Dynamics of Foreign Exchange Rate Risk Management in Different Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Khaldoun M. Al-Qaisi

    2012-01-01

    Foreign currency exchange management is very crucial in firms with foreign deals. The objective of this research was to study the management practices in Jordanian firms of foreign exchange management and its risk on these firms. A questionnaire was used to collect data using a stratified random sample. The results show that the firms interested with foreign currency exchange management as it forms more that 50% of its deals. Most of firms indicated that they have a policy for foreign exchang...

  4. Observed changes in ocean acidity and carbon dioxide exchange in the coastal Bay of Bengal - a link to air pollution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Krishna, M.S.; Paul, Y.S.; Murty, V.S.N.

    acidity and carbon dioxide exchange in the coastal Bay of Bengal � a link to air pollution By V. V. S. S. SARMA*, M. S. KRISHNA, Y. S. PAUL and V. S. N. MURTY, CSIR�National Institute of Oceanography, 176 Lawsons Bay Colony, Visakhapatnam, India... atmosphere boundary layer over the Bay of Bengal (mean: 5.7 mg m�3) compared to fluxes in the Arabian Sea (mean: 2.9 mg m�3), indicating that the former receives more pollutants than the latter region during January to April when air flow from land to sea...

  5. Annual sums of carbon dioxide exchange over a heterogeneous urban landscape through machine learning based gap-filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzer, Olaf; Meiring, Wendy; Kyriakidis, Phaedon C.; McFadden, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    A small, but growing, number of flux towers in urban environments measure surface-atmospheric exchanges of carbon dioxide by the eddy covariance method. As in all eddy covariance studies, obtaining annual sums of urban CO2 exchange requires imputation of data gaps due to low turbulence and non-stationary conditions, adverse weather, and instrument failures. Gap-filling approaches that are widely used for measurements from towers in natural vegetation are based on light and temperature response models. However, they do not account for key features of the urban environment including tower footprint heterogeneity and localized CO2 sources. Here, we present a novel gap-filling modeling framework that uses machine learning to select explanatory variables, such as continuous traffic counts and temporal variables, and then constrains models separately for spatially classified subsets of the data. We applied the modeling framework to a three year time series of measurements from a tall broadcast tower in a suburban neighborhood of Minneapolis-Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA. The gap-filling performance was similar to that reported for natural measurement sites, explaining 64% to 88% of the variability in the fluxes. Simulated carbon budgets were in good agreement with an ecophysiological bottom-up study at the same site. Total annual carbon dioxide flux sums for the tower site ranged from 1064 to 1382 g C m-2 yr-1, across different years and different gap-filling methods. Bias errors of annual sums resulting from gap-filling did not exceed 18 g C m-2 yr-1 and random uncertainties did not exceed ±44 g C m-2 yr-1 (or ±3.8% of the annual flux). Regardless of the gap-filling method used, the year-to-year differences in carbon exchange at this site were small. In contrast, the modeled annual sums of CO2 exchange differed by a factor of two depending on wind direction. This indicated that the modeled time series captured the spatial variability in both the biogenic and

  6. Simulating carbon dioxide exchange rates of deciduous tree species: evidence for a general pattern in biochemical changes and water stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Robert F; Bauerle, William L; Wang, Ying

    2009-09-01

    Deciduous trees have a seasonal carbon dioxide exchange pattern that is attributed to changes in leaf biochemical properties. However, it is not known if the pattern in leaf biochemical properties - maximum Rubisco carboxylation (V(cmax)) and electron transport (J(max)) - differ between species. This study explored whether a general pattern of changes in V(cmax), J(max), and a standardized soil moisture response accounted for carbon dioxide exchange of deciduous trees throughout the growing season. The model MAESTRA was used to examine V(cmax) and J(max) of leaves of five deciduous trees, Acer rubrum 'Summer Red', Betula nigra, Quercus nuttallii, Quercus phellos and Paulownia elongata, and their response to soil moisture. MAESTRA was parameterized using data from in situ measurements on organs. Linking the changes in biochemical properties of leaves to the whole tree, MAESTRA integrated the general pattern in V(cmax) and J(max) from gas exchange parameters of leaves with a standardized soil moisture response to describe carbon dioxide exchange throughout the growing season. The model estimates were tested against measurements made on the five species under both irrigated and water-stressed conditions. Measurements and modelling demonstrate that the seasonal pattern of biochemical activity in leaves and soil moisture response can be parameterized with straightforward general relationships. Over the course of the season, differences in carbon exchange between measured and modelled values were within 6-12 % under well-watered conditions and 2-25 % under water stress conditions. Hence, a generalized seasonal pattern in the leaf-level physiological change of V(cmax) and J(max), and a standardized response to soil moisture was sufficient to parameterize carbon dioxide exchange for large-scale evaluations. Simplification in parameterization of the seasonal pattern of leaf biochemical activity and soil moisture response of deciduous forest species is demonstrated. This

  7. Contrasting dynamics of leaf potential and gas exchange during progressive drought cycles and recovery in Amorpha fruticosa and Robinia pseudoacacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Weiming; Zheng, Shuxia; Zhong, Yangquanwei; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2017-06-30

    Leaf gas exchange is closely associated with water relations; however, less attention has been given to this relationship over successive drought events. Dynamic changes in gas exchange and water potential in the seedlings of two woody species, Amorpha fruticosa and Robinia pseudoacacia, were monitored during recurrent drought. The pre-dawn leaf water potential declined in parallel with gas exchange in both species, and sharp declines in gas exchange occurred with decreasing water potential. A significant correlation between pre-dawn water potential and gas exchange was observed in both species and showed a right shift in R. pseudoacacia in the second drought. The results suggested that stomatal closure in early drought was mediated mainly by elevated foliar abscisic acid (ABA) in R. pseudoacacia, while a shift from ABA-regulated to leaf-water-potential-driven stomatal closure was observed in A. fruticosa. After re-watering, the pre-dawn water potential recovered quickly, whereas stomatal conductance did not fully recover from drought in R. pseudoacacia, which affected the ability to tightly control transpiration post-drought. The dynamics of recovery from drought suggest that stomatal behavior post-drought may be restricted mainly by hydraulic factors, but non-hydraulic factors may also be involved in R. pseudoacacia.

  8. Durability of Carbon Nanofiber (CNF) & Carbon Nanotube (CNT) as Catalyst Support for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Borghei, Maryam; Lund, Peter

    2013-01-01

    a standard polyol method were prepared and fabricated as cathodes of Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEA) for PEMFC. Both the catalysts as such and the MEAs made out of them were evaluated regarding to thermal and electrochemical stability using traditional carbon black (Vulcan XC72) as a reference. Thermal...... gravimetric analysis (TGA), cyclic voltammetry (CV), polarization curve and impedance spectroscopy were applied on the samples under accelerated stress conditions. The carbon nano-materials demonstrated better stability as support for nano-sized platinum catalyst under PEMFC related operating conditions. Due...

  9. Dynamics of ligand exchange mechanism at Cu(II) in water: An ab initio quantum mechanical charge field molecular dynamics study with extended quantum mechanical region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moin, Syed Tarique; Hofer, Thomas S.; Weiss, Alexander K. H.; Rode, Bernd M.

    2013-01-01

    Ab initio quantum mechanical charge field molecular dynamics (QMCF-MD) were successfully applied to Cu(II) embedded in water to elucidate structure and to understand dynamics of ligand exchange mechanism. From the simulation studies, it was found that using an extended large quantum mechanical region including two shells of hydration is required for a better description of the dynamics of exchanging water molecules. The structural features characterized by radial distribution function, angular distribution function and other analytical parameters were consistent with experimental data. The major outcome of this study was the dynamics of exchange mechanism and reactions in the first hydration shell that could not be studied so far. The dynamical data such as mean residence time of the first shell water molecules and other relevant data from the simulations are close to the results determined experimentally. Another major characteristic of hydrated Cu(II) is the Jahn-Teller distortion which was also successfully reproduced, leading to the final conclusion that the dominating aqua complex is a 6-coordinated species. The ab initio QMCF-MD formalism proved again its capabilities of unraveling even ambiguous properties of hydrated species that are far difficult to explore by any conventional quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approach or experiment

  10. Dynamics of ligand exchange mechanism at Cu(II) in water: an ab initio quantum mechanical charge field molecular dynamics study with extended quantum mechanical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moin, Syed Tarique; Hofer, Thomas S; Weiss, Alexander K H; Rode, Bernd M

    2013-07-07

    Ab initio quantum mechanical charge field molecular dynamics (QMCF-MD) were successfully applied to Cu(II) embedded in water to elucidate structure and to understand dynamics of ligand exchange mechanism. From the simulation studies, it was found that using an extended large quantum mechanical region including two shells of hydration is required for a better description of the dynamics of exchanging water molecules. The structural features characterized by radial distribution function, angular distribution function and other analytical parameters were consistent with experimental data. The major outcome of this study was the dynamics of exchange mechanism and reactions in the first hydration shell that could not be studied so far. The dynamical data such as mean residence time of the first shell water molecules and other relevant data from the simulations are close to the results determined experimentally. Another major characteristic of hydrated Cu(II) is the Jahn-Teller distortion which was also successfully reproduced, leading to the final conclusion that the dominating aqua complex is a 6-coordinated species. The ab initio QMCF-MD formalism proved again its capabilities of unraveling even ambiguous properties of hydrated species that are far difficult to explore by any conventional quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approach or experiment.

  11. Diurnal and seasonal variations in carbon dioxide exchange in ecosystems in the Zhangye oasis area, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Sun, Rui; Xu, Ziwei; Qiao, Chen; Jiang, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying carbon dioxide exchange and understanding the response of key environmental factors in various ecosystems are critical to understanding regional carbon budgets and ecosystem behaviors. For this study, CO2 fluxes were measured in a variety of ecosystems with an eddy covariance observation matrix between June 2012 and September 2012 in the Zhangye oasis area of Northwest China. The results show distinct diurnal variations in the CO2 fluxes in vegetable field, orchard, wetland, and maize cropland. Diurnal variations of CO2 fluxes were not obvious, and their values approached zero in the sandy desert, desert steppe, and Gobi ecosystems. Additionally, daily variations in the Gross Primary Production (GPP), Ecosystem Respiration (Reco) and Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) were not obvious in the sandy desert, desert steppe, and Gobi ecosystems. In contrast, the distributions of the GPP, Reco, and NEE show significant daily variations, that are closely related to the development of vegetation in the maize, wetland, orchard, and vegetable field ecosystems. All of the ecosystems are characterized by their carbon absorption during the observation period. The ability to absorb CO2 differed significantly among the tested ecosystems. We also used the Michaelis-Menten equation and exponential curve fitting methods to analyze the impact of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) on the daytime CO2 flux and impact of air temperature on Reco at night. The results show that PAR is the dominant factor in controlling photosynthesis with limited solar radiation, and daytime CO2 assimilation increases rapidly with PAR. Additionally, the carbon assimilation rate was found to increase slowly with high solar radiation. The light response parameters changed with each growth stage for all of the vegetation types, and higher light response values were observed during months or stages when the plants grew quickly. Light saturation points are different for different species. Nighttime

  12. Estimation of Net Ecosystem Carbon Exchange for the Conterminous UnitedStates by Combining MODIS and AmeriFlux Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Jingfeng; Zhuang, Qianlai; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Law, Beverly E.; Richardson, Andrew D.; Chen, Jiquan; Oren, Ram; Starr, Gregory; Noormets, Asko; Ma, Siyan; Verma, Shashi B.; Wharton, Sonia; Wofsy, Steven C.; Bolstad, Paul V.; Burns, Sean P.; Cook, David R.; Curtis, Peter S.; Drake, Bert G.; Falk, Matthias; Fischer, Marc L.; Foster, David R.; Gu, Lianhong; Hadley, Julian L.; Hollinger, David Y.; Katul, Gabriel G.; Litvak, Marcy; Martin, Timothy A.; Matamala, Roser; McNulty, Steve; Meyers, Tilden P.; Monson, Russell K.; Munger, J. William; Oechel, Walter C.; U, Kyaw Tha Paw; Schmid, Hans Peter; Scott, Russell L.; Sun, Ge; Suyker, Andrew E.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2009-03-06

    Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) for a wide range of climate and biome types. However, these measurements only represent the carbon fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. To quantify the net exchange of carbon dioxide between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere for regions or continents, flux tower measurements need to be extrapolated to these large areas. Here we used remotely-sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) instrument on board NASA's Terra satellite to scale up AmeriFlux NEE measurements to the continental scale. We first combined MODIS and AmeriFlux data for representative U.S. ecosystems to develop a predictive NEE model using a regression tree approach. The predictive model was trained and validated using NEE data over the periods 2000-2004 and 2005-2006, respectively. We found that the model predicted NEE reasonably well at the site level. We then applied the model to the continental scale and estimated NEE for each 1 km x 1 km cell across the conterminous U.S. for each 8-day period in 2005 using spatially-explicit MODIS data. The model generally captured the expected spatial and seasonal patterns of NEE. Our study demonstrated that our empirical approach is effective for scaling up eddy flux NEE measurements to the continental scale and producing wall-to-wall NEE estimates across multiple biomes. Our estimates may provide an independent dataset from simulations with biogeochemical models and inverse modeling approaches for examining the spatiotemporal patterns of NEE and constraining terrestrial carbon budgets for large areas.

  13. Estimation of net ecosystem carbon exchange for the conterminous United States by combining MODIS and AmeriFlux data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Jingfeng; Zhuang, Qianlai; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Bolstad, Paul V.; Burns, Sean P.; Chen, Jiquan; Cook, David R.; Curtis, Peter S.; Drake, Bert G.; Foster, David R.; Gu, Lianhong; Hadley, Julian L.; Hollinger, David Y.; Katul, Gabriel G.; Law, Beverly E.; Litvak, Marcy; Ma, Siyan; Martin, Timothy A.; Matamala, Roser; McNulty, Steve; Meyers, Tilden P.; Monson, Russell K.; Munger, J. William; Noormets, Asko; Oechel, Walter C.; Oren, Ram; Richardson, Andrew D.; Schmid, Hans Peter; Scott, Russell L.; Starr, Gregory; Sun, Ge; Suyker, Andrew E.; Torn, Margaret S.; Paw, Kyaw; Verma, Shashi B.; Wharton, Sonia; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2008-10-01

    Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) for a wide range of climate and biome types. However, these measurements only represent the carbon fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. To quantify the net exchange of carbon dioxide between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere for regions or continents, flux tower measurements need to be extrapolated to these large areas. Here we used remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) instrument on board the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Terra satellite to scale up AmeriFlux NEE measurements to the continental scale. We first combined MODIS and AmeriFlux data for representative U.S. ecosystems to develop a predictive NEE model using a modified regression tree approach. The predictive model was trained and validated using eddy flux NEE data over the periods 2000-2004 and 2005-2006, respectively. We found that the model predicted NEE well (r = 0.73, p < 0.001). We then applied the model to the continental scale and estimated NEE for each 1 km x 1 km cell across the conterminous U.S. for each 8-day interval in 2005 using spatially explicit MODIS data. The model generally captured the expected spatial and seasonal patterns of NEE as determined from measurements and the literature. Our study demonstrated that our empirical approach is effective for scaling up eddy flux NEE measurements to the continental scale and producing wall-to-wall NEE estimates across multiple biomes. Our estimates may provide an independent dataset from simulations with biogeochemical models and inverse modeling approaches for examining the spatiotemporal patterns of NEE and constraining terrestrial carbon budgets over large areas.

  14. Preface: Impacts of extreme climate events and disturbances on carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jingfeng; Liu, Shuguang; Stoy, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    The impacts of extreme climate events and disturbances (ECE&D) on the carbon cycle have received growing attention in recent years. This special issue showcases a collection of recent advances in understanding the impacts of ECE&D on carbon cycling. Notable advances include quantifying how harvesting activities impact forest structure, carbon pool dynamics, and recovery processes; observed drastic increases of the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved methane in thermokarst lakes in western Siberia during a summer warming event; disentangling the roles of herbivores and fire on forest carbon dioxide flux; direct and indirect impacts of fire on the global carbon balance; and improved atmospheric inversion of regional carbon sources and sinks by incorporating disturbances. Combined, studies herein indicate several major research needs. First, disturbances and extreme events can interact with one another, and it is important to understand their overall impacts and also disentangle their effects on the carbon cycle. Second, current ecosystem models are not skillful enough to correctly simulate the underlying processes and impacts of ECE&D (e.g., tree mortality and carbon consequences). Third, benchmark data characterizing the timing, location, type, and magnitude of disturbances must be systematically created to improve our ability to quantify carbon dynamics over large areas. Finally, improving the representation of ECE&D in regional climate/earth system models and accounting for the resulting feedbacks to climate are essential for understanding the interactions between climate and ecosystem dynamics.

  15. Dynamic relationship between Japanese Yen exchange rates and market anxiety: A new perspective based on MF-DCCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinsheng; Sun, Xinxin; Ge, Jintian

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic relationship between Japanese Yen exchange rates and market anxiety during the period from January 5, 1998 to April 18, 2016. A quantitative technique of multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) is used to explore the multifractal features of the cross-correlations between USD/JPY, AUD/JPY exchange rates and the market anxiety gauge VIX. The investigation shows that the causal relationship between Japanese Yen exchange rates and VIX are bidirectional in general, and the cross-correlations between the two sets of time series are multifractal. Strong evidence suggests that the cross-correlation exponents tend to exhibit different volatility patterns in response to diverse external shocks such as financial distress and widening in interest rate spread, suggesting that the cross-correlated behavior between Japanese Yen exchange rates and VIX are susceptible to economic uncertainties and risks. In addition, the performances of two market anxiety gauges, the VIX and the TED spread, are compared and the sources of multifractality are also traced. Thus, this paper contributes to the literature by shedding light on the unique driving forces of the Yen exchange rate fluctuations in the international foreign exchange market.

  16. Forest floor carbon exchange of a boreal black spruce forest in eastern North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bergeron

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study reports continuous automated measurements of forest floor carbon (C exchange over feathermoss, lichen, and sphagnum micro-sites in a black spruce forest in eastern North America during snow-free periods over three years. The response of soil respiration (Rs-auto and forest floor photosynthesis (Pff to environmental factors was determined. The seasonal contributions of scaled up Rs-auto adjusted for spatial representativeness (Rs-adj and Pff (Pff-eco relative to that of total ecosystem respiration (Re and photosynthesis (Peco, respectively, were also quantified.

    Shallow (5 cm soil temperature explained 67–86% of the variation in Rs-auto for all ground cover types, while deeper (50 and 100 cm soil temperatures were related to Rs-auto only for the feathermoss micro-sites. Base respiration was consistently lower under feathermoss, intermediate under sphagnum, and higher under lichen during all three years. The Rs-adj/Re ratio increased from spring through autumn and ranged from 0.85 to 0.87 annually for the snow-free period. The Rs-adj/Re ratio was negatively correlated with the difference between air and shallow soil temperature and this correlation was more pronounced in autumn than summer and spring.

    Maximum photosynthetic capacity of the forest floor (Pff-max saturated at low irradiance levels (~200 μmol m−2 s−1 and decreased with increasing air temperature and vapor pressure deficit for all three ground cover types, suggesting that Pff was more limited by desiccation than by light availability. Pff-max was lowest for sphagnum, intermediate for feathermoss, and highest for lichen for two

  17. An Integrated Use of Experimental, Modeling and Remote Sensing Techniques to Investigate Carbon and Phosphorus Dynamics in the Humid Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Asner, Gregory P.; Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.

    2001-01-01

    Moist tropical forests comprise one of the world's largest and most diverse biomes, and exchange more carbon, water, and energy with the atmosphere than any other ecosystem. In recent decades, tropical forests have also become one of the globe's most threatened biomes, subjected to exceptionally high rates of deforestation and land degradation. Thus, the importance of and threats to tropical forests are undeniable, yet our understanding of basic ecosystem processes in both intact and disturbed portions of the moist tropics remains poorer than for almost any other major biome. Our approach in this project was to take a multi-scale, multi-tool approach to address two different problems. First, we wanted to test if land-use driven changes in the cycles of probable limiting nutrients in forest systems were a key driver in the frequently observed pattern of declining pasture productivity and carbon stocks. Given the enormous complexity of land use change in the tropics, in which one finds a myriad of different land use types and intensities overlain on varying climates and soil types, we also wanted to see if new remote sensing techniques would allow some novel links between parameters which could be sensed remotely, and key biogeochemical variables which cannot. Second, we addressed to general questions about the role of tropical forests in the global carbon cycle. First, we used a new approach for quantifying and minimizing non-biological artifacts in the NOAA/NASA AVHRR Pathfinder time series of surface reflectance data so that we could address potential links between Amazonian forest dynamics and ENSO cycles. Second, we showed that the disequilibrium in C-13 exchanged between land and atmosphere following tropical deforestation probably has a significant impact on the use of 13-CO2 data to predict regional fluxes in the global carbon cycle.

  18. A methodology for determining the dynamic exchange of resources in nuclear fuel cycle simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gidden, Matthew J., E-mail: gidden@iiasa.ac.at [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg (Austria); University of Wisconsin – Madison, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Wilson, Paul P.H. [University of Wisconsin – Madison, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A novel fuel cycle simulation entity interaction mechanism is proposed. • A framework and implementation of the mechanism is described. • New facility outage and regional interaction scenario studies are described and analyzed. - Abstract: Simulation of the nuclear fuel cycle can be performed using a wide range of techniques and methodologies. Past efforts have focused on specific fuel cycles or reactor technologies. The CYCLUS fuel cycle simulator seeks to separate the design of the simulation from the fuel cycle or technologies of interest. In order to support this separation, a robust supply–demand communication and solution framework is required. Accordingly an agent-based supply-chain framework, the Dynamic Resource Exchange (DRE), has been designed implemented in CYCLUS. It supports the communication of complex resources, namely isotopic compositions of nuclear fuel, between fuel cycle facilities and their managers (e.g., institutions and regions). Instances of supply and demand are defined as an optimization problem and solved for each timestep. Importantly, the DRE allows each agent in the simulation to independently indicate preference for specific trading options in order to meet both physics requirements and satisfy constraints imposed by potential socio-political models. To display the variety of possible simulations that the DRE enables, example scenarios are formulated and described. Important features include key fuel-cycle facility outages, introduction of external recycled fuel sources (similar to the current mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility in the United States), and nontrivial interactions between fuel cycles existing in different regions.

  19. A methodology for determining the dynamic exchange of resources in nuclear fuel cycle simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gidden, Matthew J.; Wilson, Paul P.H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel fuel cycle simulation entity interaction mechanism is proposed. • A framework and implementation of the mechanism is described. • New facility outage and regional interaction scenario studies are described and analyzed. - Abstract: Simulation of the nuclear fuel cycle can be performed using a wide range of techniques and methodologies. Past efforts have focused on specific fuel cycles or reactor technologies. The CYCLUS fuel cycle simulator seeks to separate the design of the simulation from the fuel cycle or technologies of interest. In order to support this separation, a robust supply–demand communication and solution framework is required. Accordingly an agent-based supply-chain framework, the Dynamic Resource Exchange (DRE), has been designed implemented in CYCLUS. It supports the communication of complex resources, namely isotopic compositions of nuclear fuel, between fuel cycle facilities and their managers (e.g., institutions and regions). Instances of supply and demand are defined as an optimization problem and solved for each timestep. Importantly, the DRE allows each agent in the simulation to independently indicate preference for specific trading options in order to meet both physics requirements and satisfy constraints imposed by potential socio-political models. To display the variety of possible simulations that the DRE enables, example scenarios are formulated and described. Important features include key fuel-cycle facility outages, introduction of external recycled fuel sources (similar to the current mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility in the United States), and nontrivial interactions between fuel cycles existing in different regions.

  20. Tungsten polyoxometalate molecules as active nodes for dynamic carrier exchange in hybrid molecular/semiconductor capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balliou, A.; Douvas, A. M.; Normand, P.; Argitis, P.; Glezos, N.; Tsikritzis, D.; Kennou, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we study the utilization of molecular transition metal oxides known as polyoxometalates (POMs), in particular the Keggin structure anions of the formula PW 12 O 40 3− , as active nodes for potential switching and/or fast writing memory applications. The active molecules are being integrated in hybrid Metal-Insulator/POM molecules-Semiconductor capacitors, which serve as prototypes allowing investigation of critical performance characteristics towards the design of more sophisticated devices. The charging ability as well as the electronic structure of the molecular layer is probed by means of electrical characterization, namely, capacitance-voltage and current-voltage measurements, as well as transient capacitance measurements, C (t), under step voltage polarization. It is argued that the transient current peaks observed are manifestations of dynamic carrier exchange between the gate electrode and specific molecular levels, while the transient C (t) curves under conditions of molecular charging can supply information for the rate of change of the charge that is being trapped and de-trapped within the molecular layer. Structural characterization via surface and cross sectional scanning electron microscopy as well as atomic force microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, UV and Fourier-transform IR spectroscopies, UPS, and XPS contribute to the extraction of accurate electronic structure characteristics and open the path for the design of new devices with on-demand tuning of their interfacial properties via the controlled preparation of the POM layer.

  1. Action dependent heuristic dynamic programming based residential energy scheduling with home energy inter-exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yancai; Liu, Derong; Wei, Qinglai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The algorithm is developed in the two-household energy management environment. • We develop the absent energy penalty cost for the first time. • The algorithm has ability to keep adapting in real-time operations. • Its application can lower total costs and achieve better load balancing. - Abstract: Residential energy scheduling is a hot topic nowadays in the background of energy saving and environmental protection worldwide. To achieve this objective, a new residential energy scheduling algorithm is developed for energy management, based on action dependent heuristic dynamic programming. The algorithm works under the circumstance of residential real-time pricing and two adjacent housing units with energy inter-exchange, which can reduce the overall cost and enhance renewable energy efficiency after long-term operation. It is designed to obtain the optimal control policy to manage the directions and amounts of electricity energy flux. The algorithm’s architecture is mainly constructed based on neural networks, denoting the learned characteristics in the linkage of layers. To get close to real situations, many constraints such as maximum charging/discharging power of batteries are taken into account. The absent energy penalty cost is developed for the first time as a part of the performance index function. When the environment changes, the residential energy scheduling algorithm gains new features and keeps adapting in real-time operations. Simulation results show that the developed algorithm is beneficial to energy conversation

  2. Dynamic swelling of tunable full-color block copolymer photonic gels via counterion exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ho Sun; Lee, Jae-Hwang; Walish, Joseph J; Thomas, Edwin L

    2012-10-23

    One-dimensionally periodic block copolymer photonic lamellar gels with full-color tunability as a result of a direct exchange of counteranions were fabricated via a two-step procedure comprising the self-assembly of a hydrophobic block-hydrophilic polyelectrolyte block copolymer, polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P2VP), followed by sequential quaternization of the P2VP layers in 1-bromoethane solution. Depending on the hydration characteristics of each counteranion, the selective swelling of the block copolymer lamellar structures leads to large tunability of the photonic stop band from blue to red wavelengths. More extensive quaternization of the P2VP block allows the photonic lamellar gels to swell more and red shift to longer wavelength. Here, we investigate the dynamic swelling behavior in the photonic gel films through time-resolved in situ measurement of UV-vis transmission. We model the swelling behavior using the transfer matrix method based on the experimentally observed reflectivity data with substitution of appropriate counterions. These tunable structural color materials may be attractive for numerous applications such as high-contrast displays without using a backlight, color filters, and optical mirrors for flexible lasing.

  3. Probing Conformational Dynamics of Tau Protein by Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Richard Y.-C.; Iacob, Roxana E.; Sankaranarayanan, Sethu; Yang, Ling; Ahlijanian, Michael; Tao, Li; Tymiak, Adrienne A.; Chen, Guodong

    2018-01-01

    Fibrillization of the microtubule-associated protein tau has been recognized as one of the signature pathologies of the nervous system in Alzheimer's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and other tauopathies. The conformational transition of tau in the fibrillization process, tau monomer to soluble aggregates to fibrils in particular, remains unclear. Here we report on the use of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) in combination with other biochemical approaches, including Thioflavin S fluorescence measurements, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Western blotting to understand the heparin-induced tau's fibrillization. HDX-MS studies including anti-tau antibody epitope mapping experiments provided molecular level details of the full-length tau's conformational dynamics and its regional solvent accessibility upon soluble aggregates formation. The results demonstrate that R3 region in the full-length tau's microtubule binding repeat region (MTBR) is stabilized in the aggregation process, leaving both N and C terminal regions to be solvent exposed in the soluble aggregates and fibrils. The findings also illustrate the practical utility of orthogonal analytical methodologies for the characterization of protein higher order structure. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Spin dynamics and exchange interactions in CuO measured by neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, H.; Gaw, S. M.; Princep, A. J.; Hamilton, E.; Tóth, S.; Ewings, R. A.; Enderle, M.; Wheeler, E. M. Hétroy; Prabhakaran, D.; Boothroyd, A. T.

    2018-04-01

    The magnetic properties of CuO encompass several contemporary themes in condensed-matter physics, including quantum magnetism, magnetic frustration, magnetically-induced ferroelectricity, and orbital currents. Here we report polarized and unpolarized neutron inelastic scattering measurements which provide a comprehensive map of the cooperative spin dynamics in the low-temperature antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase of CuO throughout much of the Brillouin zone. At high energies (E ≳100 meV ), the spectrum displays continuum features consistent with the des Cloizeax-Pearson dispersion for an ideal S =1/2 Heisenberg AFM chain. At lower energies, the spectrum becomes more three dimensional, and we find that a linear spin-wave model for a Heisenberg AFM provides a very good description of the data, allowing for an accurate determination of the relevant exchange constants in an effective spin Hamiltonian for CuO. In the high-temperature helicoidal phase, there are features in the measured low-energy spectrum that we could not reproduce with a spin-only model. We discuss how these might be associated with the magnetically-induced multiferroic behavior observed in this phase.

  5. Seismic dynamic analysis of Heat Exchangers inside of the Auxiliary Buildings in AP1000TM NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Fonzo, M.; Aragon, J.; Moraleda, F.; Palazuelos, M.; San Vicente, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Seismic dynamic analysis was carried out for the Heat Exchangers (RNS-HR) located inside of the Auxiliary Building in AP 1000 T M NPP. The main function of the RNS-HX is to provide shutdown reactor cooling. These equipment's are safety-related. So the seismic analysis was done using the methodology for Seismic Category I (SCI) structures. The most important topic is that the RNS-HX shall withstand the effects of the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) and maintain the specified design functions. for the analysis, two finite element models (FEM) were built in order to investigate the structural response of the couple system of building and equipment. The response spectra method was used. The floor response spectra (FRS) at the slab-wall connection were used as input Lateral seismic restrain was necessary to added in order to achieve the natural frequency of 33 Hz. The global structural response was obtained by means of the modal combination method indicated in the Regulatory Guide 1.92.

  6. LBA-ECO ND-11 Litter Decomposition, Carbon, and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agroforestry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the results of an experiment to determine litter decomposition and dynamics of carbon and nitrogen release from plant litter of differing...

  7. LBA-ECO ND-11 Litter Decomposition, Carbon, and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agroforestry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains the results of an experiment to determine litter decomposition and dynamics of carbon and nitrogen release from plant litter of...

  8. High-Performance Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration by Coupling Reservoir Simulation and Molecular Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Kai; Yan, Mi; Allen, Rebecca; Salama, Amgad; Lu, Ligang; Jordan, Kirk E.; Sun, Shuyu; Keyes, David E.

    2015-01-01

    The present work describes a parallel computational framework for carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration simulation by coupling reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics (MD) on massively parallel high-performance-computing (HPC) systems

  9. Carbon exchange fluxes over peatlands in Western Siberia: Possible feedback between land-use change and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Elisa; Khashimov, Ilhom; Hölzel, Norbert; Klemm, Otto

    2016-03-01

    The growing demand for agricultural products has been leading to an expansion and intensification of agriculture around the world. More and more unused land is currently reclaimed in the regions of the former Soviet Union. Driven by climate change, the Western Siberian grain belt might, in a long-term, even expand into the drained peatland areas to the North. It is crucial to study the consequences of this land-use change with respect to the carbon cycling as this is still a major knowledge gap. We present for the first time data on the atmosphere-ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide and methane of an arable field and a neighboring unused grassland on peat soil in Western Siberia. Eddy covariance measurements were performed over one vegetation period. No directed methane fluxes were found due to an effective drainage of the study sites. The carbon dioxide fluxes appeared to be of high relevance for the global carbon and greenhouse gas cycles. They showed very site-specific patterns resulting from the development of vegetation: the persistent plants of the grassland were able to start photosynthesizing soon after snow melt, while the absence of vegetation on the managed field lead to a phase of emissions until the oat plants started to grow in June. The uptake peak of the oat field is much later than that of the grassland, but larger due to a rapid plant growth. Budgeting the whole measurement period, the grassland served as a carbon sink, whereas the oat field was identified to be a carbon source. The conversion from non-used grasslands on peat soil to cultivated fields in Western Siberia is therefore considered to have a positive feedback on climate change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamics of Photoexcitation and Photocatalysis at Nanostructured Carbon Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-14

    Juan G. Duque ,Aditya Mohite, and Hagen Telg, Recent Developments in the Photophysics of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes for Active and Passive...Jared J. Crochet, Stephen K. Doorn, Juan G. Duque ,Aditya Mohite, and Hagen Telg, Recent Developments in the Photophysics of Single-Wall Carbon...Carbon Nanotube Thin Films. ACS Nano. 8(6):5383–5394. Michael S. Arnold, Jeffrey L. Blackburn, Jared J. Crochet, Stephen K. Doorn, Juan G. Duque

  11. ORCHIDEE-SOM: modeling soil organic carbon (SOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) dynamics along vertical soil profiles in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino-Serrano, Marta; Guenet, Bertrand; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Ciais, Philippe; Bastrikov, Vladislav; De Vos, Bruno; Gielen, Bert; Gleixner, Gerd; Jornet-Puig, Albert; Kaiser, Klaus; Kothawala, Dolly; Lauerwald, Ronny; Peñuelas, Josep; Schrumpf, Marion; Vicca, Sara; Vuichard, Nicolas; Walmsley, David; Janssens, Ivan A.

    2018-03-01

    Current land surface models (LSMs) typically represent soils in a very simplistic way, assuming soil organic carbon (SOC) as a bulk, and thus impeding a correct representation of deep soil carbon dynamics. Moreover, LSMs generally neglect the production and export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from soils to rivers, leading to overestimations of the potential carbon sequestration on land. This common oversimplified processing of SOC in LSMs is partly responsible for the large uncertainty in the predictions of the soil carbon response to climate change. In this study, we present a new soil carbon module called ORCHIDEE-SOM, embedded within the land surface model ORCHIDEE, which is able to reproduce the DOC and SOC dynamics in a vertically discretized soil to 2 m. The model includes processes of biological production and consumption of SOC and DOC, DOC adsorption on and desorption from soil minerals, diffusion of SOC and DOC, and DOC transport with water through and out of the soils to rivers. We evaluated ORCHIDEE-SOM against observations of DOC concentrations and SOC stocks from four European sites with different vegetation covers: a coniferous forest, a deciduous forest, a grassland, and a cropland. The model was able to reproduce the SOC stocks along their vertical profiles at the four sites and the DOC concentrations within the range of measurements, with the exception of the DOC concentrations in the upper soil horizon at the coniferous forest. However, the model was not able to fully capture the temporal dynamics of DOC concentrations. Further model improvements should focus on a plant- and depth-dependent parameterization of the new input model parameters, such as the turnover times of DOC and the microbial carbon use efficiency. We suggest that this new soil module, when parameterized for global simulations, will improve the representation of the global carbon cycle in LSMs, thus helping to constrain the predictions of the future SOC response to global

  12. Carbon dioxide exchange in three tundra sites show a dissimilar response to environmental variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbufong, Herbert Njuabe; Lund, Magnus; Christensen, Torben Røjle

    2015-01-01

    variability. An improved understanding of the control of ancillary variables on net ecosystem exchange (NEE), gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) will improve the accuracy with which CO2 exchange seasonality in Arctic tundra ecosystems is modelled. Fluxes were measured with the eddy...... Lake. Growing season NEE correlated mainly to cumulative radiation and temperature-related variables at Zackenberg, while at Daring Lake the same variables showed significant correlations with the partitioned fluxes (GPP and Re). Stordalen was temperature dependent during the growing season. This study...

  13. In-situ observations of catalyst dynamics during surface-bound carbon nanotube nucleation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, S; Sharma, R; Du, G

    2007-01-01

    nanoparticles on SiOx support show crystalline lattice fringe contrast and high deformability before and during nanotube formation. A single-walled carbon nanotube nucleates by lift-off of a carbon cap. Cap stabilization and nanotube growth involve the dynamic reshaping of the catalyst nanocrystal itself...

  14. Time series analysis of forest carbon dynamics: recovery of Pinus palustris physiology following a prescribed fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Starr; C. L. Staudhammer; H. W. Loescher; R. Mitchell; A. Whelan; J. K. Hiers; J. J. O’Brien

    2015-01-01

    Frequency and intensity of fire determines the structure and regulates the function of savanna ecosystems worldwide, yet our understanding of prescribed fire impacts on carbon in these systems is rudimentary. We combined eddy covariance (EC) techniques and fuel consumption plots to examine the short-term response of longleaf pine forest carbon dynamics to one...

  15. Comparing soil organic carbon dynamics in plantation and secondary forest in wet tropics in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI YIQING; MING XU; ZOU XIAOMING; PEIJUN SHI§; YAOQI ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    We compared the soil carbon dynamics between a pine plantation and a secondary forest, both of which originated from the same farmland abandoned in 1976 with the same cropping history and soil conditions, in the wet tropics in Puerto Rico from July 1996 to June 1997. We found that the secondary forest accumulated the heavy-fraction organic carbon (HF-OC) measured by...

  16. Influence of climate change factors on carbon dynamics in northern forested peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.C Trettin; R. Laiho; K. Minkkinen; J. Laine

    2005-01-01

    Peatlands are carbon-accumulating wetland ecosystems, developed through an imbalance among organic matter production and decomposition processes. Soil saturation is the principal cause of anoxic conditions that constrain organic matter decay. Accordingly, changes in the hydrologic regime will affect the carbon (C) dynamics in forested peatlands. Our objective is to...

  17. Satellite observation of particulate organic carbon dynamics on the Louisiana continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate organic carbon (POC) plays an important role in coastal carbon cycling and the formation of hypoxia. Yet, coastal POC dynamics are often poorly understood due to a lack of long-term POC observations and the complexity of coastal hydrodynamic and biogeochemical process...

  18. Stream carbon dynamics in low-gradient headwaters of a forested watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    April Bryant-Mason; Y. Jun Xu; Johnny M. Grace

    2013-01-01

    Headwater streams drain more than 70 percent of the total watershed area in the United States. Understanding of carbon dynamics in the headwater systems is of particular relevance for developing best silvicultural practices to reduce carbon export. This study was conducted in a low-gradient, predominantly forested watershed located in the Gulf Coastal Plain region, to...

  19. Wildfire and drought dynamics destabilize carbon stores of fire-suppressed forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Mason Earles; Malcolm P. North; Matthew D. Hurteau

    2014-01-01

    Widespread fire suppression and thinning have altered the structure and composition of many forests in the western United States, making them more susceptible to the synergy of large-scale drought and fire events. We examine how these changes affect carbon storage and stability compared to historic fire-adapted conditions. We modeled carbon dynamics under possible...

  20. High resolution carbon isotope of Crassostrea cuttakensis: A proxy for seasonally varying carbon dynamics in a tropical delta-estuary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreemany, Arpita

    2017-04-01

    The exponential increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration and global temperature is becoming a major threat to the existence of the mankind. It has been proposed that the ˜2 ˚ C rise in the average global temperature may lead to a point of no-return where the balance between the climate and the ecosystem collapses. Therefore, detailed understanding of the major carbon reservoirs and their mutual interactions is needed for better future climate prediction. Among all the reservoirs, ocean holds ˜90 % of the exogenic carbon and promotes long term storage in sediments. However, the majority of the sedimentary carbon is of terrestrial origin and transported through rivers, which play an important role in carbon exchange between the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, and oceans. The transportation of organic carbon through river does not follow a simple conveyer belt model. Various organic and inorganic reactions (i.e., organic carbon degradation, inorganic carbon precipitation, primary production, community respiration) modify the state of the carbon to form a major sub-reservoir in the river, i.e., Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC). So, identifying the source/s of the DIC is crucial to understand the carbon dynamics in the river. Stable carbon isotopic composition of the DIC (δ13CDIC) has long been extensively used to reveal the dominant source/s of the DIC. The majority of the large rivers, being situated in the tropical belts, show seasonal fluctuation in the DIC sources. However, seasonal sampling in the remotest reaches of these rivers hindered our thorough understanding of the seasonally varying source/s of DIC in these rivers. Many calcifying organisms precipitate their shell carbonate in equilibrium with water and hence likely to record the δ13CDICof ambient water in their shell. In this study, a living oyster (Crassostrea cuttakensis) was collected from Matla River, which is part of the Ganges Brahmaputra river delta system, and analyzed for its stable

  1. Long-term agricultural fertilization alters arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community composition and barley (Hordeum vulgare) mycorrhizal carbon and phosphorus exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alwyn; Manoharan, Lokeshwaran; Rosenstock, Nicholas P; Olsson, Pål Axel; Hedlund, Katarina

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural fertilization significantly affects arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community composition. However, the functional implications of community shifts are unknown, limiting understanding of the role of AMF in agriculture. We assessed AMF community composition at four sites managed under the same nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizer regimes for 55 yr. We also established a glasshouse experiment with the same soils to investigate AMF-barley (Hordeum vulgare) nutrient exchange, using carbon ( 13 C) and 33 P isotopic labelling. N fertilization affected AMF community composition, reducing diversity; P had no effect. In the glasshouse, AMF contribution to plant P declined with P fertilization, but was unaffected by N. Barley C allocation to AMF also declined with P fertilization. As N fertilization increased, C allocation to AMF per unit of P exchanged increased. This occurred with and without P fertilization, and was concomitant with reduced barley biomass. AMF community composition showed no relationship with glasshouse experiment results. The results indicate that plants can reduce C allocation to AMF in response to P fertilization. Under N fertilization, plants allocate an increasing amount of C to AMF and receive relatively less P. This suggests an alteration in the terms of P-C exchange under N fertilization regardless of soil P status. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Experimental and parametric studies of a louvered fin and flat tube compact heat exchanger using computational fluid dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Karthik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to perform the parametric analysis on thermo-hydraulic performance of a compact heat exchanger using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. The analysis has been carried out at different frontal air velocities by varying the geometrical parameters such as fin pitch, transverse tube pitch, longitudinal tube pitch, louver pitch and louver angle. The air side performance of the heat exchanger has been evaluated by calculating Colburn factor (j and Fanning friction factor (f. The comparison of CFD results with the experimental data exhibited a good agreement and the influence of various geometrical parameters for the selected range of values on the pressure drop, heat transfer coefficient and goodness factor was analyzed. The results obtained from the analysis will be very useful to optimize the louvered fin and flat tube compact heat exchanger for better thermo-hydraulic performance analysis without the need of time consuming and expensive experimentation.

  3. Exchange of Surfactant by Natural Organic Matter on the Surfaces of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing production and applications of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have elicited concerns regarding their release and potential adverse effects in the environment. To form stable aqueous MWCNTs suspensions, surfactants are often employed to facilitate dispersion...

  4. Carbon stocks and dynamics under improved tropical pasture and silvopastoral

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosquera Vidal, O.; Buurman, P.; Ramirez, B.L.; Amezquita, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of land use change on soil organic carbon, the carbon contents and stocks of primary forest, degraded pasture, and four improved pasture systems in Colombian Amazonia were compared in a flat and a sloping landscape. The improved pastures were Brachiaria humidicola, and

  5. Seven years of recent European net terrestrial carbon dioxide exchange constrained by atmospheric observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, W.; Krol, M; van der Werf, G. R.; Houweling, S.; Jones, C. D.; Hughes, J.; Schaefer, K.; Masarie, K. A.; Jacobson, A. R.; Miller, J. B.; Cho, C. H.; Ramonet, M.; Schmidt, M.; Ciattaglia, L.; Apadula, F.; Helta, D.; Meinhardt, F.; di Sarra, A. G.; Piacentino, S.; Sferlazzo, D.; Aalto, T.; Hatakka, J.; Strom, J.; Haszpra, L.; Meijer, H. A. J.; van der Laan, S.; Neubert, R. E. M.; Jordan, A.; Rodo, X.; Morgui, J. -A.; Vermeulen, A. T.; Popa, E.; Rozanski, K.; Zimnoch, M.; Manning, A. C.; Leuenberger, M.; Uglietti, C.; Dolman, A. J.; Ciais, P.; Heimann, M.; Tans, P. P.; Heltai, D.; Ström, J.

    We present an estimate of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO(2) in Europe for the years 2001-2007. It is derived with a data assimilation that uses a large set of atmospheric CO(2) mole fraction observations (similar to 70 000) to guide relatively simple descriptions of terrestrial and oceanic net

  6. Carbon dioxide and water vapour exchange from understory species in boreal forest.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Arp, W.J.; Chapin, F.S.

    2004-01-01

    Although recent eddy covariance measurements in boreal forests provide CO2 and energy exchange data for the whole ecosystem, very little is known about the role of the understory vegetation. We conducted chamber flux measurements in an Alaskan black spruce forest in order to compare CO2 and water

  7. Effects of Water and Nitrogen Addition on Ecosystem Carbon Exchange in a Meadow Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunbo; Jiang, Qi; Yang, Zhiming; Sun, Wei; Wang, Deli

    2015-01-01

    A changing precipitation regime and increasing nitrogen deposition are likely to have profound impacts on arid and semiarid ecosystem C cycling, which is often constrained by the timing and availability of water and nitrogen. However, little is known about the effects of altered precipitation and nitrogen addition on grassland ecosystem C exchange. We conducted a 3-year field experiment to assess the responses of vegetation composition, ecosystem productivity, and ecosystem C exchange to manipulative water and nitrogen addition in a meadow steppe. Nitrogen addition significantly stimulated aboveground biomass and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), which suggests that nitrogen availability is a primary limiting factor for ecosystem C cycling in the meadow steppe. Water addition had no significant impacts on either ecosystem C exchange or plant biomass, but ecosystem C fluxes showed a strong correlation with early growing season precipitation, rather than whole growing season precipitation, across the 3 experimental years. After we incorporated water addition into the calculation of precipitation regimes, we found that monthly average ecosystem C fluxes correlated more strongly with precipitation frequency than with precipitation amount. These results highlight the importance of precipitation distribution in regulating ecosystem C cycling. Overall, ecosystem C fluxes in the studied ecosystem are highly sensitive to nitrogen deposition, but less sensitive to increased precipitation. PMID:26010888

  8. Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Mixtures Using Ion-Exchanged Silicoaluminophosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J (Inventor); Rivera-Ramos, Milton E (Inventor); Arevalo-Hidalgo, Ana G (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Na+-SAPO-34 sorbents were ion-exchanged with several individual metal cations for CO2 absorption at different temperatures (273-348 K) and pressures (SAPO-34 sorbents are by far the best option for CO2 removal from CH4 mixtures, especially at low concentrations.

  9. Environmental controls over carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange of terrestrial vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Law, B.E.; Falge, E.; Gu, L.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare seasonal and annual estimates of CO2 and water vapor exchange across sites in forests, grasslands, crops, and tundra that are part of an international network called FLUXNET, and to investigating the responses of vegetation to environmental variables....

  10. Modelling carbon fluxes of forest and grassland ecosystems in Western Europe using the CARAIB dynamic vegetation model: evaluation against eddy covariance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrot, Alexandra-Jane; François, Louis; Dury, Marie; Hambuckers, Alain; Jacquemin, Ingrid; Minet, Julien; Tychon, Bernard; Heinesch, Bernard; Horemans, Joanna; Deckmyn, Gaby

    2015-04-01

    Eddy covariance measurements are an essential resource to understand how ecosystem carbon fluxes react in response to climate change, and to help to evaluate and validate the performance of land surface and vegetation models at regional and global scale. In the framework of the MASC project (« Modelling and Assessing Surface Change impacts on Belgian and Western European climate »), vegetation dynamics and carbon fluxes of forest and grassland ecosystems simulated by the CARAIB dynamic vegetation model (Dury et al., iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, 4:82-99, 2011) are evaluated and validated by comparison of the model predictions with eddy covariance data. Here carbon fluxes (e.g. net ecosystem exchange (NEE), gross primary productivity (GPP), and ecosystem respiration (RECO)) and evapotranspiration (ET) simulated with the CARAIB model are compared with the fluxes measured at several eddy covariance flux tower sites in Belgium and Western Europe, chosen from the FLUXNET global network (http://fluxnet.ornl.gov/). CARAIB is forced either with surface atmospheric variables derived from the global CRU climatology, or with in situ meteorological data. Several tree (e.g. Pinus sylvestris, Fagus sylvatica, Picea abies) and grass species (e.g. Poaceae, Asteraceae) are simulated, depending on the species encountered on the studied sites. The aim of our work is to assess the model ability to reproduce the daily, seasonal and interannual variablility of carbon fluxes and the carbon dynamics of forest and grassland ecosystems in Belgium and Western Europe.

  11. Carbon Dynamics in Heathlands in Response to a Changing Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pia Lund

    Climate is changing, and more adverse changes are expected in the future. Changes, caused by continuously rising atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gasses as CO2, will affect ecosystem processes and functions in the future and hence the cycling of carbon. The vaste amount of studies have...... layers showed much slower decomposition than fine root from top layer. Higher roots biomass and allocation of carbon deeper down in the soil profile in response to elevated CO2 combined with the slower decomposition of deep roots could affect future carbon cycling, but soil carbon sequestration depends...... focused on effects of climate change on aboveground biomass, less have been conducted on belowground biomass, and the thesis is one of few studies comprising both above- and belowground biomass and take interactions of climate change factors into account. To follow the fate of carbon in the ecosystem we...

  12. Improving the corrosion resistance of proton exchange membrane fuel cell carbon supports by pentafluorophenyl surface functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzandeh, Farisa; Li, Xiaoan; Banham, Dustin W.; Feng, Fangxia; Joseph Kakanat, Abraham; Ye, Siyu; Birss, Viola

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the effect of surface functionalization on the electrochemical corrosion resistance of a high surface area, mesoporous colloid imprinted carbon powder (CIC), as well as microporous Vulcan carbon (VC, serving as the benchmark), was demonstrated, primarily for PEM fuel cell applications. CIC-22, which is highly hydrophilic and was synthesized with 22 nm silica colloid templates, and as-received, mildly hydrophobic, VC powders, were functionalized with 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenyl (-PhF5) surface groups using a straightforward diazonium reduction reaction. These carbons were then subjected to corrosion testing, involving a potential cycling-step sequence in room temperature 0.5 M H2SO4. Using cyclic voltammetry and charge/time analysis, the double layer and pseudo-capacitive gravimetric charges of the carbons, prior to and after the application of these potential steps, were tracked in order to obtain information about surface area changes and the extent of carbon oxidation, respectively. It is shown that the corrosion resistance was improved by ca. 50-80% by surface functionalization, likely due to a combination of surface passivation (loss of carbon active sites) and increased surface hydrophobicity.

  13. Forest structure and carbon dynamics in Amazonian tropical rain forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Simone; de Camargo, Plinio Barbosa; Selhorst, Diogo; da Silva, Roseana; Hutyra, Lucy; Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Brown, I Foster; Higuchi, Niro; dos Santos, Joaquim; Wofsy, Steven C; Trumbore, Susan E; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio

    2004-08-01

    Living trees constitute one of the major stocks of carbon in tropical forests. A better understanding of variations in the dynamics and structure of tropical forests is necessary for predicting the potential for these ecosystems to lose or store carbon, and for understanding how they recover from disturbance. Amazonian tropical forests occur over a vast area that encompasses differences in topography, climate, and geologic substrate. We observed large differences in forest structure, biomass, and tree growth rates in permanent plots situated in the eastern (near Santarém, Pará), central (near Manaus, Amazonas) and southwestern (near Rio Branco, Acre) Amazon, which differed in dry season length, as well as other factors. Forests at the two sites experiencing longer dry seasons, near Rio Branco and Santarém, had lower stem frequencies (460 and 466 ha(-1) respectively), less biodiversity (Shannon-Wiener diversity index), and smaller aboveground C stocks (140.6 and 122.1 Mg C ha(-1)) than the Manaus site (626 trees ha(-1), 180.1 Mg C ha(-1)), which had less seasonal variation in rainfall. The forests experiencing longer dry seasons also stored a greater proportion of the total biomass in trees with >50 cm diameter (41-45 vs 30% in Manaus). Rates of annual addition of C to living trees calculated from monthly dendrometer band measurements were 1.9 (Manaus), 2.8 (Santarém), and 2.6 (Rio Branco) Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). At all sites, trees in the 10-30 cm diameter class accounted for the highest proportion of annual growth (38, 55 and 56% in Manaus, Rio Branco and Santarém, respectively). Growth showed marked seasonality, with largest stem diameter increment in the wet season and smallest in the dry season, though this may be confounded by seasonal variation in wood water content. Year-to-year variations in C allocated to stem growth ranged from nearly zero in Rio Branco, to 0.8 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1) in Manaus (40% of annual mean) and 0.9 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1) (33% of

  14. Dynamical analyses of the time series for three foreign exchange rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sehyun; Kim, Soo Yong; Jung, Jae-Won; Kim, Kyungsik

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we investigate the multifractal properties of three foreign exchange rates (USD-KRW, USD-JPY, and EUR-USD) that are quoted with different economic scales. We estimate and analyze both the generalized Hurst exponent and the autocorrelation function in three foreign exchange rates. The USD-KRW is shown to have the strongest of the Hurst exponents when compared with the other two foreign exchange rates. In particular, the autocorrelation function of the USD-KRW has the largest memory behavior among three foreign exchange rates. It also exhibits a long-memory property in the first quarter, more than those in the other quarters.

  15. Quantifying Hyporheic Exchanges in a Large Scale River Reach Using Coupled 3-D Surface and Subsurface Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Glenn Edward; Bao, J; Huang, M; Hou, Z; Perkins, W; Harding, S; Titzler, S; Ren, H; Thorne, P; Suffield, S; Murray, C; Zachara, J

    2017-03-01

    Hyporheic exchange is a critical mechanism shaping hydrological and biogeochemical processes along a river corridor. Recent studies on quantifying the hyporheic exchange were mostly limited to local scales due to field inaccessibility, computational demand, and complexity of geomorphology and subsurface geology. Surface flow conditions and subsurface physical properties are well known factors on modulating the hyporheic exchange, but quantitative understanding of their impacts on the strength and direction of hyporheic exchanges at reach scales is absent. In this study, a high resolution computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that couples surface and subsurface flow and transport is employed to simulate hyporheic exchanges in a 7-km long reach along the main-stem of the Columbia River. Assuming that the hyporheic exchange does not affect surface water flow conditions due to its negligible magnitude compared to the volume and velocity of river water, we developed a one-way coupled surface and subsurface water flow model using the commercial CFD software STAR-CCM+. The model integrates the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation solver with a realizable κ-ε two-layer turbulence model, a two-layer all y+ wall treatment, and the volume of fluid (VOF) method, and is used to simulate hyporheic exchanges by tracking the free water-air interface as well as flow in the river and the subsurface porous media. The model is validated against measurements from acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) in the stream water and hyporheic fluxes derived from a set of temperature profilers installed across the riverbed. The validated model is then employed to systematically investigate how hyporheic exchanges are influenced by surface water fluid dynamics strongly regulated by upstream dam operations, as well as subsurface structures (e.g. thickness of riverbed and subsurface formation layers) and hydrogeological properties (e.g. permeability). The results

  16. An investigation of heat exchanger fouling in dust suspension cooling systems using graphite powder and carbon dioxide gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garton, D.A.; Hawes, R.I.; Rose, P.W.

    1966-01-01

    Some experiments have been performed to study the fouling of heat exchanger surfaces where heat is being transferred from a heated fluid to a cooled surface. The fluid studied was a suspension of 4-5 microns mean diameter graphite powder in carbon dioxide gas at near atmospheric pressures. The solids loading range covered was from 5 to 30 lb. graphite/lb. carbon dioxide, and gas Reynolds numbers from 6000 to 16000. Temperature gradients across the cooler of from 20 to 120 deg. C were obtained. The heat transfer ratio is correlated to show the dependence upon the solids loading ratio of the suspension, the gas Reynolds number and the temperature gradient across the cooler. The results have demonstrated that stringent precautions are necessary to ensure complete dryness of the graphite powder and the loop flow surfaces before any quantitative fouling data can be obtained, as the presence of entrained moisture will accelerate the deposition of material on the cold walls of the heat exchanger and can result in plugging. The heat transfer coefficient showed no obvious dependency upon either the gas Reynolds number or the temperature gradient across the cooler over the range investigated. The measured heat transfer coefficient was considerably lower than that obtained when the heat is transferred from a hot wall to a cooler fluid. At a solids loading of 30 lb, graphite/lb. carbon dioxide, the heat transfer coefficient was only 50% of that for heat transfer from a heated wall. At solids loadings below 7 lb/lb., the heat transfer was less than that for a gas alone. (author)

  17. Net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide and water of far eastern Siberian Larch (Larix cajanderii on permafrost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Dolman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations of the net ecosystem exchange of water and CO2 were made during two seasons in 2000 and 2001 above a Larch forest in Far East Siberia (Yakutsk. The measurements were obtained by eddy correlation. There is a very sharply pronounced growing season of 100 days when the forest is leaved. Maximum half hourly uptake rates are 18 µmol m-2 s-1; maximum respiration rates are 5 µmol m-2 s-1. Net annual sequestration of carbon was estimated at 160 gCm-2 in 2001. Applying no correction for low friction velocities added 60 g C m-2. The net carbon exchange of the forest was extremely sensitive to small changes in weather that may switch the forest easily from a sink to a source, even in summer. June was the month with highest uptake in 2001. The average evaporation rate of the forest approached 1.46 mm day-1 during the growing season, with peak values of 3 mm day-1 with an estimated annual evaporation of 213 mm, closely approaching the average annual rainfall amount. 2001 was a drier year than 2000 and this is reflected in lower evaporation rates in 2001 than in 2000. The surface conductance of the forest shows a marked response to increasing atmospheric humidity deficits. This affects the CO2 uptake and evaporation in a different manner, with the CO2 uptake being more affected. There appears to be no change in the relation between surface conductance and net ecosystem uptake normalized by the atmospheric humidity deficit at the monthly time scale. The response to atmospheric humidity deficit is an efficient mechanism to prevent severe water loss during the short intense growing season. The associated cost to the sequestration of carbon may be another explanation for the slow growth of these forests in this environment.

  18. Carbon exchange fluxes over peatlands in Western Siberia: Possible feedback between land-use change and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, Elisa, E-mail: elisa.fleischer@uni-muenster.de [Institute of Landscape Ecology, Climatology Research Group, University of Münster, Münster (Germany); Khashimov, Ilhom, E-mail: nixonlp@mail.ru [Institute of Earth Science, Physical Geography and Geoecology Department, Tyumen State University, Tyumen (Russian Federation); Hölzel, Norbert, E-mail: nhoelzel@uni-muenster.de [Institute of Landscape Ecology, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research Group, University of Münster, Münster (Germany); Klemm, Otto, E-mail: otto.klemm@uni-muenster.de [Institute of Landscape Ecology, Climatology Research Group, University of Münster, Münster (Germany)

    2016-03-01

    The growing demand for agricultural products has been leading to an expansion and intensification of agriculture around the world. More and more unused land is currently reclaimed in the regions of the former Soviet Union. Driven by climate change, the Western Siberian grain belt might, in a long-term, even expand into the drained peatland areas to the North. It is crucial to study the consequences of this land-use change with respect to the carbon cycling as this is still a major knowledge gap. We present for the first time data on the atmosphere-ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide and methane of an arable field and a neighboring unused grassland on peat soil in Western Siberia. Eddy covariance measurements were performed over one vegetation period. No directed methane fluxes were found due to an effective drainage of the study sites. The carbon dioxide fluxes appeared to be of high relevance for the global carbon and greenhouse gas cycles. They showed very site-specific patterns resulting from the development of vegetation: the persistent plants of the grassland were able to start photosynthesizing soon after snow melt, while the absence of vegetation on the managed field lead to a phase of emissions until the oat plants started to grow in June. The uptake peak of the oat field is much later than that of the grassland, but larger due to a rapid plant growth. Budgeting the whole measurement period, the grassland served as a carbon sink, whereas the oat field was identified to be a carbon source. The conversion from non-used grasslands on peat soil to cultivated fields in Western Siberia is therefore considered to have a positive feedback on climate change. - Highlights: • Grasslands on drained peat soil can act as carbon sinks. • Arable fields on drained peat act as carbon sources due to long phases of bare soil. • CH{sub 4} emissions from drained peatlands seem to play a smaller role than CO{sub 2} fluxes. • Conversion from grassland to arable field has

  19. Quantifying Fast and Slow Responses of Terrestrial Carbon Exchange across a Water Availability Gradient in North American Flux Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, J. A.; Scott, R. L.; Goulden, M.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and severity of water limitation, altering terrestrial ecosystems and their carbon exchange with the atmosphere. Here we compare site-level temporal sensitivity of annual carbon fluxes to interannual variations in water availability against cross-site spatial patterns over a network of 19 eddy covariance flux sites. This network represents one order of magnitude in mean annual productivity and includes western North American desert shrublands and grasslands, savannahs, woodlands, and forests with continuous records of 4 to 12 years. Our analysis reveals site-specific patterns not identifiable in prior syntheses that pooled sites. We interpret temporal variability as an indicator of ecosystem response to annual water availability due to fast-changing factors such as leaf stomatal response and microbial activity, while cross-site spatial patterns are used to infer ecosystem adjustment to climatic water availability through slow-changing factors such as plant community and organic carbon pools. Using variance decomposition, we directly quantify how terrestrial carbon balance depends on slow- and fast-changing components of gross ecosystem production (GEP) and total ecosystem respiration (TER). Slow factors explain the majority of variance in annual net ecosystem production (NEP) across the dataset, and their relative importance is greater at wetter, forest sites than desert ecosystems. Site-specific offsets from spatial patterns of GEP and TER explain one third of NEP variance, likely due to slow-changing factors not directly linked to water, such as disturbance. TER and GEP are correlated across sites as previously shown, but our site-level analysis reveals surprisingly consistent linear relationships between these fluxes in deserts and savannahs, indicating fast coupling of TER and GEP in more arid ecosystems. Based on the uncertainty associated with slow and fast factors, we suggest a framework for improved

  20. Restricted Inter-ocean Exchange and Attenuated Biological Export Caused Enhanced Carbonate Preservation in the PETM Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.; Boudreau, B. P.; Dickens, G. R.; Sluijs, A.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) release during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 55.8 Myr BP) acidified