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Sample records for carbon electrode modified

  1. mwnts composite film modified glassy carbon electrode

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ABSTRACT: A poly p-aminosalicylic acid (Poly(p-ASA)) and multiwall carbon nanotubes. (MWCNTs) composite modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode was constructed by casting the MWNTs on the GC electrode surface followed by electropolymerization of the p-ASA on the MWCNTs/GCE. The electrochemical behaviours ...

  2. EDTA modified glassy carbon electrode: Preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustuendag, Zafer; Solak, Ali Osman

    2009-01-01

    EDTA-phenoxyamide modified glassy carbon electrode (EDTA-GC) was prepared at a glassy carbon electrode by surface synthesis. In the first step, nitrophenyl was grafted to the glassy carbon (GC) surface via the electrochemical reduction of its tetraflouroborate diazonium salt. In the second step, nitrophenyl-modified electrode (NP-GC) was subjected to the cathodic potential scan to reduce the nitro to amine group. p-Aminophenyl modified glassy carbon electrode (AP-GC) was dipped into a EDTA solution containing 1-ethyl-3(3-(dimethlyamino)propyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) as an activating agent. Thus formed ((2-anilino-2-oxoethyl){2-[bis(carboxymethyl)amino]-ethyl}amino)acetic acid modified GC electrode was denoted as EDTA-GC and characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Complexation of the EDTA-GC surface with Pb 2+ ions was investigated if this electrode could be used as a metal sensor.

  3. 1-ethanone modified carbon paste electrode

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    7.00) in cyclic voltammetry, the oxidation of L-cysteic acid at the surface of 4FEPEMCPE is occurred at a potential about 220 mV less positive than that an unmodified carbon paste electrode. The kinetic parameters such as electron transfer coefficient, α, and catalytic reaction rate constant, K/ h, were also determined using.

  4. Carbon materials modified by plasma treatment as electrodes for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lota, Grzegorz; Frackowiak, Elzbieta [Institute of Chemistry and Technical Electrochemistry, Poznan University of Technology, Piotrowo 3, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Tyczkowski, Jacek; Kapica, Ryszard [Technical University of Lodz, Faculty of Process and Environmental Engineering, Division of Molecular Engineering, Wolczanska 213, 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Lota, Katarzyna [Institute of Non-Ferrous Metals Branch in Poznan, Central Laboratory of Batteries and Cells, Forteczna 12, 61-362 Poznan (Poland)

    2010-11-15

    The carbon material was modified by RF plasma with various reactive gases: O{sub 2}, Ar and CO{sub 2}. Physicochemical properties of the final carbon products were characterized using different techniques such as gas adsorption method and XPS. Plasma modified materials enriched in oxygen functionalities were investigated as electrodes for supercapacitors in acidic medium. The electrochemical measurements have been carried out using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and impedance spectroscopy. The electrochemical measurements have confirmed that capacity characteristics are closely connected with a type of plasma exposition. Modification processes have an influence on the kind and amount of surface functional groups in the carbon matrix. The moderate increase of capacity of carbon materials modified by plasma has been observed using symmetric two-electrode systems. Whereas investigations made in three-electrode system proved that the suitable selection of plasma modification parameters allows to obtain promising negative and positive electrode materials for supercapacitor application. (author)

  5. Copper nanoparticle modified carbon electrode for determination of dopamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oztekin, Yasemin; Tok, Mutahire; Bilici, Esra; Mikoliunaite, Lina; Yazicigil, Zafer; Ramanaviciene, Almira; Ramanavicius, Arunas

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) and application of copper nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon electrode for the electrochemical determination of dopamine. Electrochemical measurements were performed using differently modified glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Bare, oxidized before modification and copper nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon electrodes (bare-GC, ox-GC and CuNP/GC electrodes, respectively) were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the presence of redox probes. Atomic force microscopy was used for the visualization of electrode surfaces. The CuNP/GC electrode was found to be suitable for the selective determination of dopamine even in the presence of ascorbic acid, uric acid, and p-acetamidophenol. The observed linear range of CuNP/GC for dopamine was from 0.1 nM to 1.0 μM while the detection limit was estimated to be 50 pM. It was demonstrated that here reported glassy carbon electrode modified by copper nanoparticles is suitable for the determination of dopamine in real samples such as human blood serum.

  6. EDTA modified glassy carbon electrode: Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ustuendag, Zafer [Dumlupinar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Kuetahya (Turkey); Solak, Ali Osman [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Degol Street, Tandogan, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: osolak@science.ankara.edu.tr

    2009-11-01

    EDTA-phenoxyamide modified glassy carbon electrode (EDTA-GC) was prepared at a glassy carbon electrode by surface synthesis. In the first step, nitrophenyl was grafted to the glassy carbon (GC) surface via the electrochemical reduction of its tetraflouroborate diazonium salt. In the second step, nitrophenyl-modified electrode (NP-GC) was subjected to the cathodic potential scan to reduce the nitro to amine group. p-Aminophenyl modified glassy carbon electrode (AP-GC) was dipped into a EDTA solution containing 1-ethyl-3(3-(dimethlyamino)propyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) as an activating agent. Thus formed ((2-anilino-2-oxoethyl){l_brace}2-[bis(carboxymethyl)amino]-ethyl{r_brace}amino)acetic acid modified GC electrode was denoted as EDTA-GC and characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Complexation of the EDTA-GC surface with Pb{sup 2+} ions was investigated if this electrode could be used as a metal sensor.

  7. Redox electrodes comprised of polymer-modified carbon nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mark; Emmett, Robert; Karakaya, Mehmet; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao; Clemson Physics Team; Clemson Chemical Engineering Team

    2013-03-01

    A shift in how we generate and use electricity requires new energy storage materials and systems compatible with hybrid electric transportation and the integration of renewable energy sources. Supercapacitors provide a solution to these needs by combining the high power, rapid switching, and exceptional cycle life of a capacitor with the high energy density of a battery. Our research brings together nanotechnology and materials chemistry to address the limitations of electrode materials. Paper electrodes fabricated with various forms of carbon nanomaterials, such as nanotubes, are modified with redox-polymers to increase the electrode's energy density while maintaining rapid discharge rates. In these systems, the carbon nanomaterials provide the high surface area, electrical conductivity, nanoscale and porosity, while the redox polymers provide a mechanism for charge storage through Faradaic charge transfer. The design of redox polymers and their incorporation into nanomaterial electrodes will be discussed with a focus on enabling high power and high energy density electrodes.

  8. A study of nanostructured gold modified glassy carbon electrode for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A nanostructured gold modified glassy carbon electrode (Aunano/GCE) was employed for the determination of trace chromium(VI). To prepare Aunano/GCE, the GCE was immersed into KAuCl4 solution and electrodeposition was conducted at the potential of -0.4 V (vs Ag/AgCl) for 600 s. Scanning electron microscopy ...

  9. ELECTROCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE AT CARBON NANOTUBE MODIFIED ELECTRODES. (R830900)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) modified glassy carbon electrodes exhibiting a strong and stable electrocatalytic response towards sulfide are described. A substantial (400 mV) decrease in the overvoltage of the sulfide oxidation reaction (compared to ordinary carbon electrodes) is...

  10. Electrochemical determination of mesotrione at organoclay modified glassy carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamga Wagheu, Josephine; Forano, Claude; Besse-Hoggan, Pascale; Tonle, Ignas K; Ngameni, Emmanuel; Mousty, Christine

    2013-01-15

    A natural Cameroonian smectite-type clay (SaNa) was exchanged with cationic surfactants, namely cetyltrimethylammonium (CTA) and didodecyldimethyl ammonium (DDA) modifying its physico-chemical properties. The resulting organoclays that have higher adsorption capacity for mesotrione than the pristine SaNa clay, have been used as modifiers of glassy carbon electrode for the electrochemical detection of this herbicide by square wave voltammetry. The stripping performances of SaNa, SaCTA and SaDDA modified electrodes were therefore evaluated and the experimental parameters were optimized. SaDDA gives the best results in deoxygenated acetate buffer solution (pH 6.0) after 2 min accumulation under open circuit conditions. Under optimal conditions, the reduction current is proportional to mesotrione concentration in the range from 0.25 to 2.5 μM with a detection limit of 0.26 μM. The fabricated electrode was also applied for the commercial formulation CALLISTO, used in European maize market. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Electrochemical oxidation of ascorbic acid mediated by carbon nano tubes/ Li+/ carbon paste modified solid electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, J.K.; Tan, W.T.

    2008-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nano tube (MWCNT) was used to modify BPPG electrode because of its unique structure and extraordinary properties. MWCNT modified electrode exhibited obvious enhancing and electro catalyzing effects to the oxidation of ascorbic acid using cyclic voltammetry technique. MWCNT was bonded on BPPG electrode surface using carbon paste with ratio of 30 % (w/ W) carbon paste (binder): 70 % (w/ w) MWCNT. This method of modification has lowered the capacitance background current and enabled lower detection limit of ascorbic acid concentration. The electrical conductivity property of MWCNT modified electrode was further improved with the intercalation with lithium ion and resulted in current enhancement of 2 times on the oxidation current of ascorbic acid. Parameters of pH and temperature showed significant relation to the sensitivity of MWCNT modified electrode. Under the optimized parameters, the calibration curve constructed was linear up from 50 μM to 5 mM with sensitivity of 34.5 mA M -1 . The practical application of MWCNT modified electrode was demonstrated with Vitamin C pill and orange juice. Good reproducibility and recovery of ascorbic acid concentration showed the feasibility of MWCNT modified electrode to be used in the detection of ascorbic acid in aqueous solution. This also proposed MWCNT modified BPPG electrode possessed advantages such as low detection limit, high stability, low cost and simplicity in fabrication. (author)

  12. Electrocatalytic Determination of Isoniazid by a Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Poly (Eriochrome Black T)

    OpenAIRE

    Karim Asadpour-Zeynali; Venus Baghalabadi

    2017-01-01

    In this work poly eriochrome black T (EBT) was electrochemically synthesized on the glassy carbon electrode as electrode modifier. On the modified electrode, voltammetric behavior of isoniazid (INH) was investigated. The poly (EBT)-modified glassy carbon electrode has excellent electrocatalytic ability for the electrooxidation of isoniazid. This fact was appeared as a reduced overpotential of INH oxidation in a wide operational pH range from 2 to 13. It has been found that the catalytic peak ...

  13. Modified glassy carbon electrodes based on carbon nanostructures for ultrasensitive electrochemical determination of furazolidone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahrokhian, Saeed, E-mail: shahrokhian@sharif.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naderi, Leila [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghalkhani, Masoumeh [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Lavizan, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for advanced technology, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Lavizan, Tehran, 16788 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-01

    The electrochemical behavior of Furazolidone (Fu) was investigated on the surface of the glassy carbon electrode modified with different carbon nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanoparticles (CNPs), nanodiamond-graphite (NDG), graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and RGO-CNT hybrids (various ratios) using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The results of voltammetric studies exhibited a considerable increase in the cathodic peak current of Fu at the RGO modified GCE, compared to other modified electrodes and also bare GCE. The surface morphology and nature of the RGO film was thoroughly characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques. The modified electrode showed two linear dynamic ranges of 0.001–2.0 μM and 2.0–10.0 μM with a detection limit of 0.3 nM for the voltammetric determination of Fu. This sensor was used successfully for Fu determination in pharmaceutical and clinical preparations. - Highlights: • The electrochemical behavior of Furazolidone (Fu) was investigated on the surface of the modified electrode with different carbon nanomaterials by Linear sweep voltammetry. • Two linear dynamic ranges and a low detection limit were obtained. • The modified electrode was applied for the detection of Fu in pharmaceutical and clinical preparations.

  14. Preparation of catechol-linked chitosan/carbon nanocomposite-modified electrode and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirimali, Harishchandra Digambar; Saravanakumar, Duraisamy; Shin, Woon Sup [Dept. of Chemistry and Interdisciplinary Program of Integrated Biotechnology, Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    In this study, we report the synthesis of 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (catechol)-linked chitosan (cat-chitosan) and the preparation of its composite with carbon (cat-chitosan/carbon) to construct a catechol-modified electrode. The synthesis is similar to our previous work on hydroquinone–chitosan/carbon composite electrode. We synthesized catechol-linked chitosan polymer and prepared the its composite electrode with carbon. The catchitosan/carbon composite electrode shows a reversible confined redox behavior by the catechol functional group. The electrode catalyzes the oxidation of NADH. It has Cu{sup 2+} ion-binding capability and its binding constant 8.7 μM.

  15. Preparation of catechol-linked chitosan/carbon nanocomposite-modified electrode and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirimali, Harishchandra Digambar; Saravanakumar, Duraisamy; Shin, Woon Sup

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis of 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (catechol)-linked chitosan (cat-chitosan) and the preparation of its composite with carbon (cat-chitosan/carbon) to construct a catechol-modified electrode. The synthesis is similar to our previous work on hydroquinone–chitosan/carbon composite electrode. We synthesized catechol-linked chitosan polymer and prepared the its composite electrode with carbon. The catchitosan/carbon composite electrode shows a reversible confined redox behavior by the catechol functional group. The electrode catalyzes the oxidation of NADH. It has Cu"2"+ ion-binding capability and its binding constant 8.7 μM.

  16. Electrochemical investigations of Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox reaction using graphene modified glassy carbon electrodes and a comparison to the performance of SWCNTs modified glassy carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ruma; Gamare, Jayashree; Sharma, Manoj K.; Kamat, J.V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • First report of aqueous electrochemistry of Plutonium on graphene modified electrode. • Graphene is best electrocatalytic material for Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox couple among the reported modifiers viz. reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and SWCNT’s. • The electrochemical reversibility of Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox couple improves significantly on graphene modified electrode compared to previously reported rGO & SWCNTs modified electrodes • Donnan interaction between plutonium species and graphene surface offers a possibility for designing a highly sensitive sensor for plutonium • Graphene modified electrode shows higher sensitivity for the determination of plutonium compared to glassy carbon and single walled carbon nanotube modified electrode - Abstract: The work reported in this paper demonstrates for the first time that graphene modified glassy carbon electrode (Gr/GC) show remarkable electrocatalysis towards Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox reaction and the results were compared with that of single-walled carbon nanotubes modified GC (SWCNTs/GC) and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Graphene catalyzes the exchange of current of the Pu(IV)/Pu(III) couple by reducing both the anodic and cathodic overpotentials. The Gr/GC electrode shows higher peak currents (i p ) and smaller peak potential separation (ΔE p ) values than the SWCNTs/GC and GC electrodes. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants (k s ), charge transfer coefficients (α) and the diffusion coefficients (D) involved in the electrocatalytic redox reaction were determined. Our observations show that graphene is best electrocatalytic material among both the SWCNTs and GC to study Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox reaction.

  17. Imprinted zeolite modified carbon paste electrode as a potentiometric sensor for uric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanah, Miratul; Widati, Alfa Akustia; Fitri, Sarita Aulia

    2016-03-01

    Imprinted zeolite modified carbon paste electrode (carbon paste-IZ) has been developed and applied to determine uric acid by potentiometry. The imprinted zeolite (IZ) was synthesized by the mole ratio of uric acid/Si of 0.0306. The modified electrode was manufactured by mass ratio of carbon, IZ and solid paraffin was 40:25:35. The modified electrode had shown the measurement range of 10-5 M to 10-2 M with Nernst factor of 28.6 mV/decade, the detection limit of 5.86 × 10-6 M and the accuracy of 95.3 - 105.0%. Response time of the electrode for uric acid 10-5 M - 10-2 M was 25 - 44 s. The developed electrode showed the high selectivity toward uric acid in the urea matrix. Life time of the carbon paste-IZ electrode was 10 weeks.

  18. Redox Response of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrodes to Hydrogen Peroxide and Hydrazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi Anzai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The surface of a glassy carbon (GC electrode was modified with reduced graphene oxide (rGO to evaluate the electrochemical response of the modified GC electrodes to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and hydrazine. The electrode potential of the GC electrode was repeatedly scanned from −1.5 to 0.6 V in an aqueous dispersion of graphene oxide (GO to deposit rGO on the surface of the GC electrode. The surface morphology of the modified GC electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM. SEM and AFM observations revealed that aggregated rGO was deposited on the GC electrode, forming a rather rough surface. The rGO-modified electrodes exhibited significantly higher responses in redox reactions of H2O2 as compared with the response of an unmodified GC electrode. In addition, the electrocatalytic activity of the rGO-modified electrode to hydrazine oxidation was also higher than that of the unmodified GC electrode. The response of the rGO-modified electrode was rationalized based on the higher catalytic activity of rGO to the redox reactions of H2O2 and hydrazine. The results suggest that rGO-modified electrodes are useful for constructing electrochemical sensors.

  19. Modified glassy carbon electrodes based on carbon nanostructures for ultrasensitive electrochemical determination of furazolidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrokhian, Saeed; Naderi, Leila; Ghalkhani, Masoumeh

    2016-04-01

    The electrochemical behavior of Furazolidone (Fu) was investigated on the surface of the glassy carbon electrode modified with different carbon nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanoparticles (CNPs), nanodiamond-graphite (NDG), graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and RGO-CNT hybrids (various ratios) using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The results of voltammetric studies exhibited a considerable increase in the cathodic peak current of Fu at the RGO modified GCE, compared to other modified electrodes and also bare GCE. The surface morphology and nature of the RGO film was thoroughly characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques. The modified electrode showed two linear dynamic ranges of 0.001-2.0 μM and 2.0-10.0 μM with a detection limit of 0.3 nM for the voltammetric determination of Fu. This sensor was used successfully for Fu determination in pharmaceutical and clinical preparations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative investigation on electrochemical behavior of hydroquinone at carbon ionic liquid electrode, ionic liquid modified carbon paste electrode and carbon paste electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ya; Zheng, Jian Bin

    2007-01-01

    Ionic liquid, 1-heptyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (HMIMPF 6 ), has been used to fabricate two new electrodes, carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) and ionic liquid modified carbon paste electrode (IL/CPE), using graphite powder mixed with HMIMPF 6 or the mixture of HMIMPF 6 /paraffin liquid as the binder, respectively. The electrochemical behaviors of hydroquinone at the CILE, the IL/CPE and the CPE were investigated in phosphate buffer solution. At all these electrodes, hydroquinone showed a pair of redox peaks. The order of the current response and the standard rate constant of hydroquinone at these electrodes were as follows: CILE > IL/CPE > CPE, while the peak-to-peak potential separation was in an opposite sequence: CILE < IL/CPE < CPE. The results show the superiority of CILE to IL/CPE and CPE, and IL/CPE to CPE in terms of promoting electron transfer, improving reversibility and enhancing sensitivity. The CILE was chosen as working electrode to determine hydroquinone by differential pulse voltammetry, which can be used for sensitive, simple and rapid determination of hydroquinone in medicated skin cosmetic cream

  1. Electrochemical parameters of ethamsylate at multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Fu; Xu, Qiao

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, some electrochemical parameters of ethamsylate at a multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode, such as the charge number, exchange current density, standard heterogeneous rate constant and diffusion coefficient, were measured by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and chronocoulometry. The modified electrode exhibits good promotion of the electrochemical reaction of ethamsylate and increases the standard heterogeneous rate constant of ethamsylate greatly. The differential pulse voltammetry responses of ethamsylate were linearly dependent on its concentrations in a range from 2.0 x 10(-6) to 6.0 x 10(-5) mol L(-1), with a detection limit of 4.0 x 10(-7) mol L(-1).

  2. Electrochemical Determination of Glycoalkaloids Using a Carbon Nanotubes-Phenylboronic Acid Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiying Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A versatile strategy for electrochemical determination of glycoalkaloids (GAs was developed by using a carbon nanotubes-phenylboronic acid (CNTs-PBA modified glassy carbon electrode. PBA reacts with α-solanine and α-chaconine to form a cyclic ester, which could be utilized to detect GAs. This method allowed GA detection from 1 μM to 28 μM and the detection limit was 0.3 μM. Affinity interaction of GAs and immobilized PBA caused an essential change of the peak current. The CNT-PBA modified electrodes were sensitive for detection of GAs, and the peak current values were in quite good agreement with those measured by the sensors.

  3. Carbon nanofiber vs. carbon microparticles as modifiers of glassy carbon and gold electrodes applied in electrochemical sensing of NADH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Briza; Del Valle, Manel; Alegret, Salvador; Merkoçi, Arben

    2007-12-15

    Carbon materials (CMs), such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and carbon microparticles (CMPs) are used as doping materials for electrochemical sensors. The efficiency of these materials (either before or after acidic treatments) while being used as electrocatalysts in electrochemical sensors is discussed for beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) detection using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The sensitivity of the electrodes (glassy carbon (GC) and gold (Au)) modified with both treated and untreated materials have been deeply studied. The response efficiencies of the GC and Au electrodes modified with CNF and CMP, using dimethylformamide (DMF) as dispersing agent are significantly different due to the peculiar physical and chemical characteristics of each doping material. Several differences between the electrocatalytic activities of CMs modified electrodes upon NADH oxidation have been observed. The CNF film promotes better the electron transfer of NADH minimizing the oxidation potential at +0.352 V. Moreover higher currents for the NADH oxidation peak have been observed for these electrodes. The shown differences in the electrochemical reactivities of CNF and CMP modified electrodes should be with interest for future applications in biosensors.

  4. Electrochemical sensing of etoposide using carbon quantum dot modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoai Viet; Richtera, Lukas; Moulick, Amitava; Xhaxhiu, Kledi; Kudr, Jiri; Cernei, Natalia; Polanska, Hana; Heger, Zbynek; Masarik, Michal; Kopel, Pavel; Stiborova, Marie; Eckschlager, Tomas; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2016-04-25

    In this study, enhancement of the electrochemical signals of etoposide (ETO) measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) by modifying a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with carbon quantum dots (CQDs) is demonstrated. In comparison with a bare GCE, the modified GCE exhibited a higher sensitivity towards electrochemical detection of ETO. The lowest limit of detection was observed to be 5 nM ETO. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence microscopy (FM), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were employed for the further study of the working electrode surface after the modification with CQDs. Finally, the GCE modified with CQDs under optimized conditions was used to analyse real samples of ETO in the prostate cancer cell line PC3. After different incubation times (1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h), these samples were then prepared prior to electrochemical detection by the GCE modified with CQDs. High performance liquid chromatography with an electrochemical detection method was employed to verify the results from the GCE modified with CQDs.

  5. Cyclic Voltammetric Investigation of Dopamine at Poly-(Gabapentin Modified Carbon Paste Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Shreenivas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The poly (gabapentin film was prepared on the surface of carbon paste electrode by electrochemical method using cyclic voltammetric technique. The poly (gabapentin film-modified carbon paste electrode was calibrated with standard potassium ferrocyanide solution in 1 M KCl as a supporting electrolyte. The prepared poly (gabapentin film-coated electrode exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the detection of dopamine at physiological pH. The scan rate effect was found to be diffusion-controlled electrode process. The concentration effect of dopamine was studied, and the redox peak potentials of dopamine were dependant on pH.

  6. Electrochemical Determination of Caffeine Content in Ethiopian Coffee Samples Using Lignin Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Amare, Meareg; Aklog, Senait

    2017-01-01

    Lignin film was deposited at the surface of glassy carbon electrode potentiostatically. In contrast to the unmodified glassy carbon electrode, an oxidative peak with an improved current and overpotential for caffeine at modified electrode showed catalytic activity of the modifier towards oxidation of caffeine. Linear dependence of peak current on caffeine concentration in the range 6 ? 10?6 to 100 ? 10?6?mol?L?1 with determination coefficient and method detection limit (LoD = 3?s/slope) of 0....

  7. Study on electroactive and electrocatalytic surfaces of single walled carbon nanotube-modified electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinas-Torres, David [Departamento de Quimica Fisica and Instituto Universitario de Materiales de Alicante, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. de Correos 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Huerta, Francisco [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell, 1. E-03801 Alcoy (Spain); Montilla, Francisco, E-mail: francisco.montilla@ua.e [Departamento de Quimica Fisica and Instituto Universitario de Materiales de Alicante, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. de Correos 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Morallon, Emilia [Departamento de Quimica Fisica and Instituto Universitario de Materiales de Alicante, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. de Correos 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2011-02-01

    An investigation of the electrocatalysis of single-walled carbon nanotubes modified electrodes has been performed in this work. Nanotube-modified electrodes present a surface area much higher than the bare glassy carbon surfaces as determined by capacitance measurements. Several redox probes were selected for checking the reactivity of specific sites at the carbon nanotube surface. The presence of carbon nanotubes on the electrode improves the kinetics for all the reactions studied compared with the bare glassy carbon electrode with variations of the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant up to 5 orders of magnitude. The most important effects are observed for the benzoquinone/hydroquinone and ferrocene/ferricinium redox couples, which show a remarkable improvement of their electron transfer kinetics on SWCNT-modified electrodes, probably due to strong {pi}-{pi} interaction between the organic molecules and the walls of the carbon nanotubes. For many of the reactions studied, less than 1% of the nanotube-modified electrode surface is transferring charge to species in solution. This result suggests that only nanotube tips are active sites for the electron transfer in such cases. On the contrary, the electroactive surface for the reactions of ferrocene and quinone is higher indicating that the electron transfer is produced also from the nanotube walls.

  8. Study on electroactive and electrocatalytic surfaces of single walled carbon nanotube-modified electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas-Torres, David; Huerta, Francisco; Montilla, Francisco; Morallon, Emilia

    2011-01-01

    An investigation of the electrocatalysis of single-walled carbon nanotubes modified electrodes has been performed in this work. Nanotube-modified electrodes present a surface area much higher than the bare glassy carbon surfaces as determined by capacitance measurements. Several redox probes were selected for checking the reactivity of specific sites at the carbon nanotube surface. The presence of carbon nanotubes on the electrode improves the kinetics for all the reactions studied compared with the bare glassy carbon electrode with variations of the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant up to 5 orders of magnitude. The most important effects are observed for the benzoquinone/hydroquinone and ferrocene/ferricinium redox couples, which show a remarkable improvement of their electron transfer kinetics on SWCNT-modified electrodes, probably due to strong π-π interaction between the organic molecules and the walls of the carbon nanotubes. For many of the reactions studied, less than 1% of the nanotube-modified electrode surface is transferring charge to species in solution. This result suggests that only nanotube tips are active sites for the electron transfer in such cases. On the contrary, the electroactive surface for the reactions of ferrocene and quinone is higher indicating that the electron transfer is produced also from the nanotube walls.

  9. Electrochemical and DFT study of an anticancer and active anthelmintic drug at carbon nanostructured modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghalkhani, Masoumeh; Beheshtian, Javad; Salehi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical response of mebendazole (Meb), an anticancer and effective anthelmintic drug, was investigated using two different carbon nanostructured modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCE). Although, compared to unmodified GCE, both prepared modified electrodes improved the voltammetric response of Meb, the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) modified GCE showed higher sensitivity and stability. Therefore, the CNTs-GCE was chosen as a promising candidate for the further studies. At first, the electrochemical behavior of Meb was studied by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse and square wave voltammetry. A one step reversible, pH-dependent and adsorption-controlled process was revealed for electro-oxidation of Meb. A possible mechanism for the electrochemical oxidation of Meb was proposed. In addition, electronic structure, adsorption energy, band gap, type of interaction and stable configuration of Meb on the surface of functionalized carbon nanotubes were studied by using density functional theory (DFT). Obtained results revealed that Meb is weakly physisorbed on the CNTs and that the electronic properties of the CNTs are not significantly changed. Notably, CNTs could be considered as a suitable modifier for preparation of the modified electrode for Meb analysis. Then, the experimental parameters affecting the electrochemical response of Meb were optimized. Under optimal conditions, high sensitivity (b(Meb) = dI p,a (Meb) / d[Meb] = 19.65 μA μM −1 ), a low detection limit (LOD (Meb) = 19 nM) and a wide linear dynamic range (0.06–3 μM) was resulted for the voltammetric quantification of Meb. - Highlights: • Electrochemical oxidation mechanism of Meb was investigated. • A carbon nanostructure modified electrode was developed for the determination of Meb. • The modified electrode surface was characterized by SEM and impedance studies. • This study provides an effective chemically modified electrode with satisfactory repeatability and reproducibility

  10. Electrochemical determination of ascorbic acid at p-phenylenediamine film-holes modified glassy carbon electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olana Bikila Nagasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the determination of ascorbic acid (AA at glassy carbon electrode (GCE modified with a perforated film produced by reduction of diazonium generated in situ from p-phenylenediamine (PD is reported. Holes were intentionally created in the modifier film by stripping a pre-deposited gold nanoparticles. The modified electrodes were electrochemically characterized by common redox probes: hydroquinone, ferrocyanide and hexamineruthenium(III. The cyclic voltammetric and amperometric response of AA using the modified electrodes was compared with that of bare GCE. The bare GCE showed a linear response to AA in the concentration range of 5 mM to 45 mM with detection limit of 1.656 mM and the modified GCE showed a linear response to AA in the concentration range of 5 μM to 45 μM with detection limit of 0.123 μM. The effect of potential intereferents on amperometric signal of AA at the modified GCE was examined and found to be minimal. The inter-electrode reproducibility, stability, and accuracy were determined. The modified electrode showed excellent inter-electrode reproducibility, accuracy and stability. The modified electrode reported is a promising candidate for use in electroanalysis of AA.

  11. Hematoxylin multi-wall carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode for electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, Hamid R.; Nasirizadeh, Navid

    2007-01-01

    A new hydrazine sensor has been fabricated by immobilizing hematoxylin at the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT). The adsorbed thin films of hematoxylin on the MWCNT modified GCE show one pair of peaks with surface confined characteristics. The hematoxylin MWCNT (HMWCNT) modified GCE shows highly catalytic activity toward hydrazine electro-oxidation. The results show that the peak potential of hydrazine at HMWCNT modified GCE surface shifted by about 167 and 255 mV toward negative values compared with that at an MWCNT and activated modified GCE surface, respectively. In addition, at HMWCNT modified electrode surface remarkably improvement the sensitivity of determination of hydrazine. The kinetic parameters, such as the electron transfer coefficient, α, and the standard heterogeneous rate constant, k 0 , for oxidation of hydrazine at the HMWCNT modified GCE were determined and also is shown that the heterogeneous rate constant, k', is strongly potential dependent. The overall number of electron involved in the catalytic oxidation of hydrazine and the number of electrons involved in the rate-determining steps are 2 and 1, respectively. The amperometric detection of hydrazine is carried out at 220 mV in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 7) with linear response range 2.0-122.8 μM hydrazine, detection limit of 0.68 μM and sensitivity of 0.0208 μA μM -1 . Finally the amperometric response for hydrazine determination is reproducible, fast and extremely stable, with no loss in sensitivity over a continual 400 s operation

  12. Electrodes from carbon nanotubes/NiO nanocomposites synthesized in modified Watts bath for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakamada, Masataka; Abe, Tatsuhiko; Mabuchi, Mamoru

    2016-09-01

    A modified Watts bath coupled with pulsed current electroplating is used to uniformly deposit ultrafine nickel oxide particles (diameter < 4 nm) on multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The capacitance of the multiwalled carbon nanotubes/nickel oxide electrodes was as high as 2480 F g-1 (per mass of nickel oxide), which is close to the theoretical capacitance of NiO.

  13. The electrocatalytical reduction of m-nitrophenol on palladium nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Qiaofang; Diao Guowang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The deposition of palladium on a GC electrode was performed by cyclic voltammetry. ► SEM images showed palladium nanoparticles deposited on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode. ► The Pd/GC electrode can effectively catalyze m-nitrophenol in aqueous media. ► The reduction of m-nitrophenol on the Pd/GC electrode depended on potential and pH. ► XPS spectra of the Pd/GC electrodes demonstrated the presence of palladium. - Abstract: Palladium nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrodes (Pd/GC) were prepared via the electrodeposition of palladium on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode using cyclic voltammetry in different sweeping potential ranges. The scanning electron microscope images of palladium particles on the GC electrodes indicate that palladium particles with diameters of 20–50 nm were homogeneously dispersed on the GC electrode at the optimal deposition conditions, which can effectively catalyze the reduction of m-nitrophenol in aqueous solutions, but their catalytic activities are strongly related to the deposition conditions of Pd. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra of the Pd/GC electrode confirmed that 37.1% Pd was contained in the surface composition of the Pd/GC electrode. The cyclic voltammograms of the Pd/GC electrode in the solution of m-nitrophenol show that the reduction peak of m-nitrophenol shifts towards the more positive potentials, accompanied with an increase in the peak current compared to the bare GC electrode. The electrocatalytic activity of the Pd/GC electrode is affected by pH values of the solution. In addition, the electrolysis of m-nitrophenol under a constant potential indicates that the reduction current of m-nitrophenol on the Pd/GC electrode is approximately 20 times larger than that on the bare GC electrode.

  14. Electrochemical detection of nitrite based on the polythionine/carbon nanotube modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Chunyan; Chen, Jinzhuo; Nie, Zhou; Yang, Minghui; Si, Shihui

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, thionine was electro-polymerized onto the surface of carbon nanotube (CNT)-modified glassy carbon (GC) to fabricate the polythionine (PTH)/CNT/GC electrode. It was found that the electro-reduction current of nitrite was enhanced greatly at the PTH/CNT/GC electrode. It may be demonstrated that PTH was used as a mediator for electrocatalytic reduction of nitrite, and CNTs as an excellent nanomaterial can improve the electron transfer between the electrode and nitrite. Therefore, based on the synergic effect of PTH and CNTs, the PTH/CNT/GC electrode was employed to detect nitrite, and the high sensitivity of 5.81 μA mM −1 , and the detection limit of 1.4 × 10 −6 M were obtained. Besides, the modified electrode showed an inherent stability, fast response time, and good anti-interference ability. These suggested that the PTH/CNT/GC electrode was favorable and reliable for the detection of nitrite. - Highlights: ► Polythionine (PTH) was used as a mediator for electrocatalytic reduction of nitrite. ► Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) improve electron transfer between the electrode and nitrite. ► The PTH/CNT/glassy carbon electrode showed excellent nitrite detection performance.

  15. Application of N-doped graphene modified carbon ionic liquid electrode for direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Dong, Lifeng; Deng, Ying; Yu, Jianhua; Wang, Wencheng; Zhu, Qianqian

    2014-06-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) was synthesized and used for the investigation on direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin (Hb) with a carbon ionic liquid electrode as the substrate electrode. Due to specific characteristics of NG such as excellent electrocatalytic property and large surface area, direct electron transfer of Hb was realized with enhanced electrochemical responses appearing. Electrochemical behaviors of Hb on the NG modified electrode were carefully investigated with the electrochemical parameters calculated. The Hb modified electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic reduction activity toward different substrates, such as trichloroacetic acid and H2O2, with wider dynamic range and lower detection limit. These findings show that NG can be used for the preparation of chemically modified electrodes with improved performance and has potential applications in electrochemical sensing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Electrochemical selective detection of dopamine on microbial carbohydrate-doped multiwall carbon nanotube-modified electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Joon-Hyung; Cho, Eunae; Jung, Seunho

    2010-03-01

    Microbial carbohydrate-doped multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT)-modified electrodes were prepared for the purpose of determining if 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine; dopamine) exists in the presence of 0.5 mM ascorbic acid, a representative interfering agent in neurotransmitter detection. The microbial carbohydrate dopants were alpha-cyclosophorohexadecaose (alpha-C16) from Xanthomonas oryzae and cyclic-(1 --> 2)-beta-d-glucan (Cys) from Rhizobium meliloti. The cyclic voltammetric responses showed that the highest sensitivity (5.8 x 10(-3) mA cm(-2) microM(-1)) is attained with the Cys-doped MWNT-modified ultra-trace carbon electrode, and that the alpha-C16-doped MWNT-modified glassy carbon electrode displays the best selectivity to dopamine (the approximate peak potential separation is 310 mV).

  17. Electrocatalytic performance of Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox reaction at graphene modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ruma; Gamare, J.S.; Kamat, J.V.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we explore the analytical perspectives of graphene modified electrode utilising commercially available graphene, which is well characterised, completely free from surfactants and has not been purposely oxidised or treated. We compare and critically contrast the electro-analytical performance of graphene modified glassy carbon electrodes (Gr/GC) with that of unmodified GC electrode towards Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox reaction, monitoring of which has considerable importance in a plethora of areas where electrochemistry is conveniently and beneficially utilised for determination of nuclear fuels

  18. Electrochemical behaviour of dopamine at covalent modified glassy carbon electrode with l-cysteine: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Martínez-Huitle

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface of glassy carbon (GC electrode has been modified by oxidation of L-cysteine. The covalent modified GC electrode with L-Cysteine has been studied, according the supporting electrolyte used. Favourable interactions between the L-cysteine film and DA enhance the current response compared to that at the Nafion GC and bare GC electrodes, achieving better performances than those other electrodes. This behaviour was as result of the adsorption of the cysteine layer film, compact and uniform formation; depending on L-cysteine solution (phosphate buffer or chloridric acid supporting electrolyte used for modifying GC surface. In cyclic voltammetric measurements, modified electrodes can successfully separate the oxidation/reduction DA peaks in different buffer solutions, but an evident dependence in the response was obtained as function of pH and modified electrode. The modified electrode prepared with L-cysteine/HCl solution was used to obtain the calibration curve and it exhibited a stable and sensitive response to DA. The results are described and discussed in the light of the existing literature.

  19. Bioelectrocatalytic mediatorless dioxygen reduction at carbon ceramic electrodes modified with bilirubin oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogala, Wojciech; Celebanska, Anna; Szot, Katarzyna; Wittstock, Gunther; Opallo, Marcin

    2010-01-01

    Carbon ceramic electrodes were prepared by sol-gel processing of a hydrophobic precursor - methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMOS) - together with dispersed graphite microparticles according to a literature procedure. Bilirubin oxidase (BOx) was adsorbed on this electrode from buffer solution and this process was followed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The electrodes exhibited efficient mediatorless electrocatalytic activity towards dioxygen reduction. The activity depends on the time of adsorption of the enzyme and the pH. The electrode remains active in neutral solution. The bioelectrocatalytic activity is further increased when a fraction of the carbon microparticles is replaced by sulfonated carbon nanoparticles (CNPs). This additive enhances the electrical communication between the enzyme and the electronic conductor. At pH 7 the carbon ceramic electrode modified with bilirubin oxidase retains ca. half of its highest activity. The role of the modified nanoparticles is confirmed by experiments in which a film embedded in a hydrophobic silicate matrix also exhibited efficient mediatorless biocatalytic dioxygen reduction. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) of the studied electrodes indicated a rather even distribution of the catalytic activity over the electrode surface.

  20. Electrocatalytic reduction of nitrite on tetraruthenated metalloporphyrins/Nafion glassy carbon modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calfuman, Karla [Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Casilla 653, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile); Aguirre, Maria Jesus [Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Departamento de Quimica de los Materiales, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Canete-Rosales, Paulina; Bollo, Soledad [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas y Farmaceuticas, Departamento de Quimica Farmacologica y Toxicologica, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Llusar, Rosa [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Analitica, Universidad de Jaume I, Castellon (Spain); Isaacs, Mauricio, E-mail: misaacs@uchile.cl [Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Casilla 653, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-10-01

    Highlights: > Preparation and characterization of modified electrodes with M(II) Tetraruthenated porphyrins onto a Nafion film. > The electrodes were characterized by SEM, TEM, AFM and SECM techniques. > The modified electrodes are active in the electrochemical reduction of nitrite at -660 mV vs Ag/AgCl. > GC/Nf/CoTRP modified electrode is more electrochemically active than their Ni and Zn analogues. - Abstract: This paper describes the electrochemical reduction of nitrite ion in neutral aqueous solution mediated by tetraruthenated metalloporphyrins (Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II)) electrostatically assembled onto a Nafion film previously adsorbed on glassy carbon or ITO electrodes. Scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results have shown that on ITO electrodes the macrocycles forms multiple layers with a disordered stacking orientation over the Nafion film occupying hydrophobic and hydrophilic sites in the polyelectrolyte. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) results demonstrated that the Nafion film is 35 nm thick and tetraruthenated metalloporphyrins layers 190 nm thick presenting a thin but compacted morphology. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) images shows that the Co(II) tetraruthenated porphyrins/Nf/GC modified electrode is more electrochemically active than their Ni and Zn analogues. These modified electrodes are able to reduce nitrite at -660 mV showing enhanced reduction current and a decrease in the required overpotential compared to bare glassy carbon electrode. Controlled potential electrolysis experiments verify the production of ammonia, hydrazine and hydroxylamine at potentials where reduction of solvent is plausible demonstrating some selectivity toward the nitrite ion. Rotating disc electrode voltammetry shows that the factor that governs the kinetics of nitrite reduction is the charge propagation in the film.

  1. Electrochemical behavior of cysteine at a CuGeO3 nanowires modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Yongping; Pei Lizhai; Chu Xiangfeng; Zhang Wangbing; Zhang Qianfeng

    2010-01-01

    A CuGeO 3 nanowire modified glassy carbon electrode was fabricated and characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reveal that electron transfer through nanowire film is facile compared with that of bare glassy carbon electrode. The modified electrode exhibited a novel electrocatalytic behavior to the electrochemical reactions of L-cysteine in neutral solution, which was not reported previously. Two pairs of semi-reversible electrochemical peaks were observed and assigned to the processes of oxidation/reduction and adsorption/desorption of cysteine at the modified electrode, respectively. The electrochemical response of cysteine is poor in alkaline condition and is enhanced greatly in acidic solution, suggesting that hydrogen ions participate in the electrochemical oxidation process of cysteine. The intensities of two anodic peaks varied linearly with the concentration of cysteine in the range of 1 x 10 -6 to 1 x 10 -3 mol L -1 , which make it possible to sensitive detection of cysteine with the CuGeO 3 nanowire modified electrode. Furthermore, the modified electrode exhibited good reproducibility and stability.

  2. Biosensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with tyrosinase immobilized on multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, J.; Kang, T.F.; Xue, R.; Ge, C.N.; Cheng, S.Y.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a biosensor for phenolic compounds that is based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with tyrosinase immobilized on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). The MWNTs possess excellent inherent electrical conductivity which enhances the electron transfer rate and results in good electrochemical catalytic activity towards the reduction of benzoquinone produced by enzymatic reaction. The biosensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, and the experimental conditions were optimized. The cathodic current is linearly related to the concentration of the phenols between 0.4 μM and 10 μM, and the detection limit is 0.2 μM. The method was applied to the determination of phenol in water samples (author)

  3. Simple electrochemical sensor for caffeine based on carbon and Nafion-modified carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A Carolina; Barsan, Madalina M; Brett, Christopher M A

    2014-04-15

    A simple, economic, highly sensitive and highly selective method for the detection of caffeine has been developed at bare and Nafion-modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCE). The electrochemical behaviour of caffeine was examined in electrolyte solutions of phosphate buffer saline, sodium perchlorate, and in choline chloride plus oxalic acid, using analytical determinations by fixed potential amperometry, phosphate buffer saline being the best. Modifications of the GCE surface with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), Nafion, and multi-walled carbon nanotubes were tested in order to evaluate possible sensor performance enhancements, Nafion giving the most satisfactory results. The effect of interfering compounds usually found in samples containing caffeine was examined at GCE without and with Nafion coating, to exclude interferences, and the sensors were successfully applied to determine the caffeine content in commercial beverages and drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Surface-treated carbon electrodes with modified potential of zero charge for capacitive deionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tingting; Wang, Gang; Zhan, Fei; Dong, Qiang; Ren, Qidi; Wang, Jianren; Qiu, Jieshan

    2016-04-15

    The potential of zero charge (Epzc) of electrodes can greatly influence the salt removal capacity, charge efficiency and cyclic stability of capacitive deionization (CDI). Thus optimizing the Epzc of CDI electrodes is of great importance. A simple strategy to negatively shift the Epzc of CDI electrodes by modifying commercial activated carbon with quaternized poly (4-vinylpyridine) (AC-QPVP) is reported in this work. The Epzc of the prepared AC-QPVP composite electrode is as negative as -0.745 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Benefiting from the optimized Epzc of electrodes, the asymmetric CDI cell which consists of the AC-QPVP electrode and a nitric acid treated activated carbon (AC-HNO3) electrode exhibits excellent CDI performance. For inverted CDI, the working potential window of the asymmetric CDI cell can reach 1.4 V, and its salt removal capacity can be as high as 9.6 mg/g. For extended voltage CDI, the salt removal capacity of the asymmetric CDI cell at 1.2/-1.2 V is 20.6 mg/g, which is comparable to that of membrane CDI using pristine activated carbon as the electrodes (19.5 mg/g). The present work provides a simple method to prepare highly positively charged CDI electrodes and may pave the way for the development of high-performance CDI cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Glucose Oxidase on Carbon Nanotube Modified Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suroviec, Alice H

    2017-01-01

    The use of enzymatically modified electrodes for the detection of glucose or other non-electrochemically active analytes is becoming increasingly common. Direct heterogeneous electron transfer to glucose oxidase has been shown to be kinetically difficult, which is why electron transfer mediators or indirect detection is usually used for monitoring glucose with electrochemical sensors. It has been found, however, that electrodes modified with single or multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) demonstrate fast heterogeneous electron transfer kinetics as compared to that found for traditional electrodes. Incorporating CNTs into the assembly of electrochemical glucose sensors, therefore, affords the possibility of facile electron transfer to glucose oxidase, and a more direct determination of glucose. This chapter describes the methods used to use CNTs in a layer-by-layer structure along with glucose oxidase to produce an enzymatically modified electrode with high turnover rates, increased stability and shelf-life.

  6. Electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine at overoxidized polypyrrole film modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majidi, Mir Reza [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jouyban, Abolghasem [Faculty of Pharmacy and Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: asadpour@tabrizu.ac.ir

    2007-06-20

    Electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine (HZ) was studied on an overoxidized polypyrrole (OPPy) modified glassy carbon electrode using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques. The OPPy-modified glassy carbon electrode has very high catalytic ability for electrooxidation of HZ, which appeared as a reduced overpotential in a wide operational pH range of 5-10. The overall numbers of electrons involved in the catalytic oxidation of HZ, the number of electrons involved in the rate-determining and diffusion coefficient of HZ were estimated using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. It has been shown that using the OPPy-modified electrode, HZ can be determined by cyclic voltammetry and amperometry with limit of detection 36 and 3.7 {mu}M, respectively. The results of the analysis suggest that the proposed method promises accurate results and could be employed for the routine determination of HZ.

  7. Sensitive detection of hydroxylamine at a simple baicalin carbon nanotubes modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongfang; Zheng, Jianbin

    2012-05-15

    A baicalin multi-wall carbon nanotubes (BaMWCNT) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the sensitive determination of hydroxylamine was described. The BaMWCNT/GCE with dramatic stability was firstly fabricated with a simple adsorption method. And it showed excellent catalytic activity toward the electrooxidation of hydroxylamine. The amperometric response at the BaMWCNT/GCE modified electrode increased linearly to hydroxylamine concentrations in the range of 0.5 μM to 0.4mM with a detection limit of 0.1 μM. The modified electrode was applied to detection hydroxylamine in the tap water, and the average recovery for the standards added was 96.0%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical preparation and fruit juice using modified carbon paste electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Žabčíková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Acrobic acid is key substance in the human metabolism and the rapid and accurate determination in food is of a great interest. Ascorbic acid is an electroactive compound, however poorly responded on the bare carbon paste electrodes. In this paper, brilliant cresyl blue and multi-walled carbon nanotubes were used for the modification of carbon paste electrode. Brilliant cresyl blue acts as a mediator improving the transition of electrons, whereas multiwalled carbon nanotubes increased the surface of the electrode. Both brilliant cresyl blue and multiwalled carbon nanotubes were added directly to the composite material. The electrochemical behavior of modified electode was determined in electrolyte at various pH, and the effect of the scan rate was also performed. It was shown that the electrochemical process on the surface of the modified carbon paste electrode was diffusion-controlled. The resulted modified carbon paste electrode showed a good electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of ascorbic acid at a reduced overpotential of +100 mV descreasing the risk of interferences. A linear response of the ascorbic acid oxidation current measured by the amperometry in the range of 0.1 - 350 µmol.L-1 was obtained applying the sensor for the standard solution. The limit of detection and limit of quantification was found to be 0.05 and 0.15 µmol.L-1, respectively. The novel method was applied for the determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical vitamin preparation and fruit juice, and the results were in good agreement with the standard HPLC method. The presented modification of carbon paste electrode is suitable for the fast, sensitive and very accurate determination of ascorbic acid in fruit juices and pharmaceutical preparation.

  9. Redox poly[Ni(saldMp)] modified activated carbon electrode in electrochemical supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Fei [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Li Jianling, E-mail: lijianling@ustb.edu.c [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang Yakun; Wang Xindong [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Kang Feiyu [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2010-08-01

    The complex (2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediaminebis(salicylideneaminato))-nickel(II), [Ni(saldMp)], was oxidatively electropolymerized on activated carbon (AC) electrode in acetonitrile solution. The poly[Ni(saldMp)] presented an incomplete coated film on the surface of carbon particles of AC electrode by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical behaviors of poly[Ni(saldMp)] modified activated carbon (PAC) electrode were evaluated in different potential ranges by cyclic voltammetry. Counterions and solvent swelling mainly occurred up to 0.6 V for PAC electrode by the comparison of D{sup 1/2}C values calculated from chronoamperometry experiments. Both the Ohmic resistance and Faraday resistance of PAC electrode gradually approached to those of AC electrode when its potential was ranging from 1.2 V to 0.0 V. Galvanostatic charge/discharge experiments indicated that both the specific capacitance and energy density were effectively improved by the reversible redox reaction of poly[Ni(saldMp)] film under the high current density up to 10 mA cm{sup -2} for AC electrode. The specific capacitance of PAC electrode decreased during the first 50 cycles but thereafter it remained constant for the next 200 cycles. This study showed the redox polymer may be an attractive material in supercapacitors.

  10. Selective oxidation of serotonin and norepinephrine over eriochrome cyanine R film modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Hong; Li Shaoguang [Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350004 (China); Tang Yuhai [Institute of Analytical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710061 (China); Chen Yan [Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350004 (China); Chen Yuanzhong [Fujian Institute of Hematology, The Affiliated Union Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350001 (China)], E-Mail: chenyz@pub3.fz.fj.cn; Lin Xinhua [Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350004 (China)], E-mail: xhlin1963@sin.com

    2009-08-01

    A novel ECR-modified electrode is fabricated by electrodeposition of Eriochrome Cyanine R (ECR) at a glassy carbon (GC) electrode by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in double-distilled water. The characterization of the ECR film modified electrode is carried out by atomic force microscopy (AFM), infrared spectra (IR), spectroelectrochemistry and cyclic voltammetry. The results show that a slightly heterogeneous film formed on the surface of the modified electrode, and the calculated surface concentration of ECR is 2 x 10{sup -10} mol/cm{sup -2}. The ECR film modified GC electrode shows excellent electrocatalytic activities toward the oxidation of serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE). Furthermore, the modified electrode can separately detect 5-HT and NE, even in the presence of 200-fold concentration of ascorbic acid (AA) and 25-fold concentration of uric acid (UA). Using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), the peak currents of 5-HT and NE recorded in pH 7 solution are linearly dependent on their concentrations in the range of 0.05-5 {mu}M and 2-50 {mu}M, respectively. The limits of detection are 0.05 and 1.5 {mu}M for 5-HT and NE, respectively. The ECR film modified electrode can be stored stable for at least 1 week in 0.05 M PBS (pH 7) at 4 {sup o}C in a refrigerator. Owing to its excellent selectivity and sensitivity, the modified electrode could provide a promising tool for the simultaneous determination of 5-HT and NE in complex biosamples.

  11. Electrochemical Reduction of Oxygen on Anthraquinone/Carbon Nanotubes Nanohybrid Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode in Neutral Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Gong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behaviors of monohydroxy-anthraquinone/multiwall carbon nanotubes (MHAQ/MWCNTs nanohybrid modified glassy carbon (MHAQ/MWCNTs/GC electrodes in neutral medium were investigated; also reported was their application in the electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR. The resulting MHAQ/MWCNTs nanohybrid was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM. It was found that the ORR at the MHAQ/MWCNTs/GC electrode occurs irreversibly at a potential about 214 mV less negative than at a bare GC electrode in pH 7.0 buffer solution. Cyclic voltammetric and rotating disk electrode (RDE techniques indicated that the MHAQ/MWCNTs nanohybrid has high electrocatalytic activity for the two-electron reduction of oxygen in the studied potential range. The kinetic parameters of ORR at the MHAQ/MWCNTs nanohybrid modified GC electrode were also determined by RDE and EIS techniques.

  12. Methanol oxidation at carbon paste electrodes modified with (Pt–Ru)/carbon aerogels nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fort, Carmen I., E-mail: iladiu@chem.ubbcluj.ro [Laboratory of Electrochemical Research and Nonconventional Materials, Babes-Bolyai University, Arany Janos 11, RO-400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cotet, Liviu C. [Laboratory of Electrochemical Research and Nonconventional Materials, Babes-Bolyai University, Arany Janos 11, RO-400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Vasiliu, Florin [The National Institute of Materials Physics, Atomistilor str. 105 bis, PO Box MG. 7, Magurele, RO 077125, Bucharest (Romania); Marginean, Petre [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, RO 400293, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Danciu, Virginia; Popescu, Ionel C. [Laboratory of Electrochemical Research and Nonconventional Materials, Babes-Bolyai University, Arany Janos 11, RO-400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2016-04-01

    Mesoporous carbon aerogels (CAs) impregnated with (Pt–Ru) nanoparticles were prepared, incorporated into carbon paste electrodes (CPEs) and investigated as electrocatalysts for CH{sub 3}OH electro-oxidation. The sol–gel method, followed by supercritical drying with liquid CO{sub 2} and thermal pyrolysis in an inert atmosphere, was used to obtain high mesoporous CAs. (Pt–Ru)/CAs nanocomposites with various (Pt–Ru) loading were prepared by using Ru(AcAc){sub 3} and H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6} as metal precursors and the impregnation method. The morpho-structural peculiarities of the so prepared (Pt–Ru)/CAs electrocatalysts were examined by using elemental analysis, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption isotherms, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Cyclic voltammetry measurements, carried out at (Pt–Ru)/CA-CPEs incorporating nanocomposites with various Pt–Ru loading and different specific surface areas, showed that CA with the highest specific surface area (843 m{sup 2}/g) and impregnated with 6% (w/w) (Pt–Ru) nanoparticles exhibit the best CH{sub 3}OH electro-oxidation efficiency. The Michaelis–Menten formalism was used to describe the dependence of the oxidation peak current on the CH{sub 3}OH concentration, allowing the estimation of the modified electrodes sensitivities. Thus, for (Pt–Ru, 10%)/CA{sub 535}-CPE was observed the highest sensitivity (12.5 ± 0.8 mA/M) and, at the same time, the highest maximum current density ever reported (153.1 mA/cm{sup 2} for 2 M CH{sub 3}OH and an applied potential of 600 mV vs. SHE). - Highlights: • (Pt–Ru) nanoparticles were deposited on high mesoporous carbon aerogels (CAs). • (Pt–Ru)/CAs were characterized by TEM, EDX, SAED and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption. • Carbon paste electrodes modified with (Pt–Ru)/CA were used for CH{sub 3}OH oxidation. • (Pt–Ru, 10

  13. Electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction on nitrogen-containing multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikkisk, Merilin; Kruusenberg, Ivar; Joost, Urmas; Shulga, Eugene; Tammeveski, Kaido

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Pyrolysis in the presence of urea was used for nitrogen doping of carbon nanotubes. ► N-doped carbon nanotubes were used as catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction. ► N-doped carbon material showed a high catalytic activity for ORR in alkaline media. ► N-containing CNT material is an attractive cathode catalyst for alkaline membrane fuel cells. - Abstract: The electrochemical reduction of oxygen was studied on nitrogen-doped multi-walled carbon nanotube (NCNT) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrodes employing the rotating disk electrode (RDE) method. Nitrogen doping was achieved by simple pyrolysis of the carbon nanotube material in the presence of urea. The surface morphology and composition of the NCNT samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The SEM images revealed a rather uniform distribution of NCNTs on the GC electrode substrate. The XPS analysis showed a successful doping of carbon nanotubes with nitrogen species. The RDE results revealed that in alkaline solution the N-doped nanotube materials showed a remarkable electrocatalytic activity towards oxygen reduction. At low overpotentials the reduction of oxygen followed a two-electron pathway on undoped carbon nanotube modified GC electrodes, whereas on NCNT/GC electrodes a four-electron pathway of O 2 reduction predominated. The results obtained are significant for the development of nitrogen-doped carbon-based cathodes for alkaline membrane fuel cells.

  14. Electrochemical Investigation of Catechol at Poly(niacinamide Modified Carbon Paste Electrode: A Voltammetric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Teradale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A polymeric thin film modified electrode, that is, poly(niacinamide modified carbon paste electrode (MCPE, was developed for the electrochemical determination of catechol (CC by using cyclic voltammetric technique. Compared to bare carbon paste electrode (BCPE, the poly(niacinamide MCPE shows good electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of catechol in phosphate buffer solution (PBS of physiological pH 7.4. All experimental parameters were optimized. Poly(niacinamide modified carbon paste electrode gave a linear response between concentration of CC and its anodic peak current in the range within 20.6–229.0 μM. The limit of detection (3S/M and limit of quantification (10S/M were 1.497 μM and 4.99 μM, respectively. From the study of scan rate variation, the electrode process was found to be adsorption-controlled. The involvement of protons and electrons in the oxidation of CC was found to be equal. The probable electropolymerisation mechanism of niacinamide was proposed. Finally, this method can be used in development of a sensor for sensitive determination of CC.

  15. Voltammetry of Os(VI)-modified polysaccharides at carbon electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trefulka, Mojmír; Paleček, Emil

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 15 (2009), s. 1763-1766 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA301/07/0490; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : chemical modification of polysaccharides * Os(VI)L-polysaccharide adducts * pyrolytic graphite electrodes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.630, year: 2009

  16. Voltammetric detection of bisphenol a by a chitosan–graphene composite modified carbon ionic liquid electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qingxiang; Wang Yuhua; Liu Shengyun; Wang Liheng; Gao Feng; Gao Fei; Sun Wei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate based carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) was fabricated and further modified with chitosan (CTS) and graphene (GR) composite film. The fabricated CTS-GR/CILE was further used for the investigation on the electrochemical behavior of bisphenol A (BPA) by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. A well-defined anodic peak appeared at 0.436 V in 0.1 mol/L pH 8.0 Britton–Robinson buffer solution, which was attributed to the electrooxidation of BPA on the modified electrode. The electrochemical parameters of BPA on the modified electrode were calculated with the results of the charge transfer coefficient (α) as 0.662 and the apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k s ) as 1.36 s −1 . Under the optimal conditions, a linear relationship between the oxidation peak current of BPA and its concentration can be obtained in the range from 0.1 μmol/L to 800.0 μmol/L with the limit of detection as 2.64 × 10 −8 mol/L (3σ). The CTS-GR/CILE was applied to the detection of BPA content in plastic products with satisfactory results. - Highlights: ► A graphene modified carbon ionic liquid electrode was fabricated and characterized. ► Electrochemical behaviors of bisphenol A were investigated. ► Bisphenol A was detected by the proposed electrode.

  17. Electrochemistry of metoclopramide at multi-walled carbon nanotube modified electrode and its voltammetric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Geng, Mingjiang; Zhou, Lingyun

    2012-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and inexpensive electrochemical method was developed for the determination of metoclopramide (MCP) with a multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). MWNT was dispersed into polyacrylic acid (PAA); the aqueous suspension was then cast on GCE electrodes, forming MWNT-PAA films after evaporation of the solvent. The electrochemical behavior of MCP at the MWNT-modified electrode was investigated in detail. Compared with the bare GCE, the MWNT-modified electrode exhibits electrocatalytic activity to the oxidation of MCP because of the significant oxidation peak-current enhancement. Furthermore, various experimental parameters, such as the solution pH value, the amount of MWNT-PAA suspension and accumulation conditions were optimized for the determination of MCP. Based on the electrocatalytic effect of the MWNT-modified electrode, linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) was developed for the determination of MCP with the linear response in the range from 1.0 × 10(-7) to 1.0 × 10(-5) mol L(-1) and a detection limit of 5.0 × 10(-8) mol L(-1). The method has been successfully applied to the determination of MCP in commercial MCP tablets.

  18. Electrodeposited nickel oxide and graphene modified carbon ionic liquid electrode for electrochemical myglobin biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Wei; Gong, Shixing; Deng, Ying; Li, Tongtong; Cheng, Yong; Wang, Wencheng; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    By using ionic liquid 1-hexylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate based carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) as the substrate electrode, graphene (GR) and nickel oxide (NiO) were in situ electrodeposited step by step to get a NiO/GR nanocomposite modified CILE. Myoglobin (Mb) was further immobilized on the surface of NiO/GR/CILE with a Nafion film to get the electrochemical sensor denoted as Nafion/Mb/NiO/GR/CILE. Cyclic voltammetric experiments indicated that a pair of well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks appeared in pH 3.0 phosphate buffer solution with the formal peak potential (E 0′ ) located at − 0.188 V (vs. SCE), which was the typical characteristics of Mb Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couples. So the direct electron transfer of Mb was realized and promoted due to the presence of the NiO/GR nanocomposite on the electrode. Based on the cyclic voltammetric data, the electrochemical parameters of Mb on the modified electrode were calculated. The Mb modified electrode showed an excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of different substrates including trichloroacetic acid and H 2 O 2 . Therefore a third-generation electrochemical Mb biosensor based on NiO/GR/CILE was constructed with good stability and reproducibility. - Highlights: • Graphene and nickel oxide nanocomposites were prepared by electrodeposition. • Electrochemical myoglobin sensor was prepared on a nanocomposite modified electrode. • Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of myglobin were realized

  19. Electrochemical detection of L-cysteine using a boron-doped carbon nanotube-modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Chunyan; Chen Jinhua; Chen Xiaoli; Wang Mengdong; Nie Zhou; Yao Shouzhuo

    2009-01-01

    A boron-doped carbon nanotube (BCNT)-modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode was constructed for the detection of L-cysteine (L-CySH). The electrochemical behavior of BCNTs in response to L-cysteine oxidation was investigated. The response current of L-CySH oxidation at the BCNT/GC electrode was obviously higher than that at the bare GC electrode or the CNT/GC electrode. This finding may be ascribed to the excellent electrochemical properties of the BCNT/GC electrode. Moreover, on the basis of this finding, a determination of L-CySH at the BCNT/GC electrode was carried out. The effects of pH, scan rate and interferents on the response of L-CySH oxidation were investigated. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the detection response for L-CySH on the BCNT/GC electrode was fast (within 7 s). It was found to be linear from 7.8 x 10 -7 to 2 x 10 -4 M (r = 0.998), with a high sensitivity of 25.3 ± 1.2 nA mM -1 and a low detection limit of 0.26 ± 0.01 μM. The BCNT/GC electrode exhibited high stability and good resistance against interference by other oxidizable amino acids (tryptophan and tyrosine)

  20. Simultaneous voltammetric determination of tramadol and acetaminophen using carbon nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorbani-Bidkorbeh, Fatemeh; Shahrokhian, Saeed; Mohammadi, Ali; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2010-01-01

    A sensitive and selective electrochemical sensor was fabricated via the drop-casting of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) suspension onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The application of this sensor was investigated in simultaneous determination of acetaminophen (ACE) and tramadol (TRA) drugs in pharmaceutical dosage form and ACE determination in human plasma. In order to study the electrochemical behaviors of the drugs, cyclic and differential pulse voltammetric studies of ACE and TRA were carried out at the surfaces of the modified GCE (MGCE) and the bare GCE. The dependence of peak currents and potentials on pH, concentration and the potential scan rate were investigated for these compounds at the surface of MGCE. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used for the characterization of the film modifier and its morphology on the surface of GCE. The results of the electrochemical investigations showed that CNPs, via a thin layer model based on the diffusion within a porous layer, enhanced the electroactive surface area and caused a remarkable increase in the peak currents. The thin layer of the modifier showed a catalytic effect and accelerated the rate of the electron transfer process. Application of the MGCE resulted in a sensitivity enhancement and a considerable decrease in the anodic overpotential, leading to negative shifts in peak potentials. An optimum electrochemical response was obtained for the sensor in the buffered solution of pH 7.0 and using 2 μL CNPs suspension cast on the surface of GCE. Using differential pulse voltammetry, the prepared sensor showed good sensitivity and selectivity for the determination of ACE and TRA in wide linear ranges of 0.1-100 and 10-1000 μM, respectively. The resulted detection limits for ACE and TRA was 0.05 and 1 μM, respectively. The CNPs modified GCE was successfully applied for ACE and TRA determinations in pharmaceutical dosage forms and also for the determination of ACE in human plasma.

  1. Screen-printed carbon electrode modified on its surface with amorphous carbon nitride thin film: Electrochemical and morphological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghamouss, F. [Universite de Nantes, UMR 6006-CNRS, FR-2465-CNRS, Laboratoire d' Analyse isotopique et Electrochimique de Metabolismes (LAIEM) (France); Tessier, P.-Y. [Universite de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel - IMN Faculte des Sciences and des Techniques de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Djouadi, A. [Universite de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel - IMN Faculte des Sciences and des Techniques de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Besland, M.-P. [Universite de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel - IMN Faculte des Sciences and des Techniques de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Boujtita, M. [Universite de Nantes, UMR 6006-CNRS, FR-2465-CNRS, Laboratoire d' Analyse isotopique et Electrochimique de Metabolismes (LAIEM) (France)]. E-mail: mohammed.boujtita@univ-nantes.fr

    2007-04-20

    The surface of a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was modified by using amorphous carbon nitride (a-CN {sub x}) thin film deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. Scanning electron microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were used to characterise respectively the morphology and the chemical structure of the a-CN {sub x} modified electrodes. The incorporation of nitrogen in the amorphous carbon network was demonstrated by X ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The a-CN {sub x} layers were deposited on both carbon screen-printed electrode (SPCE) and silicon (Si) substrates. A comparative study showed that the nature of substrate, i.e. SPCE and Si, has a significant effect on both the surface morphology of deposited a-CN {sub x} film and their electrochemical properties. The improvement of the electrochemical reactivity of SPCE after a-CN {sub x} film deposition was highlighted both by comparing the shapes of voltammograms and calculating the apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant.

  2. Enhanced performance of electrospun carbon fibers modified with carbon nanotubes: promising electrodes for enzymatic biofuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, A Both; Cherifi, A; Tingry, S; Cornu, D; Peigney, A; Laurent, Ch

    2013-06-21

    New nanostructured electrodes, promising for the production of clean and renewable energy in biofuel cells, were developed with success. For this purpose, carbon nanofibers were produced by the electrospinning of polyacrylonitrile solution followed by convenient thermal treatments (stabilization followed by carbonization at 1000, 1200 and 1400° C), and carbon nanotubes were adsorbed on the surfaces of the fibers by a dipping method. The morphology of the developed electrodes was characterized by several techniques (SEM, Raman spectroscopy, electrical conductivity measurement). The electrochemical properties were evaluated through cyclic voltammetry, where the influence of the carbonization temperature of the fibers and the beneficial contribution of the carbon nanotubes were observed through the reversibility and size of the redox peaks of K3Fe(CN)6 versus Ag/AgCl. Subsequently, redox enzymes were immobilized on the electrodes and the electroreduction of oxygen to water was realized as a test of their efficiency as biocathodes. Due to the fibrous and porous structure of these new electrodes, and to the fact that carbon nanotubes may have the ability to promote electron transfer reactions of redox biomolecules, the new electrodes developed were capable of producing higher current densities than an electrode composed only of electrospun carbon fibers.

  3. Bismuth Modified Carbon-Based Electrodes for the Determination of Selected Neonicotinoid Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Rodić

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Two types of bismuth modified electrodes, a bismuth-film modified glassy carbon (BiF-GCE and a bismuth bulk modified carbon paste, were applied for the determination of selected nitroguanidine neonicotinoid insecticides. The method based on an ex situ prepared BiF-GCE operated in the differential pulse voltammetric (DPV mode was applied to determine clothianidin in the concentration range from 2.5 to 23 μg cm−3 with a relative standard deviation (RSD not exceeding 1.5%. The tricresyl phosphate-based carbon paste electrodes (TCP-CPEs, bulk modified with 5 and 20 w/w% of bismuth, showed a different analytical performance in the determination of imidacloprid, regarding the peak shape, potential window, and noise level. The TCP-CPE with 5% Bi was advantageous, and the developed DPV method based on it allowed the determination in the concentration range from 1.7 to 60 μg cm−3 with an RSD of 2.4%. To get a deeper insight into the morphology of the bismuth-based sensor surfaces, scanning electron microscopic measurements were performed of both the surface film and the bulk modified electrodes.

  4. Norepinephrine-modified glassy carbon electrode for the simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, H.R.; Memarzadeh, F.; Ardakani, M. Mazloum; Namazian, M.; Golabi, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    The oxidation of norepinephrine (NE) on a preactivated glassy carbon electrode leads to the formation of a deposited layer of about 4.2 x 10 -10 mol cm -2 at the surface of the electrode. The electron transfer rate constant, k s , and charge transfer coefficient, α, for electron transfer between the electrode and immobilized NE film were calculated as 44 s -1 and 0.46, respectively. The NE-modified glassy carbon electrode exhibited good electrocatalytic properties towards ascorbic acid (AA) oxidation in phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) with an overpotential of about 475 mV lower than that of the bare electrode. The electrocatalytic response was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, amperometry and rotating disk voltammetry. The overall number of electrons involved in the catalytic oxidation of AA and the number of electrons involved in the rate-determining step are 2 and 1, respectively. The rate constant for the catalytic oxidation of AA was evaluated by RDE voltammetry and an average value of k h was found to be 8.42 x 10 3 M -1 s -1 . Amperometric determination of AA in stirred solution exhibits a linear range of 2.0-1300.0 μM (correlation coefficient 0.9999) and a detection limit of 0.076 μM. The precision of amperometry was found to be 1.9% for replicate determination of a 49.0 μM solution of AA (n = 6). In differential pulse voltammetric measurements, the NE-modified glassy carbon electrode can separate the AA and uric acid (UA) signals. Ascorbic acid oxidizes at more negative potential than UA. Also, the simultaneous determination of UA and AA is achieved at the NE-modified electrode

  5. Effect of mediator added to modified paste carbon electrodes with immobilized laccase from Aspergillus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Silva Ferreira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon paste electrodes based on the immobilization of laccase from Aspergillus oryzae were developed and voltammetric measurements were performed to evaluate the amperometric response. The 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt  (ABTS functions as substrate and mediator for the laccase enzyme. Electrodes were modified  in two different conditions: without mediator (EPC/laccase and with mediator (EPC/laccase/ABTS. The addition of ABTS as a mediator increased eight-fold the amperometric response. The electrode was sensitive to pH variation with best response at pH 4.0. Studies on different concentrations of laccase and ABTS at different pH rates revealed that the composition 187 U mL-1 in laccase and 200 µL of ABTS obtained the highest amperometric response. The carbon paste electrode modified with ABTS proved to be a good base for the immobilization of the laccase enzyme. Moreover, it is easy to manufacture and inexpensive to produce a modified electrode with potential application in biosensors.

  6. Determination of Mercury (II Ion on Aryl Amide-Type Podand-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Güney

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new voltammetric sensor based on an aryl amide type podand, 1,8-bis(o-amidophenoxy-3,6-dioxaoctane, (AAP modified glassy carbon electrode, was described for the determination of trace level of mercury (II ion by cyclic voltammetry (CV and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV. A well-defined anodic peak corresponding to the oxidation of mercury on proposed electrode was obtained at 0.2 V versus Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The effect of experimental parameters on differential voltammetric peak currents was investigated in acetate buffer solution of pH 7.0 containing 1 × 10−1 mol L−1 NaCl. Mercury (II ion was preconcentrated at the modified electrode by forming complex with AAP under proper conditions and then reduced on the surface of the electrode. Interferences of Cu2+, Pb2+, Fe3+, Cd2+, and Zn2+ ions were also studied at two different concentration ratios with respect to mercury (II ions. The modified electrode was applied to the determination of mercury (II ions in seawater sample.

  7. Oxidized multi walled carbon nanotubes for improving the electrocatalytic activity of a benzofuran derivative modified electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mazloum-Ardakani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the use of a novel carbon paste electrode modified by 7,8-dihydroxy-3,3,6-trimethyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,d]furan-1(2H-one (DTD and oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (OCNTs is described for determination of levodopa (LD, acetaminophen (AC and tryptophan (Trp by a simple and rapid method. At first, the electrochemical behavior of DTD is studied, then, the mediated oxidation of LD at the modified electrode is investigated. At the optimum pH of 7.4, the oxidation of LD occurs at a potential about 330 mV less positive than that of an unmodified carbon paste electrode. Based on differential pulse voltammetry (DPV, the oxidation current of LD exhibits a linear range between 1.0 and 2000.0 μM of LD with a detection limit (3σ of 0.36 μM. DPV was also used for simultaneous determination of LD, AC and Trp at the modified electrode. Finally, the proposed electrochemical sensor was used for determinations of these substances in human serum sample.

  8. Anodic stripping voltammetric determination of silver ion at a carbon paste electrode modified with carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashkhourian, J.; Javadi, S.; Ana, F.N.

    2011-01-01

    A carbon paste electrode (CPE) was modified with multi-wall carbon nanotubes and successfully applied to the determination of silver ion by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. Compared to a conventional CPE, a remarkably improved peak current response and sensitivity is observed. The analytical procedure consisted of an open circuit accumulation step for 2 min in -0.4 V, this followed by an anodic potential scan between +0.2 and + 0.6 V to obtain the voltammetric peak. The oxidation peak current is proportional to the concentration of silver ion in the range from 1.0 x 10 -8 to 1.0 x 10 -5 mol L -1 , with a detection limit of 1.8 x 10 -9 mol L -1 after an accumulation time of 120 s. The relative standard deviation for 7 successive determinations of Ag(I) at 0.1 μM concentration is 1.99%. The procedure was validated by determining Ag(I) in natural waters. (author)

  9. Electrocatalytic Study of Paracetamol at a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Nickel Nanocomposite Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Sing Ngai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, simple, and sensitive method for the electrochemical determination of paracetamol was developed. A single-walled carbon nanotube/nickel (SWCNT/Ni nanocomposite was prepared and immobilized on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE surface via mechanical attachment. This paper reports the voltammetry study on the effect of paracetamol concentration, scan rate, pH, and temperature at a SWCNT/Ni-modified electrode in the determination of paracetamol. The characterization of the SWCNT/Ni/GCE was performed by cyclic voltammetry. Variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectrometer were used to examine the surface morphology and elemental profile of the modified electrode, respectively. Cyclic voltammetry showed significant enhancement in peak current for the determination of paracetamol at the SWCNT/Ni-modified electrode. A linear calibration curve was obtained for the paracetamol concentration between 0.05 and 0.50 mM. The SWCNT/Ni/GCE displayed a sensitivity of 64 mA M−1 and a detection limit of 1.17 × 10−7 M in paracetamol detection. The proposed electrode can be applied for the determination of paracetamol in real pharmaceutical samples with satisfactory performance. Results indicate that electrodes modified with SWCNT and nickel nanoparticles exhibit better electrocatalytic activity towards paracetamol.

  10. Poly(amidosulfonic acid) modified glassy carbon electrode for determination of isoniazid in pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gongjun; Wang, Cunxiao; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Chenying; Qu, Qishu; Hu, Xiaoya

    2008-06-01

    Amidosulfonic acid was electropolymerized by cyclic voltammetry onto the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to fabricate the chemically modified electrode, which showed high stability, good selectivity and reproducibility for determination of isoniazid. The modified electrode showed an excellent electrocatalytical effect on the oxidation of isoniazid. Under the optimum conditions, there was a good linear relationship between anodic peak current and isoniazid concentration in the range of 5.0 x 10(-8)- 1.0 x 10(-5) M, and a detection limit of 1.0 x 10(-8) M (S/N = 3) was obtained after 120 s at the accumulation potential of - 0.2 V (vs. SCE). This developed method had been applied to the direct determination of isoniazid in injection and tablet samples with satisfactory results.

  11. Electrochemical Determination of Uric Acid at CdTe Quantum Dot Modified Glassy Carbon Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Deng; Rong, Shengzhong; Zhang, Guangteng; Zhang, Yannan; Zhou, Qiang; Liu, Fenghai; Li, Miaojing; Chang, Dong; Pan, Hongzhi

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry were used to investigate the electrochemical behavior of uric acid (UA) at a CdTe quantum dot (QD) modified the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). CdTe QDs, as new semiconductor nanocrystals, can greatly improve the peak current of UA. The anodic peak current of UA was linear with its concentration between 1.0×10(-6) and 4.0×10(-4) M in 0.1 M pH 5.0 phosphate buffer solution. The LOD for UA at the CdTe electrode (1.0×10(-7) M) was superior to that of the GCE. In addition, we also determined the effects of scan rate, pH, and interferences of UA for the voltammetric behavior and detection. The results indicated that modified electrode possessed excellent reproducibility and stability. Finally, a new and efficient electrochemical sensor for detecting UA was developed.

  12. Electrochemical sensor for hazardous food colourant quinoline yellow based on carbon nanotube-modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Wu, Kangbing; Chen, Jianwei; Zhou, Yikai

    2011-09-15

    A novel electrochemical method using multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT) film-modified electrode was developed for the detection of quinoline yellow. In pH 8 phosphate buffer, an irreversible oxidation peak at 0.71V was observed for quinoline yellow. Compared with the unmodified electrode, the MWNT film-modified electrode greatly increases the oxidation peak current of quinoline yellow, showing notable enhancement effect. The effects of pH value, amount of MWNT, accumulation potential and time were studied on the oxidation peak current of quinoline yellow. The linear range is from 0.75 to 20mgL(-1), and the limit of detection is 0.5mgL(-1). It was applied to the detection of quinoline yellow in commercial soft drinks, and the results consisted with the value that obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Electrochemical behavior of adrenaline at the carbon atom wire modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue Kuanhong [Chemistry Department, Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Bio-medical Function Materials, 122 NingHai Road, Nanjing, JiangSu 210097 (China)], E-mail: khxue@njnu.edu.cn; Liu Jiamei [Chemistry Department, Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Bio-medical Function Materials, 122 NingHai Road, Nanjing, JiangSu 210097 (China); Wei Ribing [Chemistry Department, Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Bio-medical Function Materials, 122 NingHai Road, Nanjing, JiangSu 210097 (China); Chen Shaopeng [Chemistry Department, Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Bio-medical Function Materials, 122 NingHai Road, Nanjing, JiangSu 210097 (China)

    2006-09-11

    Electrochemical behavior of adrenaline at an electrode modified by carbon atom wires (CAWs), a new material, was investigated by cyclic voltammetry combined with UV-vis spectrometry, and forced convection method. As to the electrochemical response of redox of adrenaline/adrenalinequinone couple in 0.50 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, at a nitric acid treated CAW modified electrode, the anodic and cathodic peak potentials E {sub pa} and E {sub pc} shifted by 87 mV negatively and 139 mV in the positive direction, respectively, and standard heterogeneous rate constant k {sup 0} increased by 16 times compared to the corresponding bare electrode, indicating the extraordinary activity of CAWs in electrocatalysis for the process.

  14. Electrochemical behavior of adrenaline at the carbon atom wire modified electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kuan-Hong; Liu, Jia-Mei; Wei, Ri-Bing; Chen, Shao-Peng

    2006-09-01

    Electrochemical behavior of adrenaline at an electrode modified by carbon atom wires (CAWs), a new material, was investigated by cyclic voltammetry combined with UV-vis spectrometry, and forced convection method. As to the electrochemical response of redox of adrenaline/adrenalinequinone couple in 0.50 M H 2SO 4, at a nitric acid treated CAW modified electrode, the anodic and cathodic peak potentials Epa and Epc shifted by 87 mV negatively and 139 mV in the positive direction, respectively, and standard heterogeneous rate constant k0 increased by 16 times compared to the corresponding bare electrode, indicating the extraordinary activity of CAWs in electrocatalysis for the process.

  15. Electrochemical behavior of adrenaline at the carbon atom wire modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Kuanhong; Liu Jiamei; Wei Ribing; Chen Shaopeng

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical behavior of adrenaline at an electrode modified by carbon atom wires (CAWs), a new material, was investigated by cyclic voltammetry combined with UV-vis spectrometry, and forced convection method. As to the electrochemical response of redox of adrenaline/adrenalinequinone couple in 0.50 M H 2 SO 4 , at a nitric acid treated CAW modified electrode, the anodic and cathodic peak potentials E pa and E pc shifted by 87 mV negatively and 139 mV in the positive direction, respectively, and standard heterogeneous rate constant k 0 increased by 16 times compared to the corresponding bare electrode, indicating the extraordinary activity of CAWs in electrocatalysis for the process

  16. Preparation and characterization of diethylene glycol bis(2-aminophenyl) ether-modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isbir, Aybueke A.; Solak, Ali Osman; Ustuendag, Zafer; Bilge, Selen; Kilic, Zeynel

    2006-01-01

    Diethylene glycol bis(2-aminophenyl) ether (DGAE) diazonium salt was covalently electrografted on a glassy carbon (GC) surface and behavior of this novel surface was investigated. Synthesis of DGAE diazonium salt (DGAE-DAS) and in situ modification of GC electrode were performed in aqueous media containing NaNO 2 , keeping the temperature below +4 deg. C. For the characterization of the modified electrode surface by cyclic voltammetry, dopamine (DA) was used to prove the attachment of the DGAE-DAS on the GC surface. Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to observe the molecular bound properties of the adsorbates at the DGAE-modified GC surface (GC-DGAE). The EIS results were analyzed using the Randles equivalent circuit. The charge transfer resistance on bare GC and the modified surface were calculated using the model equivalent circuit for the ferrocene redox system. Surface coverage was found as 0.4 showing the presence of high pinhole and defects in the modified electrode. The rate constant of electron transfer through the monolayer was calculated for ferrocene. Working potential range and the stability of the DGAE-modified GC electrode was also determined

  17. Preparation and characterization of diethylene glycol bis(2-aminophenyl) ether-modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isbir, Aybueke A. [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Solak, Ali Osman [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: osolak@science.ankara.edu.tr; Ustuendag, Zafer [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Bilge, Selen [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Kilic, Zeynel [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-07-28

    Diethylene glycol bis(2-aminophenyl) ether (DGAE) diazonium salt was covalently electrografted on a glassy carbon (GC) surface and behavior of this novel surface was investigated. Synthesis of DGAE diazonium salt (DGAE-DAS) and in situ modification of GC electrode were performed in aqueous media containing NaNO{sub 2}, keeping the temperature below +4 deg. C. For the characterization of the modified electrode surface by cyclic voltammetry, dopamine (DA) was used to prove the attachment of the DGAE-DAS on the GC surface. Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to observe the molecular bound properties of the adsorbates at the DGAE-modified GC surface (GC-DGAE). The EIS results were analyzed using the Randles equivalent circuit. The charge transfer resistance on bare GC and the modified surface were calculated using the model equivalent circuit for the ferrocene redox system. Surface coverage was found as 0.4 showing the presence of high pinhole and defects in the modified electrode. The rate constant of electron transfer through the monolayer was calculated for ferrocene. Working potential range and the stability of the DGAE-modified GC electrode was also determined.

  18. Electrochemical behavior of an anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil at methylene blue modified carbon paste electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukkitgar, Shikandar D.; Shetti, Nagaraj P.

    2016-01-01

    A novel sensor for the determination of 5-fluorouracil was constructed by electrochemical deposition of methylene blue on surface of carbon paste electrode. The electrode surface morphology was studied using Atomic force microscopy and XRD. The electrochemical activity of modified electrode was characterized using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse method. The developed sensor shows impressive enlargement in sensitivity of 5-fluorouracil determination. The peak currents obtained from differential pulse voltammetry was linear with concentration of 5-fluorouracil in the range 4 × 10 −5 –1 × 10 −7 M and detection limit and quantification limit were calculated to be 2.04 nM and 6.18 nM respectively. Further, the sensor was successfully applied in pharmaceutical and biological fluid sample analysis. - Highlights: • Electrochemical oxidation of 5-fluorouracil has been investigated for first time at methylene blue modified carbon paste electrode • The electrode process was irreversible and diffusion controlled • Probable electrochemical mechanism was proposed which involved two proton and two electron transfer reaction • The LOD and LOQ values were calculated to be 2.04 nM and 6.18 nM, respectively, with good selectivity and sensitivity. • Proposed method was applied to 5-Fluorouracil determination in pharmaceutical and spiked human urine samples

  19. Glassy carbon electrodes modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes for the determination of ascorbic acid by square-wave voltammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiwalled carbon nanotubes were used to modify the surface of a glassy carbon electrode to enhance its electroactivity. Nafion served to immobilise the carbon nanotubes on the electrode surface. The modified electrode was used to develop an analytical method for the analysis of ascorbic acid (AA by square-wave voltammetry (SWV. The oxidation of ascorbic acid at the modified glassy carbon electrode showed a peak potential at 315 mV, about 80 mV lower than that observed at the bare (unmodified electrode. The peak current was about threefold higher than the response at the bare electrode. Replicate measurements of peak currents showed good precision (3% rsd. Peak currents increased with increasing ascorbic acid concentration (dynamic range = 0.0047–5.0 mmol/L and displayed good linearity (R2 = 0.994. The limit of detection was 1.4 μmol/L AA, while the limit of quantitation was 4.7 μmol/L AA. The modified electrode was applied to the determination of the amount of ascorbic acid in four brands of commercial orange-juice products. The measured content agreed well (96–104% with the product label claim for all brands tested. Recovery tests on spiked samples of orange juice showed good recovery (99–104%. The reliability of the SWV method was validated by conducting parallel experiments based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with absorbance detection. The observed mean AA contents of the commercial orange juice samples obtained by the two methods were compared statistically and were found to have no significant difference (P = 0.05.

  20. Electrocatalytic Determination of Isoniazid by a Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Poly (Eriochrome Black T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Asadpour-Zeynali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work poly eriochrome black T (EBT was electrochemically synthesized on the glassy carbon electrode as electrode modifier. On the modified electrode, voltammetric behavior of isoniazid (INH was investigated. The poly (EBT-modified glassy carbon electrode has excellent electrocatalytic ability for the electrooxidation of isoniazid. This fact was appeared as a reduced overpotential of INH oxidation in a wide operational pH range from 2 to 13. It has been found that the catalytic peak current depends on the concentration of INH and solution pH. The number of electrons involved in the rate determining step was found 1. The diffusion coefficient of isoniazid was also estimated using chronoamperometry technique. The experimental results showed that the mediated oxidation peak current of isoniazid is linearly dependent on the concentration of isoniazid in the ranges of 8.0 × 10-6 – 1.18 × 10-3 M and 2.90 × 10-5 M – 1.67× 10-3 M with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV and amperometry methods, respectively. The detection limits (S/N = 3 were found to be 6.0 μM and 16.4 μM by DPV and amperometry methods, respectively. This developed method was applied to the determination of isoniazid in tablet samples with satisfactory results.

  1. Electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of polyoxometalate-ordered mesoporous carbon modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ming; Guo Liping; Lin Fanyun; Liu Haixia

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we have developed a convenient and efficient method for the functionalization of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) using polyoxometalate H 6 P 2 Mo 18 O 62 .xH 2 O (P 2 Mo 18 ). By the method, glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with P 2 Mo 18 which was immobilized on the channel surface of OMC was prepared and characterized for the first time. The large specific surface area and porous structure of the modified OMC particles result in high heteropolyacid loading, and the P 2 Mo 18 entrapped in this order matrix is stable. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to give insight into the intermolecular interaction between OMC and P 2 Mo 18 . The electrochemical behavior of the modified electrode was studied in detail, including pH-dependence, stability and so on. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry studies demonstrated that P 2 Mo 18 /OMC/GC electrode has high stability, fast response and good electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of nitrite, bromate, idonate, and hydrogen peroxide. The mechanism of catalysis on P 2 Mo 18 /OMC/GC electrode was discussed. Moreover, the development of our approach for OMC functionalization suggests the potential applications in catalysis, molecular electronics and sensors

  2. Simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol at gold nanoparticles mesoporous silica modified carbon paste electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashkhourian, J., E-mail: tashkhourian@susc.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71456 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Daneshi, M.; Nami-Ana, F. [Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71456 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Behbahani, M.; Bagheri, A. [Department of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • An electrochemical sensor based on gold nanoparticles mesoporous silica modified carbon paste electrode was developed. • The electrode provides an accessible surface for simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol. • Hydroquinone and catechol are highly toxic to both environment and human even at very low concentrations. - Abstract: A new electrochemical sensor based on gold nanoparticles mesoporous silica modified carbon paste electrode (AuNPs-MPS) was developed for simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol. Morphology and structure of the AuNPs-MPS were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior of hydroquinone and catechol were investigated using square wave voltammetry and the results indicate that the electrochemical responses are improved significantly at the modified electrode. The observed oxidative peaks separation of about 120 mV made possible the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol in their binary-mixture. Under the optimized condition, a linear dynamic range of 10.0 μM–1.0 mM range for hydroquinone with the detection limit of 1.2 μM and from 30.0 μM–1.0 mM for catechol with the detection limit of 1.1 μM were obtained. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the recovery studies of hydroquinone and catechol in spiked tap water samples.

  3. Gold nanoparticles directly modified glassy carbon electrode for non-enzymatic detection of glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Gang; Shu, Honghui; Ji, Kai [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, No. 368 Youyi Avenue, Wuchang, Wuhan 430062 (China); Oyama, Munetaka [Department of Material Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan); Liu, Xiong [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, No. 368 Youyi Avenue, Wuchang, Wuhan 430062 (China); He, Yunbin, E-mail: ybhe@hubu.edu.cn [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, No. 368 Youyi Avenue, Wuchang, Wuhan 430062 (China)

    2014-01-01

    This work describes controllable preparation of gold nanoparticles on glassy carbon electrodes by using the seed mediated growth method, which contains two steps, namely, nanoseeds attachment and nanocrystals growth. The size and the dispersion of gold nanoparticles grown on glassy carbon electrodes could be easily tuned through the growth time based on results of field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Excellent electrochemical catalytic characteristics for glucose oxidation were observed for the gold nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrodes (AuNPs/GC), resulting from the extended active surface area provided by the dense gold nanoparticles attached. It exhibited a wide linear range from 0.1 mM to 25 mM with the sensitivity of 87.5 μA cm{sup −2} mM{sup −1} and low detection limit down to 0.05 mM for the sensing of glucose. The common interfering species such as chloride ion, ascorbic acid, uric acid and 4-acetamidophenol were verified having no interference effect on the detection of glucose. It is demonstrated that the seed mediated method is one of the facile approaches for fabricating Au nanoparticles modified substrates, which could work as one kind of promising electrode materials for the glucose nonenzymatic sensing.

  4. Immobilization of Glucose Oxidase on Modified-Carbon-Paste-Electrodes for Microfuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laksmi Ambarsari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Glucose oxidase (GOx is being developed for many applications such as an implantable fuel cell, due to its attractive property of operating under physiological conditions. This study reports the functional immobilization of glucose oxidase onto polyaniline-nanofiber-modified-carbon-paste-electrodes (GOx/MCPE as bioanodes in fuel cell applications. In particular, GOx is immobilized onto the electrode surface via a linker molecule (glutaraldehyde. Polyaniline, synthesized by the interfacial polymerization method, produces a morphological form of nanofibers (100-120 nm which have good conductivity. The performance of the polyaniline-modified-carbon-paste-electrode (MCPE was better than the carbon- paste-electrode (CPE alone. The optimal pH and temperature of the GOx/MCPE were 4.5 (in 100 mM acetate buffer and 65 °C, respectively. The GOx/MCPE exhibit high catalytic performances (activation energy 16.4 kJ mol-1, have a high affinity for glucose (Km value 37.79 µM and can have a maximum current (Imax of 3.95 mA. The sensitivity of the bioelectrode also was high at 57.79 mA mM-1 cm-2.

  5. Development of carbon paste electrodes modified by molecularly imprinted polymer as potentiometry sensor of uric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanah, Miratul; Darmokoesoemo, Handoko; Widayanti, Nesti; Kadmi, Yassine; Elmsellem, Hicham; Kusuma, Heri Septya

    The development of carbon paste electrodes modified by molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for the potentiometric analysis of uric acid was carried out in this study. The aim of the study was to determine the optimum composition of the electrode constituent material, the optimum pH of the uric acid solution, and the performance of the electrode, which was measured by its response time, measurement range, Nernst factor, detection limits, selectivity coefficient, precision, accuracy, and life time. MIP was made from methyl methacrylate as the monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, and uric acid as the template. Electrodes that give optimum performance were produced from carbon, MIP, and paraffin with a ratio of 40:25:35 (% w/w). The obtained results show that the measurement of uric acid solution gives optimum results at pH 5, Nernst factor of 30.19 mV/decade, and a measurement range of 10-6-10-3 M. The minimum detection limit of this method was 3.03.10-6 M, and the precision and accuracy toward uric acid with concentration of 10-6-10-3 M ranged between 1.36-2.03% and 63.9-166%. The selectivity coefficient value was less than 1, which indicated that the electrode was selective against uric acid and not interfered with by urea. This electrode has a response time of less than 2 min; its life time is 8 weeks with 104 usage times.

  6. Electrocatalytic oxidation of deferiprone and its determination on a carbon nanotube-modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadegari, H. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 16315-1618, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jabbari, A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 16315-1618, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: jabbari@kntu.ac.ir; Heli, H.; Moosavi-Movahedi, A.A. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimian, K. [Arasto Pharmaceutical Chemicals Inc., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khodadadi, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    The electrochemical behavior of the anti-thalassemia and anti-HIV replication drug, deferiprone, was investigated on a carbon nanotube-modified glassy carbon (GC-CNT) electrode in phosphate buffer solution, pH 7.40 (PBS). During oxidation of deferiprone, two irreversible anodic peaks, with E{sub 1}{sup 0}=452 and E{sub 2}{sup 0}=906mV, appeared, using GC-CNT. Cyclic voltammetric study indicated that the oxidation process is irreversible and diffusion controlled. The number of exchanged electrons in the electro-oxidation process was obtained, and the data indicated that deferiprone is oxidized via two two-electron steps. The results revealed that carbon nanotube (CNT) promotes the rate of oxidation by increasing the peak current, so that deferiprone is oxidized at lower potentials, which thermodynamically is more favorable. This result was confirmed by impedance measurements. The diffusion coefficient, electron-transfer coefficient and heterogeneous electron-transfer rate constant of deferiprone were found to be 1.49 x 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, 0.44, and 3.83 x 10{sup -3} cm s{sup -1}, respectively. A sensitive, simple and time-saving differential-pulse voltammetric procedure was developed for the analysis of deferiprone. Using the proposed method, deferiprone can be determined with a detection limit of 5.25 x 10{sup -7} M. The applicability of the method to direct assays of spiked human serum and urine fluids is described.

  7. Electrochemical impedance-based DNA sensor using a modified single walled carbon nanotube electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Jessica E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Nanomaterials and Nanomanufacturing Research Center, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Pillai, Shreekumar [Center for NanoBiotechnology Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL (United States); Ram, Manoj Kumar, E-mail: mkram@usf.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Nanomaterials and Nanomanufacturing Research Center, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Kumar, Ashok [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Nanomaterials and Nanomanufacturing Research Center, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Singh, Shree R. [Center for NanoBiotechnology Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL (United States)

    2011-07-20

    Carbon nanotubes have become promising functional materials for the development of advanced electrochemical biosensors with novel features which could promote electron-transfer with various redox active biomolecules. This paper presents the detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium using chemically modified single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with single stranded DNA (ssDNA) on a polished glassy carbon electrode. Hybridization with the corresponding complementary ssDNA has shown a shift in the impedance studies due to a higher charge transfer in ssDNA. The developed biosensor has revealed an excellent specificity for the appropriate targeted DNA strand. The methodologies to prepare and functionalize the electrode could be adopted in the development of DNA hybridization biosensor.

  8. Application of graphene oxide/lanthanum-modified carbon paste electrode for the selective determination of dopamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Fengying; Feng, Chenqi; Fu, Ning; Wu, Huihui; Jiang, Jibo, E-mail: jibojiang0506@163.com; Han, Sheng, E-mail: hansheng654321@sina.com

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • The effective surface area of the modified CPE has been expanded after self-assembly. • The GO–La composite exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity toward DA. • The GO–La/CPE presented high selectivity, sensitivity, excellent stability and repeatability. - Abstract: A home-made carbon paste electrode (CPE) was reformed by graphene oxide (GO)/lanthanum (La) complexes, and a modified electrode, called GO–La/CPE, was fabricated for the selective determination of dopamine (DA) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Several factors affecting the electrocatalytic performance of the modified sensor were investigated. Owning to the combination of GO and La ions, the GO–La/CPE sensor exhibited large surface area, well selectivity, good repeatability and stability in the oxidation reaction of DA. At optimal conditions, the response of the GO–La/CPE electrode for determining DA was linear in the region of 0.01–0.1 μM and 0.1–400.0 μM. The limit of detection was down to 0.32 nM (S/N = 3). In addition, this modified electrode was successfully applied to the detection of DA in real urine and serum samples by using standard adding method, showing its promising application in the electroanalysis of real samples.

  9. Electrochemical and DFT study of an anticancer and active anthelmintic drug at carbon nanostructured modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalkhani, Masoumeh; Beheshtian, Javad; Salehi, Maryam

    2016-12-01

    The electrochemical response of mebendazole (Meb), an anticancer and effective anthelmintic drug, was investigated using two different carbon nanostructured modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCE). Although, compared to unmodified GCE, both prepared modified electrodes improved the voltammetric response of Meb, the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) modified GCE showed higher sensitivity and stability. Therefore, the CNTs-GCE was chosen as a promising candidate for the further studies. At first, the electrochemical behavior of Meb was studied by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse and square wave voltammetry. A one step reversible, pH-dependent and adsorption-controlled process was revealed for electro-oxidation of Meb. A possible mechanism for the electrochemical oxidation of Meb was proposed. In addition, electronic structure, adsorption energy, band gap, type of interaction and stable configuration of Meb on the surface of functionalized carbon nanotubes were studied by using density functional theory (DFT). Obtained results revealed that Meb is weakly physisorbed on the CNTs and that the electronic properties of the CNTs are not significantly changed. Notably, CNTs could be considered as a suitable modifier for preparation of the modified electrode for Meb analysis. Then, the experimental parameters affecting the electrochemical response of Meb were optimized. Under optimal conditions, high sensitivity (b(Meb)=dIp,a(Meb)/d[Meb]=19.65μAμM(-1)), a low detection limit (LOD (Meb)=19nM) and a wide linear dynamic range (0.06-3μM) was resulted for the voltammetric quantification of Meb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of cyanide in wastewaters using modified glassy carbon electrode with immobilized silver hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles on multiwall carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noroozifar, Meissam; Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Taheri, Aboozar

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → GC electrode modified with silver hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles (SHFNPs) immobilized on MWCNT. → Modified electrode use for determination of Cyanide in waste water. → The detection limit of the sensor is 8.3 nM. → The linear range is from 40.0 nM to 150.0 μM. - Abstract: The sensitive determination of cyanide in wastewaters using modified GC electrode with silver hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles (SHFNPs) immobilized on multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) was reported. The immobilization of SHFNPs on MWCNT was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM image showed that the SHFNPs retained the spherical morphology after immobilized on MWCNT. The size of SHFNPs was examined around 27 nm. The GC/MWCNT-SHFNPs was used for the determination of cyanide in borax buffer (BB) solution (pH 8.0). Using square wave voltammetry, the current response of cyanide increases linearly while increasing its concentration from 40.0 nM to 150.0 μM and a detection limit was found to be 8.3 nM (S/N = 3). The present modified electrode was also successfully used for the determination of 5.0 μM cyanide in the presence of common contaminants at levels presenting in industrial wastewaters. The practical application of the present modified electrode was demonstrated by measuring the concentration of cyanide in industrial wastewater samples. Moreover, the studied sensor exhibited high sensitivity, good reproducibility and long-term stability.

  11. Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase and glucose biosensing on a hydroxyl fullerenes modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yun-Fei; Yang, Tian; Yang, Xiao-Lu; Zhang, Yu-Shuai; Xiao, Bao-Lin; Hong, Jun; Sheibani, Nader; Ghourchian, Hedayatollah; Hong, Tao; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2014-10-15

    Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase (GOD) was achieved when GOD-hydroxyl fullerenes (HFs) nano-complex was immobilized on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode and protected with a chitosan (Chit) membrane. The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrometry (UV-vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and circular dichroism spectropolarimeter (CD) methods were utilized for additional characterization of the GOD, GOD-HFs and Chit/GOD-HFs. Chit/HFs may preserve the secondary structure and catalytic properties of GOD. The cyclic voltammograms (CVs) of the modified GC electrode showed a pair of well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks with the formal potential (E°') of 353 ± 2 mV versus Ag/AgCl at a scan rate of 0.05 V/s. The heterogeneous electron transfer constant (ks) was calculated to be 2.7 ± 0.2s(-1). The modified electrode response to glucose was linear in the concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 1.0mM, with a detection limit of 5 ± 1 μM. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km(app)) was 694 ± 8 μM. Thus, the modified electrode could be applied as a third generation biosensor for glucose with high sensitivity, selectivity and low detection limit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrochemical sensor for ranitidine determination based on carbon paste electrode modified with oxovanadium (IV) salen complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymundo-Pereira, Paulo A; Teixeira, Marcos F S; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando; Dockal, Edward R; Bonifácio, Viviane Gomes; Marcolino, Luiz H

    2013-10-01

    The preparation and electrochemical characterization of a carbon paste electrode modified with the N,N-ethylene-bis(salicyllideneiminato)oxovanadium (IV) complex ([VO(salen)]) as well as its application for ranitidine determination are described. The electrochemical behavior of the modified electrode for the electroreduction of ranitidine was investigated using cyclic voltammetry, and analytical curves were obtained for ranitidine using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) under optimized conditions. The best voltammetric response was obtained for an electrode composition of 20% (m/m) [VO(salen)] in the paste, 0.10 mol L(-1) of KCl solution (pH 5.5 adjusted with HCl) as supporting electrolyte and scan rate of 25 mV s(-1). A sensitive linear voltammetric response for ranitidine was obtained in the concentration range from 9.9×10(-5) to 1.0×10(-3) mol L(-1), with a detection limit of 6.6×10(-5) mol L(-1) using linear sweep voltammetry. These results demonstrated the viability of this modified electrode as a sensor for determination, quality control and routine analysis of ranitidine in pharmaceutical formulations. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Electrochemical detection of phenolic estrogenic compounds at clay modified carbon paste electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkamssa, N.; Ouattara, L.; Kawachi, A.; Tsujimura, M.; Isoda, H.; Chtaini, A.; Ksibi, M.

    2015-04-01

    A simple and sensitive electroanalytical method was developed to determine the Endocrine Disrupting chemical 4-tert-octylphenol on clay modified carbon paste electrode (Clay/CPE). The electrochemical response of the proposed electrode was studied by means of cyclic and square wave voltammetry. It has found that the oxidation of 4-tert-octylphenol on the clay/CPE displayed a well-defined oxidation peak. Under these optimal conditions, a linear relation between concentrations of 4-tert-octylphenol current response was obtained over range of 7.26×10-6 to 3.87×10-7 with a detection and quantification limit of 9.2×10-7 M and 3.06×10-6 M, respectively. The correlation coefficient is 0.9963. The modified electrode showed suitable sensitivity, high stability and an accurate detection of 4-tert-octylphenol. The modified electrode also relevant suitable selectivity for various phenolic estrogenic compounds.

  14. Electrochemical Treatment of Wastewater Containing Mixed Reactive Dyes Using Carbon Nanotube Modified Cathode Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Djafarzadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, advanced electrochemical oxidation processes are promising methods for the treatment of wastewaters containing organic dyes. One of these methods is the Electro-Fenton (EF technique in which an electrical current is applied to the cathode and anode electrodes to promote electrochemical reactions that generate hydroxyl radicals which mineralize organic pollutants and remove them from wastewater. To carry out the Electro-Fenton process iIn this work, the carbon paper (CP electrode was initially modified with carbon nanotubes (CNT to produce the CP-CNT electrode which was used as the cathode to remove a mixture of organic dyestuff (containing Reactive Blue 69, Reactive Red 195, and Reactive Yellow 84 from wastewaters. Comparison of the two types of cathode electrodes (i.e., CNT and the modified CP-CNT showed that the CP-CNT outperformed the CP electrode. The EF process was employed to treat 500 ml of a mixture of dyes (50 mg/L of each dye containing sodium soulfate and Fe+3 ions. The results revealed that the highest color removal efficiency was achieved when a current of 300 mA was applied for 210 min. COD measurments were used to calculate the effective current and power consumption. It was found that the 300 mA current applied over a period of 210 min yielded the highest effective current and the lowest power consumption. The amount of dyes mineralized by the EF process in the dye solution indicated that 78% of the initial COD had been removed under the above conditions. It may be concluded that the Electro-Fenton process can be successfully used for the treatment of wastewaters containing mixtures of dye pollutants. Cathode electrode type, electrical current, and electrolysis duration were identified as the parameters affecting the process.

  15. Sensitive determination of buformin using poly-aminobenzoic acid modified glassy carbon electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Ying Jin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Glassy carbon electrode, which is used to electrochemically determine the content of buformin, is modified with an electropolymerized film of p-aminobenzoic acid in pH 7.0 acetate buffer solution (ABS. The polymer showed an excellent electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of buformin. In pH 7.0 ABS, the cathodic peak current increased linearly over three concentration intervals of buformin, and the detection limit (S/N=3 was 2.0×10−9 g/mL. The method was successfully applied to directly determine buformin in tablets with standard addition recoveries of 95.8–102.5%. The proposed method is simple, cheap and highly efficient. Keywords: Chemically modified electrode, Aminobenzoic acid, Buformin

  16. Determination of nitrite ion at schiff's base derivative of chitosan modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhongliang; Zhang Jianmei; Liu Shujuan; Peng Daofeng

    2007-01-01

    Chitosan react with salicyclaldehyde by schiff's base reaction in water, a polymer product S-CTS can be prepared. Glassy carbon electrode was modified with S-CTS by drop-coating method. Then, its electrocatalysis effect on the reduction of nitrite by the films of S-CTS was investigated. Experimental results showed that S-CTS modified electrode could reduce the oxidation overpotential of nitrite in pH4.5 B-R buffer solution, the peak current of reduction was proportional to the concentration of nitrite and a good linear relation from 0.20 to 81 mg/kg (r=0.9899) with a detection limit of 2.8 x 10 -7 mol/L was obtained. The methods have been applied to determining nitrite in some samples, satisfactory results were obtained. (authors)

  17. Using Poly-L-Histidine Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode to Trace Hydroquinone in the Sewage Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive voltammetric method for trace measurements of hydroquinone in the sewage water is described. The poly-L-histidine is prepared to modify the glassy carbon electrode in order to improve the electrochemical catalysis of interesting substances such as hydroquinone. The influence of the base solution, pH value, and scanning speed on the tracing of hydroquinone is discussed, and the experimental procedures and conditions are optimized. The laboratory results show that it is possible to construct a linear calibration curve between the peak current of hydroquinone on modified electrode and its concentration at the level of 0.00001 mol/L. The potential limitation of the method is suggested by a linear peaking shift model as well. The method was successfully applied to the determination of hydroquinone in the actual sample of industrial waste water.

  18. Electrocatalytic behaviour and application of manganese porphyrin/gold nanoparticle- surface modified glassy carbon electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebarchievici, I., E-mail: incemc@incemc.ro [National Institute of Research for Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Aurel Paunescu Podeanu Street 144, 300569 Timisoara (Romania); Tăranu, B.O. [National Institute of Research for Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Aurel Paunescu Podeanu Street 144, 300569 Timisoara (Romania); Birdeanu, M. [National Institute of Research for Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Aurel Paunescu Podeanu Street 144, 300569 Timisoara (Romania); Institute of Chemistry Timisoara of Romanian Academy, M. Viteazul Ave. 24, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Rus, S.F. [National Institute of Research for Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Aurel Paunescu Podeanu Street 144, 300569 Timisoara (Romania); Fagadar-Cosma, E., E-mail: efagadar@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemistry Timisoara of Romanian Academy, M. Viteazul Ave. 24, 300223 Timisoara (Romania)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Mn-porphyrin/gold nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon electrodes were obtained. • AFM investigations of thin films display multilayer of triangular type architecture. • Oxidation and reduction processes of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} are diffusion controled. • There is a linear dependence between H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration and the currents intensity. • The modified electrodes show better electrochemical detection ability to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Abstract: The main purpose of this research was to obtain manganese porphyrin/gold nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon electrodes and to use them for the detection of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Two sets of modified electrodes were prepared by drop-cast deposition of 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-methyl-phenyl)porphyrinato manganese(III) chloride alone and of the same Mn-porphyrin and gold-colloid solution and comparatively characterized by Raman, UV–vis, ellipsometry, AFM and TEM microscopy, XPS and cyclic voltammetry. XPS spectrum recorded for GC-MnP-nAu modified electrode displayed the characteristic signals of gold nanoparticles. The optical parameters have greater values for GC-MnP-nAu in comparison with GC-MnP, due to increasing charge transfer efficiency. The MnP-nAu film mediates the electron transfer between H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and GC, evidenced by an increase in the current intensity of the anodic peak, and facilitates the electrochemical regeneration of oxidized H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at cathodic potentials. From the cyclic voltammetry experiments a linear relationship between H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration vs oxidation and reduction currents was observed. The linear dependence between density of current and the square root of the scan rate indicates that the oxidation and reduction processes of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} are diffusion controlled. The GC-MnP-nAu modified electrode shows great potential as electrochemical sensor for determination of hydrogen peroxide.

  19. Voltammetric determination of carbidopa and folic acid using a modified carbon nanotubes paste electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshtkar Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel electrochemical sensor for the selective and sensitive detection of carbidopa in presence of large excess of folic acid at physiological pH was developed by the bulk modification of carbon paste electrode (CPE with carbon nanotubes (CNTs and vinylferrocene. Large peak separation, good sensitivity and stability allow this modified electrode to analyze carbidopa individually and simultaneously along with folic acid. Applying square wave voltammetry (SWV, a linear dynamic range of 1.0×10-6- 7.0×10-4 M with detection limit of 2.0×10-7 M was obtained for carbidopa. Finally, the proposed method was applied to the determination of carbidopa and folic acid in urine sample.

  20. Electrochemical detection of carbidopa using a ferrocene-modified carbon nanotube paste electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATEMEH KARIMI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A chemically modified carbon paste electrode (MCPE containing ferrocene (FC and carbon nanotubes (CNT was constructed. The electrochemical behavior and stability of the MCPE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The electrocatalytic activity of the MCPE was investigated and it showed good characteristics for the oxidation of carbidopa (CD in phosphate buffer solution (PBS. A linear concentration range of 5 to 600 μM CD, with a detection limit of 3.6±0.17 μM CD, was obtained. The diffusion coefficient of CD and the transfer coefficient ( were also determined. The MCPE showed good reproducibility, remarkable long-term stability and especially good surface renewability by simple mechanical polishing. The results showed that this electrode could be used as an electrochemical sensor for the determination of CD in real samples, such as urine samples.

  1. Determination of specific capacitance of modified candlenut shell based carbon as electrode material for supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakir, M.; Budi, P.; Raya, I.; Karim, A.; Wulandari, R.; Sobrido, A. B. J.

    2018-03-01

    Surface modification of candlenut shell carbon (CSC) using three chemicals: nitric acid (HNO3), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) has been carried out. Activation of CSC was performed using H3PO4 solution with different ratio between CSC and activator. Carbon surface area was determined by methylene blue adsorption method. Surface characterization was performed using FTIR spectroscopy and Boehm titration method. Specific capacitance of electrode prepared from CSAC (candlenuts shell activated carbon) materials was quantified by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) measurement. The surface area before and after activation are 105,127 m2/g, 112,488 m2/g, 124,190 m2/g, and 135,167 m2/g, respectively. Surface modification of CSAC showed the improvement in the chemical functionality of CSAC surface. Analyses using FTIR spectroscopy and Boehm titration showed that modifications with HNO3, H2SO4 and H2O2 on the surface of the CSAC increased the number of oxygen functional groups. As a consequence, the specific capacitance of CSAC modified with 65% HNO3 attained the highest value (127 μF/g). There is an incredible increase by a factor of 298% from electrode which was constructed with un-modified CSAC material. This increase correlates to the largest number of oxygen functional groups of CSAC modified with nitric acid (HNO3).

  2. Study and Electrochemical Determination of Tyrosine at Graphene Nanosheets Composite Film Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Behpour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A graphene nanosheets (GNS film coated glassy carbon electrode (GCE was fabricated for sensitive determination of tyrosine (Tyr. The GNS-based sensor was characterized by scanning electron microscope and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The voltammetric techniques were employed to study electro-oxidation of Tyr. The results revealed that the modified electrode showed an electrocatalytic activity toward the anodic oxidation of Tyr by a marked enhancement in the current intensity and the shift in the oxidation potential to lower values (50 mV in comparison with the bare GCE. Some kinetic parameters such as the electron transfer coefficient (α were also determined for the Tyr oxidation. The detection limit  for Tyr was found to be 2.0×10-8 M (n=9, and the peak current increases linearly with the Tyr concentration within the molar concentration ranges of 5.0 ×10-6 to 1.2 ×10-4 M. The modified electrode shows good sensitivity, selectivity and stability. The prepared electrode was applied for the determination of Tyr in real sample.

  3. Electrocatalytic behavior of carbon paste electrode modified with metal phthalocyanines nanoparticles toward the hydrogen evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbaspour, Abdolkarim; Norouz-sarvestani, Fatemeh; Mirahmadi, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The new construction of a carbon paste electrode impregnated with nanoparticles of Zn and Ni phthalocyanine (nano ZnPc and nano NiPc). ► The decrease overpotential and higher current value obtained in nano ZnPc and nano NiPc compared to bulky ZnPc and bulky NiPc, respectively. ► Types of the catalyst and pH of the solution affect the electro catalytic proton reduction reaction considerably. - Abstract: This paper describes the construction of a carbon paste electrode (CPE) impregnated with nanoparticles of Zn and Ni phthalocyanine (nano ZnPc and nano NiPc). These new electrodes (nano ZnPc-CPE and nano NiPc-CPE) reveal interesting electrocatalytic behavior toward hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Voltammetric characteristics indicated that the proposed electrodes display better electrocatalytic activity compared to their corresponding bulky modified metal phthalocyanines (MPcs) in minimizing overpotential and increasing the reduction current of HER. Electrocatalytic activities irregularly change with the pH of the solution. However by increasing the pH while nano MPcs are still active, bulky MPcs are almost inactive, and their corresponding ΔE increase by increasing the pH.

  4. Coulometric determination of dissolved hydrogen with a multielectrolytic modified carbon felt electrode-based sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Hiroaki; Yamawaki, Yosuke; Sasaki, Kosuke; Uchiyama, Shunichi

    2013-06-01

    A multielectrolytic modified carbon electrode (MEMCE) was fabricated by the electrolytic-oxidation/reduction processes. First, the functional groups containing nitrogen atoms such as amino group were introduced by the electrode oxidation of carbon felt electrode in an ammonium carbamate aqueous solution, and next, this electrode was electroreduced in sulfuric acid. The redox waves between hydrogen ion and hydrogen molecule at highly positive potential range appeared in the cyclic voltammogram obtained by MEMCE. A coulometric cell using MEMCE with a catalytic activity of electrooxidation of hydrogen molecule was constructed and was used for the measurement of dissolved hydrogen. The typical current vs. time curve was obtained by the repetitive measurement of the dissolved hydrogen. These curves indicated that the measurement of dissolved hydrogen was finished completely in a very short time (ca. 10 sec). A linear relationship was obtained between the electrical charge needed for the electrooxidation process of hydrogen molecule and dissolved hydrogen concentration. This indicates that the developed coulometric method can be used for the determination of the dissolved hydrogen concentration.

  5. Electrochemical Determination of Caffeine Content in Ethiopian Coffee Samples Using Lignin Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meareg Amare

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignin film was deposited at the surface of glassy carbon electrode potentiostatically. In contrast to the unmodified glassy carbon electrode, an oxidative peak with an improved current and overpotential for caffeine at modified electrode showed catalytic activity of the modifier towards oxidation of caffeine. Linear dependence of peak current on caffeine concentration in the range 6×10-6 to 100×10-6 mol L−1 with determination coefficient and method detection limit (LoD = 3 s/slope of 0.99925 and 8.37×10-7 mol L−1, respectively, supplemented by recovery results of 93.79–102.17% validated the developed method. An attempt was made to determine the caffeine content of aqueous coffee extracts of Ethiopian coffees grown in four coffee cultivating localities (Wonbera, Wolega, Finoteselam, and Zegie and hence to evaluate the correlation between users preference and caffeine content. In agreement with reported works, caffeine contents (w/w% of 0.164 in Wonbera coffee; 0.134 in Wolega coffee; 0.097 in Finoteselam coffee; and 0.089 in Zegie coffee were detected confirming the applicability of the developed method for determination of caffeine in a complex matrix environment. The result indicated that users’ highest preference for Wonbera and least preference for Zegie cultivated coffees are in agreement with the caffeine content.

  6. Electrochemical Determination of Caffeine Content in Ethiopian Coffee Samples Using Lignin Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Meareg; Aklog, Senait

    2017-01-01

    Lignin film was deposited at the surface of glassy carbon electrode potentiostatically. In contrast to the unmodified glassy carbon electrode, an oxidative peak with an improved current and overpotential for caffeine at modified electrode showed catalytic activity of the modifier towards oxidation of caffeine. Linear dependence of peak current on caffeine concentration in the range 6 × 10 -6 to 100 × 10 -6  mol L -1 with determination coefficient and method detection limit (LoD = 3 s/slope) of 0.99925 and 8.37 × 10 -7  mol L -1 , respectively, supplemented by recovery results of 93.79-102.17% validated the developed method. An attempt was made to determine the caffeine content of aqueous coffee extracts of Ethiopian coffees grown in four coffee cultivating localities (Wonbera, Wolega, Finoteselam, and Zegie) and hence to evaluate the correlation between users preference and caffeine content. In agreement with reported works, caffeine contents (w/w%) of 0.164 in Wonbera coffee; 0.134 in Wolega coffee; 0.097 in Finoteselam coffee; and 0.089 in Zegie coffee were detected confirming the applicability of the developed method for determination of caffeine in a complex matrix environment. The result indicated that users' highest preference for Wonbera and least preference for Zegie cultivated coffees are in agreement with the caffeine content.

  7. The electrocatalytic reduction of nitrate in water on Pd/Sn-modified activated carbon fiber electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Qu, Jiuhui; Wu, Rongcheng; Lei, Pengju

    2006-03-01

    The Pd/Sn-modified activated carbon fiber (ACF) electrodes were successfully prepared by the impregnation of Pd2+ and Sn2+ ions onto ACF, and their electrocatalytic reduction capacity for nitrate ions in water was evaluated in a batch experiment. The electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR). The capacity for nitrate reduction depending on Sn content on the electrode and the pH of electrolyte was discussed at length. The results showed that at an applied current density of 1.11 mA cm(-2), nitrate ions in water (solution volume: 400 mL) were reduced from 110 to 3.4 mg L(-1) after 240 min with consecutive change of intermediate nitrite. Ammonium ions and nitrogen were formed as the main final products. The amount of other possible gaseous products (including NO and N2O) was trace. With the increase of Sn content on the Pd/Sn-modified ACF electrode, the activity for nitrate reduction went up to reach a maximum (at Pd/Sn = 4) and then decreased, while the selectivity to N2 was depressed. Higher pH value of electrolyte exhibited more suppression effect on the reduction of nitrite than that of nitrate. However, no significant influence on the final ammonia formation was observed. Additionally, Cu ion in water was found to cover the active sites of the electrode to make the electrode deactivated.

  8. A novel enzymatic glucose sensor based on Pt nanoparticles-decorated hollow carbon spheres-modified glassy carbon electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhana, Charles; Bo, Xiang-Jie; Ju, Jian; Guo, Li-Ping

    2012-10-01

    A new glucose biosensor was developed based on hollow carbon spheres decorated with platinum nanoparticles (Pt/HCSs)-modified glassy carbon electrode immobilized with glucose oxidase (GOx) with the help of Nafion. The Pt nanoparticles were well dispersed on the HCSs with an average size of 2.29 nm. The detection of glucose was achieved via electrochemical detection of the enzymatically liberated H2O2 at +0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl at physiologic pH of 7.4. The Pt/HCSs-modified electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activities toward both the oxidation and reduction of H2O2. The glucose biosensor showed good electrocatalytic performance in terms of high sensitivity (4.1 μA mM-1), low detection limit (1.8 μM), fast response time tested with this biosensor and a good recovery was achieved for the two spiked serum samples.

  9. Electrochemical determination of bisphenol A at ordered mesoporous carbon modified nano-carbon ionic liquid paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghong; Zhai, Xiurong; Liu, Xinsheng; Wang, Ling; Liu, Herong; Wang, Haibo

    2016-02-01

    A simple bisphenol A (BPA) sensor was successfully fabricated based on ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-3 modified nano-carbon ionic liquid paste electrode (CMK-3/nano-CILPE). The nanostructure of CMK-3 and the surface morphologies of modified electrodes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrochemical properties of the fabricated electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The fabricated sensor displayed excellent electroactivity towards bisphenol A using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). Experimental conditions influencing the analytical performance of the modified electrode were optimized. Under optimal conditions, the oxidation peak current was proportional to BPA concentration in the range from 0.2 μM to 150 μM with a detection limit of 0.05 μM (S/N=3). This method was successfully used for determination of BPA leached from drinking bottle and plastic bag with good recoveries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Electrochemical Glucose Oxidation Using Glassy Carbon Electrodes Modified with Au-Ag Nanoparticles: Influence of Ag Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Gabriela García-Morales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of glassy carbon modified electrodes bearing Aux-Agy nanoparticles to catalyze the electrochemical oxidation of glucose. In particular, the paper shows the influence of the Ag content on this oxidation process. A simple method was applied to prepare the nanoparticles, which were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. These nanoparticles were used to modify glassy carbon electrodes. The effectiveness of these electrodes for electrochemical glucose oxidation was evaluated. The modified glassy carbon electrodes are highly sensitive to glucose oxidation in alkaline media, which could be attributed to the presence of Aux-Agy nanoparticles on the electrode surface. The voltammetric results suggest that the glucose oxidation speed is controlled by the glucose diffusion to the electrode surface. These results also show that the catalytic activity of the electrodes depends on the Ag content of the nanoparticles. Best results were obtained for the Au80-Ag20 nanoparticles modified electrode. This electrode could be used for Gluconic acid (GA production.

  11. Voltammetric sensor for caffeine based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with Nafion and graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, F.; Wang, F.; Zhao, W.; Zhou, J.; Liu, Y.; Zou, L.; Ye, B.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a voltammetric sensor for caffeine that is based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with Nafion and graphene oxide (GO). It exhibits a good affinity for caffeine (resulting from the presence of Nafion), and excellent electrochemical response (resulting from the pressence of GO) for the oxidation of caffeine. The electrode enables the determination of caffeine in the range from 4.0 x 10 -7 to 8.0 x 10 -5 mol L -1 , with a detection limit of 2.0 x 10 -7 mol L -1 . The sensor displays good stability, reproducibility, and high sensitivity. It was successfully applied to the quantitative determination of caffeine in beverages. (author)

  12. Macroscale porous carbonized polydopamine-modified cotton textile for application as electrode in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lizhen; Zhao, Shaofei; He, Miao

    2018-02-01

    The anode material is a crucial factor that significantly affects the cost and performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this study, a novel macroscale porous, biocompatible, highly conductive and low cost electrode, carbonized polydopamine-modified cotton textile (NC@CCT), is fabricated by using normal cheap waste cotton textiles as raw material via a simple in situ polymerization and carbonization treatment as anode of MFCs. The physical and chemical characterizations show that the macroscale porous and biocompatible NC@CCT electrode is coated by nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticles and offers a large specific surface area (888.67 m2 g-1) for bacterial cells growth, accordingly greatly increases the loading amount of bacterial cells and facilitates extracellular electron transfer (EET). As a result, the MFC equipped with the NC@CCT anode achieves a maximum power density of 931 ± 61 mW m-2, which is 80.5% higher than that of commercial carbon felt (516 ± 27 mW m-2) anode. Moreover, making full use of the normal cheap waste cotton textiles can greatly reduce the cost of MFCs and the environmental pollution problem.

  13. Molecular imprinted polypyrrole modified glassy carbon electrode for the determination of tobramycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Yola, Mehmet Lütfi; Özaltın, Nuran; Atar, Necip; Üstündağ, Zafer; Uzun, Lokman

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Atomic force microscopic images of (A) bare GCE and (B) TOB imprinted PPy/GCE surface. - Highlights: • Glassy carbon electrode based on molecularly imprinted polypyrrole was prepared. • The developed surfaces were characterized by AFM, FTIR, EIS and CV. • The developed nanosensor was applied to egg and milk samples. - Abstract: Over the past two decades, molecular imprinted polymers have attracted a broad interest from scientists in sensor development. In the preparation of molecular imprinted polymers the desired molecule (template) induces the creation of specific recognition sites in the polymer. In this study, the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) based on molecularly imprinted polypyrrole (PPy) was fabricated for the determination of tobramycin (TOB). The developed electrode was prepared by incorporation of a template molecule (TOB) during the electropolymerization of pyrrole on GCE in aqueous solution using cyclic voltammetry (CV) method. The performance of the imprinted and non-imprinted electrodes was evaluated by square wave voltammetry (SWV). The effect of pH, monomer and template concentrations, electropolymerization cycles on the performance of the imprinted and non-imprinted electrodes was investigated and optimized. The non-modified and TOB-imprinted surfaces were characterized by using atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and CV. The linearity range of TOB was 5.0 × 10 −10 –1.0 × 10 −8 M with the detection limit of 1.4 × 10 −10 M. The developed nanosensor was applied successfully for the determination of TOB in egg and milk

  14. Electrochemical behavior of labetalol at an ionic liquid modified carbon paste electrode and its electrochemical determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yan-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical behavior of labetalol (LBT at carbon paste electrode (CPE and an ionic liquid1-benzyl-3-methylimidazolehexafluorophosphate([BnMIM]PF6modified carbon paste electrode([BnMIM]PF6/CPEin Britton-Robinson buffer solution (pH 2.0 was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV and square wave voltammetric (SWV. The experimental results showed that LBT at both the bare CPE and [BnMIM]PF6/CPEshowed an irreversible oxidation process, but at [BnMIM]PF6/CPE its oxidation peak current increased greatly and the oxidation peak potential shifted negatively. The electrode reaction process is a diffusion-controlled process involving one electron transferring accompanied by a participation of one proton at [BnMIM]PF6/CPE. At the same time, the electrochemical kinetic parameters were determined. Under the optimized electrochemical experimental conditions, the oxidation peak currents were proportional to LBT concentration in the range of 7.0 x 10-6-1.0 x 10-4 mol L-1 with the limit of detection(LOD, S/N=3 of 4.810 x 10-8 mol L-1and the limit of quantification(LOQ, S/N=10 of 1.60 x 10-7 mol L-1, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied in the determination of LBT content in commercial tablet samples.

  15. Electrochemical determination of 4-nitrophenol at polycarbazole/N-doped graphene modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yuehua; Wu, Lihua; Lei, Wu; Xia, Xifeng; Xia, Mingzhu; Hao, Qingli

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Polycarbazole/N-doping graphene (PCZ/N-GE) composite was fabricated. • The PCZ/N-GE composite shows good electrocatalytic activity to 4-nitrophenol. • PCZ/N-GE modified electrode was used for determination of 4-nitrophenol. • The proposed sensor exhibits good sensitivity, stability and reproducibility. - Abstract: Polycarbazole (PCZ)/nitrogen-doped graphene (N-GE) composite was prepared by electropolymerization of carbazole on the N-GE modified glass carbon electrode (N-GE/GCE) for fabricating a novel electrochemical sensor for 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). The PCZ/N-GE shows high conductivity and well-distributed nanostructure. The redox behavior of 4-NP at a PCZ/N-GE/GCE was investigated in acetate buffer solution by cyclic voltammetry (CV), compared with the bare GCE, reduced graphene oxide (RGO), N-GE and PCZ modified GCEs. The results indicate that all modified electrodes show the enhanced reduction peak currents. However, the PCZ/N-GE/GCE exhibits the highest peak current and most positive reduction potential of 4-NP, which reflects the PCZ/N-GE composite has the best electrocatalytic activity towards 4-NP. The enhanced electrochemical performance of PCZ/N-GE and the electrocatalytic activity to 4-NP are contributed to the synergic effect of PCZ and N-GE with highly conductivity and large surface area, which can greatly facilitate the electron-transfer processes between the electrolyte and electrode. An electrochemical sensor for 4-NP was developed based on the PCZ/N-GE modified electrode under the optimized conditions. The reduction peak current was linear with the concentration of 4-NP in the range of 8 × 10 -7 ∼2 × 10 -5 M. The low detection limit of the sensor was estimated to be 0.062 μM (S/N = 3). The sensor based on PCZ/N-GE/GCE was also applied to the detection of 4-NP in real water samples

  16. Adsorptive Stripping Determination of Trace Nickel Using Bismuth Modified Mesoporous Carbon Composite Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Ruizhuo; Feng, Kai; Su, Yongfu; Zong, Tianyu; Zhou, Xia; Lei, Tian; Jia, Pengpeng; Cao, Penghui; Zhao, Yuefeng; Guo, Ning; Chang, Haizhou; Miao, Yuqing; Zhou, Shuang

    Novel bismuth nanoparticle-modified mesoporous carbon (MPC) was successfully prepared on a glassy carbon electrode (Bi@MPC/GCE) for the adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of nickel by complexing with dimethylglyoxime (DMG). The presence of MPC obviously improved the properties of Bi particles like the electron transfer ability, particle size and hydrophicility, important parameters to achieve preferable analytical performances of Bi@MPC/GCE toward Ni(II). The best electrochemical behaviors of Bi@MPC/GCE was obtained for the stripping determination of Ni(II), compared with electrodes individually modified with Bi and MPC. The synergic effect between metallic Bi and ordered MPC (forming a 3D array like Bi microelectrodes) made major contribution to such improved electrochemical properties of Bi@MPC/GCE for Ni(II) sensing. The good linear analytical curve was achieved in a Ni(II) concentration range from 0.1μM to 5.0μM with a correlation coefficient of 0.9995. The detection limit and sensitivity were calculated to be 1.2nM (S/N=3) and 1410μAmM-1cm-2, respectively. The new method was successfully applied to Ni(II) determination in soybean samples with recoveries higher than 99% and proved to be a simple, efficient alternative for Ni(II) monitoring in real samples.

  17. The electrochemical behavior of some podands at a benzo[c]cinnoline modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isbir, Aybueke A.; Solak, Ali Osman; Uestuendag, Zafer; Bilge, Selen; Natsagdorj, Amgalan; Kilic, Emine; Kilic, Zeynel

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the grafting of benzo[c]cinnoline (BCC) molecules on glassy carbon (GC) electrode surface. The attachment of BCC molecules to carbon substrate is induced by the electrochemical reduction of the corresponding diazonium salt. The modification of GC with BCC diazonium salt was done in aprotic solution and proved by blocking of dopamine electron transfer. The presence of BCC at the GC surface was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). On modified surface, the electrochemical behavior of two different types of podands and the catalytic effects of the GC-BCC surface were studied. The XPS was used to monitor element characteristics of the adsorbates on the GC surface and confirm the attachment of BCC molecules to the GC surface

  18. Electrochemical Study of Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode with Carboxyphenyl Diazonium Salt in Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariem BOUROUROU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The covalent grafting of carboxyphenyl functionalities to planar carbon substrates by reaction with 2-carboxybenezenediazonium salt has been studied in aqueous acid solution. The surface was characterized, before and after the functionnalization process, by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV in order to control and to prove the formation of a coating on the carbon surface. The results indicate the presence of substituted phenyl groups on the investigated surface. Electrochemical impedance measurements show that the slowing down of the electron transfer kinetics was more evident by increasing the number of cycles resulting to higher DEp and RCT parameters. Besides, the effect of the pH on the electron transfer processes of the Fe(CN63-/4- at the modified electrode is studied. By changing the solution pH the terminal group’s charge state would vary, based on which the surface pKa value is estimated.

  19. Differential pulse voltammetric determination of nanomolar concentrations of antiviral drug acyclovir at polymer film modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorraji, Parisa S.; Jalali, Fahimeh, E-mail: fjalali@razi.ac.ir

    2016-04-01

    An electrochemical sensor for the sensitive detection of acyclovir was developed by the electropolymerization of Eriochrome black T at a pretreated glassy carbon electrode. The surface morphology of the modified electrode was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Under the optimized conditions, a significant electrochemical improvement was observed toward the electrooxidation of acyclovir on the modified electrode surface relative to the unmodified electrode. The detection limit of 12 nM and two linear calibration ranges of 0.03–0.3 μM and 0.3–1.5 μM were obtained for acyclovir determination using a differential pulse voltammetric method in acetate buffer (0.1 M, pH 4.0). Real sample studies were carried out in human blood serum and pharmaceutical formulations, which offered good recovery (98–102%). The electrode showed excellent reproducibility, selectivity and antifouling effects. - Graphical abstract: Eriochrome black T (EBT) was electropolymerized at the surface of a pretreated glassy carbon electrode. The modified electrode enhanced the oxidation current of acyclovir, significantly. The sensor was used in the determination of acyclovir in human blood serum samples and pharmaceutical dosages. - Highlights: • Construction of a voltammetric sensor for acyclovir is described. • Eriochrome black T was electropolymerized at the electrode surface. • The sensor improved the sensitivity of the electrode for monitoring acyclovir. • The recoveries and standard deviations were acceptable in spiked human blood serum. • The proposed sensor had good lifetime to be used in biological matrices.

  20. Differential pulse voltammetric determination of nanomolar concentrations of antiviral drug acyclovir at polymer film modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorraji, Parisa S.; Jalali, Fahimeh

    2016-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor for the sensitive detection of acyclovir was developed by the electropolymerization of Eriochrome black T at a pretreated glassy carbon electrode. The surface morphology of the modified electrode was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Under the optimized conditions, a significant electrochemical improvement was observed toward the electrooxidation of acyclovir on the modified electrode surface relative to the unmodified electrode. The detection limit of 12 nM and two linear calibration ranges of 0.03–0.3 μM and 0.3–1.5 μM were obtained for acyclovir determination using a differential pulse voltammetric method in acetate buffer (0.1 M, pH 4.0). Real sample studies were carried out in human blood serum and pharmaceutical formulations, which offered good recovery (98–102%). The electrode showed excellent reproducibility, selectivity and antifouling effects. - Graphical abstract: Eriochrome black T (EBT) was electropolymerized at the surface of a pretreated glassy carbon electrode. The modified electrode enhanced the oxidation current of acyclovir, significantly. The sensor was used in the determination of acyclovir in human blood serum samples and pharmaceutical dosages. - Highlights: • Construction of a voltammetric sensor for acyclovir is described. • Eriochrome black T was electropolymerized at the electrode surface. • The sensor improved the sensitivity of the electrode for monitoring acyclovir. • The recoveries and standard deviations were acceptable in spiked human blood serum. • The proposed sensor had good lifetime to be used in biological matrices.

  1. Determination of zinc and cadmium with characterized Electrodes of carbon and polyurethane modified by a bismuth film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jossy Karla Brasil Bernardelli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to use electrodes modified with bismuth films for the determination of zinc and cadmium. The film was electrodeposited ex situ on a composite carbon electrode with polyurethane and 2% metallic bismuth (2BiE and on a carbon bar electrode (CBE. The electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Through differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, the electrodes 2BiE and CBE containing bismuth films showed a limit of detection (LOD of 5.56 × 10-5 and 3.07 × 10-5 g.L-1 for cadmium and 1.24 × 10-4 and 1.53 × 10-4 g.L-1 for zinc, respectively. The presence of a bismuth film increased the sensitivity of both electrodes.

  2. Electrocatalytic reduction of dioxygen by cobalt porphyrin-modified glassy carbon electrode with single-walled carbon nanotubes and nafion in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ayoung; Jeong, Haesang; Kim, Songmi; Jo, Suhee; Jeon, Seungwon

    2008-01-01

    Cobalt porphyrin (CoP)-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and Nafion demonstrated a higher electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of dioxygen in 0.1 M H 2 SO 4 solution. Cyclic and hydrodynamic voltammetry at the CoP-SWNTs/GCE-modified electrodes in O 2 -saturated aqueous solutions was used to study the electrocatalytic pathway. Compared with the CoP/GCE-modified electrodes, the reduction potential of dioxygen at the CoP-SWNTs/GCE-modified electrodes was shifted to the positive direction and the limiting current was greatly increased. Especially, the Co(TMPP)-SWNTs/GCE-modified electrode was catalyzed effectively by the 4e - reduction of dioxygen to water, because hydrodynamic voltammetry revealed the transference of approximately four electrons for dioxygen reduction and the minimal generation of hydrogen peroxide in the process of dioxygen reduction

  3. ELECTROCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF ETHANOL, 2- PROPANOL AND 1-BUTANOL ON GLASSY CARBON ELECTRODE MODIFIED WITH NICKEL OXIDE FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Benchettara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the modification of a glassy carbon electrode with nickel oxide film which is performed in two successive steps. In the first one, the electrochemical deposition of metallic nickel on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE is achieved in 0.1M boric acid; in the second step, the metallic deposit is anodically oxidized in 0.1M NaOH. These two operations were carried out in a three electrode cell with a filiform platinum auxiliary electrode, a SCE as potential reference and a working microelectrode of modified glassy carbon with nickel oxides. This electrode is characterized by several electrochemical techniques and is used for the catalytic determination of ethanol, 2-propanol and 1-butanol in 0.1 M NaOH. The proposed chemical mechanism shows that NiO2 acts as a mediator.

  4. ELECTROCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF ETHANOL, 2- PROPANOL AND 1-BUTANOL ON GLASSY CARBON ELECTRODE MODIFIED WITH NICKEL OXIDE FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Benchettara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the modification of a glassy carbon electrode with nickel oxide film which is performed in two successive steps. In the first one, the electrochemical deposition of metallic nickel on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE is achieved in 0.1M boric acid; in the second step, the metallic deposit is anodically oxidized in 0.1M NaOH. These two operations were carried out in a three electrode cell with a filiform platinum auxiliary electrode, a SCE as potential reference and a working microelectrode of modified glassy carbon with nickel oxides. This electrode is characterized by several electrochemical techniques and is used for the catalytic determination of ethanol, 2-propanol and 1-butanol in 0.1 M NaOH. The proposed chemical mechanism shows that NiO2 acts as a mediator.

  5. Amperometric sensing of anti-HIV drug zidovudine on Ag nanofilm-multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafati, Amir Abbas, E-mail: aa_rafati@basu.ac.ir; Afraz, Ahmadreza

    2014-06-01

    The zidovudine (ZDV) is the first drug approved for the treatment of HIV virus infection. The detection and determination of this drug are very importance in human serum because of its undesirable effects. A new ZDV sensor was fabricated on the basis of nanocomposite of silver nanofilm (Ag-NF) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) immobilized on glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The modified electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) techniques. Results showed that the electrodeposited silver has a nanofilm structure and further electrochemical studies showed that the prepared nanocomposite has high electrocatalytic activity and is appropriate for using in sensors. The amperometric technique under optimal conditions is used for the determination of ZDV ranging from 0.1 to 400 ppm (0.37 μM–1.5 mM) with a low detection limit of 0.04 ppm (0.15 μM) (S/N = 3) and good sensitivity. The prepared sensor possessed accurate and rapid response to ZDV and shows an average recovery of 98.6% in real samples. - Highlights: • New anti-HIV drug sensor was fabricated on the basis of nanomaterials composite. • The GCE modified by prepared hydrophilic MWCNT silver nanoparticles. • Silver nanofilm electrodeposited on MWCNT/GCE and characterized by SEM, EDX, CV and LSV • Response of electrode to ZDV was thoroughly investigated by electrochemical techniques.

  6. Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase (Complex III) electrochemistry at multi-walled carbon nanotubes/Nafion modified glassy carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelster, Lindsey N.; Minteer, Shelley D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The electron transport chain is important to the understanding of metabolism in the living cell. ► Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase is a membrane bound complex of the electron transport chain (Complex III). ► The paper details the first bioelectrochemical characterization of ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase at an electrode. - Abstract: Electron transport chain complexes are critical to metabolism in living cells. Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase (Complex III) is responsible for carrying electrons from ubiquinol to cytochrome c, but the complex has not been evaluated electrochemically. This work details the bioelectrochemistry of ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase of the electron transport chain of tuber mitochondria. The characterization of the electrochemistry of this enzyme is investigated in carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotube/tetrabutyl ammonium bromide-modified Nafion ® modified glassy carbon electrodes by cyclic voltammetry. Increasing concentrations of cytochrome c result in a catalytic response from the active enzyme in the nanotube sandwich. The experiments show that the enzyme followed Michaelis–Menten kinetics with a K m for the immobilized enzyme of 2.97 (±0.11) × 10 −6 M and a V max of 6.31 (±0.82) × 10 −3 μmol min −1 at the electrode, but the K m and V max values decreased compared to the free enzyme in solution, which is expected for immobilized redox proteins. This is the first evidence of ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase bioelectrocatalysis.

  7. Electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on redox polymer/carbon nanotube modified electrodes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsan, Madalina M; Ghica, M Emilia; Brett, Christopher M A

    2015-06-30

    The aim of this review is to present the contributions to the development of electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on polyphenazine or polytriphenylmethane redox polymers together with carbon nanotubes (CNT) during recent years. Phenazine polymers have been widely used in analytical applications due to their inherent charge transport properties and electrocatalytic effects. At the same time, since the first report on a CNT-based sensor, their application in the electroanalytical chemistry field has demonstrated that the unique structure and properties of CNT are ideal for the design of electrochemical (bio)sensors. We describe here that the specific combination of phenazine/triphenylmethane polymers with CNT leads to an improved performance of the resulting sensing devices, because of their complementary electrical, electrochemical and mechanical properties, and also due to synergistic effects. The preparation of polymer/CNT modified electrodes will be presented together with their electrochemical and surface characterization, with emphasis on the contribution of each component on the overall properties of the modified electrodes. Their importance in analytical chemistry is demonstrated by the numerous applications based on polymer/CNT-driven electrocatalytic effects, and their analytical performance as (bio) sensors is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Methionine – Au Nanoparticle Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode: a Novel Platform for Electrochemical Detection of Hydroquinone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahong HE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A high sensitive electrochemical sensor based on methionine/gold nanoparticles (MET/AuNPs modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE was fabricated for the quantitative detection of hydroquinone (HQ. The as-modified electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD techniques. The electrochemical performance of the sensor to HQ was investigated by using cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry, which revealed its excellent electrocatalytic activity and reversibility towards HQ. The separation of anodic and cathodic peak (∆Ep was decreased from 471 mV to 75 mV. The anodic peak current achieved under the optimum conditions was linear with the HQ concentration ranging from 8 μM to 400 μM with the detection limit 0.12 μM (3σ. The as-fabricated sensor also showed a good selectivity towards HQ without demonstrating interference from other coexisting species. Furthermore, the sensor showed a good performance for HQ detection in environmental water, which suggests its potential practical application. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6477

  9. Sensitive Electrochemical Detection of Dopamine With a Nitrogen-doped Graphene Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wencheng Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper nitrogen-doped graphene (NG nanosheets were used as the modifier on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE. The modified electrode (NG/GCE was further applied to the sensitive detection of dopamine (DA by voltammetric method. Due to the unique properties of NG such as large surface area and excellent electrocatalytic activity, electrochemical response of DA was greatly enhanced on NG/GCE with a pair of well-defined redox peaks appeared on cyclic voltammogram. Electrochemical behaviors of DA on NG/GCE were carefully investigated with the electrochemical parameters calculated. Under the selected conditions the oxidation peak currents of DA had a good linear relationship with its concentration in the range from 8.0×10–7 mol L–1 to 8.0×10–4 mol L–1 with a detection limit of 2.55×10–7 mol L–1 (3σ. The proposed method was further applied to the DA injection samples determination with satisfactory results. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  10. Biomedical Applications of Modified Carbon Glassy Electrode Sensor with Nanoparticles and Dendrimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon W. LEUNG

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported the development of a biosensor platform that is capable of measuring biometabolites and environmental sensitive species, such as peroxide and nitrate/nitrate, to concentrations in the order of ppb (parts per billion or lower. In this investigation, we modified our platform with dendrimers to enhance its performance. Zero and second generation of dendrimers were coated on the surface of a carbon glassy electrode which was then modified with l-glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH and α-keto glutarate. The resulting electrode was tested with ammonium solutions, concentrations ranged from 2 to 300 nM at pH 7.4; the results were satisfactory. Measurements at lower concentrations had better resolution than at higher concentrations and it is believed that the measurement limit can be lower than 2 nM. This biosensor platform was proven to be versatile and can be employed as a platform for ultrasensitive detecting devices in many biomedical and environmental applications.

  11. Diagnostics Strategies with Electrochemical Affinity Biosensors Using Carbon Nanomaterials as Electrode Modifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuzano, Susana; Yáñez-Sedeño, Paloma; Pingarrón, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis is often the key to successful patient treatment and survival. The identification of various disease signaling biomarkers which reliably reflect normal and disease states in humans in biological fluids explain the burgeoning research field in developing new methodologies able to determine the target biomarkers in complex biological samples with the required sensitivity and selectivity and in a simple and rapid way. The unique advantages offered by electrochemical sensors together with the availability of high affinity and specific bioreceptors and their great capabilities in terms of sensitivity and stability imparted by nanostructuring the electrode surface with different carbon nanomaterials have led to the development of new electrochemical biosensing strategies that have flourished as interesting alternatives to conventional methodologies for clinical diagnostics. This paper briefly reviews the advantages of using carbon nanostructures and their hybrid nanocomposites as electrode modifiers to construct efficient electrochemical sensing platforms for diagnosis. The review provides an updated overview of some selected examples involving attractive amplification and biosensing approaches which have been applied to the determination of relevant genetic and protein diagnostics biomarkers. PMID:28035946

  12. Electrochemical determination of serotonin in urine samples based on metal oxide nanoparticles/MWCNT on modified glassy carbon electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omolola E. Fayemi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical response of serotonin on the modified electrode based on multiwalled-carbon-nanotube (MWCNT doped respectively with nickel, zinc and iron oxide nanoparticles coating on glassy carbon electrode (GCE at physiological pH 7 was determined using cyclic voltammetry (CV and square wave voltammetry (SWV. The modified GCE/MWCNT-metal oxide electrodes exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the detection of serotonin at large peak current and lower oxidation potentials compared to other electrodes investigated. The dynamic range for the serotonin determination was between 5.98 × 10−3 μM to 62.8 μM with detection limits 118, 129 and 166 nM for GCE/MWCNT-NiO, GCE/MWCNT-ZnO and GCE/MWCNT-Fe3O4 sensors respectively. GCE-MWCNT-NiO was the best electrode in terms of serotonin current response, electrode stability, resistance to fouling and limit of detection towards the analyte. The developed sensors were found to be electrochemically stable, reusable, economically effective due to their extremely low operational cost, and have demonstrated good limit of detection, sensitivity and selectivity towards serotonin determination in urine samples. Keywords: Metal oxides nanoparticles, Multiwalled carbon nanotubes, Glassy carbon electrode, Serotonin, Cyclic voltammetry, Square wave voltammetry

  13. WO3 nanorods-modified carbon electrode for sustained electron uptake from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 with suppressed biofilm formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Feng; Yuan, Shi-Jie; Li, Wen-Wei; Chen, Jie-Jie; Ko, Chi-Chiu; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • WO 3 nanorods-modified carbon paper was used as the anode of MFC. • WO 3 nanorods suppressed biofilm growth on the electrode surface. • Sustained electron transfer from cells to electrode via riboflavin was achieved. • C–WO 3 nanorods enable stable and efficient EET process in long-time operation. - Abstract: Carbon materials are widely used as electrodes for bioelectrochemical systems (BES). However, a thick biofilm tends to grow on the electrode surface during continuous operation, resulting in constrained transport of electrons and nutrients at the cell-electrode interface. In this work, we tackled this problem by adopting a WO 3 -nanorods modified carbon electrode (C–WO 3 nanorods), which completely suppressed the biofilm growth of Shewanella Oneidensis MR-1. Moreover, the C–WO 3 nanorods exhibited high electric conductivity and strong response to riboflavin. These two factors together make it possible for the C–WO 3 nanorods to maintain a sustained, efficient process of electron transfer from the MR-1 planktonic cells. As a consequence, the microbial fuel cells with C–WO 3 nanorods anode showed more stable performance than the pure carbon paper and WO 3 -nanoparticles systems in prolonged operation. This work suggests that WO 3 nanorods have the potential to be used as a robust and biofouling-resistant electrode material for practical bioelectrochemical applications

  14. Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes/Graphite Nanosheets Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for the Simultaneous Determination of Acetaminophen and Dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Susu; He, Ping; Zhang, Guangli; Lei, Wen; He, Huichao

    2015-01-01

    Graphite nanosheets prepared by thermal expansion and successive sonication were utilized for the construction of a multi-walled carbon nanotubes/graphite nanosheets based amperometric sensing platform to simultaneously determine acetaminophen and dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid in physiological conditions. The synergistic effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphite nanosheets catalyzed the electrooxidation of acetaminophen and dopamine, leading to a remarkable potential difference up to 200 mV. The as-prepared modified electrode exhibited linear responses to acetaminophen and dopamine in the concentration ranges of 2.0 × 10(-6) - 2.4 × 10(-4) M (R = 0.999) and 2.0 × 10(-6) - 2.0 × 10(-4) M (R = 0.998), respectively. The detection limits were down to 2.3 × 10(-7) M for acetaminophen and 3.5 × 10(-7) M for dopamine (S/N = 3). Based on the simple preparation and prominent electrochemical properties, the obtained multi-walled carbon nanotubes/graphite nanosheets modified electrode would be a good candidate for the determination of acetaminophen and dopamine without the interference of ascorbic acid.

  15. Investigation of Ir-modified carbon felt as the positive electrode of an all-vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.H.; Wang, X.D.

    2007-01-01

    Porous graphite felts have been used as electrode materials for all-vanadium redox flow batteries due to their wide operating potential range, stability as both an anode and a cathode, and availability in high surface area. In this paper, the carbon felt was modified by pyrolysis of Ir reduced from H 2 IrCl 6 . ac impedance and steady-state polarization measurements showed that the Ir-modified materials have improved activity and lowered overpotential of the desired V(IV)/V(V) redox process. Ir-modification of carbon felt enhanced the electro-conductivity of electrode materials. The Ir-material, when coated on the graphite felt electrode surface, lowered the cell internal resistance. A test cell was assembled with the Ir-modified carbon felt as the activation layer of the positive electrode, the unmodified raw felt as the activation layer of the negative electrode. At an operating current density of 20 mA cm -2 , a voltage efficiency of 87.5% was achieved. The resistance of the cell using Ir-modified felt decreased 25% compared to the cell using non-modified felt

  16. Anodic stripping voltammetry of antimony using gold nanoparticle-modified carbon screen-printed electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Renedo, Olga; Arcos Martinez, M. Julia

    2007-01-01

    Carbon screen-printed electrodes (CSPE) modified with gold nanoparticles present an interesting alternative in the determination of antimony using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. Metallic gold nanoparticles deposits have been obtained by direct electrochemical deposition. Scanning electron microscopy measurements show that the electrochemically synthesized gold nanoparticles are deposited in aggregated form. Any undue effects caused by the presence of foreign ions in the solution were also analyzed to ensure that common interferents in the determination of antimony by ASV. The detection limit for Sb(III) obtained was 9.44 x 10 -10 M. In terms of reproducibility, the precision of the above mentioned method in %R.S.D. values was calculated at 2.69% (n = 10). The method was applied to determine levels of antimony in seawater samples and pharmaceutical preparations

  17. Manganese dioxide-modified carbon paste electrode for voltammetric determination of riboflavin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmeti, Eda; Kalcher, Kur; Stanković, Dalibor M.; Chaiyo, Sudkate; Švorc, Ľubomir

    2016-01-01

    A carbon paste electrode bulk was modified with MnO 2 and investigated for use as an electrochemical sensor for riboflavin (vitamin B 2 ) using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Riboflavin displays a well expressed oxidation peak at −0.15 V (versus Ag/AgCl) in solutions with a pH value of 2. Effects of pH value, pulse amplitude and pulse time were optimized by employing DPV. The signals obtained are linearly related to the concentrations of riboflavin in the range from 0.02 to 9 μM. Other features include a 15 nM detection limit, and good reproducibility (±3 %) and repeatability (±2 %). Interferences by common compounds were tested, and the method was successfully applied to the determination of riboflavin in pharmaceutical formulations where is gave recoveries in the range from 95 to 97 %. (author)

  18. Detection of Carbofuran with Immobilized Acetylcholinesterase Based on Carbon Nano tubes-Chitosan Modified Electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Sh.; Li, Sh.; Ma, J.; Xiong, F.; Qu, S.; Zhang, Sh.; Li, Sh.

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive and stable enzyme biosensor based on efficient immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to MWNTs-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with chitosan (CS) by layer-by-layer (LBL) technique for rapid determination of carbofuran has been devised. According to the inhibitory effect of carbamate pesticide on the enzymatic activity of AChE, we use carbofuran as a model pesticide. The inhibitory effect of carbofuran on the biosensor was proportional to concentration of carbofuran in the range from 10 -10  g/L to 10 -3  g/L with a detection limit of 10 -12  g/L. This biosensor is a promising new method for pesticide analysis

  19. Glucose biosensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with polythionine and multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwei Tang

    Full Text Available A novel glucose biosensor was fabricated. The first layer of the biosensor was polythionine, which was formed by the electrochemical polymerisation of the thionine monomer on a glassy carbon electrode. The remaining layers were coated with chitosan-MWCNTs, GOx, and the chitosan-PTFE film in sequence. The MWCNTs embedded in FAD were like "conductive wires" connecting FAD with electrode, reduced the distance between them and were propitious to fast direct electron transfer. Combining with good electrical conductivity of PTH and MWCNTs, the current response was enlarged. The sensor was a parallel multi-component reaction system (PMRS and excellent electrocatalytic performance for glucose could be obtained without a mediator. The glucose sensor had a working voltage of -0.42 V, an optimum working temperature of 25°C, an optimum working pH of 7.0, and the best percentage of polytetrafluoroethylene emulsion (PTFE in the outer composite film was 2%. Under the optimised conditions, the biosensor displayed a high sensitivity of 2.80 µA mM(-1 cm(-2 and a low detection limit of 5 µM (S/N = 3, with a response time of less than 15 s and a linear range of 0.04 mM to 2.5 mM. Furthermore, the fabricated biosensor had a good selectivity, reproducibility, and long-term stability, indicating that the novel CTS+PTFE/GOx/MWCNTs/PTH composite is a promising material for immobilization of biomolecules and fabrication of third generation biosensors.

  20. Amperometric sensor for detection of bisphenol A using a pencil graphite electrode modified with polyaniline nanorods and multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poorahong, S.; Thammakhet, C.; Numnuam, A.; Kanatharana, P.; Thavarungkul, P.; Limbut, W.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a simple and highly sensitive amperometric method for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) using pencil graphite electrodes modified with polyaniline nanorods and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The modified electrodes display enhanced electroactivity for the oxidation of BPA compared to the unmodified pencil graphite electrode. Under optimized conditions, the sensor has a linear response to BPA in the 1. 0 and 400 μM concentration range, with a limit of detection of 10 nM (at S/N = 3). The modified electrode also has a remarkably stable response, and up to 95 injections are possible with a relative standard deviation of 4. 2% at 100 μM of BPA. Recoveries range from 86 to 102% for boiling water spiked with BPA from four brands of baby bottles. (author)

  1. Preparation and Performance of Sb-SnO2 / Ti Electrode Modified with Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI Jin-zhi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the electro-catalytic oxidation activity and stability of Sb-SnO2 /Ti electrode,the CNTs-Sb-SnO2 /Ti electrode was prepared by sol-gel-thermal decomposition method. The microstructure and electrochemical properties of the modified electrode was characterized via SEM electrochemical impedance spectroscope ( EIS ,polarization curve and congo red degradation experiments. Furthermore,its the stability was investigated by accelerated life test. The results indicate that when the optimal doping amount of CNTs is 2. 0 g /L the congo red removal rate increases by 14. 7% using the CNTs-Sb-SnO2 /Ti electrode compared with the Sb-SnO2 /Ti electrode. Meanwhile pore structure appears and roughness increases on the surface of modified electrodes leading to larger specific surface area of electrode. Then the modified electrodes exhibit higher oxygen evolution potential and lower charge transfer resistance. Additionally,accelerated life tests reveal that the modified electrode has better electro-catalytic stability while the service life increases by

  2. Nitrite electrochemical sensor based on prussian blue/single-walled carbon nanotubes modified pyrolytic graphite electrode

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adekunle, AS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrite, NO2- (in neutral), and NO (in acidic media) were used as analytical probe to investigate the electrocatalytic properties of Prussian blue nanoparticles (PB) modified edge plane pyrolytic graphite (EPPG) electrode. Results indicate...

  3. An amperometric hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on Co3O4 nanoparticles and multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaçar, Ceren; Dalkiran, Berna; Erden, Pınar Esra; Kiliç, Esma

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrogen peroxide biosensor was constructed by combining the advantageous properties of MWCNTs and Co 3 O 4 . • Incorporating Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles into MWCNTs/gelatin film increased the electron transfer. • Co 3 O 4 /MWCNTs/gelatin/HRP/Nafion/GCE showed strong anti-interference ability. • Hydrogen peroxide was successfully determined in disinfector with an average recovery of 100.78 ± 0.89. - Abstract: In this work a new type of hydrogen peroxide biosensor was fabricated based on the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) by cross-linking on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and gelatin. The introduction of MWCNTs and Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles not only enhanced the surface area of the modified electrode for enzyme immobilization but also facilitated the electron transfer rate, resulting in a high sensitivity of the biosensor. The fabrication process of the sensing surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide was investigated by holding the modified electrode at −0.30 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The biosensor showed optimum response within 5 s at pH 7.0. The optimized biosensor showed linear response range of 7.4 × 10 −7 –1.9 × 10 −5 M with a detection limit of 7.4 × 10 −7 . The applicability of the purposed biosensor was tested by detecting hydrogen peroxide in disinfector samples. The average recovery was calculated as 100.78 ± 0.89

  4. Design of a new hypoxanthine biosensor: xanthine oxidase modified carbon film and multi-walled carbon nanotube/carbon film electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A Carolina; Ghica, M Emilia; Brett, Christopher M A

    2013-04-01

    A new and simple-to-prepare hypoxanthine biosensor has been developed using xanthine oxidase (XOD) immobilised on carbon electrode surfaces. XOD was immobilised by glutaraldehyde cross-linking on carbon film (CF) electrodes and on carbon nanotube (CNT) modified CF (CNT/CF). A comparison of the performance of the two configurations was carried out by the current response using amperometry at fixed potential; the best characteristics being exhibited by XOD/CNT/CF modified electrodes. The effects of electrolyte pH and applied potential were evaluated, and a proposal is made for the enzyme mechanism of action involving competition between regeneration of flavin adenine dinucleotide and reduction of hydrogen peroxide. Under optimised conditions, the determination of hypoxanthine was carried out at -0.2 V vs. a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) with a detection limit of 0.75 μM on electrodes with CNT and at -0.3 V vs. SCE with a detection limit of 0.77 μM on electrodes without CNT. The applicability of the biosensor was verified by performing an interference study, reproducibility and stability were investigated, and hypoxanthine was successfully determined in sardine and shrimp samples.

  5. Stripping voltammetry of technetium using a TOA modified carbon paste electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruf, H.; Schorb, K.

    1989-10-01

    Low concentrations of technetium have been measured DP-stripping-voltammetrically using a carbon paste electrode modified with tri-n-octylamine (TOA-CPE). Preconcentration of the metal ion on the electrode surface accomplished by dipping of the latter in the sample solution which is 2M in HCl, relies on the chemical reaction with the amine acting as a liquid anion exchanger. Both, Tc-IV occurring as the TcCl 6 2- ion in chloride solutions as well as Tc-VII hereby are deposited. Measurements following deposition yield voltammograms of essentially different shapes for the two Tc species. With Tc-IV a characteristic curve with a prominent current signal at -280 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) is obtained which can be evaluated for Tc quantitation. However, starting from Tc-VII, complex voltammograms are registered not allowing direct technetium assays. Nevertheless, after reduction to Tc-IV, e.g. by means of ascorbic acid, also Tc-VII can be quantified reliably by the method described, the lower detection limit for both oxidation states being about 4x10 -8 M. (orig.) [de

  6. Enrichment and stripping voltametric behavior of technetium traces at a carbon paste electrode modified with TTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, R.; Ruf, H.; Ache, H.J.

    1988-06-01

    The possibility of enrichment as well as the stripping voltammetric behavior of technetium traces at a carbon paste electrode modified with thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) was studied. Accumulation of Tc(IV) on the electrode surface occurs without application of a deposition voltage due to complex formation with TTA, probably resulting Tc(TTA) 4 . During the following cathodic potential scan made with the differential pulse mode a characteristic current peak is obtained at -40 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) which increases with Tc concentration and deposition time. However, Tc(IV) gives much more sensitive stripping current signals if a reductive deposition potential of -0.4 V is applied, presumably on account of the formation of Tc(TTA) 3 . In this case an anodic voltammetric scan was applied resulting a stripping peak at about +30 mV, the height of which is related to the concentration of Tc in solution as well as to the time of deposition. Calibration graphs revealed good reproducibility for analytical application. The lower detection limit for Tc(IV) achieved for 1 M sodium chloride solutions 4.6 x 10 -9 M. Tc(VII) is not enriched in the absence of reduction which takes place only from about -0.6 V on with the pH optimally set at 3.5. Therefore it is basically possible to discriminate Tc(IV) from Tc(VII). (orig.) [de

  7. Screen-Printed Carbon Electrodes Modified with Cobalt Phthalocyanine for Selective Sulfur Detection in Cosmetic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Shih

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc films were deposited on the surface of a screen-printed carbon electrode using a simple drop coating method. The cyclic voltammogram of the resulting CoPc modified screen-printed electrode (CoPc/SPE prepared under optimum conditions shows a well-behaved redox couple due to the (CoI/CoII system. The CoPc/SPE surface demonstrates excellent electrochemical activity towards the oxidation of sulfur in a 0.01 mol·L−1 NaOH. A linear calibration curve with the detection limit (DL, S/N = 3 of 0.325 mg·L−1 was achieved by CoPc/SPE coupled with flow injection analysis of the sulfur concentration ranging from 4 to 1120 mg·L−1. The precision of the system response was evaluated (3.60% and 3.52% RSD for 12 repeated injections, in the range of 64 and 480 mg·L−1 sulfur. The applicability of the method was successfully demonstrated in a real sample analysis of sulfur in anti-acne creams, and good recovery was obtained. The CoPc/SPE displayed several advantages in sulfur determination including easy fabrication, high stability, and low cost.

  8. Electrochemical Effect of Different Modified Glassy Carbon Electrodes on the Values of Diffusion Coefficient for Some Heavy Metal Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhi, M M; Alwan, S H; Amir, Y K A; Tee, T W

    2013-01-01

    Glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with carbon nanotubes (CNT), C 60 and activated carbon (AC) by mechanical attachment method and solution evaporation technique to preparation CNT/GCE, C 60 /GCE and AC/GCE, these electrodes were modified in Li + solution via cyclic voltammetry (CV) potential cycling to preparing CNT/Li + /GCE, C 60 /Li + /GCE and AC/Li + /GCE. The sensing characteristics of the modified film electrodes, demonstrated in the application study for different heavy metal ions such as Hg 2+ , Cd 2+ , and Mn 2+ . Cyclic voltammetric effect by chronoamperometry (CA) technique was investigated to determination the diffusion coefficient (D f ) values from Cottrell equation at these ions. Based on Cottrell equation (diffusion coefficient) of the redox current peaks of different heavy metal ions at different modified electrodes were studied to evaluate the sensing of these electrodes by the diffusion coefficient values. The modification of GCE with nano materials and Li + act an enhancement for the redox current peaks to observe that the diffusion process are high at CNT/Li + /GCE, C 60 /Li + /GCE and AC/Li+/GCE, but it has low values at unmodified GCE.

  9. Highly sensitive hydrogen peroxide sensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with platinum nanoparticles on carbon nanofiber heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yang; Fu, Renzhong; Yuan, Jianjun; Wu, Shiyuan; Zhang, Jialiang; Wang, Haiying

    2015-01-01

    We are presenting a sensor for hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) that is based on the use of a heterostructure composed of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs). High-density Pt NPs were homogeneously loaded onto a three-dimensional nanostructured CNF matrix and then deposited in a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The resulting sensor synergizes the advantages of the conducting CNFs and the nanoparticle catalyst. The porous structure of the CNFs also favor the high-density immobilization of the NPs and the diffusion of water-soluble molecules, and thus assists the rapid catalytic oxidation of H 2 O 2 . If operated at a working voltage of −0.2 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), the modified GCE exhibits a linear response to H 2 O 2 in the 5 μM to 15 mM concentration range (total analytical range: 5 μM to 100 mM), with a detection limit of 1.7 μM (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3). The modified GCE is not interfered by species such as uric acid and glucose. Its good stability, high selectivity and good reproducibility make this electrode a valuable tool for inexpensive amperometric sensing of H 2 O 2 . (author)

  10. A novel enzymatic glucose sensor based on Pt nanoparticles-decorated hollow carbon spheres-modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhana, Charles; Bo Xiangjie; Ju Jian; Guo Liping

    2012-01-01

    A new glucose biosensor was developed based on hollow carbon spheres decorated with platinum nanoparticles (Pt/HCSs)-modified glassy carbon electrode immobilized with glucose oxidase (GOx) with the help of Nafion. The Pt nanoparticles were well dispersed on the HCSs with an average size of 2.29 nm. The detection of glucose was achieved via electrochemical detection of the enzymatically liberated H 2 O 2 at +0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl at physiologic pH of 7.4. The Pt/HCSs-modified electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activities toward both the oxidation and reduction of H 2 O 2 . The glucose biosensor showed good electrocatalytic performance in terms of high sensitivity (4.1 μA mM −1 ), low detection limit (1.8 μM), fast response time m ) and the maximum current density (i max ) values for the biosensor were 10.94 mM and 887 μA cm −2 respectively. Furthermore, this biosensor showed an acceptable reproducibility and high stability. The interfering signals from ascorbic acid and uric acid at concentration levels normally found in human blood were not much compared with the response to glucose. Blood serum samples were also tested with this biosensor and a good recovery was achieved for the two spiked serum samples.

  11. Highly sensitive and selective determination of methylergometrine maleate using carbon nanofibers/silver nanoparticles composite modified carbon paste electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalambate, Pramod K.; Rawool, Chaitali R.; Karna, Shashi P.; Srivastava, Ashwini K.

    2016-01-01

    A highly sensitive and selective voltammetric method for determination of Methylergometrine maleate (MM) in pharmaceutical formulations, urine and blood serum samples has been developed based on enhanced electrochemical response of MM at carbon nanofibers and silver nanoparticles modified carbon paste electrode (CNF-AgNP-CPE). The electrode material was characterized by various techniques viz., X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic response of MM at CNF-AgNP-CPE was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Under optimized conditions, the proposed sensor exhibits excellent electrochemical response towards MM. The DPV study shows greatly enhanced electrochemical signal for MM at CNF-AgNP-CPE lending high sensitivity to the proposed sensor for MM detection. The peak (I p ) current for MM is found to be rectilinear in the range 4.0 × 10 −8 –2.0 × 10 −5 M with a detection limit of 7.1 × 10 −9 M using DPV. The feasibility of the proposed sensor in analytical applications was investigated by conducting experiments on commercial pharmaceutical formulations, human urine and blood serum samples, which yielded satisfactory recoveries of MM. The proposed electrochemical sensor offers high sensitivity, selectivity, reproducibility and practical utility. We recommend it as an authentic and productive electrochemical sensor for successful determination of MM. - Highlights: • Voltammetric sensor for methylergometrine maleate using carbon nanofibers and silver nanoparticle - carbon paste electrode • Wide working range, good reproducibility, fast response and high stability were the main advantages of the proposed sensor • Analysis of methylergometrine maleate in pharmaceutical formulations, urine and blood serum samples • Lowest limit of detection obtained for methylergometrine maleate

  12. Nano-structured Ni(II)-curcumin modified glassy carbon electrode for electrocatalytic oxidation of fructose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elahi, M. Yousef; Mousavi, M.F.; Ghasemi, S.

    2008-01-01

    A nano-structured Ni(II)-curcumin (curcumin: 1,7-bis[4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl]-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione) film is electrodeposited on a glassy carbon electrode in alkaline solution. The morphology of polyNi(II)-curcumin (NC) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM results show NC has a nano-globular structure in the range 20-50 nm. Using cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry, chronoamperometry, steady-state polarization measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the nano-structure NC film acts as an efficient material for the electrocatalytic oxidation of fructose. According to the voltammetric studies, the increase in the anodic peak current and subsequent decrease in the corresponding cathodic current, fructose was oxidized on the electrode surface via an electrocatalytic mechanism. The EIS results show that the charge-transfer resistance has as a function of fructose concentration, time interval and applied potential. The increase in the fructose concentration and time interval in fructose solution results in enhanced charge transfer resistance in Nyquist plots. The EIS results indicate that fructose electrooxidation at various potentials shows different impedance behaviors. At lower potentials, a semicircle is observed in the first quadrant of impedance plot. With further increase of the potential, a transition of the semicircle from the first to the second quadrant occurs. Also, the results obtained show that the rate of fructose electrooxidation depends on concentration of OH - . Electron transfer coefficient, diffusion coefficient and rate constant of the electrocatalytic oxidation reaction are obtained. The modified electrode was used as a sensor for determination of fructose with a good dynamic range and a low detection limit

  13. Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Hydroxylamine at a Quinizarine Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode: Application to Differential Pulse Voltammetry Detection of Hydroxylamine

    OpenAIRE

    MAZLOUMARDAKANI, Mohammad; KARAMI, Payam EBRAHIMI

    2014-01-01

    The electrocatalytic behavior of hydroxylamine was studied on a glassy carbon electrode modified by electrodeposition of quinizarine, using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and rotating disk voltammetry as diagnostic techniques. Cyclic voltammetry showed that the catalytic current of the system depends on the concentration of hydroxylamine. The magnitude of the peak current for quinizarine increased sharply in the presence of hydroxylamine and proportional to hydroxylamine conc...

  14. Characterization of surfactant/hydrotalcite-like clay/glassy carbon modified electrodes: Oxidation of phenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Maria; Fernandez, Lenys; Borras, Carlos; Mostany, Jorge; Carrero, Hermes

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of hydrotalcite (HT)-like clay films containing ionic and nonionic surfactants and their ability to oxidize phenol have been examined. The HT clay (Co/Al-NO 3 ) was synthesized by coprecipitation techniques and then modified with surfactants such as sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS), octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (TX100) or cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB). X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the interlayer basal spacing varied depending on the type of surfactant retained by the HT. The presence of SDBS and CPB expanded the HT interlayer, which in the presence of TX100 did not show an appreciable change. Phenol oxidation is favored at surfactant-HT-GC modified electrodes, after a preconcentration time, compared to phenol oxidation at HT-GC or GC electrodes. Surfactant-HT-GC modified electrodes display good stability in continuous electrochemical phenol oxidation. At pH values between 6 and 10.8, both SDBS-HT-GC and TX100-HT-GC modified electrodes seem to be promising electrodes for the detection of phenol in water; while the CPB-HT-GC modified electrode should be affected by the inorganic anions

  15. Facile preparation of molecularly imprinted polypyrrole-graphene-multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite film modified electrode for rutin sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lite; Yang, Juan; Xu, Bingjie; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a novel molecularly imprinted composite film modified electrode was presented for rutin (RT) detection. The modified electrode was fabricated by electropolymerization of pyrrole on a graphene-multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite (G-MWCNTs) coated glassy carbon electrode in the presence of RT. The netlike G-MWCNTs composite, prepared by in situ hydrothermal process, had high conductivity and electrocatalytic activity. At the resulting MIP/G-MWCNTs/GCE electrode RT could produce a sensitive anodic peak in pH 1.87 Britton-Robinson buffer solution. The factors affecting the electrochemical behavior and response of RT on the modified electrode were carefully investigated and optimized. Under the selected conditions, the linear response range of RT was 0.01-1.0μmolL -1 and the detection limit (S/N=3) was 5.0nmolL -1 . The electrode was successfully applied to the determination of RT in buckwheat tea and orange juice samples, and the recoveries for standards added were 93.4-105%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cathodic stripping voltammetric determination of arsenic in sugarcane brandy at a modified carbon nanotube paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Meryene C; Tavares, Elisângela de F L; Saczk, Adelir A; Okumura, Leonardo L; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Magriotis, Zuy M; de Oliveira, Marcelo F

    2014-07-01

    We have developed an eletroanalytical method that employs Cu(2+) solutions to determine arsenic in sugarcane brandy using an electrode consisting of carbon paste modified with carbon nanotubes (CNTPE) and polymeric resins. We used linear sweep (LSV) and differential-pulse (DPV) voltammetry with cathodic stripping for CNTPE containing mineral oil or silicone as binder. The analytical curves were linear from 30 to 110μgL(-1) and from 10 to 110μgL(-1) for LSV and DPV, respectively. The limits of detection (L.O.D.) and quantification (L.O.Q.) of CNTPE were 10.3 and 34.5μgL(-1) for mineral oil and 3.4 and 11.2μgL(-1) for silicone. We applied this method to determine arsenic in five commercial sugarcane brandy samples. The results agreed well with those obtained by hydride generation combined with atomic absorption spectrometry (HG AAS). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chronocoulometry of wine on multi-walled carbon nanotube modified electrode: Antioxidant capacity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyatdinova, Guzel; Kozlova, Ekaterina; Budnikov, Herman

    2016-04-01

    Phenolic antioxidants of wine were electrochemically oxidized on multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode (MWNT/GCE) in phosphate buffer solution. Three oxidation peaks were observed at 0.39, 0.61 and 0.83V for red dry wine and 0.39, 0.80 and 1.18 V for white dry wine, respectively, using differential pulse voltammetry at pH 4.0. The oxidation potentials for individual phenolic antioxidants confirmed the integral nature of the analytical signals for the wines examined. A one-step chronocoulometric method at 0.83 and 1.18 V for red and white wines, respectively, has been developed for the evaluation of wine antioxidant capacity (AOC). The AOC is expressed in gallic acid equivalents per 1L of wine. The AOC of white wine was significantly less than red wine (386 ± 112 vs. 1224 ± 184, pwine and total antioxidant capacity, based on coulometric titration with electrogenerated bromine (r=0.8957 at n=5 and r=0.8986 at n=4 for red and white wines, respectively). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gold nanoparticle/multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode as a sensitive voltammetric sensor for the determination of diclofenac sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afkhami, Abbas; Bahiraei, Atousa; Madrakian, Tayyebeh

    2016-02-01

    A simple and highly sensitive sensor for the determination of diclofenac sodium based on gold nanoparticle/multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode is reported. Scanning electron microscopy along with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry was used to characterize the nanostructure and performance of the sensor and the results were compared with those obtained at the multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode and bare glassy carbon electrode. Under the optimized experimental conditions diclofenac sodium gave linear response over the range of 0.03-200μmolL(-1). The lower detection limits were found to be 0.02μmolL(-1). The effect of common interferences on the current response of DS was investigated. The practical application of the modified electrode was demonstrated by measuring the concentration of diclofenac sodium in urine and pharmaceutical samples. This revealed that the gold nanoparticle/multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode shows excellent analytical performance for the determination of diclofenac sodium in terms of a very low detection limit, high sensitivity, very good accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of Carbon-Microsphere-Modified Electrodes for Electrochemistry of Hemoglobin and Electrocatalytic Sensing of Trichloroacetic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Cheng; Yan, Li-Jun; Shi, Fan; Niu, Xue-Liang; Huang, Guo-Lei; Zheng, Cai-Juan; Sun, Wei

    2015-01-01

    By using the hydrothermal method, carbon microspheres (CMS) were fabricated and used for electrode modification. The characteristics of CMS were investigated using various techniques. The biocompatible sensing platform was built by immobilizing hemoglobin (Hb) on the micrometer-sized CMS-modified electrode with a layer of chitosan membrane. On the cyclic voltammogram, a couple of quasi-reversible cathodic and anodic peaks appeared, showing that direct electrochemistry of Hb with the working electrode was achieved. The catalytic reduction peak currents of the bioelectrode to trichloroacetic acid was established in the linear range of 2.0~70.0 mmol·L−1 accompanied by a detection limit of 0.30 mmol·L−1 (3σ). The modified electrode displayed favorable sensitivity, good reproducibility and stability, which suggests that CMS is promising for fabricating third-generation bioelectrochemical sensors. PMID:26703621

  20. Glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes sensor for the quantification of antihistamine drug pheniramine in solubilized systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Jain

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive electroanalytical method for quantification of pheniramine in pharmaceutical formulation has been investigated on the basis of the enhanced electrochemical response at glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate. The experimental results suggest that the pheniramine in anionic surfactant solution exhibits electrocatalytic effect resulting in a marked enhancement of the peak current response. Peak current response is linearly dependent on the concentration of pheniramine in the range 200–1500 μg/mL with correlation coefficient 0.9987. The limit of detection is 58.31 μg/mL. The modified electrode shows good sensitivity and repeatability. Keywords: Pheniramine, Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS, Glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (GCE-MWCNTs, Solubilized systems, Voltammetric quantification

  1. Determination of kojic acid based on the interface enhancement effects of carbon nanotube/alizarin red S modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jieshu; Zhou, Dazhai; Liu, Xiaopeng; Wu, Kangbing; Wan, Chidan

    2009-04-01

    Based on non-covalent interactions such as pi-pi stacking, van der Waals interactions and strong adsorption, alizarin red S (ARS) interacts with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), improving the solubility of MWNT in water and resulting in a stable MWNT/ARS solution. By successive cyclic sweeps between 0.0 and 2.2V in the MWNT/ARS solution, a MWNT/ARS composite film was fabricated on an electrode surface. The electrochemical behaviors of kojic acid at the bare electrode, the ARS film-modified electrode and the MWNT/ARS film-modified electrode were investigated. It was found that the oxidation signal of kojic acid significantly increased at the MWNT/ARS film-modified electrode, which was attributed to the unique properties of MWNT such as large surface area, strong adsorptive ability and subtle electronic character. The effects of pH and cyclic number of electropolymerization were examined. A rapid, sensitive and simple electrochemical method was then developed for the determination of kojic acid. This method exhibits good linearity over the range from 4.0 x 10(-7) to 6.0 x 10(-5)mol L(-1), and the limit of detection is as low as 1.0 x 10(-7)mol L(-1). In order to validate feasibility, the MWNT/ARS film-modified electrode was used for quantitative analysis of kojic acid in food samples.

  2. Impedance response of carbon nanotube-titania electrodes dried under modified gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordenana-Martinez, A.S.; Rincon, M.E.; Vargas, M.; Ramos, E.

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis and impregnation of porous titania films by commercial multiwalled carbon nanotubes and nanotube rich carbon soot are reported. The samples were dried under terrestrial gravity g and in a centrifuge accelerated at 13 g. X-Ray Diffraction data and Scanning Electron Microscopy images indicated differences in the crystal structure and tendency to agglomeration in both carbon types, providing different microstructures of functionally graded electrodes. Drying the samples in a centrifuge helps to the distribution of carbon nanoparticles and to the decrement of the impedance at the contact interfaces. The presence of titania weakens the differences observed in both drying protocols, but not the differences due to the carbon source. Superior capacitance and network conductivity were observed in electrodes based on commercial carbon nanotubes.

  3. Enhanced oxidation and detection of toxic ractopamine using carbon nanotube film-modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhuan; Zhou Yikai; Wang Yanying; Cheng Qin; Wu Kangbing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The enhanced oxidation of ractopamine on MWCNT film surface was firstly studied. ► The oxidation occurred at phenolic hydroxyl groups and transferred two electrons. ► A sensitive and effective electrochemical sensor was developed for ractopamine. ► It was used to detect ractopamine in animal tissues, the recovery was satisfactory. - Abstract: Insoluble multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) was readily dispersed into water in the presence of dihexadecyl hydrogen phosphate, and then used to modify the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by means of solvent evaporation. Scanning electron microscopy test indicated that the GCE surface was coated with uniform MWCNT film. The resulting MWCNT film-modified GCE greatly enhanced the oxidation signal of ractopamine. The oxidation mechanism was studied, and it was found that the oxidation of ractopamine occurred at two phenolic hydroxyl groups, involving two protons and two electrons. Moreover, the influences of pH value, amount of MWCNT, accumulation potential and time were investigated on the oxidation signal of ractopamine. Based on the strong enhancement effect of MWCNT, a sensitive, rapid and simple electrochemical method was developed for the detection of ractopamine. The linear range was from 50 μg L −1 to 2 mg L −1 , and the detection limit was 20 μg L −1 . Finally, this method was successfully used to detect the content of ractopamine in pork and liver samples, and the recovery was in the range from 93.1% to 107.2%.

  4. Potentiometric stripping analysis of antimony based on carbon paste electrode modified with hexathia crown ether and rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadhari, Nayan S.; Sanghavi, Bankim J.; Srivastava, Ashwini K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) employed for the determination of antimony. → Hexathia-18C6 and rice husk modified carbon paste electrode developed for the analysis. → Lowest detection limit obtained for the determination of Sb(III) using PSA. → Analysis of Sb in pharmaceutical formulations, human hair, blood serum, urine and sea water. → Rice husk used as a modifier for the first time in electrochemistry. - Abstract: An electrochemical method based on potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) employing a hexathia 18C6 (HT18C6) and rice husk (RH) modified carbon paste electrode (HT18C6-RH-CPE) has been proposed for the subnanomolar determination of antimony. The characterization of the electrode surface has been carried out by means of scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronocoulometry. By employing HT18C6-RH-CPE, a 12-fold enhancement in the PSA signal (dt/dE) was observed as compared to plain carbon paste electrode (PCPE). Under the optimized conditions, dt/dE (s V -1 ) was proportional to the Sb(III) concentration in the range of 1.42 x 10 -8 to 6.89 x 10 -11 M (r = 0.9944) with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 2.11 x 10 -11 M. The practical analytical utilities of the modified electrode were demonstrated by the determination of antimony in pharmaceutical formulations, human hair, sea water, urine and blood serum samples. The prepared modified electrode showed several advantages, such as simple preparation method, high sensitivity, very low detection limit and excellent reproducibility. Moreover, the results obtained for antimony analysis in commercial and real samples using HT18C6-RH-CPE and those obtained by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) are in agreement at the 95% confidence level.

  5. Potentiometric stripping analysis of antimony based on carbon paste electrode modified with hexathia crown ether and rice husk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadhari, Nayan S.; Sanghavi, Bankim J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai 400098 (India); Srivastava, Ashwini K., E-mail: aksrivastava@chem.mu.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai 400098 (India)

    2011-10-03

    Highlights: {yields} Potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) employed for the determination of antimony. {yields} Hexathia-18C6 and rice husk modified carbon paste electrode developed for the analysis. {yields} Lowest detection limit obtained for the determination of Sb(III) using PSA. {yields} Analysis of Sb in pharmaceutical formulations, human hair, blood serum, urine and sea water. {yields} Rice husk used as a modifier for the first time in electrochemistry. - Abstract: An electrochemical method based on potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) employing a hexathia 18C6 (HT18C6) and rice husk (RH) modified carbon paste electrode (HT18C6-RH-CPE) has been proposed for the subnanomolar determination of antimony. The characterization of the electrode surface has been carried out by means of scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronocoulometry. By employing HT18C6-RH-CPE, a 12-fold enhancement in the PSA signal (dt/dE) was observed as compared to plain carbon paste electrode (PCPE). Under the optimized conditions, dt/dE (s V{sup -1}) was proportional to the Sb(III) concentration in the range of 1.42 x 10{sup -8} to 6.89 x 10{sup -11} M (r = 0.9944) with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 2.11 x 10{sup -11} M. The practical analytical utilities of the modified electrode were demonstrated by the determination of antimony in pharmaceutical formulations, human hair, sea water, urine and blood serum samples. The prepared modified electrode showed several advantages, such as simple preparation method, high sensitivity, very low detection limit and excellent reproducibility. Moreover, the results obtained for antimony analysis in commercial and real samples using HT18C6-RH-CPE and those obtained by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) are in agreement at the 95% confidence level.

  6. Electrochemical detection of rutin with a carbon ionic liquid electrode modified by Nafion, graphene oxide and ionic liquid composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.; Xiang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, H.; Liu, S.; Sun, W.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a carbon ionic liquid electrode modified with a composite made from Nafion, graphene oxide and ionic liquid, and its application to the sensitive determination of rutin. The modified electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It shows excellent cyclic voltammetric and differential pulse voltammetric performance due to the presence of nanoscale graphene oxide and the ionic liquid, and their interaction. A pair of well-defined redox peaks of rutin appears at pH 3.0, and the reduction peak current is linearly related to its concentration in the range from 0.08 μM to 0.1 mM with a detection limit of 0.016 μM (at 3σ). The modified electrode displays excellent selectivity and good stability, and was successfully applied to the determination of rutin in tablets with good recovery. (author)

  7. Gold nanoparticle/multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode as a sensitive voltammetric sensor for the determination of diclofenac sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afkhami, Abbas; Bahiraei, Atousa; Madrakian, Tayyebeh

    2016-01-01

    A simple and highly sensitive sensor for the determination of diclofenac sodium based on gold nanoparticle/multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode is reported. Scanning electron microscopy along with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry was used to characterize the nanostructure and performance of the sensor and the results were compared with those obtained at the multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode and bare glassy carbon electrode. Under the optimized experimental conditions diclofenac sodium gave linear response over the range of 0.03–200 μmol L −1 . The lower detection limits were found to be 0.02 μmol L −1 . The effect of common interferences on the current response of DS was investigated. The practical application of the modified electrode was demonstrated by measuring the concentration of diclofenac sodium in urine and pharmaceutical samples. This revealed that the gold nanoparticle/multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode shows excellent analytical performance for the determination of diclofenac sodium in terms of a very low detection limit, high sensitivity, very good accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility. - Highlights: • GCE was modified with multiwalled carbon nanotube and gold nanoparticles. • AuNP/MWCNT/GCE was used for the determination of diclofenac sodium. • Modified electrode was characterized by SEM, EDS and EIS. • The proposed method showed excellent analytical figures of merit. • This sensor was used for the determination of diclofenac sodium in real samples.

  8. Gold nanoparticle/multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode as a sensitive voltammetric sensor for the determination of diclofenac sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afkhami, Abbas, E-mail: afkhami@basu.ac.ir; Bahiraei, Atousa; Madrakian, Tayyebeh

    2016-02-01

    A simple and highly sensitive sensor for the determination of diclofenac sodium based on gold nanoparticle/multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode is reported. Scanning electron microscopy along with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry was used to characterize the nanostructure and performance of the sensor and the results were compared with those obtained at the multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode and bare glassy carbon electrode. Under the optimized experimental conditions diclofenac sodium gave linear response over the range of 0.03–200 μmol L{sup −1}. The lower detection limits were found to be 0.02 μmol L{sup −1}. The effect of common interferences on the current response of DS was investigated. The practical application of the modified electrode was demonstrated by measuring the concentration of diclofenac sodium in urine and pharmaceutical samples. This revealed that the gold nanoparticle/multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode shows excellent analytical performance for the determination of diclofenac sodium in terms of a very low detection limit, high sensitivity, very good accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility. - Highlights: • GCE was modified with multiwalled carbon nanotube and gold nanoparticles. • AuNP/MWCNT/GCE was used for the determination of diclofenac sodium. • Modified electrode was characterized by SEM, EDS and EIS. • The proposed method showed excellent analytical figures of merit. • This sensor was used for the determination of diclofenac sodium in real samples.

  9. Highly sensitive and selective determination of methylergometrine maleate using carbon nanofibers/silver nanoparticles composite modified carbon paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalambate, Pramod K; Rawool, Chaitali R; Karna, Shashi P; Srivastava, Ashwini K

    2016-12-01

    A highly sensitive and selective voltammetric method for determination of Methylergometrine maleate (MM) in pharmaceutical formulations, urine and blood serum samples has been developed based on enhanced electrochemical response of MM at carbon nanofibers and silver nanoparticles modified carbon paste electrode (CNF-AgNP-CPE). The electrode material was characterized by various techniques viz., X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic response of MM at CNF-AgNP-CPE was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Under optimized conditions, the proposed sensor exhibits excellent electrochemical response towards MM. The DPV study shows greatly enhanced electrochemical signal for MM at CNF-AgNP-CPE lending high sensitivity to the proposed sensor for MM detection. The peak (Ip) current for MM is found to be rectilinear in the range 4.0×10(-8)-2.0×10(-5)M with a detection limit of 7.1×10(-9)M using DPV. The feasibility of the proposed sensor in analytical applications was investigated by conducting experiments on commercial pharmaceutical formulations, human urine and blood serum samples, which yielded satisfactory recoveries of MM. The proposed electrochemical sensor offers high sensitivity, selectivity, reproducibility and practical utility. We recommend it as an authentic and productive electrochemical sensor for successful determination of MM. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Ionic liquid-functionalized graphene as modifier for electrochemical and electrocatalytic improvement: comparison of different carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Meng; Yang, Tao; Ma, Suyan; Zhao, Changzhi; Jiao, Kui

    2011-04-01

    Electrochemical activities of typically electrochemical targets at three kinds of modified carbon electrodes, i.e. carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE), graphene/carbon paste electrode (CPE), and ionic liquid-functionalized graphene (IL-graphene)/CPE, were compared in detail. The redox processes of the probes at IL-graphene/CPE were faster than those at CILE and graphene/CPE from cyclic voltammetry. An electrochemical method for the simultaneous determination of guanine and adenine was described with detection limits of 6.5×10(-8) mol L(-1) (guanine) and 3.2×10(-8) mol L(-1) (adenine). Single A→G mutation of sequence-specific DNA could be discriminated by the IL-graphene/CPE. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Palladium nanoparticles decorated on activated fullerene modified screen printed carbon electrode for enhanced electrochemical sensing of dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Thirumalraj, Balamurugan; Chen, Shen-Ming; Ali, M Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M A

    2015-06-15

    In the present work, an enhanced electrochemical sensor for dopamine (DA) was developed based on palladium nanoparticles decorated activated fullerene-C60 (AC60/PdNPs) composite modified screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). The scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis confirmed the formation of PdNPs on AC60. The fabricated AC60/PdNPs composite modified electrode exhibited an enhanced electrochemical response to DA with a lower oxidation potential than that of SPCE modified with PdNPs and C60, indicating the excellent electrooxidation behavior of the AC60/PdNPs composite modified electrode. The electrochemical studies confirmed that the electrooxidation of DA at the composite electrode is a diffusion controlled electrochemical process. The differential pulse voltammetry was employed for the determination of DA; under optimum conditions, the electrochemical oxidation signal of DA increased linearly at the AC60/PdNPs composite from 0.35 to 133.35 μM. The limit of detection was found as 0.056 μM with a sensitivity of 4.23 μA μM(-1) cm(-2). The good recovery of DA in the DA injection samples further revealed the good practicality of AC60/PdNPs modified electrode. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrochemical immunosensors for the detection of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein using different carbon nanomaterials-modified electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Shimaa; Alshehri, Nawal; Rahman, Anas M Abdel; Dasouki, Majed; Abu-Salah, Khalid M; Zourob, Mohammed

    2018-03-15

    Spinal muscular atrophy is an untreatable potentially fatal hereditary disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the survival motor neuron (SMN) 1 gene which encodes the SMN protein. Currently, definitive diagnosis relies on the demonstration of biallelic pathogenic variants in SMN1 gene. Therefore, there is an urgent unmet need to accurately quantify SMN protein levels for screening and therapeutic monitoring of symptomatic newborn and SMA patients, respectively. Here, we developed a voltammetric immunosensor for the sensitive detection of SMN protein based on covalently functionalized carbon nanofiber-modified screen printed electrodes. A comparative study of six different carbon nanomaterial-modified electrodes (carbon, graphene (G), graphene oxide (GO), single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT), multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), and carbon nanofiber (CNF)) was performed. 4-carboxyphenyl layers were covalently grafted on the six electrodes by electroreduction of diazonium salt. Then, the terminal carboxylic moieties on the electrodes surfaces were utilized to immobilize the SMN antibody via EDC/NHS chemistry and to fabricate the immunosensors. The electrochemical characterization and analytical performance of the six immunosensors suggest that carbon nanofiber is a better electrode material for the SMN immunosensor. The voltammetric SMN carbon nanofiber-based immunosensor showed high sensitivity (detection limit of 0.75pg/ml) and selectivity against other proteins such as cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and dystrophin (DMD). We suggest that this novel biosensor is superior to other developed assays for SMN detection in terms of lower cost, higher sensitivity, simplicity and capability of high throughput screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Carbon Black-Modified Electrodes Screen-Printed onto Paper Towel, Waxed Paper and Parafilm M®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinti, Stefano; Mazzaracchio, Vincenzo; Cacciotti, Ilaria; Moscone, Danila; Arduini, Fabiana

    2017-10-03

    Herein, we evaluated the use of paper towel, waxed paper, and Parafilm M ® (Heathrow Scientific, Vernon Hills, IL, USA) as alternative substrates for screen-printed sensor manufacturing. Morphological study was performed to evaluate the adhesion of the ink on these uncommon substrates, as well as the morphology of the working electrode. The electrochemical characterization was carried out using ferricyanide/ferrocyanide as redox couple. To enhance the electrochemical properties of the developed sensors, the nanomaterial carbon black was used as nanomodifier. The modification by drop casting of the working electrode surface, using a stable dispersion of carbon black, allows to obtain a sensor with improved electrochemical behavior in terms of peak-to-peak separation, current intensity, and the resistance of charge transfer. The results achieved confirm the possibility of printing the electrode on several cost-effective paper-based materials and the improvement of the electrochemical behavior by using carbon black as sustainable nanomaterial.

  14. Carbon Black-Modified Electrodes Screen-Printed onto Paper Towel, Waxed Paper and Parafilm M®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Cinti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we evaluated the use of paper towel, waxed paper, and Parafilm M® (Heathrow Scientific, Vernon Hills, IL, USA as alternative substrates for screen-printed sensor manufacturing. Morphological study was performed to evaluate the adhesion of the ink on these uncommon substrates, as well as the morphology of the working electrode. The electrochemical characterization was carried out using ferricyanide/ferrocyanide as redox couple. To enhance the electrochemical properties of the developed sensors, the nanomaterial carbon black was used as nanomodifier. The modification by drop casting of the working electrode surface, using a stable dispersion of carbon black, allows to obtain a sensor with improved electrochemical behavior in terms of peak-to-peak separation, current intensity, and the resistance of charge transfer. The results achieved confirm the possibility of printing the electrode on several cost-effective paper-based materials and the improvement of the electrochemical behavior by using carbon black as sustainable nanomaterial.

  15. Carbon paste electrode modified with silver thimerosal for the potentiometric flow injection analysis of silver(I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Hosny [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt)]. E-mail: dr_hosny@yahoo.com

    2005-07-27

    The utility of carbon paste electrode modified with silver ethylmercurythiosalicylate (silver thimerosal) in both static mode and flow injection analysis (FIA) is demonstrated. The electrode was fully characterized in terms of composition, response time, thermal stability, usable pH and ionic strength ranges. It has been shown that diisononyl phthalate (DINP) acts as more suitable solvent mediator for preparation of the electrode, which exhibits linear response range to Ag(I) extending from 5.0 x 10{sup -7} to 1.0 x 10{sup -3} M with detection limit of 2.5 x 10{sup -7} M and Nernstian slope of 59.3 {+-} 1.0 mV/decade. The proposed chemically modified carbon paste electrode shows a very good selectivity for Ag(I) over a wide variety of metal ions and successfully used for the determination of the silver content of silver sulphadiazine (burning cream) and developed radiological films. The electrode was also used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of thiopental and thimerosal with AgNO{sub 3}.

  16. A novel non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor based on single walled carbon nanotubes-manganese complex modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salimi, Abdollah, E-mail: absalimi@uok.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Nanotechnology, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahdioun, Monierosadat; Noorbakhsh, Abdollah [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdolmaleki, Amir [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156/83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghavami, Raoof [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-03-30

    A simple procedure was developed to prepare a glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and phenazine derivative of Mn-complex. With immersing the GC/CNTs modified electrode into Mn-complex solution for a short period of time 20-100 s, a stable thin layer of the complex was immobilized onto electrode surface. Modified electrode showed a well defined redox couples at wide pH range (1-12). The surface coverages and heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants (k{sub s}) of immobilized Mn-complex were approximately 1.58 x 10{sup -10} mole cm{sup -2} and 48.84 s{sup -1}. The modified electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity toward H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reduction. Detection limit, sensitivity, linear concentration range and k{sub cat} for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were, 0.2 {mu}M and 692 nA {mu}M{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, 1 {mu}M to 1.5 mM and 7.96({+-}0.2) x 10{sup 3} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, respectively. Compared to other modified electrodes, this electrode has many advantageous such as remarkable catalytic activity, good reproducibility, simple preparation procedure and long term stability.

  17. A novel non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor based on single walled carbon nanotubes-manganese complex modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimi, Abdollah; Mahdioun, Monierosadat; Noorbakhsh, Abdollah; Abdolmaleki, Amir; Ghavami, Raoof

    2011-01-01

    A simple procedure was developed to prepare a glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and phenazine derivative of Mn-complex. With immersing the GC/CNTs modified electrode into Mn-complex solution for a short period of time 20-100 s, a stable thin layer of the complex was immobilized onto electrode surface. Modified electrode showed a well defined redox couples at wide pH range (1-12). The surface coverages and heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants (k s ) of immobilized Mn-complex were approximately 1.58 x 10 -10 mole cm -2 and 48.84 s -1 . The modified electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity toward H 2 O 2 reduction. Detection limit, sensitivity, linear concentration range and k cat for H 2 O 2 were, 0.2 μM and 692 nA μM -1 cm -2 , 1 μM to 1.5 mM and 7.96(±0.2) x 10 3 M -1 s -1 , respectively. Compared to other modified electrodes, this electrode has many advantageous such as remarkable catalytic activity, good reproducibility, simple preparation procedure and long term stability.

  18. Analysis of polyphenols in white wine by CZE with amperometric detection using carbon nanotube-modified electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Mónica; Arribas, Alberto Sánchez; Bermejo, Esperanza; Zapardiel, Antonio; Chicharro, Manuel

    2011-04-01

    A method for the simultaneous detection of five polyphenols (caffeic, chlorogenic, ferulic and gallic acids and (+)-catechin) by CZE with electrochemical detection was developed. Separation of these polyphenols was performed in a 100 mM borate buffer (pH 9.2) within 15 min. Under optimized separation conditions, the performance of glassy carbon (GC) electrodes modified with multiwalled carbon nanotube layer obtained from different dispersions was examined. GC electrode modified with a dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) in polyethylenimine has proven to be the most suitable CNT-based electrode for its application as amperometric detector for the CZE separation of the studied compounds. The excellent electrochemical properties of this electrode allowed the detection of the selected polyphenols at +200 mV and improved the efficiency and the resolution of their CZE separation. Limits of detection below 3.1 μM were obtained with linear ranges covering the 10⁻⁵ to 10⁻⁴  M range. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the detection (ferulic, caffeic and gallic acids and (+)-catechin) and the quantification (gallic acid and (+)-catechin) of polyphenols in two different white wines without any preconcentration step. A remarkable signal stability was observed on the electrode performance despite the presence of potential fouling substances in wine. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. A novel enzymatic glucose sensor based on Pt nanoparticles-decorated hollow carbon spheres-modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhana, Charles; Bo Xiangjie; Ju Jian; Guo Liping, E-mail: guolp078@nenu.edu.cn [Northeast Normal University, Faculty of Chemistry (China)

    2012-10-15

    A new glucose biosensor was developed based on hollow carbon spheres decorated with platinum nanoparticles (Pt/HCSs)-modified glassy carbon electrode immobilized with glucose oxidase (GOx) with the help of Nafion. The Pt nanoparticles were well dispersed on the HCSs with an average size of 2.29 nm. The detection of glucose was achieved via electrochemical detection of the enzymatically liberated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at +0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl at physiologic pH of 7.4. The Pt/HCSs-modified electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activities toward both the oxidation and reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The glucose biosensor showed good electrocatalytic performance in terms of high sensitivity (4.1 {mu}A mM{sup -1}), low detection limit (1.8 {mu}M), fast response time <3 s, and wide linear range (0.04-8.62 mM). The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K{sub m}) and the maximum current density (i{sub max}) values for the biosensor were 10.94 mM and 887 {mu}A cm{sup -2} respectively. Furthermore, this biosensor showed an acceptable reproducibility and high stability. The interfering signals from ascorbic acid and uric acid at concentration levels normally found in human blood were not much compared with the response to glucose. Blood serum samples were also tested with this biosensor and a good recovery was achieved for the two spiked serum samples.

  20. Ultrasensitive Determination of Piroxicam at Diflunisal-Derived Gold Nanoparticle-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Tayyaba; uddin, SiraJ; Talpur, Farah N.; Khaskeli, Abdul R.; Agheem, Muhammad H.; Shah, Muhammad R.; Sherazi, Tufail H.; Siddiqui, Samia

    2017-10-01

    We present a simple and green approach for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNps) using analgesic drug diflunisal (DF) as capping and stabilizing agent in aqueous solution. Characterization of the synthesized diflunisal-derived gold nanoparticles (DF-AuNps) was performed by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, revealing the surface plasmon absorption band at 520 nm under optimized experimental conditions. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy established the effective interaction of the capping agent with the AuNps. Topographical features of the synthesized DF-AuNps were assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), revealing average particle height of 29 nm to 32 nm. X-ray diffractometry was used to study the crystalline nature, revealing that the synthesized DF-AuNps possessed excellent crystalline properties. The synthesized DF-AuNps were employed to modify the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for selective determination of piroxicam (PX) using differential pulse voltammetry technique. The fabricated Nafion/DF-AuNps/GCE sensor exhibited high sensitivity compared with bare GCE. The current response of the fabricated sensor was found to be linear in the PX concentration range of 0.5 μM to 50 μM, with limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 50 nM and 150 nM, respectively. The proposed sensor was successfully utilized for sensitive and rapid determination of PX in human serum, urine, and pharmaceutical samples.

  1. The Enhanced Photo-Electrochemical Detection of Uric Acid on Au Nanoparticles Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuting; Wang, Jin; Li, Shumin; Yan, Bo; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Ke; Du, Yukou

    2017-07-01

    In this work, a sensitive and novel method for determining uric acid (UA) has been developed, in which the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with electrodeposition Au nanoparticles and used to monitor the concentration of UA with the assistant of visible light illumination. The morphology of the Au nanoparticles deposited on GCE surface were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the nanoparticles were found to be well-dispersed spheres with the average diameter approaching 26.1 nm. A series of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) measurements have revealed that the introduction of visible light can greatly enhance both the strength and stability of response current due to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Specifically, the DPV showed a linear relationship between peak current and UA concentration in the range of 2.8 to 57.5 μM with the equation of I pa (μA) = 0.0121 c UA (μM) + 0.3122 ( R 2 = 0.9987). Herein, the visible light illuminated Au/GCE possesses a potential to be a sensitive electrochemical sensor in the future.

  2. Glassy carbon electrode modified with polyanilne/ethylenediamine for detection of copper ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Harshada K.; Deshmukh, Megha A.; Bodkhe, Gajanan A.; Shirsat, Mahendra D.

    2018-05-01

    Increasing water pollution is having high concern, since it creates the threats to all leaving organisms of existence. Industrial sewages have not only polluted the main stream lines of water, also the ground level water is having serious contaminations. Heavy metal ions are the pollutants which are not degradable and can be accumulated on living things ultimately the excess accumulation results into the serious concerns. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the sensors which can detect the heavy metal ions up to its maximum contamination limits. Conducting polymers are the materials which possess large application spectra. This investigation reports the electrochemically synthesized polyaniline (PANI) for modification of glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Ethylenediamine (EDA) - chelating ligand used for the modification of polyaniline so as to inculcate the selectivity toward copper ions Cu (II). The electrochemical cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used for the study of redox characteristics of PANI and influence of EDA modification. The result of CV has shown the reduced oxidation and reduction peak currents after modification indicating the domination of EDA. GCE modified with PANI/EDA was then employed for the detection of divalent copper ions and have shown the affinity toward Cu ions. The detection limit achieved was equal to 10mg/lit.

  3. Voltammetric Determination of Codeine on Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Nafion/MWCNTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Piech

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A glassy carbon electrode modified with a Nafion/MWCNTs composite is shown to enable the determination of codeine using differential pulse voltammetry in phosphate buffer of pH 3.0. At a preconcentration time of 15 s, the calibration graph is linear in the 0.5 µM (0.15 mg·L−1 to 15 µM (4.5 mg·L−1 concentration range with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. The detection limit at a preconcentration time of 120 s is as low as 4.5 μg·L−1. The repeatability of the method at a 0.6 μg·L−1 concentration level, expressed as the RSD, is 3.7% (for n=5. The method was successfully applied and validated by analyzing codeine in drug, human plasma, and urine samples.

  4. Electrochemical oxidation of 4-chloro phenol over a carbon paste electrode modified with Zn Al layered double hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez F, D.; Palomar P, M.; Licona S, T. de J.; Romero R, M.; Valente, Jaime S.

    2014-01-01

    A study is presented on the electrochemical oxidation of 4-chloro phenol (4cp) in aqueous solution using a bare carbon paste electrode, Cpe, and another one that was modified with Zn Al layered double hydroxides (Cpe/Zn Al-LDH). The electro-oxidation was effected at ph values ranging from 3 up to 11. It was found through cyclic voltammetry that this process was irreversible, namely, there were no reduction peaks, and that depending on the nature of the electrode, the anodic current was limited either by adsorption (Cpe) or diffusion (Cpe/Zn Al-LDH). The energy required and the oxidation reaction rate depended on the ph and on the nature of the electrode, such that the greater rates were obtained when the Cpe/Zn Al-LDH electrode and acid ph were used. The Zn Al-LDH was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  5. Electrochemical oxidation of 4-chloro phenol over a carbon paste electrode modified with Zn Al layered double hydroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez F, D.; Palomar P, M.; Licona S, T. de J.; Romero R, M. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Departamento de Materiales, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, 02200 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Valente, Jaime S., E-mail: mepp@correo.azc.uam.mx [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central No. 152, 07730 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    A study is presented on the electrochemical oxidation of 4-chloro phenol (4cp) in aqueous solution using a bare carbon paste electrode, Cpe, and another one that was modified with Zn Al layered double hydroxides (Cpe/Zn Al-LDH). The electro-oxidation was effected at ph values ranging from 3 up to 11. It was found through cyclic voltammetry that this process was irreversible, namely, there were no reduction peaks, and that depending on the nature of the electrode, the anodic current was limited either by adsorption (Cpe) or diffusion (Cpe/Zn Al-LDH). The energy required and the oxidation reaction rate depended on the ph and on the nature of the electrode, such that the greater rates were obtained when the Cpe/Zn Al-LDH electrode and acid ph were used. The Zn Al-LDH was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  6. Chemically modified carbon paste electrode for fast screening of oxalic acid levels in soil solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šestáková, Ivana; Jakl, M.; Jaklová Dytrtová, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 102, - (2008), s. 140-140 E-ISSN 1213-7103. [International Conference on Electroanalysis /12./. 16.06.2008-19.06.2008, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/06/0496 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : oxalic acid * carbon paste electrodes * soil solutions Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  7. Assembling gold nanorods on a poly-cysteine modified glassy carbon electrode strongly enhance the electrochemical response to tetrabromobisphenol A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yanying; Liu, Guishen; Hou, Xiaodong; Huang, Yina; Li, Chunya; Wu, Kangbing

    2016-01-01

    Cysteine (Cys) was electrochemically deposited on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by cyclic voltammetry. The poly-Cys modified electrode was placed in a solution of gold nanorods (GNRs) to induced self-assembly of the GNRs. The GNRs/poly-Cys/GCEs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A voltammetric study on tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) with this GCE showed the current response to be enhanced by a factor of 11 compared to a non-modified GCE. Based on these findings, a square wave voltammetric assay was worked out. Under optimized conditions, a linear relationship between the oxidation peak current and TBBPA is found for the 10 nM to 10 μM concentration range. The detection limit is 3.2 nM (at an S/N ratio of 3). The electrode was successfully applied to the determination of TBBPA in spiked tap water and lake water samples. (author)

  8. A novel electrochemical sensor of bisphenol A based on stacked graphene nanofibers/gold nanoparticles composite modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Xiuli; Yang, Wu; Wang, Guoying; Ren, Jie; Guo, Hao; Gao, Jinzhang

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a novel and convenient electrochemical sensor based on stacked graphene nanofibers (SGNF) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) composite modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was developed for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA). The AuNPs/SGNF modified electrode showed an efficient electrocatalytic role for the oxidation of BPA, and the oxidation overpotentials of BPA were decreased significantly and the peak current increased greatly compared with bare GCE and other modified electrode. The transfer electron number (n) and the charge transfer coefficient (α) were calculated with the result as n = 4, α = 0.52 for BPA, which indicated the electrochemical oxidation of BPA on AuNPs/SGNF modified electrode was a four-electron and four-proton process. The effective surface areas of AuNPs/SGNF/GCE increased for about 1.7-fold larger than that of the bare GCE. In addition, the kinetic parameters of the modified electrode were calculated and the apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k s ) was 0.51 s −1 . Linear sweep voltammetry was applied as a sensitive analytical method for the determination of BPA and a good linear relationship between the peak current and BPA concentration was obtained in the range from 0.08 to 250 μM with a detection limit of 3.5 × 10 −8 M. The modified electrode exhibited a high sensitivity, long-term stability and remarkable reproducible analytical performance and was successfully applied for the determination of BPA in baby bottles with satisfying results

  9. Electrocatalytical oxidation and sensitive determination of acetaminophen on glassy carbon electrode modified with graphene–chitosan composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Meixia; Gao, Feng; Wang, Qingxiang; Cai, Xili; Jiang, Shulian; Huang, Lizhang; Gao, Fei

    2013-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviors of acetaminophen (ACOP) on a graphene–chitosan (GR–CS) nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronocoulometry (CC) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Electrochemical characterization showed that the GR–CS nanocomposite had excellent electrocatalytic activity and surface area effect. As compared with bare GCE, the redox signal of ACOP on GR–CS/GCE was greatly enhanced. The values of electron transfer rate constant (k s ), diffusion coefficient (D) and the surface adsorption amount (Γ ⁎ ) of ACOP on GR–CS/GCE were determined to be 0.25 s −1 , 3.61 × 10 −5 cm 2 s −1 and 1.09 × 10 −9 mol cm −2 , respectively. Additionally, a 2e − /2H + electrochemical reaction mechanism of ACOP was deduced based on the acidity experiment. Under the optimized conditions, the ACOP could be quantified in the range from 1.0 × 10 −6 to 1.0 × 10 −4 M with a low detection limit of 3.0 × 10 −7 M based on 3S/N. The interference and recovery experiments further showed that the proposed method is acceptable for the determination of ACOP in real pharmaceutical preparations. Highlights: ► A chitosan–graphene nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode was prepared. ► The modified electrode was electrochemically characterized by CV and EIS. ► Electro-oxidation of acetaminophen was examined on the modified electrode. ► Sensing analysis of the modified electrode toward acetaminophen was studied

  10. Performance-Enhanced Activated Carbon Electrodes for Supercapacitors Combining Both Graphene-Modified Current Collectors and Graphene Conductive Additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rubing; Qian, Yuting; Li, Weiwei; Zhu, Shoupu; Liu, Fengkui; Guo, Yufen; Chen, Mingliang; Li, Qi; Liu, Liwei

    2018-05-15

    Graphene has been widely used in the active material, conductive agent, binder or current collector for supercapacitors, due to its large specific surface area, high conductivity, and electron mobility. However, works simultaneously employing graphene as conductive agent and current collector were rarely reported. Here, we report improved activated carbon (AC) electrodes (AC@G@NiF/G) simultaneously combining chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene-modified nickel foams (NiF/Gs) current collectors and high quality few-layer graphene conductive additive instead of carbon black (CB). The synergistic effect of NiF/Gs and graphene additive makes the performances of AC@G@NiF/G electrodes superior to those of electrodes with CB or with nickel foam current collectors. The performances of AC@G@NiF/G electrodes show that for the few-layer graphene addition exists an optimum value around 5 wt %, rather than a larger addition of graphene, works out better. A symmetric supercapacitor assembled by AC@G@NiF/G electrodes exhibits excellent cycling stability. We attribute improved performances to graphene-enhanced conductivity of electrode materials and NiF/Gs with 3D graphene conductive network and lower oxidation, largely improving the electrical contact between active materials and current collectors.

  11. Performance-Enhanced Activated Carbon Electrodes for Supercapacitors Combining Both Graphene-Modified Current Collectors and Graphene Conductive Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rubing; Qian, Yuting; Li, Weiwei; Zhu, Shoupu; Liu, Fengkui; Guo, Yufen; Chen, Mingliang; Li, Qi; Liu, Liwei

    2018-01-01

    Graphene has been widely used in the active material, conductive agent, binder or current collector for supercapacitors, due to its large specific surface area, high conductivity, and electron mobility. However, works simultaneously employing graphene as conductive agent and current collector were rarely reported. Here, we report improved activated carbon (AC) electrodes (AC@G@NiF/G) simultaneously combining chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene-modified nickel foams (NiF/Gs) current collectors and high quality few-layer graphene conductive additive instead of carbon black (CB). The synergistic effect of NiF/Gs and graphene additive makes the performances of AC@G@NiF/G electrodes superior to those of electrodes with CB or with nickel foam current collectors. The performances of AC@G@NiF/G electrodes show that for the few-layer graphene addition exists an optimum value around 5 wt %, rather than a larger addition of graphene, works out better. A symmetric supercapacitor assembled by AC@G@NiF/G electrodes exhibits excellent cycling stability. We attribute improved performances to graphene-enhanced conductivity of electrode materials and NiF/Gs with 3D graphene conductive network and lower oxidation, largely improving the electrical contact between active materials and current collectors. PMID:29762528

  12. Laccase on Black Pearl 2000 modified glassy carbon electrode: Characterization of direct electron transfer and biological sensing properties for pyrocatechol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kunqi; Tang Juan; Zhang Zuoming; Gao Ying; Chen Gang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Laccase can complete direct electron transfer process on BP2000 matrices. ► Laccase immobilized on BP2000 matrices has catalytic oxidation effect to pyrocatechol. ► A pyrocatechol biosensor has constructed been using Nafion/Lac-BP2000/GC electrode. ► Detection limit and linear range of the biosensor are 0.003 mM and 0.003–5.555 mM. - Abstract: In this paper, it was found that Laccase (Lac) could be stably immobilized on the glassy carbon electrode modified with Black Pearl 2000 (BP2000) and Nafion by a simple technique. The adsorption behavior of Lac immobilized on BP2000 matrix was characterized by environment scanning electron microscope (ESEM), ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), which demonstrated that BP2000 could facilitate the electron exchange between the active center of Lac and modified electrode. The direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis behavior of Lac on the modified electrode were characterized by cyclic voltammogram (CV) which indicated that Lac immobilized on the modified electrode displayed a direct, nearly reversible and surface-controlled redox reaction with an enhanced electron-transfer rate constant of 1.940 s −1 at the scan rate of 100 mV s −1 in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS) (pH 7.0). Furthermore, it was also discovered that, in the presence of O 2 , Lac immobilized on the modified electrode exhibited the electrocatalytic response to pyrocatechol, and the kinetic apparent Michaelis-constant (K M app ) obtained from the Lineweaver–Burk equation was 1.79 mM. The detection limit, linear range and sensitivity of the Lac biosensor were 0.003 mM, 0.003–5.555 mM and 99.84 μA mM −1 cm −2 , respectively.

  13. Electrochemical Determination of Chlorpyrifos on a Nano-TiO₂Cellulose Acetate Composite Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaravel, Ammasai; Chandrasekaran, Maruthai

    2015-07-15

    A rapid and simple method of determination of chlorpyrifos is important in environmental monitoring and quality control. Electrochemical methods for the determination of pesticides are fast, sensitive, reproducible, and cost-effective. The key factor in electrochemical methods is the choice of suitable electrode materials. The electrode materials should have good stability, reproducibility, more sensitivity, and easy method of preparation. Mercury-based electrodes have been widely used for the determination of chlorpyrifos. From an environmental point of view mercury cannot be used. In this study a biocompatible nano-TiO2/cellulose acetate modified glassy carbon electrode was prepared by a simple method and used for the electrochemical sensing of chlorpyrifos in aqueous methanolic solution. Electroanalytical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, and amperometry were used in this work. This electrode showed very good stability, reproducibility, and sensitivity. A well-defined peak was obtained for the reduction of chlorpyrifos in cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. A smooth noise-free current response was obtained in amperometric analysis. The peak current obtained was proportional to the concentration of chlorpyrifos and was used to determine the unknown concentration of chlorpyrifos in the samples. Analytical parameters such as LOD, LOQ, and linear range were estimated. Analysis of real samples was also carried out. The results were validated through HPLC. This composite electrode can be used as an alternative to mercury electrodes reported in the literature.

  14. Nafion/lead nitroprusside nanoparticles modified carbon ceramic electrode as a novel amperometric sensor for L-cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmi, H; Heidari, H

    2009-05-01

    This work describes the electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of carbon ceramic electrode (CCE) modified with lead nitroprusside (PbNP) nanoparticles as a new electrocatalyst material. The structure of deposited film on the CCE was characterized by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cyclic voltammogram (CV) of the PbNP modified CCE showed two well-defined redox couples due to [Fe(CN)5NO](3-)/[Fe(CN)5NO](2-) and Pb(IV)/Pb(II) redox reactions. The modified electrode showed electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of L-cysteine and was used as an amperometric sensor. Also, to reduce the fouling effect of L-cysteine and its oxidation products on the modified electrode, a thin film of Nafion was coated on the electrode surface. The sensor response was linearly changed with L-cysteine concentration in the range of 1 x 10(-6) to 6.72 x 10(-5)mol L(-1) with a detection limit (signal/noise ratio [S/N]=3) of 0.46 microM. The sensor sensitivity was 0.17 microA (microM)(-1), and some important advantages such as simple preparation, fast response, good stability, interference-free signals, antifouling properties, and reproducibility of the sensor for amperometric determination of L-cysteine were achieved.

  15. Electrochemical behavior of ruthenium-hexacyanoferrate modified glassy carbon electrode and catalytic activity towards ethanol electro oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Wendell M.; Marques, Aldalea L.B., E-mail: aldalea.ufma@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica Tecnologica; Cardoso, William S.; Marques, Edmar P.; Bezerra, Cicero W.B. [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Departamento de Qumica; Ferreira, Antonio Ap. P. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Song, Chaojie; Zhang, Jiujun [Energy, Mining and Environment Portfolio, National Research Council of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Ruthenium-based hexacyanoferrate (RuHCF) thin film modified glassy carbon electrode was prepared by drop evaporation method. The RuHCF modified electrode exhibited four redox couples in strong acidic solution (pH 1.5) attributed to Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-} ion and three ruthenium forms (Ru(II), Ru(III) and Ru(IV)), characteristic of ruthenium oxide compounds. The modified electrode displayed excellent electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation in the potential region where electrochemical processes Ru(III)-O-Ru(IV) and Ru(IV)-O-Ru(VI) occur. Impedance spectroscopy data indicated that the charge transfer resistance decreased with the increase of the applied potential and ethanol concentration, indicating the use of the RuHCF modified electrode as an ethanol sensor. Under optimized conditions, the sensor responded linearly and rapidly to ethanol concentration between 0.03 and 0.4 mol L{sup -1} with a limit of detection of 0.76 mmol L{sup -1}, suggesting an adequate sensitivity in ethanol analyses. (author)

  16. The natural diatomite from caldiran-van (Turkey): electroanalytical application to antimigraine compound naratriptan at modified carbon paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calışkan, Necla; Sögüt, Eda; Saka, Cafer; Yardım, Yavuz; Sentürk, Zuhre

    2010-09-01

    This paper is the first report describing the characterization of local diatomite of Caldiran-Van region (Eastern Anatolia, Turkey). Special attention was paid to the ability of its electroanalytical performance at modified electrodes and to the potential application of diatomite-modified electrode. For this purpose, the determination of Naratriptan which is a novel oral triptan (5-hydroxytryptamine receptor agonist) in migraine treatment, by means of a carbon paste electrode modified with 10% (w/w) of diatomite was studied using cyclic and square-wave voltammetry. The experimental conditions that affect the electrode reaction process were studied in terms of pH of the supporting electrolyte, scan rate, accumulation variables, modifier composition and square-wave parameters. Using square-wave stripping mode, the drug yielded a well-defined voltammetric response in Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 4.0 at 0.84 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) (a pre-concentration step being carried out with an open circuit at 120 s). The process could be used to determine Naratriptan concentrations in the range 5x10(-7)-9x10(-7) M, with a detection limit of 1.25x10(-7) M (46.5 mug L(-1)). The applicability of the method to spiked human urine samples was illustrated.

  17. Alizarin red S functionalized mesoporous silica modified glassy carbon electrode for electrochemical determination of anthracene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shan; Wei, Maochao; Zheng, Xiangli; Xu, Shuai; Xia, Fangquan; Zhou, Changli

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Alizarin red S-SBA15 composite was prepared and characterized. • A novel sensing platform was constructed for anthracene determination. • The proposed sensor exhibited high sensitivity and low detection limit for detecting anthracene. • This method can be applied to the practical detection of anthracene in waste water. - Abstract: In the paper, a novel and sensitive electrochemical sensor based on modification of electroactive alizarin red S functionalized mesoporous silica material SBA15 onto glassy carbon electrode (ARS-SBA15/GCE) was developed. Alizarin red S, called electrochemical probe that can selectively recognize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as tools for the detection of tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbon anthracene. The morphology and interface property of ARS modified SBA15 (ARS-SBA15) were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Taking advantage of the π-π stacking force between alizarin red S and anthracene, the ARS-SBA15/GCE sensor could detect anthracene quantitatively in a wide range of 1.0 pM–10.0 nM and a low detection limit of 0.5 pM (S/N = 3). Other PAHs, such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene show little interference on the detection. Consequently, a simple and sensitive electrochemical method was proposed for the determination of anthracene, which can be used to determine anthracene in waste water samples. The electrochemical method provides a general tool that complements the commonly used spectroscopic methods and immune method for the detection of PAHs

  18. Electrochemical Detection of Mn(II and Cd(II Mediated by Carbon Nanotubes and Carbon Nanotubes/Li+ Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed M. Radhi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Glassy carbon electrode (GCE was modified with carbon nanotubes (CNT with and without a Li+ dopant by using a mechanical attachment method; CNT/Li+/GCE was used as two working electrodes, by doping CNT/GCE with Li+. The nano-structure of the electrodes showed individual voltammetrics of Mn2+ with two reduction peaks at +800 and +100 mV. Two reduction peaks for Cd2+ appeared at +600 V and -800 mV with one oxidation peak at -600 mV. The reduction current of Mn2+ and the redox current of Cd2+ on the CNT/Li+/GCE were largely influenced by a low concentration comparison with GCE and CNT/GCE. It showed that the detection of Mn2+ and Cd2+ by CNT/Li+/GCE in an aqueous solution of 0.1M KCL, with a relative standard deviation (RSD of the electrode being very good CNT/Li+/GCE. The determination of efficiency for the best modified electrode was detected for Mn2+ and Cd2+ on CNT/Li+/GCE; it was also found to have a wide linear range and good repeatability with a relative standard deviation (RSD of ±1.9 % when this electrode was used and the limit of detection was found to be 10-4 to 10-3 mM of Mn2+ and 10-4 to 10-2 mM of Cd2+, while the range of detection was found to be 3x10-4 to 10-3 mM and 10-3 to 10 -2 mM when using the CNT/GCE for Mn2+and Cd2+, respectively, with an RSD of ±3.3 % for Mn2+ and Cd2+.

  19. Determination of serotonin on platinum electrode modified with carbon nanotubes/polypyrrole/silver nanoparticles nanohybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarino, Ivana; Galesco, Heloisa V; Machado, Sergio A S

    2014-07-01

    A new sensor has been developed by a simple electrodeposition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), polypyrrole (PPy) and colloidal silver nanoparticles on the platinum (Pt) electrode surface. The Pt/MWCNT/PPy/AgNPs electrode was applied to the detection of serotonin in plasmatic serum samples using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The synergistic effect of MWCNT/PPy/AgNPs nanohybrid formed yielded a LOD of 0.15 μmol L(-1) (26.4 μg L(-1)). Reproducibility and repeatability values of 2.2% and 1.7%, respectively, were obtained compared to the conventional procedure. The proposed electrode can be an effective material to be used in biological analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Graphene quantum dot modified glassy carbon electrode for the determination of doxorubicin hydrochloride in human plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Hashemzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Low toxic graphene quantum dot (GQD was synthesized by pyrolyzing citric acid in alkaline solution and characterized by ultraviolet--visible (UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, spectrofluorimetery and dynamic light scattering (DLS techniques. GQD was used for electrode modification and electro-oxidation of doxorubicin (DOX at low potential. A substantial decrease in the overvoltage (−0.56 V of the DOX oxidation reaction (compared to ordinary electrodes was observed using GQD as coating of glassy carbon electrode (GCE. Differential pulse voltammetry was used to evaluate the analytical performance of DOX in the presence of phosphate buffer solution (pH 4.0 and good limit of detection was obtained by the proposed sensor. Such ability of GQD to promote the DOX electron-transfer reaction suggests great promise for its application as an electrochemical sensor.

  1. Cost-effective flow injection amperometric system with metal nanoparticle loaded carbon nanotube modified screen printed carbon electrode for sensitive determination of hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reanpang, Preeyaporn; Themsirimongkon, Suwaphid; Saipanya, Surin; Chailapakul, Orawon; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2015-11-01

    Various metal nanoparticles (NPs) decorated on carbon nanotube (CNT) was modified on the home-made screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) in order to enhances sensitivity of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) determination. The simple casting method was used for the electrode modification. The monometallic and bimetallic NPs modified electrodes were investigated for their electrochemical properties for H2O2 reduction. The Pd-CNT/SPCE is appropriated to measure the H2O2 reduction at a potential of -0.3 V, then this modified electrode was incorporated with a home-made flow through cell and applied in a simple flow injection amperometry (FI-Amp). Some parameters influencing the resulted modified electrode and the FI-Amp system were studied. The proposed detection system was able to detect H2O2 in the range of 0.1-1.0 mM, with detection limit of 20 µM. Relative standard deviation for 100 replicated injections of 0.6 mM H2O2 was 2.3%. The reproducibility of 6 electrodes preparing in 3 different lots was 8.2%. It was demonstrated for determination of H2O2 in disinfectant, hair colorant and milk samples. Recoveries in the range of 90-109% were observed. The developed system provided high stability, good repeatability, high sample throughput and low reagent consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Facile preparation of poly(methylene blue) modified carbon paste electrode for the detection and quantification of catechin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manasa, G [Electrochemistry Research Group, Department of Chemistry, St. Joseph' s College, Lalbagh Road, Bangalore, 560027, Karnataka (India); Mascarenhas, Ronald J, E-mail: ronaldmasc2311@yahoo.co.in [Electrochemistry Research Group, Department of Chemistry, St. Joseph' s College, Lalbagh Road, Bangalore, 560027, Karnataka (India); Satpati, Ashis K [Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Anushakthi Nagar, Trombay, Mumbai 400094, Maharashtra (India); D' Souza, Ozma J [Electrochemistry Research Group, Department of Chemistry, St. Joseph' s College, Lalbagh Road, Bangalore, 560027, Karnataka (India); Dhason, A [Soft Condensed Matter, Raman Research Institute, Sadashivnagar, Bangalore 560080, Karnataka (India)

    2017-04-01

    Free radicals are formed as byproducts of metabolism, and are highly unstable due to the presence of unpaired electrons. They readily react with other important cellular components such as DNA causing them damage. Antioxidants such as (+)-catechin (CAT), neutralize free radicals in the blood stream. Hence there is a need for detection and quantification of catechin concentration in various food sources and beverages. Electro-oxidative properties of catechin were investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). A carbon paste working electrode modified by electropolymerizing methylene blue (MB) was fabricated. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques were used to study the surface morphology of the electrode. Quasi-reversible electron transfer reaction occurred at + 0.260 V through a diffusion controlled process. In comparison to the bare carbon paste electrode (CPE), there was a significant 5.3 times increment in anodic current sensitivity at the modified electrode at physiological pH. Our findings indicate that for the electro-oxidation of CAT, CPE is a better base material for electropolymerization of MB compared to glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Nyquist plot followed the theoretical shape, indicating low interfacial charge transfer resistance of 0.095 kΩ at the modified electrode. Calibration plots obtained by DPV were linear in two ranges of 1.0 × 10{sup −3} to 1.0 × 10{sup −6} and 1.0 × 10{sup −7} to 0.1 × 10{sup −8} M. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) was 4.9 nM and 14 nM respectively. Application of the developed electrode was demonstrated by detecting catechin in green tea and spiked fruit juice with satisfactory recoveries. The sensor was stable, sensitive, selective and reproducible. - Highlights: • Remarkable electrocatalytic oxidation of Catechin at poly(methylene blue) modified CPE • Complete elimination of signal

  3. Cobalt hexacyanoferrate modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes/graphite composite electrode as electrochemical sensor on microfluidic chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinchun; Chen Zuanguang; Zhong Yuwen; Yang Fan; Pan Jianbin; Liang Yajing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CoHCF nanoparticles modified MWCNTs/graphite electrode use for electrochemistry on electrophoresis microchip for the first time. ► Simultaneous, rapid, and sensitive electrochemical detection of hydrazine and isoniazid in real samples. ► An exemplary work of CME sensor assembly onto microchip for determination of analytes with environmental significance. ► Manifestation of the applicability and flexibility of CME sensor for electroanalysis on microfluidic chip. - Abstract: Nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensor has received significant interest. In this work, cobalt hexacyanoferrate modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes/graphite composite electrode was electrochemically prepared and exploited as an amperometric detector for microchip electrophoresis. The prepared sensor displayed rapid and sensitive response towards hydrazine and isoniazid oxidation, which was attributed to synergetic electrocatalytic effect of cobalt hexacyanoferrate and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The sensitivity enhancement with nearly two orders of magnitude was gained, compared with the bare carbon paste electrode, with the detection limit of 0.91 μM (S/N = 3) for hydrazine. Acceptable repeatability of the microanalysis system was verified by consecutive eleven injections of hydrazine without chip and electrode treatments, the RSDs for peak current and migration time were 3.4% and 2.1%, respectively. Meanwhile, well-shaped electrophoretic peaks were observed, mainly due to fast electron transfer of electroactive species on the modified electrode. The developed microchip-electrochemistry setup was successfully applied to the determination of hydrazine and isoniazid in river water and pharmaceutical preparation, respectively. Several merits of the novel electrochemical sensor coupled with microfluidic platform, such as comparative stability, easy fabrication and high sensitivity, hold great potential for hydrazine compounds assay in the lab-on-a-chip system.

  4. Cobalt hexacyanoferrate modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes/graphite composite electrode as electrochemical sensor on microfluidic chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xinchun [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, 132 Waihuan East Road of Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chen Zuanguang, E-mail: chenzg@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, 132 Waihuan East Road of Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhong Yuwen, E-mail: yu0106@163.com [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Guangdong Province, 176 Xingangxi, Guangzhou 510300 (China); Yang Fan; Pan Jianbin; Liang Yajing [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, 132 Waihuan East Road of Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CoHCF nanoparticles modified MWCNTs/graphite electrode use for electrochemistry on electrophoresis microchip for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simultaneous, rapid, and sensitive electrochemical detection of hydrazine and isoniazid in real samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An exemplary work of CME sensor assembly onto microchip for determination of analytes with environmental significance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Manifestation of the applicability and flexibility of CME sensor for electroanalysis on microfluidic chip. - Abstract: Nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensor has received significant interest. In this work, cobalt hexacyanoferrate modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes/graphite composite electrode was electrochemically prepared and exploited as an amperometric detector for microchip electrophoresis. The prepared sensor displayed rapid and sensitive response towards hydrazine and isoniazid oxidation, which was attributed to synergetic electrocatalytic effect of cobalt hexacyanoferrate and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The sensitivity enhancement with nearly two orders of magnitude was gained, compared with the bare carbon paste electrode, with the detection limit of 0.91 {mu}M (S/N = 3) for hydrazine. Acceptable repeatability of the microanalysis system was verified by consecutive eleven injections of hydrazine without chip and electrode treatments, the RSDs for peak current and migration time were 3.4% and 2.1%, respectively. Meanwhile, well-shaped electrophoretic peaks were observed, mainly due to fast electron transfer of electroactive species on the modified electrode. The developed microchip-electrochemistry setup was successfully applied to the determination of hydrazine and isoniazid in river water and pharmaceutical preparation, respectively. Several merits of the novel electrochemical sensor coupled with microfluidic platform, such as comparative stability, easy fabrication and

  5. Pt-MWCNT modified carbon electrode strip for rapid and quantitative detection of H2O2 in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Cheng Chou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A single-use screen-printed carbon electrode strip was designed and fabricated. Nanohybrids, prepared by deposition of platinum (Pt nanoparticles on multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT, was modified on the surface of screen-printed carbon electrode for the development of a fast, sensitive and cost-effective hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 detection amperometric sensor strip. With Pt-MWCNT nanohybrids surface modification, current generated in response to H2O2 by the screen-printed carbon electrode strip was enhanced 100 fold with an applied potential of 300 mV. Quality of as-prepared electrode strip was assured by the low coefficient of variation (CV (<5% of currents measured at 5 s. Three linear detection ranges with sensitivity of 75.2, 120.7, and 142.8 μA mM−1 cm−2 were observed for H2O2 concentration in the range of 1–15 mM, 0.1–1 mM, and 10–100 μM, respectively. The lowest H2O2 concentration could be measured by the as-prepared strip was 10 μM. H2O2 levels in green tea infusion and pressed Tofu could be rapidly detected with results comparable to that measured by ferrous oxidation xylenol orange (FOX assay and peroxidase colorimetric method. Keywords: Platinum-multi-wall carbon nanotube (Pt-MWCNT, Disposable carbon electrode, Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, Amperometric sensor

  6. Electrochemical removal of fluoride from water by PAOA-modified carbon felt electrodes in a continuous flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hao; Qian, Yan; An, Hao; Sun, Chencheng; Zhai, Jianping; Li, Qin

    2012-08-01

    A novel poly(aniline-co-o-aminophenol) (PAOA) modified carbon felt electrode reactor was designed and investigated for fluoride removal from aqueous solutions. This reactor design is innovative because it operates under a wider pH range because of coating with a copolymer PAOA ion exchange film. In addition, contaminant mass transfer from bulk solution to the electrode surface is enhanced by the porous carbon felt as an electron-conducting carrier material compared to other reactors. The electrically controlled anion exchange mechanism was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The applicability of the reactor in the field was tested through a series of continuous flow experiments. When the flow rate and initial fluoride concentration were increased, the breakthrough curve became sharper, which lead to a decrease in the breakthrough time and the defluoridation capacity of the reactor. The terminal potential values largely influenced fluoride removal by the reactor and the optimal defluoridation efficiency was observed at around 1.2V. The breakthrough capacities were all >10mg/g over a wide pH range (pH 5-9) with an initial fluoride concentration of 10mg/L. Consecutive treatment-regeneration studies over a week (once each day) revealed that the PAOA-modified carbon felt electrode could be effectively regenerated for reuse. The PAOA-modified carbon felt electrode reactor is a promising system that could be made commercially available for fluoride removal from aqueous solutions in field applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sensitive electrochemical sensor of tryptophan based on Ag-C core–shell nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Shuxian; Li Weifeng; Long Yumei; Tu Yifeng; Deng, Anping

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ag-C and Colloidal carbon sphere modified glassy carbon electrodes were prepared. It was clear that the Ag-C/GCE exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards Trp, which could result from the synergistic effect between Ag core and carbon shell. The Ag-C/GCE showed excellent analytical properties in the determination of Trp. Highlights: ► The electrochemical behavior of Ag-C core–shell nanocomposite was firstly proposed. ► Ag-C/GC electrode exhibited favorable electrocatalytic properties towards Trp. ► The good electrocatalysis was due to the synergistic effect of Ag-core and C-shell. ► The Ag-C/GC electrode displayed excellent analytical properties in determining Trp. - Abstract: We here reported a simple electrochemical method for the detection of tryptophan (Trp) based on the Ag-C modified glassy carbon (Ag-C/GC) electrode. The Ag-C core–shell structured nanoparticles were synthesized using one-pot hydrothermal method and characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The electrochemical behaviors of Trp on Ag-C/GC electrode were investigated and exhibited a direct electrochemical process. The favorable electrochemical properties of Ag-C/GC electrode were attributed to the synergistic effect of the Ag core and carbon shell. The carbon shell cannot only protect Ag core but also contribute to the enhanced substrate accessibility and Trp-substrate interactions, while nano-Ag core can display good electrocatalytic activity to Trp at the same time. Under the optimum experimental conditions the oxidation peak current was linearly dependent on the Trp concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10 −7 to 1.0 × 10 −4 M with a detection limit of 4.0 × 10 −8 M (S/N = 3). In addition, the proposed electrode was applied for the determination of Trp concentration in real samples and satisfactory results were obtained. The technique offers

  8. Sensitive electrochemical sensor of tryptophan based on Ag-C core-shell nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao Shuxian [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Li Weifeng, E-mail: liweifeng@suda.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Long Yumei, E-mail: yumeilong@suda.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Tu Yifeng; Deng, Anping [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2012-08-13

    Graphical abstract: Ag-C and Colloidal carbon sphere modified glassy carbon electrodes were prepared. It was clear that the Ag-C/GCE exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards Trp, which could result from the synergistic effect between Ag core and carbon shell. The Ag-C/GCE showed excellent analytical properties in the determination of Trp. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrochemical behavior of Ag-C core-shell nanocomposite was firstly proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag-C/GC electrode exhibited favorable electrocatalytic properties towards Trp. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The good electrocatalysis was due to the synergistic effect of Ag-core and C-shell. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ag-C/GC electrode displayed excellent analytical properties in determining Trp. - Abstract: We here reported a simple electrochemical method for the detection of tryptophan (Trp) based on the Ag-C modified glassy carbon (Ag-C/GC) electrode. The Ag-C core-shell structured nanoparticles were synthesized using one-pot hydrothermal method and characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The electrochemical behaviors of Trp on Ag-C/GC electrode were investigated and exhibited a direct electrochemical process. The favorable electrochemical properties of Ag-C/GC electrode were attributed to the synergistic effect of the Ag core and carbon shell. The carbon shell cannot only protect Ag core but also contribute to the enhanced substrate accessibility and Trp-substrate interactions, while nano-Ag core can display good electrocatalytic activity to Trp at the same time. Under the optimum experimental conditions the oxidation peak current was linearly dependent on the Trp concentration in the range of 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} to 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M with a detection limit of 4.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} M (S/N = 3). In addition

  9. Carbon paste electrode modified molecularly imprinted polymer as a sensor for creatinine analysis by stripping voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanah, M.; Darmokoesoemo, H.; Rizki, D. A.

    2017-09-01

    Modification of carbon paste electrode with molecularly imprinted polymer (CP-MIP) as a voltammetric sensor for creatinine has been developed. MIP was synthesized by reacting melamine, chloranil and creatinine with a mole ratio of 1:1:0.1. Creatinine was extracted from polymer chain by using hot water to form a specific imprinted for creatinine molecule. Carbon paste-MIP electrode was prepared by mixing activated carbon, solid paraffin, and MIP in a 45:40:15(w/w %) ratio. The optimum conditions of creatinine analysis by differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV) using the developed electrode were the accumulation potential -1000 mV during 90 s at pH 5. The precision of the method for 0.1-0.5 μlg/L creatinine was 88.7-96.3%, while the detection limit of this method was 0.0315 μlg/L. The accuracy compared by spectrophotometric method was 95.3-103.6%

  10. Adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of nitroimidazole derivative on multiwalled carbon nanotube modified electrodes: influence of size and functionalization of nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jara-Ulloa, Paola; Canete-Rosales, Paulina; Nunez-Vergara, Luis J; Squella, Juan A., E-mail: asquella@ciq.uchile.c [University of Chile, Santiago (Chile). Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty. Bioelectrochemistry Lab.

    2011-07-01

    1-Methyl-4-nitro-2-bromine methylimidazole (4-NimMeBr), was electrochemically reduced on mercury, glassy carbon and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) modified electrodes. 4-NimMeBr was adsorbed on the MWCNT modified electrode thus permitting the implementation of an adsorptive stripping voltammetric (ASV) method. We have used 4-NimMeBr as a prototype electroactive nitro compound to study the effect of both the size of the nanotubes and its functionalization by oxidation. The oxidized MWCNT forms better dispersions than the non-oxidized, producing electrode surface with higher density of MWCNT as was determined by electrochemical mapping using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). Under the optimized conditions, the peak current was proportional to the concentration of 4-NimMeBr in the range of 10{sup -6} mol L{sup -1} to 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1} with detection and quantification limits of 4.41 x 10{sup -6} mol L{sup -1} and 6.21 x 10{sup -6} mol L{sup -1}, respectively. The sensibility of bare electrode was 0.01 {mu}A per mmol L{sup -1}, which was lower than the value of 5.34 and 6.97 mA per mmol L{sup -1} obtained using short and large oxidized MWCNT, respectively. (author)

  11. Amperometric bienzyme glucose biosensor based on carbon nanotube modified electrode with electropolymerized poly(toluidine blue O) film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenju; Wang Fang; Yao Yanli; Hu Shengshui; Shiu, Kwok-Keung

    2010-01-01

    The amperometric bienzyme glucose biosensor utilizing horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilized in poly(toluidine blue O) (PTBO) film was constructed on multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) modified glassy carbon electrode. The HRP layer could be used to analyze hydrogen peroxide with toluidine blue O (TBO) mediators, while the bienzyme system (HRP + GOx) could be utilized for glucose determination. Glucose underwent biocatalytic oxidation by GOx in the presence of oxygen to yield H 2 O 2 which was further reduced by HRP at the MWNT-modified electrode with TBO mediators. In the absence of oxygen, glucose oxidation proceeded with electron transfer between GOx and the electrode mediated by TBO moieties without H 2 O 2 production. The bienzyme electrode offered high sensitivity for amperometric determination of glucose at low potential, displaying Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The bienzyme glucose biosensor displayed linear response from 0.1 to 1.2 mM with a sensitivity of 113 mA M -1 cm -2 at an applied potential of -0.10 V in air-saturated electrolytes.

  12. Nanomolar simultaneous determination of levodopa and serotonin at a novel carbon ionic liquid electrode modified with Co(OH)2 nanoparticles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaei, Ali; Taheri, Ali Reza; Aminikhah, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel modified carbon ionic liquid electrode is fabricated as Nafion/Co(OH) 2 –MWCNTs/CILE. ► The modified electrode was used as the new sensor for nanomolar simultaneous determinations of L-dopa and serotonin. ► The electrode was impermeable to uric acid and ascorbic acid and other anionic species as electroactive coexistent compounds. ► Several techniques as cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry and chronoamperometry were used for investigations. ► The proposed sensor showed a wide linear range, low detection limit, high stability and good reproducibility. -- Abstract: A novel modified carbon ionic liquid electrode is prepared as an electrochemical sensor for simultaneous determination of levodopa (L-dopa) and serotonin (5-HT). The experimental results suggest that a carbon ionic liquid electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and cobalt hydroxide nanoparticles, and coated with Nafion (Nafion/Co(OH) 2 –MWCNTs/CILE), accelerates the electron transfer reactions of L-dopa and 5-HT. In addition it shows no significant interferences of uric acid and ascorbic acid as electroactive coexistent compounds with L-dopa and 5-HT in biological systems. The fabricated sensor revealed some advantages such as convenient preparation, good stability and high sensitivity toward 5-HT and L-dopa determination. The DPV data showed that the obtained anodic peak currents were linearly dependent on the L-dopa and 5-HT concentrations in the range of 0.25–225 and 0.05–75 μmol L −1 , respectively. The applicability of the modified electrode was demonstrated by simultaneous determination of 5-HT and L-dopa in human serum

  13. Preparation of polypyrrole/ferrocyanide films modified carbon paste electrode and its application on the electrocatalytic determination of ascorbic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raoof, Jahan-Bakhsh; Ojani, Reza; Rashid-Nadimi, Sahar

    2004-01-15

    Functionalized polypyrrole film were prepared by incorporation of (Fe(CN){sub 6}){sup 4-} as doping anion, during the electropolymerization of pyrrole onto a carbon paste electrode (CPE) in aqueous solution by using potentiostatic method. The electrochemical behavior of the (Fe(CN){sub 6}){sup 3-}/(Fe(CN){sub 6}){sup 4-} redox couple in polypyrrole was studied by cyclic voltammetry and double step potential chronoamperometry methods. In this study, an obvious surface redox reaction was observed and dependence of this reaction on the solution pH was illustrated. The electrocatalytic ability of polypyrrole/ferrocyanide films modified carbon paste electrode (Ppy/FCNMCPEs) was demonstrated by oxidation of ascorbic acid. It has been found that under optimum condition (pH 7.00), the oxidation of ascorbic acid at the surface of such electrode occurs at a potential about 540 mV less positive than unmodified carbon paste electrode. The kinetic parameters such as electron transfer coefficient, {alpha} and catalytic reaction rate constant, k{sub h}', were also determined by using various electrochemical approaches. The catalytic oxidation peak current showed a linear dependent on the ascorbic acid concentration and a linear calibration curve was obtained in the range of 4.5x10{sup -4} to 9.62x10{sup -3} M of ascorbic acid with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999. The detection limit (2{sigma}) was determined as 5.82x10{sup -5} M.

  14. Disposable screen-printed bismuth electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes for electrochemical stripping measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiangheng; Zhao, Hongli; Lan, Minbo

    2011-01-01

    Integrating the advantages of screen printing technology with the encouraging electroanalytical characteristic of metallic bismuth, we developed an ultrasensitive and disposable screen-printed bismuth electrode (SPBE) modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for electrochemical stripping measurements. Metallic bismuth powders and MWCNTs were homogeneously mixed with graphite-carbon ink to mass-prepare screen-printed bismuth electrode doped with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SPBE/MWCNT). The electroanalytical performance of the prepared SPBE/MWCNT was intensively evaluated by measuring trace Hg(II) with square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). The results indicated that the SPBE modified with 2 wt% MWCNTs could offer a more sensitive response to trace Hg(II) than the bare SPBE. The stripping current obtained at SPBE/MWCNT was linear with Hg(II) concentration in the range from 0.2 to 40 µg/L (R(2) = 0.9976), with a detection limit of 0.09 µg/L (S/N = 3) under 180 s accumulation. The proposed "mercury-free" electrode, with extremely simple preparation and ultrahigh sensitivity, holds wide application prospects in both environmental and industrial monitoring. 2011 © The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry

  15. Fabrication of gallium hexacyanoferrate modified carbon ionic liquid paste electrode for sensitive determination of hydrogen peroxide and glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighi, Behzad; Khosravi, Mehdi; Barati, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Gallium hexacyanoferrate (GaHCFe) and graphite powder were homogeneously dispersed into n-dodecylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate and paraffin to fabricate GaHCFe modified carbon ionic liquid paste electrode (CILPE). Mixture experimental design was employed to optimize the fabrication of GaHCFe modified CILPE (GaHCFe-CILPE). A pair of well-defined redox peaks due to the redox reaction of GaHCFe through one-electron process was observed for the fabricated electrode. The fabricated GaHCFe-CILPE exhibited good electrocatalytic activity towards reduction and oxidation of H 2 O 2 . The observed sensitivities for the electrocatalytic oxidation and reduction of H 2 O 2 at the operating potentials of + 0.8 and − 0.2 V were about 13.8 and 18.3 mA M −1 , respectively. The detection limit (S/N = 3) for H 2 O 2 was about 1 μM. Additionally, glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized on GaHCFe-CILPE using two methodology, entrapment into Nafion matrix and cross-linking with glutaraldehyde and bovine serum albumin, in order to fabricate glucose biosensor. Linear dynamic rage, sensitivity and detection limit for glucose obtained by the biosensor fabricated using cross-linking methodology were 0.1–6 mM, 0.87 mA M −1 and 30 μM, respectively and better than those obtained (0.2–6 mM, 0.12 mA M −1 and 50 μM) for the biosensor fabricated using entrapment methodology. - Highlights: • Gallium hexacyanoferrate modified carbon ionic liquid paste electrode was fabricated. • Mixture experimental design was used to optimize electrode fabrication. • Response trace plot was used to show the effect of electrode materials on response. • The sensor exhibited electrocatalytic activity towards H 2 O 2 reduction and oxidation. • Glucose biosensor was fabricated by immobilization of glucose oxidase on sensor

  16. Amperometric xanthine biosensors using glassy carbon electrodes modified with electrografted porous silica nanomaterials loaded with xanthine oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saadaoui, Maroua; Sánchez, Alfredo; Díez, Paula; Raouafi, Noureddine; Pingarrón, José M.; Villalonga, Reynaldo

    2016-01-01

    Glassy carbon electrodes were modified with silica materials such as silica nanoparticles, mesoporous silica nanoparticles and mesoporous silica thin films with the aim to introduce scaffolds suitable for the immobilization of enzymes. Xanthine oxidase was selected as a model enzyme, and xanthine as the target analyte. A comparison of the modified electrodes showed the biosensor prepared with mesoporous silica nanoparticles to perform best. By using the respective biosensor, xanthine can be amperometrically determined (via measurement of enzymatically formed hydrogen peroxide) at a working voltage of 0.7 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) with a 0.28 μM detection limit. The biosensor was evaluated in terms of potential interferences, reproducibility and stability, and applied to the determination of fish freshness via sensing of xanthine. (author)

  17. Polyaniline modified graphene and carbon nanotube composite electrode for asymmetric supercapacitors of high energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qian; Tang, Jie; Shinya, Norio; Qin, Lu-Chang

    2013-11-01

    Graphene and single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) composites are explored as the electrodes for supercapacitors by coating polyaniline (PANI) nano-cones onto the graphene/CNT composite to obtain graphene/CNT-PANI composite electrode. The graphene/CNT-PANI electrode is assembled with a graphene/CNT electrode into an asymmetric pseudocapacitor and a highest energy density of 188 Wh kg-1 and maximum power density of 200 kW kg-1 are achieved. The structure and morphology of the graphene/CNT composite and the PANI nano-cone coatings are characterized by both scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The excellent performance of the assembled supercapacitors is also discussed and it is attributed to (i) effective utilization of the large surface area of the three-dimensional network structure of graphene-based composite, (ii) the presence of CNT in the composite preventing graphene from re-stacking, and (ii) uniform and vertically aligned PANI coating on graphene offering increased electrical conductivity.

  18. Immobilization of a mediator onto carbon cloth electrode and employment of the modified electrode to an electroenzymatic bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eun-Seon; Sathishkumar, Muthuswamy; Jayabalan, Rasu; Jeong, Su-Hyeon; Park, Song-Yie; Mun, Sung-Phil; Yun, Sei-Eok

    2012-10-01

    5,5'-Dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) was selected as an electron transfer mediator and was covalently immobilized onto high porosity carbon cloth to employ as a working electrode in an electrochemical NAD(+)-regeneration process, which was coupled to an enzymatic reaction. The voltammetric behavior of DTNB attached to carbon cloth resembled that of DTNB in buffered aqueous solution, and the electrocatalytic anodic current grew continuously upon addition of NADH at different concentrations, indicating that DTNB is immobilized to carbon cloth effectively and the immobilized DTNB is active as a soluble one. The bioelectrocatalytic NAD+ regeneration was coupled to the conversion of L-glutamate into alpha-ketoglutarate by L-glutamate dehydrogenase within the same microreactor. The conversion at 3 mM monosodium glutamate was very rapid, up to 12 h, to result in 90%, and then slow up to 24 h, showing 94%, followed by slight decrease. Low conversion was shown when substrate concentration exceeding 4 mM was tested, suggesting that L-glutamate dehydrogenase is inhibited by alpha-ketoglutarate. However, our electrochemical NAD+ regeneration procedure looks advantageous over the enzymatic procedure using NADH oxidase, from the viewpoint of reaction time to completion.

  19. A sensitive electrochemical sensor for paracetamole based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes and dopamine nanospheres functionalized with gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xue; Wang, Ling-Ling; Wang, Ya-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Yan

    2014-01-01

    We describe an electrochemical sensor for paracetamole that is based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes and dopamine nanospheres functionalized with gold nanoparticles. The functionalized nanospheres were prepared by a chemical route and characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The well-dispersed gold nanoparticles were anchored on the dopamine nanosphere via a chemical reduction of the gold precursor. The stepwise fabrication of the modified electrode and its electrochemical response to paracetamole were evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The modified electrode displayed improved electrocatalytic activity towards paracetamole, a lower oxidation potential (371 mV), and a larger peak current when compared to a bare electrode or other modified electrodes. The kinetic parameters governing the electro-oxidation of paracetamole were studied, and the analytical conditions were optimized. The peak current was linearly related to the concentration of paracetamole in 0.8–400 μM range, and the detection limit was 50 nM (at an SNR of 3). The method was successfully applied to the determination of paracetamole in spiked human urine samples and gave recoveries between 95.3 and 105.2 %. (author)

  20. Determination of Patulin Using Amperometric Tyrosinase Biosensors Based on Electrodes Modified with Carbon Nanotubes and Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Varlamova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available New amperometric biosensors based on platinum screen printed electrodes modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles, and immobilized enzyme – tyrosinase have been developed for determination of patulin in the concentrations of 1·10–6 – 8·10–12 mol/L with an error of no more than 0.063. The best conditions for obtaining gold nanoparticles have been chosen. The conditions for immobilization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles on the surface of the planar electrode have been revealed. The conditions for functioning of the proposed biosensors have been identified. The results have been used to control the content of patulin in food products within and lower than the maximum allowable levels.

  1. Simultaneous electrochemical determination of dopamine and paracetamol on multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide nanocomposite-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheemalapati, Srikanth; Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Mani, Veerappan; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2013-12-15

    In the present study, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposite was prepared by homogenous dispersion of MWCNT and GO and used for the simultaneous voltammetric determination of dopamine (DA) and paracetamol (PA). The TEM results confirmed that MWCNT walls were wrapped well with GO sheets. The MWCNT/GO nanocomposite showed superior electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of DA and PA, when compared with either pristine MWCNT or GO. The major reason for the efficient simultaneous detection of DA and PA at nanocomposite was the synergistic effect between MWCNT and GO. The electrochemical oxidation of DA and PA was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry and amperometry. The nanocomposite modified electrode showed electrocatalytic oxidation of DA and PA in the linear response range from 0.2 to 400 µmol L(-1) and 0.5 to 400 µmol L(-1) with the detection limit of 22 nmol L(-1) and 47 nmol L(-1) respectively. The proposed sensor displayed good selectivity, sensitivity, stability with appreciable consistency and precision. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fabrication of electrochemical theophylline sensor based on manganese oxide nanoparticles/ionic liquid/chitosan nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MansouriMajd, Samira; Teymourian, Hazhir; Salimi, Abdollah; Hallaj, Rahman

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the preparation of a glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with chitosan/NH 2 -ionic liquid/manganese oxide nanoparticles (Chit/NH 2 -IL/MnO x ) was described for electrocatalytic detection of theophylline (TP). First, chitosan hydrogel (Chit) was electrodeposited on the GC electrode surface at a constant potential (−1.5 V) in acidic solution. Then, the previously synthesized amine-terminated 1-(3-Aminopropyl)-3-methylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid (NH 2 -IL) was covalently attached to the modified electrode via glutaraldehyde (GA) as linking agent. Finally, manganese oxide (MnO x ) nanoparticles were electrodeposited onto the Chit/NH 2 -IL film by potential cycling between −1.0 and 1.7 V in Mn(CH 3 COO) 2 ·4H 2 O neutral aqueous solution. Electrochemical behavior of the modified electrode was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique. The charge transfer coefficient (α) and electron transfer rate constant (k s ) for MnOOH/MnO 2 redox couple were calculated to be 0.35 and 1.62 s −1 , respectively. The resulting system brings new capabilities for electrochemical sensing through combining the advantages of IL and MnO x nanoparticles. The differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) results indicated the high ability of GC/Chit/NH 2 -IL/MnO x modified electrode to catalyze the oxidation of TP. DPV determination of TP in acetate buffer solution (pH 5) gave linear responses over the concentration range up to 120 μM with the detection limit of 50 nM and sensitivity of 804 nA μM −1 . Furthermore, the applicability of the sensor for TP analysis in pharmaceutical samples has been successfully demonstrated

  3. Carbon Nanotube Modified Screen Printed Electrodes: Pyranose Oxidase Immobilization Platform for Amperometric Enzyme Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek ODACI DEMIRKOL

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Here, a novel enzymatic biosensor was developed using multiwalled carbon nanotube including screen printed electrodes (MWCNT-SPE. Pyranose oxidase (PyOx was immobilized on the electrode surface by way of gelatin membrane and then cross-linked using glutaraldehyde. Glucose was detected at -0.7 V (vs. Ag/AgCl by watching consumed oxygen in enzymatic reaction after addition substrate. After optimization of pH and enzyme loading, the linearity was found in the range of 0.1–1.0 mM of glucose. After that, the effect of MCNT on the current was tested. Also the enzymatic biosensor including glucose oxidase instead of pyranose oxidase was prepared and the biosensor response followed for glucose. Furthermore, this system was tested for glucose analysis in soft drinks.

  4. Preparation of alanine and tyrosine functionalized graphene oxide nanoflakes and their modified carbon paste electrodes for the determination of dopamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mohan; Swamy, B.E. Kumara; Asif, M.H. Mohammed; Viswanath, C.C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The prepared graphene oxide was functionalized by alanine and tyrosine. • The prepared materials were used for sensor for dopamine. • The functionalized graphene oxide modified carbon paste electrodes shows good sensitivity, stability and repeatability. - Abstract: Herein, established the synthesis of graphene oxide (GO) by Hummers Method with addition of KMnO_4 followed by thermal heating at 80 °C. The obtained GO was further functionalized by alanine and tyrosine. The prepared GO, alanine functionalized GO nanoflakes (AGONF) and tyrosine functionalized GO nanoflakes (TGONF) were characterized by spectroscopic technique using energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), quantitatively by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and structural studies along with interlayer distance verified through X-ray diffraction technique. Afterwards, the prepared AGONF and TGONF were used as the modifier for the carbon paste electrode (CPE). The electrochemical behavior of the AGONF and TGONF modified carbon paste electrodes (MCPEs) towards dopamine (DA) in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) were examined by cyclic voltammetric (CV) technique and the obtained consequences showed good electrocatalytic activity of MCPEs by increasing the redox peak current with a lower potential difference compared to the bare CPE (BCPE). The AGONF and TGONF MCPEs were further used for the optimization studies. From the pH studies, it was found that the equal number of proton and electron transfer reaction involved in both the modified electrodes. The scan rate studies demonstrate the adsorption controlled electrode process at AGONF MCPE and diffusion controlled at TGONF MCPE. The oxidation peak current increased linearly with two concentration interval of DA at a range of 2–7 μM and 10–30 μM in presence of PBS (pH 7.4) at MCPEs and the limit of detection (LOD) were found to be 0.84 μM and 0.96 μM for first interval DA concentration range (2–7 μM) at AGONF and TGONF MCPE. The

  5. Preparation of alanine and tyrosine functionalized graphene oxide nanoflakes and their modified carbon paste electrodes for the determination of dopamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Mohan [Department of P.G. Studies and Research in Industrial Chemistry, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, 577 451, Shimoga, Karnataka (India); Swamy, B.E. Kumara, E-mail: kumaraswamy21@yahoo.com [Department of P.G. Studies and Research in Industrial Chemistry, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, 577 451, Shimoga, Karnataka (India); Asif, M.H. Mohammed [Nanoscience and Technology, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, 577451, Shimoga, Karnataka (India); Viswanath, C.C. [Department of P.G. Studies and Research in Industrial Chemistry, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, 577 451, Shimoga, Karnataka (India)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • The prepared graphene oxide was functionalized by alanine and tyrosine. • The prepared materials were used for sensor for dopamine. • The functionalized graphene oxide modified carbon paste electrodes shows good sensitivity, stability and repeatability. - Abstract: Herein, established the synthesis of graphene oxide (GO) by Hummers Method with addition of KMnO{sub 4} followed by thermal heating at 80 °C. The obtained GO was further functionalized by alanine and tyrosine. The prepared GO, alanine functionalized GO nanoflakes (AGONF) and tyrosine functionalized GO nanoflakes (TGONF) were characterized by spectroscopic technique using energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), quantitatively by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and structural studies along with interlayer distance verified through X-ray diffraction technique. Afterwards, the prepared AGONF and TGONF were used as the modifier for the carbon paste electrode (CPE). The electrochemical behavior of the AGONF and TGONF modified carbon paste electrodes (MCPEs) towards dopamine (DA) in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) were examined by cyclic voltammetric (CV) technique and the obtained consequences showed good electrocatalytic activity of MCPEs by increasing the redox peak current with a lower potential difference compared to the bare CPE (BCPE). The AGONF and TGONF MCPEs were further used for the optimization studies. From the pH studies, it was found that the equal number of proton and electron transfer reaction involved in both the modified electrodes. The scan rate studies demonstrate the adsorption controlled electrode process at AGONF MCPE and diffusion controlled at TGONF MCPE. The oxidation peak current increased linearly with two concentration interval of DA at a range of 2–7 μM and 10–30 μM in presence of PBS (pH 7.4) at MCPEs and the limit of detection (LOD) were found to be 0.84 μM and 0.96 μM for first interval DA concentration range (2–7 μM) at AGONF and TGONF MCPE

  6. A 3D Microfluidic Chip for Electrochemical Detection of Hydrolysed Nucleic Bases by a Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Vlachova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modification of carbon materials, especially graphene-based materials, has wide applications in electrochemical detection such as electrochemical lab-on-chip devices. A glassy carbon electrode (GCE modified with chemically alternated graphene oxide was used as a working electrode (glassy carbon modified by graphene oxide with sulphur containing compounds and Nafion for detection of nucleobases in hydrolysed samples (HCl pH = 2.9, 100 °C, 1 h, neutralization by NaOH. It was found out that modification, especially with trithiocyanuric acid, increased the sensitivity of detection in comparison with pure GCE. All processes were finally implemented in a microfluidic chip formed with a 3D printer by fused deposition modelling technology. As a material for chip fabrication, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene was chosen because of its mechanical and chemical stability. The chip contained the one chamber for the hydrolysis of the nucleic acid and another for the electrochemical detection by the modified GCE. This chamber was fabricated to allow for replacement of the GCE.

  7. A 3D microfluidic chip for electrochemical detection of hydrolysed nucleic bases by a modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachova, Jana; Tmejova, Katerina; Kopel, Pavel; Korabik, Maria; Zitka, Jan; Hynek, David; Kynicky, Jindrich; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-22

    Modification of carbon materials, especially graphene-based materials, has wide applications in electrochemical detection such as electrochemical lab-on-chip devices. A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with chemically alternated graphene oxide was used as a working electrode (glassy carbon modified by graphene oxide with sulphur containing compounds and Nafion) for detection of nucleobases in hydrolysed samples (HCl pH = 2.9, 100 °C, 1 h, neutralization by NaOH). It was found out that modification, especially with trithiocyanuric acid, increased the sensitivity of detection in comparison with pure GCE. All processes were finally implemented in a microfluidic chip formed with a 3D printer by fused deposition modelling technology. As a material for chip fabrication, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene was chosen because of its mechanical and chemical stability. The chip contained the one chamber for the hydrolysis of the nucleic acid and another for the electrochemical detection by the modified GCE. This chamber was fabricated to allow for replacement of the GCE.

  8. Understanding the mechanism of direct electrochemistry of mitochondria-modified electrodes from yeast, potato and bovine sources at carbon paper electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giroud, Fabien; Nicolo, Tera A.; Koepke, Sara J.; Minteer, Shelley D.

    2013-01-01

    Although mitochondria have been used for bio-electrochemistry for over 5 years, little is known about their direct electrochemistry mechanism. This paper focuses on developing a better understanding of the electron transfer mechanism of mitochondria from three different organisms at carbon electrodes. Yeast, potato and bovine mitochondria have been successfully isolated and immobilized onto Toray paper electrodes via vapor deposited silica. Organelle-modified electrodes were first characterized using cyclic voltammetry. Similar electrochemical signals were obtained for all organisms. Direct electron transfer was observed when a metabolite of the Krebs cycle was present in the buffer solution. Control experiments based on the immobilization of two electron carriers contained in mitochondria, cytochrome c and a quinone (coenzyme Q 10 ), tend to show the electron transfer mechanism to the carbon material comes from the quinone pool of the organelles. As quinones are known to be pH-dependent, we further investigated the response of the electrochemical signal of the three isolated mitochondria and the two electron carriers separately. The half wave potentials obtained from the organelles appeared to be pH-dependent and their variations are comparable to coenzyme Q 10 rather than cytochrome c. Finally, extraction of both the cytochrome c and the quinone pool from intact mitochondria was performed to validate our hypothesis that direct electrochemistry of mitochondria happens via the quinone pool. Electrochemistry of immobilized quinone-depleted mitochondria validated the hypothesis that the mitochondria are communicating with the electrodes through the quinone pool

  9. Optimising carbon electrode materials for adsorptive stripping voltammetry

    OpenAIRE

    Chaisiwamongkhol, K; Batchelor-McAuley, C; Sokolov, S; Holter, J; Young, N; Compton, R

    2017-01-01

    Different types of carbon electrode materials for adsorptive stripping voltammetry are studied through the use of cyclic voltammetry. Capsaicin is utilised as a model compound for adsorptive stripping voltammetry using unmodified and modified basal plane pyrolytic graphite (BPPG) electrodes modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon black or graphene nanoplatelets, screen printed carbon electrodes (SPE), carbon nanotube modified screen printed electrodes, and carbon paste electrodes....

  10. Electrospun composite nanofibers of poly vinyl pyrrolidone and zinc oxide nanoparticles modified carbon paste electrode for electrochemical detection of curcumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afzali, Moslem, E-mail: moslem_afzali@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Young Research Society, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mostafavi, Ali; Shamspur, Tayebeh [Chemistry Department, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    A simple and novel ferrocene-nanofiber carbon paste electrode was developed to determine curcumin in a phosphate buffer solution at pH = 8. ZnO nanoparticles were produced via a sonochemical process and composite nanofibers of PVP/ZnO were prepared by electrospinning. The characterization was performed by SEM, XRD and IR. The results suggest that the electrospun composite nanofibers having a large surface area promote electron transfer for the oxidation of curcumin and hence the FCNFCPE exhibits high electrocatalytic activity and performs well in regard to the oxidation of curcumin. The proposed method was successfully applied for measurement of curcumin in urine and turmeric as real samples. - Highlights: • A novel ferrocene-nanofiber carbon paste electrode is presented to determine an anticancer material curcumin. • Composite nanofibers of PVP and zinc oxide nanoparticles with average diameter of 64 nm, were produced by electrospinning. • High surface area of nanofibers resulted in high effective surface of the electrode increases sensitivity of the method. • This modified electrode is successfully employed for determining curcumin in real samples and LOD was 0.024 μM.

  11. A hydroxylamine electrochemical sensor based on electrodeposition of porous ZnO nanofilms onto carbon nanotubes films modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Cuihong; Wang Guangfeng; Liu Min; Feng Yuehua; Zhang Zhidan [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Key Laboratory of Chem-Biosensing, Beijing East Road No. 1, Anhui Normal University, Anhui, Wuhu 241000 (China); Fang Bin, E-mail: binfang_47@yahoo.com.c [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Key Laboratory of Chem-Biosensing, Beijing East Road No. 1, Anhui Normal University, Anhui, Wuhu 241000 (China)

    2010-03-01

    A novel route (electrodeposition) for the fabrication of porous ZnO nanofilms attached multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs) was proposed. The morphological characterization of ZnO/MWCNT films was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The performances of the ZnO/MWCNTs/GCE were characterized with cyclic voltammetry (CV), Nyquist plot (EIS) and typical amperometric response (i-t). The potential utility of electrodes constructed was demonstrated by applying them to the analytical determination of hydroxylamine concentration. An optimized limit of detection of 0.12 muM was obtained at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 and with a fast response time (within 3 s). Additionally, the ZnO/MWCNTs/GCE exhibited a wide linear range from 0.4 to 1.9 x 10{sup 4} muM and higher sensitivity. The ease of fabrication, high stability, and low cost of the modified electrode are the promising features of the proposed sensor.

  12. Rhodium-Prussian Blue modified carbon paste electrode (Rh-PBMCPE for amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivama Viviane Midori

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Prussian Blue was deposited at carbon paste electrode surface from a solution containing 2.0 x 10-3 mol L-1 K3[Fe(CN6], 3.0 x 10-3 mol L-1 FeCl3 and 1.0 x 10-2 mol L-1 HCl using two controlled potentials. To improve the stability of the modified electrode it was 50 times cycled in a solution containing 1.0 x 10-3 mol L-1 RhCl3, 0.50 mol L-1 KCl and 0.010 mol L-1 HCl in the potential range from - 0.40 V to 0.60 V at 60 mV s-1. The Rh - Prussian Blue carbon paste modified electrode (Rh-PBMCPE showed good stability during amperometric catalytic determination of H2O2 at 0.040 V, without ascorbic and uric acids interferences. The current changed linearly with H2O2 concentrations in the range of 5.0 x 10-5 - 8.6 x 10-4 mol L-1. The estimated detection limit was 2.8 x 10-5 mol L-1 with sensibility changing from 1.32 to 0.96 A mol-1 L cm-2 along five days (180 determinations.

  13. Electrochemical determination of copper ions in spirit drinks using carbon paste electrode modified with biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Paulo Roberto; Lamy-Mendes, Alyne C; Rezende, Edivaltrys Inayve Pissinati; Mangrich, Antonio Sálvio; Marcolino, Luiz Humberto; Bergamini, Márcio F

    2015-03-15

    This work describes for first time the use of biochar as electrode modifier in combination with differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetric (DPAdSV) techniques for preconcentration and determination of copper (II) ions in spirit drinks samples (Cachaça, Vodka, Gin and Tequila). Using the best set of the experimental conditions a linear response for copper ions in the concentration range of 1.5 × 10(-6) to 3.1 × 10(-5) mol L(-1) with a Limit of Detection (LOD) of 4.0 × 10(-7) mol L(-1). The repeatability of the proposed sensor using the same electrode surface was measured as 3.6% and 6.6% using different electrodes. The effect of foreign species on the voltammetric response was also evaluated. Determination of copper ions content in different samples of spirit drinks samples was also realized adopting inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and the results achieved are in agreement at a 95% of confidence level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Voltammetric determination of ultratrace levels of cerium(III) using a carbon paste electrode modified with nano-sized cerium-imprinted polymer and multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizadeh, Taher; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Akhoundian, Maede; Norouzi, Parviz

    2016-01-01

    A carbon paste electrode was modified with a Ce(III)-imprinted polymer (Ce-IP) and used for voltammetric determination of Ce(III) ions in real water samples. Precipitation polymerization was used for synthesis of the nano-sized Ce-IP from vinylpyridine and methacrylic acid (acting as the complexing ligands and functional monomers), divinylbenzene (cross-linker) and AIBN as the radical starter. The Ce-IP was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and zeta potentials. A carbon paste electrode (CPE) was then impregnated with the Ce-IP and used for the extraction and subsequent determination of Ce(III). Oxidative square wave voltammetry showed the electrode to give a significantly better response than an electrode modified with the non-imprinted polymer. The addition of multiwalled carbon nanotubes to the Ce-IP-modified electrode further improves the signal, thereby increasing the sensitivity of the method. The effects of electrode composition, extraction pH value, volume and time were optimized. The electrode, if operated at a voltage of 1.05 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), displays a linear response to Ce(III) in the 1.0 μM to 25 pM concentration range, and the detection limit is 10 pM (at an S/N ratio of 3). The relative standard deviation of 5 separate determinations is 3.1 %. The method was successfully applied to the determination of Ce(III) in the spiked samples of drinking water and sea water. (author)

  15. Determination of Diclofenac on a Dysprosium Nanowire- Modified Carbon Paste Electrode Accomplished in a Flow Injection System by Advanced Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Moosavi-Movahedi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A new detection technique called Fast Fourier Transform Square-Wave Voltammetry (FFT SWV is based on measurements of electrode admittance as a function of potential. The response of the detector (microelectrode, which is generated by a redox processes, is fast, which makes the method suitable for most applications involving flowing electrolytes. The carbon paste electrode was modified by nanostructures to improve sensitivity. Synthesized dysprosium nanowires provide a more effective nanotube-like surface [1-4] so they are good candidates for use as a modifier for electrochemical reactions. The redox properties of diclofenac were used for its determination in human serum and urine samples. The support electrolyte that provided a more defined and intense peak current for diclofenac determination was a 0.05 mol L−1 acetate buffer pH = 4.0. The drug presented an irreversible oxidation peak at 850 mV vs. Ag/AgCl on a modified nanowire carbon paste electrode which produced high current and reduced the oxidation potential by about 100 mV. Furthermore, the signal-to-noise ratio was significantly increased by application of a discrete Fast Fourier Transform (FFT method, background subtraction and two-dimensional integration of the electrode response over a selected potential range and time window. To obtain the much sensivity the effective parameters such as frequency, amplitude and pH was optimized. As a result, CDL of 2.0 × 10−9 M and an LOQ of 5.0 × 10−9 M were found for the determination for diclofenac. A good recovery was obtained for assay spiked urine samples and a good quantification of diclofenac was achieved in a commercial formulation.

  16. MIP-graphene-modified glassy carbon electrode for the determination of trimethoprim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Hélder; Pacheco, João G; Magalhães, Júlia M C S; Viswanathan, Subramanian; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2014-02-15

    A novel sensitive electrochemical sensor was developed by electropolymerization of pyrrole (PY) and molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) which was synthesized onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) in aqueous solution using cyclic voltammetry in the presence of Trimethoprim (TMP) as template molecules. Furthermore, a previous electrode modification was performed by deposition of a suspension of graphene on the electrode's surface. The performance of the imprinted and non-imprinted (NIP) films was evaluated by impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) of a ferric solution. The molecularly imprinted film exhibited a high selectivity and sensitivity toward TMP. The sensor presented a linear range, between peak current intensity and logarithm of TMP concentration between 1.0 × 10(-6) and 1.0 × 10(-4)M. The results were accurate (with recoveries higher than 94%), precise (with standard deviations less than 5%) and the detection limit was 1.3 × 10(-7)M. The new sensor is selective, simple to construct and easy to operate. The MIP sensor was successfully applied to quantify TMP in urine samples. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Highly selective determination of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid and serotonin at glassy carbon electrodes modified with carbon nanotubes dispersed in polyethylenimine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Marcela C; Rubianes, María D; Rivas, Gustavo A

    2008-11-01

    We report the highly selective and sensitive voltammetric dopamine quantification in the presence of ascorbic acid and serotonin by using glassy carbon electrodes modified with a dispersion of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in polyethylenimine, PEI (GCE/MWCNT-PEI). The electrocatalytic activity of the MWCNT deposited on the glassy carbon electrode has allowed an important decrease in the overvoltages for the oxidation of ascorbic acid and dopamine, making possible a clear definition of dopamine, serotonin and ascorbic acid oxidation processes. The sensitivities for dopamine in the presence and absence of 1.0 mM ascorbic acid and serotonin were (2.18 +/- 0.03) x 10(5) microAM(-1) (r = 0.9998); and (2.10 +/- 0.07) x 10(5) miroAM(-1) (r=0.9985), respectively, demonstrating the excellent performance of the GCE/MWCNT-PEI. The detection limit for dopamine in the mixture was 9.2 x 10(-7) M. The R. S. D. for the determination of 50 microM dopamine using four different electrodes was 3.9% when modified with the same MWCNT/PEI dispersion, and 4.6% when using four different dispersions. The modified electrode has been successfully applied for recovery assays of dopamine in human blood serum. Therefore, the new sensor represents an interesting and promising alternative for the electrochemical quantification of neurotransmitters and other analytes of clinical interest.

  18. Voltammetric sensor for electrochemical determination of the floral origin of honey based on a zinc oxide nanoparticle modified carbon paste electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tiwari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology based on cyclic voltammetry using a chemically modified electrode has been developed for the discrimination of the floral origin of honey. This method involves an electronic tongue with an electrochemical sensor made from a carbon paste (CPs electrode where zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles are used as an electroactive binder material. The bare CPs electrode is evaluated for comparison. The electrochemical response of the modified electrode in 50 samples of five different floral types of honey has been analysed by the cyclic voltammetric technique. The voltammograms of each floral variety of honey reflect the redox properties of the ZnO nanoparticles present inside the carbon paste matrix and are strongly influenced by the nectar source of honey. Thus, each type of honey provides a characteristic signal which is evaluated by using principal component analysis (PCA and an artificial neural network (ANN. The result of a PCA score plot of the transient responses obtained from the modified carbon paste electrode clearly shows discrimination among the different floral types of honey. The ANN model for floral classification of honey shows more than 90 % accuracy. These results indicate that the ZnO nanoparticles modified carbon paste (ZnO Nps modified CPs electrode can be a useful electrode for discrimination of honey samples from different floral origins.

  19. Analysis of total polyphenols in wines by FIA with highly stable amperometric detection using carbon nanotube-modified electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, Alberto Sánchez; Martínez-Fernández, Marta; Moreno, Mónica; Bermejo, Esperanza; Zapardiel, Antonio; Chicharro, Manuel

    2013-02-15

    The use of glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs) modified with multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) films for the continuous monitoring of polyphenols in flow systems has been examined. The performance of these modified electrodes was evaluated and compared to bare GCE by cyclic voltammetry experiments and by flow injection analysis (FIA) with amperometric detection monitoring the response of gallic, caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids in 0.050 M acetate buffer pH 4.5 containing 100 mM NaCl. The GCE modified with CNT dispersions in polyethyleneimine (PEI) provided lower overpotentials, higher sensitivity and much higher signal stability under a dynamic regime than bare GCEs. These properties allowed the estimation of the total polyphenol content in red and white wines with a remarkable long-term stability in the measurements despite the presence of potential fouling substances in the wine matrix. In addition, the versatility of the electrochemical methodology allowed the selective estimation of the easily oxidisable polyphenol fraction as well as the total polyphenol content just by tuning the detection potential at +0.30 or 0.70 V, respectively. The significance of the electrochemical results was demonstrated through correlation studies with the results obtained with conventional spectrophotometric assays for polyphenols (Folin-Ciocalteu, absorbance at 280 nm index and colour intensity index). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sorption of polluting metal ions on a palm tree frond sawdust studied by the means of modified carbon paste electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouacer, Sana; Hazourli, Sabir; Despas, Christelle; Hébrant, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Water remediation by adsorption of the metal ions on a low cost sorbent is the frame of the present study. The metal ions adsorption properties of sawdust of palm tree fronds (PTF sawdust) are investigated by both equilibrium measurements and modified carbon paste electrode. The ability to adsorb Cu(II), Cr(VI) and As(III) in significant quantities is demonstrated. Carbon paste electrodes modified by incorporation of PTF sawdust (PTF-CPE) or, for comparison, an organically modified silica for the detection of copper(II) are investigated in term of sensitivity, estimation of number of possible reuses, repeatability and interference effect. A detection limit for Cu(II) analysis of 1.0×10(-8) M has been achieved after 5 min preconcentration and a single PTF-CPE can be used for up to 10 preconcentration-analysis-regeneration cycles. The relative standard deviation (n=9) for the determination of a 10(-6) M Cu(II) solution (pH=5) was about 26%. The effects of Ca(II), As(III) and Cr(VI) on the copper detection are investigated: calcium ions were shown to compete with copper on the same adsorption sites, arsenic(III) has no effect on the copper detection whereas chromium(VI) was shown to enhance the copper detection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sulfite oxidase biosensors based on tetrathiafulvalene modified screen-printed carbon electrodes for sulfite determination in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinero-Abad, Begoña; Alonso-Lomillo, M Asunción; Domínguez-Renedo, Olga; Arcos-Martínez, M Julia

    2014-02-17

    Screen-printed carbon electrodes have been modified with tetrathiafulvalene and sulfite oxidase enzyme for the sensitive and selective detection of sulfite. Amperometric experimental conditions were optimized taking into account the importance of quantifying sulfite in wine samples and the inherent complexity of these samples, particularly red wine. The biosensor responds to sulfite giving a cathodic current (at +200 mV vs screen-printed Ag/AgCl electrode and pH 6) in a wide concentration range, with a capability of detection of 6 μM (α=β=0.05) at 60°C. The method has been applied to the determination of sulfite in white and red samples, with averages recoveries of 101.5% to 101.8%, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of Zinc, Cadmium, Lead, Copper and Silver Using a Carbon Paste Electrode and a Screen Printed Electrode Modified with Chromium(III Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Koudelkova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the preparation and electrochemical application of a chromium(III oxide modified carbon paste electrode (Cr-CPE and a screen printed electrode (SPE, made from the same material and optimized for the simple, cheap and sensitive simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium, lead, copper and the detection of silver ions, is described. The limits of detection and quantification were 25 and 80 µg·L−1 for Zn(II, 3 and 10 µg·L−1 for Cd(II, 3 and 10 µg·L−1 for Pb(II, 3 and 10 µg·L−1 for Cu(II, and 3 and 10 µg·L−1 for Ag(I, respectively. Furthermore, this promising modification was transferred to the screen-printed electrode. The limits of detection for the simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium, copper and lead on the screen printed electrodes were found to be 350 µg·L−1 for Zn(II, 25 µg·L−1 for Cd(II, 3 µg·L−1 for Pb(II and 3 µg·L−1 for Cu(II. Practical usability for the simultaneous detection of these heavy metal ions by the Cr-CPE was also demonstrated in the analyses of wastewaters.

  3. Determination of Zinc, Cadmium, Lead, Copper and Silver Using a Carbon Paste Electrode and a Screen Printed Electrode Modified with Chromium(III) Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudelkova, Zuzana; Syrovy, Tomas; Ambrozova, Pavlina; Moravec, Zdenek; Kubac, Lubomir; Hynek, David; Richtera, Lukas; Adam, Vojtech

    2017-08-09

    In this study, the preparation and electrochemical application of a chromium(III) oxide modified carbon paste electrode (Cr-CPE) and a screen printed electrode (SPE), made from the same material and optimized for the simple, cheap and sensitive simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium, lead, copper and the detection of silver ions, is described. The limits of detection and quantification were 25 and 80 µg·L -1 for Zn(II), 3 and 10 µg·L -1 for Cd(II), 3 and 10 µg·L -1 for Pb(II), 3 and 10 µg·L -1 for Cu(II), and 3 and 10 µg·L -1 for Ag(I), respectively. Furthermore, this promising modification was transferred to the screen-printed electrode. The limits of detection for the simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium, copper and lead on the screen printed electrodes were found to be 350 µg·L -1 for Zn(II), 25 µg·L -1 for Cd(II), 3 µg·L -1 for Pb(II) and 3 µg·L -1 for Cu(II). Practical usability for the simultaneous detection of these heavy metal ions by the Cr-CPE was also demonstrated in the analyses of wastewaters.

  4. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian [Newton, MA; Chen, Jinghua [Chestnut Hill, MA; Huang, Zhongping [Belmont, MA; Wang, Dezhi [Wellesley, MA

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  5. Determination of dopamine in presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid using poly (Spands Reagent) modified carbon paste electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veera Manohara Reddy, Y.; Prabhakara Rao, V.; Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy, A.; Lavanya, M.; Venu, M.; Lavanya, M.; Madhavi, G., E-mail: gmchem01@gmail.com

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we have fabricated a modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) by electropolymerisation of spands reagent (SR) onto surface of CPE using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The developed electrode was abbreviated as poly(SR)/CPE and the surface morphology of the modified electrode was studied by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The developed electrode showed higher electrocatalytic properties towards the detection of dopamine (DA) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH 7.0. The effect of pH, scan rate, accumulation time and concentration of dopamine was studied at poly(SR)/CPE. The poly(SR)/CPE was successfully used as a sensor for the selective determination of DA in presence of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) without any interference. The poly(SR)/CPE showed a good detection limit of 0.7 μM over the linear dynamic range of 1.6 μM to 16 μM, which is extremely lower than the reported methods. The prepared poly(SR)/CPE exhibited good stability, high sensitivity, better reproducibility, low detection limit towards the determination of DA. The developed method was also applied for the determination of DA in real samples. - Highlights: • Electropolymerization of spands reagent was fabricated by cyclic voltammetry • The Poly (spands reagent) electrode shows excellent electrocatalytic activity for the detection of dopamine. • The detection limit for dopamine was found to be 0.7 μM. • The proposed method can be applied for DA in injection and human blood serum samples.

  6. Direct electron transfer and electrocatalysis of glucose oxidase immobilized on glassy carbon electrode modified with Nafion and mesoporous carbon FDU-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kunqi; Yang Hua; Zhu Lin; Ma Zhongsu; Xing Shenyang; Lv Qiang; Liao Jianhui; Liu Changpeng; Xing Wei

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, it was found that glucose oxidase (GOD) has been stably immobilized on glassy carbon electrode modified with mesoporous carbon FDU-15 (MC-FDU-15) and Nafion by simple technique. The sorption behavior of GOD immobilized on MC-FDU-15 matrix was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), FTIR, respectively, which demonstrated that MC-FDU-15 could facilitate the electron exchange between the active center of GOD and electrode. The direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis behavior of GOD on the modified electrode were characterized by cyclic voltammogram (CV) which indicated that GOD immobilized on Nafion and MC-FDU-15 matrices display direct, reversible and surface-controlled redox reaction with an enhanced electron transfer rate constant of 4.095 s -1 in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS) (pH 7.12). Furthermore, it was also discovered that, in the presence of O 2 , GOD immobilized on Nafion and MC-FDU-15 matrices could produce a linear response to glucose. Thus, Nafion/GOD-MC-FDU-15/GC electrode is hopeful to be used in glucose biosensor. In addition, GOD immobilized on MC-FDU-15 and Nafion matrices possesses an excellent bioelectrocatalytic activity for the reduction of O 2 . So, the Nafion/GOD-MC-FDU-15/GC electrode can be utilized as the cathode in biofuel cell.

  7. Layer-by-layer self-assembling copper tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine on carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode for electro-oxidation of 2-mercaptoethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaik, Mahabul; Rao, V.K.; Gupta, Manish; Pandey, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the electrocatalytic activity of layer-by-layer self-assembled copper tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine (CuPcTS) on carbon nanotube (CNT)-modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. CuPcTS is immobilized on the negatively charged CNT surface by alternatively assembling a cationic poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) layer and a CuPcTS layer. UV–vis absorption spectra and electrochemical measurements suggested the successive linear depositions of the bilayers of CuPcTs and PDDA on CNT. The surface morphology was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The viability of this CuPcTS/PDDA/CNT modified GC electrode as a redox mediator for the anodic oxidation and sensitive amperometric determination of 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) in alkaline conditions is described. The effect of number of bilayers of CuPcTS/PDDA and pH on electrochemical oxidation of 2-ME was studied. The proposed electrochemical sensor displayed excellent characteristics towards the determination of 2-ME in 0.1 M NaOH; such as low overpotentials (− 0.15 V vs Ag/AgCl), linear concentration range of 3 × 10 −5 M to 6 × 10 −3 M, and with a detection limit of 2.5 × 10 −5 M using simple amperometry. - Highlights: ► Carbon nanotubes (CNT) were drop-dried on glassy carbon electrode (GCE). ► Copper tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine (CuPcTS) was deposited on CNT/GCE. ► Layer-by-layer self-assembling method is used for depositing CuPcTS. ► Electrocatalytic oxidation of 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) was studied at this electrode ► The detection limit of ME at modified electrode was 25 μM by amperometry.

  8. Electrochemical sensor for nitrite using a glassy carbon electrode modified with gold-copper nanochain networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Su-Su; Mei, Li-Ping; Zhou, Jia-Ying; Guo, Fei-Ying; Wang, Ai-Jun; Feng, Jiu-Ju; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Bimetallic gold-copper nanochain networks (AuCu NCNs) were prepared by a single-step wet-chemical approach using metformin as a growth-directing agent. The formation mechanism was investigated in detail, and the AuCu NCNs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The nanocrystals were deposited on glassy carbon electrode and this resulted in a highly sensitive sensor for nitrite. Features include a low working potential (best at 0.684 V vs. SCE), fair sensitivity (17.55 μA mM −1 ), a wide linear range (0.01 to 4.0 mM), a low detection limit (0.2 μM, S/N = 3), and superior selectivity as compared to other sensors. (author)

  9. Voltammetric Determination of Flunixin on Molecularly Imprinted Polypyrrole Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd-Elgawad Radi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel electrochemical sensing approach, based on electropolymerization of a molecularly imprinted polypyrrole (MIPpy film onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE surface, was developed for the detection of flunixin (FXN. The sensing conditions and the performance of the constructed sensor were assessed by cyclic, differential pulse and (DPV square wave voltammetry (SWV. The sensor exhibited high sensitivity, with linear responses in the range of 5.0 to 50.0 µM with detection limits of 1.5 and 1.0 µM for DPV and SWV, respectively. In addition, the sensor showed high selectivity towards FXN in comparison to other interferents. The sensor was successfully utilized for the direct determination of FXN in buffalo raw milk samples.

  10. Poly(brilliant green) and poly(thionine) modified carbon nanotube coated carbon film electrodes for glucose and uric acid biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghica, M Emilia; Brett, Christopher M A

    2014-12-01

    Poly(brilliant green) (PBG) and poly(thionine) (PTH) films have been formed on carbon film electrodes (CFEs) modified with carbon nanotubes (CNT) by electropolymerisation using potential cycling. Voltammetric and electrochemical impedance characterisation were performed. Glucose oxidase and uricase, as model enzymes, were immobilised on top of PBG/CNT/CFE and PTH/CNT/CFE for glucose and uric acid (UA) biosensing. Amperometric determination of glucose and UA was carried out in phosphate buffer pH 7.0 at -0.20 and +0.30 V vs. SCE, respectively, and the results were compared with other similarly modified electrodes existing in the literature. An interference study and recovery measurements in natural samples were successfully performed, indicating these architectures to be good and promising biosensor platforms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Amperometric nitrite sensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and poly(toluidine blue)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Juan; Deng, Fei; He, Shuang; Deng, Dongli; Yuan, Yali; Zhang, Jinzhong

    2016-01-01

    An amperometric nitrite sensor modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and poly(toluidine blue) (PTB) on glassy carbon electrode was constructed. The surface morphology of the composite- modified electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and the electrochemical response behavior and electrocatalytic oxidation mechanism of nitrite were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The high surface-to-volume ratio of MWCNTs and PTB brings the electrochemical sensing unit and nitrite in full contact. This renders the electrochemical response extremely sensitive to nitrite. Under the optimal measurement conditions and a working voltage of 0.73 V (vs. SCE), a linear relationship is obtained between the oxidation peak current and nitrite concentration in the range of 39 nM–1.1 mM, and the limit of detection is lowered to 19 nM (at an S/N ratio of 3). The sensor was successfully applied to the determination of nitrite in greenhouse soils. (author)

  12. Glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes sensor for the quantification of antihistamine drug pheniramine in solubilized systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rajeev; Sharma, Sanjay

    2012-02-01

    A sensitive electroanalytical method for quantification of pheniramine in pharmaceutical formulation has been investigated on the basis of the enhanced electrochemical response at glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate. The experimental results suggest that the pheniramine in anionic surfactant solution exhibits electrocatalytic effect resulting in a marked enhancement of the peak current response. Peak current response is linearly dependent on the concentration of pheniramine in the range 200-1500 μg/mL with correlation coefficient 0.9987. The limit of detection is 58.31 μg/mL. The modified electrode shows good sensitivity and repeatability.

  13. Iron(III) protoporphyrin IX-single-wall carbon nanotubes modified electrodes for hydrogen peroxide and nitrite detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turdean, Graziella L.; Popescu, Ionel Catalin; Curulli, Antonella; Palleschi, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    Iron(III) protoporphyrin IX (Fe(III)P), adsorbed either on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) or on hydroxyl-functionalized SWCNT (SWCNT-OH), was incorporated within a Nafion matrix immobilized on the surface of a graphite electrode. From cyclic voltammetric measurements, performed under different experimental conditions (pH and potential scan rate), it was established that the Fe(III)P/Fe(II)P redox couple involves 1e - /1H + . The heterogeneous electron transfer process occurred faster when Fe(III)P was adsorbed on SWCNT-OH (∼11 s -1 ) than on SWCNT (∼4.9 s -1 ). Both the SWCNT-Fe(III)P- and SWCNT-OH-Fe(III)P-modified graphite electrodes exhibit electrocatalytic activity for H 2 O 2 and nitrite reduction. The modified electrodes sensitivities were found varying in the following sequences: S SWCNT-OH-Fe(III)P = 2.45 mA/M ∼ S SWCNT-Fe(III)P = 2.95 mA/M > S Fe(III)P = 1.34 mA/M for H 2 O 2 , and S SWCNT-Fe(III)P = 3.54 mA/M > S Fe(III)P 1.44 mA/M > S SWCNT-OH-Fe(III)P = 0.81 mA/M for NO 2 -

  14. Selective Determination of Serotonin on Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy pyrrole)-single-walled Carbon Nanotube-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seul Ki; Bae, Si Ra; Ahmed, Mohammad Shamsuddin; You, Jung Min; Jeon, Seung Won

    2011-01-01

    An electrochemically-modified electrode [P(EDOP-SWNTs)/GCE] was prepared by electropolymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxy pyrrole (EDOP) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and characterized by SEM, CV, and DPV. This modified electrode was employed as an electrochemical biosensor for the selective determination of serotonin concentrations at pH 7.4 and exhibited a typical enhanced effect on the current response of serotonin with a lower oxidation overpotential. The linear response was in the range of 1.0 x 10"-"7 to 1.0 x 10"-"5 M, with a correlation coefficient of 0.998 on the anodic current. The lower detection limit was calculated as 5.0 nM. Due to the relatively low currents and difference of potentials in the electrochemical responses of uric acid (UA), ascorbic acid (AA), and dopamine (DA), the modified electrode was a useful and effective sensing device for the selective and sensitive serotonin determination in the presence of UA, AA, and DA

  15. Selective Determination of Serotonin on Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy pyrrole)-single-walled Carbon Nanotube-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seul Ki; Bae, Si Ra; Ahmed, Mohammad Shamsuddin; You, Jung Min; Jeon, Seung Won [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    An electrochemically-modified electrode [P(EDOP-SWNTs)/GCE] was prepared by electropolymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxy pyrrole (EDOP) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and characterized by SEM, CV, and DPV. This modified electrode was employed as an electrochemical biosensor for the selective determination of serotonin concentrations at pH 7.4 and exhibited a typical enhanced effect on the current response of serotonin with a lower oxidation overpotential. The linear response was in the range of 1.0 x 10{sup -7} to 1.0 x 10{sup -5} M, with a correlation coefficient of 0.998 on the anodic current. The lower detection limit was calculated as 5.0 nM. Due to the relatively low currents and difference of potentials in the electrochemical responses of uric acid (UA), ascorbic acid (AA), and dopamine (DA), the modified electrode was a useful and effective sensing device for the selective and sensitive serotonin determination in the presence of UA, AA, and DA.

  16. Sensitive warfarin sensor based on cobalt oxide nanoparticles electrodeposited at multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode (CoxOyNPs/MWCNTs/GCE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Solgi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    In this work, cobalt oxide nanoparticles were electrodeposited on multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode (MWCNTs/GCE) to develop a new sensor for warfarin determination. The modified electrodes were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) along with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The presence of cobalt oxide nanoparticles on the electrode surface enhanced the warfarin accumulation and its result was the improvement in the electrochemical response. The effect of various parameters such as pH, scan rate, accumulation potential, accumulation time and pulse amplitude on the sensor response were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the differential pulse adsorptive anodic stripping voltammetric (DPASV) response of the modified electrode was linear in the ranges of 8 nM to 50 μM and 50 μM to 800 μM with correlation coefficients greater than 0.998. The limit of detection of the proposed method was 3.3 nM. The proposed sensor was applied to determine warfarin in urine and plasma samples.

  17. Preparation of Cerium (III) 12-tungstophosphoric acid/ordered mesoporous carbon composite modified electrode and its electrocatalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lin; Ndamanisha, Jean Chrysostome; Bai Jing; Guo Liping

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a novel structured Cerium (III) 12-tungstophosphoric acid (CePW)/ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) composite is synthesized. The characterization of the material by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical characterization shows that the novel CePW/OMC composite has improved properties based on the combination of CePW and OMC properties. CePW/OMC can be used to modify the glassy carbon (GC) electrode and the CePW/OMC/GC modified electrode shows an enhanced electrocatalytic activity. This property can be applied in the determination of some biomolecules. Especially, the detection and determination of the guanine (G) in the presence of adenine (A) is achieved. The catalytic current of G versus its concentration shows a good linearity with two good linear ranges from 4.0 x 10 -6 to 8.0 x 10 -5 M and from 8.0 x 10 -5 to 1.9 x 10 -3 M (correlation coefficient = 0.999 and 0.996) with a detection limit of 5.7 x 10 -9 M (S/N = 3). The linear range for adenine is 4.0 x 10 -6 -7.0 x 10 -4 M with a detection limit of 7.45 x 10 -8 M. With good stability and reproducibility, the present CePW/OMC/GC modified electrode should be a good model for constructing a novel and promising electrochemical sensing platform for further electrochemical detection of other biomolecules.

  18. Carbon nanotube-polyamidoamine dendrimer hybrid-modified electrodes for highly sensitive electrochemical detection of microRNA24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengye; Peng, Jing; Zheng, Qiong; Guo, Xiang; Tang, Hao; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2015-01-01

    A simple and ultrasensitive microRNA (miRNA) electrochemical biosensor employing multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer and methylene blue (MB) redox indicator is reported in this work. The assay utilizes a glass carbon (GC) electrode modified with MWCNT-PAMAM, on which the oligonucleotide capture probes are immobilized. The electrochemical detection of miRNAs is completed by measuring the reduction signal change of MB before and after the probe hybridization with target miRNA (miRNA24 is used as a model case). The MWCNT-PAMAM/GC electrode shows greatly enhanced signal to MB reduction in contrast to bare GC electrode. The functionalization of MWCNT with PAMAM maintains the electrochemical property of MWCNT to MB reduction but minimizes the undesired adsorption of MB on the MWCNT surface. The effect of experimental variables on the miRNA detection is investigated and optimized. A detection limit of 0.5 fM and a linear peak current density-concentration relationship up to 100 nM are obtained following 60 min hybridization. The proposed assay is successfully used to detect miRNA24 in total RNA sample extracted from HeLa cells.

  19. Composite carbon foam electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  20. Cobalt phthalocyanine modified electrodes utilised in electroanalysis: nano-structured modified electrodes vs. bulk modified screen-printed electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Christopher W; Pillay, Jeseelan; Metters, Jonathan P; Banks, Craig E

    2014-11-19

    Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC) compounds have been reported to provide electrocatalytic performances towards a substantial number of analytes. In these configurations, electrodes are typically constructed via drop casting the CoPC onto a supporting electrode substrate, while in other cases the CoPC complex is incorporated within the ink of a screen-printed sensor, providing a one-shot economical and disposable electrode configuration. In this paper we critically compare CoPC modified electrodes prepared by drop casting CoPC nanoparticles (nano-CoPC) onto a range of carbon based electrode substrates with that of CoPC bulk modified screen-printed electrodes in the sensing of the model analytes L-ascorbic acid, oxygen and hydrazine. It is found that no "electrocatalysis" is observed towards L-ascorbic acid using either of these CoPC modified electrode configurations and that the bare underlying carbon electrode is the origin of the obtained voltammetric signal, which gives rise to useful electroanalytical signatures, providing new insights into literature reports where "electrocatalysis" has been reported with no clear control experiments undertaken. On the other hand true electrocatalysis is observed towards hydrazine, where no such voltammetric features are witnessed on the bare underlying electrode substrate.

  1. Cobalt Phthalocyanine Modified Electrodes Utilised in Electroanalysis: Nano-Structured Modified Electrodes vs. Bulk Modified Screen-Printed Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W. Foster

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC compounds have been reported to provide electrocatalytic performances towards a substantial number of analytes. In these configurations, electrodes are typically constructed via drop casting the CoPC onto a supporting electrode substrate, while in other cases the CoPC complex is incorporated within the ink of a screen-printed sensor, providing a one-shot economical and disposable electrode configuration. In this paper we critically compare CoPC modified electrodes prepared by drop casting CoPC nanoparticles (nano-CoPC onto a range of carbon based electrode substrates with that of CoPC bulk modified screen-printed electrodes in the sensing of the model analytes L-ascorbic acid, oxygen and hydrazine. It is found that no “electrocatalysis” is observed towards L-ascorbic acid using either of these CoPC modified electrode configurations and that the bare underlying carbon electrode is the origin of the obtained voltammetric signal, which gives rise to useful electroanalytical signatures, providing new insights into literature reports where “electrocatalysis” has been reported with no clear control experiments undertaken. On the other hand true electrocatalysis is observed towards hydrazine, where no such voltammetric features are witnessed on the bare underlying electrode substrate.

  2. Simultaneous determination of mycophenolate mofetil and its active metabolite, mycophenolic acid, by differential pulse voltammetry using multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh, E-mail: madrakian@basu.ac.ir; Soleimani, Mohammad; Afkhami, Abbas

    2014-09-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous determination of mycophenolate mofetil (MPM) and mycophenolic acid (MPA) was fabricated by multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode (MWCNTs/GCE). The electrochemical behavior of these two drugs was studied at the modified electrode using cyclic voltammetry and adsorptive differential pulse voltammetry. MPM and MPA were oxidized at the GCE during an irreversible process. DPV analysis showed two oxidation peaks at 0.87 V and 1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl for MPM and an oxidation peak at 0.87 V vs. Ag/AgCl for MPA in phosphate buffer solution of pH 5.0. The MWCNTs/GCE displayed excellent electrochemical activities toward oxidation of MPM and MPA relative to the bare GCE. The experimental design algorithm was used for optimization of DPV parameters. The electrode represents linear responses in the range 5.0 × 10{sup −6} to 1.6 × 10{sup −4} mol L{sup −1} and 2.5 × 10{sup −6} mol L{sup −1} to 6.0 × 10{sup −5} mol L{sup −1} for MPM and MPA, respectively. The detection limit was found to be 9.0 × 10{sup −7} mol L{sup −1} and 4.0 × 10{sup −7} mol L{sup −1} for MPM and MPA, respectively. The modified electrode showed a good sensitivity and stability. It was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of MPM and MPA in plasma and urine samples. - Highlights: • A new modified electrochemical sensor was constructed and used. • Multiwalled carbon nanotubes were used as the modifiers. • MPM and MPA were measured simultaneously at the low levels. • The sensor was used to the determination of MPA and MPM in real samples.

  3. Voltammetric determination of polyphenolic content in pomegranate juice using a poly(gallic acid/multiwalled carbon nanotube modified electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refat Abdel-Hamid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A simple and sensitive poly(gallic acid/multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode (PGA/MWCNT/GCE electrochemical sensor was prepared for direct determination of the total phenolic content (TPC as gallic acid equivalent. The GCE working electrode was electrochemically modified and characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM, cyclic voltammetry (CV, chronoamperometry and chronocoulometry. It was found that gallic acid (GA exhibits a superior electrochemical response on the PGA/MWCNT/GCE sensor in comparison with bare GCE. The results reveal that a PGA/MWCNT/GCE sensor can remarkably enhance the electro-oxidation signal of GA as well as shift the peak potentials towards less positive potential values. The dependence of peak current on accumulation potential, accumulation time and pH were investigated by square-wave voltammetry (SWV to optimize the experimental conditions for the determination of GA. Using the optimized conditions, the sensor responded linearly to a GA concentration throughout the range of 4.97 × 10−6 to 3.38 × 10−5 M with a detection limit of 3.22 × 10−6 M (S/N = 3. The fabricated sensor shows good selectivity, stability, repeatability and (101% recovery. The sensor was successfully utilized for the determination of total phenolic content in fresh pomegranate juice without interference of ascorbic acid, fructose, potassium nitrate and barbituric acid. The obtained data were compared with the standard Folin–Ciocalteu spectrophotometric results.

  4. A novel immunosensor for Enterobacter sakazakii based on multiwalled carbon nanotube/ionic liquid/thionine modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiao; Dou Wenchao; Zhan Xuejia; Zhao Guangying

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Constructed a novel immunosensor using MWCNT/[BMIM]PF 6 /thionine for E. sakazakii. ► Optimum conditions for the detection of E. sakazakii were investigated. ► The properties of proposed immunosensor were studied by AFM and CVs. ► The biosensor exhibited good specificity, reproducibility, stability and accuracy. - Abstract: A novel immunosensor for Enterobacter sakazakii (E. sakazakii) based on screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) modified by multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM]PF 6 ) and thionine (Thi) was developed for the first time. The surface morphologies of modified electrodes were characterized by means of atomic force microscope (AFM). The electrochemical performance of the immunosensor was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry. Horseradish peroxidase labeled antibody to E. sakazakii in [BMIM]PF 6 showed high activity and stability. Under optimal conditions, E. sakazakii could be detected in range of 10 3 –10 9 CFU/ml with detection limit of 7.7 × 10 1 CFU/ml. The proposed immunosensor exhibited excellent long-time storage stability and had potential use in clinical immunoassay of E. sakazakii.

  5. Sensing nitric oxide with a carbon nanofiber paste electrode modified with a CTAB and nafion composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Dongyun; Liu, Xiaojun; Zhu, Shanying; Cao, Huimin; Chen, Yaguang; Hu, Shengshui

    2015-01-01

    We describe an electrochemical sensor for nitric oxide that was obtained by modifying the surface of a nanofiber carbon paste microelectrode with a film composed of hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide and nafion. The modified microelectrode displays excellent catalytic activity in the electrochemical oxidation of nitric oxide. The mechanism was studied by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Under optimal conditions, the oxidation peak current at a working voltage of 0.75 V (vs. SCE) is related to the concentration of nitric oxide in the 2 nM to 0.2 mM range, and the detection limit is as low as 2 nM (at an S/N ratio of 3). The sensor was successfully applied to the determination of nitric oxide released from mouse hepatocytes. (author)

  6. Fabrication of gallium hexacyanoferrate modified carbon ionic liquid paste electrode for sensitive determination of hydrogen peroxide and glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighi, Behzad, E-mail: haghighi@iasbs.ac.ir; Khosravi, Mehdi; Barati, Ali

    2014-07-01

    Gallium hexacyanoferrate (GaHCFe) and graphite powder were homogeneously dispersed into n-dodecylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate and paraffin to fabricate GaHCFe modified carbon ionic liquid paste electrode (CILPE). Mixture experimental design was employed to optimize the fabrication of GaHCFe modified CILPE (GaHCFe-CILPE). A pair of well-defined redox peaks due to the redox reaction of GaHCFe through one-electron process was observed for the fabricated electrode. The fabricated GaHCFe-CILPE exhibited good electrocatalytic activity towards reduction and oxidation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The observed sensitivities for the electrocatalytic oxidation and reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at the operating potentials of + 0.8 and − 0.2 V were about 13.8 and 18.3 mA M{sup −1}, respectively. The detection limit (S/N = 3) for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was about 1 μM. Additionally, glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized on GaHCFe-CILPE using two methodology, entrapment into Nafion matrix and cross-linking with glutaraldehyde and bovine serum albumin, in order to fabricate glucose biosensor. Linear dynamic rage, sensitivity and detection limit for glucose obtained by the biosensor fabricated using cross-linking methodology were 0.1–6 mM, 0.87 mA M{sup −1} and 30 μM, respectively and better than those obtained (0.2–6 mM, 0.12 mA M{sup −1} and 50 μM) for the biosensor fabricated using entrapment methodology. - Highlights: • Gallium hexacyanoferrate modified carbon ionic liquid paste electrode was fabricated. • Mixture experimental design was used to optimize electrode fabrication. • Response trace plot was used to show the effect of electrode materials on response. • The sensor exhibited electrocatalytic activity towards H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reduction and oxidation. • Glucose biosensor was fabricated by immobilization of glucose oxidase on sensor.

  7. Glucose biosensing using glassy carbon electrode modified with polyhydroxy-C60, glucose oxidase and ionic-liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tian; Yang, Xiao-Lu; Zhang, Yu-Shuai; Xiao, BaoLin; Hong, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase (GOD) was achieved when an ionic liquid/GOD-Polyhydroxy-C60 functional membrane was confined on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The cyclic voltammograms (CVs) of the modified GCE showed a pair of redox peaks with a formal potential (E°') of - 329 ± 2 mV. The heterogeneous electron transfer constant (k(s)) was 1.43 s-1. The modified GCE response to glucose was linear in the range from 0.02 to 2.0 mM. The detection limit was 1 μM. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)(app)) was 1.45 mM.

  8. Multiwall carbon nanotubes chemically modified carbon paste electrodes for determination of gentamicin sulfate in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M M; Abed El-Aziz, G M

    2016-02-01

    This article focused on the construction and characteristics of novel and sensitive gentamicin carbon paste electrodes which are based on the incorporation of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) which improve the characteristics of the electrodes. The electrodes were constructed based on gentamicin-phosphotungstate (GNS-PTA) called CPE1, gentamicin-phosphomolybdate (GNS-PMA) called CPE2, GNS-PTA+ MWMCNTs called MWCPE1, and GNS-PMA+ MWMCNTs called MWCPE2. The constructed electrodes, at optimum paste composition, exhibited good Nernstian response for determination of gentamicin sulfate (GNS) over a linear concentration range from 2.5×10(-6) to 1×10(-2), 3.0×10(-6) to 1×10(-2), 4.9×10(-7) to 1×10(-2) and 5.0×10(-7) to 1×10(-2)molL(-1), with lower detection limit 1×10(-6), 1×10(-6), 1.9×10(-7) and 2.2×10(-7)molL(-1), and with slope values of 29.0±0.4, 29.2±0.7, 31.2±0.5 and 31.0±0.6mV/decade for CPE1, CPE2, MWCPE1 and MWCPE2, respectively. The response of electrodes is not affected by pH in the range 3-8 for CPE1 and CPE2 and in the range 2.5-8.5 for MWCPE1 and MWCPE2. The results showed fast dynamic response time (about 8-5s) and long lifetime (more than 2months) for all electrodes. The sensors showed high selectivity for gentamicin sulfate (GNS) with respect to a large number of interfering species. The constructed electrodes were successfully applied for determination of GNS in pure form, its pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids using standard addition and potentiometric titration methods with high accuracy and precision. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. On the adsorption and kinetics of phase transients of adenosine at the different carbon electrodes modified with a mercury layer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hasoň, Stanislav; Simonaho, S.P.; Silvennoinen, R.; Vetterl, Vladimír

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 6 (2003), s. 651-668 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4004002; GA AV ČR IBS5004107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : glassy carbon electrode * pyrolytic graphite electrode * mercury film electrode Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.996, year: 2003

  10. Nafion® modified-screen printed gold electrodes and their carbon nanostructuration for electrochemical sensors applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Raquel; Fernández-Abedul, M Teresa; Costa-García, Agustín

    2013-03-30

    Screen printed electrodes are frequently used in electroanalytical applications because of their properties such as small size, low detection limit, fast response time, high reproducibility and disposable nature. On the other hand, since the discovery of carbon nanotubes there has been enormous interest in exploring and exploiting their properties, especially for their use in chemical (bio)sensors and nanoscale electronic devices. This paper reports the characterization of gold screen printed electrodes, modified with Nafion(®) and nanostructured with carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers dispersed on Nafion(®). The dispersing agent and the nanostructure have a marked effect on the analytical signal that, in turn depends on the intrinsic characteristics of the analyte. Several model analytes have been employed in this study. Anionic, cationic and neutral species such as methylene blue, dopamine, iron (III) sulfate, potassium ferrycianide and urea were considered. The importance for the development of nanostructured sensors relies on the fact that depending on these factors the situation may vary from a notorious enhancement of the signal to a blocking or even decrease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Surface-modified electrodes (SME)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, J.P.G.M.; Barendrecht, E.

    1984-01-01

    This review deals with the literature (covered up to August 1983), the characterization and the applications of Surface-Modified Electrodes (SME). As a special class of SME's, the Enzyme-Modified Electrode (EME) is introduced. Three types of modification procedures are distinguished; i.e. covalent

  12. Highly sensitive amperometric sensor for micromolar detection of trichloroacetic acid based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes and Fe(II)–phtalocyanine modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurd, Masoumeh; Salimi, Abdollah; Hallaj, Rahman

    2013-01-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for the detection of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is developed by subsequent immobilization of phthalocyanine (Pc) and Fe(II) onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The GC/MWCNTs/Pc/Fe(II) electrode showed a pair of well-defined and nearly reversible redox couple correspondent to (Fe(III)Pc/Fe(II)Pc) with surface-confined characteristics. The surface coverage (Γ) and heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k s ) of immobilized Fe(II)–Pc were calculated as 1.26 × 10 −10 mol cm −2 and 28.13 s −1 , respectively. Excellent electrocatalytic activity of the proposed GC/MWCNTs/Pc/Fe(II) system toward TCA reduction has been indicated and the three consequent irreversible peaks for electroreduction of CCl 3 COOH to CH 3 COOH have been clearly seen. The observed chronoamperometric currents are linearly increased with the concentration of TCA at concentration range up to 20 mM. Detection limit and sensitivity of the modified electrode were 2.0 μM and 0.10 μA μM −1 cm −2 , respectively. The applicability of the sensor for TCA detection in real samples was tested. The obtained results suggest that the proposed system can serve as a promising electrochemical platform for TCA detection. Highlights: ► Phthalocyanine (PC) and Fe(II) immobilized onto MWCNTs modified GC electrode. ► A pair of well-defined redox couple correspondent to (Fe(III)Pc/Fe(II)Pc) observed. ► Modified electrode shows excellent catalytic activity to electroreduction of CCl 3 COOH. ► Amperometry and cyclic voltammetry techniques were used for detection of CCl 3 COOH. ► Detection limit and sensitivity were 2.0 μM and 0.10 μA μM −1 cm −2 , respectively

  13. High Electrocatalytic Performance of CuCoNi@CNTs Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode towards Methanol Oxidation in Alkaline Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina A. Hamza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel non-precious multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs—supported metal oxide electrocatalyst was developed for methanol electrooxidation in alkaline medium. The catalyst was fabricated by simultaneous electrodeposition of copper-cobalt-nickel ternary nanostructures (CuCoNi on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE modified with CNTs. The proposed electrode was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The electrochemical behavior and the electrocatalytic performance of the suggested electrode towards the oxidation of methanol were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV, linear sweep voltammetry (LSV, and chronoamperometry (CA in alkaline medium. Several parameters were investigated, e.g., deposition time, potential scan rate, etc. Compared to Cu, Co, or Ni mono electrocatalysts, the electrode based on ternary-metals exhibited superior electrocatalytic activity and stability towards methanol electrooxidation. For instance, CuCoNi@CNTs/GCE has shown at least 2.5 times electrocatalytic activity and stability compared to the mono eletrocatalysts. Moreover, the present study found that the optimized loading level is 1500 s of simultaneous electrodeposition. At this loading level, it was found that the relation between the Ip/ν1/2 function and scan rate gives the characteristic features of a catalytic process. The enhanced activity and stability of CuCoNi@CNTs/GCE was attributed to (i a synergism between three metal oxides coexisting in the same structure; (ii the presence of CNTs as a support for the metal oxides, that offers high surface area for the deposited tertiary alloy and suppresses the aggregation and sintering of the metals oxide with time; as well as (iii the increase of the conductivity of the deposited semiconducting metal oxides.

  14. A highly efficient nano-cluster artificial peroxidase and its direct electrochemistry on a nano complex modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun; Wang, Wei; Huang, Kun; Yang, Wei-Yun; Zhao, Ying-Xue; Xiao, Bao-Lin; Gao, Yun-Fei; Moosavi-Movahedi, Zainab; Ghourchian, Hedayatollah; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2012-01-01

    A nano-cluster with highly efficient peroxide activity was constructed based on nafion (NF) and cytochrome c (Cyt c). UV-Vis spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods were utilized for characterization of the nano-structured enzyme or artificial peroxidase (AP). The nano-cluster was composed of a Chain-Ball structure, with an average ball size of about 40 nm. The Michaelis-Menten (K(m)) and catalytic rate (k(cat)) constants of the AP were determined to be 2.5 ± 0.4 µM and 0.069 ± 0.001 s(-1), respectively, in 50 mM PBS at pH 7.0. The catalytic efficiency of the AP was evaluated to be 0.028 ± 0.005 µM(-1) s(-1), which was 39 ± 5% as efficient as the native horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The AP was also immobilized on a functional multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNCTs)-gold colloid nanoparticles (AuNPs) nano-complex modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The cyclic voltammetry of AP on the nano complex modified GC electrode showed a pair of well-defined redox peaks with a formal potential (E°') of -45 ± 2 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) at a scan rate of 0.05 V/s. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k(s)) was evaluated to be 0.65 s(-1). The surface concentration of electroactive AP on GC electrode (Γ) was 7 × 10(-10) mol cm(-2). The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)(app)) was 0.23 nM.

  15. Glassy carbon electrodes modified with a film of nanodiamond-graphite/chitosan: Application to the highly sensitive electrochemical determination of Azathioprine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahrokhian, Saeed; Ghalkhani, Masoumeh

    2010-01-01

    A novel modified glassy carbon electrode with a film of nanodiamond-graphite/chitosan is constructed and used for the sensitive voltammetric determination of azathioprine (Aza). The surface morphology and thickness of the film modifier are characterized using atomic force microscopy. The electrochemical response characteristics of the electrode toward Aza are investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry. The modified electrode showed an efficient catalytic role for the electrochemical reduction of Aza, leading to a remarkable decrease in reduction overpotential and enhancement of the kinetics of the electrode reaction with a significant increase of peak current. The effects of experimental variables, such as the deposited amount of modifier suspension, the pH of the supporting electrolyte, the accumulation potential and time were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the modified electrode showed a wide linear response to the concentration of Aza in the range of 0.2-100 μM with a detection limit of 65 nM. The prepared modified electrode showed several advantages: simple preparation method, high stability and uniformity in the composite film, high sensitivity, excellent catalytic activity in physiological conditions and good reproducibility. The modified electrode can be successfully applied to the accurate determination of trace amounts of Aza in pharmaceutical and clinical preparations.

  16. Glassy carbon electrodes modified with a film of nanodiamond-graphite/chitosan: Application to the highly sensitive electrochemical determination of Azathioprine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahrokhian, Saeed, E-mail: shahrokhian@sharif.ed [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Technology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghalkhani, Masoumeh [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    A novel modified glassy carbon electrode with a film of nanodiamond-graphite/chitosan is constructed and used for the sensitive voltammetric determination of azathioprine (Aza). The surface morphology and thickness of the film modifier are characterized using atomic force microscopy. The electrochemical response characteristics of the electrode toward Aza are investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry. The modified electrode showed an efficient catalytic role for the electrochemical reduction of Aza, leading to a remarkable decrease in reduction overpotential and enhancement of the kinetics of the electrode reaction with a significant increase of peak current. The effects of experimental variables, such as the deposited amount of modifier suspension, the pH of the supporting electrolyte, the accumulation potential and time were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the modified electrode showed a wide linear response to the concentration of Aza in the range of 0.2-100 muM with a detection limit of 65 nM. The prepared modified electrode showed several advantages: simple preparation method, high stability and uniformity in the composite film, high sensitivity, excellent catalytic activity in physiological conditions and good reproducibility. The modified electrode can be successfully applied to the accurate determination of trace amounts of Aza in pharmaceutical and clinical preparations.

  17. A reagentless non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor presented using electrochemically reduced graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutyala, Sankararao; Mathiyarasu, Jayaraman

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report a simple, facile and reproducible non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) sensor using electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The modified electrode was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), UV–Visible, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Cyclic voltammetric (CV) analysis revealed that ERGO/GCE exhibited virtuous charge transfer properties for a standard redox systems and showed excellent performance towards electroreduction of H 2 O 2 . Amperometric study using ERGO/GCE showed high sensitivity (0.3 μA/μM) and faster response upon the addition of H 2 O 2 at an applied potential of − 0.25 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The detection limit is assessed to be 0.7 μM (S/N = 3) and the time to reach a stable study state current is < 3 s for a linear range of H 2 O 2 concentration (1–16 μM). In addition, the modified electrode exhibited good reproducibility and long-term stability. - Graphical abstract: We presented a reagentless non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor using electrochemically reduced graphene oxide material. - Highlights: • A facile green procedure proposed for high quality graphene synthesis using electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide • A simple, facile and reagentless non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor developed using ERGO/GCE. • ERGO/GCE exhibited high sensitivity, selectivity and finite limit of detection for H 2 O 2 sensing at low overpotential. • ERGO/GCE exhibited long term stability and good reproducibility.

  18. A reagentless non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor presented using electrochemically reduced graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutyala, Sankararao; Mathiyarasu, Jayaraman, E-mail: al_mathi@yahoo.com

    2016-12-01

    Herein, we report a simple, facile and reproducible non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) sensor using electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The modified electrode was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), UV–Visible, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Cyclic voltammetric (CV) analysis revealed that ERGO/GCE exhibited virtuous charge transfer properties for a standard redox systems and showed excellent performance towards electroreduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Amperometric study using ERGO/GCE showed high sensitivity (0.3 μA/μM) and faster response upon the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at an applied potential of − 0.25 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The detection limit is assessed to be 0.7 μM (S/N = 3) and the time to reach a stable study state current is < 3 s for a linear range of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration (1–16 μM). In addition, the modified electrode exhibited good reproducibility and long-term stability. - Graphical abstract: We presented a reagentless non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor using electrochemically reduced graphene oxide material. - Highlights: • A facile green procedure proposed for high quality graphene synthesis using electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide • A simple, facile and reagentless non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor developed using ERGO/GCE. • ERGO/GCE exhibited high sensitivity, selectivity and finite limit of detection for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensing at low overpotential. • ERGO/GCE exhibited long term stability and good reproducibility.

  19. Electrochemically pretreated zeolite-modified carbon-paste electrodes for determination of linuron in an agricultural formulation and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siara, L.R.; Lima, F. de; Cardoso, C.A.L.; Arruda, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cyclic voltammetry, square-wave voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopic, and scanning electron microscopy were employed. • Kinetic parameters (n, α, k s , and Γ) were calculated. • High sensitivity was observed in the linear concentration range. • Excellent recovery rates were achieved for tap water samples. • The method proved applicable to the determination of linuron in the presence of potential organic and inorganic interferents, none of which affected the results. - Abstract: A simple and inexpensive, yet highly sensitive electrochemical method for quantifying linuron in tap and distilled water and in agricultural formulations was developed using electrochemically pretreated zeolite-modified carbon-paste electrodes (ZMCPEs). Compared with untreated ZMCPEs, the electrochemically pretreated electrodes showed significantly enhanced peak currents for linuron oxidation. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy were used to examine the structure of the zeolite-modified and unmodified carbon-paste electrodes (CPEs). ZMCPEs were electrochemically characterized using cyclic voltammetry, chronocoulometry, square-wave voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A mechanism for linuron oxidation on ZMCPE surfaces was proposed. The electrochemical variables taken into account were electrode area, number of transferred electrons, electron transfer coefficient, electrode reaction standard rate constant, surface coverage, and capacitance of the electric double layer. Zeolite was found to have a strong influence on these variables. The electrochemical procedure applied to linuron was developed using electrochemically pretreated ZMCPEs under optimal conditions. Linuron oxidation currents exhibited linear concentration in the 87.36 to 625.72 nmol L −1 range, with a limit of detection of 22.57 nmol L −1 . The proposed electrochemical method was employed to quantify linuron in tap and distilled

  20. Characterization of poly(5-hydroxytryptamine)-modified glassy carbon electrode and applications to sensing of norepinephrine and uric acid in preparations and human urines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Peiying; Miao, Xiaoqing; Yao, Hong; Lin, Sijie; Wei, Biyu; Chen, Jianji; Lin, Xinhua; Tang, Yuhai

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) modified electrode was fabricated by electro-polymerization of 5-HT on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in 0.05 M PBS (pH 7). The characterization of the modified electrode was carried out by atomic force microscopy (AFM), voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The mechanism of electro-deposition of 5-HT at GCE was discussed based on electrochemical studies and quantum chemical calculations. The poly(5-HT)-modified electrode could separately detect NE and UA, even in the presence of 10-fold concentration of ascorbic acid (AA) and was applied successfully to the analysis of NE preparations and healthy human urines. Due to the favorable functionalized groups (-NH 2 and -OH), electroactivity, biocompatibility and stability, the poly(5-HT) film could be a promising immobilization matrix for anchoring interested biological molecules in the fabrication of sensors and biosensors. Highlights: ► A poly(5-HT)-modified electrode was fabricated originally by CV. ► The electro-deposition mechanism of 5-HT at GCE was proposed. ► The polymer film shows favorable electrocatalytic properties to NE and UA. ► The modified GCE was applied to the sensing analysis of real samples. -- Abstract: A poly(5-hydroxytryptamine) (poly(5-HT)) modified electrode was fabricated by electropolymerization of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in 0.05 M PBS (pH 7). The characterization of poly(5-HT)-modified electrode was carried out by atomic force microscopy (AFM), voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results showed that a brown and heterogeneous film was formed on the surface of the modified electrode. The mechanism of electro-deposition of 5-HT at GCE was discussed. The modified electrode showed good affinity and electrocatalytic properties to some species, such as norepinephrine (NE) and uric acid (UA). Furthermore

  1. Carbon nanotubes and graphene modified screen-printed carbon electrodes as sensitive sensors for the determination of phytochelatins in plants using liquid chromatography with amperometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dago, Àngela; Navarro, Javier; Ariño, Cristina; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Esteban, Miquel

    2015-08-28

    Nanomaterials are of great interest for the development of electrochemical sensors. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene were used to modify the working electrode surface of different screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCE) with the aim of improving the sensitivity of the SPCE and comparing it with the conventional glassy carbon electrode. To assay the usability of these sensors, a HPLC methodology with amperometric detection was developed to analyze several phytochelatins in plants of Hordeum vulgare and Glycine max treated with Hg(II) or Cd(II) giving detection limits in the low μmolL(-1) range. Phytochelatins are low molecular weight peptides with the general structure γ-(Glu-Cys)n-Gly (n=2-5) which are synthesized in plants in the presence of heavy metal ions. These compounds can chelate heavy metal ions by the formation of complexes which, are transported to the vacuoles, where the toxicity is not threatening. For this reason phytochelatins are essential in the detoxification of heavy metal ions in plants. The developed HPLC method uses a mobile phase of 1% of formic acid in water with KNO3 or NaCl (pH=2.00) and 1% of formic acid in acetonitrile. Electrochemical detection at different carbon-based electrodes was used. Among the sensors tested, the conventional glassy carbon electrode offers the best sensitivity although modification improves the sensitivity of the SPCE. Glutathione and several isoforms of phytochelatin two were found in plant extracts of both studied species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ubiquinone modified printed carbon electrodes for cell culture pH monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeth, Craig; Dughaishi, Rajaa Al; Paterson, Andrew; Sharp, Duncan

    2018-08-15

    The measurement of pH is important throughout many biological systems, but there are limited available technologies to enable its periodical monitoring in the complex, small volume, media often used in cell culture experiments across a range of disciplines. Herein, pad printed electrodes are developed and characterised through modification with: a commercially available fullerene multiwall carbon nanotube composite applied in Nafion, casting of hydrophobic ubiquinone as a pH probe to provide the electrochemical signal, and coated in Polyethylene glycol to reduce fouling and potentially enhance biocompatibility, which together are proven to enable the determination of pH in cell culture media containing serum. The ubiquinone oxidation peak position (E pa ) provided an indirect marker of pH across the applicable range of pH 6-9 (R 2 = 0.9985, n = 15) in complete DMEM. The electrochemical behaviour of these sensors was also proven to be robust; retaining their ability to measure pH in cell culture media supplemented with serum up to 20% (v/v) [encompassing the range commonly employed in cell culture], cycled > 100 times in 10% serum containing media and maintain > 60% functionality after 5 day incubation in a 10% serum containing medium. Overall, this proof of concept research highlights the potential applicability of this, or similar, electrochemical approaches to enable to detection or monitoring of pH in complex cell culture media. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Preparation and Evaluation of Acetabularia-Modified Carbon Paste Electrode in Anodic Stripping Voltammetry of Copper and Lead Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Raziq Rahimi Kooh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed is well known about for potential in chelating heavy metals. In this study, carbon paste electrodes were fabricated with siphonous seaweed Acetabularia acetabulum as the modifiers to sense lead (II and copper (II by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry. Various scan rates and deposition potentials were measured to obtain the optimal peak current for Pb(II and Cu(II. Optimum conditions of Acetabularia-CPE for sensing Pb(II were at the scan rate of 75 mV/s and deposition potential of −800 mV, while for Cu(II sensing were at 100 mV/s and −300 mV, respectively. The electrodes were characterized by the duration of accumulation time, preconcentration over a range of standards, supporting electrolyte, and standard solutions of various pH values. Interference studies were carried out. Both Zn(II and Cu(II were found to interfere with Pb(II sensing, whereas only Zn(II causes interference with Cu(II sensing. The electrode was found to have good regeneration ability via electrochemical cleaning. Preliminary testing of complex samples such as NPK fertilisers, black soil, and sea salt samples was included.

  4. Detection of dopamine in non-treated urine samples using glassy carbon electrodes modified with PAMAM dendrimer-Pt composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.G.; Armendariz, G.M.E.; Godinez, Luis A.; Torres, J.; Sepulveda-Guzman, S.; Bustos, E.

    2011-01-01

    Composites of hydroxyl-terminated PAMAM dendrimers, generation 4.0 (64 peripheral OH groups) containing Pt nanoparticles were synthesized at different reaction times using a microwave reactor. The synthetic procedure resulted in dendrimer encapsulated nanoparticles of Pt (DENs-Pt) of 1.53 ± 0.17 nm diameter that was calculated from transmission electron microscopy, and the Pt nanoparticles had single crystal plane in (1 1 1) orientation determinate by selective area diffraction. Each composite was electrochemically immobilized on a pre-functionalized glassy carbon (GC) electrode that was incorporated as a flow injection amperometric (FIA) detector, for the selective detection and quantification of dopamine (DA) in untreated urine samples. Comparison of the analytical performance of the novel electrochemical detector revealed that the DENs-Pt modified GC electrode with the composite synthesized for 30 min in the microwave reactor, showed the best response for the detection of DA in samples of non-treated urine, being the detection and quantification limits smaller (19 and 9 ppb, respectively) than those corresponding to the naked a GC electrode (846 and 423 ppb, respectively) using the FIA detector. In addition, it was found that this electroanalytical approach suffers minimal matrix effects that arise in the analysis of DA in untreated samples of urine.

  5. Detection of dopamine in non-treated urine samples using glassy carbon electrodes modified with PAMAM dendrimer-Pt composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M.G. [Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, S. C., Parque Tecnologico, Queretaro, Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo 76703, Queretaro (Mexico); Department of Chemistry, Universidad de Guanajuato, Cerro de la Venada S/N Col. Pueblito de Rocha, 36040 Guanajuato, Gto (Mexico); Armendariz, G.M.E.; Godinez, Luis A.; Torres, J. [Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, S. C., Parque Tecnologico, Queretaro, Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo 76703, Queretaro (Mexico); Sepulveda-Guzman, S. [Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Universidad, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, 66451 Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Bustos, E., E-mail: ebustos@cideteq.mx [Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, S. C., Parque Tecnologico, Queretaro, Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo 76703, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2011-09-01

    Composites of hydroxyl-terminated PAMAM dendrimers, generation 4.0 (64 peripheral OH groups) containing Pt nanoparticles were synthesized at different reaction times using a microwave reactor. The synthetic procedure resulted in dendrimer encapsulated nanoparticles of Pt (DENs-Pt) of 1.53 {+-} 0.17 nm diameter that was calculated from transmission electron microscopy, and the Pt nanoparticles had single crystal plane in (1 1 1) orientation determinate by selective area diffraction. Each composite was electrochemically immobilized on a pre-functionalized glassy carbon (GC) electrode that was incorporated as a flow injection amperometric (FIA) detector, for the selective detection and quantification of dopamine (DA) in untreated urine samples. Comparison of the analytical performance of the novel electrochemical detector revealed that the DENs-Pt modified GC electrode with the composite synthesized for 30 min in the microwave reactor, showed the best response for the detection of DA in samples of non-treated urine, being the detection and quantification limits smaller (19 and 9 ppb, respectively) than those corresponding to the naked a GC electrode (846 and 423 ppb, respectively) using the FIA detector. In addition, it was found that this electroanalytical approach suffers minimal matrix effects that arise in the analysis of DA in untreated samples of urine.

  6. A glassy carbon electrode modified with β-cyclodextin, multiwalled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide for sensitive determination of 1,3-dinitrobenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Junhua; Feng, Haibo; Liu, Jinlong; Liu, Youcai; Jiang, Jianbo; Feng, Yonglan; Qian, Dong

    2014-01-01

    We are presenting a host-guest electrochemical platform for sensing the pollutant 1,3-dinitrobenzene. The method is based on the use of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) covered with a composite made from multiwalled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide, and functionalized with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The resultant composite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and electrochemical techniques. The modified GCE was used for the sensitive detection of 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB) at working voltages of −355 mV and −483 mV. Due to the specific recognition property of β-CD and the excellent electronic properties of the carbon nanomaterials, the electrode exhibits outstanding supramolecular recognition and enhanced electrochemical response to DNB compared to more conventional electrodes. Under optimum conditions, the peak currents vary linearly with the DNB concentrations in the range from 0.02 to 30.0 μM, and the detection limit is 5.0 nM (at an S/N of 3). The electrode exhibits long-term stability and has been successfully applied to the determination of DNB in spiked soil and water samples. (author)

  7. Double-ion imprinted polymer @magnetic nanoparticles modified screen printed carbon electrode for simultaneous analysis of cerium and gadolinium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Bhim Bali; Jauhari, Darshika

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of a double-ion imprinted polymer for analysis of Ce(IV) and Gd(III). • Imprinted nano-beads were grown on MNPs-modified SPCE surface. • Voltammetric determination of both templates was carried out simultaneously. • Ultra-trace analysis with LOD (ng mL −1 ) 0.07 for Ce(IV) and 0.19 for Gd(III) is achieved. - Abstract: A typical, reproducible, and rugged screen printed carbon electrode, modified with dual-ion imprinted beads, was fabricated employing the “surface grafting from” approach. For this, the acyl chloride functionalized magnetic nanoparticles were first immobilized and chemically attached with a typical functional monomer (but-2-enedioic acid bis-[(2-amino-ethyl)-amide]) on the electrode surface. This was subsequently subjected to the thermal polymerization in the presence of template ions (Ce(IV) and Gd(III)), cross-linker (ethylene glycol dimethacrylate), initiator (AIBN), and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The modified sensor was used for the simultaneous analysis of both template ions in aqueous, blood serum, and waste-water samples, using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry which revealed two oxidation peaks for respective templates with resolution as much as 950 mV, without any cross reactivity, interferences and false-positives. The detection limits realized by the proposed sensor, under optimized conditions, were found to be as low as 0.07 ng mL −1 for Ce(IV) and 0.19 ng mL −1 for Gd(III) (S/N = 3) that could eventually be helpful for lanthanide estimation at stringent levels

  8. Double-ion imprinted polymer @magnetic nanoparticles modified screen printed carbon electrode for simultaneous analysis of cerium and gadolinium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Bhim Bali, E-mail: prof.bbpd@yahoo.com; Jauhari, Darshika

    2015-05-22

    Highlights: • Synthesis of a double-ion imprinted polymer for analysis of Ce(IV) and Gd(III). • Imprinted nano-beads were grown on MNPs-modified SPCE surface. • Voltammetric determination of both templates was carried out simultaneously. • Ultra-trace analysis with LOD (ng mL{sup −1}) 0.07 for Ce(IV) and 0.19 for Gd(III) is achieved. - Abstract: A typical, reproducible, and rugged screen printed carbon electrode, modified with dual-ion imprinted beads, was fabricated employing the “surface grafting from” approach. For this, the acyl chloride functionalized magnetic nanoparticles were first immobilized and chemically attached with a typical functional monomer (but-2-enedioic acid bis-[(2-amino-ethyl)-amide]) on the electrode surface. This was subsequently subjected to the thermal polymerization in the presence of template ions (Ce(IV) and Gd(III)), cross-linker (ethylene glycol dimethacrylate), initiator (AIBN), and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The modified sensor was used for the simultaneous analysis of both template ions in aqueous, blood serum, and waste-water samples, using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry which revealed two oxidation peaks for respective templates with resolution as much as 950 mV, without any cross reactivity, interferences and false-positives. The detection limits realized by the proposed sensor, under optimized conditions, were found to be as low as 0.07 ng mL{sup −1} for Ce(IV) and 0.19 ng mL{sup −1} for Gd(III) (S/N = 3) that could eventually be helpful for lanthanide estimation at stringent levels.

  9. Screen-printed electrode modified with carbon black and chitosan: a novel platform for acetylcholinesterase biosensor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarico, Daria; Arduini, Fabiana; Amine, Aziz; Cacciotti, Ilaria; Moscone, Danila; Palleschi, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    We report a screen-printed electrode (SPE) modified with a dispersion of carbon black (CB) and chitosan by drop casting. A cyclic voltammetry technique towards ferricyanide, caffeic acid, hydroquinone, and thiocholine was performed and an improvement of the electrochemical response with respect to bare SPE as well as SPE modified only with chitosan was observed. The possibility to detect thiocholine at a low applied potential with high sensitivity was exploited and an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor was developed. A dispersion of CB, chitosan, and AChE was used to fabricate this biosensor in one step by drop casting. The enzymatic activity of the immobilized AChE was determined measuring the enzymatic product thiocholine at +300 mV. Owing to the capability of organophosphorus pesticides to inhibit AChE, this biosensor was used to detect these pollutants, and paraoxon was taken as model compound. The enzyme inhibition was linearly related to the concentration of paraoxon up to 0.5 μg L(-1), and a low detection limit equal to 0.05 μg L(-1) (calculated as 10% of inhibition) was achieved. This biosensor was challenged for paraoxon detection in drinking waters with satisfactory recovery values. The use of AChE embedded in a dispersion of CB and chitosan allowed an easy and fast production of a sensitive biosensor suitable for paraoxon detection in drinking waters at legal limit levels. Graphical Abstract Biosensors based on screen-printed electrodes modified with Acetylcholinesterase, Carbon Black, and Chitosan for organophosphorus pesticide detection.

  10. An enzymatic glucose biosensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with cylinder-shaped titanium dioxide nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhanjun; Xu, Youbao; Li, Juan; Jian, Zhiqin; Yu, Suhua; Zhang, Yongcai; Hu, Xiaoya; Dionysiou, Dionysios D.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a highly sensitive electrochemical enzymatic glucose biosensor. A glassy carbon electrode was modified with cylinder-shaped titanium dioxide nanorods (TiO 2 -NRs) for the immobilization of glucose oxidase. The modified nanorods and the enzyme biosensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The glucose oxidase on the TiO 2 -NRs displays a high activity and undergoes fast surface-controlled electron transfer. A pair of well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks was observed at −0.394 and −0.450 V. The TiO 2 -NRs provide a good microenvironment to facilitate the direct electron transfer between enzyme and electrode surface. The biosensor has two linear response ranges, viz. from 2.0 to 52 μM, and 0.052 to 2.3 mM. The lower detection limit is 0.5 μM, and the sensitivity is 68.58 mA M −1 cm −2 . The glucose biosensor is selective, well reproducible, and stable. In our perception, the cylindrically shaped TiO 2 -NRs provide a promising support for the immobilization of proteins and pave the way to the development of high-performance biosensors. (author)

  11. Simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol based on glassy carbon electrode modified with gold-graphene nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, X.; Liu, Z.; Qiu, C.; Chen, T.; Ma, H.

    2013-01-01

    We have synthesized a virtually monodisperse gold-graphene (Au-G) nanocomposite by a single-step chemical reduction method in aqueous dimethylformamide solution. The nanoparticles are homogenously distributed over graphene nanosheets. A glassy carbon electrode was modified with this nanocomposite and displayed high electrocatalytic activity and extraordinary electronic transport properties due to its large surface area. It enabled the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CC) in acetate buffer solution of pH 4.5. Two pairs of well-defined, quasi-reversible redox peaks are obtained, one for HQ and its oxidized form, with a 43 mV separation of peak potentials (ΔEp), the other for CC and its oxidized form, with a ΔEp of 39 mV. Due to the large separation of oxidation peak potentials (102 mV), the concentrations of HQ and CC can be easily determined simultaneously. The oxidation peak currents for both HQ and CC increase linearly with the respective concentrations in the 1.0 μM to 0.1 mM concentration range, with the detection limits of 0.2 and 0. 15 μM (S/N = 3), respectively. The modified electrode was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of HQ and CC in spiked tap water, demonstrating that the Au-G nanocomposite may act as a high-performance sensing material in the selective detection of some environmental pollutants. (author)

  12. Rapid determination of nitrophenol isomers in polluted water based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified screen-printed electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essy Kouadio Fodjo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive screen-printed electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs/SPE was applied to determine simultaneously m-nitrophenol, o-nitrophenol and p-nitrophenol. The electrochemical response showed that o-nitrophenol, m-nitrophenol and p-nitrophenol were entirely separated at the MWCNTs/SPE interface. Under the optimized conditions, it was found that the detection limits were 8.1×10-8 , 5.5×10-7 and 2.0×10-7 M and the linear calibration ranges were 1.0×10-6 ~1.9×10-5 M, 2.5×10-6 ~2.1×10-5 M and 2.0×10-6 ~2.0×10-5 M for m-nitrophenol, o-nitrophenol and p-nitrophenol respectively, proving that the electrode presented here could be easily used to determine nitrophenol isomers simultaneously with high sensitivity within pH range from 4.8 to 8.0. The applications in water samples showed that no interferences appeared with deviations below 5% to the determination of nitrophenol isomers with 1000 fold excess, indicating a good response of this method for nitrophenol isomers detection. This disposable modified SPE combining with a portable electrochemical device were performed for wastewater samples on-field rapid determination.

  13. Determination of fenitrothion in water using a voltammetric sensor based on a polymer-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Meareg; Abicho, Samuel; Admassie, Shimelis

    2014-01-01

    A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with poly(4-amino-3-hydroxynaphthalene sulfonic acid) (poly-AHNSA) was used for the selective and sensitive determination of fenitrothion (FT) organophosphorus pesticide in water. The electrochemical behavior of FT at the bare GCE and the poly-AHNSA/GCE were compared using cyclic voltammetry. Enhanced peak current response and shift to a lower potential at the polymer-modified electrode indicated the electrocatalytic activity of the polymer film towards FT. Under optimized solution and method parameters, the adsorptive stripping square wave voltammetric reductive peak current of FT was linear to FT concentration in the range of 0.001 to 6.6 x 10(-6) M, and the LOD obtained (3delta/m) was 7.95 x 10(-10) M. Recoveries in the range 96-98% of spiked FT in tap water and reproducible results with RSD of 2.6% (n = 5) were obtained, indicating the potential applicability of the method for the determination of trace levels of FT in environmental samples.

  14. Electro-oxidation nitrite based on copper calcined layered double hydroxide and gold nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Lin; Meng Xiaomeng; Xu Minrong; Shang Kun [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, Shandong (China); Ai Shiyun, E-mail: ashy@sdau.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, Shandong (China); Liu Yinping [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, Shandong (China)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: > A nitrite sensor fabricated based on copper calcined layered double hydroxides and gold nanoparticles modified electrode. > This sensor exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxidation to nitrite. > This nitrite sensor exhibited very good analytical performance with low cost, convenient preparation and rapid detection. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel nitrite sensor was constructed based on electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on a copper calcined layered double hydroxide (Cu-CLDH) modified glassy carbon electrode. Electrochemical experiments showed that AuNPs/CLDH composite film exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxidation activity with nitrite due to the synergistic effect of the Cu-CLDH with AuNPs. The fabricated sensor exhibited excellent performance for nitrite detection within a wide concentration interval of 1-191 {mu}M and with a detection limit of 0.5 {mu}M. The superior electrocatalytic response to nitrite was mainly attributed to the large surface area, minimized diffusion resistance, and enhanced electron transfer of the Cu-CLDH and AuNPs composition film. This platform offers a novel route for nitrite sensing with wide analytical applications and will supply the practical applications for a variety of simple, robust, and easy-to-manufacture analytical approaches in the future.

  15. Electro-oxidation nitrite based on copper calcined layered double hydroxide and gold nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Lin; Meng Xiaomeng; Xu Minrong; Shang Kun; Ai Shiyun; Liu Yinping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A nitrite sensor fabricated based on copper calcined layered double hydroxides and gold nanoparticles modified electrode. → This sensor exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxidation to nitrite. → This nitrite sensor exhibited very good analytical performance with low cost, convenient preparation and rapid detection. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel nitrite sensor was constructed based on electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on a copper calcined layered double hydroxide (Cu-CLDH) modified glassy carbon electrode. Electrochemical experiments showed that AuNPs/CLDH composite film exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxidation activity with nitrite due to the synergistic effect of the Cu-CLDH with AuNPs. The fabricated sensor exhibited excellent performance for nitrite detection within a wide concentration interval of 1-191 μM and with a detection limit of 0.5 μM. The superior electrocatalytic response to nitrite was mainly attributed to the large surface area, minimized diffusion resistance, and enhanced electron transfer of the Cu-CLDH and AuNPs composition film. This platform offers a novel route for nitrite sensing with wide analytical applications and will supply the practical applications for a variety of simple, robust, and easy-to-manufacture analytical approaches in the future.

  16. Multiwall carbon nanotubes chemically modified carbon paste electrodes for determination of gentamicin sulfate in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, M.M., E-mail: magdy_mmagdy@yahoo.com; Abed El-aziz, G.M., E-mail: Gamal_abedelaziz@yahoo.com

    2016-02-01

    This article focused on the construction and characteristics of novel and sensitive gentamicin carbon paste electrodes which are based on the incorporation of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) which improve the characteristics of the electrodes. The electrodes were constructed based on gentamicin-phosphotungstate (GNS-PTA) called CPE{sub 1}, gentamicin-phosphomolybdate (GNS-PMA) called CPE{sub 2}, GNS-PTA + MWMCNTs called MWCPE{sub 1}, and GNS-PMA + MWMCNTs called MWCPE{sub 2}. The constructed electrodes, at optimum paste composition, exhibited good Nernstian response for determination of gentamicin sulfate (GNS) over a linear concentration range from 2.5 × 10{sup −6} to 1 × 10{sup −2}, 3.0 × 10{sup −6} to 1 × 10{sup −2}, 4.9 × 10{sup −7} to 1 × 10{sup −2} and 5.0 × 10{sup −7} to 1 × 10{sup −2} mol L{sup −1}, with lower detection limit 1 × 10{sup −6}, 1 × 10{sup −6}, 1.9 × 10{sup −7} and 2.2 × 10{sup −7} mol L{sup −1}, and with slope values of 29.0 ± 0.4, 29.2 ± 0.7, 31.2 ± 0.5 and 31.0 ± 0.6 mV/decade for CPE{sub 1}, CPE{sub 2}, MWCPE{sub 1} and MWCPE{sub 2}, respectively. The response of electrodes is not affected by pH in the range 3–8 for CPE{sub 1} and CPE{sub 2} and in the range 2.5–8.5 for MWCPE{sub 1} and MWCPE{sub 2}. The results showed fast dynamic response time (about 8–5 s) and long lifetime (more than 2 months) for all electrodes. The sensors showed high selectivity for gentamicin sulfate (GNS) with respect to a large number of interfering species. The constructed electrodes were successfully applied for determination of GNS in pure form, its pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids using standard addition and potentiometric titration methods with high accuracy and precision. - Graphical abstract: The incorporation of MWCNTs in paste composition improves the characteristics of the MWCPE electrodes which show better responses in terms of sensitivity, Nernstian slope, linear range, faster

  17. An Easily Fabricated Electrochemical Sensor Based on a Graphene-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for Determination of Octopamine and Tyramine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Meiqin; Wei, Qianhui; Gao, Yongjie; Guo, Lijuan; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Mahboob, Shahid; Zhang, Xueji

    2016-01-01

    A simple electrochemical sensor has been developed for highly sensitive detection of octopamine and tyramine by electrodepositing reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) nanosheets onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrocatalytic oxidation of octopamine and tyramine is individually investigated at the surface of the ERGO modified glassy carbon electrode (ERGO/GCE) by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Several essential factors including the deposition cycle of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets and the pH of the running buffer were investigated in order to determine the optimum conditions. Furthermore, the sensor was applied to the quantification of octopamine and tyramine by DPV in the concentration ranges from 0.5 to 40 μM and 0.1 to 25 μM, respectively. In addition, the limits of detection of octopamine and tyramine were calculated to be 0.1 μM and 0.03 μM (S/N = 3), respectively. The sensor showed good reproducibility, selectivity and stability. Finally, the sensor successfully detected octopamine and tyramine in commercially available beer with satisfactory recovery ranges which were 98.5%–104.7% and 102.2%–103.1%, respectively. These results indicate the ERGO/GCE based sensor is suitable for the detection of octopamine and tyramine. PMID:27089341

  18. Amperometric immunosensor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes/Prussian blue/nanogold-modified electrode for determination of α-fetoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Ya-Qin; Yin, Bing

    2010-12-01

    In this article, a conspicuously simple and highly sensitive amperometric immunosensor based on the sequential electrodeposition of Prussian blue (PB) and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) on multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface is proposed for the detection of α-fetoprotein (AFP). By comparison with PB, the MWCNT/PB composite film had been proven to show much better electrochemical stability and a larger response current. The electrodeposited GNP film can be used not only to immobilize biomolecules but also to avoid the leakage of PB and to prevent shedding of MWCNT/PB composite film from the electrode surface. The performance and factors influencing the performance of the immunosensor were investigated. Under optimal experimental conditions, the proposed immunosensor for AFP was observed with an ultralow limit of detection (LOD) equal to 3 pg/ml (at 3δ), and the linear working range spanned the concentrations of AFP from 0.01 to 300 ng/ml. Moreover, the immunosensor, as well as a commercially available kit, was examined for use in the determination of AFP in real human serum specimens. More significant, the assay mentioned here is simpler than the traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and an excellent correlation of levels of AFP measured was obtained, indicating that the developed immunoassay could be a promising alternative approach for detection of AFP and other tumor markers in the clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Manganese oxide nanoflakes/multi-walled carbon nanotubes/chitosan nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode as a novel electrochemical sensor for chromium (III) detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimi, Abdollah; Pourbahram, Bahareh; Mansouri-Majd, Samira; Hallaj, Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CNTs/chitosan/GC electrode used as platform for electrodeposition of MnO x -nanoflakes. • Modified electrode has excellent catalytic activity for oxidation of Cr 3+ at pH 3–7. • Detection limit and sensitivity of sensor for Cr 3+ detection were 0.3 μM and 18.7 nA/μM. • Sensor has good stability and high selectivity in the presence of common interferences. • Sensor applied for the detection of Cr 3+ in real samples with satisfactory results. - Abstract: In this research a nanocomposite containing chitosan (Chit) and maltiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was applied as platform for immobilization of electrodeposited manganese oxide (MnOx) nanostructures. First, glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with thin film of Chitosan/MWCNTs nanocomposite. Then MnO x nanostructures was electrodeposited onto Chitosan/MWCNTs modified GC electrode using combination of constant potential step (0.6 V) and cyclic voltammetry(0.3–0.6 V) techniques. The XRD patterns and scanning electron microscope images indicated immobilization of uniformly MnOx nanoflakes with high crystallite onto MWCNTs/Chit film. The modified electrode shows a well-defined redox couple for Mn 2+ /MnO 2 system. Charge transfer coefficient (α), electron transfer rate constant (k s ) and surface concentration (Γ) were 0.394, 3.44 s −1 and 3.3 × 10 −11 mol cm −2 , respectively. The modified electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity toward oxidation of chromium (III) at natural pH solutions. Cyclic voltammetry and hydrodynamic amperometery were applied as measuring techniques for chromium detection. Detection limit, sensitivity and linear concentration range of the sensor were, 0.3 (μM), 18.7 nAμ M −1 and 3 μM to 200 μM, respectively. Moreover, the sensor retained about 90% of its original response toward Cr(III) after storage three months in ambient condition. Furthermore, the sensor response toward different common interferences was negligible. Finally, the

  20. Novel glucose biosensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with hollow gold nanoparticles and glucose oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.; Ying, S.; Zhang, Z.; Huang, S.

    2011-01-01

    A novel glucose biosensor is presented as that based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with hollow gold nanoparticles (HGNs) and glucose oxidase. The sensor exhibits a better differential pulse voltammetric response towards glucose than the one based on conventional gold nanoparticles of the same size. This is attributed to the good biological conductivity and biocompatibility of HGNs. Under the optimal conditions, the sensor displays a linear range from 2.0 x 10 -6 to 4.6 x 10 -5 M of glucose, with a detection limit of 1.6 x 10 -6 M (S/N = 3). Good reproducibility, stability and no interference make this biosensor applicable to the determination of glucose in samples such as sports drinks. (author)

  1. Carbon Paste Electrode Modified with Carbamoylphosphonic Acid Functionalized Mesoporous Silica: A New Mercury-Free Sensor for Uranium Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yantasee, Wassana; Lin, Yuehe; Fryxell, Glen E.; Wang, Zheming

    2004-01-01

    This study reports a new approach for developing a uranium (U(VI)) electrochemical sensor that is mercury-free, solid-state, and has less chance for ligand depletion than existing sensors. A carbon-paste electrode modified with carbamoylphosphonic acid self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous silica was developed for uranium detection based on an adsorptive square-wave stripping voltammetry technique. Voltammetric responses for U(VI) detection are reported as a function of pH, preconcentration time, and aqueous phase U(VI) concentration. The uranium detection limit is 25 ppb after 5 minutes preconcentration and improved to 1 ppb after 20 minutes preconcentration. The relative standard deviations are normally less than 5%

  2. Determination of total and electrolabile copper in agricultural soil by using disposable modified-carbon screen-printed electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, Stéphane; Cugnet, Cyril; Authier, Laurent; Lespes, Gaëtane

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate modified-carbon screen-printed working electrodes (SPE) combined with square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) to determine electrolabile and total copper in soils with the perspective to assess the environmental hazard resulting from copper anthropogenic contamination. The voltammetric method was investigated using a mineralized certified reference soil such that it can be assumed that the copper was totally under electrolabile form in the solution of mineralized soil. In optimal conditions, a copper recovery of 97% and a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 9% were found. The limits of detection and quantification for copper were 0.4 and 1.3 μg L(-1), respectively. Finally, the method was applied on soil leachates, which allowed evaluating the cupric transfer from the soil to the leachates and quantifying the electrolabile copper part in leachates.

  3. Electrochemical Studies of Interactions Between Fe(II/Fe(III and Amino Acids Using Ferrocene-Modified Carbon Paste Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatrál Jaroslav

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behavior of an Fe(II/Fe(III redox couple in the presence of various selected amino acids has been studied using ferrocene-modified carbon paste electrode at pH = 7.4. Because of Fe(II/Fe(III solubility issues at physiological pH, ferrocene was used as a source of iron. Anodic oxidation of iron (pH = 7.2 occurred at 0.356 V and cathodic oxidation at 0.231 V, both vs Ag|AgCl. Treatment of the voltammetric data showed that it was a purely diffusion-controlled reaction with the involvement of one electron. After addition of amino acids, potential shifts and current changes can be observed on the voltammograms. Cyclic voltammetry experiments revealed the capability of amino acids to change the electrochemical behavior of the Fe(II/Fe(III redox couple.

  4. A uric acid sensor based on electrodeposition of nickel hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles on an electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, B.; Feng, Y.; Wang, G.; Zhang, C.; Gu, A.; Liu, M.

    2011-01-01

    An electrode sensitive to uric acid was prepared by electrodeposition of nickel(II) hexacyanoferrate(III) on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The morphology of the material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The modified electrode were characterized via cyclic voltammetry and amperometry (i - t). It exhibited efficient electron transfer ability and a strong and fast (< 3 s) response towards uric acid which is linear in the range from 0.1 μM to 18 μM, with a lower detection limit of 50 nM (at an S/N ratio of 3). In addition, the electrode exhibited good reproducibility and long-term stability. (author)

  5. Nanomolar determination of 4-nitrophenol based on a poly(methylene blue)-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribabu, Krishnamoorthy; Suresh, Ranganathan; Manigandan, Ramadoss; Munusamy, Settu; Kumar, Sivakumar Praveen; Muthamizh, Selvamani; Narayanan, Vengidusamy

    2013-10-07

    A poly(methylene blue)-modified glassy carbon electrode (PMB/GCE) was fabricated by electropolymerisation of methylene blue on a GCE and further utilized to investigate the electrochemical determination of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry and chronocoulometry. The morphology of the PMB on GCE was examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). An oxidation peak of 4-NP at the PMB modified electrode was observed at 0.28 V, and in the case of bare GCE, no oxidation peak was observed, which indicates that PMB/GCE exhibits a remarkable effect on the electrochemical determination of 4-NP. Due to this remarkable effect of PMB/GCE, a sensitive and simple electrochemical method was proposed for the determination of 4-NP. The effect of the scan rate and pH was investigated to determine the optimum conditions at which the PMB/GCE exhibits a higher sensitivity with a lower detection limit. Moreover, kinetic parameters such as the electron transfer number, proton transfer number and standard heterogeneous rate constant were calculated. Under optimum conditions, the oxidation current of 4-NP is proportional to its concentration in the range of 15-250 nM with a correlation coefficient of 0.9963. The detection limit was found to be 90 nM (S/N = 3). The proposed method based on PMB/GCE is simple, easy and cost effective. To further confirm its possible application, the proposed method was successfully used for the determination of 4-NP in real water samples with recoveries ranging from 97% to 101.6%. The interference due to sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, iron, sulphate, carbonate, chloride, nitrate and phosphate was found to be almost negligible.

  6. Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Venlafaxine at a Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes-Ionic Liquid Gel Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode and Its Electrochemical Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Ding

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The electrocatalytic oxidation of venlafaxine (VEN was investigated at a glassy carbon electrode (GCE, the modified electrode by a gel containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophate (BMIMPF6 in 0.10 mol L−1 phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH 6.8. It was found that an irreversible anodic oxidation peak of VEN with the peak potential (Epa as 0.780 V appeared at MWCNTs-RTIL/GCE. The electrode reaction process was a diffusion-controlled one and the electrochemical oxidation involved two electrons transferring and two protons participation. Furthermore, the charge-transfer coefficient (α, and the electrode reaction rate constant (kf of VEN were found to be 0.91 and 3.04×10−2 s−1, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the electrocatalytic oxidation peak currents were linearly dependent on the concentration of VEN in the concentration range from 2.0×10−6 mol L−1 ~ 2.0×10−3 mol L−1 with the limit of detection (S / N = 3 as 1.69×10−6 mol L−1. The proposed method has been successfully applied in the electrochemical quantitative determination of VEN content in commercial venlafaxine hydrochloride capsules and the determination results could meet the requirement of the quantitative determination.

  7. Soil-modified carbon paste electrode: a useful tool in environmental assessment of heavy metal ion binding interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svegl, I G; Ogorevc, B

    2000-08-01

    Carbon paste electrodes (CPEs) modified with different soils in their native form were prepared to create a soil-like solid phase suitable for application in studies of heavy metal ion uptake and binding interactions. The preparation of CPEs modified with five different soils was examined and their heavy metal ion uptake behavior investigated using a model Cu(II) aqueous solution. Metal ions were accumulated under open circuit conditions and were determined after a medium exchange using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, applying preelectrolysis at -0.7 V. The soil-modified CPE accumulation behavior, including the linearity of the current response versus Cu(II) concentration, the influence of the pH on the solution, and the uptake kinetics, was thoroughly investigated. The correlation between the soil-modified CPE uptake capability and the standard soil parameters, such as ion exchange capacity, soil pH, organic matter and clay content, were evaluated for all five examined soils. The influence of selected endogenous cations (K(I), Ca(II), Fe(III)) on the transfer of Cu(II) ions from a solution to the simulated soil solid phase was examined and is discussed. Preliminary examinations of the soil-modified CPE uptake behavior with some exogenous heavy metal ions of strong environmental interest (Pb(II), Hg(II), Cd(II) and Ag(I)) are also presented. This work demonstrates some attractive possibilities for the application of a soil-modified CPE in studying soil-heavy metal ion binding interactions, with a further potential use as a new environmental sensor appropriate for fist on-site testing of polluted soils.

  8. An electrochemical sensor for rizatriptan benzoate determination using Fe3O4 nanoparticle/multiwall carbon nanotube-modified glassy carbon electrode in real samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Maleki, Somayeh; Heidari, Mozhgan; Afkhami, Abbas

    2016-06-01

    In this paper a sensitive and selective electrochemical sensor for determination of rizatriptan benzoate (RZB) was proposed. A glassy carbon electrode was modified with nanocomposite of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4/MWCNTs/GCE). The results obtained clearly show that the combination of MWCNTs and Fe3O4 nanoparticles definitely improves the sensitivity of modified electrode to RZB determination. The morphology and electroanalytical performance of the fabricated sensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), square wave voltammetry (SWV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Also, the effect of experimental and instrumental parameters on the sensor response was evaluated. The square wave voltammetric response of the electrode to RZB was linear in the range 0.5-100.0 μmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.09 μmol L(-1) under the optimum conditions. The investigated method showed good stability, reproducibility and repeatability. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for real life samples of blood serum and RZB determination in pharmaceutical. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Electroanalysis of formetanate hydrochloride by a cobalt phthalocyanine functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified electrode: characterization and application in fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Francisco Wirley Paulino; Souza Lucas, Francisco Willian de; Mascaro, Lucia H.; Morais, Simone; Naftali da Silva Casciano, Paulo; Lima-Neto, Pedro de; Correia, Adriana N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A Co-phthalocyanine functionalized MWCNT modified carbon electrode was developed. • Formetanate (FMT) electroanalytical behavior is consistent with an ECE mechanism. • CoPc-fMWCNT/GCE exhibited good analytical performance to quantify FMT. • CoPc-fMWCNT/GCE was successfully applied to fruits (recoveries ≥ 94.2%). - Abstract: This study characterizes the electroanalytical behavior of the carbamate pesticide formetanate hydrochloride (FMT) at a cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (fMWCNT) modified glassy carbon electrode (CoPc-fMWCNT/GCE). Nafion ® was used to improve solubility and dispersibility of fMWCNT. The construction of the developed electrode was characterized by high-resolution field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. FMT exhibited a behavior consistent with a three-step reaction of the electrochemical-chemical-electrochemical mechanistic type at CoPc-fMWCNT/GCE (three anodic peaks at 0.26, 0.55 and 1.2 V, and two cathodic peaks at 0.35 and 0.50 V vs. Ag/AgCl/3 M KCl). Highly reproducible and well-defined peaks were obtained at the optimum experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer at pH 5.0, accumulation potential 1.55 V, accumulation time 5 s, frequency 100 s −1 , amplitude 30 mV, and scan increment 3 mV). Peak currents were found to be proportional to the FMT concentrations in the range of 9.80 × 10 −8 to 3.92 × 10 −6 mol dm −3 with a detection limit (LOD) of 9.7 × 10 −8 mol dm −3 . The modification of GCE with CoPc-fMWCNT enhanced the electrocatalytic activity and provided high sensitivity (3.51 A mol −1 dm 3 ). The developed electroanalytical methodology was successfully applied to FMT residue analysis in mango and grape samples with recoveries in the range of 94.2 ± 4.5 to 105.7 ± 1.8%. The proposed electroanalytical approach represents a reliable, sensitive and environmental

  10. Voltammetric determination of In3+ based on the bifunctionality of a multi-walled carbon nanotubes-nafion modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junhua; Zhang, Fuxing; Wang, Jianqiu; Xu, Zhifeng; Zeng, Rongying

    2009-05-01

    Due to the strong cation-exchange ability of Nafion and the excellent properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), a highly sensitive and mercury-free method of determining trace levels of In(3+) has been established based on the bifunctionality of a MWCNTs/Nafion modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The MWCNTs/Nafion modified GCE detects In(3+) in a 0.01 M HAc-NaAc buffer solution at pH 5.0 using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The experimental results suggest that a sensitive anodic stripping peak appears at -0.58 V on anodic stripping voltammograms, which can be used as an analytical signal for the determination of In(3+). A good linear relationship between the stripping peak currents and the In(3+) concentration is obtained, covering the concentration range from 5.0 x 10(-10) to 2.0 x 10(-7) M, with a correlation coefficient of 0.999; the detection limit is 1.0 x 10(-11) M. This proposed method has been applied to detect In(3+) as a new way.

  11. GC electrode modified with carbon nanotubes and NiO for the simultaneous determination of bisphenol A, hydroquinone and catechol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulart, Lorena Athie; Mascaro, Lucia Helena

    2016-01-01

    This work reports the electrochemical determination of bisphenol A (BPA), hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CC) using glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO). MWCNT were functionalized with sulfonitric solution (3H 2 SO 4 :1HNO 3 ) and dispersed in dimethylformamide for the MWCNT/GCE manufacturing. The MWCNT/GCE was modified with NiO using cyclic potential in pH 4 maintained by an acetate buffer solution containing 0.008 mol L −1 of nickel nitrate. The concentration of the nickel solution and the number of cycles in the electrodeposition were studied. Morphological characterization of NiO/MWCNT/GCE was carried out by scanning electron microscopy and the presence of NiO was observed. The electrochemical behavior was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy using BPA solution and the results were compared with those of GCE. The NiO/MWCNT/GCE presented the lowest charge transfer resistance. The electrochemical detection of BPA, HQ and CC was developed using differential pulse voltammetry. The analytical curves showed an excellent linear response and the detection limits for the simultaneous determination of BPA, HQ and CC were 2.8 × 10 −8 mol L −1 , 2.70 × 10 −8 mol L −1 and 5.9 × 10 −8 mol L −1 , respectively.

  12. Use of cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for determination of active surface area of modified carbon-based electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Leticia Lopes de

    2011-01-01

    Carbon-based electrodes as well the ion exchange electrodes among others have been applied mainly in the treatment of industrial effluents and radioactive wastes. Carbon is also used in fuel cells as substrate for the electrocatalysts, having high surface area which surpasses its geometric area. The knowledge of the total active area is important for the determination of operating conditions of an electrochemical cell with respect to the currents to be applied (current density). In this study it was used two techniques to determine the electrochemical active surface area of glassy carbon, electrodes and ion exchange electrodes: cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The experiments were carried out with KNO 3 0.1 mol.L -1 solutions in a three-electrode electrochemical cell: carbon-based working electrode, platinum auxiliary electrode and Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The glassy carbon and porous carbon electrodes with geometric areas of 3.14 x 10 -2 and 2.83 X 10 -1 cm 2 , respectively, were used. The ion exchange electrode was prepared by mixing graphite, carbon, ion exchange resin and a binder, and this mixture was applied in three layers on carbon felt, using a geometric area of 1.0 cm 2 during the experiments. The capacitance (Cd) of the materials was determined by EIS using Bode diagrams. The value of 172 μF.cm -2 found for the glassy carbon is consistent with the literature data (∼ 200 μF.cm'- 2 ). By VC, varying the scan rate from 0.2 to 2.0 mV.s-1, the capacitance CdS (S = active surface area) in the region of the electric double layer (EDL) of each material was determined. By EIS, the values of C d , 3.0 x 10 -5 μF.cm'- 2 and 11 x 10 3 μF.cm-2, were found for the porous carbon and ion exchange electrodes, respectively, which allowed the determination of active surface areas as 3.73 x 106 cm 2 and 4.72 cm 2 . To sum up, the combined use of EIS and CV techniques is a valuable tool for the calculation of active surface

  13. Electrochemical behaviors and simultaneous determination of guanine and adenine based on graphene–ionic liquid–chitosan composite film modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Xiuli; Yang Wu; Ren Jie; Guo Hao; Long Shijia; Chen Jiaojiao; Gao Jinzhang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This work developed a novel electrochemical biosensors for guanine and adenine detection simultaneously. ► A disposable electrode based on graphene sheets, ionic liquid and chitosan was proposed. ► The presented method was also applied to simultaneous determination of guanine and adenine in denatured DNA samples with satisfying results. ► Easy fabrication, high sensitivity, excellent reproducibility and long-term stability. - Abstract: A graphene sheets (GS), ionic liquid (IL) and chitosan (CS) modified electrode was fabricated and the modified electrode displayed excellent electrochemical catalytic activities toward guanine and adenine. The transfer electron number (n) and the charge transfer coefficient (α) were calculated with the result as n = 2, α = 0.58 for guanine, and n = 2, α = 0.51 for adenine, which indicated the electrochemical oxidation of guanine and adenine on GS/IL/CS modified electrode was a two-electron and two-proton process. The oxidation overpotentials of guanine and adenine were decreased significantly compared with those obtained at the bare glassy carbon electrode and multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified electrode. The modified electrode exhibited good analytical performance and was successfully applied for individual and simultaneous determination of guanine and adenine. Low detection limits of 0.75 μM for guanine and 0.45 μM for adenine were obtained, with the linear calibration curves over the concentration range 2.5–150 μM and 1.5–350 μM, respectively. At the same time, the proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of guanine and adenine in denatured DNA samples with satisfying results. Moreover, the GS/IL/CS modified electrode exhibited good sensitivity, long-term stability and reproducibility for the determination of guanine and adenine.

  14. Immobilization of Glucose Oxidase on a Carbon Nanotubes/Dendrimer-Ferrocene Modified Electrode for Reagentless Glucose Biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Juan; Li, Huan; Yang, Huasong; Cheng, Hui; Lai, Guosong

    2017-01-01

    Ferrocene-grafted dendrimer was covalently linked to the surface of a carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-chitosan (CS) nanocomposite modified electrode for immobilizing high-content glucose oxidase (GOx), which resulted in the successful development a novel reagentless glucose biosensor. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and amperometry were used to characterize the preparation process and the enzymatically catalytic response of this biosensor. Due to the excellent electron transfer acceleration of the CNTs and the high-content loading of the GOx biomolecule and ferrocene mediator on the electrode matrix, this biosensor showed excellent analytical performance such as fast response time less than 10 s, wide linear range from 0.02 to 2.91 mM and low detection limit down to 7.5 μM as well as satisfactory stability and reproducibility toward the amperometric glucose determination. In addition, satisfactory result was obtained when it was used for the glucose measurements in human blood samples. Thus this biosensor provides great potentials for practical applications.

  15. Electrochemical Behavior and Determination of Chlorogenic Acid Based on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Modified Screen-Printed Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Ma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified screen-printed electrode (MWCNTs/SPE was prepared and the MWCNTs/SPE was employed for the electrochemical determination of the antioxidant substance chlorogenic acids (CGAs. A pair of well-defined redox peaks of CGA was observed at the MWCNTs/SPE in 0.10 mol/L acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer (pH 6.2 and the electrode process was adsorption-controlled. Cyclic voltammetry (CV and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV methods for the determination of CGA were proposed based on the MWCNTs/SPE. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed method exhibited linear ranges from 0.17 to 15.8 µg/mL, and the linear regression equation was Ipa (µA = 4.1993 C (×10−5 mol/L + 1.1039 (r = 0.9976 and the detection limit for CGA could reach 0.12 µg/mL. The recovery of matrine was 94.74%–106.65% (RSD = 2.92% in coffee beans. The proposed method is quick, sensitive, reliable, and can be used for the determination of CGA.

  16. A glassy carbon electrode modified with cerium phosphate nanotubes for the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone, catechol and resorcinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Yue, Yuhua; Hao, Yanjun; Feng, Shun; Zhou, Xianli

    2018-03-12

    A nafion film containing cerium phosphate nanotubes was pasted onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to obtain a sensor for hydroquinone (HQ). The morphologies and components of the coating were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) showed the specific surface of the electrode to be significantly increased and the electron transfer rate to be accelerated. The modified GCE was applied to the determination of hydroquinone (HQ) via DPV. The oxidation current increases linearly in the 0.23 μM to 16 mM HQ concentration range which is as wide as five orders of magnitude. The limit of detection is 0.12 μM (based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3), and the sensitivity is 1.41 μA·μM -1  cm -2 . The method was further applied to the simultaneous determination of HQ, catechol and resorcinol. The potentials for the three species are well separated (20, 134, and 572 mV vs SCE). Average recoveries from (spiked) real water samples are between 95.2 and 107.0%, with relative standard deviations of 0.9~2.7% (for n = 3) at three spiking levels. The method was validated by independent assays using HPLC. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  17. Preparation and application of a carbon paste electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and boron-embedded molecularly imprinted composite membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongjuan; Qian, Duo; Xiao, Xilin; Deng, Chunyan; Liao, Lifu; Deng, Jian; Lin, Ying-Wu

    2018-06-01

    An innovative electrochemical sensor was fabricated for the sensitive and selective determination of tinidazole (TNZ), based on a carbon paste electrode (CPE) modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and boron-embedded molecularly imprinted composite membranes (B-MICMs). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out to investigate the utility of template-monomer interactions to screen appropriate monomers for the rational design of B-MICMs. The distinct synergic effect of MWCNTs and B-MICMs was evidenced by the positive shift of the reduction peak potential of TNZ at B-MICMs/MWCNTs modified CPE (B-MICMs/MWCNTs/CPE) by about 200 mV, and the 12-fold amplification of the peak current, compared with a bare carbon paste electrode (CPE). Moreover, the coordinate interactions between trisubstituted boron atoms embedded in B-MICMs matrix and nitrogen atoms of TNZ endow the sensor with advanced affinity and specific directionality. Thereafter, a highly sensitive electrochemical analytical method for TNZ was established by different pulse voltammetry (DPV) at B-MICMs/MWCNTs/CPE with a lower detection limit (1.25 × 10 -12  mol L -1 ) (S/N = 3). The practical application of the sensor was demonstrated by determining TNZ in pharmaceutical and biological samples with good precision (RSD 1.36% to 3.85%) and acceptable recoveries (82.40%-104.0%). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Highly sensitive simultaneous electrochemical determination of trace amounts of Pb(II) and Cd(II) using a carbon paste electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and a newly synthesized Schiff base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afkhami, Abbas; Ghaedi, Hamed; Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Rezaeivala, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new chemically modified carbon paste electrode was constructed and used. ► A new Schiff base and multi-walled carbon nanotube was used as modifiers. ► The electrochemical properties of the modified electrode were studied. ► The electrode was used to the simultaneous determination of Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ . -- Abstract: A new chemically modified electrode was constructed for rapid, simple, accurate, selective and highly sensitive simultaneous determination of lead and cadmium using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). The electrode was prepared by incorporation of new synthesized Schiff base and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in carbon paste electrode. The limit of detection was found to be 0.25 ng mL −1 and 0.74 ng mL −1 for Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ , respectively. The stability constants of the complexes of the ligand with several metal cations in ethanol medium were determined. The effects of different cations and anions on the simultaneous determination of metal ions were studied and it was found that the electrode is highly selective. The proposed chemically modified electrode was used for the determination of lead and cadmium in several foodstuffs and water samples

  19. Glassy carbon electrodes modified with hemin-carbon nanomaterial films for amperometric H2O2 and NO2− detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentini, Federica; Cristofanelli, Lara; Carbone, Marilena; Palleschi, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    In this work a new chemical sensor for the H 2 O 2 and nitrite amperometric detection was assembled, using a glassy carbon (GC) bare electrode modified by two different nanocomposite materials. The nanocomposite films were prepared by casting a functionalised carbon nanofiber (CNF-COOH) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT-OH, for comparison) on the glassy carbon electrode surface; then an iron(III) protoporphyrin IX (Fe(III)P) was adsorbed on these modified surfaces. A morphological investigation of the nanocomposite layers was also carried out, using the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical characterization, performed optimising several electro-analytical parameters (such as different medium, pH, temperature, scan rate, and potential window), demonstrated that the direct electrochemistry of the Fe(III)P/Fe(II)P redox couple involves 1e − /1H + process. A kinetic evaluation of the electron-transfer reaction mechanism was also carried out, demonstrating that the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant resulted higher at CNF/hemin/GC biosensor than that evaluated at SWCNT/hemin/GC modified electrode. Finally, the electrocatalytic activity toward the H 2 O 2 reduction was also demonstrated for both sensors but better results were observed working at CNF/hemin/GC modified electrode, especially in terms of an extended linearity (ranging from 50 to 1000 μM), a lower detection limit (L.O.D. = 3σ) of 2.0 × 10 −6 M, a higher sensitivity of 2.2 × 10 −3 A M −1 cm −2 , a fast response time (9 s), a good reproducibility (RSD% −3 to 2.5 × 10 −1 M), a lower detection limit (L.O.D. = 3σ) of 3.18 × 10 −4 M, a higher sensitivity of 1.2 × 10 −2 A M −1 cm −2 , a fast response time of 10 s, a good reproducibility (RSD% <1, n = 3) and finally a good operational stability.

  20. The electrochemical behavior of Co(TPTZ)2 complex on different carbon based electrodes modified with TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortaboy, Sinem; Atun, Gülten

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical behavior of cobalt (II) complex with the N-donor ligand 2,2′-bipyridyl-1,3,5-tripyridyl-s-triazine (TPTZ) was investigated to elucidate the electron-proton transfer mechanisms. The electrochemical response of the complex was studied using square-wave voltammetry (SWV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. A conventional three-electrode system, consisting of glassy carbon (GCE), TiO 2 modified glassy carbon (T/GCE), carbon paste (CPE) and TiO 2 modified carbon paste (T/CPE) working electrodes were employed. The ligand/metal ratio and stability constant of the complex as well as the mechanisms of the electrode processes were elucidated by examining the effects of pH, ligand concentration and frequency on the voltammograms. The EIS results indicated that the samples modified with TiO 2 had the higher charge transfer resistance than that of the bare electrodes and also suggested that the electroactivity of the electrode surfaces increased in the following order, T/CPE > CPE > T/GCE > GCE. The surface morphology of the working electrodes was also characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The values of surface roughness parameters were found to be consistent with the results obtained by EIS experiments. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the experimental process. - Highlights: • Electrochemical behavior of Co(TPTZ) 2 complex studied by SWV and EIS techniques. • GCE, CPE T/GCE and T/CPE were used as working electrodes for comparative studies. • The surface morphologies of the electrodes were characterized by AFM. • Mechanisms were proposed from the effects of pH, ligand concentration and frequency. • EIS and morphologic relationships of the surfaces were established successfully

  1. The electrochemical behavior of Co(TPTZ){sub 2} complex on different carbon based electrodes modified with TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortaboy, Sinem, E-mail: ortaboy@istanbul.edu.tr; Atun, Gülten, E-mail: gatun@istanbul.edu.tr

    2015-04-15

    Electrochemical behavior of cobalt (II) complex with the N-donor ligand 2,2′-bipyridyl-1,3,5-tripyridyl-s-triazine (TPTZ) was investigated to elucidate the electron-proton transfer mechanisms. The electrochemical response of the complex was studied using square-wave voltammetry (SWV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. A conventional three-electrode system, consisting of glassy carbon (GCE), TiO{sub 2} modified glassy carbon (T/GCE), carbon paste (CPE) and TiO{sub 2} modified carbon paste (T/CPE) working electrodes were employed. The ligand/metal ratio and stability constant of the complex as well as the mechanisms of the electrode processes were elucidated by examining the effects of pH, ligand concentration and frequency on the voltammograms. The EIS results indicated that the samples modified with TiO{sub 2} had the higher charge transfer resistance than that of the bare electrodes and also suggested that the electroactivity of the electrode surfaces increased in the following order, T/CPE > CPE > T/GCE > GCE. The surface morphology of the working electrodes was also characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The values of surface roughness parameters were found to be consistent with the results obtained by EIS experiments. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the experimental process. - Highlights: • Electrochemical behavior of Co(TPTZ){sub 2} complex studied by SWV and EIS techniques. • GCE, CPE T/GCE and T/CPE were used as working electrodes for comparative studies. • The surface morphologies of the electrodes were characterized by AFM. • Mechanisms were proposed from the effects of pH, ligand concentration and frequency. • EIS and morphologic relationships of the surfaces were established successfully.

  2. Screen-printed carbon-containing electrode modified with formazan for determining copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stozhko, N.Yu.; Aleshina, L.V.; Brajnina, Kh.Z.; Lipunova, G.N.; Maslakova, T.I.

    2004-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of some hetarylated formazans introduced into the bulk of carbon-containing inks of screen-printed electrodes was studied. The compositions of complexes formed at the electrode surface were found, and their stability constants were estimated. It was shown that the modification of carbon-containing screen-printed electrode with 1-(o-chlorophenyl-3-phenyl-5-(6-methyl-4-oxo-pyrimidinyl-2)formazan improves its sensitivity, lowers detection limits for Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Zn(II), and ensures high precision of the results of voltammetric analysis [ru

  3. Fabrication of Metal Nanoparticle-Modified Screen Printed Carbon Electrodes for the Evaluation of Hydrogen Peroxide Content in Teeth Whitening Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Adriana; Abenojar, Eric C.; Vianna, Adam; Buenviaje, Czarina Y. A.; Yang, Jiahua; Pascual, Cherrie B.; Samia, Anna Cristina S.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment in which students synthesize Ag, Au, and Pt nanoparticles (NPs) and use them to modify screen printed carbon electrodes for the electroanalysis of the hydrogen peroxide content in commercially available teeth whitening strips is described. This experiment is designed for two 3-h laboratory periods and can be adapted for…

  4. Role of heat on the development of electrochemical sensors on bare and modified Co3O4/CuO composite nanopowder carbon paste electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohan; Kumara Swamy, B E

    2016-01-01

    The Co3O4/CuO composite nanopowder (NP) was synthesized by a mechanochemical method and characterized by using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The synthesized Co3O4/CuO NP was used as a modified carbon paste electrode (MCPE) and further the bare carbon paste and Co3O4/CuO NP modified carbon paste was heated at different temperatures (100, 150, 200 and 250 °C) for 10 min. The Co3O4/CuO NP MCPE was used to study the consequences of scan rate and dopamine concentration. Furthermore the preheated modified electrodes were used to study the electrochemical response to dopamine (DA), ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Poly(alizarin red)/Graphene modified glassy carbon electrode for simultaneous determination of purine and pyrimidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ba Xi; Luo Liqiang [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Ding Yaping, E-mail: wdingyp@sina.com [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Zhang Zhen [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Chu Yuliang [Instrumental Analysis and Research Center, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Wang Bijun; Ouyang Xiaoqian [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2012-11-08

    Graphical abstract: DPVs of PAR/Graphene/GCE (a) and the bare GCE (c) in 0.1 M PBS containing 50.0 {mu}M G, 50.0 {mu}M A, 100.0 {mu}M T and 100.0 {mu}M C, (b) PAR/Graphene/GCE in 0.1 M PBS. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensor exhibited well-separated peaks and low detection limit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensor possesses high sensitivity and wide linear range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensor was used for simultaneous detection of G, A, T and C successfully. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensor was applied in a fish sperm DNA sample with satisfactory results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proposed sensor has good stability and reproducibility. - Abstract: In this work, a poly(alizarin red)/Graphene composite film modified glassy carbon electrode (PAR/Graphene/GCE) was prepared for simultaneous determination of four DNA bases (guanine, adenine, thymine and cytosine) without any pretreatment. The morphology and interface property of PAR/Graphene films were examined by scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The PAR/Graphene/GCE exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity toward purine (guanine and adenine) and pyrimidine (thymine and cytosine) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4). Under optimum conditions, differential pulse voltammetry was used to detect the oxidation of purine and pyrimidine. The results showed that PAR/Graphene/GCE exhibited well-separated peaks, low detection limit, high sensitivity and wide linear range for simultaneous detection of purine and pyrimidine. The proposed sensor also has good stability and reproducibility. Furthermore, the modified electrode was applied for the detection of DNA bases in a fish sperm DNA sample with satisfactory results.

  6. Poly(alizarin red)/Graphene modified glassy carbon electrode for simultaneous determination of purine and pyrimidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ba Xi; Luo Liqiang; Ding Yaping; Zhang Zhen; Chu Yuliang; Wang Bijun; Ouyang Xiaoqian

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: DPVs of PAR/Graphene/GCE (a) and the bare GCE (c) in 0.1 M PBS containing 50.0 μM G, 50.0 μM A, 100.0 μM T and 100.0 μM C, (b) PAR/Graphene/GCE in 0.1 M PBS. Highlights: ► The sensor exhibited well-separated peaks and low detection limit. ► The sensor possesses high sensitivity and wide linear range. ► The sensor was used for simultaneous detection of G, A, T and C successfully. ► The sensor was applied in a fish sperm DNA sample with satisfactory results. ► The proposed sensor has good stability and reproducibility. - Abstract: In this work, a poly(alizarin red)/Graphene composite film modified glassy carbon electrode (PAR/Graphene/GCE) was prepared for simultaneous determination of four DNA bases (guanine, adenine, thymine and cytosine) without any pretreatment. The morphology and interface property of PAR/Graphene films were examined by scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The PAR/Graphene/GCE exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity toward purine (guanine and adenine) and pyrimidine (thymine and cytosine) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4). Under optimum conditions, differential pulse voltammetry was used to detect the oxidation of purine and pyrimidine. The results showed that PAR/Graphene/GCE exhibited well-separated peaks, low detection limit, high sensitivity and wide linear range for simultaneous detection of purine and pyrimidine. The proposed sensor also has good stability and reproducibility. Furthermore, the modified electrode was applied for the detection of DNA bases in a fish sperm DNA sample with satisfactory results.

  7. Simultaneous Electrochemical Detection of Dopamine and Ascorbic Acid Using an Iron Oxide/Reduced Graphene Oxide Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teo Peik-See

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of an electrochemical sensor based on an iron oxide/graphene modified glassy carbon electrode (Fe3O4/rGO/GCE and its simultaneous detection of dopamine (DA and ascorbic acid (AA is described here. The Fe3O4/rGO nanocomposite was synthesized via a simple, one step in-situ wet chemical method and characterized by different techniques. The presence of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the surface of rGO sheets was confirmed by FESEM and TEM images. The electrochemical behavior of Fe3O4/rGO/GCE towards electrocatalytic oxidation of DA was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV analysis. The electrochemical studies revealed that the Fe3O4/rGO/GCE dramatically increased the current response against the DA, due to the synergistic effect emerged between Fe3O4 and rGO. This implies that Fe3O4/rGO/GCE could exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity and remarkable electron transfer kinetics towards the oxidation of DA. Moreover, the modified sensor electrode portrayed sensitivity and selectivity for simultaneous determination of AA and DA. The observed DPVs response linearly depends on AA and DA concentration in the range of 1–9 mM and 0.5–100 µM, with correlation coefficients of 0.995 and 0.996, respectively. The detection limit of (S/N = 3 was found to be 0.42 and 0.12 µM for AA and DA, respectively.

  8. Highly sensitive amperometric sensor for micromolar detection of trichloroacetic acid based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes and Fe(II)–phtalocyanine modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurd, Masoumeh [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P. O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salimi, Abdollah, E-mail: absalimi@uok.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P. O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Nanotechnology, University of Kurdistan, P. O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hallaj, Rahman [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P. O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-04-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for the detection of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is developed by subsequent immobilization of phthalocyanine (Pc) and Fe(II) onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The GC/MWCNTs/Pc/Fe(II) electrode showed a pair of well-defined and nearly reversible redox couple correspondent to (Fe(III)Pc/Fe(II)Pc) with surface-confined characteristics. The surface coverage (Γ) and heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k{sub s}) of immobilized Fe(II)–Pc were calculated as 1.26 × 10{sup −10} mol cm{sup −2} and 28.13 s{sup −1}, respectively. Excellent electrocatalytic activity of the proposed GC/MWCNTs/Pc/Fe(II) system toward TCA reduction has been indicated and the three consequent irreversible peaks for electroreduction of CCl{sub 3}COOH to CH{sub 3}COOH have been clearly seen. The observed chronoamperometric currents are linearly increased with the concentration of TCA at concentration range up to 20 mM. Detection limit and sensitivity of the modified electrode were 2.0 μM and 0.10 μA μM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, respectively. The applicability of the sensor for TCA detection in real samples was tested. The obtained results suggest that the proposed system can serve as a promising electrochemical platform for TCA detection. Highlights: ► Phthalocyanine (PC) and Fe(II) immobilized onto MWCNTs modified GC electrode. ► A pair of well-defined redox couple correspondent to (Fe(III)Pc/Fe(II)Pc) observed. ► Modified electrode shows excellent catalytic activity to electroreduction of CCl{sub 3}COOH. ► Amperometry and cyclic voltammetry techniques were used for detection of CCl{sub 3}COOH. ► Detection limit and sensitivity were 2.0 μM and 0.10 μA μM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, respectively.

  9. Immunoassay for serum amyloid A using a glassy carbon electrode modified with carboxy-polypyrrole, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, ionic liquid and chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Chunyong; Li, Yuan; Yuan, Guolin; Guo, Yanlei; Yu, Chao

    2015-01-01

    We report on a highly sensitive electrochemical immunoassay for the serum inflammation marker amyloid A (SAA). It is making use of a glassy carbon electrode that was modified with carboxy-endcapped polypyrrole (PPy-α-COOH), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), ionic liquid and chitosan acting as the support platform. The nanocomposite increases the sensitivity and stability of the assay. Antibody against SAA was immobilized on a monolayer surface consisting of PPy-α-COOH. The electrode material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectra, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and differential pulse voltammetry. The calibration plot for this assay, when operated at 0.16 V (vs. SCE) and applied to spiked serum samples, is linear in the 0.001 to 900 ng mL −1 SAA concentration range, and the detection limit is as low as 0.3 pg mL −1 (at an S/N ratio of 3). The electrode is stable and highly sensitive. The detection scheme is likely to be applicable to numerous other kinds of immunoassays. (author)

  10. Simple flow injection for determination of sulfite by amperometric detection using glassy carbon electrode modified with carbon nanotubes-PDDA-gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatatongchai, Maliwan; Sroysee, Wongduan; Chairam, Sanoe; Nacapricha, Duangjai

    2015-02-01

    A new approach is presented for sensitive and selective measurement of sulfite (SO3(2-)) in beverages based on a simple flow injection system with amperometric detection. In this work, the sulfite sensor was a glassy carbon electrode modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes-poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-gold nanoparticles composites (CNTs-PDDA-AuNPs/GC). Electrochemical oxidation of sulfite with this electrode was first studied in 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) using cyclic voltammetry. The results indicated that the CNTs-PDDA-AuNPs/GC electrode possesses electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of sulfite with high sensitivity and selectivity. Sulfite was quantified using amperometric measurement with the new sensor at +0.4V vs Ag/AgCl in conjunction with flow injection. The linear working range for the quantitation of sulfite was 2-200 mg L(-1) (r(2)=0.998) with a detection limit of 0.03 mg L(-1) (3σ of blank) and an estimated precision of 1.5%.The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of sulfite in fruit juices and wines with a sample throughput of 23 samples per hour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Anodic Stripping Voltammetric Detection of Arsenic(III) at Platinum-Iron(III) Nanoparticle Modified Carbon Nanotube on Glassy Carbon Electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Seung Hyun; Hong, Hun Gi

    2010-01-01

    The electrochemical detection of As(III) was investigated on a platinum-iron(III) nanoparticles modified multiwalled carbon nanotube on glassy carbon electrode(nanoPt-Fe(III)/MWCNT/GCE) in 0.1 M H 2 SO 4 . The nanoPt-Fe(III)/ MWCNT/GCE was prepared via continuous potential cycling in the range from .0.8 to 0.7 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), in 0.1 M KCl solution containing 0.9 mM K 2 PtCl 6 and 0.6 mM FeCl 3 . The Pt nanoparticles and iron oxide were co-electrodeposited into the MWCNT-Nafion composite film on GCE. The resulting electrode was examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). For the detection of As(III), the nanoPt-Fe(III)/MWCNT/GCE showed low detection limit of 10 nM (0.75 ppb) and high sensitivity of 4.76 μAμM -1 , while the World Health Organization's guideline value of arsenic for drinking water is 10 ppb. It is worth to note that the electrode presents no interference from copper ion, which is the most serious interfering species in arsenic detection

  12. Mercury-free simultaneous determination of cadmium and lead at a glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-wall carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Kangbing; Hu Shengshui; Fei Junjie; Bai Wen

    2003-01-01

    A multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was described for the simultaneous determination of trace levels of cadmium and lead by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). In pH 4.5 NaAc-HAc buffer containing 0.02 mol/l KI, Cd 2+ and Pb 2+ first adsorb onto the surface of a MWNT film coated GCE and then reduce at -1.20 V. During the positive potential sweep, reduced cadmium and lead were oxidized, and two well-defined stripping peaks appeared at -0.88 and -0.62 V. Compared with a bare GCE, a MWNT film coated GCE greatly improves the sensitivity of determining cadmium and lead. Low concentration of I - significantly enhances the stripping peak currents since it induces Cd 2+ and Pb 2+ to adsorb at the electrode surface. The striping peak currents change linearly with the concentration of Cd 2+ from 2.5x10 -8 to 1x10 -5 mol/l and with that of Pb 2+ from 2x10 -8 to 1x10 -5 mol/l. The lowest detectable concentrations of Cd 2+ and Pb 2+ are estimated to be 6x10 -9 and 4x10 -9 mol/l, respectively. The high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability of this MWNT film coated electrode demonstrated its practical application for a simple, rapid and economical determination of trace levels of Cd 2+ and Pb 2+ in water samples

  13. Sol-gel derived multiwalled carbon nanotubes ceramic electrode modified with molecularly imprinted polymer for ultra trace sensing of dopamine in real samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Bhim Bali, E-mail: prof.bbpd@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Kumar, Deepak; Madhuri, Rashmi; Tiwari, Mahavir Prasad [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India)

    2011-08-01

    Highlights: > MWCNTs-CE was prepared by silane acrylate which provides a nanometer thin MIP film. > The sensor was modified by iniferter and MIP using 'surface grafting-from approach'. > A comparative study was performed between differentially designed ceramic electrodes. > The sensor can detect dopamine in real samples with LODs (0.143-0.154 ng mL{sup -1}). - Abstract: A new class of composite electrodes made of sol-gel derived ceramic-multiwalled carbon nanotubes is used for the growth of a nanometer thin film adopting 'surface grafting-from approach'. For this the multiwalled carbon nanotubes-ceramic electrode surface is first modified with an iniferter (benzyl N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate) and then dopamine imprinted polymer, under UV irradiation, for differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric sensing of dopamine in aqueous, blood serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and pharmaceutical samples (detection limit 0.143-0.154 ng mL{sup -1}, 3{sigma}), without any cross reactivity, interferences and false-positive contributions. Such composite electrodes offer higher stability, electron kinetics, and renewable porous surface of larger electroactive area (with insignificant capacitance) than carbon ceramic electrodes. Additional cyclic voltammetry (stripping mode) and chronocoulometry experiments were performed to explore electrodics and kinetics of electro-oxidation of dopamine.

  14. A new sensor based on glassy carbon electrode modified with nanocomposite for simultaneous determination of acetaminophen, ascorbic acid and uric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Afrasiabi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A chemically-modified electrode has been constructed based on a single walled carbon nanotube/chitosan/room temperature ionic liquid nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode (SWCNTs–CHIT–RTIL/GCE. It was demonstrated that this sensor could be used for simultaneous determination of acetaminophen (ACT, uric acid (URI and ascorbic acid (ASC. The measurements were carried out by application of differential pulse voltammetry (DPV, cyclic voltammetry (CV and chronoamperometry (CA methods. Electrochemical studies suggested that the RTIL and SWCNTs provided a synergistic augmentation that can increase current responses by improvement of electron transfers of these compounds on the electrode surface. The presence of the CHIT in the modified electrode can enhance the repeatability of the sensor by its antifouling effect. The modified electrode showed electrochemical responses with high sensitivity for ACT, URI and ASC determination, which makes it a suitable sensor for simultaneous sub-μmol L−1 detection of ACT, URI and ASC in aqueous solutions. The analytical performance of this sensor has been evaluated for detection of ACT, URI and ASC in human serum and urine with satisfactory results.

  15. Impedimetric Salmonella aptasensor using a glassy carbon electrode modified with an electrodeposited composite consisting of reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Fei; Dai, Ruitong; Duan, Nuo; Wu, Shijia; Wang, Zhouping; Li, Xingmin

    2016-01-01

    We describe a Salmonella biosensor that was obtained by electrochemical immobilization of a nanocomposite consisting of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and carboxy-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) directly on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). An amino-modified aptamer specific for Salmonella was covalently bound to the rGO-MWCNT composite via amide bonds. The morphology of the rGO-MWCNT nanocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to monitor all steps during assembly. When exposed to samples containing Salmonella, the anti-Salmonella aptamer on the electrode captures its target. Hence, electron transfer is blocked, and this results in a large increase in impedance. Salmonella can be quantified by this aptasensor, typically operated at a working voltage of 0.2 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), in the range from 75 to 7.5 × 10 5 cfu⋅mL −1 and detection limit of 25 cfu⋅mL −1 (at an S/N of 3). The method is perceived to have a wide scope in that other bacteria may be detected by analogy to this approach and with very low limits of detection by applying respective analyte-specific aptamers. (author)

  16. An electrochemical sensor for indole in plasma based on MWCNTs-chitosan modified screen-printed carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Mingchao; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Zhen, Qianna; He, Yifan; Chen, Xiao; Lyu, Wenjing; Han, Runchuan; Ding, Min

    2017-12-15

    Indole is an essential metabolite in intestinal tract. The dysregulation of plasma indole concentration occurred in various diseases. In this study, the indole in plasma was determined directly using electrochemical sensor with multiwall carbon nanotubes-chitosan (MWCNTs-CS) modified screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE). The electrochemical behavior of indole was elucidated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) on the MWCNTs-CS composites modified SPCE (MWCNTs-CS/SPCE). The results showed that the current responses of indole improved greatly due to the high catalytic activity and electron transfer reaction of nano-composites. Under the optimized conditions, the linear range of indole was from 5 to 100μgL -1 with the detection limit of 0.5μgL -1 (S/N = 3). This novel electrochemical sensor exhibited acceptable accuracies and precisions with the variations less than 7.3% and 9.0%, respectively. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was utilized to compare with the established electrochemical method for the determination of indole in plasma. The results showed a high correlation between the two methods. At last, the electrochemical sensor was successfully applied to detect the level of indole in plasma samples with satisfactory selectivity and sensitivity. The concentrations of plasma indole in healthy pregnant women and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) patients were 5.3 (4.1-7.0)μgL -1 and 7.2 (4.5-9.4)μgL -1 , respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Disposable Organophosphorus Pesticides Enzyme Biosensor Based on Magnetic Composite Nano-Particles Modified Screen Printed Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigang Wen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A disposable organophosphorus pesticides (OPs enzyme biosensor based on magnetic composite nanoparticle-modified screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCE has been developed. Firstly, an acetylcholinesterase (AChE-coated Fe3O4/Au (GMP magnetic nanoparticulate (GMP-AChE was synthesized. Then, GMP-AChE was absorbed on the surface of a SPCE modified by carbon nanotubes (CNTs/nano-ZrO2/prussian blue (PB/Nafion (Nf composite membrane by an external magnetic field. Thus, the biosensor (SPCE|CNTs/ZrO2/PB/Nf|GMP-AChE for OPs was fabricated. The surface of the biosensor was characterized by scanning electron micrography (SEM and X-ray fluorescence spectrometery (XRFS and its electrochemical properties were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV. The degree of inhibition (A% of the AChE by OPs was determined by measuring the reduction current of the PB generated by the AChE-catalyzed hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine (ATCh. In pH = 7.5 KNO3 solution, the A was related linearly to the concentration of dimethoate in the range from 1.0 × 10-3–10 ng•mL-1 with a detection limit of 5.6 × 10-4 ng•mL-1. The recovery rates in Chinese cabbage exhibited a range of 88%–105%. The results were consistent with the standard gas chromatography (GC method. Compared with other enzyme biosensors the proposed biosensor exhibited high sensitivity, good selectivity with disposable, low consumption of sample. In particular its surface can be easily renewed by removal of the magnet. The convenient, fast and sensitive voltammetric measurement opens new opportunities for OPs analysis.

  18. Selective Detection of Serotonin from the Interference by Ascorbic Acid and Uric Acid at Poly(thionine)-modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahammad, A. J. Saleh; Nath, Narayan Chandra Deb; Kim, Sung Hyun [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Jun; Lee, Jae Joon [Konkuk University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Various approaches, such as using polymer film modified electrode, applying chemical modification, employing nano materials and molecularly imprinted polymers, have been developed to detect 5-HT selectively from interferences. The polymer-modified electrodes have widely been used because of their enhanced selectivity and sensitivity for many analytes. Previously, we have reported the role of poly(thionine) film (PTH) deposited on the electrochemically preanodized glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the separation of the voltammetric signal of dopamine (DA) from that of AA and UA. In this communication, we are presenting the preliminary results of the electrochemical signal separation of 5-HT by suppressing those of AA and UA on another type PTH modified GCE (PTHGCE) which is prepared by electrochemical deposition of PTH directly on the mechanically polished GCE.

  19. Voltammetric determination of bisphenol A in food package by a glassy carbon electrode modified with carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Kuang, D.; Feng, Y.; Zhang, F.; Liu, M.

    2011-01-01

    A highly sensitive and mercury-free method for determination of bisphenol A (BPA) was established using a glassy carbon electrode that was modified with carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes. A sensitive oxidation peak is found at 550 mV in linear sweep voltammograms at pH 7. Based on this finding, trace levels of bisphenol A can be determined over a concentration range that is linear from 10 nM to 104 nM, the correlation coefficient being 0.9983, and the detection limit (S/N = 3) being 5.0 nM. The method was successfully applied to the determination of BPA in food package. (author)

  20. A glassy carbon electrode modified with a nickel(II) norcorrole complex and carbon nanotubes for simultaneous or individual determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine, and uric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Keqin; Li, Xiaofang; Huang, Haowen

    2016-01-01

    The authors report on the synthesis of a hybrid material consisting of the porphyrinoid metal complex nickel(II) norcorrole that was noncovalently bound to carbon nanotubes (CNT-NiNC). The hybrid was characterized by UV–vis, FTIR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The CNT-NiNC hybrid possesses high catalytic activity and selectivity toward the oxidation of ascorbic acid, dopamine, and uric acid. It was used to modify a glassy carbon electrode which then is shown to enable simultaneous or individual determination of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA) at pH 6.5 and typical working potentials of −70, 200 and 380 mV (vs. SCE). The detection limits (at an SNR of 3) are 2.0 μM for AA, 0.1 μM for DA, and 0.4 μM for UA. (author)

  1. A glassy carbon electrode modified with a multiwalled carbon nanotube-reduced graphene oxide nanoribbon core-shell structure for electrochemical sensing of p-dihydroxybenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Gangbing; Yi, Yinhui; Liu, Zhenjiang; Sun, Jianfan; Wu, Xiangyang; Zou, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were covered with reduced graphene oxide nanoribbons (rGONR) to give a material with a core-shell heterostructure of the type MWCNT-rGONR. It was obtained by (a) longitudinal partial unzipping of MWCNT to form MWCNT-GONR, and (b) subsequent chemical reduction with hydrazine to give MWCNT-rGONR. The MWCNT-rGONR heterostructure was used to modify a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to obtain an electrochemical sensor for p-dihydroxybenzene (DHB). The synergistic effects of the MWCNT and the rGONR results in a distinctly improved redox current towards DHB compared to a bare GCE, an MWCNT/GCE, and an MWCNT-GONR/GCE. At the working voltage range from −1 00 to 400 mV, it displays a linear response to DHB in the 80 to 3000 nM concentration range with a 20 nM detection limit. (author)

  2. Amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide at nano-nickel oxide/thionine and celestine blue nanocomposite-modified glassy carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noorbakhsh, Abdollah; Salimi, Abdollah

    2009-01-01

    A simple procedure was developed to prepare a glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with nickel oxide (NiOx) nanoparticles and water-soluble dyes. By immersing the GC/NiOx modified electrode into thionine (TH) or celestine blue (CB) solutions for a short period of time (5-120 s), a thin film of the proposed molecules was immobilized onto the electrode surface. The modified electrodes showed stable and a well-defined redox couples at a wide pH range (2-12), with surface confined characteristics. In comparison to usual methods for the immobilization of dye molecules, such as electropolymerization or adsorption on the surface of preanodized electrodes, the electrochemical reversibility and stability of these modified electrodes have been improved. The surface coverage and heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants (k s ) of thionin and celestin blue immobilized on a NiOx-GC electrode were approximately 3.5 x 10 -10 mol cm -2 , 6.12 s -1 , 5.9 x 10 -10 mol cm -2 and 6.58 s -1 , respectively. The results clearly show the high loading ability of the NiOx nanoparticles and great facilitation of the electron transfer between the immobilized TH, CB and NiOx nanoparticles. The modified electrodes show excellent electrocatalytic activity toward hydrogen peroxide reduction at a reduced overpotential. The catalytic rate constants for hydrogen peroxide reduction at GC/NiOx/CB and GC/NiOx/TH were 7.96 (±0.2) x 10 3 M -1 s -1 and 5.5 (±0.2) x 10 3 M -1 s -1 , respectively. The detection limit, sensitivity and linear concentration range for hydrogen peroxide detection were 1.67 μM, 4.14 nA μM -1 nA μM -1 and 5 μM to 20 mM, and 0.36 μM, 7.62 nA μM -1 , and 1 μM to 10 mM for the GC/NiOx/TH and GC/NiOx/CB modified electrodes, respectively. Compared to other modified electrodes, these modified electrodes have many advantages, such as remarkable catalytic activity, good reproducibility, simple preparation procedures and long-term stabilities of signal responses during

  3. Glassy carbon electrode modified with horse radish peroxidase/organic nucleophilic-functionalized carbon nanotube composite for enhanced electrocatalytic oxidation and efficient voltammetric sensing of levodopa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoja, Yalda; Rafati, Amir Abbas, E-mail: aa_rafati@basu.ac.ir; Ghodsi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    A novel and selective enzymatic biosensor was designed and constructed for voltammetric determination of levodopa (L-Dopa) in aqueous media (phosphate buffer solution, pH = 7). Biosensor development was on the basis of to physically immobilizing of horse radish peroxidase (HRP) as electrochemical catalyst by sol–gel on glassy carbon electrode modified with organic nucleophilic carbon nanotube composite which in this composite p-phenylenediamine (pPDA) as organic nucleophile chemically bonded with functionalized MWCNT (MWCNT-COOH). The results of this study suggest that prepared bioorganic nucleophilic carbon nanotube composite (HRP/MWCNT-pPDA) shows fast electron transfer rate for electro oxidation of L-Dopa because of its high electrochemical catalytic activity toward the oxidation of L-Dopa, more −NH{sub 2} reactive sites and large effective surface area. Also in this work we measured L-Dopa in the presence of folic acid and uric acid as interferences. The proposed biosensor was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), FT-IR spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used for determination of L-Dopa from 0.1 μM to 1.9 μM with a low detection limit of 40 nM (for S/N = 3) and sensitivity was about 35.5 μA/μM. Also this biosensor has several advantages such as rapid response, high stability and reproducibility. - Highlights: • Glassy carbon electrode modified by a novel composite in which pPDA as nucleophile is chemically attached to MWCNTs. • The developed biosensor exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity in electrochemically determination of L-Dopa. • The biosensor showed acceptable sensitivity, reproducibility, detection limit, selectivity and stability. • MWCNT-pPDA provides a good electrical conductivity and large effective surface area for enzyme immobilization.

  4. Optimization of modified carbon paste electrode with multiwalled carbon nanotube/ionic liquid/cauliflower-like gold nanostructures for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afraz, Ahmadreza; Rafati, Amir Abbas; Najafi, Mojgan

    2014-01-01

    We describe the modification of a carbon paste electrode (CPE) with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and an ionic liquid (IL). Electrochemical studies by using a D-optimal mixture design in Design-Expert software revealed an optimized composition of 60% graphite, 14.2% paraffin, 10.8% MWCNT and 15% IL. The optimal modified CPE shows good electrochemical properties that are well matched with model prediction parameters. In the next step, the optimized CPE was modified with gold nanostructures by applying a double-pulse electrochemical technique. The resulting electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It gives three sharp and well-separated oxidation peaks for ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA). The sensor enables simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA with linear responses from 0.3 to 285, 0.08 to 200, and 0.1 to 450 μM, respectively, and with 120, 30 and 30 nM detection limits (at an S/N of 3). The method was successfully applied to the determination of AA, DA, and UA in spiked samples of human serum and urine. - Highlights: • New method for simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA was developed. • MWCNT/ionic liquid/cauliflower-like Au nanostructure was used for CPE modification. • Optimization of electrode composition was done by Design-Expert software. • The pH effect, peak separation mechanism and real samples was thoroughly studied

  5. Optimization of modified carbon paste electrode with multiwalled carbon nanotube/ionic liquid/cauliflower-like gold nanostructures for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afraz, Ahmadreza [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, P.O. Box 65174, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rafati, Amir Abbas, E-mail: aa_rafati@basu.ac.ir [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, P.O. Box 65174, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafi, Mojgan [Department of Materials Engineering, Hamedan University of Technology (HUT), 65169 Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    We describe the modification of a carbon paste electrode (CPE) with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and an ionic liquid (IL). Electrochemical studies by using a D-optimal mixture design in Design-Expert software revealed an optimized composition of 60% graphite, 14.2% paraffin, 10.8% MWCNT and 15% IL. The optimal modified CPE shows good electrochemical properties that are well matched with model prediction parameters. In the next step, the optimized CPE was modified with gold nanostructures by applying a double-pulse electrochemical technique. The resulting electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It gives three sharp and well-separated oxidation peaks for ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA). The sensor enables simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA with linear responses from 0.3 to 285, 0.08 to 200, and 0.1 to 450 μM, respectively, and with 120, 30 and 30 nM detection limits (at an S/N of 3). The method was successfully applied to the determination of AA, DA, and UA in spiked samples of human serum and urine. - Highlights: • New method for simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA was developed. • MWCNT/ionic liquid/cauliflower-like Au nanostructure was used for CPE modification. • Optimization of electrode composition was done by Design-Expert software. • The pH effect, peak separation mechanism and real samples was thoroughly studied.

  6. Enzymatic activity of Glucose Oxidase from Aspergillus niger IPBCC.08.610 On Modified Carbon Paste Electrode as Glucose Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmayanti, T.; Ambarsari, L.; Maddu, A.

    2017-03-01

    Glucose oxidase (GOx) has been developed as glucose sensor for measuring blood glucose level because of its specificity to glucose oxidation. This research aimed to determine kinetic parameters of GOx activity voltametrically and further test its potential as a glucose biosensor. GOx, in this research, was produced by local fungi Aspergillus niger IPBCC.08.610 which was isolated from local vine in Tarakan, East Borneo, Indonesia. GOx was immobilized with glutaraldehyde, which cross-linked onto modified carbon paste electrode (MCPE) nanofiber polyaniline. Intracellular GOx activity was higher than extracellular ones. Immobilized GOx used glutaraldehyde 2.5% and dripped on the surface of MCPE nanofiber polyaniline. MCPE have a high conductance in copper with the diameter of 3 mm. The concentration of glucose in the lowest concentration of 0.2 mM generated a current value of 0.413 mA while 2 mM of glucose induced a current of 3,869 mA value. Km and Imax of GOx in MCPE activities polyaniline nanofiber were 2.88 mM and 3.869 mA,respectively, with turnover (Kcat) of 13 s-1. Sensitivity was 1.09 mA/mM and response time to produce a maximum peak current was 25 seconds. Km value was then converted into units of mg/dL and obtained 56.4 mg/dL. GOximmo-IPB|MCPE electrode is potential to be able to detect blood glucose level in a normal condition and hypoglycemia conditions

  7. Flow injection analysis of sulphide based on its photoelectrocatalytic oxidation at poly-methylene blue modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilgin, Yusuf; Canarslan, Seda; Ayyildiz, Onder; Ertek, Bensu; Nişli, Gürel

    2012-01-01

    A new approach for photoelectrocatalytic determination of sulphide in a flow injection analysis (FIA) system was studied using a poly-methylene blue modified glassy carbon electrode (poly-MB/GCE). Results from electrochemical measurements have revealed that poly-MB/GCE is capable of signalling electrocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activity towards sulphide oxidation. When the surface of poly-MB/GCE was irradiated with a light source (250 W Halogen lamp), the electrocatalytic current increased substantially. A homemade flow electrochemical cell with a suitable transparent window for the irradiation of the electrode surface was used to perform the photoelectrocatalytic determination of sulphide in FIA system. The currents obtained from the photoamperometric measurements in the FIA system at optimum conditions (carrier solution: pH 9.0 Britton Robinson buffer solution containing 0.1 M KCl; flow rate: 1.3 mL min −1 ; transmission tubing length: 10 cm; injection volume: 100 μL; and constant applied potential: +150 mV vs. Ag/AgCl/KCl sat ) were linearly correlated with the sulphide concentration. The calibration curves were obtained for sulphide concentrations in a range of 0.5–500 μM. The detection limits were found to be 0.27 and 0.15 μM for amperometric and photoamperometric methods, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to different wastewaters such as municipal sewage or tannery wastewater. Finally, results from the sulphide measurements by poly-MB/GCE were in good agreement with those attained using spectrophotometric method.

  8. Direct electrochemistry with enhanced electrocatalytic activity of hemoglobin in hybrid modified electrodes composed of graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wei, E-mail: swyy26@hotmail.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 China (China); College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Cao, Lili; Deng, Ying; Gong, Shixing [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Shi, Fan; Li, Gaonan; Sun, Zhenfan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 China (China)

    2013-06-05

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite was prepared. •Hemoglobin and nanocomposite modified carbon ionic liquid electrode was fabricated. •Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin was realized on the modified electrode. •Bioelectrocatalysis towards the reduction of different substrates was enhanced. -- Abstract: A graphene (GR) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) hybrid was prepared and modified on a 1-hexylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate based carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE). Hemoglobin (Hb) was immobilized on GR-MWCNT/CILE surface with Nafion as the film forming material and the modified electrode was denoted as Nafion/Hb-GR-MWCNT/CILE. Spectroscopic results revealed that Hb molecules retained its native structure in the GR-MWCNT hybird. Electrochemical behaviors of Hb were carefully investigated by cyclic voltammetry with a pair of well-defined redox peaks obtained, which indicated that direct electron transfer of Hb was realized in the hybrid modified electrode. The result could be attributed to the synergistic effects of GR-MWCNT hybrid with enlarged surface area and improved conductivity through the formation of a three-dimensional network. Electrochemical parameters of the immobilized Hb on the electrode surface were further calculated with the results of the electron transfer number (n) as 1.03, the charge transfer coefficient (a) as 0.58 and the electron-transfer rate constant (k{sub s}) as 0.97 s{sup −1}. The Hb modified electrode showed good electrocatalytic ability toward the reduction of different substrates such as trichloroacetic acid in the concentration range from 0.05 to 38.0 mmol L{sup −1} with a detection limit of 0.0153 mmol L{sup −1} (3σ), H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the concentration range from 0.1 to 516.0 mmol L{sup −1} with a detection limit of 34.9 nmol/L (3σ) and NaNO{sub 2} in the concentration range from 0.5 to 650.0 mmol L{sup −1} with a detection limit of 0

  9. Direct electrochemistry with enhanced electrocatalytic activity of hemoglobin in hybrid modified electrodes composed of graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Wei; Cao, Lili; Deng, Ying; Gong, Shixing; Shi, Fan; Li, Gaonan; Sun, Zhenfan

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite was prepared. •Hemoglobin and nanocomposite modified carbon ionic liquid electrode was fabricated. •Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin was realized on the modified electrode. •Bioelectrocatalysis towards the reduction of different substrates was enhanced. -- Abstract: A graphene (GR) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) hybrid was prepared and modified on a 1-hexylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate based carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE). Hemoglobin (Hb) was immobilized on GR-MWCNT/CILE surface with Nafion as the film forming material and the modified electrode was denoted as Nafion/Hb-GR-MWCNT/CILE. Spectroscopic results revealed that Hb molecules retained its native structure in the GR-MWCNT hybird. Electrochemical behaviors of Hb were carefully investigated by cyclic voltammetry with a pair of well-defined redox peaks obtained, which indicated that direct electron transfer of Hb was realized in the hybrid modified electrode. The result could be attributed to the synergistic effects of GR-MWCNT hybrid with enlarged surface area and improved conductivity through the formation of a three-dimensional network. Electrochemical parameters of the immobilized Hb on the electrode surface were further calculated with the results of the electron transfer number (n) as 1.03, the charge transfer coefficient (a) as 0.58 and the electron-transfer rate constant (k s ) as 0.97 s −1 . The Hb modified electrode showed good electrocatalytic ability toward the reduction of different substrates such as trichloroacetic acid in the concentration range from 0.05 to 38.0 mmol L −1 with a detection limit of 0.0153 mmol L −1 (3σ), H 2 O 2 in the concentration range from 0.1 to 516.0 mmol L −1 with a detection limit of 34.9 nmol/L (3σ) and NaNO 2 in the concentration range from 0.5 to 650.0 mmol L −1 with a detection limit of 0.282 μmol L −1 (3σ). So the proposed

  10. Tantalum electrodes modified with well-aligned carbon nanotube-Au nanoparticles: application to the highly sensitive electrochemical determination of cefazolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayazfar, Haniyeh; Afshar, Abdollah; Dolati, Abolghasem

    2014-07-01

    Carbon nanotube/nanoparticle hybrid materials have been proven to exhibit high electrocatalytic activity suggesting broad potential applications in the field of electroanalysis. For the first time, modification of Ta electrode with aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes/Au nanoparticles introduced for the sensitive determination of the antibiotic drug, cefazolin (CFZ). The electrochemical response characteristics of the modified electrode toward CFZ were investigated by means of cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry. The modified electrode showed an efficient catalytic activity for the reduction of CFZ, leading to a remarkable decrease in reduction overpotential and a significant increase of peak current. Under optimum conditions, the highly sensitive modified electrode showed a wide linear range from 50 pM to 50 μM with a sufficiently low detection limit of 1 ± 0.01 pM (S/N = 3). The results indicated that the prepared electrode presents suitable characteristics in terms of sensitivity (458.2 ± 2.6 μAcm(-2)/μM), accuracy, repeatability (RSD of 1.8 %), reproducibility (RSD of 2.9 %), stability (14 days), and good catalytic activity in physiological conditions. The method was successfully applied for accurate determination of trace amounts of CFZ in pharmaceutical and clinical preparations without the necessity for samples pretreatment or any time-consuming extraction or evaporation steps prior to the analysis.

  11. A novel l-leucine modified Sol-Gel-Carbon electrode for simultaneous electrochemical detection of homovanillic acid, dopamine and uric acid in neuroblastoma diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamlichi, Redouan El; Bouchta, Dounia; Anouar, El Hassane; Atia, Mounia Ben; Attar, Aisha; Choukairi, Mohamed; Tazi, Saloua; Ihssane, Raissouni; Faiza, Chaoukat; Khalid, Draoui; Khalid, Riffi Temsamani

    2017-02-01

    Neuroblastoma is a pediatric neuroblastic tumor arising in the sympathetic nervous crest cells. A high grade of Neuroblastoma is characterized by a high urinary excretion of homovanillic acid and dopamine. In this work l-leucine modified Sol-Gel-Carbon electrode was used for a sensitive voltammetric determination of homovanillic acid and dopamine in urine. The electrochemical response characteristics were investigated by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry; the modified electrode has shown an increase in the effective area of up to 40%, a well-separated oxidation peaks and an excellent electrocatalytic activity. High sensitivity and selectivity in the linear range of 0,4-100μML -1 of homovanillic acid and 10-120μML -1 of dopamine were also obtained. Moreover, a sub-micromolar limit of detection of 0.1μM for homovanillic acid and 1.0μM for the dopamine was achieved. Indeed, high reproducibility with simple preparation and regeneration of the electrode surface made this electrode very suitable for the determination of homovanillic acid and dopamine in pharmaceutical and clinical preparations. The mechanism of homovanillic acid and the electrochemical oxidation at l-leucine modified Sol-Gel-Carbon electrode is described out the B3P86/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory as implemented in Gaussian software. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Simultaneous detection of metronidazole and chloramphenicol by differential pulse stripping voltammetry using a silver nanoparticles/sulfonate functionalized graphene modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Haiyun; Liang, Zhixian; Chen, Zuanguang; Wang, Haihang; Liu, Zhenping; Su, Zihao; Zhou, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: • A novel and reliable AgNPs/SF-GR modified glassy carbon electrode was constructed and characterized. • The AgNPs/SF-GR/GCE was successfully applied in the shrimp for simultaneous determination of MTZ and CAP. • Under optimized conditions, common substances such as UA, AA, DA and ion did not interfered in the electrode performance. • The modified electrode exhibited considerable sensitivity, stability and reproducibility. • This fabricated electrode achieved a satisfactory level compared with other electrodes toward MTZ and CAP. -- Abstract: A novel silver nanoparticles/sulfonated functionalized graphene modified glassy carbon electrode (AgNPs/SF-GR/GCE) was fabricated to determine chloramphenicol and metronidazole simultaneously. Taking advantage of sulfonic group, AgNPs were successfully electrodeposited on functionalized GR immobilized on the surface of a GCE. Scanning electron microscopy and energy spectrum analysis results confirmed that AgNPs were deposited on the functionalized GR film. Compared to the bare GCE or the pristine SF-GR modified electrode, AgNPs/SF-GR/GCE exhibited excellent electroreduction towards chloramphenicol and metronidazole. In addition, the two antibacterial drugs were separated completely in 0.10 M citric acid-sodium citrate buffer (pH 4.0) by differential pulse stripping voltammetry under optimum conditions. The cathodic current was linearly related with 0.02∼20.0 μM chloramphenicol and 0.10∼20.0 μM metronidazole, with the detection limits of 0.01 μM and 0.05 μM respectively. Furthermore, AgNPs/SF-GR/GCE was applied to the simultaneous determination of chloramphenicol and metronidazole in an aquatic product

  13. Interfacial electron transfer of glucose oxidase on poly(glutamic acid)-modified glassy carbon electrode and glucose sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuechou; Tan, Bingcan; Zheng, Xinyu; Kong, Dexian; Li, Qinglu

    2015-11-15

    The interfacial electron transfer of glucose oxidase (GOx) on a poly(glutamic acid)-modified glassy carbon electrode (PGA/GCE) was investigated. The redox peaks measured for GOx and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are similar, and the anodic peak of GOx does not increase in the presence of glucose in a mediator-free solution. These indicate that the electroactivity of GOx is not the direct electron transfer (DET) between GOx and PGA/GCE and that the observed electroactivity of GOx is ascribed to free FAD that is released from GOx. However, efficient electron transfer occurred if an appropriate mediator was placed in solution, suggesting that GOx is active. The PGA/GCE-based biosensor showed wide linear response in the range of 0.5-5.5 mM with a low detection limit of 0.12 mM and high sensitivity and selectivity for measuring glucose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A study of the electro-catalytic oxidation of methanol on a cobalt hydroxide modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarian, M.; Mahjani, M.G.; Heli, H.; Gobal, F.; Khajehsharifi, H.; Hamedi, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    Cobalt hydroxide modified glassy carbon electrodes (CHM/GC) prepared by the anodic deposition in presence of tartrate ions have been used for the electro-catalytic oxidation of methanol in alkaline solutions where the methods of cyclic voltammetery (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and impedance spectroscopy (IS) have been employed. In CV studies, in the presence of methanol the peak current of the oxidation of cobalt hydroxide increase is followed by a decrease in the corresponding cathodic current. This suggests that the oxidation of methanol is being catalysed through the mediated electron transfer across the cobalt hydroxide layer comprising of cobalt ions of various valence states. A mechanism based on the electro-chemical generation of Co(IV) active sites and their subsequent consumptions by methanol have been discussed and the corresponding rate law under the control of charge transfer has been developed and kinetic parameters have been derived. In this context the charge transfer resistance accessible both theoretically and through the IS studies have been used as a criteria. Under the CA regimes the reaction followed a Cottrellian behaviour

  15. Fabrication of folic acid sensor based on the Cu doped SnO2 nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavanya, N; Radhakrishnan, S; Sudhan, N; Sekar, C; Leonardi, S G; Neri, G; Cannilla, C

    2014-01-01

    A novel folic acid biosensor has been fabricated using Cu doped SnO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized by a simple microwave irradiation method. Powder XRD and TEM studies confirmed that both the pure and Cu doped SnO 2 (Cu: 0, 10, 20wt%) crystallized in tetragonal rutile-type structure with spherical morphology. The average crystallite size of pure SnO 2 was estimated to be around 16 nm. Upon doping, the crystallite sizes decreased to 9 nm and 5 nm for 10 and 20wt% Cu doped SnO 2 respectively. XPS studies confirmed the electronic state of Sn and Cu to be 4+ and 2+ respectively. Cu (20wt%) doped SnO 2 NPs are proved to be a good sensing element for the determination of folic acid (FA). Cu-SnO 2 NPs (20wt%) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) exhibited the lowest detection limit of 0.024 nM over a wide folic acid concentration range of 1.0 × 10 −10 to 6.7 × 10 −5 M at physiological pH of 7.0. The fabricated sensor is highly selective towards the determination of FA even in the presence of a 100 fold excess of common interferent ascorbic acid. The sensor proved to be useful for the estimation of FA content in pharmaceutical sample with satisfactory recovery. (paper)

  16. Electrochemical Detection of Ultratrace (Picomolar) Levels of Hg2+ Using a Silver Nanoparticle-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman, Alex L; Ngamchuea, Kamonwad; Tanner, Eden E L; Sokolov, Stanislav V; Holter, Jennifer; Young, Neil P; Compton, Richard G

    2017-07-05

    Ultratrace levels of Hg 2+ have been quantified by undertaking linear sweep voltammetry with a silver nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon electrode (AgNP-GCE) in aqueous solutions containing Hg 2+ . This is achieved by monitoring the change in the silver stripping peak with Hg 2+ concentration resulting from the galvanic displacement of silver by mercury: Ag(np) + 1/2Hg 2+ (aq) → Ag + (aq) + 1/2Hg(l). This facile and reproducible detection method exhibits an excellent linear dynamic range of 100.0 pM to 10.0 nM Hg 2+ concentration with R 2 = 0.982. The limit of detection (LoD) based on 3σ is 28 pM Hg 2+ , while the lowest detectable level for quantification purposes is 100.0 pM. This method is appropriate for routine environmental monitoring and drinking water quality assessment since the guideline value set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for inorganic mercury in drinking water is 0.002 mg L -1 (10 nM).

  17. Electroanalytical Determination of Gemifloxacin Mesylate in Bulk, Tablets and Human Urine Using Gold Nanoparticles Modified Carbon Paste Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Attia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple, precise, inexpensive and sensitive voltammetric method has been developed for the determination of gemifloxacin mesylate (GEM in the presence of tween 80 in the bulk, farmaceutical dosage forms and human urine at gold nanoparticles modified carbon paste electrode (GNCPE. The electrochemical behavior of GEM has been investigated by using cyclic voltammetry (CV and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV techniques. The electrochemical oxidation of GEM was an irreversible process which exhibited adsorption-diffusion controlled process behavior in Britton-Robinson (BR buffer over the entire pH range of values from 2 to 9. The adsorptive stripping response was evaluated as a function of some variables such as pH, type of surfactant, scan rate and accumulation time. The anodic peak current varied linearly over the range from 8.0 × 10-7 to 2.8 × 10-5 M. The limits of detection and quantification were 7.32 × 10-8 M and 2.44 × 10-7 M, respectively. The relative standard deviations and the percentage recoveries were found in the following ranges: 0.58-1.35% and 99.37-101.76%, respectively.

  18. Application of graphene-ionic liquid-chitosan composite-modified carbon molecular wire electrode for the sensitive determination of adenosine-5′-monophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Fan; Gong, Shixing; Xu, Li; Zhu, Huanhuan; Sun, Zhenfan; Sun, Wei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a graphene (GR) ionic liquid (IL) 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and chitosan composite-modified carbon molecular wire electrode (CMWE) was fabricated by a drop-casting method and further applied to the sensitive electrochemical detection of adenosine-5′-monophosphate (AMP). CMWE was prepared with diphenylacetylene (DPA) as the modifier and the binder. The properties of modified electrode were examined by scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Electrochemical behaviors of AMP was carefully investigated with enhanced responses appeared, which was due to the presence of GR-IL composite on the electrode surface with excellent electrocatalytic ability. A well-defined oxidation peak of AMP appeared at 1.314 V and the electrochemical parameters were calculated by electrochemical methods. Under the selected conditions, the oxidation peak current of AMP was proportional to its concentration in the range from 0.01 μM to 80.0 μM with the detection limit as 3.42 nM (3σ) by differential pulse voltammetry. The proposed method exhibited good selectivity and was applied to the detection of vidarabine monophosphate injection samples with satisfactory results. - Highlights: • A graphene, ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and chitosan composite were prepared. • Composite-modified carbon molecular wire electrode was fabricated and characterized. • A sensitive electrochemical method for the detection of adenosine-5′-monophosphate was established

  19. Application of graphene-ionic liquid-chitosan composite-modified carbon molecular wire electrode for the sensitive determination of adenosine-5′-monophosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Fan [Key Laboratory of Tropical Medicinal Plant Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 (China); Gong, Shixing; Xu, Li; Zhu, Huanhuan [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Sun, Zhenfan [Key Laboratory of Tropical Medicinal Plant Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 (China); Sun, Wei, E-mail: swyy26@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory of Tropical Medicinal Plant Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 (China)

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a graphene (GR) ionic liquid (IL) 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and chitosan composite-modified carbon molecular wire electrode (CMWE) was fabricated by a drop-casting method and further applied to the sensitive electrochemical detection of adenosine-5′-monophosphate (AMP). CMWE was prepared with diphenylacetylene (DPA) as the modifier and the binder. The properties of modified electrode were examined by scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Electrochemical behaviors of AMP was carefully investigated with enhanced responses appeared, which was due to the presence of GR-IL composite on the electrode surface with excellent electrocatalytic ability. A well-defined oxidation peak of AMP appeared at 1.314 V and the electrochemical parameters were calculated by electrochemical methods. Under the selected conditions, the oxidation peak current of AMP was proportional to its concentration in the range from 0.01 μM to 80.0 μM with the detection limit as 3.42 nM (3σ) by differential pulse voltammetry. The proposed method exhibited good selectivity and was applied to the detection of vidarabine monophosphate injection samples with satisfactory results. - Highlights: • A graphene, ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and chitosan composite were prepared. • Composite-modified carbon molecular wire electrode was fabricated and characterized. • A sensitive electrochemical method for the detection of adenosine-5′-monophosphate was established.

  20. Development of a novel MWCNTs-triazene-modified carbon paste electrode for potentiometric assessment of Hg(II) in the aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashhadizadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Ramezani, Soleyman; Rofouei, Mohammad Kazem

    2015-02-01

    In this approach, a new chemically modified carbon paste electrode was assembled for potentiometric assay of mercury(II) ion in the aqueous environments. Hereby, MWCNTs were used in the carbon paste composition to meliorate the electrical conductivity and sensitivity of the carbon paste owing to its exceptional physicochemical characteristics. Likewise, participation of the BEPT as a super-selective ionophore in the carbon paste composition boosted significantly the selectivity of the modified electrode towards Hg(II) ions over a wide concentration range of 4.0 × 10(-9)-2.2 × 10(-3) mol L(-1) with a lower detection limit of 3.1 × 10(-9) mol L(-1). Besides, Nernstian slope of the proposed sensor was 28.9(± 0.4)mV/decade over a pH range of 3.0-5.2 with potentiometric short response time of 10s. In the interim, by storing in the dark and cool dry place during non-usage period, the electrode can be used for at least 30 days without any momentous divergence of the potentiometric response. Eventually, to judge about its practical efficiency, the arranged sensor was utilized successfully as an indicator electrode for potentiometric titration of mercury(II) with standard solution of EDTA. As well, the quantitative analysis of mercury(II) ions in some aqueous samples with sensible accuracy and precision was satisfactorily performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A study on optimal pore development of modified commercial activated carbons for electrode materials of supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Joon Hyuk; Lee, Hye-Min; An, Kay-Hyeok; Kim, Byung-Joo

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to understand the impact of CO2 activation of commercial activated carbons (AC) on the changes in pore characteristics and the electrochemical property. The surface structure of manufactured AC was observed with a X-ray diffraction (XRD); the pore characteristics were analyzed at N2/77 K isothermal absorption using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) equations. In addition, the electrochemical characteristics were analyzed by means of an electrolyte of 1 M (C2H5)4NBF4/propylene carbonate, using a charge/discharge test, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and impedance. The N2/77 K isothermal absorption curve of the manufactured AC falls under Type I in the classification of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and was found to largely comprise micropores. The specific surface area increased from 1690 m2/g to 2290 m2/g, and the pore volume grew from 0.80 cm3/g to 1.10 cm3/g. The analysis of electrochemical characteristics also found that the specific capacity increased from 17 F/g to 20 F/g (in a full cell condition). Based on these results, we were able to determine the pore characteristics of commercial AC through an additional activation process, which consequently allowed us to manufacture the AC with an advanced electrochemical property.

  2. Highly improved sensing of dopamine by using glassy carbon electrode modified with MnO2, graphene oxide, carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Dejiang; Zhang, Xinjin; Sheng, Qinglin; Zheng, Jianbin

    2016-01-01

    A composite material obtained by ultrasonication of graphene oxide (GO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was loaded with manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ), poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and the resulting multilayer hybrid films were deposited on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The microstructure, composition and electrochemical behavior of the composite and the modified GCE were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectra, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The electrode induces efficient electrocatalytic oxidation of dopamine at a rather low working voltage of 0.22 V (vs. SCE) at neutral pH values. The response is linear in the 0.5 μM to 2.5 mM concentration range, the sensitivity is 233.4 μA·mM -1 ·cm -2 , and the detection limit is 0.17 μM at an SNR of 3. The sensor is well reproducible and stable. It displays high selectivity over ascorbic acid, uric acid and glucose even if these are present in comparable concentrations. (author)

  3. Electrochemical tyrosine sensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with a nanohybrid made from graphene oxide and multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Kuang, D.; Feng, Y.; Zhang, F.; Xu, Z.; Liu, M.; Wang, D.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a glassy carbon electrode that was modified with a composite made from graphene oxide (GO) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) that enables highly sensitive determination of L-tyrosine. The sensor was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and its electrochemical properties by cyclic voltammetry, chronocoulometry and differential pulse voltammetry. The GO/MWCNT hybrid exhibits strong catalytic activity toward the oxidation of L-tyrosine, with a well defined oxidation peak at 761 mV. The respective current serves as the analytical information and is proportional to the L-tyrosine concentration in two ranges of different slope (0.05 to 1.0 μM and 1.0 to 650.0 μM), with limits of detection and quantification as low as 4.4 nM and 14.7 nM, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of L-tyrosine in human body fluids. The excellent reproducibility, stability, sensitivity and selectivity are believed to be due to the combination of the electrocatalytic properties of both GO and MWCNT. They are making this hybrid electrode a potentially useful electrochemical sensing platform for bioanalysis. (author)

  4. Electrochemical tyrosine sensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with a nanohybrid made from graphene oxide and multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.; Kuang, D.; Feng, Y.; Zhang, F.; Xu, Z.; Liu, M.; Wang, D., E-mail: junhua325@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Functional Organometallic Materials of Hunan Province College, Department of Chemistry and Material Science, Hengyang Normal University, Hunan, Hengyang, 421008 (China)

    2013-01-15

    We report on a glassy carbon electrode that was modified with a composite made from graphene oxide (GO) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) that enables highly sensitive determination of L-tyrosine. The sensor was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and its electrochemical properties by cyclic voltammetry, chronocoulometry and differential pulse voltammetry. The GO/MWCNT hybrid exhibits strong catalytic activity toward the oxidation of L-tyrosine, with a well defined oxidation peak at 761 mV. The respective current serves as the analytical information and is proportional to the L-tyrosine concentration in two ranges of different slope (0.05 to 1.0 {mu}M and 1.0 to 650.0 {mu}M), with limits of detection and quantification as low as 4.4 nM and 14.7 nM, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of L-tyrosine in human body fluids. The excellent reproducibility, stability, sensitivity and selectivity are believed to be due to the combination of the electrocatalytic properties of both GO and MWCNT. They are making this hybrid electrode a potentially useful electrochemical sensing platform for bioanalysis. (author)

  5. Determination of dopamine using a glassy carbon electrode modified with a graphene and carbon nanotube hybrid decorated with molybdenum disulfide flowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, Veerappan; Govindasamy, Mani; Chen, Shen-Ming; Karthik, Raj; Huang, Sheng-Tung

    2016-01-01

    We describe a hybrid material that consists of molybdenum sulfide flowers placed on graphene nanosheets and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (GNS-CNTs/MoS_2). It was deposited on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) which then is well suited for sensitive and selective determination of dopamine. The GNS-CNTs/MoS_2 nanocomposite was prepared by a hydrothermal method and characterized by scanning electron and transmission emission microscopies, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Electrochemical studies show the composite to possess excellent electrochemical properties such as a large electrochemically active surface, high capacitance current, a wide potential window, high conductivity and large porosity. The electrode displays excellent electrocatalytic ability to oxidize dopamine. The modified GCE, best operated at a working potential as low as 0.15 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), responds linearly to dopamine in the 100 nM to 100 μM concentration range. The detection limit is 50 nM, and the sensitivity is 10.81 (± 0.26) μA⋅μM"−"1⋅cm"−"2. The sensor has good selectivity, appreciable stability, repeatability and reproducibility. It was applied to the determination of dopamine in (spiked) biological and pharmaceutical samples. (author)

  6. Differential pulse voltammetric determination of methyl parathion based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes-poly(acrylamide) nanocomposite film modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Yanbo [Department of Chemistry and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Process, East China Normal University, 3663 Zhongshan Road(N), Shanghai, 200062 (China); College of Biological, Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Jiaxing University, Jiaxing 314001 (China); Yu, Dajun; Yu, Yanyan [Department of Chemistry and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Process, East China Normal University, 3663 Zhongshan Road(N), Shanghai, 200062 (China); Zhou, Tianshu [Department of Environmental Science, East China Normal University, 3663 Zhongshan Road(N), Shanghai, 200062 (China); Shi, Guoyue, E-mail: gyshi@chem.ecnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Process, East China Normal University, 3663 Zhongshan Road(N), Shanghai, 200062 (China)

    2012-05-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A sensitive electrochemical sensor for detecting methyl parathion in environmental samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The preparation, characterization and application of this novel MWCNTs-PAAM nanocomposite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MWCNTs-PAAM/GCE exhibited a high adsorption and strong affinity toward methyl parathion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wide linear range and low detection limit of the proposed method for detecting methyl parathion. - Abstract: A sensitive electrochemical differential pulse voltammetry method was developed for detecting methyl parathion based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes-poly(acrylamide) (MWCNTs-PAAM) nanocomposite film modified glassy carbon electrode. The novel MWCNTs-PAAM nanocomposite, containing high content of amide groups, was synthesized by PAAM polymerizing at the vinyl group functionalized MWCNTs surface using free radical polymerization. The MWCNTs-PAAM nanocomposite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Electrochemical behavior and interference studies of MWCNTs-PAAM/GCE for methyl parathion were investigated. The experimental results demonstrated that the MWCNTs-PAAM/GCE exhibited a high adsorption and strong affinity toward methyl parathion compared with some metal ions and nitroaromatic compounds, which exist in environmental samples. The adsorbed amount of methyl parathion on the MWCNTs-PAAM/GCE approached the equilibrium value upon 5 min adsorption time. A linear calibration curve for methyl parathion was obtained in the concentration range from 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} to 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1}, with a detection limit of 2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} mol L{sup -1}. The MWCNTs-PAAM/GCE was proved to be a suitable sensing tool for the fast, sensitive and selective determination of methyl parathion in environmental water samples.

  7. Differential pulse voltammetric determination of methyl parathion based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes–poly(acrylamide) nanocomposite film modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Yanbo; Yu, Dajun; Yu, Yanyan; Zhou, Tianshu; Shi, Guoyue

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A sensitive electrochemical sensor for detecting methyl parathion in environmental samples. ► The preparation, characterization and application of this novel MWCNTs–PAAM nanocomposite. ► The MWCNTs–PAAM/GCE exhibited a high adsorption and strong affinity toward methyl parathion. ► Wide linear range and low detection limit of the proposed method for detecting methyl parathion. - Abstract: A sensitive electrochemical differential pulse voltammetry method was developed for detecting methyl parathion based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes–poly(acrylamide) (MWCNTs–PAAM) nanocomposite film modified glassy carbon electrode. The novel MWCNTs–PAAM nanocomposite, containing high content of amide groups, was synthesized by PAAM polymerizing at the vinyl group functionalized MWCNTs surface using free radical polymerization. The MWCNTs–PAAM nanocomposite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Electrochemical behavior and interference studies of MWCNTs–PAAM/GCE for methyl parathion were investigated. The experimental results demonstrated that the MWCNTs–PAAM/GCE exhibited a high adsorption and strong affinity toward methyl parathion compared with some metal ions and nitroaromatic compounds, which exist in environmental samples. The adsorbed amount of methyl parathion on the MWCNTs–PAAM/GCE approached the equilibrium value upon 5 min adsorption time. A linear calibration curve for methyl parathion was obtained in the concentration range from 5.0 × 10 −9 to 1.0 × 10 −5 mol L −1 , with a detection limit of 2.0 × 10 −9 mol L −1 . The MWCNTs–PAAM/GCE was proved to be a suitable sensing tool for the fast, sensitive and selective determination of methyl parathion in environmental water samples.

  8. Simultaneous trace-levels determination of Hg(II) and Pb(II) ions in various samples using a modified carbon paste electrode based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes and a new synthesized Schiff base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afkhami, Abbas; Bagheri, Hasan; Khoshsafar, Hosein; Saber-Tehrani, Mohammad; Tabatabaee, Masoumeh; Shirzadmehr, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new chemically modified carbon paste electrode was constructed and used. ► A new Schiff base and multi-walled carbon nanotube was used as a modifier. ► The electrochemical properties of the modified electrode were studied. ► The electrode was used to the simultaneous determination of Pb 2+ and Hg 2+ . - Abstract: A modified carbon paste electrode based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and 3-(4-methoxybenzylideneamino)-2-thioxothiazolodin-4-one as a new synthesized Schiff base was constructed for the simultaneous determination of trace amounts of Hg(II) and Pb(II) by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The modified electrode showed an excellent selectivity and stability for Hg(II) and Pb(II) determinations and for accelerated electron transfer between the electrode and the analytes. The electrochemical properties and applications of the modified electrode were studied. Operational parameters such as pH, deposition potential and deposition time were optimized for the purpose of determination of traces of metal ions at pH 3.0. Under optimal conditions the limits of detection, based on three times the background noise, were 9.0 × 10 −4 and 6.0 × 10 −4 μmol L −1 for Hg(II) and Pb(II) with a 90 s preconcentration, respectively. In addition, the modified electrode displayed a good reproducibility and selectivity, making it suitable for the simultaneous determination of Hg(II) and Pb(II) in real samples such as sea water, waste water, tobacco, marine and human teeth samples.

  9. Adsorption behavior of ractopamine on carbon nanoparticle modified electrode and its analytical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Su; Hu Yufei; Li Gongke; Zhang Yukui

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: In this paper, carbon nanoparticle (CNP) with abundant oxygen-containing groups was prepared. The adsorption behavior of ractopamine on the CNP surface was investigated by electrochemical study. Two oxidative peaks of ractopamine were observed at 0.60 and 0.82 V. The oxidative peaks were distinctly enhanced on the CNP surface and the enhancements were result from the adsorption. The adsorption mechanism was discussed in detail and deduced to be via π–π interaction and salt linkage. The salt linkage between the secondary amide of ractopamine and the carboxyl group on CNP surfaces was confirmed. It provided a novel electron transfer channel for the electrochemical oxidation of phenolic groups. A sensitive differential pulse voltammetry method based on the adsorption was proposed for the determination of ractopamine with the detection limit of 2.0 × 10 −10 mol L −1 . This method was successfully applied to the analysis of ractopamine in urine sample.

  10. Screen-printed electrodes modified with carbon nanotubes or graphene for simultaneous determination of melatonin and serotonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Federico José Vicente; Martín, Aída; Escarpa, Alberto; Silva, María Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and graphene have been tested as carbon allotropes for the modification of carbon screen-printed electrodes (CSPEs) to simultaneously determine melatonin (MT) and serotonin (5-HT). Two groups of CSPEs, both 4 mm in diameter, were explored: The first includes commercial SWCNT, MWCNT and graphene, the second includes SWCNT, MWCNT, graphene oxide nanoribbons and reduced nanoribbons that were drop casted on the electrodes. The carbon nanomaterials enhanced the electroactive area in the following order: CSPE carbon nanomaterials, in particular of graphene oxide nanoribbons on CSPEs, represents an excellent and disposable tool for sensing the two target molecules in even small sample volumes. Figures of merit for MT and 5-HT include (a) detection limit of 1.1 and 0.4 μM for MT and 5-HT, respectively; (b) an inter-electrode reproducibility with RSD ≤ 8 %; (c) 120 s response time, and (d) recoveries (in case of spiked samples) ranging from 94 to 103 % (with an RSD < 1 %). (author)

  11. Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase and a biosensor for glucose based on a glass carbon electrode modified with MoS2 nanosheets decorated with gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Shao; Sun, Haofan; Xu, Fei; Yuwen, Lihui; Wang, Lianhui; Fan, Chunhai

    2014-01-01

    An electrochemical glucose biosensor was developed by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) on a glass carbon electrode that was modified with molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) nanosheets that were decorated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The electrochemical performance of the modified electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, and it is found that use of the AuNPs-decorated MoS 2 nanocomposite accelerates the electron transfer from electrode to the immobilized enzyme. This enables the direct electrochemistry of GOx without any electron mediator. The synergistic effect the MoS 2 nanosheets and the AuNPs result in excellent electrocatalytic activity. Glucose can be detected in the concentration range from 10 to 300 μM, and down to levels as low as 2.8 μM. The biosensor also displays good reproducibility and long-term stability, suggesting that it represents a promising tool for biological assays. (author)

  12. Amperometric determination of 6-mercaptopurine on functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes modified electrode by liquid chromatography coupled with microdialysis and its application to pharmacokinetics in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xu-Ni; Lin, Li; Zhou, Yu-Yan; Shi, Guo-Yue; Zhang, Wen; Yamamoto, Katsunobu; Jin, Li-Tong

    2003-07-27

    In this paper, multi-wall carbon nanotubes functionalized with carboxylic groups modified electrode (MWNT-COOH CME) was fabricated. This chemically modified electrode (CME) can be used as the working electrode in the liquid chromatography for the determination of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). The results indicate that the CME exhibits efficiently electrocatalytic oxidation for 6-MP with relatively high sensitivity, stability and long-life. The peak currents of 6-MP are linear to its concentrations ranging from 4.0 x 10(-7) to 1.0 x 10(-4) mol l(-1) with the calculated detection limit (S/N=3) of 2.0 x 10(-7) mol l(-1). Coupled with microdialysis, the method has been successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of 6-MP in rabbit blood. This method provides a fast, sensible and simple technique for the pharmacokinetic study of 6-MP in vivo.

  13. A simple and efficient electrochemical sensor for folic acid determination in human blood plasma based on gold nanoparticles–modified carbon paste electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvand, Majid; Dehsaraei, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Folic acid (FA) is a water soluble vitamin that exists in many natural species. The lack of FA causes some deficiencies in human body, so finding a simple and sensitive method for determining the FA is important. A new chemically modified electrode was fabricated for determination of FA in human blood plasma using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and carbon paste electrode (CPE). Gold nanoparticles–modified carbon paste electrode (AuNPs/CPE) was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental parameters such as pH, scan rate (ν) and amount of modifier were studied by cyclic voltammetry and the optimized values were chosen. The electrochemical parameters such as diffusion coefficient of FA (D FA ), electrode surface area (A) and electron transfer coefficient (α) were calculated. Square wave voltammetry as an accurate technique was used for quantitative calculations. A good linear relation was observed between anodic peak current (i pa ) and FA concentration (C FA ) in the range of 6 × 10 −8 to 8 × 10 −5 mol L −1 , and the detection limit (LOD) achieved 2.7 × 10 −8 mol L −1 , that is comparable with recently studies. This paper demonstrated a novel, simple, selective and rapid sensor for determining the FA in the biological samples. - Highlights: • We examine a AuNPs/CPE for direct electrooxidation behavior and determination of FA. • Characterization of the electrode showed an obvious increase in surface area and porosity after modification. • The modified electrode showed good ability to distinguish the electrochemical response of FA. • The results were attributed to the specific characteristics of AuNPs present in the AuNPs/CPE. • This paper demonstrated a simple and rapid sensor for determination of FA in plasma

  14. Direct electrochemistry with enhanced electrocatalytic activity of hemoglobin in hybrid modified electrodes composed of graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Cao, Lili; Deng, Ying; Gong, Shixing; Shi, Fan; Li, Gaonan; Sun, Zhenfan

    2013-06-05

    A graphene (GR) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) hybrid was prepared and modified on a 1-hexylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate based carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE). Hemoglobin (Hb) was immobilized on GR-MWCNT/CILE surface with Nafion as the film forming material and the modified electrode was denoted as Nafion/Hb-GR-MWCNT/CILE. Spectroscopic results revealed that Hb molecules retained its native structure in the GR-MWCNT hybird. Electrochemical behaviors of Hb were carefully investigated by cyclic voltammetry with a pair of well-defined redox peaks obtained, which indicated that direct electron transfer of Hb was realized in the hybrid modified electrode. The result could be attributed to the synergistic effects of GR-MWCNT hybrid with enlarged surface area and improved conductivity through the formation of a three-dimensional network. Electrochemical parameters of the immobilized Hb on the electrode surface were further calculated with the results of the electron transfer number (n) as 1.03, the charge transfer coefficient (a) as 0.58 and the electron-transfer rate constant (ks) as 0.97 s(-1). The Hb modified electrode showed good electrocatalytic ability toward the reduction of different substrates such as trichloroacetic acid in the concentration range from 0.05 to 38.0 mmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.0153 mmol L(-1) (3σ), H2O2 in the concentration range from 0.1 to 516.0 mmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 34.9 nmol/L (3σ) and NaNO2 in the concentration range from 0.5 to 650.0 mmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.282 μmol L(-1) (3σ). So the proposed electrode had the potential application in the third-generation electrochemical biosensors without mediator. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mercury-free simultaneous determination of cadmium and lead at a glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-wall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Kangbing; Hu Shengshui; Fei Junjie; Bai Wen

    2003-08-18

    A multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was described for the simultaneous determination of trace levels of cadmium and lead by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). In pH 4.5 NaAc-HAc buffer containing 0.02 mol/l KI, Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} first adsorb onto the surface of a MWNT film coated GCE and then reduce at -1.20 V. During the positive potential sweep, reduced cadmium and lead were oxidized, and two well-defined stripping peaks appeared at -0.88 and -0.62 V. Compared with a bare GCE, a MWNT film coated GCE greatly improves the sensitivity of determining cadmium and lead. Low concentration of I{sup -} significantly enhances the stripping peak currents since it induces Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} to adsorb at the electrode surface. The striping peak currents change linearly with the concentration of Cd{sup 2+} from 2.5x10{sup -8} to 1x10{sup -5} mol/l and with that of Pb{sup 2+} from 2x10{sup -8} to 1x10{sup -5} mol/l. The lowest detectable concentrations of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} are estimated to be 6x10{sup -9} and 4x10{sup -9} mol/l, respectively. The high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability of this MWNT film coated electrode demonstrated its practical application for a simple, rapid and economical determination of trace levels of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} in water samples.

  16. Electrochemical characterization of glassy carbon electrode modified with 1,10-phenanthroline groups by two pathways: reduction of the corresponding diazonium ions and reduction of phenanthroline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shul, Galyna; Weissmann, Martin; Bélanger, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of 1,10-phenanthroline molecules immobilized on a glassy carbon electrode surface by electrochemical reduction of the corresponding in-situ generated diazonium ions in an aqueous solution was investigated. Firstly, the derivatization of glassy carbon electrode was confirmed by the presence of the barrier effect in the solution of a redox probe. Secondly, atomic force microscopy measurements revealed the deposition of thin (< 2 nm) uniform 1,10-phenanthroline film on the surface of pyrolyzed photoresist film electrode. Thirdly, the initially electrochemically inactive grafted organic film became electroactive after being subjected to electrochemical reduction and oxidation. Fourthly, the electrochemical behaviour of phenanthroline modified electrode by electrochemical reduction of the corresponding diazonium cations was found to be similar to that of electrode modified by electrochemical reduction of only phenanthroline dissolved in an aqueous acid solution. Finally, cyclic voltammetry experiments using various methyl substituted phenanthroline derivatives provided direct evidence that functional groups responsible for the film electroactivity are formed at 5 or/and 6 positions of grafted phenanthroline molecules. On the other hand, a phenanthroline derivative having these positions blocked by methyl groups can also display electroactivity with position 7 being most likely involved in the observed redox process

  17. Determination of picomolar silver concentrations by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry at a carbon paste electrode modified with phenylthiourea-functionalized high ordered nanoporous silica gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javanbakht, Mehran; Divsar, Faten; Badiei, Alireza; Fatollahi, Fatemeh; Khaniani, Yeganeh; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Norouzi, Parviz; Chaloosi, Marzieh; Ziarani, Ghodsi Mohammadi

    2009-01-01

    This study introduces the design of an anodic stripping voltammetric (ASV) method for the silver ion determination at a carbon paste electrode (CPE), chemically modified with phenylthiourea-nanoporous silica gel (Tu-SBA-15-CPE). The electroanalytical pro includes two steps: preconcentration of metal ions at an electrode surface, followed by quantification of the accumulated species by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric methods. Factors affecting the performance of the anodic stripping were investigated, including the modifier quantity in the paste, the electrolyte concentrations, the solution pH and the accumulation potential or time. The most sensitive and reliable electrode contained 10% Tu-SBA-15 and 90% carbon paste. The accumulation potential and time were set at, -200 mV and 300 s, respectively, and the scan rate at 50 mV s -1 in the scan range of -200 to 700 mV. The resulting electrode demonstrated a linear response over range of silver ion concentration of 8.0-80 pmol/L with detection limit (S/N = 3) of 5 pmol/L. The prepared electrodes were used for the silver determination in sea and tap water samples and very good recovery results were obtained. The accuracy was assessed through recovery experiments and independent analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

  18. Determination of picomolar silver concentrations by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry at a carbon paste electrode modified with phenylthiourea-functionalized high ordered nanoporous silica gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javanbakht, Mehran [Department of Chemistry, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nano Science and Technology Research Center, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mehranjavanbakht@gmail.com; Divsar, Faten [Department of Chemistry, University of Tarbiat Moallem, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Badiei, Alireza [School of Chemistry, University College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fatollahi, Fatemeh [Department of Chemistry, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khaniani, Yeganeh [School of Chemistry, University College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Norouzi, Parviz [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chaloosi, Marzieh [Department of Chemistry, University of Tarbiat Moallem, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ziarani, Ghodsi Mohammadi [Department of Chemistry, University of Alzahra, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-09-30

    This study introduces the design of an anodic stripping voltammetric (ASV) method for the silver ion determination at a carbon paste electrode (CPE), chemically modified with phenylthiourea-nanoporous silica gel (Tu-SBA-15-CPE). The electroanalytical pro includes two steps: preconcentration of metal ions at an electrode surface, followed by quantification of the accumulated species by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric methods. Factors affecting the performance of the anodic stripping were investigated, including the modifier quantity in the paste, the electrolyte concentrations, the solution pH and the accumulation potential or time. The most sensitive and reliable electrode contained 10% Tu-SBA-15 and 90% carbon paste. The accumulation potential and time were set at, -200 mV and 300 s, respectively, and the scan rate at 50 mV s{sup -1} in the scan range of -200 to 700 mV. The resulting electrode demonstrated a linear response over range of silver ion concentration of 8.0-80 pmol/L with detection limit (S/N = 3) of 5 pmol/L. The prepared electrodes were used for the silver determination in sea and tap water samples and very good recovery results were obtained. The accuracy was assessed through recovery experiments and independent analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

  19. A novel disposable electrochemical sensor for determination of carbamazepine based on Fe doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles modified screen-printed carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavanya, N. [Department of Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, TN (India); Department of Electronic Engineering, Chemistry and Materials Engineering, University of Messina, Messina 98166 (Italy); Sekar, C., E-mail: Sekar2025@gmail.com [Department of Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, TN (India); Ficarra, S.; Tellone, E. [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Messina, Messina 98166 (Italy); Bonavita, A.; Leonardi, S.G.; Neri, G. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chemistry and Materials Engineering, University of Messina, Messina 98166 (Italy)

    2016-05-01

    An effective strategy to fabricate a novel disposable screen printing carbon electrode modified by iron doped tin dioxide nanoparticles for carbamazepine (CBZ) detection has been developed. Fe–SnO{sub 2} (Fe = 0 to 5 wt.%) NPs were synthesized by a simple microwave irradiation method and assessed for their structural and morphological changes due to Fe doping into SnO{sub 2} matrix by X-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The electrochemical behaviour of carbamazepine at the Fe–SnO{sub 2} modified screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry. Electron transfer coefficient α (0.63) and electron transfer rate constant k{sub s} (0.69 s{sup −1}) values of the 5 wt.% Fe–SnO{sub 2} modified SPCE indicate that the diffusion controlled process takes place on the electrode surface. The fabricated sensor displayed a good electrooxidation response towards the detection of CBZ at a lower oxidation potential of 0.8 V in phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.0. Under the optimal conditions, the sensor showed fast and sensitive current response to CBZ over a wide linear range of 0.5–100 μM with a low detection limit of 92 nM. Furthermore, the practical application of the modified electrode has been investigated by the determination of CBZ in pharmaceutical products using standard addition method. - Highlights: • A novel mediator-free disposable screen printed carbon electrode has been fabricated based on Fe- SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles for determination of carbamazepine • The Fe-SnO{sub 2}/SPCE showed wide linear range (0.5–100 μM), low detection limit (92 nM), high sensitivity, good stability and reproducibility. • The carbamazepine sensor was successfully applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical products with satisfactory recoveries.

  20. Pseudocapacitive performance of electrodeposited porous Co3O4 film on electrophoretically modified graphite electrodes with carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazazi, Mahdi; Sedighi, Ali Reza; Mokhtari, Mohammad Amin

    2018-05-01

    A facile and efficient two-step procedure was developed for the fabrication of a high-performance and binder-free cobalt oxide-carbon nanotubes (CO/CNT) pseudocapacitive electrode. First, CNTs were deposited on the surface of a chemically activated graphite sheet by cathodic electrophoretic deposition technique from their ethanolic suspension. In the next step, a thin film of cobalt oxide was electrodeposited on the CNTs coated graphite substrate by a galvanostatic method, followed by a thermal treatment in air. The structure and morphology of the prepared cobaltite electrode with and without CNT interlayer were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement. The results indicated that Co3O4 nanoparticles were uniformly attached on the surface of CNTs, to form a porous-structured CO/CNT composite electrode with a high specific surface area of 144.9 m2 g-1. Owing to the superior electrical conductivity of CNTs, high surface area and open porous structure, and improved integrity of the electrode structure, the composite electrode delivered a high areal capacitance of 4.96F cm-2 at a current density of 2 mA cm-2, a superior rate performance (64.7% capacitance retention from 2 mA cm-2 to 50 mA cm-2), as well as excellent cycling stability (91.8% capacitance retention after 2000 cycles), which are higher than those of the pure cobaltite electrode.

  1. Electrochemical mechanism of eugenol at a Cu doped gold nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode and its analytical application in food samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Xiaoyun; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A simple one-step electrodeposition method was used to fabricate a Cu doped gold nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode. An electrochemical reaction mechanism for o-methoxy phenols was suggested. In addition, the above Cu@AuNPs/GCE was successfully employed for the analysis of eugenol in food samples. - Highlights: • One-step construction of the Cu@AuNPs/GCE electrode. • The modified electrode showed high sensitivity for the analysis of eugenol. • Electrochemical mechanism of eugenol by use of Cu@AuNPs/GCE was inferred. • The novel method was successfully employed for analysis of eugenol in food samples. - Abstract: A simple one-step electrodeposition method was used to construct a glassy carbon electrode (GCE), which has been modified with Cu doped gold nanoparticles (GNPs), i.e. a Cu@AuNPs/GCE. This electrode was characterized with the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The eugenol was electrocatalytically oxidized at the Cu@AuNPs/GCE. At this electrode, in comparison with the behavior at the GCE alone, the corresponding oxidation peak current was enhanced and the shift of the oxidation potentials to lower values was observed. Electrochemical behavior of eugenol at the Cu@AuNPs/GCE was investigated with the use of the cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique, and additionally, in order to confirm the electrochemical reaction mechanism for o-methoxy phenols, CVs for catechol, guaiacol and vanillin were investigated consecutively. Based on this work, an electrochemical reaction mechanism for o-methoxy phenols was suggested, and in addition, the above Cu@AuNPs/GCE was successfully employed for the analysis of eugenol in food samples

  2. Electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen at glassy carbon electrode modified by polypyrrole/anthraquinones composite film in various pH media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valarselvan, S.; Manisankar, P.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The electrocatalytic reduction of dioxygen by one mono and four dihydroxy derivatives of 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) incorporated in polypyrrole (PPy) matrix on glassy carbon electrode has been investigated. AQ and PPy composite film showed excellent electrocatalytic performance for the reduction of O 2 to H 2 O 2 . Highlights: → Hydroxyl derivatives of anthraquinones as electrocatalysts for dioxygen reduction. → AQ/PPy composite film on GC electrode exhibits potent electrocatalytic activity. → Substituent groups influence electrocatalytic dioxygen reduction. → Surface coverage varies the rate of electrocatalytic dioxygen reduction. - Abstract: The electrocatalytic reduction of dioxygen by one mono and four dihydroxy derivatives of 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) incorporated in polypyrrole (PPy) matrix on glassy carbon electrode has been investigated. The electrochemical behaviour of the modified electrodes was examined in various pH media and both the formal potential of anthraquinones and reduction potential of dioxygen exhibited pH dependence. AQ and PPy composite film showed excellent electrocatalytic performance for the reduction of O 2 to H 2 O 2 . pH 6.0 was chosen as the most suitable medium to study the electrocatalysis by comparing the peak potential of oxygen reduction and enhancement in peak current for oxygen reduction. The diffusion coefficient values of AQ at the modified electrodes and the number of electrons involved in AQ reduction were evaluated by chronoamperometric and chronocoulometric techniques, respectively. In addition, hydrodynamic voltammetric studies showed the involvement of two electrons in O 2 reduction. The mass specific activity of AQ used, the diffusion coefficient of oxygen and the heterogeneous rate constants for the oxygen reduction at the surface of modified electrodes were also determined by rotating disk voltammetry.

  3. Schiff Base modified on CPE electrode and PCB gold electrode for selective determination of silver ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leepheng, Piyawan; Suramitr, Songwut; Phromyothin, Darinee

    2017-09-01

    The schiff base was synthesized by 2,5-thiophenedicarboxaldehyde and 1,2,4-thiadiazole-3,5-diamine with condensation method. There was modified on carbon paste electrode (CPE) and Printed circuit board (PCB) gold electrode for determination silver ion. The schiff base modified electrodes was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The electrochemical study was reported by cyclic voltammetry method and impedance spectroscopy using modified electrode as working electrode, platinum wire and Ag/AgCl as counter electrode and reference electrode, respectively. The modified electrodes have suitable detection for Ag+. The determination of silver ions using the modified electrodes depended linearly on Ag+ concentration in the range 1×10-10 M to 1×10-7 M, with cyclic voltammetry sensitivity were 2.51×108 μAM-1 and 1.88×108 μAM-1 for PCB gold electrode and CPE electrode, respectively, limits of detection were 5.33×10-9 M and 1.99×10-8 M for PCB gold electrode and CPE electrode, respectively. The modified electrodes have high accuracy, inexpensive and can applied to detection Ag+ in real samples.

  4. Comparison of impedimetric detection of DNA hybridization on the various biosensors based on modified glassy carbon electrodes with PANHS and nanomaterials of RGO and MWCNTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvidi, Ali; Tezerjani, Marzieh Dehghan; Jahanbani, Shahriar; Mazloum Ardakani, Mohammad; Moshtaghioun, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-01-15

    In this research, we have developed lable free DNA biosensors based on modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for detection of DNA sequences. This paper compares the detection of BRCA1 5382insC mutation using independent glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) modified with RGO and MWCNTs. A probe (BRCA1 5382insC mutation detection (ssDNA)) was then immobilized on the modified electrodes for a specific time. The immobilization of the probe and its hybridization with the target DNA (Complementary DNA) were performed under optimum conditions using different electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The proposed biosensors were used for determination of complementary DNA sequences. The non-modified DNA biosensor (1-pyrenebutyric acid-N- hydroxysuccinimide ester (PANHS)/GCE), revealed a linear relationship between ∆Rct and logarithm of the complementary target DNA concentration ranging from 1.0×10(-16)molL(-1) to 1.0×10(-10)mol L(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.992, for DNA biosensors modified with multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) wider linear range and lower detection limit were obtained. For ssDNA/PANHS/MWCNTs/GCE a linear range 1.0×10(-17)mol L(-1)-1.0×10(-10)mol L(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.993 and for ssDNA/PANHS/RGO/GCE a linear range from 1.0×10(-18)mol L(-1) to 1.0×10(-10)mol L(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.985 were obtained. In addition, the mentioned biosensors were satisfactorily applied for discriminating of complementary sequences from noncomplementary sequences, so the mentioned biosensors can be used for the detection of BRCA1-associated breast cancer. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Immobilization of [Cu(bpy)2]Br2 complex onto a glassy carbon electrode modified with alpha-SiMo12O40(4-) and single walled carbon nanotubes: application to nanomolar detection of hydrogen peroxide and bromate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Abdollah; Korani, Aazam; Hallaj, Rahman; Khoshnavazi, Roshan; Hadadzadeh, Hasan

    2009-03-02

    A simple procedure has been used for preparation of modified glassy carbon electrode with carbon nanotubes and copper complex. Copper complex [Cu(bpy)(2)]Br(2) was immobilized onto glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with silicomolybdate, alpha-SiMo(12)O(40)(4-) and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Copper complex and silicomolybdate irreversibly and strongly adsorbed onto GC electrode modified with CNTs. Electrostatic interactions between polyoxometalates (POMs) anions and Cu-complex, cations mentioned as an effective method for fabrication of three-dimensional structures. The modified electrode shows three reversible redox couples for polyoxometalate and one redox couple for Cu-complex at wide range of pH values. The electrochemical behavior, stability and electron transfer kinetics of the adsorbed redox couples were investigated using cyclic voltammetry. Due to electrostatic interaction, copper complex immobilized onto GC/CNTs/alpha-SiMo(12)O(40)(4-) electrode shows more stable voltammetric response compared to GC/CNTs/Cu-complex modified electrode. In comparison to GC/CNTs/Cu-complex the GC/CNTs/alpha-SiMo(12)O(40)(4-) modified electrodes shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward reduction H(2)O(2) and BrO(3)(-) at more reduced overpotential. The catalytic rate constants for catalytic reduction hydrogen peroxide and bromate were 4.5(+/-0.2)x10(3) M(-1) s(-1) and 3.0(+/-0.10)x10(3) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. The hydrodynamic amperommetry technique at 0.08 V was used for detection of nanomolar concentration of hydrogen peroxide and bromate. Detection limit, sensitivity and linear concentration range proposed sensor for bromate and hydrogen peroxide detection were 1.1 nM and 6.7 nA nM(-1), 10 nM-20 microM, 1 nM, 5.5 nA nM(-1) and 10 nM-18 microM, respectively.

  6. Differential pulse voltammetric simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid on a glassy carbon electrode modified with electro reduced graphene oxide and imidazolium groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Feng; Huang, Ting; Xie, Qingji; Hu, Yangjian; Yang, Xin; Ouyang, Yuejun

    2016-01-01

    A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was anodically oxidized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in 0.05 M sulfuric acid to introduce hydroxy groups on its surface (GCE ox ). Next, an imidazolium alkoxy silane (ImAS) is covalently tethered to the surface of the GCE ox via silane chemistry. This electrode is further modified with graphene oxide (GO) which, dispersed in water, spontaneously assembles on the electrode surface through electrostatic interaction and π-interaction to give an electrode of type GO/ImAS/GCE. Electroreduction of GO and GCE ox by CV yields electro reduced GO (erGO) and an electrode of the type erGO/ImAS/GCE. This electrode displays excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). Three fully resolved anodic peaks (at −50 mV, 150 mV and 280 mV vs. Ag/AgCl) are observed during differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Under optimized conditions, the linear detection ranges are from 30 to 2000 μM for AA, from 20 to 490 μM for UA, and from 0.1 to 5 μM and from 5 μM to 200 μM (two linear ranges) for DA. The respective limits of detection (for an S/N of 3) are 10 μM, 5 μM and 0.03 μM. The GCE modified with erGO and ImAS performs better than a bare GCE or a GCE modified with ImAS only, and also outperforms many other reported electrodes for the three analytes. The method was successfully applied to simultaneous analysis of AA, DA and UA in spiked human urine. (author)

  7. Potentiometric detection of silver (I) ion based on carbon paste electrode modified with diazo-thiophenol-functionalized nanoporous silica gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Ting; Chai Yaqin, E-mail: yqchai@swu.edu.cn; Yuan Ruo; Guo Junxiang

    2012-07-01

    For the first time, triazene compound functionalized silica gel was incorporated into carbon paste electrode for the potentiometric detection of silver (I) ion. A novel diazo-thiophenol-functionalized silica gel (DTPSG) was synthesized, and the presence of DTPSG acted as not only a paste binder, but also a reactive material. The electrode with optimum composition, exhibited an excellent Nernstian response to Ag{sup +} ion ranging from 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} to 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -1} M with a detection limit of 9.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} M and a slope of 60.4 {+-} 0.2 mV dec{sup -1} over a wide pH range (4.0-9.0) with a fast response time (50 s) at 25 Degree-Sign C. The electrode also showed a long-time stability, high selectivity and reproducibility. The response mechanism of the proposed electrode was investigated by using AC impedance. Moreover, the electrode was successfully applied for the determination of silver ions in radiology films, and for potentiometric titration of the mixture solution of Cl{sup -} and Br{sup -} ions. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functionalized silica gels have become promising materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This work is the first attempt to apply triazene functionalized silica gel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Functionalized silica gels were used to detect silver. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The response of the previously reported papers are compared with this work. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result indicates the proposed electrode is better than reported Ag{sup +} electrodes.

  8. Potentiometric detection of silver (I) ion based on carbon paste electrode modified with diazo-thiophenol-functionalized nanoporous silica gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ting; Chai Yaqin; Yuan Ruo; Guo Junxiang

    2012-01-01

    For the first time, triazene compound functionalized silica gel was incorporated into carbon paste electrode for the potentiometric detection of silver (I) ion. A novel diazo-thiophenol-functionalized silica gel (DTPSG) was synthesized, and the presence of DTPSG acted as not only a paste binder, but also a reactive material. The electrode with optimum composition, exhibited an excellent Nernstian response to Ag + ion ranging from 1.0 × 10 −6 to 1.0 × 10 −1 M with a detection limit of 9.5 × 10 −7 M and a slope of 60.4 ± 0.2 mV dec −1 over a wide pH range (4.0–9.0) with a fast response time (50 s) at 25 °C. The electrode also showed a long-time stability, high selectivity and reproducibility. The response mechanism of the proposed electrode was investigated by using AC impedance. Moreover, the electrode was successfully applied for the determination of silver ions in radiology films, and for potentiometric titration of the mixture solution of Cl − and Br − ions. - Highlights: ► Functionalized silica gels have become promising materials. ► This work is the first attempt to apply triazene functionalized silica gel. ► The Functionalized silica gels were used to detect silver. ► The response of the previously reported papers are compared with this work. ► The result indicates the proposed electrode is better than reported Ag + electrodes.

  9. Square wave voltammetry at carbon paste electrode modified with surfactant for alpha tocopheryl acetate determination in cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Žabčíková

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false CS X-NONE X-NONE The aim of this study was describe electrochemical properties of a carbon paste electrode (CPE bulk modified with 30% (w/w surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (CPE/SDS and demonstrates its application in the determination of α‑tocopheryl acetate (α‑TAc, known as vitamin E acetate, in selected cosmetic products, especially body creams. In addition to anionic SDS, cationic hexadecylpyridinium chloride monohydrate (CPC was also tested as possible modifier. It was found that selection of surfactant type and its content significantly affect an electrical conductivity and mechanical stability of these heterogeneous electroanalytical sensors in pure organic solvents. Under this study, it was found that CPC is a totally inappropriate mediator due to very high backgroundcurrent. Together with other lipophilic vitamins characterized by antioxidant activity (dominantly retionoids, this completely synthetic substance is widely used as significant cosmetic additive due its preservative properties. Monitoring of its content in cosmetic products is usually performed by high‑performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with UV detection. This standard analytical protocol is always burdened with the complex and time‑consuming preparation of the sample before analysis. For that reason, robust and simple electroanalytical method based on anodic oxidation of the α‑TAc at CPE/SDS by square wave voltammetry (SWV performed in pure organic electrolyte (99.8% acetonitrile containing 0.1 mol·L‑1 LiClO4 was developed. Moreover, simple dissolution of sample in supporting electrolyte using ultrasonic bath and subsequent filtering through a stacked filter included all the necessary procedures for sample preparation. The linear range from 0.1 to 1.2 mmol·L‑1and limit of detection 37 µmol·L‑1 were found at pulse amplitude 10 mV and frequency 10 Hz as optimum. In analysis of selected cosmetics, the developed

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Ferrocene Derivatives and Preliminarily Electrocatalytic Oxidation of L-Cysteine at Nafion-Ferrocene Derivatives Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Yong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Five new structural ferrocene derivatives (2a~2e were firstly synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, ESI-MS, and XRD. Subsequently, the preliminarily electrocatalytic oxidation of L-cysteine (L-Cys at nafion-ferrocene derivatives modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE has also been investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The results showed that 2e can dramatically electrocatalyze the oxidation of L-cysteine at its modified GCE in 0.1 mol L−1 NaNO3 aqueous solution with a quasireversible process with ΔEp≈55 mV.

  11. Biofuel cells based on direct enzyme-electrode contacts using PQQ-dependent glucose dehydrogenase/bilirubin oxidase and modified carbon nanotube materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbahn, V; Putze, M T; Dietzel, B; Heinlein, T; Schneider, J J; Lisdat, F

    2014-11-15

    Two types of carbon nanotube electrodes (1) buckypaper (BP) and (2) vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (vaCNT) have been used for elaboration of glucose/O2 enzymatic fuel cells exploiting direct electron transfer. For the anode pyrroloquinoline quinone dependent glucose dehydrogenase ((PQQ)GDH) has been immobilized on [poly(3-aminobenzoic acid-co-2-methoxyaniline-5-sulfonic acid), PABMSA]-modified electrodes. For the cathode bilirubin oxidase (BOD) has been immobilized on PQQ-modified electrodes. PABMSA and PQQ act as promoter for enzyme bioelectrocatalysis. The voltammetric characterization of each electrode shows current densities in the range of 0.7-1.3 mA/cm(2). The BP-based fuel cell exhibits maximal power density of about 107 µW/cm(2) (at 490 mV). The vaCNT-based fuel cell achieves a maximal power density of 122 µW/cm(2) (at 540 mV). Even after three days and several runs of load a power density over 110 µW/cm(2) is retained with the second system (10mM glucose). Due to a better power exhibition and an enhanced stability of the vaCNT-based fuel cells they have been studied in human serum samples and a maximal power density of 41 µW/cm(2) (390 mV) can be achieved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase and sensing glucose using a screen-printed carbon electrode modified with graphite nanosheets and zinc oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karuppiah, Chelladurai; Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Chen, Shen-Ming; Veeramani, Vediyappan; Periakaruppan, Prakash

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilized on electrochemically fabricated graphite nanosheets (GNs) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) that were deposited on a screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). The GNs/ZnO composite was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis. The GOx immobilized on the modified electrode shows a well-defined redox couple at a formal potential of −0.4 V. The enhanced direct electrochemistry of GOx (compared to electrodes without ZnO or without GNs) indicates a fast electron transfer at this kind of electrode, with a heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (Ks) of 3.75 s −1 . The fast electron transfer is attributed to the high conductivity and large edge plane defects of GNs and good conductivity of ZnO-NPs. The modified electrode displays a linear response to glucose in concentrations from 0.3 to 4.5 mM, and the sensitivity is 30.07 μA mM −1 cm −2 . The sensor exhibits a high selectivity, good repeatability and reproducibility, and long term stability. (author)

  13. Voltammetric determination of total dissolved iron in coastal waters using a glassy carbon electrode modified with reduced graphene oxide, Methylene Blue and gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Mingyue; Zhang, Haiyun; Han, Haitao; Pan, Dawei; Su, Zhencui

    2015-01-01

    A nanocomposite, prepared from reduced graphene oxide (rGO), Methylene Blue (MB) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), was used to modify a glassy carbon electrode for the determination of total dissolved iron by differential pulse voltammetry. The use of rGO warrants a larger electrode surface and the presence of more active sites, while electron transfer is accelerated by incorporating AuNPs. MB acts as an electron mediator, as an anchor for the AuNPs (which were grown in situ), and also prevents the aggregation of rGO. The modified electrode displayed a remarkably improved sensitivity and selectivity for Fe(III). The kinetics of the electrode reaction is adsorption-controlled, and the reversible process involves one proton and one electron. The response to Fe(III) is linear in the 0.3 to 100 μM concentration range, and the detection limit is 15 nM. Possible interferences by other ions were studied. The electrode was successfully applied to the determination of total dissolved iron in real coastal waters. (author)

  14. An electrochemical ELISA-like immunosensor for miRNAs detection based on screen-printed gold electrodes modified with reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, H V; Piro, B; Reisberg, S; Huy Nguyen, L; Dung Nguyen, T; Duc, H T; Pham, M C

    2014-12-15

    We design an electrochemical immunosensor for miRNA detection, based on screen-printed gold electrodes modified with reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes. An original immunological approach is followed, using antibodies directed to DNA.RNA hybrids. An electrochemical ELISA-like amplification strategy was set up using a secondary antibody conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Hydroquinone is oxidized into benzoquinone by the HRP/H2O2 catalytic system. In turn, benzoquinone is electroreduced into hydroquinone at the electrode. The catalytic reduction current is related to HRP amount immobilized on the surface, which itself is related to miRNA.DNA surface density on the electrode. This architecture, compared to classical optical detection, lowers the detection limit down to 10 fM. Two miRNAs were studied: miR-141 (a prostate biomarker) and miR-29b-1 (a lung cancer biomarker). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of myoglobin using an ionic liquid-modified carbon paste electrode coated with Co3O4 nanorods and gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; You, Zheng; Sha, Hailiang; Gong, Shixing; Niu, Qingjuan; Sun, Wei

    2014-01-01

    A nanohybrid biomaterial was fabricated by mixing Co 3 O 4 nanorods, gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) and myoglobin (Mb), and depositing it on the surface of a carbon paste electrode containing the ionic liquid N-hexylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate as the binder. UV–vis and FT-IR revealed the Mb in the composite film to have remained in its native structure. A pair of well-defined redox peaks appears in cyclic voltammograms and indicates direct electron transfer from the Mb to the underlying electrode. The results are attributed to the favorable orientation of Mb in the composite film, to the synergistic effects of Co 3 O 4 nanorods and Au-NPs. The modified electrode shows excellent electrocatalytic ability towards the reduction of substrates such as trichloroacetic acid and nitrite, and displays good stability and reproducibility. (author)

  16. Towards the conception of an amperometric sensor of L-tyrosine based on Hemin/PAMAM/MWCNT modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Qiang; Ai Shiyun; Yin Huanshun; Chen Quanpeng; Tang Tiantian

    2010-01-01

    A novel amperometric sensor was fabricated based on the immobilization of hemin onto the poly (amidoamine)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (PAMAM/MWCNT) nanocomposite film modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) adsorption spectroscopy were used to investigate the possible state and electrochemical activity of the immobilized hemin. In the Hemin/PAMAM/MWCNT nanocomposite film, MWCNT layer possessed excellent inherent conductivity to enhance the electron transfer rate, while the layer of PAMAM greatly enlarged the surface average concentration of hemin (Γ) on the modified electrode. Therefore, the nanocomposite film showed enhanced electrocatalytical activity towards the oxidation of L-tyrosine. The kinetic parameters of the modified electrode were investigated. In pH 7.0 phosphate buffer solution (PBS), the sensor exhibits a wide linear range from 0.1 μM to 28.8 μM L-tyrosine with a detection limit of 0.01 μM and a high sensitivity of 0.31 μA μM -1 cm -2 . In addition, the response time of the L-tyrosine sensor is less than 5 s. The excellent performance of the sensor is largely attributed to the electro-generated high reactive oxoiron (IV) porphyrin (O = Fe IV -P) which effectively catalyzed the oxidation of L-tyrosine. A mechanism was herein proposed for the catalytic oxidation of L-tyrosine by oxoiron (IV) porphyrin complexes.

  17. Evaluation of a carbon paste electrode modified with Strontium substituted bismuth and titanium oxide nanoparticles in the toxic metal chromium (VI determination potentiometric method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Badri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Strontium substituted bismuth and titanium oxide nanoparticles with aurivillius morphology synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method and were characterized using XRD. The nanopartcles were used in the composition of the carbon paste to improve conductivity and transduction of chemical signal to electrical signal. A procedure for the determination of chromium is described based on pre-concentration of the dichromate anion at a carbon paste electrode modified. A novel potentiometric Cr6+carbon paste electrode incorporating Strontium substituted bismuth and titanium oxide nanoparticles (SSBTO. Ina acetate buffer solution of pH 5, the sensor displays a rapid and linear response for Cr6+ over the concentration range 1.0×10-5 to 1.0×10-1mol L-1 M with an anionic slope of 54.8± 0.2 mV decade ’ and a detection limit of the order of0.002 /µg ml ‘. The sensor is used for determination of Cr6+ by direct monitoring of Cr6+.The average recoveries of Cr6+at concentration levels of 0.5~40 pg/ml ’is 98.3. The electrode has a short response time (<6s and can be used for at least twenty days without any considerable divergence in potentials and the working pH range was 4.5-6.5. The proposed electrode was successfully used as an indicator for potentiometric determination of Cr6+in water sample.

  18. A very low potential electrochemical detection of L-cysteine based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes/gold nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Francisco de Assis dos Santos; da Silva, Monique Gabriella Angelo; Lima, Phabyanno Rodrigues; Meneghetti, Mario Roberto; Kubota, Lauro Tatsuo; Goulart, Marilia Oliveira Fonseca

    2013-12-15

    A nanohybrid platform built with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and gold nanorods, prepared via a cationic surfactant-containing seed-mediated sequential growth process, in aqueous solution, on a glassy carbon substrate has been successfully developed to be used in the electrocatalytic oxidation of L-cysteine (Cys). The nanohybrid was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements. Cyclic voltammetry results had shown that the modified electrode allows the oxidation of Cys at a very low anodic potential (0.00 V vs. Ag/AgCl). The kinetic constant kcat for the catalytic oxidation of Cys was evaluated by chronoamperometry and provided a value of 5.6×10(4) L mol(-1) s(-1). The sensor presents a linear response range from 5.0 up to 200.0 µmol L(-1), detection limit of 8.25 nmol L(-1) and a sensitivity of 120 nA L µmol(-1). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A glassy carbon electrode modified with an amphiphilic, electroactive and photosensitive polymer and with multi-walled carbon nanotubes for simultaneous determination of dopamine and paracetamole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ren; Zeng, Xuebiao; Liu, Jingcheng; Luo, Jing; Zheng, Yuanyi; Liu, Xiaoya

    2016-01-01

    The article describes an electrochemical sensor for simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA) and paracetamole (PAT). It is based on the use of an electroactive polymer (referred to as BPVCM) to functionalize multi-walled carbon nanotubes. BPVCM is a branched amphiphilic photo-sensitive and electroactive polymer that was obtained by copolymerization of a vinyl benzyl carbazole, maleic acid anhydride, 4-vinyl benzylthiol and a vinylbenzyl oxycoumarin. BPVCM efficiently disperses MWCNT in aqueous solution. The electropolymerization of the carbazole moieties of the BPVCM enhances the current response. It also facilitates electron transfer in the MWCNT-BPVCM hybrid as evidenced by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A glassy carbon electrode modified with the nanocomposite displays outstanding electrocatalytic activity towards DA and PAT. DA can be determined, best at a working voltage of 0.2 V (vs. SCE), in the 5 to 1000 μM concentration range with a 2.3 μM detection limit. PAT can be determined in parallel, at a working voltage of 0.39 V (vs. SCE), in the same concentration range with a 3.5 μM detection limit. This analytical range of this method is wider than that of most alternative methods. (author)

  20. Voltammetric determination of the endocrine disruptor diethylstilbestrol by using a glassy carbon electrode modified with a composite consisting of platinum nanoparticles and multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xiaobin; Zhang, Rongfei

    2016-01-01

    A nanocomposite consisting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) decorated with Pt nanoparticles (Pt-NPs) was synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted method. The composite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction patterns, and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. The results showed the Pt-NPs to be evenly deposited on the surface of the MWCNTs, with diameters ranging from about 2 nm to 3 nm. The nanocomposite was used to modify a glassy carbon electrode which then revealed a substantial catalytic activity for the oxidation of diethylstilbestrol (DES), best at a working potential of 0.73 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) at pH 7. The electrochemical oxidation mechanism is discussed. The peak current in square wave voltammetry is linearly related to the concentration of DES in the 0.1 to 25 μM range. The limit of detection (at an SNR of 3) is 12 nM. (author)

  1. The Cu-MOF-199/single-walled carbon nanotubes modified electrode for simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol with extended linear ranges and lower detection limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jian; Li, Xi; Yang, Linlin; Yan, Songlin; Wang, Mengmeng; Cheng, Dan; Chen, Qi; Dong, Yulin; Liu, Peng; Cai, Weiquan; Zhang, Chaocan

    2015-01-01

    A novel electrochemical sensor based on Cu-MOF-199 [Cu-MOF-199 = Cu 3 (BTC) 2 (BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylicacid)] and SWCNTs (single-walled carbon nanotubes) was fabricated for the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CT). The modification procedure was carried out through casting SWCNTs on the bare glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and followed by the electrodeposition of Cu-MOF-199 on the SWCNTs modified electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed to characterize the electrochemical performance and surface characteristics of the as-prepared sensor. The composite electrode exhibited an excellent electrocatalytic activity with increased electrochemical signals towards the oxidation of HQ and CT, owing to the synergistic effect of SWCNTs and Cu-MOF-199. Under the optimized condition, the linear response range were from 0.1 to 1453 μmol L −1 (R HQ  = 0.9999) for HQ and 0.1–1150 μmol L −1 (R CT  = 0.9990) for CT. The detection limits for HQ and CT were as low as 0.08 and 0.1 μmol L −1 , respectively. Moreover, the modified electrode presented the good reproducibility and the excellent anti-interference performance. The analytical performance of the developed sensor for the simultaneous detection of HQ and CT had been evaluated in practical samples with satisfying results. - Highlights: • Cu-MOF-199/SWCNTs/GCE was facilely fabricated by the electrodeposition on SWCNTs/GCE. • An electrochemical sensor for detecting HQ and CT was constructed based on this modified electrode. • The proposed electrochemical sensor showed an extended linear range and lower detection limits. • The proposed electrochemical sensor had an excellent stability and reproducibility.

  2. Development of sensitive amperometric hydrogen peroxide sensor using a CuNPs/MB/MWCNT-C_6_0-Cs-IL nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushani, Mahmoud; Bakyas, Kobra; Zare Dizajdizi, Behruz

    2016-01-01

    A sensitive hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2) sensor was constructed based on copper nanoparticles/methylene blue/multiwall carbon nanotubes–fullerene–chitosan–ionic liquid (CuNPs/MB/MWCNTs–C_6_0–Cs–IL) nanocomposites. The MB/MWCNTs–C_6_0–Cs–IL and CuNPs were modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by the physical adsorption and electrodeposition of copper nitrate solution, respectively. The physical morphology and chemical composition of the surface of modified electrode was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The electrochemical properties of CuNPs/MB/MWCNTs–C_6_0–Cs–IL/GCE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry techniques and the sensor exhibited remarkably strong electrocatalytic activities toward the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The peak currents possess a linear relationship with the concentration of H_2O_2 in the range of 0.2 μM to 2.0 mM, and the detection limit is 55.0 nM (S/N = 3). In addition, the modified electrode was used to determine H_2O_2 concentration in human blood serum sample with satisfactory results. - Highlights: • CuNPs/MB/MWCNT-C_6_0-Cs-IL/GC electrode was constructed by layer-by-layer method. • The catalytic performance of the sensor was studied with the use of amperometric technique. • The constructed sensor showed enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward the reduction of H_2O_2. • The CuNPs/MB/MWCNT-C_6_0-Cs-IL/GC electrode demonstrated high stability for the detection of H_2O_2.

  3. Development of sensitive amperometric hydrogen peroxide sensor using a CuNPs/MB/MWCNT-C{sub 60}-Cs-IL nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roushani, Mahmoud, E-mail: mahmoudroushani@yahoo.com; Bakyas, Kobra; Zare Dizajdizi, Behruz

    2016-07-01

    A sensitive hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) sensor was constructed based on copper nanoparticles/methylene blue/multiwall carbon nanotubes–fullerene–chitosan–ionic liquid (CuNPs/MB/MWCNTs–C{sub 60}–Cs–IL) nanocomposites. The MB/MWCNTs–C{sub 60}–Cs–IL and CuNPs were modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by the physical adsorption and electrodeposition of copper nitrate solution, respectively. The physical morphology and chemical composition of the surface of modified electrode was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The electrochemical properties of CuNPs/MB/MWCNTs–C{sub 60}–Cs–IL/GCE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry techniques and the sensor exhibited remarkably strong electrocatalytic activities toward the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The peak currents possess a linear relationship with the concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the range of 0.2 μM to 2.0 mM, and the detection limit is 55.0 nM (S/N = 3). In addition, the modified electrode was used to determine H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration in human blood serum sample with satisfactory results. - Highlights: • CuNPs/MB/MWCNT-C{sub 60}-Cs-IL/GC electrode was constructed by layer-by-layer method. • The catalytic performance of the sensor was studied with the use of amperometric technique. • The constructed sensor showed enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward the reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • The CuNPs/MB/MWCNT-C{sub 60}-Cs-IL/GC electrode demonstrated high stability for the detection of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  4. Combination of cathodic reduction with adsorption for accelerated removal of Cr(VI) through reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes modified with sulfuric acid–glycine co-doped polyaniline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Xi [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Yang, Zhao-hui, E-mail: yzh@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Xu, Hai-yin; Zeng, Guang-ming; Huang, Jing; Yang, Xia; Song, Pei-pei; Wang, Li-ke [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • RVC/PANI-SA-GLY electrode was applied as a novel electrode material for accelerated removal of Cr(VI). • Faster reduction kinetics of Cr(VI) was observed by RVC/PANI-SA-GLY electrode when compared with RVC/PANI-SA and RVC electrode. • Cr(VI) removal experienced an adsorption-reduction system built by RVC/PANI-SA-GLY electrode. • The stability of RVC/PANI-SA-GLY electrode was relatively satisfactory. - Abstract: Improving the reduction kinetics is crucial in the electroreduction process of Cr(VI). In this study, we developed a novel adsorption–electroreduction system for accelerated removal of Cr(VI) by employing reticulated vitreous carbon electrode modified with sulfuric acid–glycine co-doped polyaniline (RVC/PANI-SA-GLY). Firstly, response surface methodology confirmed the optimum polymerization condition of co-doped polyaniline for modifying electrodes (Aniline, sulfuric acid and glycine, respectively, of 0.2 mol/L, 0.85 mol/L, 0.93 mol/L) when untraditional dopant glycine was added. Subsequently, RVC/PANI-SA-GLY showed higher Cr(VI) removal percentages in electroreduction experiments over RVC electrode modified with sulfuric acid doped polyaniline (RVC/PANI-SA) and bare RVC electrode. In contrast to RVC/PANI-SA, the improvement by RVC/PANI-SA-GLY was more significant and especially obvious at more negative potential, lower initial Cr(VI) concentration, relatively less acidic solution and higher current densities, best achieving 7.84% higher removal efficiency with entire Cr(VI) eliminated after 900 s. Current efficiencies were likewise enhanced by RVC/PANI-SA-GLY under quite negative potentials. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis revealed a possible adsorption–reduction mechanism of RVC/PANI-SA-GLY, which greatly contributed to the faster reduction kinetics and was probably relative to the absorption between protonated amine groups of glycine and HCrO{sub 4}{sup −}. Eventually, the

  5. Peroxynitrite Sensor Based on a Screen Printed Carbon Electrode Modified with a Poly(2,6-dihydroxynaphthalene Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Silvia Hosu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For the first time the electropolymerization of 2,6-dihydroxynaphthalene (2,6-DHN on a screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE was investigated and evaluated for peroxynitrite (PON detection. Cyclic voltammetry was used to electrodeposit the poly(2,6-DHN on the carbon electrode surface. The surface morphology and structure of poly(2,6-DHN film were investigated by SEM and FTIR analysis, and the electrochemical features by cyclic voltammetry. The poly(2,6-DHN/SPCE sensor showed excellent electrocatalytic activity for PON oxidation in alkaline solutions at very low potentials (0–100 mV vs. Ag/AgCl pseudoreference. An amperometric FIA (flow injection analysis system based on the developed sensor was optimized for PON measurements and a linear concentration range from 2 to 300 μM PON, with a LOD of 0.2 μM, was achieved. The optimized sensor inserted in the FIA system exhibited good sensitivity (4.12 nA·μM−1, selectivity, stability and intra-/inter-electrode reproducibility for PON determination.

  6. Construction of a new selective coated disk electrode for Ag (I) based on modified polypyrrole-carbon nanotubes composite with new lariat ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaspour, A; Tashkhourian, J; Ahmadpour, S; Mirahmadi, E; Sharghi, H; Khalifeh, R; Shahriyari, M R

    2014-01-01

    A poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix membrane ion-selective electrode for silver (I) ion is fabricated based on modified polypyrrole - multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite with new lariat ether. This sensor has a Nernstian slope of 59.4±0.5mV/decade over a wide linear concentration range of 1.0×10(-7) to 1.0×10(-1)molL(-1) for silver (I) ion. It has a short response time of about 8.0s and can be used for at least 50days. The detection limit is 9.3×10(-8)molL(-1) for silver (I) ion, and the electrode was applicable in the wide pH range of 1.6 -7.7. The electrode shows good selectivity for silver ion against many cations such as Hg (II), which usually imposes serious interference in the determination of silver ion concentration. The use of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in a polymer matrix improves the linear range and sensitivity of the electrode. In addition by coating the solid contact with a layer of the polypyrrole (Ppy) before coating the membrane on it, not only did it reduce the drift in potential, but a shorter response time was also resulted. The proposed electrode was used as an indicator electrode for potentiometric titration of silver ions with chloride anions and in the titration of mixed halides. This electrode was successfully applied for the determination of silver ions in silver sulphadiazine as a burning cream. © 2013.

  7. Electrochemical oxidation of adenosine-5 Prime -triphosphate on a chitosan-graphene composite modified carbon ionic liquid electrode and its determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Wei, E-mail: swyy26@hotmail.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, 571158 (China); College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Liu Jun; Wang Xiuzhen; Li Tongtong; Li Guangjiu; Wu Jie [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Zhang Liqi [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-10-01

    In this paper a new electrochemical method was proposed for the determination of adenosine-5 Prime -triphosphate (ATP) based on a chitosan (CTS) and graphene (GR) composite film modified carbon ionic liquid electrode (CTS-GR/CILE). CILE was fabricated by using ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dihydrogen phosphate ([BMIM]H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}) as the binder, which was further modified by GR and CTS composite. The modified electrode exhibited an excellent electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of ATP with the increase of the oxidation peak current and the decrease of the oxidation peak potential. The electrochemical parameters of ATP on CTS-GR/CILE were calculated with the electron transfer coefficient ({alpha}) as 0.329, the electron transfer number (n) as 2.15, the apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ks) as 3.705 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} s{sup -1} and the surface coverage ({Gamma}{sub T}) as 9.33 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} mol cm{sup -2}. Under the optimal conditions the oxidation peak current was proportional to ATP concentration in the range from 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} to 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M with the detection limit of 0.311 {mu}M (S/N = 3). The proposed electrode showed excellent reproducibility, stability, anti-interference ability and further successfully applied to the ATP injection sample detection. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ionic liquid [BMIM]H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} based carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) was prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Graphene modified CILE was fabricated for the sensitive electrochemical detection of ATP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good electrocatalytic ability to the ATP oxidation was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detection of 5 Prime -ATP in commercial injection samples with satisfactory results.

  8. Preparation of yttrium hexacyanoferrate/carbon nanotube/Nafion nanocomposite film-modified electrode: Application to the electrocatalytic oxidation of L-cysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Lingbo; Yang Suling; Li Gang; Yang Ran; Li Jianjun; Yu Lanlan

    2011-01-01

    An yttrium hexacyanoferrate nanoparticle/multi-walled carbon nanotube/Nafion (YHCFNP/MWNT/Nafion)-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was constructed. Several techniques, including infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and electrochemistry, were performed to characterize the yttrium hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles. The electrochemical behavior of the YHCFNP/MWNT/Nafion-modified GCE in response to L-cysteine oxidation was studied. The response current of L-cysteine oxidation at the YHCFNP/MWNT/Nafion-modified GCE was obviously higher than that at the bare GCE or other modified GCE. The effects of pH, scan rate and interference on the response to L-cysteine oxidation were investigated. In addition, on the basis of these findings, a determination of L-cysteine at the YHCFNP/MWNT/Nafion-modified GCE was carried out. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the electrochemical response to L-cysteine at the YHCFNP/MWNT/Nafion-modified GCE was fast (within 4 s). Linear calibration plots were obtained over the range of 0.20-11.4 μmol L -1 with a low detection limit of 0.16 μmol L -1 . The YHCFNP/MWNT/Nafion-modified GCE exhibited several advantages, such as high stability and good resistance against interference by ascorbic acid and other oxidizable amino acids.

  9. Surfactant-promoted Prussian Blue-modified carbon electrodes: enhancement of electro-deposition step, stabilization, electrochemical properties and application to lactate microbiosensors for the neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, P; Martín, M; O'Neill, R D; Roche, R; González-Mora, J L

    2012-04-01

    We report here for the first time a comparison of the beneficial effects of different cationic surfactants - cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), benzethonium chloride (BZT) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) - for the electrochemical synthesis of Prussian Blue (PB) films, using cyclic voltammetry (CV), on screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs). Their electrochemical properties were investigated, paying special attention to parameters such as the amount of PB deposited, film thickness, charge transfer rate, permeability, reversibility, stability and sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide detection. All surfactant-enhanced PB-modified SPCEs displayed a significant improvement in their electrochemical properties compared with PB-modified SPCEs formed in the absence of surfactants. Surfactant-modified electrodes displayed a consistently higher PB surface concentration value of 2.1±0.4×10(-8) mol cm(-2) (mean±SD, n=3) indicating that PB deposition efficiency was improved 2-3 fold. K(+) and Na(+) permeability properties of the films were also studied, as were kinetic parameters, such as the surface electron transfer rate constant (k(s)) and the transfer coefficient (α). The hydrogen peroxide sensitivity of surfactant-modified PB films generated by 10 electro-deposition CV cycles gave values of 0.63 A M(-1) cm(-2), which is higher than those reported previously for SPCEs by other authors. Finally, the first lactate microbiosensor described in the literature based on BZT-modified PB-coated carbon fiber electrodes is presented. Its very small cross-section (~10 μm diameter) makes it particularly suitable for neuroscience studies in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Anodic stripping voltammetric determination of traces of Pb(II) and Cd(II) using a glassy carbon electrode modified with bismuth nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Die; Wang, Liang; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    We report on a glassy carbon electrode modified with bismuth nanoparticles (NanoBiE) for the simultaneous determination Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ by anodic stripping voltammetry. Operational parameters such as bismuth nanoparticles labelling amount, deposition potential, deposition time and stripping parameters were optimized with respect to the determination of Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ in 0.1 M acetate buffer solution (pH 4.5). The NanoBiE gives well-defined, reproducible and sharp stripping peaks. The peak current response increases linearly with the metal concentration in a range of 5.0–60.0 μg L −1 , with a detection limit of 0.8 and 0.4 μg L −1 for Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ , respectively. The morphology and composition of the modified electrode before and after voltammetric measurements were analysed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The NanoBiE was successfully applied to analysis of Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ in real water samples and the method was validated by ICP-MS technique, suggesting that the electrode can be considered as an interesting alternative to the bismuth film electrode for possible use in electrochemical studies and electro analysis. (author)

  11. Electrochemical horseradish peroxidase biosensor based on dextran-ionic liquid-V2O5 nanobelt composite material modified carbon ionic liquid electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhihong; Sun Xiaoying; Wang Yan; Zeng Yan; Sun Wei; Huang Xintang

    2010-01-01

    Direct electrochemistry of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was realized in a dextran (De), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulphate ([EMIM]EtOSO 3 ) and V 2 O 5 nanobelt composite material modified carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE). Spectroscopic results indicated that HRP retained its native structure in the composite. A pair of well-defined redox peaks of HRP appeared in pH 3.0 phosphate buffer solution with the formal potential of -0.213 V (vs. SCE), which was the characteristic of HRP heme Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couple. The result was attributed to the specific characteristics of De-IL-V 2 O 5 nanocomposite and CILE, which promoted the direct electron transfer rate of HRP with electrode. The electrochemical parameters of HRP on the composite modified electrode were calculated and the electrocatalysis of HRP to the reduction of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) was examined. Under the optimal conditions the reduction peak current increased with TCA concentration in the range from 0.4 to 16.0 mmol L -1 . The proposed electrode is valuable for the third-generation electrochemical biosensor.

  12. An aptasensor for voltammetric and impedimetric determination of cocaine based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with platinum nanoparticles and using rutin as a redox probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushani, Mahmoud; Shahdost-fard, Faezeh

    2016-01-01

    We describe a method for the determination of cocaine that is based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with a nanocomposite consisting of multiwalled carbon nanotubes, an ionic liquid, and chitosan. The electrode was made cocaine-responsive by immobilizing a cocaine-specific aptamer and platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) on the modified electrode. The use of PtNPs resulted in the acceleration of the electron transfer kinetics of the reduction of the redox probe rutin and enhances sensitivity. The sensor, best operated at a working voltage of 260 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, has a linear response to cocaine in the 1 nM to 11 μM concentration range, and the detection limit is 100 pM (at an S/N ratio of 3). We think this strategy to represent a promising platform for the sensitive and selective determination of cocaine. The sensor is adequately stable and was successfully applied to the determination of cocaine in spiked serum. (author)

  13. Sensitive electrochemical determination of α-fetoprotein using a glassy carbon electrode modified with in-situ grown gold nanoparticles, graphene oxide and MWCNTs acting as signal amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yan-Sha; Zhu, Xiao-Fei; Yang, Tao-Tao; Xu, Jing-Kun; Zhang, Kai-Xin; Lu, Li-Min

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe an electrochemical immunoassay for α-fetoprotein (α-FP) using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a nanocomposite made from gold nanoparticles, graphene oxide and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (AuNPs/GO-MWCNTs) and acting as a signal amplification matrix. The nanocomposite was synthesized in a one-pot redox reaction between GO and HAuCl 4 without using an additional reductant. The stepwise assembly of the immunoelectrode was characterized by means of cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The interaction of antigen and antibody on the surface of the electrode creates a barrier for electrons and causes retarded electron transfer, this resulting in decreased signals in differential pulse voltammetry of hexacyanoferrate which is added as an electrochemical probe. Using this strategy and by working at a potential of 0.2 V (vs. SCE), a wide analytical range (0.01 - 100 ng∙mL -1 ) is covered. The correlation coefficient is 0.9929, and the limit of detection is as low as 3 pg∙mL -1 at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. This electrochemical immunoassay combines the specificity of an immunological detection scheme with the sensitivity of an electrode modified with AuNPs and GO-MWCNTs. (author)

  14. Non-enzymatic sensing of uric acid using a carbon nanotube ionic-liquid paste electrode modified with poly(β-cyclodextrin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yonghong; Ji, Xiaoling; Wang, Ling; Qiu, Hongyan; Zhai, Xiurong; Wang, Haibo; Liu, Xinsheng; Guo, Le; Liu, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    We describe a nonenzymatic electrochemical sensor for uric acid. It is based on a carbon nanotube ionic-liquid paste electrode modified with poly(β-cyclodextrin) that was prepared in-situ by electropolymerization. The functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes and the surface morphology of the modified electrodes were characterized by transmission electronic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical response of uric acid was studied by cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry. The effects of scan rate, pH value, electropolymerization cycles and accumulation time were also studied. Under optimized experimental conditions and at a working voltage of 500 mV vs. Ag/AgCl (3 M KCl), response to uric acid is linear in the 0.6 to 400 μΜ and in the 0.4 to 1 mΜ concentration ranges, and the detection limit is 0.3 μΜ (at an S/N of 3). The electrode was successfully applied to the detection of uric acid in (spiked) human urine samples. (author)

  15. Electrochemical immunosensor for the determination of insulin-like growth factor-1 using electrodes modified with carbon nanotubes-poly(pyrrole propionic acid) hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafín, V; Agüí, L; Yáñez-Sedeño, P; Pingarrón, J M

    2014-02-15

    An amperometric immunosensor for the determination of the hormone insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is reported for the first time in this work. As electrochemical transducer, a multiwalled carbon nanotubes-modified glassy carbon electrode on which poly(pyrrole propionic acid) was electropolymerized was prepared. This approach provided a high content of surface confined carboxyl groups suitable for direct covalent binding of anti-IGF1 monoclonal antibody. A sandwich-type immunoassay using a polyclonal antibody labeled with peroxidase, hydrogen peroxide as the enzyme substrate and catechol as redox mediator was employed to monitor the affinity reaction. All the variables involved in the preparation of the modified electrode were optimized and the electrodes were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Moreover, the different experimental variables affecting the amperometric response of the immunosensor were also optimized. The calibration graph for IGF1 showed a range of linearity extending from 0.5 to 1000 pg/mL, with a detection limit, 0.25 pg/mL, more than 100 times lower than the lowest values reported for the ELISA immunoassays available for IGF1 (30 pg/mL, approximately). Excellent reproducibility for the measurements carried out with different immunosensors and selectivity against other hormones were also evidenced. A commercial human serum spiked with IGF1 at different levels between 0.01 and 10.0 ng/mL was analyzed with good results. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Trace lead analysis based on carbon-screen-printed-electrodes modified via 4-carboxy-phenyl diazonium salt electroreduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouden, Sarra; Chausse, Annie; Dorbes, Stephane; El Tall, Omar; Bellakhal, Nizar; Dachraoui, Mohamed; Vautrin-Ul, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the use of 4-carboxyphenyl-grafted screen-printed carbon electrodes (4-CP-SPEs) for trace lead analysis.These novel and simple use of electrodes were easily prepared by the electrochemical reduction of the corresponding diazonium salt. Pb detection was then performed by a three-steps method in order to avoid oxygen interference:(i)immersion of the grafted screen-printed electrode (SPE) in the sample and adsorption of Pb(II), (ii)reduction of adsorbed Pb(II) by chrono-amperometry (CA), and (iii) oxidation of Pb by Anodic Square Wave Voltammetry (SWV).The re-oxidation response was exploited for lead detection and quantification. In order to optimize the analytical responses, the influence of the adsorption medium pH and the adsorption time were investigated. Moreover, an interference study was carried out with Cu(II), Hg(II), Al(III), Mn(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and no major interference can be expected to quantify Pb(II). The described method provided a limit of detection and a limit of quantification of 1.2*10 9 M and 4.1*10 9 M, respectively. These performances indicate that the 4-CP-SPE could be considered as an efficient tool for environmental analysis. (authors)

  17. Glassy carbon electrode modified by conductive polyaniline coating for determination of trace lead and cadmium ions in acetate buffer solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaomeng; Liu Erjia; Zhao Xing

    2011-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) coatings were electrodeposited on the surfaces of glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs) to form new electrodes, i.e. PANI/GCEs. It was found that with increased deposition time, the PANI coatings became more compact while the charge transfer resistance of the coatings became higher. The PANI/GCEs were used to detect Cd 2+ and Pb 2+ ions contained in 0.1 M acetate buffer solutions using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). It was found that the PANI/GCE had a highest anodic stripping peak current in a solution of pH 5.3. The study of the cleaning performance of the PANI/GCEs indicated that there were less remaining metals on the surfaces of the PANI/GCEs compared to the bare GCEs after cleaning at a potential of 0.4 V, which was probably due to that the PANI coatings could effectively prevent the deposition of the metals into the surface defects of the GCEs. The PANI coatings could also reduce the passivation effect of the GCEs, thus improving the repeatability of the electrodes.

  18. A pyrroloquinolinequinone-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-GDH)-electrode with direct electron transfer based on polyaniline modified carbon nanotubes for biofuel cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubart, Ivo W.; Göbel, Gero; Lisdat, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: In this study we present a pyrroloquinolinequinone-dependent glucose dehydrogenase [(PQQ)-GDH] electrode with direct electron transfer between the enzyme and electrode. Soluble pyrroloquinolinequinone-dependent glucose dehydrogenase from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus is covalently bound to an electropolymerized polyaniline copolymer film on a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-modified gold electrode. The pulsed electropolymerization of 2-methoxyaniline-5-sulfonic acid (MASA) and m-aminobenzoic acid (ABA) is optimized with respect to the efficiency of the bioelectrocatalytic conversion of glucose. The glucose oxidation starts at −0.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl and current densities up to 500 μA/cm 2 at low potential of +0.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl can be achieved. The electrode shows a glucose sensitivity in the range from 0.1 mM to 5 mM at a potential of +0.1 V vs. Ag/Ag/Cl. The dynamic range is extended to 100 mM at +0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The electron transfer mechanism is studied and buffer effects are investigated. The developed enzyme electrode is examined for bioenergetic application by assembling of a membrane-less biofuel cell. For the cathode a bilirubin oxidase (BOD) based MWCNT-modified gold electrode with direct electron transfer (DET) is used. The biofuel cell exhibits a cell potential of 680 ± 20 mV and a maximum power density of up to 65 μW/cm 2 at 350 mV vs. Ag/AgCl.

  19. Electrochemical behavior and voltammetric determination of acetaminophen based on glassy carbon electrodes modified with poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wencai; Huang, Hui; Gao, Xiaochun; Ma, Houyi

    2014-01-01

    Poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide composite film modified glassy carbon electrodes (4-ABA/ERGO/GCEs) were fabricated by a two-step electrochemical method. The electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen at the modified electrode was investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry. The results indicated that 4-ABA/ERGO composite films possessed excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of acetaminophen. The electrochemical reaction of acetaminophen at 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE is proved to be a surface-controlled process involving the same number of protons and electrons. The voltammetric determination of acetaminophen performed with the 4-ABA/ERGO modified electrode presents a good linearity in the range of 0.1–65 μM with a low detection limit of 0.01 μM (S/N = 3). In the case of using the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE, acetaminophen and dopamine can be simultaneously determined without mutual interference. Furthermore, the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE has good reproducibility and stability, and can be used to determine acetaminophen in tablets. - Highlights: • The 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE was fabricated by a two-step electrochemical method. • Electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen at the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE was investigated. • The electrochemical sensor exhibited a low detection limit and good selectivity. • This sensor was applied to the detection of acetaminophen in commercial tablets

  20. Electrochemical behavior and voltammetric determination of acetaminophen based on glassy carbon electrodes modified with poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wencai [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of State Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qilu Normal University, Jinan 250013 (China); Huang, Hui; Gao, Xiaochun [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of State Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Ma, Houyi, E-mail: hyma@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of State Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2014-12-01

    Poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide composite film modified glassy carbon electrodes (4-ABA/ERGO/GCEs) were fabricated by a two-step electrochemical method. The electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen at the modified electrode was investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry. The results indicated that 4-ABA/ERGO composite films possessed excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of acetaminophen. The electrochemical reaction of acetaminophen at 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE is proved to be a surface-controlled process involving the same number of protons and electrons. The voltammetric determination of acetaminophen performed with the 4-ABA/ERGO modified electrode presents a good linearity in the range of 0.1–65 μM with a low detection limit of 0.01 μM (S/N = 3). In the case of using the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE, acetaminophen and dopamine can be simultaneously determined without mutual interference. Furthermore, the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE has good reproducibility and stability, and can be used to determine acetaminophen in tablets. - Highlights: • The 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE was fabricated by a two-step electrochemical method. • Electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen at the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE was investigated. • The electrochemical sensor exhibited a low detection limit and good selectivity. • This sensor was applied to the detection of acetaminophen in commercial tablets.

  1. para-Sulfonatocalix[6]arene-modified silver nanoparticles electrodeposited on glassy carbon electrode: preparation and electrochemical sensing of methyl parathion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Yinghui; Li, Chunya; Li, Haibing

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, a new electrochemical sensor, based on modified silver nanoparticles, was fabricated using one-step electrodeposition approach. The para-sulfonatocalix[6]arene-modified silver nanoparticles coated on glassy carbon electrode (pSC(6)-Ag NPs/GCE) was characterized by attenuated total reflection IR spectroscopy (ATR-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), etc. The pSC(6) as the host are highly efficient to capture organophosphates (OPs), which dramatically facilitates the enrichment of nitroaromatic OPs onto the electrochemical sensor surface. The combination of the host-guest supramolecular structure and the excellent electrochemical catalytic activities of the pSC(6)-Ag NPs/GCE provides a fast, simple, and sensitive electrochemical method for detecting nitroaromatic OPs. In this work, methyl parathion (MP) was used as a nitroaromatic OP model for testing the proposed sensor. In comparison with Ag NPs-modified electrode, the cathodic peak current of MP was amplified significantly. Differential pulse voltammetry was used for the simultaneous determination of MP. Under optimum conditions, the current increased linearly with the increasing concentration of MP in the range of 0.01-80microM, with a detection limit of 4.0nM (S/N=3). The fabrication reproducibility and stability of the sensor is better than that of enzyme-based electrodes. The possible underlying mechanism is discussed.

  2. Electrochemical behavior and voltammetric determination of acetaminophen based on glassy carbon electrodes modified with poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wencai; Huang, Hui; Gao, Xiaochun; Ma, Houyi

    2014-12-01

    Poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide composite film modified glassy carbon electrodes (4-ABA/ERGO/GCEs) were fabricated by a two-step electrochemical method. The electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen at the modified electrode was investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry. The results indicated that 4-ABA/ERGO composite films possessed excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of acetaminophen. The electrochemical reaction of acetaminophen at 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE is proved to be a surface-controlled process involving the same number of protons and electrons. The voltammetric determination of acetaminophen performed with the 4-ABA/ERGO modified electrode presents a good linearity in the range of 0.1-65 μM with a low detection limit of 0.01 μM (S/N=3). In the case of using the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE, acetaminophen and dopamine can be simultaneously determined without mutual interference. Furthermore, the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE has good reproducibility and stability, and can be used to determine acetaminophen in tablets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Highly sensitive and simultaneous electrochemical determination of 2-aminophenol and 4-aminophenol based on poly(l-arginine)-β-cyclodextrin/carbon nanotubes@graphene nanoribbons modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yinhui; Zhu, Gangbing; Wu, Xiangyang; Wang, Kun

    2016-03-15

    Owing to the similar characteristics and physiochemical property of 2-aminophenol (2-AP) and 4-aminophenol (4-AP), the highly sensitive simultaneous electrochemical determination of 2- and 4-AP is a great challenge. In this paper, by electropolymerizing β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and l-arginine (l-Arg) on the surface of carbon nanotubes@graphene nanoribbons (CNTs@GNRs) core-shell heterostructure, a P-β-CD-l-Arg/CNTs@GNRs nanohybrid modified electrode was prepared successfully, and it could exhibit the synergetic effects of β-CD (high host-guest recognition and enrichment ability), l-Arg (excellent electrocatalytic activity) and CNTs@GNRs (prominent electrochemical properties and large surface area), the P-β-CD-l-Arg/CNTs@GNRs modified electrode was used in the electrochemical determination of 2- and 4-AP, the results demonstrated that the highly sensitive and simultaneous determination of 2- and 4-AP is successfully achieved and the modified electrode has a linear response range of 25.0-1300.0 nM for both 2- and 4-AP, and the detection limits of 2- and 4-AP obtained in this work are 6.2 and 3.5 nM, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sensitive detection of cyclophosphamide using DNA-modified carbon paste, pencil graphite and hanging mercury drop electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaska, P; Aritzoglou, E; Girousi, S

    2007-05-15

    The interaction of cyclophosphamide (CP) with calf thymus double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and thermally denatured single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) immobilized at the carbon paste (CPE) and pencil graphite electrodes (PGE), was studied electrochemically based on oxidation signals of guanine and adenine using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). As a result of the interaction of CP with DNA, the voltammetric signals of guanine and adenine increased in the case of dsDNA while a slight increase was observed in ssDNA. The effect of experimental parameters such as the interaction time between CP and DNA forms and the concentration of CP, were studied using DPV with CPE and PGE. Additionally, reproducibility and detection limits were determined using both electrodes. A comparison of the analytical performance between CPE and PGE was done. Our results showed that these two different DNA biosensors could be used for the sensitive, rapid and cost effective detection of CP itself as well as of CP-DNA interaction. Furthermore, the interaction of CP with dsDNA and ssDNA was studied in solution and at the electrode surface by means of alternating current voltammetry (ACV) in 0.3M NaCl and 50mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 8.5) supporting electrolyte, using a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) as working electrode. The conclusions of this study were mainly based on tensammetric peaks I (at -1.183V) and II (-1.419V) of DNA. This study involved the interaction of CP with surface-confined and solution phase DNA where experimental parameters, such as the concentration of CP and the interaction time, were studied. By increasing the concentration of CP, an increase of peak II was observed in both ds and ssDNA, while an increase of peak I was observed only in the case of dsDNA. An overall conclusion of the study using HMDE was that the interaction of CP with surface-confined DNA significantly differed from that with solution phase DNA. The increase of peaks I and II was lower in the case of

  5. Mixed ion-exchanger chemically modified carbon paste ion-selective electrodes for determination of triprolidine hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousry M. Issa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Triprolidine hydrochloride (TpCl ion-selective carbon paste electrodes were constructed using Tp-TPB/Tp-CoN and Tp-TPB/Tp-PTA as ion-exchangers. The two electrodes revealed Nernstian responses with slopes of 58.4 and 58.1 mV decade−1 at 25 °C in the ranges 6 × 10−6–1 × 10−2 and 2 × 10−5–1 × 10−2 M for Tp-TPB/Tp-CoN and Tp-TPB/Tp-PTA, respectively. The potentials of these electrodes were independent of pH in the ranges of 2.5–7.0 and 4.5–7.0, and detection limits were 6 × 10−6 and 1 × 10−5 M for Tp-TPB/Tp-CoN and Tp-TPB/Tp-PTA, respectively. The electrodes showed a very good selectivity for TpCl with respect to a large number of inorganic cations and compounds. The standard addition, potentiometric titration methods and FIA were applied to the determination of TpCl in pure solutions and pharmaceutical preparations. The results obtained were in close agreement with those found by the official method. The mean recovery values were 100.91% and 97.92% with low coefficient of variation values of 0.94%, and 0.56% in pure solutions, 99.82% and 98.53% with coefficient of variation values of 2.20%, and 0.73% for Actifed tablet and Actifed syrup, respectively, using the Tp-TPB/Tp-CoN electrode, and 98.85%, and 99.18% with coefficient of variation values of 0.48% and 0.85% for Actifed tablet and Actifed syrup, respectively, using the Tp-TPB/Tp-PTA electrode.

  6. A sensitive electrochemical immunosensor based on poly(2-aminobenzylamine) film modified screen-printed carbon electrode for label-free detection of human immunoglobulin G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnin, Thitirat; Jumpathong, Watthanachai; Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Ounnunkad, Kontad

    2018-08-01

    This work focuses on fabricating poly(2-aminobenzylamine)-modified screen-printed carbon electrode as an electrochemical immunosensor for the label-free detection of human immunoglobulin G. To selectively detect immunoglobulin G, the anti-immunoglobulin G antibody with high affinity to immunoglobulin G was covalently linked with the amine group of poly(2-aminobenzylamine) film-deposited screen-printed carbon electrode. The selectivity for immunoglobulin G was subsequently assured by being challenged with redox-active interferences and adventitious adsorption did not significantly interfere the analyte signal. To obviate the use of costly secondary antibody, the [Fe(CN) 6 ] 4-/3- redox probe was instead applied to measure the number of human immunoglobulin G through the immunocomplex formation that is quantitatively related to the level of the differential pulse voltammetric current. The resulting immunosensor exhibited good sensitivity with the detection limit of 0.15 ng mL -1 , limit of quantitation of 0.50 ng mL -1 and the linear range from 1.0 to 50 ng mL -1 . Given those striking analytical performances and the affordability arising from using cheap screen-printed carbon electrode with label-free detection, the immunosensor serves as a promising model for the next-step development of a diagnostic tool.

  7. An amperometric biosensor based on acetylcholinesterase immobilized onto iron oxide nanoparticles/multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified gold electrode for measurement of organophosphorus insecticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Nidhi [Department of Biochemistry, M.D. University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana (India); Pundir, Chandra Shekhar, E-mail: pundircs@rediffmail.com [Department of Biochemistry, M.D. University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana (India)

    2011-09-02

    Graphical abstract: The stepwise amperometric biosensor fabrication process and immobilized acetylcholinesterase inhibition in pesticide solution. Highlights: {center_dot} Constructed a novel composite material using Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP and c-MWCNT at Au electrode for electrocatalysis. {center_dot} The properties of nanoparticles modified electrodes were studied by SEM, FTIR, CVs and EIS. {center_dot} The biosensor exhibited good sensitivity (0.475 mA {mu}M{sup -1}) {center_dot} The half life of electrode was 2 months. {center_dot} The sensor was suitable for trace detection of OP pesticide residues in milk and water. - Abstract: An acetylcholinesterase (AChE) purified from maize seedlings was immobilized covalently onto iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP) and carboxylated multi walled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNT) modified Au electrode. An organophosphorus (OP) biosensor was fabricated using this AChE/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/c-MWCNT/Au electrode as a working electrode, Ag/AgCl as standard and Pt wire as an auxiliary electrode connected through a potentiostat. The biosensor was based on inhibition of AChE by OP compounds/insecticides. The properties of nanoparticles modified electrodes were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), cyclic voltammograms (CVs) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The synergistic action of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP and c-MWCNT showed excellent electrocatalytic activity at low potential (+0.4 V). The optimum working conditions for the sensor were pH 7.5, 35 deg. C, 600 {mu}M substrate concentration and 10 min for inhibition by pesticide. Under optimum conditions, the inhibition rates of OP pesticides were proportional to their concentrations in the range of 0.1-40 nM, 0.1-50 nM, 1-50 nM and 10-100 nM for malathion, chlorpyrifos, monocrotophos and endosulfan respectively. The detection limits were 0.1 nM for malathion and chlorpyrifos, 1 nM for monocrotophos and 10 nM for endosulfan. The

  8. Impedimetric PSA aptasensor based on the use of a glassy carbon electrode modified with titanium oxide nanoparticles and silk fibroin nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvidi, Ali; Banaei, Maryam; Tezerjani, Marzieh Dehghan; Molahosseini, Hosein; Jahanbani, Shahriar

    2017-12-14

    This article describes an impedimetric aptasensor for the prostate specific antigen (PSA), a widely accepted prostate cancer biomarker. A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with titanium oxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 ) and silk fibroin nanofiber (SF) composite. The aptasensor was obtained by immobilizing a PSA-binding aptamer on the AuNP-modified with 6-mercapto-1-hexanol. The single fabrication steps were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The assay has two linear response ranges (from 2.5 fg.mL -1 to 25 pg.mL -1 , and from 25 pg.mL -1 to 25 ng.mL -1 ) and a 0.8 fg.mL -1 detection limit. After optimization of experimental conditions, the sensor is highly selective for PSA over bovine serum albumin and lysozyme. It was successfully applied to the detection of PSA in spiked serum samples. Graphical abstract Schematic of the fabrication of an aptasensor for the prostate specific antigen (PSA). It is based on the use of a glassy carbon electrode modified with gold nanoparticles and titanium oxide-silk fibroin. The immobilization process of aptamer and interaction with PSA were followed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique.

  9. Symmetric supercapacitors using urea-modified lignin derived N-doped porous carbon as electrode materials in liquid and solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Keliang; Xu, Ming; Gu, Yan; Gu, Zhengrong; Fan, Qi Hua

    2016-11-01

    N-doped porous carbon materials derived from urea-modified lignin were prepared via efficient KOH activation under carbonization. The synthesized N-doped carbon materials, which displayed a well-developed porous morphology with high specific surface area of 3130 m2 g-1, were used as electrode materials in symmetric supercapacitors with aqueous and solid electrolytes. In consistent with the observed physical structures and properties, the supercapacitors exhibited specific capacitances of 273 and 306 F g-1, small resistances of 2.6 and 7.7 Ω, stable charge/discharge at different current densities for over 5000 cycles and comparable energy and power density in 6 mol L-1 KOH liquid and KOH-PVA solid electrolytes, respectively.

  10. A gold electrode modified with silver oxide nanoparticle decorated carbon nanotubes for electrochemical sensing of dissolved ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Mohammed M.; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Balkhoyor, Hasan B.; Marwani, Hadi M.

    2016-01-01

    We have prepared silver oxide nanoparticles with a diameter of ∼ 15 nm and decorated with carbon nanotube nanocomposites (Ag_2O/CNT NCs) by a facile wet chemical method using reducing agents in alkaline medium. These NCs were characterized by UV/vis, FTIR and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, by X-ray powder diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The NCs were then deposited on a flat gold electrode with the help of a conducting binder to result in an electrochemical sensor for aqueous ammonia using the I-V technique. Response is based on surface oxidation of ammonium hydroxide with electrode-adsorbed oxygen to form nitrogen oxide, these simultaneously liberating free electrons in the conduction band. Sensor features include a sensitivity of 32.856 μA.μM"-"1.cm"-"2, a low detection limit (1.3 pM at a signal to noise ratio of 3), reliability, reproducibility, ease of integration, and long term stability. The response to dissolved ammonia is linear (r"2: 0.9778) over the 0.01 nM to 0.1 mM concentration range. (author)

  11. Ammonium ions determination with polypyrrole modified electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Dall´Antonia

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work relates the preparation of polypyrrole films (PPy deposited on surfaces of glass carbon, nickel and ITO (tin oxide doped with indium on PET plastic, in order to study the ammonium detection. The popypyrrole films were polymerized with dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBSA on the electrodes, at + 0,70 V vs. Ag/AgCl, based on a solution containing the pyrrole monomer and the amphiphilic salt. Films deposited on glass carbon presented better performance. Cyclic voltammetries, between – 1,50 to + 0,5 V vs. Ag/AgCl, were repeated adding different concentrations of NH4Cl, in order to observe the behavior of the film as a possible detector of ions NH4+. The peak current for oxidation varies with the concentration of ammonium. A linear region can be observed in the band of 0 to 80 mM, with a sensibility (Sppy approximately similar to 4,2 mA mM-1 cm-2, showing the efficacy of the electrodes as sensors of ammonium ions. The amount of deposited polymer, controlled by the time of growth, does not influence on the sensor sensibility. The modified electrode was used to determine ammonium in grounded waters.

  12. Electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine and hydroxylamine by graphene oxide-Pd nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunhee; Kim, Daekun; You, Jung-Min; Kim, Seul Ki; Yun, Mira; Jeon, Seungwon

    2012-12-01

    Pd nanoparticle catalysts supported by thiolated graphene oxide (tGO) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE), and denoted as tGO-Pd/GCE, are used in this study for the electrochemical determination of hydroxylamine and hydrazine. The physicochemical properties of tGO-Pd were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). They showed strong catalytic activity toward the oxidation of hydroxylamine and hydrazine. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry were used to characterize the sensors' performances. The detection limits of hydroxylamine and hydrazine by tGO-Pd/GCE were 0.31 and 0.25 microM (s/n = 3), respectively. The sensors' sensitivity, selectivity, and stability were also investigated.

  13. Glassy carbon electrode modified with gold nanoparticles and hemoglobin in a chitosan matrix for improved pH-switchable sensing of hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Shi, Liang; Gong, Jin; Fang, Yu-Ting; Bao, Ning; Gu, Hai-Ying; Zeng, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) has been demonstrated to endow electrochemical sensors with pH-switchable response because of the presence of carboxyl and amino groups. Hb was deposited in a chitosan matrix on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) that was previously coated with clustered gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) by electrodeposition. The switching behavior is active (“on”) to the negatively charged probe [Fe(CN) 6 3− ] at pH 4.0, but inactive (“off”) to the probe at pH 8.0. This switch is fully reversible by simply changing the pH value of the solution and can be applied for pH-controlled reversible electrochemical reduction of H 2 O 2 catalyzed by Hb. The modified electrode was tested for its response to the different electroactive probes. The response to these species strongly depends on pH which was cycled between 4 and 8. The effect is also attributed to the presence of pH dependent charges on the surface of the electrode which resulted in either electrostatic attraction or repulsion of the electroactive probes. The presence of Hb, in turn, enhances the pH-controllable response, and the electrodeposited Au-NPs improve the capability of switching. This study reveals the potential of protein based pH-switchable materials and also provides a simple and effective strategy for fabrication of switchable chemical sensors as exemplified in a pH-controllable electrode for hydrogen peroxide. (author)

  14. In Situ Determination of Bisphenol A in Beverage Using a Molybdenum Selenide/Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanoparticle Composite Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongguang Shi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the endocrine disturbing effects of bisphenol A (BPA on organisms, rapid detection has become one of the most important techniques for monitoring its levels in the aqueous solutions associated with plastics and human beings. In this paper, a glassy carbon electrode (GCE modified with molybdenum selenide/reduced graphene oxide (MoSe2/rGO was fabricated for in situ determination of bisphenol A in several beverages. The surface area of the electrode dramatically increases due to the existence of ultra-thin nanosheets in a flower-like structure of MoSe2. Adding phosphotungstic acid in the electrolyte can significantly enhance the repeatability (RSD = 0.4% and reproducibility (RSD = 2.2% of the electrode. Under the optimized condition (pH = 6.5, the linear range of BPA was from 0.1 μM–100 μM and the detection limit was 0.015 μM (S/N = 3. When using the as-prepared electrode for analyzing BPA in beverage samples without any pretreatments, the recoveries ranged from 98–107%, and the concentrations were from below the detection limit to 1.7 μM, indicating its potential prospect for routine analysis of BPA.

  15. In Situ Determination of Bisphenol A in Beverage Using a Molybdenum Selenide/Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanoparticle Composite Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rongguang; Liang, Jing; Zhao, Zongshan; Liu, Yi; Liu, Aifeng

    2018-05-22

    Due to the endocrine disturbing effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on organisms, rapid detection has become one of the most important techniques for monitoring its levels in the aqueous solutions associated with plastics and human beings. In this paper, a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with molybdenum selenide/reduced graphene oxide (MoSe₂/rGO) was fabricated for in situ determination of bisphenol A in several beverages. The surface area of the electrode dramatically increases due to the existence of ultra-thin nanosheets in a flower-like structure of MoSe₂. Adding phosphotungstic acid in the electrolyte can significantly enhance the repeatability (RSD = 0.4%) and reproducibility (RSD = 2.2%) of the electrode. Under the optimized condition (pH = 6.5), the linear range of BPA was from 0.1 μM⁻100 μM and the detection limit was 0.015 μM (S/ N = 3). When using the as-prepared electrode for analyzing BPA in beverage samples without any pretreatments, the recoveries ranged from 98⁻107%, and the concentrations were from below the detection limit to 1.7 μM, indicating its potential prospect for routine analysis of BPA.

  16. Preparation of nitrogen-doped cotton stalk microporous activated carbon fiber electrodes with different surface area from hexamethylenetetramine-modified cotton stalk for electrochemical degradation of methylene blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunquan Li

    Full Text Available Cotton-stalk activated carbon fibers (CSCFs with controllable micropore area and nitrogen content were prepared as an efficient electrode from hexamethylenetetramine-modified cotton stalk by steam/ammonia activation. The influence of microporous area, nitrogen content, voltage and initial concentration on the electrical degradation efficiency of methylene blue (MB was evaluated by using CSCFs as anode. Results showed that the CSCF electrodes exhibited excellent MB electrochemical degradation ability including decolorization and COD removal. Increasing micropore surface area and nitrogen content of CSCF anode leaded to a corresponding increase in MB removal. The prepared CSCF-800-15-N, which has highest N content but lowest microporous area, attained the best degradation effect with 97% MB decolorization ratio for 5 mg/L MB at 12 V in 4 h, implying the doped nitrogen played a prominent role in improving the electrochemical degradation ability. The electrical degradation reaction was well described by first-order kinetics model. Overall, the aforesaid findings suggested that the nitrogen-doped CSCFs were potential electrode materials, and their electrical degradation abilities could be effectively enhanced by controlling the nitrogen content and micropore