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Sample records for carbon electrode materials

  1. Carbon nanocages as supercapacitor electrode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ke; Qin, Xingtai; Wang, Xizhang; Wang, Yangnian; Tao, Haisheng; Wu, Qiang; Yang, Lijun; Hu, Zheng

    2012-01-17

    Supercapacitor electrode materials: Carbon nanocages are conveniently produced by an in situ MgO template method and demonstrate high specific capacitance over a wide range of charging-discharging rates with high stability, superior to the most carbonaceous supercapacitor electrode materials to date. The large specific surface area, good mesoporosity, and regular structure are responsible for the excellent performance. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Optimising carbon electrode materials for adsorptive stripping voltammetry

    OpenAIRE

    Chaisiwamongkhol, K; Batchelor-McAuley, C; Sokolov, S; Holter, J; Young, N; Compton, R

    2017-01-01

    Different types of carbon electrode materials for adsorptive stripping voltammetry are studied through the use of cyclic voltammetry. Capsaicin is utilised as a model compound for adsorptive stripping voltammetry using unmodified and modified basal plane pyrolytic graphite (BPPG) electrodes modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon black or graphene nanoplatelets, screen printed carbon electrodes (SPE), carbon nanotube modified screen printed electrodes, and carbon paste electrodes....

  3. Carbon materials modified by plasma treatment as electrodes for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lota, Grzegorz; Frackowiak, Elzbieta [Institute of Chemistry and Technical Electrochemistry, Poznan University of Technology, Piotrowo 3, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Tyczkowski, Jacek; Kapica, Ryszard [Technical University of Lodz, Faculty of Process and Environmental Engineering, Division of Molecular Engineering, Wolczanska 213, 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Lota, Katarzyna [Institute of Non-Ferrous Metals Branch in Poznan, Central Laboratory of Batteries and Cells, Forteczna 12, 61-362 Poznan (Poland)

    2010-11-15

    The carbon material was modified by RF plasma with various reactive gases: O{sub 2}, Ar and CO{sub 2}. Physicochemical properties of the final carbon products were characterized using different techniques such as gas adsorption method and XPS. Plasma modified materials enriched in oxygen functionalities were investigated as electrodes for supercapacitors in acidic medium. The electrochemical measurements have been carried out using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and impedance spectroscopy. The electrochemical measurements have confirmed that capacity characteristics are closely connected with a type of plasma exposition. Modification processes have an influence on the kind and amount of surface functional groups in the carbon matrix. The moderate increase of capacity of carbon materials modified by plasma has been observed using symmetric two-electrode systems. Whereas investigations made in three-electrode system proved that the suitable selection of plasma modification parameters allows to obtain promising negative and positive electrode materials for supercapacitor application. (author)

  4. Conductive Carbon Coatings for Electrode Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doeff, Marca M.; Kostecki, Robert; Wilcox, James; Lau, Grace

    2007-01-01

    A simple method for optimizing the carbon coatings on non-conductive battery cathode material powders has been developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The enhancement of the electronic conductivity of carbon coating enables minimization of the amount of carbon in the composites, allowing improvements in battery rate capability without compromising energy density. The invention is applicable to LiFePO 4 and other cathode materials used in lithium ion or lithium metal batteries for high power applications such as power tools and hybrid or plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The market for lithium ion batteries in consumer applications is currently $5 billion/year. Additionally, lithium ion battery sales for vehicular applications are projected to capture 5% of the hybrid and electric vehicle market by 2010, and 36% by 2015 (http://www.greencarcongress.com). LiFePO 4 suffers from low intrinsic rate capability, which has been ascribed to the low electronic conductivity (10 -9 S cm -1 ). One of the most promising approaches to overcome this problem is the addition of conductive carbon. Co-synthesis methods are generally the most practical route for carbon coating particles. At the relatively low temperatures ( 4 , however, only poorly conductive disordered carbons are produced from organic precursors. Thus, the carbon content has to be high to produce the desired enhancement in rate capability, which decreases the cathode energy density

  5. Towards Flexible Transparent Electrodes Based on Carbon and Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible transparent electrodes (FTEs with high stability and scalability are in high demand for the extremely widespread applications in flexible optoelectronic devices. Traditionally, thin films of indium thin oxide (ITO served the role of FTEs, but film brittleness and scarcity of materials limit its further application. This review provides a summary of recent advances in emerging transparent electrodes and related flexible devices (e.g., touch panels, organic light-emitting diodes, sensors, supercapacitors, and solar cells. Mainly focusing on the FTEs based on carbon nanomaterials (e.g., carbon nanotubes and graphene and metal materials (e.g., metal grid and metal nanowires, we discuss the fabrication techniques, the performance improvement, and the representative applications of these highly transparent and flexible electrodes. Finally, the challenges and prospects of flexible transparent electrodes will be summarized.

  6. Coaxial fiber supercapacitor using all-carbon material electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Viet Thong; Kim, Heetae; Ghosh, Arunabha; Kim, Jaesu; Chang, Jian; Vu, Quoc An; Pham, Duy Tho; Lee, Ju-Hyuck; Kim, Sang-Woo; Lee, Young Hee

    2013-07-23

    We report a coaxial fiber supercapacitor, which consists of carbon microfiber bundles coated with multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a core electrode and carbon nanofiber paper as an outer electrode. The ratio of electrode volumes was determined by a half-cell test of each electrode. The capacitance reached 6.3 mF cm(-1) (86.8 mF cm(-2)) at a core electrode diameter of 230 μm and the measured energy density was 0.7 μWh cm(-1) (9.8 μWh cm(-2)) at a power density of 13.7 μW cm(-1) (189.4 μW cm(-2)), which were much higher than the previous reports. The change in the cyclic voltammetry characteristics was negligible at 180° bending, with excellent cycling performance. The high capacitance, high energy density, and power density of the coaxial fiber supercapacitor are attributed to not only high effective surface area due to its coaxial structure and bundle of the core electrode, but also all-carbon materials electrodes which have high conductivity. Our coaxial fiber supercapacitor can promote the development of textile electronics in near future.

  7. CAPACITANCE OF SUPERCAPACITORS WITH ELECTRODES BASED ON CARBON NANOCOMPOSITE MATERIAL

    OpenAIRE

    S.L Revo; B.I Rachiy; S Hamamda; T.G Avramenko; K.O Ivanenko

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the results of our research of the structure and practically important characteristics of a nanocomposite material on the basis of nanoporous carbon and thermally exfoliated graphite. This work shows that the use of the abovementioned composition in electrodes for supercapacitors allows to attain the level of their specific electrical capacitance at (155...160) F/g.

  8. Effect of oxidation of carbon material on suspension electrodes for flow electrode capacitive deionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzell, Kelsey B; Hatzell, Marta C; Cook, Kevin M; Boota, Muhammad; Housel, Gabrielle M; McBride, Alexander; Kumbur, E Caglan; Gogotsi, Yury

    2015-03-03

    Flow electrode deionization (FCDI) is an emerging area for continuous and scalable deionization, but the electrochemical and flow properties of the flow electrode need to be improved to minimize energy consumption. Chemical oxidation of granular activated carbon (AC) was examined here to study the role of surface heteroatoms on rheology and electrochemical performance of a flow electrode (carbon slurry) for deionization processes. Moreover, it was demonstrated that higher mass densities could be used without increasing energy for pumping when using oxidized active material. High mass-loaded flow electrodes (28% carbon content) based on oxidized AC displayed similar viscosities (∼21 Pa s) to lower mass-loaded flow electrodes (20% carbon content) based on nonoxidized AC. The 40% increased mass loading (from 20% to 28%) resulted in a 25% increase in flow electrode gravimetric capacitance (from 65 to 83 F g(-1)) without sacrificing flowability (viscosity). The electrical energy required to remove ∼18% of the ions (desalt) from of the feed solution was observed to be significantly dependent on the mass loading and decreased (∼60%) from 92 ± 7 to 28 ± 2.7 J with increased mass densities from 5 to 23 wt %. It is shown that the surface chemistry of the active material in a flow electrode effects the electrical and pumping energy requirements of a FCDI system.

  9. Method for making carbon super capacitor electrode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firsich, David W.; Ingersoll, David; Delnick, Frank M.

    1998-01-01

    A method for making near-net-shape, monolithic carbon electrodes for energy storage devices. The method includes the controlled pyrolysis and activation of a pressed shape of methyl cellulose powder with pyrolysis being carried out in two stages; pre-oxidation, preferably in air at a temperature between 200.degree.-250.degree. C., followed by carbonization under an inert atmosphere. An activation step to adjust the surface area of the carbon shape to a value desirable for the application being considered, including heating the carbon shape in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 300.degree. C., follows carbonization.

  10. Graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials and use as electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M.; Zhu, Yu; Li, Lei; Yan, Zheng; Lin, Jian

    2016-09-27

    Provided are methods of making graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials. Such methods generally include: (1) associating a graphene film with a substrate; (2) applying a catalyst and a carbon source to the graphene film; and (3) growing carbon nanotubes on the graphene film. The grown carbon nanotubes become covalently linked to the graphene film through carbon-carbon bonds that are located at one or more junctions between the carbon nanotubes and the graphene film. In addition, the grown carbon nanotubes are in ohmic contact with the graphene film through the carbon-carbon bonds at the one or more junctions. The one or more junctions may include seven-membered carbon rings. Also provided are the formed graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials.

  11. Composite carbon foam electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  12. Functional Biomass Carbons with Hierarchical Porous Structure for Supercapacitor Electrode Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hao; Liu, Duo; Shen, Zhehong; Bao, Binfu; Zhao, Shuyan; Wu, Limin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We successfully prepared bamboo-derived porous carbon with B and N co-doping. • This novel carbon exhibits significantly enhanced specific capacitance and energy density. • The highest specific capacitance exceeds those of most similar carbon materials. • Asymmetric supercapacitor based on this carbon shows satisfactory capacitive performance. - Abstract: This paper presents nitrogen and boron co-doped KOH-activated bamboo-derived carbon as a porous biomass carbon with utility as a supercapacitor electrode material. Owing to the high electrochemical activity promoted by the hierarchical porous structure and further endowed by boron and nitrogen co-doping, electrodes based on the as-obtained material exhibit significantly enhanced specific capacitance and energy density relative to those based on most similar materials. An asymmetric supercapacitor based on this novel carbon material demonstrated satisfactory energy density and electrochemical cycling stability.

  13. Influence of various Activated Carbon based Electrode Materials in the Performance of Super Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajay, K. M.; Dinesh, M. N.

    2018-02-01

    Various activated carbon based electrode materials with different surface areas was prepared on stainless steel based refillable super capacitor model using spin coating. Bio Synthesized Activated Carbon (BSAC), Activated Carbon (AC) and Graphite powder are chosen as electrode materials in this paper. Electrode materials prepared using binder solution which is 6% by wt. polyvinylidene difluoride, 94% by wt. dimethyl fluoride. 3M concentrated KOH solution is used as aqueous electrolyte with PVDF thin film as separator. It is tested for electrochemical characterizations and material characterizations. It is observed that the Specific capacitance of Graphite, Biosynthesized active carbon and Commercially available activated carbon are 16.1F g-1, 53.4F g-1 and 107.6F g-1 respectively at 5mV s-1 scan rate.

  14. Nitrogen Doped Macroporous Carbon as Electrode Materials for High Capacity of Supercapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudong Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen doped carbon materials as electrodes of supercapacitors have attracted abundant attention. Herein, we demonstrated a method to synthesize N-doped macroporous carbon materials (NMC with continuous channels and large size pores carbonized from polyaniline using multiporous silica beads as sacrificial templates to act as electrode materials in supercapacitors. By the nice carbonized process, i.e., pre-carbonization at 400 °C and then pyrolysis at 700/800/900/1000 °C, NMC replicas with high BET specific surface areas exhibit excellent stability and recyclability as well as superb capacitance behavior (~413 F ⋅ g−1 in alkaline electrolyte. This research may provide a method to synthesize macroporous materials with continuous channels and hierarchical pores to enhance the infiltration and mass transfer not only used as electrode, but also as catalyst somewhere micro- or mesopores do not work well.

  15. Method of preparation of carbon materials for use as electrodes in rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddapaneni, Narayan; Wang, James C. F.; Crocker, Robert W.; Ingersoll, David; Firsich, David W.

    1999-01-01

    A method of producing carbon materials for use as electrodes in rechargeable batteries. Electrodes prepared from these carbon materials exhibit intercalation efficiencies of .apprxeq.80% for lithium, low irreversible loss of lithium, long cycle life, are capable of sustaining a high rates of discharge and are cheap and easy to manufacture. The method comprises a novel two-step stabilization process in which polymeric precursor materials are stabilized by first heating in an inert atmosphere and subsequently heating in air. During the stabilization process, the polymeric precursor material can be agitated to reduce particle fusion and promote mass transfer of oxygen and water vapor. The stabilized, polymeric precursor materials can then be converted to a synthetic carbon, suitable for fabricating electrodes for use in rechargeable batteries, by heating to a high temperature in a flowing inert atmosphere.

  16. MgO-templated carbon as a negative electrode material for Na-ion capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kado, Yuya; Soneda, Yasushi

    2016-12-01

    In this study, MgO-templated carbon with different pore structures was investigated as a negative electrode material for Na-ion capacitors. With increasing the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, the irreversible capacity increased, and the coulombic efficiency of the 1st cycle decreased because of the formation of solid electrolyte interface layers. MgO-templated carbon annealed at 1000 °C exhibited the highest capacity and best rate performance, suggesting that an appropriate balance between surface area and crystallinity is imperative for fast Na-ion storage, attributed to the storage mechanism: combination of non-faradaic electric double-layer capacitance and faradaic Na intercalation in the carbon layers. Finally, a Na-ion capacitor cell using MgO-templated carbon and activated carbon as the negative and positive electrodes, respectively, exhibited an energy density at high power density significantly greater than that exhibited by the cell using a commercial hard carbon negative electrode.

  17. Carbon Paste Electrodes Made from Different Carbonaceous Materials: Application in the Study of Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apetrei, Constantin; Apetrei, Irina Mirela; De Saja, Jose Antonio; Rodriguez-Mendez, Maria Luz

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the sensing properties of carbon paste electrodes (CPEs) prepared from three different types of carbonaceous materials: graphite, carbon microspheres and carbon nanotubes. The electrochemical responses towards antioxidants including vanillic acid, catechol, gallic acid, l-ascorbic acid and l-glutathione have been analyzed and compared. It has been demonstrated that the electrodes based on carbon microspheres show the best performances in terms of kinetics and stability, whereas G-CPEs presented the smallest detection limit for all the antioxidants analyzed. An array of electrodes has been constructed using the three types of electrodes. As demonstrated by means of Principal Component Analysis, the system is able to discriminate among antioxidants as a function of their chemical structure and reactivity. PMID:22319354

  18. Carbonized chicken eggshell membranes with 3D architectures as high-performance electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhi; Zhang, Li; Amirkhiz, Babak Shalchi; Tan, Xuehai; Xu, Zhanwei; Wang, Huanlei; Olsen, Brian C.; Holt, Chris M.B.; Mitlin, David [Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); National Institute for Nanotechnology (NINT), NRC, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2012-04-15

    Supercapacitor electrode materials are synthesized by carbonizing a common livestock biowaste in the form of chicken eggshell membranes. The carbonized eggshell membrane (CESM) is a three-dimensional macroporous carbon film composed of interwoven connected carbon fibers containing around 10 wt% oxygen and 8 wt% nitrogen. Despite a relatively low surface area of 221 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, exceptional specific capacitances of 297 F g{sup -1} and 284 F g{sup -1} are achieved in basic and acidic electrolytes, respectively, in a 3-electrode system. Furthermore, the electrodes demonstrate excellent cycling stability: only 3% capacitance fading is observed after 10 000 cycles at a current density of 4 A g{sup -1}. These very attractive electrochemical properties are discussed in the context of the unique structure and chemistry of the material. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Cooperation of micro- and meso-porous carbon electrode materials in electric double-layer capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Cheng [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin Street, Changchun 130022, Jilin Province (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Qi, Li; Wang, Hongyu [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin Street, Changchun 130022, Jilin Province (China); Yoshio, Masaki [Advanced Research Center, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    The capacitive characteristics of micro- and meso-porous carbon materials have been compared in cyclic voltammetric studies and galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. Meso-porous carbon can keep certain high capacitance values at high scan rates, whereas micro-porous carbon possesses very high capacitance values at low scan rates but fades quickly as the scan rate rises up. For better performance of electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), the cooperative application of both kinds of carbon materials has been proposed in the following two ways: mixing both kinds of carbons in the same electrode or using the asymmetric configuration of carbon electrodes in the same EDLC. The cooperative effect on the electrochemical performance has also been addressed. (author)

  20. Rubber-based carbon electrode materials derived from dumped tires for efficient sodium-ion storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen-Yue; Ma, Chao; Bai, Yu-Lin; Liu, Yu-Si; Wang, Shi-Feng; Wei, Xiao; Wang, Kai-Xue; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2018-04-03

    The development of sustainable and low cost electrode materials for sodium-ion batteries has attracted considerable attention. In this work, a carbon composite material decorated with in situ generated ZnS nanoparticles has been prepared via a simple pyrolysis of the rubber powder from dumped tires. Upon being used as an anode material for sodium-ion batteries, the carbon composite shows a high reversible capacity and rate capability. A capacity as high as 267 mA h g-1 is still retained after 100 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g-1. The well dispersed ZnS nanoparticles in carbon significantly enhance the electrochemical performance. The carbon composites derived from the rubber powder are proposed as promising electrode materials for low-cost, large-scale energy storage devices. This work provides a new and effective method for the reuse of dumped tires, contributing to the recycling of valuable waste resources.

  1. Film of lignocellulosic carbon material for self-supporting electrodes in electric double-layer capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsubasa Funabashi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel thin, wood-based carbon material with heterogeneous pores, film of lignocellulosic carbon material (FLCM, was successfully fabricated by carbonizing softwood samples of Picea jezoensis (Jezo spruce. Simultaneous increase in the specific surface area of FLCM and its affinity for electrolyte solvents in an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC were achieved by the vacuum ultraviolet/ozone (VUV/O3 treatment. This treatment increased the specific surface area of FLCM by 50% over that of original FLCM. The results obtained in this study confirmed that FLCM is an appropriate self-supporting EDLC electrode material without any warps and cracks.

  2. A study of nitroxide polyradical/activated carbon composite as the positive electrode material for electrochemical hybrid capacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui-qiao; Zou, Ying; Xia, Yong-yao [Chemistry Department and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2007-01-01

    We present a new concept of the hybrid electrochemical capacitor technology in which a poly(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy methacrylate) nitroxide polyradical/activated carbon composite (PTMA-AC) is used as the positive electrode material and activated carbon is used as the negative electrode material. On the positive electrode, both reversible reduction and oxidation of nitroxide polyradical and non-faradic ion sorption/de-sorption of activated carbon are involved during charge and discharge process. The capacity of the composite electrode is 30% larger than that of the pure activated carbon electrode. A hybrid capacitor fabricated by the PTMA-AC composite positive electrode and the activated carbon negative electrode shows a good cycling life, it can be charged/discharged for over 1000 cycles with slight capacity loss. The hybrid capacitor also has a good rate capability, it maintains 80% of the initial capacity even at the high discharge current of up to 20C. (author)

  3. Nitrogen-doped carbon based on peptides of hair as electrode materials for surpercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Zihan; Zhou, Qingwen; Wu, Zhaojun; Zhang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Yao; Li, Lijun; Cao, Zhenzhu; Wang, Hong; Gao, Yanfang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Hair was directly carbonized by environmental and energy-saving methods. • Hair was utilized to prepare nitrogen-doped carbon materials for supercapacitor. • A new approache for preparing nitrogen-rich active carbon from biomass waste of hair-like precursor. • Hair-based carbon having a non-crystalline layered structure and excellent capacitive performance. -- Abstract: Hair, a high-nitrogen energetic material, is utilized as a precursor for nitrogen-doped porous carbon. The preparation procedures for obtaining carbon from hair are very simple, namely, reductant or deionized water activation process followed by hair carbonization under argon atmosphere at 800 °C for 2 h. The samples are characterized through scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption, and X-ray photoelectron microscopy. The carbon samples are tested as electrode materials in supercapacitors in a three-electrode system. The carbon (soaked in deionized water at 80 °C) presents relatively low specific surface areas (441.34 m 2 g −1 ) and shows higher capacitance (154.5 F g −1 ) compared with nitrogen-free commercial activated carbons (134.5 F g −1 ) at 5 A g −1 . The capacitance remains at 130.5 F g −1 even when the current load is increased to 15 A g −1 . The capacitance loss is only 5% in 6 M KOH after 10,000 charge and discharge cycles at 5 A g −1 . It is the unique microstructure after activation processing and electroactive nitrogen functionalities that enable the carbon obtained through a simple, ecological, and economical process to be utilized as a potential electrode material for electrical double-layer capacitors

  4. Effect of Surface Treatment on Performance of Electrode Material Based on Carbon Fiber Cloth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Jian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The carbon fiber cloth was treated by surface treatment, and then it was used as the electrode substrate. The electrode material based on carbon fibers was synthesized by a galvanostatic electrodeposition method. The interface resistivity, electrochemical property and corrosion resistance of the CF/β-PbO2 electrode were characterized by four-probe method and electrochemical workstation, respectively. The results show that the surface roughness and chemical activity of the carbon fibers can be significantly improved through surface treatment. The carbon fibers possess the best chemical activity on the surface at the hot-air oxidation temperature of 400℃. Joint hot-air and liquid-phase oxidations show that the chemical activity of the carbon fibers on the surface is further improved, the grooves and pits on the surface of the carbon fibers are more obvious, after this treatment, the interface resistivity of the CF/β-PbO2 electrode reaches the minimum value of 6.19×10-5Ω·m, meanwhile, the conductivity and the electrochemical property of the CF/β-PbO2 electrode reaches the best, and with the best corrosion resistance, the corrosion rate is only 1.44×10-3g·cm-2·h-1.Thus, the interface resistivity, electrochemical property and corrosion resistance of the CF/β-PbO2 electrode depend on the the interface structure of the CF/β-PbO2 electrode obtained under different surface treatments.

  5. Synthesis of nitrogen-doped porous carbon nanofibers as an efficient electrode material for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Feng; Zhang, Xu-Dong; Liang, Hai-Wei; Kong, Mingguang; Guan, Qing-Fang; Chen, Ping; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2012-08-28

    Supercapacitors (also known as ultracapacitors) are considered to be the most promising approach to meet the pressing requirements of energy storage. Supercapacitive electrode materials, which are closely related to the high-efficiency storage of energy, have provoked more interest. Herein, we present a high-capacity supercapacitor material based on the nitrogen-doped porous carbon nanofibers synthesized by carbonization of macroscopic-scale carbonaceous nanofibers (CNFs) coated with polypyrrole (CNFs@polypyrrole) at an appropriate temperature. The composite nanofibers exhibit a reversible specific capacitance of 202.0 F g(-1) at the current density of 1.0 A g(-1) in 6.0 mol L(-1) aqueous KOH electrolyte, meanwhile maintaining a high-class capacitance retention capability and a maximum power density of 89.57 kW kg(-1). This kind of nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber represents an alternative promising candidate for an efficient electrode material for supercapacitors.

  6. Compositional characterization of carbon electrode material: A study using simultaneous TG-DTA-FTIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raje, Naina; Aacherekar, Darshana A.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2009-01-01

    Present work describes the application of thermal methods, especially the evolved gas analysis (EGA) for the compositional characterization of carbon electrode material with respect to its organic, amorphous and graphitic carbon content. Trace levels of organic carbon present in the amorphous carbon samples were determined qualitatively by using FTIR absorption spectroscopy. Amorphous and graphitic carbon content in synthetic mixture samples were determined quantitatively using simultaneous TG-DTA-FTIR measurements. FTIR system was calibrated using the measured absorption signal of the evolved carbon dioxide due to the decomposition of cadmium carbonate. Inter-comparison studies using TG-FTIR measurements show that simultaneous FTIR spectroscopy is an effective complementary quantitative measurement technique for thermogravimetric analysis involving the complex decomposition reaction processes.

  7. Nanocomposite of cobalt oxide and ordered mesoporous carbon as the electrode materials for supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.; Liu, P.; Zhao, J.; Feng, J.; Tang, B. [Shanghai Univ. of Engineering Science (China). College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    An incipient wetness impregnation method was used to prepare a cobalt oxide ordered mesoporous carbon composite for use as an electrode in supercapacitor applications. The composite was then incorporated inside periodic nanoholes in the ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC). X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption isotherm analyses were used to characterize the structures of the samples. The specific capacitance of the synthesized materials was estimated using cyclic voltammetric (CV) analyses. The study showed that composites prepared using the new method exhibited a higher reversible specific capacitance of 594.8 F per g at a scan rate of 5 mV per second. The composite also showed good cyclic stability. Results suggested that the composite can be used as an electrode material in supercapacitors.

  8. Oriented Polyaniline Nanowire Arrays Grown on Dendrimer (PAMAM) Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes as Supercapacitor Electrode Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lin; Jiang, Yu; Zhang, Mengjie; Li, Honglong; Xiao, Linghan; Li, Ming; Ao, Yuhui

    2018-04-19

    At present, PANI/MWNT composites have been paid more attention as promising electrode materials in supercapacitors. Yet some shortcomings still limit the widely application of PANI/MWNT electrolytes. In this work, in order to improve capacitance ability and long-term stability of electrode, a multi-amino dendrimer (PAMAM) had been covalently linked onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) as a bridge to facilitating covalent graft of polyaniline (PANI), affording P-MWNT/PANI electrode composites for supercapacitor. Surprisingly, ordered arrays of PANI nanowires on MWNT (setaria-like morphology) had been observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrochemical properties of P-MWNT/PANI electrode had been characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge technique. The specific capacitance and long cycle life of P-MWNT-PANI electrode material were both much higher than MWNT/PANI. These interesting results indicate that multi-amino dendrimer, PAMAM, covalently linked on MWNT provides more reaction sites for in-situ polymerization of ordered PANI, which could efficiently shorten the ion diffusion length in electrolytes and lead to making fully use of conducting materials.

  9. Layered double hydroxide materials coated carbon electrode: New challenge to future electrochemical power devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djebbi, Mohamed Amine; Braiek, Mohamed; Namour, Philippe; Ben Haj Amara, Abdesslem; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were chemically synthesized and deposited over carbon electrode materials. • Catalytic performance of both LDHs was investigated for Fe(II) reduction reaction. • Satisfactory results have been achieved with the MgAl LDH material. • MgAl and ZnAl LDH modified carbon felt were applied in MFC as an efficient anode catalyst. • The LDH-modified anode significantly increased power performance of MFC. - Abstract: Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been widely used in the past years due to their unique physicochemical properties and promising applications in electroanalytical chemistry. The present paper is going to focus exclusively on magnesium-aluminum and zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (MgAl & ZnAl LDHs) in order to investigate the property and structure of active cation sites located within the layer structure. The MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were prepared by the constant pH co-precipitation method and uniformly supported on carbon-based electrode materials to fabricate an LDH electrode. Characterization by powder x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed the LDH form and well-crystallized materials. Wetting surface properties (hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity) of both prepared LDHs were recorded by contact angle measurement show hydrophilic character and basic property. The electrochemical performance of these hybrid materials was investigated by mainly cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry techniques to identify the oxidation/reduction processes at the electrode/electrolyte interface and the effect of the divalent metal cations in total reactivity. The hierarchy of the modified electrode proves that the electronic conductivity of the bulk material is considerably dependent on the divalent cation and affects the limiting parameter of the overall redox process. However

  10. Layered double hydroxide materials coated carbon electrode: New challenge to future electrochemical power devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djebbi, Mohamed Amine, E-mail: mohamed.djebbi@etu.univ-lyon1.fr [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux Lamellaires et Nano-Matériaux Hybrides, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Université de Carthage, 7021 Bizerte (Tunisia); Braiek, Mohamed [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Namour, Philippe [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Irstea, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Ben Haj Amara, Abdesslem [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux Lamellaires et Nano-Matériaux Hybrides, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Université de Carthage, 7021 Bizerte (Tunisia); Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were chemically synthesized and deposited over carbon electrode materials. • Catalytic performance of both LDHs was investigated for Fe(II) reduction reaction. • Satisfactory results have been achieved with the MgAl LDH material. • MgAl and ZnAl LDH modified carbon felt were applied in MFC as an efficient anode catalyst. • The LDH-modified anode significantly increased power performance of MFC. - Abstract: Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been widely used in the past years due to their unique physicochemical properties and promising applications in electroanalytical chemistry. The present paper is going to focus exclusively on magnesium-aluminum and zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (MgAl & ZnAl LDHs) in order to investigate the property and structure of active cation sites located within the layer structure. The MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were prepared by the constant pH co-precipitation method and uniformly supported on carbon-based electrode materials to fabricate an LDH electrode. Characterization by powder x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed the LDH form and well-crystallized materials. Wetting surface properties (hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity) of both prepared LDHs were recorded by contact angle measurement show hydrophilic character and basic property. The electrochemical performance of these hybrid materials was investigated by mainly cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry techniques to identify the oxidation/reduction processes at the electrode/electrolyte interface and the effect of the divalent metal cations in total reactivity. The hierarchy of the modified electrode proves that the electronic conductivity of the bulk material is considerably dependent on the divalent cation and affects the limiting parameter of the overall redox process. However

  11. Poly(ethylene terephthalate)-based carbons as electrode material in supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo-Garcia, M.; Almazan-Almazan, M.C.; Lopez-Garzon, F.J. [Dpto de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, 18071 Granada (Spain); Fernandez, J.A.; Centeno, T.A. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon-CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain); Stoeckli, F. [Physics Department, University of Neuchatel, Rue Emile Argand 11, CH-2009 Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2010-06-15

    A systematic study by complementary techniques shows that PET-waste from plastic vessels is a competitive precursor of carbon electrodes for supercapacitors. PET derived-activated carbons follow the general trends observed for highly porous carbons and display specific capacitances at low current density as high as 197 F g{sup -1} in 2 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous electrolyte and 98 F g{sup -1} in the aprotic medium 1 M (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 4}NBF{sub 4}/acetonitrile. Additionally, high performance has also been achieved at high current densities, which confirms the potential of this type of materials for electrical energy storage. A new method based on the basic solvolysis of PET-waste and the subsequent carbonization seems to be an interesting alternative to obtain porous carbons with enhanced properties for supercapacitors. (author)

  12. Effect of the graphite electrode material on the characteristics of molten salt electrolytically produced carbon nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamali, Ali Reza; Schwandt, Carsten; Fray, Derek J.

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical erosion of a graphite cathode during the electrolysis of molten lithium chloride salt may be used for the preparation of nano-structured carbon materials. It has been found that the structures and morphologies of these carbon nanomaterials are dependent on those of the graphite cathodes employed. A combination of tubular and spherical carbon nanostructures has been produced from a graphite with a microstructure of predominantly planar micro-sized grains and a minor fraction of more irregular nano-sized grains, whilst only spherical carbon nanostructures have been produced from a graphite with a microstructure of primarily nano-sized grains. Based on the experimental results, a best-fit regression equation is proposed that relates the crystalline domain size of the graphite reactants and the carbon products. The carbon nanomaterials prepared possess a fairly uniform mesoporosity with a sharp peak in pore size distribution at around 4 nm. The results are of crucial importance to the production of carbon nanomaterials by way of the molten salt electrolytic method. - Highlights: → Carbon nanomaterials are synthesised by LiCl electrolysis with graphite electrodes. → The degree of crystallinity of graphite reactant and carbon product are related. → A graphite reactant is identified that enables the preparation of carbon nanotubes. → The carbon products possess uniform mesoporosity with narrow pore size distribution.

  13. Effect of Start-Up Strategies and Electrode Materials on Carbon Dioxide Reduction on Biocathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheb-Alam, Soroush; Singh, Abhijeet; Hermansson, Malte; Persson, Frank; Schnürer, Anna; Wilén, Britt-Marie; Modin, Oskar

    2018-02-15

    The enrichment of CO 2 -reducing microbial biocathodes is challenging. Previous research has shown that a promising approach could be to first enrich bioanodes and then lower the potential so the electrodes are converted into biocathodes. However, the effect of such a transition on the microbial community on the electrode has not been studied. The goal of this study was thus to compare the start-up of biocathodes from preenriched anodes with direct start-up from bare electrodes and to investigate changes in microbial community composition. The effect of three electrode materials on the long-term performance of the biocathodes was also investigated. In this study, preenrichment of acetate-oxidizing bioanodes did not facilitate the start-up of biocathodes. It took about 170 days for the preenriched electrodes to generate substantial cathodic current, compared to 83 days for the bare electrodes. Graphite foil and carbon felt cathodes produced higher current at the beginning of the experiment than did graphite rods. However, all electrodes produced similar current densities at the end of the over 1-year-long study (2.5 A/m 2 ). Methane was the only product detected during operation of the biocathodes. Acetate was the only product detected after inhibition of the methanogens. Microbial community analysis showed that Geobacter sp. dominated the bioanodes. On the biocathodes, the Geobacter sp. was succeeded by Methanobacterium spp., which made up more than 80% of the population. After inhibition of the methanogens, Acetobacterium sp. became dominant on the electrodes (40% relative abundance). The results suggested that bioelectrochemically generated H 2 acted as an electron donor for CO 2 reduction. IMPORTANCE In microbial electrochemical systems, living microorganisms function as catalysts for reactions on the anode and/or the cathode. There is a variety of potential applications, ranging from wastewater treatment and biogas generation to production of chemicals. Systems

  14. Highly Flexible Freestanding Porous Carbon Nanofibers for Electrodes Materials of High-Performance All-Carbon Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Zhou, Jinyuan; Chen, Lulu; Zhang, Peng; Fu, Wenbin; Zhao, Hao; Ma, Yufang; Pan, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhenxing; Han, Weihua; Xie, Erqing

    2015-10-28

    Highly flexible porous carbon nanofibers (P-CNFs) were fabricated by electrospining technique combining with metal ion-assistant acid corrosion process. The resultant fibers display high conductivity and outstanding mechanical flexibility, whereas little change in their resistance can be observed under repeatedly bending, even to 180°. Further results indicate that the improved flexibility of P-CNFs can be due to the high graphitization degree caused by Co ions. In view of electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors, this type of porous nanostructure and high graphitization degree could synergistically facilitate the electrolyte ion diffusion and electron transportation. In the three electrodes testing system, the resultant P-CNFs electrodes can exhibit a specific capacitance of 104.5 F g(-1) (0.2 A g(-1)), high rate capability (remain 56.5% at 10 A g(-1)), and capacitance retention of ∼94% after 2000 cycles. Furthermore, the assembled symmetric supercapacitors showed a high flexibility and can deliver an energy density of 3.22 Wh kg(-1) at power density of 600 W kg(-1). This work might open a way to improve the mechanical properties of carbon fibers and suggests that this type of freestanding P-CNFs be used as effective electrode materials for flexible all-carbon supercapacitors.

  15. Carbon aerogels as electrode material for electrical double layer supercapacitors-Synthesis and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halama, Agnieszka [Electrotechnical Institute, Division of Electrotechnology and Materials Science, Wroclaw (Poland); Szubzda, Bronislaw, E-mail: szubzda@iel.wroc.p [Electrotechnical Institute, Division of Electrotechnology and Materials Science, Wroclaw (Poland); Pasciak, Grzegorz [Electrotechnical Institute, Division of Electrotechnology and Materials Science, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2010-10-30

    This paper constitutes a description of technological research the aim of which was to design a symmetric supercapacitor dedicated for the system of quality of electrical energy improvement (supply interruption, voltage dip). The main task was to use the carbon aerogel technology as the efficient method for production of electrode material with desirable properties. Carbon aerogels were prepared by carbonization of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) polymer gels. RF-gels were synthesized by curing polycondensation and by the inverse emulsion polymerization of resorcinol with formaldehyde, followed by microwave drying. The morphostructural characteristics of the carbon aerogels were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the N{sub 2} adsorption (BET method). The electrochemical properties were characterized by means of cycle voltammetry, galvanostatic charging/discharging, and self-discharge.

  16. Electrode materials for rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouimrane, Ali; Amine, Khalil

    2015-04-14

    Selenium or selenium-containing compounds may be used as electroactive materials in electrodes or electrochemical devices. The selenium or selenium-containing compound is mixed with a carbon material.

  17. Research Progress in MnO2 -Carbon Based Supercapacitor Electrode Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qun-Zheng; Zhang, Dian; Miao, Zong-Cheng; Zhang, Xun-Li; Chou, Shu-Lei

    2018-04-30

    With the serious impact of fossil fuels on the environment and the rapid development of the global economy, the development of clean and usable energy storage devices has become one of the most important themes of sustainable development in the world today. Supercapacitors are a new type of green energy storage device, with high power density, long cycle life, wide temperature range, and both economic and environmental advantages. In many industries, they have enormous application prospects. Electrode materials are an important factor affecting the performance of supercapacitors. MnO 2 -based materials are widely investigated for supercapacitors because of their high theoretical capacitance, good chemical stability, low cost, and environmental friendliness. To achieve high specific capacitance and high rate capability, the current best solution is to use MnO 2 and carbon composite materials. Herein, MnO 2 -carbon composite as supercapacitor electrode materials is reviewed including the synthesis method and research status in recent years. Finally, the challenges and future development directions of an MnO 2 -carbon based supercapacitor are summarized. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Influence of carbon electrode material on energy recovery from winery wastewater using a dual-chamber microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteado, Eduardo D; Fernandez-Marchante, Carmen M; Zaiat, Marcelo; Gonzalez, Ernesto R; Rodrigo, Manuel A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate three carbon materials as anodes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs), clarifying their influence on the generation of electricity and on the treatability of winery wastewater, a highly organic-loaded waste. The electrode materials tested were carbon felt, carbon cloth and carbon paper and they were used at the same time as anode and cathode in the tests. The MFC equipped with carbon felt reached the highest voltage and power (72 mV and 420 mW m -2 , respectively), while the lowest values were observed when carbon paper was used as electrode (0.2 mV and 8.37·10 -6  mW m -2 , respectively). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal from the wastewater was observed to depend on the electrode material, as well. When carbon felt was used, the MFC showed the highest average organic matter consumption rate (650 mg COD L -1  d -1 ), whereas by using carbon paper the rate decreased to 270 mg COD L -1  d -1 . Therefore, both electricity generation and organic matter removal are strongly related not to the chemical composition of the electrode (which was graphite carbon in the three electrodes), but to its surface features and, consequently, to the amount of biomass adhered to the electrode surface.

  19. A porous carbon material from pyrolysis of fructus cannabis’s shells for supercapacitor electrode application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Zhang, Wei-Bin; Zhao, Zhi-Yun; Zhao, Yue; Chen, Xi-Wen; Kong, Ling-Bin

    2018-02-01

    The porous carbon material is obtained via pyrolysis and activation of fructus cannabis’s shells, an easy-to-get biomass source, and is used as an active electrode material for supercapacitors. The obtained carbon exhibit a high specific surface area of 2389 m2 g-1. And the result of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) shows that the obtained porous carbon possess numerous oxygen groups, which can facilitate the wettability of the electrode. The prepared porous carbon also exhibit remarkable electrochemical properties, such as high specific capacitance of 357 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1 in 6 mol L-1 aqueous KOH electrolyte, good rate capability of 77% capacitance retention as the current density increase from 0.5 A g-1 to 10 A g-1. In addition, it also presents a superior cycling stability of 100% capacitance retention after 10 000 cycles at the current density of 1 A g-1.

  20. Improved Manufacturing Performance of Screen Printed Carbon Electrodes through Material Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Eifion; Philip, Bruce; Greenwood, Peter

    2016-06-27

    Printed carbon graphite materials are the primary common component in the majority of screen printed sensors. Screen printing allows a scalable manufacturing solution, accelerating the means by which novel sensing materials can make the transition from laboratory material to commercial product. A common bottleneck in any thick film printing process is the controlled drying of the carbon paste material. A study has been undertaken which examines the interaction between material solvent, printed film conductivity and process consistency. The study illustrates that it is possible to reduce the solvent boiling point to significantly increase process productivity while maintaining process consistency. The lower boiling point solvent also has a beneficial effect on the conductivity of the film, reducing the sheet resistance. It is proposed that this is a result of greater film stressing increasing charge percolation through greater inter particle contact. Simulations of material performance and drying illustrate that a multi layered printing provides a more time efficient manufacturing method. The findings have implications for the volume manufacturing of the carbon sensor electrodes but also have implications for other applications where conductive carbon is used, such as electrical circuits and photovoltaic devices.

  1. Chitin based heteroatom-doped porous carbon as electrode materials for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Bao, Li; Wu, Shengji; Yang, Wei; Wang, Hui

    2017-10-01

    Chitin biomass has received much attention as an amino-functional polysaccharide precursor for synthesis of carbon materials. Rich nitrogen and oxygen dual-doped porous carbon derived from cicada slough (CS), a renewable biomass mainly composed of chitin, was synthesized and employed as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors, for the first time ever. The cicada slough-derived carbon (CSC) was prepared by a facile process via pre-carbonization in air, followed by KOH activation. The weight ratio of KOH and char plays an important role in fabricating the microporous structure and tuning the surface chemistry of CSC. The obtained CSC had a large specific surface area (1243-2217m 2 g -1 ), fairly high oxygen content (28.95-33.78 at%) and moderate nitrogen content (1.47-4.35 at%). The electrochemical performance of the CS char and CSC as electrodes for capacitors was evaluated in a three-electrode cell configuration with 6M KOH as the electrolyte. Electrochemical studies showed that the as-prepared CSC activated at the KOH-to-char weight ratio of 2 exhibited the highest specific capacitance (266.5Fg -1 at a current density of 0.5Ag -1 ) and excellent rate capability (196.2Fg -1 remained at 20Ag -1 ) and cycle durability. In addition, the CSC-2-based symmetrical device possessed the desirable energy density and power density of about 15.97Whkg -1 and 5000Wkg -1 at 5Ag -1 , respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ionic Liquid Directed Mesoporous Carbon Nanoflakes as an Effiencient Electrode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lirong; Chen, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Supercapacitors are considered to be the most promising approach to meet the pressing requirements for energy storage devices. The electrode materials for supercapacitors have close relationship with their electrochemical properties and thus become the key point to improve their energy storage efficiency. Herein, by using poly (vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) and ionic liquid as the dual templates, polyacrylonitrile as the carbon precursor, a flake-like carbon material was prepared by a direct carbonization method. In this method, poly (vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) worked as the separator for the formation of isolated carbon flakes while aggregated ionic liquid worked as the pore template. The obtained carbon flakes exhibited a specific capacitance of 170 F/g at 0.1 A/g, a high energy density of 12.2 Wh/kg and a high power density of 5 kW/kg at the current of 10 A/g. It also maintained a high capacitance retention capability with almost no declination after 500 charge-discharge cycles. The ionic liquid directed method developed here also provided a new idea for the preparation of hierarchically porous carbon nanomaterials.

  3. Preparation and electrochemical performance of polyaniline-based carbon nanotubes as electrode material for supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Miaomiao; Cheng Bin; Song Huaihe; Chen Xiaohong

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with open end and low specific surface area were prepared via the carbonization of polyaniline (PANI) nanotubes synthesized by a rapidly mixed reaction. On the basis of analyzing the morphologies and structures of the original and carbonized PANI nanotubes, the electrochemical properties of PANI-based CNTs obtained at different temperatures as electrode materials for supercapacitors using 30 wt.% aqueous solution of KOH as electrolyte were investigated by galvanostatic charge/discharge and cyclic voltammetry. It was found that the carbonized PANI nanotubes at 700 o C exhibit high specific capacitance of 163 F g -1 at a current density of 0.1 A g -1 and excellent rate capability in KOH solution. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement the nitrogen state and content in PANI-CNTs were analysed, which could play important roles for the enhancement of electrochemical performance. When the appropriate content of nitrogen is present, the presence of pyrrole or pyridone and quaternary nitrogen is beneficial for the improvement of electron mobility and the wettability of electrode.

  4. Preparation and electrochemical performance of polyaniline-based carbon nanotubes as electrode material for supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Miaomiao; Cheng Bin [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Song Huaihe, E-mail: songhh@mail.buct.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Chen Xiaohong [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2010-09-30

    Nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with open end and low specific surface area were prepared via the carbonization of polyaniline (PANI) nanotubes synthesized by a rapidly mixed reaction. On the basis of analyzing the morphologies and structures of the original and carbonized PANI nanotubes, the electrochemical properties of PANI-based CNTs obtained at different temperatures as electrode materials for supercapacitors using 30 wt.% aqueous solution of KOH as electrolyte were investigated by galvanostatic charge/discharge and cyclic voltammetry. It was found that the carbonized PANI nanotubes at 700 {sup o}C exhibit high specific capacitance of 163 F g{sup -1} at a current density of 0.1 A g{sup -1} and excellent rate capability in KOH solution. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement the nitrogen state and content in PANI-CNTs were analysed, which could play important roles for the enhancement of electrochemical performance. When the appropriate content of nitrogen is present, the presence of pyrrole or pyridone and quaternary nitrogen is beneficial for the improvement of electron mobility and the wettability of electrode.

  5. Determination of specific capacitance of modified candlenut shell based carbon as electrode material for supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakir, M.; Budi, P.; Raya, I.; Karim, A.; Wulandari, R.; Sobrido, A. B. J.

    2018-03-01

    Surface modification of candlenut shell carbon (CSC) using three chemicals: nitric acid (HNO3), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) has been carried out. Activation of CSC was performed using H3PO4 solution with different ratio between CSC and activator. Carbon surface area was determined by methylene blue adsorption method. Surface characterization was performed using FTIR spectroscopy and Boehm titration method. Specific capacitance of electrode prepared from CSAC (candlenuts shell activated carbon) materials was quantified by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) measurement. The surface area before and after activation are 105,127 m2/g, 112,488 m2/g, 124,190 m2/g, and 135,167 m2/g, respectively. Surface modification of CSAC showed the improvement in the chemical functionality of CSAC surface. Analyses using FTIR spectroscopy and Boehm titration showed that modifications with HNO3, H2SO4 and H2O2 on the surface of the CSAC increased the number of oxygen functional groups. As a consequence, the specific capacitance of CSAC modified with 65% HNO3 attained the highest value (127 μF/g). There is an incredible increase by a factor of 298% from electrode which was constructed with un-modified CSAC material. This increase correlates to the largest number of oxygen functional groups of CSAC modified with nitric acid (HNO3).

  6. Three-dimensional Hierarchical Metal oxide-Carbon Electrode Material for High Efficient Microbial Electrosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Mengmeng; Nie, Huarong; Zhang, Tian

    2017-01-01

    pore structure in a microwave oven is demonstrated. Microwave pyrolysis of ferrocene using carbon felt as a microwave absorber, a method that is rapid (tens of seconds), does not require harsh conditions nor costly equipment is utilized, and can be readily scaled up. The produced material has a high...... specific surface area, a multi-length scale porous structure and a high conductivity, and is quite stable, making it promising for many practical applications. As an electrode in microbial electrosynthesis, the performance is improved by a factor of five and an optimal biofilm of the microorganism...

  7. High-Performance Supercapacitor Electrode Materials from Cellulose-Derived Carbon Nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jie; Niu, Haitao; Li, Zhenyu; Du, Yong; Cizek, Pavel; Xie, Zongli; Xiong, Hanguo; Lin, Tong

    2015-07-15

    Nitrogen-functionalized carbon nanofibers (N-CNFs) were prepared by carbonizing polypyrrole (PPy)-coated cellulose NFs, which were obtained by electrospinning, deacetylation of electrospun cellulose acetate NFs, and PPy polymerization. Supercapacitor electrodes prepared from N-CNFs and a mixture of N-CNFs and Ni(OH)2 showed specific capacitances of ∼236 and ∼1045 F g(-1), respectively. An asymmetric supercapacitor was further fabricated using N-CNFs/Ni(OH)2 and N-CNFs as positive and negative electrodes. The supercapacitor device had a working voltage of 1.6 V in aqueous KOH solution (6.0 M) with an energy density as high as ∼51 (W h) kg(-1) and a maximum power density of ∼117 kW kg(-1). The device had excellent cycle lifetime, which retained ∼84% specific capacitance after 5000 cycles of cyclic voltammetry scans. N-CNFs derived from electrospun cellulose may be useful as an electrode material for development of high-performance supercapacitors and other energy storage devices.

  8. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian [Newton, MA; Chen, Jinghua [Chestnut Hill, MA; Huang, Zhongping [Belmont, MA; Wang, Dezhi [Wellesley, MA

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  9. Supercapacitor electrode materials with hierarchically structured pores from carbonization of MWCNTs and ZIF-8 composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueqin; Hao, Changlong; Tang, Bochong; Wang, Yue; Liu, Mei; Wang, Yuanwei; Zhu, Yihua; Lu, Chenguang; Tang, Zhiyong

    2017-02-09

    Due to their high specific surface area and good electric conductivity, nitrogen-doped porous carbons (NPCs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted much attention for electrochemical energy storage applications. In the present work, we firstly prepared MWCNT/ZIF-8 composites by decoration of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIF-8) onto the surface of multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs), then obtained MWCNT/NPCs by the direct carbonization of MWCNT/ZIF-8. By controlling the reaction conditions, MWCNT/ZIF-8 with three different particle sizes were synthesized. The effect of NPCs size on capacitance performance has been evaluated in detail. The MWCNT/NPC with large-sized NPC (MWCNT/NPC-L) displayed the highest specific capacitance of 293.4 F g -1 at the scan rate of 5 mV s -1 and only lost 4.2% of capacitance after 10 000 cyclic voltammetry cycles, which was attributed to the hierarchically structured pores, N-doping and high electrical conductivity. The studies of symmetric two-electrode supercapacitor cells also confirmed MWCNT/NPC-L as efficient electrode materials that have good electrochemical performance, especially for high-rate applications.

  10. Mixed bi-material electrodes based on LiMn2O4 and activated carbon for hybrid electrochemical energy storage devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cericola, Dario; Novak, Petr; Wokaun, Alexander; Koetz, Ruediger

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Bi-material electrodes for electrochemical hybrid devices were characterized. → Bi-material electrodes have higher specific charge than capacitor electrodes. → Bi-material electrodes have better rate capability than battery electrodes. → Bi-material systems outperform batteries and capacitors in pulsed applications. - Abstract: The performance of mixed bi-material electrodes composed of the battery material, LiMn 2 O 4 , and the electrochemical capacitor material, activated carbon, for hybrid electrochemical energy storage devices is investigated by galvanostatic charge/discharge and pulsed discharge experiments. Both, a high and a low conductivity lithium-containing electrolyte are used. The specific charge of the bi-material electrode is the linear combination of the specific charges of LiMn 2 O 4 and activated carbon according to the electrode composition at low discharge rates. Thus, the specific charge of the bi-material electrode falls between the specific charge of the activated carbon electrode and the LiMn 2 O 4 battery electrode. The bi-material electrodes have better rate capability than the LiMn 2 O 4 battery electrode. For high current pulsed applications the bi-material electrodes typically outperform both the battery and the capacitor electrode.

  11. Inherent N,O-containing carbon frameworks as electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fangyuan; Wang, Jinyan; Hu, Shui; Li, Linfei; Wang, Gang; Qiu, Jieshan; Jian, Xigao

    2016-09-15

    N,O-Containing micropore-dominated materials have been developed successfully via temperature-dependent cross-linking of 4,4'-(dioxo-diphenyl-2,3,6,7-tetraazaanthracenediyl)dibenzonitrile (DPDN) monomers. By employing a molecular engineering strategy, we have designed and synthesized a series of porous heteroatom-containing carbon frameworks (PHCFs), in which nitrogen and oxygen heteroatoms are distributed homogeneously throughout the whole framework at the atomic level, which can ensure the stability of its electrical properties. The as-made PHCFs@550 exhibits a high specific capacitance of 378 F g -1 , with an excellent long cycling life, including excellent cycling stability (capacitance retention of ca. 120% over 20 000 cycles). Moreover, the successful preparation of PHCFs provides new insights for the fabrication of nitrogen and oxygen-containing electrode materials from readily available components via a facile route.

  12. Impedance spectroscopic analysis of composite electrode from activated carbon/conductive materials/ruthenium oxide for supercapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taer, E.; Awitdrus,; Farma, R. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Riau, 28293 Pekanbaru, Riau (Indonesia); Deraman, M., E-mail: madra@ukm.my; Talib, I. A.; Ishak, M. M.; Omar, R.; Dolah, B. N. M.; Basri, N. H.; Othman, M. A. R. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Kanwal, S. [ICCBS, H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, 75270 Karachi (Pakistan)

    2015-04-16

    Activated carbon powders (ACP) were produced from the KOH treated pre-carbonized rubber wood sawdust. Different conductive materials (graphite, carbon black and carbon nanotubes (CNTs)) were added with a binder (polivinylidene fluoride (PVDF)) into ACP to improve the supercapacitive performance of the activated carbon (AC) electrodes. Symmetric supercapacitor cells, fabricated using these AC electrodes and 1 molar H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte, were analyzed using a standard electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. The addition of graphite, carbon black and CNTs was found effective in reducing the cell resistance from 165 to 68, 23 and 49 Ohm respectively, and increasing the specific capacitance of the AC electrodes from 3 to 7, 17, 32 F g{sup −1} respectively. Since the addition of CNTs can produce the highest specific capacitance, CNTs were chosen as a conductive material to produce AC composite electrodes that were added with 2.5 %, 5 % and 10 % (by weight) electro-active material namely ruthenium oxide; PVDF binder and CNTs contents were kept at 5 % by weight in each AC composite produced. The highest specific capacitance of the cells obtained in this study was 86 F g{sup −1}, i.e. for the cell with the resistance of 15 Ohm and composite electrode consists of 5 % ruthenium oxide.

  13. Carbon nanofibers wrapped with zinc oxide nano-flakes as promising electrode material for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Bishweshwar; Park, Mira; Ojha, Gunendra Prasad; Park, Juhyeong; Kuk, Yun-Su; Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Hak-Yong; Park, Soo-Jin

    2018-07-15

    A combination of electrospinning technique and hydrothermal process was carried out to fabricate zinc oxide nano-flakes wrapped carbon nanofibers (ZnO/CNFs) composite as an effective electrode material for supercapacitor. The morphology of the as-synthesized composite clearly revealed that the carbon nanofibers were successfully wrapped with ZnO nano-flakes. The electrochemical performance of the as-synthesized nanocomposite electrode was evaluated by the cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GDC), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and compared with the pristine ZnO nanofibers. It was found that the composite exhibited a higher specific capacitance (260 F/g) as compared to pristine ZnO NFs (118 F/g) at the scan rate of 5 mV/s. Furthermore, the ZnO/CNFs composite also exhibited good capacity retention (73.33%). The obtained results indicated great potential applications of ZnO/CNFs composite in developing energy storage devices with high energy and power densities. The present work might provide a new route for utilizing ZnO based composites for energy storage applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Supercapacitor Electrode Materials from Highly Porous Carbon Nanofibers with Tailored Pore Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chathurika Abeykoon, Nimali

    Environmental and human health risks associated with the traditional methods of energy production (e.g., oil and gas) and intermittency and uncertainty of renewable sources (e.g., solar and wind) have led to exploring effective and alternative energy sources to meet the growing energy demands. Electricity based on energy storage devices are the most promising solutions for realization of these objectives. Among the energy storage devices, electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) or supercapacitors have become an attractive research interest due to their outstanding performance, especially high power densities, long cycle life and rapid charge and discharge times, which enables them to utilize in many applications including consumer electronics and transportation, where high power is needed. However, low energy density of supercapacitors is a major obstacle to compete with the commercially existing high energy density energy storage device such as batteries. The fabrication of advanced electrodes materials with very high surface area from novel precursors and utilization of electrolytes with higher operating voltages are essential to enhance energy density of supercapacitors. In this work, carbon nanofibers (CNFs) from different polymer precursors with new fabrication techniques are explored to develop highly porous carbon with tailored pore distributions to match with employed ionic liquid electrolytes (which possess high working voltages), to realize high energy storage capability. Novel electrode materials derived from electrospun immiscible polymer blends and synthesized copolymers and terpolymers were described. Pore distributions of CNFs were tailored by varying the composition of polymers in immiscible blends or varying the monomer ratios of copolymer or terpolymers. Chapter 1 gives the detailed introduction of supercapacitors including history and storage principle of EDLCs, fabrication of carbon nanofiber based electrodes and electrolytes employed

  15. Improved electrochemical performance of polyindole/carbon nanotubes composite as electrode material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhi-Jiang; Zhang, Qin; Song, Xian-You

    2016-09-01

    Polyindole/carbon nanotubes (PIN/CNTs) composite was prepared by an in-situ chemical oxidative polymerization of indole monomer with CNTs using ammonium persulfate as oxidant. The obtained composite material was characterized by SEM, TEM, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, XRD and BET surface areas measurements. It was found that the CNTs were incorporated into the PIN matrix and nanoporous structure was formed. Spectroscopy results showed that interfacial interaction bonds might be formed between the polyindole chains and CNTs during the in-situ polymerization. PIN/CNTs composite was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and charge/discharge tests to determine electrode performances in relation to supercapacitors properties in both aqueous and non-aqueous system. A maximum specific capacitance and specific volumetric capacitance of 555.6 F/g and 222.2 F/cm3 can be achieved at 0.5 A/g in non-aqueous system. It also displayed good rate performance and cycling stability. The specific capacitance retention is over 60% at 10 A/g and 91.3% after 5000 cycles at 2 A/g, respectively. These characteristics point to its promising applications in the electrode material for supercapacitors.

  16. The modification of glassy carbon and gold electrodes with aryl diazonium salt: The impact of the electrode materials on the rate of heterogeneous electron transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guozhen; Liu Jingquan; Boecking, Till; Eggers, Paul K.; Gooding, J. Justin

    2005-01-01

    The heterogeneous electron-transfer properties of ferrocenemethylamine coupled to a series of mixed 4-carboxyphenyl/phenyl monolayers on glassy carbon (GC) and gold electrodes were investigated, by cyclic voltammetry, in aqueous buffer solutions. The electrodes were derivatized in a step-wise process. Electrochemical reduction of mixtures of 4-carboxyphenyl and phenyl diazonium salts on the electrode surfaces yielded stable monolayers. The introduction of carboxylic acid moieties onto the surfaces was verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Subsequently the 4-carboxyphenyl moieties were activated using water-soluble carbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide and reacted with ferrocenemethylamine. The rate constants of electron transfer through the monolayer systems were determined from cyclic voltammograms using the Marcus theory for electron transfer and were found to be an order of magnitude higher for the ferrocene-modified monolayer systems on gold than those on GC electrodes. The results suggest the electrode material has an important influence on the rate of electron transfer

  17. Polyaniline nanofiber/large mesoporous carbon composites as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Xu, Bin; Jia, Mengqiu; Zhang, Mei; Cao, Bin; Zhao, Xiaonan; Wang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    A composite of polyaniline nanofiber/large mesoporous carbon (PANI-F/LMC) hybrid was prepared by an in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer with nano-CaCO3 templated LMC as host matrix for supercapacitors. The morphology, composition and electronic structure of the composites (PANI-F/LMC) together with pure PANI nanofibers and the LMC were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is found that the PANI nanofibers were incorporated into the large mesochannels of LMC with interpenetrating framework formed. Such unique structure endows the PANI-F/LMC composite with a high capacitance of 473 F g-1 at a current load of 0.1 A g-1 with good rate performance and cycling stability, suggesting its potential application in the electrode material for supercapacitors.

  18. Polyaniline nanofiber/large mesoporous carbon composites as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Huan; Xu, Bin; Jia, Mengqiu, E-mail: jiamq@mail.buct.edu.cn; Zhang, Mei; Cao, Bin; Zhao, Xiaonan; Wang, Yu

    2015-03-30

    Highlights: • The composites of polyaniline nanofiber and large mesoporous carbon were prepared for supercapacitors. • The large mesoporous carbons were simply prepared by nano-CaCO{sub 3} template method. • The composites exhibit high capacitance and good rate capability and cycle stability. - Abstract: A composite of polyaniline nanofiber/large mesoporous carbon (PANI-F/LMC) hybrid was prepared by an in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer with nano-CaCO{sub 3} templated LMC as host matrix for supercapacitors. The morphology, composition and electronic structure of the composites (PANI-F/LMC) together with pure PANI nanofibers and the LMC were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is found that the PANI nanofibers were incorporated into the large mesochannels of LMC with interpenetrating framework formed. Such unique structure endows the PANI-F/LMC composite with a high capacitance of 473 F g{sup −1} at a current load of 0.1 A g{sup −1} with good rate performance and cycling stability, suggesting its potential application in the electrode material for supercapacitors.

  19. Polyaniline nanofiber/large mesoporous carbon composites as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Huan; Xu, Bin; Jia, Mengqiu; Zhang, Mei; Cao, Bin; Zhao, Xiaonan; Wang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The composites of polyaniline nanofiber and large mesoporous carbon were prepared for supercapacitors. • The large mesoporous carbons were simply prepared by nano-CaCO 3 template method. • The composites exhibit high capacitance and good rate capability and cycle stability. - Abstract: A composite of polyaniline nanofiber/large mesoporous carbon (PANI-F/LMC) hybrid was prepared by an in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer with nano-CaCO 3 templated LMC as host matrix for supercapacitors. The morphology, composition and electronic structure of the composites (PANI-F/LMC) together with pure PANI nanofibers and the LMC were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is found that the PANI nanofibers were incorporated into the large mesochannels of LMC with interpenetrating framework formed. Such unique structure endows the PANI-F/LMC composite with a high capacitance of 473 F g −1 at a current load of 0.1 A g −1 with good rate performance and cycling stability, suggesting its potential application in the electrode material for supercapacitors

  20. Microwave-assisted ionothermal synthesis of nanostructured anatase titanium dioxide/activated carbon composite as electrode material for capacitive deionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Po-I; Chung, Li-Ching; Shao, Hsin; Liang, Teh-Ming; Horng, Ren-Yang; Ma, Chen-Chi M.; Chang, Min-Chao

    2013-01-01

    The nanostructured anatase titanium dioxide/activated carbon composite material for capacitive deionization electrode was prepared in a short time by a lower temperature two-step microwave-assisted ionothermal (sol–gel method in the presence of ionic liquid) synthesis method. This method includes a reaction and a crystallization step. In the crystallization step, the ionic liquid plays a hydrothermal analogy role in driving the surface anatase crystallization of amorphous titanium dioxide nanoparticles formed in the reaction step. The energy dispersive spectroscopic study of the composite indicates that the anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles are evenly deposited in the matrix of activated carbon. The electrochemical property of the composite electrode was investigated. In comparison to the pristine activated carbon electrode, higher specific capacitance was observed for the nanostructured anatase titanium dioxide/activated carbon composite electrode, especially when the composite was prepared with a molar ratio of titanium tetraisopropoxide/H 2 O equal to 1:15. Its X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic result indicates that it has the highest amount of Ti-OH. The Ti-OH group can enhance the wetting ability and the specific capacitance of the composite electrode. The accompanying capacitive deionization result indicates that the decay of electrosorption capacity of this composite electrode is insignificant after five cycle tests. It means that the ion electrosorption–desorption becomes a reversible process

  1. Transition metal doped poly(aniline-co-pyrrole)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite for high performance supercapacitor electrode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhibar, Saptarshi; Bhattacharya, Pallab; Hatui, Goutam; Das, C.K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The CuCl 2 doped copolymer (PANI and PPy)/MWCNTs nanocomposite was prepared. • The nanocomposite achieved highest specific capacitance of 383 F/g at a 0.5 A/g. • Nanocomposite exhibits better energy density as well as power density. • The nanocomposite also showed better electrical conductivity at room temperature. • The nanocomposite can be used as promising electrode materials for supercapacitor. - Abstract: In this present communication, copolymer of polyaniline (PANI) and polypyrrole (PPy) that is poly(aniline-co-pyrrole) [poly(An-co-Py)], copper chloride (CuCl 2 ) doped poly(aniline-co-pyrrole) [poly(An-co-Py) Cu], and CuCl 2 doped poly(aniline-co-pyrrole)/multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) [poly(An-co-Py) Cu CNT] nanocomposite have been prepared by a simple and inexpensive in-situ chemical oxidative polymerization method, using ammonium persulfate (APS) as oxidant and hydrochloric acid (HCl) as dopant and investigated as high performance supercapacitor electrode materials. The possible interaction between CuCl 2 with copolymers and MWCNTs was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV–visible spectroscopy analysis. The morphological characteristic of all the electrode materials were analyzed by Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study. The electrochemical characterizations of all the electrode materials were carried out by three electrode probe method where, standard calomel electrode and platinum were used as reference and counter electrodes, respectively. Among all the electrode materials, poly(An-co-Py) Cu CNT nanocomposite achieved highest specific capacitance value of 383 F/g at 0.5 A/g scan rate. The nanocomposite showed better electrical conductivity at room temperature and also attained nonlinear current–voltage characteristic. Based on the superior electrochemical as well as other properties the as prepared nanocomposite can be used

  2. Transition metal doped poly(aniline-co-pyrrole)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite for high performance supercapacitor electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhibar, Saptarshi; Bhattacharya, Pallab; Hatui, Goutam; Das, C.K., E-mail: chapal12@yahoo.co.in

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The CuCl{sub 2} doped copolymer (PANI and PPy)/MWCNTs nanocomposite was prepared. • The nanocomposite achieved highest specific capacitance of 383 F/g at a 0.5 A/g. • Nanocomposite exhibits better energy density as well as power density. • The nanocomposite also showed better electrical conductivity at room temperature. • The nanocomposite can be used as promising electrode materials for supercapacitor. - Abstract: In this present communication, copolymer of polyaniline (PANI) and polypyrrole (PPy) that is poly(aniline-co-pyrrole) [poly(An-co-Py)], copper chloride (CuCl{sub 2}) doped poly(aniline-co-pyrrole) [poly(An-co-Py) Cu], and CuCl{sub 2} doped poly(aniline-co-pyrrole)/multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) [poly(An-co-Py) Cu CNT] nanocomposite have been prepared by a simple and inexpensive in-situ chemical oxidative polymerization method, using ammonium persulfate (APS) as oxidant and hydrochloric acid (HCl) as dopant and investigated as high performance supercapacitor electrode materials. The possible interaction between CuCl{sub 2} with copolymers and MWCNTs was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV–visible spectroscopy analysis. The morphological characteristic of all the electrode materials were analyzed by Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study. The electrochemical characterizations of all the electrode materials were carried out by three electrode probe method where, standard calomel electrode and platinum were used as reference and counter electrodes, respectively. Among all the electrode materials, poly(An-co-Py) Cu CNT nanocomposite achieved highest specific capacitance value of 383 F/g at 0.5 A/g scan rate. The nanocomposite showed better electrical conductivity at room temperature and also attained nonlinear current–voltage characteristic. Based on the superior electrochemical as well as other properties the as prepared

  3. Two-dimensional hierarchical porous carbon composites derived from corn stalks for electrode materials with high performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Haitao; Zhang, Huijuan; Ouyang, Ya; Liu, Li; Wang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel 2D porous carbon sheets from cornstalks are obtained for the first time. • The hierarchical porous carbon nansheets are gained by chemical activation. • The porous structure facilitates ion transfer and Li-ion absorption. • The strategy are applied to both cathode and anode electrode materials. • The porous nanocomposites exhibit excellent electrochemical performance. - Abstract: Herein, we propose a novel and green strategy to convert crop stalks waste into hierarchical porous carbon composites for electrode materials of lithium-ion batteries. In the method, the sustainable crop stalks, an abundant agricultural byproduct, is recycled and treated by a simple and clean chemical activation process. Afterwards, the obtained porous template is adopted for large-scale production of high-performance anode and cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Due to the large surface area, hierarchical porous structures and subsize of the functional particles, the electrode materials manifest excellent electrochemical performance. In particular, the prepared TiO 2 /C composite presents a reversible specific capacity of 203 mAh g −1 after 200 cycles. Our results demonstrate that the sheetlike composites show remarkable cycling stability, high specific capacity and excellent rate ability, and thus hold promise for commercializing the high-performance electrode materials as the advanced lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Amorphous Mn oxide-ordered mesoporous carbon hybrids as a high performance electrode material for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Inho; Kim, Nam Dong; Kim, Gil-Pyo; Park, Junsu; Yi, Jongheop

    2012-07-01

    A supercapacitor has the advantages of both the conventional capacitors and the rechargeable batteries. Mn oxide is generally recognized one of the potential materials that can be used for a supercapacitor, but its low conductivity is a limiting factor for electrode materials. In this study, a hybrid of amorphous Mn oxide (AMO) and ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) was prepared and characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N2/77 K sorption techniques, and electrochemical analyses. The findings indicate that the electrochemical activities of Mn oxide were facilitated when it was in the hybrid state because OMC acted as a pathway for both the electrolyte ions and the electrons due to the characteristics of the ordered mesoporous structure. The ordered mesoporous structure of OMC was well maintained even after hybridization with amorphous Mn oxide. The electrochemical-activity tests revealed that the AMO/OMC hybrid had a higher specific capacitance and conductivity than pure Mn oxide. In the case where the Mn/C weight ratio was 0.75, the composite showed a high capacitance of 153 F/g, which was much higher than that for pure Mn oxide, due to the structural effects of OMC.

  5. Different types of pre-lithiated hard carbon as negative electrode material for lithium-ion capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jin; Liu, Xifeng; Wang, Jing; Shi, Jingli; Shi, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two types of HC materials with different properties as negative electrode. • Lithium ion intercalation plateau of HC affects electrochemical performance of LIC. • The electrochemical performance of LIC is operated at different potential ranges. • The selection of HC and appropriate potential range of LIC have been proposed. - ABSTRACT: Lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) are assembled with activated carbon (AC) cathode and pre-lithiated hard carbon (HC) anode. Two kinds of HC materials with different physical and electrochemical behaviors have been investigated as the negative electrodes for LIC. Compared with spherical HC, the irregular HC shows a distinct lithium ion intercalation plateau in the charge–discharge process. The existence of lithium ion intercalation plateau for irregular HC greatly affects the electrochemical behavior of HC negative electrode and AC positive electrode. The effect of working potential range on the electrochemical performance of LIC-SH and LIC-IH is investigated by the galvanostatic charging–discharging, electrochemical impedance tests and cycle performance testing. The charge–discharge potential range of the irregular HC negative electrode is lower than the spherical HC electrode due to the existence of lithium ion intercalation plateau, which is conducive to the sufficient utilization of the AC positive electrode. The working potential range of LIC should be controlled to realize the optimization of electrochemical performance of LIC. LIC-IH at the working potential range of 2.0-4.0 V exhibits the optimal electrochemical performance, high energy density up to 85.7 Wh kg −1 and power density as high as 7.6 kW kg −1 (based on active material mass of two electrodes), excellent capacity retention about 96.0% after 5000 cycles.

  6. Poly(ethylene terephthalate)-based carbons as electrode material in supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Domingo-García, M.; Fernández López, José Antonio; Almazán-Almazán, M.C.; López-Garzón, F.J.; Stoeckli, F.; Álvarez Centeno, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    A systematic study by complementary techniques shows that PET-waste from plastic vessels is a competitive precursor of carbon electrodes for supercapacitors. PET derived-activated carbons follow the general trends observed for highly porous carbons and display specific capacitances at low current density as high as 197 F g−1 in 2 M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte and 98 F g−1 in the aprotic medium 1 M (C2H5)4NBF4/acetonitrile. Additionally, high performance has also been achieved at high current de...

  7. Polyaniline integrated carbon nanohorn: A superior electrode materials for advanced energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Maiti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-like polyaniline (PANI/carbon nanohorn (CNH composites (PACN composites were prepared as electrode materials for supercapacitor by simple method that involves in-situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of CNH in acidic (HCl medium with noteworthy electrochemical performances. Thus, the prepared PACN composites show high specific capacitance value of ≈ 834 F/g at 5 mV/s scan rate compared to ≈ 231 F/g for pure PANI and CNH (≈ 145 F/g at same scan rate of 5 mV/s. CNHs are homogeneously dispersed throughout the matrix and coated successfully. Thus, it provides more active sites for nucleation and electron transfer path. In addition, the composites show high electrical conductivity in the order of ≈ 6.7•10–2 S•cm–1 which indicates the formation of continuous interconnected conducting network path in the PACN composites. Morphological study of the PACN composites was carried out by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM.

  8. Porous carbon with a large surface area and an ultrahigh carbon purity via templating carbonization coupling with KOH activation as excellent supercapacitor electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fei; Gao, Jihui, E-mail: gaojh@hit.edu.cn; Liu, Xin; Pi, Xinxin; Yang, Yuqi; Wu, Shaohua

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Simple templating carbonization method was developed to obtain porous carbons. • Surface etching by KOH activation greatly boosts surface area and carbon purity. • The as-obtained porous carbon delivers a high capacitance of 275 F g{sup −1}. • Symmetric supercapacitor can achieved high energy density and power density. - Abstract: Large surface area and good structural stability, for porous carbons, are two crucial requirements to enable the constructed supercapacitors with high capacitance and long cycling lifespan. Herein, we successfully prepare porous carbon with a large surface area (3175 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and an ultrahigh carbon purity (carbon atom ratio of 98.25%) via templating carbonization coupling with KOH activation. As-synthesized MTC-KOH exhibits excellent performances as supercapacitor electrode materials in terms of high specific capacitance and ultrahigh cycling stability. In a three electrode system, MTC-KOH delivers a high capacitance of 275 F g{sup −1} at 0.5 A g{sup −1} and still 120 F g{sup −1} at a high rate of 30 A g{sup −1}. There is almost no capacitance decay even after 10,000 cycles, demonstrating outstanding cycling stability. In comparison, pre-activated MTC with a hierarchical pore structure shows a better rate capability than microporous MTC-KOH. Moreover, the constructed symmetric supercapacitor using MTC-KOH can achieve high energy densities of 8.68 Wh kg{sup −1} and 4.03 Wh kg{sup −1} with the corresponding power densities of 108 W kg{sup −1} and 6.49 kW kg{sup −1}, respectively. Our work provides a simple design strategy to prepare highly porous carbons with high carbon purity for supercapacitors application.

  9. Porous carbon with a large surface area and an ultrahigh carbon purity via templating carbonization coupling with KOH activation as excellent supercapacitor electrode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Fei; Gao, Jihui; Liu, Xin; Pi, Xinxin; Yang, Yuqi; Wu, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Simple templating carbonization method was developed to obtain porous carbons. • Surface etching by KOH activation greatly boosts surface area and carbon purity. • The as-obtained porous carbon delivers a high capacitance of 275 F g −1 . • Symmetric supercapacitor can achieved high energy density and power density. - Abstract: Large surface area and good structural stability, for porous carbons, are two crucial requirements to enable the constructed supercapacitors with high capacitance and long cycling lifespan. Herein, we successfully prepare porous carbon with a large surface area (3175 m 2 g −1 ) and an ultrahigh carbon purity (carbon atom ratio of 98.25%) via templating carbonization coupling with KOH activation. As-synthesized MTC-KOH exhibits excellent performances as supercapacitor electrode materials in terms of high specific capacitance and ultrahigh cycling stability. In a three electrode system, MTC-KOH delivers a high capacitance of 275 F g −1 at 0.5 A g −1 and still 120 F g −1 at a high rate of 30 A g −1 . There is almost no capacitance decay even after 10,000 cycles, demonstrating outstanding cycling stability. In comparison, pre-activated MTC with a hierarchical pore structure shows a better rate capability than microporous MTC-KOH. Moreover, the constructed symmetric supercapacitor using MTC-KOH can achieve high energy densities of 8.68 Wh kg −1 and 4.03 Wh kg −1 with the corresponding power densities of 108 W kg −1 and 6.49 kW kg −1 , respectively. Our work provides a simple design strategy to prepare highly porous carbons with high carbon purity for supercapacitors application.

  10. Redox electrode materials for supercapatteries

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Linpo; Chen, George Z.

    2016-01-01

    Redox electrode materials, including transition metal oxides and electronically conducting polymers, are capable of faradaic charge transfer reactions, and play important roles in most electrochemical energy storage devices, such as supercapacitor, battery and supercapattery. Batteries are often based on redox materials with low power capability and safety concerns in some cases. Supercapacitors, particularly those based on redox inactive materials, e.g. activated carbon, can offer high power...

  11. Fractals in several electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chunyong, E-mail: zhangchy@njau.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Environment and Biosafety, Suzhou Academy of Southeast University, Dushuhu lake higher education town, Suzhou 215123 (China); Wu, Jingyu [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Fu, Degang [Suzhou Key Laboratory of Environment and Biosafety, Suzhou Academy of Southeast University, Dushuhu lake higher education town, Suzhou 215123 (China); State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Fractal geometry was employed to characterize three important electrode materials. • The surfaces of all studied electrodes were proved to be very rough. • The fractal dimensions of BDD and ACF were scale dependent. • MMO film was more uniform than BDD and ACF in terms of fractal structures. - Abstract: In the present paper, the fractal properties of boron-doped diamond (BDD), mixed metal oxide (MMO) and activated carbon fiber (ACF) electrode have been studied by SEM imaging at different scales. Three materials are self-similar with mean fractal dimension in the range of 2.6–2.8, confirming that they all exhibit very rough surfaces. Specifically, it is found that MMO film is more uniform in terms of fractal structure than BDD and ACF. As a result, the intriguing characteristics make these electrodes as ideal candidates for high-performance decontamination processes.

  12. Hierarchically ordered mesoporous carbon/graphene composites as supercapacitor electrode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yanjie; Li, Zhu; Guo, Kunkun; Shao, Ting

    2016-08-25

    Hierarchically ordered mesoporous carbon/graphene (OMC/G) composites have been fabricated by means of a solvent-evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) method. The structures of these composites are characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption at 77 K. These results indicate that OMC/G composites possess the hierarchically ordered hexagonal p6mm mesostructure with the lattice unit parameter and pore diameter close to 10 nm and 3 nm, respectively. The specific surface area of OMC/G composites after KOH activation is high up to 2109.2 m(2) g(-1), which is significantly greater than OMC after activation (1474.6 m(2) g(-1)). Subsequently, the resulting OMC/G composites as supercapacitor electrode materials exhibit an outstanding capacitance as high as 329.5 F g(-1) in 6 M KOH electrolyte at a current density of 0.5 A g(-1), which is much higher than both OMC (234.2 F g(-1)) and a sample made by mechanical mixing of OMC with graphene (217.7 F g(-1)). In addition, the obtained OMC/G composites display good cyclic stability, and the final capacitance retention is approximately 96% after 5000 cycles. These ordered mesopores in the OMC/G composites are beneficial to the accessibility and rapid diffusion of the electrolyte, while graphene in OMC/G composites can also facilitate the transport of electrons during the processes of charging and discharging owing to its high conductivity, thereby leading to an excellent energy storage performance. The method demonstrated in this work would open up a new route to design and develop graphene-based architectures for supercapacitor applications.

  13. Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1999-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid partides being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy.

  14. Oxygen-rich hierarchical porous carbon made from pomelo peel fiber as electrode material for supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Wenlong; Xiao, Dan; Wang, Xinhui

    2017-09-01

    Oxygen-rich hierarchical porous carbon has been fabricated using pomelo peel fiber as a carbon source via an improved KOH activation method. The morphology and chemical composition of the obtained carbon materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), electron microscopy (EM), Raman spectra and elemental analysis. The unique porous structure with abundant oxygen functional groups is favorable to capacitive behavior, and the as-prepared carbon material exhibits high specific capacitance of 222.6 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 in 6 M KOH and superior stability over 5000 cycles. This work not only describes a simple way to prepare high-performance carbon material from the discarded pomelo peel, but also provides a strategy for its disposal issue and contributes to the environmental improvement.

  15. Hemi-ordered nanoporous carbon electrode material for highly selective determination of nitrite in physiological and environmental systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shenghai; Wu, Hongmin; Wu, Ying; Shi, Hongyan; Feng, Xun; Jiang, Shang; Chen, Jian; Song, Wenbo, E-mail: wbsong@jlu.edu.cn

    2014-08-01

    Hemi-ordered nanoporous carbon (HONC) was obtained from a mesoporous silica template through a nano-replication method using furfuryl alcohol as the carbon source. The structure and morphology of HONC were characterized and analyzed in detail by X-ray diffraction, N{sub 2}-sorption, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. HONC was then demonstrated as active electrode material for selective determination of nitrite in either physiological or environmental system. Well separated oxidation peaks of ascorbic acid, dopamine, uric acid and nitrite were observed in physiological system, and simultaneous discrimination of catechol, hydroquinone, resorcinol and nitrite in environmental system was also accomplished. Distinctly improved performances for selective determination of nitrite (such as significantly fast and sensitive current response with especially high selectivity) coexisted with ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid in the physiological system, as well as with catechol, hydroquinone and resorcinol in the environmental system were achieved at HONC electrode material. The excellent discriminating ability and high selectivity for NO{sub 2}{sup −} determination were ascribed to the good electronic conductivity, unique hemi-ordered porous structure, large surface area and large number of edge plane defect sites contained on the surface of nanopore walls of HONC. Results in this work demonstrated that HONC is one of the promising catalytic electrode materials for nitrite sensor fabrication. - Highlights: • Hemi-ordered nanoporous carbon as an active electrode material • Good discriminating ability towards NO{sub 2}{sup −} from physiological or environmental system • Highly selective determination of nitrite with fast and sensitive current response.

  16. IrOx-carbon nanotube hybrids: a nanostructured material for electrodes with increased charge capacity in neural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero, Nina M; Lichtenstein, Mathieu P; Pérez, Estela; Cabana, Laura; Suñol, Cristina; Casañ-Pastor, Nieves

    2014-10-01

    Nanostructured iridium oxide-carbon nanotube hybrids (IrOx-CNT) deposited as thin films by dynamic electrochemical methods are suggested as novel materials for neural electrodes. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) serve as scaffolds for growing the oxide, yielding a tridimensional structure with improved physical, chemical and electrical properties, in addition to high biocompatibility. In biological environments, SWCNT encapsulation by IrOx makes more resistant electrodes and prevents the nanotube release to the media, preventing cellular toxicity. Chemical, electrochemical, structural and surface characterization of the hybrids has been accomplished. The high performance of the material in electrochemical measurements and the significant increase in cathodal charge storage capacity obtained for the hybrid in comparison with bare IrOx represent a significant advance in electric field application in biosystems, while its cyclability is also an order of magnitude greater than pure IrOx. Moreover, experiments using in vitro neuronal cultures suggest high biocompatibility for IrOx-CNT coatings and full functionality of neurons, validating this material for use in neural electrodes. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis of nanoporous carbons from mixtures of coal tar pitch and furfural and their application as electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrova, B.; Tsyntsarski, B.; Budinova, T.; Petrov, N.; Ania, C.O.; Parra, J.B.; Mladenov, M.; Tzvetkov, P.

    2010-11-15

    Synthetic nanoporous carbons are prepared by polymerization of mixtures containing coal tar pitch and furfural in different proportions, followed by carbonization of obtained solid product and steam activation of the carbonizate. The chemical composition of the initial mixture significantly affects the physicochemical properties (surface area, pore structure, electro resistance and amount of oxygen-containing groups on the surface) of the obtained materials. The incorporation of oxygen in the precursor mixture by means of furfural, has a strong influence in the synthetic step; increasing the furfural content facilitates the formation of a solid product characterized by a large oxygen content. Moreover, the solid product is more reactive towards activation as the furfural content increases, giving rise to nanoporous carbons with large surface areas and unique chemical features (high density of oxygen functionalities of basic nature). These nanoporous carbons have been investigated as electrodes in electrochemical applications. (author)

  18. Structural and Optical Properties of Spray Coated Carbon Hybrid Materials Applied to Transparent and Flexible Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Wroblewski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent and flexible electrodes were fabricated with cost-effective spray coating technique on polyethylene terephthalate foil substrates. Particularly designed paint compositions contained mixtures of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and graphene platelets to achieve their desired rheology and electrooptical layers parameters. Electrodes were prepared in standard technological conditions without the need of clean rooms or high temperature processing. The sheet resistance and optical transmittance of fabricated layers were tuned with the number of coatings; then the most suitable relation of these parameters was designated through the figure of merit. Optical measurements were performed in the range of wavelengths from 250 to 2500 nm with a spectrophotometer with the integration sphere. Spectral dependence of total and diffusive optical transmission for thin films with graphene platelet covered by multiwalled carbon nanotubes was designated which allowed determining the relative absorbance. Layer parameters such as thickness, refractive index, energy gap, and effective reflectance coefficient show the correlation of electrooptical properties with the technological conditions. Moreover the structural properties of fabricated layers were examined by means of the X-ray diffraction.

  19. Role of the Material Electrodes on Resistive Behaviour of Carbon Nanotube-Based Gas Sensors for H2S Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lucci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Miniaturized gas-sensing devices that use single-walled carbon nanotubes as active material have been fabricated using two different electrode materials, namely, Au/Cr and NbN. The resistive sensors have been assembled aligning by dielectrophoresis the nanotube bundles between 40 μm spaced Au/Cr or NbN multifinger electrodes. The sensing devices have been tested for detection of the H2S gas, in the concentration range 10–100 ppm, using N2 as carrier gas. No resistance changes were detected using sensor fabricated with NbN electrodes, whereas the response of the sensor fabricated with Au/Cr electrodes was characterized by an increase of the resistance upon gas exposure. The main performances of this sensor are a detection limit for H2S of 10 ppm and a recovery time of few minutes. The present study suggests that the mechanism involved in H2S gas detection is not a direct charge transfer between molecules and nanotubes. The hypothesis is that detection occurs through passivation of the Au surfaces by H2S molecules and modification of the contact resistance at the Au/nanotube interface.

  20. Ordered mesoporous carbide-derived carbon as new high performance electrode material in supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenblit, Yair; Yushin, Gleb [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Rose, Marcus; Kockrick, Emanuel; Borchardt, Lars; Kaskel, Stefan [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Kvit, Alexander [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The preparation and application of templated ordered mesoporous CDC overcome the present limitations of slow intraparticle ion transport and poor control over the biomodal pore size distribution in the carbons currently used, and shows a route for further performance enhancement. The ordered mesoporous channels in SiC CDC serve as ion-highways and allow for very fast ionic transport into the bulk of the CDC particles, thus leading to an excellent frequency response and outstanding capacitance retention at high current densities. The ordered mesopores in SiC allow for a greatly increased specific surface area and specific capacitance of SiC CDC, nearly doubling the previously reported values. The use of CDC produced from other carbides, including mesoporous TiC or VC is expected to further enhance the energy storage characteristics of EDLC electrodes, while optimization of the mesopore size is expected to enhance the power characteristics of EDLC. (orig.)

  1. Preparation of graphene nanosheet/carbon nanotube/polyaniline composite as electrode material for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Jun; Wei, Tong; Fan, Zhuangjun; Zhang, Milin; Shen, Xiande [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Qian, Weizhong; Wei, Fei [Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Reaction Engineering and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-05-01

    Graphene nanosheet/carbon nanotube/polyaniline (GNS/CNT/PANI) composite is synthesized via in situ polymerization. GNS/CNT/PANI composite exhibits the specific capacitance of 1035 F g{sup -1} (1 mV s{sup -1}) in 6 M of KOH, which is a little lower than GNS/PANI composite (1046 F g{sup -1}), but much higher than pure PANI (115 F g{sup -1}) and CNT/PANI composite (780 F g{sup -1}). Though a small amount of CNTs (1 wt.%) is added into GNS, the cycle stability of GNS/CNT/PANI composite is greatly improved due to the maintenance of highly conductive path as well as mechanical strength of the electrode during doping/dedoping processes. After 1000 cycles, the capacitance decreases only 6% of initial capacitance compared to 52% and 67% for GNS/PANI and CNT/PANI composites. (author)

  2. Template-free synthesis of renewable macroporous carbon via yeast cells for high-performance supercapacitor electrode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongmei; He, Wenhui; Zong, Chenghua; Lu, Lehui

    2013-03-01

    The urgent need for sustainable development has forced material scientists to explore novel materials for next-generation energy storage devices through a green and facile strategy. In this context, yeast, which is a large group of single cell fungi widely distributed in nature environments, will be an ideal candidate for developing effective electrode materials with fascinating structures for high-performance supercapacitors. With this in mind, herein, we present the first example of creating three-dimensional (3D) interpenetrating macroporous carbon materials via a template-free method, using the green, renewable, and widespread yeast cells as the precursors. Remarkably, when the as-prepared materials are used as the electrode materials for supercapacitors, they exhibit outstanding performance with high specific capacitance of 330 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1), and good stability, even after 1000 charge/discharge cycles. The approach developed in this work provides a new view of making full use of sustainable resources endowed by nature, opening the avenue to designing and producing robust materials with great promising applications in high-performance energy-storage devices.

  3. A flexible graphene/multiwalled carbon nanotube film as a high performance electrode material for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiangjun, Lu [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Yudao Street 29, Nanjing 210016, Jiangsu (China); Dou Hui, E-mail: dh_msc@nuaa.edu.cn [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Yudao Street 29, Nanjing 210016, Jiangsu (China); Bo, Gao [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Yudao Street 29, Nanjing 210016, Jiangsu (China); Changzhou, Yuan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China); Yang, Sudong; Liang, Hao; Laifa, Shen [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Yudao Street 29, Nanjing 210016, Jiangsu (China); Zhang Xiaogang, E-mail: azhangxg@nuaa.edu.cn [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Yudao Street 29, Nanjing 210016, Jiangsu (China)

    2011-05-30

    Highlights: > A flexible graphene/multiwalled carbon nanotube (GN/MWCNT) film fabricated by flow-directed assembly and hydrazine to reduce. > The MWCNTs in the obtained composite film not only efficiently increase the basal spacing but also bridge the defects for electron transfer between GN sheets. > The freestanding GN/MWCNT film has a potential application in flexible energy storage devices. - Abstract: A flexible graphene/multiwalled carbon nanotube (GN/MWCNT) film has been fabricated by flow-directed assembly from a complex dispersion of graphite oxide (GO) and pristine MWCNTs followed by the use of gas-based hydrazine to reduce the GO into GN sheets. The GN/MWCNT (16 wt.% MWCNTs) film characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectra, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope has a layered structure with MWCNTs uniformly sandwiched between the GN sheets. The MWCNTs in the obtained composite film not only efficiently increase the basal spacing but also bridge the defects for electron transfer between GN sheets, increasing electrolyte/electrode contact area and facilitating transportation of electrolyte ion and electron into the inner region of electrode. Electrochemical data demonstrate that the GN/MWCNT film possesses a specific capacitance of 265 F g{sup -1} at 0.1 A g{sup -1} and a good rate capability (49% capacity retention at 50 A g{sup -1}), and displays an excellent specific capacitance retention of 97% after 2000 continuous charge/discharge cycles. The results of electrochemical measurements indicate that the freestanding GN/MWCNT film has a potential application in flexible energy storage devices.

  4. A flexible graphene/multiwalled carbon nanotube film as a high performance electrode material for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiangjun; Dou Hui; Gao Bo; Yuan Changzhou; Yang, Sudong; Hao Liang; Shen Laifa; Zhang Xiaogang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A flexible graphene/multiwalled carbon nanotube (GN/MWCNT) film fabricated by flow-directed assembly and hydrazine to reduce. → The MWCNTs in the obtained composite film not only efficiently increase the basal spacing but also bridge the defects for electron transfer between GN sheets. → The freestanding GN/MWCNT film has a potential application in flexible energy storage devices. - Abstract: A flexible graphene/multiwalled carbon nanotube (GN/MWCNT) film has been fabricated by flow-directed assembly from a complex dispersion of graphite oxide (GO) and pristine MWCNTs followed by the use of gas-based hydrazine to reduce the GO into GN sheets. The GN/MWCNT (16 wt.% MWCNTs) film characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectra, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope has a layered structure with MWCNTs uniformly sandwiched between the GN sheets. The MWCNTs in the obtained composite film not only efficiently increase the basal spacing but also bridge the defects for electron transfer between GN sheets, increasing electrolyte/electrode contact area and facilitating transportation of electrolyte ion and electron into the inner region of electrode. Electrochemical data demonstrate that the GN/MWCNT film possesses a specific capacitance of 265 F g -1 at 0.1 A g -1 and a good rate capability (49% capacity retention at 50 A g -1 ), and displays an excellent specific capacitance retention of 97% after 2000 continuous charge/discharge cycles. The results of electrochemical measurements indicate that the freestanding GN/MWCNT film has a potential application in flexible energy storage devices.

  5. Interconnecting Carbon Fibers with the In-situ Electrochemically Exfoliated Graphene as Advanced Binder-free Electrode Materials for Flexible Supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuqin; Wang, Shuangyin

    2015-07-07

    Flexible energy storage devices are highly demanded for various applications. Carbon cloth (CC) woven by carbon fibers (CFs) is typically used as electrode or current collector for flexible devices. The low surface area of CC and the presence of big gaps (ca. micro-size) between individual CFs lead to poor performance. Herein, we interconnect individual CFs through the in-situ exfoliated graphene with high surface area by the electrochemical intercalation method. The interconnected CFs are used as both current collector and electrode materials for flexible supercapacitors, in which the in-situ exfoliated graphene act as active materials and conductive "binders". The in-situ electrochemical intercalation technique ensures the low contact resistance between electrode (graphene) and current collector (carbon cloth) with enhanced conductivity. The as-prepared electrode materials show significantly improved performance for flexible supercapacitors.

  6. The preparation and performance of calcium carbide-derived carbon/polyaniline composite electrode material for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Liping; Wang, Xianyou; Li, Na; An, Hongfang; Chen, Huajie [School of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Minister of Education, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Wang, Ying; Guo, Jia [School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmacy, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Hubei 430073 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Calcium carbide (CaC{sub 2})-derived carbon (CCDC)/polyaniline (PANI) composite materials are prepared by in situ chemical oxidation polymerization of an aniline solution containing well-dispersed CCDC. The structure and morphology of CCDC/PANI composite are characterized by Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N{sub 2} sorption isotherms. It has been found that PANI was uniformly deposited on the surface and the inner pores of CCDC. The supercapacitive behaviors of the CCDC/PANI composite materials are investigated with cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge and cycle life measurements. The results show that the CCDC/PANI composite electrodes have higher specific capacitances than the as grown CCDC electrodes and higher stability than the conducting polymers. The capacitance of CCDC/PANI composite electrode is as high as 713.4 F g{sup -1} measured by cyclic voltammetry at 1 mV s{sup -1}. Besides, the capacitance retention of coin supercapacitor remained 80.1% after 1000 cycles. (author)

  7. Dilute NiO/carbon nanofiber composites derived from metal organic framework fibers as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ying; Yang, Feng; Hu, Hongru; Lee, Sungsik; Wang, Yue; Zhao, Hairui; Zeng, Dehong; Zhou, Biao; Hao, Shijie

    2017-01-01

    A new type of carbon nanofiber (CNF) dominated electrode materials decorated with dilute NiO particles (NiO/CNF) has been in situ fabricated by direct pyrolysis of Ni, Zn-containing metal organic framework fibers, which are skillfully constructed by assembling different proportional NiCl2·6H2O and Zn(Ac)2·2H2O with trimesic acid in the presence of N,N-dimethylformamide. With elegant combination of advantages of CNF and evenly dispersed NiO particles, as well as successful modulation of conductivity and porosity of final composites, our NiO/CNF composites display well-defined capacitive features. A high capacitance of 14926 F g–1 was obtained in 6 M KOH electrolyte when the contribution from 0.43 wt% NiO was considered alone, contributing to over 35% of the total capacitance (234 F g–1 ). This significantly exceeds its theoretical specific capacitance of 2584 F g–1. It has been established from the Ragone plot that a largest energy density of 33.4 Wh kg–1 was obtained at the current density of 0.25 A g–1. Furthermore, such composite electrode materials show good rate capability and outstanding cycling stability up to 5000 times (only 10% loss). The present study provides a brand-new approach to design a high capacitance and stable supercapacitor electrode and the concept is extendable to other composite materials. Keywords: Metal organic framework; Nickel oxide; Carbon nanofiber; In situ synthesis; Capacitance

  8. Soybean Root-Derived Hierarchical Porous Carbon as Electrode Material for High-Performance Supercapacitors in Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Nannan; Li, Min; Wang, Yong; Sun, Xingkai; Wang, Feng; Yang, Ru

    2016-12-14

    Soybeans are extensively cultivated worldwide as human food. However, large quantities of soybean roots (SRs), which possess an abundant three-dimensional (3D) structure, remain unused and produce enormous pressure on the environment. Here, 3D hierarchical porous carbon was prepared by the facile carbonization of SRs followed by chemical activation. The as-prepared material, possessing large specific surface area (2143 m 2 g -1 ), good electrical conductivity, and unique 3D hierarchical porosity, shows outstanding electrochemical performance as an electrode material for supercapacitors, such as a high capacitance (276 F g -1 at 0.5 A g -1 ), superior cycle stability (98% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles at 5 A g -1 ), and good rate capability in a symmetric two-electrode supercapacitor in 6 M KOH. Furthermore, the maximum energy density of as-assembled symmetric supercapacitor can reach 100.5 Wh kg -1 in neat EMIM BF 4 . Moreover, a value of 40.7 Wh kg -1 is maintained at ultrahigh power density (63000 W kg -1 ). These results show that the as-assembled supercapacitor can simultaneously deliver superior energy and power density.

  9. Carbon/CuO nanosphere-anchored g-C3N4 nanosheets as ternary electrode material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattikuti, S. V. Prabhakar; Reddy, B. Purusottam; Byon, Chan; Shim, Jaesool

    2018-06-01

    Novel electrode materials for supercapacitors comprised of carbon and copper oxide (CuO) nanospheres on graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheets, denoted as C/CuO@g-C3N4 are self-assembled via a one-step co-pyrolysis decomposition method. The pure g-C3N4 and C/CuO@g-C3N4 were confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N2 adsorption/desorption studies and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The specific capacitance was 247.2 F g-1 in 0.5 M NaOH at a current density of 1 A g-1, and more than 92.1% of the capacitance was retained after 6000 cycles. The property enhancement was ascribed to the synergistic effects of the three components in the composite. These results suggest that C/CuO@g-C3N4 possessed an excellent cyclic stability with respect to their capacity performance as electrode materials.

  10. Mesoporous MnO2/carbon aerogel composites as promising electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gao-Ren; Feng, Zhan-Ping; Ou, Yan-Nan; Wu, Dingcai; Fu, Ruowen; Tong, Ye-Xiang

    2010-02-16

    MnO(2) as one of the most promising candidates for electrochemical supercapacitors has attracted much attention because of its superior electrochemical performance, low cost, and environmentally benign nature. In this Letter, we explored a novel route to prepare mesoporous MnO(2)/carbon aerogel composites by electrochemical deposition assisted by gas bubbles. The products were characterized by energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The MnO(2) deposits are found to have high purity and have a mesoporous structure that will optimize the electronic and ionic conductivity to minimize the total resistance of the system and thereby maximize the performance characteristics of this material for use in supercapacitor electrodes. The results of nitrogen adsorption-desorption experiments and electrochemical measurements showed that these obtained mesoporous MnO(2)/carbon aerogel composites had a large specific surface area (120 m(2)/g), uniform pore-size distribution (around 5 nm), high specific capacitance (515.5 F/g), and good stability over 1000 cycles, which give these composites potential application as high-performance supercapacitor electrode materials.

  11. Carbon nanostructures reduced from graphite oxide as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurii M. Shulga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review we present information about obtaining and properties of carbon nanomaterials (graphite oxide, grapheme oxide, reduced graphene oxide, which are used as electrodes for supercapacitors (SC. This review describes methods of obtaining graphite oxide, followed by separation of graphene oxide and reducing graphene oxide by thermal, photochemical and chemical methods. Information on the composition and concentration of functional groups in graphene oxide and the elemental composition is described in detail. Results of the analysis of еру physical, electrochemical, thermal and optical properties of the graphene oxide and its derivatives are shown. The ratio of oxygen-containing functional groups was estimated by XPS. The presence of partial surface reduction is found. Hydroge-containing functional groups are characterized by IR spectroscopy. Method of estimating the size of graphene crystallites by Raman spectroscopy is shown. Mass loss upon heating is analyzed by thermogravimetry. The gassing of graphene oxide at thermal and photochemical reduction is studied by mass spectrometry. The difference between the abovementioned reduction methods is clearly demonstrated by the difference in the composition of the evolved gases. Also the chemical method of graphene oxide reduction with hydrazine is described. Review considers the literature data which illustrate the most interesting, from the Authors׳ point of view, aspects of that field of research.

  12. Nitrogen-Doped Porous Carbons As Electrode Materials for High-Performance Supercapacitor and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Gao, Zhiyong; Chang, Jiuli; Liu, Xiao; Wu, Dapeng; Xu, Fang; Guo, Yuming; Jiang, Kai

    2015-09-16

    Activated N-doped porous carbons (a-NCs) were synthesized by pyrolysis and alkali activation of graphene incorporated melamine formaldehyde resin (MF). The moderate N doping levels, mesopores rich porous texture, and incorporation of graphene enable the applications of a-NCs in surface and conductivity dependent electrode materials for supercapacitor and dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Under optimal activation temperature of 700 °C, the afforded sample, labeled as a-NC700, possesses a specific surface area of 1302 m2 g(-1), a N fraction of 4.5%, and a modest graphitization. When used as a supercapacitor electrode, a-NC700 offers a high specific capacitance of 296 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1), an acceptable rate capability, and a high cycling stability in 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte. As a result, a-NC700 supercapacitor delivers energy densities of 5.0-3.5 Wh kg(-1) under power densities of 83-1609 W kg(-1). Moreover, a-NC700 also demonstrates high electrocatalytic activity for I3- reduction. When employed as a counter electrode (CE) of DSSC, a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.9% is achieved, which is comparable to that of the Pt CE based counterpart (7.1%). The excellent capacitive and photovoltaic performances highlight the potential of a-NCs in sustainable energy devices.

  13. Facile Fabrication of 3D Hierarchically Porous Carbon Foam as Supercapacitor Electrode Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfang Gao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchically porous 3D starch-derived carbon foam (SCF with a high specific surface area (up to 1693 m2·g−1 was first prepared by a facile solvothermal treatment, in which Na2CO3 is used as both the template and activating agent. The hierarchically porous structure and high specific area endow the SCF with favorable electrochemical properties such as a high specific capacitance of 179.6 F·g−1 at 0.5 A·g−1 and a great rate capability and cycling stability, which suggest that the material can be a promising candidate for energy storage applications.

  14. Preparation of activated carbon aerogel and its application to electrode material for electric double layer capacitor in organic electrolyte: Effect of activation temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Soon Hyung; Lee, Eunji; Kim, Myung-Soo; Jung, Ji Chul [Myongji University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bum-Soo; Kim, Sang-Gil; Lee, Byung-Jun [Vitzrocell Co., Yesan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Carbon aerogel was chemically activated with KOH at various activation temperatures with the aim of improving the electrochemical performance of carbon aerogel for EDLC electrode. Electrochemical performance of activated carbon aerogel electrode was determined by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge methods using coin-type EDLC cell in organic electrolyte. Activation temperature played an important role in determining the electrochemical performance of activated carbon aerogel for EDLC electrode. Specific capacitance of activated carbon aerogel at a high current density (5 A/g) showed a volcano-shaped curve with respect to activation temperature. Excessively high activation temperature could have an adverse effect on the electrochemical properties of activated carbon aerogel due to the low electrical conductivity caused by a collapse of characteristic structure of carbon aerogel. Among the carbon samples, carbon aerogel activated at 800 .deg. C with a high surface area and a well-developed porous structure exhibited the highest specific capacitance. In addition, carbon aerogel activated at 800 .deg. C retained a considerable specific capacitance at a high current density even after 1000 cycles of charge/discharge. Therefore, it is concluded that carbon aerogel activated with KOH at 800 .deg. C can serve as an efficient electrode material for commercial EDLC with a high power density.

  15. Template-directed synthesis of pillared-porous carbon nanosheet architectures: High-performance electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Zhuangjun; Liu, Yang; Yan, Jun; Wang, Qian; Wei, Tong [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China); Ning, Guoqing [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing, Changping (China); Zhi, Linjie [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China, Zhongguancun, Beijing (China); Wei, Fei [Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Reaction Engineering and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2012-04-15

    3D pillared-porous carbon nanosheets with supporting carbon pillars between the carbon layers is prepared by the carbonization of pitch on porous MgO templates. This unique structure endows the high-rate transportation of electrolyte ions and electrons throughout the electrode matrix, resulting in excellent electrochemical performance. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Porous carbon as electrode material in direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) synthesized by the direct carbonization of MOF-5

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Inayatali

    2014-01-12

    Porous carbon (PC-900) was prepared by direct carbonization of porous metal-organic framework (MOF)-5 (Zn4O(bdc)3, bdc=1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) at 900 °C. The carbon material was deposited with PtM (M=Fe, Ni, Co, and Cu (20 %) metal loading) nanoparticles using the polyol reduction method, and catalysts PtM/PC-900 were designed for direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs). However, herein, we are reporting PtFe/PC-900 catalyst combination which has exhibited superior performance among other options. This catalyst was characterized by powder XRD, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) technique. The electrocatalytic capability of the catalyst for ethanol electrooxidation was investigated using cyclic voltammetry and direct ethanol single cell testing. The results were compared with those of PtFe and Pt supported on Vulcan XC72 carbon catalysts (PFe/CX-72 and Pt/XC-72) prepared via the same method. It has been observed that the catalyst PtFe/PC-900 developed in this work showed an outstanding normalized activity per gram of Pt (6.8 mA/g Pt) and superior power density (121 mW/cm2 at 90 °C) compared to commercially available carbon-supported catalysts. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.

  17. Porous carbon as electrode material in direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) synthesized by the direct carbonization of MOF-5

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Inayatali; Badshah, Amin; Haider, Naghma; Ullah, Shafiq; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Nadeem, Muhammad Arif

    2014-01-01

    Porous carbon (PC-900) was prepared by direct carbonization of porous metal-organic framework (MOF)-5 (Zn4O(bdc)3, bdc=1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) at 900 °C. The carbon material was deposited with PtM (M=Fe, Ni, Co, and Cu (20 %) metal loading) nanoparticles using the polyol reduction method, and catalysts PtM/PC-900 were designed for direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs). However, herein, we are reporting PtFe/PC-900 catalyst combination which has exhibited superior performance among other options. This catalyst was characterized by powder XRD, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) technique. The electrocatalytic capability of the catalyst for ethanol electrooxidation was investigated using cyclic voltammetry and direct ethanol single cell testing. The results were compared with those of PtFe and Pt supported on Vulcan XC72 carbon catalysts (PFe/CX-72 and Pt/XC-72) prepared via the same method. It has been observed that the catalyst PtFe/PC-900 developed in this work showed an outstanding normalized activity per gram of Pt (6.8 mA/g Pt) and superior power density (121 mW/cm2 at 90 °C) compared to commercially available carbon-supported catalysts. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.

  18. Method for making thin carbon foam electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekala, Richard W.; Mayer, Steven T.; Kaschmitter, James L.; Morrison, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    A method for fabricating thin, flat carbon electrodes by infiltrating highly porous carbon papers, membranes, felts, metal fibers/powders, or fabrics with an appropriate carbon foam precursor material. The infiltrated carbon paper, for example, is then cured to form a gel-saturated carbon paper, which is subsequently dried and pyrolyzed to form a thin sheet of porous carbon. The material readily stays flat and flexible during curing and pyrolyzing to form thin sheets. Precursor materials include polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polymethylacrylonitrile (PMAN), resorcinol/formaldehyde, catechol/formaldehyde, phenol/formaldehyde, etc., or mixtures thereof. These thin films are ideal for use as high power and energy electrodes in batteries, capacitors, and fuel cells, and are potentially useful for capacitive deionization, filtration and catalysis.

  19. Anchoring alpha-manganese oxide nanocrystallites on multi-walled carbon nanotubes as electrode materials for supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Li; Qin Zongyi, E-mail: phqin@dhu.edu.cn; Wang Lingfeng; Liu Hongjin; Zhu Meifang [Donghua University, State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering (China)

    2010-09-15

    The partial coverage of manganese oxide (MnO{sub 2}) particles was achieved on the surfaces of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) through a facile hydrothermal process. These particles were demonstrated to be alpha-manganese dioxide ({alpha}-MnO{sub 2}) nanocrystallites, and exhibited the appearance of the whisker-shaped crystals with the length of 80-100 nm. In such a configuration, the uncovered CNTs in the nanocomposite acted as a good conductive pathway and the whisker-shaped MnO{sub 2} nanocrystallites efficiently increased the contact of the electrolyte with the active materials. Thus, the highest specific capacitance of 550 F g{sup -1} was achieved using the resulting nanocomposites as the supercapacitor electrode. In addition, the enhancement of the capacity retention was observed, with the nanocomposite losing only 10% of the maximum capacity after 1,500 cycles.

  20. Anchoring alpha-manganese oxide nanocrystallites on multi-walled carbon nanotubes as electrode materials for supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Qin, Zong-Yi; Wang, Ling-Feng; Liu, Hong-Jin; Zhu, Mei-Fang

    2010-09-01

    The partial coverage of manganese oxide (MnO2) particles was achieved on the surfaces of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) through a facile hydrothermal process. These particles were demonstrated to be alpha-manganese dioxide (α-MnO2) nanocrystallites, and exhibited the appearance of the whisker-shaped crystals with the length of 80-100 nm. In such a configuration, the uncovered CNTs in the nanocomposite acted as a good conductive pathway and the whisker-shaped MnO2 nanocrystallites efficiently increased the contact of the electrolyte with the active materials. Thus, the highest specific capacitance of 550 F g-1 was achieved using the resulting nanocomposites as the supercapacitor electrode. In addition, the enhancement of the capacity retention was observed, with the nanocomposite losing only 10% of the maximum capacity after 1,500 cycles.

  1. Hierarchical micro- and mesoporous carbide-derived carbon as a high-performance electrode material in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Marcus; Korenblit, Yair; Kockrick, Emanuel; Borchardt, Lars; Oschatz, Martin; Kaskel, Stefan; Yushin, Gleb

    2011-04-18

    Ordered mesoporous carbide-derived carbon (OM-CDC) materials produced by nanocasting of ordered mesoporous silica templates are characterized by a bimodal pore size distribution with a high ratio of micropores. The micropores result in outstanding adsorption capacities and the well-defined mesopores facilitate enhanced kinetics in adsorption processes. Here, for the first time, a systematic study is presented, in which the effects of synthesis temperature on the electrochemical performance of these materials in supercapacitors based on a 1 M aqueous solution of sulfuric acid and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid are reported. Cyclic voltammetry shows the specific capacitance of the OM-CDC materials exceeds 200 F g(-1) in the aqueous electrolyte and 185 F g(-1) in the ionic liquid, when measured in a symmetric configuration in voltage ranges of up to 0.6 and 2 V, respectively. The ordered mesoporous channels in the produced OM-CDC materials serve as ion-highways and allow for very fast ionic transport into the bulk of the OM-CDC particles. At room temperature the enhanced ion transport leads to 75% and 90% of the capacitance retention at current densities in excess of ∼10 A g(-1) in ionic liquid and aqueous electrolytes, respectively. The supercapacitors based on 250-300 μm OM-CDC electrodes demonstrate an operating frequency of up to 7 Hz in aqueous electrolyte. The combination of high specific capacitance and outstanding rate capabilities of the OM-CDC materials is unmatched by state-of-the art activated carbons and strictly microporous CDC materials. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Carbon coated CoS_2 thermal battery electrode material with enhanced discharge performances and air stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Song; Deng, Yafeng; Mei, Jun; Yang, Zhaotang; Lau, Woon-Ming; Liu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel carbon coated CoS_2 composite is prepared and investigated as a cathode material for thermal batteries. - Highlights: • A novel C@CoS_2 composite is successfully prepared by hydrothermal method. • The growth of CoS_2 in the glucose solution results in a smaller grain size. • The coating of carbon favors electron transfer and buffers polysulfides formation. • The in situ coated carbon layer effectively prevents the oxidation of CoS_2. • The C@CoS_2 composite shows competitive thermal stability and discharge property. - Abstract: Cobalt disulfide (CoS_2) is a promising thermal battery electrode material for its superior thermal stability and discharge performance. However, the low natural resource and poor air stability restrict its application in thermal battery fabrication. In this work, carbon coated CoS_2 composite was prepared by a facile one-pot hydrothermal method with glucose as carbon source. During the growth of CoS_2, the glucose molecules were in situ adsorbed and carbonized on the surface of the as-synthesized CoS_2, and the resultant carbon coating provided improved electrical conductivity and discharge performances to the composite. The thermal battery cell, which was fabricated with such a composite cathode and with a Li-Si anode, can output a capacity of 235.8 mAh g"−"1 and an energy density of 416.9 Wh kg"−"1 at a cut-off voltage of 1.7 V. This carbon coated CoS_2 composite also presented enhanced air stability. After being stored in dry air for 3 months, the composite can still provide a capacity of 232.4 mAh g"−"1 to 1.7 V, whereas the capacity of bare CoS_2 stored with the same condition dropped from 202.4 mAh g"−"1 to 189.7 mAh g"−"1.

  3. Thermal stability of disordered carbon negative-electrode materials prepared from peanut shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Izumi; Doi, Takayuki; Yamaki, Jun-ichi [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Lin, Y.Y.; Fey, George Ting-Kuo [Department of Chemistry and Material Engineering, National Central University, Chungli 32054 (China)

    2008-01-21

    The thermal stability of electrochemically lithiated disordered carbon with a poly(vinylidene difluoride) binder and 1 mol dm{sup -3} LiPF{sub 6} dissolved in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and diethyl carbonate (DEC) was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) using a hermetically sealed pan. The disordered carbon used was prepared by pyrolyzing peanut shells with porogen at temperatures above 500 C. The disordered carbon gave much larger charge and discharge capacities than graphite when a weight ratio of porogen to peanut shells was set at 5. In DSC curves, several exothermic peaks were observed at temperatures ranging from 120 to 310 C. This behavior was similar to that for electrochemically lithiated graphite, except for an exothermic peak at around 250 C. However, the lithiated disordered carbon had a higher heat value, which was evaluated by integrating a DSC curve, compared to lithiated graphite. The heat values increased with an increase in accumulated irreversible capacities. These results suggest that heat generation at elevated temperatures should increase as an amount of irreversibly trapped lithium-ion increases. On the other hand, heat values per reversible capacities for disordered carbon, which showed larger capacities than graphite, were almost comparable to that for graphite. These results indicate that several types of disordered carbon showed larger capacity than graphite, while their thermal stability was lowered accordingly. (author)

  4. Micro-mesoporous carbon spheres derived from carrageenan as electrode material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yang; Yang, Xin; Zhu, Bing; Liu, Pei-Fang; Lu, Hai-Ting

    2014-12-01

    The polysaccharide carrageenan is used as a natural precursor to prepare micro-mesoporous carbon spheres. The carbon spheres were synthesized by hydrothermal carbonization of carrageenan, and subsequent chemical activation by KOH at different temperatures. The obtained micro-mesoporous carbon spheres have high surface area (up to 2502 m2 g-1) and large pore volume (up to 1.43 cm3 g-1). Moreover, the micro- and mesoporosity can be finely tuned be modifying the activation temperatures in the range of 700-900 °C. The carbon spheres activated at 900 °C present high specific capacitance of 230 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 and good ion transport kinetics. The good capacitive performance can be ascribed to the high specific surface area, well-controlled micro- and mesoporosity and narrow pore size distribution.

  5. A facile approach for the synthesis of monolithic hierarchical porous carbons – high performance materials for amine based CO2 capture and supercapacitor electrode

    KAUST Repository

    Estevez, Luis

    2013-05-03

    An ice templating coupled with hard templating and physical activation approach is reported for the synthesis of hierarchically porous carbon monoliths with tunable porosities across all three length scales (macro- meso- and micro), with ultrahigh specific pore volumes [similar]11.4 cm3 g−1. The materials function well as amine impregnated supports for CO2 capture and as supercapacitor electrodes.

  6. Electrode for disintegrating metallic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persang, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    A graphite electrode is provided for disintegrating and removing metallic material from a workpiece, e.g., such as portions of a nuclear reactor to be repaired while in an underwater and/or radioactive environment. The electrode is provided with a plurality of openings extending outwardly, and a manifold for supplying a mixture of water and compressed gas to be discharged through the openings for sweeping away the disintegrated metallic material during use of the electrode

  7. Electrode stabilizing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali; Moore, Jeffrey S.; Odom, Susan A.

    2015-11-03

    An electrolyte includes a polar aprotic solvent; an alkali metal salt; and an electrode stabilizing compound that is a monomer, which when polymerized forms an electrically conductive polymer. The electrode stabilizing compound is a thiophene, a imidazole, a anilines, a benzene, a azulene, a carbazole, or a thiol. Electrochemical devices may incorporate such electrolytes.

  8. Synthesis of ultrathin nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon nanocages as advanced electrode materials for supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yueming; Xu, Chaofa; Chen, Guangxu; Liu, Zhaohui; Ma, Ming; Xie, Qingji; Zheng, Nanfeng; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2013-03-01

    Synthesis of nitrogen-doped carbons with large surface area, high conductivity, and suitable pore size distribution is highly desirable for high-performance supercapacitor applications. Here, we report a novel protocol for template synthesis of ultrathin nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon nanocages (CNCs) derived from polyaniline (PANI) and their excellent capacitive properties. The synthesis of CNCs involves one-pot hydrothermal synthesis of Mn3O4@PANI core-shell nanoparticles, carbonization to produce carbon coated MnO nanoparticles, and then removal of the MnO cores by acidic treatment. The CNCs prepared at an optimum carbonization temperature of 800 °C (CNCs-800) have regular frameworks, moderate graphitization, high specific surface area, good mesoporosity, and appropriate N doping. The CNCs-800 show high specific capacitance (248 F g(-1) at 1.0 A g(-1)), excellent rate capability (88% and 76% capacitance retention at 10 and 100 A g(-1), respectively), and outstanding cycling stability (~95% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles) in 6 M KOH aqueous solution. The CNCs-800 can also exhibit great pseudocapacitance in 0.5 M H2SO4 aqueous solution besides the large electrochemical double-layer capacitance. The excellent capacitance performance coupled with the facile synthesis of ultrathin nitrogen-doped graphitic CNCs indicates their great application potential in supercapacitors.

  9. Design and synthesis of porous nano-sized Sn@C/graphene electrode material with 3D carbon network for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Peichao, E-mail: lianpeichao@126.com [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Wang, Jingyi [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Cai, Dandan; Liu, Guoxue [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang, Yingying [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Wang, Haihui, E-mail: hhwang@scut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Porous nano-sized Sn@C/graphene electrode material was designed and prepared. • The preparation method presented here can avoid the agglomeration of nanoparticles. • The prepared Sn@C/graphene electrode material exhibits outstanding cyclability. - Abstract: Tin is a promising high-capacity anode material for lithium-ion batteries, but it usually suffers from the problem of poor cycling stability due to the large volume change during the charge–discharge process. In this article, porous nano-sized Sn@C/graphene electrode material with three-dimensional carbon network was designed and prepared. Reducing the size of the Sn particles to nanoscale can mitigate the absolute strain induced by the large volume change during lithiation–delithiation process, and retard particle pulverization. The porous structure can provide a void space, which helps to accommodate the volume changes of the Sn nanoparticles during the lithium uptake-release process. The carbon shell can avoid the aggregation of the Sn nanoparticles on the same piece of graphene and detachment of the pulverized Sn particles during the charge–discharge process. The 3D carbon network consisted of graphene sheets and carbon shells can not only play a structural buffering role in minimizing the mechanical stress caused by the volume change of Sn, but also keep the overall electrode highly conductive during the lithium uptake-release process. As a result, the as-prepared Sn@C/graphene nanocomposite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries exhibited outstanding cyclability. The reversible specific capacity is almost constant from the tenth cycle to the fiftieth cycle, which is about 600 mA h g{sup −1}. The strategy presented in this work may be extended to improve the cycle performances of other high-capacity electrode materials with large volume variations during charge–discharge processes.

  10. Solvothermal Synthesis of Fe2O3 Loaded Activated Carbon as Electrode Materials for High-performance Electrochemical Capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ying; Kang, Litao; Bai, Gailing; Li, Peiyang; Deng, Jiachun; Liu, Xuguang; Yang, Yongzhen; Gao, Feng; Liang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a facile solvothermal synthesis method to prepare Fe 2 O 3 /AC composites for electrochemical capacitors from Iron (III) chloride hexahydrate (FeCl 3 ·6H 2 O), activated carbon (AC, from petroleum coke), and four different precipitants (i.e., NaOH, CH 3 COONa, HMT, CO(NH 2 ) 2 ). X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis show that the products consisted of nanosized α-Fe 2 O 3 (weight ratios: 48.1, 47.9, 44.2, 44.3%) loaded onto AC particles (∼ 20 μm). Significantly, both kind and dosage of precipitants exhibit effects on the specific capacitances of Fe 2 O 3 /AC composites. The highest specific capacitance reaches up to 240 F g −1 (at a current density of 1 A g −1 in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte) when the molar ratio of CH 3 COONa: FeCl 3 is 9. On the other hand, the sample prepared with NaOH: FeCl 3 molar ratio being 1.5 exhibits excellent rate capability with specific capacitance of 215 F g −1 at 1 A g −1 , and 89.3, 82.3, 78.1, 72.6 and 65.1% capacity retention at 2, 5, 10, 20, and 40 A g −1 , respectively. These electrochemical performances are superior to other materials consisted of Fe 2 O 3 /carbon nanotube (CNT), graphene oxide (GO) or reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composites, demonstrating the great potential of Fe 2 O 3 /AC composites in the development of high-performance electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors

  11. Nitrogen-doped carbon spheres: A new high-energy-density and long-life pseudo-capacitive electrode material for electrochemical flow capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shujin; Wang, Miao; Xu, Xingtao; Li, Yandong; Li, Yanjiang; Lu, Ting; Pan, Likun

    2017-04-01

    One of the most challenging issues in developing electrochemical flow capacitor (EFC) technology is the design and synthesis of active electrode materials with high energy density and long cycle life. However, in practical cases, the energy density and cycle ability obtained currently cannot meet the practical need. In this work, we propose a new active material, nitrogen-doped carbon spheres (NCSs), as flowable electrodes for EFC application. The NCSs were prepared via one-pot hydrothermal synthesis in the presence of resorcinol/formaldehyde as carbon precursors and melamine as nitrogen precursor, followed by carbonization in nitrogen flow at various temperatures. The results of EFC experiments demonstrate that NCSs obtained at 800°C exhibit a high energy density of 13.5Whkg -1 and an excellent cycle ability, indicating the superiority of NCSs for EFC application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of natural dye and counter electrode thin films with different carbon materials for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho; Chen, Tien-Li; Kao, Mu-Jung; Chen, Chih-Hao; Chien, Shu-Hua; Jiang, Lii-Jenq

    2011-08-01

    This study aims to deal with the film of the counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and the preparation, structure and characteristics of the extract of natural dye. This study adopts different commercial carbon materials such as black lead, carbon black and self-made TiO2-MWCNT compound nanoparticle as the film of the counter electrodes. Moreover, for the preparation of natural dyes, anthocyanins and chlorophyll dyes are extracted from mulberry and pomegranate respectively. Furthermore, the extracted anthocyanins and chlorophyll are blended into cocktail dye to complete the preparation of natural dye. Results show that the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the single-layer TiO2-MWCNT counter electrode film and the cocktail dye of the DSSCs is 0.462%.

  13. A study on optimal pore development of modified commercial activated carbons for electrode materials of supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Joon Hyuk; Lee, Hye-Min; An, Kay-Hyeok; Kim, Byung-Joo

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to understand the impact of CO2 activation of commercial activated carbons (AC) on the changes in pore characteristics and the electrochemical property. The surface structure of manufactured AC was observed with a X-ray diffraction (XRD); the pore characteristics were analyzed at N2/77 K isothermal absorption using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) equations. In addition, the electrochemical characteristics were analyzed by means of an electrolyte of 1 M (C2H5)4NBF4/propylene carbonate, using a charge/discharge test, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and impedance. The N2/77 K isothermal absorption curve of the manufactured AC falls under Type I in the classification of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and was found to largely comprise micropores. The specific surface area increased from 1690 m2/g to 2290 m2/g, and the pore volume grew from 0.80 cm3/g to 1.10 cm3/g. The analysis of electrochemical characteristics also found that the specific capacity increased from 17 F/g to 20 F/g (in a full cell condition). Based on these results, we were able to determine the pore characteristics of commercial AC through an additional activation process, which consequently allowed us to manufacture the AC with an advanced electrochemical property.

  14. Hierarchical composites of polyaniline-graphene nanoribbons-carbon nanotubes as electrode materials in all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingkai; Miao, Yue-E.; Zhang, Chao; Tjiu, Weng Weei; Yang, Zhibin; Peng, Huisheng; Liu, Tianxi

    2013-07-01

    A three dimensional (3D) polyaniline (PANI)-graphene nanoribbon (GNR)-carbon nanotube (CNT) composite, PANI-GNR-CNT, has been prepared via in situ polymerization of an aniline monomer on the surface of a GNR-CNT hybrid. Here, the 3D GNR-CNT hybrid has been conveniently prepared by partially unzipping the pristine multi-walled CNTs, while the residual CNTs act as ``bridges'' connecting different GNRs. The morphology and structure of the resulting hybrid materials have been characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electrochemical tests reveal that the hierarchical PANI-GNR-CNT composite based on the two-electrode cell possesses much higher specific capacitance (890 F g-1) than the GNR-CNT hybrid (195 F g-1) and neat PANI (283 F g-1) at a discharge current density of 0.5 A g-1. At the same time, the PANI-GNR-CNT composite displays good cycling stability with a retention ratio of 89% after 1000 cycles, suggesting that this novel PANI-GNR-CNT composite is a promising candidate for energy storage applications.

  15. Carbon film electrodes for super capacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ming X.

    1999-01-01

    A microporous carbon film for use as electrodes in energy strorage devices is disclosed, which is made by the process comprising the steps of: (1) heating a polymer film material consisting essentially of a copolymer of polyvinylidene chloride and polyvinyl chloride in an inert atmosphere to form a carbon film; and (2) activating said carbon film to form said microporous carbon film having a density between about 0.7 g/cm.sup.2 and 1 g/cm.sup.2 and a gravimetric capacitance of about between 120 F/g and 315 F/g.

  16. Preparation and electrochemical characterization of polyaniline/activated carbon composites as an electrode material for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Misoon; Kim, Seok

    2012-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI)/activated carbon (AC) composites were prepared by a chemical oxidation polymerization. To find an optimum ratio between PANI and AC which shows superior electrochemical properties, the preparation was carried out in changing the amount of added aniline monomers. The morphology of prepared composites was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The structural and thermal properties were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The electrochemical properties were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Composites showed a summation of capacitances that consisted of two origins. One is double-layer capacitance by ACs and the other is faradic capacitance by redox reaction of PANI. Fiber-like PANIs are coated on the surface of ACs and they contribute to the large surface for redox reaction. The vacancy among fibers provided the better diffusion and accessibility of ion. High capacitances of composites were originated from the network structure having vacancy made by PANI fibers. It was found that the composite prepared with 5 ml of aniline monomer and 0.25 g of AC showed the highest capacitance. Capacitance of 771 F/g was obtained at a scan rate of 5 mV/s.

  17. Phenol-formaldehyde carbon with ordered/disordered bimodal mesoporous structure as high-performance electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tingwei; Zhou, Min; Han, Guangshuai; Guan, Shiyou

    2013-11-01

    A novel phenol-formaldehyde carbon with ordered/disordered bimodal mesoporous structure is synthesized by the facile evaporation induced self-assembly strategy under a basic aqueous condition with SiO2 particles as template. The prepared bimodal mesoporous carbons (BMCs) are composed of ordered mesoporous and disordered mesoporous with diameter of about 3.5 nm and 7.0 nm, respectively. They can be employed as supercapacitor electrodes in H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte after the simple acid-treatment. BMC exhibits an exceptional specific capacitance of 344 F g-1 at the current density of 0.1 A g-1, although it has a relatively low surface area of 722 m2 g-1. And the BMC electrode displays an excellent cycling stability over 10,000 cycles.

  18. Aluminum-carbon composite electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmandi, C. Joseph; Dispennette, John M.

    1998-07-07

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg.

  19. Estimation of cerium and lanthanum content in core material of high intensity carbon arc electrodes by x-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagpal, K.C.; Bhavalkar, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    The X-ray fluorescence method has been used to determine the weight percentages of cerium and lanthanum in the core material of high intensity carbon arc electrodes from the calibration curves plotted between the weight percentages of these elements and the peak-intensity ratios of CeLsub(α1), and LaLsub(α1) peaks to the neighbouring peak SnLsub(α1) due to an internal standard element. (author)

  20. Bacterial-cellulose-derived carbon nanofiber@MnO₂ and nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber electrode materials: an asymmetric supercapacitor with high energy and power density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Feng; Huang, Zhi-Hong; Liang, Hai-Wei; Guan, Qing-Fang; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2013-09-14

    A new kind of high-performance asymmetric supercapacitor is designed with pyrolyzed bacterial cellulose (p-BC)-coated MnO₂ as a positive electrode material and nitrogen-doped p-BC as a negative electrode material via an easy, efficient, large-scale, and green fabrication approach. The optimal asymmetric device possesses an excellent supercapacitive behavior with quite high energy and power density. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Symmetric supercapacitors using urea-modified lignin derived N-doped porous carbon as electrode materials in liquid and solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Keliang; Xu, Ming; Gu, Yan; Gu, Zhengrong; Fan, Qi Hua

    2016-11-01

    N-doped porous carbon materials derived from urea-modified lignin were prepared via efficient KOH activation under carbonization. The synthesized N-doped carbon materials, which displayed a well-developed porous morphology with high specific surface area of 3130 m2 g-1, were used as electrode materials in symmetric supercapacitors with aqueous and solid electrolytes. In consistent with the observed physical structures and properties, the supercapacitors exhibited specific capacitances of 273 and 306 F g-1, small resistances of 2.6 and 7.7 Ω, stable charge/discharge at different current densities for over 5000 cycles and comparable energy and power density in 6 mol L-1 KOH liquid and KOH-PVA solid electrolytes, respectively.

  2. Effect of microwave heat-treatment time on the properties of activated carbons as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, X.; Wang, T.; Long, S.; Zhang, X.; Zheng, M. [Anhui Univ. of Technology, Ma' aushan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui Key Lab of Coal Clean Conversion and Utilization

    2010-07-01

    A microwave-assisted heating technique was used to prepare activated carbons (ACs) from petroleum coke with potassium hydroxide (KOH) as an activating agent. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of heat treatment time on AC properties at 3, 5, and 7 minutes with a microwave power rate of 700 W. The structure and electrochemical performance of the microwave ACs were then compared with commercially prepared ACs. The study showed that the specific capacitance, equivalent series resistance and energy density of the AC electrodes decreased, while the cycle performance of the AC electrodes was improved. The specific capacitance and energy density of the ACs treated with microwave heat at 3 and 7 minutes was higher than rates observed in commercially-prepared ACs. Results showed that the microwave heat treatment method is an efficient means of obtaining stable ACs for use in supercapacitors. 3 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  3. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube/Graphite Felts as Advanced Electrode Materials for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuangyin; Zhao, Xinsheng; Cochell, Thomas; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2012-08-16

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes have been grown, for the first time, on graphite felt (N-CNT/GF) by a chemical vapor deposition approach and examined as an advanced electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). The unique porous structure and nitrogen doping of N-CNT/GF with increased surface area enhances the battery performance significantly. The enriched porous structure of N-CNTs on graphite felt could potentially facilitate the diffusion of electrolyte, while the N-doping could significantly contribute to the enhanced electrode performance. Specifically, the N-doping (i) modifies the electronic properties of CNT and thereby alters the chemisorption characteristics of the vanadium ions, (ii) generates defect sites that are electrochemically more active, (iii) increases the oxygen species on CNT surface, which is a key factor influencing the VRFB performance, and (iv) makes the N-CNT electrochemically more accessible than the CNT.

  4. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschmitter, James L.; Tran, Tri D.; Feikert, John H.; Mayer, Steven T.

    1997-01-01

    Fabrication of conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive dionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon compositives with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to be high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced.

  5. Catalytic Graphitization for Preparation of Porous Carbon Material Derived from Bamboo Precursor and Performance as Electrode of Electrical Double-Layer Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubota, Toshiki; Maguchi, Yuta; Kamimura, Sunao; Ohno, Teruhisa; Yasuoka, Takehiro; Nishida, Haruo

    2015-12-01

    The combination of addition of Fe (as a catalyst for graphitization) and CO2 activation (a kind of gaseous activation) was applied to prepare a porous carbon material from bamboo powder (a waste product of superheated steam treatment). Regardless of the heat treatment temperature, many macropores were successfully formed after the heating process by removal of Fe compounds. A turbostratic carbon structure was generated in the Fe-added sample heated at 850°C. It was confirmed that the added Fe acted as a template for pore formation. Moreover, it was confirmed that the added Fe acted as a catalyst for graphitization. The resulting electrochemical performance as the electrode of an electrical double-layer capacitor, as demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and charge-discharge testing, could be explained based on the graphitization and activation effects. Addition of Fe could affect the electrical properties of carbon material derived from bamboo.

  6. In Situ-Grown ZnCo2O4 on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Air Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium–Oxygen Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Wu; Yan, Pengfei; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Cao, Ruiguo; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-10-12

    Although lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries have great potential to be used as one of the next generation energy storage systems due to their ultrahigh theoretical specific energy, there are still many significant barriers before their practical applications. These barriers include electrolyte and electrode instability, poor ORR/OER efficiency and cycling capability, etc. Development of a highly efficient catalyst will not only enhance ORR/OER efficiency, it may also improve the stability of electrolyte because the reduced charge voltage. Here we report the synthesis of nano-sheet-assembled ZnCo2O4 spheres/single walled carbon nanotubes (ZCO/SWCNTs) composites as high performance air electrode materials for Li-O2 batteries. The ZCO catalyzed SWCNTs electrodes delivered high discharge capacities, decreased the onset of oxygen evolution reaction by 0.9 V during charge processes, and led to more stable cycling stability. These results indicate that ZCO/SWCNTs composite can be used as highly efficient air electrode for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions. The highly enhanced catalytic activity by uniformly dispersed ZnCo2O4 catalyst on nanostructured electrodes is expected to inspire

  7. Ultrasensitive and simultaneous detection of heavy metal ions based on three-dimensional graphene-carbon nanotubes hybrid electrode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Hui; Chen, Ting; Liu, Xiuyu; Ma, Houyi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional graphene-MWCNTs nanocomposites were prepared. • Graphene-MWCNTs based electrochemical sensor was used to detect heavy metal ions for the first time. • The proposed sensor was certified capable for real sample with satisfactory results. - Abstract: A green and facile method was developed to prepare a novel hybrid nanocomposite that consisted of one-dimensional multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and two-dimensional graphene oxide (GO) sheets. The as-prepared three-dimensional GO–MWCNTs hybrid nanocomposites exhibit excellent water-solubility owing to the high hydrophilicity of GO components; meanwhile, a certain amount of MWCNTs loaded on the surface of GO sheets through π–π interaction seem to be “dissolved” in water. Moreover, the graphene(G)-MWCNTs nanocomposites with excellent conductivity were obtained conveniently by the direct electrochemical reduction of GO–MWCNTs nanocomposites. Seeing that there is a good synergistic effect between MWCNTs and graphene components in enhancing preconcentration efficiency of metal ions and accelerating electron transfer rate at G-MWCNTs/electrolyte interface, the G-MWCNTs nanocomposites possess fast, simultaneous and sensitive detection performance for trace amounts of heavy metal ions. The electrochemical results demonstrate that the G-MWCNTs nanocomposites can act as a kind of practical sensing material to simultaneously determine Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ ions in terms of anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The linear calibration plots for Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ ranged from 0.5 μg L −1 to 30 μg L −1 . The detection limits were determined to be 0.2 μg L −1 (S/N = 3) for Pb 2+ and 0.1 μg L −1 (S/N = 3) for Cd 2+ in the case of a deposition time of 180 s. It is worth mentioning that the G-MWCNTs modified electrodes were successfully applied to the simultaneous detection of Cd 2+ and Pb 2+ ions in real electroplating effluent samples containing lots of surface active impurities

  8. Ultrasensitive and simultaneous detection of heavy metal ions based on three-dimensional graphene-carbon nanotubes hybrid electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hui; Chen, Ting [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of State Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Liu, Xiuyu [Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan 250114 (China); Ma, Houyi, E-mail: hyma@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of State Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2014-12-10

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional graphene-MWCNTs nanocomposites were prepared. • Graphene-MWCNTs based electrochemical sensor was used to detect heavy metal ions for the first time. • The proposed sensor was certified capable for real sample with satisfactory results. - Abstract: A green and facile method was developed to prepare a novel hybrid nanocomposite that consisted of one-dimensional multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and two-dimensional graphene oxide (GO) sheets. The as-prepared three-dimensional GO–MWCNTs hybrid nanocomposites exhibit excellent water-solubility owing to the high hydrophilicity of GO components; meanwhile, a certain amount of MWCNTs loaded on the surface of GO sheets through π–π interaction seem to be “dissolved” in water. Moreover, the graphene(G)-MWCNTs nanocomposites with excellent conductivity were obtained conveniently by the direct electrochemical reduction of GO–MWCNTs nanocomposites. Seeing that there is a good synergistic effect between MWCNTs and graphene components in enhancing preconcentration efficiency of metal ions and accelerating electron transfer rate at G-MWCNTs/electrolyte interface, the G-MWCNTs nanocomposites possess fast, simultaneous and sensitive detection performance for trace amounts of heavy metal ions. The electrochemical results demonstrate that the G-MWCNTs nanocomposites can act as a kind of practical sensing material to simultaneously determine Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} ions in terms of anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The linear calibration plots for Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} ranged from 0.5 μg L{sup −1} to 30 μg L{sup −1}. The detection limits were determined to be 0.2 μg L{sup −1} (S/N = 3) for Pb{sup 2+} and 0.1 μg L{sup −1} (S/N = 3) for Cd{sup 2+} in the case of a deposition time of 180 s. It is worth mentioning that the G-MWCNTs modified electrodes were successfully applied to the simultaneous detection of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} ions in real electroplating

  9. Enhanced electrochemical performance of porous activated carbon by forming composite with graphene as high-performance supercapacitor electrode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhi-Hang; Yang, Jia-Ying [Central South University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Efficient and Clean Utilization of Manganese Resources (China); Wu, Xiong-Wei [Hunan Agricultural University, College of Science (China); Chen, Xiao-Qing; Yu, Jin-Gang, E-mail: yujg@csu.edu.cn [Central South University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Efficient and Clean Utilization of Manganese Resources (China); Wu, Yu-Ping, E-mail: wuyp@fudan.edu.cn [Fudan University, New Energy and Materials Laboratory (NEML), Department of Chemistry and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials (China)

    2017-02-15

    In this work, a novel activated carbon containing graphene composite was developed using a fast, simple, and green ultrasonic-assisted method. Graphene is more likely a framework which provides support for activated carbon (AC) particles to form hierarchical microstructure of carbon composite. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area measurement, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectra analysis, XRD, and XPS were used to analyze the morphology and surface structure of the composite. The electrochemical properties of the supercapacitor electrode based on the as-prepared carbon composite were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), charge/discharge, and cycling performance measurements. It exhibited better electrochemical performance including higher specific capacitance (284 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 0.5 A g{sup −1}), better rate behavior (70.7% retention), and more stable cycling performance (no capacitance fading even after 2000 cycles). It is easier for us to find that the composite produced by our method was superior to pristine AC in terms of electrochemical performance due to the unique conductive network between graphene and AC.

  10. Enhanced electrochemical performance of porous activated carbon by forming composite with graphene as high-performance supercapacitor electrode material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhi-Hang; Yang, Jia-Ying; Wu, Xiong-Wei; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Yu, Jin-Gang; Wu, Yu-Ping

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a novel activated carbon containing graphene composite was developed using a fast, simple, and green ultrasonic-assisted method. Graphene is more likely a framework which provides support for activated carbon (AC) particles to form hierarchical microstructure of carbon composite. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area measurement, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectra analysis, XRD, and XPS were used to analyze the morphology and surface structure of the composite. The electrochemical properties of the supercapacitor electrode based on the as-prepared carbon composite were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), charge/discharge, and cycling performance measurements. It exhibited better electrochemical performance including higher specific capacitance (284 F g"−"1 at a current density of 0.5 A g"−"1), better rate behavior (70.7% retention), and more stable cycling performance (no capacitance fading even after 2000 cycles). It is easier for us to find that the composite produced by our method was superior to pristine AC in terms of electrochemical performance due to the unique conductive network between graphene and AC.

  11. Low-temperature self-assembled vertically aligned carbon nanofibers as counter-electrode material for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahpeykar, S M; Tabatabaei, M K; Ghafoori-fard, H; Habibiyan, H; Koohsorkhi, J

    2013-01-01

    Low-temperature AC–DC PECVD is employed for direct growth of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) on ordinary transparent conductive glass as counter-electrode material for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on utilization of VACNFs grown directly on ordinary FTO-coated glass as a cost-effective catalyst material in DSSCs. According to the FESEM images, the as-grown arrays are well aligned and dense, and offer uniform coverage on the surface of the substrate. In-plane and out-of-plane conductivity measurements reveal their good electrical conductivity, and Raman spectroscopy suggests a high number of electrocatalytic active sites, favoring charge transport at the electrolyte/electrode interface. Hybrid VACNF/Pt electrodes are also fabricated for performance comparison with Pt and VACNF electrodes. X-ray diffraction results verify the crystallization of Pt in hybrid electrodes and further confirm the vertical alignment of carbon nanofibers. Electrochemical characterization indicates that VACNFs provide both high catalytic and good charge transfer capability, which can be attributed to their high surface area, defect-rich and one-dimensional structure, vertical alignment and low contact resistance. As a result, VACNF cells can achieve a comparable performance (∼5.6%) to that of the reference Pt cells (∼6.5%). Moreover, by combination of the excellent charge transport and catalytic ability of VACNFs and the high conductivity of Pt nanoparticles, hybrid VACNF/Pt cells can deliver a performance superior to that of the Pt cells (∼7.2%), despite having a much smaller amount of Pt loading, which raises hopes for low-cost large-scale production of DSSCs in the future. (paper)

  12. A core–shell structured nanocomposite of NiO with carbon nanotubes as positive electrode material of high capacitance for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Z.B.; Yu, F.; You, T.; Zhu, L.; Zhang, L.; Wu, Y.P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A core–shell structured NiO@CNTs nanocomposite is synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. • The CNTs core effectively improves the capacitance, rate and cycling performance of NiO. • A supercapacitor is assembled when activated carbon is used as the negative electrode. • The supercapacitor presents an energy density up to 52.6 Wh kg"−"1. - Abstract: A nanocomposite of carbon nanotubes coated with nickel oxide was prepared by a simple hydrothermal method. The structure, morphology and electrochemical performance of the nanocomposite were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, electrochemical tests including cyclic voltammogram, galvanostatic charge–discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, respectively. It presents the highest specific capacitance of 1844 F g"−"1 at 1 A g"−"1 and 1145 F g"−"1 at current density of 10 A g"−"1 with 88.9% (at 1 A g"−"1) capacitance retention after 1000 cycles. The specific capacitance of the nanocomposite is almost double of that of the virginal NiO (972 F g"−"1 at 1 A g"−"1). Its cycling behavior is also very good. When combined with activated carbon as the negative electrode, the energy density can be up to 52.6 Wh kg"−"1. Such good electrochemical behavior indicates that the nanocomposite is a promising electrode material for supercapacitors.

  13. Nitrogen and oxygen co-doped carbon nanofibers with rich sub-nanoscale pores as self-supported electrode material of high-performance supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qun; Xie, Wenhe; Liu, Dequan; Wang, Qi; He, Deyan

    2016-01-01

    Self-supported porous carbon nanofibers (CNFs) network has been prepared by electrospinning technology assisted with template method. The as-prepared material is rich in sub-nanoscale pores and nitrogen and oxygen functional groups, which can serve as a fast conductive network with abundant electrochemical active sites and greatly facilitates the transport of electrons and ions. When the porous CNFs network is used as an electrode for supercapacitor in a three electrode system, it displays a high capacitance of 233.1 F/g at 0.2 A/g, and a capacitance of 130.2 F/g even at 14 A/g. It maintains a capacitance of 154.0 F/g with 90.17% retention after 4000 cycles at 2 A/g. Moreover, the assembled symmetric supercapacitor not only exhibits excellent rate capability and cycle performance, but also delivers an energy density of 4.17 Wh/kg and a power density of 2500 W/kg. The experimental results demonstrate that the prepared N, O co-doped carbon nanofibers with rich sub-nanoscale pores are a promising electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors.

  14. Carbon nanotubes as electrode substrate material for PEM fuel cells; Kohlenstoff-Nanoroehrchen als Elektrodenmaterial fuer PEM-Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soehn, Matthias

    2010-06-21

    This thesis reports an enhanced method to deposit nanoscaled noble metal catalysts (Pt/Ru) uniformly on carbon nanotubes based on wet chemical reduction of anorganic precursors via ethylene glycol. This well-known method is widely used to deposit noble metal catalyst particles on carbon black. Unfortunately, carbon nanotubes tend to agglomerate and therefore form bundles which cannot be penetrated by the precursor. Thus, effectiveness of the substrate is reduced. The new method prevents this by suspending the CNTs in butyl acetate by means of ultrasonic dispersion leading to a homogenous distribution. Because the butyl acetate is almost unpolar, it is nearly immiscible with the water-based ethylene glycol mixture. This problem has been solved by adding liquid Nafion {sup registered} which acts as an emulsifying agent. Thus an emulsion is created by ultrasonic treatment. This results in 30 {mu}m-sized droplets of butyl acetate with a layer of CNTs and Nafion {sup registered}. The large interface to the ethylene glycol phase yields a large surface for homogenous catalyst deposition. The prepared samples showed a narrow size distribution ({+-}0.5 nm) of small noble metal particles with loading up to 50% by weight and an average particle size of 3 nm. They are investigated using XRD, SEM, TEM, TGA-MS and CV. The added Nafion {sup registered} improves catalyst utilisation by establishing a proton conductive path to the catalyst particles. Furthermore, different manufacturing techniques for the CNT electrodes are evaluated. Thin layer Membrane-Electrode-Assemblies (MEAs) are prepared by the airbrush technique. Electrode thickness, composition and structure as well as membrane thickness is varied and the MEAs are tested in a single-cell hydrogen-oxygen-fed PEM fuel cell. The cells are characterised by cyclic IV curves which are recorded over an extended period of time, showing power densities up to 770mWcm-2 at a platinum loading of 0.3mgcm-2. Additionally, the MEAs are

  15. Synthesis of honeycomb MnO2 nanospheres/carbon nanoparticles/graphene composites as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yachao; Zhou, Min; Chen, Hao; Feng, Lei; Wang, Zhao; Yan, Xinzhu; Guan, Shiyou

    2015-12-01

    Improving the electrochemical performance of manganese dioxide (MnO2) electrodes is of great significance for supercapacitors. In this study, a novel honeycomb MnO2 nanospheres/carbon nanoparticles/graphene composites has been fabricated through freeze-drying method. The honeycomb MnO2 nanospheres are well inserted and dispersed on the graphene. Carbon nanoparticles in the composites act as spacers to effectively prevent graphene from restacking and agglomeration, construct efficient 3D conducting architecture with graphene for honeycomb MnO2 nanospheres, and alleviate the aggregation of honeycomb MnO2 nanospheres by separating them from each other. As a result, such honeycomb MnO2 nanospheres/carbon nanoparticles/graphene composites display much improved electrochemical capacitive performance of 255 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1, outstanding rate capability (150 F g-1 remained at a current density of 20 A g-1) and good cycling stability (83% of the initial capacitance retained after 1000 charge/discharge cycles). The strategy for the synthesis of these composites is very effective.

  16. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes bridging metal electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotlar, M.; Vojs, M.; Marton, M.; Vesel, M.; Redhammer, R.

    2012-01-01

    In our work we demonstrate growth of carbon nanotubes that can conductively bridge the metal electrodes. The role of different catalysts was examined. Interdigitated metal electrodes are made from copper and we are using bimetal Al/Ni as catalyst for growth of carbon nanotubes. We are using this catalyst composition for growth of the single-walled carbon nanotube network. (authors)

  17. A polyoxovanadate as an advanced electrode material for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han-Yi; Wee, Grace; Al-Oweini, Rami; Friedl, Jochen; Tan, Kim Soon; Wang, Yuxi; Wong, Chui Ling; Kortz, Ulrich; Stimming, Ulrich; Srinivasan, Madhavi

    2014-07-21

    Polyoxovanadate Na(6)V(10)O(28) is investigated for the first time as electrode material for supercapacitors (SCs). The electrochemical properties of Na(6)V(10)O(28) electrodes are studied in Li(+) -containing organic electrolyte (1 M LiClO(4) in propylene carbonate) by galvanostatic charge/discharge and cyclic voltammetry in a three-electrode configuration. Na(6)V(10)O(28) electrodes exhibit high specific capacitances of up to 354 F g(-1). An asymmetric SC with activated carbon as positive electrode and Na(6)V(10)O(28) as negative electrode is fabricated and exhibits a high energy density of 73 Wh kg(-1) with a power density of 312 W kg(-1), which successfully demonstrates that Na(6)V(10)O(28) is a promising electrode material for high-energy SC applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Investigation of the Characteristic Properties of Glacial Acetic Acid-Catalyzed Carbon Xerogels and Their Electrochemical Performance for Use as Electrode Materials in Electrical Double-Layer Capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Khanh Nguyen Quach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Glacial acetic acid was used as a catalyst in the preparation process of carbon xerogels from the condensation of resorcinol and formaldehyde for shortening significantly the gelation time. The effect of the resorcinol/catalyst ratio over a large range of 2 to 500, the solvent exchange manner with acetone, and the pyrolysis temperature of 700 to 1000°C on the characteristic properties of the carbon xerogels were investigated. A resorcinol/catalyst ratio of 2 and a pyrolysis temperature at 800°C were found to be the optimal condition for the preparation of carbon xerogels with a well-balanced porosity between micro- and mesopores, high surface area (577.62 m2g−1, and large pore volume (0.97 cm3g−1, which are appropriate for use as electrode materials in an electrical double-layer capacitor. The carbon xerogel electrodes that were prepared under these optimal conditions exhibited a good electrochemical performance with the highest specific capacitance of 169 Fg−1 in 6 M KOH electrolyte at a scan rate of 5 mVs−1 from cyclic voltammetry.

  19. Electrochemical horseradish peroxidase biosensor based on dextran-ionic liquid-V2O5 nanobelt composite material modified carbon ionic liquid electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhihong; Sun Xiaoying; Wang Yan; Zeng Yan; Sun Wei; Huang Xintang

    2010-01-01

    Direct electrochemistry of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was realized in a dextran (De), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulphate ([EMIM]EtOSO 3 ) and V 2 O 5 nanobelt composite material modified carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE). Spectroscopic results indicated that HRP retained its native structure in the composite. A pair of well-defined redox peaks of HRP appeared in pH 3.0 phosphate buffer solution with the formal potential of -0.213 V (vs. SCE), which was the characteristic of HRP heme Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couple. The result was attributed to the specific characteristics of De-IL-V 2 O 5 nanocomposite and CILE, which promoted the direct electron transfer rate of HRP with electrode. The electrochemical parameters of HRP on the composite modified electrode were calculated and the electrocatalysis of HRP to the reduction of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) was examined. Under the optimal conditions the reduction peak current increased with TCA concentration in the range from 0.4 to 16.0 mmol L -1 . The proposed electrode is valuable for the third-generation electrochemical biosensor.

  20. Carbon aerogel electrodes for direct energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven T.; Kaschmitter, James L.; Pekala, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    A direct energy conversion device, such as a fuel cell, using carbon aerogel electrodes, wherein the carbon aerogel is loaded with a noble catalyst, such as platinum or rhodium and soaked with phosphoric acid, for example. A separator is located between the electrodes, which are placed in a cylinder having plate current collectors positioned adjacent the electrodes and connected to a power supply, and a pair of gas manifolds, containing hydrogen and oxygen positioned adjacent the current collectors. Due to the high surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of carbon aerogels, the problems relative to high polarization resistance of carbon composite electrodes conventionally used in fuel cells are overcome.

  1. Quasi 2D Mesoporous Carbon Microbelts Derived from Fullerene Crystals as an Electrode Material for Electrochemical Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qin; Bairi, Partha; Shrestha, Rekha Goswami; Hill, Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Zeng, Haibo; Ji, Qingmin; Shrestha, Lok Kumar

    2017-12-27

    Fullerene C 60 microbelts were fabricated using the liquid-liquid interfacial precipitation method and converted into quasi 2D mesoporous carbon microbelts by heat treatment at elevated temperatures of 900 and 2000 °C. The carbon microbelts obtained by heat treatment of fullerene C 60 microbelts at 900 °C showed excellent electrochemical supercapacitive performance, exhibiting high specific capacitances ca. 360 F g -1 (at 5 mV s -1 ) and 290 F g -1 (at 1 A g -1 ) because of the enhanced surface area and the robust mesoporous framework structure. Additionally, the heat-treated carbon microbelt showed good rate performance, retaining 49% of capacitance at a high scan rate of 10 A g -1 . The carbon belts exhibit super cyclic stability. Capacity loss was not observed even after 10 000 charge/discharge cycles. These results demonstrate that the quasi 2D mesoporous carbon microbelts derived from a π-electron-rich carbon source, fullerene C 60 crystals, could be used as a new candidate material for electrochemical supercapacitor applications.

  2. Structure and Modification of Electrode Materials for Protein Electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeuken, Lars J C

    The interactions between proteins and electrode surfaces are of fundamental importance in bioelectrochemistry, including photobioelectrochemistry. In order to optimise the interaction between electrode and redox protein, either the electrode or the protein can be engineered, with the former being the most adopted approach. This tutorial review provides a basic description of the most commonly used electrode materials in bioelectrochemistry and discusses approaches to modify these surfaces. Carbon, gold and transparent electrodes (e.g. indium tin oxide) are covered, while approaches to form meso- and macroporous structured electrodes are also described. Electrode modifications include the chemical modification with (self-assembled) monolayers and the use of conducting polymers in which the protein is imbedded. The proteins themselves can either be in solution, electrostatically adsorbed on the surface or covalently bound to the electrode. Drawbacks and benefits of each material and its modifications are discussed. Where examples exist of applications in photobioelectrochemistry, these are highlighted.

  3. Critical survey on electrode aging in molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, K.

    1979-12-01

    To evaluate potential electrodes for molten carbonate fuel cells, we reviewed the literature pertaining to these cells and interviewed investigators working in fuel cell technology. In this critical survey, the effect of three electrode aging processes - corrosion or oxidation, sintering, and poisoning - on these potential fuel-cell electrodes is presented. It is concluded that anodes of stabilized nickel and cathodes of lithium-doped NiO are the most promising electrode materials for molten carbonate fuel cells, but that further research and development of these electrodes are needed. In particular, the effect of contaminants such as H/sub 2/S and HCl on the nickel anode must be investigated, and methods to improve the physical strength and to increase the conductivity of NiO cathodes must be explored. Recommendations are given on areas of applied electrode research that should accelerate the commercialization of the molten carbonate fuel cell. 153 references.

  4. Preparation of Ni(OH)2-graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite as electrode material for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.F.; Yuan, G.H.; Jiang, Z.H.; Yao, Z.P.; Yue, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CNT is introduced into graphene to prevent restacking by solvothermal reaction. • Ethanol as a low cost and green solvent is used in solvothermal reaction. • Ni(OH) 2 nanosheets were chemically precipitated into GS-CNT to increase the capacitance. - Abstract: Ni(OH) 2 -graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite was prepared for supercapacitance materials through a simple two-step process involving solvothermal synthesis of graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite in ethanol and chemical precipitation of Ni(OH) 2 . According to N 2 adsorption/desorption analysis, the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area of graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite (109.07 m 2 g −1 ) was larger than that of pure graphene sheets (32.06 m 2 g −1 ), indicating that the added carbon nanotubes (15 wt.%) could prevent graphene sheets from restacking in the solvothermal reaction. The results of field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that Ni(OH) 2 nanosheets were uniformly loaded into the three-dimensional interconnected network of graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite. The microstructure enhanced the rate capability and utilization of Ni(OH) 2 . The specific capacitance of Ni(OH) 2 -graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite was 1170.38 F g −1 at a current density of 0.2 A g −1 in the 6 mol L −1 KOH solution, higher than those provided by pure Ni(OH) 2 (953.67 Fg −1 ) and graphene sheets (178.25 F g −1 ). After 20 cycles at each current density (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 A g −1 ), the capacitance of Ni(OH) 2 -graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite decreased 26.96% of initial capacitance compared to 74.52% for pure Ni(OH) 2

  5. Three-dimensional cheese-like carbon nanoarchitecture with tremendous surface area and pore construction derived from corn as superior electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopiraman, Mayakrishnan; Deng, Dian; Kim, Byoung-Suhk; Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Ick Soo

    2017-07-01

    Highly porous carbon nanoarchitectures (HPCNs) were derived from biomass materials, namely, corn fibers (CF), corn leafs (CL), and corn cobs (CC). We surprisingly found that by a very simple activation process the CF, CL, and CC materials can be transformed into exciting two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) carbon nanoarchitectures with excellent physicochemical properties. FESEM and HRTEM results confirmed a three different carbon forms (such as foams-like carbon, carbon sheets with several holes and cheese-like carbon morphology) of HPCNs. Huge surface area (2394-3475 m2/g) with excellent pore properties of HPCNs was determined by BET analysis. Well condensed graphitic plans of HPCNs were confirmed by XRD, XPS and Raman analyses. As an electrode material, HPCNs demonstrated a maximum specific capacitance (Cs) of 575 F/g in 1.0 M H2SO4 with good stability over 20,000 cycles. The CC-700 °C showed a tremendous Cs of 375 F/g even at 20000th cycles. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest Cs by the biomass derived activated carbons in aqueous electrolytes. The CC-700 °C exhibited excellent charge-discharge behavior at various current densities (0.5-10 A g-1). Notably, CC-700 °C demonstrated an excellent Cs of 207 F/g at current density of 10 A g-1. An extraordinary change-discharge behavior was noticed at low current density of 0.5 A g-1.

  6. Fabrication of 3D lawn-shaped N-doped porous carbon matrix/polyaniline nanocomposite as the electrode material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuling; Ma, Li; Gan, Mengyu; Fu, Gang; Jin, Meng; Lei, Yao; Yang, Peishu; Yan, Maofa

    2017-02-01

    A facile approach to acquire electrode materials with prominent electrochemical property is pivotal to the progress of supercapacitors. 3D nitrogen-doped porous carbon matrix (PCM), with high specific surface area (SSA) up to 2720 m2 g-1, was obtained from the carbonization and activation of the nitrogen-enriched composite precursor (graphene/polyaniline). Then 3D lawn-shaped PCM/PANI composite was obtained by the simple in-situ polymerization. The morphology and structure of these resulting composites were characterized by combining SEM and TEM measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy analyses and Raman spectroscope. The element content of all samples was evaluated using CHN analysis. The results of electrochemical testing indicated that the PCM/PANI composite displays a higher capacitance value of 527 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 compared to 338 F g-1 for pure PANI, and exhibits appreciable rate capability with a retention of 76% at 20 A g-1 as well as fine long-term cycling performance (with 88% retention of specific capacitance after 1000 cycles at 10 A g-1). Simultaneously, the excellent capacitance performance coupled with the facile synthesis of PCM/PANI indicates it is a promising electrode material for supercapacitors.

  7. APPLICATIONS OF A SINGLE CARBON ELECTRODE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Page 1 ... ABSTRACT: A single carbon electrode used with a common arc welder has been successfully used on steel to weld, to surface harden, to spot weld sheet, to pierce holes and to do simple brazing. ... applications: welding, spot welding, hole piercing, etc. The metal tube holding the carbon electrodes is banded with ...

  8. mwnts composite film modified glassy carbon electrode

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT: A poly p-aminosalicylic acid (Poly(p-ASA)) and multiwall carbon nanotubes. (MWCNTs) composite modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode was constructed by casting the MWNTs on the GC electrode surface followed by electropolymerization of the p-ASA on the MWCNTs/GCE. The electrochemical behaviours ...

  9. Redox electrodes comprised of polymer-modified carbon nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mark; Emmett, Robert; Karakaya, Mehmet; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao; Clemson Physics Team; Clemson Chemical Engineering Team

    2013-03-01

    A shift in how we generate and use electricity requires new energy storage materials and systems compatible with hybrid electric transportation and the integration of renewable energy sources. Supercapacitors provide a solution to these needs by combining the high power, rapid switching, and exceptional cycle life of a capacitor with the high energy density of a battery. Our research brings together nanotechnology and materials chemistry to address the limitations of electrode materials. Paper electrodes fabricated with various forms of carbon nanomaterials, such as nanotubes, are modified with redox-polymers to increase the electrode's energy density while maintaining rapid discharge rates. In these systems, the carbon nanomaterials provide the high surface area, electrical conductivity, nanoscale and porosity, while the redox polymers provide a mechanism for charge storage through Faradaic charge transfer. The design of redox polymers and their incorporation into nanomaterial electrodes will be discussed with a focus on enabling high power and high energy density electrodes.

  10. Investigation of Imbalanced Activated Carbon Electrode Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Tieshi He; Xue Ren; Junping Nie; Jun Ying; Kedi Cai

    2015-01-01

    Imbalanced supercapacitor was constructed by using various ratio of activated carbon (AC) of positive to negative electrode. The electrochemical behavior of imbalanced supercapacitor was investigated using 1.0 M spiro-(1,1′)-bipyrrolidinium tetrafluoroborate electrolyte in propylene carbonate. The results showed that there are some factors that influenced the imbalanced supercapacitor with different AC ratio of positive to negative electrode, the utilization of AC, electrode potential distrib...

  11. A core–shell structured nanocomposite of NiO with carbon nanotubes as positive electrode material of high capacitance for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Z.B., E-mail: zbwen@jxnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022 (China); Yu, F. [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022 (China); College of Energy, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, Jiangsu Province (China); New Energy and Material Laboratory (NEML), Department of Chemistry & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Material, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); You, T.; Zhu, L. [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022 (China); Zhang, L., E-mail: lzhang@jxnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022 (China); Wu, Y.P., E-mail: wuyp@fudan.edu.cn [College of Energy, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, Jiangsu Province (China); New Energy and Material Laboratory (NEML), Department of Chemistry & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Material, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • A core–shell structured NiO@CNTs nanocomposite is synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. • The CNTs core effectively improves the capacitance, rate and cycling performance of NiO. • A supercapacitor is assembled when activated carbon is used as the negative electrode. • The supercapacitor presents an energy density up to 52.6 Wh kg{sup −1}. - Abstract: A nanocomposite of carbon nanotubes coated with nickel oxide was prepared by a simple hydrothermal method. The structure, morphology and electrochemical performance of the nanocomposite were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, electrochemical tests including cyclic voltammogram, galvanostatic charge–discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, respectively. It presents the highest specific capacitance of 1844 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1} and 1145 F g{sup −1} at current density of 10 A g{sup −1} with 88.9% (at 1 A g{sup −1}) capacitance retention after 1000 cycles. The specific capacitance of the nanocomposite is almost double of that of the virginal NiO (972 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1}). Its cycling behavior is also very good. When combined with activated carbon as the negative electrode, the energy density can be up to 52.6 Wh kg{sup −1}. Such good electrochemical behavior indicates that the nanocomposite is a promising electrode material for supercapacitors.

  12. Carbonaceous electrode materials for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Long; Li, Xianglong; Zhi, Linjie

    2013-07-26

    Supercapacitors have been widely studied around the world in recent years, due to their excellent power density and long cycle life. As the most frequently used electrode materials for supercapacitors, carbonaceous materials attract more and more attention. However, their relatively low energy density still holds back the widespread application. Up to now, various strategies have been developed to figure out this problem. This research news summarizes the recent advances in improving the supercapacitor performance of carbonaceous materials, including the incorporation of heteroatoms and the pore size effect (subnanopores' contribution). In addition, a new class of carbonaceous materials, porous organic networks (PONs) has been managed into the supercapacitor field, which promises great potential in not only improving the supercapacitor performances, but also unraveling the related mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Microscopical characterization of carbon materials derived from coal and petroleum and their interaction phenomena in making steel electrodes, anodes and cathode blocks for the Microscopy of Carbon Materials Working Group of the ICCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predeanu, G.; Panaitescu, C.; Bălănescu, M.; Bieg, G.; Borrego, A.G.; Diez, M. A.; Hackley, Paul C.; Kwiecińska, B.; Marques, M.; Mastalerz, Maria; Misz-Kennan, M.; Pusz, S.; Suarez-Ruiz, I.; Rodrigues, S.; Singh, A. K.; Varma, A. K.; Zdravkov, A.; Zivotić, D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of petrographic textures representing the structural organization of the organic matter derived from coal and petroleum and their interaction phenomena in the making of steel electrodes, anodes and cathode blocks.This work represents the results of the Microscopy of Carbon Materials Working Group in Commission III of the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology between the years 2009 and 2013. The round robin exercises were run on photomicrograph samples. For textural characterization of carbon materials the existing ASTM classification system for metallurgical coke was applied.These round robin exercises involved 15 active participants from 12 laboratories who were asked to assess the coal and petroleum based carbons and to identify the morphological differences, as optical texture (isotropic/anisotropic), optical type (punctiform, mosaic, fibre, ribbon, domain), and size. Four sets of digital black and white microphotographs comprising 151 photos containing 372 fields of different types of organic matter were examined. Based on the unique ability of carbon to form a wide range of textures, the results showed an increased number of carbon occurrences which have crucial role in the chosen industrial applications.The statistical method used to evaluate the results was based on the “raw agreement indices”. It gave a new and original view on the analysts' opinion by not only counting the correct answers, but also all of the knowledge and experience of the participants. Comparative analyses of the average values of the level of overall agreement performed by each analyst in the exercises during 2009–2013 showed a great homogeneity in the results, the mean value being 90.36%, with a minimum value of 83% and a maximum value of 95%.

  14. Electrode materials for microbial fuel cells: nanomaterial approach

    KAUST Repository

    Mustakeem, Mustakeem

    2015-11-05

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology has the potential to become a major renewable energy resource by degrading organic pollutants in wastewater. The performance of MFC directly depends on the kinetics of the electrode reactions within the fuel cell, with the performance of the electrodes heavily influenced by the materials they are made from. A wide range of materials have been tested to improve the performance of MFCs. In the past decade, carbon-based nanomaterials have emerged as promising materials for both anode and cathode construction. Composite materials have also shown to have the potential to become materials of choice for electrode manufacture. Various transition metal oxides have been investigated as alternatives to conventional expensive metals like platinum for oxygen reduction reaction. In this review, different carbon-based nanomaterials and composite materials are discussed for their potential use as MFC electrodes.

  15. Electrode materials for microbial fuel cells: nanomaterial approach

    KAUST Repository

    Mustakeem, Mustakeem

    2015-01-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology has the potential to become a major renewable energy resource by degrading organic pollutants in wastewater. The performance of MFC directly depends on the kinetics of the electrode reactions within the fuel cell, with the performance of the electrodes heavily influenced by the materials they are made from. A wide range of materials have been tested to improve the performance of MFCs. In the past decade, carbon-based nanomaterials have emerged as promising materials for both anode and cathode construction. Composite materials have also shown to have the potential to become materials of choice for electrode manufacture. Various transition metal oxides have been investigated as alternatives to conventional expensive metals like platinum for oxygen reduction reaction. In this review, different carbon-based nanomaterials and composite materials are discussed for their potential use as MFC electrodes.

  16. Hierarchically porous carbon nanosheets derived from Moringa oleifera stems as electrode material for high-performance electric double-layer capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yijin; Luo, Ying; Dong, Hanwu; Zhao, Xiao; Xiao, Yong; Liang, Yeru; Hu, Hang; Liu, Yingliang; Zheng, Mingtao

    2017-06-01

    A facile one-step pyrolysis route for the synthesis of hierarchically porous carbon nanosheets (PCNSs) derived from Moringa oleifera stems (MOSs) is reported, in which no post-activation-process in needed. The as-prepared PCNSs possesses unique porous nanosheet morphology with high specific surface area of ca. 2250 m2 g-1, large pore volume of ca. 2.3 cm3 g-1, appropriate porosity as well as heteroatom doping (N and O), endowing outstanding electrochemical properties as electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors. The PCNS-based electrodes are investigated in various aqueous electrolytes including 1.0 M Na2SO4, 1.0 M H2SO4, and 6.0 M KOH. The PCNSs exhibit a maximum specific capacitance of ca. 283 F g-1 (0.5 A g-1), excellent rate capability (ca. 72% of capacitance retention even at an ultrahigh current density of 50 A g-1), and a tremendous long-term cycling stability in the three-electrode system. Moreover, the as-assembled PCNS-based symmetric supercapacitor shows a high energy density of ca. 25.8 Wh kg-1 (in 1.0 M Na2SO4 electrolyte) and remarkable long-term cycling stability (almost no capacitance fade in aqueous electrolytes), indicating the promising of the as-prepared PCNSs for electrochemical energy storage and conversion.

  17. Preparation of Ni(OH){sub 2}-graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite as electrode material for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.F. [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Heilongjiang University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150022 (China); Yuan, G.H., E-mail: ygh@hit.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Jiang, Z.H., E-mail: jiangzhaohua@hit.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Yao, Z.P. [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Yue, M. [Shenzhen BTR New Energy Materials INC., Shenzhen 528206 (China)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • CNT is introduced into graphene to prevent restacking by solvothermal reaction. • Ethanol as a low cost and green solvent is used in solvothermal reaction. • Ni(OH){sub 2} nanosheets were chemically precipitated into GS-CNT to increase the capacitance. - Abstract: Ni(OH){sub 2}-graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite was prepared for supercapacitance materials through a simple two-step process involving solvothermal synthesis of graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite in ethanol and chemical precipitation of Ni(OH){sub 2}. According to N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption analysis, the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area of graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite (109.07 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) was larger than that of pure graphene sheets (32.06 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), indicating that the added carbon nanotubes (15 wt.%) could prevent graphene sheets from restacking in the solvothermal reaction. The results of field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that Ni(OH){sub 2} nanosheets were uniformly loaded into the three-dimensional interconnected network of graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite. The microstructure enhanced the rate capability and utilization of Ni(OH){sub 2}. The specific capacitance of Ni(OH){sub 2}-graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite was 1170.38 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 0.2 A g{sup −1} in the 6 mol L{sup −1} KOH solution, higher than those provided by pure Ni(OH){sub 2} (953.67 Fg{sup −1}) and graphene sheets (178.25 F g{sup −1}). After 20 cycles at each current density (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 A g{sup −1}), the capacitance of Ni(OH){sub 2}-graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite decreased 26.96% of initial capacitance compared to 74.52% for pure Ni(OH){sub 2}.

  18. Nanostructured Electrode Materials for Electrochemical Capacitor Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hojin; Yoon, Hyeonseok

    2015-06-02

    The advent of novel organic and inorganic nanomaterials in recent years, particularly nanostructured carbons, conducting polymers, and metal oxides, has enabled the fabrication of various energy devices with enhanced performance. In this paper, we review in detail different nanomaterials used in the fabrication of electrochemical capacitor electrodes and also give a brief overview of electric double-layer capacitors, pseudocapacitors, and hybrid capacitors. From a materials point of view, the latest trends in electrochemical capacitor research are also discussed through extensive analysis of the literature and by highlighting notable research examples (published mostly since 2013). Finally, a perspective on next-generation capacitor technology is also given, including the challenges that lie ahead.

  19. High electrochemical performance of RuO_2–Fe_2O_3 nanoparticles embedded ordered mesoporous carbon as a supercapacitor electrode material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Dong; Yin, Longwei; Wang, Chenxiang; Zhang, Luyuan

    2016-01-01

    The electrode materials RuO_2 or RuO_2–Fe_2O_3 nanoparticle embedded OMC (ordered mesoporous carbon) are prepared by the method of impregnation and heating in situ. The mesoporous structure optimized the electron and proton conducting pathways, leading to the enhanced capacitive performances of the composite materials. The average nanoparticle size of RuO_2 and RuO_2–Fe_2O_3 is 2.54 and 1.96 nm, respectively. The fine RuO_2–Fe_2O_3 nanoparticles are dispersed evenly in the pore channel wall of the two-dimensional mesoporous carbon without blocking the mesoporous channel, and they have a higher specific surface area, a larger pore volume, a proper pore size and a small charge transfer impedance value. The special electrochemical capacitance of RuO_2–Fe_2O_3/OMC tested in acid electrolyte (H_2SO_4) is measured to be as high as 1668 F g"−"1, which is higher than that of RuO_2/OMC. Meanwhile, the supercapacitor properties of the RuO_2–Fe_2O_3/OMC composites show a good cycling performance of 93% capacitance retention (3000 cycles), a better reversibility, a higher energy density (134 Wh kg"−"1) and power density (4000 W kg"−"1). The composite electrode of RuO_2–Fe_2O_3/OMC, which combines a double layer capacitance with pseudo-capacitance, is proved to be suitable for ideal high performance electrode material of a hybrid supercapacitor application. - Highlights: • The nanocomposites of RuO_2–Fe_2O_3/OMC are prepared by impregnation and heating in situ. • The fine RuO_2–Fe_2O_3 nanoparticles distribute in the pore channel wall of OMC. • We discuss a reversible redox reaction mechanism of RuO_2–Fe_2O_3/OMC in acid solutions. • RuO_2–Fe_2O_3 nanoparticles embedded OMC shows a higher supercapacitive performance.

  20. Processing of carbon composite paper as electrode for fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, R.B.; Maheshwari, Priyanka H.; Dhami, T.L. [Carbon Technology Unit, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Sharma, R.K.; Sharma, C.P. [Soft Polymeric Group, Division of Engineering Materials, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2006-10-27

    The porous carbon electrode in a fuel cell not only acts as an electrolyte and a catalyst support, but also allows the diffusion of hydrogen fuel through its fine porosity and serves as a current-carrying conductor. A suitable carbon paper electrode is developed and possesses the characteristics of high porosity, permeability and strength along with low electrical resistivity so that it can be effectively used in proton-exchange membrane and phosphoric acid fuel cells. The electrode is prepared through a combination of two important techniques, viz., paper-making technology by first forming a porous chopped carbon fibre preform, and composite technology using a thermosetting resin matrix. The study reveals an interdependence of one parameter on another and how judicious choice of the processing conditions are necessary to achieve the desired characteristics. The current-voltage performance of the electrode in a unit fuel cell matches that of a commercially-available material. (author)

  1. Thick electrodes including nanoparticles having electroactive materials and methods of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Lu, Dongping; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Graff, Gordon L.

    2017-02-21

    Electrodes having nanostructure and/or utilizing nanoparticles of active materials and having high mass loadings of the active materials can be made to be physically robust and free of cracks and pinholes. The electrodes include nanoparticles having electroactive material, which nanoparticles are aggregated with carbon into larger secondary particles. The secondary particles can be bound with a binder to form the electrode.

  2. Investigation of Imbalanced Activated Carbon Electrode Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tieshi He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Imbalanced supercapacitor was constructed by using various ratio of activated carbon (AC of positive to negative electrode. The electrochemical behavior of imbalanced supercapacitor was investigated using 1.0 M spiro-(1,1′-bipyrrolidinium tetrafluoroborate electrolyte in propylene carbonate. The results showed that there are some factors that influenced the imbalanced supercapacitor with different AC ratio of positive to negative electrode, the utilization of AC, electrode potential distribution, and life cycle. The imbalanced supercapacitor with an AC weight ratio of 80 : 120 of positive to negative electrode has an average potential distribution in each electrode, and it revealed the best electrochemical performance: specific capacitor was 39.6 F·g−1, while the charge-discharge efficiency was 97.2% after 2000 life cycle tests.

  3. Carbon/carbon composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thebault, J.; Orly, P.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon/carbon composites are singular materials from their components, their manufacturing process as well as their characteristics. This paper gives a global overview of these particularities and applications which make them now daily used composites. (authors)

  4. Carbide-derived carbon aerogels with tunable pore structure as versatile electrode material in high power supercapacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oschatz, M.; Boukhalfa, S.; Nickel, W.; Hofmann, J.P.; Fischer, C.; Yushin, G.; Kaskel, S.

    2017-01-01

    Carbide-derived carbon (CDC) aerogels with hierarchical porosity are prepared from cross-linked polycarbosilane aerogels by pyrolysis and chlorine treatment at 700 and 1000 °C. The low-temperature sample is further activated with carbon dioxide to introduce additional micropores. The influence of

  5. Water desalination using capacitive deionization with microporous carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porada, S; Weinstein, L; Dash, R; van der Wal, A; Bryjak, M; Gogotsi, Y; Biesheuvel, P M

    2012-03-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a water desalination technology in which salt ions are removed from brackish water by flowing through a spacer channel with porous electrodes on each side. Upon applying a voltage difference between the two electrodes, cations move to and are accumulated in electrostatic double layers inside the negatively charged cathode and the anions are removed by the positively charged anode. One of the key parameters for commercial realization of CDI is the salt adsorption capacity of the electrodes. State-of-the-art electrode materials are based on porous activated carbon particles or carbon aerogels. Here we report the use for CDI of carbide-derived carbon (CDC), a porous material with well-defined and tunable pore sizes in the sub-nanometer range. When comparing electrodes made with CDC with electrodes based on activated carbon, we find a significantly higher salt adsorption capacity in the relevant cell voltage window of 1.2-1.4 V. The measured adsorption capacity for four materials tested negatively correlates with known metrics for pore structure of the carbon powders such as total pore volume and BET-area, but is positively correlated with the volume of pores of sizes <1 nm, suggesting the relevance of these sub-nanometer pores for ion adsorption. The charge efficiency, being the ratio of equilibrium salt adsorption over charge, does not depend much on the type of material, indicating that materials that have been identified for high charge storage capacity can also be highly suitable for CDI. This work shows the potential of materials with well-defined sub-nanometer pore sizes for energy-efficient water desalination. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  6. Functional materials in amperometric sensing polymeric, inorganic, and nanocomposite materials for modified electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Seeber, Renato; Zanardi, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Amperometric sensors, biosensors included, particularly rely on suitable electrode materials. Progress in material science has led to a wide variety of options that are available today. For the first time, these novel functional electrode coating materials are reviewed in this monograph, written by and for electroanalytical chemists. This includes intrinsically conducting, redox and ion-exchange polymers, metal and carbon nanostructures, silica based materials. Monolayers and relatively thick films are considered. The authors critically discuss preparation methods, in addition to chemical and

  7. A review of electrode materials for electrochemical supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoping; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jiujun

    2012-01-21

    In this critical review, metal oxides-based materials for electrochemical supercapacitor (ES) electrodes are reviewed in detail together with a brief review of carbon materials and conducting polymers. Their advantages, disadvantages, and performance in ES electrodes are discussed through extensive analysis of the literature, and new trends in material development are also reviewed. Two important future research directions are indicated and summarized, based on results published in the literature: the development of composite and nanostructured ES materials to overcome the major challenge posed by the low energy density of ES (476 references).

  8. Interconnecting Carbon Fibers with the In-situ Electrochemically Exfoliated Graphene as Advanced Binder-free Electrode Materials for Flexible Supercapacitor

    OpenAIRE

    Yuqin Zou; Shuangyin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Flexible energy storage devices are highly demanded for various applications. Carbon cloth (CC) woven by carbon fibers (CFs) is typically used as electrode or current collector for flexible devices. The low surface area of CC and the presence of big gaps (ca. micro-size) between individual CFs lead to poor performance. Herein, we interconnect individual CFs through the in-situ exfoliated graphene with high surface area by the electrochemical intercalation method. The interconnected CFs are us...

  9. Carbon paste electrodes in electroanalytical chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAREL VYTŘAS

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available An overview is given dealing with the applications of carbon paste electrodes in equilibrium potentiometry as well as in electrochemical stripping analysis using both voltammetric and potentiometric modes. Various modifications of carbon pastes and carbon paste-based biosensors are also mentioned. The main emphasis in this article is directed at summarizing recent results of the authors’ research group during the past few years.

  10. Cube-like α-Fe2O3 supported on ordered multimodal porous carbon as high performance electrode material for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Nitin K; Chaudhari, Sudeshna; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2014-11-01

    Well-dispersed cube-like iron oxide (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) supported on ordered multimodal porous carbon (OMPC) are synthesized for the first time by a facile and efficient glycine-assisted hydrothermal route. The effect of OPMC support on growth and formation mechanism of the Fe2O3 NPs is discussed. OMPC as a supporting material plays a pivotal role of controlling the shape, size, and dispersion of the Fe2O3 NPs. As-synthesized α-Fe2O3/OMPC composites reveal significant improvement in the performance as electrode material for supercapacitors. Compared to the bare Fe2O3 and OMPC, the composite exhibits excellent cycling stability, rate capability, and enhanced specific capacitances of 294 F g(-1) at 1.5 A g(-1), which is twice that of OMPC (145 F g(-1)) and about four times higher than that of bare Fe2O3 (85 F g(-1)). The improved electrochemical performance of the composite can be attributed to the well-defined structure, high conductivity, and hierarchical porosity of OMPC as well as the unique α-Fe2O3 NPs with cube-like morphology well-anchored on the OMPC support, which makes the composite a promising candidate for supercapacitors. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Polyaniline (PANi based electrode materials for energy storage and conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanhuan Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyaniline (PANi as one kind of conducting polymers has been playing a great role in the energy storage and conversion devices besides carbonaceous materials and metallic compounds. Due to high specific capacitance, high flexibility and low cost, PANi has shown great potential in supercapacitor. It alone can be used in fabricating an electrode. However, the inferior stability of PANi limits its application. The combination of PANi and other active materials (carbon materials, metal compounds or other polymers can surpass these intrinsic disadvantages of PANi. This review summarizes the recent progress in PANi based composites for energy storage/conversion, like application in supercapacitors, rechargeable batteries, fuel cells and water hydrolysis. Besides, PANi derived nitrogen-doped carbon materials, which have been widely employed as carbon based electrodes/catalysts, are also involved in this review. PANi as a promising material for energy storage/conversion is deserved for intensive study and further development.

  12. Elastomeric binders for Li-SOCl2 cell carbon electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B. J.; Jeffries, B.; Yen, S. P. S.

    1987-01-01

    Nonoptimized elastomer bonded carbon electrodes made with 100-percent compressed Gulf Acetylene Black have demonstrated performance comparable to that of optimized Teflon bonded carbon electrodes, made from the same carbon, when tested at 1-10 mA/sq cm, at 24 and -26 C. The enhanced performance of elastomer bonded carbon electrodes appears to be due to the more uniform utilization of the carbon electrode to store insoluble discharge products, as compared to Teflon bonded carbon electrodes. With even minimal optimization of elastomer bonded carbon electrodes, significant improvement in Li-SOCl2 cell performance can be expected.

  13. Flexible supercapacitor yarns with coaxial carbon nanotube network electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smithyman, Jesse; Liang, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fabricated flexible yarn supercapacitor with coaxial electrodes. • Use of multifunctional carbon nanotube network electrodes eliminates inactive components and enables high energy/power density. • Robust structure maintains >95% of energy/power while under deformation. - Abstract: Flexible supercapacitors with a yarn-like geometry were fabricated with coaxially arranged electrodes. Carbon nanotube (CNT) network electrodes enabled the integration of the electronic conductor and active material of each electrode into a single component. CNT yarns were employed as the inner electrode to provide the supporting structure of the device. These part integration strategies eliminated the need for inactive material, which resulted in device volumetric energy and power densities among the highest reported for flexible carbon-based EDLCs. In addition, the coaxial yarn cell design provided a robust structure able to undergo flexural deformation with minimal impact on the energy storage performance. Greater than 95% of the energy density and 99% of the power density were retained when wound around an 11 cm diameter cylinder. The electrochemical properties were characterized at stages throughout the fabrication process to provide insights and potential directions for further development of these novel cell designs

  14. Nanostructured Electrode Materials for Electrochemical Capacitor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojin Choi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The advent of novel organic and inorganic nanomaterials in recent years, particularly nanostructured carbons, conducting polymers, and metal oxides, has enabled the fabrication of various energy devices with enhanced performance. In this paper, we review in detail different nanomaterials used in the fabrication of electrochemical capacitor electrodes and also give a brief overview of electric double-layer capacitors, pseudocapacitors, and hybrid capacitors. From a materials point of view, the latest trends in electrochemical capacitor research are also discussed through extensive analysis of the literature and by highlighting notable research examples (published mostly since 2013. Finally, a perspective on next-generation capacitor technology is also given, including the challenges that lie ahead.

  15. Organic electrochemistry and carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, N.

    1983-01-01

    Carbons are often used in organic electrosynthesis and are critical as anodes or cathodes to certain reactions. Too often the surface properties of carbons have been left uncharacterized in relation to the reaction; however, these physical and chemical properties of carbons are important to the nature of the products, and the selectivity. Examples presented include the Kolbe reaction, the oxidation of aromatics in presence of carboxylate salts, electrofluorination of organics, acetamidation of aromatics, the hydrodimerization of formaldehyde and the oxidation of carbon fibers. These reactions apparently involve special surface characteristics: structure, surface area, stabilized surface sites, and the presence or absence of significant ''oxide'' functionality

  16. Electrochemical properties of double wall carbon nanotube electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Pumera, Martin

    2007-01-01

    AbstractElectrochemical properties of double wall carbon nanotubes (DWNT) were assessed and compared to their single wall (SWNT) counterparts. The double and single wall carbon nanotube materials were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and electrochemistry. The electrochemical behavior of DWNT film electrodes was characterized by using cyclic voltammetry of ferricyanide and NADH. It is shown that while both DWNT and SWNT were significantly funct...

  17. Carbon/ λ-MnO 2 composites for supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malak-Polaczyk, A.; Matei-Ghimbeu, C.; Vix-Guterl, C.; Frackowiak, E.

    2010-04-01

    In the present work a composite of carbon with λ-MnO 2 have been synthesized by a simple two-step route. In the first step, to obtain LiMn 2O 4/carbon material, mesoporous activated carbon was impregnated with the solution of precursor metal salts and heated subsequently. As-prepared materials were acid treated which resulted in the formation of λ-MnO 2/carbon. Physical properties, structure and specific surface area of electrode materials were studied by TEM, X-ray diffraction and nitrogen sorption measurements. Voltammetry cycling, galvanostatic charge/discharge and impedance spectroscopy measurements performed in two- and three-electrode cells have been applied in order to measure electrochemical parameters. TEM images confirmed well dispersed λ-MnO 2 particles on the surface of carbon material. The carbon in the composite plays an important role as the surface area enhancing component and a support of pseudocapacitive material. Furthermore, the through-connected porosity serves as a continuous pathway for electrolyte transport. A synergetic effect of the porous carbon framework and of the redox properties of the λ-MnO 2 is at the origin of improvement of specific capacitance values which has been observed for composites after delithiation.

  18. Pseudocapacitive and hierarchically ordered porous electrode materials supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saruhan, B.; Gönüllü, Y.; Arndt, B.

    2013-05-01

    Commercially available double layer capacitors store energy in an electrostatic field. This forms in the form of a double layer by charged particles arranged on two electrodes consisting mostly of active carbon. Such double layer capacitors exhibit a low energy density, so that components with large capacity according to large electrode areas are required. Our research focuses on the development of new electrode materials to realize the production of electrical energy storage systems with high energy density and high power density. Metal oxide based electrodes increase the energy density and the capacitance by addition of pseudo capacitance to the static capacitance present by the double layer super-capacitor electrodes. The so-called hybrid asymmetric cell capacitors combine both types of energy storage in a single component. In this work, the production routes followed in our laboratories for synthesis of nano-porous and aligned metal oxide electrodes using the electrochemical and sputter deposition as well as anodization methods will be described. Our characterisation studies concentrate on electrodes having redox metal-oxides (e.g. MnOx and WOx) and hierarchically aligned nano-porous Li-doped TiO2-NTs. The material specific and electrochemical properties achieved with these electrodes will be presented.

  19. Nanofabrication strategies for advanced electrode materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Kunfeng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of advanced electrode materials for high-performance energy storage devices becomes more and more important for growing demand of portable electronics and electrical vehicles. To speed up this process, rapid screening of exceptional materials among various morphologies, structures and sizes of materials is urgently needed. Benefitting from the advance of nanotechnology, tremendous efforts have been devoted to the development of various nanofabrication strategies for advanced electrode materials. This review focuses on the analysis of novel nanofabrication strategies and progress in the field of fast screening advanced electrode materials. The basic design principles for chemical reaction, crystallization, electrochemical reaction to control the composition and nanostructure of final electrodes are reviewed. Novel fast nanofabrication strategies, such as burning, electrochemical exfoliation, and their basic principles are also summarized. More importantly, colloid system served as one up-front design can skip over the materials synthesis, accelerating the screening rate of highperformance electrode. This work encourages us to create innovative design ideas for rapid screening high-active electrode materials for applications in energy-related fields and beyond.

  20. Fabrication of catalytic electrodes for molten carbonate fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James L.

    1988-01-01

    A porous layer of catalyst material suitable for use as an electrode in a molten carbonate fuel cell includes elongated pores substantially extending across the layer thickness. The catalyst layer is prepared by depositing particulate catalyst material into polymeric flocking on a substrate surface by a procedure such as tape casting. The loaded substrate is heated in a series of steps with rising temperatures to set the tape, thermally decompose the substrate with flocking and sinter bond the catalyst particles into a porous catalytic layer with elongated pores across its thickness. Employed as an electrode, the elongated pores provide distribution of reactant gas into contact with catalyst particles wetted by molten electrolyte.

  1. Ceramic carbon electrode-based anodes for use in the Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, Santhanam; Easton, E. Bradley [Faculty of Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    We have investigated CCE materials prepared using 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane. Electrochemical experiments were performed to characterize their suitability as anode electrode materials for use in the electrochemical step of the Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle. CCE-based electrodes vastly outperform a bare carbon electrode. Optimization of the organosilicate loading revealed maximum electrode performance was achieved with 36 wt% and was explained in terms of the optimal balance of active area and anion transport properties. (author)

  2. 1-ethanone modified carbon paste electrode

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    7.00) in cyclic voltammetry, the oxidation of L-cysteic acid at the surface of 4FEPEMCPE is occurred at a potential about 220 mV less positive than that an unmodified carbon paste electrode. The kinetic parameters such as electron transfer coefficient, α, and catalytic reaction rate constant, K/ h, were also determined using.

  3. Biofuel cells based on direct enzyme-electrode contacts using PQQ-dependent glucose dehydrogenase/bilirubin oxidase and modified carbon nanotube materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbahn, V; Putze, M T; Dietzel, B; Heinlein, T; Schneider, J J; Lisdat, F

    2014-11-15

    Two types of carbon nanotube electrodes (1) buckypaper (BP) and (2) vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (vaCNT) have been used for elaboration of glucose/O2 enzymatic fuel cells exploiting direct electron transfer. For the anode pyrroloquinoline quinone dependent glucose dehydrogenase ((PQQ)GDH) has been immobilized on [poly(3-aminobenzoic acid-co-2-methoxyaniline-5-sulfonic acid), PABMSA]-modified electrodes. For the cathode bilirubin oxidase (BOD) has been immobilized on PQQ-modified electrodes. PABMSA and PQQ act as promoter for enzyme bioelectrocatalysis. The voltammetric characterization of each electrode shows current densities in the range of 0.7-1.3 mA/cm(2). The BP-based fuel cell exhibits maximal power density of about 107 µW/cm(2) (at 490 mV). The vaCNT-based fuel cell achieves a maximal power density of 122 µW/cm(2) (at 540 mV). Even after three days and several runs of load a power density over 110 µW/cm(2) is retained with the second system (10mM glucose). Due to a better power exhibition and an enhanced stability of the vaCNT-based fuel cells they have been studied in human serum samples and a maximal power density of 41 µW/cm(2) (390 mV) can be achieved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF NANOPOROUS CARBON ELECTRODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Nigu

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical double layer and electrochemical characteristics at the nanoporous carbon | (C2H54NBF4 + acetonitrile interface have been studied by the cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy methods. The value of zero charge potential (0.23 V vs. SCE in H2O, the region of ideal polarizability and other characteristics have been established. Analysis of complex plane plots shows that the nanoporous carbon | x M (C2H54NBF4 + acetonitrile interface can be simulated by the equivalent circuit, in which the two parallel conduction parts in the solid and liquid phases are interconnected by the double layer capacitance in parallel with the complex admittance of hindered reaction of the charge transfer process. The values of the characteristic frequency depend on the electrolyte concentration and on the electrode potential, i.e. on the nature of ions adsorbed at the surface of nanoporous carbon electrode.

  5. Carbon nanotube composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2015-03-24

    A material consisting essentially of a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes dissolved in a solvent. Un-functionalized carbon nanotube concentrations up to 30 wt % and hydroxylated carbon nanotube concentrations up to 40 wt % can be used with even small concentrations of each (less than 2 wt %) useful in producing enhanced conductivity properties of formed thin films.

  6. Electrochemical characterisation of novel screen-printed carbon paste electrodes for voltammetric measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sýs Milan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the homemade screen-printed carbon paste electrode containing basically graphite powder (or glassy carbon powder, poly(vinylbchloride (PVC and paraffin oil. It compares the electrochemical properties of conventional carbon-based electrodes and prepared screen-printed carbon paste electrodes towards [Fe(CN6]3-/[Fe(CN6]4- and quinone/hydroquinone redox couples. Significant attention is paid to the development of the corresponding carbon inks, printing and the surface characterisation of the resulting electrodes by the scanning electron microscopy. An optimization consisted of the selection of the organic solvent, the optimal content of the used polymer with the chosen paste binder, appropriate isolation of electric contact, etc. Very similar properties of the prepared screen-printed electrodes, containing only corresponding carbon powder and 3 % PVC, with their conventional carbon paste electrode and glassy carbon-based electrodes, were observed during their characterisation. Screen-printed electrodes, with the pasting liquid usually provided satisfactory analytical data. Moreover, they can be used in the flow injection analysis and could undoubtedly replace the carbon paste grooved electrodes. It can be assumed that certain progress in the development of electrode materials was achieved by this research.

  7. Carbon nanotube fiber mats for microbial fuel cell electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delord, Brigitte; Neri, Wilfrid; Bertaux, Karen; Derre, Alain; Ly, Isabelle; Mano, Nicolas; Poulin, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    Novel carbon nanotube based electrodes of microbial fuel cells (MFC) have been developed. MFC is a promising technology for the wastewater treatment and the production of electrical energy from redox reactions of natural substrates. Performances of such bio-electrochemical systems depend critically on the structure and properties of the electrodes. The presently developed materials are made by weaving fibers solely comprised of carbon nanotubes. They exhibit a large scale porosity controlled by the weaving process. This porosity allows an easy colonization by electroactive bacteria. In addition, the fibers display a nanostructuration that promotes excellent growth and adhesion of the bacteria at the surface of the electrodes. This unique combination of large scale porosity and nanostructuration allows the present electrodes to perform better than carbon reference. When used as anode in a bioelectrochemical reactor in presence of Geobacter sulfurreducens bacteria, the present electrodes show a maximal current density of about 7.5mA/cm 2 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Carbon Anode Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogumi, Zempachi; Wang, Hongyu

    Accompanying the impressive progress of human society, energy storage technologies become evermore urgent. Among the broad categories of energy sources, batteries or cells are the devices that successfully convert chemical energy into electrical energy. Lithium-based batteries stand out in the big family of batteries mainly because of their high-energy density, which comes from the fact that lithium is the most electropositive as well as the lightest metal. However, lithium dendrite growth after repeated charge-discharge cycles easily will lead to short-circuit of the cells and an explosion hazard. Substituting lithium metal for alloys with aluminum, silicon, zinc, and so forth could solve the dendrite growth problem.1 Nevertheless, the lithium storage capacity of alloys drops down quickly after merely several charge-discharge cycles because the big volume change causes great stress in alloy crystal lattice, and thus gives rise to cracking and crumbling of the alloy particles. Alternatively, Sony Corporation succeeded in discovering the highly reversible, low-voltage anode, carbonaceous material and commercialized the C/LiCoO2 rocking chair cells in the early 1990s.2 Figure 3.1 schematically shows the charge-discharge process for reversible lithium storage in carbon. By the application of a lithiated carbon in place of a lithium metal electrode, any lithium metal plating process and the conditions for the growth of irregular dendritic lithium could be considerably eliminated, which shows promise for reducing the chances of shorting and overheating of the batteries. This kind of lithium-ion battery, which possessed a working voltage as high as 3.6 V and gravimetric energy densities between 120 and 150 Wh/kg, rapidly found applications in high-performance portable electronic devices. Thus the research on reversible lithium storage in carbonaceous materials became very popular in the battery community worldwide.

  9. Activated carbon as a pseudo-reference electrode for electrochemical measurement inside concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The application of Kynol based activated carbon (KAC) as a pseudo-reference electrode for potentiometric measurement inside concrete is presented. Due to its high surface area the activated carbons has a large electrical double layer capacitance (EDLC > 50 F g(-1)) and are used as electrode material

  10. All-solid-state carbonate-selective electrode based on screen-printed carbon paste electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guang; Lyu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Zhan; Rong, Yuanzhen; Hu, Ruifen; Wang, You; Luo, Zhiyuan

    2017-01-01

    A novel disposable all-solid-state carbonate-selective electrode based on a screen-printed carbon paste electrode using poly(3-octylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (POT) as an ion-to-electron transducer has been developed. The POT was dropped onto the reaction area of the carbon paste electrode covered by the poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane, which contains N,N-Dioctyl-3 α ,12 α -bis(4-trifluoroacetylbenzoyloxy)-5 β -cholan-24-amide as a carbonate ionophore. The electrode showed a near-Nernstian slope of  −27.5 mV/decade with a detection limit of 3.6 * 10 −5 mol l −1 . Generally, the detection time was 30 s. Because these electrodes are fast, convenient and low in cost, they have the potential to be mass produced and used in on-site testing as disposable sensors. Furthermore, the repeatability, reproducibility and stability have been studied to evaluate the properties of the electrodes. Measurement of the carbonate was also conducted in a human blood solution and achieved good performance. (paper)

  11. DNA-FET using carbon nanotube electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, T K; Ikegami, A; Aoki, N; Ochiai, Y

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate DNA field effect transistor (DNA-FET) using multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) as nano-structural source and drain electrodes. The MWNT electrodes have been fabricated by focused ion-beam bombardment (FIBB). A very short channel, approximately 50 nm, was easily formed between the severed MWNT. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of DNA molecules between the MWNT electrodes showed hopping transport property. We have also measured the gate-voltage dependence in the I-V characteristics and found that poly DNA molecules exhibits p-type conduction. The transport of DNA-FET can be explained by two hopping lengths which depend on the range of the source-drain bias voltages

  12. Characterization of Transition-Metal Oxide Deposition on Carbon Electrodes of a Supercapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chung Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to fabricate the composite electrodes of a supercapacitor, transition-metal oxide materials NiO and WO3 were deposited on carbon electrodes by electron beam evaporation. The influences of various transition-metal oxides, scan rates of cyclic voltammograms (CVs, and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests on the characteristics of supercapacitor were studied. The charge/discharge efficiency and the lifetime of the composite electrodes were also investigated. It was found that the composite electrodes exhibited more favorable capacitance properties than those of the carbon electrodes at high scan rates. The results revealed the promotion of the capacitance property of the supercapacitor with composite electrode and the improving of the decay property in capacitance at high scan rate. In addition, the charge/discharge efficiency is close to 100% after 5000 cycles, and the composite electrode retains strong adhesion between the electrode material and the substrate.

  13. Characterization of a Porous Carbon Material Functionalized with Cobalt-Oxide/Cobalt Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Anjum, Dalaver H.; Rasul, Shahid; Roldan-Gutierrez, Manuel A.; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.

    2016-01-01

    A nanoporous carbon (C) material, functionalized with Cobalt-Oxide/Cobalt (CoO/Co) core-shell nanoparticles (NPs), was structurally and chemically characterized with transmission electron microcopy (TEM) while its electrochemical response

  14. Carbon nanofiber vs. carbon microparticles as modifiers of glassy carbon and gold electrodes applied in electrochemical sensing of NADH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Briza; Del Valle, Manel; Alegret, Salvador; Merkoçi, Arben

    2007-12-15

    Carbon materials (CMs), such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and carbon microparticles (CMPs) are used as doping materials for electrochemical sensors. The efficiency of these materials (either before or after acidic treatments) while being used as electrocatalysts in electrochemical sensors is discussed for beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) detection using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The sensitivity of the electrodes (glassy carbon (GC) and gold (Au)) modified with both treated and untreated materials have been deeply studied. The response efficiencies of the GC and Au electrodes modified with CNF and CMP, using dimethylformamide (DMF) as dispersing agent are significantly different due to the peculiar physical and chemical characteristics of each doping material. Several differences between the electrocatalytic activities of CMs modified electrodes upon NADH oxidation have been observed. The CNF film promotes better the electron transfer of NADH minimizing the oxidation potential at +0.352 V. Moreover higher currents for the NADH oxidation peak have been observed for these electrodes. The shown differences in the electrochemical reactivities of CNF and CMP modified electrodes should be with interest for future applications in biosensors.

  15. Comparison of unusual carbon-based working electrodes for electrochemiluminescence sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noman, Muhammad; Sanginario, Alessandro; Jagadale, Pravin; Demarchi, Danilo; Tagliaferro, Alberto

    2017-06-01

    In this work, unconventional carbon-based materials were investigated for use in electrochemiluminescence (ECL) working electrodes. Precursors such as bamboo, pistachio shells, kevlar ® fibers and camphor were differently treated and used as working electrodes in ECL experiments. After a proper process they were assembled as electrodes and tested in an electrochemical cell. Comparison among them and with a commercial glassy carbon electrode (GCE) shows a very good response for all of them thus demonstrating their potential use as disposable low-cost electrodes for early detection electrochemical analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Activated Carbon Fiber Monoliths as Supercapacitor Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelines Moreno-Fernandez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon fibers (ACF are interesting candidates for electrodes in electrochemical energy storage devices; however, one major drawback for practical application is their low density. In the present work, monoliths were synthesized from two different ACFs, reaching 3 times higher densities than the original ACFs’ apparent densities. The porosity of the monoliths was only slightly decreased with respect to the pristine ACFs, the employed PVDC binder developing additional porosity upon carbonization. The ACF monoliths are essentially microporous and reach BET surface areas of up to 1838 m2 g−1. SEM analysis reveals that the ACFs are well embedded into the monolith structure and that their length was significantly reduced due to the monolith preparation process. The carbonized monoliths were studied as supercapacitor electrodes in two- and three-electrode cells having 2 M H2SO4 as electrolyte. Maximum capacitances of around 200 F g−1 were reached. The results confirm that the capacitance of the bisulfate anions essentially originates from the double layer, while hydronium cations contribute with a mixture of both, double layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance.

  17. Flexible electroluminescent device with inkjet-printed carbon nanotube electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoubel, Suzanna; Shemesh, Shay; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2012-08-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNTs) inks may provide an effective route for producing flexible electronic devices by digital printing. In this paper we report on the formulation of highly concentrated aqueous CNT inks and demonstrate the fabrication of flexible electroluminescent (EL) devices by inkjet printing combined with wet coating. We also report, for the first time, on the formation of flexible EL devices in which all the electrodes are formed by inkjet printing of low-cost multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Several flexible EL devices were fabricated by using different materials for the production of back and counter electrodes: ITO/MWCNT and MWCNT/MWCNT. Transparent electrodes were obtained either by coating a thin layer of the CNTs or by inkjet printing a grid which is composed of empty cells surrounded by MWCNTs. It was found that the conductivity and transparency of the electrodes are mainly controlled by the MWCNT film thickness, and that the dominant factor in the luminance intensity is the transparency of the electrode.

  18. Carbon paste electrode incorporating multi-walled carbon nanotube ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The preparation and electrochemical performance of the carbon nanotube paste electrode modified with ferrocene (FCMCNPE) was investigated for electrocatalytic behaviour toward oxidation of -acetyl--cysteine (NAC) in the presence of tryptophan (Trp) using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry ...

  19. All-Carbon Electrodes for Flexible Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zexia Zhang; Ruitao Lv; Yi Jia; Xin Gan; Hongwei Zhu; Feiyu Kang

    2018-01-01

    Transparent electrodes based on carbon nanomaterials have recently emerged as new alternatives to indium tin oxide (ITO) or noble metal in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) due to their attractive advantages, such as long-term stability, environmental friendliness, high conductivity, and low cost. However, it is still a challenge to apply all-carbon electrodes in OPVs. Here, we report our efforts to develop all-carbon electrodes in organic solar cells fabricated with different carbon-based materia...

  20. Electroadsorption desalination with carbon nanotube/PAN-based carbon fiber felt composites as electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhou, Junbo

    2014-01-01

    The chemical vapor deposition method is used to prepare CNT (carbon nanotube)/PCF (PAN-based carbon fiber felt) composite electrodes in this paper, with the surface morphology of CNT/PCF composites and electroadsorption desalination performance being studied. Results show such electrode materials with three-dimensional network nanostructures having a larger specific surface area and narrower micropore distribution, with a huge number of reactive groups covering the surface. Compared with PCF electrodes, CNT/PCF can allow for a higher adsorption and desorption rate but lower energy consumption; meanwhile, under the condition of the same voltage change, the CNT/PCF electrodes are provided with a better desalination effect. The study also found that the higher the original concentration of the solution, the greater the adsorption capacity and the lower the adsorption rate. At the same time, the higher the solution's pH, the better the desalting; the smaller the ions' radius, the greater the amount of adsorption.

  1. Carbon Nanofiber Electrode Array for Neurochemical Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, Jessica E.

    2017-01-01

    A sensor platform based on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) has been developed. Their inherent nanometer scale, high conductivity, wide potential window, good biocompatibility and well-defined surface chemistry make them ideal candidates as biosensor electrodes. Here, we report using vertically aligned CNF as neurotransmitter recording electrodes for application in a smart deep brain stimulation (DBS) device. Our approach combines a multiplexed CNF electrode chip, developed at NASA Ames Research Center, with the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensor (WINCS) system, developed at the Mayo Clinic. Preliminary results indicate that the CNF nanoelectrode arrays are easily integrated with WINCS for neurotransmitter detection in a multiplexed array format. In the future, combining CNF based stimulating and recording electrodes with WINCS may lay the foundation for an implantable smart therapeutic system that utilizes neurochemical feedback control while likely resulting in increased DBS application in various neuropsychiatric disorders. In total, our goal is to take advantage of the nanostructure of CNF arrays for biosensing studies requiring ultrahigh sensitivity, high-degree of miniaturization, and selective biofunctionalization.

  2. Supercapacitor Electrode Based on Activated Carbon Wool Felt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Pina

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An electrical double-layer capacitor (EDLC is based on the physical adsorption/desorption of electrolyte ions onto the surface of electrodes. Due to its high surface area and other properties, such as electrochemical stability and high electrical conductivity, carbon materials are the most widely used materials for EDLC electrodes. In this work, we study an activated carbon felt obtained from sheep wool felt (ACF’f as a supercapacitor electrode. The ACF’f was characterized by elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, textural analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The electrochemical behaviour of the ACF’f was tested in a two-electrode Swagelok®-type, using acidic and basic aqueous electrolytes. At low current densities, the maximum specific capacitance determined from the charge-discharge curves were 163 F·g−1 and 152 F·g−1, in acidic and basic electrolytes, respectively. The capacitance retention at higher current densities was better in acidic electrolyte while, for both electrolytes, the voltammogram of the sample presents a typical capacitive behaviour, being in accordance with the electrochemical results.

  3. Binder-Free and Carbon-Free Nanoparticle Batteries: A Method for Nanoparticle Electrodes without Polymeric Binders or Carbon Black

    KAUST Repository

    Ha, Don-Hyung; Islam, Mohammad A.; Robinson, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we have developed a new fabrication method for nanoparticle (NP) assemblies for Li-ion battery electrodes that require no additional support or conductive materials such as polymeric binders or carbon black. By eliminating

  4. Sol-gel derived electrode materials for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuan

    1998-12-01

    Electrochemical capacitors have been receiving increasing interest in recent years for use in energy storage systems because of their high energy and power density and long cycle lifes. Possible applications of electrochemical capacitors include high power pulsed lasers, hybrid power system for electric vehicles, etc. In this dissertation, the preparation of electrode materials for use as electrochemical capacitors has been studied using the sol-gel process. The high surface area electrode materials explored in this work include a synthetic carbon xerogel for use in a double-layer capacitor, a cobalt oxide xerogel for use in a pseudocapacitor, and a carbon-ruthenium xerogel composite, which utilizes both double-layer and faradaic capacitances. The preparation conditions of these materials were investigated in detail to maximize the surface area and optimize the pore size so that more energy could be stored while minimizing mass transfer limitations. The microstructures of the materials were also correlated with their performance as electrochemical capacitors to improve their energy and power densities. Finally, an idealistic mathematical model, including both double-layer and faradaic processes, was developed and solved numerically. This model can be used to perform the parametric studies of an electrochemical capacitor so as to gain a better understanding of how the capacitor works and also how to improve cell operations and electrode materials design.

  5. Carbon felt and carbon fiber - A techno-economic assessment of felt electrodes for redox flow battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minke, Christine; Kunz, Ulrich; Turek, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Carbon felt electrodes belong to the key components of redox flow batteries. The purpose of this techno-economic assessment is to uncover the production costs of PAN- and rayon-based carbon felt electrodes. Raw material costs, energy demand and the impact of processability of fiber and felt are considered. This innovative, interdisciplinary approach combines deep insights into technical, ecologic and economic aspects of carbon felt and carbon fiber production. Main results of the calculation model are mass balances, cumulative energy demands (CED) and the production costs of conventional and biogenic carbon felts supplemented by market assessments considering textile and carbon fibers.

  6. Carbon nanotube-coated macroporous sponge for microbial fuel cell electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Xing; Ye, Meng; Hu, Liangbing; Liu, Nian; McDonough, James R.; Chen, Wei; Alshareef, Husam N.; Criddle, Craig S.; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    The materials that are used to make electrodes and their internal structures significantly affect microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance. In this study, we describe a carbon nanotube (CNT)-sponge composite prepared by coating a sponge with CNTs

  7. Microfiber devices based on carbon materials

    OpenAIRE

    Gengzhi Sun; Xuewan Wang; Peng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Microfiber devices are able to extend the micro/nano functionalities of materials or devices to the macroscopic scale with excellent flexibility and weavability, promising a variety of unique applications and, sometimes, also improved performance as compared with bulk counterparts. The fiber electrodes in these devices are often made of carbon materials (e.g. carbon nanotubes and graphene) because of their exceptional electrical, mechanical, and structural properties. Covering the latest deve...

  8. Drop detachment and motion on fuel cell electrode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Eric; Hellstern, Thomas; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G; Benziger, Jay

    2012-02-01

    Liquid water is pushed through flow channels of fuel cells, where one surface is a porous carbon electrode made up of carbon fibers. Water drops grow on the fibrous carbon surface in the gas flow channel. The drops adhere to the superficial fiber surfaces but exhibit little penetration into the voids between the fibers. The fibrous surfaces are hydrophobic, but there is a substantial threshold force necessary to initiate water drop motion. Once the water drops begin to move, however, the adhesive force decreases and drops move with minimal friction, similar to motion on superhydrophobic materials. We report here studies of water wetting and water drop motion on typical porous carbon materials (carbon paper and carbon cloth) employed in fuel cells. The static coefficient of friction on these textured surfaces is comparable to that for smooth Teflon. But the dynamic coefficient of friction is several orders of magnitude smaller on the textured surfaces than on smooth Teflon. Carbon cloth displays a much smaller static contact angle hysteresis than carbon paper due to its two-scale roughness. The dynamic contact angle hysteresis for carbon paper is greatly reduced compared to the static contact angle hysteresis. Enhanced dynamic hydrophobicity is suggested to result from the extent to which a dynamic contact line can track topological heterogeneities of the liquid/solid interface.

  9. Voltammetric paracetamole sensor using a gold electrode made from a digital versatile disc chip and modified with a hybrid material consisting of carbon nanotubes and copper nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daneshvar, Leili; Rounaghi, Gholam Hossein; Tarahomi, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    A composite consisting of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) was prepared by a chemical reduction method, and its structure characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy energy dispersive spectroscopy and FT-IR spectrometry. The hybrid composite was deposited on the surface of a disposable gold electrode that was manufactured from a commercial digital versatile gold disc by a drop casting method. The electrochemical properties of the modified electrode were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. The sensor showed an excellent electrocatalytic activity towards oxidation of paracetamole (PA). The calibration plot (with current typically measured at 0.41 V vs. Ag/AgCl) is linear in the 0.5 to 80 μM concentration range, and the detection limit is as low as 10 nM. The sensor was successfully applied to the determination of PA in spiked water and tablet samples where it gave recoveries ranging between 95.25 and 100.5 %. (author)

  10. Electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction on nitrogen-containing multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikkisk, Merilin; Kruusenberg, Ivar; Joost, Urmas; Shulga, Eugene; Tammeveski, Kaido

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Pyrolysis in the presence of urea was used for nitrogen doping of carbon nanotubes. ► N-doped carbon nanotubes were used as catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction. ► N-doped carbon material showed a high catalytic activity for ORR in alkaline media. ► N-containing CNT material is an attractive cathode catalyst for alkaline membrane fuel cells. - Abstract: The electrochemical reduction of oxygen was studied on nitrogen-doped multi-walled carbon nanotube (NCNT) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrodes employing the rotating disk electrode (RDE) method. Nitrogen doping was achieved by simple pyrolysis of the carbon nanotube material in the presence of urea. The surface morphology and composition of the NCNT samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The SEM images revealed a rather uniform distribution of NCNTs on the GC electrode substrate. The XPS analysis showed a successful doping of carbon nanotubes with nitrogen species. The RDE results revealed that in alkaline solution the N-doped nanotube materials showed a remarkable electrocatalytic activity towards oxygen reduction. At low overpotentials the reduction of oxygen followed a two-electron pathway on undoped carbon nanotube modified GC electrodes, whereas on NCNT/GC electrodes a four-electron pathway of O 2 reduction predominated. The results obtained are significant for the development of nitrogen-doped carbon-based cathodes for alkaline membrane fuel cells.

  11. Perspectives on State-of-the-Art Carbon Nanotube/Polyaniline and Graphene/Polyaniline Composites for Hybrid Supercapacitor Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Vadali V S S; Ramana, Gedela Venkata; Kumar, Puttapati Sampath

    2016-03-01

    Supercapacitors are attractive alternative energy storage sources. They offer high energy/power density with other characteristics like fast discharge/charge time, long operation stability, safety etc. In a supercapacitor, working electrode material is the principal constituent. At present there are numerous electrode materials (with properties) suitable for their use in hybrid type supercapacitors. Carbon/polyaniline (PANi) composites are one class of such electrode materials. Here, perspectives on state-of-the-art carbon/PANi composites namely carbon nanotube/polyaniline and graphene/polyaniline composites expedient as hybrid type supercapacitor electrode materials will be presented.

  12. Polyaniline-deposited porous carbon electrode for supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.-C.; Wen, T.-C.; Teng, H.

    2003-01-01

    Electrodes for supercapacitors were fabricated by depositing polyaniline (PANI) on high surface area carbons. The chemical composition of the PANI-deposited carbon electrode was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to investigate the electrochemical properties of electrodes. An equivalent circuit was proposed to successfully fit the EIS data, and the significant contribution of pseudocapacitance from PANI was thus identified. A comparative analysis on the electrochemical properties of bare-carbon electrodes was also conducted under similar conditions. The performance of the capacitors equipped with the resulting electrodes in 1 M H 2 SO 4 was evaluated by constant current charge-discharge cycling within a potential range from 0 to 0.6 V. The PANI-deposited electrode exhibits high specific capacitance of 180 F/g, in comparison with a value of 92 F/g for the bare-carbon electrode

  13. Effects of ion implantation on the electrochemical characteristics of carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Katsuo; Iwaki, Masaya

    1994-01-01

    Various carbon materials are important electrode materials for electrochemical field. By ion implantation, the surface layer reforming of carbon materials (mainly galssy carbon) was carried out, and the effect that it exerts to their electrode characteristics was investigated. As the results of the ion implantation of Li, N, O, K, Ti, Zn, Cd and others performed so far, it was found that mainly by the change of the surface layer to amorphous state, there were the effects of the lowering of base current and the lowering of electrode reaction rate, and it was known that the surface layers of carbon materials doped with various kinds of ions showed high chemical stability. The use of carbon materials as electrodes in electrochemistry is roughly divided into the electrodes for electrolytic industry and fuel cells for large current and those for the measurement in electrochemical reaction for small current. The structure of carbon materials and electrode characteristics, and the reforming effect by ion implantation are reported. (K.I.)

  14. Ceramic carbon electrode-based anodes for use in the copper-chlorine thermochemical cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, S.; Easton, E.B.

    2009-01-01

    Sol-gel chemistry is becoming more popular for the synthesis of electrode materials. For example, the sol-gel reaction can be performed in the presence of a carbon black to form a ceramic carbon electrode (CCE). The resultant CCE structure contains electronically conductive carbon particle pathways that are bound together via the ceramic binder, which can also promote ion transport. Furthermore, the CCE structure has a high active surface area and is chemical and thermally robust. We have investigated CCE materials prepared using 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane. Electrochemical experiments (cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) were performed to characterize their suitability as anode electrode materials for use in the electrochemical step of the Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle. Our initial results have shown that CCE-based electrodes vastly outperform a bare carbon electrode, and thus are highly promising and cost-effective electrode material. Subsequent experiments involved the manipulation of the relative ratio of organosilane carbon precursors to gauge its impact on electrode properties and performance. An overview of the materials characterization and electrochemical measurements will be presented. (author)

  15. Ceramic carbon electrode-based anodes for use in the copper-chlorine thermochemical cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, S.; Easton, E.B. [Faculty of Science, Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)], E-mail: ranga@uoit.ca, Brad.Easton@uoit.ca

    2009-07-01

    Sol-gel chemistry is becoming more popular for the synthesis of electrode materials. For example, the sol-gel reaction can be performed in the presence of a carbon black to form a ceramic carbon electrode (CCE). The resultant CCE structure contains electronically conductive carbon particle pathways that are bound together via the ceramic binder, which can also promote ion transport. Furthermore, the CCE structure has a high active surface area and is chemical and thermally robust. We have investigated CCE materials prepared using 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane. Electrochemical experiments (cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) were performed to characterize their suitability as anode electrode materials for use in the electrochemical step of the Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle. Our initial results have shown that CCE-based electrodes vastly outperform a bare carbon electrode, and thus are highly promising and cost-effective electrode material. Subsequent experiments involved the manipulation of the relative ratio of organosilane carbon precursors to gauge its impact on electrode properties and performance. An overview of the materials characterization and electrochemical measurements will be presented. (author)

  16. Concentration and electrode material dependence of the voltammetric response of iodide on platinum, glassy carbon and boron-doped diamond in the room temperature ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, Cameron L.; Bond, Alan M.; Hollenkamp, Anthony F.; Mahon, Peter J.; Zhang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    The electro-oxidation of iodide has been investigated as a function of concentration using steady-state microelectrode voltammetry, transient cyclic voltammetry and linear-sweep semi-integral voltammetry on platinum, glassy carbon and boron-doped diamond electrodes in the room temperature ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide. Two oxidation processes are observed on all of the investigated electrode materials, with the first being assigned to the oxidation of iodide to triiodide (confirmed by UV/visible spectroscopy) and the second being attributed to the oxidation of triiodide to iodine. Iodide oxidation is kinetically more facile on platinum compared to glassy carbon or boron-doped diamond. At elevated bulk iodide concentrations, the nucleation and growth of sparingly soluble electrogenerated iodine at the electrode surface was observed and imaged in situ using optical microscopy. The diffusion coefficient of iodide was determined to be 2.59 (±0.04) × 10 −7 cm 2 s −1 and independent of the bulk concentration of iodide. The steady-state iodide oxidation current measured at a platinum microelectrode was found to be a linear function of iodide concentration, as expected if there are no contributions from non-Stokesian mass-transport processes (electron hopping and/or Grotthuss-type exchange) under the investigated conditions

  17. Gallium Nitride Crystals: Novel Supercapacitor Electrode Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shouzhi; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Changlong; Shao, Yongliang; Wu, Yongzhong; Lv, Jiaxin; Hao, Xiaopeng

    2016-05-01

    A type of single-crystal gallium nitride mesoporous membrane is fabricated and its supercapacitor properties are demonstrated for the first time. The supercapacitors exhibit high-rate capability, stable cycling life at high rates, and ultrahigh power density. This study may expand the range of crystals as high-performance electrode materials in the field of energy storage. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Activated carbon material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    Activated carbon particles for use as iodine trapping material are impregnated with a mixture of selected iodine and potassium compounds to improve the iodine retention properties of the carbon. The I/K ratio is maintained at less than about 1 and the pH is maintained at above about 8.0. The iodine retention of activated carbon previously treated with or coimpregnated with triethylenediamine can also be improved by this technique. Suitable flame retardants can be added to raise the ignition temperature of the carbon to acceptable standards

  19. Sulfur based electrode materials for secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yong

    Developing next generation secondary batteries has attracted much attention in recent years due to the increasing demand of high energy and high power density energy storage for portable electronics, electric vehicles and renewable sources of energy. This dissertation investigates sulfur based advanced electrode materials in Lithium/Sodium batteries. The electrochemical performances of the electrode materials have been enhanced due to their unique nano structures as well as the formation of novel composites. First, a nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets/sulfur (NGNSs/S) composite was synthesized via a facile chemical reaction deposition. In this composite, NGNSs were employed as a conductive host to entrap S/polysulfides in the cathode part. The NGNSs/S composite delivered an initial discharge capacity of 856.7 mAh g-1 and a reversible capacity of 319.3 mAh g-1 at 0.1C with good recoverable rate capability. Second, NGNS/S nanocomposites, synthesized using chemical reaction-deposition method and low temperature heat treatment, were further studied as active cathode materials for room temperature Na-S batteries. Both high loading composite with 86% gamma-S8 and low loading composite with 25% gamma-S8 have been electrochemically evaluated and compared with both NGNS and S control electrodes. It was found that low loading NGNS/S composite exhibited better electrochemical performance with specific capacity of 110 and 48 mAh g-1 at 0.1C at the 1st and 300th cycle, respectively. The Coulombic efficiency of 100% was obtained at the 300th cycle. Third, high purity rock-salt (RS), zinc-blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) MnS nanocrystals with different morphologies were successfully synthesized via a facile solvothermal method. RS-, ZB- and WZ-MnS electrodes showed the capacities of 232.5 mAh g-1, 287.9 mAh g-1 and 79.8 mAh g-1 at the 600th cycle, respectively. ZB-MnS displayed the best performance in terms of specific capacity and cyclability. Interestingly, MnS electrodes

  20. MOLECULAR DESCRIPTION OF ELECTROLYTE SOLUTION IN A CARBON AEROGEL ELECTRODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Kovalenko

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a molecular theory of aqueous electrolyte solution sorbed in a nanoporous carbon aerogel electrode, based on the replica reference interaction site model (replica RISM for realistic molecular quenched-annealed systems. We also briefly review applications of carbon aerogels for supercapacitor and electrochemical separation devices, as well as theoretical and computer modelling of disordered porous materials. The replica RISM integral equation theory yields the microscopic properties of the electrochemical double layer formed at the surface of carbon aerogel nanopores, with due account of chemical specificities of both sorbed electrolyte and carbon aerogel material. The theory allows for spatial disorder of aerogel pores in the range from micro- to macroscopic size scale. We considered ambient aqueous solution of 1 M sodium chloride sorbed in two model nanoporous carbon aerogels with carbon nanoparticles either arranged into branched chains or randomly distributed. The long-range correlations of the carbon aerogel nanostructure substantially affect the properties of the electrochemical double layer formed by the solution sorbed in nanopores.

  1. Biomass-derived functional porous carbons as novel electrode material for the practical detection of biomolecules in human serum and snail hemolymph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeramani, Vediyappan; Madhu, Rajesh; Chen, Shen-Ming; Lou, Bih-Show; Palanisamy, Jayabal; Vasantha, Vairathevar Sivasamy

    2015-05-01

    The biomass-derived activated carbons (ACs) have been prepared with high surface areas up to 793 m2 g-1 is by ZnCl2 activation at three different temperatures, viz. AC700, AC800, and AC900. The AC samples were characterized by a variety of analytical and spectroscopy techniques. The as-synthesized ACs were adopted for the simultaneous electrochemical detection of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA). For comparison, reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was employed for the proposed sensor. The high surface area, modulated pore size and the presence of oxygen surface functional groups like heteroatoms (83.427% C, 1.085% N, 0.383% S, and 0.861% H) in the biomass-derived AC is found to be responsible for the excellent catalytic activities of biomolecules. Fascinatingly, the facile sensor further used to detect biomolecules levels in the snail hemolymph and human blood serum. Notably, the obtained analytical parameters for the biomolecules detection over the AC modified GCE, outperforming several carbon-based modified electrodes in literatures.

  2. Electrochemical properties of arc-black and carbon nano-balloon as electrochemical capacitor electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T; Suda, Y; Uruno, H; Takikawa, H; Tanoue, H; Ue, H; Aoyagi, N; Okawa, T; Shimizu, K

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used two types of carbon nanomaterials, arc-black (AcB) which has an amorphous structure and carbon nano-balloon (CNB) which has a graphitic structure as electrochemical capacitor electrodes. We made a coin electrode from these carbon materials and fabricated an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) that sandwiches a separator between the coin electrodes. On the other hand, RuO 2 was loaded on these carbon materials, and we fabricated a pseudo-capacitor that has an ion insertion mechanism into RuO 2 . For comparison with these carbon materials, activated carbon (AC) was also used for a capacitor electrode. The electrochemical properties of all the capacitors were evaluated in 1M H 2 SO 4 aqueous solution. As a result of EDLC performance, AcB electrode had a higher specific capacitance than AC electrode at a high scan rate (≥ 100 mV/s). In the evaluation of pseudo-capacitor performance, RuO 2 -loaded CNB electrode showed a high specific capacitance of 734 F/g per RuO 2 weight.

  3. Vanadium based materials as electrode materials for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Li, Bing; Guo, Wei; Pang, Huan; Xue, Huaiguo

    2016-10-01

    As a kind of supercapacitors, pseudocapacitors have attracted wide attention in recent years. The capacitance of the electrochemical capacitors based on pseudocapacitance arises mainly from redox reactions between electrolytes and active materials. These materials usually have several oxidation states for oxidation and reduction. Many research teams have focused on the development of an alternative material for electrochemical capacitors. Many transition metal oxides have been shown to be suitable as electrode materials of electrochemical capacitors. Among them, vanadium based materials are being developed for this purpose. Vanadium based materials are known as one of the best active materials for high power/energy density electrochemical capacitors due to its outstanding specific capacitance and long cycle life, high conductivity and good electrochemical reversibility. There are different kinds of synthetic methods such as sol-gel hydrothermal/solvothermal method, template method, electrospinning method, atomic layer deposition, and electrodeposition method that have been successfully applied to prepare vanadium based electrode materials. In our review, we give an overall summary and evaluation of the recent progress in the research of vanadium based materials for electrochemical capacitors that include synthesis methods, the electrochemical performances of the electrode materials and the devices.

  4. Compressed multiwall carbon nanotube composite electrodes provide enhanced electroanalytical performance for determination of serotonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagan-Murphy, Aidan; Patel, Bhavik Anil

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurochemical that is present in high concentrations within the intestinal tract. Carbon fibre and boron-doped diamond based electrodes have been widely used to date for monitoring 5-HT, however these electrodes are prone to fouling and are difficult to fabricate in certain sizes and geometries. Carbon nanotubes have shown potential as a suitable material for electroanalytical monitoring of 5-HT but can be difficult to manipulate into a suitable form. The fabrication of composite electrodes is an approach that can shape conductive materials into practical electrode geometries suitable for biological environments. This work investigated how compression of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) epoxy composite electrodes can influence their electroanalytical performance. Highly compressed composite electrodes displayed significant improvements in their electrochemical properties along with decreased internal and charge transfer resistance, reproducible behaviour and improved batch to batch variability when compared to non-compressed composite electrodes. Compression of MWCNT epoxy composite electrodes resulted in an increased current response for potassium ferricyanide, ruthenium hexaammine and dopamine, by preferentially removing the epoxy during compression and increasing the electrochemical active surface of the final electrode. For the detection of serotonin, compressed electrodes have a lower limit of detection and improved sensitivity compared to non-compressed electrodes. Fouling studies were carried out in 10 μM serotonin where the MWCNT compressed electrodes were shown to be less prone to fouling than non-compressed electrodes. This work indicates that the compression of MWCNT carbon-epoxy can result in a highly conductive material that can be moulded to various geometries, thus providing scope for electroanalytical measurements and the production of a wide range of analytical devices for a variety of systems

  5. High power and high energy electrodes using carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Fabrizio; Brambilla, Nicolo Michele; Signorelli, Riccardo

    2015-04-07

    An electrode useful in an energy storage system, such as a capacitor, includes an electrode that includes at least one to a plurality of layers of compressed carbon nanotube aggregate. Methods of fabrication are provided. The resulting electrode exhibits superior electrical performance in terms of gravimetric and volumetric power density.

  6. Method for intercalating alkali metal ions into carbon electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeff, Marca M.; Ma, Yanping; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard

    1995-01-01

    A low cost, relatively flexible, carbon electrode for use in a secondary battery is described. A method is provided for producing same, including intercalating alkali metal salts such as sodium and lithium into carbon.

  7. Electrochemical pre anodization of glassy carbon electrode and application to determine chloramphenicol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truc, Nguyen Minh; Mortensen, John; Anh, Nguyen Ba Hoai

    2008-01-01

    This paper suggested a method to enhance the performance of carbon electrodes for the determination of chloramphenicol (CAP). The sensitivity and the reproducibility of the carbon electrodes could be enhanced easily by electrochemical pretreatment. Some kinds of carbon material were studied including glassy carbon, graphite carbon and pyrolytic carbon. Numerous kinds of supporting electrolyte have been tried. For glassy carbon electrode, the acidic solution, H 2 SO 4 5 mM, resulted in best performance at pretreated voltage of +2.1V (vs. Ag/ AgCl) in duration of 250 second. However, for graphite and pyrolytic carbon electrodes, the phosphate buffer solution pH 6.0 gave the best performance at +1.7V (vs. Ag/ AgCl) in duration of 20 seconds. The detection limit could be at very low concentration of CAP: 0.8 ng/ ml for glassy carbon electrode, 3.5 ng/ ml for graphite carbon electrode. The method was successful applied to aqua-agriculture water sample and milk sample with simple extraction as well as direct ointment sample analysis. (author)

  8. Selective observation of charge storing ions in supercapacitor electrode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forse, Alexander C; Griffin, John M; Grey, Clare P

    2018-02-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has emerged as a useful technique for probing the structure and dynamics of the electrode-electrolyte interface in supercapacitors, as ions inside the pores of the carbon electrodes can be studied separately from bulk electrolyte. However, in some cases spectral resolution can limit the information that can be obtained. In this study we address this issue by showing how cross polarisation (CP) NMR experiments can be used to selectively observe the in-pore ions in supercapacitor electrode materials. We do this by transferring magnetisation from 13 C nuclei in porous carbons to nearby nuclei in the cations ( 1 H) or anions ( 19 F) of an ionic liquid. Two-dimensional NMR experiments and CP kinetics measurements confirm that in-pore ions are located within Ångströms of sp 2 -hybridised carbon surfaces. Multinuclear NMR experiments hold promise for future NMR studies of supercapacitor systems where spectral resolution is limited. Copyright © 2017 University of Cambridge. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. EDTA modified glassy carbon electrode: Preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustuendag, Zafer; Solak, Ali Osman

    2009-01-01

    EDTA-phenoxyamide modified glassy carbon electrode (EDTA-GC) was prepared at a glassy carbon electrode by surface synthesis. In the first step, nitrophenyl was grafted to the glassy carbon (GC) surface via the electrochemical reduction of its tetraflouroborate diazonium salt. In the second step, nitrophenyl-modified electrode (NP-GC) was subjected to the cathodic potential scan to reduce the nitro to amine group. p-Aminophenyl modified glassy carbon electrode (AP-GC) was dipped into a EDTA solution containing 1-ethyl-3(3-(dimethlyamino)propyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) as an activating agent. Thus formed ((2-anilino-2-oxoethyl){2-[bis(carboxymethyl)amino]-ethyl}amino)acetic acid modified GC electrode was denoted as EDTA-GC and characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Complexation of the EDTA-GC surface with Pb 2+ ions was investigated if this electrode could be used as a metal sensor.

  10. Edge-riched graphene nanoribbon for high capacity electrode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping, Yunjie; Zhang, Yupeng; Gong, Youning; Cao, Bing; Fu, Qiang; Pan, Chunxu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The graphene nanoribbon has been successfully synthesized by longitudinal unzipping of carbon nanotubes with oxidants KMnO 4 . •Compared with graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes, graphene nanoribbon shows the largest capacitance up to ∼202F/g at a scan rate of 5 mV/s. •The importance of the location of functional groups and the importance of the edge structure. •The pseudo-capacitance material should have high electron transfer and rapid ion diffusion. -- Abstract: Carbon materials have attracted great attention for their diversified applications in supercapacitors, and different structures of carbon have been reported to exhibit dissimilar electrochemical properties. In the past, activated carbons, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers and graphene have been shown to have excellent electrochemical performances, but it still remains a problem on how to improve the capacitance of carbon-based materials effectively from the viewpoint of their giant commercial potential. Noticing that connecting chemical groups to carbon can provide large pseudo-capacitance, we hereby demonstrated that the position of the chemical groups also plays an important role in the pseudo-capacitance. In our work, we synthesized graphene nanoribbon (GNR), graphene oxide (GO) and functional MWCNTs and showed that GNR has larger capacitance (calculated to be 202 F/g at a scan rate of 5 mV/s) and energy density compared to CNTs and GO when using as electrode materials. Furthermore, the supercapacitor device based on as-synthesized GNR exhibits excellent cycle stability and rate capability which evident is potential in high performance supercapacitor. Revealing the source of the capacitance, we found that though GNR has less oxygen-containing groups, it has larger pseudo-capacitance than GO and CNTs due to the remarkable edge-riched structure with high activity in electrochemical reactions. This finding highlights the importance of edge structure in carbon-based pseudo

  11. Preparation and characterization of graphene/turbostratic carbon derived from chitosan film for supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanappi, M. F. Y. M.; Deraman, M.; Suleman, M.; Othman, M. A. R.; Basri, N. H.; Nor, N. S. M.; Hamdan, E.; Sazali, N. E. S.; Tajuddin, N. S. M.

    2018-04-01

    Electrochemical capacitors or supercapacitors are the potential energy storage devices which are known for having higher specific capacitance and specific energy than electrolytic capacitors. Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) also referred as ultracapacitors is a class of supercapacitors that employ different forms of carbon like activated carbon, CNT, graphene etc., as electrodes. The performance of the supercapacitors is determined by its components namely electrolyte, electrode, etc. Carbon electrodes with high surface area and desired pore size distribution are always preferred and which can be tailored by varying the precursor and method of preparation. In recent years, owing to their low cost, ease of synthesis, high stability and conductivity, the activated carbons derived from biomass precursors have been investigated as potential electrode material for the EDLCs. In this report, we present the preparation and characterization of graphene/turbostratic carbon monolith (CM) electrodes from the carbon grains (CGs) obtained by carbonization (under the flow of nitrogen, N2 gas and over a temperature range from 600 °C to 1000 °C) of biomass precursor chitosan film. The procedure to prepare the chitosan film is described elsewhere. The carbon grains are characterized using Raman spectroscopy (RS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). We expect that the CGs would have the similar characteristics as graphene and would be a potential electrode material for EDLCs application.

  12. Density controlled carbon nanotube array electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng F [Newton, MA; Tu, Yi [Belmont, MA

    2008-12-16

    CNT materials comprising aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with pre-determined site densities, catalyst substrate materials for obtaining them and methods for forming aligned CNTs with controllable densities on such catalyst substrate materials are described. The fabrication of films comprising site-density controlled vertically aligned CNT arrays of the invention with variable field emission characteristics, whereby the field emission properties of the films are controlled by independently varying the length of CNTs in the aligned array within the film or by independently varying inter-tubule spacing of the CNTs within the array (site density) are disclosed. The fabrication of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) formed utilizing the carbon nanotube material of the invention is also described.

  13. Silver-functionalized carbon nanofiber composite electrodes for ibuprofen detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manea, F.; Motoc, S.; Pop, A.; Remes, A.; Schoonman, J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare and characterize two types of silver-functionalized carbon nanofiber (CNF) composite electrodes, i.e., silver-decorated CNF-epoxy and silver-modified natural zeolite-CNF-epoxy composite electrodes suitable for ibuprofen detection in aqueous solution. Ag carbon

  14. Electrochemical investigations of Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox reaction using graphene modified glassy carbon electrodes and a comparison to the performance of SWCNTs modified glassy carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ruma; Gamare, Jayashree; Sharma, Manoj K.; Kamat, J.V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • First report of aqueous electrochemistry of Plutonium on graphene modified electrode. • Graphene is best electrocatalytic material for Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox couple among the reported modifiers viz. reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and SWCNT’s. • The electrochemical reversibility of Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox couple improves significantly on graphene modified electrode compared to previously reported rGO & SWCNTs modified electrodes • Donnan interaction between plutonium species and graphene surface offers a possibility for designing a highly sensitive sensor for plutonium • Graphene modified electrode shows higher sensitivity for the determination of plutonium compared to glassy carbon and single walled carbon nanotube modified electrode - Abstract: The work reported in this paper demonstrates for the first time that graphene modified glassy carbon electrode (Gr/GC) show remarkable electrocatalysis towards Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox reaction and the results were compared with that of single-walled carbon nanotubes modified GC (SWCNTs/GC) and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Graphene catalyzes the exchange of current of the Pu(IV)/Pu(III) couple by reducing both the anodic and cathodic overpotentials. The Gr/GC electrode shows higher peak currents (i p ) and smaller peak potential separation (ΔE p ) values than the SWCNTs/GC and GC electrodes. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants (k s ), charge transfer coefficients (α) and the diffusion coefficients (D) involved in the electrocatalytic redox reaction were determined. Our observations show that graphene is best electrocatalytic material among both the SWCNTs and GC to study Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox reaction.

  15. Functional Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huihui

    The ability to harvest and convert solar energy has been associated with the evolution of human civilization. The increasing consumption of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution, however, has brought to concerns in ecological deterioration and depletion of the fossil fuels. Facing these challenges, humankind is forced to seek for clean, sustainable and renewable energy resources, such as biofuels, hydraulic power, wind power, geothermal energy and other kinds of alternative energies. However, most alternative energy sources, generally in the form of electrical energy, could not be made available on a continuous basis. It is, therefore, essential to store such energy into chemical energy, which are portable and various applications. In this context, electrochemical energy-storage devices hold great promises towards this goal. The most common electrochemical energy-storage devices are electrochemical capacitors (ECs, also called supercapacitors) and batteries. In comparison to batteries, ECs posses high power density, high efficiency, long cycling life and low cost. ECs commonly utilize carbon as both (symmetric) or one of the electrodes (asymmetric), of which their performance is generally limited by the capacitance of the carbon electrodes. Therefore, developing better carbon materials with high energy density has been emerging as one the most essential challenges in the field. The primary objective of this dissertation is to design and synthesize functional carbon materials with high energy density at both aqueous and organic electrolyte systems. The energy density (E) of ECs are governed by E = CV 2/2, where C is the total capacitance and V is the voltage of the devices. Carbon electrodes with high capacitance and high working voltage should lead to high energy density. In the first part of this thesis, a new class of nanoporous carbons were synthesized for symmetric supercapacitors using aqueous Li2SO4 as the electrolyte. A unique precursor was adopted to

  16. Organic electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Yanliang; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Chemistry College, Nankai University, Tianjin (China)

    2012-07-15

    Organic compounds offer new possibilities for high energy/power density, cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and functional rechargeable lithium batteries. For a long time, they have not constituted an important class of electrode materials, partly because of the large success and rapid development of inorganic intercalation compounds. In recent years, however, exciting progress has been made, bringing organic electrodes to the attention of the energy storage community. Herein thirty years' research efforts in the field of organic compounds for rechargeable lithium batteries are summarized. The working principles, development history, and design strategies of these materials, including organosulfur compounds, organic free radical compounds, organic carbonyl compounds, conducting polymers, non-conjugated redox polymers, and layered organic compounds are presented. The cell performances of these materials are compared, providing a comprehensive overview of the area, and straightforwardly revealing the advantages/disadvantages of each class of materials. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. One-step synthesis of layered CuS/multi-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposites for supercapacitor electrode material with ultrahigh specific capacitance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ke-Jing; Zhang, Ji-Zong; Xing, Ke

    2014-01-01

    In this work, hierarchical-structured copper sulfide/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CuS/MWCNTs) are synthesized via a one-step hydrothermal process. The chemical composition and microstructure of CuS-MWCNTs are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and research as electrode matericals for high-performance supercapacitors by cyclic voltammogram, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. As expected, the CuS-MWCNTs exhibit a much higher specific capacitance up to 2831 F g −1 , compared with 925.1 F g −1 for CuS and 555.6 F g −1 for MWCNTs. Furthermore, the CuS-MWCNTs hybrids also exhibit good cycling stability with more than 90% capacitance retention over 600 cycles. The enhancement of CuS/MWCNTs in supercapacitor performance not only attribute to their unique 3D structures with large specific surface area, but also their excellent conductivity, which facilitate efficient charge transport and promotes electrolyte diffusion

  18. Characterization of a Porous Carbon Material Functionalized with Cobalt-Oxide/Cobalt Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Anjum, Dalaver H.

    2016-04-18

    A nanoporous carbon (C) material, functionalized with Cobalt-Oxide/Cobalt (CoO/Co) core-shell nanoparticles (NPs), was structurally and chemically characterized with transmission electron microcopy (TEM) while its electrochemical response for Lithium ion battery (LIB) applications was evaluated as well. The results herein show that the nanoporous C material was uniformly functionalized with the CoO/Co core-shell NPs. Further the NPs were crystalline with fcc-Type lattice on the Co2+ oxide shell and hcp-Type core of metallic Co0. The electrochemical study was carried out by using galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling at a current density of 1000 mA g-1. The potential of this hybrid material for LIB applications was confirmed and it is attributed to the successful dispersion of the Co2+/ Co0 NPs in the C support.

  19. Study on Electrochemical Performance of Carbonnanotubes/Fey 04 Composite Electrode Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Fang--yong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available For single super capacitor materials,each material has its own unique advantages and defects. In this paper, the synthesis of complex multi walled carbon nanotubes with Fe304 nanoparticles by simple hydrothermal method. Composite performance for Fe3 OQ nanoparticles adsorbed on carbon nano tube wall composed of reticular structure morphology. Synergy of two component,provides the binary nanometer compound larger specific capacity, excellent properties and good cycle stability. The experimental results proved that the improvement effects of CNT carbon materials on the electrochemical properties of pseudocapacitive electrode material,and CNT/Fe3 OQ nano- composites applied to supercapacitor electrode material.

  20. Carbon in bifunctional air electrodes in alkaline solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tryk, D.; Aldred, W.; Yeager, E.

    1983-01-01

    Bifunctional O 2 electrodes can be used both to reduce and to generate O 2 in rechargeable metal-air batteries and fuel cells. The factors controlling the O 2 reduction and generation reactions in gas-diffusional bifunctional O 2 electrodes are discussed. The resistance of such electrodes, as established from voltammetry curves, has been found to increase markedly during anodic polarization and to be dependent upon the electrode fabrication technique. Carbon blacks with more graphitic structure than Shawinigan black have been found to be more resistant to electro-oxidation. The further extension of cycle life of bifunctional electrodes using carbon is critically dependent on finding more oxidation-resistant carbons that at the same time have other surface properties meeting the requirements for catalyzed gas-diffusion electrodes

  1. NUCLEATION STUDIES OF GOLD ON CARBON ELECTRODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. SOBRI

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Interest has grown in developing non-toxic electrolytes for gold electrodeposition to replace the conventional cyanide-based bath for long term sustainability of gold electroplating. A solution containing thiosulphate and sulphite has been developed specially for microelectronics applications. However, at the end of the electrodeposition process, the spent electrolyte can contain a significant amount of gold in solution. This study has been initiated to investigate the feasibility of gold recovery from a spent thiosulphate-sulphite electrolyte. We have used flat-plate glassy carbon and graphite electrodes to study the mechanism of nucleation and crystal growth of gold deposition from the spent electrolyte. It was found that at the early stages of reduction process, the deposition of gold on glassy carbon exhibits an instantaneous nucleation of non-overlapping particles. At longer times, the particles begin to overlap and the deposition follows a classic progressive nucleation phenomenon. On the other hand, deposition of gold on graphite does not follow the classical nucleation phenomena.

  2. Electrode materials and lithium battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil [Downers Grove, IL; Belharouak, Ilias [Westmont, IL; Liu, Jun [Naperville, IL

    2011-06-28

    A material comprising a lithium titanate comprising a plurality of primary particles and secondary particles, wherein the average primary particle size is about 1 nm to about 500 nm and the average secondary particle size is about 1 .mu.m to about 4 .mu.m. In some embodiments the lithium titanate is carbon-coated. Also provided are methods of preparing lithium titanates, and devices using such materials.

  3. Micro supercapacitors based on a 3D structure with symmetric graphene or activated carbon electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siwei; Wang, Xiaohong; Xing, Hexin; Shen, Caiwei

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents three-dimensional (3D) micro supercapacitors with thick interdigital electrodes supported and separated by SU-8. Nanoporous carbon materials including graphene and activated carbon (AC) are used as active materials in self-supporting composites to build the electrodes. The SU-8 separators provide mechanical support for thick electrodes and allow a considerable amount of material to be loaded in a limited footprint area. The prototypes have been accomplished by a simple microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication process and sealed by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) caps with ionic liquid electrolytes injected into the electrode area. Electrochemical tests demonstrate that the graphene-based prototype with 100 µm thick electrodes shows good power performance and provides a considerable specific capacitance of about 60 mF cm-2. Two AC-based prototypes show larger capacitance of 160 mF cm-2 and 311 mF cm-2 with 100 µm and 200 µm thick electrodes respectively, because of higher volume density of the material. The results demonstrate that both thick 3D electrode structure and volume capacitance of the electrode material are key factors for high-performance micro supercapacitors, which can be potentially used in specific applications such as power suppliers and storage components for harvesters.

  4. Antibacterial validation of electrogenerated hypochlorite using carbon-based electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locker, J; Fitzgerald, P; Sharp, D

    2014-12-01

    This proof-of-concept study explores the novel use of carbon-based electrodes for the electrochemical generation of hypochlorite and compares the antimicrobial efficacy against commercial hypochlorite solution. Antimicrobial concentrations of hypochlorite were generated using pad-printed carbon and carbon fibre electrodes, yielding up to 0·027% hypochlorite in 60 min and 0·1% hypochlorite in 15 min, respectively, in a nondivided assembly. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the electrogenerated hypochlorite produced using carbon fibre electrodes was established for four medically important bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus approx. 0·025%, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis approx. 0·012%) and found to be in agreement with those determined using commercial hypochlorite solution. Therefore, carbon-based electrodes, particularly carbon fibre, have proven effective for the generation of antimicrobial concentrations of hypochlorite. The similarity of the MIC values to commercial hypochlorite solutions suggests that the antimicrobial efficacy is derived from the quantified hypochlorite generated and not due to marked cogeneration of reactive oxygen species, as identified for other assemblies. As such, the application of carbon electrodes may be suitable for the local production of hypochlorite for healthcare antisepsis. Carbon fibre electrodes can rapidly generate antimicrobial concentrations of hypochlorite; as such, these cheap and commercially available electrodes are proposed for the local production of hypochlorite for healthcare antisepsis. Importantly, the antimicrobial properties of the electrochemically generated hypochlorite mirror those of commercial hypochlorite, suggesting this is not enhanced by the cogeneration of reactive oxygen species. This illustrates the potential use of disposable carbon electrodes for localized small-volume production of hypochlorite for surface and skin cleansing, and opens a broader

  5. Field emission properties of the graphenated carbon nanotube electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanin, H., E-mail: hudson.zanin@bristol.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Faculdade de Engenharia Elétrica e Computação, Departamento de Semicondutores, Instrumentos e Fotônica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein N. 400, CEP 13 083-852 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Ceragioli, H.J.; Peterlevitz, A.C.; Baranauskas, Vitor [Faculdade de Engenharia Elétrica e Computação, Departamento de Semicondutores, Instrumentos e Fotônica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein N. 400, CEP 13 083-852 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Marciano, F.R.; Lobo, A.O. [Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology/Institute of Research and Development at UNIVAP, Av. Shishima Hifumi, 2911, CEP 12244-000 Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Facile method to prepare graphenated carbon nanotubes (g-CNTs). • The electric field emission behaviour of g-CNTs was studied. • g-CNTs show better emission current stability than non-graphenated CNTs. - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide-coated carbon nanotubes (RGO-CNT) electrodes have been prepared by hot filament chemical vapour deposition system in one-step growth process. We studied RGO-CNT electrodes behaviour as cold cathode in field emission test. Our results show that RGO-CNT retain the low threshold voltage typical of CNTs, but with greatly improved emission current stability. The field emission enhancement value is significantly higher than that expected being caused by geometric effect (height divided by the radius of nanotube). This suggested that the field emission of this hybrid structure is not only from a single tip, but eventually it is from several tips with contribution of graphene nanosheets at CNT's walls. This phenomenon explains why the graphenated carbon nanotubes do not burn out as quickly as CNT does until emission ceases completely. These preliminaries results make nanocarbon materials good candidates for applications as electron sources for several devices.

  6. Carbon: The Ultimate Electrode Choice for Widely Distributed Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis; Roth, Bérenger; Madsen, Morten Vesterager

    2014-01-01

    -, indium tin oxide (ITO)-, and silver-free solar cells in a fully packaged form using only roll-to-roll processing is reported. Replacing silver with carbon as electrode material signifi cantly lowers the manufacturing cost and makes the organic photovoltaic (OPV) modules environmentally safe while...... retaining their fl exibility, active area effi ciency, and stability. The substitution of silver with carbon does not affect the roll-to-roll manufacturing of the modules and allows for the same fast printing and coating. The use of carbon as electrode material is one step closer to the wide release of low...

  7. Carbon Nanotubes Counter Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drygała A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the carbon nanotubes counter electrode deposited on the FTO glass substrates on the structure and optoelectrical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells counter electrode (CE was analysed. Carbon materials have been applied in DSSC s in order to produce low-cost solar cells with reasonable efficiency. Platinum is a preferred material for the counter electrode because of its high conductivity and catalytic activity. However, the costs of manufacturing of the platinum counter electrode limit its use to large-scale applications in solar cells. This paper presents the results of examining the structure and properties of the studied layers, defining optical properties of conductive layers and electrical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells manufactured with the use of carbon nanotubes.

  8. Hierarchical porous carbon aerogel derived from bagasse for high performance supercapacitor electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Pin; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Tian, Jian; Li, Haidong; Sang, Yuanhua; Yu, Guangwei; Cai, Huaqiang; Liu, Hong; Wong, C P; Umar, Ahmad

    2014-10-21

    Renewable, cost-effective and eco-friendly electrode materials have attracted much attention in the energy conversion and storage fields. Bagasse, the waste product from sugarcane that mainly contains cellulose derivatives, can be a promising candidate to manufacture supercapacitor electrode materials. This study demonstrates the fabrication and characterization of highly porous carbon aerogels by using bagasse as a raw material. Macro and mesoporous carbon was first prepared by carbonizing the freeze-dried bagasse aerogel; consequently, microporous structure was created on the walls of the mesoporous carbon by chemical activation. Interestingly, it was observed that the specific surface area, the pore size and distribution of the hierarchical porous carbon were affected by the activation temperature. In order to evaluate the ability of the hierarchical porous carbon towards the supercapacitor electrode performance, solid state symmetric supercapacitors were assembled, and a comparable high specific capacitance of 142.1 F g(-1) at a discharge current density of 0.5 A g(-1) was demonstrated. The fabricated solid state supercapacitor displayed excellent capacitance retention of 93.9% over 5000 cycles. The high energy storage ability of the hierarchical porous carbon was attributed to the specially designed pore structures, i.e., co-existence of the micropores and mesopores. This research has demonstrated that utilization of sustainable biopolymers as the raw materials for high performance supercapacitor electrode materials is an effective way to fabricate low-cost energy storage devices.

  9. Fabrication and electrical properties of single wall carbon nanotube channel and graphene electrode based transistors arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y. H.; Yun, H.; McAllister, K.; Lee, S. W., E-mail: leesw@konkuk.ac.kr [Division of Quantum Phases and Devices, School of Physics, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Na, J.; Kim, G. T. [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, B. J.; Kim, J. J.; Jeong, G. H. [Department of Nano Applied Engineering, Kangwon National University, Kangwon-do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, I.; Kim, K. S. [Department of Physics and Graphene Research Institute, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-20

    A transistor structure composed of an individual single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) channel with a graphene electrode was demonstrated. The integrated arrays of transistor devices were prepared by transferring patterned graphene electrode patterns on top of the aligned SWNT along one direction. Both single and multi layer graphene were used for the electrode materials; typical p-type transistor and Schottky diode behavior were observed, respectively. Based on our fabrication method and device performances, several issues are suggested and discussed to improve the device reliability and finally to realize all carbon based future electronic systems.

  10. Study of the Electrocatalytic Activity of Cerium Oxide and Gold-Studded Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Using a Sonogel-Carbon Material as Supporting Electrode: Electroanalytical Study in Apple Juice for Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahim, M. Yahia M.; Benjamin, Stephen R.; Cubillana-Aguilera, Laura Ma; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Ignacio; Hidalgo-Hidalgo de Cisneros, Josè L.; Delgado, Juan Josè; Palacios-Santander, Josè Ma

    2013-01-01

    The present work reports a study of the electrocatalytic activity of CeO2 nanoparticles and gold sononanoparticles (AuSNPs)/CeO2 nanocomposite, deposited on the surface of a Sonogel-Carbon (SNGC) matrix used as supporting electrode and the application of the sensing devices built with them to the determination of ascorbic acid (AA) used as a benchmark analyte. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) were used to investigate the electrocatalytic behavior of CeO2- and AuSNPs/CeO2-modified SNGC electrodes, utilizing different concentrations of CeO2 nanoparticles and different AuSNPs:CeO2 w/w ratios. The best detection and quantification limits, obtained for CeO2 (10.0 mg·mL−1)- and AuSNPs/CeO2 (3.25% w/w)-modified SNGC electrodes, were 1.59 × 10−6 and 5.32 × 10−6 M, and 2.93 × 10−6 and 9.77 × 10−6 M, respectively, with reproducibility values of 5.78% and 6.24%, respectively, for a linear concentration range from 1.5 μM to 4.0 mM of AA. The electrochemical devices were tested for the determination of AA in commercial apple juice for babies. The results were compared with those obtained by applying high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as a reference method. Recovery errors below 5% were obtained in most cases, with standard deviations lower than 3% for all the modified SNGC electrodes. Bare, CeO2- and AuSNPs/CeO2-modified SNGC electrodes were structurally characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). AuSNPs and AuSNPs/CeO2 nanocomposite were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and information about their size distribution and shape was obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM;. The advantages of employing CeO2 nanoparticles and AuSNPs/CeO2 nanocomposite in SNGC supporting material are also described. This research suggests that the modified electrode can be a very promising voltammetric sensor for the determination of

  11. Particulate inverse opal carbon electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Da-Young; Kim, Sang-Ok; Chae, Yu Jin; Lee, Joong Kee; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2013-01-29

    Inverse opal carbon materials were used as anodes for lithium ion batteries. We applied particulate inverse opal structures and their dispersion in the formation of anode electrodes via solution casting. We prepared aminophenyl-grafted inverse opal carbons (a-IOC), inverse opal carbons with mesopores (mIOC), and bare inverse opal carbons (IOC) and investigated the electrochemical behavior of these samples as anode materials. Surface modification by aminophenyl groups was confirmed by XPS measurements. TEM images showed mesopores, and the specific area of mIOC was compared with that of IOC using BET analysis. A half-cell test was performed to compare a-IOC with IOC and mIOC with IOC. In the case of the a-IOC structure, the cell test revealed no improvement in the reversible specific capacity or the cycle performance. The mIOC cell showed a reversible specific capacity of 432 mAh/g, and the capacity was maintained at 88%-approximately 380 mAh/g-over 20 cycles.

  12. A top-down approach for fabricating free-standing bio-carbon supercapacitor electrodes with a hierarchical structure

    OpenAIRE

    Yingzhi Li; Qinghua Zhang; Junxian Zhang; Lei Jin; Xin Zhao; Ting Xu

    2015-01-01

    Biomass has delicate hierarchical structures, which inspired us to develop a cost-effective route to prepare electrode materials with rational nanostructures for use in high-performance storage devices. Here, we demonstrate a novel top-down approach for fabricating bio-carbon materials with stable structures and excellent diffusion pathways; this approach is based on carbonization with controlled chemical activation. The developed free-standing bio-carbon electrode exhibits a high specific ca...

  13. ;Green; carbon with hierarchical three dimensional porous structure derived from - Pongamia pinnata seed oil extract cake and NiCo2O4-Ni(OH)2/Multiwall carbon nanotubes nanocomposite as electrode materials for high performance asymmetric supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitra, K.; Narendra, Reddy; Venkatesh, Krishna; Nagaraju, N.; Kathyayini, Nagaraju

    2017-07-01

    Herein, we report for the first time synthesis and electrochemical supercapacitance performance of 3-D hierarchical porous "Green" carbon derived from Pongamia pinnata seed oil extract cake and its activation using different amounts of KOH. Also, nanocomposites of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with various weight percentages of Ni and Co were prepared by hydrothermal method. Physico-chemical properties of "Green" carbon and nanocomposites were analyzed by Powder X-ray Diffraction, Brunner Emmett Teller surface area, Scanning Electron Microscopy-Elemental Dispersive Spectrum, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Raman techniques. KOH activated carbon was found associated with combination of micropores & mesopores while the nanocomposite with mixture of spinel NiCo2O4 and Ni(OH)2. Porous carbon activated with 2:1::KOH:C (KC2) and the nanocomposite with 1:1 Ni & Co (NC1) exhibited excellent electrochemical performance in three electrode system. Further, fabricated asymmetric supercapacitor (AS) device Ni-Co-MWCNT (NC1)//KC2 exhibited specific capacitance (Cs) of 177 F/g as determined by cyclic voltammetry at 10 mV/s and retained 90% even at 3000th cycle in life cycle test conducted at high current density of 50 A/g. In order to evaluate its practical performance, the AS device was charged to 1.8 V at 5 A/g and used successfully to power a calculator for more than 1 h.

  14. Mutagens in urine of carbon electrode workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquini, R; Monarca, S; Sforzolini, G S; Conti, R; Fagioli, F

    1982-01-01

    Following previous work carried out in an Italian factory producing carbon electrodes and evaluating the occupational mutagenic-carcinogenic hazards, the authors studied the presence of mutagen metabolites in the urine of workers in the same factory who were exposed to petroleum coke and pitch and in the urine of a control group of unexposed workers. The urine samples were concentrated by absorption on XAD-2 columns and were tested using the Salmonella/microsome assay (strain TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1538) with and without the addition of beta-glucuronidase and metabolizing system. The collection of urine samples was carried out twice, with an interval of 2 months; 'before working time', 'after working time', and also during Sunday. The results showed that urine samples collected 'before' occupational exposure (upon waking) or on Sunday revealed no mutagenic activity in either worker groups and that the urine samples collected after or during occupational exposure revealed high mutagenic activity in the exposed workers, with a statistically significant difference between the mean of the revertants/plate values for exposed and unexposed workers. On the basis of the previous and the present research, the authors suggest that application of the Salmonella/microsome test to work environments could offer useful and suitable tool for evaluating the health hazards due to mutagenic/carcinogenic substances from occupational exposure.

  15. Optimizing the fabrication of carbon nanotube electrode for effective capacitive deionization via electrophoretic deposition strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeng Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain superior electrode performances in capacitive deionization (CDI, the electrophoretic deposition (EPD was introduced as a novel strategy for the fabrication of carbon nanotube (CNT electrode. Preparation parameters, including the concentration of slurry components, deposition time and electric field intensity, were mainly investigated and optimized in terms of electrochemical characteristic and desalination performance of the deposited CNT electrode. The SEM image shows that the CNT material was deposited homogeneously on the current collector and a non-crack surface of the electrode was obtained. An optimal preparation condition of the deposited CNT electrode was obtained and specified as the Al (NO33 M concentration of 1.3 × 10−2 mol/L, the deposition time of 30 min and the electric field intensity of 15 V/cm. The obtained electrode performs an increasing specific mass capacitance of 33.36 F/g and specific adsorption capacity of 23.93 mg/g, which are 1.62 and 1.85 times those of the coated electrode respectively. The good performance of the deposited CNT electrode indicates the promising application of the EPD methodology in subsequent research and fabrication of the CDI electrodes for CDI process. Keywords: Carbon nanotube, Water treatment, Desalination, Capacitive deionization, Electrode fabrication, Electrophoretic deposition

  16. Carbonizing bituminous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1924-03-11

    A process for carbonizing bituminous materials, like mineral coal, brown coal, oil shale, and the like, by means of hot gass is characterized in that, these (gases) flush through the feed in the temperature-state above 450/sup 0/C, while below 450/sup 0/C they are led past the feed and act on it by heat conductivity, convection, and gas radiation or only by heat conduction.

  17. Effect of carbon microfiber materials on sensitivity of adenosine and hydroxyadenine at carbon microfiber sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.M.M. Abou El-Nour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the sensitivity measurements and microfiber electrodes made from different carbon microfiber materials, such as polyacrylonitrile (PAN T650 and PAN HCB and Pitch P25 was established in this work. The different microfiber electrodes were nanostructured by an electrochemical pretreatment method. Sensitivity of adenosine (ADO and 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (2,8-DHA was measured at different carbon microfiber sensors made from different carbon microfiber materials. Sensitivity of PAN microfiber electrodes for ADO and 2,8-DHA determinations measured at 500 V s−1 vs. SCE is higher than that measured at Pitch P25 microfiber electrodes due to more defects in PAN microfiber electrodes. Adsorption of ADO and 2,8-DHA is greater at PAN HCB electrodes. High conductivity of PAN fibers correlates with sensitivity determinations of the investigated analytes.

  18. Attractive forces in microporous carbon electrodes for capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Porada, S.; Levi, M.; Bazant, M.Z.

    2014-01-01

    The recently developed modified Donnan (mD) model provides a simple and useful description of the electrical double layer in microporous carbon electrodes, suitable for incorporation in porous electrode theory. By postulating an attractive excess chemical potential for each ion in the micropores

  19. Wireless desalination using inductively powered porous carbon electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, J.; Porada, S.

    2013-01-01

    Water desalination by capacitive deionization (CDI) uses electrochemical cell pairs formed of porous carbon electrodes, which are brought in contact with the water that must be desalinated. Upon applying a cell voltage or current between the electrodes, ions are electrosorbed and water is produced

  20. Method for uniformly distributing carbon flakes in a positive electrode, the electrode made thereby and compositions. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrazek, F.C.; Smaga, J.A.; Battles, J.E.

    1981-01-19

    A positive electrode for a secondary electrochemical cell is described wherein an electrically conductive current collector is in electrical contact with a particulate mixture of gray cast iron and an alkali metal sulfide and an electrolyte including alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides. Also present may be a transition metal sulfide and graphite flakes from the conversion of gray cast iron to iron sulfide. Also disclosed is a method of distributing carbon flakes in a cell wherein there is formed an electrochemical cell of a positive electrode structure of the type described and a suitable electrolyte and a second electrode containing a material capable of alloying with alkali metal ions. The cell is connected to a source of electrical potential to electrochemically convert gray cast iron to an iron sulfide and uniformly to distribute carbon flakes formerly in the gray cast iron throughout the positive electrode while forming an alkali metal alloy in the negative electrode. Also disclosed are compositions useful in preparing positive electrodes.

  1. Carbon nanofibers grafted on activated carbon as an electrode in high-power supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryglewicz, Grażyna; Śliwak, Agata; Béguin, François

    2013-08-01

    A hybrid electrode material for high-power supercapacitors was fabricated by grafting carbon nanofibers (CNFs) onto the surface of powdered activated carbon (AC) through catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). A uniform thin layer of disentangled CNFs with a herringbone structure was deposited on the carbon surface through the decomposition of propane at 450 °C over an AC-supported nickel catalyst. CNF coating was controlled by the reaction time and the nickel content. The superior CNF/AC composite displays excellent electrochemical performance in a 0.5 mol L(-1) solution of K2 SO4 due to its unique structure. At a high scan rate (100 mV s(-1) ) and current loading (20 A g(-1) ), the capacitance values were three- and fourfold higher than those for classical AC/carbon black composites. Owing to this feature, a high energy of 10 Wh kg(-1) was obtained over a wide power range in neutral medium at a voltage of 0.8 V. The significant enhancement of charge propagation is attributed to the presence of herringbone CNFs, which facilitate the diffusion of ions in the electrode and play the role of electronic bridges between AC particles. An in situ coating of AC with short CNFs (below 200 nm) is a very attractive method for producing the next generation of carbon composite materials with a high power performance in supercapacitors working in neutral medium. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Composite supercapacitor electrodes made of activated carbon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    carbon/PEDOT:PSS and activated carbon/doped PEDOT. T S SONIA, P A MINI, ... polymeric anodes for organic photovoltaics, light-emitting diodes (Pingree et al ... looked upon are carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene and activated carbon.

  3. Vanadium oxide nanowire-carbon nanotube binder-free flexible electrodes for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, Sanjaya D.; Patel, Bijal; Seitz, Oliver; Ferraris, John P.; Balkus, Kenneth J. Jr. [Department of Chemistry and the Alan G. MacDiarmid Nanotech Institute, 800 West Campbell Rd, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States); Nijem, Nour; Roodenko, Katy; Chabal, Yves J. [Laboratory for Surface and Nanostructure Modification, Department of Material Science and Engineering, 800 West Campbell Rd, University of Texas Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) layered nanostructures are known to have very stable crystal structures and high faradaic activity. The low electronic conductivity of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} greatly limits the application of vanadium oxide as electrode materials and requires combining with conducting materials using binders. It is well known that the organic binders can degrade the overall performance of electrode materials and need carefully controlled compositions. In this study, we develop a simple method for preparing freestanding carbon nanotube (CNT)-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanowire (VNW) composite paper electrodes without using binders. Coin cell type (CR2032) supercapacitors are assembled using the nanocomposite paper electrode as the anode and high surface area carbon fiber electrode (Spectracarb 2225) as the cathode. The supercapacitor with CNT-VNW composite paper electrode exhibits a power density of 5.26 kW Kg{sup -1} and an energy density of 46.3 Wh Kg{sup -1}. (Li)VNWs and CNT composite paper electrodes can be fabricated in similar manner and show improved overall performance with a power density of 8.32 kW Kg{sup -1} and an energy density of 65.9 Wh Kg{sup -1}. The power and energy density values suggest that such flexible hybrid nanocomposite paper electrodes may be useful for high performance electrochemical supercapacitors. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Reticulated Vitreous Carbon Electrodes for Gas Phase Pulsed Corona Reactors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Locke, B

    1998-01-01

    A new design for gas phase pulsed corona reactors incorporating reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes is demonstrated to be effective for the removal of nitrogen oxides from synthetic air mixtures...

  5. Reticulated Vitreous Carbon Electrodes for Gas Phase Pulsed Corona Reactors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LOCKE, B

    1999-01-01

    A new design for gas phase pulsed corona reactors incorporating reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes is demonstrated to be effective for the removal of nitrogen oxides from synthetic air mixtures...

  6. Carbon nanofibers grown on activated carbon fiber fabrics as electrode of supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, T-H; Hung, K-H; Tzeng, S-S; Shen, J-W; Hung, C-H

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were grown directly on activated carbon fiber fabric (ACFF), which was then used as the electrode of supercapacitors. Cyclic voltammetry and ac impedance were used to characterize the electrochemical properties of ACFF and CNF/ACFF electrodes in both aqueous and organic electrolytes. ACFF electrodes show higher specific capacitance than CNF/ACFF electrodes due to larger specific surface area. However, the spaces formed between the CNFs in the CNF/ACFF electrodes are more easily accessed than the slit-type pores of ACFF, and much higher electrical-double layer capacitance was obtained for CNF/ACFF electrodes

  7. Low Impedance Carbon Adhesive Electrodes with Long Shelf Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada-Quintero, Hugo F; Reyes, Bersaín A; Burnham, Ken; Pennace, John; Chon, Ki H

    2015-10-01

    A novel electrocardiogram (ECG) electrode film is developed by mixing carbon black powder and a quaternary salt with a visco-elastic polymeric adhesive. Unlike traditional wet gel-based electrodes, carbon/salt/adhesive (CSA) electrodes should theoretically have an infinite shelf life as they do not dehydrate even after a prolonged period of storage. The CSA electrodes are electrically activated for use through the process of electrophoresis. Specifically, the activation procedure involves sending a high voltage and current through the electrode, which results in significant reduction of impedance so that high fidelity ECG signals can be obtained. Using the activation procedure, the ideal concentration of carbon black powder in the mixture with the adhesive was examined. It was determined that the optimum concentration of carbon black which minimized post-activation impedance was 10%. Once the optimal carbon black powder concentration was determined, extensive signal analysis was performed to compare the performance of the CSA electrodes to the standard silver-silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrodes. As a part of data analysis, electrode-skin contact impedance of the CSA was measured and compared to the standard Ag/AgCl electrodes; we found consistently lower impedance for CSA electrodes. For quantitative data analysis, we simultaneously collected ECG data with CSA and Ag/AgCl electrodes from 17 healthy subjects. Heart rate variability (HRV) indices and ECG morphological waveforms were calculated to compare CSA and Ag/AgCl electrodes. Non-significant differences for most of the HRV indices between CSA and Ag/AgCl electrodes were found. Of the morphological waveform metrics consisting of R-wave peak amplitude, ST-segment elevation and QT interval, only the first index was found to be significantly different between the two media. The response of CSA electrodes to motion artifacts was also tested, and we found in general no difference in the quality of the ECG signal

  8. Supercapacitors Based on Nickel Oxide/Carbon Materials Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Lota, Katarzyna; Sierczynska, Agnieszka; Lota, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    In the thesis, the properties of nickel oxide/active carbon composites as the electrode materials for supercapacitors are discussed. Composites with a different proportion of nickel oxide/carbon materials were prepared. A nickel oxide/carbon composite was prepared by chemically precipitating nickel hydroxide on an active carbon and heating the hydroxide at 300 ∘C in the air. Phase compositions of the products were characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The morphology of the composite...

  9. Carbon nanomaterials as counter electrodes for dye solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitola, K.

    2012-05-15

    The dye solar cell (DSC) is an interesting emerging technology for photovoltaic conversion of solar electromagnetic energy to electrical energy. The DSC is based mainly on cheap starting materials and it can be manufactured by roll-to-roll deposition techniques on flexible substrates, which is considered as one option for cost-effective large-scale solar cell production. The most expensive component of the DSC is the transparent conductive oxide glass substrate, and considerable cost reductions can be achieved by changing it to e.g. a plastic substrate. Plastic substrates are very flexible, lightweight and transparent. The state of the art DSC catalyst is thermally deposited or sputtered platinum, but platinum is a rare and expensive metal. Carbon, on the other hand, is widely available and some of its nanomaterials conduct electricity and are catalytic toward the DSC counter electrode (CE) reduction reaction. In this work, carbon nanomaterials and their composites were studied as the DSC CE active material. The materials were random network single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) film on glass and plastic substrate, vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube 'forest' film on steel and quartz substrate and carbon nanoparticle composite film on indium tin oxidepolyethylene terephthalate (ITO-PET) substrate. After comparison of the materials, the SWCNT network film on PET was chosen as the main CE type of this study, since it offers superior conductivity, transparency and flexibility over the other carbon-based CEs, it is also the thinnest and contains only one active material component. When a 30 % transparent SWCNT network film on PET was tested as a DSC CE, it was found out that such a film is not catalytic and conductive enough for a full 1 sun illumination DSC device, but the film could be suitable for a indoor illumination level application. The catalytic properties of a 10 % transparent SWCNT film were improved by depositing conductive PEDOT

  10. The effect of gamma radiation on reference electrodes and platinum and carbon steel bare metal electrodes in a simulated waste solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielson, M.J.

    1993-09-01

    Electrochemical potential measurements of materials in waste tanks are important in determining if the materials have a propensity for stress corrosion cracking and pitting. Potential measurement requires a reference electrode, but the effect of radiation on the potential generated by the reference electrode has been an unknown quantity. To determine the significance of the radiation effect, Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted studies of five types of electrodes under gamma radiation at room temperature. The subjects were two types of silver/silver chloride reference electrodes (Fisher and Lazaran), a mercury/calomel reference electrode, a platinum ''flag,'' and a piece of A-537 carbon steel; the electrodes were exposed to a simulated caustic tank environment. The Fisher silver/silver chloride and mercury/calomel reference electrodes showed essentially no radiation effects up to a flux of 2.1E6 R/h and fluence of 9.4E8 R, indicating they would be useful reference electrodes for in-tank studies. The Lazaran reg-sign silver/silver chloride electrode showed serious potential deviations at fluences of 2.E8 R, but it would be the electrode of choice in many situations because it is simple to maintain. Radiation affected the open circuit potential of both the platinum and carbon steel electrodes. This effect indicates that corrosion studies without radiation may not duplicate the corrosion processes expected in a waste tank. Mixed-potential theory was used to explain the radiation effects

  11. Conducting polymer/carbon nanocoil composite electrodes for efficient supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we report for the first time, conducting polymer (polyaniline (PANI) and polypyrrole (PPY)) coated carbon nanocoils (CNCs) as efficient binder-free electrode materials for supercapacitors. CNCs act as a perfect backbone for the uniform distribution of the conducting polymers in the composites. In two electrode configuration, the samples exhibited high specific capacitance with the values reaching up to 360 and 202 F g -1 for PANI/CNCs and PPY/CNCs respectively. The values obtained for specific capacitance and maximum storage energy per unit mass of the composites were found to be comparable to one of the best reported values for polymer coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes. In addition, the fabricated PANI/CNC based supercapacitors exhibited a high value of 44.61 Wh kg -1 for maximum storage energy per unit mass. Although the devices exhibit an initial capacitance loss due to the instability of the polymer, the specific capacitance stabilizes at a fixed value after 500 charge-discharge cycles. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Capacitive, deionization with carbon aerogel electrodes: Carbonate, sulfate, and phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, J.C.; Fix, D.V.; Mack, G.V.; Pekala, R.W.; Poco, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    A process for the capacitive deionization (CDI) of water with a stack of carbon aerogel electrodes has been developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Unlike ion exchange, one of the more conventional deionization processes, no chemicals are required for regeneration of the system. Electricity is used instead. Water with various anions and cations is pumped through the electrochemical cell. After polarization, ions are electrostatically removed from the water and held in the electric double layers formed at the surfaces of electrodes. The water leaving the cell is purified, as desired. The effects of cell voltage on the electrosorption capacities for Na 2 SO 4 , Na 3 PO 4 , and Na 2 CO 3 have been investigated and are reported here. Results for NaCl and NaNO 3 have been reported previously. Possible applications for CDI are as a replacement for ion exchange processes which remove heavy metals and radioisotopes from process and waste water in various industries, as well as to remove inorganic ions from feedwater for fossil and nuclear power plants

  13. Converting biowaste corncob residue into high value added porous carbon for supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wen-Hui; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Lu, An-Hui; Zhang, Xiang-Qian; Li, Wen-Cui

    2015-08-01

    In this report, corncob residue, the main by-product in the furfural industry, is used as a precursor to prepare porous carbon by a simple and direct thermal treatment: one-step activation without pre-carbonization. As a consequence, the corncob residue derived porous carbon achieves a high surface area of 1210 m(2) g(-1) after ash-removal. The carbon material has the advantages of low cost and low environmental impact, with a superior electrochemical performance compared to those polymer-based synthetic carbons as electrode material for a supercapacitor. The carbon electrode exhibits a high capacitance of 314 F g(-1) in 6M KOH electrolyte. The corresponding sample also shows a superb cycling stability. Almost no capacitance decay was observed after 100,000 cycles. The excellent electrochemical performance is due to the combination of a high specific surface area with a fraction of mesopores and highly stable structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Alternate electrode materials for the SP100 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randich, E.

    1992-05-01

    This work was performed in response to a request by the Astro-Space Division of the General Electric Co. to develop alternate electrodes materials for the electrodes of the PD2 modules to be used in the SP100 thermoelectric power conversion system. Initially, the project consisted of four tasks: (1) development of a ZrB 2 (C) CVD coating on SiMo substrates, (2) development of a ZrB 2 (C) CVD coating on SiGe substrates, (3) development of CVI W for porous graphite electrodes, and (4) technology transfer of pertinent developed processes. The project evolved initially into developing only ZrB 2 coatings on SiGe and graphite substrates, and later into developing ZrB 2 coatings only on graphite substrates. Several sizes of graphite and pyrolytic carbon-coated graphite substrates were coated with ZrB 2 during the project. For budgetary reasons, the project was terminated after half the allotted time had passed. Apart from the production of coated specimens for evaluation, the major accomplishment of the project was the development of the CVD processing to produce the desired coatings

  15. Unconventional supercapacitors from nanocarbon-based electrode materials to device configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lili; Niu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jun

    2016-07-25

    As energy storage devices, supercapacitors that are also called electrochemical capacitors possess high power density, excellent reversibility and long cycle life. The recent boom in electronic devices with different functions in transparent LED displays, stretchable electronic systems and artificial skin has increased the demand for supercapacitors to move towards light, thin, integrated macro- and micro-devices with transparent, flexible, stretchable, compressible and/or wearable abilities. The successful fabrication of such supercapacitors depends mainly on the preparation of innovative electrode materials and the design of unconventional supercapacitor configurations. Tremendous research efforts have been recently made to design and construct innovative nanocarbon-based electrode materials and supercapacitors with unconventional configurations. We review here recent developments in supercapacitors from nanocarbon-based electrode materials to device configurations. The advances in nanocarbon-based electrode materials mainly include the assembly technologies of macroscopic nanostructured electrodes with different dimensions of carbon nanotubes/nanofibers, graphene, mesoporous carbon, activated carbon, and their composites. The electrodes with macroscopic nanostructured carbon-based materials overcome the issues of low conductivity, poor mechanical properties, and limited dimensions that are faced by conventional methods. The configurational design of advanced supercapacitor devices is presented with six types of unconventional supercapacitor devices: flexible, micro-, stretchable, compressible, transparent and fiber supercapacitors. Such supercapacitors display unique configurations and excellent electrochemical performance at different states such as bending, stretching, compressing and/or folding. For example, all-solid-state simplified supercapacitors that are based on nanostructured graphene composite paper are able to maintain 95% of the original capacity at

  16. Improving Single-Carbon-Nanotube-Electrode Contacts Using Molecular Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krittayavathananon, Atiweena; Ngamchuea, Kamonwad; Li, Xiuting; Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Kätelhön, Enno; Chaisiwamongkhol, Korbua; Sawangphruk, Montree; Compton, Richard G

    2017-08-17

    We report the use of an electroactive species, acetaminophen, to modify the electrical connection between a carbon nanotube (CNT) and an electrode. By applying a potential across two electrodes, some of the CNTs in solution occasionally contact the electrified interface and bridge between two electrodes. By observing a single CNT contact between two microbands of an interdigitated Au electrode in the presence and absence of acetaminophen, the role of the molecular species at the electronic junction is revealed. As compared with the pure CNT, the current magnitude of the acetaminophen-modified CNTs significantly increases with the applied potentials, indicating that the molecule species improves the junction properties probably via redox shuttling.

  17. A Nanoporous Carbon/Exfoliated Graphite Composite For Supercapacitor Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi, Memoria; Ekaputra, Muhamad P.; Iskandar, Ferry; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Khairurrijal

    2010-12-01

    Nanoporous carbon was prepared from coconut shells using a simple heating method. The nanoporous carbon is subjected to different treatments: without activation, activation with polyethylene glycol (PEG), and activation with sodium hydroxide (NaOH)-PEG. The exfoliated graphite was synthesized from graphite powder oxidized with zinc acetate (ZnAc) and intercalated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and NaOH. A composite was made by mixing the nanoporous carbon with NaOH-PEG activation, the exfoliated graphite and a binder of PVA solution, grinding the mixture, and annealing it using ultrasonic bath for 1 hour. All of as-synthesized materials were characterized by employing a scanning electron microscope (SEM), a MATLAB's image processing toolbox, and an x-ray diffractometer (XRD). It was confirmed that the composite is crystalline with (002) and (004) orientations. In addition, it was also found that the composite has a high surface area, a high distribution of pore sizes less than 40 nm, and a high porosity (67%). Noting that the pore sizes less than 20 nm are significant for ionic species storage and those in the range of 20 to 40 nm are very accessible for ionic clusters mobility across the pores, the composite is a promising material for the application as supercapacitor electrodes.

  18. Carbon nanospheres derived from Lablab purpureus for high performance supercapacitor electrodes: a green approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Gomaa A M; Divyashree, A; Supriya, S; Chong, Kwok Feng; Ethiraj, Anita S; Reddy, M V; Algarni, H; Hegde, Gurumurthy

    2017-10-17

    Carbon nanospheres derived from a natural source using a green approach were reported. Lablab purpureus seeds were pyrolyzed at different temperatures to produce carbon nanospheres for supercapacitor electrode materials. The synthesized carbon nanospheres were analyzed using SEM, TEM, FTIR, TGA, Raman spectroscopy, BET and XRD. They were later fabricated into electrodes for cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy testing. The specific capacitances were found to be 300, 265 and 175 F g -1 in 5 M KOH electrolyte for carbon nanospheres synthesized at 800, 700 and 500 °C, respectively. These are on a par with those of prior electrodes made of biologically derived carbon nanospheres but the cycle lives were remarkably higher than those of any previous efforts. The electrodes showed 94% capacitance retention even after 5200 charge/discharge cycles entailing excellent recycling durability. In addition, the practical symmetrical supercapacitor showed good electrochemical behaviour under a potential window up to 1.7 V. This brings us one step closer to fabricating a commercial green electrode which exhibits high performance for supercapacitors. This is also a waste to wealth approach based carbon material for cost effective supercapacitors with high performance for power storage devices.

  19. Redox poly[Ni(saldMp)] modified activated carbon electrode in electrochemical supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Fei [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Li Jianling, E-mail: lijianling@ustb.edu.c [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang Yakun; Wang Xindong [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Kang Feiyu [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2010-08-01

    The complex (2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediaminebis(salicylideneaminato))-nickel(II), [Ni(saldMp)], was oxidatively electropolymerized on activated carbon (AC) electrode in acetonitrile solution. The poly[Ni(saldMp)] presented an incomplete coated film on the surface of carbon particles of AC electrode by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical behaviors of poly[Ni(saldMp)] modified activated carbon (PAC) electrode were evaluated in different potential ranges by cyclic voltammetry. Counterions and solvent swelling mainly occurred up to 0.6 V for PAC electrode by the comparison of D{sup 1/2}C values calculated from chronoamperometry experiments. Both the Ohmic resistance and Faraday resistance of PAC electrode gradually approached to those of AC electrode when its potential was ranging from 1.2 V to 0.0 V. Galvanostatic charge/discharge experiments indicated that both the specific capacitance and energy density were effectively improved by the reversible redox reaction of poly[Ni(saldMp)] film under the high current density up to 10 mA cm{sup -2} for AC electrode. The specific capacitance of PAC electrode decreased during the first 50 cycles but thereafter it remained constant for the next 200 cycles. This study showed the redox polymer may be an attractive material in supercapacitors.

  20. Activated carbon fiber obtained from textile PAN fiber to electrodes for supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Elen Leal da; Marcuzzo, Jossano Saldanha; Baldan, Mauricio Ribeiro; Cuna, Andres; Rodrigues, Aline Castilho; Goncalves, Emerson Sarmento

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Supercapacitors are devices for electrical energy storage with application in distribution power generation, electric vehicles, electronic equipment, among others. Current challenges in the development of supercapacitors focuses on making an increasing on system density of energy. An increase of energy accumulated in the supercapacitor electrode can be achieved by developing materials with high specific electrical capacitance and low electrical resistance. Furthermore, it is expected that the electrode material present a simple procedure for obtaining, low cost and environmentally friendly. Carbon fibers are interesting materials for use as a supercapacitor electrode. Among them are carbon fibers from polyacrylonitrile (PAN). In this work were studied activated carbon fibers obtained from textile polyacrylonitrile (ACF-PAN) with deposition of Fe particles aiming to use as active material of supercapacitor electrodes. ACFPAN and ACF-PAN-Fe were characterized by textural analysis, x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive x-ray (SEM-EDX), Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The behavior of the activated carbon fibers as a supercapacitor electrode was evaluated by galvanostatic charge and discharge curves, cyclic voltammetry and a electrochemical impedance using a symmetrical two-electrode Swagelok®-type cell and sulfuric acid as electrolyte. ACF-PAN had a high specific surface area, which makes it an interesting material for electrodes of supercapacitors. The electrical capacitance for the ACF-PAN is 96 F/g and ACF-PAN-Fe is 106 F/g both at a current density of 0.30 A/g. This increase in electrical capacitance can be related to the presence of iron oxides which are deposited on the activated carbon fiber. (author)

  1. Copper nanoparticle modified carbon electrode for determination of dopamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oztekin, Yasemin; Tok, Mutahire; Bilici, Esra; Mikoliunaite, Lina; Yazicigil, Zafer; Ramanaviciene, Almira; Ramanavicius, Arunas

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) and application of copper nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon electrode for the electrochemical determination of dopamine. Electrochemical measurements were performed using differently modified glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Bare, oxidized before modification and copper nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon electrodes (bare-GC, ox-GC and CuNP/GC electrodes, respectively) were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the presence of redox probes. Atomic force microscopy was used for the visualization of electrode surfaces. The CuNP/GC electrode was found to be suitable for the selective determination of dopamine even in the presence of ascorbic acid, uric acid, and p-acetamidophenol. The observed linear range of CuNP/GC for dopamine was from 0.1 nM to 1.0 μM while the detection limit was estimated to be 50 pM. It was demonstrated that here reported glassy carbon electrode modified by copper nanoparticles is suitable for the determination of dopamine in real samples such as human blood serum.

  2. Carbon Nanotubes as Counter Electrodes for Gratzel Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shodive, Hasan; Aliev, Ali; Zhang, Mei; Lee, Sergey; Baughman, Ray; Zakhidov, Anvar

    2006-03-01

    The role of interfaces is very critical for solar cell devices which use nanostructured materials. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) are devices which parts are interfacial in character and physico --chemical processes occur at the interface of two distinct media. DSSC are of great interest due to combination of their high efficiency and relatively low cost. An effective counterelectrode with high electrochemical activity is an important component of DSSC to enhance its practical utility. Presently used Pt coated ITO counterelectrode can not be applied in flexible DSSC architectures, while there is a growing need for flexible anodes which are transparent and have desired interface characteristics. In this work in order to search for such materials for counter electrode in dye sensitized solar cells, newly developed strong and transparent and modified carbon nanotube sheets [1] are used in interfacial counter electrode. To increase the electrochemical activity of the anode the CNT sheets are coated with highly conductive SWCNT and compared with pure multiwall CNT sheets. We show that the transparent sheets of SWCNT/MWCNT perform as a flexible anode and as electrochemical catalyst and also can be used in tandems of dye sensitized solar cells as transparent charge recombination or interconnect layers. [1] M. Zhang, S.Fang, A.Zakhidov, S.B.Lee, A.Aliev et.al., Science, 309,(2005) 1215

  3. Aqueous processing of composite lithium ion electrode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianlin; Armstrong, Beth L; Daniel, Claus; Wood, III, David L

    2015-02-17

    A method of making a battery electrode includes the steps of dispersing an active electrode material and a conductive additive in water with at least one dispersant to create a mixed dispersion; treating a surface of a current collector to raise the surface energy of the surface to at least the surface tension of the mixed dispersion; depositing the dispersed active electrode material and conductive additive on a current collector; and heating the coated surface to remove water from the coating.

  4. Aqueous processing of composite lithium ion electrode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jianlin; Armstrong, Beth L.; Daniel, Claus; Wood, III, David L.

    2017-06-20

    A method of making a battery electrode includes the steps of dispersing an active electrode material and a conductive additive in water with at least one dispersant to create a mixed dispersion; treating a surface of a current collector to raise the surface energy of the surface to at least the surface tension of the mixed dispersion; depositing the dispersed active electrode material and conductive additive on a current collector; and heating the coated surface to remove water from the coating.

  5. Performance capabilities of EDM of high carbon high chromium steel with copper and brass electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surekha, B.; Swain, Sudiptha; Suleman, Abu Jafar; Choudhury, Suvan Dev

    2017-07-01

    The paper address the statistical modeling of input-output relationships of electric discharge machining. In the present work, peak current (I) pulse on time (T) and gap voltage of electric discharge machining (EDM) process are chosen as control parameters to analyze the performance of the process. The output characteristics, namely radial overcut, electrode wear rate (EWR) and metal removal rate (MRR) are treated as the responses. A full factorial design (FFD) of experiments has been used to conduct the experiments and linear regression models are developed for different process characteristics. While conducting the experiments, high carbon and high chromium steel is considered as work piece material and brass and copper are used as electrode material. It is important to note that the experimental conditions are kept similar while machining with the help of different electrode materials. The data obtained from the experiments has been used to develop the regression models for three process parameters for two electrode materials.

  6. Comparative investigation on electrochemical behavior of hydroquinone at carbon ionic liquid electrode, ionic liquid modified carbon paste electrode and carbon paste electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ya; Zheng, Jian Bin

    2007-01-01

    Ionic liquid, 1-heptyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (HMIMPF 6 ), has been used to fabricate two new electrodes, carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) and ionic liquid modified carbon paste electrode (IL/CPE), using graphite powder mixed with HMIMPF 6 or the mixture of HMIMPF 6 /paraffin liquid as the binder, respectively. The electrochemical behaviors of hydroquinone at the CILE, the IL/CPE and the CPE were investigated in phosphate buffer solution. At all these electrodes, hydroquinone showed a pair of redox peaks. The order of the current response and the standard rate constant of hydroquinone at these electrodes were as follows: CILE > IL/CPE > CPE, while the peak-to-peak potential separation was in an opposite sequence: CILE < IL/CPE < CPE. The results show the superiority of CILE to IL/CPE and CPE, and IL/CPE to CPE in terms of promoting electron transfer, improving reversibility and enhancing sensitivity. The CILE was chosen as working electrode to determine hydroquinone by differential pulse voltammetry, which can be used for sensitive, simple and rapid determination of hydroquinone in medicated skin cosmetic cream

  7. Performance improvement of pasted nickel electrodes with multi-wall carbon nanotubes for rechargeable nickel batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Q.S.; Aravindaraj, G.K.; Sultana, H.; Chan, S.L.I.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were employed as a functional additive to improve the electrochemical performance of pasted nickel-foam electrodes for rechargeable nickel-based batteries. The nickel electrodes were prepared with spherical β-Ni(OH) 2 powder as the active material and various amounts of CNTs as additives. Galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling tests showed that in comparison with the electrode without CNTs, the pasted nickel electrode with added CNTs exhibited better electrochemical properties in the chargeability, specific discharge capacity, active material utilization, discharge voltage, high-rate capability and cycling stability. Meanwhile, the CNT addition also lowered the packing density of Ni(OH) 2 particles in the three-dimensional porous nickel-foam substrate, which could lead to the decrease in the active material loading and discharge capacity of the electrode. Hence, the amount of CNTs added to Ni(OH) 2 should be optimized to obtain a high-performance nickel electrode, and an optimum amount of CNT addition was found to be 3 wt.%. The superior electrochemical performance of the nickel electrode with CNTs could be attributed to lower electrochemical impedance and less γ-NiOOH formed during charge/discharge cycling, as indicated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses. Thus, it was an effective method to improve the electrochemical properties of pasted nickel electrodes by adding an appropriate amount of CNTs to spherical Ni(OH) 2 as the active material

  8. Improved technology for manufacture of carbon electrodes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    distribution, surface area, porosity, particle size distribution and type of pores. The .... the point from where the electrode sample has been drawn. ... In addition, qualitative information on the shape and the type of pores can be determined.

  9. Brief review: Preparation techniques of biomass based activated carbon monolith electrode for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taer, Erman; Taslim, Rika

    2018-02-01

    The synthesis of activated carbon monolith electrode made from a biomass material using the hydrolytic pressure or the pelletization technique of pre-carbonized materials is one of standard reported methods. Several steps such as pre-carbonization, milling, chemical activation, hydraulic press, carbonization, physical activation, polishing and washing need to be accomplished in the production of electrodes by this method. This is relatively a long process that need to be simplified. In this paper we present the standard method and proceed with the introduction to several alternative methods in the synthesis of activated carbon monolith electrodes. The alternative methods were emphasized on the selection of suitable biomass materials. All of carbon electrodes prepared by different methods will be analyzed for physical and electrochemical properties. The density, degree of crystallinity, surface morphology are examples for physical study and specific capacitance was an electrochemical properties that has been analysed. This alternative method has offered a specific capacitance in the range of 10 to 171 F/g.

  10. Applications of a single carbon electrode | Skelskey | SINET ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A single carbon electrode used with a common arc welder has been successfully used on steel to weld, to surface harden, to spot weld sheet, to pierce holes and to do simple brazing. Key words/phrases: Arc, carbon, dry cell, plasma, welding. SINET: Ethiopian Journal of Science Vol.26(2) 2003: 173-176 ...

  11. Carbonization of SU-8 Based Electrode for MEMS Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Supercapacitors are more sustainable and environmentally friendly energy sources than traditional ones. To achieve the supercapacitors with both energy density and power density that mainly depend on the effective surface area of theelectrodes, SU-8 can be used for electrode material to fabricate 3D microstructures as the electrodes that increase the effective surface area significantly. The objective of this project is to fabricate the reliable electrodes of large surface area for supercapac...

  12. EDTA modified glassy carbon electrode: Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ustuendag, Zafer [Dumlupinar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Kuetahya (Turkey); Solak, Ali Osman [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Degol Street, Tandogan, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: osolak@science.ankara.edu.tr

    2009-11-01

    EDTA-phenoxyamide modified glassy carbon electrode (EDTA-GC) was prepared at a glassy carbon electrode by surface synthesis. In the first step, nitrophenyl was grafted to the glassy carbon (GC) surface via the electrochemical reduction of its tetraflouroborate diazonium salt. In the second step, nitrophenyl-modified electrode (NP-GC) was subjected to the cathodic potential scan to reduce the nitro to amine group. p-Aminophenyl modified glassy carbon electrode (AP-GC) was dipped into a EDTA solution containing 1-ethyl-3(3-(dimethlyamino)propyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) as an activating agent. Thus formed ((2-anilino-2-oxoethyl){l_brace}2-[bis(carboxymethyl)amino]-ethyl{r_brace}amino)acetic acid modified GC electrode was denoted as EDTA-GC and characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Complexation of the EDTA-GC surface with Pb{sup 2+} ions was investigated if this electrode could be used as a metal sensor.

  13. Supercapacitors Based on Nickel Oxide/Carbon Materials Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Lota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the thesis, the properties of nickel oxide/active carbon composites as the electrode materials for supercapacitors are discussed. Composites with a different proportion of nickel oxide/carbon materials were prepared. A nickel oxide/carbon composite was prepared by chemically precipitating nickel hydroxide on an active carbon and heating the hydroxide at 300 ∘C in the air. Phase compositions of the products were characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD. The morphology of the composites was observed by SEM. The electrochemical performances of composite electrodes used in electrochemical capacitors were studied in addition to the properties of electrode consisting of separate active carbon and nickel oxide only. The electrochemical measurements were carried out using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and impedance spectroscopy. The composites were tested in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte using two- and three-electrode Swagelok systems. The results showed that adding only a few percent of nickel oxide to active carbon provided the highest value of capacity. It is the confirmation of the fact that such an amount of nickel oxide is optimal to take advantage of both components of the composite, which additionally can be a good solution as a negative electrode in asymmetric configuration of electrode materials in an electrochemical capacitor.

  14. ELECTROCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE AT CARBON NANOTUBE MODIFIED ELECTRODES. (R830900)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) modified glassy carbon electrodes exhibiting a strong and stable electrocatalytic response towards sulfide are described. A substantial (400 mV) decrease in the overvoltage of the sulfide oxidation reaction (compared to ordinary carbon electrodes) is...

  15. Compliant Electrode and Composite Material for Piezoelectric Wind and Mechanical Energy Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A thin film device for harvesting energy from wind. The thin film device includes one or more layers of a compliant piezoelectric material formed from a composite of a polymer and an inorganic material, such as a ceramic. Electrodes are disposed on a first side and a second side of the piezoelectric material. The electrodes are formed from a compliant material, such as carbon nanotubes or graphene. The thin film device exhibits improved resistance to structural fatigue upon application of large strains and repeated cyclic loadings.

  16. A facile approach for the synthesis of monolithic hierarchical porous carbons – high performance materials for amine based CO2 capture and supercapacitor electrode

    KAUST Repository

    Estevez, Luis; Dua, Rubal; Bhandari, Nidhi; Ramanujapuram, Anirudh; Wang, Peng; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2013-01-01

    An ice templating coupled with hard templating and physical activation approach is reported for the synthesis of hierarchically porous carbon monoliths with tunable porosities across all three length scales (macro- meso- and micro), with ultrahigh

  17. Electrochemical characteristics of vanadium redox reactions on porous carbon electrodes for microfluidic fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Hong, Jun Ki; Kjeang, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Microfluidic vanadium redox fuel cells are membraneless and catalyst-free fuel cells comprising a microfluidic channel network with two porous carbon electrodes. The anolyte and catholyte for fuel cell operation are V(II) and V(V) in sulfuric acid based aqueous solution. In the present work, the electrochemical characteristics of the vanadium redox reactions are investigated on commonly used porous carbon paper electrodes and compared to a standard solid graphite electrode as baseline. Half-cell electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is applied to measure the overall ohmic resistance and resistivity of the electrodes. Kinetic parameters for both V(II) and V(V) discharging reactions are extracted from Tafel plots and compared for the different electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry techniques reveal that the redox reactions are irreversible and that the magnitudes of peak current density vary significantly for each electrode. The obtained kinetic parameters for the carbon paper are implemented into a numerical simulation and the results show a good agreement with measured polarization curves from operation of a microfluidic vanadium redox fuel cell employing the same material as flow-through porous electrodes. Recommendations for microfluidic fuel cell design and operation are provided based on the measured trends.

  18. Operation of a Segmented Hall Thruster with Low-sputtering Carbon-velvet Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitses, Y.; Staack, D.; Dunaevsky, A.; Fisch, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon fiber velvet material provides exceptional sputtering resistance properties exceeding those for graphite and carbon composite materials. A 2 kW Hall thruster with segmented electrodes made of this material was operated in the discharge voltage range of 200-700 V. The arcing between the floating velvet electrodes and the plasma was visually observed, especially, during the initial conditioning time, which lasted for about 1 h. The comparison of voltage versus current and plume characteristics of the Hall thruster with and without segmented electrodes indicates that the magnetic insulation of the segmented thruster improves with the discharge voltage at a fixed magnetic field. The observations reported here also extend the regimes wherein the segmented Hall thruster can have a narrower plume than that of the conventional nonsegmented thruster

  19. Status of Biomass Derived Carbon Materials for Supercapacitor Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talam Kibona Enock

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental concerns and energy security uncertainties associated with fossil fuels have driven the world to shift to renewable energy sources. However, most renewable energy sources with exception of hydropower are intermittent in nature and thus need storage systems. Amongst various storage systems, supercapacitors are the promising candidates for energy storage not only in renewable energies but also in hybrid vehicles and portable devices due to their high power density. Supercapacitor electrodes are almost invariably made of carbon derived from biomass. Several reviews had been focused on general carbon materials for supercapacitor electrode. This review is focused on understanding the extent to which different types of biomasses have been used as porous carbon materials for supercapacitor electrodes. It also details hydrothermal microwave assisted, ionothermal, and molten salts carbonization as techniques of synthesizing activated carbon from biomasses as well as their characteristics and their impacts on electrochemical performance.

  20. Mesoporous carbon materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng; Fulvio, Pasquale Fernando; Mayes, Richard T.; Wang, Xiqing; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Bingkun

    2014-09-09

    A conductive mesoporous carbon composite comprising conductive carbon nanoparticles contained within a mesoporous carbon matrix, wherein the conductive mesoporous carbon composite possesses at least a portion of mesopores having a pore size of at least 10 nm and up to 50 nm, and wherein the mesopores are either within the mesoporous carbon matrix, or are spacings delineated by surfaces of said conductive carbon nanoparticles when said conductive carbon nanoparticles are fused with each other, or both. Methods for producing the above-described composite, devices incorporating them (e.g., lithium batteries), and methods of using them, are also described.

  1. Low-dimensional carbon and MXene-based electrochemical capacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeoheung; Lee, Keunsik; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2016-04-29

    Due to their unique structure and outstanding intrinsic physical properties such as extraordinarily high electrical conductivity, large surface area, and various chemical functionalities, low-dimension-based materials exhibit great potential for application in electrochemical capacitors (ECs). The electrical properties of electrochemical capacitors are determined by the electrode materials. Because energy charge storage is a surface process, the surface properties of the electrode materials greatly influence the electrochemical performance of the cell. Recently, graphene, a single layer of sp(2)-bonded carbon atoms arrayed into two-dimensional carbon nanomaterial, has attracted wide interest as an electrode material for electrochemical capacitor applications due to its unique properties, including a high electrical conductivity and large surface area. Several low-dimensional materials with large surface areas and high conductivity such as onion-like carbons (OLCs), carbide-derived carbons (CDCs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene, metal hydroxide, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), and most recently MXene, have been developed for electrochemical capacitors. Therefore, it is useful to understand the current issues of low-dimensional materials and their device applications.

  2. Low-dimensional carbon and MXene-based electrochemical capacitor electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Yeoheung; Lee, Hyoyoung; Lee, Keunsik

    2016-01-01

    Due to their unique structure and outstanding intrinsic physical properties such as extraordinarily high electrical conductivity, large surface area, and various chemical functionalities, low-dimension-based materials exhibit great potential for application in electrochemical capacitors (ECs). The electrical properties of electrochemical capacitors are determined by the electrode materials. Because energy charge storage is a surface process, the surface properties of the electrode materials greatly influence the electrochemical performance of the cell. Recently, graphene, a single layer of sp 2 -bonded carbon atoms arrayed into two-dimensional carbon nanomaterial, has attracted wide interest as an electrode material for electrochemical capacitor applications due to its unique properties, including a high electrical conductivity and large surface area. Several low-dimensional materials with large surface areas and high conductivity such as onion-like carbons (OLCs), carbide-derived carbons (CDCs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene, metal hydroxide, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), and most recently MXene, have been developed for electrochemical capacitors. Therefore, it is useful to understand the current issues of low-dimensional materials and their device applications. (topical review)

  3. Carbon and Redox Tolerant Infiltrated Oxide Fuel-Electrodes for Solid Oxide Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte, Theis Løye; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Blennow, P.

    2016-01-01

    To solve issues of coking and redox instability related to the presence of nickel in typical fuel electrodes in solid oxide cells,Gd-doped CeO2 (CGO) electrodes were studied using symmetriccells. These electrodes showed high electro-catalytic activity, butlow electronic conductivity. When...... infiltrated with Sr0.99Fe0.75Mo0.25O3-δ (SFM), the electronic conductivity wasenhanced. However, polarization resistance of the cells increased,suggesting that the infiltrated material is less electro-catalyticallyactive and was partly blocking the CGO surface reaction sites. Theactivity could be regained...... by infiltrating nano-sized CGO orNiCGO on top of SFM, while still sustaining the high electronicconductivity. Ohmic resistance of the electrodes was thuspractically eliminated and performance comparable to, or betterthan, state-of-the-art fuel electrodes was achieved. The Nicontaining cells were damaged by carbon...

  4. Carbon electrode for desalination purpose in capacitive deionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endarko,; Fadilah, Nurul; Anggoro, Diky

    2016-01-01

    Carbon electrodes for desalination purpose have been successfully synthesized using activated carbon powder (BET surface area=700 – 1400 m 2 /g), carbon black and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) binder by cross-linking method with glutaric acid (GA) at 120 °C. The electrochemical properties of the carbon electrodes were analyzed using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) whilst the physical properties were observed with scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). In order to assess the desalting performance, salt removal experiments were performed by constructing a capacitive deionization unit cell with five pairs of carbon electrodes. For each pair consisted of two parallel carbon electrodes separated by a spacer. Desalination and regeneration processes were also observed in the salt-removal experiments. The salt-removal experiments were carried out in single-pass mode using a solution with 0.1 M NaCl at a flow rate of 10 mL/min. A voltage of 3 V was applied to the cell for 60 minutes for both processes in desalination and regeneration. The result showed that the percentage value of the salt-removal was achieved at 20%.

  5. Carbon electrode for desalination purpose in capacitive deionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endarko,, E-mail: endarko@physics.its.ac.id; Fadilah, Nurul; Anggoro, Diky [Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS) Kampus ITS, Sukolilo Surabaya 60111, Jawa Timur (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    Carbon electrodes for desalination purpose have been successfully synthesized using activated carbon powder (BET surface area=700 – 1400 m{sup 2}/g), carbon black and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) binder by cross-linking method with glutaric acid (GA) at 120 °C. The electrochemical properties of the carbon electrodes were analyzed using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) whilst the physical properties were observed with scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). In order to assess the desalting performance, salt removal experiments were performed by constructing a capacitive deionization unit cell with five pairs of carbon electrodes. For each pair consisted of two parallel carbon electrodes separated by a spacer. Desalination and regeneration processes were also observed in the salt-removal experiments. The salt-removal experiments were carried out in single-pass mode using a solution with 0.1 M NaCl at a flow rate of 10 mL/min. A voltage of 3 V was applied to the cell for 60 minutes for both processes in desalination and regeneration. The result showed that the percentage value of the salt-removal was achieved at 20%.

  6. A three-dimensional carbon nanotube/graphene sandwich and its application as electrode in supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Zhuangjun; Yan, Jun; Wei, Tong; Feng, Jing; Zhang, Milin [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China); Zhi, Linjie [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China, Beijing (China); Zhang, Qiang; Qian, Weizhong; Wei, Fei [Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Reaction Engineering and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2010-09-01

    Three-dimensional carbon nanotube/graphene sandwich structures with CNT pillars grown in between the graphene layers have been developed by chemical vapor deposition. The special structure endows the high-rate transportation of electrolyte ions and electrons throughout the electrode matrix, resulting in excellent electrochemical performance of this hybrid material. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical preparation and fruit juice using modified carbon paste electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Žabčíková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Acrobic acid is key substance in the human metabolism and the rapid and accurate determination in food is of a great interest. Ascorbic acid is an electroactive compound, however poorly responded on the bare carbon paste electrodes. In this paper, brilliant cresyl blue and multi-walled carbon nanotubes were used for the modification of carbon paste electrode. Brilliant cresyl blue acts as a mediator improving the transition of electrons, whereas multiwalled carbon nanotubes increased the surface of the electrode. Both brilliant cresyl blue and multiwalled carbon nanotubes were added directly to the composite material. The electrochemical behavior of modified electode was determined in electrolyte at various pH, and the effect of the scan rate was also performed. It was shown that the electrochemical process on the surface of the modified carbon paste electrode was diffusion-controlled. The resulted modified carbon paste electrode showed a good electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of ascorbic acid at a reduced overpotential of +100 mV descreasing the risk of interferences. A linear response of the ascorbic acid oxidation current measured by the amperometry in the range of 0.1 - 350 µmol.L-1 was obtained applying the sensor for the standard solution. The limit of detection and limit of quantification was found to be 0.05 and 0.15 µmol.L-1, respectively. The novel method was applied for the determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical vitamin preparation and fruit juice, and the results were in good agreement with the standard HPLC method. The presented modification of carbon paste electrode is suitable for the fast, sensitive and very accurate determination of ascorbic acid in fruit juices and pharmaceutical preparation.

  8. Comparison of glassy carbon and boron doped diamond electrodes: Resistance to biofouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trouillon, Raphael, E-mail: raphael.trouillon06@imperial.ac.u [Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, Royal School of Mines Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); O' Hare, Danny [Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, Royal School of Mines Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-01

    Carbon based electrodes are widely used for in vivo and in vitro electrochemical studies. In particular, monoamine neurochemistry has been investigated using carbon microfibre electrodes. Similarly, glassy carbon (GC) is the preferred material for many biochemical applications, such as electrochemical detection in chromatography. More recently, boron doped diamond (BDD) has been utilized for biosensing, as its carbon sp{sup 3} structure is expected to provide better resistance to analyte fouling. However, the main factor limiting the use of electrochemical sensors for biological studies is the effect of the biological matrix. Indeed, in vivo or in situ measurements expose the sensor to a complex matrix of proteins, which adsorb on the sensing surface and interfere with the electrochemical measurements. Here, we compare the performance of three carbon based electrodes: GC, GC with low surface oxides and BDD. The redox species ruthenium(III) hexaammine (outer-sphere), ferrocyanide (surface sensitive) and the biologically significant dopamine have been investigated in protein and blood-mimicking matrices. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy have been used to examine the effect of spectator molecules and reaction products on electrode mechanisms. Our results show that BDD generally exhibits the best performance for most conditions and reactions and should therefore be preferred for measurements in biologically fouling environments. Furthermore, surface oxides seem also to improve resistance of the GC electrode to biofouling.

  9. Comparison of glassy carbon and boron doped diamond electrodes: Resistance to biofouling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trouillon, Raphael; O'Hare, Danny

    2010-01-01

    Carbon based electrodes are widely used for in vivo and in vitro electrochemical studies. In particular, monoamine neurochemistry has been investigated using carbon microfibre electrodes. Similarly, glassy carbon (GC) is the preferred material for many biochemical applications, such as electrochemical detection in chromatography. More recently, boron doped diamond (BDD) has been utilized for biosensing, as its carbon sp 3 structure is expected to provide better resistance to analyte fouling. However, the main factor limiting the use of electrochemical sensors for biological studies is the effect of the biological matrix. Indeed, in vivo or in situ measurements expose the sensor to a complex matrix of proteins, which adsorb on the sensing surface and interfere with the electrochemical measurements. Here, we compare the performance of three carbon based electrodes: GC, GC with low surface oxides and BDD. The redox species ruthenium(III) hexaammine (outer-sphere), ferrocyanide (surface sensitive) and the biologically significant dopamine have been investigated in protein and blood-mimicking matrices. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy have been used to examine the effect of spectator molecules and reaction products on electrode mechanisms. Our results show that BDD generally exhibits the best performance for most conditions and reactions and should therefore be preferred for measurements in biologically fouling environments. Furthermore, surface oxides seem also to improve resistance of the GC electrode to biofouling.

  10. Carbon Nanotube Web with Carboxylated Polythiophene "Assist" for High-Performance Battery Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yo Han; Park, Jung Jin; Housel, Lisa M; Minnici, Krysten; Zhang, Guoyan; Lee, Sujin R; Lee, Seung Woo; Chen, Zhongming; Noda, Suguru; Takeuchi, Esther S; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Marschilok, Amy C; Reichmanis, Elsa

    2018-04-24

    A carbon nanotube (CNT) web electrode comprising magnetite spheres and few-walled carbon nanotubes (FWNTs) linked by the carboxylated conjugated polymer, poly[3-(potassium-4-butanoate) thiophene] (PPBT), was designed to demonstrate benefits derived from the rational consideration of electron/ion transport coupled with the surface chemistry of the electrode materials components. To maximize transport properties, the approach introduces monodispersed spherical Fe 3 O 4 (sFe 3 O 4 ) for uniform Li + diffusion and a FWNT web electrode frame that affords characteristics of long-ranged electronic pathways and porous networks. The sFe 3 O 4 particles were used as a model high-capacity energy active material, owing to their well-defined chemistry with surface hydroxyl (-OH) functionalities that provide for facile detection of molecular interactions. PPBT, having a π-conjugated backbone and alkyl side chains substituted with carboxylate moieties, interacted with the FWNT π-electron-rich and hydroxylated sFe 3 O 4 surfaces, which enabled the formation of effective electrical bridges between the respective components, contributing to efficient electron transport and electrode stability. To further induce interactions between PPBT and the metal hydroxide surface, polyethylene glycol was coated onto the sFe 3 O 4 particles, allowing for facile materials dispersion and connectivity. Additionally, the introduction of carbon particles into the web electrode minimized sFe 3 O 4 aggregation and afforded more porous FWNT networks. As a consequence, the design of composite electrodes with rigorous consideration of specific molecular interactions induced by the surface chemistries favorably influenced electrochemical kinetics and electrode resistance, which afforded high-performance electrodes for battery applications.

  11. Structure of nanoporous carbon materials for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volperts, A.; Mironova-Ulmane, N.; Sildos, I.; Vervikishko, D.; Shkolnikov, E.; Dobele, G.

    2012-08-01

    Activated carbons with highly developed porous structure and nanosized pores (8 - 11 Å) were prepared from alder wood using thermochemical activation method with sodium hydroxide. Properties of the obtained activated carbons were examined by benzene and nitrogen sorption, X-Ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Tests of activated carbons as electrodes in supercapacitors were performed as well. It was found that specific surface area of above mentioned activated carbons was 1800 m2/g (Dubinin - Radushkevich). Raman spectroscopy demonstrated the presence of ordered and disordered structures of graphite origin. The performance of activated carbons as electrodes in supercapacitors have shown superior results in comparison with electrodes made with commercial carbon tissues.

  12. Structure of nanoporous carbon materials for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volperts, A; Dobele, G; Mironova-Ulmane, N; Sildos, I; Vervikishko, D; Shkolnikov, E

    2012-01-01

    Activated carbons with highly developed porous structure and nanosized pores (8 - 11 Å) were prepared from alder wood using thermochemical activation method with sodium hydroxide. Properties of the obtained activated carbons were examined by benzene and nitrogen sorption, X-Ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Tests of activated carbons as electrodes in supercapacitors were performed as well. It was found that specific surface area of above mentioned activated carbons was 1800 m 2 /g (Dubinin - Radushkevich). Raman spectroscopy demonstrated the presence of ordered and disordered structures of graphite origin. The performance of activated carbons as electrodes in supercapacitors have shown superior results in comparison with electrodes made with commercial carbon tissues.

  13. Carbon Black-Modified Electrodes Screen-Printed onto Paper Towel, Waxed Paper and Parafilm M®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinti, Stefano; Mazzaracchio, Vincenzo; Cacciotti, Ilaria; Moscone, Danila; Arduini, Fabiana

    2017-10-03

    Herein, we evaluated the use of paper towel, waxed paper, and Parafilm M ® (Heathrow Scientific, Vernon Hills, IL, USA) as alternative substrates for screen-printed sensor manufacturing. Morphological study was performed to evaluate the adhesion of the ink on these uncommon substrates, as well as the morphology of the working electrode. The electrochemical characterization was carried out using ferricyanide/ferrocyanide as redox couple. To enhance the electrochemical properties of the developed sensors, the nanomaterial carbon black was used as nanomodifier. The modification by drop casting of the working electrode surface, using a stable dispersion of carbon black, allows to obtain a sensor with improved electrochemical behavior in terms of peak-to-peak separation, current intensity, and the resistance of charge transfer. The results achieved confirm the possibility of printing the electrode on several cost-effective paper-based materials and the improvement of the electrochemical behavior by using carbon black as sustainable nanomaterial.

  14. Carbon Black-Modified Electrodes Screen-Printed onto Paper Towel, Waxed Paper and Parafilm M®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Cinti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we evaluated the use of paper towel, waxed paper, and Parafilm M® (Heathrow Scientific, Vernon Hills, IL, USA as alternative substrates for screen-printed sensor manufacturing. Morphological study was performed to evaluate the adhesion of the ink on these uncommon substrates, as well as the morphology of the working electrode. The electrochemical characterization was carried out using ferricyanide/ferrocyanide as redox couple. To enhance the electrochemical properties of the developed sensors, the nanomaterial carbon black was used as nanomodifier. The modification by drop casting of the working electrode surface, using a stable dispersion of carbon black, allows to obtain a sensor with improved electrochemical behavior in terms of peak-to-peak separation, current intensity, and the resistance of charge transfer. The results achieved confirm the possibility of printing the electrode on several cost-effective paper-based materials and the improvement of the electrochemical behavior by using carbon black as sustainable nanomaterial.

  15. A viable electrode material for use in microbial fuel cells for tropical regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offei, Felix; Thygesen, Anders; Mensah, Moses

    2016-01-01

    of this material is also targeted at introducing an inexpensive and durable electrode material, which can be produced in rural communities to improve the viability of MFCs. The maximum voltage and power density obtained (under 1000 Ω load) using an H-shaped MFC with AC as both anode and cathode electrode material...... was 0.66 V and 1.74 W/m3, respectively. The power generated by AC was as high as 86% of the value obtained with the extensively used carbon paper. Scanning electron microscopy and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of AC anode biofilms confirmed that electrogenic bacteria were...

  16. Comparison of dye solar cell counter electrodes based on different carbon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitola, Kerttu; Halme, Janne; Halonen, Niina; Kaskela, Antti; Toivola, Minna; Nasibulin, Albert G.; Kordas, Krisztian; Toth, Geza; Kauppinen, Esko I.; Lund, Peter D.

    2011-01-01

    Three characteristically different carbon nanomaterials were compared and analyzed as platinum-free counter electrodes for dye solar cells: 1) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) random network films on glass, 2) aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) forest films on Inconel steel and quartz, and 3) pressed carbon nanoparticle composite films on indium tin oxide-polyethylene terephtalate plastic. Results from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and electron microscopy were discussed in terms of the catalytic activity, conductivity, thickness, transparency and flexibility of the electrode films. The SWCNT films showed reasonable catalytic performance at similar series resistance compared to platinized fluorine doped tin oxide-coated glass. The MWCNTs had similar catalytic activity, but the electrochemical performance of the films was limited by their high porosity. Carbon nanoparticle films had the lowest charge transfer resistance resulting from a combination of high catalytic activity and dense packing of the material.

  17. Comparison of dye solar cell counter electrodes based on different carbon nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitola, Kerttu, E-mail: kerttu.aitola@aalto.fi [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 15100, 00076 Aalto (Finland); Halme, Janne [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 15100, 00076 Aalto (Finland); Halonen, Niina [Microelectronics and Materials Physics Laboratories, Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4500, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland); Kaskela, Antti; Toivola, Minna; Nasibulin, Albert G. [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 15100, 00076 Aalto (Finland); Kordas, Krisztian; Toth, Geza [Microelectronics and Materials Physics Laboratories, Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4500, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland); Kauppinen, Esko I. [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 15100, 00076 Aalto (Finland); VTT Biotechnology, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland); Lund, Peter D. [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 15100, 00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2011-09-01

    Three characteristically different carbon nanomaterials were compared and analyzed as platinum-free counter electrodes for dye solar cells: 1) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) random network films on glass, 2) aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) forest films on Inconel steel and quartz, and 3) pressed carbon nanoparticle composite films on indium tin oxide-polyethylene terephtalate plastic. Results from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and electron microscopy were discussed in terms of the catalytic activity, conductivity, thickness, transparency and flexibility of the electrode films. The SWCNT films showed reasonable catalytic performance at similar series resistance compared to platinized fluorine doped tin oxide-coated glass. The MWCNTs had similar catalytic activity, but the electrochemical performance of the films was limited by their high porosity. Carbon nanoparticle films had the lowest charge transfer resistance resulting from a combination of high catalytic activity and dense packing of the material.

  18. In situ fabrication of nickel aluminum-layered double hydroxide nanosheets/hollow carbon nanofibers composite as a novel electrode material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fang; Hu, Zhibiao; Liu, Kaiyu; Zhang, Shuirong; Liu, Hongtao; Sang, Shangbin

    2014-12-01

    This paper introduces a new design route to fabricate nickel aluminum-layered double hydroxide (NiAl-LDH) nanosheets/hollow carbon nanofibers (CNFs) composite through an in situ growth method. The NiAl-LDH thin layers which grow on hollow carbon nanofibers have an average thickness of 13.6 nm. The galvanostatic charge-discharge test of the NiAl-LDH/CNFs composite yields an impressive specific capacitance of 1613 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 in 6 M KOH solution, the composite shows a remarkable specific capacitance of 1110 F g-1 even at a high current density of 10 A g-1. Furthermore, the composite remains a specific capacitance of 1406 F g-1 after 1000 cycles at 2 A g-1, indicating the composite has excellent high-current capacitive behavior and good cycle stability in compared to pristine NiAl-LDH.

  19. Ir-Ni oxide as a promising material for nerve and brain stimulating electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Stilling

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tremendous potential for successful medical device development lies in both electrical stimulation therapies and neuronal prosthetic devices, which can be utilized in an extensive number of neurological disorders. These technologies rely on the successful electrical stimulation of biological tissue (i.e. neurons through the use of electrodes. However, this technology faces the principal problem of poor stimulus selectivity due to the currently available electrode’s large size relative to its targeted population of neurons. Irreversible damage to both the stimulated tissue and electrode are limiting factors in miniaturization of this technology, as charge density increases with decreasing electrode size. In an attempt to find an equilibrium between these two opposing constraints (electrode size and charge density, the objective of this work was to develop a novel iridium-nickel oxide (Ir0.2-Ni0.8-oxide coating that could intrinsically offer high charge storage capacity. Thermal decomposition was used to fabricate titanium oxide, iridium oxide, nickel oxide, and bimetallic iridium-nickel oxide coatings on titanium electrode substrates. The Ir0.2-Ni0.8-oxide coating yielded the highest intrinsic (material property and extrinsic (material property + surface area charge storage capacity (CSC among the investigated materials, exceeding the performance of the current state-of-the-art neural stimulating electrode, Ir-oxide. This indicates that the Ir0.2-Ni0.8-oxide material is a promising alternative to currently used Ir-oxide, Pt, Au and carbon-based stimulating electrodes.

  20. Self-supported carbon electrodes obtained by tape casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio-Marcos, F.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the preparation and electrochemical response of self-supported carbon electrodes prepared by tape casting. The dc electrical conductivity, σ, of the electrodes was determined by four-wire resistance measurements and a relation between the graphite/organic additives ratio and the electrical conductivity was established. The application of these self-supported carbon electrodes as working electrodes in analytical techniques was also evaluated using norepinephrine as electroactive substance in cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The results were compared with the traditional electrodes, carbon paste electrodes (CPEs, showing that the new self-supported carbon electrodes had both lower background noise and higher analytical response.

    Este artículo describe la preparación y respuesta electroquímica de electrodos de carbono autosoportados preparados mediante colado en cinta. La conductividad eléctrica en corriente continua de este nuevo tipo de electrodos de carbono se ha determinado usando el método de cuatro puntas y se ha establecido una relación ente la relación grafito/aditivos orgánicos y la conductividad eléctrica. La aplicación de estos electrodos autosoportados como electrodos de trabajo en diversas técnicas electroanalíticas también se ha evaluado, empleando norepinefrina como analito en voltametría cíclica y en cronoamperometría. Los resultados se compararon con los obtenidos empleando los electrodos de pasta de carbono tradicionales como electrodos de trabajo, viéndose que la señal de los nuevos electrodos autosoportados poseía menor ruido de fondo y mayor respuesta analítica.

  1. All-Carbon Electrode Consisting of Carbon Nanotubes on Graphite Foil for Flexible Electrochemical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je-Hwang Ryu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the fabrication of an all-carbon electrode by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for use in flexible electrochemical applications. The electrode is composed of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes that are grown directly on a flexible graphite foil. Being all-carbon, the simple fabrication process and the excellent electrochemical characteristics present an approach through which high-performance, highly-stable and cost-effective electrochemical applications can be achieved.

  2. Enhancing the electrochemical response of myoglobin with carbon nanotube electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplandiu, M J; Pacios, M; Cyganek, L; Bartroli, J; del Valle, M

    2009-09-02

    In this paper, the electrochemical behavior of different myoglobin-modified carbon electrodes is evaluated. In particular, the performance of voltammetric biosensors made of forest-like carbon nanotubes, carbon nanotube composites and graphite composites is compared by monitoring mainly the electrocatalytic reduction of H(2)O(2) by myoglobin and their corresponding electroanalytical characteristics. Graphite composites showed the worst electroanalytical performance, exhibiting a small linear range, a limit of detection (LOD) of 9 x 10(-5) M and low sensitivity. However, it was found that the electrochemical response was enhanced with the use of carbon nanotube-based electrodes with LOD up to 5 x 10(-8) M, higher sensitivities and wider linear range response. On the one hand, in the case of the CNT epoxy composite, the improvement in the response can be mainly attributed to its more porous surface which allows the immobilization of higher amounts of the electroactive protein. On the other hand, in the case of the forest-like CNT electrodes, the enhancement is due to an increase in the electron transfer kinetics. These findings encourage the use of myoglobin-modified carbon nanotube electrodes as potential (bio)sensors of H(2)O(2) or O(2) in biology, microbiology and environmental fields.

  3. Effects of carbon additives on the performance of negative electrode of lead-carbon battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Xianping; Kang, Zongxuan; Shu, Dong; Liao, Yuqing; Gong, Yibin; He, Chun; Hao, Junnan; Zhong, Yayun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The negative electrode sheets are prepared by simulating manufacture condition of negative plates. • The effect of carbon additives on negative electrode sheets is studied by electrochemical method. • Carbon additives in NAM enhance electrochemical properties of the negative sheets. • The negative sheets with 0.5 wt% carbon additive exhibit better electrochemical performance. • The charge-discharge mechanism is discussed in detail according to the experimental results. - Abstract: In this study, carbon additives such as activated carbon (AC) and carbon black (CB) are introduced to the negative electrode to improve its electrochemical performance, the negative electrode sheets are prepared by simulating the negative plate manufacturing process of lead-acid battery, the types and contents of carbon additives in the negative electrode sheets are investigated in detail for the application of lead-carbon battery. The electrochemical performance of negative electrode sheets are measured by chronopotentiometry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, the crystal structure and morphology are characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the appropriate addition of AC or CB can enhance the discharge capacity and prolong the cycle life of negative electrode sheets under high-rate partial-state-of-charge conditions, AC additive exerts more obvious effect than CB additive, the optimum contents for the best electrochemical performance of the negative electrode sheets are determined as 0.5wt% for both AC and CB. The reaction mechanism of the electrochemical process is also discussed in this paper, the appropriate addition of AC or CB in negative electrode can promote the conversion of PbSO 4 to Pb, suppress the sulfation of negative electrode sheets and reduce the electrochemical reaction resistance

  4. An overview of carbon materials for flexible electrochemical capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongmin; Chen, Wanjun; Gao, Caitian; Zhou, Jinyuan; Li, Xiaodong; Xie, Erqing

    2013-10-07

    Under the background of the quick development of lightweight, flexible, and wearable electronic devices in our society, a flexible and highly efficient energy management strategy is needed for their counterpart energy-storage systems. Among them, flexible electrochemical capacitors (ECs) have been considered as one of the most promising candidates because of their significant advantages in power and energy densities, and unique properties of being flexible, lightweight, low-cost, and environmentally friendly compared with current energy storage devices. In a common EC, carbon materials play an irreplaceable and principal role in its energy-storage performance. Up till now, most progress towards flexible ECs technologies has mostly benefited from the continuous development of carbon materials. As a result, in view of the dual remarkable highlights of ECs and carbon materials, a summary of recent research progress on carbon-based flexible EC electrode materials is presented in this review, including carbon fiber (CF, consisting of carbon microfiber-CMF and carbon nanofiber-CNF) networks, carbon nanotube (CNT) and graphene coatings, CNT and/or graphene papers (or films), and freestanding three-dimensional (3D) flexible carbon-based macroscopic architectures. Furthermore, some promising carbon materials for great potential applications in flexible ECs are introduced. Finally, the trends and challenges in the development of carbon-based electrode materials for flexible ECs and their smart applications are analyzed.

  5. Multidimensional MnO2 nanohair-decorated hybrid multichannel carbon nanofiber as an electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jaemoon; Lee, Jun Seop; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Sung Gun; Jang, Jyongsik

    2015-09-01

    One-dimensional (1D)-structured nanomaterials represent one of the most attractive candidates for energy-storage systems due to their contribution to design simplicity, fast charge-transportation network, and their allowance for more accessible ion diffusion. In particular, 1D-structured nanomaterials with a highly complex inner-pore configuration enhance functionality by taking advantage of both the hollow and 1D structures. In this study, we report a MnO2 nanohair-decorated, hybrid multichannel carbon nanofiber (Mn_MCNF) fabricated via single-nozzle co-electrospinning of two immiscible polymer solutions, followed by carbonization and redox reactions. With improved ion accessibility, the optimized Mn_MCNF sample (Mn_MCNF_60 corresponding to a reaction duration time of 60 min for optimal MnO2 nanohair growth) exhibited a high specific capacitance of 855 F g-1 and excellent cycling performance with ~87.3% capacitance retention over 5000 cycles.One-dimensional (1D)-structured nanomaterials represent one of the most attractive candidates for energy-storage systems due to their contribution to design simplicity, fast charge-transportation network, and their allowance for more accessible ion diffusion. In particular, 1D-structured nanomaterials with a highly complex inner-pore configuration enhance functionality by taking advantage of both the hollow and 1D structures. In this study, we report a MnO2 nanohair-decorated, hybrid multichannel carbon nanofiber (Mn_MCNF) fabricated via single-nozzle co-electrospinning of two immiscible polymer solutions, followed by carbonization and redox reactions. With improved ion accessibility, the optimized Mn_MCNF sample (Mn_MCNF_60 corresponding to a reaction duration time of 60 min for optimal MnO2 nanohair growth) exhibited a high specific capacitance of 855 F g-1 and excellent cycling performance with ~87.3% capacitance retention over 5000 cycles. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental data includes

  6. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on nanostructured carbon electrodes grown by supersonic cluster beam deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettini, Luca Giacomo; Bardizza, Giorgio; Podestà, Alessandro; Milani, Paolo; Piseri, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured porous films of carbon with density of about 0.5 g/cm 3 and 200 nm thickness were deposited at room temperature by supersonic cluster beam deposition (SCBD) from carbon clusters formed in the gas phase. Carbon film surface topography, determined by atomic force microscopy, reveals a surface roughness of 16 nm and a granular morphology arising from the low kinetic energy ballistic deposition regime. The material is characterized by a highly disordered carbon structure with predominant sp2 hybridization as evidenced by Raman spectroscopy. The interface properties of nanostructured carbon electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy employing KOH 1 M solution as aqueous electrolyte. An increase of the double layer capacitance is observed when the electrodes are heat treated in air or when a nanostructured nickel layer deposited by SCBD on top of a sputter deposited film of the same metal is employed as a current collector instead of a plain metallic film. This enhancement is consistent with an improved charge injection in the active material and is ascribed to the modification of the electrical contact at the interface between the carbon and the metal current collector. Specific capacitance values up to 120 F/g have been measured for the electrodes with nanostructured metal/carbon interface.

  7. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on nanostructured carbon electrodes grown by supersonic cluster beam deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettini, Luca Giacomo; Bardizza, Giorgio; Podesta, Alessandro; Milani, Paolo; Piseri, Paolo, E-mail: piseri@mi.infn.it [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica and CIMaINa (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    Nanostructured porous films of carbon with density of about 0.5 g/cm{sup 3} and 200 nm thickness were deposited at room temperature by supersonic cluster beam deposition (SCBD) from carbon clusters formed in the gas phase. Carbon film surface topography, determined by atomic force microscopy, reveals a surface roughness of 16 nm and a granular morphology arising from the low kinetic energy ballistic deposition regime. The material is characterized by a highly disordered carbon structure with predominant sp2 hybridization as evidenced by Raman spectroscopy. The interface properties of nanostructured carbon electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy employing KOH 1 M solution as aqueous electrolyte. An increase of the double layer capacitance is observed when the electrodes are heat treated in air or when a nanostructured nickel layer deposited by SCBD on top of a sputter deposited film of the same metal is employed as a current collector instead of a plain metallic film. This enhancement is consistent with an improved charge injection in the active material and is ascribed to the modification of the electrical contact at the interface between the carbon and the metal current collector. Specific capacitance values up to 120 F/g have been measured for the electrodes with nanostructured metal/carbon interface.

  8. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on nanostructured carbon electrodes grown by supersonic cluster beam deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Luca Giacomo; Bardizza, Giorgio; Podestà, Alessandro; Milani, Paolo; Piseri, Paolo

    2013-02-01

    Nanostructured porous films of carbon with density of about 0.5 g/cm3 and 200 nm thickness were deposited at room temperature by supersonic cluster beam deposition (SCBD) from carbon clusters formed in the gas phase. Carbon film surface topography, determined by atomic force microscopy, reveals a surface roughness of 16 nm and a granular morphology arising from the low kinetic energy ballistic deposition regime. The material is characterized by a highly disordered carbon structure with predominant sp2 hybridization as evidenced by Raman spectroscopy. The interface properties of nanostructured carbon electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy employing KOH 1 M solution as aqueous electrolyte. An increase of the double layer capacitance is observed when the electrodes are heat treated in air or when a nanostructured nickel layer deposited by SCBD on top of a sputter deposited film of the same metal is employed as a current collector instead of a plain metallic film. This enhancement is consistent with an improved charge injection in the active material and is ascribed to the modification of the electrical contact at the interface between the carbon and the metal current collector. Specific capacitance values up to 120 F/g have been measured for the electrodes with nanostructured metal/carbon interface.

  9. Crystallic silver amalgam – a novel electrode material

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Daňhel, A.; Mansfeldová, Věra; Janda, Pavel; Vyskočil, V.; Barek, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 136, č. 118 (2011), s. 36563662 ISSN 0003-2654 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : crystallic silver amalgam * electrode materials * electrochemistry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 4.230, year: 2011

  10. Preparation of Reduced Graphene Oxides as Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Yaocai

    2012-01-01

    Reduced graphene oxide as outstanding candidate electrode material for supercapacitor has been investigated. This thesis includes two topics. One is that three kinds of reduced graphene oxides were prepared by hydrothermal reduction under different

  11. A Viable Electrode Material for Use in Microbial Fuel Cells for Tropical Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Offei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrode materials are critical for microbial fuel cells (MFC since they influence the construction and operational costs. This study introduces a simple and efficient electrode material in the form of palm kernel shell activated carbon (AC obtained in tropical regions. The novel introduction of this material is also targeted at introducing an inexpensive and durable electrode material, which can be produced in rural communities to improve the viability of MFCs. The maximum voltage and power density obtained (under 1000 Ω load using an H-shaped MFC with AC as both anode and cathode electrode material was 0.66 V and 1.74 W/m3, respectively. The power generated by AC was as high as 86% of the value obtained with the extensively used carbon paper. Scanning electron microscopy and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE analysis of AC anode biofilms confirmed that electrogenic bacteria were present on the electrode surface for substrate oxidation and the formation of nanowires.

  12. The Impact of Surface Chemistry on Bio-derived Carbon Performance as Supercapacitor Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.

    2016-12-23

    In this study, we demonstrate that highly functionalized and porous carbons can be derived from palm-leaf waste using the template-free facile synthesis process. The derived carbons have high content of nitrogen dopant, high surface area, and various defects. Moreover, these carbons exhibit a high electrical conductivity (107 S m−1). Thanks to the high content of edge N (64.3%) and highly microporous nature (82% of microspores), these biomass-derived carbons show promising performance when used as supercapacitor electrodes. To be specific, these carbonaceous materials show a specific capacitance as high as 197 and 135 F g−1 at 2 and 20 A g−1 in three-electrode configuration, respectively. Furthermore, the symmetrical cells using palm-leaf-derived carbon show an energy density of 8.4 Wh Kg−1 at a power density of 0.64 kW Kg−1, with high cycling life stability (∼8% loss after 10,000 continuous charge–discharge cycles at 20 A g−1). Interestingly, as the power density increases from 4.4 kW kg−1 to 36.8 kW kg−1, the energy density drops slowly from 8.4 Wh kg−1 to 3.4 Wh kg−1. Getting such extremely high power density without significant loss of energy density indicates that these palm-leaf-derived carbons have excellent electrode performance as supercapacitor electrodes.

  13. The Impact of Surface Chemistry on Bio-derived Carbon Performance as Supercapacitor Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.; Whitehair, Daniel; Xia, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that highly functionalized and porous carbons can be derived from palm-leaf waste using the template-free facile synthesis process. The derived carbons have high content of nitrogen dopant, high surface area, and various defects. Moreover, these carbons exhibit a high electrical conductivity (107 S m−1). Thanks to the high content of edge N (64.3%) and highly microporous nature (82% of microspores), these biomass-derived carbons show promising performance when used as supercapacitor electrodes. To be specific, these carbonaceous materials show a specific capacitance as high as 197 and 135 F g−1 at 2 and 20 A g−1 in three-electrode configuration, respectively. Furthermore, the symmetrical cells using palm-leaf-derived carbon show an energy density of 8.4 Wh Kg−1 at a power density of 0.64 kW Kg−1, with high cycling life stability (∼8% loss after 10,000 continuous charge–discharge cycles at 20 A g−1). Interestingly, as the power density increases from 4.4 kW kg−1 to 36.8 kW kg−1, the energy density drops slowly from 8.4 Wh kg−1 to 3.4 Wh kg−1. Getting such extremely high power density without significant loss of energy density indicates that these palm-leaf-derived carbons have excellent electrode performance as supercapacitor electrodes.

  14. Carbon Tolerant Fuel Electrodes for Reversible Sofc Operating on Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papazisi Kalliopi Maria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A challenging barrier for the broad, successful implementation of Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC technology for Mars application utilizing CO2 from the Martian atmosphere as primary reactant, remains the long term stability by the effective control and minimization of degradation resulting from carbon built up. The perovskitic type oxide material La0.75Sr0.25Cr0.9Fe0.1O3-δ (LSCF has been developed and studied for its performance and tolerance to carbon deposition, employed as bi-functional fuel electrode in a Reversible SOFC operating on the CO2 cycle (Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell/SOEC: CO2 electrolysis, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/SOFC: power generation through the electrochemical reaction of CO and oxygen. A commercial state-of-the-art NiO-YSZ (8% mol Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 cermet was used as reference material. CO2 electrolysis and fuel cell operation in 70% CO/CO2 were studied in the temperature range of 900-1000°C. YSZ was used as electrolyte while LSM-YSZ/LSM (La0.2Sr0.8MnO3 as oxygen electrode. Results showed that LSCF had high and stable performance under RSOFC operation.

  15. Electrode materials for an open-cycle MHD generator channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telegin, G.P.; Romanov, A.I.; Akopov, F.A.; Gokhshtejn, Ya.P.; Rekov, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    The results of investigations, technological developments and tests of high temperature materials for MHD electrodes on the base of zirconium dioxide, stabilized with oxides of calcium, yttrium, neodymium, and dioxide of cerium, chromites, tamping masses from stabilized dioxide of zirconium, cermets are considered. It is established that binary and ternary solutions on the base of zirconium dioxide and alloyed chromites are the perspective materials for the MHD electrodes on pure fuel

  16. Electrochemical reduction of trinitrotoluene on core-shell tin-carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriants, Irena; Markovsky, Boris; Persky, Rachel; Perelshtein, Ilana; Gedanken, Aharon; Aurbach, Doron; Filanovsky, Boris; Bourenko, Tatiana; Felner, Israel

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we studied the electrochemical process of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) reduction on a new type of electrodes based on a core-shell tin-carbon Sn(C) structure. The Sn(C) composite was prepared from the precursor tetramethyl-tin Sn(CH 3 ) 4 , and the product contained a core of submicron-sized tin particles uniformly enveloped with carbon shells. Cyclic voltammograms of Sn(C) electrodes in aqueous sodium chloride solutions containing TNT show three well-pronounced reduction waves in the potential range of -0.50 to -0.80 V (vs. an Ag/AgCl/Cl - reference electrode) that correspond to the multistep process of TNT reduction. Electrodes containing Sn(C) particles annealed at 800 deg. C under argon develop higher voltammetric currents of TNT reduction (comparing to the as-prepared tin-carbon material) due to stabilization of the carbon shell. It is suggested that the reduction of TNT on core-shell tin-carbon electrodes is an electrochemically irreversible process. A partial oxidation of the TNT reduction products occurred at around -0.20 V. The electrochemical response of TNT reduction shows that it is not controlled by the diffusion of the active species to/from the electrodes but rather by interfacial charge transfer and possible adsorption phenomena. The tin-carbon electrodes demonstrate significantly stable behavior for TNT reduction in NaCl solutions and provide sufficient reproducibility with no surface fouling through prolonged voltammetric cycling. It is presumed that tin nanoparticles, which constitute the core, are electrochemically inactive towards TNT reduction, but Sn or SnO 2 formed on the electrodes during TNT reduction may participate in this reaction as catalysts or carbon-modifying agents. The nitro-groups of TNT can be reduced irreversibly (via two possible paths) by three six-electron transfers, to 2,4,6-triaminotoluene, as follows from mass-spectrometric studies. The tin-carbon electrodes described herein may serve as amperometric sensors

  17. Electrochemical studies on nanometal oxide-activated carbon composite electrodes for aqueous supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Mui Yen; Khiew, Poi Sim; Isa, Dino; Chiu, Wee Siong

    2014-11-01

    In present study, the electrochemical performance of eco-friendly and cost-effective titanium oxide (TiO2)-based and zinc oxide-based nanocomposite electrodes were studied in neutral aqueous Na2SO3 electrolyte, respectively. The electrochemical properties of these composite electrodes were studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (CD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The experimental results reveal that these two nanocomposite electrodes achieve the highest specific capacitance at fairly low oxide loading onto activated carbon (AC) electrodes, respectively. Considerable enhancement of the electrochemical properties of TiO2/AC and ZnO/AC nanocomposite electrodes is achieved via synergistic effects contributed from the nanostructured metal oxides and the high surface area mesoporous AC. Cations and anions from metal oxides and aqueous electrolyte such as Ti4+, Zn2+, Na+ and SO32- can occupy some pores within the high-surface-area AC electrodes, forming the electric double layer at the electrode-electrolyte interface. Additionally, both TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles can provide favourable surface adsorption sites for SO32- anions which subsequently facilitate the faradaic processes for pseudocapacitive effect. These two systems provide the low cost material electrodes and the low environmental impact electrolyte which offer the increased charge storage without compromising charge storage kinetics.

  18. Carbon nanotube yarns as strong flexible conductive capacitive electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Wagterveld, R.M.; Gebben, B.; Otto, M.J.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn, consisting of 23 µm diameter CNT filaments, can be used as capacitive electrodes that are long, flexible, conductive and strong, for applications in energy and electrochemical water treatment. We measure the charge storage capacity as function of salt concentration, and

  19. A study of nanostructured gold modified glassy carbon electrode for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A nanostructured gold modified glassy carbon electrode (Aunano/GCE) was employed for the determination of trace chromium(VI). To prepare Aunano/GCE, the GCE was immersed into KAuCl4 solution and electrodeposition was conducted at the potential of -0.4 V (vs Ag/AgCl) for 600 s. Scanning electron microscopy ...

  20. Electrodes of carbonized MWCNT-cellulose paper for supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaogang; Cai, Manyuan; Chen, Long; Qiu, Zhiwen; Liu, Zhenghong

    2017-07-01

    A flexible composite paper of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and cellulose fiber (CF) were fabricated by traditional paper-making method. Then, the MWCNT/CF papers were carbonized at high temperature in vacuum to remove organic component. The carbonized MWCNT/CF (MWCNT/CCF) papers are consisted of MWCNT and carbon fiber. The papers were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and four-point probe resistance meter. The electrochemical performances of the supercapacitors were tested by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge >with 1 moL/L LiPF6 as electrolyte. The MWCNT/CCF electrode yielded a specific capacitance of 156F/g at a current density of 50 mA/g by galvanostatic charge/discharge measurement, which is 1.29 times higher than MWCNT/CF electrode of 68F/g. The MWCNT/CCF electrodes also displayed an excellent specific capacitance retention of 84% after 2000 continuous charge/discharge cycles at a current density of 400 mA/g. The increase of specific capacitance can be attributed to enhanced electrical conductivity of MWCNT/CCF papers and improved contact interface between electrolyte and electrodes.

  1. Carbon Materials Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    fracture relative to monolithic zirconium carbide [10, 11, 14–16, 18]. Indeed, Song et al. have reported that a W/ZrC composite with 30 vol% ZrC possessed...metals may also be produced for use in a wide range of other high- temperature aerospace (combustion liners, valves , lead- ing edges, exhaust flaps...electrodes, high temperature molds, rocket nozzles and exit cones, tires, ink, nuclear reactors and fuel particles, filters, prosthetics , batteries and

  2. Oxide materials as positive electrodes of lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhonina, Elena V; Pervov, Vladislav S; Dubasova, Valeriya S

    2004-01-01

    The published data on oxide materials as positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries are described systematically. The mechanisms of structural changes in cathode materials occurring during the operation of lithium-ion batteries and the problems concerned with their selection are discussed. Modern trends in optimising cathode materials and lithium-ion batteries on the whole are considered.

  3. Fuel cell electrode interconnect contact material encapsulation and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derose, Anthony J.; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Gudyka, Russell A.; Bonadies, Joseph V.; Silvis, Thomas W.

    2016-05-31

    A fuel cell stack includes a plurality of fuel cell cassettes each including a fuel cell with an anode and a cathode. Each fuel cell cassette also includes an electrode interconnect adjacent to the anode or the cathode for providing electrical communication between an adjacent fuel cell cassette and the anode or the cathode. The interconnect includes a plurality of electrode interconnect protrusions defining a flow passage along the anode or the cathode for communicating oxidant or fuel to the anode or the cathode. An electrically conductive material is disposed between at least one of the electrode interconnect protrusions and the anode or the cathode in order to provide a stable electrical contact between the electrode interconnect and the anode or cathode. An encapsulating arrangement segregates the electrically conductive material from the flow passage thereby, preventing volatilization of the electrically conductive material in use of the fuel cell stack.

  4. Metal adsorption process in activated carbon fiber from textile PAN fiber aim electrode production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Aline Castilho; Goncalves, Emerson Sarmento; Silva, Elen Leal da; Marcuzzo, Jossano Saldanha; Baldan, Mauricio Ribeiro; Cuna, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Carbon fibers have a variety of applications in industry and have been increasingly studied to explore their various characteristics. Studies show that the activated carbon fiber has been effective in removing small contaminants as well as activated carbon, because of its characteristic porosity. Other studies relate carbonaceous materials to the electrical conductivity devices application. This work is based on the use of an activated carbon fiber from textile polyacrylonitrile (PAN) for metallic ion adsorption from aqueous solution. Consequently, it improves the electrical characteristics and this fact show the possibility to use this material as electrode. The work was performed by adsorption process in saline solution (NO 3 Ag and ClPd) and activated carbon fiber in felt form as adsorbent. The metal adsorption on activated carbon fiber was characterized by textural analysis, x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive x-ray (SEM-EDX), Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was observed that activated carbon fiber showed good adsorption capacity for the metals used. At the end of the process, the activated carbon fiber samples gained about 15% by weight, related to metallic fraction incorporated into the fiber and the process of adsorption does not changed the structural, morphological and chemistry inertness of the samples. The results indicate the feasibility of this metal incorporation techniques activated carbon fiber for the production of electrodes facing the electrochemical area. (author)

  5. Metal adsorption process in activated carbon fiber from textile PAN fiber aim electrode production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Aline Castilho; Goncalves, Emerson Sarmento, E-mail: alinerodrigues_1@msn.com [Instituto Tecnologico Aeroespacial (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Silva, Elen Leal da; Marcuzzo, Jossano Saldanha; Baldan, Mauricio Ribeiro [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Cuna, Andres [Faculdade de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica (Uruguay)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Carbon fibers have a variety of applications in industry and have been increasingly studied to explore their various characteristics. Studies show that the activated carbon fiber has been effective in removing small contaminants as well as activated carbon, because of its characteristic porosity. Other studies relate carbonaceous materials to the electrical conductivity devices application. This work is based on the use of an activated carbon fiber from textile polyacrylonitrile (PAN) for metallic ion adsorption from aqueous solution. Consequently, it improves the electrical characteristics and this fact show the possibility to use this material as electrode. The work was performed by adsorption process in saline solution (NO{sub 3}Ag and ClPd) and activated carbon fiber in felt form as adsorbent. The metal adsorption on activated carbon fiber was characterized by textural analysis, x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive x-ray (SEM-EDX), Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was observed that activated carbon fiber showed good adsorption capacity for the metals used. At the end of the process, the activated carbon fiber samples gained about 15% by weight, related to metallic fraction incorporated into the fiber and the process of adsorption does not changed the structural, morphological and chemistry inertness of the samples. The results indicate the feasibility of this metal incorporation techniques activated carbon fiber for the production of electrodes facing the electrochemical area. (author)

  6. Optimization of Inactive Material Content in Lithium Iron Phosphate Electrodes for High Power Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Seonbaek; Ramani, Vijay K.; Lu, Wenquan; Prakash, Jai

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical performance of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4 ) electrodes has been studied to find the optimum content of inactive materials (carbon black + polyvinylidene difluoride [PVDF] polymer binder) and to better understand electrode performance with variation in electrode composition. Trade-offs between inactive material content and electrochemical performance have been characterized in terms of electrical resistance, rate-capability, area-specific impedance (ASI), pulse-power characterization, and energy density calculations. The ASI and electrical conductivity were found to correlate well with ohmic polarization. The results showed that a 80:10:10 (active material: binder: carbon agents) electrode had a higher pulse-power density and energy density at rates above 1C as compared to 90:5:5, 86:7:7 and 70:15:15 formulations, while the 70:15:15 electrode had the highest electrical conductivity of 0.79 S cm −1 . A CB/PVDF ratio of ca. 1.22 was found to be the optimum formulation of inactive material when the LiFePO 4 composition was 80 wt%.

  7. Influence of electrolyte ion-solvent interactions on the performances of supercapacitors porous carbon electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaux, C.; Matei Ghimbeu, C.; Dahbi, M.; Anouti, M.; Lemordant, D.; Béguin, F.; Vix-Guterl, C.; Raymundo-Piñero, E.

    2014-10-01

    The development of advanced and safe electrochemical supercapacitors or hybrid supercapacitors combining a battery electrode material such as graphite and a porous carbon electrode implies the use of new electrolytes containing a tetra-alkylammonium or lithium salt dissolved preferentially in a safe and environmentally friendly solvent such as alkylcarbonates. In those systems, the carbon porosity of the activated carbon electrode controls the electrochemical behavior of the whole device. In this work, it is demonstrated that electrolytes containing highly polarizing ions such as Li+ dissolved in polar solvents such as alkylcarbonates do not completely loss their solvation shell at the opposite of what is observed for poorly solvated cations like TEABF4. As a consequence, the optimal carbon pore size for obtaining the largest energy density, while keeping a high power density, is wider when strongly solvated cations, like Li+ are used than for conventional organic electrolytes using acetonitrile as solvent and TEA+ as salt cations. TEA+ cations are easily desolvated and hence are able to penetrate in small pores matching the dimensions of bare ions. The dissimilarity of behavior of alkylcarbonates and acetonitrile based electrolytes highlights the importance of ion-solvent interactions when searching the optimal porous texture for the electrode material.

  8. Enhanced performance of electrospun carbon fibers modified with carbon nanotubes: promising electrodes for enzymatic biofuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, A Both; Cherifi, A; Tingry, S; Cornu, D; Peigney, A; Laurent, Ch

    2013-06-21

    New nanostructured electrodes, promising for the production of clean and renewable energy in biofuel cells, were developed with success. For this purpose, carbon nanofibers were produced by the electrospinning of polyacrylonitrile solution followed by convenient thermal treatments (stabilization followed by carbonization at 1000, 1200 and 1400° C), and carbon nanotubes were adsorbed on the surfaces of the fibers by a dipping method. The morphology of the developed electrodes was characterized by several techniques (SEM, Raman spectroscopy, electrical conductivity measurement). The electrochemical properties were evaluated through cyclic voltammetry, where the influence of the carbonization temperature of the fibers and the beneficial contribution of the carbon nanotubes were observed through the reversibility and size of the redox peaks of K3Fe(CN)6 versus Ag/AgCl. Subsequently, redox enzymes were immobilized on the electrodes and the electroreduction of oxygen to water was realized as a test of their efficiency as biocathodes. Due to the fibrous and porous structure of these new electrodes, and to the fact that carbon nanotubes may have the ability to promote electron transfer reactions of redox biomolecules, the new electrodes developed were capable of producing higher current densities than an electrode composed only of electrospun carbon fibers.

  9. Nanoporous carbon derived from agro-waste pineapple leaves for supercapacitor electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodtipinta, Jedsada; Amornsakchai, Taweechai; Pakawatpanurut, Pasit

    2017-09-01

    By using KOH as the chemical activating agent in the synthesis, the activated carbon derived from pineapple leaf fiber (PALF) was prepared. The structure, morphology, and the surface functional groups of the as-prepared activated carbon were investigated using x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior and performance of the as-synthesized activated carbon electrode were measured using the cyclic voltammetry and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 1 M Na2SO4 electrolyte solution in three-electrode setup. The activated carbon electrode exhibited the specific capacitance of 131.3 F g-1 at a scan rate of 5 mV s-1 with excellent cycling stability. The capacitance retention after 1000 cycles was about 97% of the initial capacitance at a scan rate of 30 mV s-1. Given these good electrochemical properties along with the high abundance of PALF, this activated carbon electrode has the potential to be one of the materials for future large-scale production of the electrochemical capacitors. Invited talk at 5th Thailand International Nanotechnology Conference (Nano Thailand-2016), 27-29 November 2016, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand.

  10. Nanostructured mesophase electrode materials: modulating charge-storage behavior by thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Hye Jeong; Kim, Saerona; Le, Thanh-Hai; Kim, Yukyung; Park, Geunsu; Park, Chul Soon; Kwon, Oh Seok; Yoon, Hyeonseok

    2017-11-16

    3D nanostructured carbonaceous electrode materials with tunable capacitive phases were successfully developed using graphene/particulate polypyrrole (PPy) nanohybrid (GPNH) precursors without a separate process for incorporating heterogeneous species. The electrode material, namely carbonized GPNHs (CGPNHs) featured a mesophase capacitance consisting of both electric double-layer (EDL) capacitive and pseudocapacitive elements at the molecular level. The ratio of EDL capacitive element to pseudocapacitive element (E-to-P) in the mesophase electrode materials was controlled by varying the PPy-to-graphite weight (P w /G w ) ratio and by heat treatment (T H ), which was demonstrated by characterizing the CGPNHs with elemental analysis, cyclic voltammetry, and a charge/discharge test. The concept of the E-to-P ratio (EPR) index was first proposed to easily identify the capacitive characteristics of the mesophase electrode using a numerical algorithm, which was reasonably consistent with the experimental findings. Finally, the CGPNHs were integrated into symmetric two-electrode capacitor cells, which rendered excellent energy and power densities in both aqueous and ionic liquid electrolytes. It is anticipated that our approach could be widely extended to fabricating versatile hybrid electrode materials with estimation of their capacitive characteristics.

  11. Carbon Cryogel Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. 10 One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nano-foams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. 1-4,9 Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  12. Advances in electrode materials for Li-based rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hui [China Academy of Space Technology (CAST), Beijing (China); Mao, Chengyu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Li, Jianlin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Chen, Ruiyong [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology (KIST), Saarbrucken (Germany); Saarland Univ., Saarbrucken (Germany)

    2017-07-05

    Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries store energy as chemical energy in electrode materials during charge and can convert the chemical energy into electrical energy when needed. Tremendous attention has been paid to screen electroactive materials, to evaluate their structural integrity and cycling reversibility, and to improve the performance of electrode materials. This review discusses recent advances in performance enhancement of both anode and cathode through nanoengineering active materials and applying surface coatings, in order to effectively deal with the challenges such as large volume variation, instable interface, limited cyclability and rate capability. We also introduce and discuss briefly the diversity and new tendencies in finding alternative lithium storage materials, safe operation enabled in aqueous electrolytes, and configuring novel symmetric electrodes and lithium-based flow batteries.

  13. High temperature SU-8 pyrolysis for fabrication of carbon electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Yasmin Mohamed; Caviglia, Claudia; Hemanth, Suhith

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present the investigation of the pyrolysis parameters at high temperature (1100 °C) for the fabrication of two-dimensional pyrolytic carbon electrodes. The electrodes were fabricated by pyrolysis of lithographically patterned negative epoxy based photoresist SU-8. A central...... composite experimental design was used to identify the influence of dwell time at the highest pyrolysis temperature and heating rate on electrical, electrochemical and structural properties of the pyrolytic carbon: Van der Pauw sheet resistance measurements, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance...... spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the pyrolytic carbon. The results show that the temperature increase from 900 °C to 1100 °C improves the electrical and electrochemical properties. At 1100 °C, longer dwell time leads to lower resistivity, while the variation of the pyrolysis...

  14. Ion dynamics in porous carbon electrodes in supercapacitors using in situ infrared spectroelectrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, Francis W; Dyatkin, Boris; Gogotsi, Yury; Elabd, Yossef A

    2013-08-28

    Electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs), or supercapacitors, rely on electrosorption of ions by porous carbon electrodes and offer a higher power and a longer cyclic lifetime compared to batteries. Ionic liquid (IL) electrolytes can broaden the operating voltage window and increase the energy density of EDLCs. Herein, we present direct measurements of the ion dynamics of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)imide in an operating EDLC with electrodes composed of porous nanosized carbide-derived carbons (CDCs) and nonporous onion-like carbons (OLCs) with the use of in situ infrared spectroelectrochemistry. For CDC electrodes, IL ions (both cations and anions) were directly observed entering and exiting CDC nanopores during charging and discharging of the EDLC. Conversely, for OLC electrodes, IL ions were observed in close proximity to the OLC surface without any change in the bulk electrolyte concentration during charging and discharging of the EDLC. This provides experimental evidence that charge is stored on the surface of OLCs in OLC EDLCs without long-range ion transport through the bulk electrode. In addition, for CDC EDLCs with mixed electrolytes of IL and propylene carbonate (PC), the IL ions were observed entering and exiting CDC nanopores, while PC entrance into the nanopores was IL concentration dependent. This work provides direct experimental confirmation of EDLC charging mechanisms that previously were restricted to computational simulations and theories. The experimental measurements presented here also provide deep insights into the molecular level transport of IL ions in EDLC electrodes that will impact the design of the electrode materials' structure for electrical energy storage.

  15. Roll-to-Roll Laser-Printed Graphene-Graphitic Carbon Electrodes for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sangmin; Lim, Kyungmi; Park, Hyeokjun; Park, Jong Bo; Park, Seong Chae; Cho, Sung-Pyo; Kang, Kisuk; Hong, Byung Hee

    2018-01-10

    Carbon electrodes including graphene and thin graphite films have been utilized for various energy and sensor applications, where the patterning of electrodes is essentially included. Laser scribing in a DVD writer and inkjet printing were used to pattern the graphene-like materials, but the size and speed of fabrication has been limited for practical applications. In this work, we devise a simple strategy to use conventional laser-printer toner materials as precursors for graphitic carbon electrodes. The toner was laser-printed on metal foils, followed by thermal annealing in hydrogen environment, finally resulting in the patterned thin graphitic carbon or graphene electrodes for supercapacitors. The electrochemical cells made of the graphene-graphitic carbon electrodes show remarkably higher energy and power performance compared to conventional supercapacitors. Furthermore, considering the simplicity and scalability of roll-to-roll (R2R) electrode patterning processes, the proposed method would enable cheaper and larger-scale synthesis and patterning of graphene-graphitic carbon electrodes for various energy applications in the future.

  16. Wearable carbon nanotube based dry-electrodes for electrophysiological sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byeong-Cheol; Ha, Tae-Jun

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate all-solution-processed carbon nanotube (CNT) dry-electrodes for the detection of electrophysiological signals such as electrocardiograms (ECG) and electromyograms (EMG). The key parameters of P, Q, R, S, and T peaks are successfully extracted by such CNT based dry-electrodes, which is comparable with conventional silver/chloride (Ag/AgCl) wet-electrodes with a conducting gel film for the ECG recording. Furthermore, the sensing performance of CNT based dry-electrodes is secured during the bending test of 200 cycles, which is essential for wearable electrophysiological sensors in a non-invasive method on human skin. We also investigate the application of wearable CNT based dry-electrodes directly attached to the human skins such as forearm for sensing the electrophysiological signals. The accurate and rapid sensing response can be achieved by CNT based dry-electrodes to supervise the health condition affected by excessive physical movements during the real-time measurements.

  17. Electrochemical impedance measurement of a carbon nanotube probe electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Akira; Takei, Yusuke; Kan, Tetsuo; Shimoyama, Isao; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    We measured and analyzed the electrochemical impedance of carbon nanotube (CNT) probe electrodes fabricated through the physical separation of insulated CNT bridges. The fabricated CNT electrodes were free-standing CNTs that were completely covered with an insulator, except for their tips. Typical dimensions of the nanoelectrodes were 1–10 nm in CNT diameter, 80–300 nm in insulator diameter, 0.5–4 μm in exposed CNT length and 1–10 μm in probe length. The electrochemical impedance at frequencies ranging from 40 Hz to 1 MHz was measured in physiological saline. The measured impedance of the CNT electrode was constant at 32 MΩ at frequencies below 1 kHz and was inversely proportional to frequency at frequencies above 10 kHz. By means of comparison with the parasitic capacitive impedance of the insulator membrane, we confirmed that the electrode was sufficiently insulated such that the measured constant impedance was given by the exposed CNT tip. Consequently, we can use the CNT electrode for highly localized electrochemical impedance measurements below 1 kHz. Considering an equivalent circuit and the nanoscopic dimensions of the CNT electrode, we demonstrated that the constant impedance was governed by diffusion impedance, whereas the solution resistance, charge-transfer resistance and double-layer capacitance were negligible. (paper)

  18. Nitrogen/Sulfur-Codoped Carbon Materials from Chitosan for Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Han, Xianlong; Chang, Xiaoqing; Yin, Wenchao; Ma, Jingyun

    2016-08-01

    d-Methionine and chitosan have been used for fabrication of nitrogen/sulfur-codoped carbon materials by a hydrothermal process followed by carbonization at 750°C for 3 h. The as-prepared carbon materials showed enhanced electrochemical performance, combining electrical double-layer capacitance with pseudocapacitance owing to the doping with sulfur and nitrogen. The specific capacitance of the obtained carbon material reached 135 F g-1 at current density of 1 A g-1, which is much higher than undoped chitosan (67 F g-1). The capacitance retention of the carbon material was almost 97.2% after 5000 cycles at current density of 1 A g-1. With such improved electrochemical performance, the nitrogen/sulfur-codoped carbon material may have promising potential for use in energy-storage electrodes of supercapacitors.

  19. Electrodeposition of polyfluorene on a carbon nanotube electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentini, L; Mengoni, F; Mattiello, L; Kenny, J M

    2007-01-01

    Electrophoretically deposited single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films on a transparent conducting surface are used as electrodes for the electrodeposition of a π-conjugated polymer formed by the oxidative coupling of fluorene units. This method provides a uniform coverage of the conducting surface with respect to SWCNTs chemically assembled on a gold substrate. Electron microscopy reveals the formation of a polymer-SWCNT nanostructure which imparts distinct electrical properties from those of the polymer electrodeposited on the neat electrode. By combining the attractive properties of SWCNTs and polyfluorene, these nanocomposites open up new opportunities to achieve electrical contacts in nano- to micro-devices

  20. Development of carbon paste electrodes modified by molecularly imprinted polymer as potentiometry sensor of uric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanah, Miratul; Darmokoesoemo, Handoko; Widayanti, Nesti; Kadmi, Yassine; Elmsellem, Hicham; Kusuma, Heri Septya

    The development of carbon paste electrodes modified by molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for the potentiometric analysis of uric acid was carried out in this study. The aim of the study was to determine the optimum composition of the electrode constituent material, the optimum pH of the uric acid solution, and the performance of the electrode, which was measured by its response time, measurement range, Nernst factor, detection limits, selectivity coefficient, precision, accuracy, and life time. MIP was made from methyl methacrylate as the monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, and uric acid as the template. Electrodes that give optimum performance were produced from carbon, MIP, and paraffin with a ratio of 40:25:35 (% w/w). The obtained results show that the measurement of uric acid solution gives optimum results at pH 5, Nernst factor of 30.19 mV/decade, and a measurement range of 10-6-10-3 M. The minimum detection limit of this method was 3.03.10-6 M, and the precision and accuracy toward uric acid with concentration of 10-6-10-3 M ranged between 1.36-2.03% and 63.9-166%. The selectivity coefficient value was less than 1, which indicated that the electrode was selective against uric acid and not interfered with by urea. This electrode has a response time of less than 2 min; its life time is 8 weeks with 104 usage times.

  1. Manganese oxide-based materials as electrochemical supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Weifeng; Cui, Xinwei; Chen, Weixing; Ivey, Douglas G

    2011-03-01

    Electrochemical supercapacitors (ECs), characteristic of high power and reasonably high energy densities, have become a versatile solution to various emerging energy applications. This critical review describes some materials science aspects on manganese oxide-based materials for these applications, primarily including the strategic design and fabrication of these electrode materials. Nanostructurization, chemical modification and incorporation with high surface area, conductive nanoarchitectures are the three major strategies in the development of high-performance manganese oxide-based electrodes for EC applications. Numerous works reviewed herein have shown enhanced electrochemical performance in the manganese oxide-based electrode materials. However, many fundamental questions remain unanswered, particularly with respect to characterization and understanding of electron transfer and atomic transport of the electrochemical interface processes within the manganese oxide-based electrodes. In order to fully exploit the potential of manganese oxide-based electrode materials, an unambiguous appreciation of these basic questions and optimization of synthesis parameters and material properties are critical for the further development of EC devices (233 references).

  2. Novel polybenzoxazine-based carbon aerogel electrode for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katanyoota, Porawee [Petroleum and Petrochemical College and National Center of Excellence for Petroleum, Petrochemicals and Advanced Materials, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Chaisuwan, Thayanlak, E-mail: thanyalak.c@hotmail.co [Petroleum and Petrochemical College and National Center of Excellence for Petroleum, Petrochemicals and Advanced Materials, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Wongchaisuwat, Atchana [Department of Chemistry, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Wongkasemjit, Sujitra, E-mail: dsujitra@chula.ac.t [Petroleum and Petrochemical College and National Center of Excellence for Petroleum, Petrochemicals and Advanced Materials, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2010-02-25

    In this study, polybenzoxazine, a new high performance thermosetting resin, was used to prepare carbon aerogels used as an electrode for supercapacitors. Two types of polybenzoxazines, derived from two different amines, aniline and triethylenetetramine, and denoted as BA-a and BA-teta, respectively, were chosen as the reactants for the organic precursor preparation. The surface area of carbon aerogels from both BA-a and BA-teta was 391 and 368 m{sup 2}/g, respectively. The pore size of each carbon aerogel was in the range of 2-5 nm, which is a suitable pore size for use as electrodes in electrochemical applications. The electrochemical properties of the obtained carbon aerogels showed good performance for supercapacitor applications with a specific capacitance of 55.78 and 20.53 F/g for BA-teta and BA-a, respectively. At low voltage scanning, 1 and 5 mV/s, the cyclic voltammogram of the carbon aerogel derived from BA-teta gave a better rectangular shape than that of the other carbon aerogel. The impedance spectra of both carbon aerogels confirmed the results of the capacitance and the cyclic voltammogram analyses.

  3. Novel polybenzoxazine-based carbon aerogel electrode for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katanyoota, Porawee; Chaisuwan, Thayanlak; Wongchaisuwat, Atchana; Wongkasemjit, Sujitra

    2010-01-01

    In this study, polybenzoxazine, a new high performance thermosetting resin, was used to prepare carbon aerogels used as an electrode for supercapacitors. Two types of polybenzoxazines, derived from two different amines, aniline and triethylenetetramine, and denoted as BA-a and BA-teta, respectively, were chosen as the reactants for the organic precursor preparation. The surface area of carbon aerogels from both BA-a and BA-teta was 391 and 368 m 2 /g, respectively. The pore size of each carbon aerogel was in the range of 2-5 nm, which is a suitable pore size for use as electrodes in electrochemical applications. The electrochemical properties of the obtained carbon aerogels showed good performance for supercapacitor applications with a specific capacitance of 55.78 and 20.53 F/g for BA-teta and BA-a, respectively. At low voltage scanning, 1 and 5 mV/s, the cyclic voltammogram of the carbon aerogel derived from BA-teta gave a better rectangular shape than that of the other carbon aerogel. The impedance spectra of both carbon aerogels confirmed the results of the capacitance and the cyclic voltammogram analyses.

  4. Use of cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for determination of active surface area of modified carbon-based electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Leticia Lopes de

    2011-01-01

    Carbon-based electrodes as well the ion exchange electrodes among others have been applied mainly in the treatment of industrial effluents and radioactive wastes. Carbon is also used in fuel cells as substrate for the electrocatalysts, having high surface area which surpasses its geometric area. The knowledge of the total active area is important for the determination of operating conditions of an electrochemical cell with respect to the currents to be applied (current density). In this study it was used two techniques to determine the electrochemical active surface area of glassy carbon, electrodes and ion exchange electrodes: cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The experiments were carried out with KNO 3 0.1 mol.L -1 solutions in a three-electrode electrochemical cell: carbon-based working electrode, platinum auxiliary electrode and Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The glassy carbon and porous carbon electrodes with geometric areas of 3.14 x 10 -2 and 2.83 X 10 -1 cm 2 , respectively, were used. The ion exchange electrode was prepared by mixing graphite, carbon, ion exchange resin and a binder, and this mixture was applied in three layers on carbon felt, using a geometric area of 1.0 cm 2 during the experiments. The capacitance (Cd) of the materials was determined by EIS using Bode diagrams. The value of 172 μF.cm -2 found for the glassy carbon is consistent with the literature data (∼ 200 μF.cm'- 2 ). By VC, varying the scan rate from 0.2 to 2.0 mV.s-1, the capacitance CdS (S = active surface area) in the region of the electric double layer (EDL) of each material was determined. By EIS, the values of C d , 3.0 x 10 -5 μF.cm'- 2 and 11 x 10 3 μF.cm-2, were found for the porous carbon and ion exchange electrodes, respectively, which allowed the determination of active surface areas as 3.73 x 106 cm 2 and 4.72 cm 2 . To sum up, the combined use of EIS and CV techniques is a valuable tool for the calculation of active surface

  5. Integration of Microchip Electrophoresis with Electrochemical Detection Using an Epoxy-Based Molding Method to Embed Multiple Electrode Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alicia S.; Selimovic, Asmira; Martin, R. Scott

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the use of epoxy-encapsulated electrodes to integrate microchip-based electrophoresis with electrochemical detection. Devices with various electrode combinations can easily be developed. This includes a palladium decoupler with a downstream working electrode material of either gold, mercury/gold, platinum, glassy carbon, or a carbon fiber bundle. Additional device components such as the platinum wires for the electrophoresis separation and the counter electrode for detection can also be integrated into the epoxy base. The effect of the decoupler configuration was studied in terms of the separation performance, detector noise, and the ability to analyze samples of a high ionic strength. The ability of both glassy carbon and carbon fiber bundle electrodes to analyze a complex mixture was demonstrated. It was also shown that a PDMS-based valving microchip can be used along with the epoxy embedded electrodes to integrate microdialysis sampling with microchip electrophoresis and electrochemical detection, with the microdialysis tubing also being embedded in the epoxy substrate. This approach enables one to vary the detection electrode material as desired in a manner where the electrodes can be polished and modified in a similar fashion to electrochemical flow cells used in liquid chromatography. PMID:22038707

  6. Hybrid capacitor with activated carbon electrode, Ni(OH){sub 2} electrode and polymer hydrogel electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nohara, Shinji; Asahina, Toshihide; Wada, Hajime; Furukawa, Naoji; Inoue, Hiroshi; Iwakura, Chiaki [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Sugoh, Nozomu; Iwasaki, Hideharu [Kurashiki Research Laboratory, Kuraray Co., Ltd., 2045-1 Sakazu, Kurashiki, Okayama 710-8691 (Japan)

    2006-06-19

    A new hybrid capacitor (HC) cell was assembled using an activated carbon (AC) negative electrode, an Ni(OH){sub 2} positive electrode and a polymer hydrogel electrolyte prepared from crosslinked potassium poly(acrylate) (PAAK) and KOH aqueous solution. The HC cell was characterized compared with an electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) using two AC electrodes and the polymer hydrogel electrolyte. It was found that the HC cell successfully worked in the larger voltage range and exhibited ca. 2.4 times higher capacitance than the EDLC cell. High-rate dischargeability of the HC cell was also superior to that of the EDLC cell. These improved characteristics strongly suggest that the HC cell can be a promising system of capacitors with high energy and power densities. (author)

  7. Hybrid capacitor with activated carbon electrode, Ni(OH) 2 electrode and polymer hydrogel electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Shinji; Asahina, Toshihide; Wada, Hajime; Furukawa, Naoji; Inoue, Hiroshi; Sugoh, Nozomu; Iwasaki, Hideharu; Iwakura, Chiaki

    A new hybrid capacitor (HC) cell was assembled using an activated carbon (AC) negative electrode, an Ni(OH) 2 positive electrode and a polymer hydrogel electrolyte prepared from crosslinked potassium poly(acrylate) (PAAK) and KOH aqueous solution. The HC cell was characterized compared with an electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) using two AC electrodes and the polymer hydrogel electrolyte. It was found that the HC cell successfully worked in the larger voltage range and exhibited ca. 2.4 times higher capacitance than the EDLC cell. High-rate dischargeability of the HC cell was also superior to that of the EDLC cell. These improved characteristics strongly suggest that the HC cell can be a promising system of capacitors with high energy and power densities.

  8. A sulfur–microporous carbon composite positive electrode for lithium/sulfur and silicon/sulfur rechargeble batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Takahashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur is an advantageous material as a promising next-generation positive electrode material for high-energy lithium batteries due to a high theoretical capacity of 1672 mA h g−1 although its discharge potential is somewhat modest: ca. 2 V vs Li/Li+. However, a sulfur positive electrode has some crucial problems for practical use, which are mainly attributed to the dissolution of its intermediate products in charge–discharge processes. In order to resolve the dissolution problem of lithium polysulfide, we attempted to synthesize a sulfur–microporous activated carbon (AC composite positive electrode. Moreover, we have systematically researched the battery performance of sulfur–microporous AC positive electrode with variations of electrolytes as well as negative electrodes, and found its promising positive electrode performance for a next-generation rechargeable battery.

  9. Carbon fibre material for tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartini Noorsal; Mohd Ariff Baharom

    2010-01-01

    As science and technology continue to cross boundaries of known practices, materials and manufacturing techniques and into the frontiers of new materials, environment and applications, the opportunities for research in materials in general will inevitably increase. The unique properties of carbon fibre which combines low weight and high stiffness, makes it in ever greater demand as substitutes for traditional materials. This is due to the rising costs of raw materials and energy and the necessity to reduce carbon dioxide emission. The carbon fibres produced are particularly of high standard in terms of quality and processing characteristics especially when it is designed in structural components in the aerospace and defence industries. This results in a well structured organisation in producing the fibre starting from its raw material to the final composite products. In achieving this effort, research and communication of the progress takes a fundamental role. (author)

  10. Graphene oxide - Polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite based electrode material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Pranav Bhagwan; Shukla, Shobha; Saxena, Sumit

    2016-07-01

    Supercapacitors are high capacitive energy storage devices and find applications where rapid bursts of power are required. Thus materials offering high specific capacitance are of fundamental interest in development of these electrochemical devices. Graphene oxide based nanocomposites are mechanically robust and have interesting electronic properties. These form potential electrode materials efficient for charge storage in supercapacitors. In this perspective, we investigate low cost graphene oxide based nanocomposites as electrode material for supercapacitor. Nanocomposites of graphene oxide and polyvinyl alcohol were synthesized in solution phase by integrating graphene oxide as filler in polyvinyl alcohol matrix. Structural and optical characterizations suggest the formation of graphene oxide and polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposites. These nanocomposites were found to have high specific capacitance, were cyclable, ecofriendly and economical. Our studies suggest that nanocomposites prepared by adding 0.5% wt/wt of graphene oxide in polyvinyl alcohol can be used an efficient electrode material for supercapacitors.

  11. Multi-electrode double layer capacitor having single electrolyte seal and aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmandi, C. Joseph; Dispennette, John M.; Blank, Edward; Kolb, Alan C.

    1999-01-19

    A single cell, multi-electrode high performance double layer capacitor includes first and second flat stacks of electrodes adapted to be housed in a closeable two-part capacitor case which includes only a single electrolyte seal. Each electrode stack has a plurality of electrodes connected in parallel, with the electrodes of one stack being interleaved with the electrodes of the other stack to form an interleaved stack, and with the electrodes of each stack being electrically connected to respective capacitor terminals. A porous separator sleeve is inserted over the electrodes of one stack before interleaving to prevent electrical shorts between the electrodes. The electrodes are made by folding a compressible, low resistance, aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth, made from activated carbon fibers, around a current collector foil, with a tab of the foils of each electrode of each stack being connected in parallel and connected to the respective capacitor terminal. The height of the interleaved stack is somewhat greater than the inside height of the closed capacitor case, thereby requiring compression of the interleaved electrode stack when placed inside of the case, and thereby maintaining the interleaved electrode stack under modest constant pressure. The closed capacitor case is filled with an electrolytic solution and sealed. A preferred electrolytic solution is made by dissolving an appropriate salt into acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN). In one embodiment, the two parts of the capacitor case are conductive and function as the capacitor terminals.

  12. Novel Functionalized Carbon Nanotube Supercapacitor Materials: Contribution to the Supercapacitor TIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    which are effectively the dielectric material . Thus, each electrode of a supercapacitor is in essence a conventional capacitor, and in full cell, the...promise as supercapacitor electrode materials . SWNTs, which exist in bundles of ropes, exhibit very large surface area (~1300 m2/g) [2]. Effective...Novel functionalized carbon nanotube supercapacitor materials Contribution to the supercapacitor TIF Trisha Huber

  13. Ceramic carbon electrode-based anodes for use in the copper-chlorine thermochemical cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, S.; Easton, E.B. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada). Faculty of Science

    2009-07-01

    A thermochemical cycle is a process by which water is decomposed into hydrogen and oxygen through a series of chemical reactions. The chemicals that are used in these reactions are regenerated and recycled during the process. Sol-gel chemistry is becoming more common for the synthesis of electrode materials. The sol-gel reaction can be conducted in the presence of a carbon black to form a ceramic carbon electrode (CCE). The resultant CCE structure contains electronically conductive carbon particle pathways that are bound together through the ceramic binder, which can also promote ion transport. The CCE structure also has a high active surface area and is chemically and thermally robust. This paper presented an investigation of CCE materials prepared using 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane. Several electrochemical experiments including cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were performed to characterize their suitability as anode electrode materials for use in the electrochemical step of the copper-chlorine thermochemical cycle. Subsequent experiments included the manipulation of the relative ratio of organosilane carbon precursors to gauge its impact on electrode properties and performance. An overview of the materials characterization and electrochemical measurements were also presented. Specifically, the paper presented the experiment with particular reference to the CCE preparation; electrochemical experiments; thermal analysis; and scanning electron microscopy. Results were also provided. These included TGA analysis; scanning electron microscopy analysis; electrochemical characterization; and anodic polarization. Characterization of these CCE material demonstrated that they had good thermal stability, could be used at high temperatures, and were therefore, very promising anode materials. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Electrochemical oxidation of ascorbic acid mediated by carbon nano tubes/ Li+/ carbon paste modified solid electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, J.K.; Tan, W.T.

    2008-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nano tube (MWCNT) was used to modify BPPG electrode because of its unique structure and extraordinary properties. MWCNT modified electrode exhibited obvious enhancing and electro catalyzing effects to the oxidation of ascorbic acid using cyclic voltammetry technique. MWCNT was bonded on BPPG electrode surface using carbon paste with ratio of 30 % (w/ W) carbon paste (binder): 70 % (w/ w) MWCNT. This method of modification has lowered the capacitance background current and enabled lower detection limit of ascorbic acid concentration. The electrical conductivity property of MWCNT modified electrode was further improved with the intercalation with lithium ion and resulted in current enhancement of 2 times on the oxidation current of ascorbic acid. Parameters of pH and temperature showed significant relation to the sensitivity of MWCNT modified electrode. Under the optimized parameters, the calibration curve constructed was linear up from 50 μM to 5 mM with sensitivity of 34.5 mA M -1 . The practical application of MWCNT modified electrode was demonstrated with Vitamin C pill and orange juice. Good reproducibility and recovery of ascorbic acid concentration showed the feasibility of MWCNT modified electrode to be used in the detection of ascorbic acid in aqueous solution. This also proposed MWCNT modified BPPG electrode possessed advantages such as low detection limit, high stability, low cost and simplicity in fabrication. (author)

  15. Microwave synthesis of electrode materials for lithium batteries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A novel microwave method is described for the preparation of electrode materials required for lithium batteries. The method is simple, fast and carried out in most cases with the same starting material as in conventional methods. Good crystallinity has been noted and lower temperatures of reaction has been inferred in ...

  16. Transparent Electrodes: A Review of the Use of Carbon-Based Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar J. López-Naranjo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent conducting electrodes (TCE are extensively applied in a great range of optoelectronic and photovoltaic equipment (e.g., solar cells, touch panels, and flexible devices. Carbon-based nanomaterials are considered as suitable replacements to substitute traditional materials to manufacture TCE due to their remarkable characteristics, for example, high optical transmittance and outstanding electrical properties. In comparison with traditional indium tin oxide electrodes, carbon-based electrodes show good mechanical properties, chemical stability, and low cost. Nevertheless, major issues related to the development of good quality manufacture methods to produce carbon-based nanomaterials have to be overcome to meet massive market requirements. Hence, the development of alternative TCE materials as well as appropriate large production techniques that meet the requirements of a proper sheet resistance along with a high optical transparency is a priority. Therefore, in this work, we summarize and discuss novel production and synthesis methods, chemical treatments, and hybrid materials developed to satisfy the worldwide request for carbon-based nanomaterials.

  17. Hierarchical porous carbon/MnO2 hybrids as supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Eui; Yun, Young Soo; Jin, Hyoung-Joon

    2014-12-01

    Hybrid electrodes of hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) and manganese oxide (MnO2) were synthesized using a fast surface redox reaction of potassium permanganate under facile immersion methods. The HPC/MnO2 hybrids had a number of micropores and macropores and the MnO2 nanoparticles acted as a pseudocapacitive material. The synergistic effects of electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC)-induced capacitance and pseudocapacitance brought about a better electrochemical performance of the HPC/MnO2 hybrid electrodes compared to that obtained with a single component. The hybrids showed a specific capacitance of 228 F g(-1) and good cycle stability over 1000 cycles.

  18. Carbon coated stainless steel as counter electrode for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Shejale Kiran; Sharma, Rakesh K.; Roy, Mahesh S.; Kumar, Mahesh

    2014-10-01

    A new type of counter electrode for dye sensitized solar cells has been fabricated using a stainless steel sheet as substrate and graphite, graphene and multiwall carbon nanotubes as the catalytic material which applied by screen printing technique. The sheet resistances of the substrates and there influence on the dye sensitized solar cells has been studied. The fabricated counter electrodes i.e. SS-graphite, SS-graphene SS-MWCNT and SS-platinum were tested for their photovoltaic response in the form of dye sensitized solar cells.

  19. The progress of the electrode materials development for lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Kai; Dai Shouhui; Wan Yuhua

    2001-01-01

    The structure and the charge-discharge principle of Li-ion battery are briefly discussed; the progress of electrode materials for Li-ion battery is reviewed in detail. Graphite has found wide applications in commercial Li-ion batteries, however, the hard carbon, especially the carbon with hydrogen is the most promising anode material for Li-ion battery owing to its high capacity, which has now become hot spot of investigation. Following the LiCoO 2 , LiMn 2 O 4 spinel compound becomes the most powerful contestant. On the basis of the authors' results, the synthesis methods of LiMn 2 O 4 and its characterizations are compared. Moreover, the structural properties of intercalation electrode materials that are related to the rechargeable capacity and stability during cycling of lithium ions are also discussed

  20. Preparation of catechol-linked chitosan/carbon nanocomposite-modified electrode and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirimali, Harishchandra Digambar; Saravanakumar, Duraisamy; Shin, Woon Sup [Dept. of Chemistry and Interdisciplinary Program of Integrated Biotechnology, Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    In this study, we report the synthesis of 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (catechol)-linked chitosan (cat-chitosan) and the preparation of its composite with carbon (cat-chitosan/carbon) to construct a catechol-modified electrode. The synthesis is similar to our previous work on hydroquinone–chitosan/carbon composite electrode. We synthesized catechol-linked chitosan polymer and prepared the its composite electrode with carbon. The catchitosan/carbon composite electrode shows a reversible confined redox behavior by the catechol functional group. The electrode catalyzes the oxidation of NADH. It has Cu{sup 2+} ion-binding capability and its binding constant 8.7 μM.

  1. Preparation of catechol-linked chitosan/carbon nanocomposite-modified electrode and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirimali, Harishchandra Digambar; Saravanakumar, Duraisamy; Shin, Woon Sup

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis of 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (catechol)-linked chitosan (cat-chitosan) and the preparation of its composite with carbon (cat-chitosan/carbon) to construct a catechol-modified electrode. The synthesis is similar to our previous work on hydroquinone–chitosan/carbon composite electrode. We synthesized catechol-linked chitosan polymer and prepared the its composite electrode with carbon. The catchitosan/carbon composite electrode shows a reversible confined redox behavior by the catechol functional group. The electrode catalyzes the oxidation of NADH. It has Cu"2"+ ion-binding capability and its binding constant 8.7 μM.

  2. Voltammetric pH sensing using carbon electrodes: glassy carbon behaves similarly to EPPG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Min; Compton, Richard G

    2014-09-21

    Developing and building on recent work based on a simple sensor for pH determination using unmodified edge plane pyrolytic graphite (EPPG) electrodes, we present a voltammetric method for pH determination using a bare unmodified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. By exploiting the pH sensitive nature of quinones present on carbon edge-plane like sites within the GC, we show how GC electrodes can be used to measure pH. The electro-reduction of surface quinone groups on the glassy carbon electrode was characterised using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and optimised with square-wave voltammetry (SWV) at 298 K and 310 K. At both temperatures, a linear correlation was observed, corresponding to a 2 electron, 2 proton Nernstian response over the aqueous pH range 1.0 to 13.1. As such, unmodified glassy carbon electrodes are seen to be pH dependent, and the Nernstian response suggests its facile use for pH sensing. Given the widespread use of glassy carbon electrodes in electroanalysis, the approach offers a method for the near-simultaneous measurement and monitoring of pH during such analyses.

  3. Carbon-coated tungsten and molybdenum carbides for electrode of electrochemical capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Takahiro; Soneda, Yasushi; Hatori, Hiroaki; Inagaki, Michio

    2007-01-01

    New electrode materials for electrochemical capacitor, tungsten carbide WC and molybdenum carbide Mo 2 C coated by porous carbon, were prepared through a simple heat treatment of the mixture of K 2 WO 4 and K 2 MoO 4 , respectively, with hydroxy propyl cellulose. Carbide changed to hydroxide during the 1st charge-discharge cycle in H 2 SO 4 aqueous electrolyte, which showed redox reaction in further charge-discharge cycles, in addition to electric double layers of the carbon formed on its surface. The carbon-coated carbide gave a high capacitance in 1 mol L -1 H 2 SO 4 electrolyte, as about 350 F cm -3 for carbon-coated WC and 550-750 F cm -3 for carbon-coated Mo 2 C. Coating of carbon inhibits the growth of carbide particles during their formation, of which the small particle size make possible to complete transformation to hydroxides during the 1st charge-discharge cycle, and also disturbs the agglomeration of tungsten and molybdenum hydroxides during charge-discharge cycles, as well as porous carbon coated act as electrode material for electric double layers of electrolyte ions

  4. WO3 nanorods-modified carbon electrode for sustained electron uptake from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 with suppressed biofilm formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Feng; Yuan, Shi-Jie; Li, Wen-Wei; Chen, Jie-Jie; Ko, Chi-Chiu; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • WO 3 nanorods-modified carbon paper was used as the anode of MFC. • WO 3 nanorods suppressed biofilm growth on the electrode surface. • Sustained electron transfer from cells to electrode via riboflavin was achieved. • C–WO 3 nanorods enable stable and efficient EET process in long-time operation. - Abstract: Carbon materials are widely used as electrodes for bioelectrochemical systems (BES). However, a thick biofilm tends to grow on the electrode surface during continuous operation, resulting in constrained transport of electrons and nutrients at the cell-electrode interface. In this work, we tackled this problem by adopting a WO 3 -nanorods modified carbon electrode (C–WO 3 nanorods), which completely suppressed the biofilm growth of Shewanella Oneidensis MR-1. Moreover, the C–WO 3 nanorods exhibited high electric conductivity and strong response to riboflavin. These two factors together make it possible for the C–WO 3 nanorods to maintain a sustained, efficient process of electron transfer from the MR-1 planktonic cells. As a consequence, the microbial fuel cells with C–WO 3 nanorods anode showed more stable performance than the pure carbon paper and WO 3 -nanoparticles systems in prolonged operation. This work suggests that WO 3 nanorods have the potential to be used as a robust and biofouling-resistant electrode material for practical bioelectrochemical applications

  5. Voltammetric quantitation of nitazoxanide by glassy carbon electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Jain

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports voltammetric reduction of nitazoxanide in Britton–Robinson (B–R buffer by cyclic and square-wave voltammetry at glassy carbon electrode. A versatile fully validated voltammetric method for quantitative determination of nitazoxanide in pharmaceutical formulation has been proposed. A squrewave peak current was linear over the nitazoxanide concentration in the range of 20–140 µg/mL. The limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ was calculated to be 5.23 μg/mL and 17.45 μg/mL, respectively. Keywords: Nitazoxanide, Squarewave voltammetry, Glassy carbon electrode, Pharmaceutical formulation

  6. Electrochemical impedance-based DNA sensor using a modified single walled carbon nanotube electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Jessica E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Nanomaterials and Nanomanufacturing Research Center, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Pillai, Shreekumar [Center for NanoBiotechnology Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL (United States); Ram, Manoj Kumar, E-mail: mkram@usf.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Nanomaterials and Nanomanufacturing Research Center, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Kumar, Ashok [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Nanomaterials and Nanomanufacturing Research Center, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Singh, Shree R. [Center for NanoBiotechnology Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL (United States)

    2011-07-20

    Carbon nanotubes have become promising functional materials for the development of advanced electrochemical biosensors with novel features which could promote electron-transfer with various redox active biomolecules. This paper presents the detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium using chemically modified single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with single stranded DNA (ssDNA) on a polished glassy carbon electrode. Hybridization with the corresponding complementary ssDNA has shown a shift in the impedance studies due to a higher charge transfer in ssDNA. The developed biosensor has revealed an excellent specificity for the appropriate targeted DNA strand. The methodologies to prepare and functionalize the electrode could be adopted in the development of DNA hybridization biosensor.

  7. Crystallic silver amalgam--a novel electrode material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhel, Ales; Mansfeldova, Vera; Janda, Pavel; Vyskocil, Vlastimil; Barek, Jiri

    2011-09-21

    A crystallic silver amalgam was found to be a suitable working electrode material for voltammetric determination of electrochemically reducible organic nitro-compounds. Optimum conditions for crystal growth were found, the crystal surface was investigated by atomic force microscopy in tapping mode and single crystals were used for the preparation of quasi-cylindrical single crystal silver amalgam electrode (CAgAE). An electrochemical behavior of this alternative electrode material was investigated in aqueous media by direct current voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) using 4-nitrophenol as a model compound. Applicable potential windows of the CAgAE were found comparable with those obtained at a hanging mercury drop electrode, providing high hydrogen overpotential, and polished silver solid amalgam electrode. Thanks to the smooth single crystal electrode surface, the effect of the passivation is not too pronounced, direct DPV determination of 100 μmol l(-1) of 4-nitrophenol at CAgAEs in 0.2 mol l(-1) acetate buffer pH 4.8 provides a RSD around 1.5% (n = 15). DPV calibration curves of 4-nitrophenol are linear in the whole concentration range 1-100 μmol l(-1) with a limit of quantification of 1.5 μmol l(-1). The attempt to increase sensitivity by application of AdSV was not successful. The mechanism of 4-nitrophenol reduction at CAgAE was investigated by CV.

  8. Digested sludge-derived three-dimensional hierarchical porous carbon for high-performance supercapacitor electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Jia; Fan, Hao-Xiang; Dai, Xiao-Hu; Yuan, Shi-Jie

    2018-04-01

    Digested sludge, as the main by-product of the sewage sludge anaerobic digestion process, still contains considerable organic compounds. In this protocol, we report a facile method for preparing digested sludge-derived self-doped porous carbon material for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes via a sustainable pyrolysis/activation process. The obtained digested sludge-derived carbon material (HPDSC) exhibits versatile O-, N-doped hierarchical porous framework, high specific surface area (2103.6 m 2  g -1 ) and partial graphitization phase, which can facilitate ion transport, provide more storage sites for electrolyte ions and enhance the conductivity of active electrode materials. The HPDSC-based supercapacitor electrodes show favourable energy storage performance, with a specific capacitance of 245 F g -1 at 1.0 A g -1 in 0.5 M Na 2 SO 4 ; outstanding cycling stability, with 98.4% capacitance retention after 2000 cycles; and good rate performance (211 F g -1 at 11 A g -1 ). This work provides a unique self-doped three-dimensional hierarchical porous carbon material with a favourable charge storage capacity and at the same time finds a high value-added and environment-friendly strategy for disposal and recycling of digested sludge.

  9. Digested sludge-derived three-dimensional hierarchical porous carbon for high-performance supercapacitor electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Jia; Fan, Hao-Xiang; Dai, Xiao-Hu; Yuan, Shi-Jie

    2018-04-01

    Digested sludge, as the main by-product of the sewage sludge anaerobic digestion process, still contains considerable organic compounds. In this protocol, we report a facile method for preparing digested sludge-derived self-doped porous carbon material for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes via a sustainable pyrolysis/activation process. The obtained digested sludge-derived carbon material (HPDSC) exhibits versatile O-, N-doped hierarchical porous framework, high specific surface area (2103.6 m2 g-1) and partial graphitization phase, which can facilitate ion transport, provide more storage sites for electrolyte ions and enhance the conductivity of active electrode materials. The HPDSC-based supercapacitor electrodes show favourable energy storage performance, with a specific capacitance of 245 F g-1 at 1.0 A g-1 in 0.5 M Na2SO4; outstanding cycling stability, with 98.4% capacitance retention after 2000 cycles; and good rate performance (211 F g-1 at 11 A g-1). This work provides a unique self-doped three-dimensional hierarchical porous carbon material with a favourable charge storage capacity and at the same time finds a high value-added and environment-friendly strategy for disposal and recycling of digested sludge.

  10. Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Based on Carbon Cryogels and Carbon Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nanofoams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  11. Carbon Cryogel and Carbon Paper-Based Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. 6 One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nano-foams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. 1-5 Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  12. Sustainable Materials for Sustainable Energy Storage: Organic Na Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, Viorica-Alina; Renault, Stéven; Valvo, Mario; Brandell, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we summarize research efforts to realize Na-based organic materials for novel battery chemistries. Na is a more abundant element than Li, thereby contributing to less costly materials with limited to no geopolitical constraints while organic electrode materials harvested from biomass resources provide the possibility of achieving renewable battery components with low environmental impact during processing and recycling. Together, this can form the basis for truly sustainable electrochemical energy storage. We explore the efforts made on electrode materials of organic salts, primarily carbonyl compounds but also Schiff bases, unsaturated compounds, nitroxides and polymers. Moreover, sodiated carbonaceous materials derived from biomasses and waste products are surveyed. As a conclusion to the review, some shortcomings of the currently investigated materials are highlighted together with the major limitations for future development in this field. Finally, routes to move forward in this direction are suggested. PMID:28773272

  13. Polyanion-Type Electrode Materials for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qiao; Bai, Ying; Wu, Feng; Wu, Chuan

    2017-03-01

    Sodium-ion batteries, representative members of the post-lithium-battery club, are very attractive and promising for large-scale energy storage applications. The increasing technological improvements in sodium-ion batteries (Na-ion batteries) are being driven by the demand for Na-based electrode materials that are resource-abundant, cost-effective, and long lasting. Polyanion-type compounds are among the most promising electrode materials for Na-ion batteries due to their stability, safety, and suitable operating voltages. The most representative polyanion-type electrode materials are Na 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 and NaTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 for Na-based cathode and anode materials, respectively. Both show superior electrochemical properties and attractive prospects in terms of their development and application in Na-ion batteries. Carbonophosphate Na 3 MnCO 3 PO 4 and amorphous FePO 4 have also recently emerged and are contributing to further developing the research scope of polyanion-type Na-ion batteries. However, the typical low conductivity and relatively low capacity performance of such materials still restrict their development. This paper presents a brief review of the research progress of polyanion-type electrode materials for Na-ion batteries, summarizing recent accomplishments, highlighting emerging strategies, and discussing the remaining challenges of such systems.

  14. Polyanion‐Type Electrode Materials for Sodium‐Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qiao; Wu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Sodium‐ion batteries, representative members of the post‐lithium‐battery club, are very attractive and promising for large‐scale energy storage applications. The increasing technological improvements in sodium‐ion batteries (Na‐ion batteries) are being driven by the demand for Na‐based electrode materials that are resource‐abundant, cost‐effective, and long lasting. Polyanion‐type compounds are among the most promising electrode materials for Na‐ion batteries due to their stability, safety, and suitable operating voltages. The most representative polyanion‐type electrode materials are Na3V2(PO4)3 and NaTi2(PO4)3 for Na‐based cathode and anode materials, respectively. Both show superior electrochemical properties and attractive prospects in terms of their development and application in Na‐ion batteries. Carbonophosphate Na3MnCO3PO4 and amorphous FePO4 have also recently emerged and are contributing to further developing the research scope of polyanion‐type Na‐ion batteries. However, the typical low conductivity and relatively low capacity performance of such materials still restrict their development. This paper presents a brief review of the research progress of polyanion‐type electrode materials for Na‐ion batteries, summarizing recent accomplishments, highlighting emerging strategies, and discussing the remaining challenges of such systems. PMID:28331782

  15. The rise of organic electrode materials for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Tyler B; McAllister, Bryony T; Li, Peng-Fei; Seferos, Dwight S

    2016-11-07

    Organic electrode materials are very attractive for electrochemical energy storage devices because they can be flexible, lightweight, low cost, benign to the environment, and used in a variety of device architectures. They are not mere alternatives to more traditional energy storage materials, rather, they have the potential to lead to disruptive technologies. Although organic electrode materials for energy storage have progressed in recent years, there are still significant challenges to overcome before reaching large-scale commercialization. This review provides an overview of energy storage systems as a whole, the metrics that are used to quantify the performance of electrodes, recent strategies that have been investigated to overcome the challenges associated with organic electrode materials, and the use of computational chemistry to design and study new materials and their properties. Design strategies are examined to overcome issues with capacity/capacitance, device voltage, rate capability, and cycling stability in order to guide future work in the area. The use of low cost materials is highlighted as a direction towards commercial realization.

  16. Recycling positive-electrode material of a lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloop, Steven E.

    2017-11-21

    Examples are disclosed of methods to recycle positive-electrode material of a lithium-ion battery. In one example, the positive-electrode material is heated under pressure in a concentrated lithium hydroxide solution. After heating, the positive-electrode material is separated from the concentrated lithium hydroxide solution. After separating, the positive electrode material is rinsed in a basic liquid. After rinsing, the positive-electrode material is dried and sintered.

  17. Nanostructured manganese oxide thin films as electrode material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hui; Lai, Man On; Lu, Li

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemical capacitors, also called supercapacitors, are alternative energy storage devices, particularly for applications requiring high power densities. Recently, manganese oxides have been extensively evaluated as electrode materials for supercapacitors due to their low cost, environmental benignity, and promising supercapacitive performance. In order to maximize the utilization of manganese oxides as the electrode material for the supercapacitors and improve their supercapacitive performance, the nanostructured manganese oxides have therefore been developed. This paper reviews the synthesis of the nanostructured manganese oxide thin films by different methods and the supercapacitive performance of different nanostructures.

  18. Electrosynthesis and catalytic activity of polymer-nickel particles composite electrode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melki, Tahar; Zouaoui, Ahmed; Bendemagh, Barkahoum; Oliveira, Ione M.F. de; Oliveira, Gilver F. de; Lepretre, Jean-Claude; Bucher, Christophe; Mou tet, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    Nickel-polymer composite electrode materials have been synthesized using various strategies, all comprising the electrochemical reduction of nickel(II) cations or complexes, incorporated by either ion-exchange or complexation into various poly(pyrrole-carboxylate) thin films coated by oxidative electropolymerization onto carbon electrodes. The electrocatalytic activity and the stability of the different composites have been then evaluated in the course of the electrocatalytic hydrogenation of ketones and enones in aqueous electrolytes. The best results were obtained using nickel-polymer composites synthesized by electroreduction of nickel(II) ions complexed into polycarboxylate films, which are characterized by a high catalytic activity and a good operational stability. (author)

  19. Electrosynthesis and catalytic activity of polymer-nickel particles composite electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melki, Tahar; Zouaoui, Ahmed; Bendemagh, Barkahoum [Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif (Algeria). Faculte des Sciences de l' Ingenieur. Dept. du Tronc Commun; Oliveira, Ione M.F. de; Oliveira, Gilver F. de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Lepretre, Jean-Claude [UMR-5631 CNRS-INPG-UJF, St. Martin d' Heres Cedex (France). Lab. d' Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Materiaux et Interfaces; Bucher, Christophe; Mou tet, Jean-Claude [Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1 (France). Dept. de Chimie Moleculaire], e-mail: Jean-Claude.Moutet@ujf-grenoble.fr

    2009-07-01

    Nickel-polymer composite electrode materials have been synthesized using various strategies, all comprising the electrochemical reduction of nickel(II) cations or complexes, incorporated by either ion-exchange or complexation into various poly(pyrrole-carboxylate) thin films coated by oxidative electropolymerization onto carbon electrodes. The electrocatalytic activity and the stability of the different composites have been then evaluated in the course of the electrocatalytic hydrogenation of ketones and enones in aqueous electrolytes. The best results were obtained using nickel-polymer composites synthesized by electroreduction of nickel(II) ions complexed into polycarboxylate films, which are characterized by a high catalytic activity and a good operational stability. (author)

  20. Materials for carbon dioxide separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qingqing

    2014-10-01

    The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at room temperature have been investigated by comparing carbon nanotubes, fullerene, graphenes, graphite and granular activated carbons. It turned out that the amount of the micropore surface area was dominating the CO{sub 2} adsorption ability. Another promising class of materials for CO{sub 2} capture and separation are CaO derived from the eggshells. Two aspects were studied in present work: a new hybrid materials synthesized by doping the CaTiO{sub 3} and the relationship between physisorption and chemisorption properties of CaO-based materials.

  1. Materials for carbon dioxide separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Qingqing

    2014-01-01

    The CO 2 adsorption capacities at room temperature have been investigated by comparing carbon nanotubes, fullerene, graphenes, graphite and granular activated carbons. It turned out that the amount of the micropore surface area was dominating the CO 2 adsorption ability. Another promising class of materials for CO 2 capture and separation are CaO derived from the eggshells. Two aspects were studied in present work: a new hybrid materials synthesized by doping the CaTiO 3 and the relationship between physisorption and chemisorption properties of CaO-based materials.

  2. Carbon paste electrode in a solid-contact minicavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Antonio Ap. Pupim; Ribeiro, Sidney Jose Lima; Fugivara, Cecilio Sadao; Caiut, Jose Mauricio Almeida; Sargentelli, Vagner; Benedetti, Assis Vicente

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the preparation of carbon paste electrode (EPC) in a solid-contact minicavity and its evaluation when containing carbon paste without and with SiO 2 (Eu 3+ 2%) and SiO 2 (Eu 3+ 2%)-lysine sub-micrometrics particles. For this study cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance measurements were performed at pH 7.4 in 0.1 mol L -1 PBS containing Fe(CN) 6 -3 / -4 redox species. The impedance results were interpreted based on a charge-transfer reaction involving Fe(CN) 6 -3 / -4 species and/or oxygen at higher frequencies and, diffusion of the electroactive species and carbon paste characteristics at lower frequencies. EPC-minicavity is suitable for electroanalysis using modified carbon paste. (author)

  3. Amperometric Detection in Microchip Electrophoresis Devices: Effect of Electrode Material and Alignment on Analytical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, David J.; Hulvey, Matthew K.; Regel, Anne R.; Lunte, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    The fabrication and evaluation of different electrode materials and electrode alignments for microchip electrophoresis with electrochemical (EC) detection is described. The influences of electrode material, both metal and carbon-based, on sensitivity and limits of detection (LOD) were examined. In addition, the effects of working electrode alignment on analytical performance (in terms of peak shape, resolution, sensitivity, and LOD) were directly compared. Using dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and catechol (CAT) as test analytes, it was found that pyrolyzed photoresist electrodes with end-channel alignment yielded the lowest limit of detection (35 nM for DA). In addition to being easier to implement, end-channel alignment also offered better analytical performance than off-channel alignment for the detection of all three analytes. In-channel electrode alignment resulted in a 3.6-fold reduction in peak skew and reduced peak tailing by a factor of 2.1 for catechol in comparison to end-channel alignment. PMID:19802847

  4. Electrochemical behaviour of carbon paste electrodes enriched with tin oxide nanoparticles using voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muti, Mihrican; Erdem, Arzum; Caliskan, Ayfer; Sınag, Ali; Yumak, Tugrul

    2011-08-01

    The effect of the SnO(2) nanoparticles (SNPs) on the behaviour of voltammetric carbon paste electrodes were studied for possible use of this material in biosensor development. The electrochemical behaviour of SNP modified carbon paste electrodes (CPE) was first investigated by using cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The performance of the SNP modified electrodes were compared to those of unmodified ones and the parameters affecting the response of the modified electrode were optimized. The SNP modified electrodes were then tested for the electrochemical sensing of DNA purine base adenine to explore their further development in biosensor applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Performance of Solution Processed Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors with Graphene Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Gangavarapu, P R Yasasvi; Lokesh, Punith Chikkahalli; Bhat, K N; Naik, A K

    2016-01-01

    This work evaluates the performance of carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFET) using few layer graphene as the contact electrode material. We present the experimental results obtained on the barrier height at CNT graphene junction using temperature dependent IV measurements. The estimated barrier height in our devices for both holes and electrons is close to zero or slightly negative indicating the Ohmic contact of graphene with the valence and conduction bands of CNTs. In addition,...

  6. Electric Double-Layer Capacitor Fabricated with Addition of Carbon Nanotube to Polarizable Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiyuki Show

    2012-01-01

    Electrical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) was fabricated with addition of carbon nanotube (CNT) to polarization electrodes as a conducting material. The CNT addition reduced the series resistance of the EDLC by one-twentieth, while the capacitance was not increased by the CNT addition. The low series resistance leaded to the high electrical energy stored in the EDLC. In this paper, the dependence of the series resistance, the specific capacitance, the energy, and the energy efficiencies on the...

  7. Carbon Nanofibrous Materials from Electrospinning: Preparation and Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboagye, Alex

    Carbon nanofibers with diameters that fall into submicron and nanometer range have attracted growing attention in recent years due to their superior chemical, electrical, and mechanical properties in combination with their unique one-dimensional nanostructures. Unlike catalytic synthesis, electrospinning polyacrylonitrile (PAN) followed by stabilization and carbonization has become a straightforward and convenient route to make continuous carbon nanofibers. The overall objective of this research was the design and production fiber based carbon nanomaterials, investigation of their structures and use in functional applications. Specifically, these carbon nanofibrous materials were employed as electrode material for energy storage and conversion devices such as dye sensitized solar cells and supercapacitors Morphology and structure of the carbon nanofibrous materials were investigated and their performance in corresponding applications were evaluated.

  8. Fluidized bed electrodes with high carbon loading for water desalination by capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornbusch, G.J.; Dykstra, J.E.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Suss, M.E.

    2016-01-01

    The use of carbon flow electrodes has significantly impacted electrochemical energy storage and capacitive deionization (CDI), but device performance is limited as these electrodes cannot surpass ∼20 wt% carbon while maintaining flowability. We here introduce flowable fluidized bed electrodes

  9. Phosphate Framework Electrode Materials for Sodium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yongjin; Zhang, Jiexin; Xiao, Lifen; Ai, Xinping; Cao, Yuliang; Yang, Hanxi

    2017-05-01

    Sodium ion batteries (SIBs) have been considered as a promising alternative for the next generation of electric storage systems due to their similar electrochemistry to Li-ion batteries and the low cost of sodium resources. Exploring appropriate electrode materials with decent electrochemical performance is the key issue for development of sodium ion batteries. Due to the high structural stability, facile reaction mechanism and rich structural diversity, phosphate framework materials have attracted increasing attention as promising electrode materials for sodium ion batteries. Herein, we review the latest advances and progresses in the exploration of phosphate framework materials especially related to single-phosphates, pyrophosphates and mixed-phosphates. We provide the detailed and comprehensive understanding of structure-composition-performance relationship of materials and try to show the advantages and disadvantages of the materials for use in SIBs. In addition, some new perspectives about phosphate framework materials for SIBs are also discussed. Phosphate framework materials will be a competitive and attractive choice for use as electrodes in the next-generation of energy storage devices.

  10. Nitrogen-doped porous carbon monoliths from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and carbon nanotubes as electrodes for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqing; Fugetsu, Bunshi; Wang, Zhipeng; Gong, Wei; Sakata, Ichiro; Morimoto, Shingo; Hashimoto, Yoshio; Endo, Morinobu; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Terrones, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped porous activated carbon monoliths (NDP-ACMs) have long been the most desirable materials for supercapacitors. Unique to the conventional template based Lewis acid/base activation methods, herein, we report on a simple yet practicable novel approach to production of the three-dimensional NDP-ACMs (3D-NDP-ACMs). Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) contained carbon nanotubes (CNTs), being pre-dispersed into a tubular level of dispersions, were used as the starting material and the 3D-NDP-ACMs were obtained via a template-free process. First, a continuous mesoporous PAN/CNT based 3D monolith was established by using a template-free temperature-induced phase separation (TTPS). Second, a nitrogen-doped 3D-ACM with a surface area of 613.8 m2/g and a pore volume 0.366 cm3/g was obtained. A typical supercapacitor with our 3D-NDP-ACMs as the functioning electrodes gave a specific capacitance stabilized at 216 F/g even after 3000 cycles, demonstrating the advantageous performance of the PAN/CNT based 3D-NDP-ACMs. PMID:28074847

  11. Nitrogen-doped porous carbon monoliths from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and carbon nanotubes as electrodes for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqing; Fugetsu, Bunshi; Wang, Zhipeng; Gong, Wei; Sakata, Ichiro; Morimoto, Shingo; Hashimoto, Yoshio; Endo, Morinobu; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Terrones, Mauricio

    2017-01-11

    Nitrogen-doped porous activated carbon monoliths (NDP-ACMs) have long been the most desirable materials for supercapacitors. Unique to the conventional template based Lewis acid/base activation methods, herein, we report on a simple yet practicable novel approach to production of the three-dimensional NDP-ACMs (3D-NDP-ACMs). Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) contained carbon nanotubes (CNTs), being pre-dispersed into a tubular level of dispersions, were used as the starting material and the 3D-NDP-ACMs were obtained via a template-free process. First, a continuous mesoporous PAN/CNT based 3D monolith was established by using a template-free temperature-induced phase separation (TTPS). Second, a nitrogen-doped 3D-ACM with a surface area of 613.8 m 2 /g and a pore volume 0.366 cm 3 /g was obtained. A typical supercapacitor with our 3D-NDP-ACMs as the functioning electrodes gave a specific capacitance stabilized at 216 F/g even after 3000 cycles, demonstrating the advantageous performance of the PAN/CNT based 3D-NDP-ACMs.

  12. Electrode Materials for Ionic Liquid Based-Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Lazzari, Mariachiara

    2010-01-01

    The development of safe, high energy and power electrochemical energy-conversion systems can be a response to the worldwide demand for a clean and low-fuel-consuming transport. This thesis work, starting from a basic studies on the ionic liquid (IL) electrolytes and carbon electrodes and concluding with tests on large-size IL-based supercapacitor prototypes demonstrated that the IL-based asymmetric configuration (AEDLCs) is a powerful strategy to develop safe, high-energy supercapacitors that...

  13. Modified glassy carbon electrodes based on carbon nanostructures for ultrasensitive electrochemical determination of furazolidone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahrokhian, Saeed, E-mail: shahrokhian@sharif.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naderi, Leila [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghalkhani, Masoumeh [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Lavizan, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for advanced technology, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Lavizan, Tehran, 16788 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-01

    The electrochemical behavior of Furazolidone (Fu) was investigated on the surface of the glassy carbon electrode modified with different carbon nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanoparticles (CNPs), nanodiamond-graphite (NDG), graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and RGO-CNT hybrids (various ratios) using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The results of voltammetric studies exhibited a considerable increase in the cathodic peak current of Fu at the RGO modified GCE, compared to other modified electrodes and also bare GCE. The surface morphology and nature of the RGO film was thoroughly characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques. The modified electrode showed two linear dynamic ranges of 0.001–2.0 μM and 2.0–10.0 μM with a detection limit of 0.3 nM for the voltammetric determination of Fu. This sensor was used successfully for Fu determination in pharmaceutical and clinical preparations. - Highlights: • The electrochemical behavior of Furazolidone (Fu) was investigated on the surface of the modified electrode with different carbon nanomaterials by Linear sweep voltammetry. • Two linear dynamic ranges and a low detection limit were obtained. • The modified electrode was applied for the detection of Fu in pharmaceutical and clinical preparations.

  14. Graphene oxide-mediated electrochemistry of glucose oxidase on glassy carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrignanò, Silvia; Valetti, Francesca; Gilardi, Gianfranco; Sadeghi, Sheila J

    2016-01-01

    Glucose oxidase (GOD) was immobilized on glassy carbon electrodes in the presence of graphene oxide (GO) as a model system for the interaction between GO and biological molecules. Lyotropic properties of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) were used to stabilize the enzymatic layer on the electrode surface resulting in a markedly improved electrochemical response of the immobilized GOD. Transmission electron microscopy images of the GO with DDAB confirmed the distribution of the GO in a two-dimensional manner as a foil-like material. Although it is known that glassy carbon surfaces are not ideal for hydrogen peroxide detection, successful chronoamperometric titrations of the GOD in the presence of GO with β-d-glucose were performed on glassy carbon electrodes, whereas no current response was detected upon β-d-glucose addition in the absence of GO. The GOD-DDAB-GO system displayed a high turnover efficiency and substrate affinity as a glucose biosensor. The simplicity and ease of the electrode preparation procedure of this GO/DDAB system make it a good candidate for immobilizing other biomolecules for fabrication of amperometric biosensors. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Gold nanoparticles directly modified glassy carbon electrode for non-enzymatic detection of glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Gang; Shu, Honghui; Ji, Kai [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, No. 368 Youyi Avenue, Wuchang, Wuhan 430062 (China); Oyama, Munetaka [Department of Material Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan); Liu, Xiong [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, No. 368 Youyi Avenue, Wuchang, Wuhan 430062 (China); He, Yunbin, E-mail: ybhe@hubu.edu.cn [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, No. 368 Youyi Avenue, Wuchang, Wuhan 430062 (China)

    2014-01-01

    This work describes controllable preparation of gold nanoparticles on glassy carbon electrodes by using the seed mediated growth method, which contains two steps, namely, nanoseeds attachment and nanocrystals growth. The size and the dispersion of gold nanoparticles grown on glassy carbon electrodes could be easily tuned through the growth time based on results of field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Excellent electrochemical catalytic characteristics for glucose oxidation were observed for the gold nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrodes (AuNPs/GC), resulting from the extended active surface area provided by the dense gold nanoparticles attached. It exhibited a wide linear range from 0.1 mM to 25 mM with the sensitivity of 87.5 μA cm{sup −2} mM{sup −1} and low detection limit down to 0.05 mM for the sensing of glucose. The common interfering species such as chloride ion, ascorbic acid, uric acid and 4-acetamidophenol were verified having no interference effect on the detection of glucose. It is demonstrated that the seed mediated method is one of the facile approaches for fabricating Au nanoparticles modified substrates, which could work as one kind of promising electrode materials for the glucose nonenzymatic sensing.

  16. Batteries: Recent Advances in Carbon Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Francis Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We welcome readers to this Special Issue of C. From the standpoint of economics of energy storage, carbon electrodes offer the practicality of large-scale applications with the promise of improved performance.[...

  17. Carbon nanopipette electrodes for dopamine detection in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Hillary R; Anderson, Sean E; Privman, Eve; Bau, Haim H; Venton, B Jill

    2015-04-07

    Small, robust, sensitive electrodes are desired for in vivo neurotransmitter measurements. Carbon nanopipettes have been previously manufactured and used for single-cell drug delivery and electrophysiological measurements. Here, a modified fabrication procedure was developed to produce batches of solid carbon nanopipette electrodes (CNPEs) with ∼250 nm diameter tips, and controllable lengths of exposed carbon, ranging from 5 to 175 μm. The electrochemical properties of CNPEs were characterized with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) for the first time. CNPEs were used to detect the electroactive neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and octopamine. CNPEs were significantly more sensitive for serotonin detection than traditional carbon-fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs). Similar to CFMEs, CNPEs have a linear response for dopamine concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 μM and a limit of detection of 25 ± 5 nM. Recordings with CNPEs were stable for over 3 h when the applied triangle waveform was scanned between -0.4 and +1.3 V vs Ag/AgCl/Cl(-) at 400 V/s. CNPEs were used to detect endogenous dopamine release in Drosophila larvae using optogenetics, which verified the utility of CNPEs for in vivo neuroscience studies. CNPEs are advantageous because they are 1 order of magnitude smaller in diameter than typical CFMEs and have a sharp, tunable geometry that facilitates penetration and implantation for localized measurements in distinct regions of small organisms, such as the Drosophila brain.

  18. Nano ZnO-activated carbon composite electrodes for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvakumar, M. [Department of Chemistry, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Krishna Bhat, D., E-mail: denthajekb@gmail.co [Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Srinivasnagar 575 025 (India); Manish Aggarwal, A.; Prahladh Iyer, S.; Sravani, G. [Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Srinivasnagar 575 025 (India)

    2010-05-01

    A symmetrical (p/p) supercapacitor has been fabricated by making use of nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO)-activated carbon (AC) composite electrodes for the first time. The composites have been characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Electrochemical properties of the prepared nanocomposite electrodes and the supercapacitor have been studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and AC impedance spectroscopy in 0.1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as electrolyte. The ZnO-AC nanocomposite electrode showed a specific capacitance of 160 F/g for 1:1 composition. The specific capacitance of the electrodes decreased with increase in zinc oxide content. Galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements have been done at various current densities, namely 2, 4, 6 and 7 mA/cm{sup 2}. It has been found that the cells have excellent electrochemical reversibility and capacitive characteristics in 0.1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte. It has also been observed that the specific capacitance is constant up to 500 cycles at all current densities.

  19. Nano ZnO-activated carbon composite electrodes for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, M.; Krishna Bhat, D.; Manish Aggarwal, A.; Prahladh Iyer, S.; Sravani, G.

    2010-05-01

    A symmetrical (p/p) supercapacitor has been fabricated by making use of nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO)-activated carbon (AC) composite electrodes for the first time. The composites have been characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Electrochemical properties of the prepared nanocomposite electrodes and the supercapacitor have been studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and AC impedance spectroscopy in 0.1 M Na 2SO 4 as electrolyte. The ZnO-AC nanocomposite electrode showed a specific capacitance of 160 F/g for 1:1 composition. The specific capacitance of the electrodes decreased with increase in zinc oxide content. Galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements have been done at various current densities, namely 2, 4, 6 and 7 mA/cm 2. It has been found that the cells have excellent electrochemical reversibility and capacitive characteristics in 0.1 M Na 2SO 4 electrolyte. It has also been observed that the specific capacitance is constant up to 500 cycles at all current densities.

  20. Activation of glassy carbon electrodes by photocatalytic pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumanli, Onur [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Art, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, 55139 Samsun (Turkey); Onar, A. Nur [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Art, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, 55139 Samsun (Turkey)], E-mail: nonar@omu.edu.tr

    2009-11-01

    This paper describes a simple and rapid photocatalytic pretreatment procedure that removes contaminants from glassy carbon (GC) surfaces. The effectiveness of TiO{sub 2} mediated photocatalytic pretreatment procedure was compared to commonly used alumina polishing procedure. Cyclic voltammetric and chronocoulometric measurements were carried out to assess the changes in electrode reactivity by using four redox systems. Electrochemical measurements obtained on photocatalytically treated GC electrodes showed a more active surface relative to polished GC. In cyclic voltammograms of epinephrine, Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-/4-} and ferrocene redox systems, higher oxidation and reduction currents were observed. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants (k{sup o}) were calculated for Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-/4-} and ferrocene which were greater for photocatalytic pretreatment. Chronocoulometry was performed in order to find the amount of adsorbed methylene blue onto the electrode and was calculated as 0.34 pmol cm{sup -2} for photocatalytically pretreated GC. The proposed photocatalytic GC electrode cleansing and activating pretreatment procedure was more effective than classical alumina polishing.

  1. Hierarchical Co3O4/PANI hollow nanocages: Synthesis and application for electrode materials of supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaohu; Fan, Huiqing; Ma, Jiangwei; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Mingchang; Zhao, Nan

    2018-05-01

    Hierarchically hollow Co3O4/polyaniline nanocages (Co3O4/PANI NCs) with enhanced specific capacitance and cycle performance for electrode material of supercapacitors are fabricated by combining self-sacrificing template and in situ polymerization route. Benefiting from the good conductivity of PANI improving an electron transport rate as well as high specific surface area from such a hollow structure, the electrode made of Co3O4/PANI NCs exhibits a large specific capacitance of 1301 F/g at the current density of 1 A/g, a much enhancement is obtained as compared with the pristine Co3O4 NCs electrode. The contact resistance (Re), charge-transfer (Rct) and Warburg resistance of Co3O4/PANI NCs electrode is significantly lower than that of the pristine Co3O4 NCs electrode, indicating the enhanced electrical conductivity. In addition, the Co3O4/PANI NCs electrode also displays superior cycling stability with 90 % capacitance retention after 2000 cycles. Moreover, an aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor was successfully assembled using Co3O4/PANI NCs as the positive electrode and activated carbon (AC) as the negative electrode, the assembled device exhibits a superior energy density of 41.5 Wh/kg at 0.8 kW/kg, outstanding power density of 15.9 kW/kg at 18.4 Wh/kg, which significantly transcending those of most previously reported. These results demonstrate that the hierarchically hollow Co3O4/PANI NCs composites have a potential for fabricating electrode of supercapacitors.

  2. Determination of serotonin on platinum electrode modified with carbon nanotubes/polypyrrole/silver nanoparticles nanohybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarino, Ivana; Galesco, Heloisa V; Machado, Sergio A S

    2014-07-01

    A new sensor has been developed by a simple electrodeposition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), polypyrrole (PPy) and colloidal silver nanoparticles on the platinum (Pt) electrode surface. The Pt/MWCNT/PPy/AgNPs electrode was applied to the detection of serotonin in plasmatic serum samples using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The synergistic effect of MWCNT/PPy/AgNPs nanohybrid formed yielded a LOD of 0.15 μmol L(-1) (26.4 μg L(-1)). Reproducibility and repeatability values of 2.2% and 1.7%, respectively, were obtained compared to the conventional procedure. The proposed electrode can be an effective material to be used in biological analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Asymmetric Electrodes Constructed with PAN-Based Activated Carbon Fiber in Capacitive Deionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhe Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Capacitive deionization (CDI method has drawn much attention for its low energy consumption, low pollution, and convenient manipulation. Activated carbon fibers (ACFs possess high adsorption ability and can be used as CDI electrode material. Herein, two kinds of PAN-based ACFs with different specific surface area (SSA were used for the CDI electrodes. The CDI performance was investigated; especially asymmetric electrodes’ effect was evaluated. The results demonstrated that PAN-based ACFs showed a high electrosorption rate (complete electrosorption in less than half an hour and moderate electrosorption capacity (up to 0.2 mmol/g. CDI experiments with asymmetric electrodes displayed a variation in electrosorption capacity between forward voltage and reverse voltage. It can be attributed to the electrical double layer (EDL overlap effect and inner pore potential; thus the ions with smaller hydrated ionic radius can be adsorbed more easily.

  4. Graphitic carbon nitride nanosheet electrode-based high-performance ionic actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guan; Hu, Ying; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Jingjing; Chen, Xueli; Whoehling, Vincent; Plesse, Cédric; Nguyen, Giao T. M.; Vidal, Frédéric; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Ionic actuators have attracted attention due to their remarkably large strain under low-voltage stimulation. Because actuation performance is mainly dominated by the electrochemical and electromechanical processes of the electrode layer, the electrode material and structure are crucial. Here, we report a graphitic carbon nitride nanosheet electrode-based ionic actuator that displays high electrochemical activity and electromechanical conversion abilities, including large specific capacitance (259.4 F g−1) with ionic liquid as the electrolyte, fast actuation response (0.5±0.03% in 300 ms), large electromechanical strain (0.93±0.03%) and high actuation stability (100,000 cycles) under 3 V. The key to the high performance lies in the hierarchical pore structure with dominant size actuation performance. PMID:26028354

  5. Electrochemical behavior of adrenaline at the carbon atom wire modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue Kuanhong [Chemistry Department, Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Bio-medical Function Materials, 122 NingHai Road, Nanjing, JiangSu 210097 (China)], E-mail: khxue@njnu.edu.cn; Liu Jiamei [Chemistry Department, Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Bio-medical Function Materials, 122 NingHai Road, Nanjing, JiangSu 210097 (China); Wei Ribing [Chemistry Department, Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Bio-medical Function Materials, 122 NingHai Road, Nanjing, JiangSu 210097 (China); Chen Shaopeng [Chemistry Department, Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Bio-medical Function Materials, 122 NingHai Road, Nanjing, JiangSu 210097 (China)

    2006-09-11

    Electrochemical behavior of adrenaline at an electrode modified by carbon atom wires (CAWs), a new material, was investigated by cyclic voltammetry combined with UV-vis spectrometry, and forced convection method. As to the electrochemical response of redox of adrenaline/adrenalinequinone couple in 0.50 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, at a nitric acid treated CAW modified electrode, the anodic and cathodic peak potentials E {sub pa} and E {sub pc} shifted by 87 mV negatively and 139 mV in the positive direction, respectively, and standard heterogeneous rate constant k {sup 0} increased by 16 times compared to the corresponding bare electrode, indicating the extraordinary activity of CAWs in electrocatalysis for the process.

  6. Electrochemical behavior of adrenaline at the carbon atom wire modified electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kuan-Hong; Liu, Jia-Mei; Wei, Ri-Bing; Chen, Shao-Peng

    2006-09-01

    Electrochemical behavior of adrenaline at an electrode modified by carbon atom wires (CAWs), a new material, was investigated by cyclic voltammetry combined with UV-vis spectrometry, and forced convection method. As to the electrochemical response of redox of adrenaline/adrenalinequinone couple in 0.50 M H 2SO 4, at a nitric acid treated CAW modified electrode, the anodic and cathodic peak potentials Epa and Epc shifted by 87 mV negatively and 139 mV in the positive direction, respectively, and standard heterogeneous rate constant k0 increased by 16 times compared to the corresponding bare electrode, indicating the extraordinary activity of CAWs in electrocatalysis for the process.

  7. Electrochemical behavior of adrenaline at the carbon atom wire modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Kuanhong; Liu Jiamei; Wei Ribing; Chen Shaopeng

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical behavior of adrenaline at an electrode modified by carbon atom wires (CAWs), a new material, was investigated by cyclic voltammetry combined with UV-vis spectrometry, and forced convection method. As to the electrochemical response of redox of adrenaline/adrenalinequinone couple in 0.50 M H 2 SO 4 , at a nitric acid treated CAW modified electrode, the anodic and cathodic peak potentials E pa and E pc shifted by 87 mV negatively and 139 mV in the positive direction, respectively, and standard heterogeneous rate constant k 0 increased by 16 times compared to the corresponding bare electrode, indicating the extraordinary activity of CAWs in electrocatalysis for the process

  8. Graphene-based carbons as supercapacitor electrodes with bicontinuous, porous polyacrylonitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bit-Na; Yang, Young Suk; You, In-Kyu

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we fabricated a bicontinuous carbon structure (BCS) with high porosity and a loosely connected framework structure. The role of the BCS is to support a concrete supercapacitor active electrode structure. Poly(acrylonitrile) was used as a precursor for the BCS material, which was a porous polymer monolith carbonized by heat treatment (at 1100 °C). The BCS was prepared by mixing with an active material, graphene or an activated carbon. The mixed materials were used as an electrode material in a supercapacitor. The BCS13 + AC sample (∼107.5 F/g) showed a higher specific capacitance than the commercial activated carbon cell (∼76 F/g). The BCS13 + graphene sample (∼75 F/g) also exhibited a higher specific capacitance than the graphene cell (∼49 F/g). This BCS monolith had many macro- and micropores in its structure, enabling fast electrolyte ion movement and excellent electrochemical performance with a low equivalent series resistance (ESR).

  9. Electrochemical reduction of imazamethabenz methyl on mercury and carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Montoya, Mercedes; Pintado, Sara; Rodriguez Mellado, Jose Miguel

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents polarographic and voltammetric studies of the reduction of the herbicide imazamethabenz methyl (2/3-methyl-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-p-toluate), on mercury and carbon electrodes. The electrochemical studies were performed in strongly acidic media (0.1-2.7 M H 2 SO 4 ) as well as in the pH range of 1-12. The overall reduction process involves the uptake of two electrons. The results obtained in polarography show that there is the reduction of two species, related via an acid-base equilibrium, and having very close reduction potentials. The voltammetric results obtained with a glassy carbon electrode were very similar to those observed on mercury electrodes. The reducible group in the molecule is the imidazolinone ring. In strongly acidic media (pH a ), the reaction mechanism proposed is the reduction of the protonated herbicide by an electrochemical-chemical-electrochemical (ECE) process, being the r.d.s. the second electron transfer. At pH > pK a the neutral form of the herbicide is reduced and the second electron transfer becomes reversible or quasi-reversible. In basic media, the species reduced is the deprotonated imazamethabenz methyl and the r.d.s. is the second electron transfer.

  10. Electrochemical reduction of imazamethabenz methyl on mercury and carbon electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Montoya, Mercedes, E-mail: mmontoya@uhu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Quimica Fisica y Quimica Organica, Universidad de Huelva, Campus El Carmen, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, E-21071 Huelva (Spain); Pintado, Sara; Rodriguez Mellado, Jose Miguel [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Termodinamica Aplicada, Universidad de Cordoba, Campus Universitario de Rabanales, edificio ' Marie Curie' , E-14014 Cordoba (Spain)

    2010-03-30

    This paper presents polarographic and voltammetric studies of the reduction of the herbicide imazamethabenz methyl (2/3-methyl-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-p-toluate), on mercury and carbon electrodes. The electrochemical studies were performed in strongly acidic media (0.1-2.7 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) as well as in the pH range of 1-12. The overall reduction process involves the uptake of two electrons. The results obtained in polarography show that there is the reduction of two species, related via an acid-base equilibrium, and having very close reduction potentials. The voltammetric results obtained with a glassy carbon electrode were very similar to those observed on mercury electrodes. The reducible group in the molecule is the imidazolinone ring. In strongly acidic media (pH < pK{sub a}), the reaction mechanism proposed is the reduction of the protonated herbicide by an electrochemical-chemical-electrochemical (ECE) process, being the r.d.s. the second electron transfer. At pH > pK{sub a} the neutral form of the herbicide is reduced and the second electron transfer becomes reversible or quasi-reversible. In basic media, the species reduced is the deprotonated imazamethabenz methyl and the r.d.s. is the second electron transfer.

  11. Spectroscopic and electrochemical characterization of nanostructured optically transparent carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavidez, Tomás E; Garcia, Carlos D

    2013-07-01

    The present paper describes the results related to the optical and electrochemical characterization of thin carbon films fabricated by spin coating and pyrolysis of AZ P4330-RS photoresist. The goal of this paper is to provide comprehensive information allowing for the rational selection of the conditions to fabricate optically transparent carbon electrodes (OTCE) with specific electrooptical properties. According to our results, these electrodes could be appropriate choices as electrochemical transducers to monitor electrophoretic separations. At the core of this manuscript is the development and critical evaluation of a new optical model to calculate the thickness of the OTCE by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. Such data were complemented with topography and roughness (obtained by atomic force microscopy), electrochemical properties (obtained by cyclic voltammetry), electrical properties (obtained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy), and structural composition (obtained by Raman spectroscopy). Although the described OTCE were used as substrates to investigate the effect of electrode potential on the real-time adsorption of proteins by ellipsometry, these results could enable the development of other biosensors that can be then integrated into various CE platforms. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Single-wall carbon nanotube chemical attachment at platinum electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosario-Castro, Belinda I.; Contes-de-Jesus, Enid J.; Lebron-Colon, Marisabel; Meador, Michael A.; Scibioh, M. Aulice; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2010-01-01

    Self-assembled monolayer (SAM) techniques were used to adsorb 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) on platinum electrodes in order to obtain an amino-terminated SAM as the base for the chemical attachment of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). A physico-chemical, morphological and electrochemical characterizations of SWCNTs attached onto the modified Pt electrodes was done by using reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques. The SWNTs/4-ATP/Pt surface had regions of small, medium, and large thickness of carbon nanotubes with heights of 100-200 nm, 700 nm to 1.5 μm, and 1.0-3.0 μm, respectively. Cyclic voltammetries (CVs) in sulfuric acid demonstrated that attachment of SWNTs on 4-ATP/Pt is markedly stable, even after 30 potential cycles. CV in ruthenium hexamine was similar to bare Pt electrodes, suggesting that SWNTs assembly is similar to a closely packed microelectrode array.

  13. Hot electron-induced electrochemiluminescence at polyetherimide-carbon black-based electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, Kalle; Grönroos, Päivi; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Campbell, Joseph; Kulmala, Sakari

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Generation of hydrated electrons at carbon paste electrodes. • Hydrated electrons are able to produce intense chemiluminescence. • Relationship between carbon black content in electrode and HECL studied. • Performance of composite electrodes is similar to aluminum electrodes. • The present electrodes are good alternative for disposable assay cartridges. - Abstract: Various luminophores produce strong electrogenerated chemiluminescence during cathodic pulse polarization of the present insulating film-covered carbon paste electrodes in fully aqueous solutions. First electrodes made of a commercial conductive carbon paste were successfully utilized as working electrodes and their surface was characterized by ESCA. Then custom in-laboratory made improved composite electrodes were manufactured from the same insulating polymer and conducting carbon black particles. The relationship between the amount of carbon present on the composite electrode, in the bulk and on the surface, and the intensity of electrogenerated chemiluminescence was studied further. The overall performance of these composite electrodes makes them viable low-cost replacements for metal/insulator type electrodes such as oxide-coated silicon electrodes.

  14. Electrode Materials for Lithium/Sodium-Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Yanbin

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of electrode materials for lithium/sodium ion batteries and their structural stability during lithium/sodium insertion/extraction are the two essential issues that have limited battery application in the fields requiring long cycle life and high safety. During her PhD studies, Yanbin...... Shen systematically investigated the controlled synthesis of electrode materials for lithium/sodium ion batteries. She also investigated their formation mechanisms and structural evolution during the operation of batteries using in situ/operando X-ray diffraction techniques. The research findings...... provide insights into formation mechanisms of Li4Ti5O12 anode material from both hydrothermal and solid-state reaction. The results also contribute to a thorough understanding of the intercalation and decay mechanisms of O3/P2 layered sodium cathode materials in sodium ion batteries....

  15. Study on Carbon Nano composite Counter electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Zhang, H.; Lin, J.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nano composite electrodes were prepared by adding carbon nano tubes (CNTs) into carbon black as counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The morphology and structure of carbon nano composite electrodes were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The influence of CNTs on the electrochemical performance of carbon nano composite electrodes is investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Carbon nano composite electrodes with CNTs exhibit a highly interconnected network structure with high electrical conductivity and good catalytic activity. The influence of different CNTs content in carbon nano composite electrodes on the open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, and filling factor of DSSCs is also investigated. DSSCs with 10% CNTs content exhibit the best photovoltaic performance in our experiments.

  16. Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays as Efficient Supports for Faradaic Capacitive Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoye, Moses; Holleran, Mary-Kate; Roberts, Katherine; Pesika, Noshir

    Supercapacitors are notable for their ability to deliver energy at higher power (compared to batteries) and store energy at higher density (compared to capacitors) as well as exhibit a long cycle life. In our efforts to further the development of supercapacitors, our focus is on using vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT) as supports for faradaic capacitive electrode materials. The objective is to develop electrodes functioning in an inexpensive aqueous environment with small potential windows, that store energy at a higher density than carbon materials alone. We describe the different approaches explored to overcome the challenges of non-uniform deposition, poor wetting and array collapse. Materials that are electrochemically anchored to VACNT supports include NiCo2O4, VOx, Fe2O3 and Co-Mn mixed oxides. In each case, the specific capacitance obtained using the VACNT arrays as supports is significantly more than that obtained by direct deposition onto current collectors or by using VACNT alone. The ease of VACNT growth and the degree of coating control achievable using electrodeposition means there is much potential in exploring them as supports for capacitive electrode materials.

  17. Highly conductive interwoven carbon nanotube and silver nanowire transparent electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Stapleton, Rakesh A Afre, Amanda V Ellis, Joe G Shapter, Gunther G Andersson, Jamie S Quinton and David A Lewis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrodes fabricated using commercially available silver nanowires (AgNWs and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs produced sheet resistances in the range 4–24 Ω squ−1 with specular transparencies up to 82 %. Increasing the aqueous dispersibility of SWCNTs decreased the bundle size present in the film resulting in improved SWCNT surface dispersion in the films without compromising transparency or sheet resistance. In addition to providing conduction pathways between the AgNW network, the SWCNTs also provide structural support, creating stable self-supporting films. Entanglement of the AgNWs and SWCNTs was demonstrated to occur in solution prior to deposition by monitoring the transverse plasmon resonance mode of the AgNWs during processing. The interwoven AgNW/SWCNT structures show potential for use in optoelectronic applications as transparent electrodes and as an ITO replacement.

  18. Asymmetric electrochemical supercapacitor, based on polypyrrole coated carbon nanotube electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Y.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Polypyrrole (PPy) coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were prepared. • New method is based on the use of new electrochemically active dopants for PPy. • The dopans provided dispersion of MWCNT and promoted PPy coating formation. • Symmetric PPy–MWCNT supercapacitors showed high capacitance and low resistance. • Asymmetric PPy–MWCNT/VN–MWCNT devices and modules allowed larger voltage window. - Abstract: Conductive polypyrrole (PPy) polymer – multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) composites were synthesized using sulfanilic acid azochromotrop (SPADNS) and sulfonazo III sodium salt (CHR-BS) as anionic dopants for chemical polymerization of PPy. The composites were tested for application in electrodes of electrochemical supercapacitors (ES). Sedimentation tests, electrophoretic deposition experiments and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) investigations showed that strong adsorption of anionic CHR-BS on MWCNT provided MWCNT dispersion. The analysis of scanning and transmission electron microscopy data demonstrated that the use of CHR-BS allowed the formation of PPy coatings on MWCNT. As a result, the composites, prepared using CHR-BS, showed higher capacitance, compared to the composites, prepared using SPADNS. The electrodes, containing MWCNT, coated with PPy showed a capacitance of 179 F g −1 for active mass loading of 10 mg cm −2 , good capacitance retention at scan rates in the range of 2–100 mV s −1 and excellent cyclic stability. Asymmetric ES devices, containing positive PPy–MWCNT electrodes and negative vanadium nitride (VN)–MWCNT electrodes showed significant improvement in energy storage performance, compared to the symmetric ES due to the larger voltage window. The low impedance and high capacitance of the individual cells paved the way to the development of modules with higher voltage, which showed good electrochemical performance

  19. Electrocatalytic Determination of Isoniazid by a Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Poly (Eriochrome Black T)

    OpenAIRE

    Karim Asadpour-Zeynali; Venus Baghalabadi

    2017-01-01

    In this work poly eriochrome black T (EBT) was electrochemically synthesized on the glassy carbon electrode as electrode modifier. On the modified electrode, voltammetric behavior of isoniazid (INH) was investigated. The poly (EBT)-modified glassy carbon electrode has excellent electrocatalytic ability for the electrooxidation of isoniazid. This fact was appeared as a reduced overpotential of INH oxidation in a wide operational pH range from 2 to 13. It has been found that the catalytic peak ...

  20. Hierarchical mesoporous nickel cobaltite nanoneedle/carbon cloth arrays as superior flexible electrodes for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Hierarchical mesoporous NiCo2O4 nanoneedle arrays on carbon cloth have been fabricated by a simple hydrothermal approach combined with a post-annealing treatment. Such unique array nanoarchitectures exhibit remarkable electrochemical performance with high capacitance and desirable cycle life at high rates. When evaluated as an electrode material for supercapacitors, the NiCo2O4 nanoneedle arrays supported on carbon cloth was able to deliver high specific capacitance of 660 F g-1 at current densities of 2 A g-1 in 2 M KOH aqueous solution. In addition, the composite electrode shows excellent mechanical behavior and long-term cyclic stability (91.8% capacitance retention after 3,000 cycles). The fabrication method presented here is facile, cost-effective, and scalable, which may open a new pathway for real device applications. PMID:24661431

  1. Niobium Nitride Nb4N5 as a New High‐Performance Electrode Material for Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Houlei; Zhu, Guilian; Liu, Xiangye; Liu, Fengxin; Xie, Yian; Yang, Chongyin; Lin, Tianquan; Gu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Supercapacitors suffer either from low capacitance for carbon or derivate electrodes or from poor electrical conductivity and electrochemical stability for metal oxide or conducting polymer electrodes. Transition metal nitrides possess fair electrical conductivity but superior chemical stability, which may be desirable candidates for supercapacitors. Herein, niobium nitride, Nb4N5, is explored to be an excellent capacitive material for the first time. An areal capacitance of 225.8 mF cm−2, with a reasonable rate capability (60.8% retention from 0.5 to 10 mA cm−2) and cycling stability (70.9% retention after 2000 cycles), is achieved in Nb4N5 nanochannels electrode with prominent electrical conductivity and electrochemical activity. Faradaic pseudocapacitance is confirmed by the mechanistic studies, deriving from the proton incorporation/chemisorption reaction owing to the copious +5 valence Nb ions in Nb4N5. Moreover, this Nb4N5 nanochannels electrode with an ultrathin carbon coating exhibits nearly 100% capacitance retention after 2000 CV cycles, which is an excellent cycling stability for metal nitride materials. Thus, the Nb4N5 nanochannels are qualified for a candidate for supercapacitors and other energy storage applications. PMID:27980920

  2. Niobium Nitride Nb4N5 as a New High-Performance Electrode Material for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Houlei; Zhu, Guilian; Liu, Xiangye; Liu, Fengxin; Xie, Yian; Yang, Chongyin; Lin, Tianquan; Gu, Hui; Huang, Fuqiang

    2015-12-01

    Supercapacitors suffer either from low capacitance for carbon or derivate electrodes or from poor electrical conductivity and electrochemical stability for metal oxide or conducting polymer electrodes. Transition metal nitrides possess fair electrical conductivity but superior chemical stability, which may be desirable candidates for supercapacitors. Herein, niobium nitride, Nb 4 N 5 , is explored to be an excellent capacitive material for the first time. An areal capacitance of 225.8 mF cm -2 , with a reasonable rate capability (60.8% retention from 0.5 to 10 mA cm -2 ) and cycling stability (70.9% retention after 2000 cycles), is achieved in Nb 4 N 5 nanochannels electrode with prominent electrical conductivity and electrochemical activity. Faradaic pseudocapacitance is confirmed by the mechanistic studies, deriving from the proton incorporation/chemisorption reaction owing to the copious +5 valence Nb ions in Nb 4 N 5 . Moreover, this Nb 4 N 5 nanochannels electrode with an ultrathin carbon coating exhibits nearly 100% capacitance retention after 2000 CV cycles, which is an excellent cycling stability for metal nitride materials. Thus, the Nb 4 N 5 nanochannels are qualified for a candidate for supercapacitors and other energy storage applications.

  3. Nickel foam/polyaniline-based carbon/palladium composite electrodes for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skowronski, Jan M.; Urbaniak, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The sandwich-like nickel/palladium/carbon electrodes exhibiting ability to absorb hydrogen in alkaline solution are presented. Electrodes were prepared by successive deposition of palladium and polyaniline layers on nickel foam substrate followed by heat treatment to give Ni/Pd/C electrode. It was shown that thermal conversion of polymer into carbon layer and subsequent thermal activation of carbon component bring about the modification of the mechanism of reversible hydrogen sorption. It was proven that carbon layer, interacting with Pd catalyst, plays a considerable role in the process of hydrogen storage. In the other series of experiments, Pd particles were dispersed electrochemically on carbon coating leading to Ni/C/Pd system. The adding of the next carbon layer resulted in Ni/C/Pd/C electrodes. Electrochemical properties of the electrodes depend on both the sequence of Pd and C layers and the preparation/activation of carbon coating. Electrochemical behavior of sandwich-like electrodes in the reaction of hydrogen sorption/desorption was characterized in 6 M KOH using the cyclic voltammetry method and the results obtained were compared to those for Ni/Pd electrode. The anodic desorption of hydrogen from electrodes free and containing carbon layer was considered after the potentiodynamic as well as potentiostatic sorption of hydrogen. The influence of the sorption potential and the time of rest of electrodes at a cut-off circuit on the kinetics of hydrogen recovery were examined. The results obtained for Ni/Pd/C electrodes indicate that the displacement of hydrogen between C and Pd phase takes place during the rest at a cut-off circuit. Electrodes containing carbon layer require longer time for hydrogen electrosorption. On the other hand, the presence of carbon layer in electrodes is advantageous because a considerable longer retention of hydrogen is possible, as compared to Pd/Ni electrode. Hydrogen stored in sandwich-like electrodes can instantly be

  4. Fe3O4/carbon hybrid nanoparticle electrodes for high-capacity electrochemical capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Seop; Shin, Dong Hoon; Jun, Jaemoon; Lee, Choonghyeon; Jang, Jyongsik

    2014-06-01

    Fe3O4/carbon hybrid nanoparticles (FeCHNPs) were fabricated using dual-nozzle electrospraying, vapor deposition polymerization (VDP), and carbonization. FeOOH nanoneedles decorated with polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles (FePNPs) were fabricated by electrospraying pristine PPy mixed with FeCl3 solution, followed by heating stirring reaction. A PPy coating was then formed on the FeOOH nanoneedles through a VDP process. FeCHNPs were produced through carbonization of PPy and FeOOH phase transitions. These hybrid carbon nanoparticles (NPs) were used to build electrodes of electrochemical capacitors. The specific capacitance of the FeCHNPs was 455 F g(-1), which is larger than that of pristine PPy NPs (105 F g(-1)) or other hybrid PPy NPs. Furthermore, the FeCHNP-based capacitors exhibited better cycle stability during charge-discharge cycling than other hybrid NP capacitors. This is because the carbon layer on the Fe3 O4 surface formed a protective coating, preventing damage to the electrode materials during the charge-discharge processes. This fabrication technique is an effective approach for forming stable carbon/metal oxide nanostructures for energy storage applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Electrode material comprising graphene-composite materials in a graphite network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Harold H.; Lee, Jung K.

    2017-08-08

    A durable electrode material suitable for use in Li ion batteries is provided. The material is comprised of a continuous network of graphite regions integrated with, and in good electrical contact with a composite comprising graphene sheets and an electrically active material, such as silicon, wherein the electrically active material is dispersed between, and supported by, the graphene sheets.

  6. Carbon material for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourlinos, Athanasios; Steriotis, Theodore; Stubos, Athanasios; Miller, Michael A

    2016-09-13

    The present invention relates to carbon based materials that are employed for hydrogen storage applications. The material may be described as the pyrolysis product of a molecular precursor such as a cyclic quinone compound. The pyrolysis product may then be combined with selected transition metal atoms which may be in nanoparticulate form, where the metals may be dispersed on the material surface. Such product may then provide for the reversible storage of hydrogen. The metallic nanoparticles may also be combined with a second metal as an alloy to further improve hydrogen storage performance.

  7. High performance lithium insertion negative electrode materials for electrochemical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Channu, V.S. Reddy, E-mail: chinares02@gmail.com [SMC Corporation, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Rambabu, B. [Solid State Ionics and Surface Sciences Lab, Department of Physics, Southern University and A& M College, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 (United States); Kumari, Kusum [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Warangal (India); Kalluru, Rajmohan R. [The University of Southern Mississippi, College of Science and Technology, 730 E Beach Blvd, Long Beach, MS 39560 (United States); Holze, Rudolf [Institut für Chemie, AG Elektrochemie, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • LiCrTiO{sub 4} nanostructures were synthesized for electrochemical applications by soft chemical synthesis followed by annealing. • The presence of Cr and Ti elements are confirmed from the EDS spectrum. • Oxalic acid assisted LiCrTiO{sub 4} electrode shows higher specific capacity (mAh/g). - Abstract: Spinel LiCrTiO{sub 4} oxides to be used as electrode materials for a lithium ion battery and an asymmetric supercapacitor were synthesized using a soft-chemical method with and without chelating agents followed by calcination at 700 °C for 10 h. Structural and morphological properties were studied with powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. Particles of 50–10 nm in size are observed in the microscopic images. The presence of Cr and Ti is confirmed from the EDS spectrum. Electrochemical properties of LiCrTiO{sub 4} electrode were examined in a lithium ion battery. The electrode prepared with oxalic acid-assisted LiCrTiO{sub 4} shows higher specific capacity.This LiCrTiO{sub 4} is also used as anode material for an asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor. The cell exhibits a specific capacity of 65 mAh/g at 1 mA/cm{sup 2}. The specific capacity decreases with increasing current densities.

  8. Electrochemical investigation of thermically treated graphene oxides as electrode materials for vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Blasi, O.; Briguglio, N.; Busacca, C.; Ferraro, M.; Antonucci, V.; Di Blasi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide is synthesized at high temperatures in a reducing environment. • Treated graphene oxide-based electrodes are prepared by the wet impregnation method. • Electrochemical performance is evaluated as a function of the physico-chemical properties. - Abstract: Thermically treated graphene oxides (TT-GOs) are synthesized at different temperatures, 100 °C, 150 °C, 200 °C and 300 °C in a reducing environment (20% H 2 /He) and investigated as electrode materials for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) applications. The treated graphene oxide-based electrodes are prepared by the wet impregnation method using carbon felt (CF) as support. The main aim is to achieve a suitable distribution of the dispersed graphene oxides on the CF surface in order to investigate the electrocatalytic activity for the VO 2+ /VO 2 + and V 2+ /V 3+ redox reactions in the perspective of a feasible large area electrodes scale-up for battery configuration of practical interest. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are carried out in a three electrode half-cell to characterize the electrochemical properties of the TT-GO-based electrodes. Physico-chemical characterizations are carried out to corroborate the electrochemical results. The TT-GO sample treated at 100 °C (TT-GO-100) shows the highest electrocatalytic activity in terms of peak to peak separation (ΔE = 0.03 V) and current density intensity (∼0.24 A cm −2 at 30 mV/s) both toward the VO 2+ /VO 2 + and V 2+ /V 3+ redox reactions. This result is correlated to the presence of hydroxyl (−OH) and carboxyl (−COOH) species that act as active sites. A valid candidate is individuated as effective anode and cathode electrode in the perspective of electrodes scale-up for battery configuration of practical interest

  9. Highly Compressible Carbon Sponge Supercapacitor Electrode with Enhanced Performance by Growing Nickel-Cobalt Sulfide Nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xu; Nie, Kaiwen; Ding, Xian; Dang, Liqin; Sun, Jie; Shi, Feng; Xu, Hua; Jiang, Ruibin; He, Xuexia; Liu, Zonghuai; Lei, Zhibin

    2018-03-28

    The development of compressible supercapacitor highly relies on the innovative design of electrode materials with both superior compression property and high capacitive performance. This work reports a highly compressible supercapacitor electrode which is prepared by growing electroactive NiCo 2 S 4 (NCS) nanosheets on the compressible carbon sponge (CS). The strong adhesion of the metallic conductive NCS nanosheets to the highly porous carbon scaffolds enable the CS-NCS composite electrode to exhibit an enhanced conductivity and ideal structural integrity during repeated compression-release cycles. Accordingly, the CS-NCS composite electrode delivers a specific capacitance of 1093 F g -1 at 0.5 A g -1 and remarkable rate performance with 91% capacitance retention in the range of 0.5-20 A g -1 . Capacitance performance under the strain of 60% shows that the incorporation of NCS nanosheets in CS scaffolds leads to over five times enhancement in gravimetric capacitance and 17 times enhancement in volumetric capacitance. These performances enable the CS-NCS composite to be one of the promising candidates for potential applications in compressible electrochemical energy storage devices.

  10. Methods for purifying carbon materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailly, Anne [Pasadena, CA; Ahn, Channing [Pasadena, CA; Yazami, Rachid [Los Angeles, CA; Fultz, Brent T [Pasadena, CA

    2009-05-26

    Methods of purifying samples are provided that are capable of removing carbonaceous and noncarbonaceous impurities from a sample containing a carbon material having a selected structure. Purification methods are provided for removing residual metal catalyst particles enclosed in multilayer carbonaceous impurities in samples generate by catalytic synthesis methods. Purification methods are provided wherein carbonaceous impurities in a sample are at least partially exfoliated, thereby facilitating subsequent removal of carbonaceous and noncarbonaceous impurities from the sample. Methods of purifying carbon nanotube-containing samples are provided wherein an intercalant is added to the sample and subsequently reacted with an exfoliation initiator to achieve exfoliation of carbonaceous impurities.

  11. Electrochemical determination of mesotrione at organoclay modified glassy carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamga Wagheu, Josephine; Forano, Claude; Besse-Hoggan, Pascale; Tonle, Ignas K; Ngameni, Emmanuel; Mousty, Christine

    2013-01-15

    A natural Cameroonian smectite-type clay (SaNa) was exchanged with cationic surfactants, namely cetyltrimethylammonium (CTA) and didodecyldimethyl ammonium (DDA) modifying its physico-chemical properties. The resulting organoclays that have higher adsorption capacity for mesotrione than the pristine SaNa clay, have been used as modifiers of glassy carbon electrode for the electrochemical detection of this herbicide by square wave voltammetry. The stripping performances of SaNa, SaCTA and SaDDA modified electrodes were therefore evaluated and the experimental parameters were optimized. SaDDA gives the best results in deoxygenated acetate buffer solution (pH 6.0) after 2 min accumulation under open circuit conditions. Under optimal conditions, the reduction current is proportional to mesotrione concentration in the range from 0.25 to 2.5 μM with a detection limit of 0.26 μM. The fabricated electrode was also applied for the commercial formulation CALLISTO, used in European maize market. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation, characterization and simulation studies of carbon nanotube electrodes for electrochemical energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meissner, Frank; Endler, Ingolf [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Keramische Technologien und Systeme (IKTS), Dresden (Germany); Lorrmann, Henning [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Silicatforschung (ISC), Wuerzburg (Germany); Pastewka, Lars [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik (IWM), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) was employed to synthesize multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) on different carrier materials for electrode applications. In the field of electrochemical energy storage it is essential to grow MWCNT on conducting substrates. For this reason titanium nitride (TiN) layers as well as a copper foil were used as substrates. The MWCNT grown on TiN layers show diameters of about 20 nm and lengths up to 13 {mu}m. In the case of copper foil substrates a remarkably higher nanotube diameter of several tens of nanometers was found. First electrochemical characterization via cyclic voltammetry shows the potential of MWCNT as electrodes for energy storage applications. The CNT were measured in an organic carbonate electrolyte vs. a lithium counter electrode with various scan rates. Until now the preliminary investigations by cyclic voltammetry for electrodes consisting of aligned MWCNT on TiN showed a capacity of around 130 F g{sup -1} in the range of 1 - 3 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. In support of the experiments we construct a one dimensional Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) continuum model that has been shown to yield agreement with corresponding molecular dynamics simulations to model ion transport into these types of electrodes. Our simulations show that first the ions accumulate at the tips of the tubes because the inner volume of the electrodes is initially field-free. A homogeneous charge distribution is then established through diffusion. The PNP model is used to compute cyclic voltammograms which show qualitative agreement with the experiments. (orig.)

  13. A glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase immobilized on three-dimensional porous carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingyi; Zhu, Rong; Huang, Jia; Zhang, Man; Liu, Hongyu; Sun, Min; Wang, Li; Song, Yonghai

    2015-08-21

    A novel glucose biosensor was developed by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOD) on a three-dimensional (3D) porous kenaf stem-derived carbon (3D-KSC) which was firstly proposed as a novel supporting material to load biomolecules for electrochemical biosensing. Here, an integrated 3D-KSC electrode was prepared by using a whole piece of 3D-KSC to load the GOD molecules for glucose biosensing. The morphologies of integrated 3D-KSC and 3D-KSC/GOD electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The SEM results revealed a 3D honeycomb macroporous structure of the integrated 3D-KSC electrode. The TEM results showed some microporosities and defects in the 3D-KSC electrode. The electrochemical behaviors and electrocatalytic performance of the integrated 3D-KSC/GOD electrode were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The effects of pH and scan rates on the electrochemical response of the biosensor have been studied in detail. The glucose biosensor showed a wide linear range from 0.1 mM to 14.0 mM with a high sensitivity of 1.73 μA mM(-1) and a low detection limit of 50.75 μM. Furthermore, the glucose biosensor exhibited high selectivity, good repeatability and reproducibility, and good stability.

  14. Investigation of Ir-modified carbon felt as the positive electrode of an all-vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.H.; Wang, X.D.

    2007-01-01

    Porous graphite felts have been used as electrode materials for all-vanadium redox flow batteries due to their wide operating potential range, stability as both an anode and a cathode, and availability in high surface area. In this paper, the carbon felt was modified by pyrolysis of Ir reduced from H 2 IrCl 6 . ac impedance and steady-state polarization measurements showed that the Ir-modified materials have improved activity and lowered overpotential of the desired V(IV)/V(V) redox process. Ir-modification of carbon felt enhanced the electro-conductivity of electrode materials. The Ir-material, when coated on the graphite felt electrode surface, lowered the cell internal resistance. A test cell was assembled with the Ir-modified carbon felt as the activation layer of the positive electrode, the unmodified raw felt as the activation layer of the negative electrode. At an operating current density of 20 mA cm -2 , a voltage efficiency of 87.5% was achieved. The resistance of the cell using Ir-modified felt decreased 25% compared to the cell using non-modified felt

  15. A Reliable Homemade Electrode Based on Glassy Polymeric Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Andre L.; Takeuchi, Regina M.; Oliviero, Herilton P.; Rodriguez, Marcello G.; Zimmerman, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    The production of a GPC-based material by submitting a cross-linked resin precursor to control thermal conditions is discussed. The precursor material is prepolymerized at 60-degree Celsius in a mold and is carbonized in inert atmosphere by slowly raising the temperature, the rise is performed to avoid change in the shape of the carbonization…

  16. Low-cost carbon-based counter electrodes for dye sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberio, M; Imbrogno, A; Bonanno, A; Xu, F; Grosso, D R

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present the realization of four carbon-based counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. The photovoltaic behaviours of counter electrodes realized with graphene, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and nanocomposites of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and metal nanoparticles are compared with those of classical electrodes (amorphous carbon and platinum). Our results show an increase of about 50% in PCE for graphene and Ag/carbon nanotube electrodes with respect to amorphous carbon and of 25% in comparison to platinum. An improvement in cell stability is also observed; in fact, the PCE of all carbon-based cells assumes a constant value during a period of one month while that with the Pt electrode decreases by 50% in one week. (paper)

  17. High-performance flexible electrode based on electrodeposition of polypyrrole/MnO2 on carbon cloth for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xingye; Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Ge; Yu, Aiping; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-09-01

    A highly flexible electrodes based on electrodeposited MnO2 and polypyrrole composite on carbon cloth is designed and developed by a facile in-situ electrodeposition technique. Such flexible composite electrodes with multiply layered structure possess a high specific capacitance of 325 F g-1 at a current density of 0.2 A g-1, and an excellent rate capability with a capacitance retention of 70% at a high current density of 5.0 A g-1. The superior electrochemical performance is mainly due to the unique electrode with improved ion- and electron-transportation pathways as well as the efficient utilization of active materials and electrode robustness. The excellent electrochemical performance and the low cost property endow this flexible nanocomposite electrode with great promise in applications of flexible supercapacitors.

  18. The effect of the electrode material on the electrodeposition of zinc from deep eutectic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, L.; Schennach, R.; Gollas, B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Mechanistic insight into zinc electrodeposition from deep eutectic solvents. • Overpotential for hydrogen evolution affects the electrodeposition of zinc. • Electrodeposited zinc forms surface alloys on Cu, Au, and Pt. • In situ PM-IRRAS of a ZnCl_2 containing deep eutectic solvent on glassy carbon. - Abstract: The voltammetric behaviour of the ZnCl_2 containing deep eutectic solvent choline chloride/ethylene glycol 1:2 was investigated on glassy carbon, stainless steel, Au, Pt, Cu, and Zn electrodes. While cyclic voltammetry on glassy carbon and stainless steel showed a cathodic peak for zinc electrodeposition only in the anodic reverse sweep, a cathodic peak was found also in the cathodic forward sweep on Au, Pt, Cu, and Zn. This behaviour is in agreement with the proposed mechanism of zinc deposition from an intermediate species Z, whose formation depends on the cathodic reduction potential of the solvent. The voltammetric reduction of the electrolyte involves hydrogen evolution and as a result the formation of Z and its reduction to zinc depend on the hydrogen overpotential for each electrode material. On Au, Pt, and Cu also the anodic stripping was different from that on glassy carbon and steel due to the formation of surface zinc alloys with the three former metals. The morphology of the zinc layers on Cu has been characterised by scanning electron microscopy and focussed ion beam. X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of crystalline zinc and a Cu_4Zn phase. Spectroelectrochemistry by means of polarization modulation reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) on a glassy carbon electrode in the ZnCl_2 containing deep eutectic solvent showed characteristic potential dependent changes. The variation of band intensities at different applied potentials correlate with the voltammetry and suggest the formation of a compact blocking layer on the electrode surface, which inhibits the electrodeposition of zinc at sufficiently negative

  19. An Ideal Electrode Material, 3D Surface-Microporous Graphene for Supercapacitors with Ultrahigh Areal Capacitance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Liang; Stacchiola, Dario J.; Hu, Yun Hang

    2017-01-01

    The efficient charge accumulation of an ideal supercapacitor electrode requires abundant micropores and its fast electrolyte-ions transport prefers meso/macropores. But, current electrode materials cannot meet both requirements, resulting in poor performance. We creatively constructed three-dimensional cabbage-coral-like graphene as an ideal electrode material, in which meso/macro channels are formed by graphene walls and rich micropores are incorporated in the surface layer of the graphene walls. The unique 3D graphene material can achieve a high gravimetric capacitance of 200 F/g with aqueous electrolyte, 3 times larger than that of commercially used activated carbon (70.8 F/g). Furthermore, it can reach an ultrahigh areal capacitance of 1.28 F/cm"2 and excellent rate capability (83.5% from 0.5 to 10 A/g) as well as high cycling stability (86.2% retention after 5000 cycles). The excellent electric double-layer performance of the 3D graphene electrode can be attributed to the fast electrolyte ion transport in the meso/macro channels and the rapid and reversible charge adsorption with negligible transport distance in the surface micropores.

  20. Surface functional groups in capacitive deionization with porous carbon electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmatifar, Ali; Oyarzun, Diego I.; Palko, James W.; Hawks, Steven A.; Stadermann, Michael; Santiago, Juan G.; Stanford Microfluidics Lab Team; Lawrence Livermore National Lab Team

    2017-11-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a promising technology for removal of toxic ions and salt from water. In CDI, an applied potential of about 1 V to pairs of porous electrodes (e.g. activated carbon) induces ion electromigration and electrostatic adsorption at electrode surfaces. Immobile surface functional groups play a critical role in the type and capacity of ion adsorption, and this can dramatically change desalination performance. We here use models and experiments to study weak electrolyte surface groups which protonate and/or depropotante based on their acid/base dissociation constants and local pore pH. Net chemical surface charge and differential capacitance can thus vary during CDI operation. In this work, we present a CDI model based on weak electrolyte acid/base equilibria theory. Our model incorporates preferential cation (anion) adsorption for activated carbon with acidic (basic) surface groups. We validated our model with experiments on custom built CDI cells with a variety of functionalizations. To this end, we varied electrolyte pH and measured adsorption of individual anionic and cationic ions using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography (IC) techniques. Our model shows good agreement with experiments and provides a framework useful in the design of CDI control schemes.

  1. Electrochemical modification of carbon electrode with benzylphosphonic groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, Ossonon Diby; Weissmann, Martin; Bélanger, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical modification of carbon electrodes by aryl groups bearing a phosphonate terminal functionality was carried out by both electrochemical reduction of diazonium ions (diazobenzylphosphonic acid) and electrochemical oxidation of an amine (aminobenzylphosphonic acid). The grafting by electrochemical reduction of aryl diazonium ions was found to be more efficient. The surface concentration of phosphonate groups, estimated by electrochemical reduction of electrostatically bound Pb(II) ions, was found to be about 25% higher for the layer formed by electrochemical reduction of diazonium ions than for the layer formed by oxidation of the amine. The acid–base properties of the grafted films were slightly influenced by the grafting procedure and the difference in the apparent pK a was most likely related to the presence of the substrate –NH-aryl linkage for the film generated by amine oxidation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to get some insight on the chemical species present at the carbon electrode surface. For both procedures, the films consist in mixture of at least two different covalently grafted species

  2. Methods for making lithium vanadium oxide electrode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutts, Scott M.; Kinney, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    A method of making vanadium oxide formulations is presented. In one method of preparing lithium vanadium oxide for use as an electrode material, the method involves: admixing a particulate form of a lithium compound and a particulate form of a vanadium compound; jet milling the particulate admixture of the lithium and vanadium compounds; and heating the jet milled particulate admixture at a temperature below the melting temperature of the admixture to form lithium vanadium oxide.

  3. Macroscale porous carbonized polydopamine-modified cotton textile for application as electrode in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lizhen; Zhao, Shaofei; He, Miao

    2018-02-01

    The anode material is a crucial factor that significantly affects the cost and performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this study, a novel macroscale porous, biocompatible, highly conductive and low cost electrode, carbonized polydopamine-modified cotton textile (NC@CCT), is fabricated by using normal cheap waste cotton textiles as raw material via a simple in situ polymerization and carbonization treatment as anode of MFCs. The physical and chemical characterizations show that the macroscale porous and biocompatible NC@CCT electrode is coated by nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticles and offers a large specific surface area (888.67 m2 g-1) for bacterial cells growth, accordingly greatly increases the loading amount of bacterial cells and facilitates extracellular electron transfer (EET). As a result, the MFC equipped with the NC@CCT anode achieves a maximum power density of 931 ± 61 mW m-2, which is 80.5% higher than that of commercial carbon felt (516 ± 27 mW m-2) anode. Moreover, making full use of the normal cheap waste cotton textiles can greatly reduce the cost of MFCs and the environmental pollution problem.

  4. Potentiometric application of boron- and phosphorus-doped glassy carbon electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN V. LAUSEVIC

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Acomparative study was carried out of the potentiometric application of boronand phosphorus-doped and undoped glassy carbon samples prepared at the same heat treatment temperature (HTT 1000°C. The electrochemical activities of the obtained electrode materials were investigated on the example of argentometric titrations. It was found that the electrochemical behaviour of the doped glassy carbon samples are very similar to a Sigri (undoped glassy carbon sample (HTT 2400°C. The experiments showed that the potentiometric response depends on the polarization mode, the nature of the sample, the pretreatment of the electrode surface, and the nature of the supporting electrolyte. The amounts of iodide, bromide, and of chloridewere determined to be 1.27 mg, 0.80 mg and 0.54 mg, respectively, with a maximum relative standard deviation of less than 1.1%. The obtained results are in good agreement with the results of comparative potentiometric titrations using a silver indicator electrode. The titrationmethod was applied to the indirect determination of pyridoxine hydrochloride, i.e., vitamin B6.

  5. Synergistic effect of carbon nanofiber/nanotube composite catalyst on carbon felt electrode for high-performance all-vanadium redox flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Minjoon; Jung, Yang-jae; Kim, Jungyun; Lee, Ho il; Cho, Jeaphil

    2013-10-09

    Carbon nanofiber/nanotube (CNF/CNT) composite catalysts grown on carbon felt (CF), prepared from a simple way involving the thermal decomposition of acetylene gas over Ni catalysts, are studied as electrode materials in a vanadium redox flow battery. The electrode with the composite catalyst prepared at 700 °C (denoted as CNF/CNT-700) demonstrates the best electrocatalytic properties toward the V(2+)/V(3+) and VO(2+)/VO2(+) redox couples among the samples prepared at 500, 600, 700, and 800 °C. Moreover, this composite electrode in the full cell exhibits substantially improved discharge capacity and energy efficiency by ~64% and by ~25% at 40 mA·cm(-2) and 100 mA·cm(-2), respectively, compared to untreated CF electrode. This outstanding performance is due to the enhanced surface defect sites of exposed edge plane in CNF and a fast electron transfer rate of in-plane side wall of the CNT.

  6. Design of lithium cobalt oxide electrodes with high thermal conductivity and electrochemical performance using carbon nanotubes and diamond particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eungje; Salgado, Ruben Arash; Lee, Byeongdu; Sumant, Anirudha V.; Rajh, Tijana; Johnson, Christopher; Balandin, Alexander A.; Shevchenko, Elena V.

    2018-04-01

    Thermal management remains one of the major challenges in the design of safe and reliable Li-ion batteries. We show that composite electrodes assembled from commercially available 100 μm long carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and LiCoO2 (LCO) particles demonstrate the in-plane thermal conductivity of 205.8 W/m*K. This value exceeds the thermal conductivity of dry conventional laminated electrodes by about three orders of magnitude. The cross-plane thermal conductivity of CNT-based electrodes is in the same range as thermal conductivities of conventional laminated electrodes. The CNT-based electrodes demonstrate a similar capacity to conventional laminated design electrodes, but revealed a better rate performance and stability. The introduction of diamond particles into CNT-based electrodes further improves the rate performance. Our lightweight, flexible electrode design can potentially be a general platform for fabricating polymer binder- and aluminum and copper current collector- free electrodes from a broad range of electrochemically active materials with efficient thermal management.

  7. Performance of Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes Grown on Conductive Substrates as Supercapacitors Electrodes using Organic and Ionic liquid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Andrew; Ghosh, Sujoy; Turner, Ben; Zhang, X. F.; Talapatra, Saikat

    2012-02-01

    In this work we will present the use of Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNT) directly grown on inconel substrates via chemical vapor deposition, as electrode materials for electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC). The performance of the MWNT EDLC electrodes were investigated using two electrolytes, an organic electrolyte, tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate in propylene carbonate (Et4NBF4 in PC), and a room temperature ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF6). Cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements to obtain values for the capacitance and internal resistance of these devices will be presented and compared.

  8. Glucose biosensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with polythionine and multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwei Tang

    Full Text Available A novel glucose biosensor was fabricated. The first layer of the biosensor was polythionine, which was formed by the electrochemical polymerisation of the thionine monomer on a glassy carbon electrode. The remaining layers were coated with chitosan-MWCNTs, GOx, and the chitosan-PTFE film in sequence. The MWCNTs embedded in FAD were like "conductive wires" connecting FAD with electrode, reduced the distance between them and were propitious to fast direct electron transfer. Combining with good electrical conductivity of PTH and MWCNTs, the current response was enlarged. The sensor was a parallel multi-component reaction system (PMRS and excellent electrocatalytic performance for glucose could be obtained without a mediator. The glucose sensor had a working voltage of -0.42 V, an optimum working temperature of 25°C, an optimum working pH of 7.0, and the best percentage of polytetrafluoroethylene emulsion (PTFE in the outer composite film was 2%. Under the optimised conditions, the biosensor displayed a high sensitivity of 2.80 µA mM(-1 cm(-2 and a low detection limit of 5 µM (S/N = 3, with a response time of less than 15 s and a linear range of 0.04 mM to 2.5 mM. Furthermore, the fabricated biosensor had a good selectivity, reproducibility, and long-term stability, indicating that the novel CTS+PTFE/GOx/MWCNTs/PTH composite is a promising material for immobilization of biomolecules and fabrication of third generation biosensors.

  9. Material for electrodes of low temperature plasma generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Malcolm; Vinogradov, Sergel Evge'evich; Ribin, Valeri Vasil'evich; Shekalov, Valentin Ivanovich; Rutberg, Philip Grigor'evich; Safronov, Alexi Anatol'evich

    2008-12-09

    Material for electrodes of low temperature plasma generators. The material contains a porous metal matrix impregnated with a material emitting electrons. The material uses a mixture of copper and iron powders as a porous metal matrix and a Group IIIB metal component such as Y.sub.2O.sub.3 is used as a material emitting electrons at, for example, the proportion of the components, mass %: iron: 3-30; Y.sub.2O.sub.3:0.05-1; copper: the remainder. Copper provides a high level of heat conduction and electric conductance, iron decreases intensity of copper evaporation in the process of plasma creation providing increased strength and lifetime, Y.sub.2O.sub.3 provides decreasing of electronic work function and stability of arc burning. The material can be used for producing the electrodes of low temperature AC plasma generators used for destruction of liquid organic wastes, medical wastes, and municipal wastes as well as for decontamination of low level radioactive waste, the destruction of chemical weapons, warfare toxic agents, etc.

  10. Pt nanoparticle modified single walled carbon nanotube network electrodes for electrocatalysis: control of the specific surface area over three orders of magnitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, T.S.; Sansuk, S.; Lai, Stanley; Macpherson, J.V.; Unwin, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    The electrodeposition of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) on two-dimensional single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) network electrodes is investigated as a means of tailoring electrode surfaces with a well-defined amount of electrocatalytic material. Both Pt NP deposition and electrocatalytic studies are

  11. Performance-Enhanced Activated Carbon Electrodes for Supercapacitors Combining Both Graphene-Modified Current Collectors and Graphene Conductive Additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rubing; Qian, Yuting; Li, Weiwei; Zhu, Shoupu; Liu, Fengkui; Guo, Yufen; Chen, Mingliang; Li, Qi; Liu, Liwei

    2018-05-15

    Graphene has been widely used in the active material, conductive agent, binder or current collector for supercapacitors, due to its large specific surface area, high conductivity, and electron mobility. However, works simultaneously employing graphene as conductive agent and current collector were rarely reported. Here, we report improved activated carbon (AC) electrodes (AC@G@NiF/G) simultaneously combining chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene-modified nickel foams (NiF/Gs) current collectors and high quality few-layer graphene conductive additive instead of carbon black (CB). The synergistic effect of NiF/Gs and graphene additive makes the performances of AC@G@NiF/G electrodes superior to those of electrodes with CB or with nickel foam current collectors. The performances of AC@G@NiF/G electrodes show that for the few-layer graphene addition exists an optimum value around 5 wt %, rather than a larger addition of graphene, works out better. A symmetric supercapacitor assembled by AC@G@NiF/G electrodes exhibits excellent cycling stability. We attribute improved performances to graphene-enhanced conductivity of electrode materials and NiF/Gs with 3D graphene conductive network and lower oxidation, largely improving the electrical contact between active materials and current collectors.

  12. Performance-Enhanced Activated Carbon Electrodes for Supercapacitors Combining Both Graphene-Modified Current Collectors and Graphene Conductive Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rubing; Qian, Yuting; Li, Weiwei; Zhu, Shoupu; Liu, Fengkui; Guo, Yufen; Chen, Mingliang; Li, Qi; Liu, Liwei

    2018-01-01

    Graphene has been widely used in the active material, conductive agent, binder or current collector for supercapacitors, due to its large specific surface area, high conductivity, and electron mobility. However, works simultaneously employing graphene as conductive agent and current collector were rarely reported. Here, we report improved activated carbon (AC) electrodes (AC@G@NiF/G) simultaneously combining chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene-modified nickel foams (NiF/Gs) current collectors and high quality few-layer graphene conductive additive instead of carbon black (CB). The synergistic effect of NiF/Gs and graphene additive makes the performances of AC@G@NiF/G electrodes superior to those of electrodes with CB or with nickel foam current collectors. The performances of AC@G@NiF/G electrodes show that for the few-layer graphene addition exists an optimum value around 5 wt %, rather than a larger addition of graphene, works out better. A symmetric supercapacitor assembled by AC@G@NiF/G electrodes exhibits excellent cycling stability. We attribute improved performances to graphene-enhanced conductivity of electrode materials and NiF/Gs with 3D graphene conductive network and lower oxidation, largely improving the electrical contact between active materials and current collectors. PMID:29762528

  13. Chemical attachment of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes on glassy carbon electrode for electrocatalytic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajalakshmi, K.; Abraham John, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • FMWCNTs were covalently attached on GC surface with the aid of alkyldiamine. • The attached FMWCNTs were stable for a wide potential window due to the robust C−N bond. • The composite electrode was prepared by electropolymerizing thiadiazole on FMWCNTs. • The detection limit of 0.27 μM (S/N = 3) of GMP was achieved using composite modified electrode. - Abstract: The covalent attachment of acid functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (FMWCNTs) on glassy carbon (GC) electrode using 1,8-octanediamine (OD) as a linker via carbodiimide chemistry was described. The attachment of FMWCNTs on GC electrode were confirmed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infra-red (ATR-FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance studies. Raman spectrum of FMWCNTs modified surface shows the characteristic G and D bands at 1563 cm −1 and 1340 cm −1 , respectively. This confirmed the successful attachment of FMWCNTs on the OD modified GC surface. Further, the attachment of FMWCNTs on OD modified surface via amide linkage was confirmed from the observed characteristic peak at 1681 cm −1 in the ATR-FT-IR spectrum. The SEM images showed that the covalently attached FMWCNTs retained their morphology similar to powder and the average diameter of them was found to be 58 nm. Unlike modification of FMWCNTs on gold substrates with the aid of conventional thiol linkers (Au−S bond), modification of them by the present method was stable for a wide positive potential window due to the robust C−N bond. To demonstrate the electrochemical stability of the MWCNTs modified electrode at more positive potential, guanosine 5′-monophosphate (GMP) was selected as a representative probe because its oxidation occurs at more than 1 V. It was found that the FMWCNTs modified electrode not only showed a stable signal for GMP but also enhanced its oxidation current when compared to bare GC electrode. Further, the

  14. Polymyxin-coated Au and carbon nanotube electrodes for stable [NiFe]-hydrogenase film voltammetry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeben, F.J.M.; Heller, I.; Albracht, S.P.J.; Dekker, C.; Lemay, S.G.; Heering, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the use of polymyxin (PM), a cyclic cationic lipodecapeptide, as an electrode modifier for studying protein film voltammetry (PFV) on Au and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) electrodes. Pretreating the electrodes with PM allows for the subsequent immobilization of an active

  15. $MNO_2$ catalyzed carbon electrodes for dioxygen reduction in concentrated alkali

    OpenAIRE

    Manoharan, R; Shulka, AK

    1984-01-01

    A process to deposit $\\gamma-MnO_2$ catalytic oxide onto coconut-shell charcoal substrate is described. Current-potential curves for electroreduction of dioxygen with electrodes fabricated from this catalyzed substrate are obtained in 6M KOH under ambient conditions. The performance of these electrodes is competitive with platinized carbon electrodes.

  16. Graphene-Based Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of their unique 2D structure and numerous fascinating properties, graphene-based materials have attracted particular attention for their potential applications in energy storage devices. In this review paper, we focus on the latest work regarding the development of electrode materials for batteries and supercapacitors from graphene and graphene-based carbon materials. To begin, the advantages of graphene as an electrode material and the existing problems facing its use in this application will be discussed. The next several sections deal with three different methods for improving the energy storage performance of graphene: the restacking of the nanosheets, the doping of graphene with other elements, and the creation of defects on graphene planes. State-of-the-art work is reviewed. Finally, the prospects and further developments in the field of graphene-based materials for electrochemical energy storage are discussed.

  17. Enhanced electrochemical activity using vertically aligned carbon nanotube electrodes grown on carbon fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Augusto de Morais

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes were successfully grown on flexible carbon fibers by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The diameter of the CNT is controllable by adjusting the thickness of the catalyst Ni layer deposited on the fiber. Vertically aligned nanotubes were grown in a Plasma Enhanced Chemical Deposition system (PECVD at a temperature of 630 ºC, d.c. bias of -600 V and 160 and 68 sccm flow of ammonia and acetylene, respectively. Using cyclic voltammetry measurements, an increase of the surface area of our electrodes, up to 50 times higher, was observed in our samples with CNT. The combination of VACNTs with flexible carbon fibers can have a significant impact on applications ranging from sensors to electrodes for fuel cells.

  18. Polymer-Assisted Direct Deposition of Uniform Carbon Nanotube Bundle Networks for High Performance Transparent Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Hellstrom, Sondra L.; Lee, Hang Woo; Bao, Zhenan

    2009-01-01

    Flexible transparent electrodes are crucial for touch screen, flat panel display, and solar cell technologies. While carbon nanotube network electrodes show promise, characteristically poor dispersion properties have limited their practicality. We report that addition of small amounts of conjugated polymer to nanotube dispersions enables straightforward fabrication of uniform network electrodes by spin-coating and simultaneous tuning of parameters such as bundle size and density. After treatment in thionyl chloride, electrodes have sheet resistances competitive with other reported carbon nanotube based transparent electrodes to date. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  19. Polymer-Assisted Direct Deposition of Uniform Carbon Nanotube Bundle Networks for High Performance Transparent Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Hellstrom, Sondra L.

    2009-06-23

    Flexible transparent electrodes are crucial for touch screen, flat panel display, and solar cell technologies. While carbon nanotube network electrodes show promise, characteristically poor dispersion properties have limited their practicality. We report that addition of small amounts of conjugated polymer to nanotube dispersions enables straightforward fabrication of uniform network electrodes by spin-coating and simultaneous tuning of parameters such as bundle size and density. After treatment in thionyl chloride, electrodes have sheet resistances competitive with other reported carbon nanotube based transparent electrodes to date. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  20. Carbon composite micro- and nano-tubes-based electrodes for detection of nucleic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huska Dalibor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first aim of this study was to fabricate vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs. MWCNTs were successfully prepared by using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Further, three carbon composite electrodes with different content of carbon particles with various shapes and sizes were prepared and tested on measuring of nucleic acids. The dependences of adenine peak height on the concentration of nucleic acid sample were measured. Carbon composite electrode prepared from a mixture of glassy and spherical carbon powder and MWCNTs had the highest sensitivity to nucleic acids. Other interesting result is the fact that we were able to distinguish signals for all bases using this electrode.

  1. Modified Gold Electrode and Hollow Mn3O4 Nanoparticles as Electrode Materials for Microbial Fuel Cell Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungana, Pramod

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology has attracted great attention in the scientific community as it offers the possibility of extraction of electricity from wide range of soluble and dissolved organic waste or renewable biomass, including sludge, waste water and cellulosic biomass. Microbial fuel cells are devices that utilize microbial metabolic processes to convert chemical energy via the oxidation of organic substances to produce electric current. MFCs consist of two chambers, an anode and cathode, separated by ion-permeable materials. The efficiency of producing electricity using the MFC depends on several factors such as immobilization of microorganisms on anode, mode of electron transfer, types of substrate/fuel and effectiveness of cathode materials for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In this work, in order to immobilize the microorganisms on anode materials, we have investigated the surface modification of gold electrode (anode) using alkyl dithiol and aryl thiol with glucose. The modification processes were characterized by using contact angle measurements and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In order to study the effectiveness of cathode materials for ORR, we have synthesized hollow Mn3O 4 nanoparticles which are electrically very poor. Therefore, the hollow nanoparticles were mixed with electrically conductive multi-walled carbon nanotube as support and optimized the mixing process. This composite material shows enhanced ORR activity in all types of pH conditions. In future, we will focus to integrate anode and cathode in MFC to check its efficiency to produce electricity.

  2. Influence of carbon coating on the electrochemical performance of {lambda}-MnO{sub 2} electrode for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malak-Polaczyk, A. [Poznan Univ. of Technology (Poland). Inst. of Chemistry and Technical Electrochemistry; CNRS LRC, Mulhouse (France). Inst. de Sciences des Materiaux de Mulhouse; Vix-Guterl, C. [CNRS LRC, Mulhouse (France). Inst. de Sciences des Materiaux de Mulhouse; Frackowiak, E. [Poznan Univ. of Technology (Poland). Inst. of Chemistry and Technical Electrochemistry

    2010-07-01

    In the present study carbon-coated {lambda}-MnO{sub 2} electrodes were prepared by a simple route. In the first step sugar was pyrolyzed to form a carbon coating on the commercial spinel LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}. As-prepared materials were acid treated which resulted in the formation of {lambda}-MnO{sub 2} coated with carbon. Physical properties, morphology and specific surface area of electrode materials were studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and X-ray diffraction and nitrogen sorption measurements. Voltammetry cycling, galvanostatic charge/discharge and impedance spectroscopy measurements performed in two and three electrode cells have been applied in order to measure electrochemical parameters. Neutral Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous solution has been selected for electrolytic medium. SEM images confirmed well dispersed carbon particles on the surface of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel. As a result of charge/discharge measurements, electrode with carbon coating showed smaller decrease of capacity at higher current and kept the value of 100Fg{sup -1} at 1Ag{sup -1}. (orig.)

  3. Emerging Prototype Sodium-Ion Full Cells with Nanostructured Electrode Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wenhao; Zhu, Zixuan; An, Qinyou; Mai, Liqiang

    2017-06-01

    Due to steadily increasing energy consumption, the demand of renewable energy sources is more urgent than ever. Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have emerged as a cost-effective alternative because of the earth abundance of Na resources and their competitive electrochemical behaviors. Before practical application, it is essential to establish a bridge between the sodium half-cell and the commercial battery from a full cell perspective. An overview of the major challenges, most recent advances, and outlooks of non-aqueous and aqueous sodium-ion full cells (SIFCs) is presented. Considering the intimate relationship between SIFCs and electrode materials, including structure, composition and mutual matching principle, both the advance of various prototype SIFCs and the electrochemistry development of nanostructured electrode materials are reviewed. It is noted that a series of SIFCs combined with layered oxides and hard carbon are capable of providing a high specific gravimetric energy above 200 Wh kg -1 , and an NaCrO 2 //hard carbon full cell is able to deliver a high rate capability over 100 C. To achieve industrialization of SIBs, more systematic work should focus on electrode construction, component compatibility, and battery technologies. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Imprinted zeolite modified carbon paste electrode as a potentiometric sensor for uric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanah, Miratul; Widati, Alfa Akustia; Fitri, Sarita Aulia

    2016-03-01

    Imprinted zeolite modified carbon paste electrode (carbon paste-IZ) has been developed and applied to determine uric acid by potentiometry. The imprinted zeolite (IZ) was synthesized by the mole ratio of uric acid/Si of 0.0306. The modified electrode was manufactured by mass ratio of carbon, IZ and solid paraffin was 40:25:35. The modified electrode had shown the measurement range of 10-5 M to 10-2 M with Nernst factor of 28.6 mV/decade, the detection limit of 5.86 × 10-6 M and the accuracy of 95.3 - 105.0%. Response time of the electrode for uric acid 10-5 M - 10-2 M was 25 - 44 s. The developed electrode showed the high selectivity toward uric acid in the urea matrix. Life time of the carbon paste-IZ electrode was 10 weeks.

  5. Fabrication and electrochemical behavior of single-walled carbon nanotube/graphite-based electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghaddam, Abdolmajid Bayandori; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Razavi, Taherehsadat; Riahi, Siavash; Rezaei-Zarchi, Saeed; Norouzi, Parviz

    2009-01-01

    An electrochemical method for determining the dihydroxybenzene derivatives on glassy carbon (GC) has been developed. In this method, the performance of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/graphite-based electrode, prepared by mixing SWCNTs and graphite powder, was described. The resulting electrode shows an excellent behavior for redox of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DBA). SWCNT/graphite-based electrode presents a significant decrease in the overvoltage for DBA oxidation as well as a dramatic improvement in the reversibility of DBA redox behavior in comparison with graphite-based and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) procedures performed for used SWCNTs

  6. Electrochemical oxidation of butein at glassy carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesio, Alvaro Yamil; Robledo, Sebastián Noel; Fernández, Héctor; Zon, María Alicia

    2013-06-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of flavonoid butein is studied at glassy carbon electrodes in phosphate and citrate buffer solutions of different pH values, and 1M perchloric acid aqueous solutions by cyclic and square wave voltammetries. The oxidation peak corresponds to the 2e(-), 2H(+) oxidation of the 3,4-dihydroxy group in B ring of butein, given the corresponding quinone species. The overall electrode process shows a quasi-reversible behavior and an adsorption/diffusion mixed control at high butein bulk concentrations. At low butein concentrations, the electrode process shows mainly an adsorption control. Butein surface concentration values were obtained from the charge associated with the adsorbed butein oxidation peaks, which are in agreement with those values expected for the formation of a monolayer of adsorbate in the concentration range from 1 to 5μM. Square wave voltammetry was used to perform a full thermodynamic and kinetics characterization of the butein surface redox couple. Therefore, from the combination of the "quasi-reversible maximum" and the "splitting of the net square wave voltammetric peak" methods, values of (0.386±0.003) V, (0.46±0.04), and 2.7×10(2)s(-1) were calculated for the formal potential, the anodic transfer coefficient, and the formal rate constant, respectively, of the butein overall surface redox process in pH4.00 citrate buffer solutions. These results will be then used to study the interaction of butein, and other flavonoids with the deoxyribonucleic acid, in order to better understand the potential therapeutic applications of these compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Nanoscale Electrochemistry of sp(2) Carbon Materials: From Graphite and Graphene to Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Patrick R; Güell, Aleix G; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-09-20

    Carbon materials have a long history of use as electrodes in electrochemistry, from (bio)electroanalysis to applications in energy technologies, such as batteries and fuel cells. With the advent of new forms of nanocarbon, particularly, carbon nanotubes and graphene, carbon electrode materials have taken on even greater significance for electrochemical studies, both in their own right and as components and supports in an array of functional composites. With the increasing prominence of carbon nanomaterials in electrochemistry comes a need to critically evaluate the experimental framework from which a microscopic understanding of electrochemical processes is best developed. This Account advocates the use of emerging electrochemical imaging techniques and confined electrochemical cell formats that have considerable potential to reveal major new perspectives on the intrinsic electrochemical activity of carbon materials, with unprecedented detail and spatial resolution. These techniques allow particular features on a surface to be targeted and models of structure-activity to be developed and tested on a wide range of length scales and time scales. When high resolution electrochemical imaging data are combined with information from other microscopy and spectroscopy techniques applied to the same area of an electrode surface, in a correlative-electrochemical microscopy approach, highly resolved and unambiguous pictures of electrode activity are revealed that provide new views of the electrochemical properties of carbon materials. With a focus on major sp(2) carbon materials, graphite, graphene, and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), this Account summarizes recent advances that have changed understanding of interfacial electrochemistry at carbon electrodes including: (i) Unequivocal evidence for the high activity of the basal surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), which is at least as active as noble metal electrodes (e.g., platinum) for outer

  8. A top-down approach for fabricating free-standing bio-carbon supercapacitor electrodes with a hierarchical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingzhi; Zhang, Qinghua; Zhang, Junxian; Jin, Lei; Zhao, Xin; Xu, Ting

    2015-09-23

    Biomass has delicate hierarchical structures, which inspired us to develop a cost-effective route to prepare electrode materials with rational nanostructures for use in high-performance storage devices. Here, we demonstrate a novel top-down approach for fabricating bio-carbon materials with stable structures and excellent diffusion pathways; this approach is based on carbonization with controlled chemical activation. The developed free-standing bio-carbon electrode exhibits a high specific capacitance of 204 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1); good rate capability, as indicated by the residual initial capacitance of 85.5% at 10 A g(-1); and a long cycle life. These performance characteristics are attributed to the outstanding hierarchical structures of the electrode material. Appropriate carbonization conditions enable the bio-carbon materials to inherit the inherent hierarchical texture of the original biomass, thereby facilitating effective channels for fast ion transfer. The macropores and mesopores that result from chemical activation significantly increase the specific surface area and also play the role of temporary ion-buffering reservoirs, further shortening the ionic diffusion distance.

  9. Binder-free manganese oxide/carbon nanomaterials thin film electrode for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Wu, Chuxin; Li, Jiaxin; Dong, Guofa; Guan, Lunhui

    2011-11-01

    A ternary thin film electrode was created by coating manganese oxide onto a network composed of single-walled carbon nanotubes and single-walled carbon nanohorns. The electrode exhibited a porous structure, which is a promising architecture for supercapacitors applications. The maximum specific capacitances of 357 F/g for total electrode at 1 A/g were achieved in 0.1 M Na(2)SO(4) aqueous solution.

  10. Investigation of supercapacitors with carbon electrodes obtained from argon-acetylene arc plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Kavaliauskas, Žydrūnas

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation examines topics related to the formation of supercapacitors using plasma technology and their analysis. Plasma spray technology was used to form supercapacitors electrodes. Carbon was deposited on stainless steel surface using the atmospheric pressure argon-acetylene plasma. The deposition of nickel oxide on the surface of carbon electrodes was made using magnetron sputtering method. The influence of acetylene amount to the supercapacitors electrodes and the electrical charac...

  11. Thermal Stabilization of Enzymes Immobilized within Carbon Paste Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Liu, J; Cepra, G

    1997-08-01

    In this note we report on the remarkable thermal stabilization of enzymes immobilized in carbon paste electrodes. Amperometric biosensors are shown for the first time to withstand a prolonged high-temperature (>50 °C) stress. Nearly full activity of glucose oxidase is retained over periods of up to 4 months of thermal stress at 60-80 °C. Dramatic improvements in the thermostability are observed for polyphenol oxidase, lactate oxidase, alcohol oxidase, horseradish peroxidase, and amino acid oxidase. Such resistance to heat-induced denaturation is attributed to the conformational rigidity of these biocatalysts within the highly hydrophobic (mineral oil or silicone grease) pasting liquid. While no chemical stabilizer is needed for attaining such protective action, it appears that low humidity (i.e., low water content) is essential for minimizing the protein mobility. Besides their implications for electrochemical biosensors, such observations should lead to a new generation of thermoresistant enzyme reactors based on nonpolar semisolid supports.

  12. Evaluation on carbon nanocapsules for supercapacitors using a titanium cavity electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Cheng-Yeou; Wu, Pu-Wei; Lin, Pang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University Hsin-Chu 300 (China)

    2010-08-01

    We synthesize carbon nanocapsules (CNCs) by a flame combustion method and evaluate their potential as the electrode material for electrochemical double layer capacitor using a titanium cavity electrode (TCE). Identical process is conducted on commercially available carbonaceous materials such as Vulcan XC72R, Black Pearl 2000 (BP2000), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and active carbon (AC1100) for comparison purposes. Images from Scanning electron microscope and Transmission electron microscope on the CNCs demonstrate irregular-shaped particles in average size of 10-20 nm with graphene layers on perimeter compassing a hollow core. Electrochemical characterizations including cyclic voltammetry (CV), current reversal chronopotentiometry (CRC), and impedance spectroscopy are carried out in 1N H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} to determine the specific capacitance and cycle life time. Among these samples, the BP2000 still delivers the highest specific capacitance in F g{sup -1} but the CNCs demonstrate the largest value in {mu}F cm{sup 2}. In addition, the CNCs exhibit impressive life time for 5000 cycles without notable degradation. Consistent results are obtained by CV, CRC, and impedance measurements, validating the TCE as a facile tool to perform reliable electrochemical evaluations. (author)

  13. Modified glassy carbon electrodes based on carbon nanostructures for ultrasensitive electrochemical determination of furazolidone.</