WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon dioxide production

  1. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

    2014-09-30

    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  2. Carbon dioxide production in animal houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Joergensen, H.

    2008-01-01

    cellars are emptied regularly in a four weeks interval. Due to a high and variable carbon dioxide production in deep straw litter houses and houses with indoor storage of manure longer than four weeks, we do not recommend to calculate the ventilation flow based on the carbon dioxide concentration......This article deals with carbon dioxide production from farm animals; more specifically, it addresses the possibilities of using the measured carbon dioxide concentration in animal houses as basis for estimation of ventilation flow (as the ventilation flow is a key parameter of aerial emissions from...... animal houses). The investigations include measurements in respiration chambers and in animal houses, mainly for growing pigs and broilers. Over the last decade a fixed carbon dioxide production of 185 litres per hour per heat production unit, hpu (i.e. 1000 W of the total animal heat production at 20o...

  3. Photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberoglu, Halil

    Photobiological hydrogen production is an alternative to thermochemical and electrolytic technologies with the advantage of carbon dioxide sequestration. However, it suffers from low solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency due to limited light transfer, mass transfer, and nutrient medium composition. The present study aims at addressing these limitations and can be divided in three parts: (1) experimental measurements of the radiation characteristics of hydrogen producing and carbon dioxide consuming microorganisms, (2) solar radiation transfer modeling and simulation in photobioreactors, and (3) parametric experiments of photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration. First, solar radiation transfer in photobioreactors containing microorganisms and bubbles was modeled using the radiative transport equation (RTE) and solved using the modified method of characteristics. The study concluded that Beer-Lambert's law gives inaccurate results and anisotropic scattering must be accounted for to predict the local irradiance inside a photobioreactor. The need for accurate measurement of the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms was established. Then, experimental setup and analysis methods for measuring the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms have been developed and successfully validated experimentally. A database of the radiation characteristics of representative microorganisms have been created including the cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis, the purple non-sulfur bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides and the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii along with its three genetically engineered strains. This enabled, for the first time, quantitative assessment of the effect of genetic engineering on the radiation characteristics of microorganisms. In addition, a parametric experimental study has been performed to model the growth, CO2 consumption, and H 2 production of Anabaena variabilis as functions of

  4. Production and emission of methane and carbon dioxide by ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouinard, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Animal digestion is responsible for the production of both carbon dioxide and methane, while breathing produces only carbon dioxide. The author described the digestion mechanism of ruminants, explaining that they produce higher levels of methane and carbon dioxide than other animals. Fermentation stoichiometry of ruminants was also discussed along with the influence that diet has on methane production. It was noted that methane production can be decreased by increasing animal productivity, or by using ionophore antibiotics and long chain fatty acids. Test results from each of these methods have revealed side effects and none appears to be applicable for the time being. 10 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  5. Beneficial Use of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Yixin [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2014-06-26

    The feasibility of using carbon dioxide as feedstock in precast concrete production is studied. Carbon dioxide reacts with calcium compounds in concrete, producing solid calcium carbonates in binding matrix. Two typical precast products are examined for their capacity to store carbon dioxide during the production. They are concrete blocks and fiber-cement panels. The two products are currently mass produced and cured by steam. Carbon dioxide can be used to replace steam in curing process to accelerate early strength, improve the long-term durability and reduce energy and emission. For a reaction within a 24-hour process window, the theoretical maximum possible carbon uptake in concrete is found to be 29% based on cement mass in the product. To reach the maximum uptake, a special process is developed to promote the reaction efficiency to 60-80% in 4-hour carbon dioxide curing and improve the resistance to freeze-thaw cycling and sulfate ion attack. The process is also optimized to meet the project target of $10/tCO2 in carbon utilization. By the use of self-concentrating absorption technology, high purity CO2 can be produced at a price below $40/t. With low cost CO2 capture and utilization technologies, it is feasible to establish a network for carbon capture and utilization at the vicinity of carbon sources. If all block produces and panel producers in United States could adopt carbon dioxide process in their production in place of steam, carbon utilization in these two markets alone could consume more than 2 Mt CO2/year. This capture and utilization process can be extended to more precast products and will continue for years to come.

  6. Sequestration of carbon dioxide with hydrogen to useful products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Michael W. W.; Kelly, Robert M.; Hawkins, Aaron B.; Menon, Angeli Lal; Lipscomb, Gina Lynette Pries; Schut, Gerrit Jan

    2017-03-07

    Provided herein are genetically engineered microbes that include at least a portion of a carbon fixation pathway, and in one embodiment, use molecular hydrogen to drive carbon dioxide fixation. In one embodiment, the genetically engineered microbe is modified to convert acetyl CoA, molecular hydrogen, and carbon dioxide to 3-hydroxypropionate, 4-hydroxybutyrate, acetyl CoA, or the combination thereof at levels greater than a control microbe. Other products may also be produced. Also provided herein are cell free compositions that convert acetyl CoA, molecular hydrogen, and carbon dioxide to 3-hydroxypropionate, 4-hydroxybutyrate, acetyl CoA, or the combination thereof. Also provided herein are methods of using the genetically engineered microbes and the cell free compositions.

  7. Production of Solar Fuels by Photoelectrochemical Conversion of Carbon Dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Irtem, Ibrahim Erdem

    2017-01-01

    Growing global emission of carbon dioxide gas (CO2) reflects the world’s energy dependence on fossil fuels. The conversion of CO2 emission into value-added products, like fuels completes a circular CO2 economy which requires a renewable energy conversion and storage system. Amongst a few, photo/electrochemistry has been particularly appealing thanks to its energy efficiency and enormous potential for industrial applications. Formic acid (HCOOH) production from CO2 reduction appears as an al...

  8. Carbon dioxide production during mechanical ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Söderberg, D; Groth, T

    1987-01-01

    studied CO2 production (VCO2) and oxygen consumption (VO2) in mechanically ventilated ICU patients, where CO2 stores were altered by: a) changing minute ventilation by 15%, b) reducing body temperature, and c) changing the level of sedation. Expired gases went through a mixing chamber and were analyzed...

  9. Production of precipitated calcium carbonate from calcium silicates and carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teir, Sebastian; Eloneva, Sanni; Zevenhoven, Ron

    2005-01-01

    The possibilities for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the pulp and paper industry by calcium carbonation are presented. The current precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) production uses mined, crushed calcium carbonate as raw materials. If calcium silicates were used instead, carbon dioxide emissions from the calcination of carbonates would be eliminated. In Finland, there could, thus, be a potential for eliminating 200 kt of carbon dioxide emissions per year, considering only the PCC used in the pulp and paper industry. A preliminary investigation of the feasibility to produce PCC from calcium silicates and the potential to replace calcium carbonate as the raw material was made. Calcium carbonate can be manufactured from calcium silicates by various methods, but only a few have been experimentally verified. The possibility and feasibility of these methods as a replacement for the current PCC production process was studied by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations using HSC software and process modelling using Aspen Plus[reg]. The results from the process modelling showed that a process that uses acetic acid for extraction of the calcium ions is a high potential option for sequestering carbon dioxide by mineral carbonation. The main obstacle seems to be the limited availability and relatively high price of wollastonite, which is a mineral with high calcium silicate content. An alternative is to use the more common, but also more complex, basalt rock instead

  10. Regional carbon dioxide implications of forest bioenergy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudiburg, Tara W.; Law, Beverly E.; Wirth, Christian; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan

    2011-01-01

    Strategies for reducing carbon dioxide emissions include substitution of fossil fuel with bioenergy from forests, where carbon emitted is expected to be recaptured in the growth of new biomass to achieve zero net emissions, and forest thinning to reduce wildfire emissions. Here, we use forest

  11. Method of carbon dioxide-free hydrogen production from hydrocarbon decomposition over metal salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlebacher, Jonah; Gaskey, Bernard

    2017-10-03

    A process to decompose methane into carbon (graphitic powder) and hydrogen (H.sub.2 gas) without secondary production of carbon dioxide, employing a cycle in which a secondary chemical is recycled and reused, is disclosed.

  12. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations amplify Alternaria alternata sporulation and total antigen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Although the association between rising levels of carbon dioxide, the principle anthropogenic greenhouse gas, and pollen production has been established, few data are available regarding the function of rising carbon dioxide on quantitative or qualitative changes in allergenic fungal sp...

  13. Driving factors behind carbon dioxide emissions in China: A modified production-theoretical decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qunwei; Chiu, Yung-Ho; Chiu, Ching-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Research on the driving factors behind carbon dioxide emission changes in China can inform better carbon emission reduction policies and help develop a low-carbon economy. As one of important methods, production-theoretical decomposition analysis (PDA) has been widely used to understand these driving factors. To avoid the infeasibility issue in solving the linear programming, this study proposed a modified PDA approach to decompose carbon dioxide emission changes into seven drivers. Using 2005–2010 data, the study found that economic development was the largest factor of increasing carbon dioxide emissions. The second factor was energy structure (reflecting potential carbon), and the third factor was low energy efficiency. Technological advances, energy intensity reductions, and carbon dioxide emission efficiency improvements were the negative driving factors reducing carbon dioxide emission growth rates. Carbon dioxide emissions and driving factors varied significantly across east, central and west China. - Highlights: • A modified PDA used to decompose carbon dioxide emission changes into seven drivers. • Two models were proposed to ameliorate the infeasible occasions. • Economic development was the largest factor of increasing CO_2 emissions in China.

  14. Early Age Carbonation Heat and Products of Tricalcium Silicate Paste Subject to Carbon Dioxide Curing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the carbonation reaction heat and products of tricalcium silicate (C3S paste exposed to carbon dioxide (CO2 for rapid curing. Reaction heat was measured using a retrofitted micro-calorimeter. The highest heat flow of a C3S paste subject to carbonation curing was 200 times higher than that by hydration, and the cumulative heat released by carbonation was three times higher. The compressive strength of a C3S paste carbonated for 2 h and 24 h was 27.5 MPa and 62.9 MPa, respectively. The 24-h carbonation strength had exceeded the hydration strength at 28 days. The CO2 uptake of a C3S paste carbonated for 2 h and 24 h was 17% and 26%, respectively. The X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive spectrometer (TEM-EDS, and 29Si magic angle spinning–nuclear magnetic resonance (29Si MAS-NMR results showed that the products of a carbonated C3S paste were amorphous silica (SiO2 and calcite crystal. There was no trace of calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H or other polymorphs of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 detected.

  15. Methane and carbon dioxide ratio in excreted air for quantification of the methane production from ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jørgen; Bjerg, Bjarne Schmidt; Hvelplund, Torben

    2010-01-01

    This technical note presents a simple, fast, reliable and cheap method to estimate the methane (CH4) production from animals by using the CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in air near the animals combined with an estimation of the total CO2 production from information on intake of metab......This technical note presents a simple, fast, reliable and cheap method to estimate the methane (CH4) production from animals by using the CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in air near the animals combined with an estimation of the total CO2 production from information on intake...

  16. The kinetics of steam-carbon dioxide conversion, rational ways and production catalysts of process gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamroev, F.B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to study the kinetics of steam-carbon dioxide conversion, rational ways and production catalysts of process gas. The experimental equation of steam-carbon methane conversion, heat stability increasing and catalyst efficiency, decreasing of hydrodynamical resistance of catalyst layer were determined.

  17. Deposition of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In Norway, there is currently a debate about whether or not to build gas power stations. To meet the possibility of reduced emission quotas for carbon dioxide in the future, current interest focuses on the incorporation of large-scale separation and deposition of carbon dioxide when such plants are planned. A group of experts concludes that this technology will become self-financing by means of environmental taxes. From the environmental point of view, taxes upon production are to be preferred over taxes on consumption

  18. Carbon Dioxide Sensor Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    second gas permeable membrane separates a compartment containing the non-aqueous " solvent dimethylsulfoxide , ( DMSO ), from the aqueous solution...compartment. In DMSO carbon dioxide can be irreversibly reduced electrochemically to * non-interfering products...current due to its reduction in the DMSO solution is proportional to the partial pressure of CO2 in the gas phase. Overall, the linear response and

  19. Balancing atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goreau, T.J. (Discovery Bay Marine Laboratory, Univ. of the West Indies (JM))

    1990-01-01

    Rising carbon dioxide and global temperatures are causing increasing worldwide concern, and pressure towards an international law of the atmosphere is rapidly escalating, yet widespread misconceptions about the greenhouse effect's inevitability, time scale, and causes have inhibited effective consensus and action. Observations from Antarctic ice cores, Amazonian rain forests, and Carribean coral reefs suggest that the biological effects of climate change may be more severe than climate models predict. Efforts to limit emissions from fossil-fuel combustion alone are incapable of stabilizing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Stabilizing atmospheric carbon dioxide requires coupled measures to balance sources and sinks of the gas, and will only be viable with large-scale investments in increased sustainable productivity on degraded tropical soils, and in long-term research on renewable energy and biomass product development in the developing countries. A mechanism is outlined which directly links fossil-fuel combustion sources of carbon dioxide to removal via increasing biotic productivity and storage. A preliminary cost-benefit analysis suggests that such measures are very affordable, costing far less than inaction. (With 88 refs.).

  20. Balancing atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goreau, T J [Discovery Bay Marine Laboratory, Univ. of the West Indies (JM)

    1990-01-01

    Rising carbon dioxide and global temperatures are causing increasing worldwide concern, and pressure towards an international law of the atmosphere is rapidly escalating, yet widespread misconceptions about the greenhouse effect's inevitability, time scale, and causes have inhibited effective consensus and action. Observations from Antarctic ice cores, Amazonian rain forests, and Carribean coral reefs suggest that the biological effects of climate change may be more severe than climate models predict. Efforts to limit emissions from fossil-fuel combustion alone are incapable of stabilizing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Stabilizing atmospheric carbon dioxide requires coupled measures to balance sources and sinks of the gas, and will only be viable with large-scale investments in increased sustainable productivity on degraded tropical soils, and in long-term research on renewable energy and biomass product development in the developing countries. A mechanism is outlined which directly links fossil-fuel combustion sources of carbon dioxide to removal via increasing biotic productivity and storage. A preliminary cost-benefit analysis suggests that such measures are very affordable, costing far less than inaction. (With 88 refs.).

  1. Economic Evaluations for the Carbon Dioxide-involved Production of High-value Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Woog; Jang, Se Gyu; Kwak, No-Sang; Lee, In Young; Jang, Kyung Ryoung; Shim, Jae-Goo [KEPCO Research Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jong Shin [Korea East-West Power Co. LTD, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Economic evaluation of the manufacturing technology of high-value chemicals through the carbonation reaction of carbon dioxide contained in the flue gas was performed, and analysis of the IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and whole profit along the production plan of the final product was conducted. Through a carbonation reaction with sodium hydroxide that is generated from electrolysis and by using carbon dioxide in the combustion gas that is generated in the power plant, it is possible to get a high value products such as sodium bicarbonate compound and also to reduce the carbon dioxide emission simultaneously. The IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and NPV (Net Present Value) methods were used for the economic evaluation of the process which could handle carbon dioxide of 100 tons per day in the period of the 20 years of plant operation. The results of economic evaluation showed that the IRR of baseline case of technology was 67.2% and the profit that obtained during the whole operation period (20 years) was 346,922 million won based on NPV value. When considering ETS due to the emissions trading enforcement that will be activated in 2015, the NPV was improved to a 6,000 million won. Based on this results, it could be concluded that this CO2 carbonation technology is an cost-effective technology option for the reduction of greenhouse gas.

  2. Economic Evaluations for the Carbon Dioxide-involved Production of High-value Chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Woog; Jang, Se Gyu; Kwak, No-Sang; Lee, In Young; Jang, Kyung Ryoung; Shim, Jae-Goo; Choi, Jong Shin

    2014-01-01

    Economic evaluation of the manufacturing technology of high-value chemicals through the carbonation reaction of carbon dioxide contained in the flue gas was performed, and analysis of the IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and whole profit along the production plan of the final product was conducted. Through a carbonation reaction with sodium hydroxide that is generated from electrolysis and by using carbon dioxide in the combustion gas that is generated in the power plant, it is possible to get a high value products such as sodium bicarbonate compound and also to reduce the carbon dioxide emission simultaneously. The IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and NPV (Net Present Value) methods were used for the economic evaluation of the process which could handle carbon dioxide of 100 tons per day in the period of the 20 years of plant operation. The results of economic evaluation showed that the IRR of baseline case of technology was 67.2% and the profit that obtained during the whole operation period (20 years) was 346,922 million won based on NPV value. When considering ETS due to the emissions trading enforcement that will be activated in 2015, the NPV was improved to a 6,000 million won. Based on this results, it could be concluded that this CO2 carbonation technology is an cost-effective technology option for the reduction of greenhouse gas

  3. Sequestration of carbon dioxide and production of biomolecules using cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upendar, Ganta; Singh, Sunita; Chakrabarty, Jitamanyu; Chandra Ghanta, Kartik; Dutta, Susmita; Dutta, Abhishek

    2018-07-15

    A cyanobacterial strain, Synechococcus sp. NIT18, has been applied to sequester CO 2 using sodium carbonate as inorganic carbon source due to its efficiency of CO 2 bioconversion and high biomass production. The biomass obtained is used for the extraction of biomolecules - protein, carbohydrate and lipid. The main objective of the study is to maximize the biomass and biomolecules production with CO 2 sequestration using cyanobacterial strain cultivated under different concentrations of CO 2 (5-20%), pH (7-11) and inoculum size (5-12.5%) within a statistical framework. Maximum sequestration of CO 2 and maximum productivities of protein, carbohydrate and lipid are 71.02%, 4.9 mg/L/day, 6.7 mg/L/day and 1.6 mg/L/day respectively, at initial CO 2 concentration: 10%, pH: 9 and inoculum size: 12.5%. Since flue gas contains 10-15% CO 2 and the present strain is able to sequester CO 2 in this range, the strain could be considered as a useful tool for CO 2 mitigation for greener world. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sintering uranium oxide in the reaction product of hydrogen-carbon dioxide mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Hollander, W.R.; Nivas, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Compacted pellets of uranium oxide alone or containing one or more additives such as plutonium dioxide, gadolinium oxide, titanium dioxide, silica, and alumina are heated to 900 to 1599 0 C in the presence of a mixture of hydrogen and carbon dioxide, either alone or with an inert carrier gas and held at the desired temperature in this atmosphere to sinter the pellets. The sintered pellets are then cooled in an atmosphere having an oxygen partial pressure of 10 -4 to 10 -18 atm of oxygen such as dry hydrogen, wet hydrogen, dry carbon monoxide, wet carbon monoxide, inert gases such as nitrogen, argon, helium, and neon and mixtures of ayny of the foregoing including a mixture of hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The ratio of hydrogen to carbon dioxide in the gas mixture fed to the furnace is controlled to give a ratio of oxygen to uranium atoms in the sintered particles within the range of 1.98:1 to about 2.10:1. The water vapor present in the reaction products in the furnace atmosphere acts as a hydrolysis agent to aid removal of fluoride should such impurity be present in the uranium oxide. (U.S.)

  5. Study on the production of alternative fuels by carbon dioxide hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Kyu Sung; Han, Sang Do; Kim, Jong Won; Kim, Youn Soon; Seo, Ji Mi [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The technologies of the fuel production from carbon dioxide by catalytic hydrogenation were surveyed. For the catalytic hydrogenation we made the lab-scale reaction apparatus and carried out some experiments with various catalysts like CuO/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Raney nickel and other commercial catalysts. In this year, the third year of the project, the experiments to find optimum catalysts and obtain the good conditions of carbon dioxide were performed followed by second year. And also the processes of the methanol synthesis was investigated simultaneously. (author). 58 refs., 58 figs., 28 tabs.

  6. Methane production by Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus to recover energy from carbon dioxide sequestered in geological reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Hideo; Sakuma, Takahiro; Nakata, Yuiko; Kobayashi, Hajime; Endo, Keita; Sato, Kozo

    2010-07-01

    To recover energy from carbon dioxide sequestered in geological reservoirs, the geochemical effects of acidic and substrate- and nutrient-limiting conditions on methane production by the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus were investigated in a simulated deep saline aquifer environment using formation water media retrieved from petroleum reservoirs. 2009 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Process and reactor for the production of hydrogen and carbon dioxide and a fuel cell system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for the production of hydrogen and carbon dioxide from a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock, comprising: a) supplying a gaseous hydrocarbonaceous feedstock and steam to a reaction zone comprising a steam reforming catalyst and catalytically reforming the hydrocarbonaceous

  8. Prediction of supercritical carbon dioxide drying of food products in packed beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida-Rivera, C.; Khalloufi, S.; Bongers, P.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Drying assisted by supercritical carbon dioxide is foreseen to become a promising technology for sensitive food products. In this contribution, a mathematical model is derived to describe the changes in water concentration in both a solid food matrix and a fluid carrier during drying. Finite

  9. Residual monomer reduction in polymer latex products by extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, M.; Meuldijk, J.; Kemmere, M.F.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of residual monomer from a latex product with supercritical carbon dioxide ((sc)CO2) in a column was studied. Operating conditions were chosen at 35¿°C and 100 bar. For reducing the residual styrene level in a polystyrene latex from 104 ppm to 100¿ppm and from 104 ppm to 10¿ppm, a

  10. Soil Carbon Dioxide Production and Surface Fluxes: Subsurface Physical Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk, D.; Kellman, L.; Beltrami, H.

    Soil respiration is a critical determinant of landscape carbon balance. Variations in soil temperature and moisture patterns are important physical processes controlling soil respiration which need to be better understood. Relationships between soil respi- ration and physical controls are typically addressed using only surface flux data but other methods also exist which permit more rigorous interpretation of soil respira- tion processes. Here we use a combination of subsurface CO_{2} concentrations, surface CO_{2} fluxes and detailed physical monitoring of the subsurface envi- ronment to examine physical controls on soil CO_{2} production at four climate observatories in Eastern Canada. Results indicate that subsurface CO_{2} produc- tion is more strongly correlated to the subsurface thermal environment than the surface CO_{2} flux. Soil moisture was also found to have an important influence on sub- surface CO_{2} production, particularly in relation to the soil moisture - soil profile diffusivity relationship. Non-diffusive profile CO_{2} transport appears to be im- portant at these sites, resulting in a de-coupling of summertime surface fluxes from subsurface processes and violating assumptions that surface CO_{2} emissions are the result solely of diffusion. These results have implications for the study of soil respiration across a broad range of terrestrial environments.

  11. Methanation of Carbon Dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, Daniel Jacob

    2013-01-01

    The emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere has been linked to global warming. Carbon dioxide's (CO2) one of the most abundant greenhouse gases. Natural gas, mainly methane, is the cleanest fossil fuel for electricity production helping meet the United States ever growing energy needs. The methanation of CO2 has the potential to address both of these problems if a catalyst can be developed that meets the activity, economic and environmental requirements to industrialize the process. ...

  12. Extraction of Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen from Seawater and Hydrocarbon Production Therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    acidification of seawater by subjecting the seawater to an ion exchange reaction to exchange H.sup. ions for Na.sup. ions. Carbon dioxide may be...extracted from the acidified seawater. Optionally, the ion exchange reaction can be conducted under conditions which produce hydrogen as well as carbon dioxide . The carbon dioxide and hydrogen may be used to produce hydrocarbons.

  13. Characterization of carbon dioxide concentrating chemolithotrophic bacterium Serratia sp. ISTD04 for production of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Morya, Raj; Gnansounou, Edgard; Larroche, Christian; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2017-11-01

    Proteomics and metabolomics analysis has become a powerful tool for characterization of microbial ability for fixation of Carbon dioxide. Bacterial community of palaeoproterozoic metasediments was enriched in the shake flask culture in the presence of NaHCO 3 . One of the isolate showed resistance to NaHCO 3 (100mM) and was identified as Serratia sp. ISTD04 by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Carbon dioxide fixing ability of the bacterium was established by carbonic anhydrase enzyme assay along with proteomic analysis by LC-MS/MS. In proteomic analysis 96 proteins were identified out of these 6 protein involved in carbon dioxide fixation, 11 in fatty acid metabolism, indicating the carbon dioxide fixing potency of bacterium along with production of biofuel. GC-MS analysis revealed that hydrocarbons and FAMEs produced by bacteria within the range of C 13 -C 24 and C 11 -C 19 respectively. Presence of 59% saturated and 41% unsaturated organic compounds, make it a better fuel composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Production of long chain alkyl esters from carbon dioxide and electricity by a two-stage bacterial process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Tapio; Efimova, Elena; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Santala, Suvi; Zhang, Tian; Santala, Ville

    2017-11-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) is a promising technology for the reduction of carbon dioxide into value-added multicarbon molecules. In order to broaden the product profile of MES processes, we developed a two-stage process for microbial conversion of carbon dioxide and electricity into long chain alkyl esters. In the first stage, the carbon dioxide is reduced to organic compounds, mainly acetate, in a MES process by Sporomusa ovata. In the second stage, the liquid end-products of the MES process are converted to the final product by a second microorganism, Acinetobacter baylyi in an aerobic bioprocess. In this proof-of-principle study, we demonstrate for the first time the bacterial production of long alkyl esters (wax esters) from carbon dioxide and electricity as the sole sources of carbon and energy. The process holds potential for the efficient production of carbon-neutral chemicals or biofuels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Experiment Plan of High Temperature Steam and Carbon dioxide Co-electrolysis for Synthetic Gas Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Duk-Joo; Ko, Jae-Hwa

    2008-01-01

    Currently, Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) come into the spotlight in the middle of the energy technologies of the future for highly effective conversion of fossil fuels into electricity without carbon dioxide emission. The SOFC is a reversible cell. By applying electrical power to the cell, which is solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC), it is possible to produce synthetic gas (syngas) from high temperature steam and carbon dioxide. The produced syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) can be used for synthetic fuels. This SOEC technology can use high temperature from VHTRs for high efficiency. This paper describes KEPRI's experiment plan of high temperature steam and carbon co-electrolysis for syngas production using SOEC technology

  16. Microbial electrosynthesis for acetate production from carbon dioxide: innovative biocatalysts leading to enhanced performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aryal, Nabin

    Production of chemicals has significant influence on the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) in particular carbon dioxide (CO2), thereby contributing to the climate changes of our planet. There is a general acceptance that we need to reduce the emission of GHG on a global level to cope with these ......Production of chemicals has significant influence on the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) in particular carbon dioxide (CO2), thereby contributing to the climate changes of our planet. There is a general acceptance that we need to reduce the emission of GHG on a global level to cope...... with these changes. Production of chemicals utilization of CO2 as feedstock represents a sustainable alternative to many fossil derived products, which are non-renewable and have a strong negative impact on the environment. Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) is an emerging technique utilizing electrical energy...

  17. Elevated carbon dioxide and ozone alter productivity and ecosystem carbon content in northern temperate forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan F. Talhelm; Kurt S. Pregitzer; Mark E. Kubiske; Donald R. Zak; Courtney E. Campany; Andrew J. Burton; Richard E. Dickson; George R. Hendrey; J. G. Isebrands; Keith F. Lewin; John Nagy; David F. Karnosky

    2014-01-01

    Three young northern temperate forest communities in the north-central United States were exposed to factorial combinations of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3) for 11 years. Here, we report results from an extensive sampling of plant biomass and soil conducted at the conclusion of the experiment...

  18. Carbon Dioxide Utilization by the Five-Membered Ring Products of Cyclometalation Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omae, Iwao

    2016-01-01

    In carbon dioxide utilization by cyclometalated five-membered ring products, the following compounds are used in four types of applications: 1. 2-Phenylpyrazole iridium compounds, pincer phosphine iridium compounds and 2-phenylimidazoline iridium compounds are used as catalysts for both formic acid production from CO2 and H2, and hydrogen production from the formic acid. This formic acid can be a useful agent for H2 production and storage for fuel cell electric vehicles. 2. Other chemicals, e.g., dimethyl carbonate, methane, methanol and CO, are produced with dimethylaminomethylphenyltin compounds, pincer phosphine iridium compounds, pincer phosphine nickel compound and ruthenium carbene compound or 2-phenylpyridine iridium compounds, and phenylbenzothiazole iridium compounds as the catalysts for the reactions with CO2. 3. The five-membered ring intermediates of cyclometalation reactions with the conventional substrates react with carbon dioxide to afford their many types of carboxylic acid derivatives. 4. Carbon dioxide is easily immobilized at room temperature with immobilizing agents such as pincer phosphine nickel compounds, pincer phosphine palladium compounds, pincer N,N-dimethylaminomethyltin compounds and tris(2-pyridylthio)methane zinc compounds. PMID:28503084

  19. Carbon dioxide emission in hydrogen production technology from coke oven gas with life cycle approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burmistrz Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of Carbon Footprint (CF for technology of hydrogen production from cleaned coke oven gas was performed. On the basis of real data and simulation calculations of the production process of hydrogen from coke gas, emission indicators of carbon dioxide (CF were calculated. These indicators are associated with net production of electricity and thermal energy and direct emission of carbon dioxide throughout a whole product life cycle. Product life cycle includes: coal extraction and its transportation to a coking plant, the process of coking coal, purification and reforming of coke oven gas, carbon capture and storage. The values were related to 1 Mg of coking blend and to 1 Mg of the hydrogen produced. The calculation is based on the configuration of hydrogen production from coke oven gas for coking technology available on a commercial scale that uses a technology of coke dry quenching (CDQ. The calculations were made using ChemCAD v.6.0.2 simulator for a steady state of technological process. The analysis of carbon footprint was conducted in accordance with the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA.

  20. Large scale carbon dioxide production from coal-fired power stations for enhanced oil recovery: a new economic feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tontiwachwuthikul, P.; Chan, C. W.; Kritpiphat, W.; Demontigny, D.; Skoropad, D.; Gelowitz, D.; Aroonwilas, A.; Mourits, F.; Wilson, M.; Ward, L.

    1998-01-01

    The concept of capturing carbon dioxide from fossil-fuelled electric power generating plants and utilizing it as a flooding agent in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, was explored. In this context, this paper describes how cogeneration concepts, together with process optimization strategies, help to reduce the carbon dioxide production cost by utilizing low-pressure steam and waste heat from various sections of the power generation process. Based on these optimization strategies, the recovery cost of carbon dioxide from coal-fired power stations is estimated to be in the range of $ 0.50 to $ 2.00/mscf. Assuming an average cost of $ 1.25/mscf, the production cost of incremental oil would be about $ 18.00. This means that even with today's modest oil prices, there is room for profit to be made operating a carbon dioxide flood with flue gas extracted carbon dioxide

  1. Sustainable production of cannabinoids with supercritical carbon dioxide technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perrotin-Brunel, H.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis concerns the production of natural compounds from plant material for pharmaceutical and food applications. It describes the production (extraction and isolation) of cannabinoids, the active components present in cannabis. Many cannabinoids have medicinal properties but not all

  2. Sustainable Production of Cannabinoids with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perrotin-Brunel, H.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis concerns the production of natural compounds from plant material for pharmaceutical and food applications. It describes the production (extraction and isolation) of cannabinoids, the active components present in cannabis. Many cannabinoids have medicinal properties but not all

  3. Carbon dioxide as chemical feedstock

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aresta, M

    2010-01-01

    ... Dioxide as an Inert Solvent for Chemical Syntheses 15 Alessandro Galia and Giuseppe Filardo Introduction 15 Dense Carbon Dioxide as Solvent Medium for Chemical Processes 15 Enzymatic Catalysis in Dense Carbon Dioxide 18 Other Reactions in Dense Carbon Dioxide 19 Polymer Synthesis in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide 20 Chain Polymerizations: Synt...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1240 - Carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide. 582.1240 Section 582.1240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1240 Carbon dioxide. (a) Product. Carbon dioxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  5. Bio-based products from solar energy and carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Producing bio-based products directly from CO₂ and solar energy is a desirable alternative to the conventional biorefining that relies on biomass feedstocks. The production paradigm is based on an artificial photosynthetic system that converts sunlight to electricity and H₂ via water electrolysis. An autotrophic H₂-oxidizing bacterium fixes CO₂ in dark conditions. The assimilated CO₂ is stored in bacterial cells as polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), from which a range of products can be derived. Compared with natural photosynthesis of a fast-growing cyanobacterium, the artificial photosynthetic system has much higher energy efficiency and productivity of bio-based products. The new technology looks promising because of possible cost reduction in feedstock, equipment, and operation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Elevated carbon dioxide and ozone alter productivity and ecosystem carbon content in northern temperate forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhelm, Alan F; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Kubiske, Mark E; Zak, Donald R; Campany, Courtney E; Burton, Andrew J; Dickson, Richard E; Hendrey, George R; Isebrands, J G; Lewin, Keith F; Nagy, John; Karnosky, David F

    2014-01-01

    Three young northern temperate forest communities in the north-central United States were exposed to factorial combinations of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3) for 11 years. Here, we report results from an extensive sampling of plant biomass and soil conducted at the conclusion of the experiment that enabled us to estimate ecosystem carbon (C) content and cumulative net primary productivity (NPP). Elevated CO2 enhanced ecosystem C content by 11%, whereas elevated O3 decreased ecosystem C content by 9%. There was little variation in treatment effects on C content across communities and no meaningful interactions between CO2 and O3. Treatment effects on ecosystem C content resulted primarily from changes in the near-surface mineral soil and tree C, particularly differences in woody tissues. Excluding the mineral soil, cumulative NPP was a strong predictor of ecosystem C content (r2 = 0.96). Elevated CO2 enhanced cumulative NPP by 39%, a consequence of a 28% increase in canopy nitrogen (N) content (g N m−2) and a 28% increase in N productivity (NPP/canopy N). In contrast, elevated O3 lowered NPP by 10% because of a 21% decrease in canopy N, but did not impact N productivity. Consequently, as the marginal impact of canopy N on NPP (ΔNPP/ΔN) decreased through time with further canopy development, the O3 effect on NPP dissipated. Within the mineral soil, there was less C in the top 0.1 m of soil under elevated O3 and less soil C from 0.1 to 0.2 m in depth under elevated CO2. Overall, these results suggest that elevated CO2 may create a sustained increase in NPP, whereas the long-term effect of elevated O3 on NPP will be smaller than expected. However, changes in soil C are not well-understood and limit our ability to predict changes in ecosystem C content. PMID:24604779

  7. Elevated carbon dioxide and ozone alter productivity and ecosystem carbon content in northern temperate forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhelm, Alan F; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Kubiske, Mark E; Zak, Donald R; Campany, Courtney E; Burton, Andrew J; Dickson, Richard E; Hendrey, George R; Isebrands, J G; Lewin, Keith F; Nagy, John; Karnosky, David F

    2014-08-01

    Three young northern temperate forest communities in the north-central United States were exposed to factorial combinations of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and tropospheric ozone (O3 ) for 11 years. Here, we report results from an extensive sampling of plant biomass and soil conducted at the conclusion of the experiment that enabled us to estimate ecosystem carbon (C) content and cumulative net primary productivity (NPP). Elevated CO2 enhanced ecosystem C content by 11%, whereas elevated O3 decreased ecosystem C content by 9%. There was little variation in treatment effects on C content across communities and no meaningful interactions between CO2 and O3 . Treatment effects on ecosystem C content resulted primarily from changes in the near-surface mineral soil and tree C, particularly differences in woody tissues. Excluding the mineral soil, cumulative NPP was a strong predictor of ecosystem C content (r(2) = 0.96). Elevated CO2 enhanced cumulative NPP by 39%, a consequence of a 28% increase in canopy nitrogen (N) content (g N m(-2) ) and a 28% increase in N productivity (NPP/canopy N). In contrast, elevated O3 lowered NPP by 10% because of a 21% decrease in canopy N, but did not impact N productivity. Consequently, as the marginal impact of canopy N on NPP (∆NPP/∆N) decreased through time with further canopy development, the O3 effect on NPP dissipated. Within the mineral soil, there was less C in the top 0.1 m of soil under elevated O3 and less soil C from 0.1 to 0.2 m in depth under elevated CO2 . Overall, these results suggest that elevated CO2 may create a sustained increase in NPP, whereas the long-term effect of elevated O3 on NPP will be smaller than expected. However, changes in soil C are not well-understood and limit our ability to predict changes in ecosystem C content. © 2014 The Authors Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Energy utilization, carbon dioxide emission, and exergy loss in flavored yogurt production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorgüven, Esra; Özilgen, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of food production processes on the environment in terms of energy and exergy utilization and carbon dioxide emission. There are three different energy utilization mechanisms in food production: Utilization of solar energy by plants to produce agricultural goods; feed consumption by herbivores to produce meat and milk; fossil fuel consumption by industrial processes to perform mixing, cooling, heating, etc. Production of strawberry-flavored yogurt, which involves these three mechanisms, is investigated here thermodynamically. Analysis starts with the cultivation of the ingredients and ends with the transfer of the final product to the market. The results show that 53% of the total exergy loss occurs during the milk production and 80% of the total work input is consumed during the plain yogurt making. The cumulative degree of perfection is 3.6% for the strawberry-flavored yogurt. This value can rise up to 4.6%, if renewable energy resources like hydropower and algal biodiesel are employed instead of fossil fuels. This paper points the direction for the development of new technology in food processing to decrease waste of energy and carbon dioxide accumulation in the atmosphere. -- Highlights: ► Energy and exergy utilization and carbon dioxide emission during strawberry-flavored yogurt production. ► Cumulative degree of perfection of strawberry-flavored yogurt is 3.6%. ► 53% of the total exergy loss occurs during the milk production. ► 80% of the total work input is consumed during the plain yogurt making.

  9. Carbon dioxide conversion over carbon-based nanocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavarian, Mehrnoush; Chai, Siang-Piao; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2013-07-01

    The utilization of carbon dioxide for the production of valuable chemicals via catalysts is one of the efficient ways to mitigate the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is known that the carbon dioxide conversion and product yields are still low even if the reaction is operated at high pressure and temperature. The carbon dioxide utilization and conversion provides many challenges in exploring new concepts and opportunities for development of unique catalysts for the purpose of activating the carbon dioxide molecules. In this paper, the role of carbon-based nanocatalysts in the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide and direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from carbon dioxide and methanol are reviewed. The current catalytic results obtained with different carbon-based nanocatalysts systems are presented and how these materials contribute to the carbon dioxide conversion is explained. In addition, different strategies and preparation methods of nanometallic catalysts on various carbon supports are described to optimize the dispersion of metal nanoparticles and catalytic activity.

  10. Antifeedant activity of xanthohumol and supercritical carbon dioxide extract of spent hops against stored product pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackowski, J; Hurej, M; Rój, E; Popłoński, J; Kośny, L; Huszcza, E

    2015-08-01

    Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid from hops, and a supercritical carbon dioxide extract of spent hops were studied for their antifeedant activity against stored product insect pests: Sitophilus granarius L., Tribolium confusum Duv. and Trogoderma granarium Everts. Xanthohumol exhibited medium deterrent activity against the adults of S. granarius L. and larvae of T. confusum Duv. The spent hops extract was more active than xanthohumol towards the adults of T. confusum Duv. The potential application of the crude spent hops extract as a feeding deterrent against the stored product pests is proposed.

  11. Comparison between two methods of methanol production from carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anicic, B.; Trop, P.; Goricanec, D.

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years there has been a significant increase in the amount of technology contributing to lower emissions of carbon dioxide. The aim of this paper is to provide a comparison between two technologies for methanol production, both of which use carbon dioxide and hydrogen as initial raw materials. The first methanol production technology includes direct synthesis of methanol from CO 2 , and the second has two steps. During the first step CO 2 is converted into CO via RWGS (reverse water gas shift) reaction, and methanol is produced during the second step. A comparison between these two methods was achieved in terms of economical and energy-efficiency bases. The price of electricity had the greatest impact from the economical point of view as hydrogen is produced via the electrolysis of water. Furthermore, both the cost of CO 2 capture and the amounts of carbon taxes were taken into consideration. Energy-efficiency comparison is based on cold gas efficiency, while economic feasibility is compared using net present value. Even though the mentioned processes are similar, it was shown that direct methanol synthesis has higher energy and economic efficiency. - Highlights: • We compared two methods for methanol production. • Process schemes for both, direct synthesis and two-step synthesis, are described. • Direct synthesis has higher economical and energy efficiency

  12. Observations concerning the particle-size of the oxidation products of uranium formed in air or in carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baque, P.; Leclercq, D.

    1964-01-01

    This report brings together the particle-size analysis results obtained on products formed by the oxidation or the ignition of uranium in moist air or dry carbon dioxide. The results bring out the importance of the nature of the oxidising atmosphere, the combustion in moist air giving rise to the formation of a larger proportion of fine particles than combustion in carbon dioxide under pressure. (authors) [fr

  13. Carbon dioxide sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Prabir K [Worthington, OH; Lee, Inhee [Columbus, OH; Akbar, Sheikh A [Hilliard, OH

    2011-11-15

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  14. Ancient low-molecular-weight organic acids in permafrost fuel rapid carbon dioxide production upon thaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Travis W; Wickland, Kimberly P; Spencer, Robert G M; McKnight, Diane M; Striegl, Robert G

    2015-11-10

    Northern permafrost soils store a vast reservoir of carbon, nearly twice that of the present atmosphere. Current and projected climate warming threatens widespread thaw of these frozen, organic carbon (OC)-rich soils. Upon thaw, mobilized permafrost OC in dissolved and particulate forms can enter streams and rivers, which are important processors of OC and conduits for carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. Here, we demonstrate that ancient dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leached from 35,800 y B.P. permafrost soils is rapidly mineralized to CO2. During 200-h experiments in a novel high-temporal-resolution bioreactor, DOC concentration decreased by an average of 53%, fueling a more than sevenfold increase in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration. Eighty-seven percent of the DOC loss to microbial uptake was derived from the low-molecular-weight (LMW) organic acids acetate and butyrate. To our knowledge, our study is the first to directly quantify high CO2 production rates from permafrost-derived LMW DOC mineralization. The observed DOC loss rates are among the highest reported for permafrost carbon and demonstrate the potential importance of LMW DOC in driving the rapid metabolism of Pleistocene-age permafrost carbon upon thaw and the outgassing of CO2 to the atmosphere by soils and nearby inland waters.

  15. Ancient low–molecular-weight organic acids in permafrost fuel rapid carbon dioxide production upon thaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Travis W.; Wickland, Kimberly P.; Spencer, Robert G. M.; McKnight, Diane M.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Northern permafrost soils store a vast reservoir of carbon, nearly twice that of the present atmosphere. Current and projected climate warming threatens widespread thaw of these frozen, organic carbon (OC)-rich soils. Upon thaw, mobilized permafrost OC in dissolved and particulate forms can enter streams and rivers, which are important processors of OC and conduits for carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. Here, we demonstrate that ancient dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leached from 35,800 y B.P. permafrost soils is rapidly mineralized to CO2. During 200-h experiments in a novel high–temporal-resolution bioreactor, DOC concentration decreased by an average of 53%, fueling a more than sevenfold increase in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration. Eighty-seven percent of the DOC loss to microbial uptake was derived from the low–molecular-weight (LMW) organic acids acetate and butyrate. To our knowledge, our study is the first to directly quantify high CO2 production rates from permafrost-derived LMW DOC mineralization. The observed DOC loss rates are among the highest reported for permafrost carbon and demonstrate the potential importance of LMW DOC in driving the rapid metabolism of Pleistocene-age permafrost carbon upon thaw and the outgassing of CO2 to the atmosphere by soils and nearby inland waters.

  16. Carbon dioxide and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    Global climate change is a serious environmental concern, and the US has developed ''An Action Agenda'' to deal with it. At the heart of the US effort is the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), which has been developed by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES) of the Federal Coordinating Council for Sciences, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET). The USGCRP will provide the scientific basis for sound policy making on the climate-change issue. The DOE contribution to the USGCRP is the Carbon Dioxide Research Program, which now places particular emphasis on the rapid improvement of the capability to predict global and regional climate change. DOE's Carbon Dioxide Research Program has been addressing the carbon dioxide-climate change connection for more than twelve years and has provided a solid scientific foundation for the USGCRP. The expansion of the DOE effort reflects the increased attention that the Department has placed on the issue and is reflected in the National Energy Strategy (NES) that was released in 1991. This Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1991 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments. The Environmental Sciences Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research supports a Carbon Dioxide Research Program to determine the scientific linkage between the rise of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, especially carbon dioxide, and climate and vegetation change. One facet is the Core CO 2 Program, a pioneering program that DOE established more than 10 years ago to understand and predict the ways that fossil-fuel burning could affect atmospheric CO 2 concentration, global climate, and the Earth's biosphere. Major research areas are: global carbon cycle; climate detection and models of climate change; vegetation research; resource analysis; and, information and integration

  17. Production of palm kernel shell-based activated carbon by direct physical activation for carbon dioxide adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Nor Adilla; Yusup, Suzana

    2018-05-09

    The feasibility of biomass-based activated carbons has received a huge attention due to their excellent characteristics such as inexpensiveness, good adsorption behaviour and potential to reduce a strong dependency towards non-renewable precursors. Therefore, in this research work, eco-friendly activated carbon from palm kernel shell that has been produced from one-stage physical activation by using the Box-Behnken design of Response Surface Methodology is highlighted. The effect of three input parameters-temperature, dwell time and gas flow rate-towards product yield and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) uptake at room temperature and atmospheric pressure are studied. Model accuracy has been evaluated through the ANOVA analysis and lack-of-fit test. Accordingly, the optimum condition in synthesising the activated carbon with adequate CO 2 adsorption capacity of 2.13 mmol/g and product yield of 25.15 wt% is found at a temperature of 850 °C, holding time of 60 min and CO 2 flow rate of 450 cm 3 /min. The synthesised activated carbon has been characterised by diverse analytical instruments including thermogravimetric analyser, scanning electron microscope, as well as N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherm. The characterisation analysis indicates that the synthesised activated carbon has higher textural characteristics and porosity, together with better thermal stability and carbon content as compared to pristine palm kernel shell. Activated carbon production via one-step activation approach is economical since its carbon yield is within the industrial target, whereas CO 2 uptake is comparable to the synthesised activated carbon from conventional dual-stage activation, commercial activated carbon and other published data from literature.

  18. Carbon dioxide capture, storage and production of biofuel and biomaterials by bacteria: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Sundaram, Smita; Gnansounou, Edgard; Larroche, Christian; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2018-01-01

    Due to industrialization and urbanization, as humans continue to rely on fossil fuels, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) will inevitably be generated and result in an increase of Global Warming Gases (GWGs). However, their prospect is misted up because of the environmental and economic intimidation posed by probable climate shift, generally called it as the "green house effect". Among all GWGs, the major contributor in greenhouse effect is CO 2 . Mitigation strategies that include capture and storage of CO 2 by biological means may reduce the impact of CO 2 emissions on environment. The biological CO 2 sequestration has significant advantage, since increasing atmospheric CO 2 level supports productivity and overall storage capacity of the natural system. This paper reviews CO 2 sequestration mechanism in bacteria and their pathways for production of value added products such as, biodiesel, bioplastics, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), biosurfactants and other related biomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of chemisorption products of carbon dioxide and water vapour on radiolysis of tritium breeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarins, Arturs, E-mail: arturs.zarins@lu.lv [University of Latvia, Institute of Chemical Physics, Kronvalda Boulevard 4, LV-1010 Riga (Latvia); Kizane, Gunta; Supe, Arnis [University of Latvia, Institute of Chemical Physics, Kronvalda Boulevard 4, LV-1010 Riga (Latvia); Knitter, Regina; Kolb, Matthias H.H. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-WPT), 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Tiliks, Juris; Baumane, Larisa [University of Latvia, Institute of Chemical Physics, Kronvalda Boulevard 4, LV-1010 Riga (Latvia)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Chemisorption products affect formation proceses of radiation-induced defects. • Radiolysis of chemisorption products increase amount of radiation-induced defects. • Irradiation atmosphere influence radiolysis of lithium orthosilicate pebbles. - Abstract: Lithium orthosilicate pebbles with 2.5 wt% excess of silica are the reference tritium breeding material for the European solid breeder test blanket modules. On the surface of the pebbles chemisorption products of carbon dioxide and water vapour (lithium carbonate and hydroxide) may accumulate during the fabrication process. In this study the influence of the chemisorption products on radiolysis of the pebbles was investigated. Using nanosized lithium orthosilicate powders, factors, which can influence the formation and radiolysis of the chemisorption products, were determined and described as well. The formation of radiation-induced defects and radiolysis products was studied with electron spin resonance and the method of chemical scavengers. It was found that the radiolysis of the chemisorption products on the surface of the pebbles can increase the concentration of radiation-induced defects and so could affect the tritium diffusion, retention and the released species.

  20. The industrial production of dimethyl carbonate from methanol and carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Frank F T; Lammerink, Roy R G J; Heidemann, Casper; Van Der Werff, Michiel P M; Garcia, Taiga Cafiero; Van Der Ham, Louis A G J; Van Den Berg, Henk

    2014-01-01

    This work discusses the design of a dimethyl carbonate (DMC) production plant based on methanol and CO2 as feed materials, which are a cheap and environment-friendly feedstock. DMC is a good alternative for methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as a fuel oxygenating agent, due to its low toxicity and fast

  1. Carbon dioxide: emissions and effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, I M

    1982-01-01

    This review provides a comprehensive guide to work carried out since 1978 in the many disciplines involved in this complex issue. Possible scenarios for carbon dioxide emissions, sources and sinks in the carbon cycle and for climatic changes are examined. The current concensus (by no means unanimous) of specialists on this issue appears to be that a continuation of reduced trends in energy consumption since 1973 is likely to double the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration to 600 ppmv during the latter part of the next century. However, a higher demand scenario, requiring an upper limit of coal production, would bring forward the doubling to about the middle of the next century. Current climatic models predict that such a concentration of carbon dioxide would cause an average global warming of from 1.0 to 4.5/sup 0/C which might be delayed by the thermal inertia of the oceans. A warming due to estimated increases in carbon dioxide should, if the model results are correct, become apparent at the end of this century. Regional climatic changes are likely to vary considerably and prove disadvantageous to some regions and beneficial to others. Different strategies for dealing with the carbon dioxide issue are considered: no response, alleviation, countermeasures and prevention. It is concluded that uncertainties do not justify either the use of carbon dioxide disposal and other technical fixes at present or a policy of no further growth in fossil fuel consumption. On the other hand, major efforts to conserve energy would give more time to adapt to changes. The alleviation of climatic impacts and other desirable dual-benefit measures are advocated in addition to continuing international, interdisciplinary research on all aspects.

  2. Methane and carbon dioxide production from simulated anaerobic degradation of cattle carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Qi; Saunders, Samuel E.; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This study evaluates methane and carbon dioxide production after land burial of cattle carcasses. ► Disposal of animal mortalities is often overlooked in evaluating the environmental impacts of animal production. ► we quantify annual emissions from cattle carcass disposal in the United States as 1.6 Tg CO 2 equivalents. - Abstract: Approximately 2.2 million cattle carcasses require disposal annually in the United States. Land burial is a convenient disposal method that has been widely used in animal production for disposal of both daily mortalities as well as during catastrophic mortality events. To date, greenhouse gas production after mortality burial has not been quantified, and this study represents the first attempt to quantify greenhouse gas emissions from land burial of animal carcasses. In this study, anaerobic decomposition of both homogenized and unhomogenized cattle carcass material was investigated using bench-scale reactors. Maximum yields of methane and carbon dioxide were 0.33 and 0.09 m 3 /kg dry material, respectively, a higher methane yield than that previously reported for municipal solid waste. Variability in methane production rates were observed over time and between reactors. Based on our laboratory data, annual methane emissions from burial of cattle mortalities in the United States could total 1.6 Tg CO 2 equivalents. Although this represents less than 1% of total emissions produced by the agricultural sector in 2009, greenhouse gas emissions from animal carcass burial may be significant if disposal of swine and poultry carcasses is also considered.

  3. Does Carbon Dioxide Predict Temperature?

    OpenAIRE

    Mytty, Tuukka

    2013-01-01

    Does carbon dioxide predict temperature? No it does not, in the time period of 1880-2004 with the carbon dioxide and temperature data used in this thesis. According to the Inter Governmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC) carbon dioxide is the most important factor in raising the global temperature. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that carbon dioxide truly predicts temperature. Because this paper uses observational data it has to be kept in mind that no causality interpretation can be ma...

  4. Coal and carbon dioxide reduction: What does it mean for our power production future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is not a pollutant. It is a limiting nutrient, like water and oxygen, necessary for life to exist on earth. It helps retain heat from the sun keeping the earth comfortably warm. Though scientifically controversial, some segments of the public are nonetheless concerned that increasing amounts of carbon dioxide (and other gases) emitted by mankind's activity may contribute to what they perceive as mankind-induced global warming trend, the so-called open-quotes greenhouse effect.close quotes The 1992 Earth Summit in Rio De Janeiro addressed this, and in response, the U.S. signed agreements to roll back its greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels. Carbon dioxide is of concern as a greenhouse gas because of the quantity produced by the combustion of fossil fuels. Because coal is mostly carbon, when burned, it produces more carbon dioxide per Btu of energy released of any of the common fossil fuels. With 54 percent of our electricity generated by coal, capping carbon dioxide emissions without disrupting the economy will be no mean feat for the United States. The U.S. also relies on its huge reserves for its energy independence, so altering policies that affect coal use must be carefully assessed. A growing population and economy demand more energy. One can use other fuels than coal: natural gas releases only 56 percent the carbon dioxide coal does, and nuclear energy produces none. One can also employ higher efficiency coal plants to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide produced for a given power output. The highest efficiency coal units projected are magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) plants the focus of this conference which are projected to produce electricity at 60 percent energy efficiency, extraordinary by today's standards. Does this mean that the Rio de Janeiro agreement then encourages the earlier introduction of MHD and other emerging high efficiency coal technologies?

  5. Sustainable production of biochemicals and biofuels based on biofixation of carbon dioxide by microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, W.A.P. van den; Jahn, J.; Broeke, L.J.P. van den

    2012-01-01

    For the further development of CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) an integrated approach is needed to optimize the full chain from capture, via transport to application. It is to be expected that in the near future carbon dioxide will be one of the largest commodities. Besides storage as the main

  6. Carbon dioxide dangers demonstration model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venezky, Dina; Wessells, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is a dangerous volcanic gas. When carbon dioxide seeps from the ground, it normally mixes with the air and dissipates rapidly. However, because carbon dioxide gas is heavier than air, it can collect in snowbanks, depressions, and poorly ventilated enclosures posing a potential danger to people and other living things. In this experiment we show how carbon dioxide gas displaces oxygen as it collects in low-lying areas. When carbon dioxide, created by mixing vinegar and baking soda, is added to a bowl with candles of different heights, the flames are extinguished as if by magic.

  7. A New Data Product: Gridded Uncertainty Maps of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, R. J.; Boden, T.

    2015-12-01

    Gridded uncertainty maps of fossil fuel carbon dioxide (FFCO2) emissions are a new data product that is currently in the process of being completed and published. This work is based on the relatively new assessment of the uncertainty associated with the mass of FFCO2 emissions (2014, Tellus B, 66, 23616, doi:10.3402/tellusb.v66.23616). The new data product was created to be paired with the long-used, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), emission year 1751-present, one degree latitude by one degree longitude (1x1) mass of emissions data product (http://cdiac.ornl.gov/epubs/ndp/ndp058/ndp058_v2013.html). Now, data users will have FFCO2 emission information that represents both mass and uncertainty, each of which varies in both time and space. The new data product was constructed by examining the individual uncertainties in each of the input data sets to the gridded mass maps and then combining these individual uncertainties into an overall uncertainty for the mass maps. The input data sets include a table of the mass of FFCO2 emissions by country and year, the one degree geographic map of emissions which includes changing borders on an annual time scale and ties the mass of emissions to location, and the one degree population proxy used to distribute the mass of emissions within each country. As the three input data sets are independent of each other, their combination for the overall uncertainty is accomplished by a simple square root of the sum of the squares procedure. The resulting uncertainty data product is gridded at 1x1 and exactly overlays the 1x1 mass emission maps. The default temporal resolution is annual, but a companion product is also available at monthly time scales. The monthly uncertainty product uses the same input data sets, but the mass uncertainty is scaled as described in the monthly mass product description paper (2011, Tellus B, 63:309-327, doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2011.00530.x). The gridded uncertainty maps cover emission year

  8. Production and characterization of biodiesel from carbon dioxide concentrating chemolithotrophic bacteria, Serratia sp. ISTD04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Randhir K; Srivastava, Shaili; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2014-02-01

    A chemolithotrophic bacterium, Serratia sp. ISTD04, enriched in the chemostat in presence of sodium bicarbonate as sole carbon source was evaluated for potential of carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and biofuel production. CO2 sequestration efficiency of the bacterium was determined by enzymatic activity of carbonic anhydrase and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO). Further, Western blot analysis confirmed presence of RuBisCO. The bacterium produced 0.487 and 0.647mgmg(-1) per unit cell dry weight of hydrocarbons and lipids respectively. The hydrocarbons were within the range of C13-C24 making it equivalent to light oil. GC-MS analysis of lipids produced by the bacterium indicated presence of C15-C20 organic compounds that made it potential source of biodiesel after transesterification. GC-MS, FTIR and NMR spectroscopic characterization of the fatty acid methyl esters revealed the presence of 55% and 45% of unsaturated and saturated organic compounds respectively, thus making it a balanced biodiesel composition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gridded Uncertainty Maps of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions: A New Data Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, R. J.; Boden, T.

    2014-12-01

    With the publication of a new assessment of the uncertainty associated with the mass of fossil fuel carbon dioxide (FFCO2) emissions (2014, Tellus B, 66, 23616, doi:10.3402/tellusb.v66.23616), it is now possible to extend that work with a gridded map of fossil fuel emission uncertainties. The new data product was created to be paired with the long-used, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), emission year 1751-present, one degree latitude by one degree longitude (1x1) mass of emissions data product (http://cdiac.ornl.gov/epubs/ndp/ndp058/ndp058_v2013.html). Now, for the first time, data users will have FFCO2 emission information that represents both mass and uncertainty, each of which varies in both time and space. The new data product was constructed by examining the individual uncertainties in each of the input data sets to the gridded mass maps and then combining these individual uncertainties into an overall uncertainty for the mass maps. The input data sets include a table of the mass of FFCO2 emissions by country and year, the one degree geographic map of emissions which includes changing borders on an annual time scale and ties the mass of emissions to location, and the one degree population proxy used to distribute the mass of emissions within each country. As the three input data sets are independent of each other, their combination for the overall uncertainty is accomplished by a simple square root of the sum of the squares procedure. The resulting uncertainty data product is gridded at 1x1 and exactly overlays the 1x1 mass emission maps. The default temporal resolution is annual, but a companion product is also available at monthly time scales. The monthly uncertainty product uses the same input data sets, but the mass uncertainty is scaled as described in the monthly mass product description paper (2011, Tellus B, 63:309-327, doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2011.00530.x). The gridded uncertainty maps cover emission year 1950 to 2010. The start

  10. CARBON DIOXIDE AS A FEEDSTOCK.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CREUTZ,C.; FUJITA,E.

    2000-12-09

    This report is an overview on the subject of carbon dioxide as a starting material for organic syntheses of potential commercial interest and the utilization of carbon dioxide as a substrate for fuel production. It draws extensively on literature sources, particularly on the report of a 1999 Workshop on the subject of catalysis in carbon dioxide utilization, but with emphasis on systems of most interest to us. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is an abundant (750 billion tons in atmosphere), but dilute source of carbon (only 0.036 % by volume), so technologies for utilization at the production source are crucial for both sequestration and utilization. Sequestration--such as pumping CO{sub 2} into sea or the earth--is beyond the scope of this report, except where it overlaps utilization, for example in converting CO{sub 2} to polymers. But sequestration dominates current thinking on short term solutions to global warming, as should be clear from reports from this and other workshops. The 3500 million tons estimated to be added to the atmosphere annually at present can be compared to the 110 million tons used to produce chemicals, chiefly urea (75 million tons), salicylic acid, cyclic carbonates and polycarbonates. Increased utilization of CO{sub 2} as a starting material is, however, highly desirable, because it is an inexpensive, non-toxic starting material. There are ongoing efforts to replace phosgene as a starting material. Creation of new materials and markets for them will increase this utilization, producing an increasingly positive, albeit small impact on global CO{sub 2} levels. The other uses of interest are utilization as a solvent and for fuel production and these will be discussed in turn.

  11. Stable and highly efficient electrochemical production of formic acid from carbon dioxide using diamond electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsui, Keisuke; Iwakawa, Hitomi; Ikemiya, Norihito [Department of Chemistry, Keio University, Yokohama (Japan); Nakata, Kazuya [Photocatalysis International Research Center, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba (Japan); Einaga, Yasuaki [Department of Chemistry, Keio University, Yokohama (Japan); JST-ACCEL, Yokohama (Japan)

    2018-03-01

    High faradaic efficiencies can be achieved in the production of formic acid (HCOOH) by metal electrodes, such as Sn or Pb, in the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). However, the stability and environmental load in using them are problematic. The electrochemical reduction of CO{sub 2} to HCOOH was investigated in a flow cell using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. BDD electrodes have superior electrochemical properties to metal electrodes, and, moreover, are highly durable. The faradaic efficiency for the production of HCOOH was as high as 94.7 %. Furthermore, the selectivity for the production of HCOOH was more than 99 %. The rate of the production was increased to 473 μmol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} at a current density of 15 mA cm{sup -2} with a faradaic efficiency of 61 %. The faradaic efficiency and the production rate are almost the same as or larger than those achieved using Sn and Pb electrodes. Furthermore, the stability of the BDD electrodes was confirmed by 24 h operation. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Stable and Highly Efficient Electrochemical Production of Formic Acid from Carbon Dioxide Using Diamond Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsui, Keisuke; Iwakawa, Hitomi; Ikemiya, Norihito; Nakata, Kazuya; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2018-03-01

    High faradaic efficiencies can be achieved in the production of formic acid (HCOOH) by metal electrodes, such as Sn or Pb, in the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). However, the stability and environmental load in using them are problematic. The electrochemical reduction of CO 2 to HCOOH was investigated in a flow cell using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. BDD electrodes have superior electrochemical properties to metal electrodes, and, moreover, are highly durable. The faradaic efficiency for the production of HCOOH was as high as 94.7 %. Furthermore, the selectivity for the production of HCOOH was more than 99 %. The rate of the production was increased to 473 μmol m -2  s -1 at a current density of 15 mA cm -2 with a faradaic efficiency of 61 %. The faradaic efficiency and the production rate are almost the same as or larger than those achieved using Sn and Pb electrodes. Furthermore, the stability of the BDD electrodes was confirmed by 24 h operation. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Wood ant nests as hot spots of carbon dioxide production and cold spots of methane oxidation in temperate forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jílková, Veronika; Picek, T.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Frouz, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, April (2016), EGU2016-4634 ISSN 1607-7962. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2016. 17.04.2016-22.04.2016, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : wood ant nests * hot spots of carbon dioxide production * cold spots of methane oxidation * temperate forests Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science

  14. CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FUJITA,E.

    2000-01-12

    Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

  15. Photochemically induced carbon dioxide production as a mechanism for carbon loss from plant litter in arid ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, L. A.; Bohnet, C.; King, J. Y.

    2009-06-01

    We investigated the potential for abiotic mineralization to carbon dioxide (CO2) via photodegradation to account for carbon (C) loss from plant litter under conditions typical of arid ecosystems. We exposed five species of grass and oak litter collected from arid and mesic sites to a factorial design of ultraviolet (UV) radiation (UV pass, UV block), and sterilization under dry conditions in the laboratory. UV pass treatments produced 10 times the amount of CO2 produced in UV block treatments. CO2 production rates were unaffected by litter chemistry or sterilization. We also exposed litter to natural solar radiation outdoors on clear, sunny days close to the summer solstice at midlatitudes and found that UV radiation (280-400 nm) accounted for 55% of photochemically induced CO2 production, while shortwave visible radiation (400-500 nm) accounted for 45% of CO2 production. Rates of photochemically induced CO2 production on a per-unit-mass basis decreased with litter density, indicating that rates depend on litter surface area. We found no evidence for leaching, methane production, or facilitation of microbial decomposition as alternative mechanisms for significant photochemically induced C loss from litter. We conclude that abiotic mineralization to CO2 is the primary mechanism by which C is lost from litter during photodegradation. We estimate that CO2 production via photodegradation could be between 1 and 4 g C m-2 a-1 in arid ecosystems in the southwestern United States. Taken together with low levels of litter production in arid systems, photochemical mineralization to CO2 could account for a significant proportion of annual carbon loss from litter in arid ecosystems.

  16. Energy utilization and carbon dioxide emission in the fresh, paste, whole-peeled, diced, and juiced tomato production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakaya, Ahmet; Ozilgen, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Energy utilization and carbon dioxide emission during the production of fresh, peeled, diced, and juiced tomatoes are calculated. The energy utilization for production of raw and packaging materials, transportation, and waste management are also considered. The energy utilization to produce one-ton retail packaged fresh tomatoes is calculated to be 2412.8 MJ, whereas when the tomatoes are converted into paste, the energy utilization increases almost twofold; processing the same amount into the peeled or diced-tomatoes increases the energy utilization seven times. In case of juice production, the increase is five times. The carbon dioxide emission is determined by the source of energy used and is 189.4 kg/t of fresh tomatoes in the case of retail packaging, and did not change considerably when made into paste. The carbon dioxide emission increased twofold with peeled or diced-tomatoes, and increased threefold when juiced. Chemical fertilizers and transportation made the highest contribution to energy utilization and CO 2 emission. The difference in energy utilization is determined mainly by water to dry solids ratio of the food and increases with the water content of the final product. Environmentally conscious consumers may prefer eating fresh tomatoes or alternatively tomato paste, to minimize carbon dioxide emission. -- Highlights: → Energy utilization for producing one-ton retail packaged fresh tomatoes was 2412.8 MJ → Energy utilization was 2 folds with paste, 7 times with peeled or diced-tomatoes, 5 times with juice. → Energy utilization increases with water content of the final product. → Transportation, packaging, evaporation and chemicals are the major energy consumers. → Carbon dioxide emission is determined by the source of energy.

  17. Integrated strategy for N-methylformanilide production from carbon dioxide of flue gas in coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jeehoon

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A ‘green’ N-methylformanilide production process based new carbon dioxide conversion technologies is developed. • Monoethanolamine-based system for capturing carbon dioxide from the flue gas of a coal-fired power plant is deployed. • Gamma-valerolactone is used a solvent and catalyst for converting carbon dioxide to N-methylformanilide. • New separations for recovery of N-methylformanilide and gamma-valerolactone are developed. • Economic evaluation of the proposed process is performed. - Abstract: In this work, an integrated strategy is developed for producing N-methylformanilide from the carbon dioxide of flue gas in a coal-fired power plant. Based on lab-scale experimental studies presenting maximum yields (96%) with low reaction concentrations (below 25 wt% reactants) using large volumes of gamma-valerolactone as a solvent and catalyst, the integrated strategy focuses on the development of commercial-scale processes that consist of a monoethanolamine-based carbon dioxide separation subsystem and a catalytic conversion subsystem of N-Methylaniline with carbon dioxide to N-methylformanilide. Moreover, a heat exchanger network is designed to minimize the total energy requirements by transferring the heat between subsystems. In the proposed integrated strategy, the energy efficiency after heat integration (77.5%) is higher than that before heat integration (74.5%). Economic analysis results show that the minimum selling price of N-methylformanilide ($1592.1 Mt"−"1 using the best possible parameters) for use in this integrated strategy is cost-competitive with the current market price ($2984 Mt"−"1).

  18. Detection of fission products in carbon dioxide by instantaneous ion collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Meur, R.; Lorin, A.

    1968-01-01

    This report describes a fission product detector with instantaneous electric collection, capable of analyzing carbon dioxide up to a pressure of 60 bars and at a temperature of 200 C. In contrast to delayed collection detectors, this apparatus makes it possible to collect rubidium and cesium ions as soon as they are formed; this avoids losses due to recombination. The detector has been tested with a fission product source made up of a uranium oxide sample subjected to a neutron flux. The activity of the ions collected as a function of an electric field has been measured for different parameters: pressure, temperature, CO 2 gas flow rate, and the volume of the ion-formation chamber. The sensitivity of this apparatus is compared to that of other fission product detectors. For a low volume-flow rate, e.g. 100 cm 3 sec -1 , its sensitivity for krypton 88 is better than that of a delayed collection detector. An apparatus of this type could be used as a can rupture detector on a reactor with a large number of channels, with a low gas sampling rate per channel. The equipment will be included in the can rupture detector installations in the Fessenheim reactor. (authors) [fr

  19. Reduction of residual monomer in latex products by enhanced polymerization and extraction in supercritical carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemmere, M.F.; Schilt, van M.A.; Cleven, M.H.W.; Herk, van A.M.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2002-01-01

    The redn. of Me methacrylate (MMA) in a PMMA latex was chosen as a representative model system. Pulsed electron beam expts. were performed to study the effect of supercrit. carbon dioxide (scCO2) on the monomer concn. inside the polymer particles during the polymn. reaction. The partitioning

  20. Hydrogenation of silyl formates: sustainable production of silanol and methanol from hydrosilane and carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Jangwoo; Kim, Seung Hyo; Hong, Soon Hyeok

    2018-05-10

    A new process for simultaneously obtaining two chemical building blocks, methanol and silanol, was realized starting from silyl formates which can be derived from silane and carbon dioxide. Understanding the reaction mechanism enabled us to improve the reaction efficiency by the addition of a small amount of methanol.

  1. Recovery Act Production of Algal BioCrude Oil from Cement Plant Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Weber; Norman Whitton

    2010-09-30

    The consortium, led by Sunrise Ridge Algae Inc, completed financial, legal, siting, engineering and environmental permitting preparations for a proposed demonstration project that would capture stack gas from an operating cement plant and convert the carbon dioxide to beneficial use as a liquid crude petroleum substitute and a coal substitute, using algae grown in a closed system, then harvested and converted using catalyzed pyrolysis.

  2. 27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine...

  3. 27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine; except...

  4. Effects of carbon dioxide on metabolite production and bacterial communities during kimchi fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Doo Hyun

    2018-04-24

    Bacterial communities and metabolites in kimchi fermented under conventional conditions (CC) compared to CO 2 -rich environments (CO 2 ) were analyzed. After a 20-day fermentation, lactic and acetic acid productions were 54 and 69 mM under CC, and 19 and 12 mM under CO 2 , respectively. The final pH of kimchi fermented under CC (CC-fermenting) and CO 2 (CO 2 -fermenting) were 4.1 and 4.7, respectively. For bacterial communities, OTU and Chao1 indices were both 35 in fresh kimchi, 10 and 15 in CC-fermenting kimchi, and 8 and 24 in CO 2 -fermenting kimchi, respectively. Shannon and Simpson indices were 3.47 and 0.93 in fresh kimchi, 1.87-0.06 and 0.46-0.01 in CC-fermenting kimchi, and 1.65-0.44 and 0.63-0.12 in CO 2 -fermenting kimchi, respectively. Non-lactic acid bacteria were eliminated in fermenting kimchi after 12 days under CC and 6 days under CO 2 . I conclude that carbon dioxide can alter bacterial communities, reduce metabolite production, and improve fermented kimchi quality.

  5. Net carbon dioxide emissions from alternative firewood-production systems in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, K.I.; Booth, T.H.; Jovanovic, T.; Polglase, P.J.; Elliott, A.; Kirschbaum, M.U.F.

    2006-01-01

    The use of firewood for domestic heating has the potential to reduce fossil-fuel use and associated CO 2 emissions. The level of possible reductions depends upon the extent to which firewood off-sets the use of fossil fuels, the efficiency with which wood is burnt, and use of fossil fuels for collection and transport of firewood. Plantations grown for firewood also have a cost of emissions associated with their establishment. Applying the FullCAM model and additional calculations, these factors were examined for various management scenarios under three contrasting firewood production systems (native woodland, sustainably managed native forest, and newly established plantations) in low-medium rainfall (600-800mm) regions of south-eastern Australia. Estimates of carbon dioxide emissions per unit of heat energy produced for all scenarios were lower than for non-renewable energy sources (which generally emit about 0.3-1.0kgCO 2 kWh -1 ). Amongst the scenarios, emissions were greatest when wood was periodically collected from dead wood in woodlands (0.11kgCO 2 kWh -1 ), and was much lower when obtained from harvest residues and dead wood in native forests ( 2 kWh -1 ). When wood was obtained from plantations established on previously cleared agricultural land, use of firewood led to carbon sequestration equivalent to -0.06kgCO 2 kWh -1 for firewood obtained from a coppiced plantation, and -0.17kgCO 2 kWh -1 for firewood collected from thinnings, slash and other residue in a plantation grown for sawlog production. An uncertainty analysis, where inputs and assumptions were varied in relation to a plausible range of management practices, identified the most important influencing factors and an expected range in predicted net amount of CO 2 emitted per unit of heat energy produced from burning firewood. (author)

  6. Measurements of carbon dioxide production rates in the rumen of buffalo-calves fed on two levels of crude proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, A.; Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.; Ranjhan, S.K.; Agarwal, Ranjana

    1974-01-01

    The production rates of carbon dioxide in the rumen of buffalo calves have been measured by single injection isotope dilution technique. One group of calves received 11 percent less proteins and the other 20 percent more than that recommended by the NRC. About 258 Ci of NaH 1 CO 3 was injected in a single dose into the rumen through a cannula and mixed manually with the rumen contents. Samples of the rumen liquor were drawn for 560 min and were analysed for the specifiradioactivity of carbon dioxide. The decline in the specific radioactivity as a function of time was fitted to an equation. The dilution curves were described by a sum of 2 exponential components. Mathematical equations were used to estimate the total CO 2 entry rates in the rumen. There was a wide individual variation in the production rates of CO 2 between the individual animals. The production rates were not satistically significant between the two groups. (author)

  7. Metabolic differentiation in biofilms as indicated by carbon dioxide production rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bester, Elanna; Kroukamp, Otini; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Boonzaaier, Leandro; Liss, Steven N

    2010-02-01

    The measurement of carbon dioxide production rates as an indication of metabolic activity was applied to study biofilm development and response of Pseudomonas sp. biofilms to an environmental disturbance in the form of a moving air-liquid interface (i.e., shear). A differential response in biofilm cohesiveness was observed after bubble perturbation, and the biofilm layers were operationally defined as either shear-susceptible or non-shear-susceptible. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and image analysis showed a significant reduction in biofilm thickness and biomass after the removal of the shear-susceptible biofilm layer, as well as notable changes in the roughness coefficient and surface-to-biovolume ratio. These changes were accompanied by a 72% reduction of whole-biofilm CO2 production; however, the non-shear-susceptible region of the biofilm responded rapidly after the removal of the overlying cells and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) along with the associated changes in nutrient and O2 flux, with CO2 production rates returning to preperturbation levels within 24 h. The adaptable nature and the ability of bacteria to respond to environmental conditions were further demonstrated by the outer shear-susceptible region of the biofilm; the average CO2 production rate of cells from this region increased within 0.25 h from 9.45 +/- 5.40 fmol of CO2 x cell(-1) x h(-1) to 22.6 +/- 7.58 fmol of CO2 x cell(-1) x h(-1) when cells were removed from the biofilm and maintained in suspension without an additional nutrient supply. These results also demonstrate the need for sufficient monitoring of biofilm recovery at the solid substratum if mechanical methods are used for biofouling control.

  8. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept

  9. Nocturnal Light Pulses Lower Carbon Dioxide Production Rate without Affecting Feed Intake in Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Jia Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nocturnal light pulses (NLPs on the feed intake and metabolic rate in geese. Fourteen adult Chinese geese were penned individually, and randomly assigned to either the C (control or NLP group. The C group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod (12 h light and 12 h darkness per day, whereas the NLP group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod inserted by 15-min lighting at 2-h intervals in the scotophase. The weight of the feed was automatically recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 wk. The fasting carbon dioxide production rate (CO2 PR was recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 d. The results revealed that neither the daily feed intake nor the feed intakes during both the daytime and nighttime were affected by photoperiodic regimen, and the feed intake during the daytime did not differ from that during the nighttime. The photoperiodic treatment did not affect the time distribution of feed intake. However, NLPs lowered (p<0.05 the mean and minimal CO2 PR during both the daytime and nighttime. Both the mean and minimal CO2 PR during the daytime were significantly higher (p<0.05 than those during the nighttime. We concluded that NLPs lowered metabolic rate of the geese, but did not affect the feed intake; both the mean and minimal CO2 PR were higher during the daytime than during the nighttime.

  10. Carbon dioxide and climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

  11. Microbial production of multi-carbon chemicals and fuels from water and carbon dioxide using electric current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovley, Derek R; Nevin, Kelly

    2015-11-03

    The invention provides systems and methods for generating organic compounds using carbon dioxide as a source of carbon and electrical current as an energy source. In one embodiment, a reaction cell is provided having a cathode electrode and an anode electrode that are connected to a source of electrical power, and which are separated by a permeable membrane. A biological film is provided on the cathode. The biological film comprises a bacterium that can accept electrons and that can convert carbon dioxide to a carbon-bearing compound and water in a cathode half-reaction. At the anode, water is decomposed to free molecular oxygen and solvated protons in an anode half-reaction. The half-reactions are driven by the application of electrical current from an external source. Compounds that have been produced include acetate, butanol, 2-oxobutyrate, propanol, ethanol, and formate.

  12. Microbial production of multi-carbon chemicals and fuels from water and carbon dioxide using electric current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, Derek R.; Nevin, Kelly P.

    2018-01-02

    The invention provides systems and methods for generating organic compounds using carbon dioxide as a source of carbon and electrical current as an energy source. In one embodiment, a reaction cell is provided having a cathode electrode and an anode electrode that are connected to a source of electrical power, and which are separated by a permeable membrane. A biological film is provided on the cathode. The biological film comprises a bacterium that can accept electrons and that can convert carbon dioxide to a carbon-bearing compound and water in a cathode half-reaction. At the anode, water is decomposed to free molecular oxygen and solvated protons in an anode half-reaction. The half-reactions are driven by the application of electrical current from an external source. Compounds that have been produced include acetate, butanol, 2-oxobutyrate, propanol, ethanol, and formate.

  13. Net emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere when using forest residues for production of heat and electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zetterberg, L.; Hansen, O.

    1998-05-01

    This study estimates net emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere from the use of forest residues for production of heat and electricity. In the report, the use of forest residues for energy production is called residue-usage. Our results show that for a turnover period of 80 years, the net emission of CO 2 to the atmosphere is 15.8 kg CO 2 -C/MWh (3.1-31.6 kg CO 2 -C/MWh), which represents 16% of the total carbon content in the wood fuel (3%-32%). Fossil fuel consumption is responsible for 3.1 kg CO 2 -C/MWh of this. Residue-usage may produce indirect emissions or uptake of carbon dioxide, e.g. through changes in production conditions, changes in the turnover of carbon in the humus layer or through a reduction of the amount of forest fires. Due to uncertainties in data it is hard to quantify these indirect effects. In some cases it is hard even to determine their signs. As a consequence of this, we have chosen not to include the indirect effects in our estimates of net emissions from residue-usage. Instead we discuss these effects in a qualitative manner. It may seem surprising that the biogenic part of the residue-usage produces a net emission of carbon dioxide considering that carbon has originated from the atmosphere. The explanation is that the residue-usage systematically leads to earlier emissions than would be the case if the residues were left on the ground. If forest residues are left to decay, in the long run a pool of carbon might be created in the ground. This does not happen with residue-usage 33 refs, 4 figs, 12 tabs

  14. 27 CFR 24.319 - Carbon dioxide record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.319 Carbon dioxide record. A proprietor who uses carbon dioxide in still wine shall maintain a record of the laboratory tests conducted to...

  15. Report of the Carbon Dioxide Committee II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Committee was given the task of preparing a suggestion of the acts aimed at reducing the greenhouse gas emissions and increasing the sinks of carbon in Finland. Emissions of all greenhouse gases were in 1990 80 million tons. calculated as carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide emissions were about 58 million tons of the total. The increase of forest resources binds carbon from the atmosphere and reduces thereby net emissions of Finland at present by nearly 30 million tons of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide emissions will grow during the next decades, unless strong measures to control them will not be taken. As a result of the Commissions examination, acts will be needed both in the production of energy and in its consumption. Emissions can be reduced by replacing fossil fuels with nuclear energy, bioenergy and other renewable energy sources. Saving of energy and improvement of energy efficiency will limit carbon dioxide emissions. The Commission has made suggestions both to change the structure of energy production and to control the consumption of energy. (orig.)

  16. The carbon dioxide production rate assumption biases gastric emptying parameters in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Oonagh; Shafat, Amir

    2013-02-28

    An altered gastric emptying (GE) rate has been implicated in the aetiology of obesity. The (13)C-octanoic acid breath test (OBT) is frequently used to measure GE, and the cumulative percentage of (13)C recovered (cPDR) is a common outcome measure. However, true cPDR in breath is dependent on accurate measurement of carbon dioxide production rate (VCO(2)). The current study aimed to quantify differences in the (13)C OBT results obtained using directly measured VCO(2) (VCO(2DM)) compared with (i) predicted from resting VCO(2) (VCO(2PR)) and (ii) predicted from body surface area VCO(2) (VCO(2BSA)). The GE rate of a high-fat test meal was assessed in 27 lean subjects using the OBT. Breath samples were gathered during the fasted state and at regular intervals throughout the 6-h postprandial period for determination of (13)C-isotopic enrichment by continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. The VCO(2) was measured directly from exhaled air samples and the PDR calculated by three methods. The bias and the limits of agreement were calculated using Bland-Altman plots. Compared with the VCO(2DM), the cPDR was underestimated by VCO(2PR) (4.8%; p = 0.0001) and VCO(2BSA) (2.7%; p = 0.02). The GE T(half) was underestimated by VCO(2PR) (13 min; p = 0.0001) and VCO(2BSA) (10 min; p = 0.01), compared with VCO(2DM). The findings highlight the importance of directly measuring VCO(2)production rates throughout the (13)C OBT and could partly explain the conflicting evidence regarding the effect of obesity on GE rates. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Biorefineries of carbon dioxide: From carbon capture and storage (CCS) to bioenergies production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Wai Yan; Ling, Tau Chuan; Juan, Joon Ching; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu; Show, Pau Loke

    2016-09-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions have several adverse environmental effects, like pollution and climate change. Currently applied carbon capture and storage (CCS) methods are not cost effective and have not been proven safe for long term sequestration. Another attractive approach is CO2 valorization, whereby CO2 can be captured in the form of biomass via photosynthesis and is subsequently converted into various form of bioenergy. This article summarizes the current carbon sequestration and utilization technologies, while emphasizing the value of bioconversion of CO2. In particular, CO2 sequestration by terrestrial plants, microalgae and other microorganisms are discussed. Prospects and challenges for CO2 conversion are addressed. The aim of this review is to provide comprehensive knowledge and updated information on the current advances in biological CO2 sequestration and valorization, which are essential if this approach is to achieve environmental sustainability and economic feasibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Forecasting carbon dioxide emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaobing; Du, Ding

    2015-09-01

    This study extends the literature on forecasting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by applying the reduced-form econometrics approach of Schmalensee et al. (1998) to a more recent sample period, the post-1997 period. Using the post-1997 period is motivated by the observation that the strengthening pace of global climate policy may have been accelerated since 1997. Based on our parameter estimates, we project 25% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2050 according to an economic and population growth scenario that is more consistent with recent global trends. Our forecasts are conservative due to that we do not have sufficient data to fully take into account recent developments in the global economy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Carbon dioxide and future climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J M

    1977-03-01

    The addition of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere due to burning fossil fuel is discussed. The release rate of carbon dioxide has been growing since at least 1950 at an average rate of 4.3% per year. If all known fossil fuel reserves in the world are consumed, a total of between 5 and 14 times the present amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will be released. The oceans would then be unlikely to withdraw the proportion of perhaps 40% which they are believed to have withdrawn up to the present. The increase in the atmosphere would be in excess of 3 times or conceivably ten times the present amount. If the reserves are used up within a few hundred years, more than half the excess carbon dioxide would remain in the atmosphere after a thousand years. The ''greenhouse'' effect of carbon dioxide is explained. The simulation with numerical models of the effects of carbon dioxide on atmospheric radiation fluxes is discussed. An estimated increase in the average annual temperature of the earth of 2.4 to 2.9C is given for doubling the carbon dioxide content; also a 7% increase in global average precipitation. The effect of increasing carbon dioxide on global mean temperature is viewed in the perspective of the glacial-interglacial cycles. The warming effect of carbon dioxide may induce a ''super-interglacial'' on the present interglacial which is expected to decline toward a new ice age in the next several thousand years. Finally it is proposed that it may be necessary to phase out the use of fossil fuels before all the knowledge is acquired which would necessitate such an action.

  20. Method for carbon dioxide sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifeng; Bryan, Charles R.; Dewers, Thomas; Heath, Jason E.

    2017-12-05

    A method for geo-sequestration of a carbon dioxide includes selection of a target water-laden geological formation with low-permeability interbeds, providing an injection well into the formation and injecting supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO.sub.2) and water or bine into the injection well under conditions of temperature, pressure and density selected to cause the fluid to enter the formation and splinter and/or form immobilized ganglia within the formation.

  1. Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O'Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A

    2014-11-18

    A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

  2. Application of a novel calcium looping process for production of heat and carbon dioxide enrichment of greenhouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramezani, Mohammad; Shah, Kalpit; Doroodchi, Elham; Moghtaderi, Behdad

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The greenhouse calcium looping process was developed by ASPEN Plus simulator. • In this process, the carbonation reaction provides required heat during night time. • The calcination reaction provides required carbon dioxide during day time. • This novel process saves up to 72% energy compared to the fossil fuel burners. • The process thermodynamically attributes to zero emission of carbon dioxide. - Abstract: Greenhouses typically employ conventional burner systems to suffice heat and carbon dioxide required for plant growth. The energy requirement and carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burner are generally high. As an alternative, this paper describes a novel greenhouse calcium looping process which is expected to decrease the energy requirements and associated carbon dioxide emissions. The conceptual design of greenhouse calcium looping process is carried out in the ASPEN Plus v 7.3 simulator. In a greenhouse calcium looping process, the calcination reaction is considered to take place during day time in order to provide the required optimum carbon dioxide between 1000 and 2000 ppm, while the carbonation reaction is occurred during night time to provide required heat. The process simulations carried out in ASPEN indicates that greenhouse calcium looping process theoretically attributes to zero emission of carbon dioxide. Moreover, in a scenario modelling study compared to the conventional natural gas burner system, the heat duty requirements in the greenhouse calcium looping process were found to reduce by as high as 72%

  3. High Acetic Acid Production Rate Obtained by Microbial Electrosynthesis from Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdin, Ludovic; Grieger, Timothy; Monetti, Juliette; Flexer, Victoria; Freguia, Stefano; Lu, Yang; Chen, Jun; Romano, Mark; Wallace, Gordon G; Keller, Jurg

    2015-11-17

    High product specificity and production rate are regarded as key success parameters for large-scale applicability of a (bio)chemical reaction technology. Here, we report a significant performance enhancement in acetate formation from CO2, reaching comparable productivity levels as in industrial fermentation processes (volumetric production rate and product yield). A biocathode current density of -102 ± 1 A m(-2) and an acetic acid production rate of 685 ± 30 (g m(-2) day(-1)) have been achieved in this study. High recoveries of 94 ± 2% of the CO2 supplied as the sole carbon source and 100 ± 4% of electrons into the final product (acetic acid) were achieved after development of a mature biofilm, reaching an elevated product titer of up to 11 g L(-1). This high product specificity is remarkable for mixed microbial cultures, which would make the product downstream processing easier and the technology more attractive. This performance enhancement was enabled through the combination of a well-acclimatized and enriched microbial culture (very fast start-up after culture transfer), coupled with the use of a newly synthesized electrode material, EPD-3D. The throwing power of the electrophoretic deposition technique, a method suitable for large-scale production, was harnessed to form multiwalled carbon nanotube coatings onto reticulated vitreous carbon to generate a hierarchical porous structure.

  4. Method for Extracting and Sequestering Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, Gregory H.; Caldeira, Kenneth G.

    2005-05-10

    A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO2 from a gaseous environment.

  5. Apparatus for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Gregory H [Castro Valley, CA; Caldeira, Kenneth G [Livermore, CA

    2010-02-02

    An apparatus and method associated therewith to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2 and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  6. Research Progress in Carbon Dioxide Storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Keliang; Wang, Gang; Lu, Chunjing

    2018-02-01

    With the rapid development of global economy, human beings have become highly dependent upon fossil fuel such as coal and petroleum. Much fossil fuel is consumed in industrial production and human life. As a result, carbon dioxide emissions have been increasing, and the greenhouse effects thereby generated are posing serious threats to environment of the earth. These years, increasing average global temperature, frequent extreme weather events and climatic changes cause material disasters to the world. After scientists’ long-term research, ample evidences have proven that emissions of greenhouse gas like carbon dioxide have brought about tremendous changes to global climate. To really reduce carbon dioxide emissions, governments of different countries and international organizations have invested much money and human resources in performing research related to carbon dioxide emissions. Manual underground carbon dioxide storage and carbon dioxide-enhanced oil recovery are schemes with great potential and prospect for reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Compared with other schemes for reducing carbon dioxide emissions, aforementioned two schemes exhibit high storage capacity and yield considerable economic benefits, so they have become research focuses for reducing carbon dioxide emissions. This paper introduces the research progress in underground carbon dioxide storage and enhanced oil recovery, pointing out the significance and necessity of carbon dioxide-driven enhanced oil recovery.

  7. Potential of carbon dioxide storage from petroleum industries in the Gulf of Thailand for green production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawangphai, M.; Maneeintr, K.

    2018-04-01

    Recently, climate change and global warming are the global concern because of an increase in the huge amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. This gas comes from energy activities and industries like petroleum industries. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is the practical technology to reduce and storage CO2. In Thailand, one of the main potential sites for storage is the Gulf of Thailand. However, the research on this issue is very rare in Thailand. Consequently, this work is aiming on the potential study of CO2 geological storage in formations in the Gulf of Thailand by using simulation. The CO2 storage capacity, pressure buildup and plume migration have been estimated. Also, this study has been simulated with various conditions. CO2 injection is used from 1,000-4,000 tons per day with the depth from 2,200-2,330 meters and the results are studied for 50 years as a monitoring period. The results present that with the formation characteristics, CO2 storage in this area has potential. Moreover, pressure buildup and plume migration are illustrated for the period of 50 years. As a fundamental knowledge, this study can contribute to CO2 storage in an offshore area in Thailand.

  8. Electrochemical processing of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloman, Colin; Li, Hui

    2008-01-01

    With respect to the negative role of carbon dioxide on our climate, it is clear that the time is ripe for the development of processes that convert CO(2) into useful products. The electroreduction of CO(2) is a prime candidate here, as the reaction at near-ambient conditions can yield organics such as formic acid, methanol, and methane. Recent laboratory work on the 100 A scale has shown that reduction of CO(2) to formate (HCO(2)(-)) may be carried out in a trickle-bed continuous electrochemical reactor under industrially viable conditions. Presuming the problems of cathode stability and formate crossover can be overcome, this type of reactor is proposed as the basis for a commercial operation. The viability of corresponding processes for electrosynthesis of formate salts and/or formic acid from CO(2) is examined here through conceptual flowsheets for two process options, each converting CO(2) at the rate of 100 tonnes per day.

  9. Regional impacts of climate change and elevated carbon dioxide on forest productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer C. Jenkins; David W. Kicklighter; John D. Aber

    2000-01-01

    Net primary production (NPP) is defined as the rate at which carbon (C) is accumulated by autotrophs and is expressed as the difference between gross photosynthesis and autotrophic respiration. NPP is the resource providing for the growth and reproduction of all heterotrophs on Earth; as a result, it determines the planet's carrying capacity (Vitousek et al., 1986...

  10. The effect of additional dead space on respiratory exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production due to training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, Lukasz; Borkowski, Jacek; Zaton, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training. The primary outcome measures were respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2). Two groups of young healthy males: Experimental (Exp, n = 15) and Control (Con, n = 15), participated in this study. The training consisted of 12 sessions, performed twice a week for 6 weeks. A single training session consisted of continuous, constant-rate exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max which was maintained for 30 minutes. Subjects in Exp group were breathing through additional respiratory dead space (1200ml), while subjects in Con group were breathing without additional dead space. Pre-test and two post-training incremental exercise tests were performed for the detection of gas exchange variables. In all training sessions, pCO2 was higher and blood pH was lower in the Exp group (p exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production.In all training sessions, respiratory acidosis was gained by experimental group only.No significant difference in RER and VCO2 between experimental and control group due to the trainings.The lack of difference in post-training values of RER and VCO2 between groups means absence of inhibition in glycolysis and glycogenolysis during exercise with additional dead space.

  11. Production of uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.E.; Shuck, D.L.; Lyon, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    A continuous, four stage fluidized bed process for converting uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) to ceramic-grade uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) powder suitable for use in the manufacture of fuel pellets for nuclear reactors is disclosed. The process comprises the steps of first reacting UF 6 with steam in a first fluidized bed, preferably at about 550 0 C, to form solid intermediate reaction products UO 2 F 2 , U 3 O 8 and an off-gas including hydrogen fluoride (HF). The solid intermediate reaction products are conveyed to a second fluidized bed reactor at which the mol fraction of HF is controlled at low levels in order to prevent the formation of uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ). The first intermediate reaction products are reacted in the second fluidized bed with steam and hydrogen at a temperature of about 630 0 C. The second intermediate reaction product including uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) is conveyed to a third fluidized bed reactor and reacted with additional steam and hydrogen at a temperature of about 650 0 C producing a reaction product consisting essentially of uranium dioxide having an oxygen-uranium ratio of about 2 and a low residual fluoride content. This product is then conveyed to a fourth fluidized bed wherein a mixture of air and preheated nitrogen is introduced in order to further reduce the fluoride content of the UO 2 and increase the oxygen-uranium ratio to about 2.25

  12. Investigation of reaction mechanisms during electroreduction of carbon dioxide on lead electrode for the production of organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innocent, B.

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this work was to promote the reduction of CO 2 through its electrochemical conversion (electro-synthesis) on a lead electrode into high added value products. Depending on the nature of electrolyte, the electro-reduction of carbon dioxide leads to different products. Various electrolytes (aqueous or organic, protic or aprotic) were used to study two mechanisms: hydrogenation (formation of formate) and electro-dimerization (synthesis of oxalate). Cyclic voltammetry studies have been carried out for electrochemically characterizing CO 2 reduction on Pb. The electrochemical investigation of the electrode electrolyte interface has shown that the process of CO 2 electro-reduction is a mass transfer control both in the organic and aqueous media. Electrochemical experiments (cyclic voltammetry, chrono-amperometry) coupled with in situ infrared reflectance spectroscopic techniques (SPAIRS, SNIFTIRS) have also shown that in aqueous medium (7 ≤pH≤9) hydrogeno-carbonate ions were reduced to formate. The modification of solvent (propylene carbonate) leads selectively to oxalate as the main reaction product. Long-term electrolyses were performed in a filter-press cell to deal large volumes. In aqueous medium, the reduction of HCO 3 - to HCOO - (R F = 89% at -2.5 mA cm -2 and 4 C) is always accompanied by the production of H 2 . (author)

  13. Effect of microgravity on stress ethylene and carbon dioxide production in sweet clover (Melilotus alba L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Gregory L.; Odom, William R.; Guikema, James A.

    1995-01-01

    The study of higher plant growth and development in the microgravity (micro-g) environment continues to be a challenge. This is in part a result of the available flight qualified hardware with restrictive closed gas environments. This point is underscored by considering that gas exchange of seedlings grown in microgravity may be further limited owing to a thicker layer of water wicked onto the roots and to the absence of convective mixing. We hypothesized that seedlings grown under such conditions will experience greater hypoxia in microgravity than at Earth gravity, and thus produce greater stress ethylene. We compared flight and ground samples of sweet clover seedlings grown in the Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA) during STS-57 and found them to contain extremely high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and stress ethylene. There were time dependent increases for both gases, and seedling growth was greatly inhibited. We repeated these experiments aboard STS-60 using modified chambers which increased, by fifty fold, the air available to the developing seedlings. Sweet clover seed germination and subsequent seedling growth to eight days within the FPA modified with a gas permeable membrane is not compromised by the microgravity environment.

  14. Carbon Dioxide Absorption Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A carbon dioxide absorption heat pump cycle is disclosed using a high pressure stage and a super-critical cooling stage to provide a non-toxic system. Using carbon dioxide gas as the working fluid in the system, the present invention desorbs the CO2 from an absorbent and cools the gas in the super-critical state to deliver heat thereby. The cooled CO2 gas is then expanded thereby providing cooling and is returned to an absorber for further cycling. Strategic use of heat exchangers can increase the efficiency and performance of the system.

  15. Carbon dioxide cleaning pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, L.; Blackman, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    In 1989, radioactive-contaminated metal at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) was cleaned using a solvent paint stripper (Methylene chloride). One-third of the radioactive material was able to be recycled; two-thirds went to the scrap pile as low-level mixed waste. In addition, waste solvent solutions also required disposal. Not only was this an inefficient process, it was later prohibited by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 268. A better way of doing business was needed. In the search for a solution to this situation, it was decided to study the advantages of using a new technology - pelletized carbon dioxide cleaning. A proof of principle demonstration occurred in December 1990 to test whether such a system could clean radioactive-contaminated metal. The proof of principle demonstration was expanded in June 1992 with a pilot project. The purpose of the pilot project was three fold: (1) to clean metal so that it can satisfy free release criteria for residual radioactive contamination at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP); (2) to compare two different carbon dioxide cleaning systems; and (3) to determine the cost-effectiveness of decontamination process in a production situation and compare the cost of shipping the metal off site for waste disposal. The pilot project was completed in August 1993. The results of the pilot project were: (1) 90% of those items which were decontaminated, successfully met the free release criteria , (2) the Alpheus Model 250 was selected to be used on plantsite and (3) the break even cost of decontaminating the metal vs shipping the contaminated material offsite for disposal was a cleaning rate of 90 pounds per hour, which was easily achieved

  16. Hydrogen production by dry reforming of methane with carbon dioxide in one-dimensional nickel-based catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez U, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is development of nickel catalysts supported over 1D matrix of cerium oxide, to be used in dry reforming methane reaction with carbon dioxide for hydrogen production. The catalysts were characterized by: Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR), Scanning Electronic Microscopy (Sem), Surface Area (Bet method) an X Ray Diffraction (XRD). The TPR technique allowed to define reduction temperature of the active phase in the catalyst, Sem technique showed that the CeO_2 matrix had a nano rod morphology. XRD allowed to identify the crystalline phases of the catalysts. Finally, the catalysts were tested in the dry reforming methane reaction, high catalytic activity and hydrogen production were performed at 700 degrees Celsius and the catalyst with 30 wt.% of nickel. (Author)

  17. Carbon Dioxide Embolism during Laparoscopic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Young; Kwon, Ja-Young

    2012-01-01

    Clinically significant carbon dioxide embolism is a rare but potentially fatal complication of anesthesia administered during laparoscopic surgery. Its most common cause is inadvertent injection of carbon dioxide into a large vein, artery or solid organ. This error usually occurs during or shortly after insufflation of carbon dioxide into the body cavity, but may result from direct intravascular insufflation of carbon dioxide during surgery. Clinical presentation of carbon dioxide embolism ranges from asymptomatic to neurologic injury, cardiovascular collapse or even death, which is dependent on the rate and volume of carbon dioxide entrapment and the patient's condition. We reviewed extensive literature regarding carbon dioxide embolism in detail and set out to describe the complication from background to treatment. We hope that the present work will improve our understanding of carbon dioxide embolism during laparoscopic surgery. PMID:22476987

  18. Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto-Valer, M Mercedes [State College, PA; Zhang, Yinzhi [State College, PA; Kuchta, Matthew E [State College, PA; Andresen, John M [State College, PA; Fauth, Dan J [Pittsburgh, PA

    2009-10-20

    A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

  19. High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.

  20. Modelling Sublimation of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author reports results in their efforts to model sublimation of carbon dioxide and the associated kinetics order and parameter estimation issues in their model. They have offered the reader two sets of data and several approaches to determine the rate of sublimation of a piece of solid dry ice. They presented several models…

  1. Use of high concentrations of carbon dioxide for stunning rabbits reared for meat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dalmau

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: An investigation was performed to determine whether high concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2 at 70-98% in atmospheric air are a suitable alternative for stunning rabbits compared to conventional approaches such as electronarcosis. Aversion to the gas and efficacy in causing prolonged unconsciousness and death were studied in a total of 480 rabbits by means of behavioural parameters, physiological indicators (presence of rhythmic breathing and corneal reflex and electroencephalography (EEG, brain function. The use of any of the 4 studied concentrations of the gas caused more nasal discomfort and vocalisations than the use of atmospheric air (P<0.001. EEG activity confirmed that loss of posture is a good indicator of the onset of unconsciousness in rabbits exposed to CO2, occurring earlier (P<0.05 at 90 and 98% than at 70 and 80%. Rabbits showed signs of aversion for 15 s before the onset of unconsciousness, which occurred around 30 s after the beginning of the exposure to the gas, similar to species such as swine in which high concentrations of CO2 are also used for stunning. CO2 at 80 to 98% is suggested as a reasonable concentration range to induce a long state of unconsciousness and death in rabbits, while 70% CO2 is not recommended because it requires too long duration of exposure (more than 360 s to ensure effectiveness. Despite the advantages in terms of pre-stun handling and irreversibility, CO2 is not free of animal welfare concerns. In consequence, a debate is necessary to ascertain if CO2 can be considered a suitable alternative to stun rabbits, considering the advantages and drawbacks cited, quantified in the present study as 15 s of aversion (nasal discomfort and vocalisations before losing posture.

  2. Effects of carbon dioxide on Penicillium chrysogenum: an autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, A.G.; Ho, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    Previous research has shown that dissolved carbon dioxide causes significant changes in submerged penicillin fermentations, such as stunted, swollen hyphae, increased branching, lower growth rates, and lower penicillin productivity. Influent carbon dioxide levels of 5 and 10% were shown through the use of autoradiography to cause an increase in chitin synthesis in submerged cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum. At an influent 5% carbon dioxide level, chitin synthesis is ca. 100% greater in the subapical region of P. chrysogenum hyphae than that of the control, in which there was no influent carbon dioxide. Influent carbon dioxide of 10% caused an increase of 200% in chitin synthesis. It is believed that the cell wall must be plasticized before branching can occur and that high amounts of dissolved carbon dioxide cause the cell to lose control of the plasticizing effect, thus the severe morphological changes occur

  3. Nongovernmental valorization of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Gene; Viviani, Donn; Magrini-Bair, Kim; Kelley, Stephen; Moens, Luc; Shepherd, Phil; DuBois, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is considered the largest contributor to the greenhouse gas effect. Most attempts to manage the flow of CO 2 or carbon into our environment involve reducing net emissions or sequestering the gas into long-lived sinks. Using CO 2 as a chemical feedstock has a long history, but using it on scales that might impact the net emissions of CO 2 into the atmosphere has not generally been considered seriously. There is also a growing interest in employing our natural biomes of carbon such as trees, vegetation, and soils as storage media. Some amelioration of the net carbon emissions into the atmosphere could be achieved by concomitant large withdrawals of carbon. This report surveys the potential and limitations in employing carbon as a resource for organic chemicals, fuels, inorganic materials, and in using the biome to manage carbon. The outlook for each of these opportunities is also described

  4. Trade-offs for food production, nature conservation and climate limit the terrestrial carbon dioxide removal potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Lena R; Lucht, Wolfgang; Gerten, Dieter

    2017-10-01

    Large-scale biomass plantations (BPs) are a common factor in climate mitigation scenarios as they promise double benefits: extracting carbon from the atmosphere and providing a renewable energy source. However, their terrestrial carbon dioxide removal (tCDR) potentials depend on important factors such as land availability, efficiency of capturing biomass-derived carbon and the timing of operation. Land availability is restricted by the demands of future food production depending on yield increases and population growth, by requirements for nature conservation and, with respect to climate mitigation, avoiding unfavourable albedo changes. We integrate these factors in one spatially explicit biogeochemical simulation framework to explore the tCDR opportunity space on land available after these constraints are taken into account, starting either in 2020 or 2050, and lasting until 2100. We find that assumed future needs for nature protection and food production strongly limit tCDR potentials. BPs on abandoned crop and pasture areas (~1,300 Mha in scenarios of either 8.0 billion people and yield gap reductions of 25% until 2020 or 9.5 billion people and yield gap reductions of 50% until 2050) could, theoretically, sequester ~100 GtC in land carbon stocks and biomass harvest by 2100. However, this potential would be ~80% lower if only cropland was available or ~50% lower if albedo decreases were considered as a factor restricting land availability. Converting instead natural forest, shrubland or grassland into BPs could result in much larger tCDR potentials ̶ but at high environmental costs (e.g. biodiversity loss). The most promising avenue for effective tCDR seems to be improvement of efficient carbon utilization pathways, changes in dietary trends or the restoration of marginal lands for the implementation of tCDR. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Large scale carbon dioxide production from coal-fired power stations for enhanced oil recovery : a new economic feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tontiwachwuthikul, P.; Chan, C.W.; Kritpiphat, W.; DeMontigny, D.; Skoropad, D.; Gelowitz, D.; Aroonwilas, A.; Mourits, F.; Wilson, M.; Ward, L.

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the economics of capturing carbon dioxide from coal-fired power plants to be subsequently used as a flooding agent for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technologies. It was shown that the production of CO 2 for EOR projects can be technically and economically feasible, particularly when the concepts of cogeneration and optimization are used to reduce steam and electricity expenditures. This is done by using low-pressure steam and waste heat from various sections of the power generation process. It was shown that recovery costs could range between $0.50 to $2.00 per mscf. This translates to a recovered oil price of in the range of $17.39 to $19.95 per bbl., suggesting that even at today's low oil prices there is room for CO 2 flooding with flue gas extracted CO 2 . Practical implications for Saskatchewan were examined. 15 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  6. Carbon dioxide capture and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, B.

    2011-01-01

    The author first highlights the reasons why storing carbon dioxide in geological formations could be a solution in the struggle against global warming and climate change. Thus, he comments various evolutions and prospective data about carbon emissions or fossil energy consumption as well as various studies performed by international bodies and agencies which show the interest of carbon dioxide storage. He comments the evolution of CO 2 contributions of different industrial sectors and activities, notably in France. He presents the different storage modes and methods which concern different geological formations (saline aquifers, abandoned oil or gas fields, not exploitable coal seams) and different processes (sorption, carbonation). He discusses the risks associated with these storages, the storable quantities, evokes some existing installations in different countries. He comments different ways to capture carbon dioxide (in post-combustion, through oxy-combustion, by pre-combustion) and briefly evokes some existing installations. He evokes the issue of transport, and discusses efficiency and cost aspects, and finally has few words on legal aspects and social acceptability

  7. Perspectives in the use of carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aresta Michele

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The mitigation of carbon dioxide is one of the scientific and technological challenges of the 2000s. Among the technologies that are under assessment, the recovery of carbon dioxide from power plants or industrial flue gases plays a strategic role. Recovered carbon dioxide can be either disposed in natural fields or used. The availability of large amounts of carbon dioxide may open new routes to its utilisation in biological, chemical and innovative technological processes. In this paper, the potential of carbon dioxide utilisation in the short-, medium-term is reviewed.

  8. Saponin, an inhibitory agent of carbon dioxide production by white cells : its use in the microbiologic examination of blood components in an automated bacterial culture system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorne, Hans; van der Tuuk Adriani, W.P A; van der Ven, L.I; Bosch, E.H; de Natris, T; Smit Sibinga, C.Th.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood components with a white cell count >100 x 10(9) per L may cause false-positive results when the BacT/Alert system is used for the microbiologic examination. The effects of different concentrations of saponin on bacterial growth and on carbon dioxide production by blood fractions

  9. Future active layer dynamics and carbon dioxide production from thawing permafrost layers in Northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Elberling, Bo; Jansson, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Thawing permafrost and the resulting mineralization of previously frozen organic carbon (C) is considered an important future feedback from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. Here, we use a dynamic process oriented permafrost model, the CoupModel, to link surface and subsurface temperatures....... The model is successfully adjusted and applied for the study area and shown to be able to simulate active layer dynamics. Subsequently, the model is used to predict the active layer thickness under future warming scenarios. The model predicts an increase of maximum active layer thickness from today 70 to 80......–105 cm as a result of a 2–6 °C warming. An additional increase in the maximum active layer thickness of a few centimetres may be expected due to heat production from decomposition of organic matter. Simulated future soil temperatures and water contents are subsequently used with measured basal soil...

  10. Effect of redox conditions on bacterial and fungal biomass and carbon dioxide production in Louisiana coastal swamp forest sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Dong Cheol; DeLaune, Ronald D.

    2010-01-01

    Fungal and bacterial carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) production/emission was determined under a range of redox conditions in sediment from a Louisiana swamp forest used for wastewater treatment. Sediment was incubated in microcosms at 6 Eh levels (-200, -100, 0, + 100, + 250 and + 400 mV) covering the anaerobic range found in wetland soil and sediment. Carbon dioxide production was determined by the substrate-induced respiration (SIR) inhibition method. Cycloheximide (C 15 H 23 NO 4 ) was used as the fungal inhibitor and streptomycin (C 21 H 39 N 7 O 12 ) as the bacterial inhibitor. Under moderately reducing conditions (Eh > + 250 mV), fungi contributed more than bacteria to the CO 2 production. Under highly reducing conditions (Eh ≤ 0 mV), bacteria contributed more than fungi to the total CO 2 production. The fungi/bacteria (F/B) ratios varied between 0.71-1.16 for microbial biomass C, and 0.54-0.94 for microbial biomass N. Under moderately reducing conditions (Eh ≥ + 100 mV), the F/B ratios for microbial biomass C and N were higher than that for highly reducing conditions (Eh ≤ 0 mV). In moderately reducing conditions (Eh ≥ + 100 mV), the C/N microbial biomass ratio for fungi (C/N: 13.54-14.26) was slightly higher than for bacteria (C/N: 9.61-12.07). Under highly reducing redox conditions (Eh ≤ 0 mV), the C/N microbial biomass ratio for fungi (C/N: 10.79-12.41) was higher than for bacteria (C/N: 8.21-9.14). For bacteria and fungi, the C/N microbial biomass ratios under moderately reducing conditions were higher than that in highly reducing conditions. Fungal CO 2 production from swamp forest could be of greater ecological significance under moderately reducing sediment conditions contributing to the greenhouse effect (GHE) and the global warming potential (GWP). However, increases in coastal submergence associated with global sea level rise and resultant decrease in sediment redox potential from increased flooding would likely shift CO 2 production to bacteria

  11. Carbon isotope ratios of atmospheric carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Hitoshi; Kishima, Noriaki; Tsutaki, Yasuhiro.

    1982-01-01

    The delta 13 C values relative to PDB were measured for carbon dioxide in air samples collected at various parts of Japan and at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii in the periods of 1977 and 1978. The delta 13 C values of the ''clean air'' are -7.6 % at Hawaii and -8.1 per mille Oki and Hachijo-jima islands. These values are definitely lighter than the carbon isotope ratios (-6.9 per mille) obtained by Keeling for clean airs collected at Southern California in 1955 to 1956. The increase in 12 C in atmospheric carbon dioxide is attributed to the input of the anthropogenic light carbon dioxides (combustion of fossil fuels etc.) Taking -7.6 per mille to be the isotope ratio of CO 2 in the present clean air, a simple three box model predicts that the biosphere has decreased rather than increased since 1955, implying that it is acting as the doner of carbon rather than the sink. (author)

  12. Oxygen and carbon dioxide sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fan (Inventor); Pearton, Stephen John (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) capable of performing as a CO.sub.2 or O.sub.2 sensor is disclosed, hi one implementation, a polymer solar cell can be connected to the HEMT for use in an infrared detection system. In a second implementation, a selective recognition layer can be provided on a gate region of the HEMT. For carbon dioxide sensing, the selective recognition layer can be, in one example, PEI/starch. For oxygen sensing, the selective recognition layer can be, in one example, indium zinc oxide (IZO). In one application, the HEMTs can be used for the detection of carbon dioxide and oxygen in exhaled breath or blood.

  13. Carbon dioxide retention in divers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florio, J.T.; Mackenzie, D.A.R.; McKenzie, R.S. [ARE Physiological Laboratory, Gosport (United Kingdom)

    1998-04-01

    This report summarises the work carried out at the ARE Physiological Laboratory (ARE(PL)) between July 1978 and December 1983. The work was intended to examine the proposition that some divers have a low ventilatory response to carbon dioxide; that this results in a low ventilatory response to exercise with consequent hypercapnia; and that these characteristics put the diver at a greater-than-normal risk by increasing the individual`s susceptibility to oxygen toxicity and to other hazards associated with diving (e.g. nitrogen narcosis, decompression sickness and hypothermia). The specific aims of the project can be summarised as follows: (a) to demonstrate the existence of divers who exhibit the tendency to `retain carbon dioxide` when working in hyperbaric conditions; (b) to define the circumstances under which such individuals are at risk; (c) to assess the magnitude of the risk; and (d) to recommend ways to eliminate or to reduce the risk. (author)

  14. Biological acetate production from carbon dioxide by Acetobacterium woodii and Clostridium ljungdahlii: The effect of cell immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai-Hsuan; Syu, Jyun-Cyuan; Tien, Shih-Yuan; Whang, Liang-Ming

    2018-08-01

    This study investigated the acetate production from gas mixture of hydrogen (H 2 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the ratio of 7:3 using two acetogens: Acetobacterium woodii and Clostridium ljungdahlii. Batch result shows A. woodii performed two-phase degradation with the presence of glucose that lactate was produced from glucose and was reutilized for the production of butyrate and few acetate, while only acetate was detected when providing gas mixture. C. ljungdahlii produced butyrate and ethanol along with acetate when glucose was introduced, while only ethanol and acetate were found by feeding gas mixture. The acetate-to-ethanol (A/E) ratio can be enhanced by cell immobilization, while GAC immobilization produced only acetate and the production rate reached 0.072 mmol/d under fed-batch operation. Acetate production rate increased from 18 to 28 mmol/L/d with GAC immobilization when gas flowrate increased from 100 to 300 mL/min in anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactor (AFMBR), and a highest A/E ratio of 30 implies the possible application of acetate recovery from H 2 and CO 2 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A metal-free electrocatalyst for carbon dioxide reduction to multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingjie; Ma, Sichao; Sun, Jing; Gold, Jake I.; Tiwary, ChandraSekhar; Kim, Byoungsu; Zhu, Lingyang; Chopra, Nitin; Odeh, Ihab N.; Vajtai, Robert; Yu, Aaron Z.; Luo, Raymond; Lou, Jun; Ding, Guqiao; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2016-01-01

    Electroreduction of carbon dioxide into higher-energy liquid fuels and chemicals is a promising but challenging renewable energy conversion technology. Among the electrocatalysts screened so far for carbon dioxide reduction, which includes metals, alloys, organometallics, layered materials and carbon nanostructures, only copper exhibits selectivity towards formation of hydrocarbons and multi-carbon oxygenates at fairly high efficiencies, whereas most others favour production of carbon monoxide or formate. Here we report that nanometre-size N-doped graphene quantum dots (NGQDs) catalyse the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide into multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates at high Faradaic efficiencies, high current densities and low overpotentials. The NGQDs show a high total Faradaic efficiency of carbon dioxide reduction of up to 90%, with selectivity for ethylene and ethanol conversions reaching 45%. The C2 and C3 product distribution and production rate for NGQD-catalysed carbon dioxide reduction is comparable to those obtained with copper nanoparticle-based electrocatalysts. PMID:27958290

  16. A metal-free electrocatalyst for carbon dioxide reduction to multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingjie; Ma, Sichao; Sun, Jing; Gold, Jake I.; Tiwary, Chandrasekhar; Kim, Byoungsu; Zhu, Lingyang; Chopra, Nitin; Odeh, Ihab N.; Vajtai, Robert; Yu, Aaron Z.; Luo, Raymond; Lou, Jun; Ding, Guqiao; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2016-12-01

    Electroreduction of carbon dioxide into higher-energy liquid fuels and chemicals is a promising but challenging renewable energy conversion technology. Among the electrocatalysts screened so far for carbon dioxide reduction, which includes metals, alloys, organometallics, layered materials and carbon nanostructures, only copper exhibits selectivity towards formation of hydrocarbons and multi-carbon oxygenates at fairly high efficiencies, whereas most others favour production of carbon monoxide or formate. Here we report that nanometre-size N-doped graphene quantum dots (NGQDs) catalyse the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide into multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates at high Faradaic efficiencies, high current densities and low overpotentials. The NGQDs show a high total Faradaic efficiency of carbon dioxide reduction of up to 90%, with selectivity for ethylene and ethanol conversions reaching 45%. The C2 and C3 product distribution and production rate for NGQD-catalysed carbon dioxide reduction is comparable to those obtained with copper nanoparticle-based electrocatalysts.

  17. 21 CFR 184.1240 - Carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Carbon dioxide. 184.1240 Section 184.1240 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1240 Carbon dioxide. (a) Carbon dioxide (empirical formula CO2, CAS Reg. No.... The solid form, dry ice, sublimes under atmospheric pressure at a temperature of −78.5 °C. Carbon...

  18. Carbon dioxide may become a resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugneland, Petter; Areklett, Ivar

    2002-01-01

    The greenhouse gas CO 2 may become a product that the oil companies would pay for. In an extensive international resource project methods for CO 2 capture, transport and storage are being investigated. CO 2 capture means that carbon dioxide that is formed in the combustion of fossil fuels is separated out from the process, either from the fuel (decarbonization), or from the flue gas, and then stored. The article briefly describes the international joint project CO 2 Capture Project (CCP), in which eight oil companies are participating. If one can find a method for injecting CO 2 into oil reservoirs that leads to increased oil production, then part of the extra cost of removing the carbon dioxide from flue gas may be repaid

  19. Carbon Dioxide Removal via Passive Thermal Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Michael; Hanford, Anthony; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2011-01-01

    A paper describes a regenerable approach to separate carbon dioxide from other cabin gases by means of cooling until the carbon dioxide forms carbon dioxide ice on the walls of the physical device. Currently, NASA space vehicles remove carbon dioxide by reaction with lithium hydroxide (LiOH) or by adsorption to an amine, a zeolite, or other sorbent. Use of lithium hydroxide, though reliable and well-understood, requires significant mass for all but the shortest missions in the form of lithium hydroxide pellets, because the reaction of carbon dioxide with lithium hydroxide is essentially irreversible. This approach is regenerable, uses less power than other historical approaches, and it is almost entirely passive, so it is more economical to operate and potentially maintenance- free for long-duration missions. In carbon dioxide removal mode, this approach passes a bone-dry stream of crew cabin atmospheric gas through a metal channel in thermal contact with a radiator. The radiator is pointed to reject thermal loads only to space. Within the channel, the working stream is cooled to the sublimation temperature of carbon dioxide at the prevailing cabin pressure, leading to formation of carbon dioxide ice on the channel walls. After a prescribed time or accumulation of carbon dioxide ice, for regeneration of the device, the channel is closed off from the crew cabin and the carbon dioxide ice is sublimed and either vented to the environment or accumulated for recovery of oxygen in a fully regenerative life support system.

  20. The Effect of MethyI Jasmonate on Ethylene Production, ACC Oxidase Activity and Carbon Dioxide Evolution in the Yellowish-Tangerine Tomato Fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Czapski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The yellowish-tangerine tomato (cv. Bursztyn in the green, light yellow and yellow stages of ripening were treated with 0.1% and 1.0% of methyl jasmonate (JA-Me in lanolin paste and kept for several days and then they were evaluated for production of ethylene, ACC oxidase activity and CO2 evolution. Production of endogenous ethylene in mature green fruits was low and increased during ripening. JA-Me stimulated ethylene production and ACC oxidase activity in all investigated stages of fruit ripening. Slices excised from mature green fruits produced highest amount of carbon dioxide as compared to more advanced stages of ripening. JA-Me in O,1 % and 1,0% concentrations increased significantly CO2 evolution in green fruits, while in light yellow and yellow fruits only higher concentration of JA-Me stimulated carbon dioxide production.

  1. Carbon Dioxide Corrosion:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup

    2008-01-01

    CO2 corrosion is a general problem in the industry and it is expensive. The focus of this study is an oil gas production related problem. CO2 corrosion is observed in offshore natural gas transportation pipelines. A general overview of the problem is presented in chapter 1. The chemical system...... with the basic thermodynamics of electrolytes in chapter 2, the extension and general description of electrolyte mass transport in chapter 3, and the electrochemical kinetics of corrosion in chapter 4. A literature overview of CO2 corrosion is shown in chapter 5 and possible extensions of the models...... and validated against heat capacity data. The model is also fitted to experimental data produced and shown in chapter 8 for SLE in the Na2CO3-NaHCO3-MEG-H2O system. The application of the above model is shown in chapter 9. Here the thermodynamic correction factors are calculated. These show how the diffusion...

  2. Electrocatalytic process for carbon dioxide conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Salehi-Khojin, Amin; Kutz, Robert

    2017-11-14

    An electrocatalytic process for carbon dioxide conversion includes combining a Catalytically Active Element and a Helper Polymer in the presence of carbon dioxide, allowing a reaction to proceed to produce a reaction product, and applying electrical energy to said reaction to achieve electrochemical conversion of said carbon dioxide reactant to said reaction product. The Catalytically Active Element can be a metal in the form of supported or unsupported particles or flakes with an average size between 0.6 nm and 100 nm. The reaction products comprise at least one of CO, HCO.sup.-, H.sub.2CO, (HCO.sub.2).sup.-, H.sub.2CO.sub.2, CH.sub.3OH, CH.sub.4, C.sub.2H.sub.4, CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH, CH.sub.3COO.sup.-, CH.sub.3COOH, C.sub.2H.sub.6, (COOH).sub.2, (COO.sup.-).sub.2, and CF.sub.3COOH.

  3. Production of sustainable methane from renewable energy and captured carbon dioxide with the use of Solid Oxide Electrolyzer: A thermodynamic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stempien, Jan Pawel; Ni, Meng; Sun, Qiang; Chan, Siew Hwa

    2015-01-01

    A possible pathway for renewable and sustainable methane production from captured carbon dioxide, water (or seawater) and renewable electricity is proposed and analysed. The proposed system includes Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cell combined with ex-situ methane synthesis reactor comprising Sabatier, Methanation and Water-Gas Shift reactions. A well validated electrochemical model is used to describe the behaviour of the electrolyzer for steam/carbon dioxide co-electrolysis. The methane synthesis reactor is modelled by a set of equations based on thermodynamic equilibrium reaction constants. Effects of current density, temperature, pressure and initial steam to carbon dioxide ratio on system performance are analysed and their effects are discussed. It is found that a simple, single-pass system without heat recuperation could achieve a maximum overall energy efficiency of 60.87% (based on lower heating value), a maximum electrical energy efficiency of 81.08% (based on lower heating value), and a maximum amount of methane production of ∼1.52 Nm 3  h −1  m −2 of electrolyzer. It is also found that conversion of ∼100% captured carbon dioxide is possible in the proposed system. - Highlights: • Analysis of Solid Oxide Electrolyzer combined with methane synthesis process. • Efficiency of converting water and carbon dioxide into synthetic, renewable methane above 81%. • Effects of process temperature, pressure, gas flux and compositions were analysed. • Methane production of ∼1.52 [Nm 3 h −1 m −2 of electrolyzer]. • Conversion of ∼100% of captured CO 2 is possible

  4. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide and methane at an immobilized cobalt protoporphyrin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, J.; Kortlever, R.; Kas, Recep; Mul, Guido; Koper, M.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide and water into useful products is a major challenge in facilitating a closed carbon cycle. Here we report a cobalt protoporphyrin immobilized on a pyrolytic graphite electrode that reduces carbon dioxide in an aqueous acidic solution at relatively low

  5. Carbon dioxide for enhanced oil recovery in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, S.; Manbybura, F.; Sparks, N.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the potential for carbon dioxide as a major miscible solvent in Canada and describes Shell Canada's carbon dioxide exploration efforts over the last few years. Enhanced oil recovery, specifically miscible flooding, has been recognized as a technically and economically feasible method for adding reserves and productive capacity to Canada's light and medium oil. The fiscal regime has been altered by both the federal and provincial governments to encourage miscible flooding development. As a result many projects have been initiated with others being evaluated and designed. This paper analyzes the history and the direction of miscible flooding in the United States, where carbon dioxide is becoming the predominant miscible solvent. The potential for future use of carbon dioxide in Canada is specifically addressed: potential oil recovery solvent supply, and economics. Shell's carbon dioxide exploration play currently underway is also discussed.

  6. Absorption of carbon dioxide in waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1987-01-01

    Air flow rates and carbon dioxide concentrations of air entering and exiting eight H-Area waste tanks were monitored for a period of one year. The average instanteous concentration of carbon dioxide in air is within the range reported offsite, and therefore is not affect by operation of the coal-fired power plant adjacent to the tank farm. Waste solutions in each of the tanks were observed to be continuously absorbing carbon dioxide. The rate of absorption of carbon dioxide decreased linearly with the pH of the solution. Personnel exposure associated with the routine sampling and analysis of radioactive wastes stored at SRP to determine the levels of corrosion inhibitors in solution could be reduced by monitoring the absorption of carbon dioxide and using the relationship between pH and carbon dioxide absorption to determine the free hydroxide concentration in solution

  7. Carbon dioxide emissions from biochar in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Sander; Clauson-Kaas, Anne Sofie Kjærulff; Bobuľská, L.

    2014-01-01

    The stability of biochar in soil is of importance if it is to be used for carbon sequestration and long-term improvement of soil properties. It is well known that a significant fraction of biochar is highly stable in soil, but carbon dioxide (CO2) is also released immediately after application....... This study investigated the nature of the early release of CO2 and the degree to which stabilizing mechanisms protect biochar from microbial attack. Incubations of 14C-labelled biochar produced at different temperatures were performed in soils with different clay contents and in sterilized and non......-sterilized soils. It emerged that carbonate may be concentrated or form during or after biochar production, resulting in significant carbonate contents. If CO2 released from carbonates in short-term experiments is misinterpreted as mineralization of biochar, the impact of this process may be significantly over...

  8. Microporous metal-organic framework with potential for carbon dioxide capture at ambient conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiang, S.C.; He, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Wu, H.; Zhou, W.; Krishna, R.; Chen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and separation are important industrial processes that allow the use of carbon dioxide for the production of a range of chemical products and materials, and to minimize the effects of carbon dioxide emission. Porous metal-organic frameworks are promising materials to achieve

  9. Biodiesel production with continuous supercritical process: non-catalytic transesterification and esterification with or without carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Ting; Lin, Ho-mu; Lee, Ming-Jer

    2013-10-01

    The non-catalytic transesterification of refined sunflower oil with supercritical methanol, in the presence of carbon dioxide, was conducted in a tubular reactor at temperatures from 553.2 to 593.2K and pressures up to 25.0 MPa. The FAME yield can be achieved up to about 0.70 at 593.2 K and 10.0 MPa in 23 min with methanol:oil of 25:1 in molar ratio. The effect of adding CO2 on the FAME yield is insignificant. The kinetic behavior of the non-catalytic esterification and transesterification of oleic acid or waste cooking oil (WCO) with supercritical methanol was also investigated. By using the supercritical process, the presence of free fatty acid (FFA) in WCO gives positive contribution to FAME production. The FAME yield of 0.90 from WCO can be achieved in 13 min at 573.2K. The kinetic data of supercritical transesterification and esterifaication were correlated well with a power-law model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Carbon dioxide efflux from leaves in light and darkness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, P; Jarvis, P G

    1967-01-01

    The efflux of carbon dioxide in light and darkness was measured at low ambient CO/sub 2/ concentrations in leaves of Rumex acetosa. Light carbon dioxide production (photorespiration) was found to depend on irradiance and to differ from dark production as to the response to temperature and ambient concentrations of O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/. These observations support previously made suggestions that photorespiration follows a different metabolic pathway to dark respiration.

  11. Forest response to carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitelka, L.

    1992-01-01

    It has been suggested that planting trees could help slow the buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Since elevated levels of CO 2 are known to enhance photosynthesis and growth in many plants, it is possible that trees could become progressively more effective in storing carbon as atmospheric CO 2 increases. However, early results from experiments with ponderosa and loblolly pines indicate that the relationship between tree growth and rising CO 2 concentrations may be more complex than scientists once thought. In these experiments, the response to elevated CO 2 has been highly dependent both on species and on mineral nutrient levels in the soil. Further work is necessary to clarify the mechanisms involved. This research will ultimately contribute to an integrated model for predicting forest ecosystem response to elevated CO 2

  12. Production of sulfur gases and carbon dioxide by synthetic weathering of crushed drill cores from the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit near Casa Grande, Pinal County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, M.E.; Ryder, J.L.; Sutley, S.J.; Botinelly, T.

    1990-01-01

    Samples of ground drill cores from the southern part of the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit, Casa Grande, Arizona, were oxidized in simulated weathering experiments. The samples were also separated into various mineral fractions and analyzed for contents of metals and sulfide minerals. The principal sulfide mineral present was pyrite. Gases produced in the weathering experiments were measured by gas chromatography. Carbon dioxide, oxygen, carbonyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide and carbon disulfide were found in the gases; no hydrogen sulfide, organic sulfides, or mercaptans were detected. Oxygen concentration was very important for production of the volatiles measured; in general, oxygen concentration was more important to gas production than were metallic element content, sulfide mineral content, or mineral fraction (oxide or sulfide) of the sample. The various volatile species also appeared to be interactive; some of the volatiles measured may have been formed through gas reactions. ?? 1990.

  13. Long-term leaf production response to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan F. Talhelm; Kurt S. Pregitzer; Christian P. Giardina

    2011-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3 will profoundly influence future forest productivity, but our understanding of these influences over the long-term is poor. Leaves are key indicators of productivity and we measured the mass, area, and nitrogen concentration of leaves collected in litter traps...

  14. Influence of environmental factors on the carbon dioxide production of mushroom substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, H.; Bakker, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    An important characteristic of the mushroom cultivation is the "activity" of substrate. The correlations were determined between climate factors and CO2 production per phase of seven crops. The CO2 production was used as a measure for substrate activity. During the vegetative phases high

  15. Enhancement of carbon dioxide reduction and methane production by an obligate anaerobe and gas dissolution device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungjin; Choi, Kwangkeun; Kim, Jong-Oh; Chung, Jinwook

    2016-01-25

    The use of gas dissolution devices to improve the efficiency of H2 dissolution has enhanced CO2 reduction and CH4 production. In addition, the nutrients that initially existed in anaerobic sludge were exhausted over time, and the activities of anaerobic microorganisms declined. When nutrients were artificially injected, CO2 reduction and CH4 production rates climbed. Thus, assuming that the activity of the obligatory anaerobic microorganisms is maintained, a gas dissolution device will further enhance the efficiency of CO2 reduction and CH4 production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Carbon Dioxide-Free Hydrogen Production with Integrated Hydrogen Separation and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürr, Stefan; Müller, Michael; Jorschick, Holger; Helmin, Marta; Bösmann, Andreas; Palkovits, Regina; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2017-01-10

    An integration of CO 2 -free hydrogen generation through methane decomposition coupled with hydrogen/methane separation and chemical hydrogen storage through liquid organic hydrogen carrier (LOHC) systems is demonstrated. A potential, very interesting application is the upgrading of stranded gas, for example, gas from a remote gas field or associated gas from off-shore oil drilling. Stranded gas can be effectively converted in a catalytic process by methane decomposition into solid carbon and a hydrogen/methane mixture that can be directly fed to a hydrogenation unit to load a LOHC with hydrogen. This allows for a straight-forward separation of hydrogen from CH 4 and conversion of hydrogen to a hydrogen-rich LOHC material. Both, the hydrogen-rich LOHC material and the generated carbon on metal can easily be transported to destinations of further industrial use by established transport systems, like ships or trucks. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Antibiotics-free stable polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production from carbon dioxide by recombinant cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Hideo; Okuhata, Hiroshi; Onizuka, Takuo; Kanai, Shozo; Hirano, Masahiko; Tanaka, Satoshi; Sasaki, Ken; Miyasaka, Hitoshi

    2011-12-01

    A practical antibiotics-free plasmid expression system in cyanobacteria was developed by using the complementation of cyanobacterial recA null mutation with the EscherichiacolirecA gene on the plasmid. This system was applied to the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), a biodegradable plastic, and the transgenic cyanobacteria stably maintained the pha genes for PHA production in the antibiotics-free medium, and accumulated up to 52% cell dry weight of PHA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Interaction of titanium and vanadium with carbon dioxide under heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasyuk, R.Z.; Kurovskij, V.Ya.; Lyapunov, V.P.; Radomysel'skij, I.D.

    1986-01-01

    The methods of gravitmetric and X-ray phase analysis as well as analysis of composition of gases in the heating chamber have been used to investigate the mechanism of titanium and vanadium interaction with carbon dioxide in the 300-1000 deg C temperature range. The analogy of mechanisms of the interaction of titanium and vanadium with carbon dioxide in oxides production on the metal surface with subsequent carbidizing treatment at temperatures above 800 deg C is shown. Temperature limits of material operation on the base of titanium or vanadium in carbon dioxide must not exceed 400 or 600 deg C, respectively

  19. Growth and predicted productivity of Opuntia ficus-indica for current and elevated carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)); Garcia de Cortazar, V. (Univ. de Chile, Santiago (Chile))

    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., a prickly pear cactus cultivated worldwide for its fruits and stem segments, can have an annual dry weight productivity exceeding that of many crops. Using a recent introduced environmental productivity index (EPI), the influences of water status, temperature, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on its productivity can be predicted. This investigation calculated the water index, the temperature index, and the PAR index, whose product equals EPI, for 169 sites distributed approximately uniformly across the contiguous USA for present climatic conditions as well as for those associated with an elevated CO{sub 2} concentration of 650 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1}. The effect of elevated CO{sub 2} on growth of O. ficus-indica was directly measured, and low temperature limitations on productivity were considered. The dry weight gain of O. ficus-indica during 6 mo in an environmental growth chamber was 23% greater at 650 compared with 350 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1} CO{sub 2} and increased as the duration of the wet period increased. For closely spaced plants that lead to a high productivity per unit ground area, EPI averaged about 0.10, except in desert regions where the water index lowered EPI, in the far North or South and at high elevations where the temperature index lowered EPI, and in the Northeast and Northwest where the PAR index lowered EPI. The predicted annual dry weight productivity for O. ficus-indica was 12.8 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} under current conditions, and 16.3 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} under those associated with 650 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1} CO{sub 2}.

  20. Carbon Dioxide for pH Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagonner, R.C.

    2001-08-16

    Cardox, the major supplier of carbon dioxide, has developed a diffuser to introduce carbon dioxide into a water volume as small bubbles to minimize reagent loss to the atmosphere. This unit is integral to several configurations suggested for treatment to control alkalinity in water streams.

  1. Trading coalbed methane for carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberger, L.S.

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses a proposal for reducing methane emissions in coal mining activities and at the same time reducing the burden on utilities to cut carbon dioxide emissions. Emission credits would be issued to mines that recover the methane for use. These credits could then be bought by utilities and exchanged for the right to emit carbon dioxide

  2. Pressure pumping of carbon dioxide from soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. S. Takle; J. R. Brandle; R. A. Schmidt; R. Garcia; I. V. Litvina; G. Doyle; X. Zhou; Q. Hou; C. W. Rice; W. J. Massman

    2000-01-01

    Recent interest in atmospheric increases in carbon dioxide have heightened the need for improved accuracy in measurements of fluxes of carbon dioxide from soils. Diffusional movement has long been considered the dominant process by which trace gases move from the subsurface source to the surface, although there has been some indication that atmospheric pressure...

  3. High solubility pathway for the carbon dioxide free production of iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Stuart; Wang, Baohui

    2010-10-07

    We report a fundamental change in the understanding of iron oxide thermochemistry, opening a facile, new CO(2)-free route to iron production. The resultant process can eliminate a major global source of greenhouse gas emission, producing the staple iron in molten media at high rate and low electrolysis energy.

  4. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-10-29

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of

  5. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-04-01

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 percent (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf

  6. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-01-01

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of

  7. 27 CFR 27.42a - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 27.42a Section 27.42a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Wines § 27.42a Still wines containing carbon dioxide. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine; except...

  8. Engineering Ralstonia eutropha for Production of Isobutanol (IBT) Motor Fuel from Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinskey, Anthony J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Worden, Robert Mark [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Brigham, Christopher [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lu, Jingnan [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Quimby, John Westlake [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Gai, Claudia [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Speth, Daan [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Elliott, Sean [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Fei, John Qiang [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Bernardi, Amanda [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Li, Sophia [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Grunwald, Stephan [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Grousseau, Estelle [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Maiti, Soumen [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Liu, Chole [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2013-12-16

    E), the production titer of the improved to 270 mg/L isobutanol and 40 mg/L 3-methyl-1-butanol. Semicontinuous flask cultivation supplied the cells with sufficient nutrients while minimizing the toxicity caused by isobutanol. Under this cultivation, the R. eutropha mutant grew and produced more than 14 g/L branched-chain alcohols over the duration of 50 days. These results demonstrate that R. eutropha carbon flux can be redirected from PHB to branched-chain alcohols and that engineered R. eutropha can be cultivated over prolonged periods of time for product biosynthesis. While this bioengineering work was being done at the Sinskey laboratory at MIT, the researchers at the Worden laboratory at Michigan State were working on the design and construction of the required specialty bioreactor for incompatible gasses (BIG) that would allow the safe feeding of microbes on Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen without explosive results. The early design and assembly work in year 1 incorporated a novel microbubble generator to maximize the bioavailability of gasses within the system comprised of small scale hollow fiber reactors. The early success of the microbubble generator eliminated the need to investigate potentially toxic surfactants within the system. For operational control, the system design incorporated a Opto22-based control network. The researchers also selected the specific hollow fiber material suitable for the bioreactor application. A variety of commercially available hollow fiber membranes were compared with regard to their pore sizes, cell affinity, and potential interference to cell viability assays. The selected membrane with its spongy layer was then tested for diffusivity of O2 and CO2. The instrumented system was then fully assembled for experimentally measuring the heterotrophic growth rate of immobilized R. eutropha cells. The requisite procedures for inoculation, measurement, and cleaning were established enabling the system performance to be validated

  9. Denitrification and potential nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide production in brownfield wetland soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Monica M; Ehrenfeld, Joan G; Groffman, Peter M

    2013-09-01

    Brownfields, previously developed sites that are derelict, vacant, or underused, are ubiquitous in urban areas. Wetlands on brownfields often retain rain and stormwater longer than the surrounding landscape because they are low-lying; this increases the possibility for these areas to process waterborne contaminants from the urban environment. In the northeastern United States, atmospheric deposition of nitrate (NO) is high. Denitrification, a microbial process common in wetlands, is a means of removing excess NO. Nitrogen gas is the desired end product of denitrification, but incomplete denitrification results in the production of NO, a greenhouse gas. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential of brownfield wetlands to serve as sinks for inorganic nitrogen and sources of greenhouse gases. We examined limitations to denitrification and NO production in brownfield wetland soils in New Jersey. Soil C:N ratios were high (18-40) and intact core denitrification (-0.78 to 11.6 μg NO-N kg dry soil d) and N mineralization (0.11-2.97 mg N kg dry soil d) were low for all sites. However, soil NO increased during dry periods. Nitrate additions to soil slurries increased denitrification rates, whereas labile C additions did not, indicating that soil denitrifiers were nitrogen limited. Incubations indicated that the end product of denitrification was primarily NO and not N. These results indicate that brownfield wetlands can develop significant denitrification capacity, potentially causing NO limitation. They might be significant sinks for atmospheric NO but may also become a significant source of NO if NO deposition were to increase. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. Targeted poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) bioplastic production from carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghysels, Stef; Mozumder, Md Salatul Islam; De Wever, Heleen; Volcke, Eveline I P; Garcia-Gonzalez, Linsey

    2018-02-01

    A microbial production process was developed to convert CO 2 and valeric acid into tailored poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) bioplastics. The aim was to understand microbial PHBV production in mixotrophic conditions and to control the monomer distribution in the polymer. Continuous sparging of CO 2 with pulse and pH-stat feeding of valeric acid were evaluated to produce PHBV copolyesters with predefined properties. The desired random monomer distribution was obtained by limiting the valeric acid concentration (below 1 gL -1 ). 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR and chromatographic analysis of the PHBV copolymer confirmed both the monomer distribution and the 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) fraction in the produced PHBV. A physical-based model was developed for mixotrophic PHBV production, which was calibrated and validated with independent experimental datasets. To produce PHBV with a predefined 3HV fraction, an operating diagram was constructed. This tool was able to predict the 3HV fraction with a very good accuracy (2% deviation). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The formation of ethane from carbon dioxide under cold plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiuling; Zhang Lin; Dai Bin; Gong Weimin; Liu Changhou

    2001-01-01

    Pulsed-corona plasma has been used as a new method for ethane dehydrogenation at low temperature and normal pressure using carbon dioxide as an oxidant. The effect of carbon dioxide content in the feed, power input, and flow rate of the reactants on the ethane dehydrogenation has been investigated. The experimental results show that the conversion of ethane increases with the increasing in the amount of carbon dioxide in the feed. The yield of ethylene and acetylene decreases with the increasing in the yield of carbon monoxide, indicating that the increased carbon dioxide leads to the part of ethylene and acetylene being oxidized to carbon monoxide. Power input is primarily an electrical parameter in pulsed-corona plasma, which plays an important role in reactant conversion and product formation. When the power input reaches 16 W, ethane conversion is 41.0% and carbon dioxide conversion is 26.3%. The total yield of ethylene and acetylene is 15.6%. The reduced flow rate of feed improves the conversion of ethane, carbon dioxide and the yield of acetylene, and induces carbon deposit as well

  12. Energy, carbon dioxide and water use implications of hydrous ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saffy, Howard A.; Northrop, William F.; Kittelson, David B.; Boies, Adam M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We use a chemical refinery model and exergy analysis to determine the impact of hydrous ethanol. • The process is 70% efficient with 86% of the losses from fermentation, steam generation and drying. • We found that producing 86 wt% ethanol is optimal for thermal energy consumption. • Hydrous ethanol production can reduce energy costs and emissions by ∼8%. • Hydrous ethanol reduces water use by decreasing evaporation in cooling towers. - Abstract: Sub-azeotropic hydrous ethanol has been demonstrated as an effective diesel fuel replacement when used in dual-fuel compression ignition engines. Previous studies have also suggested that hydrous ethanol may be more efficient to produce from corn than anhydrous ethanol. In this study, we investigate corn ethanol production from a dry-mill, natural gas-fired corn ethanol refinery, producing ethanol with a range of ethanol concentrations from 58 wt% to 100 wt% to determine the effect on energy use, water consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the refining stage of the corn ethanol lifecycle. A second law (exergy) analysis of anhydrous ethanol refining revealed the overall process to be 70% efficient, whereby 86% of the exergy losses could be accounted for by three processes: fermentation (34%), steam generation (29%) and distiller’s grains and solubles drying (23%). We found that producing 86 wt% ethanol is optimal as thermal energy consumption decreases by a maximum of 10% (from 7.7 MJ/L to 6.9 MJ/L). These savings have the potential to reduce energy costs by approximately 8% ($0.34/L) and reduce refinery emissions by 8% (2 g CO 2 e/MJ). Production of hydrous ethanol reduced refinery water use due to decreased evaporative losses in the cooling towers, leading to water savings of between 3% and 6% at 86 wt% ethanol.

  13. Productivity and carbon dioxide exchange of leguminous crops: estimates from flux tower measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanov, Tagir G.; Baker, John M.; Bernacchi, Carl J.; Billesbach, David P.; Burba, George G.; Castro, Saulo; Chen, Jiquan; Eugster, Werner; Fischer, Marc L.; Gamon, John A.; Gebremedhin, Maheteme T.; Glenn, Aaron J.; Griffis, Timothy J.; Hatfield, Jerry L.; Heuer, Mark W.; Howard, Daniel M.; Leclerc, Monique Y.; Loescher, Henry W.; Marloie, Oliver; Meyers, Tilden P.; Olioso, Albert; Phillips, Rebecca L.; Prueger, John H.; Skinner, R. Howard; Suyker, Andrew E.; Tenuta, Mario; Wylie, Bruce K.

    2014-01-01

    Net CO2 exchange data of legume crops at 17 flux tower sites in North America and three sites in Europe representing 29 site-years of measurements were partitioned into gross photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration by using the nonrectangular hyperbolic light-response function method. The analyses produced net CO2 exchange data and new ecosystem-scale ecophysiological parameter estimates for legume crops determined at diurnal and weekly time steps. Dynamics and annual totals of gross photosynthesis, ecosystem respiration, and net ecosystem production were calculated by gap filling with multivariate nonlinear regression. Comparison with the data from grain crops obtained with the same method demonstrated that CO2 exchange rates and ecophysiological parameters of legumes were lower than those of maize (Zea mays L.) but higher than for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crops. Year-round annual legume crops demonstrated a broad range of net ecosystem production, from sinks of 760 g CO2 m–2 yr–1 to sources of –2100 g CO2 m–2 yr–1, with an average of –330 g CO2 m–2 yr–1, indicating overall moderate CO2–source activity related to a shorter period of photosynthetic uptake and metabolic costs of N2 fixation. Perennial legumes (alfalfa, Medicago sativa L.) were strong sinks for atmospheric CO2, with an average net ecosystem production of 980 (range 550–1200) g CO2 m–2 yr–1.

  14. Subcritical Water-Carbon Dioxide Pretreatment of Oil Palm Mesocarp Fiber for Xylooligosaccharide and Glucose Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norlailiza Ahmad

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to investigate the pretreatment of oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF in subcritical H2O-CO2 at a temperature range from 150–200 °C and 20–180 min with CO2 pressure from 3–5 MPa. The pretreated solids and liquids from this process were separated by filtration and characterized. Xylooligosaccharides (XOs, sugar monomers, acids, furans and phenols in the pretreated liquids were analyzed by using HPLC. XOs with a degree of polymerization X2–X4 comprising xylobiose, xylotriose, xylotetraose were analyzed by using HPAEC-PAD. Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed on cellulose-rich pretreated solids to observe xylose and glucose production. An optimal condition for XOs production was achieved at 180 °C, 60 min, 3 MPa and the highest XOs obtained was 81.60 mg/g which corresponded to 36.59% of XOs yield from total xylan of OPMF. The highest xylose and glucose yields obtained from pretreated solids were 29.96% and 84.65%, respectively at cellulase loading of 10 FPU/g-substrate.

  15. Reaction of yttrium polonides with carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abakumov, A.S.; Khokhlov, A.D.; Reznikova, N.F.

    1986-01-01

    It has been proved that heating of yttrium and tantalum in carbon dioxide to 500 and 800 0 C alters the gas phase composition, causing formation of carbon monoxide and reduction of oxygen content. A study of the thermal stability of yttrium polonides in carbon dioxide showed that yttrium sesqui- and monopolonides decompose at 400-430 0 C. The temperature dependence of the vapor pressure of polonium obtained upon decomposition of the referred polonides has been determined in a carbon dioxide environment radiotensometrically. The enthalpy of the process calculated from this dependence is close to the enthalpy of vaporization of elemental polonium in vacuo. The mechanism of the reactions has been suggested

  16. Plant growth and physiology of vegetable plants as influenced by carbon dioxide environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tadashi

    1973-01-01

    In order to obtain basic knowledge on the increased giving of carbon dioxide to vegetables, the carbon dioxide environment in growing houses was analyzed, and the physiological and ecological properties of vegetables cultivated in carbon dioxide environment were elucidated. To improve the carbon dioxide environment, giving increased quantity of carbon dioxide, air flow, ventilation, and others were examined. The concentration of carbon dioxide began to decrease when the illumination intensity on growing layer reached 1 -- 1.5 lux, owing to the photo-synthetic activity of vegetables, and decreased rapidly at 3 -- 5 lux. The lowering of carbon dioxide concentration lowered the photo-synthesis of vegetables extremely, and the transfer of synthesized carbohydrate to roots was obstructed. The effect suffered in low carbon dioxide concentration left some aftereffect even after ventilation and the recovery of carbon dioxide concentration. But this aftereffect was not observed in case of cucumber. To improve carbon dioxide environment, the air flow or ventilation required for minimizing the concentration lowering was determined, but giving increased quantity of carbon dioxide was most effective. The interaction of carbon dioxide concentration and light was examined regarding the effect on photo-synthesis, and some knowledge of practical application was obtained. The effect of giving more carbon dioxide was more remarkable as the treatment was given to younger seedlings and in the period when the capacity of absorbing assimilation products was higher. (Kako, I.)

  17. More bad news about carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonehouse, D.

    2000-01-01

    The affect that increased carbon dioxide concentrations has on plants and animals was discussed. Most research focuses on the impacts that carbon dioxide concentrations has on climatic change. Recent studies, however, have shown that elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere caused by burning fossils fuels changes the chemical structure of plants and could lead to significant disruptions in ecological food chains. High carbon dioxide levels cause plants to speed up photosynthesis, take in the gas, and use the carbon to produce more fibre and starch while giving off oxygen as a byproduct. As plants produce more carbon, their levels of nitrogen diminish making them less nutritious for the insects and animals that feed on them. This has serious implications for farmers, as pests would have to eat more of their crops to survive. In addition, farmers would have to supplement livestock with nutrients

  18. Fixation of carbon dioxide into dimethyl carbonate over ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A titanium-based zeolitic thiophene-benzimidazolate framework has been designed for the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from methanol and carbon dioxide. The developed catalyst activates carbon dioxide and delivers over 16% yield of DMC without the use of any dehydrating agent or requirement for azeotropic distillation. Prepared for submission to Nature Scientific reports.

  19. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-07-28

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the

  20. Decontamination of radioactive clothing using microemulsion in carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jaeryong; Jang, Jina; Park, Kwangheon; Kim, Hongdoo; Kim, Hakwon [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Sanghak; Yoon, Weonseob [Ulchin Nuclear Power Site, Ulchin (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear power is intrinsically a clean energy source due to its high energy density and low generation of waste. However, as the nuclear industry grows, a variety of radioactive wastes are increased gradually. Major subjects include contaminated components, tools, equipment, containers and facilities as well as nuclear waste such as uranium scrap and radioactive clothing. The radioactive waste can be classified by its creation. There are Trans-Uranium Nuclides (TRU), Fission Products (FP) and corrosion products. Nuclear decontamination has become an important issue in the nuclear industry. The conventional methods have some problems such as the production of secondary wastes and the use of toxic solvents. We need to develop a new method of decontamination and suggest a use of microemulsion in carbon dioxide to overcome these disadvantages. The microemulsion is the clear solution that contains the water, surfactant and carbon dioxide. The surfactant surrounded the droplet into carbon dioxide and this state is thermodynamically stable. That is, the microemulsion has a structure similar to that of a conventional water-based surfactant system. Generally, the size of droplet is about 5 {approx} 10nm. The microemulsion is able to decontaminate radioactive waste so that the polar substance is removed by water and the non-polar substance is removed by carbon dioxide. After the decontamination process, the microemulsion is separated easily to surfactant and water by decreasing the pressure under the cloud point. This way, only radioactive wastes are left in the system. Cleaned carbon dioxide is then collected and reused. Thus, there are no secondary wastes. Carbon dioxide is considered an alternative process medium. This is because it is non-toxic, non-flammable, inexpensive and easy to handle. Additionally, the tunable properties of carbon dioxide through pressure and temperature control are versatile for use in extracting organic materials. In this paper, we examine the

  1. Decontamination of radioactive clothing using microemulsion in carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jaeryong; Jang, Jina; Park, Kwangheon; Kim, Hongdoo; Kim, Hakwon; Yim, Sanghak; Yoon, Weonseob

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear power is intrinsically a clean energy source due to its high energy density and low generation of waste. However, as the nuclear industry grows, a variety of radioactive wastes are increased gradually. Major subjects include contaminated components, tools, equipment, containers and facilities as well as nuclear waste such as uranium scrap and radioactive clothing. The radioactive waste can be classified by its creation. There are Trans-Uranium Nuclides (TRU), Fission Products (FP) and corrosion products. Nuclear decontamination has become an important issue in the nuclear industry. The conventional methods have some problems such as the production of secondary wastes and the use of toxic solvents. We need to develop a new method of decontamination and suggest a use of microemulsion in carbon dioxide to overcome these disadvantages. The microemulsion is the clear solution that contains the water, surfactant and carbon dioxide. The surfactant surrounded the droplet into carbon dioxide and this state is thermodynamically stable. That is, the microemulsion has a structure similar to that of a conventional water-based surfactant system. Generally, the size of droplet is about 5 ∼ 10nm. The microemulsion is able to decontaminate radioactive waste so that the polar substance is removed by water and the non-polar substance is removed by carbon dioxide. After the decontamination process, the microemulsion is separated easily to surfactant and water by decreasing the pressure under the cloud point. This way, only radioactive wastes are left in the system. Cleaned carbon dioxide is then collected and reused. Thus, there are no secondary wastes. Carbon dioxide is considered an alternative process medium. This is because it is non-toxic, non-flammable, inexpensive and easy to handle. Additionally, the tunable properties of carbon dioxide through pressure and temperature control are versatile for use in extracting organic materials. In this paper, we examine the

  2. Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct mineral carbonation with carbonic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Nilsen, David N.; Walters, Richard P.; Turner, Paul C.

    2000-01-01

    The Albany Research Center (ARC) of the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) has been conducting a series of mineral carbonation tests at its Albany, Oregon, facility over the past 2 years as part of a Mineral Carbonation Study Program within the DOE. Other participants in this Program include the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Arizona State University, Science Applications International Corporation, and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The ARC tests have focused on ex-situ mineral carbonation in an aqueous system. The process developed at ARC utilizes a slurry of water mixed with a magnesium silicate mineral, olivine [forsterite end member (Mg2SiO4)], or serpentine [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4]. This slurry is reacted with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) to produce magnesite (MgCO3). The CO2 is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid (H2CO3), which dissociates to H+ and HCO3 -. The H+ reacts with the mineral, liberating Mg2+ cations which react with the bicarbonate to form the solid carbonate. The process is designed to simulate the natural serpentinization reaction of ultramafic minerals, and for this reason, these results may also be applicable to in-situ geological sequestration regimes. Results of the baseline tests, conducted on ground products of the natural minerals, have been encouraging. Tests conducted at ambient temperature (22 C) and subcritical CO2 pressures (below 73 atm) resulted in very slow conversion to the carbonate. However, when elevated temperatures and pressures are utilized, coupled with continuous stirring of the slurry and gas dispersion within the water column, significant reaction occurs within much shorter reaction times. Extent of reaction, as measured by the stoichiometric conversion of the silicate mineral (olivine) to the carbonate, is roughly 90% within 24 hours, using distilled water, and a reaction temperature of 185?C and a partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) of 115 atm. Recent tests using a bicarbonate solution, under identical reaction

  3. Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct mineral carbonation with carbonic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, W.K.; Dahlin, D.C.; Nilsen, D.N.; Walters, R.P.; Turner, P.C.

    2000-07-01

    The Albany Research Center (ARC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been conducting a series of mineral carbonation tests at its Albany, Oregon, facility over the past 2 years as part of a Mineral Carbonation Study Program within the DOE. The ARC tests have focused on ex-situ mineral carbonation in an aqueous system. The process developed at ARC utilizes a slurry of water mixed with a magnesium silicate mineral, olivine [forsterite and member (mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4})], or serpentine [Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}]. This slurry is reacted with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to produce magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The CO{sub 2} is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid (H{sub 2}CO{sub 3}), which dissociates to H{sup +} and HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The H{sup +} reacts with the mineral, liberating Mg{sup 2+} cations which react with the bicarbonate to form the solid carbonate. The process is designed to simulate the natural serpentinization reaction of ultramafic minerals, and for this reason, these results may also be applicable to in-situ geological sequestration regimes. Results of the baseline tests, conducted on ground products of the natural minerals, have been encouraging. Tests conducted at ambient temperature (22 C) and subcritical CO{sub 2} pressures (below 73 atm) resulted in very slow conversion to the carbonate. However, when elevated temperatures and pressures are utilized, coupled with continuous stirring of the slurry and gas dispersion within the water column, significant reaction occurs within much shorter reaction times. Extent of reaction, as measured by the stoichiometric conversion of the silicate mineral (olivine) to the carbonate, is roughly 90% within 24 hours, using distilled water, and a reaction temperature of 185 C and a partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (P{sub CO{sub 2}}) of 115 atm. Recent tests using a bicarbonate solution, under identical reaction conditions, have achieved roughly 83% conversion of heat treated serpentine

  4. Mitigation of carbon dioxide by oleaginous microalgae for lipids and pigments production: Effect of light illumination and carbon dioxide feeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thawechai, Tipawan; Cheirsilp, Benjamas; Louhasakul, Yasmi; Boonsawang, Piyarat; Prasertsan, Poonsuk

    2016-11-01

    Oleaginous microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. was selected as potential strain for CO2 mitigation into lipids and pigments. The synergistic effects of light intensity and photoperiod were evaluated to provide the adequate light energy for this strain. The saturation light intensity was 60μmol·photon·m(-2)s(-1). With full illumination, the biomass obtained was 0.850±0.16g·L(-1) with a lipid content of 44.7±1.2%. The pigments content increased with increasing light energy supply. Three main operating factors including initial cell concentration, CO2 content and gas flow rate were optimized through Response Surface Methodology. The feedings with low CO2 content at high gas flow rate gave the maximum biomass but with low lipid content. After optimization, the biomass and lipid production were increased up to 1.30±0.103g·L(-1) and 0.515±0.010g·L(-1), respectively. The CO2 fixation rate was as high as 0.729±0.04g·L(-1)d(-1). The fatty acids of Nannochloropsis sp. lipids were mainly C16-C18 indicating its potential use as biodiesel feedstocks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of Biomass and Lipid Production under Ambient Carbon Dioxide Vigorous Aeration and 3% Carbon Dioxide Condition Among the Lead Candidate Chlorella Strains Screened by Various Photobioreactor Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Naoko [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Barnes, Austin [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Jensen, Travis [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Noel, Eric [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Andlay, Gunjan [Synaptic Research, Baltimore, MD (United States); Rosenberg, Julian N. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Betenbaugh, Michael J. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Guarnieri, Michael T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oyler, George A. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Synaptic Research, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Chlorella species from the UTEX collection, classified by rDNA-based phylogenetic analysis, were screened based on biomass and lipid production in different scales and modes of culture. Lead candidate strains of C. sorokiniana UTEX 1230 and C. vulgaris UTEX 395 and 259 were compared between conditions of vigorous aeration with filtered atmospheric air and 3% CO2 shake-flask cultivation. We found that the biomass of UTEX 1230 produced 2 times higher at 652 mg L-1 dry weight under both ambient CO2 vigorous aeration and 3% CO2 conditions, while UTEX 395 and 259 under 3% CO2 increased to 3 times higher at 863 mg L-1 dry weight than ambient CO2 vigorous aeration. The triacylglycerol contents of UTEX 395 and 259 increased more than 30 times to 30% dry weight with 3% CO2, indicating that additional CO2 is essential for both biomass and lipid accumulation in UTEX 395 and 259.

  6. It is time to put carbon dioxide to work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinsky, E.S. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The need to control emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is the subject of vigorous debate at this time. There is growing evidence that rising levels of carbon dioxide increase global warming, with perhaps highly adverse impacts for the human economy. There are calls for carbon taxes and other harsh measures. Japan has established a national goal of holding carbon dioxide emissions in the year 2000 to 1990 levels. I hope that this conference will be a turning point in the United States position on this issue. The current major end uses for CO{sub 2} include refrigeration, beverage carbonation, soda ash production, fire fighting, and urea fertilizer production. They are all based on chemistry that would not surprise a good chemist of the 19th century. Consumption of carbon dioxide in synthesis of industrial chemicals is limited. Usually one explains low production of chemicals from a candidate feedstock in terms of poor availability, price, purity, or reactivity. We can eliminate the first three as the causes of the underutilization of carbon dioxide.

  7. Absorption of carbon dioxide and isotope exchange rate of carbon in a reaction system between carbon dioxide and carbamic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Kenji; Kitamoto, Asashi

    1985-01-01

    The performance of isotope separation of carbon-13 by chemical exchange between carbon dioxide and carbamic acid was studied. The working fluid used in the study was a solution of DNBA, (C 4 H 9 ) 2 NH and n-octane mixture. Factors related to the isotope exchange rate were measured, such as the absorption rate of carbon dioxide into the solution of DNBA and n-octane, the isotope exchange rate and the separation factor in the reaction between CO 2 and carbamic acid. The absorption of CO 2 into the working fluid was the sum of chemical absorption by DNBA and physical absorption by n-octane. The absorption of carbon dioxide into the working fluid was negligible at temperatures over 90 0 C, but increased gradually at lower temperatures. Carbon dioxide was absorbed into DNBA by chemical absorption, and DNBA was converted to carbamic acid by the reaction. The reaction for synthesis and decomposition of carbamic acid was reversible. The separation factor in equilibrium reached a large value at lower temperatures. The isotope exchange rate between gas and liquid was proportional to the product of the concentration of carbamic acid and the concentration of CO 2 by physical absorption. The isotope separation of carbon by chemical exchange reaction is better operated under the conditions of lower temperature and higher pressure. (author)

  8. Methanation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, Marko; Busch, Günter

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The biologic methanation of exclusively gases like hydrogen and carbon dioxide is feasible. • Electrical energy can be stored in the established gas grid by conversion to methane. • The quality of produced biogas is very high (c CH4 = 98 vol%). • The conversion rate is depending on H 2 -flow rate. - Abstract: A new method for the methanation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide is presented. In a novel anaerobic trickle-bed reactor, biochemical catalyzed methanation at mesophilic temperatures and ambient pressure can be realized. The conversion of gaseous substrates by immobilized hydrogenotrophic methanogens is a unique feature of this reactor type. The already patented reactor produces biogas which has a very high quality (c CH4 = 97.9 vol%). Therefore, the storage of biogas in the existing natural gas grid is possible without extensive purification. The specific methane production was measured with P = 1.17 Nm CH4 3 /(m R 3 d). It is conceivable to realize the process at sites that generate solar or wind energy and sites subject to the conditions for hydrogen electrolysis (or other methods of hydrogen production). The combination with conventional biogas plants under hydrogen addition to methane enrichment is possible as well. The process enables the coupling of various renewable energy sources

  9. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING...

  10. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 78.47-9 Section 78.47-9 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” (b) [Reserved] ...

  11. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” ...

  12. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 196.37-9 Section 196.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING...

  13. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED” next to...

  14. The role of renewable bioenergy in carbon dioxide sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, C.M. [Hawaii Natural Energy Inst., Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The use of renewable resources represents a sound approach to producing clean energy and reducing the dependence on diminishing reserves of fossil fuels. Unfortunately, the widespread interest in renewable energy in the 1970s, spurred by escalating fossil fuel prices, subsided with the collapse of energy prices in the mid 1980s. Today, it is largely to reverse alarming environmental trends, particularly the buildup of atmospheric carbon dioxide, rather than to reduce the cost of energy, that renewable energy resources are being pursued. This discussion focuses on a specific class of renewable energy resources - biomass. Unlike most other classes of renewable energy touted for controlling atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, e.g., hydro, direct solar, wind, geothermal, and ocean thermal, which produce usable forms of energy while generating little or no carbon dioxide emissions, bioenergy almost always involves combustion and therefore generates carbon dioxide; however, if used on a sustained basis, bio-energy would not contribute to the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide because the amount released in combustion would be balanced by that taken up via photosynthesis. It is in that context, i.e., sustained production of biomass as a modern energy carrier, rather than reforestation for carbon sequestration, that biomass is being discussed here, since biomass can play a much greater role in controlling global warming by displacing fossil fuels than by being used strictly for carbon sequestration (partly because energy crop production can reduce fossil carbon dioxide emissions indefinitely, whereas under the reforestation strategy, carbon dioxide abatement ceases at forest maturity).

  15. Carbon dioxide: making the right connection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This highlights safety issues concerning pipeline provision of carbon dioxide, and that it is of utmost ... capnograph sample line, gas analysis unit, water trap and soda .... The heat generated by the chemical reaction between soda lime.

  16. integrated vertical photobioreactor system for carbon dioxide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Astri Nugroho

    2013-07-02

    Jul 2, 2013 ... efficient system for converting carbon dioxide (CO2) into biomass. The use of ... often been thought to achieve the most efficient mixing and the best ... such process a photobioreactor is designed. Photobioreactor is a device ...

  17. Supercritical carbon dioxide hop extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfaf-Šovljanski Ivana I.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The hop of Magnum cultivar was extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE-as extractant. Extraction was carried out in the two steps: the first one being carried out at 150 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (Extract A, and the second was the extraction of the same hop sample at 300 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (Extract B. Extraction kinetics of the system hop-SFE-CO2 was investigated. Two of four most common compounds of hop aroma (α-humulene and β-caryophyllene were detected in Extract A. Isomerised α-acids and β-acids were detected too. a-Acid content in Extract B was high (that means it is a bitter variety of hop. Mathematical modeling using empirical model characteristic time model and simple single sphere model has been performed on Magnum cultivar extraction experimental results. Characteristic time model equations, best fitted experimental results. Empirical model equation, fitted results well, while simple single sphere model equation poorly approximated the results.

  18. Extraction of Uranium Using Nitrogen Dioxide and Carbon Dioxide for Spent Fuel Reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayo Sawada; Daisuke Hirabayashi; Youichi Enokida [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    For the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels, a new method to extract actinides from spent fuel using highly compressed gases, nitrogen dioxide and carbon dioxide was proposed. Uranium extraction from broken pieces, whose average grain size was 5 mm, of uranium dioxide pellet with nitrogen dioxide and carbon dioxide was demonstrated in the present study. (authors)

  19. Current views on the regulation of autotrophic carbon dioxide fixation via the Calvin cycle in bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, L.; Harder, W.

    1984-01-01

    The Calvin cycle of carbon dioxide fixation constitutes a biosynthetic pathway for the generation of (multi-carbon) intermediates of central metabolism from the one-carbon compound carbon dioxide. The product of this cycle can be used as a precursor for the synthesis of all components of cell

  20. Use of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Masayuki (Niigata Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Niigata, (Japan))

    1989-09-25

    Supercritical fluid extraction is a novel diffusion and separation technique which exploits simultaneously the increase of vapor pressure and the difference of chemical affinities of fluids near the critical point. A solvent which is used as the supercritical fluid has the following features: the critical point exists in the position of relatively ease of handling, the solvent is applicable to the extraction of a physiological active substance of thermal instability. Carbon dioxide as the solvent is non-flammable, non-corrosive, non-toxic, cheap, and readily available of high purity. The results of studies on the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO{sub 2}) as a solvent for natural products in the fermentation and food industries, were collected. SC-CO{sub 2} extraction are used in many fields, examples for the application are as follows: removal of organic solvents from antibiotics; extraction of vegetable oils contained in wheat germ oil, high quality mustard seeds, rice bran and so on; brewing of sake using rice and rice-koji; use as a non-aqueous medium for the synthesis of precursors of the Aspartame; and use in sterilization. 66 refs., 17 figs., 21 tabs.

  1. Formic Acid Manufacture: Carbon Dioxide Utilization Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rumayor

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 utilization alternatives for manufacturing formic acid (FA such as electrochemical reduction (ER or homogeneous catalysis of CO2 and H2 could be efficient options for developing more environmentally-friendly production alternatives to FA fossil-dependant production. However, these alternatives are currently found at different technological readiness levels (TRLs, and some remaining technical challenges need to be overcome to achieve at least carbon-even FA compared to the commercial process, especially ER of CO2, which is still farther from its industrial application. The main technical limitations inherited by FA production by ER are the low FA concentration achieved and the high overpotentials required, which involve high consumptions of energy (ER cell and steam (distillation. In this study, a comparison in terms of carbon footprints (CF using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA tool was done to evaluate the potential technological challenges assuring the environmental competitiveness of the FA production by ER of CO2. The CF of the FA conventional production were used as a benchmark, as well as the CF of a simulated plant based on homogeneous catalysts of CO2 and H2 (found closer to be commercial. Renewable energy utilization as PV solar for the reaction is essential to achieve a carbon-even product; however, the CF benefits are still negligible due to the enormous contribution of the steam produced by natural gas (purification stage. Some ER reactor configurations, plus a recirculation mode, could achieve an even CF versus commercial process. It was demonstrated that the ER alternatives could lead to lower natural resources consumption (mainly, natural gas and heavy fuel oil compared to the commercial process, which is a noticeable advantage in environmental sustainability terms.

  2. Understanding the carbon dioxide gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeren, Thomas W L; Wicke, Jannis N; Teboul, Jean-Louis

    2018-06-01

    The current review attempts to demonstrate the value of several forms of carbon dioxide (CO2) gaps in resuscitation of the critically ill patient as monitor for the adequacy of the circulation, as target for fluid resuscitation and also as predictor for outcome. Fluid resuscitation is one of the key treatments in many intensive care patients. It remains a challenge in daily practice as both a shortage and an overload in intravascular volume are potentially harmful. Many different approaches have been developed for use as target of fluid resuscitation. CO2 gaps can be used as surrogate for the adequacy of cardiac output (CO) and as marker for tissue perfusion and are therefore a potential target for resuscitation. CO2 gaps are easily measured via point-of-care analysers. We shed light on its potential use as nowadays it is not widely used in clinical practice despite its potential. Many studies were conducted on partial CO2 pressure differences or CO2 content (cCO2) differences either alone, or in combination with other markers for outcome or resuscitation adequacy. Furthermore, some studies deal with CO2 gap to O2 gap ratios as target for goal-directed fluid therapy or as marker for outcome. CO2 gap is a sensitive marker of tissue hypoperfusion, with added value over traditional markers of tissue hypoxia in situations in which an oxygen diffusion barrier exists such as in tissue oedema and impaired microcirculation. Venous-to-arterial cCO2 or partial pressure gaps can be used to evaluate whether attempts to increase CO should be made. Considering the potential of the several forms of CO2 measurements and its ease of use via point-of-care analysers, it is recommendable to implement CO2 gaps in standard clinical practice.

  3. Graphite suspension in carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.

    1965-01-01

    Since 1963 the Atomic Division of SNECMA has been conducting, under a contract with the CEA, an experimental work with a two-component fluid comprised of carbon dioxide and small graphite particles. The primary purpose was the determination of basic engineering information pertaining to the stability and the flowability of the suspension. The final form of the experimental loop consists mainly of the following items: a light-phase compressor, a heavy-phase pump, an electrical-resistance type heater section, a cooling heat exchanger, a hairpin loop, a transparent test section and a separator. During the course of the testing, it was observed that the fluid could be circulated quite easily in a broad range of variation of the suspension density and velocity - density from 30 to 170 kg/m 3 and velocity from 2 to 24 m/s. The system could be restarted and circulation maintained without any difficulty, even with the heavy-phase pump alone. The graphite did not have a tendency to pack or agglomerate during operation. No graphite deposition was observed on the wall of the tubing. A long period run (250 hours) has shown the evolution of the particle dimensions. Starting with graphite of surface area around 20 m 2 /g (graphite particles about 1 μ), the powder surface area reaches an asymptotic value of 300 m 2 /g (all the particles less than 0.3 μ). Moisture effect on flow stability, flow distribution between two parallel channels, pressure drop in straight tubes, recompression ratio in diffusers were also investigated. (author) [fr

  4. 2001-2002 carbon dioxide emissions in OECD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    This document provides carbon dioxide emissions data, from energy uses and production, from 2001 to 2002 in the OECD. It concerns the climate corrected CO 2 emissions in France, the non corrected CO 2 emissions (M tons), the emissions intensity / the Gross Domestic Product and the emissions intensity / the population (tons per inhabitant). (A.L.B.)

  5. Reaction of titanium polonides with carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abakumov, A.S.; Malyshev, M.L.; Reznikova, N.F.

    1987-01-01

    It has been ascertained that heating titanium and tantalum in carbon dioxide to temperatures of 500 or 800 0 C alters the composition of the gas phase, causing the advent of carbon monoxide and lowering the oxygen content. Investigation of the thermal stability of titanium polonides in a carbon dioxide medium has shown that titanium mono- and hemipolonides are decomposed at temperatures below 350 0 C. The temperature dependence of the vapor pressure of polonium produced in the decomposition of these polonides in a carbon dioxide medium have been determined by a radiotensimetric method. The enthalpy of the process, calculated from this relationship, is close to the enthalpy of vaporization of elementary polonium in vacuo

  6. Synthesis of Chiral Cyclic Carbonates via Kinetic Resolution of Racemic Epoxides and Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic synthesis of cyclic carbonates using carbon dioxide as a C1-building block is a highly active area of research. Here, we review the catalytic production of enantiomerically enriched cyclic carbonates via kinetic resolution of racemic epoxides catalysed by metal-containing catalyst systems.

  7. Predator-induced reduction of freshwater carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Trisha B.; Hammill, Edd; Greig, Hamish S.; Kratina, Pavel; Shurin, Jonathan B.; Srivastava, Diane S.; Richardson, John S.

    2013-03-01

    Predators can influence the exchange of carbon dioxide between ecosystems and the atmosphere by altering ecosystem processes such as decomposition and primary production, according to food web theory. Empirical knowledge of such an effect in freshwater systems is limited, but it has been suggested that predators in odd-numbered food chains suppress freshwater carbon dioxide emissions, and predators in even-numbered food chains enhance emissions. Here, we report experiments in three-tier food chains in experimental ponds, streams and bromeliads in Canada and Costa Rica in the presence or absence of fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and invertebrate (Hesperoperla pacifica and Mecistogaster modesta) predators. We monitored carbon dioxide fluxes along with prey and primary producer biomass. We found substantially reduced carbon dioxide emissions in the presence of predators in all systems, despite differences in predator type, hydrology, climatic region, ecological zone and level of in situ primary production. We also observed lower amounts of prey biomass and higher amounts of algal and detrital biomass in the presence of predators. We conclude that predators have the potential to markedly influence carbon dioxide dynamics in freshwater systems.

  8. Carbon dioxide neutral, integrated biofuel facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, E.E.; Hill, G.A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5A9 (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    Algae are efficient biocatalysts for both capture and conversion of carbon dioxide in the environment. In earlier work, we have optimized the ability of Chlorella vulgaris to rapidly capture CO{sub 2} from man-made emission sources by varying environmental growth conditions and bioreactor design. Here we demonstrate that a coupled biodiesel-bioethanol facility, using yeast to produce ethanol and photosynthetic algae to produce biodiesel, can result in an integrated, economical, large-scale process for biofuel production. Each bioreactor acts as an electrode for a coupled complete microbial fuel cell system; the integrated cultures produce electricity that is consumed as an energy source within the process. Finally, both the produced yeast and spent algae biomass can be used as added value byproducts in the feed or food industries. Using cost and revenue estimations, an IRR of up to 25% is calculated using a 5 year project lifespan. (author)

  9. Carbon dioxide, the feedstock for using renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, K.; Kumagai, N.; Izumiya, K.; Kato, Z.

    2011-03-01

    Extrapolation of world energy consumption between 1990 and 2007 to the future reveals the complete exhaustion of petroleum, natural gas, uranium and coal reserves on Earth in 2040, 2044, 2049 and 2054, respectively. We are proposing global carbon dioxide recycling to use renewable energy so that all people in the whole world can survive. The electricity will be generated by solar cell in deserts and used to produce hydrogen by seawater electrolysis at t nearby desert coasts. Hydrogen, for which no infrastructures of transportation and combustion exist, will be converted to methane at desert coasts by the reaction with carbon dioxide captured by energy consumers. Among systems in global carbon dioxide recycling, seawater electrolysis and carbon dioxide methanation have not been performed industrially. We created energy-saving cathodes for hydrogen production and anodes for oxygen evolution without chlorine formation in seawater electrolysis, and ideal catalysts for methane formation by the reaction of carbon dioxide with hydrogen. Prototype plant and industrial scale pilot plant have been built.

  10. Carbon dioxide problem: solution by technical countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, W

    1978-02-15

    A rough assessment indicates that anthropogenic influences might raise the mean global surface temperature by 0.8 to 1.2 C in 2000 AD and by 2 to 4 C in 2050 AD. The rapidly increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide are largely responsible for this warming trend. A variety of measures for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is presented. One promising approach is to work out a world-wide energy mix that can counteract a temperature increase. (In German)

  11. Environmental effects of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soon, W.; Baliunas, S.L.; Robinson, A.B.; Robinson, Z.W.

    1999-01-01

    A review of the literature concerning the environmental consequences of increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide leads to the conclusion that increases during the 20th century have produced no deleterious effects upon global climate or temperature. Increased carbon dioxide has, however, markedly increased plant growth rates as inferred from numerous laboratory and field experiments. There is no clear evidence, nor unique attribution, of the global effects of anthropogenic CO 2 on climate. Meaningful integrated assessments of the environmental impacts of anthropogenic CO 2 are not yet possible because model estimates of global and regional climate changes on interannual, decadal and centennial timescales remain highly uncertain.(author)

  12. Removing carbon dioxide from a stationary source through co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Except temperature of solvent, all study variables showed strong relation with the amount of carbon dioxide absorbed (with a P-value < 0.05). Uniquely, this study has evaluated the potential for sodium bicarbonate production from the CO2 absorbed using gravimetric analysis. It is also possible to recover over 28% crystal ...

  13. Integrated biofuel facility, with carbon dioxide consumption and power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, E.E.; Hill, G.A. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This presentation provided details of an economical design for a large-scale integrated biofuel facility for coupled production of bioethanol and biodiesel, with carbon dioxide capture and power generation. Several designs were suggested for both batch and continuous culture operations, taking into account all costs and revenues associated with the complete plant integration. The microalgae species Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in a novel photobioreactor (PBR) in order to consume industrial carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This photosynthetic culture can also act as a biocathode in a microbial fuel cell (MFC), which when coupled to a typical yeast anodic half cell, results in a complete biological MFC. The photosynthetic MFC produces electricity as well as valuable biomass and by-products. The use of this novel photosynthetic microalgae cathodic half cell in an integrated biofuel facility was discussed. A series of novel PBRs for continuous operation can be integrated into a large-scale bioethanol facility, where the PBRs serve as cathodic half cells and are coupled to the existing yeast fermentation tanks which act as anodic half cells. These coupled MFCs generate electricity for use within the biofuel facility. The microalgae growth provides oil for biodiesel production, in addition to the bioethanol from the yeast fermentation. The photosynthetic cultivation in the cathodic PBR also requires carbon dioxide, resulting in consumption of carbon dioxide from bioethanol production. The paper also discussed the effect of plant design on net present worth and internal rate of return. tabs., figs.

  14. Catalytic polymerization of olefins in supercritical carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemmere, M.F.; Vries, de T.J.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2004-01-01

    A novel process is being developed for the catalytic polymerization of olefins in supercritical carbon dioxide (sc CO2), for which potential applications will mainly be in the production of EPDM and other elastomers. For this purpose, the Brookhart catalyst has been tested for the homopolymerization

  15. Catalyst retention in continuous flow with supercritical carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouten, S.C.; Noel, T.; Wang, Q.; Hessel, V.

    2014-01-01

    This review discusses the retention of organometallic catalysts in continuous flow processes utilizing supercritical carbon dioxide. Due to its innovative properties, supercritical carbon dioxide offers interesting possibilities for process intensification. As a result of safety and cost

  16. Method and apparatus for producing food grade carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobles, J.E.; Swenson, L.K.

    1984-01-01

    A method is disclosed of producing food grade carbon dioxide from an impure carbon dioxide source stream containing contaminants which may include light and heavy hydrocarbons (at least C 1 to C 3 ) and light sulfur compounds such as hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide as well as heavier sulfur constituents in the nature of mercaptans (RSH) and/or organic mono and disulfides (RSR and RSSR). Nitrogen, water and/or oxygen may also be present in varying amounts in the impure feed stream. The feed gas is first rectified with liquid carbon dioxide condensed from a part of the feed stream to remove heavy hydrocarbons and heavy sulfur compounds, then passed through an absorber to effect removal of the light sulfur compounds, next subjected to an oxidizing atmosphere capable of converting all of the C 2 hydrocarbons and optionally a part of the methane to carbon oxides and water, chilled to condense the water in the remaining gas stream without formation of hydrates, liquefied for ease of handling and storage and finally stripped to remove residual contaminants such as methane, carbon monoxide and nitrogen to produce the final food grade carbon dioxide product

  17. Human population and carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, W.M.

    2008-01-01

    A recently proposed model of human population and carbon utilization is reviewed. Depending on parameter values, one of three possible long-term outcomes is obtained. (1) Atmospheric carbon, (CO 2 ) atm , and human populations equilibrate at positive values. (2) The human population stabilizes, while (CO 2 ) atm increases without bound. (3) The human population goes extinct and atmospheric carbon declines to 0. The final possibility is qualitatively compatible with both 'consensus' views of climate change and the opinions of those who are more impressed with the manifestly adverse consequences of carbon-mitigation to human reproduction and survival

  18. Carbon dioxide capture and air quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horssen, A. van; Ramirez, C.A.; Harmelen, T. van; Koornneef, J.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the most important greenhouse gases (GHG). The most dominant source of anthropogenic CO2 contributing to the rise in atmospheric concentration since the industrial revolution is the combustion of fossil fuels. These emissions are expected to result in global climate

  19. Electrocatalytic carbon dioxide reduction - a mechanistic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Klaas Jan Schouten

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents new insights into the reduction of carbon dioxide to methane and ethylene on copper electrodes. This electrochemical process has great potential for the storage of surplus renewable electrical energy in the form of hydrocarbons. The research described in this thesis focuses on

  20. Carbon dioxide enhances fragility of ice crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Zhao; Buehler, Markus J

    2012-01-01

    Ice caps and glaciers cover 7% of the Earth, greater than the land area of Europe and North America combined, and play an important role in global climate. The small-scale failure mechanisms of ice fracture, however, remain largely elusive. In particular, little understanding exists about how the presence and concentration of carbon dioxide molecules, a significant component in the atmosphere, affects the propensity of ice to fracture. Here we use atomic simulations with the first-principles based ReaxFF force field capable of describing the details of chemical reactions at the tip of a crack, applied to investigate the effects of the presence of carbon dioxide molecules on ice fracture. Our result shows that increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide molecules significantly decrease the fracture toughness of the ice crystal, making it more fragile. Using enhanced molecular sampling with metadynamics we reconstruct the free energy landscape in varied chemical microenvironments and find that carbon dioxide molecules affect the bonds between water molecules at the crack tip and decrease their strength by altering the dissociation energy of hydrogen bonds. In the context of glacier dynamics our findings may provide a novel viewpoint that could aid in understanding the breakdown and melting of glaciers, suggesting that the chemical composition of the atmosphere can be critical to mediate the large-scale motion of large volumes of ice.

  1. Diiodination of Alkynes in supercritical Carbon dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金恒; 谢叶香; 尹笃林; 江焕峰

    2003-01-01

    A general,green and efficient method for the synthesis of transdiiodoalkenes in CO2(sc) has been developed.Trans-diiodoalkenes were obtained stereospecifically in quantitative yields via diiodination of both electron-rich and electron-deficient alkynes in the presence of KI,Ce(SO4)2 and water in supercritical carbon dioxide [CO2(sc)]at 40℃.

  2. Tourism Transport, Technology, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Technological development from horse-drawn carriages to the new Airbus A380 has led to a remarkable increase in both the capacity and speed of tourist travel. This development has an endogenous systemic cause and will continue to increase carbon dioxide emissions/energy consumption if left

  3. Carbon dioxide sensing with sulfonated polyaniline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doan, D.C.T.; Ramaneti, R.; Baggerman, J.; Bent, van der J.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Tong, H.D.; Rijn, van C.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The use of polyaniline and especially sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN) is explored for sensing carbon dioxide (CO2) at room temperature. Frequency-dependent AC measurements were carried out to detect changes in impedance of the polymer, drop casted on interdigitated electrodes, when exposed to CO2 gas.

  4. Conductive polymers for carbon dioxide sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doan, T.C.D.

    2012-01-01

    Augmented levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) in greenhouses stimulate plant growth through photosynthesis. Wireless sensor networks monitoring CO2 levels in greenhouses covering large areas require preferably low power sensors to minimize energy consumption. Therefore, the main

  5. Transport properties of supercritical carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavanchy, F.; Fourcade, E.; de Koeijer, E.A.; Wijers, J.G.; Meyer, T.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Kemmere, M.F.; Meyer, T.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, supercritical fluids have emerged as more sustainable alternatives for the organic solvents often used in polymer processes. This is the first book emphasizing the potential of supercritical carbon dioxide for polymer processes from an engineering point of view. It develops a

  6. Reaction mechanisms for enhancing carbon dioxide mineral sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Karalee Ann

    Increasing global temperature resulting from the increased release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is one of the greatest problems facing society. Nevertheless, coal plants remain the largest source of electrical energy and carbon dioxide gas. For this reason, researchers are searching for methods to reduce carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere from the combustion of coal. Mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide reacted in electrolyte solutions at 185°C and 2200 psi with olivine (magnesium silicate) has been shown to produce environmentally benign carbonates. However, to make this method feasible for industrial applications, the reaction rate needs to be increased. Two methods were employed to increase the rate of mineral sequestration: reactant composition and concentration were altered independently in various runs. The products were analyzed with complete combustion for total carbon content. Crystalline phases in the product were analyzed with Debye-Scherrer X-ray powder diffraction. To understand the reaction mechanism, single crystals of San Carlos Olivine were reacted in two solutions: (0.64 M NaHCO3/1 M NaCl) and (5.5 M KHCO3) and analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and fluctuation electron microscopy (FEM) to study the surface morphology, atomic crystalline structure, composition and amorphous structure. From solution chemistry studies, it was found that increasing the activity of the bicarbonate ion increased the conversion rate of carbon dioxide to magnesite. The fastest conversion, 60% conversion in one hour, occurred in a solution of 5.5 M KHCO3. The reaction product particles, magnesium carbonate, significantly increased in both number density and size on the coupon when the bicarbonate ion activity was increased. During some experiments reaction vessel corrosion also altered the mineral sequestration mechanism. Nickel ions from vessel

  7. Metabolic effects of Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) insufflation during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metabolic effects of Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) insufflation during laparoscopic surgery: changes in pH, arterial partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide (PaCo 2 ) and End Tidal Carbon Dioxide (EtCO 2 ) ... Respiratory adjustments were done for EtCO2 levels above 60mmHg or SPO2 below 92% or adverse haemodynamic changes.

  8. Integrated Assessment of Carbon Dioxide Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickels, W.; Reith, F.; Keller, D.; Oschlies, A.; Quaas, M. F.

    2018-03-01

    To maintain the chance of keeping the average global temperature increase below 2°C and to limit long-term climate change, removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere (carbon dioxide removal, CDR) is becoming increasingly necessary. We analyze optimal and cost-effective climate policies in the dynamic integrated assessment model (IAM) of climate and the economy (DICE2016R) and investigate (1) the utilization of (ocean) CDR under different climate objectives, (2) the sensitivity of policies with respect to carbon cycle feedbacks, and (3) how well carbon cycle feedbacks are captured in the carbon cycle models used in state-of-the-art IAMs. Overall, the carbon cycle model in DICE2016R shows clear improvements compared to its predecessor, DICE2013R, capturing much better long-term dynamics and also oceanic carbon outgassing due to excess oceanic storage of carbon from CDR. However, this comes at the cost of a (too) tight short-term remaining emission budget, limiting the model suitability to analyze low-emission scenarios accurately. With DICE2016R, the compliance with the 2°C goal is no longer feasible without negative emissions via CDR. Overall, the optimal amount of CDR has to take into account (1) the emission substitution effect and (2) compensation for carbon cycle feedbacks.

  9. Ocean uptake of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Tsung-Hung; Takahashi, Taro

    1993-01-01

    Factors controlling the capacity of the ocean for taking up anthropogenic C0 2 include carbon chemistry, distribution of alkalinity, pCO 2 and total concentration of dissolved C0 2 , sea-air pCO 2 difference, gas exchange rate across the sea-air interface, biological carbon pump, ocean water circulation and mixing, and dissolution of carbonate in deep sea sediments. A general review of these processes is given and models of ocean-atmosphere system based on our understanding of these regulating processes axe used to estimate the magnitude of C0 2 uptake by the ocean. We conclude that the ocean can absorb up to 35% of the fossil fuel emission. Direct measurements show that 55% Of C0 2 from fossil fuel burning remains in the atmosphere. The remaining 10% is not accounted for by atmospheric increases and ocean uptake. In addition, it is estimated that an amount equivalent to 30% of recent annual fossil fuel emissions is released into the atmosphere as a result of deforestation and farming. To balance global carbon budget, a sizable carbon sink besides the ocean is needed. Storage of carbon in terrestrial biosphere as a result of C0 2 fertilization is a potential candidate for such missing carbon sinks

  10. Effects of carbon dioxide on cell growth and propionic acid production from glycerol and glucose by Propionibacterium acidipropionici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, An; Sun, Jianxin; Wang, Zhongqiang; Yang, Shang-Tian; Zhou, Haiying

    2015-01-01

    The effects of CO2 on propionic acid production and cell growth in glycerol or glucose fermentation were investigated in this study. In glycerol fermentation, the volumetric productivity of propionic acid with CO2 supplementation reached 2.94g/L/day, compared to 1.56g/L/day without CO2. The cell growth using glycerol was also significantly enhanced with CO2. In addition, the yield and productivity of succinate, the main intermediate in Wood-Werkman cycle, increased 81% and 280%, respectively; consistent with the increased activities of pyruvate carboxylase and propionyl CoA transferase, two key enzymes in the Wood-Werkman cycle. However, in glucose fermentation CO2 had minimal effect on propionic acid production and cell growth. The carbon flux distributions using glycerol or glucose were also analyzed using a stoichiometric metabolic model. The calculated maintenance coefficient (mATP) increased 100%, which may explain the increase in the productivity of propionic acid in glycerol fermentation with CO2 supplement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Carbon Dioxide Dry Reforming of Glycerol for Hydrogen Production using Ni/ZrO2 and Ni/CaO as Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Nabillah Mohd Arif

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol, byproduct from the biodiesel production can be effectively utilized as the promising source of synthesis gas (syngas through a dry reforming reaction. Combination of these waste materials with greenhouse gases which is carbon dioxide (CO2 will help to reduce environmental problem such as global warming. This dry reforming reaction has been carried out in a fixed bed batch reactor at 700 °C under the atmospheric pressure for 3 hours. In this experiment, reforming reaction was carried out using Nickel (Ni as based catalyst and supported with zirconium (ZrO2 and calcium (CaO oxides. The catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized using Bruanaer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Thermo Gravimetric (TGA, and Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR analysis. Reaction studies show that 15% Ni/CaO give the highest hydrogen yield and glycerol conversion that peaked at 24.59% and 30.32%, respectively. This result is verified by XRD analysis where this catalyst shows low crystallinity and fine dispersion of Ni species resulted in high specific surface area which gives 44.93 m2/g that is validated by BET.  Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 21st January 2016; Revised: 24th February 2016; Accepted: 29th February 2016 How to Cite: Arif, N.M.M., Vo, D.V.N., Azizan,M.T., Abidin S.Z. (2016. Carbon Dioxide Dry Reforming of Glycerol for Hydrogen Production using Ni/ZrO2 and Ni/CaO as Catalysts. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (2: 200-209 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.2.551.200-209 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.2.551.200-209

  12. Biofixation of Carbon dioxide by Chlamydomonas sp. in a Tubular Photobioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hadiyanto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The biogas production from anaerobic digestion is a potential fuel for power generators application, if biogas can be upgraded to the same standards as fossil natural gas by CO2, H2S, and other non-combustible component removal. Microalgae Chlamydomonas sp. has potency to biofix the carbon dioxide and can be used as an additional food ingredient. The variations of flow rate and carbon dioxide concentration in the process resulting different value of biomass production and carbon dioxide biofixation. Biomass production at 40% carbon dioxide concentration obtained 5.685 gr/dm3 at 10% carbon dioxide concentration obtained 4.892 gr/dm3. The greatest value of carbon dioxide absorption occurs at a 40% concentration amounting to 12.09%. The rate of growth and productivity of microalgae tend to rise in 10% and 20% (%v carbon dioxide concentration, but began started a constant at 30% and 40% (%v carbon dioxide concentration. Biomass production tends to increase in light conditions while a constant in dark conditions. This study used Chlamydomonas sp. as media culture and performed on bubble column and tubular reactor with 6 litres of culture medium at a temperature of 28oC and atmospheric pressure.

  13. Monitoring carbon dioxide in mechanically ventilated patients during hyperbaric treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregård, Asger; Jansen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of the arterial carbon dioxide (P(a)CO(2)) is an established part of the monitoring of mechanically ventilated patients. Other ways to get information about carbon dioxide in the patient are measurement of end-tidal carbon dioxide (P(ET)CO(2)) and transcutaneous carbon dioxide (PTCCO2......). Carbon dioxide in the blood and cerebral tissue has great influence on vasoactivity and thereby blood volume of the brain. We have found no studies on the correlation between P(ET)CO(2) or P(TC)CO(2), and P(a)CO(2) during hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT)....

  14. Energy efficient solvent regeneration process for carbon dioxide capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shaojun; Meyer, Howard S.; Li, Shiguang

    2018-02-27

    A process for removing carbon dioxide from a carbon dioxide-loaded solvent uses two stages of flash apparatus. Carbon dioxide is flashed from the solvent at a higher temperature and pressure in the first stage, and a lower temperature and pressure in the second stage, and is fed to a multi-stage compression train for high pressure liquefaction. Because some of the carbon dioxide fed to the compression train is already under pressure, less energy is required to further compress the carbon dioxide to a liquid state, compared to conventional processes.

  15. Materials for carbon dioxide separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qingqing

    2014-10-01

    The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at room temperature have been investigated by comparing carbon nanotubes, fullerene, graphenes, graphite and granular activated carbons. It turned out that the amount of the micropore surface area was dominating the CO{sub 2} adsorption ability. Another promising class of materials for CO{sub 2} capture and separation are CaO derived from the eggshells. Two aspects were studied in present work: a new hybrid materials synthesized by doping the CaTiO{sub 3} and the relationship between physisorption and chemisorption properties of CaO-based materials.

  16. Materials for carbon dioxide separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Qingqing

    2014-01-01

    The CO 2 adsorption capacities at room temperature have been investigated by comparing carbon nanotubes, fullerene, graphenes, graphite and granular activated carbons. It turned out that the amount of the micropore surface area was dominating the CO 2 adsorption ability. Another promising class of materials for CO 2 capture and separation are CaO derived from the eggshells. Two aspects were studied in present work: a new hybrid materials synthesized by doping the CaTiO 3 and the relationship between physisorption and chemisorption properties of CaO-based materials.

  17. Carbon dioxide research conference: carbon dioxide, science and consensus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    The DOE program focuses on three areas each of which requires more research before the many CO 2 -related questions can be answered. These areas include the global carbon cycle, climate effects, and vegetation effects. Additional information is needed to understand the sources and sinks of CO 2 . Research efforts include an attempt to estimate regional and global changes in temperature and precipitation. Increased atmospheric CO 2 may be a potential benefit to vegetation and crops because it is an essential element required for plant growth. Eight separate papers are included

  18. 27 CFR 24.245 - Use of carbon dioxide in still wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... still wine. 24.245 Section 24.245 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.245 Use of carbon dioxide in still wine. The addition of carbon dioxide to (and retention in) still wine...

  19. High Purity Hydrogen Production with In-Situ Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Capture in a Single Stage Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nihar Phalak; Shwetha Ramkumar; Daniel Connell; Zhenchao Sun; Fu-Chen Yu; Niranjani Deshpande; Robert Statnick; Liang-Shih Fan

    2011-07-31

    Enhancement in the production of high purity hydrogen (H{sub 2}) from fuel gas, obtained from coal gasification, is limited by thermodynamics of the water gas shift (WGS) reaction. However, this constraint can be overcome by conducting the WGS in the presence of a CO{sub 2}-acceptor. The continuous removal of CO{sub 2} from the reaction mixture helps to drive the equilibrium-limited WGS reaction forward. Since calcium oxide (CaO) exhibits high CO{sub 2} capture capacity as compared to other sorbents, it is an ideal candidate for such a technique. The Calcium Looping Process (CLP) developed at The Ohio State University (OSU) utilizes the above concept to enable high purity H{sub 2} production from synthesis gas (syngas) derived from coal gasification. The CLP integrates the WGS reaction with insitu CO{sub 2}, sulfur and halide removal at high temperatures while eliminating the need for a WGS catalyst, thus reducing the overall footprint of the hydrogen production process. The CLP comprises three reactors - the carbonator, where the thermodynamic constraint of the WGS reaction is overcome by the constant removal of CO{sub 2} product and high purity H{sub 2} is produced with contaminant removal; the calciner, where the calcium sorbent is regenerated and a sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} stream is produced; and the hydrator, where the calcined sorbent is reactivated to improve its recyclability. As a part of this project, the CLP was extensively investigated by performing experiments at lab-, bench- and subpilot-scale setups. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis was also conducted to determine the feasibility of the CLP at commercial scale. This report provides a detailed account of all the results obtained during the project period.

  20. Convergence of carbon dioxide emissions in different sectors in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Juan; Zhang, Kezhong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze differences in per capita carbon dioxide emissions from 1996 to 2010 in six sectors across 28 provinces in China and examine the σ-convergence, stochastic convergence and β-convergence of these emissions. We also investigate the factors that impact the convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions in each sector. The results show that per capita carbon dioxide emissions in all sectors converged across provinces from 1996 to 2010. Factors that impact the convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions in each sector vary: GDP (gross domestic product) per capita, industrialization process and population density impact convergence in the Industry sector, while GDP per capita and population density impact convergence in the Transportation, Storage, Postal, and Telecommunications Services sector. Aside from GDP per capita and population density, trade openness also impacts convergence in the Wholesale, Retail, Trade, and Catering Service sector. Population density is the only factor that impacts convergence in the Residential Consumption sector. - Highlights: • Analyze differences in CO 2 emissions in six sectors among 28 provinces in China. • Examine the convergence of CO 2 emissions in six sectors. • Investigate factors impact on convergence of CO 2 emissions in each sector. • Factors impact on convergence of per capita CO 2 emissions in each sector vary

  1. Acute carbon dioxide avoidance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallem, Elissa A; Sternberg, Paul W

    2008-06-10

    Carbon dioxide is produced as a by-product of cellular respiration by all aerobic organisms and thus serves for many animals as an important indicator of food, mates, and predators. However, whether free-living terrestrial nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans respond to CO2 was unclear. We have demonstrated that adult C. elegans display an acute avoidance response upon exposure to CO2 that is characterized by the cessation of forward movement and the rapid initiation of backward movement. This response is mediated by a cGMP signaling pathway that includes the cGMP-gated heteromeric channel TAX-2/TAX-4. CO2 avoidance is modulated by multiple signaling molecules, including the neuropeptide Y receptor NPR-1 and the calcineurin subunits TAX-6 and CNB-1. Nutritional status also modulates CO2 responsiveness via the insulin and TGFbeta signaling pathways. CO2 response is mediated by a neural circuit that includes the BAG neurons, a pair of sensory neurons of previously unknown function. TAX-2/TAX-4 function in the BAG neurons to mediate acute CO2 avoidance. Our results demonstrate that C. elegans senses and responds to CO2 using multiple signaling pathways and a neural network that includes the BAG neurons and that this response is modulated by the physiological state of the worm.

  2. Medium temperature carbon dioxide gas turbine reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Yasuyoshi; Nitawaki, Takeshi; Muto, Yasushi

    2004-01-01

    A carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) gas turbine reactor with a partial pre-cooling cycle attains comparable cycle efficiencies of 45.8% at medium temperature of 650 deg. C and pressure of 7 MPa with a typical helium (He) gas turbine reactor of GT-MHR (47.7%) at high temperature of 850 deg. C. This higher efficiency is ascribed to: reduced compression work around the critical point of CO 2 ; and consideration of variation in CO 2 specific heat at constant pressure, C p , with pressure and temperature into cycle configuration. Lowering temperature to 650 deg. C provides flexibility in choosing materials and eases maintenance through the lower diffusion leak rate of fission products from coated particle fuel by about two orders of magnitude. At medium temperature of 650 deg. C, less expensive corrosion resistant materials such as type 316 stainless steel are applicable and their performance in CO 2 have been proven during extensive operation in AGRs. In the previous study, the CO 2 cycle gas turbomachinery weight was estimated to be about one-fifth compared with He cycles. The proposed medium temperature CO 2 gas turbine reactor is expected to be an alternative solution to current high-temperature He gas turbine reactors

  3. Carbon dioxide removal and the futures market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, D.'Maris; Lockley, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Futures contracts are exchange-traded financial instruments that enable parties to fix a price in advance, for later performance on a contract. Forward contracts also entail future settlement, but they are traded directly between two parties. Futures and forwards are used in commodities trading, as producers seek financial security when planning production. We discuss the potential use of futures contracts in Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) markets; concluding that they have one principal advantage (near-term price security to current polluters), and one principal disadvantage (a combination of high price volatility and high trade volume means contracts issued by the private sector may cause systemic economic risk). Accordingly, we note the potential for the development of futures markets in CDR, but urge caution about the prospects for market failure. In particular, we consider the use of regulated markets: to ensure contracts are more reliable, and that moral hazard is minimised. While regulation offers increased assurances, we identify major insufficiencies with this approach—finding it generally inadequate. In conclusion, we suggest that only governments can realistically support long-term CDR futures markets. We note existing long-term CDR plans by governments, and suggest the use of state-backed futures for supporting these assurances.

  4. Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Ankita; Tomar, B.S.

    2016-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a process akin to liquid-liquid or solvent extraction where a Supercritical fluid (SCF) is contacted with a solid/ liquid matrix for the purpose of separating the component of interest from the original matrix. Carbon dioxide is a preferred choice as supercritical fluid (SCF) owing to its moderate critical parameter (P c = 7.38 MPa and T c = 304.1K) coupled with radiation and chemical stability, non toxic nature and low cost. Despite widespread applications for extraction of organic compounds and associated advantages especially liquid waste minimization, the SFE of metal ions was left unexplored for quite some time, as direct metal ion extraction is inefficient due charge neutralization requirement and weak solute-solvent interaction. Neutral SCF soluble metal-ligand complexation is imperative and SFE of actinides was reported only in 1994. Several studies have been carried out on SFE of uranium, thorium and plutonium from nitric acid medium employing different sets of ligands (organophosphorus, diketones, amides). Especially attractive is the possibility of direct dissolution and extraction of actinides employing ligand-acid adducts (like TBP.HNO 3 adduct) from solid matrices of different stages of nuclear fuel cycle viz. ores, spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes. Also, partitioning of actinides from fission products has been explored in spent nuclear fuel. These studies on supercritical fluid extraction of actinides indicate a more efficient and environmentally sustainable technology. (author)

  5. Practical modeling approaches for geological storage of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celia, Michael A; Nordbotten, Jan M

    2009-01-01

    The relentless increase of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and the associated concerns about climate change have motivated new ideas about carbon-constrained energy production. One technological approach to control carbon dioxide emissions is carbon capture and storage, or CCS. The underlying idea of CCS is to capture the carbon before it emitted to the atmosphere and store it somewhere other than the atmosphere. Currently, the most attractive option for large-scale storage is in deep geological formations, including deep saline aquifers. Many physical and chemical processes can affect the fate of the injected CO2, with the overall mathematical description of the complete system becoming very complex. Our approach to the problem has been to reduce complexity as much as possible, so that we can focus on the few truly important questions about the injected CO2, most of which involve leakage out of the injection formation. Toward this end, we have established a set of simplifying assumptions that allow us to derive simplified models, which can be solved numerically or, for the most simplified cases, analytically. These simplified models allow calculation of solutions to large-scale injection and leakage problems in ways that traditional multicomponent multiphase simulators cannot. Such simplified models provide important tools for system analysis, screening calculations, and overall risk-assessment calculations. We believe this is a practical and important approach to model geological storage of carbon dioxide. It also serves as an example of how complex systems can be simplified while retaining the essential physics of the problem.

  6. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-04-26

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  7. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-01-28

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  8. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-07-29

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  9. Recycling technology of emitted carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, Hironori [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research (NIMC), Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Ways to halt global warming are being discussed worldwide. Global warming is an energy problem which is mainly attributed to the large volumes of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) released into the atmosphere from the rapid increase in energy consumption since the Industrial Revolution. The basic solution to the problem, therefore, is to cut consumption of fossil fuels. To this end, it is important to promote energy conservation by improving the fuel efficiency of machines, as well as shift to energy sources that do not emit carbon dioxide and develop related technologies. If current trends in economic growth continue in the devloping world as well as the developed countries, there can be no doubt that energy consumption will increase. Therefore, alongside energy conservation and the development of alternative energies, the importance of technologies to recover and fix CO{sub 2} will increase in the fight against global warming.

  10. The influence of broiler activity, growth rate, and litter on carbon dioxide balances for the determination of ventilation flow rates in broiler production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, S; Estellés, F; Cambra-López, M; Torres, A G; Van den Weghe, H F A

    2011-11-01

    Carbon dioxide balances are useful in determining ventilation rates in livestock buildings. These balances need an accurate estimation of the CO(2) produced by animals and their litter to determine the ventilation flows. To estimate the daily variation in ventilation flow, it is necessary to precisely know the daily variation pattern of CO(2) production, which mainly depends on animal activity. The objective of this study was to explore the applicability of CO(2) balances for determining ventilation flows in broiler buildings. More specifically, this work aimed to quantify the amount of CO(2) produced by the litter, as well as the amount of CO(2) produced by the broilers, as a function of productive parameters, and to analyze the influence of broiler activity on CO(2) emissions. Gas concentrations and ventilation flows were simultaneously measured in 3 trials, with 1 under experimental conditions and the other 2 in a commercial broiler farm. In the experimental assay, broiler activity was also determined. At the end of the experimental trial, on the day after the removal of the broilers, the litter accounted for 20% of the total CO(2) produced, and the broilers produced 3.71 L/h of CO(2) per kg of metabolic weight. On the commercial farm, CO(2) production was the same for the 2 cycles (2.60 L/h per kg of metabolic weight, P > 0.05). However, substantial differences were found between CO(2) and broiler activity patterns after changes in light status. A regression model was used to explain these differences (R(2) = 0.52). Carbon dioxide increased with bird activity, being on average 3.02 L/h per kg of metabolic weight for inactive birds and 4.73 L/h per kg of metabolic weight when bird activity was highest. Overall, CO(2) balances are robust tools for determining the daily average ventilation flows in broiler farms. These balances could also be applied at more frequent intervals, but in this case, particular care is necessary after light status changes because of

  11. Direct carbon dioxide emissions from civil aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Grote, Matt; Williams, Ian; Preston, John

    2014-01-01

    Global airlines consume over 5 million barrels of oil per day, and the resulting carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by aircraft engines is of concern. This article provides a contemporary review of the literature associated with the measures available to the civil aviation industry for mitigating CO2 emissions from aircraft. The measures are addressed under two categories – policy and legal-related measures, and technological and operational measures. Results of the review are used to develop sever...

  12. Dependence of carbon dioxide concentration on microalgal carbon dioxide fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Yeoung Sang; Park, Song Moon [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Environmental Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea); Bolesky, Bohumil [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University (Canada)

    1999-10-01

    Batch cultivation of chlorella vulgaris was carried out under various CO{sub 2} concentrations in order to understand and describe mathematically the CO{sub 2} inhibition of microalgal CO{sub 2} fixation. The volumetric CO{sub 2} transfer coefficient from mixture gas to culture medium was estimated from the volumetric O{sub 2} transfer coefficient obtained experimentally. Using this transfer coefficient and aquatic equilibrium relationship between dissolved inorganic carbons, the behavior of dissolved CO{sub 2} was calculated during microalgal culture. When air containing 0.035%(v/v) CO{sub 2} was supplied into microalgal culture, the fixation rate was limited by CO{sub 2} transfer rate. However, the limitation was disappeared by supplying mixture gas containing above 2%(v/v) CO{sub 2} and the dissolved CO{sub 2} concentration was maintained at the saturated value. In the range of CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the flue gases from thermal power sations and steel-making plants, the microalgal CO{sub 2} fixation rate was inhibited. The CO{sub 2} fixation rate was successfully formulated by a new empirical equation as a function of dissolved CO{sub 2} concentration, which could be useful for modeling and simulating the performance of photobioreaction with enriched CO{sub 2}. Also, it was found that the CO{sub 2} inhibition of microalgal CO{sub 2} fixation was reversible and that microalgal CO{sub 2} fixation process could be stable against a shock of unusually high CO{sub 2} concentration. 29 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Carbon dioxide in Arctic and subarctic regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosink, T. A.; Kelley, J. J.

    1981-03-01

    A three year research project was presented that would define the role of the Arctic ocean, sea ice, tundra, taiga, high latitude ponds and lakes and polar anthropogenic activity on the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere. Due to the large physical and geographical differences between the two polar regions, a comparison of CO/sub 2/ source and sink strengths of the two areas was proposed. Research opportunities during the first year, particularly those aboard the Swedish icebreaker, YMER, provided additional confirmatory data about the natural source and sink strengths for carbon dioxide in the Arctic regions. As a result, the hypothesis that these natural sources and sinks are strong enough to significantly affect global atmospheric carbon dioxide levels is considerably strengthened. Based on the available data we calculate that the whole Arctic region is a net annual sink for about 1.1 x 10/sup 15/ g of CO/sub 2/, or the equivalent of about 5% of the annual anthropogenic input into the atmosphere. For the second year of this research effort, research on the seasonal sources and sinks of CO/sub 2/ in the Arctic will be continued. Particular attention will be paid to the seasonal sea ice zones during the freeze and thaw periods, and the tundra-taiga regions, also during the freeze and thaw periods.

  14. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-02-10

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  15. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-04-28

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  16. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-02-11

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  17. Capacitance-Assisted Sustainable Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Mineralisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Katie J; Dowsett, Mark R; Chatzipanagis, Konstantinos; Scullion, Zhan Wei; Kröger, Roland; Lee, James D; Aguiar, Pedro M; North, Michael; Parkin, Alison

    2018-01-10

    An electrochemical cell comprising a novel dual-component graphite and Earth-crust abundant metal anode, a hydrogen producing cathode and an aqueous sodium chloride electrolyte was constructed and used for carbon dioxide mineralisation. Under an atmosphere of 5 % carbon dioxide in nitrogen, the cell exhibited both capacitive and oxidative electrochemistry at the anode. The graphite acted as a supercapacitive reagent concentrator, pumping carbon dioxide into aqueous solution as hydrogen carbonate. Simultaneous oxidation of the anodic metal generated cations, which reacted with the hydrogen carbonate to give mineralised carbon dioxide. Whilst conventional electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction requires hydrogen, this cell generates hydrogen at the cathode. Carbon capture can be achieved in a highly sustainable manner using scrap metal within the anode, seawater as the electrolyte, an industrially relevant gas stream and a solar panel as an effective zero-carbon energy source. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  18. Carbon dioxide flux measurements from a coastal Douglas-fir forest floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drewitt, G.B.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis examined the process that affects the exchange of carbon between the soil and the atmosphere with particular attention to the large amounts of carbon stored in soils in the form of decaying organic matter. This forest floor measuring study was conducted in 2000 at a micro-meteorological tower flux site in a coastal temperature Douglas-fir forest. The measuring study involved half hourly measurements of both carbon dioxide and below-ground carbon dioxide storage. Measurements were taken at 6 locations between April and December to include a large portion of the growing season. Eddy covariance (EC) measurements of carbon dioxide flux above the forest floor over a two month period in the summer and the autumn were compared with forest floor measurements. Below-ground carbon dioxide mixing ratios of soil air were measured at 6 depths between 0.02 to 1 m using gas diffusion probes and a syringe sampling method. Maximum carbon dioxide fluxes measured by the soil chambers varied by a factor of 3 and a high spatial variability in soil carbon dioxide flux was noted. Forest floor carbon dioxide fluxes measured by each of the chambers indicated different sensitivities to soil temperature. Hysteresis in the flux temperature relationship over the year was evident. Reliable below-canopy EC measurements of the forest floor carbon dioxide flux were difficult to obtain because of the every low wind speeds below the forest canopy. The amount of carbon dioxde present in the soil increased rapidly with depth near the surface but less rapidly deeper in the soil. It was suggested that approximately half of the carbon dioxide produced below-ground comes from between the soil surface and the first 0.15 m of depth. Carbon dioxide fluxes from the floor of a Douglas-fir forest were found to be large compared to other, less productive ecosystems

  19. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2001-07-01

    Sodium based sorbents including sodium carbonate may be used to capture carbon dioxide from flue gas. A relatively concentrated carbon dioxide stream may be recoverable for sequestration when the sorbent is regenerated. Electrobalance tests indicated that sodium carbonate monohydrate was formed in a mixture of helium and water vapor at temperatures below 65 C. Additional compounds may also form, but this could not be confirmed. In the presence of carbon dioxide and water vapor, both the initial reaction rate of sodium carbonate with carbon dioxide and water and the sorbent capacity decreased with increasing temperature, consistent with the results from the previous quarter. Increasing the carbon dioxide concentration at constant temperature and water vapor concentration produced a measurable increase in rate, as did increasing the water vapor concentration at constant carbon dioxide concentration and temperature. Runs conducted with a flatter TGA pan resulted in a higher initial reaction rate, presumably due to improved gas-solid contact, but after a short time, there was no significant difference in the rates measured with the different pans. Analyses of kinetic data suggest that the surface of the sodium carbonate particles may be much hotter than the bulk gas due to the highly exothermic reaction with carbon dioxide and water, and that the rate of heat removal from the particle may control the reaction rate. A material and energy balance was developed for a cyclic carbonation/calcination process which captures about 26 percent of the carbon dioxide present in flue gas available at 250 C.

  20. Biosequestration of carbon dioxide, biomass, calorific value and biodiesel precursors production using a novel flask culture photobioreactor

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fulke, A.B.; Krishnamurthi, K.; Giripunje, M.D.; Devi, S.S.; Chakrabarti, T.

    Renewable, carbon neutral, economically viable alternative fuels are urgently needed to turn away the consequences of climate change Photosynthetic capability of microalgae with respect to CO2 fixation at various CO2 partial...

  1. Effect of Carbon dioxide (CO2 on mortality and reproduction of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller 1879, in mass rearing, aiming at the production of Trichogramma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALOISIO COELHO JUNIOR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller 1879 are widely used for mass rearing of Trichogramma spp. and other parasitoids and predators, largely commercialized in many countries. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of carbon dioxide (CO2 originated from larval metabolism on the biological parameters of A. kuehniella. For that purpose, we assess the production of carbon dioxide (CO2 per rearing tray of A. kuehniella and the effect of CO2 on the viability of egg-to-adult period and oviposition of A. kuehniella. Results allow to estimate that a rearing tray, containing 10,000 larvae between the 4th and 5th instars, produces an average of 30.67 mL of CO2 per hour. The highest egg production of A. kuehniella was obtained when the larvae were kept in rooms with lower concentration of CO2 (1,200 parts per million - ppm, producing 23% more eggs than in rooms with higher CO2 concentrations. In rooms with high density of trays (70 trays/room, CO2 concentration exceeded 4,400 ppm. The viability of the egg-to-adult period was not influenced by carbon dioxide.Ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 são muito utilizados para a criação massal de Trichogramma spp. e de outros parasitóides e predadores, sendo comercializados em muitos países. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do dióxido de carbono (CO2, proveniente do metabolismo larval, em parâmetros biológicos de A. kuehniella, principalmente na postura. Para que este objetivo fosse atingido, foram avaliados a produção de dióxido de carbono (CO2 por bandeja de criação de A. kuehniella e o efeito do CO2 na viabilidade do período ovo-adulto e na postura de A. kuehniella. Por meio dos resultados obtidos pôde-se estimar que uma bandeja de criação, com lagartas entre o 4° e 5° ínstares, inoculada com 10.000 lagartas produz, em média, 30,67 ml de CO2 por hora. A maior produção de ovos de A. kuehniella foi obtida quando as lagartas foram mantidas em salas com concentra

  2. Carbon Dioxide Separation Using Thermally Optimized Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. S.; Jorgensen, B. S.; Espinoza, B. F.; Weimer, M. W.; Jarvinen, G. D.; Greenberg, A.; Khare, V.; Orme, C. J.; Wertsching, A. K.; Peterson, E. S.; Hopkins, S. D.; Acquaviva, J.

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop polymeric-metallic membranes for carbon dioxide separations that operate under a broad range of industrially relevant conditions not accessible with present membrane units. The last decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in the use of polymer membranes as an effective, economic and flexible tool for many commercial gas separations including air separation, the recovery of hydrogen from nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane mixtures, and the removal of carbon dioxide from natural gas. In each of these applications, high fluxes and excellent selectivities have relied on glassy polymer membranes which separate gases based on both size and solubility differences. To date, however, this technology has focused on optimizing materials for near ambient conditions. The development of polymeric materials that achieve the important combination of high selectivity, high permeability, and mechanical stability at temperatures significantly above 25oC and pressures above 10 bar, respectively, has been largely ignored. Consequently, there is a compelling rationale for the exploration of a new realm of polymer membrane separations. Indeed, the development of high temperature polymeric-metallic composite membranes for carbon dioxide separation at temperatures of 100-450 oC and pressures of 10-150 bar would provide a pivotal contribution with both economic and environmental benefits. Progress to date includes the first ever fabrication of a polymeric-metallic membrane that is selective from room temperature to 370oC. This achievement represents the highest demonstrated operating temperature at which a polymeric based membrane has successfully functioned. Additionally, we have generated the first polybenzamidizole silicate molecular composites. Finally, we have developed a technique that has enabled the first-ever simultaneous measurements of gas permeation and membrane compaction at elevated temperatures. This technique provides a unique

  3. Biomass fuels - effects on the carbon dioxide budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, H.; Hallsby, G.

    1992-02-01

    It is highly desirable that the effects on the carbon dioxide balance of alternative energy sources are evaluated. Two important alternatives studied in Sweden are the extraction of logging residues left in the forest and willow production on farmland. Considered in isolation, a conversion from stem-wood harvest to whole-tree harvest has a negative effect on the carbon dioxide balance, because the amount of soil organic matter decreases. With the assumption that it takes 20 years for the logging residues to decompose, the net decrease in emissions that would result from the replacement of fossil fuels by logging residues appear moderate after 20 years. However, it will grow significantly as time passes. After 100 years with an annual combustion of logging residues the emissions are 12% of those associated with the production of an equivalent amount of energy through oil combustion. Corresponding values for 300 and 500 years are 4% and 2.5% respectively. In less than 100 years there should be a considerable reduction in the Swedish CO 2 -C emissions even if only every second new logging residue-produced TWH replaces a fossil-fuel-produced TWh. From a long-term perspective, effects on carbon reservoirs in Sweden, caused by conversions to whole-tree harvesting in forestry and to willow production on redundant farmland, can be considered negligible in terms of their influence on the carbon dioxide budget of Sweden. The orders of magnitude of influencing fluxes is exemplified in the following: The annual production of 50 TWh, whereof 40 TWh from logging residues, 8 TWh from willow and 2 TWh from annual crops is estimated to cause a total net decrease of the carbon reservoirs within Sweden corresponding to 32 Tg CO 2 -C, whereas the annual production of 50 TWh from oil combustion should emit 1200 Tg CO 2 -C in 300 years, 2000 Tg CO 2 -C in 500 years and so on. (au). 17 refs., 4 tabs

  4. The carbon dioxide thermometer and the cause of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calder, Nigel

    1999-01-01

    Carbon dioxide in the air may be increasing because the world is warming. This possibility, which contradicts the hypothesis of an enhanced greenhouse warming driven by manmade emissions, is here pursued in two ways. First, increments in carbon dioxide are treated as readings of a natural thermometer that tracks global and hemispheric temperature deviations, as gauged by meteorologists' thermometers. Calibration of the carbon dioxide thermometer to conventional temperatures then leads to a history of carbon dioxide since 1856 that diverges from the ice-core record. Secondly, the increments of carbon dioxide can also be accounted for, without reference to temperature, by the combined effects of cosmic rays, El Nino and volcanoes. The most durable effect is due to cosmic rays. A solar wind history, used as a long-term proxy for the cosmic rays, gives a carbon dioxide history similar to that inferred from the global temperature deviations. (author)

  5. Amperometric sensor for carbon dioxide: design, characteristics, and perforance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.; Pletcher, D.; Warburton, P.R.G.; Gibbs, T.K.

    1989-01-01

    A new sensor for atmospheric carbon dioxide is described. It is an amperometric device based on a porous electrode in a three-electrode cell and the electrolyte is a copper diamine complex in aqueous potassium chloride. The platinum cathode, held at constant potential, is used to detect the formation of Cu 2+ following the change in the pH of the solution when the sensor is exposed to an atmosphere containing carbon dioxide. The sensor described is designed to monitor carbon dioxide concentrations in the range 0-5%, although with some modifications, other ranges would be possible. The response to a change in the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere is rapid (about 10s) while the monitored current is strongly (but nonlinearly) dependent on carbon dioxide concentration. Unlike other amperometric devices for carbon dioxide, there is no interference from oxygen although other acid gases would lead to an interfering response

  6. Nuclear power and carbon dioxide free automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergast, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear energy has been developed as a major source of electric power in Canada. Electricity from nuclear energy already avoids the emission of about 100 million tonnes of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere in Canada. This is a significant fraction of the 619 million tonnes of Canadian greenhouse gas emissions in 1995. However, the current scope of application of electricity to end use energy needs in Canada limits the contribution nuclear energy can make to carbon dioxide emission reduction. Nuclear energy can also contribute to carbon dioxide emissions reduction through expansion of the use of electricity to less traditional applications. Transportation, in particular contributed 165 million tonnes of carbon dioxide to the Canadian atmosphere in 1995. Canada's fleet of personal vehicles consisted of 16.9 million cars and light trucks. These vehicles were driven on average 21,000 km/year and generated 91 million tonnes of greenhouse gases expressed as a C02 equivalent. Technology to improve the efficiency of cars is under development which is expected to increase the energy efficiency from the 1995 level of about 10 litres/100 km of gasoline to under 3 litres/100km expressed as an equivalent referenced to the energy content of gasoline. The development of this technology, which may ultimately lead to the practical implementation of hydrogen as a portable source of energy for transportation is reviewed. Fuel supply life cycle greenhouse gas releases for several personal vehicle energy supply systems are then estimated. Very substantial reductions of greenhouse gas emissions are possible due to efficiency improvements and changing to less carbon intensive fuels such as natural gas. C02 emissions from on board natural gas fueled versions of hybrid electric cars would be decreased to approximately 25 million t/year from the current 91 million tonnes/year. The ultimate reduction identified is through the use of hydrogen fuel produced via electricity from CANDU power

  7. The impact of environmental factors on carbon dioxide fixation by microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Marcia; Sánchez, León; Revah, Sergio

    2018-02-01

    Microalgae are among the most productive biological systems for converting sunlight into chemical energy, which is used to capture and transform inorganic carbon into biomass. The efficiency of carbon dioxide capture depends on the cultivation system configuration (photobioreactors or open systems) and can vary according to the state of the algal physiology, the chemical composition of the nutrient medium, and environmental factors such as irradiance, temperature and pH. This mini-review is focused on some of the most important environmental factors determining photosynthetic activity, carbon dioxide biofixation, cell growth rate and biomass productivity by microalgae. These include carbon dioxide and O2 concentrations, light intensity, cultivation temperature and nutrients. Finally, a review of the operation of microalgal cultivation systems outdoors is presented as an example of the impact of environmental conditions on biomass productivity and carbon dioxide fixation. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Adverse effects of the automotive industry on carbon dioxide emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Mpho Bosupeng

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effects of the automotive industry on carbon dioxide emissions for the period from 1997 to 2010 for diverse economies, as well as the relationships between carbon dioxide discharges and output. The study applies cointegration and causality tests to validate these associations. The results of the Johansen cointegration test depict long-run associations between the quantity of passenger cars and carbon dioxide emissions in France, Sweden, Spain, Hungary and Japa...

  9. On reaction of titanium polonides with carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abakumov, A.S.; Malyshev, M.L.; Reznikova, N.F.

    1986-01-01

    The reaction between titanium polonides and carbon dioxide has been studied by comparing titanium polonide thermal resistance in vacuum and in carbon dioxide. The investigation has shown that titanium mono- and semipolonides fail at temperatures below 350 deg C. Temperature dependence of polonium vapor pressure prepared at failure of the given polonides is determined by the radiotensiometry in carbon dioxide. Enthalpy calculated for this dependence is close to the enthalpy of elementary polonium evaporation in vacuum

  10. Supercritical carbon dioxide: a solvent like no other

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Peach

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 could be one aspect of a significant and necessary movement towards green chemistry, being a potential replacement for volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Unfortunately, carbon dioxide has a notoriously poor solubilising power and is famously difficult to handle. This review examines attempts and breakthroughs in enhancing the physicochemical properties of carbon dioxide, focusing primarily on factors that impact solubility of polar and ionic species and attempts to enhance scCO2 viscosity.

  11. Amazon River carbon dioxide outgassing fuelled by wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, Gwenaël; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Artigas, L Felipe; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Benedetti, Marc F; Vidal, Luciana; Meziane, Tarik; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Bernardes, Marcelo C; Savoye, Nicolas; Deborde, Jonathan; Souza, Edivaldo Lima; Albéric, Patrick; Landim de Souza, Marcelo F; Roland, Fabio

    2014-01-16

    River systems connect the terrestrial biosphere, the atmosphere and the ocean in the global carbon cycle. A recent estimate suggests that up to 3 petagrams of carbon per year could be emitted as carbon dioxide (CO2) from global inland waters, offsetting the carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. It is generally assumed that inland waters emit carbon that has been previously fixed upstream by land plant photosynthesis, then transferred to soils, and subsequently transported downstream in run-off. But at the scale of entire drainage basins, the lateral carbon fluxes carried by small rivers upstream do not account for all of the CO2 emitted from inundated areas downstream. Three-quarters of the world's flooded land consists of temporary wetlands, but the contribution of these productive ecosystems to the inland water carbon budget has been largely overlooked. Here we show that wetlands pump large amounts of atmospheric CO2 into river waters in the floodplains of the central Amazon. Flooded forests and floating vegetation export large amounts of carbon to river waters and the dissolved CO2 can be transported dozens to hundreds of kilometres downstream before being emitted. We estimate that Amazonian wetlands export half of their gross primary production to river waters as dissolved CO2 and organic carbon, compared with only a few per cent of gross primary production exported in upland (not flooded) ecosystems. Moreover, we suggest that wetland carbon export is potentially large enough to account for at least the 0.21 petagrams of carbon emitted per year as CO2 from the central Amazon River and its floodplains. Global carbon budgets should explicitly address temporary or vegetated flooded areas, because these ecosystems combine high aerial primary production with large, fast carbon export, potentially supporting a substantial fraction of CO2 evasion from inland waters.

  12. Regenerable immobilized aminosilane sorbents for carbon dioxide capture applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, McMahan; Choi, Sunho; Jones, Christopher W

    2014-09-16

    A method for the separation of carbon dioxide from ambient air and flue gases is provided wherein a phase separating moiety with a second moiety are simultaneously coupled and bonded onto an inert substrate to create a mixture which is subsequently contacted with flue gases or ambient air. The phase-separating moiety is an amine whereas the second moiety is an aminosilane, or a Group 4 propoxide such as titanium (IV) propoxide (tetrapropyl orthotitanate, C.sub.12H.sub.28O.sub.4Ti). The second moiety makes the phase-separating moiety insoluble in the pores of the inert substrate. The new sorbents have a high carbon dioxide loading capacity and considerable stability over hundreds of cycles. The synthesis method is readily scalable for commercial and industrial production.

  13. Changes in plasma potassium concentration during carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Bugge, K; Lyng, K M

    1999-01-01

    Hyperkalaemia with ECG changes had been noted during prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in pigs. We have compared plasma potassium concentrations during surgery in 11 patients allocated randomly to undergo either laparoscopic or open appendectomy and in another 17 patients allocated randomly...... to either carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum or abdominal wall lifting for laparoscopic colectomy. Despite an increasing metabolic acidosis, prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum resulted in only a slight increase in plasma potassium concentrations, which was both statistically and clinically insignificant....... Thus hyperkalaemia is unlikely to develop in patients with normal renal function undergoing carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery....

  14. Selective free radical reactions using supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Philip J; Clarke, Ryan M; McFadden, Ryan M L; Ghandi, Khashayar

    2014-02-12

    We report herein a means to modify the reactivity of alkenes, and particularly to modify their selectivity toward reactions with nonpolar reactants (e.g., nonpolar free radicals) in supercritical carbon dioxide near the critical point. Rate constants for free radical addition of the light hydrogen isotope muonium to ethylene, vinylidene fluoride, and vinylidene chloride in supercritical carbon dioxide are compared over a range of pressures and temperatures. Near carbon dioxide's critical point, the addition to ethylene exhibits critical speeding up, while the halogenated analogues display critical slowing. This suggests that supercritical carbon dioxide as a solvent may be used to tune alkene chemistry in near-critical conditions.

  15. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Robert James; O'Brien, Michael Joseph

    2014-06-10

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides a composition which contains the amino-siloxane structures I, or III, as described herein. The composition is useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from process streams. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane composition. Another aspect of the present invention provides methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention, as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide.

  16. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Robert James; O' Brien, Michael Joseph

    2015-12-29

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides a composition which contains the amino-siloxane structures I, or III, as described herein. The composition is useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from process streams. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane composition. Another aspect of the present invention provides methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention, as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide.

  17. Heat transfer coefficient for boiling carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard; Jensen, Per Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for boiling carbon dioxide (R744) flowing in a horizontal pipe has been measured. The calculated heat transfer coeeficient has been compared with the Chart correlation of Shah. The Chart Correlation predits too low heat transfer coefficient but the ratio...... between the measured and the calculated heat transfer coefficient is nearly constant and equal 1.9. With this factor the correlation predicts the measured data within 14% (RMS). The pressure drop is of the same order as the measuring uncertainty and the pressure drop has not been compared with correlation's....

  18. Carbon Dioxide Mitigation by Microalgal Photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Mijeong Lee; Gillis, James M.; Hwang, Jiann Yang [Michigan Technological University, Houghton (United States)

    2003-12-15

    Algal growth studies of Chlorella strains were conducted in a batch mode with bench type experiments. Carbon dioxide fixation rates of the following green microalgae were determined: Chlorella sp. H84, Chlorella sp. A2, Chlorella sorokiniana UTEX 1230, Chlorella vulgaris, and Chlorella pyrenoidosa. C. vulgaris, among other strains of microalgae, showed the highest growth rate (1.17 optical density/5 days). Cultivating conditions for C. vulgaris that produced the highest growth rate were at concentrations of 243 μg CO{sub 2}/mL, 10 mM ammonia, and 1 mM phosphate, with an initial pH range of 7-8.

  19. Nuclear energy significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprda, V.

    2006-01-01

    This article is devoted to nuclear energy, to its acceptability, compatibility and sustainability. Nuclear energy is non-dispensable part of energy sources with vast innovation potential. The safety of nuclear energy, radioactive waste deposition, and prevention of risk from misuse of nuclear material have to be very seriously adjudged and solved. Nuclear energy is one of the ways how to decrease the contamination of atmosphere with carbon dioxide and it solves partially also the problem of global increase of temperature and climate changes. Given are the main factors responsible for the renaissance of nuclear energy. (author)

  20. The carbon dioxide capture and geological storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the carbon dioxide capture and geological storage. One possible means of climate change mitigation consists of storing the CO 2 generated by the greenhouse gases emission in order to stabilize atmospheric concentrations. This sheet presents the CO 2 capture from lage fossil-fueled combustion installations, the three capture techniques and the CO 2 transport options, the geological storage of the CO 2 and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  1. INTERACTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE WITH CARBON ADSORBENTS BELOW 400 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deitz, V R; Carpenter, F G; Arnold, R G

    1963-06-15

    The adsorption of carbon dioxide on carbon adsorbents (FT carbon, coconut charcoal, acid-washed bone char) and adsorbents containing basic calcium phosphate (hydroxylapatite, bone char, ash of bone char) was studied. Special consideration was given to the pretreatment of the materials. The carbons equilibrated as rapidly as the temperature; the basic calcium phosphates showed a rapid initial adsorption followed by a very slow rate which continued for days. Linear adsorption isotherms were found on FT carbon and the isosteric heats varied slightiy with coverage. The isotherms for the remaining materials had varying curvature and were for the most part in the same sequence as the estimated surface areas. The isosteric heats of carbon dioxide correlated very well with the magnitude of surface hydroxyl groups, an estimate of which was made from the chemical composition. There appeared to be three increasing levels of interaction: (1) pure physical adsorption; (2) an adsorption complex having 'bicarbonate structure'; and (3) an adsorption complex having 'carbonate structure'. (auth)

  2. Non-catalytic plasma-arc reforming of natural gas with carbon dioxide as the oxidizing agent for the production of synthesis gas or hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Blom, P.W.E.; Basson, G.W.

    2013-01-01

    The world’s energy consumption is increasing constantly due to the growing population of the world. The increasing energy consumption has a negative effect on the fossil fuel reserves of the world. Hydrogen has the potential to provide energy for all our needs by making use of fossil fuel such as natural gas and nuclear-based electricity. Hydrogen can be produced by reforming methane with carbon dioxide as the oxidizing agent. Hydrogen can be produced in a Plasma-arc reforming ...

  3. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide under plasma DBD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amouroux, Jacques; Cavadias, Simeon

    2017-01-01

    Carbon dioxide can be converted, by reaction with hydrogen, into fine chemicals and liquid fuels such as methanol and DME. Methane production by the Sabatier reaction opens the way of carbon recycling for a circular economy of carbon resources. The catalytic process of methanation of carbon dioxide produces two molecules of water as a by-product. A current limitation in the CO 2 methanation is the ageing of catalysts, mainly due to water adsorption during the process. To avoid this adsorption, the process is operated at high temperature (300 °C–400 °C), leading to carbon deposition on the catalyst and its deactivation. To overcome this problem, a methanation plasma-catalytic process has been developed, which achieves high CO 2 conversion rate (80%), and a selectivity close to 100%, working from room temperature to 150 °C, instead of 300 °C–400 °C for the thermal catalytic process. The main characteristics of this process are high-voltage pulses of few nanoseconds duration, activating the adsorption of CO 2 in bent configuration and the polarization of the catalyst. The key step in this process is the desorption of water from the polarized catalyst. The high CO 2 conversion at low temperature could be explained by the creation of a plasma inside the nanopores of the catalyst. (paper)

  4. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide under plasma DBD process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouroux, Jacques; Cavadias, Simeon

    2017-11-01

    Carbon dioxide can be converted, by reaction with hydrogen, into fine chemicals and liquid fuels such as methanol and DME. Methane production by the Sabatier reaction opens the way of carbon recycling for a circular economy of carbon resources. The catalytic process of methanation of carbon dioxide produces two molecules of water as a by-product. A current limitation in the CO2 methanation is the ageing of catalysts, mainly due to water adsorption during the process. To avoid this adsorption, the process is operated at high temperature (300 °C-400 °C), leading to carbon deposition on the catalyst and its deactivation. To overcome this problem, a methanation plasma-catalytic process has been developed, which achieves high CO2 conversion rate (80%), and a selectivity close to 100%, working from room temperature to 150 °C, instead of 300 °C-400 °C for the thermal catalytic process. The main characteristics of this process are high-voltage pulses of few nanoseconds duration, activating the adsorption of CO2 in bent configuration and the polarization of the catalyst. The key step in this process is the desorption of water from the polarized catalyst. The high CO2 conversion at low temperature could be explained by the creation of a plasma inside the nanopores of the catalyst.

  5. Minimizing emission of carbon dioxide in the coconut processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozada, Ernesto P.

    1998-01-01

    About 90% of the world's coconut production is made into copra. There are 2-3 million smoke kilns which are used by the coconut farmers for making copra. It is estimated that these kilns emit carbon dioxide from 247 to 366 gram of carbon per kg of copra produced. From the world copra production of 10 M tons, the total carbon released in copra making range is 2-3 Tg(telegram=10 12 grams) or 2-3M tons of carbon per year. To minimize carbon dioxide emission in copra making, kilns with better combustion characteristics and heat utilization efficiencies must be used. One of the most promising alternative dryers is a direct-fired, natural draft dryer known as the Los Banos (Lozada) Dryer. Developed at the University of the Philippines Los Banos, the dryer consist of a simple burner, a heat distributor and a drying bin. The burner combust coconut shell, corn cob, and wood pieces with extremely high efficiency thus minimizing fuel consumption and dramatically reducing the release of airborne pollutants. The resulting copra is practically smoke free. Tests have shown that carbon dioxide emissions from the Los Banos (Lozada) Dryer are about half of that released by the traditional smoke kilns. Furthermore, the dryer emits lower concentrations of CO (50 ppm vs 2000-3000 ppm), of NO x (5 ppm vs 400 ppm), and SO x (5 ppm vs 400 ppm). When used widely, significant reductions in the emissions of greenhouse and acid rain gases from biomass combustion will be attained. (About 500 units of the Los Banos (Lozada) Dryer are now in use in the Philippines and Papua New Guinea). (Author)

  6. Combined effect of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide gases on mold fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochurova, A.I.; Karpova, T.N.

    1974-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide at 0.08% killed Penicillium expansum, Stemphylium macrosporium, and Botrytis cinerea within 24 hours. At 0.2%, it killed P. citrinum, Alternaria tenuis, and Fusarium moniliforme. Sulfur dioxide (at 0.04%) and Sulfur dioxide-carbon dioxide mixtures (at 0.02 and 5% respectively) completely suppressed the growth of P. citrinum, P. expansum, P. rubrum, A. tenuis, S. macrosporium, B. cinerea, and F. moniliforme in laboratory experiments. 1 table.

  7. Hydrogen production by reforming of fossil and biomass fuels accompanied by carbon dioxide capture process is the energy source for the near future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboudheir, Ahmed; Idem, Raphael; Tontiwachwuthikul, Paitoon; Wilson, Malcolm; Kambietz, Lionel

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen has a significant future potential as an alternative energy source for the transportation sector as well as in residential homes and offices, H 2 in fuel cell power systems provides an alternative to direct fossil fuel and biomass combustion based technologies and offer the possibility for a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emission based on improved H 2 yield per unit of fossil fuel and biomass, compatibility with renewable energies and motivation to convert to a H 2 -based energy economy. Several practical techniques for H 2 production to service H 2 refuelling stations as well as homes and offices, all of which need to be located at the end of the energy distribution network, include: (1) the carbon dioxide reforming of natural gas; (2) reforming of gasoline; (3) reforming of crude ethanol. Locating the H 2 production at the end of the energy distribution network solves the well-known problems of metal fatigue and high cost of H 2 compression for long distance transportation if H 2 is produced in a large centralized plant. In addition, the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol and the need to reduce emissions of CO 2 to the atmosphere has prompted the capture and utilization of the CO 2 produced from the reforming process. In this research: (1) new efficient catalysts for each reforming process was developed; (2) a new efficient catalyst for our version of the water gas shift reaction to convert carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide was developed; (3) a new membrane separation process for production of high purity, fuel cell-grade H 2 was designed; (4) a numerical model for optimum process design and optimum utilization of resources both at the laboratory and industrial scales was developed; (5) various processes for CO 2 capture were investigated experimentally in order to achieve a net improvement in the absorption process; (6) the utilization of captured CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery and/or storage in an aging oil field were investigated; (7

  8. Effects of fuel and forest conservation on future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J C; Kasting, J F

    1992-01-01

    We develop a numerical simulation of the global biogeochemical cycles of carbon that works over time scales extending from years to millions of years. The ocean is represented by warm and cold shallow water reservoirs, a thermocline reservoir, and deep Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific reservoirs. The atmosphere is characterized by a single carbon reservoir and the global biota by a single biomass reservoir. The simulation includes the rock cycle, distinguishing between shelf carbonate and pelagic carbonate precipitation, with distinct lysocline depths in the three deep ocean reservoirs. Dissolution of pelagic carbonates in response to decrease in lysocline depth is included. The simulation is tuned to reproduce the observed radiocarbon record resulting from atomic weapon testing. It is tuned also to reproduce the distribution of dissolved phosphate and total dissolved carbon between the ocean reservoirs as well as the carbon isotope ratios for both 13C and 14C in ocean and atmosphere. The simulation reproduces reasonably well the historical record of carbon dioxide partial pressure as well as the atmospheric isotope ratios for 13C and 14C over the last 200 yr as these have changed in response to fossil fuel burning and land use changes, principally forest clearance. The agreements between observation and calculation involves the assumption of a carbon dioxide fertilization effect in which the rate of production of biomass increases with increasing carbon dioxide partial pressure. At present the fertilization effect of increased carbon dioxide outweighs the effects of forest clearance, so the biota comprises an overall sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide sufficiently large to bring the budget approximately into balance. This simulation is used to examine the future evolution of carbon dioxide and its sensitivity to assumptions about the rate of fossil fuel burning and of forest clearance. Over times extending up to thousands of years, the results are insensitive to the

  9. Studies on carbon dioxide power plant, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akagawa, Koji; Fujii, Terushige; Sakaguchi, Tadashi; Kawabata, Yasusuke; Kuroda, Toshihiro.

    1980-01-01

    A power generating plant using carbon dioxide instead of water has been studied by the authors, as high efficiency can be obtained in high temperature range (higher than 650 deg C) and turbines become compact as compared with the Rankine steam cycle. In this paper, the theoretical analysis of the dynamic characteristics of this small power generating plant of supercritical pressure and the comparison with the experimental results are reported. In the theoretical analysis, the linear approximation method using small variation method was adopted for solution. Every component was modeled as the concentrated constant system, and the transfer function for each component was determined, then simulation was carried out for the total system synthesizing these components. The approximation of physical values, and the analysis of a plunger pump, a regenerator, a heater, a vapor valve, a turbine and a blower, piping, and pressure drop are described. The response to the stepwise changes of heating, flow rate, opening of a vapor valve and a load control valve for a blower was investigated. The theoretical anaysis and the experimental results were in good agreement, and this analysis is applicable to the carbon dioxide plant of practical scale. (Kako, I.)

  10. Adaptation to carbon dioxide tax in shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Kristian

    2000-01-01

    This note discusses the consequences for the sea transport sector between Norway and continental Europe of levying a carbon dioxide tax on international bunker. The influence of such a tax on the operational costs of various types of ship and various transport routes is calculated. The profit obtainable from the following ways of adapting to an increased tax level is assessed: (1) Reducing the speed, (2) Rebuilding the engine to decrease fuel consumption, (3) Changing the design speed for new ships. It is found that a carbon dioxide tax of NOK 200 per tonne of CO 2 will increase the transport costs by 3 - 15 percent. In the long run much of this may be transferred to the freight rates since so much of the sea transport are in segments in which the demand for the service is not sensitive to the prices. Even if the freight rates are not changed, a tax this size will not make it necessary to reduce the speed of the existing fleet. The income lost by taking fewer trips will exceed the costs saved in reducing the speed. However, the optimum design speed for new ships may be somewhat reduced (0.5 knots). Rebuilding engines to reduce the fuel consumption would pay off were it not for the fact that the remaining life of the present fleet is probably too short for this to be interesting

  11. Improved glycerol production from cane molasses by the sulfite process with vacuum or continuous carbon dioxide sparging during fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalle, G.P.; Naik, S.C.; Lashkari, B.Z.

    1985-01-01

    The conventional sulfite process for glycerol production from molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. Hansen was modified to obtain product concentrations of up to 230 g/l and productivity of 15 g/l.d by fermenting under vacuum (80 mm) or with continuous sparging of CO2 (0.4 vvm). Under these conditions the requirement of sulfite for optimum production of glycerol was reduced by two thirds (20 g/l), the ethanol concentration in the medium was kept below 30 g/l and the competence of yeast cells to ferment was conserved throughout the fermentation period for up to 20 days. In addition to the above, the rate of incorporation of sulfite had a significant effect on glucose fermentation and glycerol yields. There was an optimal relationship between glycerol yields and the molar ratio of sulfite to glucose consumed, which for cane molasses was 0.67. This ratio was characteristic of the medium composition.

  12. The effect of cutting on carbon dioxide absorption and carbohydrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    grass) and Osteospermun sinuatum (Karoo-bush) plants during the flag leaf and flower bud stages respectively resulted in a sharp decline in net carbon dioxide absorption. As new photosynthetic material was produced the total carbon ...

  13. Robust optical carbon dioxide isotope analyzer, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Isotopic analysis of carbon dioxide is an important tool for characterization of the exchange and transformation of carbon between the biosphere and the atmosphere....

  14. Improved glycerol production from cane molasses by the sulfite process with vacuum or continuous carbon dioxide sparging during fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalle, G.P.; Naik, S.C.; Lashkari, B.Z.

    1985-01-01

    The conventional sulfite process for glycerol production from molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. Hansen was modified to obtain product concentrations of up to 230 g/l and productivity of 15 g/l x d by fermenting under vacuum (80 mm) or with continuous sparging of CO/sub 2/ (0.4 vvm). Under these conditions the requirement of sulfite for optimum production of glycerol was reduced by two thirds (20 g/l), the ethanol concentration in the medium was kept below 30 g/l and the competence of yeast cells to ferment was conserved throughout the fermentation period for up to 20 days. In addition to the above, the rate of incorporation of sulfite had a significant effect on glucose fermentation and glycerol yields. There was an optimal relationship between glycerol yields and the molar ratio of sulfite to glucose consumed, which for cane molasses was 0.67. This ratio was characteristic of the medium composition. 10 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  15. Ceria-based electrospun fibers for renewable fuel production via two-step thermal redox cycles for carbon dioxide splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, William T; Venstrom, Luke J; De Smith, Robert M; Davidson, Jane H; Jackson, Gregory S

    2014-07-21

    Zirconium-doped ceria (Ce(1-x)Zr(x)O2) was synthesized through a controlled electrospinning process as a promising approach to cost-effective, sinter-resistant material structures for high-temperature, solar-driven thermochemical redox cycles. To approximate a two-step redox cycle for solar fuel production, fibrous Ce(1-x)Zr(x)O2 with relatively low levels of Zr-doping (0 rates of O2 release during reduction and CO production during reoxidation and by assessing post-cycling fiber crystallite sizes and surface areas. Sintering increases with reduction temperature but occurs primarily along the fiber axes. Even after 108 redox cycles with reduction at 1400 °C and oxidation with CO2 at 800 °C, the fibers maintain their structure with surface areas of ∼0.3 m(2) g(-1), higher than those observed in the literature for other ceria-based structures operating at similarly high temperature conditions. Total CO production and peak production rate stabilize above 3.0 mL g(-1) and 13.0 mL min(-1) g(-1), respectively. The results show the potential for electrospun oxides as sinter-resistant material structures with adequate surface area to support rapid CO2 splitting in solar thermochemical redox cycles.

  16. Calcium looping process for high purity hydrogen production integrated with capture of carbon dioxide, sulfur and halides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Shwetha; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-07-30

    A process for producing hydrogen comprising the steps of: (i) gasifying a fuel into a raw synthesis gas comprising CO, hydrogen, steam, sulfur and halide contaminants in the form of H.sub.2S, COS, and HX, wherein X is a halide; (ii) passing the raw synthesis gas through a water gas shift reactor (WGSR) into which CaO and steam are injected, the CaO reacting with the shifted gas to remove CO.sub.2, sulfur and halides in a solid-phase calcium-containing product comprising CaCO.sub.3, CaS and CaX.sub.2; (iii) separating the solid-phase calcium-containing product from an enriched gaseous hydrogen product; and (iv) regenerating the CaO by calcining the solid-phase calcium-containing product at a condition selected from the group consisting of: in the presence of steam, in the presence of CO.sub.2, in the presence of synthesis gas, in the presence of H.sub.2 and O.sub.2, under partial vacuum, and combinations thereof.

  17. Selection of Sustainable Processes using Sustainability Footprint Method: A Case Study of Methanol Production from Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical products can be obtained by process pathways involving varying amounts and types of resources, utilities, and byproduct formation. When such competing process options such as six processes for making methanol as are considered in this study, it is necessary to identify t...

  18. Carbon Dioxide Production Responsibility on the Basis of comparing in Situ and mean CO2 Atmosphere Concentration Data

    OpenAIRE

    Mavrodiev, S. Cht.; Pekevski, L.; Vachev, B.

    2008-01-01

    The method is proposed for estimation of regional CO2 and other greenhouses and pollutants production responcibility. The comparison of CO2 local emissions reduction data with world CO2 atmosphere data will permit easy to judge for overall effect in curbing not only global warming but also chemical polution.

  19. Phytoremediation, a sustainable remediation technology? Conclusions from a case study. I: Energy production and carbon dioxide abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witters, N.; Mendelsohn, R.O.; Van Slycken, S.; Weyens, N.; Schreurs, E.; Meers, E.; Tack, F.; Carleer, R.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the renewable energy production of crops used for phytoremediation. Our analysis is based on a case study in the Campine region (Belgium and The Netherlands), where agricultural soils are diffusely contaminated with cadmium, lead, and zinc, with an enhanced risk for uptake of these metals in crops and leaching to the groundwater. However, the area has such a large extent (700 km 2 ) that conventional remediation is not applicable. Cultivation of crops for energy purposes on such land offers the opportunity to come up with an approach that efficiently uses contaminated agricultural land and that can be beneficial for both farmer and society. Performing a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), we examined the energy and CO 2 abatement potential of willow (Salix spp.), silage maize (Zea mays L.), and rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) originating from contaminated land. Taking into account the marginal impact of the metals in the biomass on the energy conversion efficiency and on the potential use of the biomass and its rest products after conversion, digestion of silage maize with combustion of the contaminated digestate shows the best energetic and CO 2 abating perspectives. The replacement of cokes based electricity by willow is more efficient in CO 2 abatement than willow used in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) unit, despite lower net energy production in the former option. Willow reaches the same energy production and same CO 2 abatement per hectare per year as silage maize when its biomass yield is respectively 13 and 8.7 Mg dm ha −1 y −1 . -- Highlights: ► We study the energy potential of Salix, Zea mays and Brassica after phytoremediation. ► The case study contains agricultural soils that are contaminated with cadmium. ► We include the impact of metals on energy conversion efficiency and rest product use. ► Higher biomass yields for Salix would make it energetically competitive with Z. mays.

  20. Hydrodynamic Controls on Carbon Dioxide Efflux from Inland Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, H. E.; Waldron, S.; Hoey, T.; Newton, J.; Quemin, S.

    2013-12-01

    Intensive research has been undertaken on carbon dioxide efflux from lakes, estuaries and oceans, but much less attention has been given to rivers and streams, especially lower order streams. River systems are often over-saturated with carbon dioxide and so tend to act as sources of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. It has been thought that rivers act as pipes carrying this terrestrial carbon to the oceans. However, recent studies have shown that a significant amount of the carbon is reprocessed within the system in a series of transformations and losses. Fluvial evasion of carbon dioxide is now recognised to be a significant component of carbon cycles, however the factors controlling carbon dioxide efflux and its magnitude remain poorly understood and quantified. This research aims to quantify, and better understand the controls on, freshwater carbon dioxide evasion. Data are presented here from field measurements that commenced in Sept 2013 in two contrasting Scottish rivers: the River Kelvin which has a large (335 km.sq) part-urban catchment with predominantly non-peat soils and Drumtee Water, a small (9.6 km.sq) rural catchment of peat soils and agricultural land. Using a floating chamber with the headspace connected to an infrared gas analyser to measure changes in carbon dioxide concentration, efflux rates from 0.22 - 47.4 μmol CO2/m.sq/sec were measured, these close to the middle of the range of previously reported values. At one site on the River Kelvin in May 2013 an influx of -0.61 - -3.53 μmol CO2/m.sq/sec was recorded. Whereas previous research finds carbon dioxide efflux to increase with decreasing river size and a more organic-rich soil catchment, here the controls on carbon dioxide evasion are similar across the contrasting catchments. Carbon dioxide evasion shows seasonality, with maximum fluxes in the summer months being up to twice as high as the winter maxima. Linear regression demonstrates that evasion increases with increased flow velocity

  1. Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide interaction with tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, V.D.; Ustinov, Yu.K.; Komar, A.P.

    1978-01-01

    The adsorption of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide on tantalum and the dissolution of these gases in the adsorbent at T >= 300 K have been studied. The flash-filament method (FFM) in a monopole mass-spectrometer and a field emission microscopy was used in the same apparatus. Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide dissociate on the tantalum surface, carbon monoxide being desorbed in both cases during the flash. The desorption curves of CO reveal three different binding states: two of them (α and β' 1 ) for the adsorbed particles whereas the high temperature desorption state relates to the adsorbate dissolved in the metal. For the β' 1 state of CO the activation energy, the pre-exponential factor and the kinetic order in the kinetic equation of desorption have been estimated. They turned out to be E = 110 kcal/mol, C = 3 X 10 12 sec -1 , and γ = 1. The activation energy of diffusion for CO in tantalum and the energy of outgassing for the metal were found to be 9.4 and 49 kcal/mole, respectively. (Auth.)

  2. Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide interaction with tantalum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belov, V D; USTINOV, YU K; KOMAR, A P [AN SSSR, LENINGRAD. FIZIKO-TEKHNICHESKIJ INST.

    1978-03-01

    The adsorption of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide on tantalum and the dissolution of these gases in the adsorbent at T >= 300 K have been studied. The flash-filament method (FFM) in a monopole mass-spectrometer and a field emission microscopy was used in the same apparatus. Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide dissociate on the tantalum surface, carbon monoxide being desorbed in both cases during the flash. The desorption curves of CO reveal three different binding states: two of them (..cap alpha.. and ..beta..'/sub 1/) for the adsorbed particles whereas the high temperature desorption state relates to the adsorbate dissolved in the metal. For the ..beta..'/sub 1/ state of CO the activation energy, the pre-exponential factor and the kinetic order in the kinetic equation of desorption have been estimated. They turned out to be E = 110 kcal/mol, C = 3 X 10/sup 12/ sec/sup -1/, and ..gamma.. = 1. The activation energy of diffusion for CO in tantalum and the energy of outgassing for the metal were found to be 9.4 and 49 kcal/mole, respectively.

  3. Biodiesel production by two-stage transesterification with ethanol by washing with neutral water and water saturated with carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendow, G; Veizaga, N S; Sánchez, B S; Querini, C A

    2012-08-01

    Industrial production of ethyl esters is impeded by difficulties in purifying the product due to high amounts of soap formed during transesterification. A simple biodiesel wash process was developed that allows successful purification of samples containing high amounts of soap. The key step was a first washing with neutral water, which removed the soaps without increasing the acidity or affecting the process yield. Afterward, the biodiesel was washed with water saturated with CO(2), a mild acid that neutralized the remaining soaps and extracted impurities. The acidity, free-glycerine, methanol and soaps concentrations were reduced to very low levels with high efficiency, and using non-corrosive acids. Independently of the initial acidity, it was possible to obtain biodiesel within EN14214 specifications. The process included the recovery of soaps by hydrolysis and esterification, making it possible to obtain the theoretical maximum amount of biodiesel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Flexible substrates as basis for photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob; Mikkelsen, Mette; Krebs, Frederik C

    2011-01-01

    A photocatalytic system for converting carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide was designed and constructed. The system relies on thin films of the photocatalyst prepared at low temperature using spray coating. We formulated inks based on the well-known photocatalyst titanium dioxide and characterized...

  5. Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming: A Failed Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is a current environmental issue that has been linked to an increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. To raise awareness of the problem, various simple experiments have been proposed to demonstrate the effect of carbon dioxide on the planet's temperature. This article describes a similar experiment, which…

  6. Effect of high pressurized carbon dioxide on Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon dioxide at high pressure can retard microbial growth and sometimes kill microorganisms depending on values of applied pressure, temperature and exposure time. In this study the effect of high pressurised carbon dioxide (HPCD) on Escherichia coli was investigated. Culture of E. coli was subjected to high ...

  7. Model studies of limitation of carbon dioxide emissions reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The report consists of two papers concerning mitigation of CO 2 emissions in Sweden, ''Limitation of carbon dioxide emissions. Socio-economic effects and the importance of international coordination'', and ''Model calculations for Sweden's energy system with carbon dioxide limitations''. Separate abstracts were prepared for both of the papers

  8. Balance and forecasts of french carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This paper strikes the balance of carbon dioxide emissions in France between 1986 and 1991 and gives forecasts till 2010. Since 1986, France has reduced its efforts for energy conservation and air pollution by carbon dioxide begins to growth again in connection with consumption growth in transport area, development of computer and simulation needs

  9. Renewable and high efficient syngas production from carbon dioxide and water through solar energy assisted electrolysis in eutectic molten salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongjun; Liu, Yue; Ji, Deqiang; Li, Zhida; Yi, Guanlin; Yuan, Dandan; Wang, Baohui; Zhang, Zhonghai; Wang, Peng

    2017-09-01

    Over-reliance on non-renewable fossil fuel leads to steadily increasing concentration of atmospheric CO2, which has been implicated as a critical factor contributing to global warming. The efficient conversion of CO2 into useful product is highly sought after both in academic and industry. Herein, a novel conversion strategy is proposed to one-step transform CO2/H2O into syngas (CO/H2) in molten salt with electrolysis method. All the energy consumption in this system are contributed from sustainable energy sources: concentrated solar light heats molten salt and solar cell supplies electricity for electrolysis. The eutectic Li0.85Na0.61K0.54CO3/nLiOH molten electrolyte is rationally designed with low melting point (<450 °C). The synthesized syngas contains very desirable content of H2 and CO, with tuneable molar ratios (H2/CO) from 0.6 to 7.8, and with an efficient faradaic efficiency of ∼94.5%. The synthesis of syngas from CO2 with renewable energy at a such low electrolytic temperature not only alleviates heat loss, mitigates system corrosion, and heightens operational safety, but also decreases the generation of methane, thus increases the yield of syngas, which is a remarkable technological breakthrough and this work thus represents a stride in sustainable conversion of CO2 to value-added product.

  10. Renewable and high efficient syngas production from carbon dioxide and water through solar energy assisted electrolysis in eutectic molten salts

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Hongjun

    2017-07-13

    Over-reliance on non-renewable fossil fuel leads to steadily increasing concentration of atmospheric CO2, which has been implicated as a critical factor contributing to global warming. The efficient conversion of CO2 into useful product is highly sought after both in academic and industry. Herein, a novel conversion strategy is proposed to one-step transform CO2/H2O into syngas (CO/H2) in molten salt with electrolysis method. All the energy consumption in this system are contributed from sustainable energy sources: concentrated solar light heats molten salt and solar cell supplies electricity for electrolysis. The eutectic Li0.85Na0.61K0.54CO3/nLiOH molten electrolyte is rationally designed with low melting point (<450 °C). The synthesized syngas contains very desirable content of H2 and CO, with tuneable molar ratios (H2/CO) from 0.6 to 7.8, and with an efficient faradaic efficiency of ∼94.5%. The synthesis of syngas from CO2 with renewable energy at a such low electrolytic temperature not only alleviates heat loss, mitigates system corrosion, and heightens operational safety, but also decreases the generation of methane, thus increases the yield of syngas, which is a remarkable technological breakthrough and this work thus represents a stride in sustainable conversion of CO2 to value-added product.

  11. Adverse effects of the automotive industry on carbon dioxide emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpho Bosupeng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effects of the automotive industry on carbon dioxide emissions for the period from 1997 to 2010 for diverse economies, as well as the relationships between carbon dioxide discharges and output. The study applies cointegration and causality tests to validate these associations. The results of the Johansen cointegration test depict long-run associations between the quantity of passenger cars and carbon dioxide emissions in France, Sweden, Spain, Hungary and Japan. In addition, significant relations were observed between output and carbon dioxide discharges in Spain, Canada, India and Japan. Changes in output had substantial impact on emissions in Germany, Canada and India. The results also show that the number of passenger cars influences the magnitude of emissions in multiple economies. In conclusion, the automotive industry has to be considered in policies that aim to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

  12. Carbon dioxide from fossil fuels: adapting to uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, K; Winter, R C; Bergman, M K

    1980-12-01

    If present scientific information is reasonable, the world is likely to experience noticeable global warming by the beginning of the next century if high annual growth rates of fossil-fuel energy use continue. Only with optimistic assumptions and low growth rates will carbon-dioxide-induced temperature increases be held below 2/sup 0/C or so over the next century. Conservation, flexible energy choices, and control options could lessen the potential effects of carbon dioxide. Though perhaps impractical from the standpoint of costs and efficiency losses, large coastal centralized facilities would be the most amenable to carbon dioxide control and disposal. Yet no country can control carbon dioxide levels unilaterally. The USA, however, which currently contributes over a quarter of all fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions and possesses a quarter of the world's coal resources, could provide a much needed role in leadership, research and education. 70 references.

  13. Carbon dioxide stripping in aquaculture. part 1: terminology and reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colt, John; Watten, Barnaby; Pfeiffer, Tim

    2012-01-01

    The removal of carbon dioxide gas in aquacultural systems is much more complex than for oxygen or nitrogen gas because of liquid reactions of carbon dioxide and their kinetics. Almost all published carbon dioxide removal information for aquaculture is based on the apparent removal value after the CO2(aq) + HOH ⇔ H2CO3 reaction has reached equilibrium. The true carbon dioxide removal is larger than the apparent value, especially for high alkalinities and seawater. For low alkalinity freshwaters (<2000 μeq/kg), the difference between the true and apparent removal is small and can be ignored for many applications. Analytical and reporting standards are recommended to improve our understanding of carbon dioxide removal.

  14. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Robert James [Niskayuna, NY; Lewis, Larry Neil [Scotia, NY; O'Brien, Michael Joseph [Clifton Park, NY; Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev [Latham, NY; Kniajanski, Sergei [Clifton Park, NY; Lam, Tunchiao Hubert [Clifton Park, NY; Lee, Julia Lam [Niskayuna, NY; Rubinsztajn, Malgorzata Iwona [Ballston Spa, NY

    2011-10-04

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides an amino-siloxane composition comprising at least one of structures I, II, III, IV or V said compositions being useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from gas streams such as power plant flue gases. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane compositions are provided. Also provided are methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide. The reaction of the amino-siloxane compositions provided by the present invention with carbon dioxide is reversible and thus, the method provides for multicycle use of said compositions.

  15. Carbon Dioxide Detection and Indoor Air Quality Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, Steve

    2016-04-01

    When building ventilation is reduced, energy is saved because it is not necessary to heat or cool as much outside air. Reduced ventilation can result in higher levels of carbon dioxide, which may cause building occupants to experience symptoms. Heating or cooling for ventilation air can be enhanced by a DCV system, which can save energy while providing a comfortable environment. Carbon dioxide concentrations within a building are often used to indicate whether adequate fresh air is being supplied to the building. These DCV systems use carbon dioxide sensors in each space or in the return air and adjust the ventilation based on carbon dioxide concentration; the higher the concentration, the more people occupy the space relative to the ventilation rate. With a carbon dioxide sensor DCV system, the fresh air ventilation rate varies based on the number ofpeople in the space, saving energy while maintaining a safe and comfortable environment.

  16. Difficult colonoscopy: air, carbon dioxide, or water insufflation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubal, Alisha; Pandey, Vikas; Patel, Ruchir; Poddar, Prateik; Phadke, Aniruddha; Ingle, Meghraj; Sawant, Prabha

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to compare tolerance to air, carbon dioxide, or water insufflation in patients with anticipated difficult colonoscopy (young, thin, obese individuals, and patients with prior abdominal surgery or irradiation). Patients with body mass index (BMI) less than 18 kg/m 2 or more than 30 kg/m 2 , or who had undergone previous abdominal or pelvic surgeries were randomized to air, carbon dioxide, or water insufflation during colonoscopy. The primary endpoint was cecal intubation with mild pain (less than 5 on visual analogue scale [VAS]), without use of sedation. The primary end point was achieved in 32.7%, 43.8%, and 84.9% of cases with air, carbon dioxide and water insufflation ( P carbon dioxide, and water insufflation ( P carbon dioxide for pain tolerance. This was seen in the subgroups with BMI 30 kg/m 2 .

  17. New technology for carbon dioxide at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassina, Bazaze; Raouf, Zehioua; Menial, A. H.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon dioxide has long been the nemesis of environmentalists because of its role in global warming, but under just the right conditions-namely, high pressure and high temperature its one of nature's best and most environmentally benign solvents. Decaf-coffee lovers, for instance, benefit from its ability to remove caffeine from coffee beans.During the last few years, carbon dioxide has also made inroads in the dry-cleaning industry, providing a safe cleaning alternative to the chemical perchloroethylene. But it's on the high-tech front that carbon dioxide may make its biggest impact. T here are huge opportunities. Scientists have known for more than a century that at 75 times atmospheric pressure and 31 degree centigrade, carbon dioxide goes into and odd state that chemists called s upercritical . What's interesting to industry is that supercritical carbon dioxide may be an enabling technology for going to smaller dimensions.(Author)

  18. The carbon-nitrogen balance of the nodule and its regulation under elevated carbon dioxide concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libault, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Legumes have developed a unique way to interact with bacteria: in addition to preventing infection from pathogenic bacteria like any other plant, legumes also developed a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with one gender of soil bacteria: rhizobium. This interaction leads to the development of a new root organ, the nodule, where the differentiated bacteria fix for the plant the atmospheric dinitrogen (atmN2). In exchange, the symbiont will benefit from a permanent source of carbon compounds, products of the photosynthesis. The substantial amounts of fixed carbon dioxide dedicated to the symbiont imposed to the plant a tight regulation of the nodulation process to balance carbon and nitrogen incomes and outcomes. Climate change including the increase of the concentration of the atmospheric carbon dioxide is going to modify the rates of plant photosynthesis, the balance between nitrogen and carbon, and, as a consequence, the regulatory mechanisms of the nodulation process. This review focuses on the regulatory mechanisms controlling carbon/nitrogen balances in the context of legume nodulation and discusses how the change in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration could affect nodulation efficiency.

  19. Carbon dioxide utilization in a microalga-based biorefinery: Efficiency of carbon removal and economic performance under carbon taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesberg, Igor Lapenda; Brigagão, George Victor; de Medeiros, José Luiz; de Queiroz Fernandes Araújo, Ofélia

    2017-12-01

    Coal-fired power plants are major stationary sources of carbon dioxide and environmental constraints demand technologies for abatement. Although Carbon Capture and Storage is the most mature route, it poses severe economic penalty to power generation. Alternatively, this penalty is potentially reduced by Carbon Capture and Utilization, which converts carbon dioxide to valuable products, monetizing it. This work evaluates a route consisting of carbon dioxide bio-capture by Chlorella pyrenoidosa and use of the resulting biomass as feedstock to a microalgae-based biorefinery; Carbon Capture and Storage route is evaluated as a reference technology. The integrated arrangement comprises: (a) carbon dioxide biocapture in a photobioreactor, (b) oil extraction from part of the produced biomass, (b) gasification of remaining biomass to obtain bio-syngas, and (c) conversion of bio-syngas to methanol. Calculation of capital and operational expenditures are estimated based on mass and energy balances obtained by process simulation for both routes (Carbon Capture and Storage and the biorefinery). Capital expenditure for the biorefinery is higher by a factor of 6.7, while operational expenditure is lower by a factor of 0.45 and revenues occur only for this route, with a ratio revenue/operational expenditure of 1.6. The photobioreactor is responsible for one fifth of the biorefinery capital expenditure, with footprint of about 1000 ha, posing the most significant barrier for technical and economic feasibility of the proposed biorefinery. The Biorefinery and Carbon Capture and Storage routes show carbon dioxide capture efficiency of 73% and 48%, respectively, with capture cost of 139$/t and 304$/t. Additionally, the biorefinery has superior performance in all evaluated metrics of environmental impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fixation of carbon dioxide by coral reef. Sangosho ni yoru CO2 no kotei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamuro, M [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-08-01

    The methods for fixation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere in order to control the greenhouse effect, are groped. Carbon is fixed through two ways such as the production of organic compounds by photosynthesis and formation of calcium carbonate by calcification. Among them, the photosynthesis fixes carbon dioxide in the air, and calcification, on thinking of only chemical equilibrium in the sea water, is a process to exhaust carbon dioxide from ocean to the atmosphere. It is, therefore, uneven in opinions of researchers if the coral reef is an absorbing source or an exhausting one of carbon dioxide. A conventional discussion on this theme, did not carry out based on the actual search or measurement, but preceded on modelling. In order, therefore, to introduce a scientific decision on a play of the coral reef for the global carbon circulation, it seems to take more time. In this paper, an opinion that the coral reef is an absorbing source of carbon dioxide in the air according to some measuring results of carbon dioxide fixation velocity and organic compounds volume in sediments in the coral reefs, are described. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Carbon dioxide emission from bamboo culms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, E J; Sabulal, B; Nair, D N K; Johnson, A J; Kumar, C S P

    2016-05-01

    Bamboos are one of the fastest growing plants on Earth, and are widely considered to have high ability to capture and sequester atmospheric carbon, and consequently to mitigate climate change. We tested this hypothesis by measuring carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions from bamboo culms and comparing them with their biomass sequestration potential. We analysed diurnal effluxes from Bambusa vulgaris culm surface and gas mixtures inside hollow sections of various bamboos using gas chromatography. Corresponding variations in gas pressure inside the bamboo section and culm surface temperature were measured. SEM micrographs of rhizome and bud portions of bamboo culms were also recorded. We found very high CO2 effluxes from culm surface, nodes and buds of bamboos. Positive gas pressure and very high concentrations of CO2 were observed inside hollow sections of bamboos. The CO2 effluxes observed from bamboos were very high compared to their carbon sequestration potential. Our measurements suggest that bamboos are net emitters of CO2 during their lifespan. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  2. Systematic framework for carbon dioxide capture and utilization processes to reduce the global carbon dioxide emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Plaza, Cristina Calvera; Gani, Rafiqul

    information-data on various carbon dioxide emission sources and available capture-utilization technologies; the model and solution libraries [2]; and the generic 3-stage approach for determining more sustainable solutions [3] through superstructure (processing networks) based optimization – adopted for global...... need to provide, amongst other options: useful data from in-house databases on carbon dioxide emission sources; mathematical models from a library of process-property models; numerical solvers from library of implemented solvers; and, work-flows and data-flows for different benefit scenarios...... to be investigated. It is useful to start by developing a prototype framework and then augmenting its application range by increasing the contents of its databases, libraries and work-flows and data-flows. The objective is to present such a prototype framework with its implemented database containing collected...

  3. Carbon dioxide enrichment: a technique to mitigate the negative effects of salinity on the productivity of high value tomatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-González, M. J.; Sánchez-Guerrero, M.C.; Medrano, E.; Porras, M.E.; Baeza, E.J.; Lorenzo, P.

    2016-11-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the mitigating influence of greenhouse CO2 enrichment on the negative effects of salinity in Mediterranean conditions. Hybrid Raf (cv. Delizia) tomato plants were exposed to two salinity levels of the nutrient solution (5 and 7 dS/m) obtained by adding NaCl, and two CO2 concentrations (350 and 800 μmol/mol) in which CO2 enrichment was applied during the daytime according to a strategy linked to ventilation. Increasing water salinity negatively affected the leaf area index (LAI), the specific leaf area (SLA), the water use efficiency (WUE), the radiation use efficiency (RUE) and dry weight (DW) accumulation resulting in lower marketable yield. The high salinity treatment (7 dS/m) increased fruit firmness (N), total soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA), whereas pH was reduced in the three ripening stages: mature green/breaker (G), turning (T), and pink/light red (P). Also, the increase in electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution led to a general change in intensity of the sensory characteristics of tomato fruits. On the other hand, CO2 enrichment did not affect LAI although SLA was reduced. RUE and DW accumulation were increased resulting in higher marketable yield, through positive effects on fruit number and their average weight. WUE was enhanced by CO2 supply mainly through increased growth and yield. Physical-chemical quality parameters such as fruit firmness, TA and pH were not affected by CO2 enrichment whereas SSC was enhanced. Greenhouse CO2 enrichment did mitigate the negative effect of saline conditions on productivity without compromising organoleptic and sensory fruit quality. (Author)

  4. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-08-01

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library are being sampled to collect CO{sub 2} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples have been acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log has been acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 4.62 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 19 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 86 scf/ton in the Lower Huron Member of the shale. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  5. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-01-01

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  6. Production of 13C by chemical exchange reaction between amine carbamate and carbon dioxide in a solvent-carrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghate, M.R.; Taylor, T.I.

    1975-01-01

    The chemical exchange reaction between amine carbamate and CO 2 has been investigated for the purpose of using it as a practical method to concentrate 13 C. The effects of solvent, concentration of amines, catalysts, flow rate, and diameter of the column have been studied for a number of amines. Of the solutions studied, di-n-butylamine (DNBA) in triethylamine (TEA) as a solvent proved to be the most favorable for use in the preparation of highly enriched 13 C. The overall separations obtained as a function of the concentration of DNBA using 2.5 cm i.d. x 100 cm column ranged from 2.05 at 1 M to 1.69 at 2.84 M. For 2 M DNBA the maximum separation was 1.94. At this concentration of DNBA the overall separation as a function of flow rate ranged from 1.94 at 0.845 ml/cm 2 -min to 1.31 at 2.9 ml/cm 2 -min. Neither the rate of exchange nor the overall separations were improved by use of catalysts. Increasing the diameter twofold resulted in little or no loss in overall separations. On the basis of the properties of the system and the data obtained with respect to the above variables, design calculations were made for a six-stage tapered cascade. These calculations were based on a flow of 40 ml/min of 2 M DNBA in TEA, giving a maximum transport of 7.1 x 10 -3 mmole/min or a maximum production rate of 130 mg 13 C/day. The cascade was operated for about 5 months during which period gram quantities of 67 percent 13 C were produced

  7. Miniaturized remission sensor for carbon dioxide detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martan, T; Will, M

    2010-01-01

    Recently, optical sensors for detection of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) have been explored for variety of applications in chemistry, industry, and medicine. This paper deals with the development of a planar optical remission sensor employing a dye immobilized in a polymer layer designed for gaseous CO 2 detection. The principle of CO 2 detection was based on colour changes of Tetraethylammonium Cresol red immobilized in a special composed polymer layer that was irradiated by LED diodes. Absorption properties of the dye were changed due to its chemical reaction with CO 2 and corresponding colour changes were detected by PIN diodes. These changes were analyzed by using a PC-controlled board connected by USB. The sensitivity, response time, and the detection limit of the remission sensor were characterized.

  8. Carbon dioxide: Global warning for nephrologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Marco; D'Amato, Anna; Cantone, Alessandra

    2016-09-06

    The large prevalence of respiratory acid-base disorders overlapping metabolic acidosis in hemodialysis population should prompt nephrologists to deal with the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) complying with the reduced bicarbonate concentration. What the most suitable formula to compute pCO2 is reviewed. Then, the neglected issue of CO2 content in the dialysis fluid is under the spotlight. In fact, a considerable amount of CO2 comes to patients' bloodstream every hemodialysis treatment and "acidosis by dialysate" may occur if lungs do not properly clear away this burden of CO2. Moreover, vascular access recirculation may be easy diagnosed by detecting CO2 in the arterial line of extracorporeal circuit if CO2-enriched blood from the filter reenters arterial needle.

  9. Carbon dioxide removal with inorganic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.; Fain, D.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere has sparked a great deal of interest in the removal of CO{sub 2} from flue gases of fossil fueled plants. Presently, several techniques for the removal of CO{sub 2} are considered to have potential, but are lacking in practicality. For example, amine scrubbing of flue gas streams is potential, but are lacking in practically. For example, amine scrubbing of flue gas streams is effective in removing CO{sub 2}, but costs are high; efficiency suffers; and other acid gases must be removed prior to amine stripping. Membrane systems for CO{sub 2} removal are held in high regard, and inorganic, particularly ceramic, membranes offer the potential for high temperature, thus energy saving, removal.

  10. Heat transfer coeffcient for boiling carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard; Jensen, Per Henrik

    1997-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for boiling carbon dioxide (R744) flowing in a horizontal pipe has been measured. The pipe is heated by condensing R22 outside the pipe. The heat input is supplied by an electrical heater wich evaporates the R22. With the heat flux assumed constant over...... the whole surface and with measured temperature difference between the inner surface and the evaporation temperature a mean heat transfer coefficient is calculated. The calculated heat transfer coefficient has been compared with the Chart Correlation of Shah. The Chart Correlation predicts too low heat...... transfer coefficient but the ratio between the measured and the calculated heat transfer coefficient is nearly constant and equal 1.9. With this factor the correlation predicts the measured data within 14% (RMS). The pressure drop is of the same order as the measuring uncertainty and the pressure drop has...

  11. Carbon Dioxide in Arable Soil Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngoni; Plauborg, Finn; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    2014-01-01

    on the comparability of results obtained using different methods is limited. We therefore aimed to compare the dynamics in soil CO2 concentrations obtained from an automated system (GMP343 sensors) to those from a manually operated measurement system (i.e., soil gas sampled using stainless steel needles and rods......Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in arable soil profiles are influenced by autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration as well as soil physical properties that regulate gas transport. Whereas different methods have been used to assess dynamics of soil CO2 concentrations, our understanding...... systems. Within the measurement range for the GMP343 sensors (0-20,000 ppm), mean results from the two systems were similar within the plough layer at the upslope (P = 0.060) and footslope (P = 0.139) position, and also below the plough layer at the upslope position (P = 0.795). However, results from...

  12. Coiled tubing drilling with supercritical carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolle , Jack J.

    2002-01-01

    A method for increasing the efficiency of drilling operations by using a drilling fluid material that exists as supercritical fluid or a dense gas at temperature and pressure conditions existing at a drill site. The material can be used to reduce mechanical drilling forces, to remove cuttings, or to jet erode a substrate. In one embodiment, carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) is used as the material for drilling within wells in the earth, where the normal temperature and pressure conditions cause CO.sub.2 to exist as a supercritical fluid. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) is preferably used with coiled tube (CT) drilling equipment. The very low viscosity SC--CO.sub.2 provides efficient cooling of the drill head, and efficient cuttings removal. Further, the diffusivity of SC--CO.sub.2 within the pores of petroleum formations is significantly higher than that of water, making jet erosion using SC--CO.sub.2 much more effective than water jet erosion. SC--CO.sub.2 jets can be used to assist mechanical drilling, for erosion drilling, or for scale removal. A choke manifold at the well head or mud cap drilling equipment can be used to control the pressure within the borehole, to ensure that the temperature and pressure conditions necessary for CO.sub.2 to exist as either a supercritical fluid or a dense gas occur at the drill site. Spent CO.sub.2 can be vented to the atmosphere, collected for reuse, or directed into the formation to aid in the recovery of petroleum.

  13. Carbon Dioxide Mitigation Benefit of High-Speed Railway in Terms of Carbon Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yanbing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper calculates the carbon dioxide mitigation benefit of high-speed railway based on the carbon dioxide tax policy. We define the carbon dioxide emission system boundary for high-speed railway in its whole life cycle and estimate the life cycle carbon dioxide inventories during its construction, application, and recovery stages. And then we establish a theoretical model to calculate the life cycle carbon dioxide mitigation quantity for high-speed railway when compared with road transport and then calculate its carbon dioxide mitigation benefit. The numerical example shows that the carbon dioxide mitigation benefit of high-speed railway is better than that of road transport from the whole life cycle perspective.

  14. A carbon dioxide stripping model for mammalian cell culture in manufacturing scale bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zizhuo; Lewis, Amanda M; Borys, Michael C; Li, Zheng Jian

    2017-06-01

    Control of carbon dioxide within the optimum range is important in mammalian bioprocesses at the manufacturing scale in order to ensure robust cell growth, high protein yields, and consistent quality attributes. The majority of bioprocess development work is done in laboratory bioreactors, in which carbon dioxide levels are more easily controlled. Some challenges in carbon dioxide control can present themselves when cell culture processes are scaled up, because carbon dioxide accumulation is a common feature due to longer gas-residence time of mammalian cell culture in large scale bioreactors. A carbon dioxide stripping model can be used to better understand and optimize parameters that are critical to cell culture processes at the manufacturing scale. The prevailing carbon dioxide stripping models in literature depend on mass transfer coefficients and were applicable to cell culture processes with low cell density or at stationary/cell death phase. However, it was reported that gas bubbles are saturated with carbon dioxide before leaving the culture, which makes carbon dioxide stripping no longer depend on a mass transfer coefficient in the new generation cell culture processes characterized by longer exponential growth phase, higher peak viable cell densities, and higher specific production rate. Here, we present a new carbon dioxide stripping model for manufacturing scale bioreactors, which is independent of carbon dioxide mass transfer coefficient, but takes into account the gas-residence time and gas CO 2 saturation time. The model was verified by CHO cell culture processes with different peak viable cell densities (7 to 12 × 10 6  cells mL -1 ) for two products in 5,000-L and 25,000-L bioreactors. The model was also applied to a next generation cell culture process to optimize cell culture conditions and reduce carbon dioxide levels at manufacturing scale. The model provides a useful tool to understand and better control cell culture carbon dioxide

  15. Basic aspects of the carbon dioxide corrosion in oil and gas production; Aspectos basicos de la corrosion por dioxido de carbono en la produccion de petroleo y gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angulo Macias, J.

    2010-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is a non-corrosive gas within the driven conditions in the oil and gas industry, but the presence of water converts it, maybe, in the most important component in the corrosive processes in this industry. Corrosion has an important impact inside the oil and gas companies, no only in economics but also in safety, environmental and social aspects. After several decades of investigation of these corrosion processes, there are still several mechanisms not fully understood. (Author) 19 refs.

  16. Intraosseous Venography with Carbon Dioxide in Percutaneous Vertebroplasty: Carbon Dioxide Retention in Renal Veins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komemushi, Atsushi; Tanigawa, Noboru; Kariya, Shuji; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Shomura, Yuzo; Tokuda, Takanori; Nomura, Motoo; Terada, Jiro; Kamata, Minoru; Sawada, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of gas retention in the renal vein following carbon dioxide intraosseous venography in the prone position and, while citing references, to examine its onset mechanisms. All percutaneous vertebroplasties performed at our hospital from January to December 2005 were registered and retrospectively analyzed. Of 43 registered procedures treating 79 vertebrae, 28 procedures treating 54 vertebrae were analyzed. Vertebral intraosseous venography was performed using carbon dioxide as a contrast agent in all percutaneous vertebroplasty procedures. In preoperative and postoperative vertebral CT, gas retention in the renal vein and other areas was assessed. Preoperative CT did not show gas retention (0/28 procedures; 0%). Postoperative CT confirmed gas retention in the renal vein in 10 of the 28 procedures (35.7%). Gas retention was seen in the right renal vein in 8 procedures (28.6%), in the left renal vein in 5 procedures (17.9%), in the left and right renal veins in 3 procedures (10.7%), in vertebrae in 22 procedures (78.6%), in the soft tissue around vertebrae in 14 procedures (50.0%), in the spinal canal in 12 procedures (42.9%), and in the subcutaneous tissue in 5 procedures (17.9%). In conclusion, in our study, carbon dioxide gas injected into the vertebra frequently reached and remained in the renal vein.

  17. Amazon River carbon dioxide outgassing fuelled by wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abril, G.; Martinez, J.M.; Artigas, L.F.; Moreira-Turcq, P.; Benedetti, M.F.; Vidal, L.; Meziane, T.; Kim, J.-H.; Bernardes, M.C.; Savoye, N.; Deborde, J.; Souza, E.L.; Alberic, P.; de Souza, M.F.L.; Roland, F.

    2014-01-01

    River systems connect the terrestrial biosphere, the atmosphere and the ocean in the global carbon cycle(1). A recent estimate suggests that up to 3 petagrams of carbon per year could be emitted as carbon dioxide (CO2) from global inland waters, offsetting the carbon uptake by terrestrial

  18. The causal nexus between carbon dioxide emissions and agricultural ecosystem-an econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel; Owusu, Phebe Asantewaa

    2017-01-01

    Achieving a long-term food security and preventing hunger include a better nutrition through sustainable systems of production, distribution, and consumption. Nonetheless, the quest for an alternative to increasing global food supply to meet the growing demand has led to the use of poor agricultural practices that promote climate change. Given the contribution of the agricultural ecosystem towards greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, this study investigated the causal nexus between carbon dioxide emissions and agricultural ecosystem by employing a data spanning from 1961 to 2012. Evidence from long-run elasticity shows that a 1 % increase in the area of rice paddy harvested will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 1.49 %, a 1 % increase in biomass-burned crop residues will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 1.00 %, a 1 % increase in cereal production will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 1.38 %, and a 1 % increase in agricultural machinery will decrease carbon dioxide emissions by 0.09 % in the long run. There was a bidirectional causality between carbon dioxide emissions, cereal production, and biomass-burned crop residues. The Granger causality shows that the agricultural ecosystem in Ghana is sensitive to climate change vulnerability.

  19. Carbon dioxide and water vapor high temperature electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Verostko, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    The design, fabrication, breadboard testing, and the data base obtained for solid oxide electrolysis systems that have applications for planetary manned missions and habitats are reviewed. The breadboard tested contains sixteen tubular cells in a closely packed bundle for the electrolysis of carbon dioxide and water vapor. The discussion covers energy requirements, volume, weight, and operational characteristics related to the measurement of the reactant and product gas compositions, temperature distribution along the electrolyzer tubular cells and through the bundle, and thermal energy losses. The reliability of individual cell performance in the bundle configuration is assessed.

  20. Air-sea exchange of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, D C.E.; De Baar, H J.W.; De Jong, E; Koning, F A [Netherlands Institute for Sea Research NIOZ, Den Burg Texel (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    The greenhouse gas carbon dioxide is emitted by anthropogenic activities. The oceans presumably serve as a net sink for 17 to 39% of these emissions. The objective of this project is to quantify more accurately the locality, seasonality and magnitude of the net air-sea flux of CO2 with emphasis on the South Atlantic Ocean. In situ measurements of the fugacity of CO2 in surface water and marine air, of total dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity and of air-sea exchange of CO2 have been made at four Atlantic crossings, in the Southern Ocean, in a Norwegian fjord and in the Dutch coastal zone. Skin temperature was detected during several of the cruises. The data collected in the course of the project support and refine previous findings. Variability of dissolved CO2 in surface water is related in a complex way to biological and physical factors. The carbonate equilibria cause dissolved gaseous CO2 to react in an intricate manner to disturbances. Dissolved gaseous CO2 hardly ever attains equilibrium with the atmospheric CO2 content by means of air-sea exchange, before a new disturbance occurs. Surface water fCO2 changes could be separated in those caused by seasonal warming and those by biological uptake in a Southern Ocean spring. Incorporation of a thermal skin effect and a change of the wind speed interval strongly increased the small net oceanic uptake for the area. The Atlantic crossings point to a relationship between water mass history and surface water CO2 characteristics. In particular, current flow and related heat fluxes leave their imprint on the concentration dissolved gaseous CO2 and on air-sea exchange. In the Dutch coastal zone hydrography and inorganic carbon characteristics of the water were heterogeneous, which yielded variable air-sea exchange of CO2. figs., tabs., refs.

  1. Sequestering carbon dioxide in industrial polymers: Building materials for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molton, P.M.; Nelson, D.A.

    1993-06-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the possibility of developing beneficial uses for carbon dioxide as a key component for a large-volume building product. Such a use may provide an alternative to storing the gas in oceanic sinks or clathrates as a way to slow the rate of global warming. The authors investigated the concept that carbon dioxide might be used with other chemicals to make carbon-dioxide-based polymers which would be lightweight, strong, and economical alternatives to some types of wood and silica-based building materials. As a construction-grade material, carbon dioxide would be fixed in a solid, useful form where it would not contribute to global warming. With the probable imposition of a fuel carbon tax in industrialized countries, this alternative would allow beneficial use of the carbon dioxide and could remove it from the tax basis if legislation were structured appropriately. Hence, there would be an economic driver towards the use of carbon-dioxide-based polymers which would enhance their future applications. Information was obtained through literature searches and personal contacts on carbon dioxide polymers which showed that the concept (1) is technically feasible, (2) is economically defensible, and (3) has an existing industrial infrastructure which could logically develop it. The technology exists for production of building materials which are strong enough for use by industry and which contain up to 90% by weight of carbon dioxide, both chemically and physically bound. A significant side-benefit of using this material would be that it is self-extinguishing in case of fire. This report is the first stage in the investigation. Further work being proposed will provide details on costs, specific applications and volumes, and potential impacts of this technology.

  2. The radiolysis of simple gas mixtures—I. Rates of production and destruction of methane in mixtures with carbon dioxide as a major constituent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Alan; Moorse, Graham E.

    Carbon dioxide based gas mixtures, similar to those used as coolants in the Advanced Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactors have been radiolysed at the comparatively low dose rate of 3Gy s -1 using y-radiation from a 60Co source. The variation in the methane concentration (initially in the range 60-70 volume parts per million) with dose, temperature, pressure and gas composition was determined. The gas mixtures were radiolysed in sealed stainless steel capsules and it was found that for a wide range of conditions a steady-state methane concentration was obtained irrespective of the initial methane content of the gas mixture. Packing the irradiation vessel with mild steel, stainless steel or graphite demonstrated that heterogeneous processes played a significant role in the reaction scheme. A mechanism involving the deposition of reactive carbon on surface is outlined.

  3. Modeling and calculation of open carbon dioxide refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yufei; Zhu, Chunling; Jiang, Yanlong; Shi, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A model of open refrigeration system is developed. • The state of CO 2 has great effect on Refrigeration capacity loss by heat transfer. • Refrigeration capacity loss by remaining CO 2 has little relation to the state of CO 2 . • Calculation results are in agreement with the test results. - Abstract: Based on the analysis of the properties of carbon dioxide, an open carbon dioxide refrigeration system is proposed, which is responsible for the situation without external electricity unit. A model of open refrigeration system is developed, and the relationship between the storage environment of carbon dioxide and refrigeration capacity is conducted. Meanwhile, a test platform is developed to simulation the performance of the open carbon dioxide refrigeration system. By comparing the theoretical calculations and the experimental results, several conclusions are obtained as follows: refrigeration capacity loss by heat transfer in supercritical state is much more than that in two-phase region and the refrigeration capacity loss by remaining carbon dioxide has little relation to the state of carbon dioxide. The results will be helpful to the use of open carbon dioxide refrigeration

  4. Forest management techniques for carbon dioxide storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimori, Takao [Forestry and Forest Products Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    In the global ecosystem concerning carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere, the forest ecosystem plays an important role. In effect, the ratio of forest biomass to total terrestrial biomass is about 90%, and the ratio of carbon stored in the forest biomass to that in the atmosphere is two thirds. When soils and detritus of forests are added, there is more C stored in forests than in the atmosphere, about 1.3 times or more. Thus, forests can be regarded as the great holder of C on earth. If the area of forest land on the earth is constantly maintained and forests are in the climax stage, the uptake of C and the release of C by and from the forests will balance. In this case, forests are neither sinks nor sources of CO{sub 2} although they store a large amount of C. However, when forests are deforested, they become a source of C; through human activities, forests have become a source of C. According to a report by the IPCC, 1.6{+-}1.2 PgC is annually added to the atmosphere by deforestation. According to the FAO (1992), the area of land deforested annually in the tropics from 1981 to 1990 was 16.9 x 10{sup 6} ha. This value is nearly half the area of Japanese land. The most important thing for the CO{sub 2} environment concerning forests is therefore how to reduce deforestation and to successfully implement a forestation or reforestation.

  5. Carbon dioxide warming of the early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrhenius, G.

    1997-01-01

    Svante Arrhenius' research in atmospheric physics extended beyond the recent past and the near future states of the Earth, which today are at the center of sociopolitical attention. His plan encompassed all of the physical phenomena known at the time to relate to the formation and evolution of stars and planets. His two-volume textbook on cosmic physics is a comprehensive synopsis of the field. The inquiry into the possible cause of the ice ages and the theory of selective wavelength filter control led Arrhenius to consider the surface states of the other terrestrial planets, and of the ancient Earth before it had been modified by the emergence of life. The rapid escape of hydrogen and the equilibration with igneous rocks required that carbon in the early atmosphere prevailed mainly in oxidized form as carbon dioxide, together with other photoactive gases exerting a greenhouse effect orders of magnitude larger than in our present atmosphere. This effect, together with the ensuing chemical processes, would have set the conditions for life to evolve on our planet, seeded from spores spreading through an infinite Universe, and propelled, as Arrhenius thought, by stellar radiation pressure.

  6. Kinetics of absorption of carbon dioxide in aqueous amine and carbonate solutions with carbonic anhydrase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penders-van Elk, Nathalie J. M. C.; Hamborg, Espen S.; Huttenhuis, Patrick J. G.; Fradette, Sylvie; Carley, Jonathan A.; Versteeg, Geert F.

    In the present work the absorption of carbon dioxide in aqueous N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and aqueous sodium carbonate with and without carbonic anhydrase (CA) was studied in a stirred cell contactor in the temperature range 298-333 K. The CA was present as free enzyme and is compared to the

  7. Chemoselective alternating copolymerization of limonene dioxide and carbon dioxide : a new highly functional aliphatic epoxy polycarbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, C.; Sablong, R.J.; Koning, C.E.

    The alternating copolymerization of biorenewable limonene dioxide with carbon dioxide (CO2) catalyzed by a zinc β-diiminate complex is reported. The chemoselective reaction results in linear amorphous polycarbonates that carry pendent methyloxiranes and exhibit glass transition temperatures (Tg) up

  8. Carbon dioxide fluid-flow modeling and injectivity calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lauri

    2011-01-01

    At present, the literature lacks a geologic-based assessment methodology for numerically estimating injectivity, lateral migration, and subsequent long-term containment of supercritical carbon dioxide that has undergone geologic sequestration into subsurface formations. This study provides a method for and quantification of first-order approximations for the time scale of supercritical carbon dioxide lateral migration over a one-kilometer distance through a representative volume of rock. These calculations provide a quantified foundation for estimating injectivity and geologic storage of carbon dioxide.

  9. Carbon dioxide and nisin act synergistically on Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Lilian; Chen, Y.H.; Chikindas, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the synergistic action of carbon dioxide and nisin on Listeria monocytogenes Scott A wild-type and nisin-resistant (Nis(r)) cells grown in broth at 4 degrees C. Carbon dioxide extended the lag phase and decreased the specific growth rate of both strains, but to a greater degree...... for cultures in CO2. This synergism between nisin and CO2 was examined mechanistically by following the leakage of carboxyfluorescein (CF) from listerial liposomes. Carbon dioxide enhanced nisin-induced CF leakage, indicating that the synergistic action of CO2 and nisin occurs at the cytoplasmic membrane...

  10. Understanding how individuals perceive carbon dioxide. Implications for acceptance of carbon dioxide capture and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itaoka, K.; Saito, A. [Mizuho Information and Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Paukovic, M.; De Best-Waldhober, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Dowd, A.M.; Jeanneret, T.; Ashworth, P.; James, M. [The Global CCS Institute, Canberra (Australia)

    2012-06-15

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) presents one potential technological solution for mitigating the atmospheric emission of carbon dioxide sources. However, CCS is a relatively new technology with associated uncertainties and perceived risks. For this reason, a growing body of research now focuses on public perceptions and potential for societal acceptance of CCS technology. Almost all explanations of CCS technology make reference to carbon dioxide, with an assumption that the general public understands CO2. It has become apparent that the general public’s knowledge and understanding of CO2’s properties influences how they engage with CO2 emitting industries and CCS technologies. However, surprisingly little research has investigated public perceptions, knowledge, and understanding of CO2. This investigation attempts to fill that gap. This report describes an investigation of how citizens of three countries (Japan, Australia, and the Netherlands) perceive CO2. Furthermore, it attempts to relate individual perceptions of CO2 to perceptions of CCS, and to determine how information provision about the underlying properties and characteristics of CO2 influences individual attitudes towards low carbon energy options, particularly CCS. In brief, the research had four ultimate aims. It aimed to: Explore the public’s knowledge and understanding of the properties of CO2; Examine the influence of that knowledge on their perceptions of CO2 and CCS; Investigate how information provision about the underlying properties and characteristics of CO2 influences individual attitudes towards CCS; and Identify if any differences between countries exist in relation to values and beliefs, knowledge of CO2’s properties, and CCS perceptions.

  11. Selective and efficient reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide on oxide-derived nanostructured silver electrocatalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Ming; Trześniewski, Bartek J.; Xie, Jie; Smith, Wilson A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the selective electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide on oxide-derived silver electrocatalysts is presented. By a simple synthesis technique, the overall high faradaic efficiency for CO production on the oxide-derived Ag was shifted by more than 400 mV towards a

  12. Adsorption, desorption, and film formation of quinacridone and its thermal cracking product indigo on clean and carbon-covered silicon dioxide surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherwitzl, Boris; Lassnig, Roman; Truger, Magdalena; Resel, Roland; Leising, Günther; Winkler, Adolf, E-mail: a.winkler@tugraz.at [Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2016-09-07

    The evaporation of quinacridone from a stainless steel Knudsen cell leads to the partial decomposition of this molecule in the cell, due to its comparably high sublimation temperature. At least one additional type of molecules, namely indigo, could be detected in the effusion flux. Thermal desorption spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy have been used to study the co-deposition of these molecules on sputter-cleaned and carbon-covered silicon dioxide surfaces. Desorption of indigo appears at temperatures of about 400 K, while quinacridone desorbs at around 510 K. For quinacridone, a desorption energy of 2.1 eV and a frequency factor for desorption of 1 × 10{sup 19} s{sup −1} were calculated, which in this magnitude is typical for large organic molecules. A fraction of the adsorbed quinacridone molecules (∼5%) decomposes during heating, nearly independent of the adsorbed amount, resulting in a surface composed of small carbon islands. The sticking coefficients of indigo and quinacridone were found to be close to unity on a carbon covered SiO{sub 2} surface but significantly smaller on a sputter-cleaned substrate. The reason for the latter can be attributed to insufficient energy dissipation for unfavorably oriented impinging molecules. However, due to adsorption via a hot-precursor state, the sticking probability is increased on the surface covered with carbon islands, which act as accommodation centers.

  13. Synthesis pf dimethyl carbonate in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballivet-Tkatchenko, D.; Plasseraud, L. [Universite de Bourgogne-UFR Sciences et Techniques, Dijon (France). Lab. de Synthese et Electrosynthese Organometalliques]. E-mail: ballivet@u-bourgogne.fr; Ligabue, R.A. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Pura

    2006-01-15

    The reactivity of carbon dioxide with methanol to form dimethyl carbonate was studied in the presence of the n-butylmethoxytin compounds n-Bu{sub 3}SnOCH{sub 3}, n-Bu{sub 2}Sn(OCH{sub 3}){sub 2}, and [n-Bu{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}O)Sn]{sub 2}O. The reaction occurred under solventless conditions at 423 K and was produced by an increase in CO{sub 2} pressure. This beneficial effect is primarily attributed to phase behavior. The mass transfer under liquid-vapor biphasic conditions was not limiting when the system reached the supercritical state for a CO{sub 2} pressure higher than 16 MPa. Under these conditions, CO{sub 2} acted as a reactant and a solvent. (author)

  14. Membranes for separation of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Anthony Yu-Chung [Rexford, NY; Ruud, James Anthony [Delmar, NY; Ramaswamy, Vidya [Niskayuna, NY; Willson, Patrick Daniel [Latham, NY; Gao, Yan [Niskayuna, NY

    2011-03-01

    Methods for separating carbon dioxide from a fluid stream at a temperature higher than about 200.degree. C. with selectivity higher than Knudsen diffusion selectivity include contacting a porous membrane with the fluid stream to preferentially transport carbon dioxide. The porous membrane includes a porous support and a continuous porous separation layer disposed on a surface of the porous support and extending between the fluid stream and the porous support layer. The porous support comprises alumina, silica, zirconia, stabilized zirconia, stainless steel, titanium, nickel-based alloys, aluminum-based alloys, zirconium-based alloys or a combination thereof. Median pore size of the porous separation layer is less than about 10 nm, and the porous separation layer comprises titania, MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, La.sub.2O.sub.3, CeO.sub.2, HfO.sub.2, Y.sub.2O.sub.3, VO.sub.z, NbO.sub.z, TaO.sub.z, ATiO.sub.3, AZrO.sub.3, AAl.sub.2O.sub.4, A.sup.1FeO.sub.3, A.sup.1MnO.sub.3, A.sup.1CoO.sub.3, A.sup.1NiO.sub.3, A.sup.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.3 CeO.sub.3, Li.sub.2ZrO.sub.3, Li.sub.2SiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2TiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.4N.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, Y.sub.xN.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, La.sub.xN.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, HfN.sup.2.sub.yO.sub.z, or a combination thereof; wherein A is La, Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.1 is La, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.2 is Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.3 is Sr or Ba; A.sup.4 is Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ti or Zr; N.sup.1 is V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Si or Ge; N.sup.2 is V, Mo, W or Si; x is 1 or 2; y ranges from 1 to 3; and z ranges from 2 to 7.

  15. Carbon dioxide flux and net primary production of a boreal treed bog: Responses to warming and water-table-lowering simulations of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, T. M.; Perkins, M.; Kaing, E.; Strack, M.

    2015-02-01

    Midlatitude treed bogs represent significant carbon (C) stocks and are highly sensitive to global climate change. In a dry continental treed bog, we compared three sites: control, recent (1-3 years; experimental) and older drained (10-13 years), with water levels at 38, 74 and 120 cm below the surface, respectively. At each site we measured carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and estimated tree root respiration (Rr; across hummock-hollow microtopography of the forest floor) and net primary production (NPP) of trees during the growing seasons (May to October) of 2011-2013. The CO2-C balance was calculated by adding the net CO2 exchange of the forest floor (NEff-Rr) to the NPP of the trees. From cooler and wetter 2011 to the driest and the warmest 2013, the control site was a CO2-C sink of 92, 70 and 76 g m-2, the experimental site was a CO2-C source of 14, 57 and 135 g m-2, and the drained site was a progressively smaller source of 26, 23 and 13 g CO2-C m-2. The short-term drainage at the experimental site resulted in small changes in vegetation coverage and large net CO2 emissions at the microforms. In contrast, the longer-term drainage and deeper water level at the drained site resulted in the replacement of mosses with vascular plants (shrubs) on the hummocks and lichen in the hollows leading to the highest CO2 uptake at the drained hummocks and significant losses in the hollows. The tree NPP (including above- and below-ground growth and litter fall) in 2011 and 2012 was significantly higher at the drained site (92 and 83 g C m-2) than at the experimental (58 and 55 g C m-2) and control (52 and 46 g C m-2) sites. We also quantified the impact of climatic warming at all water table treatments by equipping additional plots with open-top chambers (OTCs) that caused a passive warming on average of ~ 1 °C and differential air warming of ~ 6 °C at midday full sun over the study years. Warming significantly enhanced shrub growth and the CO2 sink function of the drained

  16. Do we need to sequester carbon dioxide?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delbecq, D.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon sequestration may be the solution to face our difficulty to cut down the use of fossil energies. CO 2 has to be separated from other gases released by thermal power plants before being stored in deep geological layers, there it can stay as a gas, or it can be dissolved in a fluid phase, or it can react with minerals and be integrated to a solid phase. Oil fields and deep saline water reservoirs are natural candidates for carbon sequestration. Carbon sequestration implies the installation of a network of pipelines to transport CO 2 from the place of production to the place of sequestration. The high cost of carbon sequestration implies the implementation of financial incentives from governments. Some economists foresee a raise of the electricity cost up to 50% if carbon sequestration is used. Other economists see a contradiction: sequestration techniques will not be available in a short term range while numerous thermal power plants are planned to be built in the decade. So carbon sequestration may arrive too late and at a cost that may be not competitive with some renewable energies like off-shore wind energy or thermal solar energy which will be full-grown at that time. (A.C.)

  17. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-08-19

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  18. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

    2010-11-09

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  19. Partitioning of net carbon dioxide flux measured by automatic transparent chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyukarev, EA

    2018-03-01

    Mathematical model was developed for describing carbon dioxide fluxes at open sedge-sphagnum fen during growing season. The model was calibrated using the results of observations from automatic transparent chamber and it allows us to estimate autotrophic, heterotrophic and ecosystem respiration fluxes, gross and net primary vegetation production, and the net carbon balance.

  20. Reversible interconversion of carbon dioxide and formate by an electroactive enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reda, T.; Plugge, C.M.; Abram, N.J.; Hirst, J.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a kinetically and thermodynamically stable molecule. It is easily formed by the oxidation of organic molecules, during combustion or respiration, but is difficult to reduce. The production of reduced carbon compounds from CO2 is an attractive proposition, because

  1. 49 CFR 195.4 - Compatibility necessary for transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. 195.4 Section 195.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... necessary for transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. No person may transport any hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide unless the hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide is chemically compatible with both...

  2. Catalytic conversion of methane: Carbon dioxide reforming and oxidative coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Natural gas conversion remains one of the essential technologies for current energy needs. This review focuses on the mechanistic aspects of the development of efficient and durable catalysts for two reactions, carbon dioxide reforming and the oxidative coupling of methane. These two reactions have tremendous technological significance for practical application in industry. An understanding of the fundamental aspects and reaction mechanisms of the catalytic reactions reviewed in this study would support the design of industrial catalysts. CO 2 reforming of methane utilizes CO 2, which is often stored in large quantities, to convert as a reactant. Strategies to eliminate carbon deposition, which is the major problem associated with this reaction, are discussed. The oxidative coupling of methane directly produces ethylene in one reactor through a slightly exothermic reaction, potentially minimizing the capital cost of the natural gas conversion process. The focus of discussion in this review will be on the attainable yield of C 2 products by rigorous kinetic analyses.

  3. Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 17 Years and Still Talking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Ch.

    2010-01-01

    This paper, written in French and in English, examines how the figures have changed from Kyoto base year 1990 up to 2007, before looking at certain countries' proposals for the future of their carbon dioxide emissions. Statistics are given concerning the emissions changes in various countries (or groups of countries) but also their developments in regards to the economy and energy use. Changes in CO 2 emissions, changes in the gross domestic product of a country, its CO 2 emissions per capita, its energy intensity (the ratio of energy use to the monetary value of GDP) and its carbon intensity of energy use as well as population change, are presented. The main countries considered are: United States, European Union, China, Japan, India, Brazil, South Africa and Russia

  4. Field Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding in the Lansing-Kansas City Formation, Central Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Richard Pancake; JyunSyung Tsau; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2010-03-07

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and three production wells. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide was injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide was injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. By March 7,2010, 8,736 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Production from wells to the northwest of the pilot region indicates that oil displaced from carbon dioxide injection was produced from Colliver A7, Colliver A3, Colliver A14 and Graham A4 located on adjacent leases. About 19,166 bbl of incremental oil were estimated to have been produced from these wells as of March 7, 2010. There is evidence of a directional permeability trend toward the NW through the pilot region. The majority of the injected carbon dioxide remains in the pilot region, which has been maintained at a pressure at or above the minimum miscibility pressure. Estimated oil recovery attributed to the CO2 flood is 27,902 bbl which is equivalent to a gross CO2 utilization of 4.8 MCF/bbl. The pilot project is not economic.

  5. Electrochemical Reactor for Producing Oxygen From Carbon Dioxide, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An electrochemical reactor is proposed by MicroCell Technologies, LLC to electrochemically reduce carbon dioxide to oxygen. In support of NASA's advanced life...

  6. Carbon dioxide inhalation treatments of neurotic anxiety. An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpe, J

    1987-03-01

    A lucky chance more than 30 years ago revealed the remarkable efficacy of single inhalations of high concentrations of carbon dioxide in eliminating or markedly reducing free-floating anxiety. The reduction of anxiety lasts for days, weeks, or longer--well beyond the persistence of carbon dioxide in the body. The effects are explicable on the hypothesis that free-floating anxiety is anxiety conditioned to continuously present sources of stimulation, such as background noise or the awareness of space or time, and that the anxiety response habit is weakened when the anxiety is inhibited by the competition of responses that carbon dioxide induces. More recently, it has become apparent that inhalations of carbon dioxide, applied in a different manner, are effective in overcoming maladaptive anxiety responses to specific stimuli, e.g., social stimuli. The substance is also proving to be a valuable resource in the treatment of the common variety of panic attacks.

  7. Monthly Carbon Dioxide in Troposphere (AIRS on AQUA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important greenhouse gas released through natural processes such as respiration and volcano eruptions and through huma activities such as...

  8. Studies on carbon dioxide system in central Arabian sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AnilKumar, N.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    significantly with depth Bicarbonate ion is quantitatively the major component of the carbon dioxide system The observed vertical distributions are discussed in terms of biological and geochemical processes in the sea...

  9. Energy costs of carbon dioxide concentrating mechanisms in aquatic organisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raven, John A.; Beardall, J.; Giordano, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 121, 2-3 (2014), s. 111-124 ISSN 0166-8595 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : carbon dioxide * environmental change * radiation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.502, year: 2014

  10. Quantitative aspects of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative aspects of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange through the ... ceratophthalmus (Crustacea: Decapoda) during rest and exercise in water and ... intersects zero time on the x-axis, indicating rapid gas exchange at the lung surface.

  11. Carbon dioxide and water vapour characteristics on the west coast ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carbon dioxide, water vapour, air temperature and wind measurements at 10 Hz sampling rate were carried out over the ... seasonal and annual variations in the CO2 bal- ance. Hence, it is .... motion below produced by shear stress near the.

  12. Gas flaring: Carbon dioxide contribution to global warming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 20, No 2 (2016) > ... The quantitative method of analysis showed that carbon dioxide from gas ... gas flaring cause environmental degradation, health risks and constitute financial loss to the local oil producing communities.

  13. ISLSCP II Air-Sea Carbon Dioxide Gas Exchange

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the calculated net ocean-air carbon dioxide (CO2) flux and sea-air CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) difference. The estimates are based on...

  14. Carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide in the North Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.; Naqvi, S.W.A; Jayakumar, D.A; George, M.D.; Narvekar, P.V.; DeSousa, S

    The understanding of biogeochemical cycling of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide in the oceans is essential for predicting the fate of anthropogenically emitted components. The North Indian Ocean, with its diverse regimes, provides us with a natural...

  15. Gas Flaring: Carbon dioxide Contribution to Global Warming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    emissions resulting from high consumption of fossil fuels. Flaring been a ... method of analysis showed that carbon dioxide from gas flaring constitute 1% of the total ... Although of these, methane is potentially the most .... in some gas plants.

  16. Drying of supercritical carbon dioxide with membrane processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohaus, Theresa; Scholz, Marco; Koziara, Beata; Benes, Nieck Edwin; Wessling, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    In supercritical extraction processes regenerating the supercritical fluid represents the main cost constraint. Membrane technology has potential for cost efficient regeneration of water-loaded supercritical carbon dioxide. In this study we have designed membrane-based processes to dehydrate

  17. A Carbon Dioxide Laser Bibliography, 1964-1969,

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bibliography concerning carbon dioxide lasers has been compiled covering the period 1964 through 1969. The chronologically listed references have also been catalogued into an author index and a subject index. (Author)

  18. Elevated carbon dioxide: impacts on soil and plant water relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirkham, M. B

    2011-01-01

    .... Focusing on this critical issue, Elevated Carbon Dioxide: Impacts on Soil and Plant Water Relations presents research conducted on field-grown sorghum, winter wheat, and rangeland plants under elevated CO2...

  19. Precision remote sensor for oxygen and carbon dioxide, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mesa Photonics proposes development of a passive optical sensor for simultaneous high-precision measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide profiles within the full...

  20. Carbon dioxide removal in gas treating processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidal, H.

    1992-06-01

    The main contribution of this work is the development of a simple and reliable modelling technique on carbon dioxide removal describing the vapor-liquid equilibria of CO 2 in aqueous alkanolamine solutions. By making use of measured pH data, the author has circumvented the problem of estimating interaction parameters, activity coefficients, and equilibrium constants in the prediction of vapor-liquid equilibria. The applicability of the model is best demonstrated on the tertiary amine system using MDEA. For this system, the VLE is accurately represented for temperatures in the range 25 to 140 o C, for CO 2 loadings from 0.001 to 1 mol/mol, and for amine molarities usually encountered in acid gas treating processes. The absorption of CO 2 into solutions containing the sterically hindered amine AMP, is also well described by the model. The equilibrium of CO 2 in mixed solvents containing a glycol (TEG,DEG) and an alkonolamine (MEA,DEA) has been measured at temperatures encountered in the absorption units. An equilibrium model has been developed for the CO 2 /TEG/MEA system for estimation of CO 2 partial pressures, covering loadings and temperatures for both absorption and desorption conditions. An important spin-off of the work described is that two new experimental set-ups have been designed and built. 154 refs., 38 figs., 22 tabs

  1. Suppressing bullfrog larvae with carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jackson A.; Ray, Andrew; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Layhee, Megan J.; Mark Abbey-Lambert,; ,

    2014-01-01

    Current management strategies for the control and suppression of the American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus = Rana catesbeiana Shaw) and other invasive amphibians have had minimal effect on their abundance and distribution. This study evaluates the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on pre- and prometamorphic Bullfrog larvae. Bullfrogs are a model organism for evaluating potential suppression agents because they are a successful invader worldwide. From experimental trials we estimated that the 24-h 50% and 99% lethal concentration (LC50 and LC99) values for Bullfrog larvae were 371 and 549 mg CO2/L, respectively. Overall, larvae that succumbed to experimental conditions had a lower body condition index than those that survived. We also documented sublethal changes in blood chemistry during prolonged exposure to elevated CO2. Specifically, blood pH decreased by more than 0.5 pH units after 9 h of exposure and both blood partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and blood glucose increased. These findings suggest that CO2 treatments can be lethal to Bullfrog larvae under controlled laboratory conditions. We believe this work represents the necessary foundation for further consideration of CO2 as a potential suppression agent for one of the most harmful invaders to freshwater ecosystems.

  2. Euthanasia of neonatal mice with carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, K.; Corrow, D.; Stockwell, J.; Smith, A.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most prevalent method used to euthanize rodents in biomedical research. The purpose of this study was to determine the time of CO2 exposure required to euthanize neonatal mice (0 to 10 days old). Multiple groups of mice were exposed to 100% CO 2 for time periods between 5 and 60 min. Mice were placed in room air for 10 or 20 min after CO2 exposure, to allow for the chance of recovery. If mice recovered at one time point, a longer exposure was examined. Inbred and outbred mice were compared. Results of the study indicated that time to death varied with the age of the animals and could be as long as 50 min on the day of birth and differed between inbred and outbred mice. Institutions euthanizing neonatal mice with CO2 may wish to adjust their CO 2 exposure time periods according the age of the mice and their genetic background. Copyright 2005 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.

  3. Periorbital area rejuvenation using carbon dioxide therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolo, Fioramonti; Nefer, Fallico; Paola, Parisi; Nicolò, Scuderi

    2012-09-01

    Different conservative and surgical approaches are used for periorbital region rejuvenation, but none of them is effective in the treatment of the medial third of the lower eyelid. The present study is designed to assess the effectiveness of carboxytherapy in the treatment of wrinkles on the median and medial region of the lower eyelid and dark circles around the eyes. From January 2008 to December 2010, 90 patients with moderate to severe periorbital wrinkles and/or dark circles underwent subcutaneous injections of CO(2) once a week for 7 weeks. Patients were assessed before and 2 months after the treatment through photographic documentation and the compilation of visual analog scales. At the end of the study period, patients reported a reduction of facial fine lines and wrinkles as well as a decrease in periorbital hyperpigmentation. A few side effects were observed but they were all transient and did not require discontinuation of treatment. Carbon dioxide therapy results as an effective noninvasive modality for the rejuvenation of the periorbital area. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Carbon dioxide removal in gas treating processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidal, H

    1992-06-01

    The main contribution of this work is the development of a simple and reliable modelling technique on carbon dioxide removal describing the vapor-liquid equilibria of CO{sub 2} in aqueous alkanolamine solutions. By making use of measured pH data, the author has circumvented the problem of estimating interaction parameters, activity coefficients, and equilibrium constants in the prediction of vapor-liquid equilibria. The applicability of the model is best demonstrated on the tertiary amine system using MDEA. For this system, the VLE is accurately represented for temperatures in the range 25 to 140{sup o}C, for CO{sub 2} loadings from 0.001 to 1 mol/mol, and for amine molarities usually encountered in acid gas treating processes. The absorption of CO{sub 2} into solutions containing the sterically hindered amine AMP, is also well described by the model. The equilibrium of CO{sub 2} in mixed solvents containing a glycol (TEG,DEG) and an alkonolamine (MEA,DEA) has been measured at temperatures encountered in the absorption units. An equilibrium model has been developed for the CO{sub 2}/TEG/MEA system for estimation of CO{sub 2} partial pressures, covering loadings and temperatures for both absorption and desorption conditions. An important spin-off of the work described is that two new experimental set-ups have been designed and built. 154 refs., 38 figs., 22 tabs.

  5. Carbon dioxide balneotherapy and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagourelias, Efstathios D.; Zorou, Paraskevi G.; Tsaligopoulos, Miltiadis; Athyros, Vasilis G.; Karagiannis, Asterios; Efthimiadis, Georgios K.

    2011-09-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) balneotherapy is a kind of remedy with a wide spectrum of applications which have been used since the Middle Ages. However, its potential use as an adjuvant therapeutic option in patients with cardiovascular disease is not yet fully clarified. We performed a thorough review of MEDLINE Database, EMBASE, ISI WEB of Knowledge, COCHRANE database and sites funded by balneotherapy centers across Europe in order to recognize relevant studies and aggregate evidence supporting the use of CO2 baths in various cardiovascular diseases. The three main effects of CO2 hydrotherapy during whole body or partial immersion, including decline in core temperature, an increase in cutaneous blood flow, and an elevation of the score on thermal sensation, are analyzed on a pathophysiology basis. Additionally, the indications and contra-indications of the method are presented in an evidence-based way, while the need for new methodologically sufficient studies examining the use of CO2 baths in other cardiovascular substrates is discussed.

  6. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  7. POSSIBILITIES OF CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION BY MICROALGAE IN REFINERY

    OpenAIRE

    Šingliar, Michal; Mikulec, Jozef; Kušnir, Patrik; Polakovičova, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Capture and sequestration of carbon dioxide is one of the most critical challenges today for businesses and governments worldwide. Thousands of emitting power plants and industries worldwide face this costly challenge – reduce the CO2 emissions or pay penalties. One possibility for carbon dioxide sequestration is its fixation in microalgae. Microalgae can sequester CO2 from flue gases emitted from fossil fuel-fired refinery plants and units, thereby reducing emissions of a major greenhouse ga...

  8. Tethered catalysts for the hydration of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carlos A; Satcher, Jr., Joe H; Aines, Roger D; Wong, Sergio E; Baker, Sarah E; Lightstone, Felice C; Stolaroff, Joshuah K

    2014-11-04

    A system is provided that substantially increases the efficiency of CO.sub.2 capture and removal by positioning a catalyst within an optimal distance from the air-liquid interface. The catalyst is positioned within the layer determined to be the highest concentration of carbon dioxide. A hydrophobic tether is attached to the catalyst and the hydrophobic tether modulates the position of the catalyst within the liquid layer containing the highest concentration of carbon dioxide.

  9. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    OpenAIRE

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions may create significant social harm because of global warming, yet American urban development tends to be in low density areas with very hot summers. In this paper, we attempt to quantify the carbon dioxide emissions associated with new construction in different locations across the country. We look at emissions from driving, public transit, home heating, and household electricity usage. We find that the lowest emissions areas are generally in California and that the h...

  10. Self-Cleaning Boudouard Reactor for Full Oxygen Recovery from Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Janelle; Hintze, Paul E.; Muscatello, Anthony C.; Gibson, Tracy L.; Captain, James G.; Lunn, Griffin M.; Devor, Robert W.; Bauer, Brint; Parks, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen recovery from respiratory carbon dioxide is an important aspect of human spaceflight. Methods exist to sequester the carbon dioxide, but production of oxygen needs further development. The current International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Reduction System (CRS) uses the Sabatier reaction to produce water (and ultimately breathing air). Oxygen recovery is limited to 50 because half of the hydrogen used in the Sabatier reactor is lost as methane, which is vented overboard. The Bosch reaction, which converts carbon dioxide to oxygen and solid carbon is capable of recovering all the oxygen from carbon dioxide, and is the only real alternative to the Sabatier reaction. However, the last reaction in the cycle, the Boudouard reaction, produces solid carbon and the resulting carbon buildup will eventually foul the nickel or iron catalyst, reducing reactor life and increasing consumables. To minimize this fouling and increase efficiency, a number of self-cleaning catalyst designs have been created. This paper will describe recent results evaluating one of the designs.

  11. A supercritical carbon dioxide plasma process for preparing tungsten oxide nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Ayato; Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Takemori, Toshihiko; Mukasa, Shinobu; Maehara, Tsunehiro

    2007-01-01

    A supercritical carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) plasma process for fabricating one-dimensional tungsten oxide nanowires coated with amorphous carbon is presented. High-frequency plasma was generated in supercritical carbon dioxide at 20 MPa by using tungsten electrodes mounted in a supercritical cell, and subsequently an organic solvent was introduced with supercritical carbon dioxide into the plasma. Electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy investigations of the deposited materials showed the production of tungsten oxide nanowires with or without an outer layer. The nanowires with an outer layer exhibited a coaxial structure with an outer concentric layer of amorphous carbon and an inner layer of tungsten oxide with a thickness and diameter of 20-30 and 10-20 nm, respectively

  12. Adsorption and methanation of carbon dioxide on a nickel/silica catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falconer, J.L.; Zagli, A.E.

    1980-04-01

    Temperature-programed desorption and reaction studies showed that increasing amounts of CO/sub 2/ adsorbed on silica-supported 6.9% nickel with increasing temperature to a maximum adsorption at approx. 443/sup 0/K, i.e., that the adsorption was activated; that CO/sub 2/ desorbed partly as CO/sub 2/ with the peak at 543/sup 0/K, and partly as CO with several peaks; that in the presence of hydrogen, nearly all adsorbed CO/sub 2/ desorbed as methane, and a small amount as CO; and that the methane desorption peaks from adsorbed CO and CO/sub 2/ both occurred at 473/sup 0/K. These results suggested that carbon dioxide adsorbed dissociatively as a carbon monoxide and an oxygen species. An observed absence of higher hydrocarbons in the methanation products of carbon dioxide was attributed to a high hydrogen/carbon monoxide surface ratio caused by the activated carbon dioxide adsorption.

  13. Supercritical carbon dioxide for textile applications and recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, H. A.; Avinc, O.; Eren, S.

    2017-10-01

    In textile industry, supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2), possessing liquid-like densities, mostly find an application on textile dyeing processes such as providing hydrophobic dyes an advantage on dissolving. Their gas-like low viscosities and diffusion properties can result in shorter dyeing periods in comparison with the conventional water dyeing process. Supercritical carbon dioxide dyeing is an anhydrous dyeing and this process comprises the usage of less energy and chemicals when compared to conventional water dyeing processes leading to a potential of up to 50% lower operation costs. The advantages of supercritical carbon dioxide dyeing method especially on synthetic fiber fabrics hearten leading textile companies to alter their dyeing method to this privileged waterless dyeing technology. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) waterless dyeing is widely known and applied green method for sustainable and eco-friendly textile industry. However, not only the dyeing but also scouring, desizing and different finishing applications take the advantage of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). In this review, not only the principle, advantages and disadvantages of dyeing in supercritical carbon dioxide but also recent developments of scCO2 usage in different textile processing steps such as scouring, desizing and finishing are explained and commercial developments are stated and summed up.

  14. Phase equilibrium condition of marine carbon dioxide hydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Shi-Cai; Liu, Chang-Ling; Ye, Yu-Guang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► CO 2 hydrate phase equilibrium was studied in simulated marine sediments. ► CO 2 hydrate equilibrium temperature in NaCl and submarine pore water was depressed. ► Coarse-grained silica sand does not affect CO 2 hydrate phase equilibrium. ► The relationship between equilibrium temperature and freezing point was discussed. - Abstract: The phase equilibrium of ocean carbon dioxide hydrate should be understood for ocean storage of carbon dioxide. In this paper, the isochoric multi-step heating dissociation method was employed to investigate the phase equilibrium of carbon dioxide hydrate in a variety of systems (NaCl solution, submarine pore water, silica sand + NaCl solution mixture). The experimental results show that the depression in the phase equilibrium temperature of carbon dioxide hydrate in NaCl solution is caused mainly by Cl − ion. The relationship between the equilibrium temperature and freezing point in NaCl solution was discussed. The phase equilibrium temperature of carbon dioxide hydrate in submarine pore water is shifted by −1.1 K to lower temperature region than that in pure water. However, the phase equilibrium temperature of carbon dioxide hydrate in mixture samples of coarsed-grained silica sand and NaCl solution is in agreement with that in NaCl solution with corresponding concentrations. The relationship between the equilibrium temperature and freezing point in mixture samples was also discussed.

  15. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R.; Steinberg, M.

    This invention relates to high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280/sup 0/C and containing as little as 36 mo1% ethylene and about 41 to 51 mo1% sulfur dioxide, and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10 to 50/sup 0/C, and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  16. Numerical simulation of carbon dioxide effects in geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya, S.L.; Iglesias, E.R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-03-01

    We developed and coded a new equation of state (EOS) for water-carbon dioxide mixtures and coupled it to the TOUGH numerical simulator. This EOS is valid up to 350{degrees}C and 500 bar. Unlike previous thermodynamical models, it rigorously considers the non-ideal behavior of both components in the gaseous mixture and formally includes the effect of the compressibility of the liquid phase. We refer to the coupling of this EOS with TOUGH as TOUGH-DIOX. To complement this enhancement of TOUGH, we added indexed output files for easy selection and interpretation of results. We validated TOUGH-DIOX against published results. Furthermore we used TOUGH-DIOX to explore and compare mass and energy inflow performance relationships of geothermal wells with/without carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Our results include the effects of a broad range of fluid and formation properties, initial conditions and history of reservoir production. This work contributes with generalized dimensionless inflow performance relationships appropriate for geothermal use.

  17. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentrations on stratospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boughner, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    During the past several years, much attention has been focused on the destruction of ozone by anthropogenic pollutants such as the nitrogen oxides and chlorofluoromethane. Little or no attention has been given to the influence on ozone of an increased carbon dioxide concentration for which a measurable growth has been observed. Increased carbon dioxide can directly affect ozone by perturbing atmospheric temperatures, which will alter ozone production, whose rate displays a fairly strong temperature dependence. This paper presents one-dimensional model results for the steady state ozone behavior when the CO 2 concentration is twice its ambient level which account for coupling between chemistry and temperature. When the CO 2 level doubled, the total ozone burden increased in relation to the ambient burden by 1.2--2.5%, depending on the vertical diffusion coefficient used. Above 30 km. In this region the relation variations were insensitive to the choice of diffusion coefficient. Below 30 km, ozone concentrations were smaller than the unperturbed values and were sensitive to the vertical diffusion profile in this region (10--30 km). Ozone decreases in the lower stratosphere because of a reduction in ozone-producing solar radiation, which results in smaller downward ozone fluxes from the region at 25--30 km relative to the flux values for the ambient atmosphere. These offsetting changes occurring in the upper and lower stratosphere act to minimize the variation in total ozone

  18. Ocean Fertilization for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide from the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Philip W.

    The ocean is a major sink for both preindustrial and anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Both physically and biogeochemically driven pumps, termed the solubility and biological pump, respectively Fig.5.1) are responsible for the majority of carbon sequestration in the ocean's interior [1]. The solubility pump relies on ocean circulation - specifically the impact of cooling of the upper ocean at high latitudes both enhances the solubility of carbon dioxide and the density of the waters which sink to great depth (the so-called deepwater formation) and thereby sequester carbon in the form of dissolved inorganic carbon (Fig.5.1). The biological pump is driven by the availability of preformed plant macronutrients such as nitrate or phosphate which are taken up by phytoplankton during photosynthetic carbon fixation. A small but significant proportion of this fixed carbon sinks into the ocean's interior in the form of settling particles, and in order to maintain equilibrium carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is transferred across the air-sea interface into the ocean (the so-called carbon drawdown) thereby decreasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (Fig.5.1).Fig.5.1

  19. Analytical study on carbon dioxide reforming of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sakaki, Akihiro; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to carbon dioxide reforming of natural gas, namely CO 2 reforming, since it can produce synthesis gas with low hydrogen-to-carbon ratio preferentially used for production of liquid hydrocarbons in the Fischer-Tropsch and methanol syntheses. This reaction has also very important environmental implications because CO 2 , a green house gas, may be converted into valuable feedstock. In JAERI, CO 2 reforming using the out-of-pile test facility, which is a 1/30 scale model of the HTTR hydrogen production system, is also being considered as an application of steam reforming. For the purpose to estimate the reformer performance in the facility, numerical analysis of natural gas reforming processes of CO 2 and combined reactions with steam and CO 2 has been carried out using mathematical model on heat and mass balance accompanied by chemical reactions. The reformer performance was evaluated in the effect of pressure, temperature, process gas composition and reaction rate constants of the catalyst on conversion, product gas composition and heat consumption of He gas. And also, the potential of carbon formation by CH 4 cracking reaction and Boudouard reaction was estimated. (author)

  20. Stabilization of carbon dioxide and chromium slag via carbonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xingxing; Yu, Binbin; Xu, Wei; Fan, Zheng; Wu, Zucheng; Zhang, Huimin

    2017-08-01

    As the main greenhouse gas, CO 2 is considered as a threat in the context of global warming. Many available technologies to reduce CO 2 emission was about CO 2 separation from coal combustion and geological sequestration. However, how to deal with the cost-effective storage of CO 2 has become a new challenge. Moreover, chromium pollution, the treatment of which requires huge energy consumption, has attracted people's widespread attention. This study is aimed to develop the sequestration of CO 2 via chromium slag. A dynamic leaching experiment of chromium slag was designed to testify the ability of CO 2 adsorption onto chromium slag and to release Cr(VI) for stabilization. The results showed that the accumulative amounts of Cr(VI) were ca. 2.6 mg/g released from the chromium slag after 24 h of leaching. In addition, ca. 89 mg/g CO 2 was adsorbed by using pure CO 2 in the experiment at 12 h. Calcite is the only carbonate species in the post-carbonated slag analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. The approach provides the feasibility of the utilization of chromium slag and sequestration of the carbon dioxide at the same time at ordinary temperatures and pressures.

  1. Proteomic analysis of carbon concentrating chemolithotrophic bacteria Serratia sp. for sequestration of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Randhir K; Srivastava, Shaili; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    A chemolithotrophic bacterium enriched in the chemostat in presence of sodium bicarbonate as sole carbon source was identified as Serratia sp. by 16S rRNA sequencing. Carbon dioxide sequestering capacity of bacterium was detected by carbonic anhydrase enzyme and ribulose-1, 5- bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO). The purified carbonic anhydrase showed molecular weight of 29 kDa. Molecular weight of RuBisCO was 550 kDa as determined by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC), however, sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed presence of two subunits whose molecular weights were 56 and 14 kDa. The Western blot analysis of the crude protein and purified sample cross reacted with RuBisCO large-subunit polypeptides antibodies showed strong band pattern at molecular weight around 56 kDa regions. Whole cell soluble proteins of Serratia sp. grown under autotrophic and heterotrophic conditions were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/MS for differential expression of proteins. In proteomic analysis of 63 protein spots, 48 spots were significantly up-regulated in the autotrophically grown cells; seven enzymes showed its utilization in autotrophic carbon fixation pathways and other metabolic activities of bacterium including lipid metabolisms indicated sequestration potency of carbon dioxide and production of biomaterials.

  2. Proteomic analysis of carbon concentrating chemolithotrophic bacteria Serratia sp. for sequestration of carbon dioxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randhir K Bharti

    Full Text Available A chemolithotrophic bacterium enriched in the chemostat in presence of sodium bicarbonate as sole carbon source was identified as Serratia sp. by 16S rRNA sequencing. Carbon dioxide sequestering capacity of bacterium was detected by carbonic anhydrase enzyme and ribulose-1, 5- bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO. The purified carbonic anhydrase showed molecular weight of 29 kDa. Molecular weight of RuBisCO was 550 kDa as determined by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC, however, sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE showed presence of two subunits whose molecular weights were 56 and 14 kDa. The Western blot analysis of the crude protein and purified sample cross reacted with RuBisCO large-subunit polypeptides antibodies showed strong band pattern at molecular weight around 56 kDa regions. Whole cell soluble proteins of Serratia sp. grown under autotrophic and heterotrophic conditions were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/MS for differential expression of proteins. In proteomic analysis of 63 protein spots, 48 spots were significantly up-regulated in the autotrophically grown cells; seven enzymes showed its utilization in autotrophic carbon fixation pathways and other metabolic activities of bacterium including lipid metabolisms indicated sequestration potency of carbon dioxide and production of biomaterials.

  3. Carbon dioxide emissions due to Swedish imports and consumption: estimates using different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika; Assefa, Getachew; Wadeskog, Anders

    2007-04-01

    Global trade of products and services challenges the traditional way in which emissions of carbon dioxide are declared and accounted for. Instead of only considering territorial emissions there are now strong reasons to determine how the carbon dioxide emitted in the production of imports are partitioned around the world and how the total emissions change for a country's final consumption compared to final production. In this report results from four different methods of calculating the total carbon dioxide emissions from Sweden's overall consumption are presented. Total carbon dioxide emissions for Sweden's final consumption vary from 57 to 109 M tons during one year depending on the methodology. The four methods used for estimating these emissions give results of 57, 61, 68 and 109 Mton of carbon dioxide. Two methods are based on information concerning Sweden's imports and our national production of goods and services excluding production that is exported while two methods are based on final consumer expenditures. Three of the methods use mainly emission data from Sweden while one method depends entirely upon emission data from Sweden's trading partners. The last method also gives the highest emissions level, 109 Mton of carbon dioxide. The calculations performed here can be compared to the emissions reported by Sweden, 54 Mton of carbon dioxide per year. Our estimates give per capita emission levels of between 6,3 and 12 tons of carbon dioxide per year. The estimate of 12 tons per capita is a result of using emissions data from Sweden's trading partners. The total emissions as a result of Sweden's imports are 26 or 74 M tons of carbon dioxide depending on how they are calculated. The lower figure is based upon the imports of today but with emissions as if everything was produced as in Sweden. The higher level is based upon using existing but partly inadequate international emission statistics. These levels can be compared to the about 35 M tons of carbon dioxide

  4. Nuclear power and the carbon dioxide problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijlsma, J.J.; Blok, K.; Turkenburg, W.C.

    1989-05-01

    This study deals with the question, which contribution can be delivered by nuclear power to the redution of the emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the power supply. The emphasis lays upon the following aspects: the emissions of CO 2 which occur in the nuclear-power cycle (the so-called indirect emission of CO 2 power plants); the amount of uranium stocks; the change of CO 2 emission caused by replacement of fossil fuels, in particular coal, by nuclear power. First an energy-analysis of the nuclear power cycle is presented. On the base of this analysis the CO 2 uranium can be calculated. The role of nuclear power in the reduction of CO 2 emission depends on the development of the final power demand. Therefore in this study two scenarios derived from the 'IIASA-low' scenario; 'low-energy'-scenario in which the world-energy consumption remains at about the same level. In the calculations the indirect emissions of CO 2 , also dependent on the ore richness and the technology used, have always been taken into account. In the calculations two uranium-reserve variants of resp. 5.7 and 30 mln. tons have been assumed. From the results of the calculations it can be concluded that whether or not taking account of the indirect emissions of CO 2 in the nuclear power cycle, has only limited effect on the calculated contribution of nuclear power to the solution of the greenhouse effect. The uranium reserves turn out to be determining for the potential contribution of nuclear power. By putting on the surely available reserve of 5.7 mln. tons, or the speculative reserve of 30 mln. tons, with the actual technology, an emission of resp. 130-140 billion and 880 billion tons CO 2 can be avoided in replacing coal. With maximal employment of improved conversion techniques these contributions may be doubled. (H.W.). 40 refs.; 13 figs.; 10 tabs

  5. Carbon Dioxide Physiological Training at NASA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jennifer; Young, Millennia; Alexander, David; Mason, Sara S; Wear, Mary L; Méndez, Claudia M; Stanley, David; Ryder, Valerie Meyers; Van Baalen, Mary

    2017-10-01

    Astronauts undergo CO2 exposure training to recognize their symptoms that can arise acutely both on the ground and in spaceflight. This article describes acute CO2 exposure training at NASA and examines the symptoms reported by astronauts during training. In a controlled training environment, astronauts are exposed to up to 8% CO2 (60 mmHg) by a rebreathing apparatus. Symptoms are reported using a standard form. Symptom documentation forms between April 1994 and February 2012 were obtained for 130 astronauts. The number of symptoms reported per session out of the possible 24 was related to age and sex, with those older slightly more likely to report symptoms. Women reported more symptoms on average than men (men: 3.7, women: 4.7). Respiratory symptoms (90%), flushing sensation/sweating (56%), and dizziness/feeling faint/lightheadedness (43%) were the top symptoms. Only headache reached statistical significance in differences between men (13%) and women (37%) after adjustment for multiple testing. Among those with multiple training sessions, respiratory symptoms were the most consistently reported. CO2 exposure training is an important tool to educate astronauts about their potential acute CO2 symptoms. Wide interindividual and temporal variations were observed in symptoms reported during astronaut CO2 exposure training. Headache could not be relied on as a marker of acute exposure during testing since fewer than half the subjects reported it. Our results support periodic refresher training since symptoms may change over time. Further study is needed to determine the optimal interval of training to maximize symptom recognition and inform operational decisions.Law J, Young M, Alexander D, Mason SS, Wear ML, Méndez CM, Stanley D, Meyers Ryder V, Van Baalen M. Carbon dioxide physiological training at NASA. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(10):897-902.

  6. Carbon dioxide and climate: an astrophysical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandel, R S

    1979-01-01

    In this survey the earth is viewed from the astrophysical perspective, i.e. using global mean values of environmental parameters. The role of carbon dioxide is described in the processes of energy transfer from the earth's surface to space, which determine global climate as measured by the mean surface temperature. Analogies and differences between the problems of the terrestrial atmosphere and those of the solar and stellar atmospheres are examined, both in the computation of model atmospheres and in remote sensing of atmospheric temperature and composition. Subsequently, the temporal astrophysical perspective, with a review of the evolution of CO/sub 2/ abundance and climate on astrophysical or geological time scales, on earth as an Venus (the runaway greenhouse) and on Mars is introduced. Variation of CO/sub 2/ may have been critical to the maintenance of an environment in which life could originate and evolve, and may itself have been affected by life. On human time scales, the recent and continuing increase in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ raises new problems, which are briefly surveyed. It is argued, that the differential greenhouse effect of increased CO/sub 2/ in the earth's atmosphere is essentially identifical to the blanketing effect of spectral lines on the temperature structure of stellar atmospheres. The methods used by astrophysicists in such studies are reviewed and compared with those used to evaluate the differential greenhouse effect of CO/sub 2/ in radiative-convective models of the earth's atmosphere. The latter methods remain relatively crude, but recent results by different authors are in reasonably good agreement; however, the astrophysical perspective, i.e. the use of one-dimensional global mean models, remains a gross simplification of the real complexity of the earth's climate system, which is also true in stellar atmospheres.

  7. Dissolution testing of intermediary products in uranium dioxide production by the sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melichar, F.; Landspersky, H.; Urbanek, V.

    1979-01-01

    A method was developed of dissolving polyuranates and uranium dioxides in sulphuric acid and in carbonate solutions for testing intermediate products in the sol-gel process preparation of uranium dioxide. A detailed granulometric analysis of spherical particle dispersion was included as part of the tests. Two different production methods were used for the two types of studied materials. The test results show that the test method is suitable for determining temperature sensitivity of the materials to dissolution reaction. The geometrical distribution of impurities in the spherical particles can be determined from the dissolution kinetics. The method allows the determination of the effect of carbon from impurities on the process of uranium dioxide leaching and is thus applicable for testing materials prepared by the sol-gel method. (Z.M.)

  8. Reactor design considerations in mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ityokumbul, M.T.; Chander, S.; O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    One of the promising approaches to lowering the anthropogenic carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere is mineral sequestration. In this approach, the carbon dioxide reacts with alkaline earth containing silicate minerals forming magnesium and/or calcium carbonates. Mineral carbonation is a multiphase reaction process involving gas, liquid and solid phases. The effective design and scale-up of the slurry reactor for mineral carbonation will require careful delineation of the rate determining step and how it changes with the scale of the reactor. The shrinking core model was used to describe the mineral carbonation reaction. Analysis of laboratory data indicates that the transformations of olivine and serpentine are controlled by chemical reaction and diffusion through an ash layer respectively. Rate parameters for olivine and serpentine carbonation are estimated from the laboratory data

  9. Carbon dioxide fixation in isolated Kalanchoe chloroplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levi, C.; Gibbs, M.

    1975-07-01

    Chloroplasts isolated from Kalanchoe diagremontiana leaves were capable of photosynthesizing at a rate of 5.4 ..mu..moles of CO/sub 2/ per milligram of chlorophyll per hour. The dark rate of fixation was about 1 percent of the light rate. A high photosynthetic rate was associated with low starch content of the leaves. Ribose 5-phosphate, fructose 1, 6-diphosphate, and dithiothreitol stimulated fixation, whereas phosphoenolpyruvate and azide were inhibitors. The products of CO/sub 2/ fixation were primarily those of the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle. (auth)

  10. Dissolved Carbon Dioxide in Tropical East Atlantic Surface Waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.C.E.; Baar, H.J.W. de; Jong, E. de

    1999-01-01

    Variability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and the fugacity of carbon dioxide (fCO2) is discussed for tropical East Atlantic surface waters in October–November 1993 and May–June 1994. High precipitation associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone, river input and equatorial upwelling

  11. Assessing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Energy Use at a University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, William; Bhatia, Krishan Kumar; Parisi, Matthew; Foote, Jessica; Imperatore, John, III

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the carbon dioxide emissions associated with electric, HVAC, and hot water use from a US university. Design/methodology/approach: First, the total on-campus electrical, natural gas and oil consumption for an entire year was assessed. For each category of energy use, the carbon associated with…

  12. Ions in carbon dioxide at an atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezoe, Yasumasa; Onuki, Kaoru; Shimizu, Saburo; Nakajima, Hayato; Sato, Shoichi; Matsuoka, Shingo; Nakamura, Hirone; Tamura, Takaaki

    1985-01-01

    The formation and the subsequent reactions of positive and negative ions were observed by a time resolved atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer (TRAPI) in an atmospheric pressure carbon dioxide added with small amounts of carbon monoxide and oxygen. A relatively stable ion of (44 x n) + (n >= 2) having a different reactivity from that of (CO 2 ) + sub(n) was found to be one of major ionic species in this gas system. This species was tentatively assigned as [O 2 (CO) 2 ] + (CO 2 )sub(n-2). A new reaction sequence of positive ions is proposed which can be operative in the radiolysis of carbon dioxide at 1 atm. (author)

  13. 27.12 MHz plasma generation in supercritical carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Ayato; Toyota, Hiromichi; Nomura, Shinfuku; Takemori, Toshihiko; Mukasa, Shinobu; Maehara, Tsunehiro; Yamashita, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was conducted for generating high-frequency plasma in supercritical carbon dioxide; it is expected to have the potential for applications in various types of practical processes. It was successfully generated at 6-20 MPa using electrodes mounted in a supercritical cell with a gap of 1 mm. Emission spectra were then measured to investigate the physical properties of supercritical carbon dioxide plasma. The results indicated that while the emission spectra for carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide could be mainly obtained at a low pressure, the emission spectra for atomic oxygen could be obtained in the supercritical state, which increased with the pressure. The temperature of the plasma in supercritical state was estimated to be approximately 6000-7000 K on the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium and the calculation results of thermal equilibrium composition in this state showed the increase of atomic oxygen by the decomposition of CO 2

  14. Gettering of carbon dioxide by erbium thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrhoff, T.K.

    1980-01-01

    The interaction of carbon dioxide and erbium thin films is characterized for temperatures in the region of 300 to 900 0 C and partial pressure of carbon dioxide near 5 x 10 -7 Torr. Dynamic film pumping speeds were measured against a mercury diffusion pump of known pumping speed and conductance. A quadrupole mass spectrometer was used to monitor the carbon dioxide flow which originated from a calibrated leak in the 10 -6 standard cm 3 /s range. Data reduction was via a dedicated minicomputer with associated printer/plotter. Temperature ramp experiments with thin erbium films indicated a significant reaction above 300 0 C. The reaction was preceded by the desorption of water vapor, hydrogen and nitrogen and/or carbon monoxide from the film surface

  15. Analysis of energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in ceramic tile manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monfort, E.; Mezquita, A.; Granel, R.; Vaquer, E.; Escrig, A.; Miralles, A.; Zaera, V.

    2010-01-01

    The ceramic tile manufacturing process is energy intensive since it contains several stages in which the product is subject to thermal treatment. The thermal energy used in the process is usually obtained by combustion of natural gas, which is a fossil fuel whose oxidation produces emissions of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. Energy costs account for 15% of the average direct manufacturing costs, and are strongly influenced by the price of natural gas, which has increased significantly in the last few years. Carbon dioxide emissions are internationally monitored and controlled in the frame of the Kyoto Protocol. Applicable Spanish law is based on the European Directive on emissions trading, and the assignment of emissions rights is based on historical values in the sectors involved. Legislation is scheduled to change in 2013, and the resulting changes will directly affect the Spanish ceramic tile manufacturing industry, since many facilities will become part of the emissions trading system. The purpose of this study is to determine current thermal energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in the ceramic tile manufacturing process. A comprehensive sectoral study has been carried out for this purpose on several levels: the first analyses energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in the entire industry; the second determines energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in industrial facilities over a long period of time (several months); while the third level breaks down these values, determining energy consumption and emissions in terms of the product made and the manufacturing stage. (Author) 8 refs.

  16. A review on photo-thermal catalytic conversion of carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ee Teng Kho

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of carbon dioxide into value-added products is of great industrial and environmental interest. However, as carbon dioxide is relatively stable, the input energy required for this conversion is a significant limiting factor in the system's performance. By utilising energy from the sun, through a range of key routes, this limitation can be overcome. In this review, we present a comprehensive and critical overview of the potential routes to harvest the sun's energy, primarily through solar-thermal technologies and plasmonic resonance effects. Focusing on the localised heating approach, this review shortlists and compares viable catalysts for the photo-thermal catalytic conversion of carbon dioxide. Further, the pathways and potential products of different carbon dioxide conversion routes are outlined with the reverse water gas shift, methanation, and methanol synthesis being of key interest. Finally, the challenges in implementing such systems and the outlook to the future are detailed. Keywords: Carbon dioxide conversion, Photo-thermal, Plasmonic catalysis, Solar thermal

  17. Biological fixation of carbon dioxide. Seibutsu ni yoru nisanka tanso no kotei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Someya, J [Fermentaion Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1991-10-20

    Bulks of photosynthetic product to reduce the carbon dioxide by the light energy are forests, represented by the tropical rain forests, on the land, and marine algae and coral reefs in the ocean. For the purpose of effectively utilizing the fixation power of carbon dioxide through the photosynthesis by higher plants and algae, it is necessary to make many further researches, starting with a conditional selection of species, excellent in both absorption and fixation of carbon dioxide. The Japan Technology Transfer Association has recently issued a design to build a large scale closed type farm in the vicinity of factory, exhausting the carbon dioxide, and supply it to structure a system of producing vegetable and other food. What largely contributes to the calcification in the ocean is the coral reefs, where coral is symbiotic with brown algae., called dinoflagellatae. Those algae are judged to accelerate the formation of calcium carbonate by the photosynthesis. To estimate the absorption power of oceanic carbon dioxide, it is important to quantitatively know the calcification by the coral. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center - A for atmospheric trace gases. Fiscal year 1996, annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Jones, S.B. [and others

    1997-02-01

    Fiscal year 1996 was especially productive for the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report describes publications and statistical data from the CDIAC.

  19. Biomass combustion for greenhouse carbon dioxide enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Yves; Lefsrud, Mark; Orsat, Valerie; Filion, Francis; Bouchard, Julien; Nguyen, Quoc; Dion, Louis-Martin; Glover, Antony; Madadian, Edris; Lee, Camilo Perez

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouses in northern climates have a significant heat requirement that is mainly supplied by non-renewable fuels such as heating oil and natural gas. This project's goal was the development of an improved biomass furnace able to recover the heat and the CO 2 available in the flue gas and use them in the greenhouse. A flue gas purification system was designed, constructed and installed on the chimney of a wood pellet furnace (SBI Caddy Alterna). The purification system consists of a rigid box air filter (MERV rating 14, 0.3 μm pores) followed by two sets of heating elements and a catalytic converter. The air filter removes the particulates present in the flue gas while the heating elements and catalysers transform the noxious gases into less harmful gases. Gas analysis was sampled at different locations in the system using a TESTO 335 flue gas analyzer. The purification system reduces CO concentrations from 1100 cm 3  m −3 to less than 1 cm 3  m −3 NO x from 70 to 5.5 cm 3  m −3 SO 2 from 19 cm 3  m −3 to less than 1 cm 3  m −3 and trapped particulates down to 0.3 μm with an efficiency greater than 95%. These results are satisfactory since they ensure human and plant safety after dilution into the ambient air of the greenhouse. The recuperation of the flue gas has several obvious benefits since it increases the heat usability per unit biomass and it greatly improves the CO 2 recovery of biomass heating systems for the benefit of greenhouse grown plants. - Highlights: • Biomass furnace shows high potential for greenhouse carbon dioxide enrichment. • Flue gas recuperation significantly increases the thermal efficiency of a furnace. • Catalytic converter can reduce CO and NOx below humans and plants exposure limit. • Particulates control is essential to maintain the efficiency of the catalytic conversion. • CO 2 recovery from biomass heating systems reduces farmer's reliance on fossil fuel

  20. Direct carbon dioxide emissions from civil aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Matt; Williams, Ian; Preston, John

    2014-10-01

    Global airlines consume over 5 million barrels of oil per day, and the resulting carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by aircraft engines is of concern. This article provides a contemporary review of the literature associated with the measures available to the civil aviation industry for mitigating CO2 emissions from aircraft. The measures are addressed under two categories - policy and legal-related measures, and technological and operational measures. Results of the review are used to develop several insights into the challenges faced. The analysis shows that forecasts for strong growth in air-traffic will result in civil aviation becoming an increasingly significant contributor to anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Some mitigation-measures can be left to market-forces as the key-driver for implementation because they directly reduce airlines' fuel consumption, and their impact on reducing fuel-costs will be welcomed by the industry. Other mitigation-measures cannot be left to market-forces. Speed of implementation and stringency of these measures will not be satisfactorily resolved unattended, and the current global regulatory-framework does not provide the necessary strength of stewardship. A global regulator with ‘teeth' needs to be established, but investing such a body with the appropriate level of authority requires securing an international agreement which history would suggest is going to be very difficult. If all mitigation-measures are successfully implemented, it is still likely that traffic growth-rates will continue to out-pace emissions reduction-rates. Therefore, to achieve an overall reduction in CO2 emissions, behaviour change will be necessary to reduce demand for air-travel. However, reducing demand will be strongly resisted by all stakeholders in the industry; and the ticket price-increases necessary to induce the required reduction in traffic growth-rates place a monetary-value on CO2 emissions of approximately 7-100 times greater than other common

  1. Environmental cables may provide electricity without carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedrelid, Ola N.

    2005-01-01

    It is asserted in this article that a large-scale development of cables between Norway and the Continent may have such large environmental advantages that it will greatly affect the future energy and environmental policy in Norway. Preliminary figures show that by interaction of Norwegian hydropower and European thermal power the reduction in CO 2 emission may amount to more than 6 million tonnes per year. This corresponds to Norway's Kyoto commitment. It is not always realized that when the thermal power stations must continuously adjust production in step with consumption then the efficiency is strongly reduced. The fuel consumption rises and so does the emission of carbon dioxide per kWh. Hydropower plants can easily take these load variations, and then the thermal power stations will be able to run more evenly which strongly increases efficiency and cuts the CO 2 emissions to the environment

  2. Limestone-Concentrate-Pellet Roasting in wet Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1990-01-01

    A roast process for treating chalcopyrite concentrate was developed. The investigation of the reaction of limestone-concentrate-pellet in a wet carbon dioxide flow was carried out by means of a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to determine at which temperatures the roasting reaction would take place. The thermodynamic calculations on the roast reaction were made by the use of SOLGASMIX-PV program. The TGA curves and thermodynamic calculations indicated that the conversion of chalcopyrite into bornite took place at about 975K, and the conversion of bornite into chalcocite at 1065-1123K. The thermodynamic calculations also showed that the sulfur released was fixed as calcium sulfide within roasted pellets. X-ray diffraction examination identified these phases in products.

  3. Multum in Parvo: Explorations with a Small Bag of Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EJM Campbell

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A collection of 12 papers published between 1957 and 1972 are revisited. The papers had a common theme of the use of rebreathing carbon dioxide and explored a variety of topics in respiratory physiology. The first study established a method for the noninvasive and indirect estimation of arterial carbon dioxide pressure that was suitable for the routine clinical monitoring of respiratory failure and whose clinical utility remains to this day, but which also provided observations that were the stimulus for the studies that followed. The rate of rise in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2 during rebreathing led to an analysis of body carbon dioxide storage capacity. Knowledge of carbon dioxide storage led to a method for quantifying lactate production in exercise without the need for blood sampling. The changes in ventilation that accompanied the increase in PCO2 provided the basis for a rapid method for measuring aspects of breathing control (Read's method, which was later modified to measure the ventilatory response to hypoxia. The physiology of breath-holding was explored through observations of the fall in breath-holding time as PCO2 climbed. Rebreathing also allowed increases in voluntary ventilation to be achieved without the development of alkalosis, leading to studies of maximal voluntary ventilation and respiratory muscle fatigue. Equilibration of PCO2 during rebreathing was used to measure mixed venous PCO2 during exercise and develop an integrated approach to the physiology of exercise in health and disease; alveolar-arterial disequilibrium in PCO2 during exercise was uncovered. Equilibration of PCO2, as well as PO2, during rebreathing of carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas mixtures showed different time courses of venous gases at the onset of exercise. Starting with the rebreathing of carbon dioxide in oxygen mixtures in a small rubber bag, an astonishing range of topics in respiratory physiology was explored, with observations

  4. Carbon dioxide and the greenhouse effect: an unresolved problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, I M

    1978-01-01

    This paper evaluates current scientific literature concerned with the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The extent and possible causes of natural variations in global climate are outlined as a background to potential variations due to human activity. Estimates are given on relative contributions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere due to fossil fuel combustion, deforestation and other land modifications. The possibility of a rise in global temperature as a result of increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is discussed including model predictions, natural factors which could compensate for or emphasize a warming effect, and the implications if extensive warming actually occurred. Carbon dioxide disposal is discussed but there appears to be no practicable long-term means of accomplishing this. It is concluded that there is no evidence of a rise in global temperature due to carbon dioxide at present. Predictions, which involve a high degree of uncertainty, indicate that the global temperature could rise appreciably in the next century. An increase in precipitation rate is also expected.

  5. Carbon dioxide and the 'greenhouse effect': an unresolved problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, I

    1978-01-01

    This executive review evaluates current scientific literature concerned with the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The extent and possible causes of natural variations in global climate are outlined as a background to potential variations due to human activity. Estimates are given on relative contributions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere due to fossil fuel combustion, deforestation and other land modifications. The possibility of a rise in global temperature as a result of increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is dicusssed including model predictions, natural factors which could compensate for or emphasize a warming effect, and the implications if extensive warming actually occurred. Carbon dioxide disposal is discussed, but there appears to be no practicable long-term means of accomplishing this. It is concluded that there is no evidence of a rise in global temperature due to carbon dioxide at present. Predictions, which involve a high degree of uncertainty, indicate that the global temperature could rise appreciably in the next century. An increase in precipitation rate is also expected. If these changes result in a redistribution of climatic zones, there may be problems in adapting agricultural belts in some regions. Complete melting of all the ice sheets would take several millenia. A partial melting of continental ice sheets would not necessarily occur in view of the increase in precipitation rates, but if it did, there would be a rise in sea level of a few metres. Melting of the Arctic sea ice would affect climate, but not sea level.

  6. Measures for carbon dioxide problem and utilization of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Toshinori

    1992-01-01

    As global environment problems, there are water, expansion of deserts, weather, tropical forests, wild animals, ocean pollution, nuclear waste contamination, acid rain, ozone layer and so on, and population, foods, energy, and resources are the problems surrounding them. It is clear that these origins are attributed to the development and consumption largely dependent on the intention of developed countries and the population problem of developing countries. In this report, the discharge of carbon dioxide that causes greenhouse effect and its relation with energy are discussed. The increase of carbon dioxide concentration, its release from fossil fuel, the destruction of forests, the balance of carbon on the earth, the development of new energy such as solar energy, the transport of new energy, secondary energy system and the role of carbon dioxide, the transfer to low carbon fuel and the carbon reduction treatment of fuel, the utilization of unused energy and energy price, the efficiency of energy utilization, the heightening of efficiency of energy conversion, energy conservation and the breakaway from energy wasteful use culture, and the recovery, preservation and use of discharged carbon dioxide are described. (K.I.)

  7. Generation, capture, and utilization of industrial carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Andrew J; Sin, Emily H K; Marriott, Ray; Clark, James H

    2010-03-22

    As a carbon-based life form living in a predominantly carbon-based environment, it is not surprising that we have created a carbon-based consumer society. Our principle sources of energy are carbon-based (coal, oil, and gas) and many of our consumer goods are derived from organic (i.e., carbon-based) chemicals (including plastics, fabrics and materials, personal care and cleaning products, dyes, and coatings). Even our large-volume inorganic-chemicals-based industries, including fertilizers and construction materials, rely on the consumption of carbon, notably in the form of large amounts of energy. The environmental problems which we now face and of which we are becoming increasingly aware result from a human-induced disturbance in the natural carbon cycle of the Earth caused by transferring large quantities of terrestrial carbon (coal, oil, and gas) to the atmosphere, mostly in the form of carbon dioxide. Carbon is by no means the only element whose natural cycle we have disturbed: we are transferring significant quantities of elements including phosphorus, sulfur, copper, and platinum from natural sinks or ores built up over millions of years to unnatural fates in the form of what we refer to as waste or pollution. However, our complete dependence on the carbon cycle means that its disturbance deserves special attention, as is now manifest in indicators such as climate change and escalating public concern over global warming. As with all disturbances in materials balances, we can seek to alleviate the problem by (1) dematerialization: a reduction in consumption; (2) rematerialization: a change in what we consume; or (3) transmaterialization: changing our attitude towards resources and waste. The "low-carbon" mantra that is popularly cited by organizations ranging from nongovernmental organizations to multinational companies and from local authorities to national governments is based on a combination of (1) and (2) (reducing carbon consumption though greater

  8. Evaluating carbon dioxide emissions in international trade of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Boqiang; Sun Chuanwang

    2010-01-01

    China is the world's largest emitter of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). As exports account for about one-third of China's GDP, the CO 2 emissions are related to not only China's own consumption but also external demand. Using the input-output analysis (IOA), we analyze the embodied CO 2 emissions of China's import and export. Our results show that about 3357 million tons CO 2 emissions were embodied in the exports and the emissions avoided by imports (EAI) were 2333 million tons in 2005. The average contribution to embodied emission factors by electricity generation was over 35%. And that by cement production was about 20%. It implies that the production-based emissions of China are more than the consumption-based emissions, which is evidence that carbon leakage occurs under the current climate policies and international trade rules. In addition to the call for a new global framework to allocate emission responsibilities, China should make great efforts to improve its energy efficiency, carry out electricity pricing reforms and increase renewable energy. In particular, to use advanced technology in cement production will be helpful to China's CO 2 abatement.

  9. Measurement of carbon dioxide fluxes in a free-air carbon dioxide enrichment experiment using the closed flux chamber technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsted, Merete Bang; Ambus, Per; Michelsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes, composing net ecosystem exchange (NEE), ecosystem respiration (ER), and soil respiration (SR) were measured in a temperate heathland exposed to elevated CO2 by the FACE (free-air carbon enrichment) technique, raising the atmospheric CO2 concentration from c. 380 μmol...

  10. Method and aparatus for flue gas cleaning by separation and liquefaction of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelmalek, F.T.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method for recovering sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, and cleaning flue gases emitted from power plants. It comprises: electronically treating the flue gases to neutralize its electrostatic charges and to enhance the coagulation of its molecules and particles; exchanging sensible and latent heat of the neutralized flue gases to lower its temperature down to a temperature approaching the ambient temperature while recovering its separating the flue gas in a first stage; cooling the separated enriched carbon dioxide gas fraction, after each separation stage, while removing its vapor condensate, then compressing the enriched carbon dioxide gas fraction and simultaneously cooling the compressed gas to liquefy the sulfur dioxide gas then; allowing the sulfur dioxide gas to condense, and continuously removing the liquefied sulfur dioxide; compressing he desulfurized enriched carbon dioxide fraction to further increase its pressure, and simultaneously cooling he compressed gas to liquefy the carbon dioxide gas, then; allowing the carbon dioxide gas to condense and continuously removing the liquefied carbon dioxide; allowing the light components of the flue gas to be released in a cooling tower discharge plume

  11. Spatially explicit simulation of peatland hydrology and carbon dioxide exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnentag, O.

    2008-01-01

    A recent version of the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) was extended and modified to include northern peatlands. This thesis evaluated the BEPS-TerrainLab using observations made at the Mer Bleue bog located near Ottawa, Ontario, and the Sandhill fen located near Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. The code was revised to represent the multi-layer canopy and processes related to energy, water vapour and carbon dioxide fluxes through remotely-sensed leaf area index (LAI) maps. A quick and reliable method was also developed to determine shrub LAI with the LAI-2000 plant canopy analyzer. A large number of LAI data was collected at the Mer Bleue bog for the development of a new remote sensing-based methodology using multiple end member spectral unmixing to allow for separate tree and shrub LAI mapping in ombrotrophic peatlands. The methodology was also adapted for use in minerotrophic peatlands and their surrounding landscapes. These LAI maps within the BEPS-TerrainLab represented the tree and shrub layers of the Mer Bleue bog and the tree and shrub/sedge layers of the Sandhill fen. The study examined the influence of mesoscale topography (Mer Bleue bog) and macro- and mesoscale topography (Sandhill fen) on wetness, evapotranspiration, and gross primary productivity during the snow-free period of 2004. The results suggested that a peatland type-specific differentiation of macro- and mesoscale topographic effects on hydrology should be included in future peatland ecosystem modelling efforts in order to allow for a more realistic simulation of the soil water balance in peatlands and to reduce uncertainties in carbon dioxide and methane annual fluxes from wetlands

  12. Spatially explicit simulation of peatland hydrology and carbon dioxide exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnentag, O.

    2008-08-01

    A recent version of the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) was extended and modified to include northern peatlands. This thesis evaluated the BEPS-TerrainLab using observations made at the Mer Bleue bog located near Ottawa, Ontario, and the Sandhill fen located near Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. The code was revised to represent the multi-layer canopy and processes related to energy, water vapour and carbon dioxide fluxes through remotely-sensed leaf area index (LAI) maps. A quick and reliable method was also developed to determine shrub LAI with the LAI-2000 plant canopy analyzer. A large number of LAI data was collected at the Mer Bleue bog for the development of a new remote sensing-based methodology using multiple end member spectral unmixing to allow for separate tree and shrub LAI mapping in ombrotrophic peatlands. The methodology was also adapted for use in minerotrophic peatlands and their surrounding landscapes. These LAI maps within the BEPS-TerrainLab represented the tree and shrub layers of the Mer Bleue bog and the tree and shrub/sedge layers of the Sandhill fen. The study examined the influence of mesoscale topography (Mer Bleue bog) and macro- and mesoscale topography (Sandhill fen) on wetness, evapotranspiration, and gross primary productivity during the snow-free period of 2004. The results suggested that a peatland type-specific differentiation of macro- and mesoscale topographic effects on hydrology should be included in future peatland ecosystem modelling efforts in order to allow for a more realistic simulation of the soil water balance in peatlands and to reduce uncertainties in carbon dioxide and methane annual fluxes from wetlands.

  13. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO(sub 2) as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbents being investigated in this project are primarily alkali carbonates, and particularly sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, which are converted to bicarbonates, through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Bicarbonates are regenerated to carbonates when heated, producing a nearly pure CO(sub 2) stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, electrobalance tests conducted at LSU indicated that exposure of sorbent to water vapor prior to contact with carbonation gas does not significantly increase the reaction rate. Calcined fine mesh trona has a greater initial carbonation rate than calcined sodium bicarbonate, but appears to be more susceptible to loss of reactivity under severe calcination conditions. The Davison attrition indices for Grade 5 sodium bicarbonate, commercial grade sodium carbonate and extra fine granular potassium carbonate were, as tested, outside of the range suitable for entrained bed reactor testing. Fluidized bed testing at RTI indicated that in the initial stages of reaction potassium carbonate removed 35% of the carbon dioxide in simulated flue gas, and is reactive at higher temperatures than sodium carbonate. Removals declined to 6% when 54% of the capacity of the sorbent was exhausted. Carbonation data from electrobalance testing was correlated using a shrinking core reaction model. The activation energy of the reaction of sodium carbonate with carbon dioxide and water vapor was determined from nonisothermal thermogravimetry

  14. CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION ASSOCIATED WITH THE PRODUCTION OF PLASTICS - A COMPARISON OF PRODUCTION FROM CRUDE OIL AND RECYCLING FOR THE DUTCH CASE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rem, Peter C.; Olsen, Stig Irving; Welink, Jan-Henk

    2009-01-01

    recycling to the production of plastics from crude oil as a reference. The first scenario deals with packaging waste from selective collection, in which data from the current practice of the German DSD system were translated for the Dutch situation. In the second scenario, plastic packaging recovered from...... household waste using mechanical separation techniques is considered. It is assumed in the second scenario that the plastics are separated from the rest of the household waste and processed further to a compound close to the site at which the rest of the waste is disposed of, e.g. at an incinerator plant...

  15. The carbon dioxide problem - a challenge to environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlubek, W.; Spalthoff, F.J.

    1989-01-01

    Over the last century, man's activities on earth have sent off trace gases into the planet's atmosphere that have been concentrating to a level posing a threat to the global climate. Since scientists particularly spotted carbon dioxide as the main contributor to what we now call the greenhouse effect, there is urgent need for measures reducing carbon dioxide emission worldwide, may be on the basis of a global convention to be signed by both the industrialised and the developing countries. The industrialised countries, which certainly are the main pollutors, also will have the technological and financial resources to respond to the challenge of global warning more directly and faster than the developing countries. The power industry's management in the FRG is taking the problem seriously and has already come out with strategies for curbing carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel power plant. (orig.) [de

  16. Interaction of titanium and vanadium with carbon dioxide in heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasyuk, R.Z.; Kurovskii, V.Y.; Lyapunov, A.P.; Radomysel'skii, I.D.

    1986-01-01

    To obtain prediction data on the change in properties of titaniumand vanadium-base powder metallurgy materials operating in a carbon dioxide atmosphere, and also to clarify the mechanism of their interaction with the gas in this work, gravimetric investigations of specimens heated at temperatures of 300-1000 C and an x-ray diffraction analysis of their surface were made and the composition of the gas in the heating chamber was studied. The results of the investigations indicate a similarity between the mechanisms of interaction of titanium and vanadium with carbon dioxide including the formation of oxides on the surface of the metal with subsequent carbidization at temperatures above 800 C. On the basis of the data obtained, it may be concluded that the operating temperature limits of titanium- or vanadium-base materials in carbon dioxide must not exceed 400 and 600 C, respectively

  17. Carbonic acid as a reserve of carbon dioxide on icy moons: The formation of carbon dioxide (CO2) in a polar environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Brant M.; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Strazzulla, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has been detected on the surface of several icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn via observation of the ν 3 band with the Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on board the Galileo spacecraft and the Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on board the Cassini spacecraft. Interestingly, the CO 2 band for several of these moons exhibits a blueshift along with a broader profile than that seen in laboratory studies and other astrophysical environments. As such, numerous attempts have been made in order to clarify this abnormal behavior; however, it currently lacks an acceptable physical or chemical explanation. We present a rather surprising result pertaining to the synthesis of carbon dioxide in a polar environment. Here, carbonic acid was synthesized in a water (H 2 O)-carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) (1:5) ice mixture exposed to ionizing radiation in the form of 5 keV electrons. The irradiated ice mixture was then annealed, producing pure carbonic acid which was then subsequently irradiated, recycling water and carbon dioxide. However, the observed carbon dioxide ν 3 band matches almost exactly with that observed on Callisto; subsequent temperature program desorption studies reveal that carbon dioxide synthesized under these conditions remains in solid form until 160 K, i.e., the sublimation temperature of water. Consequently, our results suggest that carbon dioxide on Callisto as well as other icy moons is indeed complexed with water rationalizing the shift in peak frequency, broad profile, and the solid state existence on these relatively warm moons.

  18. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, L.K.; Phylipsen, G.J.M.; Worrell, E.

    2001-04-01

    Iron and steel production consumes enormous quantities of energy, especially in developing countries where outdated, inefficient technologies are still used to produce iron and steel. Carbon dioxide emissions from steel production, which range between 5 and 15% of total country emissions in key developing countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa), will continue to grow as these countries develop and as demand for steel products such as materials, automobiles, and appliances increases. In this report, we describe the key steel processes, discuss typical energy-intensity values for these processes, review historical trends in iron and steel production by process in five key developing countries, describe the steel industry in each of the five key developing countries, present international comparisons of energy use and carbon dioxide emissions among these countries, and provide our assessment of the technical potential to reduce these emissions based on best-practice benchmarking. Using a best practice benchmark, we find that significant savings, in the range of 33% to 49% of total primary energy used to produce steel, are technically possible in these countries. Similarly, we find that the technical potential for reducing intensities of carbon dioxide emissions ranges between 26% and 49% of total carbon dioxide emissions from steel production in these countries.

  19. Hydrogen production by dry reforming of methane with carbon dioxide in one-dimensional nickel-based catalysts; Produccion de hidrogeno mediante el reformado seco de metano con dioxido de carbono en catalizadores unidimensionales a base de niquel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez U, A. C.

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of this thesis is development of nickel catalysts supported over 1D matrix of cerium oxide, to be used in dry reforming methane reaction with carbon dioxide for hydrogen production. The catalysts were characterized by: Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR), Scanning Electronic Microscopy (Sem), Surface Area (Bet method) an X Ray Diffraction (XRD). The TPR technique allowed to define reduction temperature of the active phase in the catalyst, Sem technique showed that the CeO{sub 2} matrix had a nano rod morphology. XRD allowed to identify the crystalline phases of the catalysts. Finally, the catalysts were tested in the dry reforming methane reaction, high catalytic activity and hydrogen production were performed at 700 degrees Celsius and the catalyst with 30 wt.% of nickel. (Author)

  20. Influence of carbon dioxide content in the biogas to nitrogen oxides emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Marija A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuels derived from biomass are an alternative solution for the fossil fuel shortage. Usually this kind of fuels is called low calorific value fuels, due to the large proportion of inert components in their composition. The most common is carbon dioxide, and its proportion in biogas can be different, from 10 up to 40%, or even more. The presence of inert component in the composition of biogas causes the problems that are related with flame blow off limits. One of the possibilities for efficient combustion of biogas is the combustion in swirling flow including a pilot burner, aimed to expand the borders of stable combustion. This paper presents an analysis of the influence of the carbon dioxide content to the nitrogen oxides emissions. Laboratory biogas was used with different content of CO2 (10, 20, 30 and 40%. Investigation was carried out for different nominal powers, coefficients of excess air and carbon dioxide content. With increasing content of carbon dioxide, emission of nitrogen oxides was reduced, and this trend was the same throughout the whole range of excess air, carried out through measurements. Still, the influence of carbon dioxide content is significantly less than the influence of excess air. The coefficient of excess air greatly affects the production of radicals which are essential for the formation of nitrogen oxides, O, OH and CH. Also, the results show that the nominal power has no impact on the emission of nitrogen oxides.

  1. Effect of Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration on Carbon Assimilation under Fluctuating Light

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holišová, Petra; Zitová, Martina; Klem, Karel; Urban, Otmar

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 6 (2012), s. 1931-1938 ISSN 0047-2425 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/10/0340; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007; GA AV ČR IAA600870701 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : carbon * light * beech * spruce * carbon assimilation * elevat e carbon * dioxide concentration * mol * photosynthetic * assimilation * carbon dioxide * dioxide * concentracion * leave * photosynthetic efficiency Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.353, year: 2012

  2. BOREAS TGB-12 Isotropic Carbon Dioxide Data over the NSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbore, Susan; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Sundquist, Eric; Winston, Greg; Conrad, Sara K. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TGB-12 team made measurements of soil carbon inventories, carbon concentration in soil gases, and rates of soil respiration at several sites to estimate the rates of carbon accumulation and turnover in each of the major vegetation types. This data set contains information on the carbon isotopic content of carbon dioxide sampled from soils in the NSA-OBS, NSA-YJP, and NSA-OJP sites. Data were collected from 14-Nov-1993 to 10-Oct-1996. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  3. Does Aerobic Respiration Produce Carbon Dioxide or Hydrogen Ion and Bicarbonate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Erik R

    2018-05-01

    Maintenance of intracellular pH is critical for clinical homeostasis. The metabolism of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids yielding the generation of adenosine triphosphate in the mitochondria is accompanied by the production of acid in the Krebs cycle. Both the nature of this acidosis and the mechanism of its disposal have been argued by two investigators with a long-abiding interest in acid-base physiology. They offer different interpretations and views of the molecular mechanism of this intracellular pH regulation during normal metabolism. Dr. John Severinghaus has posited that hydrogen ion and bicarbonate are the direct end products in the Krebs cycle. In the late 1960s, he showed in brain and brain homogenate experiments that acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, reduces intracellular pH. This led him to conclude that hydrogen ion and bicarbonate are the end products, and the role of intracellular carbonic anhydrase is to rapidly generate diffusible carbon dioxide to minimize acidosis. Dr. Erik Swenson posits that carbon dioxide is a direct end product in the Krebs cycle, a more widely accepted view, and that acetazolamide prevents rapid intracellular bicarbonate formation, which can then codiffuse with carbon dioxide to the cell surface and there be reconverted for exit from the cell. Loss of this "facilitated diffusion of carbon dioxide" leads to intracellular acidosis as the still appreciable uncatalyzed rate of carbon dioxide hydration generates more protons. This review summarizes the available evidence and determines that resolution of this question will require more sophisticated measurements of intracellular pH with faster temporal resolution.

  4. Interaction of carbon dioxide with Cu overlayers on Pt(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, N.; Andersson, Klas Jerker; Grabow, L.C.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies on the interaction of carbon dioxide with pseudomorphic and rough copper layers deposited on a platinum (111) single crystal are reported. Evidence for carbon dioxide dissociation and carbonate formation is presented and the relevance to methanol synthesis......) reveals a broad high temperature desorption state for CO2 with peak maximum around 450 K. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) shows that approximately one third of the oxygen accumulated on the surface upon CO2 exposure remains after TPD, indicative of carbonate formation via CO2 dissociation supplying...... O-ads and then facile CO2 + O-ads association, as well as subsequent decomposition at higher temperatures. Density functional theory studies of stepped Cu and Cu/Pt slabs reproduce vibrational frequencies of the carbonate, suggesting a nearly flat tridentate configuration at steps/defect sites....

  5. Liquid carbon dioxide absorbents, methods of using the same, and related system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Robert James; Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev; Rubinsztajn, Malgorzata Iwona; O'Brien, Michael Joseph; Lewis, Larry Neil; Lam, Tunchiao Hubert; Kniajanski, Sergei; Hancu, Dan

    2018-05-01

    A carbon dioxide absorbent composition is described, including (i) a liquid, nonaqueous silicon-based material, functionalized with one or more groups that either reversibly react with CO2 or have a high-affinity for CO2, and (ii) a hydroxy-containing solvent that is capable of dissolving both the silicon-based material and a reaction product of the silicon-based material and CO2. The absorbent may be utilized in methods to reduce carbon dioxide in an exhaust gas, and finds particular utility in power plants.

  6. Liquid carbon dioxide absorbents, methods of using the same, and related systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Michael Joseph; Perry, Robert James; Lam, Tunchiao Hubert; Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev; Kniajanski, Sergei; Lewis, Larry Neil; Rubinsztajn, Malgorzata Iwona; Hancu, Dan

    2016-09-13

    A carbon dioxide absorbent composition is described, including (i) a liquid, nonaqueous silicon-based material, functionalized with one or more groups that either reversibly react with CO.sub.2 or have a high-affinity for CO.sub.2; and (ii) a hydroxy-containing solvent that is capable of dissolving both the silicon-based material and a reaction product of the silicon-based material and CO.sub.2. The absorbent may be utilized in methods to reduce carbon dioxide in an exhaust gas, and finds particular utility in power plants.

  7. Kinetic study of coals gasification into carbon dioxide atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotkikh A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid fuel gasification process was investigated to define chemical reactions rate and activation energy for a gas-generator designing and regime optimizing. An experimental procedure includes coal char samples of Kuznetskiy and Kansko-Achinskiy deposits consequent argon pyrolysis into argon and oxidating into carbon dioxide with different temperatures. The thermogravimetric analysis data of coal char gasification into carbon dioxide was obtained in the temperature range 900–1200 ºC. The mass loss and gasification time dependencies from temperature were defined to calculate chemical reaction frequency factor and activation energy. Two coal char gasification physico-mathematical models were proposed and recommendations for them were formed.

  8. NOVEL CERAMIC MEMBRANE FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE CARBON DIOXIDE SEPARATION; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerry Y.S. Lin; Jun-ichi Ida

    2001-01-01

    This project is aimed at demonstrating technical feasibility for a lithium zirconate based dense ceramic membrane for separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas at high temperature. The research work conducted in this reporting period was focused on several fundamental issues of lithium zirconate important to the development of the dense inorganic membrane. These fundamental issues include material synthesis of lithium zirconate, phases and microstructure of lithium zirconate and structure change of lithium zirconate during sorption/desorption process. The results show difficulty to prepare the dense ceramic membrane from pure lithium zirconate, but indicate a possibility to prepare the dense inorganic membrane for carbon dioxide separation from a composite lithium zirconate

  9. Historic and projected vehicle use and carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Data are presented in this chapter that show a decline in total carbon dioxide emissions per vehicle of about 20 between 1970 and 1987. However, it is also shown that the fuel economy gains of the 1970s and early 1980s in many countries have begun to erode. In the US, low fuel prices combined with a failure to strengthen fuel efficiency standards have led to recent declines in new-car fuel efficiency. Even if these trends are reversed carbon dioxide in the transport sector will not be reduced if over all motor vehicle use continues along present lines

  10. Visual and reversible carbon dioxide sensing enabled by doctor blade coated macroporous photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Han; Suen, Shing-Yi; Yang, Hongta

    2017-11-15

    With significant impacts of carbon dioxide on global climate change, carbon dioxide sensing is of great importance. However, most of the existing sensing technologies are prone to interferences from carbon monoxide, or suffer from the use of sophisticated instruments. This research reports the development of reproducible carbon dioxide sensor using roll-to-roll compatible doctor blade coated three-dimensional macroporous photonic crystals. The pores are functionalized with amine groups to allow the reaction with carbon dioxide in the presence of humidity. The adsorption of carbon dioxide leads to red-shift and amplitude reduction of the optical stop bands, resulting in carbon dioxide detection with visible readout. The dependences of the diffraction wavelength on carbon dioxide partial pressure for various amine-functionalized photonic crystals and different humidities in the environment are systematically investigated. In addition, the reproducibility of carbon dioxide sensing has also been demonstrated in this research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sources and delivery of carbon dioxide for enhanced oil recovery. Final report, October 1977--December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hare, M.; Perlich, H.; Robinson, R.; Shah, M.; Zimmerman, F.

    1978-12-01

    Results are presented from a comprehensive study by Pullman Kellogg, with assistance from Gulf Universities Research Consortium (GURC) and National Cryo-Chemics Incorporated (NCI), of the carbon dioxide supply situation for miscible flooding operations to enhance oil recovery. A survey of carbon dioxide sources within the geographic areas of potential EOR are shown on four regional maps with the tabular data for each region to describe the sources in terms of quantity and quality. Evaluation of all the costs, such as purchase, production, processing, and transportation, associated with delivering the carbon dioxide from its source to its destination are presented. Specific cases to illustrate the use of the maps and cost charts generated in this study have been examined.

  12. Photoreduction of carbon dioxide and water into formaldehyde and methanol on semiconductor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurian-Blajeni, B; Halmann, M; Manassen, J

    1980-01-01

    Heterogeneous photoassisted reduction of aqueous carbon dioxide was achieved using semiconductor powders, with either high-pressure Hg-lamps or sunlight as energy sources. The products were methanol, formaldehyde and methane. The reaction was carried out either as a gas-solid process, by passing carbon dioxide and water vapor over illuminated semiconductor surfaces, or as a liquid-solid reaction, by illuminating aqueous suspensions of semiconductor powders through which carbon dioxide was bubbled. Best results, under illumination by Hg-lamps, were obtained with aqueous suspensions of strontium titanate, SrTiO3, tungsten oxide, WO3, and titanium oxide, TiO2, resulting in absorbed energy conversion efficiencies of 6, 5.9 and 1.2 per cent, respectively.

  13. The Probability of Tax Charges for Industrial Emission of Carbon Dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arief-Goeritno

    2000-01-01

    Generally, although all industrial by product can be toxic and non-toxic pollutant that have potential hazard for human being and environmental. One of these pollutants is carbon dioxide that has potential contribution for greenhouse effect. Although carbon dioxide can be absorbed by plants at the forest but quantity of this emission more higher than quantity of forest area. For this reason rehabilitation of the forest and diversifications and energy saving can be used for decreasing of greenhouse effect. The synergy action such as economical instrumentation (specially microeconomics) can be implemented base on regulators, taxing and incentive and effluent charge by deeper assessment on environmental economics. By identification of quality and quantity fossil fuels that was burned in the industrial process so with stoichiometry calculation will be found quantity of carbon dioxide emission and the taxes can be estimated. (author)

  14. Metal corrosion in a supercritical carbon dioxide - liquid sodium power cycle.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Robert Charles; Conboy, Thomas M.

    2012-02-01

    A liquid sodium cooled fast reactor coupled to a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton power cycle is a promising combination for the next generation nuclear power production process. For optimum efficiency, a microchannel heat exchanger, constructed by diffusion bonding, can be used for heat transfer from the liquid sodium reactor coolant to the supercritical carbon dioxide. In this work, we have reviewed the literature on corrosion of metals in liquid sodium and carbon dioxide. The main conclusions are (1) pure, dry CO{sub 2} is virtually inert but can be highly corrosive in the presence of even ppm concentrations of water, (2) carburization and decarburization are very significant mechanism for corrosion in liquid sodium especially at high temperature and the mechanism is not well understood, and (3) very little information could be located on corrosion of diffusion bonded metals. Significantly more research is needed in all of these areas.

  15. Growth responses of Populus tremuloides clones to interacting elevated carbon dioxide and tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. G. Isebrands; E. P. McDonald; E. Kruger; G. Hendrey; K. Percy; K. Pregitzer; J. Sober; D. F. Karnosky

    2001-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) has concluded that the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3) are increasing concomitantly globally. Little is known about the effect of these interacting gases on growth, survival, and productivity of forest ecosystems. In this study we assess...

  16. The critical assessment of the carbon dioxide purification technologies after Oxyfuel combustion of coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iovchev, M.; Gadjanov, P.; Tzvetkov, N.

    2012-01-01

    The critical assessment of the two carbon dioxide purification technologies after Oxyfuel - combustion of coals are discussed in the report. It is noticed that these technologies proposed by 'Foster Wheeler' and 'Air Products' companies are under development now (2012) and their presence in the international market is to be expected in the next years. (authors)

  17. Industrial structural transformation and carbon dioxide emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jie; Li, Junpeng

    2013-01-01

    Using provincial panel data from the period 1995–2009 to analyze the relationship between the industrial structural transformation and carbon dioxide emissions in China, we find that the first-order lag of industrial structural adjustment effectively reduced the emissions; technical progress itself did not reduce the emissions, but indirectly led to decreasing emissions through the upgrading and optimization of industrial structure. Foreign direct investment and intervention by local governments reduced carbon dioxide emissions, but urbanization significantly increased the emissions. Thus, industrial structural adjustment is an important component of the development of a low-carbon economy. In the context of industrial structural transformation, an effective way to reduce a region’s carbon dioxide emissions is to promote the upgrading and optimization of industrial structure through technical progress. Tighter environmental access policies, selective utilization of foreign direct investment, and improvements in energy efficiency can help to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. - Highlights: ► Relationship between the transformation of industrial structure and CO 2 emissions in China. ► Dynamic panel data model. ► Industrial structural adjustments can effectively reduce current CO 2 emissions. ► Technical progress leads to decreasing CO 2 emissions through upgrading of industrial structure

  18. Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program: Proceedings of the carbon dioxide and climate research program conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, L E [ed.

    1980-12-01

    Papers presented at the Carbon Dioxide and Climate Research Program Conference are included in this volume. Topics discussed are: the carbon cycle; modeling the carbon system; climatic response due to increased CO2; climate modeling; the use of paleoclimatic data in understanding climate change; attitudes and implications of CO2; social responses to the CO2 problem; a scenario for atmospheric CO2 to 2025; marine photosynthesis and the global carbon cycle; and the role of tropical forests in the carbon balance of the world. Separate abstracts of nine papers have been prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (RJC)

  19. Reactivity of dolomite in water-saturated supercritical carbon dioxide: Significance for carbon capture and storage and for enhanced oil and gas recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiuyu; Alvarado, Vladimir; Swoboda-Colberg, Norbert; Kaszuba, John P.

    2013-01-01

    relative permeability and permeability distribution of the reservoir. These changes influence fundamental properties of hysteresis of drainage and imbibition cycles, rock wettability, and capillary pressure. The efficacy of physical carbon dioxide trapping mechanisms, integrity of caprock, and injectivity of a carbon dioxide storage reservoir as well as the injectivity and production rate of an enhanced oil recovery operation may be affected.

  20. Stochastic carbon sinks for combating carbon dioxide emissions in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gren, Ing-Marie; Carlsson, Mattias; Elofsson, Katarina; Munnich, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    This paper carries out numerical calculations on the potential of carbon sinks in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) and national commitments under conditions of stochastic carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels and carbon sequestration by forests. Chance constraint programming is used to analyze the role of stochastic carbon sinks for national and EU-wide compliance costs. The analytical results show that the inclusion of the carbon sink option can reduce costs for low enough marginal cost and risk discount, but also that costless carbon sinks as by-products from forestry are not part of a cost-effective solution under a high reliability concern. Cost savings are reduced due to risk discounting under a reliability concern, in particular when assigning Chebyshev's inequality as compared with a normal probability distribution. It is also shown that the supply of forest sinks on the market depends on the differences in marginal abatement cost between the trading and the non-trading sectors, and in risk discounting between achievements of the ETS cap and the national commitment. Relatively low marginal abatement cost in the non-trading sector and high risk discounting of national commitment achievements increase the supply of sinks in the market and, hence, reduces the equilibrium price. The empirical application illustrates the importance of risk discounting for the magnitude of cost savings obtained from introducing forest carbon sinks in the EU ETS and national commitments.

  1. Classroom Demonstration: Combustion of Diamond to Carbon Dioxide Followed by Reduction to Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Takuya; Kamata, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    An educational demonstration shows the combustion of carbon to carbon dioxide and then the reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon. A melee diamond is the source of the carbon and the reaction is carried out in a closed flask. The demonstration helps students to realize that diamonds are made of carbon and that atoms do not change or vanish in…

  2. Energy Saving High-Capacity Moderate Pressure Carbon Dioxide Storage System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our approach to high-pressure carbon dioxide storage will directly address the challenges associated with storage of compressed carbon dioxide - the need to reduce...

  3. Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends report is the authoritative reference for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions,...

  4. Carbon dioxide sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin, David C.; O' Connor, William K.; Penner, Larry R.

    2003-01-01

    The dramatic increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide since the Industrial Revolution has caused concerns about global warming. Fossil-fuel-fired power plants contribute approximately one third of the total human-caused emissions of carbon dioxide. Increased efficiency of these power plants will have a large impact on carbon dioxide emissions, but additional measures will be needed to slow or stop the projected increase in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. By accelerating the naturally occurring carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals it is possible to sequester carbon dioxide in the geologically stable mineral magnesite (MgCO3). The carbonation of two classes of magnesium silicate minerals, olivine (Mg2SiO4) and serpentine (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4), was investigated in an aqueous process. The slow natural geologic process that converts both of these minerals to magnesite can be accelerated by increasing the surface area, increasing the activity of carbon dioxide in the solution, introducing imperfections into the crystal lattice by high-energy attrition grinding, and in the case of serpentine, by thermally activating the mineral by removing the chemically bound water. The effect of temperature is complex because it affects both the solubility of carbon dioxide and the rate of mineral dissolution in opposing fashions. Thus an optimum temperature for carbonation of olivine is approximately 185 degrees C and 155 degrees C for serpentine. This paper will elucidate the interaction of these variables and use kinetic studies to propose a process for the sequestration of the carbon dioxide.

  5. Carbon dioxide removal and tradeable put options at scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockley, Andrew; Coffman, D.’Maris

    2018-05-01

    Options are derivative contracts that give the purchaser the right to buy (call options) or sell (put options) a given underlying asset at a particular price at a future date. The purchaser of a put option may exercise the right to sell the asset to the issuer at any point in the future before the expiration of the contract. These rights may be contracted directly between two parties (i.e. over-the-counter), or may be sold publicly on formal exchanges, such as the Chicago Board Options Exchange. If the latter, they are called tradeable put options (TPOs) because they can be bought and sold by third-parties via a secondary market. The World Bank has a Pilot Auction Facility for methane and carbon mediation which uses TPOs in carbon-relevant markets, giving producers (of e.g. forest restoration) a floor price for their product [1]. This enables long-term producer planning. We discuss the potentially broader use of these options contracts in carbon dioxide removal (CDR) markets generally and at scale. We conclude that they can, if priced correctly, encourage rapid investment both in CDR technology and in operational capacity. TPOs could do this without creating the same type of systemic risk associated with other instruments (e.g. long-dated futures). Nevertheless, the widespread use of such instruments potentially creates novel risks. These include the political risk of premature closure [2] (conventionally rendered as ‘counting your chickens before they are hatched’) and the economic risk of overpaying for carbon removal services. These instruments require careful structuring, and do not inoculate the CDR market against regulatory disruption, or political pressure. Accordingly, we note the potential for the development of TPO markets in CDR, but we urge caution in respect of identified risks.

  6. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2001-05-01

    Electrobalance studies of calcination and carbonation of sodium bicarbonate materials were conducted at Louisiana State University. Calcination in an inert atmosphere was rapid and complete at 120 C. Carbonation was temperature dependent, and both the initial rate and the extent of reaction were found to decrease as temperature was increased between 60 and 80 C. A fluidization test apparatus was constructed at RTI and two sodium bicarbonate materials were fluidized in dry nitrogen at 22 C. The bed was completely fluidized at between 9 and 11 in. of water pressure drop. Kinetic rate expression derivations and thermodynamic calculations were conducted at RTI. Based on literature data, a simple reaction rate expression, which is zero order in carbon dioxide and water, was found to provide the best fit against reciprocal temperature. Simulations based on process thermodynamics suggested that approximately 26 percent of the carbon dioxide in flue gas could be recovered using waste heat available at 240 C.

  7. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2001-01-01

    Electrobalance studies of calcination and carbonation of sodium bicarbonate materials were conducted at Louisiana State University. Calcination in an inert atmosphere was rapid and complete at 120 C. Carbonation was temperature dependent, and both the initial rate and the extent of reaction were found to decrease as temperature was increased between 60 and 80 C. A fluidization test apparatus was constructed at RTI and two sodium bicarbonate materials were fluidized in dry nitrogen at 22 C. The bed was completely fluidized at between 9 and 11 in. of water pressure drop. Kinetic rate expression derivations and thermodynamic calculations were conducted at RTI. Based on literature data, a simple reaction rate expression, which is zero order in carbon dioxide and water, was found to provide the best fit against reciprocal temperature. Simulations based on process thermodynamics suggested that approximately 26 percent of the carbon dioxide in flue gas could be recovered using waste heat available at 240 C

  8. Somewhere beyond the sea? The oceanic - carbon dioxide - reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisinger, Philipp; Wittlich, Christian

    2014-05-01

    In correlation to climate change and CO2 emission different campaigns highlight the importance of forests and trees to regulate the concentration of carbon dioxide in the earths' atmosphere. Seeing millions of square miles of rainforest cut down every day, this is truly a valid point. Nevertheless, we often tend to forget what scientists like Spokes try to raise awareness for: The oceans - and foremost deep sea sections - resemble the second biggest deposit of carbon dioxide. Here carbon is mainly found in form of carbonate and hydrogen carbonate. The carbonates are needed by corals and other sea organisms to maintain their skeletal structure and thereby to remain vital. To raise awareness for the protection of this fragile ecosystem in schools is part of our approach. Awareness is achieved best through understanding. Therefore, our approach is a hands-on activity that aims at showing students how the carbon dioxide absorption changes in relation to the water temperature - in times of global warming a truly sensitive topic. The students use standard syringes filled with water (25 ml) at different temperatures (i.e. 10°C, 20°C, 40°C). Through a connector students inject carbon dioxide (25ml) into the different samples. After a fixed period of time, students can read of the remaining amount of carbon dioxide in relation to the given water temperature. Just as with every scientific project, students need to closely monitor their experiments and alter their setups (e.g. water temperature or acidity) according to their initial planning. A digital template (Excel-based) supports the analysis of students' experiments. Overview: What: hands-on, minds -on activity using standard syringes to exemplify carbon dioxide absorption in relation to the water temperature (Le Chatelier's principle) For whom: adjustable from German form 11-13 (age: 16-19 years) Time: depending on the prior knowledge 45-60 min. Sources (extract): Spokes, L.: Wie Ozeane CO2 aufnehmen. Environmental

  9. Photoelectrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide using Ge doped GaN nanowire photoanodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichen Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We report on the direct conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2 in a photoelectrochemical cell consisting of germanium doped gallium nitride nanowire anode and copper (Cu cathode. Various products including methane (CH4, carbon monoxide (CO, and formic acid (HCOOH were observed under light illumination. A Faradaic efficiency of ∼10% was measured for HCOOH. Furthermore, this photoelectrochemical system showed enhanced stability for 6 h CO2 reduction reaction on low cost, large area Si substrates.

  10. A diagonal approach for the catalytic transformation of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide are growing with the massive utilization of hydrocarbons for the production of energy and chemicals, resulting in a threatening global warming. The development of a more sustainable economy is urging to reduce the fingerprint of our current way of life. In this perspective, the organic chemistry industry will face important challenges in the next decades to replace hydrocarbons as a feedstock and use carbon-free energy sources. To tackle this challenge, new catalytic processes have been designed to convert CO 2 to high energy and value-added chemicals (formamides, N-heterocycles and methanol), using a novel diagonal approach. The energy efficiency of the new transformations is ensured by the utilization of mild reductants such as hydro-silanes and hydro-boranes. Importantly the reactions are promoted by organic catalysts, which circumvent the problems of cost, abundance and toxicity usually encountered with metal complexes. Based on theoretical and experimental studies, the understanding of the mechanisms involved in these reactions allowed the rational optimization of the catalysts as well as the reaction conditions, in order to match the requirements of sustainable chemistry. (author) [fr

  11. Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage : Canadian market development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriks, A.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is used to extend the life of light oil reservoirs in Canada. An additional 13 per cent of original oil in place is typically recovered using CO 2 flooding processes. However, a carbon capture and storage (CCS) market is needed in order to commercialize CO 2 flooding technologies. CO 2 can be obtained from naturally-occurring accumulations in underground reservoirs, electrical and coal-fired generation plants, petrochemical facilities, and upstream oil and gas processing facilities. CO 2 is sequestered in EOR processes, in sour gas disposal processes, solvent recovery processes, and in coalbed methane (CBM) extraction. It is also disposed in depleted fields and aquifers. While CCS technologies are mature, project economics remain marginal. However, CCS in EOR is commercially feasible at current high oil prices. No transportation infrastructure is in place to transport sources of CO 2 in the high volumes needed to establish a market. While governments have created a favourable public policy environment for CCS, governments will need to address issues related to infrastructure, public perception of CCS, and stakeholder engagement with CCS projects. It was concluded that CCS and CO 2 flooding techniques have the capacity to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while helping to sustain light oil production. tabs., figs

  12. Measurements of carbon dioxide and heat fluxes during monsoon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the atmosphere due to ... The changes in land ... the air quality and climate models. 2. ... soon period of 2011 as a part Cloud Aerosol .... density effects due to heat and water vapour trans-.

  13. TWO-PHASE EJECTOR of CARBON DIOXIDE HEAT PUMP CALCULUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit B.M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is presented the calculus of the two-phase ejector for carbon dioxide heat pump. The method of calculus is based on the method elaborated by S.M. Kandil, W.E. Lear, S.A. Sherif, and is modified taking into account entrainment ratio as the input for the calculus.

  14. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) utilizing strain database | Saini | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Culling of excess carbon dioxide from our environment is one of the major challenges to scientific communities. Many physical, chemical and biological methods have been practiced to overcome this problem. The biological means of CO2 fixation using various microorganisms is gaining importance because database of ...

  15. Intravenous carbon dioxide as an echocardiographic contrast agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.S. Meltzer (Richard); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractIntravenous carbon dioxide (CO2) was employed to cause echocardiographic contrast in 40 patients. One to 3 cc of medically pure CO2 were agitated with 5 to 8 cc of 5% dextrose in water and rapidly injected into an upper extremity vein. Contrast was obtained in all patients. In 33

  16. Heliox Improves Carbon Dioxide Removal during Lung Protective Mechanical Ventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurskens, Charlotte J.; Brevoord, Daniel; Lagrand, Wim K.; van den Bergh, Walter M.; Vroom, Margreeth B.; Preckel, Benedikt; Horn, Janneke; Juffermans, Nicole P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Helium is a noble gas with low density and increased carbon dioxide (CO2) diffusion capacity. This allows lower driving pressures in mechanical ventilation and increased CO2 diffusion. We hypothesized that heliox facilitates ventilation in patients during lung-protective mechanical

  17. Cavitation-induced reactions in high-pressure carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, M.W.A.; van Eck, D.; Kemmere, M.F.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of ultrasound-induced in situ radical formation in liquid carbon dioxide was demonstrated. The required threshold pressure for cavitation could be exceeded at a relatively low acoustic intensity, as the high vapor pressure of CO2 counteracts the hydrostatic pressure. With the use of

  18. Carbon dioxide angiography: a simple and safe system of delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, P.; Patel, J.V.; Kessel, D.O.; Robertson, I.; McPherson, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is an established alternate angiographic contrast agent, which can be delivered by pump or hand injection. We describe a simple, safe and inexpensive hand injection system that delivers a known volume of CO 2 at atmospheric pressure and prevents contamination with room air

  19. Intertidal zones as carbon dioxide sources to coastal oceans

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.; George, M.D.; Rajagopal, M.D.

    To understand the factors controlling carbon dioxide (CO sub(2)) exchanges near land-sea boundary diurnal observations have been made twice on CO sub(2) in the air and water in a coastal region. The results suggest that CO sub(2) enrichment...

  20. Extended-length fiber optic carbon dioxide monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Alonso, Jesus; Lieberman, Robert A.

    2013-05-01

    This paper discusses the design and performance of fiber optic distributed intrinsic sensors for dissolved carbon dioxide, based on the use optical fibers fabricated so that their entire lengths are chemically sensitive. These fibers use a polymer-clad, silica-core structure where the cladding undergoes a large, reversible, change in optical absorbance in the presence of CO2. The local "cladding loss" induced by this change is thus a direct indication of the carbon dioxide concentration in any section of the fiber. To create these fibers, have developed a carbon dioxide-permeable polymer material that adheres well to glass, is physically robust, has a refractive index lower than fused silica, and acts as excellent hosts for a unique colorimetric indicator system that respond to CO2. We have used this proprietary material to produce carbon-dioxide sensitive fibers up to 50 meters long, using commercial optical fiber fabrication techniques. The sensors have shown a measurement range of dissolved CO2 of 0 to 1,450 mg/l (0 to 100% CO2 saturation), limit of detection of 0.3 mg/l and precision of 1.0 mg/l in the 0 to 50 mg/l dissolved CO2 range, when a 5 meter-long sensor fiber segment is used. Maximum fiber length, minimum detectable concentration, and spatial resolution can be adjusted by adjusting indicator concentration and fiber design.

  1. Electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction on rough copper surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kas, Recep

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development and climate change is considered to be one of the top challenges of humanity. Electrochemical carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction to fuels or fuel precursor using renewable electricity is a very promising way to recycle CO2 and store the electricity. This would also provide

  2. Distribution of Carbon Dioxide Produced by People in a Room:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naydenov, Kiril Georgiev; Baránková, Petra; Sundell, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Carbon dioxide exhaled by people can be used as a tracer gas for air change measurements in homes. Good mixing of tracer gas with room air is a necessary condition to obtain accurate results. However, the use of fans to ensure mixing is inconvenient. The natural room distribution of metabolic CO2...

  3. The effect of carbon dioxide at high pressure under different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculates. J. Insect Sci. 9: 58-61. George NM, Sonny BR (1998). Comparative effect of short term exposures of Callosobruchus subinnotatus to carbon dioxide, nitrogen, or low temperature on behaviour and fecundity. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata Vol. 89, No.

  4. Dry-cleaning with high-pressure carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Roosmalen, M.J.E.

    2003-01-01

    Dry-cleaning is a process for removing soils and stains from fabrics and garments which uses a non-aqueous solvent with detergent added. The currently most used dry-cleaning solvent is perchloroethylene (PER), which is toxic, environmentally harmful and suspected to be carcinogenic. Carbon dioxide

  5. Carbon dioxide hydrate formation in a fixed-bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, S.; Lang, X. [South China Univ. of Technology, Guangzhou (China). Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation; Wang, Y.; Liang, D. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Guangzhou Inst. of Energy Conversion and Guangzhou Center of Natural Gas Hydrate; Sun, X.; Jurcik, B. [Air Liquide Laboratories, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    Gas hydrates are thermodynamically stable at high pressures and near the freezing temperature of pure water. Methane hydrates occur naturally in sediments in the deep oceans and permafrost regions and constitute an extensive hydrocarbon reservoir. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) hydrates are of interest as a medium for marine sequestration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Sequestering CO{sub 2} as hydrate has potential advantages over most methods proposed for marine CO{sub 2} sequestration. Because this technique requires a shallower depth of injection when compared with other ocean sequestration methods, the costs of CO{sub 2} hydrate sequestration may be lower. Many studies have successfully used different continuous reactor designs to produce CO{sub 2} hydrates in both laboratory and field settings. This paper discussed a study that involved the design and construction of a fixed-bed reactor for simulation of hydrate formation system. Water, river sands and carbon dioxide were used to simulate the seep kind of hydrate formation. Carbon dioxide gas was distributed as small bubbles to enter from the bottom of the fixed-bed reactor. The paper discussed the experimental data and presented a diagram of the gas hydrate reactor system. The morphology as well as the reaction characters of CO{sub 2} hydrate was presented in detail. The results were discussed in terms of experimental phenomena and hydrate formation rate. A mathematical model was proposed for describing the process. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  6. 46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169.565 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS... cylinder storage area must be properly ventilated and the temperature inside must not exceed 130 °F. (g...

  7. Permeation of supercritical carbon dioxide through polymeric hollow fiber membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, V.E.; Broeke, van den L.J.P.; Vercauteren, F.F.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2006-01-01

    Permeation of carbon dioxide was measured for two types of composite polymeric hollow fiber membranes for feed pressures up to 18 MPa at a temp. of 313 K. support membrane. The membranes consist of a polyamide copolymer (IPC) layer or a poly(vinyl alc.) (PVA) layer on top of a polyethersulfone

  8. Kinetics of absorption of carbon dioxide in aqueous ammonia solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, P. W. J.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work the absorption of carbon dioxide into aqueous ammonia solutions has been studied in a stirred cell reactor, at low temperatures and ammonia concentrations ranging from 0.1 to about 7 kmol m-3. The absorption experiments were carried out at conditions where the so-called pseudo

  9. Classroom Carbon Dioxide Concentration, School Attendance, and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaihre, Santosh; Semple, Sean; Miller, Janice; Fielding, Shona; Turner, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: We tested the hypothesis that classroom carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) concentration is inversely related to child school attendance and educational attainment. Methods: Concentrations of CO[subscript 2] were measured over a 3-5?day period in 60 naturally ventilated classrooms of primary school children in Scotland. Concentrations of…

  10. Carbon Dioxide Absorption in a Membrane Contactor with Color Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleao, Ines; Portugal, Ana F.; Mendes, Adelio; Gabriel, Joaquim

    2010-01-01

    A pedagogical experiment is described to examine the physical absorption of gases, in this case carbon dioxide, in a hollow fiber membrane contactor (HFMC) where the absorption concentration profile can be followed by a color change. The HFMC is used to teach important concepts and can be used in interesting applications for students, such as…

  11. Carbon dioxide laser resurfacing of rhytides and photodamaged skin

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, KM; Nelson, JS

    1998-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) laser resurfacing has been used as a method to treat rhytides and photodamaged skin. This laser offers several advantages over previously utilised modalities but its use has several inherent risks. This article will review important aspects of CO 2 laser resurfacing including laser-skin interactions, patient selection, effective pre- and post-operative regimens and potential complications.

  12. Water vapour and carbon dioxide decrease nitric oxide readings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderMark, TW; Kort, E; Meijer, RJ; Postma, DS; Koeter, GH

    Measurement of nitric oxide levels in exhaled ah-is commonly performed using a chemiluminescence detector. However, water vapour and carbon dioxide affect the chemiluminescence process, The influence of these gases at the concentrations present in exhaled air has not vet been studied. For this in

  13. Thermal Properties of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide by Monte Carlo Simulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Colina, C. M.; Olivera-Fuentes, C. G.; Siperstein, F. R.; Lísal, Martin; Gubbins, K. E.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 29, 6-7 (2003), s. 405-412 ISSN 0892-7022 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/0805 Grant - others:NSF(US) CHE-9876674291 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : fluctuations * carbon dioxide * 2CLJQ Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.721, year: 2003

  14. SELECTIVE OXIDATION IN SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE USING CLEAN OXIDANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have systematically investigated heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of different substrates in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). Three types of catagysts: a metal complex, 0.5% platinum g-alumina and 0.5% palladium g-alumina were used at a pressure of 200 bar, temperatures...

  15. Solubilities of ferrocene and acetylferrocene in supercritical carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazemi, Somayeh; Belandria, Veronica; Janssen, Nico

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the solubilities of ferrocene and acetylferrocene in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) were measured using an analytical method in a quasi-flow apparatus. High-performance liquid chromatography was applied through an online sampling procedure to determine the concentration...

  16. The thermodynamics of direct air capture of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackner, Klaus S.

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of thermodynamic constraints shows that the low concentration of carbon dioxide in ambient air does not pose stringent limits on air capture economics. The thermodynamic energy requirement is small even using an irreversible sorbent-based process. A comparison to flue gas scrubbing suggests that the additional energy requirement is small and can be supplied with low-cost energy. In general, the free energy expended in the regeneration of a sorbent will exceed the free energy of mixing, as absorption is usually not reversible. The irreversibility, which grows with the depth of scrubbing, tends to affect flue gas scrubbing more than air capture which can successfully operate while extracting only a small fraction of the carbon dioxide available in air. This is reflected in a significantly lower theoretical thermodynamic efficiency for a single stage flue gas scrubber than for an air capture device, but low carbon dioxide concentration in air still results in a larger energy demand for air capture. The energy required for capturing carbon dioxide from air could be delivered in various ways. I analyze a thermal swing and also a previously described moisture swing which is driven by the evaporation of water. While the total amount of heat supplied for sorbent regeneration in a thermal swing, in accordance with Carnot's principle, exceeds the total free energy requirement, the additional free energy required as one moves from flue gas scrubbing to air capture can be paid with an amount of additional low grade heat that equals the additional free energy requirement. Carnot's principle remains satisfied because the entire heat supplied, not just the additional amount, must be delivered at a slightly higher temperature. Whether the system is driven by water evaporation or by low grade heat, the cost of the thermodynamically-required energy can be as small as $1 to $2 per metric ton of carbon dioxide. Thermodynamics does not pose a practical constraint on the

  17. Gettering of carbon dioxide by erbium thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrhoff, T.K.

    1980-01-01

    The interaction of carbon dioxide and erbium thin films is characterized at 300 to 900 0 C and 5 x 10 -7 torr. Temperature ramp experiments with thin erbium films indicated a significant reaction above 300 0 C, preceded by desorption of water vapor, hydrogen and nitrogen and/or carbon monoxide from the film surface. The sticking coefficients were plotted as a function of Langmuirs of carbon dioxide exposure. Between 400 and 600 0 C, the length of the exposure was found to be more important than the temperature of the exposure in determining the sticking coefficient. Some evolution of carbon monoxide was noted particularly in the 400 to 500 0 C region. An 80% conversion of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide was measured at 500 0 C. The film pumping speeds were compared with published vapor pressure data for erbium. This comparison indicated that a significant portion of the pumping action observed at temperatures of 800 0 C and above was due to evaporation of erbium metal

  18. The impact of biosolids application on organic carbon and carbon dioxide fluxes in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesekara, Hasintha; Bolan, Nanthi S; Thangavel, Ramesh; Seshadri, Balaji; Surapaneni, Aravind; Saint, Christopher; Hetherington, Chris; Matthews, Peter; Vithanage, Meththika

    2017-12-01

    A field study was conducted on two texturally different soils to determine the influences of biosolids application on selected soil chemical properties and carbon dioxide fluxes. Two sites, located in Manildra (clay loam) and Grenfell (sandy loam), in Australia, were treated at a single level of 70 Mg ha -1 biosolids. Soil samples were analyzed for SOC fractions, including total organic carbon (TOC), labile, and non-labile carbon contents. The natural abundances of soil δ 13 C and δ 15 N were measured as isotopic tracers to fingerprint carbon derived from biosolids. An automated soil respirometer was used to measure in-situ diurnal CO 2 fluxes, soil moisture, and temperature. Application of biosolids increased the surface (0-15 cm) soil TOC by > 45% at both sites, which was attributed to the direct contribution from residual carbon in the biosolids and also from the increased biomass production. At both sites application of biosolids increased the non-labile carbon fraction that is stable against microbial decomposition, which indicated the soil carbon sequestration potential of biosolids. Soils amended with biosolids showed depleted δ 13 C, and enriched δ 15 N indicating the accumulation of biosolids residual carbon in soils. The in-situ respirometer data demonstrated enhanced CO 2 fluxes at the sites treated with biosolids, indicating limited carbon sequestration potential. However, addition of biosolids on both the clay loam and sandy loam soils found to be effective in building SOC than reducing it. Soil temperature and CO 2 fluxes, indicating that temperature was more important for microbial degradation of carbon in biosolids than soil moisture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of a systematic methodology for sustainable carbon dioxide utilization process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plaza, Cristina Calvera; Frauzem, Rebecca; Gani, Rafiqul

    than carbon capture and storage. To achieve this a methodology is developed to design sustainable carbon dioxide utilization processes. First, the information on the possible utilization alternatives is collected, including the economic potential of the process and the carbon dioxide emissions...... emission are desired in order to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions. Using this estimated preliminary evaluation, the top processes, with the most negative carbon dioxide emission are investigated by rigorous detailed simulation to evaluate the net carbon dioxide emissions. Once the base case design...

  20. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in Blood: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/carbondioxideco2inblood.html Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in Blood To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Blood Test? Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an ...