WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon dioxide co2

  1. Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems (CO2Flux) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, M

    2005-01-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) carbon dioxide flux (CO2 flux) measurement systems provide half-hour average fluxes of CO2, H2O (latent heat), and sensible heat. The fluxes are obtained by the eddy covariance technique, which computes the flux as the mean product of the vertical wind component with CO2 and H2O densities, or estimated virtual temperature. A three-dimensional sonic anemometer is used to obtain the orthogonal wind components and the virtual (sonic) temperature. An infrared gas analyzer is used to obtain the CO2 and H2O densities. A separate sub-system also collects half-hour average measures of meteorological and soil variables from separate 4-m towers.

  2. Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer (CO2LAS) Aircraft Measurements of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Lance E.; Spiers, Gary D.; Menzies, Robert T.; Jacob, Joseph C.; Hyon, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer (CO2LAS) utilizes Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) at 2.05 microns to obtain CO2 column mixing ratios weighted heavily in the boundary layer. CO2LAS employs a coherent detection receiver and continuous-wave Th:Ho:YLF laser transmitters with output powers around 100 milliwatts. An offset frequency-locking scheme coupled to an absolute frequency reference enables the frequencies of the online and offline lasers to be held to within 200 kHz of desired values. We describe results from 2009 field campaigns when CO2LAS flew on the Twin Otter. We also describe spectroscopic studies aimed at uncovering potential biases in lidar CO2 retrievals at 2.05 microns.

  3. Sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) using red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vishwajeet S; Prasad, Murari; Khan, Jeeshan; Amritphale, S S; Singh, M; Raju, C B

    2010-04-15

    Red mud, an aluminium industry hazardous waste, has been reported to be an inexpensive and effective adsorbent. In the present work applicability of red mud for the sequestration of green house gases with reference to carbon dioxide has been studied. Red mud sample was separated into three different size fractions (RM I, RM II, RM III) of varying densities (1.5-2.2 g cm(-3)). Carbonation of each fraction of red mud was carried out separately at room temperature using a stainless steel reaction chamber at a fixed pressure of 3.5 bar. Effects of reaction time (0.5-12 h) and liquid to solid ratio (0.2-0.6) were studied for carbonation of red mud. Different instrumental techniques such as X-ray diffraction, FTIR and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to ascertain the different mineral phases before and after carbonation of each fraction of red mud. Characterization studies revealed the presence of boehmite, cancrinite, chantalite, hematite, gibbsite, anatase, rutile and quartz. Calcium bearing mineral phases (cancrinite and chantalite) were found responsible for carbonation of red mud. Maximum carbonation was observed for the fraction RM II having higher concentration of cancrinite. The carbonation capacity is evaluated to be 5.3 g of CO(2)/100 g of RM II. PMID:20036053

  4. Calcium and chemical looping technology for power generation and carbon dioxide (CO2) capture solid oxygen- and CO2-carriers

    CERN Document Server

    Fennell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Calcium and Chemical Looping Technology for Power Generation and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture reviews the fundamental principles, systems, oxygen carriers, and carbon dioxide carriers relevant to chemical looping and combustion. Chapters review the market development, economics, and deployment of these systems, also providing detailed information on the variety of materials and processes that will help to shape the future of CO2 capture ready power plants. Reviews the fundamental principles, systems, oxygen carriers, and carbon dioxide carriers relevant to calcium and chemical loopingProvi

  5. Atmospheric CO2 capture by algae: Negative carbon dioxide emission path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Diana; Pires, José C M

    2016-09-01

    Carbon dioxide is one of the most important greenhouse gas, which concentration increase in the atmosphere is associated to climate change and global warming. Besides CO2 capture in large emission point sources, the capture of this pollutant from atmosphere may be required due to significant contribution of diffuse sources. The technologies that remove CO2 from atmosphere (creating a negative balance of CO2) are called negative emission technologies. Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage may play an important role for CO2 mitigation. It represents the combination of bioenergy production and carbon capture and storage, keeping carbon dioxide in geological reservoirs. Algae have a high potential as the source of biomass, as they present high photosynthetic efficiencies and high biomass yields. Their biomass has a wide range of applications, which can improve the economic viability of the process. Thus, this paper aims to assess the atmospheric CO2 capture by algal cultures. PMID:27005790

  6. Atmospheric CO2 capture by algae: Negative carbon dioxide emission path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Diana; Pires, José C M

    2016-09-01

    Carbon dioxide is one of the most important greenhouse gas, which concentration increase in the atmosphere is associated to climate change and global warming. Besides CO2 capture in large emission point sources, the capture of this pollutant from atmosphere may be required due to significant contribution of diffuse sources. The technologies that remove CO2 from atmosphere (creating a negative balance of CO2) are called negative emission technologies. Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage may play an important role for CO2 mitigation. It represents the combination of bioenergy production and carbon capture and storage, keeping carbon dioxide in geological reservoirs. Algae have a high potential as the source of biomass, as they present high photosynthetic efficiencies and high biomass yields. Their biomass has a wide range of applications, which can improve the economic viability of the process. Thus, this paper aims to assess the atmospheric CO2 capture by algal cultures.

  7. Carbon Dioxide Clusters: (CO_2)_6 to (CO_2)13

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellar, A. R. W.; Oliaee, J. Norooz; Dehghany, M.; Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

    2011-06-01

    We recenty reported assignments of specific infrared bands in the CO_2 νb{3} region (˜2350 wn) to (CO_2)_6, (CO_2)_7, (CO_2)_9, (CO_2)10, (CO_2)11, (CO_2)12, and (CO_2)13. Spectra are obtained by direct absorption using a rapid-scan tuneable diode laser spectrometer to probe a pulsed supersonic slit-jet expansion and assignments are facilitated by recent calculations of Takeuchi based on the Murthy potential. (CO_2)_6 is a symmetric top with S_6 point group symmetry which can be thought of as a stack of two planar cyclic trimers. (CO_2)13 is also an S_6 symmetric top, and consists of a single CO_2 monomer surrounded by an slightly distorted icosahedral cage. The remaining clusters are asymmetric tops without symmetry. Here we report additional CO_2 cluster results. Calculations based on the SAPT-s potential indicate that the structure of (CO_2)10 may be slightly different from that given by Takeuchi/Murthy. An additional band is observed for each of (CO_2)13 and (CO_2)10. A feature observed at 2378.2 wn is assigned as a (CO_2)_6 parallel combination band involving the sum of a fundamental and a low-lying intermolecular vibration. Most significantly, two bands are assigned to a second isomer of (CO_2)_6. This is also a symmetric top, but now with S_4 symmetry. The two symmetric hexamer isomers observed spectroscopically correspond well with the lowest energy structures given by both the SAPT-s and Murthy intermolecular potentials. [1] J. Norooz Oliaee, M. Dehgany, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, and A.R.W. McKellar, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 1297 (2011). [2] H. Takeuchi, J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 5703 (2008); C.S. Murthy, S.F. O'Shea, and I.R. McDonald, Mol. Phys. 50, 531 (1983). [3] R. Bukowski, J. Sadlej, B. Jeziorski, P. Jankowski, K. Szalewicz, S.A. Kucharski, H.L. Williams, and B.M. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 110, 3785 (1999)

  8. Evaluation and selection of sensing materials for carbon dioxide (CO 2) sensor by molecular modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.P.; Wong, C.K.Y.; Yuan, C.A.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    We report a molecular modeling study to evaluate and select conducting polymers (CPs) as the sensing materials of carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor. The interaction between polymer and gas and the adsorption of the gas molecules in the polymer matrix are investigated. Polymers considered for this work inc

  9. Evaluation and selection of sensing materials for carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor by molecular modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.P.; Wong, C.K.Y.; Yuan, C.A.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    We report a molecular modeling study to evaluate and select conducting polymers (CPs) as the sensing materials of carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor. The interaction between polymer and gas and the adsorption of the gas molecules in the polymer matrix are investigated. Polymers considered for this work inc

  10. 75 FR 77229 - Federal Requirements Under the Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program for Carbon Dioxide (CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... Enforcement CAA Clean Air Act CBI Confidential Business Information CCS Carbon Capture and Storage CERCLA... supercritical carbon dioxide stream in subsurface geologic formations. This term does not apply to CO 2 capture... Comprehensive Strategy on Carbon Capture and Storage'' (...

  11. Carbonic acid as a reserve of carbon dioxide on icy moons: The formation of carbon dioxide (CO2) in a polar environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been detected on the surface of several icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn via observation of the ν3 band with the Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on board the Galileo spacecraft and the Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on board the Cassini spacecraft. Interestingly, the CO2 band for several of these moons exhibits a blueshift along with a broader profile than that seen in laboratory studies and other astrophysical environments. As such, numerous attempts have been made in order to clarify this abnormal behavior; however, it currently lacks an acceptable physical or chemical explanation. We present a rather surprising result pertaining to the synthesis of carbon dioxide in a polar environment. Here, carbonic acid was synthesized in a water (H2O)-carbon dioxide (CO2) (1:5) ice mixture exposed to ionizing radiation in the form of 5 keV electrons. The irradiated ice mixture was then annealed, producing pure carbonic acid which was then subsequently irradiated, recycling water and carbon dioxide. However, the observed carbon dioxide ν3 band matches almost exactly with that observed on Callisto; subsequent temperature program desorption studies reveal that carbon dioxide synthesized under these conditions remains in solid form until 160 K, i.e., the sublimation temperature of water. Consequently, our results suggest that carbon dioxide on Callisto as well as other icy moons is indeed complexed with water rationalizing the shift in peak frequency, broad profile, and the solid state existence on these relatively warm moons.

  12. Environmental remediation and conversion of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) into useful green products by accelerated carbonation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mihee; Han, Gi-Chun; Ahn, Ji-Whan; You, Kwang-Suk

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of carbonation technology to the environmental industry as a way of reducing carbon dioxide (CO(2)), a green house gas, including the presentation of related projects of our research group. An alternative technology to very slow natural carbonation is the co-called 'accelerated carbonation', which completes its fast reaction within few hours by using pure CO(2). Carbonation technology is widely applied to solidify or stabilize solid combustion residues from municipal solid wastes, paper mill wastes, etc. and contaminated soils, and to manufacture precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC). Carbonated products can be utilized as aggregates in the concrete industry and as alkaline fillers in the paper (or recycled paper) making industry. The quantity of captured CO(2) in carbonated products can be evaluated by measuring mass loss of heated samples by thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis. The industrial carbonation technology could contribute to both reduction of CO(2) emissions and environmental remediation.

  13. Inventory of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Kora, Angela R.; Shankle, Steve A.; Fowler, Kimberly M.

    2009-06-29

    The Carbon Management Strategic Initiative (CMSI) is a lab-wide initiative to position the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) as a leader in science, technology and policy analysis required to understand, mitigate and adapt to global climate change as a nation. As part of an effort to walk the talk in the field of carbon management, PNNL conducted its first carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions inventory for the 2007 calendar year. The goal of this preliminary inventory is to provide PNNL staff and management with a sense for the relative impact different activities at PNNL have on the lab’s total carbon footprint.

  14. Environmental Remediation and Conversion of Carbon Dioxide (CO2 into Useful Green Products by Accelerated Carbonation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Suk You

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the application of carbonation technology to the environmental industry as a way of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2, a green house gas, including the presentation of related projects of our research group. An alternative technology to very slow natural carbonation is the co-called ‘accelerated carbonation’, which completes its fast reaction within few hours by using pure CO2. Carbonation technology is widely applied to solidify or stabilize solid combustion residues from municipal solid wastes, paper mill wastes, etc. and contaminated soils, and to manufacture precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC. Carbonated products can be utilized as aggregates in the concrete industry and as alkaline fillers in the paper (or recycled paper making industry. The quantity of captured CO2 in carbonated products can be evaluated by measuring mass loss of heated samples by thermo-gravimetric (TG analysis. The industrial carbonation technology could contribute to both reduction of CO2 emissions and environmental remediation.

  15. 76 FR 56982 - Announcement of Federal Underground Injection Control (UIC) Class VI Program for Carbon Dioxide (CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... highlighted in the ``Report of the Interagency Task Force on Carbon Capture and Storage'' (August 2010), it is... (UIC) Class VI Program for Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) Geologic Sequestration (GS) Wells AGENCY... establishment of a Federal Underground Injection Control (UIC) Class VI Program for Carbon Dioxide (CO...

  16. Photopromoted carbonylation of olefins with carbon dioxide and labelling studies with 13CO2 and 13CH3OH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Jingmei; GAO Dabin; HU Jiehan; ZHOU Guangyun; JIA Yingping; WANG Xiangsheng

    2003-01-01

    Photopromoted carbonylation of olefins with carbon dioxide can be completed in ambient conditions (room temperatures and atmospheric pressure) by Co(OAc)2 catalysis. It was found that in carbonyl carbons of methyl ester of aliphatic acid 50% is from CO2 and the other 50% from CH3OH by labelling experimental with 13CO2 and 13CH3OH.

  17. Potential effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on coastal wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the atmosphere has steadily increased from 280 parts per million (ppm) in preindustrial times to 381 ppm today and is predicted by some models to double within the next century. Some of the important pathways whereby changes in atmospheric CO2 may impact coastal wetlands include changes in temperature, rainfall, and hurricane intensity (fig. 1). Increases in CO2 can contribute to global warming, which may (1) accelerate sea-level rise through melting of polar ice fields and steric expansion of oceans, (2) alter rainfall patterns and salinity regimes, and (3) change the intensity and frequency of tropical storms and hurricanes. Sea-level rise combined with changes in storm activity may affect erosion and sedimentation rates and patterns in coastal wetlands and maintenance of soil elevations.Feedback loops between plant growth and hydroedaphic conditions also contribute to maintenance of marsh elevations through accumulation of organic matter. Although increasing CO2 concentration may contribute to global warming and climate changes, it may also have a direct impact on plant growth and development by stimulating photosynthesis or improving water use efficiency. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey are examining responses of wetland plants to elevated CO2 concentration and other factors. This research will lead to a better understanding of future changes in marsh species composition, successional rates and patterns, ecological functioning, and vulnerability to sea-level rise and other global change factors.

  18. Performance assessment of carbonation process integrated with coal fired power plant to reduce CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a novel approach to recover energy from mineral carbonation process, one of the CCS (carbon capture and storage) technologies, to reduce its additional energy demand and reports the feasibility of integrating a carbonation process with an existing power plant for reducing CO2 (carbon dioxide) emission. A thermodynamic mass and energy flow model of the carbonation process is developed using Matlab/Simulink software for a range of carbonation temperatures using two naturally available feedstocks, namely serpentine and olivine. The CO2 emissions are reduced if a carbonation system is implemented in the power plant, though the power generation efficiency and net power output are reduced too due to the large amount of extra energy required for the grinding of feedstock and the compression of CO2. The existing power plant efficiency was found to be 36.1%. If a carbonation system is incorporated, the plant efficiency reduces to 22% and 24% using serpentine and olivine feedstocks respectively. However, a significant amount of heat energy can be recovered from exothermic reaction of carbonation and carbonated products. The power plant efficiency can be increased to 35% and 34% again, respectively, when energy from carbonation reaction and carbonated products can be recovered appropriately. - Highlights: • Mineral carbonation technology is one of the carbon capture and storage technologies. • Exothermic heat energy can be recovered from mineral carbonation process. • Mineral carbonation process is energy self-sufficient. • Thermodynamic mass and energy balance model is developed for mineral carbonation

  19. Accounting for behavioral effects of increases in the carbon dioxide (CO2) tax in revenue estimation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we describe how behavioral responses of carbon dioxide (CO2) tax increases are accounted for in tax revenue estimation in Sweden. The rationale for developing a method for this is a mix between that a CO2 tax is a primary climate policy tool aiming to reduce CO2 emissions and that the CO2 tax generates sizable tax revenues. - Highlights: → We develop a method on the long run tax revenue effects of increasing the CO2 tax in Sweden. → We use long run price elasticities as the basis for calculating the long run effects. → The CO2 tax is the primary instrument to reduce CO2 emissions from sectors outside the EU ETS. → There is almost an exact correlation between fossil energy use and fossil CO2 emissions. → The method provide consistent estimates of emission reductions following from CO2 tax increases.

  20. Carbon dioxide sequestration: Modeling the diffusive and convective transport under a CO2 cap

    KAUST Repository

    Allen, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    A rise in carbon dioxide levels from industrial emissions is contributing to the greenhouse effect and global warming. CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers is a strategy to reduce atmospheric CO2 levels. Scientists and researchers rely on numerical simulators to predict CO2 storage by modeling the fluid transport behaviour. Studies have shown that after CO2 is injected into a saline aquifer, undissolved CO2 rises due to buoyant forces and will spread laterally away from the injection site under an area of low permeability. CO2 from this ‘capped\\' region diffuses into the fluid underlying it, and the resulting CO2-fluid mixture increases in density. This increase in density leads to gravity-driven convection. Accordingly, diffusive-convective transport is important to model since it predicts an enhanced storage capacity of the saline aquifer. This work incorporates the diffusive and convective transport processes into the transport modeling equation, and uses a self-generated code. Discretization of the domain is done with a cell-centered finite difference method. Cases are set up using similar parameters from published literature in order to compare results. Enhanced storage capacity is predicted in this work, similar to work done by others. A difference in the onset of convective transport between this work and published results is noticed and discussed in this paper. A sensitivity analysis is performed on the density model used in this work, and on the diffusivity value assumed. The analysis shows that the density model and diffusivity value is a key component on simulation results. Also, perturbations are added to porosity and permeability in order to see the effect of perturbations on the onset of convection, and results agree with similar findings by others. This work provides a basis for studying other cases, such as the impact of heterogeneity on the diffusion-convective transport. An extension of this work may involve the use of an equation of state to

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of gas – steam combined cycle with carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions saving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Gupta, Om Prakash, S.K. Shukla

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP cycle has been analyzed in order to improve the efficiency of the gas – steam combined cycle and utilization of waste heat. The efficiency of the combined cycle is improved by decreasing the compressor inlet temperature (CIT and increasing the turbine inlet temperature (TIT. It is observed that the cycle offers the advantage of making efficient use of the energy available in the fuel and in turn, eliminate some portion of pollution associated with the power generation. The study also reveals that if this cycle is being employed for cogeneration, there is a significant saving (11.60% in the amount of Carbon dioxide (CO2 emitted by the coal-fired thermal power plants.

  2. Effects of 7.5% carbon dioxide (CO2) inhalation and ethnicity on face memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Angela S; Catling, Jon C; Kwong, Alex S F; Munafò, Marcus R

    2015-08-01

    The ability to accurately verify facial identity has important forensic implications, but this ability is fallible. Research suggests that anxiety at the time of encoding can impair subsequent recall, but no studies have investigated the effects of anxiety at the time of recall in an experimental paradigm. This study addresses this gap using the carbon dioxide (CO2) model of anxiety induction. Thirty participants completed two inhalations: one of 7.5% CO2-enriched air and one of medical air (i.e., placebo). Prior to each inhalation, participants were presented with 16 facial images (50% own-ethnicity, 50% other-ethnicity). During the inhalation they were required to identify which faces had been seen before from a set of 32 images (16 seen-before and 16 novel images). Identification accuracy was lower during CO2 inhalation compared to air (F[1,29]=5.5, p=.026, ηp(2)=.16), and false alarm rate was higher for other-ethnicity faces compared to own-ethnicity faces (F[1,29]=11.3, p=.002, ηp(2)=.28). There was no evidence of gas by ethnicity interactions for accuracy or false alarms (ps>.34). Ratings of decision confidence did not differ by gas condition, suggesting that participants were unaware of differences in performance. These findings suggest that anxiety, at the point of recognition, impairs facial identification accuracy. This has substantial implications for eyewitness memory situations, and suggests that efforts should be made to attenuate the anxiety in these situations in order to improve the validity of identification.

  3. The Effect of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Laser on Sandblasting with Large Grit and Acid Etching (SLA) Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Foroutan, Tahereh; Ayoubian, Nader

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 6W power Carbon Dioxide Laser (CO2) on the biologic compatibility of the Sandblasting with large grit and acid etching (SLA) titanium discs through studying of the Sarcoma Osteogenic (SaOS-2) human osteoblast-like cells viability.

  4. Up-Scaling Geochemical Reaction Rates for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in Deep Saline Aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Catherine A

    2013-02-28

    Geochemical reactions in deep subsurface environments are complicated by the consolidated nature and mineralogical complexity of sedimentary rocks. Understanding the kinetics of these reactions is critical to our ability to make long-term predictions about subsurface processes such as pH buffering, alteration in rock structure, permeability changes, and formation of secondary precipitates. In this project, we used a combination of experiments and numerical simulation to bridge the gap between our knowledge of these reactions at the lab scale and rates that are meaningful for modeling reactive transport at core scales. The focus is on acid-driven mineral dissolution, which is specifically relevant in the context of CO2-water-rock interactions in geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. The project led to major findings in three areas. First, we modeled reactive transport in pore-network systems to investigate scaling effects in geochemical reaction rates. We found significant scaling effects when CO2 concentrations are high and reaction rates are fast. These findings indicate that the increased acidity associated with geological sequestration can generate conditions for which proper scaling tools are yet to be developed. Second, we used mathematical modeling to investigate the extent to which SO2, if co-injected with CO2, would acidify formation brines. We found that there exist realistic conditions in which the impact on brine acidity will be limited due to diffusion rate-limited SO2 dissolution from the CO2 phase, and the subsequent pH shift may also be limited by the lack of availability of oxidants to produce sulfuric acid. Third, for three Viking sandstones (Alberta sedimentary basin, Canada), we employed backscattered electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to statistically characterize mineral contact with pore space. We determined that for reactive minerals in sedimentary consolidated rocks, abundance alone is not a good predictor of

  5. Integrated Energy System with Beneficial Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Use - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy T

    2011-04-29

    This report presents an integrated energy system that combines the production of substitute natural gas through coal hydrogasification with an algae process for beneficial carbon dioxide (CO2) use and biofuel production (funded under Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-FE0001099). The project planned to develop, test, operate and evaluate a 2 ton-per-day coal hydrogasification plant and 25-acre algae farm at the Arizona Public Service (APS) 1000 Megawatt (MW) Cholla coal-fired power plant in Joseph City, Arizona. Conceptual design of the integrated system was undertaken with APS partners Air Liquide (AL) and Parsons. The process engineering was separated into five major areas: flue gas preparation and CO2 delivery, algae farming, water management, hydrogasification, and biofuel production. The process flow diagrams, energy and material balances, and preliminary major equipment needs for each major area were prepared to reflect integrated process considerations and site infrastructure design basis. The total project also included research and development on a bench-scale hydrogasifier, one-dimensional (1-D) kinetic-model simulation, extensive algae stressing, oil extraction, lipid analysis and a half-acre algae farm demonstration at APS?s Redhawk testing facility. During the project, a two-acre algae testing facility with a half-acre algae cultivation area was built at the APS Redhawk 1000 MW natural gas combined cycle power plant located 55 miles west of Phoenix. The test site integrated flue gas delivery, CO2 capture and distribution, algae cultivation, algae nursery, algae harvesting, dewatering and onsite storage as well as water treatment. The site environmental, engineering, and biological parameters for the cultivators were monitored remotely. Direct biodiesel production from biomass through an acid-catalyzed transesterification reaction and a supercritical methanol transesterification reaction were evaluated. The highest oil-to-biodiesel conversion of 79

  6. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 as a clean technology for palm kernel oil extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhuda I

    2009-04-01

    Kyoto Protocol. Keywords: By-product, Solvent extraction, Kyoto protocol, Supercritical Carbon Dioxide, Palm Kernel Oil Received: 13 July 2008 / Received in revised form: 17 February 2009, Accepted: 28 February 2009, Published online: 12 March 2009

  7. Effects of pure and impure carbon dioxide (CO2) on soil chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Yang

    2013-01-01

    A cleaner use of fossil fuels supported by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) techniques is considered to be one of the main short-term strategies for addressing the global climate change problem. However, potential CO2 or CO2/SO2 seepage during some of the phases of a CCS project not only reduces its performing efficiency, but also impacts the local environment, which could have further impacts on human health. It is therefore essential to assess the potential risks and provide evidence that t...

  8. CO_2在炼钢工艺的应用及发展%Application and Development of Carbon Dioxide in the Steelmaking Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱荣; 毕秀荣; 吕明

    2012-01-01

    The emission of carbon dioxide in the iron and steelmaking process is about 16% of that in the industrial system.How to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide and take use of carbon dioxide is one of main problems that has attracted many steel engineers' attention.In order to take the utilization of carbon dioxide as a resource in steelmaking process,application of carbon dioxide as stirring gas,reaction media and protection gas was analyzed at home and abroad,and previous research on the application of carbon dioxide in steelmaking process was introduced.%钢铁生产过程CO2排放占工业CO2排放量的16%左右。如何降低CO2排放并使CO2进行资源化利用是钢铁工作者关心的重要问题。以CO2在炼钢过程中的资源化利用为出发点,分析了国内外CO2作为炼钢过程的搅拌气源、反应介质及保护气源的应用情况,并介绍了笔者在炼钢应用CO2方面所做的前期研究工作的进展。

  9. Carbonated concrete blocks for CO2 captation

    OpenAIRE

    Courard, Luc; Parmentier, Véronique; Michel, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The CO2 captation process called carbonation, improves specific properties of the concrete during the conversion of carbon dioxide CO2 into calcium carbonate CaCO3. Current environmental concerns motivate the study of carbonation in order to maximize the absorption of carbon dioxide. Moreover, lightweight concrete with bio-based products knows an interesting development in the construction field, especially as thermal insulation panels for walls in buildings. Concrete blocks produced with mis...

  10. Research Progress of Carbon Dioxide Capture Technology%CO2捕集技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾先立

    2014-01-01

    This article reveals the relationship between the concentration of CO 2 and air temperature ,and points out that carbon dioxide capture and storage is one of the effective solutions .The commonly used methods of CO2 capture include solvent absorption ,oxygen -rich combustion ,capturing CO2 from ambient air ,membrane separation and pressure swing adsorption ,etc .The article makes a comparative analysis of advantages and disadvantages of these capture methods .The results show that the absorbent is easily decomposed and the equipment is corroded by the alkaline absorbent ;the method of oxygen - rich combustion can only remove combustible impurities , and the operating costs during the preparation of oxygen are expensive ;in the process of roasting calcium carbonate need high energy efficiency ,and the air scrubbers are very large ;raw gas of membrane separation has highly purity ;pressure swing adsorption needs high pressure ,energy consumption and operating costs .At last ,the article presents the development direction of carbon dioxide capture technology .%指出了CO2浓度与温室效应之间的关系,CO2捕集是有效的解决方案之一。常用的捕集方法有:溶剂吸收法、富氧燃烧法、空气捕集、膜分离法、变压吸附(PS A )法等。分析比较了各种捕集方法的优缺点:溶剂吸收法吸收剂易被分解且再生能耗高,对设备腐蚀大;富氧燃烧法在制备氧气时能耗高,只能去除可燃性杂质;从空气中捕集CO2,浓度较低空气洗涤器规格过大,焙烧CaCO3时能耗高;膜分离法对原料气的要求较高;变压吸附法需要2次加压,能耗高,运行成本大。提出了CO2捕集技术的发展方向与建议。

  11. Proximate Composition of Seed and Biomass from Soybean Plants Grown at Different Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Sager, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    Soybean plants were grown for 90 days at 500, 1000, 2000, and 5000 ubar (ppm) carbon dioxide (CO2) and compared for proximate nutritional value. For both cultivars (MC and PX), seed protein levels were highest at 1000 (39.3 and 41.9 percent for MC and PX) and lowest at 2000 (34.7 and 38.9 percent for MC and PX). Seed fat (oil) levels were highest at 2000 (21.2 and 20.9 percent for MC and PX) and lowest at 5000 (13.6 and 16.6 percent for MC and PX). Seed carbohydrate levels were highest at 500 (31.5 and 28.4 percent for MC and PX) and lowest at 2000 (20.9 and 20.8 percent for MC and PX). When adjusted for total seed yield per unit growing area, the highest production of protein and carbohydrate occurred with MC at 1000, while equally high amounts of fat were produced with MC at 1000 and 2000. Seed set and pod development at 2000 were delayed in comparison to other CO2 treatments; thus the proportionately high fat and low protein at 2000 may have been a result of the delay in plant maturity rather than CO2 concentration. Stem crude fiber and carbohydrate levels for both cultivars increased with increased CO2. Leaf protein and crude fiber levels also tended to rise with increased CO2 but leaf carbohydrate levels decreased as CO2 was increased. The results suggest that CO2 effects on total seed yield out-weighed any potential advantages to changes in seed composition.

  12. Transcutaneous application of carbon dioxide (CO2 induces mitochondrial apoptosis in human malignant fibrous histiocytoma in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Onishi

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play an essential role in cellular energy metabolism and apoptosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that decreased mitochondrial biogenesis is associated with cancer progression. In mitochondrial biogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α regulates the activities of multiple nuclear receptors and transcription factors involved in mitochondrial proliferation. Previously, we showed that overexpression of PGC-1α leads to mitochondrial proliferation and induces apoptosis in human malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH cells in vitro. We also demonstrated that transcutaneous application of carbon dioxide (CO(2 to rat skeletal muscle induces PGC-1α expression and causes an increase in mitochondrial proliferation. In this study, we utilized a murine model of human MFH to determine the effect of transcutaneous CO(2 exposure on PGC-1α expression, mitochondrial proliferation and cellular apoptosis. PGC-1α expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR, while mitochondrial proliferation was assessed by immunofluorescence staining and the relative copy number of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA was assessed by real-time PCR. Immunofluorescence staining and DNA fragmentation assays were used to examine mitochondrial apoptosis. We also evaluated the expression of mitochondrial apoptosis related proteins, such as caspases, cytochorome c and Bax, by immunoblot analysis. We show that transcutaneous application of CO(2 induces PGC-1α expression, and increases mitochondrial proliferation and apoptosis of tumor cells, significantly reducing tumor volume. Proteins involved in the mitochondrial apoptotic cascade, including caspase 3 and caspase 9, were elevated in CO(2 treated tumors compared to control. We also observed an enrichment of cytochrome c in the cytoplasmic fraction and Bax protein in the mitochondrial fraction of CO(2 treated tumors, highlighting the involvement of mitochondria in apoptosis

  13. Sorption of methane and CO2 for enhanced coalbed methane recovery and carbon dioxide seauestration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Basanta Kumar Prusty

    2008-01-01

    Sequestration of CO2 in deep and unmineable coal seams is one of the attractive alternatives to reduce its atmospheric concentration. Injection of CO2 in coal seams may help in enhancing the recovery of coalbed methane. An experimental study has been carried out using coal samples from three different coal seams, to evaluate the enhanced gas recovery and sequestration potential of these coals. The coals were first saturated with methane and then by depressurization some of the adsorbed methane was desorbed. After partial desorption, CO2 was injected into the coals and subsequently they were depressurized again. Desorption of methane after the injections was studied, to investigate the ability of CO2 to displace and enhance the recovery of methane from the coals. The coals exhibited varying behavior of adsorption of CO2 and release of methane. For one coal, the release of methane was enhanced by injection of CO2, suggesting preferential adsorption of CO2 and desorption of methane. For the other two coals, CO2 injection did not produce incremental methane initially, as there was initial resistance to methane release. However with continued CO2 injection, most of the remaining methane was produced. The study suggested that preferential sorption behavior of coal and enhanced gas recovery pattern could not be generalized for all coals.

  14. CO2/clay interactions and the significance for geological storage of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Andreas; Wentinck, Rick; Bertier, Pieter

    2015-04-01

    For the characterization of CO2 storage reservoirs a number of critical parameters need to be assessed, like storage capacity or injection rate, where a straight-forward work flow based on existing experience in the oil and gas industry is available. Added complexity is in the identification of (potential) leakage pathways along wellbores, faults/fractures or even capillary seal networks. The critical aspects are mechanisms and rates of potential leakage. Over the past few years an improved understanding of the interaction of CO2 with clay minerals was generated, with a major focus on swelling clays, such as montmorillonite. Especially in relatively young and / or low maturity sedimentary basins, smectite contents of the seal lithologies can be high (e.g. North Sea). It was found that for CO2 storage and storage containment non-negligible physical effects result from clays in contact with CO2 and water under pressure, temperature and stress conditions representative for geological reservoirs. It was shown that all clay minerals are able to adsorb significant amounts of CO2, while only smectite swells in the presence of CO2, thereby creating a swelling force that is potentially large and may affect local stress fields. Several cases where this interaction might become important are discussed in this contribution: (1) clay swelling between wellbore cement and host rock, (2) CO2 adsorption of clays in the storage reservoir, (3) clay swelling and the impact on fractures and faults, potentially acting as pathways, for fluid leakage and (4) shrinkage of swelling clays due to dehydration by CO2 and the possible creation of dehydration cracks. This contribution aims at summarizing these effects, increasing awareness and discussing its significance for the geological storage of CO2.

  15. Bioelectrochemical removal of carbon dioxide (CO2): an innovative method for biogas upgrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Heng; Wang, Kaijun; Holmes, Dawn E

    2014-12-01

    Innovative methods for biogas upgrading based on biological/in-situ concepts have started to arouse considerable interest. Bioelectrochemical removal of CO2 for biogas upgrading was proposed here and demonstrated in both batch and continuous experiments. The in-situ biogas upgrading system seemed to perform better than the ex-situ one, but CO2 content was kept below 10% in both systems. The in-situ system's performance was further enhanced under continuous operation. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and alkali production with CO2 absorption could be major contributors to biogas upgrading. Molecular studies showed that all the biocathodes associated with biogas upgrading were dominated by sequences most similar to the same hydrogenotrophic methanogen species, Methanobacterium petrolearium (97-99% sequence identity). Conclusively, bioelectrochemical removal of CO2 showed great potential for biogas upgrading.

  16. The Effect of Carbon Dioxide (CO 2) Ice Cloud Condensation on the Habitable Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincowski, Andrew; Meadows, Victoria; Robinson, Tyler D.; Crisp, David

    2016-10-01

    The currently accepted outer limit of the habitable zone (OHZ) is defined by the "maximum greenhouse" limit, where Rayleigh scattering from additional CO2 gas overwhelms greenhouse warming. However, this long-standing definition neglects the radiative effects of CO2 clouds (Kopparapu, 2013); this omission was justified based on studies using the two-stream approximation, which found CO2 clouds to be highly likely to produce a net warming. However, recent comparisons of the radiative effect of CO2 clouds using both a two-stream and multi-stream radiative transfer model (Kitzmann et al, 2013; Kitzmann, 2016) found that the warming effect was reduced when the more sophisticated multi-stream models were used. In many cases CO2 clouds caused a cooling effect, meaning that their impact on climate could not be neglected when calculating the outer edge of the habitable zone. To better understand the impact of CO2 ice clouds on the OHZ, we have integrated CO2 cloud condensation into a versatile 1-D climate model for terrestrial planets (Robinson et al, 2012) that uses the validated multi-stream SMART radiative transfer code (Meadows & Crisp, 1996; Crisp, 1997) with a simple microphysical model. We present preliminary results on the habitable zone with self-consistent CO2 clouds for a range of atmospheric masses, compositions and host star spectra, and the subsequent effect on surface temperature. In particular, we evaluate the habitable zone for TRAPPIST-1d (Gillon et al, 2016) with a variety of atmospheric compositions and masses. We present reflectance and transit spectra of these cold terrestrial planets. We identify any consequences for the OHZ in general and TRAPPIST-1d in particular. This more comprehensive treatment of the OHZ could impact our understanding of the distribution of habitable planets in the universe, and provide better constraints for statistical target selection techniques, such as the habitability index (Barnes et al, 2015), for missions like JWST

  17. Spectral-element simulations of carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration time-lapse monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morency, C.; Luo, Y.; Tromp, J.

    2009-12-01

    Geologic sequestration of CO2, a green house gas, represents an effort to reduce the large amount of CO2 generated as a by-product of fossil fuels combustion and emitted into the atmosphere. This process of sequestration involves CO2 storage deep underground. There are three main storage options: injection into hydrocarbon reservoirs, injection into methane-bearing coal beds, or injection into deep saline aquifers, that is, highly permeable porous media. The key issues involve accurate monitoring of the CO2, from the injection stage to the prediction & verification of CO2 movement over time for environmental considerations. A natural non-intrusive monitoring technique is referred to as ``4D seismics'', which involves 3D time-lapse seismic surveys. The success of monitoring the CO2 movement is subject to a proper description of the physics of the problem. We propose to realize time-lapse migrations comparing acoustic, elastic, and poroelastic simulations of 4D seismic imaging to characterize the storage zone. This approach highlights the influence of using different physical theories on interpreting seismic data, and, more importantly, on extracting the CO2 signature from the seismic wave field. Our simulations are performed using a spectral-element method, which allows for highly accurate results. Biot's equations are implemented to account for poroelastic effects. Attenuation associated with the anelasticity of the rock frame and frequency-dependent viscous resistance of the pore fluid are accommodated based upon a memory variable approach. The sensitivity of observables to the model parameters is quantified based upon finite-frequency sensitivity kernels calculated using an adjoint method.

  18. Effect of carbon dioxide (CO2) on mortality and reproduction of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller 1879), in mass rearing, aiming at the production of Trichogramma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho Junior, Aloisio; Parra, José R P

    2013-01-01

    Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller 1879) are widely used for mass rearing of Trichogramma spp. and other parasitoids and predators, largely commercialized in many countries. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of carbon dioxide (CO2) originated from larval metabolism on the biological parameters of A. kuehniella. For that purpose, we assess the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) per rearing tray of A. kuehniella and the effect of CO2 on the viability of egg-to-adult period and oviposition of A. kuehniella. Results allow to estimate that a rearing tray, containing 10,000 larvae between the 4th and 5th instars, produces an average of 30.67 mL of CO2 per hour. The highest egg production of A. kuehniella was obtained when the larvae were kept in rooms with lower concentration of CO2 (1,200 parts per million - ppm), producing 23% more eggs than in rooms with higher CO2 concentrations. In rooms with high density of trays (70 trays/room), CO2 concentration exceeded 4,400 ppm. The viability of the egg-to-adult period was not influenced by carbon dioxide. PMID:23828359

  19. Carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption behavior of mixed matrix polymer composites containing a flexible coordination polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Jeffrey T; Sui, Lang; Goodman, Angela; Luebke, David

    2013-03-01

    Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) comprised of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) dispersed in organic polymers are popular materials under study for potential applications in gas separations. However, research on MMMs containing structurally dynamic sorbents known as flexible MOFs has only very recently appeared in the literature. The thermodynamic requirements of the structure transition between the low porosity and high porosity phases of flexible MOFs may provide a mechanism for high adsorption selectivity in these materials. A fundamental question in MMMs containing flexible MOFs is how the constraint of the polymer matrix on the intrinsic expansion of the flexible MOF particles that occurs during gas adsorption might affect the thermodynamics of this structural phase transition and influence the gas adsorption properties of the embedded MOF. To investigate the fundamental nature of this flexible MOF-polymer interface, thin films of ~20 um thickness were prepared using the flexible linear chain coordination polymer catena-bis(dibenzoylmethanato)-(4,4'bipyridyl)nickel(II) "Ni(Bpy)(DBM)(2)" embedded as 35 wt% dispersions in Matrimid®, polystyrene, and polysulfone. The adsorption of CO(2) in the polymers and embedded particles was studied using in situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and variable temperature volumetric CO(2) adsorption/desorption isotherms. Interestingly, no effect of the polymer matrix on the gas adsorption behavior of the embedded Ni(Bpy)(DBM)(2) particles was observed. The composite samples all showed the same threshold pressures for CO(2) absorption and desorption hysteresis associated with the structural phase change in the polymer embedded Ni(Bpy)(DBM)(2) particles as was observed in the pristine polycrystalline sample. The current results contrast those recently reported for a MMM containing the flexible MOF "NH(2)-MIL-53" where a significant increase in the threshold pressure for CO(2) adsorption associated with the structural phase change of the MOF was

  20. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Retrievals from Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) Solar Occultation Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Chiou, Linda; Boone, Chris; Bernath, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment ACE satellite (SCISAT-1) was launched into an inclined orbit on 12 August 2003 and is now recording high signal-to-noise 0.02 per centimeter resolution solar absorption spectra covering 750-4400 per centimeter (2.3-13 micrometers). A procedure has been developed for retrieving average dry air CO2 mole fractions (X(sub CO2)) in the altitude range 7-10 kilometers from the SCISAT-1 spectra. Using the N2 continuum absorption in a window region near 2500 per centimeter, altitude shifts are applied to the tangent heights retrieved in version 2.2 SCISAT-1 processing, while cloudy or aerosol-impacted measurements are eliminated. Monthly-mean XCO2 covering 60 S to 60 N latitude for February 2004 to March 2008 has been analyzed with consistent trends inferred in both hemispheres. The ACE XCO2 time series have been compared with previously-reported surface network measurements, predictions based on upper tropospheric aircraft measurements, and space-based measurements. The retrieved X(sub CO2) from the ACE-FTS spectra are higher on average by a factor of 1.07 plus or minus 0.025 in the northern hemisphere and by a factor of 1.09 plus or minus 0.019 on average in the southern hemisphere compared to surface station measurements covering the same time span. The ACE derived trend is approximately 0.2% per year higher than measured at surface stations during the same observation period.

  1. Carbon monoxide : A quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamnitzer, Ulrike; Karstens, Ute; Kromer, Bernd; Neubert, Rolf E. M.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Schroeder, Hartwig; Levin, Ingeborg

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and radiocarbon ((CO2)-C-14) measurements have been made in Heidelberg from 2001 to 2004 in order to determine the regional fossil fuel CO2 component and to investigate the application of CO as a quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2 (CO2(foss)). The obs

  2. Historical changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) emissions in the eutrophied Southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gypens, N.; Borges, A. V.; Lancelot, C.

    2012-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities after the Second World War have severely increased river nutrient [nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)] loads to European coastal areas. The resulting N: P: Si imbalance (compared to phytoplankton requirements) stimulated in the Southern North Sea the growth of Phaeocystis colonies modifying the functioning of the ecosystem and, therefore, the carbon but also the biogenic sulphur cycles. Phaeocystis is a significant producer of DMSP (dimethylsulphide propionate), the precursor of DMS. When emitted to the atmosphere the DMS has a cooling effect on the climate contrarily to the CO2 greenhouse gas. Since the late 1990's specific nutrient reduction policies have however considerably reduced P loads while N is maintained. In this application we explore, with a mathematical tool, the effects of changing N and P loads on air-sea CO2 exchanges and DMS marine emissions. The chosen model is the MIRO-CO2-DMS, a complex biogeochemical model describing carbon, biogenic sulphur and nutrient cycles in the marine domain. Model simulations are performed for the contemporary period since 1950, using real forcing fields for sea surface temperature, wind speed and atmospheric CO2 and RIVERSTRAHLER model simulations for river carbon and nutrient loads. Results are discussing the importance of human activities and river inputs of carbon and nutrients on the eutrophication of coastal areas, their ability to absorb atmospheric CO2 and the importance of DMS emissions associated with phytoplankton blooms, especially Phaeocystis.

  3. CHARACTERISTICS OF HUANGQIAO CARBON DIOXIDE GAS FIELD AND ITS EXPLORATION POTENTIAL%黄桥CO2气田特征及其勘探远景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭念发; 尤孝忠; 雷一心; 徐俊

    2000-01-01

    Subei Basin is of the geological conditions of forming large-sized carbon dioxide gas fields. Huangqiao carbon dioxide gas field is one of the largest carbon dioxide gas fields developed and utilized in the land of our country at present, be ing of the properties that its reservoirs are composed of marine strata and continental strata and the deep-lying gas reservoir is interconnected with the shallow one. The former is mainly car bon dioxide and the latter nitrogen, containing high-concentra tion helium,therefore the latter is the product derived from the former. The carbon dioxide gas reservoirs are trapped in a large sized anticline being composed of marine strata of Mesozoic-Pa leczoic. The marine carbonate rocks(including a part of dastic rocks)are the major reservoir rocks of forming the carbon diox ide gas reservoirs because of their developed fractures and excel lent porosity and permeability conditions. The top of the carbon dioxide gas reservoirs is covered by Cenozoic-Mesozoic with a tremendous thickness which constitutes a regional cap formation over the gas reservoirs. Although the gas constituents in various gas reservoirs are obviously different from each other, all the constituents in various gas reservoirs and their isotope properties show that the gases in the reservoirs originated from magma mantle basically. According to such a genetic mode, considerable carbon dioxide gas prospective reserves may be provided for ex ploration in Huangqiao region.%苏北盆地具有形成大型CO2气田的地质条件,黄桥CO2气田是目前我国陆地开发利用最大的CO2气田之一,它具有海相层系与陆相层系共同成藏、深层气藏和浅层气藏互相沟通的特点。深层气藏以高纯度CO2为主,浅层气藏以含N2为主,并含有高浓度的He。浅层气藏是深层气藏衍生的产物。CO2气藏圈闭于由海相中CO2古生界层系组成的大型背斜中,海相碳酸盐岩(包括部分碎屑岩)裂隙发育、孔渗条件优越,是CO

  4. The system-wide economics of a carbon dioxide capture, utilization, and storage network: Texas Gulf Coast with pure CO2-EOR flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Carey W.; Gülen, Gürcan; Cohen, Stuart M.; Nuñez-Lopez, Vanessa

    2013-09-01

    This letter compares several bounding cases for understanding the economic viability of capturing large quantities of anthropogenic CO2 from coal-fired power generators within the Electric Reliability Council of Texas electric grid and using it for pure CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the onshore coastal region of Texas along the Gulf of Mexico. All captured CO2 in excess of that needed for EOR is sequestered in saline formations at the same geographic locations as the oil reservoirs but at a different depth. We analyze the extraction of oil from the same set of ten reservoirs within 20- and five-year time frames to describe how the scale of the carbon dioxide capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) network changes to meet the rate of CO2 demand for oil recovery. Our analysis shows that there is a negative system-wide net present value (NPV) for all modeled scenarios. The system comes close to breakeven economics when capturing CO2 from three coal-fired power plants to produce oil via CO2-EOR over 20 years and assuming no CO2 emissions penalty. The NPV drops when we consider a larger network to produce oil more quickly (21 coal-fired generators with CO2 capture to produce 80% of the oil within five years). Upon applying a CO2 emissions penalty of 602009/tCO2 to fossil fuel emissions to ensure that coal-fired power plants with CO2 capture remain in baseload operation, the system economics drop significantly. We show near profitability for the cash flow of the EOR operations only; however, this situation requires relatively cheap electricity prices during operation.

  5. The system-wide economics of a carbon dioxide capture, utilization, and storage network: Texas Gulf Coast with pure CO2-EOR flood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This letter compares several bounding cases for understanding the economic viability of capturing large quantities of anthropogenic CO2 from coal-fired power generators within the Electric Reliability Council of Texas electric grid and using it for pure CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the onshore coastal region of Texas along the Gulf of Mexico. All captured CO2 in excess of that needed for EOR is sequestered in saline formations at the same geographic locations as the oil reservoirs but at a different depth. We analyze the extraction of oil from the same set of ten reservoirs within 20- and five-year time frames to describe how the scale of the carbon dioxide capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) network changes to meet the rate of CO2 demand for oil recovery. Our analysis shows that there is a negative system-wide net present value (NPV) for all modeled scenarios. The system comes close to breakeven economics when capturing CO2 from three coal-fired power plants to produce oil via CO2-EOR over 20 years and assuming no CO2 emissions penalty. The NPV drops when we consider a larger network to produce oil more quickly (21 coal-fired generators with CO2 capture to produce 80% of the oil within five years). Upon applying a CO2 emissions penalty of 60$2009/tCO2 to fossil fuel emissions to ensure that coal-fired power plants with CO2 capture remain in baseload operation, the system economics drop significantly. We show near profitability for the cash flow of the EOR operations only; however, this situation requires relatively cheap electricity prices during operation. (letter)

  6. Fiscal 1995 investigation on biological fixation of carbon dioxide; 1995 nendo seibutsuteki CO2 kotei ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    To cope with the global warming caused by CO2, an investigation was conducted into biological fixation. It is necessary to make a many-sided and comprehensive study on the mechanism of CO2 fixation, the scale (area and carbon holding density), the rate and the environmental impact of the introduction of the technology and the technical problems, and to make a quantitative evaluation of each of the methods in order to make them practical proposals. The global ecosystem is classified into the land biota and ocean biota, and each typical ecosystem was surveyed in terms of the surface area, the carbon holding amount (presently existing amount), the net primary production amount, the required nutrient salt amount, the transpiration rate, etc. Next, a discussion was made on the increasing effect of the carbon fixation amount by changing the present ecosystem from the aspect of scale and rate. At the same time, a study was carried out of energy efficiency, economical efficiency and problems. Last, elementary technology was taken up which seems to be important for implementing measures for the biological carbon fixation. As to the ocean, it is necessary to obtain information, which is not sufficient to utilize marine biota for CO2 fixation, especially on the mechanism of depth-direction transfer of organism and its quantitative grasp. As to the land, one of the measures is conversion of the ecosystem where the amount of carbon fixed is small to the ecosystem where the amount is large. 249 refs., 58 figs., 51 tabs.

  7. Regional Opportunities for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in China: A Comprehensive CO2 Storage Cost Curve and Analysis of the Potential for Large Scale Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in the People’s Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Li, Xiaochun; Davidson, Casie L.; Wei, Ning; Dooley, James J.

    2009-12-01

    This study presents data and analysis on the potential for carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies to deploy within China, including a survey of the CO2 source fleet and potential geologic storage capacity. The results presented here indicate that there is significant potential for CCS technologies to deploy in China at a level sufficient to deliver deep, sustained and cost-effective emissions reductions for China over the course of this century.

  8. Effect of Carbon dioxide (CO2 on mortality and reproduction of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller 1879, in mass rearing, aiming at the production of Trichogramma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALOISIO COELHO JUNIOR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller 1879 are widely used for mass rearing of Trichogramma spp. and other parasitoids and predators, largely commercialized in many countries. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of carbon dioxide (CO2 originated from larval metabolism on the biological parameters of A. kuehniella. For that purpose, we assess the production of carbon dioxide (CO2 per rearing tray of A. kuehniella and the effect of CO2 on the viability of egg-to-adult period and oviposition of A. kuehniella. Results allow to estimate that a rearing tray, containing 10,000 larvae between the 4th and 5th instars, produces an average of 30.67 mL of CO2 per hour. The highest egg production of A. kuehniella was obtained when the larvae were kept in rooms with lower concentration of CO2 (1,200 parts per million - ppm, producing 23% more eggs than in rooms with higher CO2 concentrations. In rooms with high density of trays (70 trays/room, CO2 concentration exceeded 4,400 ppm. The viability of the egg-to-adult period was not influenced by carbon dioxide.Ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 são muito utilizados para a criação massal de Trichogramma spp. e de outros parasitóides e predadores, sendo comercializados em muitos países. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do dióxido de carbono (CO2, proveniente do metabolismo larval, em parâmetros biológicos de A. kuehniella, principalmente na postura. Para que este objetivo fosse atingido, foram avaliados a produção de dióxido de carbono (CO2 por bandeja de criação de A. kuehniella e o efeito do CO2 na viabilidade do período ovo-adulto e na postura de A. kuehniella. Por meio dos resultados obtidos pôde-se estimar que uma bandeja de criação, com lagartas entre o 4° e 5° ínstares, inoculada com 10.000 lagartas produz, em média, 30,67 ml de CO2 por hora. A maior produção de ovos de A. kuehniella foi obtida quando as lagartas foram mantidas em salas com concentra

  9. A fully flexible potential model for carbon dioxide%描述CO2的柔性模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱爱梅; 张新波; 刘庆林; 张秋根

    2009-01-01

    A fully flexible potential model for carbon dioxide has been developed to predict the vapor-liquid coexistencc properties using the NVT-Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo technique(GEMC).The average absolute deviation between our simulation and the literature experimental data for saturated liquid and vapor densities IS 0.3% and 2.0%,respectively.Compared with the experimental data our calculated results of critica properties 39 MPa 304.04 K.and 0.4679 g.cm3)are acceptable and are better than those from the rescaling the potential parameters ot elementary physicaI modeI(EPM2).The agreement of our simulated densities of supercritical carbon dioxide with the experimcntal data is acceptable in a wide range of pressure and temperature.The radial distribution function estimated at the supcrcritical conditions suggests that the carbon dioxide iS a nonlinear molecule with the C=O bond lellgth of 0.117 nm and the O=C=O bond angle of 1 76.4°,which are consistent with Car-Parrinello moleculardynamics(CPMD),whereas the EPM2 model shows large deviation at supercritical state.The predicted self-diffusion coefficients are in agreement with the experiments.

  10. Water as a Direct Hydrogen Donor in Supercritical Carbon Di-oxide: A Novel and Efficient Zn-H2O-CO2 System for Chemo selective Reduction of Nitrobenzenes to Anilines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Huan-Feng; DONG Yao-Sen

    2008-01-01

    An eco-friendly and cheap Zn-H2O-CO2 system was presented for chemoselective reduction of nitrobenzenes to anilines with high yields (80%-97% isolated yields) in supercritical carbon dioxide. This process brings together the very important green chemistry technologies--the use of carbon dioxide as a solvent and the use of water as a hydrogen donor.

  11. Modelling and simulation of CO2 (carbon dioxide) bottoming cycles for offshore oil and gas installations at design and off-design conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved energy efficiency is an issue of increasing importance in offshore oil and gas installations. The power on offshore installations is generated by gas turbines operating in a simple cycle. There is an obvious possibility for heat recovery for further power generation from the exhaust heat. However, the limited space and weight available makes the inclusion of bottoming cycles challenging. Due to its high working pressure and thereby compact components CO2 (carbon dioxide) could be a viable solution, combining compactness and efficiency. An in-house simulation tool is used to evaluate the performance of CO2 bottoming cycles at design and off-design conditions. Both a simple recuperated single stage cycle and a more advanced dual stage system are modelled. Results from simulations show a potential for 10–11%-points increase in net plant efficiency at 100% gas turbine load. Also off-design simulations taking the variation in heat exchanger performance into account are performed showing that the bottoming cycle improves the off-design performance compared to the standard gas turbine solution. Even at 60% GT (gas turbine) load, the combined cycle with CO2 bottoming cycle can achieve up to 45% net plant efficiency, compared to 31% for only the gas turbine. - Highlights: • Modeling of CO2 bottoming cycles. • Comparison of single and dual stage CO2 bottoming cycles. • Efficiencies comparable to steam systems. • Good off-design characteristics

  12. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    OpenAIRE

    Huijgen, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept behind mineral CO2 sequestration is the mimicking of natural weathering processes in which calcium or magnesium containing minerals react with gaseous CO2 and form solid calcium or magnesium carbonate...

  13. 全球气候变化与CO_2减排方案的探讨%On exploration for global climate changes and carbon dioxide emission-reducing scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵洁

    2012-01-01

    The study points out the greenhouse gas mainly with carbon dioxide is the major driving factor for the global climate changes,explores the emission-reducing scheme of the carbon dioxide from the population,the Per Capita GDP,unit energy consumption and the energy carbon content,which play the role in the emission of the carbon dioxide,and considers the geological sequestration including the oil deposits,the gas layer and the deep aquifer can increase the carbon content,and indicates the reduction of the man-made carbon dioxide is the most potential way to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide.%指出以CO2为主的温室气体是全球气候变化的最主要的驱动因素,就影响CO2排放量的入口、人均GDP、单位耗能量和能源含碳量以及碳汇量等进行CO2减排方案的探讨,并认为油田、煤气层和深部含水层等地质处置方法能够有效增加CO2的碳汇量,降低CO2的人为排放量,是当前最有潜力的CO2减排途径。

  14. Carbon Dioxide Production Responsibility on the Basis of comparing in Situ and mean CO2 Atmosphere Concentration Data

    CERN Document Server

    Mavrodiev, S Cht; Vachev, B

    2008-01-01

    The method is proposed for estimation of regional CO2 and other greenhouses and pollutants production responcibility. The comparison of CO2 local emissions reduction data with world CO2 atmosphere data will permit easy to judge for overall effect in curbing not only global warming but also chemical polution.

  15. Chemical Reaction CO+OH(•) → CO2+H(•) Autocatalyzed by Carbon Dioxide: Quantum Chemical Study of the Potential Energy Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunov, Artëm E; Wait, Elizabeth; Vasu, Subith S

    2016-08-01

    The supercritical carbon dioxide medium, used to increase efficiency in oxy combustion fossil energy technology, may drastically alter both rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions. Here we investigate potential energy surface of the second most important combustion reaction with quantum chemistry methods. Two types of effects are reported: formation of the covalent intermediates and formation of van der Waals complexes by spectator CO2 molecule. While spectator molecule alter the activation barrier only slightly, the covalent bonding opens a new reaction pathway. The mechanism includes sequential covalent binding of CO2 to OH radical and CO molecule, hydrogen transfer from oxygen to carbon atoms, and CH bond dissociation. This reduces the activation barrier by 11 kcal/mol at the rate-determining step and is expected to accelerate the reaction rate. The finding of predicted catalytic effect is expected to play an important role not only in combustion but also in a broad array of chemical processes taking place in supercritical CO2 medium. It may open a new venue for controlling reaction rates for chemical manufacturing. PMID:27351778

  16. Carbon Dioxide Impacts in the Deep-Sea: Is Maintaining a Metabolically Required CO2 Efflux Rate Challenging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, E. T.; Hofmann, A. F.; Brewer, P. G.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing ocean acidification from fossil fuel CO2 invasion, from temperature driven changes in respiration, and from possible leakage from sub-seabed geologic CO2 disposal has aroused concern over the impacts of elevated CO2 concentrations on marine life. Here we describe the rate problem for animals who must export CO2 at about the same rate at which O2 is consumed. We analyze the basic properties controlling CO2 export within the diffusive boundary of marine animals in a changing ocean in order to compare the challenges posed by O2 uptake under stress with the equivalent problem of CO2 expulsion. The problem is more complex than that for a non-reactive gas since, as with gas exchange of CO2 at the air-sea interface, the influence of the ensemble of reactions within the CO2 - HCO3- - CO3= acid-base system needs to be considered. These reactions appear as an enhancement factor which significantly facilitates CO2 efflux compared to O2 intake at equal temperature, pressure and flow rate under typical oceanic concentrations. Possibly as an adaptation to this chemical advantage marine animals typically can respond to external CO2 stress simply by metabolic adjustment. This is energetically more favorable than having to resort to mechanically increasing flow over their surface to thin the boundary layer as is required to alleviate O2 stress. Regionally as with O2 the combination of T, P, and pH/pCO2 creates a zone of maximum CO2 stress at around 1000 m depth. But the net result is that the combination of an increase in T combined with declining O2 poses a greater respiratory challenge to marine life than does increasing CO2. The relationships developed here allow a more accurate prediction of the impacts on marine life from the combined effects of changing T, O2, and CO2 than can be estimated from single variable studies.

  17. Experimental study on circulation pressurization of carbon dioxide hydration reaction%CO2水合反应循环增压实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡祥江; 祁影霞; 施军锞

    2014-01-01

    Based on the excellent cooling characteristics of CO 2 as a natural working substance and development prospects in the field of many hydrate technology ,using the characteristics of pressure rising sharply under the phase equilibrium transition temperature of hydrate ,through the innovation design of process ,the carbon dioxide hydrate formation and decomposition alter-nate process is used to realize the pressurization system .Based on thermodynamic analysis of car-bon dioxide level cascade refrigeration and combining with the phase equilibrium temperature ,the experiment results show that the dynamics of 0 .3w t% SDS additives is more advantageous to promote the formation of carbon dioxide hydrate in double-tube reactor compare with 4w t% T HF thermodynamics additive .The synthesis time is 60 minutes at 1 .4 MPa and -2 ℃ .In SDS solu-tion of 0 .3wt% ,lower temperature is more beneficial to the formation of hydrate ,the critical temperature is close to -2 ℃ .When it is lower than -2 ℃ ,the solution icing may block pipe . When the two sets of tube reactors are used alternately ,the optimum cyclic temperature is as fol-low s :the synthesis temperature is -2 ℃ ,the decomposition temperature is 10 ℃ ,and the shor-test cycle time is 55 minutes .The carbon dioxide gas under high pressure is decomposed by con-densation throttle to a low temperature of -36 ℃ .%针对CO2作为天然工质优越的制冷特性以及水合物技术在多领域的发展前景,利用水合物相平衡转折温度下压力急剧上升的特点,通过流程的创新设计,提出了一种利用CO2水合物交替生成与分解的过程来实现增压的循环系统。基于CO2复叠制冷低温级的热力学分析,结合对相平衡转折温度的考虑,通过实验表明,在套管式反应器中,0.3%(质量分数)SDS的动力学添加剂较之4%(质量分数)T HF热力学添加剂更能促进CO2水合物的生成,在-2℃、1.4 M Pa的

  18. 我国火电行业燃用不同煤质时CO 2排放量计算∗%The calculation of carbon dioxide emissions from different kinds of coal in thermal power industry of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武世福; 苏铁熊; 张培华; 马理强

    2014-01-01

    通过对火电行业CO2排放源的梳理及煤质变化对 CO2的影响,由火电行业不同煤种推算出标准煤在不同煤种下得到的CO2排放值,阐述了燃煤电厂中 CO2排放量实际计算方法,提高了火电行业计算碳排放量的可靠性和准确度,有效解决了当前火电行业CO2排放量统计、计算的困难。%Based on carbon dioxide emission source of thermal power industry and the influ-ence of coal quality changing carbon dioxide,the carbon dioxide emissions have been calculated in different types coal in thermal power industry.The actual calculation of carbon dioxide emissions from coal fired power plants have been stated.The reliability and accuracy of carbon emissions calculation has been improved in thermal power industry,which solved the problems of statistics and calculation of carbon dioxide emissions.

  19. Recent Progress on Comprehensive Utilization of Carbon Dioxide%CO2综合利用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邝涓; 李德高

    2012-01-01

    CO2综合利用对于资源的合理利用和环境保护具有重要的意义,对近年来CO2的利用研究进展情况进行了综述。%This paper introduced the research progress on comprehensive utilization of CO2 in recent years. The existing utilizations were summarized and concluded, and it was pointed out that the CO2 conver- sion is the most effective utilazation at present.

  20. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept beh

  1. Carbon dioxide (CO2) sorption to Na-rich montmorillonite at Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) P-T conditions in saline formations

    OpenAIRE

    Krukowski, Elizabeth Gayle

    2013-01-01

    Carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) in confined saline aquifers in sedimentary formations has the potential to reduce the impact of fossil fuel combustion on climate change by storing CO2 in geologic formations in perpetuity. At PT conditions relevant to CCUS, CO2 is less dense than the pre-existing brine in the formation, and the more buoyant CO2 will migrate to the top of the formation where it will be in contact with cap rock. A typical cap rock is clay-rich shale, and interacti...

  2. Petrophysical laboratory invertigations of carbon dioxide storage in a subsurface saline aquifer in Ketzin/Germany within the scope of CO2SINK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemke, K.; Kummmerow, J.; Wandrey, M.; Co2SINK Group

    2009-04-01

    Since June of 2008 carbon dioxide has been injected into a saline aquifer at the Ketzin test site [Würdemann et al., this volume]. The food grade CO2 is injected into a sandstone zone of the Stuttgart formation at ca. 650 m depth at 35°C reservoir temperature and 62 bar reservoir pressure. With the injection of CO2 into the geological formation, chemical and physical reservoir characteristics are changed depending on pressure, temperature, fluid chemistry and rock composition. Fluid-rock interaction could comprise dissolution of non-resistant minerals in CO2-bearing pore fluids, cementing of the pore space by precipitating substances from the pore fluid, drying and disintegration of clay minerals and thus influence of the composition and activities of the deep biosphere. To testing the injection behaviour of CO2 in water saturated rock and to evaluate the geophysical signature depending on the thermodynamic conditions, flow experiments with water and CO2 have been performed on cores of the Stuttgart formation from different locations including new wells of ketzin test site. The studied core material is an unconsolidated fine-grained sandstone with porosity values from 15 to 32 %. Permeability, electrical resistivity, and sonic wave velocities and their changes with pressure, saturation and time have been studied under simulated in situ conditions. The flow experiments conducted over several weeks with brine and CO2 showed no significant changes of resistivity and velocity and a slightly decreasing permeability. Pore fluid analysis showed mobilization of clay and some other components. A main objective of the CO2Sink laboratory program is the assessment of the effect of long-term CO2 exposure on reservoir rocks to predict the long-term behaviour of geological CO2 storage. For this CO2 exposure experiments reservoir rock samples were exposed to CO2 saturated reservoir fluid in corrosion-resistant high pressure vessels under in situ temperature and pressure

  3. Asymmetric impact of the physiological effect of carbon dioxide on hydrological responses to instantaneous negative and positive CO2 forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Manabu; Shiogama, Hideo; Yokohata, Tokuta; Emori, Seita; Nozawa, Toru

    2015-10-01

    We conducted sensitivity experiments using a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model to examine the asymmetry between the hydrological responses to instantaneous positive and negative CO2 forcing and the impact of the CO2 physiological effects (CDPEs) on these responses. This study focuses on the fast response occurring on time scales shorter than 1 year after imposing CO2 forcing. Experiments investigating the CO2 physiological effect show that the fast response of precipitation to positive CO2 forcing is a decrease in the global and annual mean, whereas that of negative forcing is an increase the global and annual mean precipitation. The fast global precipitation response to negative forcing is stronger than the response to positive forcing. In contrast, the experiments without the CDPE reveal similar magnitudes of the fast global precipitation responses to negative and positive CO2 forcing. Significant differences in the magnitudes of the fast precipitation response due to the CDPE are found in tropical regions such as the Amazon Basin, the Maritime Continents, and tropical Africa, where C3-type plants are common. The stomatal conductance of plant leaves is decreased by both positive and negative CO2 forcing, which suppress the transpiration from the leaves. Consequently, the CDPE enhances the asymmetry of the fast precipitation responses to positive and negative CO2 forcing. The asymmetric impact of CDPE requires a careful evaluation of future hydrological changes which is constrained by paleoclimate evidence.

  4. Bench-Scale Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westendorf, Tiffany; Caraher, Joel; Chen, Wei; Farnum, Rachael; Perry, Robert; Spiry, Irina; Wilson, Paul; Wood, Benjamin

    2015-03-31

    The objective of this project is to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing aminosilicone-based CO2-capture solvent. The project will establish scalability and technical and economic feasibility of using a phase-changing CO2-capture absorbent for post-combustion capture of CO2 from coal-fired power plants with 90% capture efficiency and 95% CO2 purity at a cost of $40/tonne of CO2 captured by 2025 and a cost of <$10/tonne of CO2 captured by 2035. In the first budget period of this project, the bench-scale phase-changing CO2 capture process was designed using data and operating experience generated under a previous project (ARPA-e project DE-AR0000084). Sizing and specification of all major unit operations was completed, including detailed process and instrumentation diagrams. The system was designed to operate over a wide range of operating conditions to allow for exploration of the effect of process variables on CO2 capture performance.

  5. Ocean sequestration of carbon dioxide: modeling the deep ocean release of a dense emulsion of liquid Co2-in-water stabilized by pulverized limestone particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomb, D; Pennell, S; Ryan, D; Barry, E; Swett, P

    2007-07-01

    The release into the deep ocean of an emulsion of liquid carbon dioxide-in-seawater stabilized by fine particles of pulverized limestone (CaCO3) is modeled. The emulsion is denser than seawater, hence, it will sink deeper from the injection point, increasing the sequestration period. Also, the presence of CaCO3 will partially buffer the carbonic acid that results when the emulsion eventually disintegrates. The distance that the plume sinks depends on the density stratification of the ocean, the amount of the released emulsion, and the entrainment factor. When released into the open ocean, a plume containing the CO2 output of a 1000 MW(el) coal-fired power plant will typically sink hundreds of meters below the injection point. When released from a pipe into a valley on the continental shelf, the plume will sink about twice as far because of the limited entrainment of ambient seawater when the plume flows along the valley. A practical system is described involving a static mixer for the in situ creation of the CO2/seawater/pulverized limestone emulsion. The creation of the emulsion requires significant amounts of pulverized limestone, on the order of 0.5 tons per ton of liquid CO2. That increases the cost of ocean sequestration by about $13/ ton of CO2 sequestered. However, the additional cost may be compensated by the savings in transportation costs to greater depth, and because the release of an emulsion will not acidify the seawater around the release point. PMID:17695916

  6. Progress on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage%CO2储存技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩婕; 武会强; 李娟娟

    2011-01-01

    二氧化碳(CO2)是促成全球变暖的主要因素。为了缓解地球温室效应,永久储存CO2是减少排放的有效手段,CO2储存技术主要有地质储存、陆地生态系统储存、生物储存、矿物储存及海洋储存。本文介绍了CO2储存技术的原理、研究进展与应用状况,并对CO2储存技术的研究方向、研究前景进行展望。

  7. Estimation of the efficiency of hydrocarbon mineralization in soil by measuring CO2-emission and variations in the isotope composition of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovskaya, Ekaterina; Turkovskaya, Olga

    2010-05-01

    Estimation of the efficiency of hydrocarbon mineralization in soil by measuring CO2-emission and variations in the isotope composition of carbon dioxide E. Dubrovskaya1, O. Turkovskaya1, A. Tiunov2, N. Pozdnyakova1, A. Muratova1 1 - Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, RAS, Saratov, 2 - A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation Hydrocarbon mineralization in soil undergoing phytoremediation was investigated in a laboratory experiment by estimating the variation in the 13С/12С ratio in the respired СО2. Hexadecane (HD) was used as a model hydrocarbon pollutant. The polluted soil was planted with winter rye (Secale cereale) inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense strain SR80, which combines the abilities to promote plant growth and to degrade oil hydrocarbon. Each vegetated treatment was accompanied with a corresponding nonvegetated one, and uncontaminated treatments were used as controls. Emission of carbon dioxide, its isotopic composition, and the residual concentration of HD in the soil were examined after two and four weeks. At the beginning of the experiment, the CO2-emission level was higher in the uncontaminated than in the contaminated soil. After two weeks, the quantity of emitted carbon dioxide decreased by about three times and did not change significantly in all uncontaminated treatments. The presence of HD in the soil initially increased CO2 emission, but later the respiration was reduced. During the first two weeks, nonvegetated soil had the highest CO2-emission level. Subsequently, the maximum increase in respiration was recorded in the vegetated contaminated treatments. The isotope composition of plant material determines the isotope composition of soil. The soil used in our experiment had an isotopic signature typical of soils formed by C3 plants (δ13C,-22.4‰). Generally, there was no significant fractionation of the carbon isotopes of the substrates metabolized by the

  8. Experimental Study on Recovery of Carbon Dioxide from CO2-EOR Associated Gas by K2CO3-PZ Mixed Amine Solutions%K2CO3-哌嗪复合溶液脱除CO2驱采出气中CO2的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新军; 李庆领; 陆诗建; 高嵩; 李清方; 张建

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide emission and the use of technology has become the global hotpoint,CO2-enhanced oil recovery technology is widely used at home and abroad.About 40%-50%carbon dioxide overflows with associated gas when it is injected underground.Produced fluid contains a large amount of CO2 and water,resulting in the pipeline and equipment corrosion exacerbate,which bring many problems to the production of oil and gas gathering.Therefore,CO2-EOR associated gas carbon dioxide separation and recovery technology is important to study,in which absorption solvent study is most important.The experiment simulates the CO2-EOR associated gas properties with pressure device,studys K2CO3 and K2CO3-PZ solutions absorption experiments under medium pressure,records the amount of into and out gas at different concentrations of the solution and at different temperatures,pressure,time,which reveals the intrinsic relationship between the absorption rate,absorption capacity and time.Also conducting the rich liquid regeneration experiments at the end of absorption,recording the initial CO2 precipitation temperature,rich liquid regeneration temperature,rich liquid regeneration energy consumption and regeneration rate before and after regeneration.Focusing on studying the main characteristics of absorption and desorption,the ratio of the concentration of 30% K2CO3 +3%PZ solution is optimal binary complex solution,which has a better value for scientific research and industrial applications prospects in CO2-EOR associated gas field of carbon capture.%CO2被注入油层后,约有40%~50%(体积分数)随着油田采出液伴生气溢出,采出液中含有大量CO2及水,针对脱除CO2驱采出气中CO2开展实验模拟研究,采用耐压实验装置模拟CO2驱采出伴生气特性,结合胜利油田CO2驱现场实际情况,在中压条件下对碳酸钾及其与哌嗪的复合溶液进行了实验研究,记录不同浓度溶液在不同温度、压力、时间下的进出气

  9. Carbon Dioxide Transport and Sorption Behavior in Confined Coal Cores for Enhanced Coalbed Methane and CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jikich, S.A.; McLendon, T.R.; Seshadri, K.S.; Irdi, G.A.; Smith, D.H.

    2007-11-01

    Measurements of sorption isotherms and transport properties of CO2 in coal cores are important for designing enhanced coalbed methane/CO2 sequestration field projects. Sorption isotherms measured in the lab can provide the upper limit on the amount of CO2 that might be sorbed in these projects. Because sequestration sites will most likely be in unmineable coals, many of the coals will be deep and under considerable lithostatic and hydrostatic pressures. These lithostatic pressures may significantly reduce the sorption capacities and/or transport rates. Consequently, we have studied apparent sorption and diffusion in a coal core under confining pressure. A core from the important bituminous coal Pittsburgh #8 was kept under a constant, three-dimensional external stress; the sample was scanned by X-ray computer tomography (CT) before, then while it sorbed, CO2. Increases in sample density due to sorption were calculated from the CT images. Moreover, density distributions for small volume elements inside the core were calculated and analyzed. Qualitatively, the computerized tomography showed that gas sorption advanced at different rates in different regions of the core, and that diffusion and sorption progressed slowly. The amounts of CO2 sorbed were plotted vs. position (at fixed times) and vs. time (for various locations in the sample). The resulting sorption isotherms were compared to isotherms obtained from powdered coal from the same Pittsburgh #8 extended sample. The results showed that for this single coal at specified times, the apparent sorption isotherms were dependent on position of the volume element in the core and the distance from the CO2 source. Also, the calculated isotherms showed that less CO2 was sorbed than by a powdered (and unconfined) sample of the coal. Changes in density distributions during the experiment were also observed. After desorption, the density distribution of calculated volume elements differed from the initial distribution

  10. Increased Feeding and Nutrient Excretion of Adult Antarctic Krill, Euphausia superba, Exposed to Enhanced Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

    OpenAIRE

    Saba, Grace K.; Oscar Schofield; Joseph J Torres; Erica H Ombres; Steinberg, Deborah K.

    2012-01-01

    Ocean acidification has a wide-ranging potential for impacting the physiology and metabolism of zooplankton. Sufficiently elevated CO(2) concentrations can alter internal acid-base balance, compromising homeostatic regulation and disrupting internal systems ranging from oxygen transport to ion balance. We assessed feeding and nutrient excretion rates in natural populations of the keystone species Euphausia superba (Antarctic krill) by conducting a CO(2) perturbation experiment at ambient and ...

  11. A Quantitative Investigation of CO2 Sequestration by Mineral Carbonation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad, Muneer; Ehsani, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities have led to a substantial increase in carbon dioxide (CO2), a greenhouse gas (GHG), contributing to heightened concerns of global warming. In the last decade alone CO2 emissions increased by 2.0 ppm/yr. globally. In the year 2009, United States and China contributed up to 43.4% of global CO2 emissions. CO2 capture and sequestration have been recognized as promising solutions to mitigate CO2 emissions from fossil fuel based power plants. Typical techniques for carbon c...

  12. Carbon monoxide: A quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2?

    OpenAIRE

    Gamnitzer, Ulrike; Karstens, Ute; Kromer, Bernd; Neubert, Rolf; Meijer, Harro; Schroeder, Hartwig; LEVIN Ingeborg

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and radiocarbon (14CO2) measurements have been made in Heidelberg from 2001 to 2004 in order to determine the regional fossil fuel CO2 component and to investigate the application of CO as a quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2 (CO2(foss)). The observations were compared with model estimates simulated with the regional transport model REMO at 0.5°x0.5° resolution in Europe for 2002. These estimates are based on two available emissions inventories...

  13. Design of a water-CO2 evaporator : adoption of a carbon dioxide heat pump to geothermal conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Mateusz Tatys

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis the utilization of CO2 heat pumps, together with low-enthalpy geothermal waters or energy of waste water, will be discussed and an attempt will be made to convince the reader that those devices can be used in a simple way to save energy and mitigate global warming. Basing on the so-called EcoCute air to water CO2 heat pump, a unit which can make use of low temperature geothermal resources, as the external lower heat source will be designed. To reach this target special atte...

  14. Ultrafast vibrational spectroscopy (2D-IR) of CO2 in ionic liquids: Carbon capture from carbon dioxide's point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinzer, Thomas; Berquist, Eric J.; Ren, Zhe; Dutta, Samrat; Johnson, Clinton A.; Krisher, Cullen S.; Lambrecht, Daniel S.; Garrett-Roe, Sean

    2015-06-01

    The CO2ν3 asymmetric stretching mode is established as a vibrational chromophore for ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopic studies of local structure and dynamics in ionic liquids, which are of interest for carbon capture applications. CO2 is dissolved in a series of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids ([C4C1im][X], where [X]- is the anion from the series hexafluorophosphate (PF 6- ), tetrafluoroborate (BF 4- ), bis-(trifluoromethyl)sulfonylimide (Tf2N-), triflate (TfO-), trifluoroacetate (TFA-), dicyanamide (DCA-), and thiocyanate (SCN-)). In the ionic liquids studied, the ν3 center frequency is sensitive to the local solvation environment and reports on the timescales for local structural relaxation. Density functional theory calculations predict charge transfer from the anion to the CO2 and from CO2 to the cation. The charge transfer drives geometrical distortion of CO2, which in turn changes the ν3 frequency. The observed structural relaxation timescales vary by up to an order of magnitude between ionic liquids. Shoulders in the 2D-IR spectra arise from anharmonic coupling of the ν2 and ν3 normal modes of CO2. Thermal fluctuations in the ν2 population stochastically modulate the ν3 frequency and generate dynamic cross-peaks. These timescales are attributed to the breakup of ion cages that create a well-defined local environment for CO2. The results suggest that the picosecond dynamics of CO2 are gated by local diffusion of anions and cations.

  15. Assessing the potential impact of the CO2 performance ladder on the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietbergen, M.G.; Blok, K.

    2013-01-01

    Green public procurement is often promoted as a tool to reduce energy use and CO2 emissions in the supply chains of public entities. However, only a limited number of studies has quantitatively assessed the environmental impacts of green public procurement schemes. The aim of this paper was to asses

  16. Therapeutic benefits of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser on single-site HPV lesions in the lower female genital tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urru, Giovanni; Moretti, Gianfranco

    1998-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown contradictory variable percentages of recurrent HPV lesions, after various therapies. The present study therefore evaluates the effectiveness of CO2 laser vaporization in the treatment of single-site HPV lesions of the lower female genital tract in order to confirm the conviction that physical therapy alone, in agreement with some findings reported in the literature, is capable of guaranteeing a high cure rate in selected patients. From January 1995 to June 1996, seventy- five female patients were treated with CO2 laser vaporization for single-site genital HPV lesions, some of which were associated with low-grade intra-epithelial neoplasia. The success rate after 12 months proved to be 97%. The pre-existing clinical symptoms disappeared in all the patients treated. No complication in the vaporization procedure was encountered.

  17. Characterization of gingerol analogues in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale, R.,).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapna Sonale, R; Kadimi, Udaya Sankar

    2014-11-01

    Organically grown ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) SC CO2 extract obtained at 280 bar and 40 °C and its column chromatographic fractions are characterised for its composition. The components in the extract and fractions are identified by HPLC and LC based MS and are used as standard for the estimation of gingerol analogues in the extract. HPLC and mass analysis of the extracts confirmed the various forms of gingerol constituents [4]-, [6]-, [10]-gingerols and [6]-, [8]-, [10]-shogaols in ginger extracts. SC CO2 extract of organic ginger was found to show 6-gingerol around 25.97 % of total extract. The estimation of [6]-gingerol, [6]-shogaols, [4]gingerol, [10]-gingerol and 6-gingediol content of the SC CO2 purified ginger extract was found to be 75.92 ± 1.14, 1.25 ± 0.04, 4.54 ± 0.04, 13.15 ± 0.30 and 0.37 ± 0.00 % respectively. Antioxidant activity was measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and the assay have shown 652 ± 0.37 mg TE/g and 3.68 ± 0.18 mg TE/100 g respectively, are significantly higher results with SC CO2 organic ginger extract. Paradol analogues are not detected in this study. Small quantities of [4]-, [10]gingediol and [6]-gingediacetate are also found in ginger extract. PMID:26396335

  18. Carbon dioxide recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether is seen to offer a substantial route to renewable and environmentally carbon neutral fuels. One of the authors has championed the “Methanol Economy" in articles and a book. By recycling ambient CO2, the authors argue ...

  19. 水泥工业CO2减排及利用技术进展%Technical Progress of Emission-reduction and Utilization of Carbon Dioxide in Cement Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马忠诚; 汪澜

    2011-01-01

    Emission-reduction exists potentially in cement industry, which is the key industry for carbon dioxide emission. Carbonate decomposition, fuel combustion and electric power consumption, etc. Which discharge carbon dioxide in cement industry, are introduced. A series of methods for decreasing carbon dioxide emission in cement industry, such as improving energy utilization, using alternative raw materials and fuels, developing new low carbone-mission binding materials, etc. Are expounded. Finally, several technologies for recycling of carbon dioxide, such as separation, capture, storage, fixation, etc. Are suggested.%水泥工业是CO2排放的重点行业,减排潜力巨大.全面介绍了水泥生产中碳酸盐分解、燃料燃烧和电力消耗等方面CO2的排放情况;详细阐述了水泥生产中通过提高能源利用率、使用替代原燃料、开发新型低碳排放的胶凝材料等措施实现CO2减排的方法,提出了对水泥工业CO2排放实施的分离、捕集、封存、固定等回收利用技术.

  20. Transcriptome-Wide Changes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Gene Expression Regulated by Carbon Dioxide and the CO2-Concentrating Mechanism Regulator CIA5/CCM1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, W; Si, YQ; Douglass, S; Casero, D; Merchant, SS; Pellegrini, M; Ladunga, I; Liu, P; Spalding, MH

    2012-06-26

    We used RNA sequencing to query the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii transcriptome for regulation by CO2 and by the transcription regulator CIA5 (CCM1). Both CO2 and CIA5 are known to play roles in acclimation to low CO2 and in induction of an essential CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), but less is known about their interaction and impact on the whole transcriptome. Our comparison of the transcriptome of a wild type versus a cia5 mutant strain under three different CO2 conditions, high CO2 (5%), low CO2 (0.03 to 0.05%), and very low CO2 (< 0.02%), provided an entry into global changes in the gene expression patterns occurring in response to the interaction between CO2 and CIA5. We observed a massive impact of CIA5 and CO2 on the transcriptome, affecting almost 25% of all Chlamydomonas genes, and we discovered an array of gene clusters with distinctive expression patterns that provide insight into the regulatory interaction between CIA5 and CO2. Several individual clusters respond primarily to either CIA5 or CO2, providing access to genes regulated by one factor but decoupled from the other. Three distinct clusters clearly associated with CCM-related genes may represent a rich source of candidates for new CCM components, including a small cluster of genes encoding putative inorganic carbon transporters.

  1. Reduction of Aldehydes by Fe-H2O-CO2 System in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xi-zhe; JIANG Huan-feng

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Nowadays,green chemistry has received in creased attention.The use of water and scCO2 as a solvent or reagent is an important field for organic reactions and green chemistry both in laboratory and industry[1-4]. The reduction of aldehydes to the corresponding alcohols is an important reaction in organic synthesis and an important step in the synthesis of biologically active compounds[5,6].A number of reducing systems utilized have been developed for this purpose,including H2 catalyzed by metals[7,8],NaBH4[9],and Al-MFn-H2O[10].However,all the procedures suffered from many disadvantages,such as moisture-sensitive,low chemoselectivity,presence of a pyrophoric expensive catalyst and lack of environmentally benign processes.

  2. Development and application potential analysis of carbon dioxide capture technology from flue gas in steel works%钢厂烟气CO2捕捉技术的开发及其应用前景分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛艳丽; 曲余玲; 李博; 景馨; 朱剑兵

    2016-01-01

    The iron and steel industries in several countries have been carried out the development of carbon capture and sequestration(CCS)technology in recent years. The carbon dioxide capture cost approximately accounts for 70 per-cent of the total cost of CCS. Therefore,the reduction of the cost to capture the carbon dioxide becomes the major prob-lem. The carbon dioxide capture processes developed by the steel works so far are mainly chemical absorption methods and physical adsorption methods,the costs in experimental scale have been reduced. The carbon dioxide capture technol-ogies developed by Japanese steel works,such as Nippon Steel and Sumitomo Metal,South Korea's POSCO and China-Taiwan's China Steel etc are described and the industrial application potentials of the technologies are analyzed.%近年来,许多国家开展钢铁工业CO2捕捉与封存(CCS)技术研究。在CCS成本中,CO2捕捉成本约占70%,因此,降低CO2捕捉成本是CCS首先要解决的问题。目前钢厂开发的CO2捕捉工艺主要以化学吸收法和物理吸附法为主,并在试验规模取得成本降低的效果。介绍日本新日铁和JFE、韩国浦项、中国台湾中钢等开发的CO2捕捉技术,并对CO2捕捉技术的工业化应用前景进行分析。

  3. An Approach to Carbon Dioxide Density in Soil of Southern Suburb Grassland in Xi'an%西安市南郊草地土壤CO2释放规律探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冲; 赵景波; 谷岳; 马小军; 张杰; 刘娇

    2011-01-01

    To understand carbon dioxide density in soil at different depths and their impact on atmospheric carbon dioxide as well as the role in global carbon cycle,carbon dioxide concentration in soil in the range of 1 to 10 metre depths was measured by using infrared CO2 monitor at the grassland of Weiqu Town in southern Xi'an city in June 2010.Two groups of six boreholes each 1,2,4,6,8 and 10 metres deep respectively were ready for the observation day and night.The results have shown that carbon dioxide density in soil of this area was generally higher than that in the air at ground level whilst varying among different depths.There has been a profile of apparently increasing release of carbon dioxide in soil as goes deepening.As carbon dioxide concentration in soil was found lower at night and higher in the daytime,its diurnal variation at certain depths was evidently presenting a pattern of rise first and then decline round-the-clock from 7:15 am one morning till the next.At the same depth,in soil with more moisture,carbon dioxide density was significantly higher than that in soil with less humidity.Diurnal temperature variation was the key factor that led to the changes in carbon dioxide concentration in soil,and their correlation was relatively high showing positive but somewhat lagging.%为探讨土壤不同深度CO2浓度和对大气CO2的影响以及在全球碳循环中的作用,利用红外CO2监测仪,在2010年6月对西安市南部韦曲镇草地1~10 m深度的土壤进行了1、2、4、6、8、10 m各2组共12个钻孔的CO2浓度昼夜观测。结果显示,该区所有土壤CO2浓度均高于地表上空大气中CO2浓度,不同深度释放的CO2浓度差异较大,CO2释放量随深度增加呈现明显增大的趋势;土壤CO2浓度夜间低,白天高,昼夜变化明显,从早7:15到次日早7:15各深度均呈现由低到高再到低的变化规律;含水量较高的同一深度土层CO2浓度明显高于含水量较低的土层。土壤CO2浓度

  4. Calculation of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Considering Secondary Energy Deployment Among Provinces in China%基于二次能源省际调配的中国分省CO2排放量计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周曙东; 赵明正; 王传星; 李斌

    2012-01-01

    Scientific and rational calculation of carbon dioxide emissions provides the base is for setting energy saving and emission reduction targets. The existing IPCC's method to calculate carbon dioxide emissions only considered primary energy fuels, but did not consider the secondary energy deployment, which did not reflect the true situation of carbon dioxide emissions and Chinese situation. This study provided a new method to calculate carbon dioxide emissions considering secondary energy deployment, and according to this method, carbon dioxide emissions of every province were estimated based on the statistic data in 2009. The results showed that carbon dioxide emissions in traditional energy production provinces, such as Inner Mongolia and Shanxi, decreased, and those in eastern coastal provinces increased after considering the secondary energy deployment. But the CO; emission intensity in the central and western provinces were significantly higher than those in the eastern coastal provinces. Low energy efficiency, backward energy processing technology and equipment existed in the central and western provinces, which resulted in high intensity of carbon dioxide emissions. Recommendation was made to the central government to enhance investment in energy processing industry in the western provinces to improve energy processing technology, processing equipment to increase energy efficiency and to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The secondary energy-transferred-inprovinces should provide compensation funds to secondary energy-transferred-out-provinces , and this part of the compensation funds should be used to upgrade energy industry for traditional energy production provinces in order to achieve emissions-reduction targets successfully.%节能减排目标任务的制定需要依据科学合理的CO2排放量测算.现有的IPCC提供的CO2排放量计算方法仅考虑一次能源燃料所产生的CO2,来考虑到二次能源省际调配的情况,不能真实反映各省CO

  5. Progress of research and technology in conversion and utilization of carbon dioxide%CO2的绿色利用技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文珍; 张生琦; 倪炳华; 屈撑囤; 黄风林; 黄俊; 王丽莎

    2013-01-01

      近年来 CO2的综合利用越来越引起人们的重视。本文介绍了近年来通过化学途径实现CO2资源化利用的研究方向及进展,并报道了最新的研究技术和成果。通过适当的化学反应,CO2可以转化为液体燃料、甲醇、碳酸酯类等高附加值的产品,还可通过 CH4–CO2催化重整制成合成气来制备乙烯或含氧化合物等。另外,本文还介绍了其它新型 CO2化学利用技术,如通过合理设计的化学肺可将 CO2直接转换为氧气,利用太阳能、电能和生物微藻技术实现CO2向有用化学品的转化以及作为新型储氢材料的研究利用进展。%This paper reviewed and analyzed the progress on research and technology of conversion and utilization of CO2 by chemical route in recent years. CO2 can be converted into liquid fuel, methanol,carbonates,and other high value products through proper chemical reactions. CO2 can also be converted to olefin or oxygen-containing compounds through the process of CO2 – Methane synthesis. Other new technologies of CO2 utilization,including direct conversion of CO2 into oxygen through rational designed chemical lungs,conversion of CO2 into useful chemicals by solar energy, electricity and biological microalgae technologies,and progress of CO2 utilization as new hydrogen storage materials.

  6. Attracting effects of carbon dioxide lamps versus ultraviolet light on mosquitoes%CO2灯诱法与紫外灯诱法捕蚊效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任彤; 刘艳华; 王艺凯; 田洁; 张丽杰; 郭惠琳; 郭天宇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the attracting effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) traps with ultraviolet (UV) light traps on mosquitoes in field settings. Methods Both approaches were used within a 2-hour window before and after sunset, three times monthly, for six consecutive months. Results A total of 2483 mosquitoes were captured, of which 1544 were attracted by CO2 traps and 939 by UV light. The density of mosquitoes captured by CO2 traps (11.20/lamp· hour) was significantly higher than by UV light traps (6.87/light· hour). Conclusion The attracting effect of carbon dioxide traps was better than that of UV light traps.CO2 traps can be used to effectively monitor mosquito density.%目的 现场调查CO2灯诱法与紫外灯诱法的捕蚊效果.方法 以每月3次的频率分别于日落前后2h,同时采取CO2灯诱法和紫外灯诱法诱捕蚊虫,连续诱捕6个月.结果 2种方法共捕获成蚊2483只,其中CO2灯诱法捕获成蚊1544只,紫外灯诱法捕获成蚊939只;CO2灯诱法捕获的成蚊密度[11.20只/(灯·h)]显著高于紫外灯诱法[6.87只/(灯·h).结论 CO2灯诱法捕蚊效果好于紫外灯诱法,是蚊虫密度监测的一种有效方法.

  7. 生物质炭施用量及水热条件对淹水土壤 CO2释放的影响%Effects of carbon dioxide emissions from waterlogged soils by biochar amendments and hydrothermal condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    花莉; 唐志刚; 洛晶晶; 贾卫华

    2013-01-01

    通过模拟土柱实验,向水稻土中添加质量分数分别为0%(C0)、2%(C2)、5%(C5)、8%(C8)的生物质炭,并在不同淹水深度和温度下培养,旨在了解生物质炭的施用量及其水热条件对土壤CO2释放的影响,以期通过控制生物质炭的施炭量和改进农田管理措施,从而为农业温室气体碳减排提供依据.研究结果发现:施加生物质炭对土壤CO2释放的抑制作用明显,与对照相比,2%、5%、8%施炭量处理的土壤CO2累计释放量分别降低了5.1%、2.4%和26.5%.低施炭量对土壤CO2的释放降幅较少,而较高施炭量可能对抑制土壤CO2释放的效果更好;温度越高,土壤的呼吸作用越强,CO2释放速率也越快;在昼夜变化上,土壤夜间CO2的释放速率要高于白天;就淹水深度而言,土壤灌水深度愈深,CO2的释放速率愈低.此外,还从施炭量和水热条件对土壤CO2和CH4释放的综合排放效应进行了展望.%A waterlogged soil environment was simulated and added with mass fraction of 0%(C0) ,2% (C2) ,5% (C5) ,and 8% (C8) of biochar to paddy soils to realize the effects of carbon dioxide emissions by biochar amendments and hydrothermal condition under different irrigated water depths and culture temperature .It is aimed at decreasing agricultural green-house gases emissions by means of controlling biochar amendments and improving field man-agement measures .The results showed that there is a significant inhibition of carbon dioxide emission from soils due to biochar amendment .Compared with the control ,cumulative car-bon dioxide emissions from soils by biochar addition of 2% ,5% ,and 8% were reduced by 5 .1% ,2 .4% and 26 .5% respectively .In terms of inhibition of carbon dioxide emission from soils by biochar amendment ,higher biochar amendments might be better than lower amend-ments;with the higher temperature ,the stronger soil respiration became

  8. CO2 capture in different carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Vicente; Ramírez-Lucas, Ana; Díaz, José Antonio; Sánchez, Paula; Romero, Amaya

    2012-07-01

    In this work, the CO(2) capture capacity of different types of carbon nanofibers (platelet, fishbone, and ribbon) and amorphous carbon have been measured at 26 °C as at different pressures. The results showed that the more graphitic carbon materials adsorbed less CO(2) than more amorphous materials. Then, the aim was to improve the CO(2) adsorption capacity of the carbon materials by increasing the porosity during the chemical activation process. After chemical activation process, the amorphous carbon and platelet CNFs increased the CO(2) adsorption capacity 1.6 times, whereas fishbone and ribbon CNFs increased their CO(2) adsorption capacity 1.1 and 8.2 times, respectively. This increase of CO(2) adsorption capacity after chemical activation was due to an increase of BET surface area and pore volume in all carbon materials. Finally, the CO(2) adsorption isotherms showed that activated amorphous carbon exhibited the best CO(2) capture capacity with 72.0 wt % of CO(2) at 26 °C and 8 bar.

  9. Synthesis of nesquehonite by reaction of gaseous CO2 with Mg chloride solution: its potential role in the sequestration of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrini, Vincenzo; De Vito, Caterina; Mignardi, Silvano

    2009-09-15

    In this paper is reported a novel method to synthesize nesquehonite, MgCO(3) x 3H(2)O, via reaction of a flux of CO(2) with Mg chloride solution at 20+/-2 degrees C. The reaction rate is rapid, with carbonate deposition almost complete in about 10 min. The full characterization of the product of synthesis has been performed to investigate its potential role as a "CO(2)-sequestering medium" and a means of disposing Mg-rich wastewater. We investigated the nesquehonite synthesized using SEM, XRD, FTIR and thermal analysis. The thermodynamic and chemical stability of this low-temperature hydrated carbonate of Mg and its possible transformation products make our method a promising complementary solution to other methods of CO(2) sequestration. Carbonation via magnesium chloride aqueous solutions at standard conditions represents a simple and permanent method of trapping CO(2). It could be applied at point sources of CO(2) emission and could involve rejected brine from desalination plants and other saline aqueous wastes (i.e., "produced water"). The likelihood of using the resulting nesquehonite and the by-products of the process in a large number of applications makes our method an even more attractive solution. PMID:19303209

  10. Impact of CO2 leakage from sub-seabed carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) reservoirs on benthic virus-prokaryote interactions and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastelli, Eugenio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Amaro, Teresa; Queirós, Ana M; Widdicombe, Stephen; Danovaro, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 emissions are a global concern due to their predicted impact on biodiversity, ecosystems functioning, and human life. Among the proposed mitigation strategies, CO2 capture and storage, primarily the injection of CO2 into marine deep geological formations has been suggested as a technically practical option for reducing emissions. However, concerns have been raised that possible leakage from such storage sites, and the associated elevated levels of pCO2 could locally impact the biodiversity and biogeochemical processes in the sediments above these reservoirs. Whilst a number of impact assessment studies have been conducted, no information is available on the specific responses of viruses and virus-host interactions. In the present study, we tested the impact of a simulated CO2 leakage on the benthic microbial assemblages, with specific focus on microbial activity and virus-induced prokaryotic mortality (VIPM). We found that exposure to levels of CO2 in the overlying seawater from 1,000 to 20,000 ppm for a period up to 140 days, resulted in a marked decrease in heterotrophic carbon production and organic matter degradation rates in the sediments, associated with lower rates of VIPM, and a progressive accumulation of sedimentary organic matter with increasing CO2 concentrations. These results suggest that the increase in seawater pCO2 levels that may result from CO2 leakage, can severely reduce the rates of microbial-mediated recycling of the sedimentary organic matter and viral infections, with major consequences on C cycling and nutrient regeneration, and hence on the functioning of benthic ecosystems.

  11. The Greenhouse effect: impacts of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation, carbon dioxide (CO2), and ozone (O3) on vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa, S V; Kickert, R N

    1989-01-01

    There is a fast growing and an extremely serious international scientific, public and political concern regarding man's influence on the global climate. The decrease in stratospheric ozone (O3) and the consequent possible increase in ultraviolet-B (UV-B) is a critical issue. In addition, tropospheric concentrations of 'greenhouse gases' such as carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) are increasing. These phenomena, coupled with man's use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chlorocarbons (CCs), and organo-bromines (OBs) are considered to result in the modification of the earth's O3 column and altered interactions between the stratosphere and the troposphere. A result of such interactions could be the global warming. As opposed to these processes, tropospheric O3 concentrations appear to be increasing in some parts of the world (e.g. North America). Such tropospheric increases in O3 and particulate matter may offset any predicted increases in UV-B at those locations. Presently most general circulation models (GCMs) used to predict climate change are one- or two-dimensional models. Application of satisfactory three-dimensional models is limited by the available computer power. Recent studies on radiative cloud forcing show that clouds may have an excess cooling effect to compensate for a doubling of global CO2 concentrations. There is a great deal of geographic patchiness or variability in climate. Use of global level average values fails to account for this variability. For example, in North America: 1. there may be a decrease in the stratospheric O3 column (1-3%); however, there appears to be an increase in tropospheric O3 concentrations (1-2%/year) to compensate up to 20-30% loss in the total O3 column; 2. there appears to be an increase in tropospheric CO2, N2O and CH4 at the rate of roughly 0.8%, 0.3% and 1-2%, respectively, per year; 3. there is a decrease in erythemal UV-B; and 4. there is a cooling of tropospheric air temperature due to

  12. The Greenhouse effect: impacts of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation, carbon dioxide (CO2), and ozone (O3) on vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa, S V; Kickert, R N

    1989-01-01

    There is a fast growing and an extremely serious international scientific, public and political concern regarding man's influence on the global climate. The decrease in stratospheric ozone (O3) and the consequent possible increase in ultraviolet-B (UV-B) is a critical issue. In addition, tropospheric concentrations of 'greenhouse gases' such as carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) are increasing. These phenomena, coupled with man's use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chlorocarbons (CCs), and organo-bromines (OBs) are considered to result in the modification of the earth's O3 column and altered interactions between the stratosphere and the troposphere. A result of such interactions could be the global warming. As opposed to these processes, tropospheric O3 concentrations appear to be increasing in some parts of the world (e.g. North America). Such tropospheric increases in O3 and particulate matter may offset any predicted increases in UV-B at those locations. Presently most general circulation models (GCMs) used to predict climate change are one- or two-dimensional models. Application of satisfactory three-dimensional models is limited by the available computer power. Recent studies on radiative cloud forcing show that clouds may have an excess cooling effect to compensate for a doubling of global CO2 concentrations. There is a great deal of geographic patchiness or variability in climate. Use of global level average values fails to account for this variability. For example, in North America: 1. there may be a decrease in the stratospheric O3 column (1-3%); however, there appears to be an increase in tropospheric O3 concentrations (1-2%/year) to compensate up to 20-30% loss in the total O3 column; 2. there appears to be an increase in tropospheric CO2, N2O and CH4 at the rate of roughly 0.8%, 0.3% and 1-2%, respectively, per year; 3. there is a decrease in erythemal UV-B; and 4. there is a cooling of tropospheric air temperature due to

  13. In Situ Study of CO2 and H2O Partitioning Between Na-Montmorillonite and Variably Wet Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loring, John S.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Chen, Jeffrey; Thompson, Christopher J.; Martin, Paul F.; Benezeth, Pascale; Rosso, Kevin M.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2014-06-03

    Shale formations play fundamental roles in large-scale geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) aimed primarily to mitigate climate change, and in smaller-scale GCS targeted mainly for CO2-enhanced gas recovery operations. In both technologies, CO2 is injected underground as a supercritical fluid (scCO2), where interactions with shale minerals could influence successful GCS implementation. Reactive components of shales include expandable clays, such as montmorillonites and mixed-layer illite/smectite clays. In this work, we used in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and in situ infrared (IR) spectroscopy to investigate the swelling/shrinkage and water/CO2 sorption of a pure montmorillonite, Na-SWy-2, when the clay is exposed to variably hydrated scCO2 at 50 °C and 90 bar. Measured interlayer spacings and sorbed water concentrations at varying levels of scCO2 hydration are similar to previously reported values measured in air at ambient pressure over a range of relative humidities. IR spectra show evidence of both water and CO2 intercalation, and variations in peak shapes and positions suggest multiple sorbed types with distinct chemical environments. Based on the intensity of the asymmetric CO stretching band of the CO2 associated with the Na-SWy-2, we observed a significant increase in sorbed CO2 as the clay expands from a 0W to a 1W state, suggesting that water props open the interlayer so that CO2 can enter. However, as the clay transitions from a 1W to a 2W state, CO2 desorbs sharply. These observations were placed in the context of two conceptual models concerning hydration mechanisms for expandable clays and were also discussed in light of recent theoretical studies on CO2-H2O-clay interactions. The swelling/shrinkage of expandable clays could affect solid volume, porosity, and permeability of shales. Consequently, the results from this work could aid predictions of shale caprock integrity in large-scale GCS, as well as methane transmissivity in enhanced gas recovery

  14. CAPTURING EXHAUST CO2 GAS USING MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Dhawan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide is considered as one of the major contenders when the question of greenhouse effect arises. So for any industry or power plant it is of utmost importance to follow certain increasingly stringent environment protection rules and laws. So it is significant to keep eye on any possible methods to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in an efficient way. This paper reviews the available literature so as to try to provide an insight of the possibility of using Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFCs as the carbon capturing and segregating devices and the various factors that affect the performance of MCFCs during the process of CO2 capture.

  15. On organic soil carbon and CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Bohn, Hinrich L.

    2011-01-01

    Cultivation of virgin lands released about 150 times 1012 kg of carbon as CO2 to the atmosphere during the last 100 years, at rates of 1 to 2 times 1012 kg/yr. These rates exceeded the CO2 evolved from fossil fuel combustion until the mid-1960s. Soil organic carbon, in organic and mineral soils, may play a considerable role in the CO2 cycle and in controlling the CO2 concentration of the atmosphere.DOI: 10.1111/j.2153-3490.1978.tb00863.x

  16. Passive airborne remote sensing and plume model inversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) from coal-fired power plants measured by the MAMAP/CarbonMapper instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krings, Thomas; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Buchwitz, Michael; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Burrows, John [Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP), University of Bremen (Germany); Tretner, Andreas; Sachs, Torsten; Erzinger, Joerg [Helmholtz Centre, Potsdam (Germany). GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences

    2010-07-01

    MAMAP/CarbonMapper is an airborne passive remote sensing instrument designed for measuring columns of methane and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) below the aircraft. Retrieval precision of the measured column relative to background is typically 2% or better. Its ground pixel size is about 25m x 35m for an aircraft altitude of 1000 m and a ground speed of 200 km/h. In 2007 measurement campaigns at the coal-fired power plants Jaenschwalde and Schwarze Pumpe operated by Vattenfall Europe were performed. The column parameters for CO{sub 2} have been retrieved with a modified version of SCIAMACHY's WFM-DOAS algorithm. To invert for the CO{sub 2} emission rates of the power plants a gaussian plume model approach has been chosen. The results are compared to a simple Gaussian Integral method approach and to the CO{sub 2} emission rates directly derived from power generation as stated by Vattenfall.

  17. Effects of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum on heart rate variability in different laparoscopic surgery%CO2气腹对心率变异性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永权; 付群; 金孝岠

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum on heart rate variability in different laparoscopic surgery. Methods Forty-six patients ASA grade I or Ⅱ for elective laparoscopic cholecysteotomy (n = 2,group LC) or gynecological laparoscopy(n = 24,group LG) were enrolled in this study. Pneumoperitoneum was introduced by CO2 inflatioa Intra-abdominal of pressure was maintained at 11-13 mm Hg. The changes of heart rate variability (HRV)with low frequency(LF), high frequency (HF), normalized unit low frequency(LFnu), normalized unit high frequency(HFnu) and low frequency/high frequency ratio (LF/HF) were recorded before anesthesia (To),just at insufflationsCT1 ), 5,10,30 min after inflation (T2-T4) and 5 min after deflation(T5). Power spectral analysis of HRV was conducted on 256-beat R-R interval segments of interpolated heart rate by using the fast Fourier transformatioa Total spectra power(TP),low frequency power (LF)and high frequency power(HF) were calculated by integrating the power spectra between 0-0. 5 Hz,0. 03-0.15 Hz and 0.15-0. 35 Hz. Results LF, LFnu and LF/HF ratio, but not HF and HFnu were significantly increased at T2-T5 as compared with the baseline values at To in group LC(P<0.05 or P<0. 01). HF and HF were significantly decreased at T2-T5 as compared with the baseline values at To in group LG(P<0.05 or P<0. 01)and LF/HF ratio were significantly increased(P<0. 05 or P<0. 01), but LF and LFnu were not significantly different Compared with group LC, LF, LFnn, HF and HFnn in group LG at T2-T5 were obviously decreased (P<0. 05 or P<0.01). Conclusion Increased LF/HF ratio reflects the sympathetic/parasympathetic tension imbalance during both different laparoscopic surgeries. CO2 pneumoperitoneum increases sympathetic cardiac nerve activity in both laparoscopic surgeries.%目的 观察不同腹腔镜手术CO2气腹建立时对心率变异性(HRV)的影响.方法 选择择期行腹腔镜手术患者46例,ASA Ⅰ

  18. Carbon dioxide and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global climate change is a serious environmental concern, and the US has developed ''An Action Agenda'' to deal with it. At the heart of the US effort is the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), which has been developed by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES) of the Federal Coordinating Council for Sciences, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET). The USGCRP will provide the scientific basis for sound policy making on the climate-change issue. The DOE contribution to the USGCRP is the Carbon Dioxide Research Program, which now places particular emphasis on the rapid improvement of the capability to predict global and regional climate change. DOE's Carbon Dioxide Research Program has been addressing the carbon dioxide-climate change connection for more than twelve years and has provided a solid scientific foundation for the USGCRP. The expansion of the DOE effort reflects the increased attention that the Department has placed on the issue and is reflected in the National Energy Strategy (NES) that was released in 1991. This Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1991 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments. The Environmental Sciences Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research supports a Carbon Dioxide Research Program to determine the scientific linkage between the rise of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, especially carbon dioxide, and climate and vegetation change. One facet is the Core CO2 Program, a pioneering program that DOE established more than 10 years ago to understand and predict the ways that fossil-fuel burning could affect atmospheric CO2 concentration, global climate, and the Earth's biosphere. Major research areas are: global carbon cycle; climate detection and models of climate change; vegetation research; resource analysis; and, information and integration

  19. Genomic insights into growth and survival of supercritical-CO2 tolerant bacterium MIT0214 under conditions associated with geologic carbon dioxide sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peet, K. C.; Freedman, A. J.; Hernandez, H.; Thompson, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) of CO2 has the potential to significantly reduce the emissions of greenhouse gasses associated with fossil fuel combustion. The largest potential for storing captured CO2 in the United Sates is in deep geologic saline formations. Currently, little is known about the effects of CO2 storage on biologically active microbial communities found in the deep earth biosphere. Therefore, to investigate how deep earth microbial communities will be affected by the storage of CO2 we have enriched for a microbial consortium from the saline formation waters of the Frio 2 project site (Texas Gulf Coast) that is capable of growth in nutrient media under a supercritical CO2 headspace (Hernandez, et al). The cultivation of actively growing cells in an environment containing scCO2 is unexpected based on previous experimental evidence of microbial sterilization attributed to the acidic, desiccating, and solvent-like properties of scCO2. We have isolated strain MIT0214 from this supercritical CO2 based enrichment and have sequenced its genome using the Illumina platform followed by de novo assembly of reads and targeted Sanger sequencing to reduce gaps in the draft assembly. The genome of strain MIT0214 is approximately 5,551,062 base pairs with 35% GC-content and is most similar to nonpathogenic Bacillus cereus strain ATCC 14597. Annotation of the draft assembly of the MIT0214 genome by the Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST) server revealed 5538 coding sequences where 4145 of the coding sequences were assigned putative functions. These functions were enriched in cell wall and capsule formation, phage/prophage and plasmids, gene regulation and signaling, and nitrogen and sulfur metabolism relative to the genome of the most closely-related surface-isolated B. cereus reference (ATCC 14597) and in total 773,416 bp of the MIT0214 genome content was distinct from the B. cereus reference. Notably, this set of distinct sequences were most

  20. Effect of Carbon Dioxide on Phenylacetonitrile Hydrolysis in High Temperature Liquid Water%CO2对高温液态水中苯乙腈水解反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅杰; 任浩明; 吕秀阳

    2012-01-01

    为探讨添加了CO2的高温液态水中腈类物质的水解规律,考察了不同的CO2添加量对高温液态水中苯乙腈水解的影响,计算了不同CO2添加量和不同温度对高温液态水反应体系pH的影响.结果表明,在473.15K,0、0.2、0.4MPaCO2压力下的水解反应速率常数分别为6.2×10-4、4.1×10-4、3.0×10-4min-1,而相对应的pH分别为5.6、4.1、3.9.对于碱催化机理为主导的苯乙腈水解反应,CO2并不能有效地促进反应进行.%To probe the rule of nitriles hydrolysis in high temperature liquid water with carbon dioxide, the effect of carbon dioxide pressure on phenylacetonitrile hydrolysis in high temperature liquid water was investigated, and the effects of carbon dioxide pressure and reaction temperature on pH of the reaction system were probed into. The results show that the rate constants of hydrolysis at 0,0. 2 and 0.4 Mpa carbon dioxide pressure were 6.2 × 10-4,4. 1 × 10-4,3.0 × 10 -4 min-1 at 473. 15 K, respectively. And the corresponding pH values were 5. 6,4. 1,3. 9. Since the base-catalytic mechanism is dominant in phenylacetonitrile hydrolysis, carbon dioxide can't effectively promote the hydrolysis of phenylacetonitrile.

  1. Potential of carbon dioxide storage in deep unminable coalbeds in Xuzhou area%徐州地区深部不可采煤层CO2地质处置潜力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋革; 朱炎铭; 王阳; 丁毅

    2014-01-01

    Underground disposal is one of the most effective measures to reduce CO2 content in atmosphere to alleviate the greenhouse effect. CO2 storage in deep unminable coaldbeds shows great potential in China. Taking gas coal as sample in Mazhuang coal mine, Xuzhou, isothermal adsorption experiment was conducted. The result shows that coal adsorption quantity of CO2 is obviously higher than that of CH4 under the same conditions (pressure, temperature, coal rank, etc), ratio ranging from 2.68 to 3.36. In the process of adsorption, with pressure increasing, CO2/CH4 adsorption quantity ratio is gradually reduced. The equilibrium time of ionic reaction of CO2 in the coal-bearing water reaches up to about 120 d. With the deep unminable coalbeds in Xuzhou area as research object, the potential of carbon dioxide geologic storage was analyzed and the result reflects that the deep coalbeds in Xuzhou area could be an important site for geologic storage of carbon dioxide in the suitable depth and position.%地下储存是降低大气中 CO2含量以缓解温室效应的有效措施之一。在我国,深部不可开采煤层处置CO2显示出巨大的潜力。选择了徐州马庄煤矿的气煤做煤样,并对其进行等温吸附实验。结果表明,在相同条件(压力、温度、煤阶等)下煤对 CO2的吸附量明显高于对 CH4的吸附量,两者比值在2.68~3.26;吸附过程中,随着压力的升高,CO2/CH4的吸附量比值逐渐降低;CO2在含煤水中的离子反应所达到平衡的时间约为120 d。从而认为,徐州地区煤层在深度和位置适宜的情况下可以作为CO2地质处置的有利场所。

  2. A Quantitative Investigation of CO2 Sequestration by Mineral Carbonation

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammad, Muneer

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities have led to a substantial increase in carbon dioxide (CO2), a greenhouse gas (GHG), contributing to heightened concerns of global warming. In the last decade alone CO2 emissions increased by 2.0 ppm/yr. globally. In the year 2009, United States and China contributed up to 43.4% of global CO2 emissions. CO2 capture and sequestration have been recognized as promising solutions to mitigate CO2 emissions from fossil fuel based power plants. Typical techniques for carbon capture include post-combustion capture, pre-combustion capture and oxy-combustion capture, which are under active research globally. Mineral carbonation has been investigated as a suitable technique for long term storage of CO2. Sequestration is a highly energy intensive process and the additional energy is typically supplied by the power plant itself. This leads to a reduction in net amount of CO2 captured because of extra CO2 emitted. This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the energy consumption during sequestra...

  3. Influence on Physical and Chemical Properties of Soil for the Leakage of Carbon Dioxide during Geological Storage%地质封存CO2泄露对土壤理化性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丙华; 张倩; 耿春香; 景炯炯

    2016-01-01

    以胜利油田正在实施CO2驱的某区块为研究对象,通过室内模拟试验模拟地质封存CO2泄露,考察CO2泄露时间和速率对土壤理化性质的影响,探讨土壤理化性质变化的机理。研究结果表明,地质封存CO2的泄露会对土壤理化性质产生显著影响,随着CO2泄露浓度的增大,土壤pH降低,土壤含水率降低,有机碳含量降低,碳酸氢根离子含量升高,硫酸根离子、电导率、全氮和磷的含量基本不发生变化。%In order to study the influence on physical and chemical properties of soil for the time and rate of CO2 leakage and explore the mechanism of changes of soil physical and chemical properties, a certain area implemented CO2-driven by SLOF ( shengli Oil Field) was studied by means of indoor simulation experiment which simulated the leakage of Carbon dioxide. It was found that it had the greatest impact on the physical and chemical properties of soil. With the increase of concentration of CO2 leakage, the soil pH, moisture and organic carbon were reduced, HCO-3 was increased, the content of SO2-4 , electrical conductivity, total nitrogen and phosphorus were unchanged.

  4. Research Progress of Low Temperature Carbon Dioxide Solid Adsorbent%低温 CO 2固体吸附剂的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程意茹; 张磊; 蒲人娟; 桂建舟; 刘道胜; 刘丹

    2015-01-01

    Along with the global climate warming,carbon capture and sequestration(CCS)have become a hot issue,and raise worldwide attentions in recent years.In this paper,adsorption behavior,influence factors,regeneration ability,potential application and existing problems of several common low-temperature solid adsorbents for CO 2 capturing are reviewed. Meanwhile,the theoretical calculation in the relevant fields is introduced.Finally, a perspective view of the potential development of the solid adsorbents is given.%随着全球气候变暖,CO 2的捕获、存储与转换成为近年来国内外关注的热点问题。综述了几种常见低温固体 CO 2吸附剂的吸附行为、影响因素、再生能力、潜在的应用及存在的问题,并对理论计算该领域的相关应用进行介绍,展望了低温固体 CO 2吸附剂的发展趋势。

  5. Monitoring carbon dioxide in mechanically ventilated patients during hyperbaric treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregård, Asger; Jansen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of the arterial carbon dioxide (P(a)CO(2)) is an established part of the monitoring of mechanically ventilated patients. Other ways to get information about carbon dioxide in the patient are measurement of end-tidal carbon dioxide (P(ET)CO(2)) and transcutaneous carbon dioxide (PTCCO2......). Carbon dioxide in the blood and cerebral tissue has great influence on vasoactivity and thereby blood volume of the brain. We have found no studies on the correlation between P(ET)CO(2) or P(TC)CO(2), and P(a)CO(2) during hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT)....

  6. CO2催化氢化催化剂及其反应机理综述%Review on Catalysts and Its Mechanisms for Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张自丽; 赵毅

    2013-01-01

    研究二氧化碳资源化利用技术将对电厂CO2减排工作具有重要意义.综述了基于催化氢化思想的CO2转化催化剂及其反应机理,其主要涉及铜、镍、锌等过渡金属和钌、铱、钯等贵金属.现有催化氢化CO2转化技术研究主要集中于研究与开发高活性催化剂,分析与推测反应机理,提高产物产率及选择性,优化反应体系结构与条件等方面.高活性催化剂如双金属合金,过渡金属催化体系将是未来CO2催化氢化领域主要的研究方向之一.各催化剂催化氢化CO2反应机理较为复杂,值得深入研究.随着经济、环保、节能等新型CO2催化氢化技术的开发及研究的深入,电厂CO2减排及资源化工业应用也将成为可能.%Researches about carbon dioxide utilization technologies will have great significances for the emission reduction of carbon dioxide from power plants.Based on the theory about catalytic hydrogenation,the mechanisms of the catalysts such as transition metals,namely copper,nickel and zinc,and noble metals including ruthenium,iridium and palladium for carbon dioxide conversion were reviewed.Current researches about the catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 mainly focus on the studying and development of highly active catalysts,the analysis and conjecture of reaction mechanism,the improvement of productivity and selectivity,and the optimization of reaction system structure and condition,etc..The highly active catalysts,for example thermometal alloy,and the transition metal catalyst system will be one of the primary issues in the field of CO2 hydrogenation in the future.The reaction mechanism which is complicated with diverse catalysts in carbon dioxide conversion,is worth being researched deeply.As the development of new technics with the characteristics of economy,green and energy saving and the deep researches,it may be possible for the emission reduction and resource industry utilization of CO2 from power plants.

  7. Nongovernmental valorization of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is considered the largest contributor to the greenhouse gas effect. Most attempts to manage the flow of CO2 or carbon into our environment involve reducing net emissions or sequestering the gas into long-lived sinks. Using CO2 as a chemical feedstock has a long history, but using it on scales that might impact the net emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere has not generally been considered seriously. There is also a growing interest in employing our natural biomes of carbon such as trees, vegetation, and soils as storage media. Some amelioration of the net carbon emissions into the atmosphere could be achieved by concomitant large withdrawals of carbon. This report surveys the potential and limitations in employing carbon as a resource for organic chemicals, fuels, inorganic materials, and in using the biome to manage carbon. The outlook for each of these opportunities is also described

  8. 超高压联合高密度 CO2处理钝化对虾多酚氧化酶%Inactivation of polyphenol oxidase from Litopenaeus vannamei treated by ultra high pressure combined dense phase carbon dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓倩琳; 刘书成; 刘蒙娜; 刘媛; 郭明慧; 吉宏武; 李承勇; 高静

    2016-01-01

    Ultra high pressure (UHP) and dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) processes are effective non-thermal pasteurization methods that have gained increasing attention in inactivation of undesired enzymes and microorganisms in food industry. The advantage of UHP is to process foods that are already packaged and therefore are not liable to post-process contamination. Although UHP effectively eliminates microorganisms, it does not inactivate some key enzymes that reduce the product quality. For example, UHP may increase the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) at lower pressure. As a continuous operation, DPCD needs aseptic filling to containers, but can inactivate enzymes. Therefore it is logical to combine these technologies to benefit from their individual advantages. The presence of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the sample medium might create a more acidic environment and synergistically interact with pressure to damage or alter the structures of enzymes and microbial cells. In order to make up for the disadvantage of UHP in inactivating PPO and use the advantage of DPCD in inactivating PPO, the inactivation effect of PPO from Litopenaeus vannamei treated by UHP combined with CO2 (UHP+CO2) was studied, and the feasibility of developing new shrimp products by UHP+CO2 was explored. The crude PPO extracts of 2 mL were treated with 2% CO2 (v/v) package alone, or UHP alone, or UHP + 2% CO2 (v/v). The treatment temperature was 30±2 ℃. The treatment pressure was 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 MPa, respectively. The treatment time was 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min, respectively. The results showed that: The PPO was inactivated more effectively by UHP+CO2 than CO2 treatment and UHP treatment alone. Treated at 100 MPa for 30 min by UHP+CO2, PPO activity dropped to 18.92%±1.52%. At 200 MPa for 10 min by UHP+CO2, PPO activity dropped to 10.91%±1.08%. At 300 MPa for 10 min by UHP+CO2, 95% PPO was inactivated. At 400 MPa for 5 min by UHP+CO2, the residual activity of PPO was less than 3

  9. Life-cycle Assessment of Carbon Dioxide Capture for Enhanced Oil Recovery%为强化石油回采捕集CO2的全周期评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.G Hertwich; M.Aaberg; B.Singh; A.H.Strφmman

    2008-01-01

    The development and deployment of Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) technology is a cornerstone of the Norwegian government's climate strategy. A number of projects are currently evaluated/planned along the Norwegian West Coast, one at Tjeldbergodden. CO2 from this project will be utilized in part for enhanced oil recovery in the Halten oil field, in the Norwegian Sea. We study a potential design of such a system. A combined cycle power plant with a gross power output of 832 MW is combined with CO2 capture plant based on a post-combustion capture using amines as a solvent. The captured CO2 is used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). We employ a hybrid life-cycle assessment (LCA) method to assess the environmental impacts of the system. The study focuses on the modifications and operations of the platform during EOR. We allocate the impacts connected to the capture of CO2 to electricity production, and the impacts connected to the transport and storage of CO2 to the oil produced. Our study shows a substantial reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions from power production by 80% to 75g·(kW·h)-1. It also indicates a reduction of the emissions associated with oil production per unit oil produced, mostly due to the increased oil production. Reductions are especially significant if the additional power demand due to EOR leads to power supply from the land.

  10. Worldwide Innovations in the Development of Carbon Capture Technologies and the Utilization of CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Markewitz, P.; Kuckshinrichs, W.; Leitner, W.; Linssen, J.; Zapp, P.; Bongartz, R. (Roswitha); Schreiber, A.; Müller, T. (Tessa)

    2012-01-01

    While Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies are being developed with the focus of capturing and storing CO2 in huge quantities, new methods for the chemical exploitation of carbon dioxide (CCU) are being developed in parallel. The intensified chemical or physical utilization of CO2 is targeted at generating value from a limited part of the CO2 stream and developing better and more efficient chemical processes with reduced CO2 footprint. Here, we compare the status of the three main li...

  11. Sequestration of CO2 by concrete carbonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan, Isabel; Andrade, Carmen; Mora, Pedro; Sanjuan, Miguel A

    2010-04-15

    Carbonation of reinforced concrete is one of the causes of corrosion, but it is also a way to sequester CO2. The characteristics of the concrete cover should ensure alkaline protection for the steel bars but should also be able to combine CO2 to a certain depth. This work attempts to advance the knowledge of the carbon footprint of cement. As it is one of the most commonly used materials worldwide, it is very important to assess its impact on the environment. In order to quantify the capacity of cement based materials to combine CO2 by means of the reaction with hydrated phases to produce calcium carbonate, Thermogravimetry and the phenolphthalein indicator have been used to characterize several cement pastes and concretes exposed to different environments. The combined effect of the main variables involved in this process is discussed. The moisture content of the concrete seems to be the most influential parameter. PMID:20225850

  12. Progress in Research on Photocatalysts for Photocatalytic Reduction of Carbon Dioxide%光催化还原CO2反应催化剂的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贤达; 单雯妍; 白雪峰

    2011-01-01

    Greenhouse gas CO2 is one of the primary causes of global wanning. Using solar energy to make the reduction of CO2 into hydrocarbon organics will benefit the environmental protection and the efficient utilization of energy. The photocatalysts for the pholocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide are introduced, including TiO2, metal complexes and some other metal oxides. The process of preparing these catalysts, the feature of structure, the reaction conditions of photocatalytic reduction of CO2 and the existed problems are described. Through the design of catalysts to improve the pho tocatalytic reactivity and the efficient utilization of light will be the focus of future research.%温室气体CO2是全球变暖的一个主要原因,利用太阳能将CO2还原为烃类等有机物将给环境保护和能源利用带来益处.介绍了CO2光催化还原反应中的催化剂,主要涉及TiO2、金属配合物以及一些其它金属氧化物.阐述了各类催化剂的制备过程、结构特征、光催化还原CO2反应条件以及催化剂存在的问题.通过催化剂设计,提高光催化反应活性和光利用效率是今后研究的重点.

  13. Carbon Dioxide Absorption Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A carbon dioxide absorption heat pump cycle is disclosed using a high pressure stage and a super-critical cooling stage to provide a non-toxic system. Using carbon dioxide gas as the working fluid in the system, the present invention desorbs the CO2 from an absorbent and cools the gas in the super-critical state to deliver heat thereby. The cooled CO2 gas is then expanded thereby providing cooling and is returned to an absorber for further cycling. Strategic use of heat exchangers can increase the efficiency and performance of the system.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF ULTRAMAFIC ROCKS IN CHINA%中国超基性岩封存CO2的潜力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛雪芬; 季峻峰; 陈骏

    2011-01-01

    大气CO浓度上升引起的气候效应正受到国际社会的高度关注.超基性岩石与CO反应可生成稳定的碳酸盐矿物而永久性地固定CO,有效地降低人类活动排放到大气中CO浓度,从而缓解日趋严重的温室效应带来的全球气候恶化.根据各省记载的超基性岩体的岩石学、地球化学资料,按照公式:T=1/3·a·t·r·d·(1-φ)计算,对各省市自治区的CO封存量进行了详细统计和评估.计算表明,中国超基性岩封存CO的潜力巨大,总封存量可达13.02×10CO,约为2008年全国CO总排放量的1887倍.其中超过11.55×10t CO的封存量(占全国总量的89%)在西藏和新疆地区,其他地区占全国的11%,总量达到1.46x10tCO,相当于2008年全国总排放量的212倍,因此具有较高的碳封存潜力.由于各省工业产业结构分布的不均匀导致CO排放量有着很大的差异,因此利用超基性岩封存CO的潜力相差悬殊.东南沿海和华南地区等经济发达地区相对封存储量较少,应考虑其他方式来封存.%The global is facing a major challenge due to anthropogenic CO2 emission from the utilization of fossil fuels.Ultra-mafic rock storage is potential to reduce the atmospheric CO2 ,with high reactivity to form carbonates leading to a very stable sequestration, eventually to relief the increasingly dangerous global warming originating from the greenhouse effect.After the statistics on the data of petrology and geochemistry of the ultra-mafic rocks recorded in the regional geology of 27 provinces in China,we used the equation: T= 1/3 · a · t · r · d · (1-φ)( T is the potential CO2 storage capacity sequestrating in the ultra-mafic rocks; a is the area of the ultra-mafic rock outcrops; t is the estimated depth of the ultra-mafic rocks; r is how much CO2 can be consumed by 1 t peridotite or 1 t serpentine,which is 0. 63 t and 0. 46 t respectively; d is the densities of the ultra-mafic rocks, peridotite is 3.4g/mi3 and serpentine is

  15. 超临界CO2流体萃取柑橘皮精油工艺的研究%Extraction Craft of Orange Peel Oil with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪焕林; 曹长年; 冯丽红

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to make good use of the orange peel residue.[Method] The supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction was used to make an experiment of extraction for the oil of orange peel.The effects of extraction time, extraction pressure, extraction temperature, and flow rate of carbon dioxide on the extraction rate were studied.In addition, ethanol as entrainment agent was studied.[Result] The best combination of technology was as follows: the extraction temperature was 35 ℃,the extraction pressure was 15MPa, the extraction was 150 minute, and the carbon dioxide flow was 23 L/h.The extraction rate increased for entrainer ethanol extract.And the rate of extraction was 10.167%.[Conclusion] It was the best craft with the technology of modern facilities.%[目的] 充分利用柑橘果皮渣.[方法] 采用超临界CO2萃取技术对柑橘皮精油进行萃取分离试验,考察萃取时间、萃取压力、萃取温度、萃取CO2流量等对提取率的影响,并对乙醇作为夹带剂进行了试验.[结果] 最优工艺组合为:萃取温度35 ℃,萃取压力15 MPa,萃取时间150 min,CO2流量23 L/h.加乙醇作夹带剂的提取率比所查资料的提取率高,提取率为10.164%.[结论] 在现有设备条件下,该工艺组合的得率是最理想的.

  16. A review of mineral carbonation technologies to sequester CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, A; Uibu, M; Caramanna, G; Kuusik, R; Maroto-Valer, M M

    2014-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and sequestration includes a portfolio of technologies that can potentially sequester billions of tonnes of CO2 per year. Mineral carbonation (MC) is emerging as a potential CCS technology solution to sequester CO2 from smaller/medium emitters, where geological sequestration is not a viable option. In MC processes, CO2 is chemically reacted with calcium- and/or magnesium-containing materials to form stable carbonates. This work investigates the current advancement in the proposed MC technologies and the role they can play in decreasing the overall cost of this CO2 sequestration route. In situ mineral carbonation is a very promising option in terms of resources available and enhanced security, but the technology is still in its infancy and transport and storage costs are still higher than geological storage in sedimentary basins ($17 instead of $8 per tCO2). Ex situ mineral carbonation has been demonstrated on pilot and demonstration scales. However, its application is currently limited by its high costs, which range from $50 to $300 per tCO2 sequestered. Energy use, the reaction rate and material handling are the key factors hindering the success of this technology. The value of the products seems central to render MC economically viable in the same way as conventional CCS seems profitable only when combined with EOR. Large scale projects such as the Skyonic process can help in reducing the knowledge gaps on MC fundamentals and provide accurate costing and data on processes integration and comparison. The literature to date indicates that in the coming decades MC can play an important role in decarbonising the power and industrial sector. PMID:24983767

  17. Progress in the chemical utilization of carbon dioxide%CO2化学利用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙洪志; 王倩; 宋名秀; 阿不都拉江·那斯尔; 王付燕; 朱维群

    2013-01-01

      概述了近年来 CO2化学利用的主要研究内容和成果,介绍了 CO2的催化加氢反应、氨化反应、酯化反应等化学利用方法。对 CO2的催化加氢原理及其催化剂进行了论述,阐述了 CO2酯化反应的合成条件及应用,提出了氨化合成三聚氰酸的 CO2化学利用新方法。探讨了 CO2化学利用对 CO2减排的意义,并展望了 CO2化学利用的研究方向。认为 CO2催化加氢和酯化反应在短期内实现工业化是不可行的,而氨化合成三聚氰酸具有广阔的发展前景。%  Previous achievements on CO2 chemical utilization are reviewed,including CO2 catalytic hydrogenation,ammonification and esterification reaction. The mechanism and catalysts of CO2 hydrogenation reaction are discussed. The synthesis conditions as well as the application of CO2 esterification reaction products are expounded. A novel synthetic method for the preparation of cyanuric acid by CO2 and NH3 is presented in this article. The significance of CO2 chemical utilization to its emission reduction is also explored,and its study trends are prospected. The industrialization of CO2 catalytic hydrogenation and esterification reaction cannot be realized in short term. Through ammonification,synthesizing cyanuric acid with CO2 has the broad prospects for development.

  18. Impact of CO2 leakage from sub-seabed carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) reservoirs on benthic virus-prokaryote interactions and functions

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenio eRastelli; Cinzia eCorinaldesi; Antonio eDell'Anno; Teresa eAmaro; Ana M Queiros; Stephen eWiddicombe; Roberto eDanovaro

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 emissions are a global concern due to their predicted impact on biodiversity, ecosystems functioning and human life. Among the proposed mitigation strategies, CO2 capture and storage (CCS), primarily the injection of CO2 into marine deep geological formations has been suggested as a technically practical option for reducing emissions. However, concerns have been raised that possible leakage from such storage sites, and the associated elevated levels of pCO2 could locally impac...

  19. Impact of CO2 leakage from sub-seabed carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) reservoirs on benthic virus–prokaryote interactions and functions

    OpenAIRE

    Rastelli, Eugenio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Dell’Anno, Antonio; Amaro, Teresa; Queirós, Ana M.; Widdicombe, Stephen; Danovaro, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 emissions are a global concern due to their predicted impact on biodiversity, ecosystems functioning, and human life. Among the proposed mitigation strategies, CO2 capture and storage, primarily the injection of CO2 into marine deep geological formations has been suggested as a technically practical option for reducing emissions. However, concerns have been raised that possible leakage from such storage sites, and the associated elevated levels of pCO2 could locally impact the...

  20. Study on Extraction Technology of Volatile Oil in Nutmeg by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extraction%超临界CO2萃取肉豆蔻中挥发油工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠雄彪; 黄一平

    2012-01-01

    目的:采用正交实验法优选肉豆蔻挥发油超临界CO2萃取工艺.方法:优化肉豆蔻挥发油的超临界CO2萃取工艺.结果:优选的萃取工艺条件为:肉豆蔻粉碎成粗粉,萃取压力12Mpa,萃取温度40℃,萃取2h.结论:筛选的提取工艺挥发油提取率高,操作简单,工艺稳定.%Objective:To optimize the extraction technology of volatile oil in Nutmeg by Supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction with method of orthogonal test.Methods:Optimize the extraction technology of volatile oil in Nutmeg by Supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction.Results:The best extraction process is:The nutmeg should shattered into thick powder, and extracted 2 hours with pressure of 12 Mpain temperature of 40 ℃ Conclusion:The optimal extraction technology is higher extraction yield, stable and feasible.

  1. Noble gas and carbon isotopic evidence for CO2-driven silicate dissolution in a recent natural CO2 field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubacq, Benoît; Bickle, Mike J.; Wigley, Max; Kampman, Niko; Ballentine, Chris J.; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara

    2012-08-01

    Secure storage of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) in geological reservoirs requires predicting gas-water-rock interactions over millennial timescales. Noble gases and carbon isotope measurements can be used to shed light on the nature of competing dissolution-precipitation processes over different timescales, from the fast dissolution of gaseous CO2 in groundwater to more sluggish reactions involving dissolution and precipitation of newly formed minerals in the reservoir. Here we study a compilation of gas analyses including noble gases and δ13C of CO2 from nine different natural CO2 reservoirs. Amongst these reservoirs, the Bravo Dome CO2 field (New Mexico, USA) shows distinct geochemical trends which are explained by degassing of noble gases from groundwater altering the composition of the gas phase. This groundwater degassing is synchronous with the dissolution of CO2 in groundwater. Progressive creation of alkalinity via CO2-promoted mineral dissolution is required to explain the observed positive correlation between CO2/3He and δ13C of the gas phase, a unique feature of Bravo Dome. The differences between Bravo Dome and other natural CO2 reservoirs are likely explained by the more recent filling of Bravo Dome, reflecting CO2-water-rock interactions over thousands of years rather than over millions of years in older reservoirs.

  2. Forecasting carbon dioxide emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaobing; Du, Ding

    2015-09-01

    This study extends the literature on forecasting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by applying the reduced-form econometrics approach of Schmalensee et al. (1998) to a more recent sample period, the post-1997 period. Using the post-1997 period is motivated by the observation that the strengthening pace of global climate policy may have been accelerated since 1997. Based on our parameter estimates, we project 25% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2050 according to an economic and population growth scenario that is more consistent with recent global trends. Our forecasts are conservative due to that we do not have sufficient data to fully take into account recent developments in the global economy.

  3. 短波红外通道CO2观测的温度敏感性分析%Temperature sensitivity analysis of carbon dioxide measurement in SWIR band

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹铭敏; 陈良富; 陶金花; 苏林; 韩冬; 贺宝华; 张莹; 余超

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide has an absorption band of solar spectra in SWIR, and temperature is a key factor to the absorption effect. Researches on the CO2 observation sensitivity of temperature are done in this paper. First, the dependences of spectral line parameters on temperature are discussed. Then, according to the accuracy level of atmosphere temperature profile product, we simulate the change of measurement in nadir mode by importing 1 K temperature uncertainty , using line-by-line radiative transfer mode under 6 different atmosphere modes, and calculate the corresponding change of retrieval result. In contrast, simulations of measurement change resulted from 1 ppm and 2 ppm CO2 column density differences are also done. After comparison, we come to a conclusion; 1 K uncertainty of atmosphere temperature profile is an important factor which has significant influence to high precise atmospheric CO2 observation.%近红外通道观测大气CO2含量是利用其对太阳辐射的吸收作用,温度是影响吸收气体吸收的一个重要因子,文中讨论了CO2观测的温度敏感性.首先阐述了温度对气体吸收谱线的强度、增宽的影响;然后根据CO2反演过程中使用的大气温度产品的精度水平,利用逐线积分辐射传输模型模拟计算了1K的随机温度误差对垂直大气观测的影响,以及由此导致的CO2反演误差,并与模拟的1 ppm和2 ppm的CO2浓度变化所造成的观测与反演变化量进行了比较.通过对比分析六种大气模式下的模拟计算结果,得出1K大气随机温度误差是影响高精度大气CO2观测反演的重要因子.

  4. Fluxes of N2O, CH4 and CO2 in a meadow ecosystem exposed to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide for three years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Open-top chambers (OTCs) were used to evaluate the effects of moderately elevated O3 (40-50 ppb) and CO2 (+100 ppm) and their combination on N2O, CH4 and CO2 fluxes from ground-planted meadow mesocosms. Bimonthly measurements in 2002-2004 showed that the daily fluxes of N2O, CH4 and CO2 reacted mainly to elevated O3, while the fluxes of CO2 also responded to elevated CO2. However, the fluxes did not show any marked response when elevated O3 and CO2 were combined. N2O and CO2 emissions were best explained by soil water content and air and soil temperatures, and they were not clearly associated with potential nitrification and dentrification. Our results suggest that the increasing O3 and/or CO2 concentrations may affect the N2O, CH4 and CO2 fluxes from the soil, but longer study periods are needed to verify the actual consequences of climate change for greenhouse gas emissions. - The soil fluxes of N2O, CH4 and CO2 in a meadow ecosystem changed in response to elevated O3 and CO2 in an OTC experiment

  5. Carbon dioxide capture and use: organic synthesis using carbon dioxide from exhaust gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Hyo; Kim, Kwang Hee; Hong, Soon Hyeok

    2014-01-13

    A carbon capture and use (CCU) strategy was applied to organic synthesis. Carbon dioxide (CO2) captured directly from exhaust gas was used for organic transformations as efficiently as hyper-pure CO2 gas from a commercial source, even for highly air- and moisture-sensitive reactions. The CO2 capturing aqueous ethanolamine solution could be recycled continuously without any diminished reaction efficiency.

  6. 芎归散超临界CO_2萃取物纳米结构脂质载体的制备%Preparation of nanostructured lipid carriers loaded with supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction of Xiongguipowder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕军; 陈锋; 韦玮; 张小军; 冯青然; 金日显

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To study the preparation of nanostructured lipid carriers loaded with supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction of Xionggui powder.Method:Prepared nanostructured lipid carriers(NLC)loaded with supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction of Xionggui powder(XG-CO_2-SFE)with a microemulsion ultrasonication method,established the best prescription of XG-CO_2-SFE-NLC by orthogonal design methods with entrapment efficiency of nanoparticles as index,and investigated their physicochemical characterizations.Result:The best prescription was m phospholipid:m_(S-40):m_(lipid carriers)=5:2:1,the entrapment efficiency of nanopartices was 86.8%,results revealed that nanoparticles were sphere like with the mean size of 92.6 nm and the mean zeta potential was-20.68 mV.Conclusion:The prep aration method ofthe XG-CO_2-SFE-NLC is appropriate.%目的:研究芎归散超临界CO_2萃取物纳米结构脂质载体的制备.方法:采用微乳超声分散法制备芎归散超临界CO_2萃取物纳米结构脂质载体混悬液,以总苯酞的含量作为工艺研究中包封率的评价指标,以包封率为考察指标,采用正交试验筛选最佳处方,并考察其物理化学性质.结果:最佳处方为大豆卵磷脂-硬脂酸聚氢氧酯S-40-脂质载体(5:2:1),包封率为86.8%,所得纳米粒为类球形实体粒子,平均粒径92.6 nm,平均zeta电位-20.68 mV.结论:芎归散超临界CO_2萃取物纳米结构脂质载体的制备工艺基本可行.

  7. Carbon dioxide vs. air insufflation in ileo-colonoscopy and in gastroscopy plus ileo-colonoscopy: a comparative study Insuflación de CO2 vs. aire en íleo-colonoscopia y en gastroscopia más íleo-colonoscopia: estudio comparativo

    OpenAIRE

    María Fernández-Calderón; Miguel Ángel Muñoz-Navas; Juan Carrascosa-Gil; María Teresa Betés-Ibañez; Susana de-la Riva; César Prieto-de-Frías; María Teresa Herráiz-Bayod; Cristina Carretero-Ribón

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: insufflation with carbon dioxide (CO2) during endoscopies compared to air is associated with a decrease in abdominal discomfort after the examination, because CO2 is readily absorbed through the small intestine and eliminated by the lungs. Aims: the objective of this randomized clinical trial was to assess the effect of CO2 insufflation on pain and abdominal distension after an ileo-colonoscopy (I) and after an ileo-colonoscopy plus gastroscopy (I+G). Material and methods: we in...

  8. Lab experimental study on in- situ carbon dioxide generation to enhance oil recovery%层内生成CO2气体吞吐提高原油采收率室内实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨付林; 邓建华; 朱伟民

    2012-01-01

    Up to now, carbon dioxide injection is one of the more efficient methods of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) particularly in the case when miscibility develops. But the technology development was restricted by the source, corrosive- ness, environmental effect, and safety of carbon dioxide. An in - situ carbon dioxide generation technology to enhance oil recovery was proposed. In lab, an adaptable and feasible single - liquid formula, which is used in - situ carbon dioxide gen- eration ,was selected to study its effectiveness by using high - pressure testing and oil displacement instruments. Lab results show that the optimizing formula has large generation gas volume, non - corrosive, good solubility, and reaction rate con- trolled by temperature,which can be applied in more than 70 ℃ reservoirs and increase oil recovery by about 4%.%CO2驱被认为是提高采收率最有效的方法之一,制约其应用的主要因素就是气源问题,以及腐蚀、安全和环境影响等。在室内进行了层内生气体系单液法的研究,优选出适应性强、经济可行的复配生气体系,并通过高压测试、驱油实验对其效果进行了评价。实验结果表明优化后的体系具有生气量大、无腐蚀、溶解性能好、反应受温度控制的特点,该体系适合在温度大于70℃的油藏中使用,其采收率可提高4%左右。

  9. Adsorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) at S functionalized boron nitride (BN) and aluminum nitride (AlN) nanotubes (9, 0): A quantum chemical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Meysam

    2016-10-01

    We employed density functional theory to characterize CO2 adsorption on BNNT and AlNNT surfaces. The effects of S functionalization on the adsorption of CO2 gas on BNNT and AlNNT surfaces were investigated. Results reveal that adsorptions of CO2 on studied nanotubes were exothermic and experimentally possible from the energetic viewpoint. Results show that, Ead values of CO2 on AlNNT surface were more negative than corresponding values of BNNT. Results reveal that, S functionalization of studied nanotubes causes an increase in the absolute values of Ead of CO2 on surface of studied nanotubes. These results show that, there are good linearity dependencies between Ead and orbital energy values of studied nanotubes. Therefore we can conclude the Ead and orbital energy values are highly sensitive to the adsorption process which these may be used for the selection the suitable nanotubes with enhanced CO2 adsorption potential.

  10. Experimental and Modeling Studies on the Solubility of Sub- and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (scCO2) in Potato Starch and Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Muljana, Henky; Picchioni, Francesco; Heeres, Hero J.; Janssen, Leon P.B.M.; 068883455

    2011-01-01

    The solubility of CO2 in native potato starch (NPS) and potato starch acetate (SA) at two different temperatures (50°C and 120°C) and various pressures (up to 25 MPa) was determined using a magnetic suspension balance. Within the experimental window, a maximum solubility of 31 mg CO2/gsample for NPS and 79.4 mg CO2/gsample for SA was obtained. The CO2 sorption behavior is highly depending on the temperature and pressure. The solubility data were modeled with the Sanchez Lacombe equation of st...

  11. Development and Choice of Carbon Dioxide Reduction Technology in Manned Spaceflight%载人航天CO2还原技术的发展与选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史乔升; 杨春信

    2014-01-01

    CO2还原是目前国际空间站CO2处理的一个重要环节.CO2还原技术不仅可以实现对人体代谢产生的CO2进行处理,还可以与电解水技术结合起来实现氧气的再生.空间站所采用的CO2还原技术包括Sabatier、Bosch、CO2电解、CO2热解等还原方法.经过三十多年的理论与实验研究,最终Sabatier还原法被确定为国际空间站的CO2还原方案.然而,Sabatier方法的循环闭合度较低,难以应用在宇宙深空探测等更长期的载人航天任务中.其他可实现完全闭合的还原法仍有可能在技术充分发展后,取代Sabatier成为性能更优的还原技术.%CO2 reduction is an important part of the international space station CO2 treatment.CO2 reduction technology can not only remove the CO2 generated by human metabolism process,but also be combined with electrolyzed water technology together to achieve oxygen regeneration.CO2 reduction technology used in space station includes Sabatier,Bosch,CO2 electrolysis and CO2 pyrolysis.After thirty years of theoretical and experimental research,Sabatier reduction was ultimately identified as the CO2 reduction method in the International Space Station.However,because of its low closure,Sabatier method is difficult to be applied in even longer manned space missions such as the deep space exploration.Other methods that can accomplish complete close reduction may take the place of Sabatier method after their maturity and become superior reduction technologies.

  12. Volcanic versus anthropogenic carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, T.

    2011-01-01

    Which emits more carbon dioxide (CO2): Earth's volcanoes or human activities? Research findings indicate unequivocally that the answer to this frequently asked question is human activities. However, most people, including some Earth scientists working in fields outside volcanology, are surprised by this answer. The climate change debate has revived and reinforced the belief, widespread among climate skeptics, that volcanoes emit more CO2 than human activities [Gerlach, 2010; Plimer, 2009]. In fact, present-day volcanoes emit relatively modest amounts of CO2, about as much annually as states like Florida, Michigan, and Ohio.

  13. Carbon dioxide emission reduction measures and cost analysis in thermal power plant%火电厂CO2减排技术及成本探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁炜; 朱林

    2011-01-01

    介绍了我国火电厂CO2排放特点,阐述了火电厂CO2 减排技术、成本及影响因素,分析了CO2 减排对中国未来能源和经济的影响.指出最适合CO2 捕集技术发展的电厂类型是超超临界燃煤电厂和IGCC电厂,CO2减排技术的研发重点是大幅度降低成本和效率损失.

  14. Extrusion foaming of polypropylene with supercritical carbon dioxide%PP/超临界CO2连续挤出发泡成型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明义; 王中雅; 周南桥

    2011-01-01

    A kind of high melt strength homopolypropylene foaming material was prepared with supercritical CO2 as blowing agent. The effect of supercritical CO2 content on the foaming process was studied in a continuous extrusion foaming process. The die pressure of the foaming extruder, expansion ratio and cell size of the samples decreased while the cell population density increased with the augmentation of the supercritical CO2 content. Polypropylene(PP) foams with expansion ratio as high as 13 were obtained when the mass fraction of the supercritical CO2 were 3% and 5%. Microcellular PP foams with cell size in the range of 10-30 μm and cell population density of 6.84×107 cells/cm3 were produced when setting the mass fraction of supercritical CO2 at 7% and temperature at 123 ℃, respectively.%以超临界CO2为发泡剂,在连续挤出发泡过程中研究了超临界CO2用量对高熔体强度均聚聚丙烯(PP)发泡成型过程的影响.随着超临界CO2用量的增加,发泡挤出机口模压力降低,试样发泡倍率降低,泡孔尺寸变小,泡孔密度提高.在w(CO2)为3%,5%时,得到发泡倍率最高为13左右的PP发泡材料.w(CO2)为7%,发泡温度为123℃时,制备了孔径为10~30μm,泡孔密度为6.84x107个/cm3 的PP微孔泡沫塑料.

  15. Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin-Based Carbons for CO2 Separation at Sub-Atmospheric Pressures

    OpenAIRE

    Noelia Álvarez-Gutiérrez; María Victoria Gil; María Martínez; Fernando Rubiera; Covadonga Pevida

    2016-01-01

    The challenge of developing effective separation and purification technologies that leave much smaller energy footprints is greater for carbon dioxide (CO2) than for other gases. In addition to its involvement in climate change, CO2 is present as an impurity in biogas and bio-hydrogen (biological production by dark fermentation), in post-combustion processes (flue gas, CO2-N2) and many other gas streams. Selected phenol-formaldehyde resin-based activated carbons prepared in our laboratory hav...

  16. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Carbon Dioxide using Structure Functions in Urban Areas: Insights for Future Active Remote CO2 Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y.; Yang, M. M.; Kooi, S. A.; Browell, E. V.; DiGangi, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    High resolution in-situ CO2 measurements were recorded onboard the NASA P-3B during the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) Field Campaigns during July 2011 over Washington DC/Baltimore, MD; January - February 2013 over the San Joaquin Valley, CA; September 2013 over Houston, TX; and July-August 2014 over Denver, CO. Each of these campaigns have approximately two hundred vertical soundings of CO2 within the lower troposphere (surface to about 5 km) at 6-8 different sites in each of the urban area. In this study, we used structure function analysis, which are a useful way to quantify spatial and temporal variability, by displaying differences with average observations, to evaluate the variability of CO2 in the 0-2 km range (representative of the planetary boundary layer). These results can then be used to provide guidance in the development of science requirements for the future ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons) mission to measure near-surface CO2 variability in different urban areas. We compare the observed in-situ CO2 variability with the variability of the CO2 column-averaged optical depths in the 0-1 km and 0-3.5 km altitude ranges in the four geographically different urban areas, using vertical weighting functions for potential future ASCENDS lidar CO2 sensors operating in the 1.57 and 2.05 μm measurement regions. In addition to determining the natural variability of CO2 near the surface and in the column, radiocarbon and anthropogenic pollution tracers are used to examine the variation of emission sources among these urban sites.

  17. Diffuse Carbon Dioxide (CO2) degassing from the summit crater of Pico do Fogo during the 2014-15 eruption, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Fatima; Dionis, Samara; Padrón, Eleazar; Fernandes, Paulo; Melián, Gladys V.; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Hernández, Pedro A.; Silva, Sónia; Pereira, José Manuel; Cardoso, Nadir; Asensio-Ramos, María; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán; Calvo, David; Semedo, Helio

    2015-04-01

    On January 3, 2015, a new diffuse CO2 degassing survey at the summit crater of Pico do Fogo volcano (2,829 m above sea level) was carried out by ITER/INVOLCAN/UNICV/OVCV research team to investigate the effect of the 2014-15 Fogo eruption on the diffuse degassing through the summit crater. Before the eruption onset on November 23, 2014, these type of surveys were periodically performed by ITER/INVOLCAN/UNICV/OVCV research team since May 2007. The first published data on diffuse CO2 degassing rate from the summit crater of Pico do Fogo volcano (219 ± 36 t d-1) is related to a survey performed on February 2010 (Dionis et al., 2015). Each survey implies about 65 CO2 efflux measurements to obtain a good spatial distribution and cover homogeneously the summit crater area (0.14 km2). Because of the sudden falls of rocks of different sizes inside the summit crater during the January 3 survey, the research team aborted continues working in the summit crater without completing the survey only 32 of the 65 CO2 efflux measurements were performed covering a smaller area (0.065 km2). Observed CO2 efflux values ranged from non detectable ( 300 t d-1). This most recent survey did not cover the hydrothermal alteration zone within the crater, where the highest CO2 efflux measurements are usually recorded. Dionis et al. (2015), Bull. Volcanol., in press;

  18. Extrusion foaming of polypropylene with supercritical carbon dioxide%PP/超临界CO2连续挤出发泡成型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明义; 王中雅; 周南桥

    2012-01-01

    以超临界CO2为发泡剂,在连续挤出发泡过程中研究了超临界CO2用量对高熔体强度均聚聚丙烯(PP)发泡成型过程的影响.随着超临界CO2用量的增加,发泡挤出机口模压力降低,试样发泡倍率降低,泡孔尺寸变小,泡孔密度提高.在w(CO2)为3%,5%时,得到发泡倍率最高为13左右的PP发泡材料.w(CO2)为7%,发泡温度为123℃时,制备了孔径为10~30μm,泡孔密度为6.84×107个/cm3的PP微孔泡沫塑料.%A kind of high melt strength homopolypropylene foaming material was prepared with supercritical CO2 as blowing agent. The effect of supercritical C02 content on the foaming process was studied in a continuous extrusion foaming process. The die pressure of the foaming extruder, expansion ratio and cell size of the samples decreased while the cell population density increased with the augmentation of the supercritical CO2 content. Polypropylene (PP) foams with expansion ratio as high as 13 were obtained when the mass fraction of the supercritical C02 were 3% and 5%. Microcellular PP foams with cell size in the range of 10-30 |xm and cell population density of 6.84xl07 cells/cm3 were produced when setting the mass fraction of supercritical C02 at 7% and temperature at 123℃, respectively.

  19. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations on early developmental stages of the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus Gunnerus (Copepoda: Calanoidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Sindre Andre; Våge, Vegard Thorset; Olsen, Anders Johny; Hammer, Karen Marie; Altin, Dag

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification poses an ongoing threat to marine organisms, and early life stages are believed to be particularly sensitive. The boreal calanoid copepod Calanus finmarchicus seasonally dominates the standing stock of zooplankton in the northern North Sea and North Atlantic, and due to its size and abundance is considered an ecological key species linking energy from primary producers to higher trophic levels. To examine whether the early stages of C. finmarchicus are particularly vulnerable to elevated levels of CO2, eggs and nauplii were subjected to different levels of CO2-acidified seawater for 1 wk. The first experiment, with eggs as the starting point, revealed no marked effect on hatching success, but a significant reduction in nauplii survival during incubation at 8800 ppm CO2. In addition, a significant decrease in ontogenetic development rate during incubation at 8800 ppm CO2 was observed in this experiment. In the second experiment, where third-stage nauplii represented the starting point, no significant effects on ontogenetic development and survival following exposure to pCO2 ≥ 7700 ppm were observed. Data suggest that the two first nauplii stages, which are fed endogenously, may be more vulnerable and therefore likely to represent the "bottleneck" for this species in a more acidic ocean. However, the absence of significant effects in the most sensitive stages during exposure to 2800 ppm CO2, a level that is well above worst-case scenario predictions for year 2300 (approximately 2000 ppm CO2), suggests that this species may be generally robust to direct effects of ocean acidification.

  20. 考虑地层水的凝析气井注CO2提高产能研究%Productivity of gas-condensate well containing formation water improved by carbon dioxide injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠

    2013-01-01

    CO2吞吐被认为是解除凝析气井反凝析污染、提高气井产能的较好方法。利用CMG数值模拟软件,以一口实际的含水凝析气井数据为基础,建立了单井径向数值模拟模型。对比研究凝析气井自然衰竭开采和注CO2吞吐不同情况下,反凝析液饱和度和气相相对渗透率的变化规律,并利用陈元千的“动态污染表皮系数”法进行产能提高效果评价。研究表明:反凝析现象在近井带形成了一个10m左右的动态径向污染区,致使气井产能急剧下降。注CO2吞吐可通过CO2与凝析液的反蒸发作用有效地消除近井带的反凝析液污染,从而提高气井产能。CO2注入量越大,吞吐效果越好,但也存在一个最优值(实例为16×104 m3),超过后的产能提高幅度明显减小,而注入速度和焖井时间对产能的提高不敏感。%The CO2 huff-and-puff technology is considered a better technique to remove retrograde condensate pollu-tion and improve productivity of gas-condensate wells.On the basis of actual data of a gas-condensate well containing for-mation water,a single well radial model was established by adopting the numerical simulation software (CMG).It was studied on change laws of retrograde condensate liquid saturation and gas phase relative permeability under the conditions of nature depletion and CO2 huff-and-puff of the gas-condensate well.And then productivity improvement effect was evaluated by using Chen Yuanqian’s method,namely the dynamic pollution skin factor method.Simulation results indicate that because of the retrograde condensation,a dynamic radial pollution area of about 10 meters was formed near wellbore,which leads to a sharpy decrease of gas well production.The formation damage near wellbore can be effectively removed by the reverse evapo-ration of CO2 and condensate liquid.As a result,the gas well production can be increased.The more the injected volume of carbon dioxide

  1. 基于原子和分子谱线分析的 LIBS 快速测量 CO2%Rapid Measurement of Carbon Dioxide with Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Based on Atomic and Molecular Spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐嘉隆; 李越胜; 陆继东; 白凯杰; 卢伟业; 姚顺春

    2016-01-01

    作为温室气体的主要成分,CO2的排放控制有利于应对全球气候变暖以及生态环境变化,对 CO2的快速检测具有重要意义。目前检测 CO2的方法有滴定法,电化学法,气相色谱法,红外吸收光谱法等,但对应用于工业现场的在线监测还存在着不足。激光诱导击穿光谱(LIBS)具有远程测量,无需或仅需简单预处理,多组分同步测量等优点,本文提出将其应用于 CO2在线监测,期望发展适用于工业过程碳排放的在线监测技术。利用质量流量控制器控制纯度为99.99%的 CO2和 N2配比形成不同 CO2浓度的混合气体模拟烟气环境,经过混气瓶充分混合后送入密封样品池进行 LIBS 测量实验。研究不同延迟时间下 C247.86 nm 和 CN38.34 nm 谱线的演化规律,验证了等离子体形成过程中存在部分 CO2分子解离反应生成 CN 分子,在 CO2定量分析时应考虑 CN 分子谱线的影响,并获得同步测量 C 原子和分子谱线的最佳延迟时间为800 ns 。在此基础上,由于等离子体演化过程中,各种信息相互影响,分析指标与多个测量参数存在关系,综合考虑 C 原子、CN 碎片及修正高浓度影响下的自吸收效应,采用多元回归分析方法建立了 CO2定量分析曲线,其拟合度 R2和斜率分别达到了0.978和0.981,结果表明相比单个指标直接定标,该方法提高了定量分析模型的可靠性,验证了 LIBS 技术快速测量 CO2的可行性。%With the rapid development of economy and industrialization ,global warming is becoming the most serious sensitive global climate issues ,which causes the rising of sea level and many other negative effects .The cause of global warming is the emission of greenhouse gases and carbon dioxide is the main component of greenhouse gases .The control of CO2 emssion is bene‐ficial to addressing gobal climate change and environmental degradation .Therefore ,it

  2. 商业硅胶负载PEI对CO2的吸附捕集研究%Adsorption of carbon dioxide on polyethylenimine loaded commercial silica gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩淑怡; 王科; 商红岩; 查庆芳; 阎子峰; 周明宇; 冼祥发

    2013-01-01

    A serial of polyethylenimine (PEI) functionalized commercial silica gel modified by urea calcination method were prepared by wet impregnation method,and their adsorption performances of CO2 as well as the effect of urea calcination method on the structure of the silica gel were investigated.The results showed that the pore structure and surface area of the silica gel could be adjusted efficiently by urea calcinations method,and the PEI functionalized silica gel adsorbents exhibited an excellent performance for CO2 adsorption.When the PEI loading amount of the adsorbent was 30% by mass,the adsorbent had the best CO2 uptake capacity,which was up to 93.4 mg per gram adsorbent.In addition,the PEI-impregnated silica gel showed stable adsorptiondesorption behavior during 8 consecutive test cycles.%采用浸渍法制备了商业硅胶负载聚乙烯亚胺(PEI)的CO2吸附剂,研究了该类吸附剂对CO2的吸附捕集性能,同时考察了尿素焙烧法对硅胶孔结构的影响.结果表明:尿素焙烧法可以有效调变商业硅胶的孔结构和比表面积;由硅胶为载体负载PEI后制备的吸附剂具有良好的CO2吸附性能,当PEI负载质量分数为30%时,CO2吸附量最大值可达93.4mg/g;并且在8次吸附-脱附循环测试中CO2吸附量无明显变化,表明该类吸附剂具有良好的CO2吸附再生稳定性能.

  3. Second Generation CO2 FEP Analysis: CASSIF - Carbon Storage Scenario Identification Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yavuz, F.; Tilburg, T. van; David, P.; Spruijt, M.; Wildenborg, T.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) is a promising contribution to reduce further increase of atmospheric CO2 emissions from fossil fuels. The CCS concept anticipates that large amounts of CO2 are going to be stored in the subsurface for the long term. Since CCS is a rather new technology, unce

  4. Simultaneous effect of nitrate (NO3- concentration, carbon dioxide (CO2 supply and nitrogen limitation on biomass, lipids, carbohydrates and proteins accumulation in Nannochloropsis oculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarón Millán-Oropeza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel from microalgae is a promising technology. Nutrient limitation and the addition of CO2 are two strategies to increase lipid content in microalgae. There are two different types of nitrogen limitation, progressive and abrupt limitation. In this work, the simultaneous effect of initial nitrate concentration, addition of CO2, and nitrogen limitation on biomass, lipid, protein and carbohydrates accumulation were analyzed. An experimental design was established in which initial nitrogen concentration, culture time and CO2 aeration as independent numerical variables with three levels were considered. Nitrogen limitation was taken into account as a categorical independent variable. For the experimental design, all the experiments were performed with progressive nitrogen limitation. The dependent response variables were biomass, lipid production, carbohydrates and proteins. Subsequently, comparison of both types of limitation i.e. progressive and abrupt limitation, was performed. Nitrogen limitation in a progressive mode exerted a greater effect on lipid accumulation. Culture time, nitrogen limitation and the interaction of initial nitrate concentration with nitrogen limitation had higher influences on lipids and biomass production. The highest lipid production and productivity were at 582 mgL-1 (49.7 % lipid, dry weight basis and 41.5 mgL-1d-1, respectively; under the following conditions: 250 mgL-1 of initial nitrate concentration, CO2 supply of 4% (v/v, 12 d of culturing and 2 d in state of nitrogen starvation induced by progressive limitation. This work presents a novel way to perform simultaneous analysis of the effect of the initial concentration of nitrate, nitrogen limitation, and CO2 supply on growth and lipid production of Nannochloropsis oculata, with the aim to produce potential biofuels feedstock.

  5. Method for Extracting and Sequestering Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, Gregory H.; Caldeira, Kenneth G.

    2005-05-10

    A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO2 from a gaseous environment.

  6. Leakage and Seepage of CO2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites: CO2 Migration into Surface Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) and its storage in deep geologic formations. One of the concerns of geologic carbon sequestration is that injected CO2 may leak out of the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment, and seep out of the ground or into surface water. In this research, we investigate the process of CO2 leakage and seepage into saturated sediments and overlying surface water bodies such as rivers, lakes, wetlands, and continental shelf marine environments. Natural CO2 and CH4 fluxes are well studied and provide insight into the expected transport mechanisms and fate of seepage fluxes of similar magnitude. Also, natural CO2 and CH4 fluxes are pervasive in surface water environments at levels that may mask low-level carbon sequestration leakage and seepage. Extreme examples are the well known volcanic lakes in Cameroon where lake water supersaturated with respect to CO2 overturned and degassed with lethal effects. Standard bubble formation and hydrostatics are applicable to CO2 bubbles in surface water. Bubble-rise velocity in surface water is a function of bubble size and reaches a maximum of approximately 30 cm s-1 at a bubble radius of 0.7 mm. Bubble rise in saturated porous media below surface water is affected by surface tension and buoyancy forces, along with the solid matrix pore structure. For medium and fine grain sizes, surface tension forces dominate and gas transport tends to occur as channel flow rather than bubble flow. For coarse porous media such as gravels and coarse sand, buoyancy dominates and the maximum bubble rise velocity is predicted to be approximately 18 cm s-1. Liquid CO2 bubbles rise slower in water than gaseous CO2 bubbles due to the smaller density contrast. A comparison of ebullition (i.e., bubble formation) and resulting bubble flow versus dispersive gas transport for CO2 and CH4 at three different seepage rates reveals that ebullition and bubble

  7. Bromine-catalyzed conversion of CO2 and epoxides to cyclic carbonates under continuous flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Jennifer A; Wu, Jie; Su, Xiao; Simeon, Fritz; Hatton, T Alan; Jamison, Timothy F

    2013-12-11

    A continuous method for the formation of cyclic carbonates from epoxides and carbon dioxide (CO2) is described. The catalysts used are inexpensive and effective in converting the reagents to the products in a residence time (t(R)) of 30 min. The cyclic carbonate products are obtained in good to excellent yield (51-92%). On the basis of a series of kinetics experiments, we propose a reaction mechanism involving epoxide activation by electrophilic bromine and CO2 activation by an amide.

  8. GC-MS Analysis of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract from Litchi Seeds%GC-MS分析荔枝核超临界CO2萃取物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶长全; 乔方; 王燕; 黄略略

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide fluid (SCDF) extract from litchi seeds was prepared and analyzed by GC-MS for volatile composition. The extraction efficiency of SCDF extract was 4.26%. A total of 67 compounds were identified from the extract, mainly including phytosterols, terpenoids, unsaturated fatty acids, hexadecanoic acid, fatty acid ester and vitamin E with relative contents of 31.3%, 25.7%, 12.03%, 9.63%, 7.53% and 7.21%, respectively.%采用超临界CO2萃取荔枝核,并用气相色谱-质谱联用仪对荔枝核萃取物的挥发性成分进行分析。结果表明:超临界CO2萃取荔枝核的萃取率为4.26%,气相色谱-质谱联用鉴定出67种化合物,主要为甾醇类、萜类、不饱和脂肪酸、棕榈酸、脂肪酸酯、VE,相对含量分别为31.3%、25.7%、12.03%、9.63%、7.53%、7.21%。

  9. Progress in supported catalyst study for the copolymerization of carbon dioxide with epoxides%CO2和环氧化合物共聚负载型催化剂的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    母佳利; 范文俊; 陕绍云; 蒋丽红; 王亚明; 贾庆明

    2013-01-01

    Aliphatic polycarbonates made from carbon dioxide and epoxides are biodegrable polymeric materials,which is to develop environment-friendly materials with a bright prospect.Supporting catalyst strategy was a good choice to achieve catalyst recycles use.The paper gives an overview the recent progress in research of supported catalysts for such a copolymerization process.Provide guidance on the supported catalysts for the further study.%CO2与环氧化合物共聚生成脂肪族聚碳酸酯,其塑料具有生物可降解性,是一类具有发展前景的环境友好型材料.为了实现该过程中催化剂的循环使用,对催化剂进行负载化是一个有效的途径.对CO2和环氧化合物共聚中负载型催化剂的研究进展进行了综述,为该领域负载型催化剂的进一步研究提供指导.

  10. Miniature Carbon Dioxide Sensor for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is a growing need to develop improved technologies for precise airborne measurements of carbon dioxide, CO2. CO2 measurements are of great importance to many...

  11. FY 1996 annual report of investigation on biological fixation of carbon dioxide. 2; 1996 nendo seibutsuteki CO2 kotei ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Various kinds of biological fixation processes of CO2 were evaluated from the various viewpoints. Afforestation of tropical and temperate areas, greening of desert, biomass energy production in these areas by energy plantation, coastal mangrove plantation, fertilization with nitrogen and phosphate to outer ocean and coastal, upwelling zone fertilization with iron, and coral reef expansion combined with OTEC (ocean thermal energy conversion) were comparatively investigated as the selected measures. As a result, the cost of CO2 fixation by cultivation of sea weed and plankton was much higher than that of afforestation. The iron fertilization method which was considered to be one of the high CO2 reduction potentials might be economical. However, its effect could not be quantitatively evaluated. The afforestation of tropical and temperate areas seemed to be most feasible in a short term from the viewpoints of economy and environment. It was suggested that the establishment of a systematic water management technology could make greening and afforestation of desert. 76 refs., 27 figs., 28 tabs.

  12. 牛蒡根挥发油超临界CO2萃取的工艺研究%Technology for volatile oil extraction from the root of Arctium Lappa L.using supercrit-ical carbon dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦德宇; 柳春燕; 杨丽芬

    2013-01-01

      目的:对超临界CO2流体萃取牛蒡根挥发油的工艺条件进行研究。方法:通过单因素试验研究萃取温度、萃取压力、萃取时间对萃取率的影响,并采用正交试验设计优化工艺条件。结果:最佳萃取条件为萃取温度45℃、萃取压力25 MPa、萃取时间1.5h,在此条件下,超临界CO2流体萃取牛蒡根挥发油的萃取率为2.92%。结论:超临界CO2流体萃取牛蒡根挥发油具有较高的萃取率,最佳条件为萃取温度45℃、萃取压力25 MPa、萃取时间1.5 h,且萃取温度对萃取率有显著影响。%  Objective:To study the technology for extracting volatile oil from the root of Arctium Lappa L.using supercritical carbon dioxide. Methods:By single factor test,the effects on the yield were examined con-cerning the extraction temperature,pressure and time.Orthogonal experi-ment was used to optimize the extraction technology.Results:The optimal temperature was 45 ℃,pressure at 25 MPa and duration for 1.5 h.Such conditions had led to a yield of volatile oil by 2.92%.Conclusion:Ex-traction of volatile oil from root of Arctium Lappa L.using supercritical carbon dioxide can be productive under the optimum conditions described above.Of the three factors,extraction temperature may greatly affect the extraction yield of volatile oil.

  13. Technology for volatile oil extraction from the root of Arctium Lappa L.using supercrit-ical carbon dioxide%牛蒡根挥发油超临界CO2萃取的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦德宇; 柳春燕; 杨丽芬

    2013-01-01

      Objective:To study the technology for extracting volatile oil from the root of Arctium Lappa L.using supercritical carbon dioxide. Methods:By single factor test,the effects on the yield were examined con-cerning the extraction temperature,pressure and time.Orthogonal experi-ment was used to optimize the extraction technology.Results:The optimal temperature was 45 ℃,pressure at 25 MPa and duration for 1.5 h.Such conditions had led to a yield of volatile oil by 2.92%.Conclusion:Ex-traction of volatile oil from root of Arctium Lappa L.using supercritical carbon dioxide can be productive under the optimum conditions described above.Of the three factors,extraction temperature may greatly affect the extraction yield of volatile oil.%  目的:对超临界CO2流体萃取牛蒡根挥发油的工艺条件进行研究。方法:通过单因素试验研究萃取温度、萃取压力、萃取时间对萃取率的影响,并采用正交试验设计优化工艺条件。结果:最佳萃取条件为萃取温度45℃、萃取压力25 MPa、萃取时间1.5h,在此条件下,超临界CO2流体萃取牛蒡根挥发油的萃取率为2.92%。结论:超临界CO2流体萃取牛蒡根挥发油具有较高的萃取率,最佳条件为萃取温度45℃、萃取压力25 MPa、萃取时间1.5 h,且萃取温度对萃取率有显著影响。

  14. Carbon dioxide sensing with sulfonated polyaniline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doan, D.C.T.; Ramaneti, R.; Baggerman, J.; Bent, van der J.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Tong, H.D.; Rijn, van C.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The use of polyaniline and especially sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN) is explored for sensing carbon dioxide (CO2) at room temperature. Frequency-dependent AC measurements were carried out to detect changes in impedance of the polymer, drop casted on interdigitated electrodes, when exposed to CO2 gas.

  15. Diiodination of Alkynes in supercritical Carbon dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金恒; 谢叶香; 尹笃林; 江焕峰

    2003-01-01

    A general,green and efficient method for the synthesis of transdiiodoalkenes in CO2(sc) has been developed.Trans-diiodoalkenes were obtained stereospecifically in quantitative yields via diiodination of both electron-rich and electron-deficient alkynes in the presence of KI,Ce(SO4)2 and water in supercritical carbon dioxide [CO2(sc)]at 40℃.

  16. Methanol absorption characteristics for the removal of H2S (hydrogen sulfide), COS (carbonyl sulfide) and CO2 (carbon dioxide) in a pilot-scale biomass-to-liquid process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BTL (biomass-to-liquid) process is an attractive process that produces liquid biofuels from biomass. The FT (Fisher–Tropsch) process is used to produce synfuels such as diesel and gasoline from gasified biomass. However, the H2S (hydrogen sulfide), COS (carbonyl sulfide) and CO2 (carbon dioxide) in the syngas that are produced from the biomass gasifiers cause a decrease of the conversion efficiency and deactivates the catalyst that is used in the FT process. To remove the acid gases, a pilot-scale methanol absorption tower producing diesel at a rate of 1 BPD (barrel per day) was developed, and the removal characteristics of the acid gases were determined. A total operation time of 500 h was achieved after several campaigns. The average syngas flow rate at the inlet of methanol absorption tower ranged from 300 to 800 L/min. The methanol absorption tower efficiently removed H2S from 30 ppmV to less than 1 ppmV and COS from 2 ppmV to less than 1 ppmV with a removal of CO2 from 20% to 5%. The outlet gas composition adhered to the guidelines for FT reactors. No remaining sulfurous components were found, and the tar component was analyzed in the spent methanol after long-term operations. - Highlights: • The gas cleaning system in a pilot-scale BTL (biomass-to-liquid) process is reported. • Although methanol absorption tower is conventional process, its application to BTL process is attempted. • The methanol absorption tower efficiently removed H2S, COS and CO2 in the syngas. • The sulfurous and tar components in the methanol are analyzed

  17. 高密度CO2处理对E.coli细胞膜渗透性的影响%EFFECT OF DENSE PHASE CARBON DIOXIDE ON MEMBRANE PERMEABILIZATION OF E. coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹莹; 张德权; 李淑荣; 李娟; 饶伟丽

    2012-01-01

    以E.coli菌悬液为研究对象,通过测定高密度CO2处理(DPCD)后E.coli上清液中蛋白质、核酸、Mg2+、K+离子和丙二醛的含量,辅助透射电镜观察,研究DPCD对E.coli细胞膜渗透性的影响。在7MPa、37℃条件下,E.coli经高密度CO2处理10min后,99%以上的E.coli失活,同时研究发现蛋白质、核酸及Mg2+、K+离子等胞内物质均发生了不同程度的泄漏,丙二醛含量增加,E.coli胞内物质密度降低。密度CO2处理造成E.coli细胞膜渗透性的增加,这也是导致E.coli死亡的原因之一。%To study the effects of dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) on membrane permeability of E. coli, the content of protein, nucleic acid, Mg2+ , K+ and malondialdehyde (MDA) of E. coli were studied coupled with Transmission Electron Micrographs (TEM) technique. Under the DPCD condition of 7MPa, 37℃ for 10rain, 99% of E. coli was inactivated. After DPCD treatment, proteins, nucleic acid and Mg2+ , K+ leaked from cells, and the content of MDA increased and the density of substances inside the cell decreased through the TEM view. The results indicated that DPCD treatment caused the membrane permeability of E. coli increased which was also an important cause of cell death.

  18. CO2 deserts: implications of existing CO2 supply limitations for carbon management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Richard S; Clarens, Andres F; Liu, Xiaowei; Bielicki, Jeffrey M; Levine, Jonathan S

    2014-10-01

    Efforts to mitigate the impacts of climate change will require deep reductions in anthropogenic CO2 emissions on the scale of gigatonnes per year. CO2 capture and utilization and/or storage technologies are a class of approaches that can substantially reduce CO2 emissions. Even though examples of this approach, such as CO2-enhanced oil recovery, are already being practiced on a scale >0.05 Gt/year, little attention has been focused on the supply of CO2 for these projects. Here, facility-scale data newly collected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was processed to produce the first comprehensive map of CO2 sources from industrial sectors currently supplying CO2 in the United States. Collectively these sources produce 0.16 Gt/year, but the data reveal the presence of large areas without access to CO2 at an industrially relevant scale (>25 kt/year). Even though some facilities with the capability to capture CO2 are not doing so and in some regions pipeline networks are being built to link CO2 sources and sinks, much of the country exists in "CO2 deserts". A life cycle analysis of the sources reveals that the predominant source of CO2, dedicated wells, has the largest carbon footprint further confounding prospects for rational carbon management strategies.

  19. Forsterite Carbonation in Wet Supercritical CO2 and Sodium Citrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L.; Schaef, T.; Wang, Z.; Miller, Q.; McGrail, P.

    2013-12-01

    Lin Qiu1*, Herbert T. Schaef2, Zhengrong Wang1, Quin R.S. Miller3, BP McGrail2 1. Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA 2. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA 3. University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA Geologic reservoirs for managing carbon emissions (mostly CO2) have expanded over the last 5 years to include unconventional formations including basalts and fractured shales. Recently, ~1000 metric tons of CO2 was injected into the Columbia River Basalt (CRB) in Eastern Washington as part of the Wallula Pilot Project, Big Sky Regional Carbon Partnership. Based on reservoir conditions, the injected CO2 is present as a supercritical fluid that dissolves into the formation water over time, and reacts with basalt components to form carbonate minerals. In this paper, we discuss mineral transformation reactions occurring when the forsterite (Mg2SiO4) is exposed to wet scCO2 in equilibrium with pure water and sodium citrate solutions. Forsterite was selected as it is an important olivine group mineral present in igneous and mafic rocks. Citrate was selected as it has been shown to enhance mineral dissolution and organic ligands are possible degradation products of the microbial communities present in the formational waters of the CRB. For the supercritical phase, transformation reactions were examined by in situ high pressure x-ray diffraction (HXRD) in the presence of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) in contact with water and sodium citrate solutions at conditions relevant to carbon sequestration. Experimental results show close-to-complete dissolution of forsterite in contact with scCO2 equilibrated with pure water for 90 hours (90 bar and 50°C). Under these conditions, thin films of water coated the mineral surface, providing a mechanism for silicate dissolution and transport of cations necessary for carbonate formation. The primary crystalline component initially detected with in situ HXRD was the hydrated magnesium carbonate, nesquehonite [Mg

  20. Leakage and atmospheric dispersion of CO2 associated with carbon capture and storage projects

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzoldi, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Climate change is affecting planet Earth. The main cause is anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, the principal one being carbon dioxide, released in the atmosphere as a by-product of the combustion of hydrocarbons for the generation of energy. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a technology that would prevent carbon dioxide from being emitted into the atmosphere by safely sequestering it underground. For so doing, CO2 must be captured at large emission points and transported at high ...

  1. Methane, Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Caged Broilers Production Systems in Four Seasons%笼养肉鸡不同季节CH4和CO2排放研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周忠凯; 董红敏; 朱志平; 陈永杏

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research is to estimate broiler emission rates of methane and carbon dioxide,to support compilation of livestock greenhouse gas inventories and potential mitigation options. Methane, carbon dioxide emissions from a commercial high-rise broiler house with mechanically-ventilation system were monitored during four seasons of one year. Cases concentrations of incoming and exhaust air streams were measured for five consecutive days in each season from broilers age about 36 d to 42 d by using INNOVA 1312 multi-gas monitor with multi-channel samplers. Building ventilation rates were determined by calibrated on site FANS measurement systems. The experiment results showed that average emission rates were(0.276±0.193) g·d-1bird-1(58.85±37.2 g·d-1·AU-1) of methane, (154.4±45.7) g· d-1·bird-1(33.5±7.98 kg·d-1·AU-1) of carbon dioxide. Methane emission rates varied significantly in different seasons, methane emission rates in different seasons were 0.552 g · d-1 · Bird-1 in summer, 0.111 g · d-1 · bird-1 in winter, 0.187 g· d-1 · bird-1 in spring, and 0.254 g · d-1 · bird-1 in autumn, respectively. The estimated emission rates of carbon dioxide were slightly changed between 186.8 g·d-1·bird-1 and 179.8 g·d-1biid-1 in summer and fall, but significantly higher than 163.4 g·d-1·bird-1 in spring and 87.4 g·d-1·bird-1 in winter. There was a significant linear correlation between emission rates and ventilation rate for broilers. The percentage of feed C input recovered was as follows: (56.1 ±12.5)% in CO2-C emissions, only(0.27±0.14)% feed C emitted in CH4-C emissions.%为研究规模化肉鸡场温室气体排放系数,给我国畜牧业温室气体清单编制和选择减排技术提供依据,选择山东某商业化肉鸡养殖场,对肉鸡生产过程中CO2和CH4的排放情况进行了研究.利用多功能气体分析仪对肉鸡舍CH4和CO2的浓度进行测定,肉鸡舍通风量测定则采用风机风量现场测定

  2. Nitrogen and Carbon Cycling in a Grassland Community Ecosystem as Affected by Elevated Atmospheric CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Torbert, H.A.; Johnson, H. B.; H. W. Polley

    2012-01-01

    Increasing global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration has led to concerns regarding its potential effects on terrestrial ecosystems and the long-term storage of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in soil. This study examined responses to elevated CO2 in a grass ecosystem invaded with a leguminous shrub Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd (Huisache). Seedlings of Acacia along with grass species were grown for 13 months at CO2 concentrations of 385 (ambient), 690, and 980 μmol mol−1. Elevated CO2 ...

  3. CO2 Separation from Syngas by Multiwall Carbon Nanotube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Khalili

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the equilibrium uptakes of hydrogen and carbon dioxid as the main constituents of syngas by the multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT were investigated at the temperature range of 288-318 K and pressure up to 40 bars. The results have shown that temperature had much less effect on the adsorption of H2 on MWCNT than adsorption of CO2. Several model isotherms such as Langmuir and Freundlich were examined to fit the equilibrium uptake data. The kinetics of H2 and CO2 adsorption on MWCNT were also investigated and the results revealed a fast sorption kinetic for both gas adsorption on MWCNT. Isosteric heat of adsorption was evaluated based on the Clausius–Clapeyron equation at different temperatures. Small values of isosteric heat of adsorption confirmed that although the adsorption of H2 and CO2 on MWCNT were exothermic, but the heat of adsorption was too low, therefore the process of adsorption of both gases on the MWCNT used in this study is physisorption.

  4. 76 FR 55846 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Streams in Geologic Sequestration Activities AGENCY...) to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams that are hazardous from the definition of... Recovery Act (RCRA) to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams that are hazardous from...

  5. Effects of Grazing on the Net Ecosystem Exchange of Carbon Dioxide in Grassland Ecosystems (Research Review)%放牧对草地生态系统CO2净气体交换影响研究概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玲玲; 戎郁萍; 王伟光; 马磊

    2013-01-01

    The net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) between terrestrial ecosystems and atmosphere is a major component of carbon cycle of terrestrial ecosystems called "breathing" of the terrestrial biosphere , and is great concerned in the research of global climate change. Grasslands, as a major component of the terrestrial ecosystems, comprising approximately 40 % of the world's terrestrial surface, is sensitive to climate change. Grazing plays a significant role in the land use and management of grasslands. With the change in global climate, the impacts of different grazing intensities on grazing ecosystems have different ways. In this review, the effects of grazing on the characteristics of NEE in grassland ecosystems are focused in general based on factors in NEE composition and the pathways of grazing effects on NEE in grasslands. Grazing mainly disturbs the soil-vegetation interface of grasslands then affects grassland NEE through the disturbances on 1) plant, including effects on plant community composition, above and below-ground net primary production and litter; 2) soil, including the effects on soil respiration, soil nutrients especially soil carbon and nitrogen, soil temperature and moisture. The pathways of grazing effects on grasslands can also be applied in disturbances such as cultivation and defoliation and is of great importance in the investigating of NEE characters and carbon flux of different grassland ecosystems, particularly grasslands in different land-use, whether in carbon source or sink in certain degrees and their carbon storage capacity.%陆地生态系统与大气之间的CO2净气体交换(net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide,NEE)被称为生物圈的呼吸,它是陆地生态系统碳循环的重要组分,是全球气候变化研究的重点.草地生态系统是陆地生态系统的主体,约占陆地表面的40%,是气候变化的敏感区域.放牧是草地生态系统的主要利用方式,伴随着气候变化,放牧利用

  6. Development of a carbonate absorption-based process for post-combustion CO2 capture: The role of biocatalyst to promote CO2 absorption rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Ye, X.; Zhang, Z.; Khodayari, A.; Djukadi, T.

    2011-01-01

    An Integrated Vacuum Carbonate Absorption Process (IVCAP) for post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture is described. IVCAP employs potassium carbonate (PC) as a solvent, uses waste or low quality steam from the power plant for CO2 stripping, and employs a biocatalyst, carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme, for promoting the CO2 absorption into PC solution. A series of experiments were performed to evaluate the activity of CA enzyme mixed in PC solutions in a stirred tank reactor system under various temperatures, CA dosages, CO2 loadings, CO2 partial pressures, and the presence of major flue gas contaminants. It was demonstrated that CA enzyme is an effective biocatalyst for CO2 absorption under IVCAP conditions. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Solubilities of sub- and supercritical carbon dioxide in polyester resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nalawade, SP; Picchioni, F; Janssen, LPBM; Patil, VE; Keurentjes, JTF; Staudt, R; Nalawade, Sameer P.; Patil, Vishal E.; Keurentjes, Jos T.F.

    2006-01-01

    In supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) assisted polymer processes the solubility of CO2 in a polymer plays a vital role. The higher the amount of CO2 dissolved in a polymer the higher is the viscosity reduction of the polymer. Solubilities Of CO2 in polyester resins based on propoxylated bisphenol (P

  8. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M [LBNL Earth Sciences Division

    2009-07-21

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  9. 超临界CO2下麻疯树籽制备生物柴油及无毒籽粕%Production of Biodiesel and Nontoxic Jatropha Meal From Jatropha Curcas Seeds in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳; 李彪; 常杰

    2013-01-01

    以麻疯树种仁为原料,在超临界CO2 (Super critical CO2,SC-CO2)中一步法制备生物柴油和无毒籽粕,考察了麻疯树种仁粒径大小、含水量对反应产物中脂肪酸甲酯(FAME)质量分数和籽粕中佛波酯(PE)质量分数的影响;对反应过程中的反应压力、反应温度、反应时间、醇/油摩尔比(n (Methanol)/n (Oil))进行了单因素和正交实验的考察.实验得到的最佳反应条件是种仁粒径粉碎至60目、水质量分数2.11%左右,反应压力15 MPa,反应温度80℃,反应150 min,醇/油摩尔比30.在此条件下,反应产物中FAME质量分数达到95%,籽粕中残留PE质量分数为0.06 mg/g,达到无毒标准.%The preparation of biodiesel and nontoxic Jatropha meal in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) from Jatropha kernels was carried out in laboratory. The effects of the moisture mass fraction and particle size of Jatropha curcas kernel on the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) mass fraction in the biodiesel and phorbol ester (PE) mass fraction in the Jatropha curcas meal were investigated. The reaction conditions including n(Methanol)/n(Oil), reaction pressure, temperature and time were optimized by the mono-factor and orthogonal experiments. When the Jatropha curcas kernel with crushing to 60 mesh and the moisture mass fraction of appreciate 2. 11% were used as raw material, under the reaction conditions of 15 MPa, 80℃ , n(Methanol)/n(Oil) =30 and reaction time 150 min, the FAME and PE mass fractions in production achieved, respectively, 95% and 0. 06 mg/g, which was below the nontoxic standard.

  10. Study on the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of evening primrose oil%超临界CO2萃取月见草油的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王腾宇; 李振岚; 齐颖; 王玉; 于殿宇

    2010-01-01

    应用超临界CO2流体萃取技术萃取月见草油,通过单因素和正交实验得出最佳参数:即原料含水量4%,粉碎度50目,萃取时间3 h,萃取压力30 MPa,萃取温度35℃,月见草油萃取率达95.97%;然后将萃取的月见草油进行冷冻结晶,降温速度3℃/h,搅拌速度30 r/min,温 度降至-20℃后停止搅拌,并保持此温度储存18 h,于-20℃,以10000 r/min的速度冷冻离心20 min,月见草油碘值从143 g I2/100 g提高到157 g I2/100 g.

  11. Fractionation of Peppermint Essential Oil by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide%超临界CO2精密分离技术提纯薄荷脑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程健; 王存文; 丁一刚; 柏正武; 李世荣; 俞发全; 吴元欣

    2005-01-01

    进行了利用超临界CO2精密分离技术从薄荷原油中提纯薄荷脑的研究,分别考察了分馏塔温度梯度、升压速率等操作参数对分离效果的影响.结果表明,分离精馏塔内形成一定的温度梯度或在一定的温度梯度下改变升压速度都可以有效改善分离效果,当塔内温度梯度为20℃、升压速率为0.1 MPa·(15 min)-1时,ω(薄荷脑)>90%,产物产率为80%;对ω(薄荷脑)=90%的产品进行二次分离,可获得ω(薄荷脑)=99.9%的产物.

  12. The Diagnostic Value of End-tidal Carbon Dioxide (EtCO2 and Alveolar Dead Space (AVDS in Patients with Suspected Pulmonary Thrombo-embolism (PTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Basiri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Capnography, is an easy, fast and practical method which its application in the diagnosis of Pulmonary Thromboendarterectomy (PTE has recently been studied. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic value of end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2 and the alveolar dead space (AVDS in the diagnosis of patients suspected to PTE who have been referred to the emergency department. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during one year in the emergency department of Ghaem Hospital on patients with suspected PTE who scored less than 4 for the Wells’ criteria during the initial evaluation. After excluding other differential diagnoses, all patients underwent CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA to confirm PTE. Following that, arterial blood gas sampling, ETCO2 and AVDS were requested for all the patients based on capnography. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistical tests in SPSS software version 11.5. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of AVDS and ETCO2 were measured based on (CTPA results. Results: The study was performed on 78 patients (mean age of 47.08± 15.6 years, 43 males/35 females suspected to PTE. According to the results of CTPA, 37 patients did not develop PTE while 41 patients were with PTE. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age and gender (P=0.999, while a statistically significant difference was found between the mean values of ETCO2 and AVDS between the two groups (P

  13. DMC催化CO_2和环氧丙烷的调节共聚反应及其影响因素%Regulated Copolymerization of Carbon Dioxide and Propylene Oxide with DMC Catalyst and Effects of Reaction Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周统昌; 邹志强; 刘言平; 罗建新; 张敏; 陈立班

    2011-01-01

    A group of multi-functional aliphatic polycarbonate polyols(APC),molecular weight between 3000 and 6000,was synthesized by regulated copolymerization of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide(PO) on double metal cyanide complex(Co-Zn DMC)catalyst with polyether alcohol,pentaerythritol(PER) or triethylene glycol as regulators.The molecular weight of the copolymer complied with the design requirements.All the regulators could successfully produce copolymers with two or four functionality.In the mean time the highest carbonate content of the copolymer is up to 60% and the highest catalystic efficiency could get to 663g of polymer /g of catalyst,with cyclic carbonate is only 4%.In this paper we also examined the effect of the temperature,pressure and the dosage of regulator on reaction.The results reveal that 60 ℃ is in favor of the copolymerization.The regulator and catalyst should be controlled in certain proportion to get high carbonate content.%以聚醚多元醇、二缩三乙二醇或季戊四醇作为分子量调节剂,用Zn-Co双金属氰化物(DMC)高效催化CO2和环氧丙烷(PO)调节共聚合成了数均分子量为3000~8000的多官能度脂肪族聚碳酸酯多元醇,共聚物的分子量基本符合设计要求。几种分子量调节剂均能成功合成两官能度或四官能度的共聚产物,产物中碳酸酯键含量最高可达60%,催化效率最高达663 g/g催化剂,副产物最低可控制到4%。文中还考察了温度、压力、调节剂及催化剂用量对共聚反应的影响,发现60℃的低温更有利于CO2和环氧丙烷的共聚反应,而且要获得碳酸酯键含量较高的产物,需控制调节剂和催化剂的比例。

  14. Accelerated carbonation of steel slags using CO2 diluted sources: CO2 uptakes and energy requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato eBaciocchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of carbonation experiments performed on Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF steel slag samples employing gas mixtures containing 40 and 10% CO2 vol. simulating the gaseous effluents of gasification and combustion processes respectively, as well as 100% CO2 for comparison purposes. Two routes were tested, the slurry phase (L/S=5 l/kg, T=100 °C and Ptot=10 bar and the thin film (L/S =0.3-0.4 l/kg, T=50 °C and Ptot=7-10 bar routes. For each one, the CO2 uptake achieved as a function of the reaction time was analyzed and on this basis the energy requirements associated to each carbonation route and gas mixture composition were estimated considering to store the CO2 emissions of a medium size natural gas fired power plant (20 MW. For the slurry phase route, maximum CO2 uptakes ranged from around 8% at 10% CO2, to 21.1% (BOF-a and 29.2% (BOF-b at 40% CO2 and 32.5% (BOF-a and 40.3% (BOF-b at 100% CO2. For the thin film route, maximum uptakes of 13% (BOF-c and 19.5% (BOF-d at 40% CO2, and 17.8% (BOF-c and 20.2% (BOF-d at 100% were attained. The energy requirements of the two analyzed process routes appeared to depend chiefly on the CO2 uptake of the slag. For both process route, the minimum overall energy requirements were found for the tests with 40% CO2 flows (i.e. 1400-1600 MJ/t CO2 for the slurry phase and 2220-2550 MJ/t CO2 for the thin film route.

  15. The energy related carbon dioxide emission inventory and carbon flow chart in Shanghai City%上海市能源消费CO_2排放清单与碳流通图

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢士晨; 陈长虹; 李莉; 黄成; 程真; 戴璞; 鲁君

    2009-01-01

    基于上海市能源统计数据,参照IPCC(2006)方法,测算了上海市能源CO_2排放清单,并绘制了2007年上海市碳流通图.结果表明,上海市能源相关的CO_2排放总量从1995年的1.10亿t增长到2007年的2.01亿t,期间年均增长率为5.0%.其中"交通"对应的CO_2排放量增长最为迅速,年均增长率达15.1%;而"热电厂"的CO_2排放量增幅逐渐变缓,其原因为近年上海市外来电力比重增大.2007年"热电厂"、"工业与建筑业"、"交通"、"商业"、"居民生活"与"农业"各部分CO_2排放分担率分别为35.4%、34.4%、23.8%、4.0%、2.0%、0.4%.由2007年上海市碳流通图可见,15.6%的煤炭直接由终端使用,这不利于能源效率的提高与污染物的减排;成品油存在较多的交叉流通,若能够减少不必要的流通,不但能够缓解成品油的运输,还能够减少其在转运过程中的输配损失.%An inventory of energy related CO_2 emissions in Shanghai City from 1995 to 2007 and the 2007 Shanghai carbon flow chart were completed based on the IPCC reference approach and Shanghai energy statistical data. With an annual average growth rate of 5.0%, the energy related CO_2 emissions in Shanghai increased from 110 million tones in 1995 to 201 million tones in 2007. The largest annual CO_2 emission growth rate was from transportation sector, with 15.1% increase per year. CO_2 emissions growth rate in power plant sector has slowed down in recent years due to the increase of imported electricity. The shares of CO_2 emissions in sectors of power plant, industry and construction, transportation, commercial, residential and agricultural sectors were 35.4%, 34.4%, 23.8%, 4.0%, 2.0% and 0.4% respectively in 2007. The 2007 Shanghai carbon flow chart showed that 15.6% of coal was directly consumed in end sectors, which was not beneficial to energy saving and emission reduction. There were great double flows within petroleum products. The transportation and distribution loss of

  16. Supercritical carbon dioxide: a solvent like no other

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Peach

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 could be one aspect of a significant and necessary movement towards green chemistry, being a potential replacement for volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Unfortunately, carbon dioxide has a notoriously poor solubilising power and is famously difficult to handle. This review examines attempts and breakthroughs in enhancing the physicochemical properties of carbon dioxide, focusing primarily on factors that impact solubility of polar and ionic species and attempts to enhance scCO2 viscosity.

  17. 碘化钾催化 CO2与氧化苯乙烯合成苯乙烯环状碳酸酯条件的优化%Optimal Condition for Styrene Carbonate from Carbon Dioxide and Styrene Oxide Coupling Reaction Catalyzed by Potassium Iodide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海健; 宋念念; 黄海丽; 金亚美; 彭静; 杨洪委

    2015-01-01

    用碘化钾催化CO2与氧化苯乙烯( SO)合成苯乙烯环状碳酸酯,分别从溶剂、催化剂用量、温度、CO2压力和反应时间进行探讨,得出了最佳条件。结果表明:以无水乙醇为溶剂,催化剂用量r( KI∶SO)=1∶250,在170℃, CO2压力5 MPa,反应时间5 h,苯乙烯环状碳酸酯的产率和选择性均达到100%。%Potassium iodide was used to catalyze the coupling reaction of carbon dioxide and styrene oxide for the production of styrene carbonate.The effects of solvent, catalyst amounts,temperature, CO2 pressure and reaction time were assessed to obtain the optimal condition.The results showed that both the yield and selectivity of styrene carbonate could reach to 100%,using anhydrous ethanol as solvent, with the mole ratio of potassium iodide and styrene oxide of 1∶250, under 170℃and 5 MPa of CO2 pressure for 5 h.

  18. 窑街煤田CO2成因及成藏模式研究%Research on the genesis and accumulation of carbon dioxide in the Yaojie coalfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 程远平; 杨云峰; 王立国; 陈海栋; 杨跃奎

    2011-01-01

    为有效防治窑街煤田煤与CO2突出,基于煤二层中CO2成因、成藏过程对防治突出的重要性,采用对煤二层中CO2气样的碳同位素偏差值、氦同位素比值实验测定分析方法,探讨了F19断裂带演化过程、岩浆活动以及构造岩分布特征,提出了CO2的来源与运移、成藏过程.结果表明:煤二层中CO2为无机壳源,F19断裂带脆-韧性剪切动力变质作用生成CO2为煤层CO2的具体来源,F19断裂在CO2成藏过程中起到了成气断裂、储气断裂、圈闭断裂的作用,结合无机CO2成藏模式研究,窑街煤田CO2为由F19断裂带成气、输导作用下的直接成藏模式,运移至断裂中高压储存的CO2不断的向煤二层运移,并在良好的圈闭条件下富集成藏.%The origin and accumulation of CO? In coal seams is key to the outburst of coal and CO2. A study of carbon and helium isotopes in CO2 gas samples from the Number 2 coal seam in the Yaojie coalfield was undertaken. The evolution and magmatism of tectonic rocks in the F19 fault zone are discussed. Three different factors are used to describe CO2 evolution: Sources, migration, and accumulation. The CO2 in the Number 2 coal seam originates from an inorganic source in the crust. Brittle-ductile shear dynamic metamorphism of the F19 fault played an important role in the evolution of the CO2. Originating, accumulating and trapping fractures are all involved in this process. The CO2 accumulated in the Yaojie coalfield because of F19 fault fracturing, became stored under high pressure and migrated to the Number 2 coal seam. Diffusing CO2 slowly accumulated where conditions were favorable for trapping.

  19. Carbon dioxide in vascular imaging and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Manninen, H; Soimakallio, S

    1995-07-01

    Angiography with iodinated contrast agents is bound up with the risks of contrast-induced nephrotoxicity and hypersensitivity, which led to the idea of using carbon dioxide (CO2) gas as a negative contrast medium to eliminate these drawbacks. During the last decade, refinements and experiences have proved carbon dioxide digital subtraction angiography (CO2-DSA) to be an accurate, safe, and clinically promising vascular imaging modality, with the advantages of no hypersensitivity and no nephrotoxicity as well as minimal patient discomfort. In this article, we have reviewed the history, physical and chemical aspects, techniques, and pathophysiologic changes with the use of CO2-DSA as well as some clinical trials. Applications of CO2 gas in vascular interventions and other imagings, and the advantages and limitations of using CO2 gas in DSA are also discussed. PMID:7619608

  20. Carbon dioxide in vascular imaging and intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angiography with iodinated contrast agents is bound up with the risks of contrast-induced nephrotoxicity and hypersensitivity, which led to the idea of using carbon dioxide (CO2) gas as a negative contrast medium to eliminate these drawbacks. During the last decade, refinements and experiences have proved carbon dioxide digital subtraction angiography (CO2-DSA) to be an accurate, safe, and clinically promising vascular imaging modality, with the advantages of no hypersensitivity and no nephrotoxicity as well as minimal patient discomfort. In this article, we have reviewed the history, physical and chemical aspects, techniques, and pathophysiologic changes with the use of CO2-DSA as well as some clinical trials. Applications of CO2 gas in vascular interventions and other imagings, and the advantages and limitations of using CO2 gas in DSA are also discussed. (orig.)

  1. Carbon Dioxide Fountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seong-Joo; Ryu, Eun-Hee

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the development of a carbon dioxide fountain. The advantages of the carbon dioxide fountain are that it is odorless and uses consumer chemicals. This experiment also is a nice visual experiment that allows students to see evidence of a gaseous reagent being consumed when a pressure sensor is available. (Contains 3 figures.)…

  2. Research progress on preparation of monoglycerides by lipase- catalyzed glycerolysis in supercritical carbon dioxide%超临界CO2中脂肪酶催化甘油解制备单甘酯的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚旭; 谷克仁

    2011-01-01

    The development of lipase - catalyzed glycerolysis of oil to synthesize monoglycerides in supercritical carbon dioxide was discussed.The effects of reaction temperature, pressure, water content, substrate ratio and activity of lipase on reaction were analyzed.This method had several advantages, such as lower reaction temperature, better color of the product, no solvent residues and simpler procedures, so it would be a potential method to produce food grade monoglycerides.%论述了超临界CO2条件下脂肪酶催化甘油解制备单甘酯的研究进展,并从反应温度、压力、含水量、底物比例、脂肪酶活性等方面对反应的影响进行了探讨.此法具有反应温度低,产品色泽好,无溶剂残留,操作步骤大大简化等优点,有望成为食品用单甘酯最有潜力的生产方法.

  3. Measurement of carbon dioxide fluxes in a free-air carbon dioxide enrichment experiment using the closed flux chamber technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsted, M.B.; Ambus, P.; Michelsen, A.;

    2011-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) fluxes, composing net ecosystem exchange (NEE), ecosystem respiration (ER), and soil respiration (SR) were measured in a temperate heathland exposed to elevated CO2 by the FACE (free-air carbon enrichment) technique, raising the atmospheric CO(2) concentration from c. 380 mu...

  4. Measurement of carbon dioxide fluxes in a free-air carbon dioxide enrichment experiment using the closed flux chamber technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsted, Merete Bang; Ambus, Per; Michelsen, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes, composing net ecosystem exchange (NEE), ecosystem respiration (ER), and soil respiration (SR) were measured in a temperate heathland exposed to elevated CO2 by the FACE (free-air carbon enrichment) technique, raising the atmospheric CO2 concentration from c. 380 μmol...

  5. NEW CATALYTIC SYSTEMS FOR THE FIXATION OF CO2 Ⅲ. INFLUENCE OF ADDITIVES AND REACTION MEDIUM ON THE COPOLYMERIZATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE-EPICHLOROHYDRIN IN THE PRESENCE OF Nd(P204)3-Al(i-Bu)3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xianhai; ZHANG Yifeng; SHEN Zhiquan

    1994-01-01

    Copolymerization of carbon dioxide with epichlorohydrin was successfully carried out by using Nd (P204)3-A1 (i-Bu)3 as catalyst (P204) = (RO)2POO -, R=CH3 (CH2)3CH(C2H5)CH2-). Addition of carbonyl compounds into the catalyst decreased the carbon dioxide content of the copolymer to some extent. Compared to nonpolar solvents, ethereal and moderate polar solvents were favourable to obtaining higher carbon dioxide content copolymer. The coincidence of these results with the assumed copolymerization scheme clearly indicated that the copolymerization proceeds via coordinate anionic mechanism.

  6. 氮化硅胶的制备及其吸收CO2性能的研究%Preparation of Nitrided Silica Gels and Their Absorption Performance for Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原艳芬; 王树国; 李琳; 伍明

    2013-01-01

    Nitrided silica gels were prepared by two-synthetic method,and the effects of water amount and nitridation temperature on the synthesis of nitrided silica gels were investigated. Several technologies such as scanning electron microscopy,elemental analysis,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,29Si MAS NMR and so on were used to characterize the nitrided silica gels. The results showed that water amount was an important factor to the particle size of nitrided silica gels, and with the rising of nitridation temperature, the nitrogen content (mass fraction) of the nitrided silica gels increased. When the ammonia flowing rate was kept on 100 mL· min-1 under the nitridation temperature of 1000 ℃ for 20 h, nitrogen content of nitrided silica gels reached up to 9. 48%. In this paper,the nitrided silica gels were applied to the absorption of carbon dioxide. Compared to the non-nitrided silica gels,the nitrided silica gels exhibited the significantly higher absorption capacity,and the absorption amount of CO2 increased from 3. 08×10-4g ·g-1 to 6. 71×10-4g· g-1.%采用二次合成法制备了氮化硅胶,考察了水量、氮化温度对氮化硅胶合成的影响.采用扫描电镜、元素分析、X-射线光电子能谱和29Si MAS NMR等方法对氮化硅胶进行了表征.结果表明:水量是影响氮化硅胶粒径大小的重要因素;随着氮化温度的升高,氮化硅胶的氮含量(质量分数)增加;在氨气流速为100mL,min-1、氮化温度为1000℃、氮化时间为20 h的条件下,氮化硅胶的氮含量达9.48%.将氮化硅胶用于CO2的吸收,与未氮化的硅胶相比,氮化硅胶对CO2有明显的吸收能力,吸收量从3.08×10-4g,g-1提高到6.71×10-4g,g-1.

  7. 采用分布参数模型的CO2微通道蒸发器数值模拟%Numerical Simulation of the Carbon Dioxide Microchannel Evaporator Using Distributed Parameter Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海清; 郭蓓

    2012-01-01

    A steady state distributed parameter model for the microchannel evaporator applied in a transcritical carbon dioxide air-conditioning system was established using the FEM method. Different models of heat transfer at the refrigerant-side were compared and analyzed, and a modified heat transfer correlation was proposed. Moreover, characteristics of heat transfer and flow were analyzed under both dry and wet conditions considering the pressure losses at the inlet and outlet of the header of the evaporator. The simulation results are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data. The average relative errors for cooling capacity and refrigerant-side pressure drop are less than 8. 2% and 10% , respectively. It is likely that the present model may be used to analyze and design CO2 microchannel evaporators.%采用有限元分析方法为跨临界CO2空调系统的微通道蒸发器建立了二维分布参数仿真模型,比较分析了适用于不同制冷剂侧的换热关联式,并为此提出了一种修正的换热关联式,以期为微通道蒸发器模型能够获得很好的预测结果.模型中考虑了干、湿工况以及制冷剂进出集液管产生的压力损失对制冷剂侧换热和流动特性的影响.对比分析得出:微通道蒸发器的制冷量和压降在制冷剂侧仿真、实验的相对误差分别小于8.2%和10%,表明所建模型可作为CO2微通道蒸发器的优化设计的理论依据.

  8. Surface circulation patterns and the pathways of sea surface carbon dioxide (CO2 off northern Chile (~27.5° S between 30 and 10 kyr BP: global and/or local forcing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Torres

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a reconstruction of past changes in partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 from northern Chile (~27° S, between 10 and 30 kyr BP, based on carbon isotope composition of C37:2-alkenone. The high-pCO2 during the entire time series indicates that northern Chile upwelling system has been a permanent source of CO2 to the atmosphere. The multiproxy reconstruction suggests that the CO2 outgassing and sequestration pathways were modulated by local and global mechanisms. During global glacial conditions, an enhanced coastal upwelling forcing resulted in high-availability of deep water macronutrients and a CO2-supersaturated water column, which combined with high-inputs of iron from the continent, intensified the carbon sequestration pathway of the biological pump, through diatom biomass export. During the deglacial, a decrease in the upwelling forcing, an increment in water column stability and reduced continental inputs of iron are consistent with a larger role of calcifying organisms in the plankton assemblage in terms of carbon sequestration pathway through the carbonate system.

  9. CO2 Capture by Carbon Aerogel–Potassium Carbonate Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various composites for reducing CO2 emissions have been extensively studied. Because of their high sorption capacity and low cost, alkali metal carbonates are recognized as a potential candidate to capture CO2 from flue gas under moist conditions. However, undesirable effects and characteristics such as high regeneration temperatures or the formation of byproducts lead to high energy costs associated with the desorption process and impede the application of these materials. In this study, we focused on the regeneration temperature of carbon aerogel–potassium carbonate (CA–KC nanocomposites, where KC nanocrystals were formed in the mesopores of the CAs. We observed that the nanopore size of the original CA plays an important role in decreasing the regeneration temperature and in enhancing the CO2 capture capacity. In particular, 7CA–KC, which was prepared from a CA with 7 nm pores, exhibited excellent performance, reducing the desorption temperature to 380 K and exhibiting a high CO2 capture capacity of 13.0 mmol/g-K2CO3, which is higher than the theoretical value for K2CO3 under moist conditions.

  10. Forest soil carbon oxidation state and oxidative ratio responses to elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockaday, William C.; Gallagher, Morgan E.; Masiello, Caroline A.; Baldock, Jeffrey A.; Iversen, Colleen M.; Norby, Richard J.

    2015-09-01

    The oxidative ratio (OR) of the biosphere is the stoichiometric ratio (O2/CO2) of gas exchange by photosynthesis and respiration—a key parameter in budgeting calculations of the land and ocean carbon sinks. Carbon cycle-climate feedbacks could alter the OR of the biosphere by affecting the quantity and quality of organic matter in plant biomass and soil carbon pools. This study considers the effect of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations ([CO2]) on the OR of a hardwood forest after nine growing seasons of Free-Air CO2 Enrichment. We measured changes in the carbon oxidation state (Cox) of biomass and soil carbon pools as a proxy for the ecosystem OR. The OR of net primary production, 1.039, was not affected by elevated [CO2]. However, the Cox of the soil carbon pool was 40% higher at elevated [CO2], and the estimated OR values for soil respiration increased from 1.006 at ambient [CO2] to 1.054 at elevated [CO2]. A biochemical inventory of the soil organic matter ascribed the increases in Cox and OR to faster turnover of reduced substrates, lignin and lipids, at elevated [CO2]. This implicates the heterotrophic soil community response to elevated [CO2] as a driver of disequilibrium in the ecosystem OR. The oxidation of soil carbon pool constitutes an unexpected terrestrial O2 sink. Carbon budgets constructed under the assumption of OR equilibrium would equate such a terrestrial O2 sink to CO2 uptake by the ocean. The potential for climate-driven disequilibriua in the cycling of O2 and CO2 warrants further investigation.

  11. 高密度CO2对虾优势腐败菌的杀菌效果及机理%Sterilizing effect of dense phase carbon dioxide on dominant spoilage bacteria from shrimp and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘书成; 张良; 吉宏武※; 屈小娟; 章超桦; 郝记明

    2013-01-01

      为了探讨高密度CO2(dense phase carbon dioxide,DPCD)对水产品腐败菌的杀菌效果和机制,以一株凡纳滨对虾优势腐败菌(Chryseobacterium sp. LV1)为研究对象,研究了DPCD处理温度(30~55℃)、压力(5~25 MPa)、时间(5~60 min)对杀菌效果的影响,分析了DPCD处理前后该菌理化性质的变化。结果表明:DPCD对其具有较好的杀菌效果,温度升高、压力增大、延长时间都会增强杀菌效果,而且超临界CO2比亚临界CO2的杀菌效果好。当在45℃、15 MPa和55℃、15 MPa下处理菌悬液30 min时,菌落总数均能下降5个对数;菌悬液的pH值从6.97分别下降至5.58和5.56;细胞外蛋白由最初的78.69μg/mL分别增至151.91和157.40μg/mL,200~800 nm范围内的吸光度值增大,这说明DPCD处理改变了其细胞膜的通透性,造成胞内蛋白质和核酸泄漏;可溶性和不溶性蛋白的电泳图谱发生变化,说明DPCD处理能够诱导Chryseobacterium sp. LV1可溶性蛋白质变性,降低其溶解度;能够钝化与其新陈代谢相关的14种酶类;但不会造成其DNA的降解。因此,DPCD处理致使其理化性质的改变可能是杀菌的主要原因之一。研究结果将为DPCD技术在对虾加工中的应用提供参考。%  Dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) is a non-thermal pasteurization method that affects microorganisms and enzymes through molecular effects of CO2 under pressures below 50MPa and temperature below 60℃. The DPCD sterilization technique could be one of the most promising techniques for sterilizing foods without exposing them to adverse effects of heat, thereby retaining their fresh physical, nutritional, and sensory qualities. In order to investigate the sterilization effect and mechanism of aquatic product spoilage bacteria induced by dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD), using a strain of Litopenaeus vannamei dominant spoilage bacteria (Chryseobacterium sp. LV

  12. Carbon dioxide emissions from biochar in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Sander; Clauson-Kaas, Anne Sofie Kjærulff; Bobuľská, L.;

    2014-01-01

    The stability of biochar in soil is of importance if it is to be used for carbon sequestration and long-term improvement of soil properties. It is well known that a significant fraction of biochar is highly stable in soil, but carbon dioxide (CO2) is also released immediately after application......-sterilized soils. It emerged that carbonate may be concentrated or form during or after biochar production, resulting in significant carbonate contents. If CO2 released from carbonates in short-term experiments is misinterpreted as mineralization of biochar, the impact of this process may be significantly over......-estimated. In addition to the CO2 released from carbonates, there appears to be a labile fraction of biochar that is oxidized quickly during the first days of incubation, probably by both abiotic and biotic processes. Later in the incubation, biotic mineralization appears to be the primary cause of CO2 evolution...

  13. Carbon dioxide detection in adult Odonata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersanti, Silvana; Frati, Francesca; Rebora, Manuela; Salerno, Gianandrea

    2016-04-01

    The present paper shows, by means of single-cell recordings, responses of antennal sensory neurons of the damselfly Ischnura elegans when stimulated by air streams at different CO2 concentrations. Unlike most insects, but similarly to termites, centipedes and ticks, Odonata possess sensory neurons strongly inhibited by CO2, with the magnitude of the off-response depending upon the CO2 concentration. The Odonata antennal sensory neurons responding to CO2 are also sensitive to airborne odors; in particular, the impulse frequency is increased by isoamylamine and decreased by heptanoic and pentanoic acid. Further behavioral investigations are necessary to assign a biological role to carbon dioxide detection in Odonata. PMID:26831359

  14. The carbon dioxide capture and geological storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the carbon dioxide capture and geological storage. One possible means of climate change mitigation consists of storing the CO2 generated by the greenhouse gases emission in order to stabilize atmospheric concentrations. This sheet presents the CO2 capture from lage fossil-fueled combustion installations, the three capture techniques and the CO2 transport options, the geological storage of the CO2 and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  15. Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin-Based Carbons for CO2 Separation at Sub-Atmospheric Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Álvarez-Gutiérrez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of developing effective separation and purification technologies that leave much smaller energy footprints is greater for carbon dioxide (CO2 than for other gases. In addition to its involvement in climate change, CO2 is present as an impurity in biogas and bio-hydrogen (biological production by dark fermentation, in post-combustion processes (flue gas, CO2-N2 and many other gas streams. Selected phenol-formaldehyde resin-based activated carbons prepared in our laboratory have been evaluated under static conditions (adsorption isotherms as potential adsorbents for CO2 separation at sub-atmospheric pressures, i.e., in post-combustion processes or from biogas and bio-hydrogen streams. CO2, H2, N2, and CH4 adsorption isotherms at 25 °C and up to 100 kPa were obtained using a volumetric equipment and were correlated by applying the Sips model. Adsorption equilibrium was then predicted for multicomponent gas mixtures by extending the multicomponent Sips model and the Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory (IAST in conjunction with the Sips model. The CO2 uptakes of the resin-derived carbons from CO2-CH4, CO2-H2, and CO2-N2 at atmospheric pressure were greater than those of the reference commercial carbon (Calgon BPL. The performance of the resin-derived carbons in terms of equilibrium of adsorption seems therefore relevant to CO2 separation in post-combustion (flue gas, CO2-N2 and in hydrogen fermentation (CO2-H2, CO2-CH4.

  16. Algal-based CO2 Sequestration Technology and Global Scenario of Carbon Credit Market: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar Singh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the global and national scenario of Carbon credit. This paper will also discuss the advantages of the algae-based carbon capture technology in growing carbon credit market. Carbon Dioxide (CO2, the most important greenhouse gas produced by combustion of fuels, has become a cause of global panic as its concentration in the Earth’s atmosphere has been rising alarmingly. However, it is now turning into a product that helps people, countries, consultants, traders, corporations and even farmers earn billion of rupees. A carbon credit is a generic term for any tradable certificate or permit representing the right to emit one tone of CO2 or CO2 equivalent (CO2-e. Businesses can exchange, buy or sell carbon credits in the international markets at the prevailing market price. India and China are likely to emerge as biggest seller and Europe is going to be biggest buyers of carbon credits. Using algae for reduction the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere is known as algae-based carbon capture technology. This new technology has attracted companies that need inexpensive CO2 sequestration solutions. Algae farming emerge as the best CO2 sequestration technique in comparison with other methods.

  17. Alteration of forest succession and carbon cycling under elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam D; Dietze, Michael C; DeLucia, Evan H; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J

    2016-01-01

    Regenerating forests influence the global carbon (C) cycle, and understanding how climate change will affect patterns of regeneration and C storage is necessary to predict the rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) increase in future decades. While experimental elevation of CO2 has revealed that young forests respond with increased productivity, there remains considerable uncertainty as to how the long-term dynamics of forest regrowth are shaped by elevated CO2 (eCO2 ). Here, we use the mechanistic size- and age- structured Ecosystem Demography model to investigate the effects of CO2 enrichment on forest regeneration, using data from the Duke Forest Free-Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experiment, a forest chronosequence, and an eddy-covariance tower for model parameterization and evaluation. We find that the dynamics of forest regeneration are accelerated, and stands consistently hit a variety of developmental benchmarks earlier under eCO2 . Because responses to eCO2 varied by plant functional type, successional pathways, and mature forest composition differed under eCO2 , with mid- and late-successional hardwood functional types experiencing greater increases in biomass compared to early-successional functional types and the pine canopy. Over the simulation period, eCO2 led to an increase in total ecosystem C storage of 9.7 Mg C ha(-1) . Model predictions of mature forest biomass and ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of CO2 and H2 O were sensitive to assumptions about nitrogen limitation; both the magnitude and persistence of the ecosystem response to eCO2 were reduced under N limitation. In summary, our simulations demonstrate that eCO2 can result in a general acceleration of forest regeneration while altering the course of successional change and having a lasting impact on forest ecosystems.

  18. Temperature dependence of the relationship between pCO2 and dissolved organic carbon in lakes

    KAUST Repository

    Pinho, L.

    2016-02-15

    The relationship between the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration in Brazilian lakes, encompassing 225 samples across a wide latitudinal range in the tropics, was tested. Unlike the positive relationship reported for lake waters, which was largely based on temperate lakes, we found no significant relationship for low-latitude lakes (< 33°), despite very broad ranges in both pCO2 and DOC levels. These results suggest substantial differences in the carbon cycling of low-latitude lakes, which must be considered when upscaling limnetic carbon cycling to global scales.

  19. Carbon dioxide: Global warning for nephrologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Marco; D'Amato, Anna; Cantone, Alessandra

    2016-09-01

    The large prevalence of respiratory acid-base disorders overlapping metabolic acidosis in hemodialysis population should prompt nephrologists to deal with the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) complying with the reduced bicarbonate concentration. What the most suitable formula to compute pCO2 is reviewed. Then, the neglected issue of CO2 content in the dialysis fluid is under the spotlight. In fact, a considerable amount of CO2 comes to patients' bloodstream every hemodialysis treatment and "acidosis by dialysate" may occur if lungs do not properly clear away this burden of CO2. Moreover, vascular access recirculation may be easy diagnosed by detecting CO2 in the arterial line of extracorporeal circuit if CO2-enriched blood from the filter reenters arterial needle. PMID:27648406

  20. EFFECTS OF CO2 AND O3 ON CARBON FLUX FOR PONDEROSA PINE PLANT/LITTER/SOIL SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), a main contributor to global climate change, also adds carbon to forests. In contrast, tropospheric ozone (O3) can reduce carbon uptake and increase carbon loss by forests. Thus, the net balance of carbon uptake and loss for forests can be affected by concu...

  1. Sustainable catalyst supports for carbon dioxide gas adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlee, M. N.

    2016-07-01

    The adsorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) become the prime attention nowadays due to the fact that increasing CO2 emissions has been identified as a contributor to global climate change. Major sources of CO2 emissions are thermoelectric power plants and industrial plants which account for approximately 45% of global CO2 emissions. Therefore, it is an urgent need to develop an efficient CO2 reduction technology such as carbon capture and storage (CCS) that can reduce CO2 emissions particularly from the energy sector. A lot of sustainable catalyst supports have been developed particularly for CO2 gas adsorbent applications.

  2. Accelerated carbonation of steel slags using CO2 diluted sources: CO2 uptakes and energy requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Renato eBaciocchi; Giulia eCosta; Alessandra ePolettini; Raffaella ePomi; Alessio eStramazzo; Daniela eZingaretti

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the results of carbonation experiments performed on Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) steel slag samples employing gas mixtures containing 40 and 10% CO2 vol. simulating the gaseous effluents of gasification and combustion processes respectively, as well as 100% CO2 for comparison purposes. Two routes were tested, the slurry phase (L/S=5 l/kg, T=100 °C and Ptot=10 bar) and the thin film (L/S =0.3-0.4 l/kg, T=50 °C and Ptot=7-10 bar) routes. For each one, the CO2 uptake achieved as...

  3. Polyurethane Foam-Based Ultramicroporous Carbons for CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Chao; Song, Jian; Qin, Zhangfeng; Wang, Jianguo; Fan, Weibin

    2016-07-27

    A series of sustainable porous carbon materials were prepared from waste polyurethane foam and investigated for capture of CO2. The effects of preparation conditions, such as precarbonization, KOH to carbon precursor weight ratio, and activation temperature, on the porous structure and CO2 adsorption properties were studied for the purpose of controlling pore sizes and nitrogen content and developing high-performance materials for capture of CO2. The sample prepared at optimum conditions shows CO2 adsorption capacities of 6.67 and 4.33 mmol·g(-1) at 0 and 25 °C under 1 bar, respectively, which are comparable to those of the best reported porous carbons prepared from waste materials. The HCl treatment experiment reveals that about 80% of CO2 adsorption capacity arises from physical adsorption, while the other 20% is due to the chemical adsorption originated from the interaction of basic N groups and CO2 molecules. The relationship between CO2 uptake and pore size at different temperatures indicates that the micropores with pore size smaller than 0.86 and 0.70 nm play a dominant role in the CO2 adsorption at 0 and 25 °C, respectively. It was found that the obtained carbon materials exhibited high recyclability and high selectivity to adsorption of CO2 from the CO2 and N2 mixture. PMID:27376177

  4. Method for carbon dioxide sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yifeng; Bryan, Charles R.; Dewers, Thomas; Heath, Jason E.

    2015-09-22

    A method for geo-sequestration of a carbon dioxide includes selection of a target water-laden geological formation with low-permeability interbeds, providing an injection well into the formation and injecting supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) into the injection well under conditions of temperature, pressure and density selected to cause the fluid to enter the formation and splinter and/or form immobilized ganglia within the formation. This process allows for the immobilization of the injected SC--CO.sub.2 for very long times. The dispersal of scCO2 into small ganglia is accomplished by alternating injection of SC--CO.sub.2 and water. The injection rate is required to be high enough to ensure the SC--CO.sub.2 at the advancing front to be broken into pieces and small enough for immobilization through viscous instability.

  5. Carbon dioxide emission from bamboo culms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, E J; Sabulal, B; Nair, D N K; Johnson, A J; Kumar, C S P

    2016-05-01

    Bamboos are one of the fastest growing plants on Earth, and are widely considered to have high ability to capture and sequester atmospheric carbon, and consequently to mitigate climate change. We tested this hypothesis by measuring carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions from bamboo culms and comparing them with their biomass sequestration potential. We analysed diurnal effluxes from Bambusa vulgaris culm surface and gas mixtures inside hollow sections of various bamboos using gas chromatography. Corresponding variations in gas pressure inside the bamboo section and culm surface temperature were measured. SEM micrographs of rhizome and bud portions of bamboo culms were also recorded. We found very high CO2 effluxes from culm surface, nodes and buds of bamboos. Positive gas pressure and very high concentrations of CO2 were observed inside hollow sections of bamboos. The CO2 effluxes observed from bamboos were very high compared to their carbon sequestration potential. Our measurements suggest that bamboos are net emitters of CO2 during their lifespan.

  6. CO2 perturbation experiments: similarities and differences between dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity manipulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Riebesell

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 through human activities and invasion of anthropogenic CO2 into the surface ocean alters the seawater carbonate chemistry, increasing CO2 and bicarbonate (HCO3 at the expense of carbonate ion (CO32− concentrations. This redistribution in the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC pool decreases pH and carbonate saturation state (Ω. Several of these components are considered potential key variables influencing calcium carbonate precipitation in marine calcifiers such as coccolithophores, foraminifera, corals, mollusks and echinoderms. In need for improved understanding of the sensitivities of marine organisms and ecosystems to CO2 induced ocean acidification (OA, experimental CO2 perturbation studies will continue to be a backbone in future OA research. This requires accurate carbonate system manipulations and well-controlled experimental setups. Here we describe and analyse the chemical changes involved in the two basic approaches for carbonate chemistry manipulation, i.e. changing DIC at constant total alkalinity (TA and changing TA at constant DIC. Furthermore, we briefly introduce several methods to experimentally manipulate DIC and TA. Finally, we examine responses obtained with both approaches using published results for the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. We conclude that under most experimental conditions DIC or TA manipulations yield similar changes in all parameters of the carbonate system, which implies direct comparability of data obtained with the two basic approaches for CO2 perturbation.

  7. Water Uptake and Carbon Assimilation in Maize at Elevated and ambient CO2: Modeling and Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timlin, Dennis; Chun, Jong-Ahn; Kim, Soo-Hyung; Yang, Yang; Fleisher, David; Reddy, Vangimalla

    2013-04-01

    Potential transpiration in crops is dependent on both plant and environmental properties. Carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere is linked to potential transpiration because CO2 diffuses onto water saturated surfaces within plant stomata. At high CO2 concentrations, CO2 diffuses rapidly into stomata and therefore stomata do not have to remain open to the atmosphere for long periods of time. This results in lower transpiration rates per unit CO2 assimilated at elevated CO2 concentrations. The objective of this study was to measure CO2 assimilation and water uptake by maize under different irrigation regimes and two CO2 concentrations. The data were then used to evaluate the ability of the maize model MaizSim to simulate the effects of water stress and CO2 on water use and photosynthesis. MaizSim uses a Farquhar type photosynthesis model coupled a Ball-Berry stomatal control model. Non-linear beta functions are used to estimate the effects of temperature on growth and development processes. The experimental data come from experiments in outdoor, sunlit growth chambers at the USDA-ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center. The eight treatments comprised two levels of carbon dioxide concentrations (400 and 800 ppm) and four levels of water stress (well-watered control, mild, moderate, and severe). The water stress treatments were applied at both CO2 levels. Water contents were monitored hourly by a Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) system. The model simulated higher water contents at the same time after applying water stress at the high CO2 treatment than for the low CO2 treatment as was found in the measured data. Measurement of water uptake by roots and carbon assimilation rates in the chambers will be addressed.

  8. Real-World Carbon Dioxide Impacts of Traffic Congestion

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Matthew; Boriboonsomsin, Kanok

    2010-01-01

    Transportation plays a significant role in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, accounting for approximately a third of the U.S. inventory. To reduce CO2 emissions in the future, transportation policy makers are planning on making vehicles more efficient and increasing the use of carbon-neutral alternative fuels. In addition, CO2 emissions can be lowered by improving traffic operations, specifically through the reduction of traffic congestion. Traffic congestion and its impact on CO2 emissions wer...

  9. 人口因素对CO2排放的影响——基于面板分位数回归的实证研究%The Effect of Demographic Factors on Carbon Dioxide Emissions:Panel Quantile Regression Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉萍; 郭郡郡; 刘成玉

    2012-01-01

    Based on provincial panel data from 1995 to 2009 in China,using panel quantile regression model estimate the impact of demographic factors on China’s carbon dioxide emissions,the results showed that: Population size and urbanization are the main demographic factors which impact China’s carbon dioxide emissions,but the marginal effect of population size is large in the developed provinces,while the marginal effect of urbanization is larger in the less developed provinces;Smaller family trend impacts on carbon dioxide emissions differently by province.The effect is positive in some provinces and is not significant in the other provinces.Age structure is not yet a major demographic factors who led to change in carbon dioxide emissions;Comprehensive comparison,the impact of economic development on carbon dioxide emissions is greater than the impact of demographic factors on it,the marginal effect of industry structure on carbon dioxide emissions is less than that of population size and urbanization,but the relationship between technological progress and carbon dioxide emissions are blurred.%基于1995~2009年中国省际面板数据,利用面板分位数回归模型估计人口因素对我国CO2排放量的影响,结果显示:人口数量和人口城市化率是影响我国CO2排放的主要人口因素,但从影响大小上看,人口数量变化对发达省份CO2排放的影响大于欠发达省份,而人口城市化率则对欠发达省份的CO2排放具有更大的影响;家庭小型化对CO2排放的影响因省而异,对不同省份,要么没有明显的影响,要么可能导致CO2排放量增加;年龄结构目前还不是导致我国CO2排放量变化的主要人口因素;综合比较而言,经济发展水平对CO2排放的影响大于人口各因素,产业结构对CO2排放的影响小于人口数量和人口城市化率,而技术进步与CO2排放的关系则显得模糊。

  10. Bartholin's gland cysts: management with carbon-dioxide laser vaporization Cistos da glândula de Bartholin: tratamento com vaporização laser com CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Neves Figueiredo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness, recurrence rate, and complications of carbon-dioxide laser vaporization in the treatment of Bartholin's gland cysts. METHODS: A retrospective study including 127 patients with symptomatic Bartholin' gland cysts submitted to carbon-dioxide laser vaporization at our institution from January 2005 to June 2011. Patients with Bartholin's gland abscesses and those suspected of having neoplasia were excluded. All procedures were performed in an outpatient setting under local anaesthesia. Clinical records were reviewed for demographic characteristics, anatomic parameters, intraoperative and postoperative complications, and follow-up data. Data were stored and analyzed in Microsoft Excel® 2007 software. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed, and its results were expressed as frequency (percentage or mean±standard deviation. Complication, recurrence, and cure rates were calculated. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 37.3±9.5 years-old (range from 18 to 61 years-old. Seventy percent (n=85 of them were multiparous. The most common symptom was pain and 47.2% (n=60 of patients had a history of previous medical and/or surgical treatment for Bartholin's gland abscesses. Mean cyst size was 2.7±0.9 cm. There were three (2.4% cases of minor intraoperative bleeding. Overall, there were 17 (13.4% recurrences within a mean of 14.6 months (range from 1 to 56 months: ten Bartholin's gland abscesses and seven recurrent cysts requiring reintervention. The cure rate after single laser treatment was 86.6%. Among the five patients with recurrent disease that had a second laser procedure, the cure rate was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: At this institution, carbon-dioxide laser vaporization seems to be a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of Bartholin's gland cysts.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia, a taxa de recorrência e as complicações da vaporização laser com CO2 no tratamento dos cistos da glândula de

  11. Supercritical CO 2 -philic nanoparticles suitable for determining the viability of carbon sequestration in shale

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yisheng

    2015-01-01

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry. A fracture spacing less than a decimeter is probably required for the successful sequestration of CO2 in shale. Tracer experiments using inert nanoparticles could determine if a fracturing this intense has been achieved. Here we describe the synthesis of supercritical CO2-philic nanoparticles suitable for this application. The nanoparticles are ~50 nm in diameter and consist of iron oxide (Fe3O4) and silica (SiO2) cores functionalized with a fluorescent polymeric corona. The nanoparticles stably disperse in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and are detectable to concentrations of 10 ppm. This journal is

  12. Carbon dioxide sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

    2011-11-15

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  13. Biochemical Capture and Removal of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachtenberg, Michael C.

    1998-01-01

    We devised an enzyme-based facilitated transport membrane bioreactor system to selectively remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the space station environment. We developed and expressed site-directed enzyme mutants for CO2 capture. Enzyme kinetics showed the mutants to be almost identical to the wild type save at higher pH. Both native enzyme and mutant enzymes were immobilized to different supports including nylons, glasses, sepharose, methacrylate, titanium and nickel. Mutant enzyme could be attached and removed from metal ligand supports and the supports reused at least five times. Membrane systems were constructed to test CO2 selectivity. These included proteic membranes, thin liquid films and enzyme-immobilized teflon membranes. Selectivity ratios of more than 200:1 were obtained for CO2 versus oxygen with CO2 at 0.1%. The data indicate that a membrane based bioreactor can be constructed which could bring CO2 levels close to Earth.

  14. Effects of dense phase carbon dioxide on muscle quality of Haliotis discus hannai%高密度CO2处理对皱纹盘鲍肌肉品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕妙兄; 刘书成; 屈小娟; 章超桦; 吉宏武; 高加龙

    2013-01-01

      为了探讨高密度 CO2(DPCD)应用于加工皱纹盘鲍的可行性,在压力5~25 MPa、温度30~50℃、处理时间10~50 min下分别处理皱纹盘鲍,研究DPCD对其色泽、pH值、保水性、质量损失、质构等指标的影响规律。结果表明:与未处理的相比,DPCD处理对皱纹盘鲍的外观和pH值无显著影响(P>0.05),但对其色泽、基本营养成分、质量损失、保水性和质构有显著影响(P<0.05),并且随着处理强度的增加,其影响程度也加强;结合杀菌效果,DPCD处理皱纹盘鲍的适宜条件为:20 MPa、45℃、(40~50)min。研究结果将为DPCD加工技术在贝类肌肉食品中的应用提供参考。%Dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) is a non-thermal processing technology, which affects microorganisms and enzymes through molecular effects of CO2 under pressures below 50 MPa and 60 . DPCD℃has less significance effect on the quality of foods. DPCD has been applied to the process of meats, vegetables, seeds and food powders, fruits, spices and herbs, and fish. The studied objective is to investigate the effects of DPCD on bacteria inactivation and qualities of Haliotis discus hannai and to explore whether it can be applied to process Haliotis discus hannai. In this paper, the effects of pressure (5-25 MPa), exposure time (10-50 min) and temperature (30-50℃) of DPCD treatment on bacteria inactivation and qualities of Haliotis discus hannai were studied. DPCD can reach the ideal sterilizing effect for Haliotis discus hannai under the conditions of pressure 20MPa, temperature 45℃, exposure time 40-50 min. Compared with Haliotis discus hannai cooked in boiling water for 2 min (logarithmic decline of 3.59), the sterilizing effect was the equivalent by DPCD of 20 MPa and 45 for 40℃ -50 min (logarithmic decline of 3.46). The total number of colonies was less than 1000 cfu/mL. Compared with untreated Haliotis discus hannai, DPCD treatment had no

  15. 中国水泥工业CO_2排放现状及减排对策%Emissions of carbon dioxide from cement industry and its reduction strategy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石建屏; 李新; 吕淑珍; 王海滨

    2012-01-01

    水泥工业是中国制造业中温室气体CO2的主要排放源,因此,根据水泥生产的基本原理和工艺特点,建立了CO2排放的数学模型并确定排放强度,计算了2001—2010年中国水泥工业CO2的排放量,分析了影响CO2排放量的主要因素及其发展趋势,并提出水泥工业CO2减排对策.结果表明,中国水泥工业CO2排放总量逐年增长,与水泥产量和单位产品原料、燃料消耗定额呈线性关系;在CO2排放总量中,原料煅烧和燃料燃烧阶段的排放量分别占49%和51%;"十一五"期间单位水泥产品CO2排放强度由0.69t.t-1下降到0.65t.t-1.万元GDPCO2排放量呈下降趋势,2008年达到最低值为0.3054t,平均每年万元GDPCO2排放量下降10.69%,说明水泥工业10年间实施节能降耗、资源循环利用、提高经济效益等措施对于减少CO2排放具有明显效果.%The cement industry is a major source of greenhouse gas-carbon dioxide(CO2) emission.According to the principles and characteristics of cement production technique,the mathematical model is established for calculating CO2 emission in cement industry from 2001 to 2010 with the emission factors of production processes and energy consumption.The results indicated that the CO2 emissions increase rapidly every year in China,with a linear relationship between the CO2 emissions and the cement outputs,the comprehensive energy and resource consumption per unit cement product.The raw processing and fuel burning accounts for about 49% and 51% in total CO2 emission of cement industry,respectively.The CO2 emission decreases from 0.69 t·t-1 in the "10th Five-year" plan to 0.65 t·t-1 in the "11th Five-year" plan.The CO2 emissions per ten thousand Yuan GDP decreases to minimum 0.3054 t in 2008,corresponding to 10.69% reduction.The result shows clearly that the saving energy,resource recycling and increase economic efficiency can greatly reduce CO2 emissions.

  16. 生物质气化尾气CO2联合微波重整甲苯制备合成气%Toluene reforming by carbon dioxide recycled from biomass gasification into syngas production under microwave irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李龙之; 宋占龙; 马春元; 王孚懋; 田原宇

    2014-01-01

    The quality of gaseous products can be deteriorated by tar, CO2 and other impurities during the process of biomass gasification. Based on the those impurities analysis, tar conversion by CO2 is performed in this paper. Toluene was chosen as a model compound in this study, and it was used for converting into syngas production over a biomass-derived char. Biomass char is obtained from the pyrolysis of corn straw at a microwave-assisted experimental system. The influences of heating method includes microwave heating (MH) and electrical heating (EH) as well as CO2 flow rate on toluene conversion, syngas yield and carbon loss. The results show that toluene conversion from microwave heating is significantly higher than that from electrical heating under the same circumstances. And it is revealed that a maximum difference of toluene conversion between microwave heating and electrical heating is reached up to 15.58%at CO2 flow rate of 80 mL/min. When a certain amount of CO2 is imported, toluene conversion can be improved effectively. The highest toluene conversion of 93.73%is achieved under microwave heating at CO2 flow rate of 80 mL/min, while toluene conversion under electrical heating is reached a peak of 82.13%, corresponding to CO2 flow rate of 40 mL/min. Moreover, the introduction of CO2 can regulate the conversion of toluene into syngas production with a suitable ratio of H2 and CO. At the same time, an excess of CO2 can result in a loss of carbon contained in biomass-derived char. The carbon consumed through the gasification of CO2 can be converted into part of syngas production, which can impose a direct contribution to total syngas yield. With the increase of CO2 flow rate, a higher syngas yield from carbon consumption is achieved. The maximum contribution of carbon consumption to syngas yield is 15.40% under microwave heating at CO2 flow rate of 120 mL/min. According to the results, it is found that the highest yield of syngas derived from toluene reforming by

  17. Turning carbon dioxide into fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z; Xiao, T; Kuznetsov, V L; Edwards, P P

    2010-07-28

    Our present dependence on fossil fuels means that, as our demand for energy inevitably increases, so do emissions of greenhouse gases, most notably carbon dioxide (CO2). To avoid the obvious consequences on climate change, the concentration of such greenhouse gases in the atmosphere must be stabilized. But, as populations grow and economies develop, future demands now ensure that energy will be one of the defining issues of this century. This unique set of (coupled) challenges also means that science and engineering have a unique opportunity-and a burgeoning challenge-to apply their understanding to provide sustainable energy solutions. Integrated carbon capture and subsequent sequestration is generally advanced as the most promising option to tackle greenhouse gases in the short to medium term. Here, we provide a brief overview of an alternative mid- to long-term option, namely, the capture and conversion of CO2, to produce sustainable, synthetic hydrocarbon or carbonaceous fuels, most notably for transportation purposes. Basically, the approach centres on the concept of the large-scale re-use of CO2 released by human activity to produce synthetic fuels, and how this challenging approach could assume an important role in tackling the issue of global CO2 emissions. We highlight three possible strategies involving CO2 conversion by physico-chemical approaches: sustainable (or renewable) synthetic methanol, syngas production derived from flue gases from coal-, gas- or oil-fired electric power stations, and photochemical production of synthetic fuels. The use of CO2 to synthesize commodity chemicals is covered elsewhere (Arakawa et al. 2001 Chem. Rev. 101, 953-996); this review is focused on the possibilities for the conversion of CO2 to fuels. Although these three prototypical areas differ in their ultimate applications, the underpinning thermodynamic considerations centre on the conversion-and hence the utilization-of CO2. Here, we hope to illustrate that advances

  18. A Simple Approach to Estimate Soil Organic Carbon and Soil CO2 Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhat Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available SOC (Soil Organic Carbon and soil CO 2 (Carbon Dioxide emission are among the indicator of carbon sequestration and hence global climate change. Researchers in developed countries benefit from advance technologies to estimate C (Carbon sequestration. However, access to the latest technologies has always been challenging in developing countries to conduct such estimates. This paper presents a simple and comprehensive approach for estimating SOC and soil CO 2 emission from arable- and forest soils. The approach includes various protocols that can be followed in laboratories of the research organizations or academic institutions equipped with basic research instruments and technology. The protocols involve soil sampling, sample analysis for selected properties, and the use of a worldwide tested Rothamsted carbon turnover model. With this approach, it is possible to quantify SOC and soil CO 2 emission over short- and long-term basis for global climate change assessment studies.

  19. Soil fertility limits carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems in a CO2-enriched atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northern mid-latitude forests are a larger terrestrial carbon sink. Ignoring nutrient limitations, large increases in carbon sequestration from carbon dioxide (CO2) fertilization are expected in these forests. Yet, forests are usually relegated to sites of moderate to poor fertility, where tree growth is often limited by nutrient supply, in particular nitrogen. Here we present evidence that estimates of increases in carbon sequestration of forests, which is expected to partially compensate for increasing CO2 in the atmosphere, are unduly optimistic. In two forest experiments on maturing pines exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2, the CO2-induced biomass carbon increment without added nutrients was undetectable at a nutritionally poor site, and the stimulation at a nutritionally moderate site was transient, stabilizing at a marginal gain after three years. However, a large synergistic gain from higher CO2 and nutrients was detected with nutrients added. This gain was even larger at the poor site (threefold higher than the expected additive effect) than at the moderate site (twofold higher). Thus, fertility can restrain the response of wood carbon sequestration to increased atmospheric CO2. Assessment of future carbon sequestration should consider the limitations imposed by soil fertility, as well as interactions with nitrogen deposition. (author)

  20. Efficient biological conversion of carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide (CO2) and for utilization in bioplastic production by Ralstonia eutropha through the display of an enzyme complex on the cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyeon, Jeong Eun; Kim, Seung Wook; Park, Chulhwan; Han, Sung Ok

    2015-06-25

    An enzyme complex for biological conversion of CO to CO2 was anchored on the cell surface of the CO2-utilizing Ralstonia eutropha and successfully resulted in a 3.3-fold increase in conversion efficiency. These results suggest that this complexed system may be a promising strategy for CO2 utilization as a biological tool for the production of bioplastics. PMID:26017299

  1. Efficient biological conversion of carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide (CO2) and for utilization in bioplastic production by Ralstonia eutropha through the display of an enzyme complex on the cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyeon, Jeong Eun; Kim, Seung Wook; Park, Chulhwan; Han, Sung Ok

    2015-06-25

    An enzyme complex for biological conversion of CO to CO2 was anchored on the cell surface of the CO2-utilizing Ralstonia eutropha and successfully resulted in a 3.3-fold increase in conversion efficiency. These results suggest that this complexed system may be a promising strategy for CO2 utilization as a biological tool for the production of bioplastics.

  2. Carbon Turnover in a Crop Rotation Under Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. J. WEIGEL; K. LEWIN; J. NAGY; A. PACHOLSKI; S. BURKART; M. HELAL; O. HEINEMEYER; B. KLEIKAMP; R. MANDERSCHEID; C. FR(U)HAUF; G. F. HENDREY

    2005-01-01

    Mostly based on assumptions derived from controlled-environment studies, predicted future atmospheric CO2 concentrations [CO2] are expected to have considerable impacts on carbon (C) turnover in agro-ecosystems. In order to allow the in situ examination of C-transformations in the plant-soil system of arable crop rotations under future [CO2], a free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) experiment (550 μmol mol-1 CO2) was started at Braunschweig, Germany in 1999.The crop rotation under investigation comprised winter barley, a cover crop (ryegrass), sugar beets and winter wheat.Assessments of CO2 effects included the determination of above- and belowground biomass production, measurements of canopy CO2- and H2O- fluxes, soil microbial biomass and in situ soil respiration. The results obtained during the 1st crop rotation cycle (3 years) showed that for the selected crops elevated [CO2] entailed significant positive effects (P<0.05) on aboveground (6%-14% stimulation) and belowground biomass production (up to 90% stimulation), while canopy evapotranspiration was reduced. This resulted in increased soil water content. Also, depending on crop type and season, high CO2 stimulated in situ soil respiration (up to 30%), while soil microbial biomass did not show significant respoases to elevated [CO2] during the first rotation cycle.

  3. Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the carbon dioxide and nitrogen (CO2+N2) system at the temperatures 223, 270, 298 and 303 K and pressures up to 18 MPa

    OpenAIRE

    Westman, Snorre Foss; Stang, Hans Georg Jacob; Løvseth, Sigurd Weidemann; Austegard, Anders; Snustad, Ingrid; Størset, Sigmund Østtveit; Ertesvåg, Ivar Ståle

    2015-01-01

    A new setup for the measurement of vapor-liquid phase equilibria of CO2-rich mixtures relevant for carbon capture and storage (CCS) transport conditions is presented. An isothermal analytical method with a variable volume cell is used. The apparatus is capable of highly accurate measurements in terms of pressure, temperature and composition, also in the critical region. Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) measurements for the binary system CO2+N2 are reported at 223, 270, 298 and 303 K, with estim...

  4. Carbon dioxide foaming of glassy polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessling, M.; Borneman, Z.; Boomgaard, van den Th.; Smolders, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    The mechanism of foaming a glassy polymer using sorbed carbon dioxide is studied in detail. A glassy polymer supersaturated with nitrogen forms a microcellular foam, if the polymer is quickly heated above its glass transition temperature. A glassy polymer supersaturated with CO2 forms this foam-like

  5. Carbon dioxide in European coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borges, A.V.; Schiettecatte, L.-S.; Abril, G.; Delille, B.; Gazeau, F.P.H.

    2006-01-01

    We compiled from literature annually integrated air–water fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) computed from field measurements, in 20 coastal European environments that were gathered into 3 main ecosystems: inner estuaries, upwelling continental shelves and non-upwelling continental shelves. The comparis

  6. A Review of Carbon Dioxide Selective Membranes: A Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dushyant Shekhawat; David R. Luebke; Henry W. Pennline

    2003-12-01

    Carbon dioxide selective membranes provide a viable energy-saving alternative for CO2 separation, since membranes do not require any phase transformation. This review examines various CO2 selective membranes for the separation of CO2 and N2, CO2 and CH4, and CO2 and H2 from flue or fuel gas. This review attempts to summarize recent significant advances reported in the literature about various CO2 selective membranes, their stability, the effect of different parameters on the performance of the membrane, the structure and permeation properties relationships, and the transport mechanism applied in different CO2 selective membranes.

  7. Net carbon storage in a popular plantation (POPFACE) after three years of free-air CO2 enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, B.; Calfapietra, C.; Lukac, M.; Wittig, V.E.; Angelis, de P.; Janssens, I.A.; Moscatelli, M.C.; Grego, S.; Cotrufo, M.F.; Godbold, D.; Hoosbeek, M.R.; Long, S.; Miglietta, F.; Polle, A.; Bernacchi, C.; Davey, P.A.; Ceulemans, R.; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G.

    2005-01-01

    A high-density plantation of three genotypes of Populus was exposed to an elevated concentration of carbon dioxide ([CO2]; 550 µmol mol¿1) from planting through canopy closure using a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) technique. The FACE treatment stimulated gross primary productivity by 22 and 11% in

  8. Abiotic CO2 reduction during geologic carbon sequestration facilitated by Fe(II)-bearing minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, L. C.; Maher, K.; Bird, D. K.; Brown, G. E.; Thomas, B.; Johnson, N. C.; Rosenbauer, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    Redox reactions involving subsurface minerals and fluids and can lead to the abiotic generation of hydrocarbons from CO2 under certain conditions. Depleted oil reservoirs and saline aquifers targeted for geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) can contain significant quantities of minerals such as ferrous chlorite, which could facilitate the abiotic reduction of carbon dioxide to n-carboxylic acids, hydrocarbons, and amorphous carbon (C0). If such reactions occur, the injection of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) could significantly alter the oxidation state of the reservoir and cause extensive reorganization of the stable mineral assemblage via dissolution and reprecipitation reactions. Naturally occurring iron oxide minerals such as magnetite are known to catalyze CO2 reduction, resulting in the synthesis of organic compounds. Magnetite is thermodynamically stable in Fe(II) chlorite-bearing mineral assemblages typical of some reservoir formations. Thermodynamic calculations demonstrate that GCS reservoirs buffered by the chlorite-kaolinite-carbonate(siderite/magnesite)-quartz assemblage favor the reduction of CO2 to n-carboxylic acids, hydrocarbons, and C0, although the extent of abiotic CO2 reduction may be kinetically limited. To investigate the rates of abiotic CO2 reduction in the presence of magnetite, we performed batch abiotic CO2 reduction experiments using a Dickson-type rocking hydrothermal apparatus at temperatures (373 K) and pressures (100 bar) within the range of conditions relevant to GCS. Blank experiments containing CO2 and H2 were used to rule out the possibility of catalytic activity of the experimental apparatus. Reaction of brine-suspended magnetite nanoparticles with scCO2 at H2 partial pressures typical of reservoir rocks - up to 100 and 0.1 bars respectively - was used to investigate the kinetics of magnetite-catalyzed abiotic CO2 reduction. Later experiments introducing ferrous chlorite (ripidolite) were carried out to determine the potential for

  9. Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage, or CCS, can be achieved using geological means, an approach that differs in many ways from CO2 capture and storage in vegetation. Firstly, it differs because this latter approach enables CO2 to be stored only temporarily – for less than one year in annual plants or for several centuries in tree phytomass. Secondly, CO2 capture is associated with bioconversion of the sun’s energy which is then stored in biochemical form in the phytomass. As the t...

  10. Understanding how individuals perceive carbon dioxide. Implications for acceptance of carbon dioxide capture and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itaoka, K.; Saito, A. [Mizuho Information and Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Paukovic, M.; De Best-Waldhober, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Dowd, A.M.; Jeanneret, T.; Ashworth, P.; James, M. [The Global CCS Institute, Canberra (Australia)

    2012-06-15

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) presents one potential technological solution for mitigating the atmospheric emission of carbon dioxide sources. However, CCS is a relatively new technology with associated uncertainties and perceived risks. For this reason, a growing body of research now focuses on public perceptions and potential for societal acceptance of CCS technology. Almost all explanations of CCS technology make reference to carbon dioxide, with an assumption that the general public understands CO2. It has become apparent that the general public’s knowledge and understanding of CO2’s properties influences how they engage with CO2 emitting industries and CCS technologies. However, surprisingly little research has investigated public perceptions, knowledge, and understanding of CO2. This investigation attempts to fill that gap. This report describes an investigation of how citizens of three countries (Japan, Australia, and the Netherlands) perceive CO2. Furthermore, it attempts to relate individual perceptions of CO2 to perceptions of CCS, and to determine how information provision about the underlying properties and characteristics of CO2 influences individual attitudes towards low carbon energy options, particularly CCS. In brief, the research had four ultimate aims. It aimed to: Explore the public’s knowledge and understanding of the properties of CO2; Examine the influence of that knowledge on their perceptions of CO2 and CCS; Investigate how information provision about the underlying properties and characteristics of CO2 influences individual attitudes towards CCS; and Identify if any differences between countries exist in relation to values and beliefs, knowledge of CO2’s properties, and CCS perceptions.

  11. Contribution of increasing CO2 and climate to carbon storage by ecosystems in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimel, D.; Melillo, J.; Tian, H.; McGuire, A.D.; Kicklighter, D.; Kittel, T.; Rosenbloom, N.; Running, S.; Thornton, P.; Ojima, D.; Parton, W.; Kelly, R.; Sykes, M.; Neilson, R.; Rizzo, B.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) and climate on net carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems of the conterminous United States for the period 1895-1993 were modeled with new, detailed historical climate information. For the period 1980-1993, results from an ensemble of three models agree within 25%, simulating a land carbon sink from CO2 and climate effects of 0.08 gigaton of carbon per year. The best estimates of the total sink from inventory data are about three times larger, suggesting that processes such as regrowth on abandoned agricultural land or in forests harvested before 1980 have effects as large as or larger than the direct effects of CO2 and climate. The modeled sink varies by about 100% from year to year as a result of climate variability.

  12. A study of the methane's hydroxyl-activate-reforming with carbon dioxide over nickel%镍基上羟基活化催化CH4-CO2重整的理论计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文媛; 胡林; 龙威; 杜瑞焕; 陈丽萍

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of methane's hydroxyl-activate-reforming with carbon dioxide on nickel has been investiga ted by DFT, MP2/6-311 + G(2d,p) method, Comparison of the reforming reaction mechanism and explore the vari ous channels. The results have showed that the reforming reaction divided into 22 steps, the activation enthalpy of important five steps were: 44. 718,201.353,265. 713,104.603,61.739 and 99. 331 kJ ? mol-1. The rate-controlling step was the generation of hydroxyl process, and the most decomposition of methane was took off one hydrogen at om, CH3Ni has more high activity. There are two ways in the reaction between hydroxyl and CH3 Ni. The product is CH2OH , which could cleaved into formaldehyde.%采用DFT(B3LYP)结合二级微扰MP2/6-311+G(2d,p)方法计算镍基催化剂上羟基活化催化CH4-CO2 重整制合成气的反应机理,比较并探究了重整反应机理中的各种通道.计算结果表明,重整反应包含22步,关键反应式1-1,2,3,4-1,4-2,6-4的正反应活化能分别为44.718,201.353,265.713,104.603,61.739和99.331kJ·mo1-1.重整的速控步是式3表示的羟基的产生过程,甲烷的分解以脱1个H为主,基团CH3Ni具有较高的活性,可以通过2种方式与羟基反应,生成CH2OH基团继而裂解成甲醛.

  13. Accelerated Carbonation of Steel Slags Using CO2 Diluted Sources: CO2 Uptakes and Energy Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Baciocchi, Renato; Costa, Giulia; Polettini, Alessandra; Pomi, Raffaella; Stramazzo, Alessio; Zingaretti, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the results of carbonation experiments performed on Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) steel slag samples employing gas mixtures containing 40 and 10% CO2 vol. simulating the gaseous effluents of gasification and combustion processes respectively, as well as 100% CO2 for comparison purposes. Two routes were tested, the slurry-phase (L/S = 5 l/kg, T = 100°C and Ptot = 10 bar) and the thin-film (L/S = 0.3–0.4 l kg, T = 50°C and Ptot = 7–10 bar) routes. For each one, the CO2 uptake ac...

  14. Response of Heterogeneous and Fractured Carbonate Samples to CO2-Brine Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. M.; Mason, H. E.; Hao, Y.; Carroll, S.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonate rock units are often considered as candidate sites for storage of carbon dioxide (CO2), whether as stand-alone reservoirs or coupled with enhanced oil recovery efforts. In order to accept injected carbon dioxide, carbonate reservoirs must either possess sufficient preexisting connected void space, or react with CO2-acidified fluids to produce more pore space and improve permeability. However, upward migration of CO2 through barrier zones or seal layers must be minimized for effective safe storage. Therefore, prediction of the changes to porosity and permeability in these systems over time is a key component of reservoir management. Towards this goal, we present the results of several experiments on carbonate core samples from the Wellington, Kansas 1-32 well, conducted under reservoir temperature, pressure, and CO2 conditions. These samples were imaged by X-ray computed tomography (XRCT) and analyzed with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy both prior to and after reaction with CO2-enriched brines. The carbonate samples each displayed distinct responses to CO2 exposure in terms of permeability change with time and relative abundance of calcite versus dolomite dissolution. The measured permeability of each sample was also much lower than that estimated by downhole NMR logging, with samples with larger fractured regions possessing higher permeability values. We present also our modeling approach and preliminary simulation results for a specific sample from the targeted injection zone. The heterogeneous composition as well as the presence of large fractured zones within the rock necessitated the use of a nested three-region approach to represent the range of void space observed via tomography. Currently, the physical response to CO2-brine flow (i.e., pressure declines with time) is reproduced well but the extent of chemical reaction is overestimated by the model.

  15. Removal of CO2 in a multistage fluidized bed reactor by diethanol amine impregnated activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dipa; Samal, Debi Prasad; Meikap, Bhim C

    2016-07-28

    To mitigate the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2), we have developed and designed a four-stage fluidized bed reactor. There is a counter current exchange between solid adsorbent and gas flow. In this present investigation diethanol amine (DEA) impregnated activated carbon made from green coconut shell was used as adsorbent. This type of adsorbent not only adsorbs CO2 due to the presence of pore but also chemically reacts with CO2 and form secondary zwitterions. Sampling and analysis of CO2 was performed using Orsat apparatus. The effect of initial CO2 concentration, gas velocity, solid rate, weir height etc. on removal efficiency of CO2 have been investigated and presented. The percentage removal of CO2 has been found close to 80% under low gas flow rate (0.188 m/s), high solid flow rate (4.12 kg/h) and weir height of 50 mm. From this result it has been found out that multistage fluidized bed reactor may be a suitable equipment for removal of CO2 from flue gas. PMID:27163861

  16. Sorbents for CO2 capture from high carbon fly ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto-Valer, M Mercedes; Lu, Zhe; Zhang, Yinzhi; Tang, Zhong

    2008-11-01

    Fly ashes with high-unburned-carbon content, referred to as fly ash carbons, are an increasing problem for the utility industry, since they cannot be marketed as a cement extender and, therefore, have to be disposed. Previous work has explored the potential development of amine-enriched fly ash carbons for CO2 capture. However, their performance was lower than that of commercially available sorbents, probably because the samples investigated were not activated prior to impregnation and, therefore, had a very low surface area. Accordingly, the work described here focuses on the development of activated fly ash derived sorbents for CO2 capture. The samples were steam activated at 850 degrees C, resulting in a significant increase of the surface area (1075 m2/g). The activated samples were impregnated with different amine compounds, and the resultant samples were tested for CO2 capture at different temperatures. The CO2 adsorption of the parent and activated samples is typical of a physical adsorption process. The impregnation process results in a decrease of the surface areas, indicating a blocking of the porosity. The highest adsorption capacity at 30 and 70 degrees C for the amine impregnated activated carbons was probably due to a combination of physical adsorption inherent from the parent sample and chemical adsorption of the loaded amine groups. The CO2 adsorption capacities for the activated amine impregnated samples are higher than those previously published for fly ash carbons without activation (68.6 vs. 45 mg CO2/g sorbent).

  17. Miniature Carbon Dioxide Sensor for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase 1 has seen the development of a revolutionary new type of sensor for making carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements from small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) and...

  18. Monthly Carbon Dioxide in Troposphere (AIRS on AQUA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important greenhouse gas released through natural processes such as respiration and volcano eruptions and through huma activities such as...

  19. Global carbon dioxide emissions from inland waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Peter A.; Hartmann, Jens; Lauerwald, Ronny; Sobek, Sebastian; McDonald, Cory P.; Hoover, Mark; Butman, David; Striegl, Rob; Mayorga, Emilio; Humborg, Christoph; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Durr, Hans H.; Meybeck, Michel; Ciais, Philippe; Guth, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) transfer from inland waters to the atmosphere, known as CO2 evasion, is a component of the global carbon cycle. Global estimates of CO2 evasion have been hampered, however, by the lack of a framework for estimating the inland water surface area and gas transfer velocity and by the absence of a global CO2 database. Here we report regional variations in global inland water surface area, dissolved CO2 and gas transfer velocity. We obtain global CO2 evasion rates of 1.8   petagrams of carbon (Pg C) per year from streams and rivers and 0.32  Pg C yr−1 from lakes and reservoirs, where the upper and lower limits are respectively the 5th and 95th confidence interval percentiles. The resulting global evasion rate of 2.1 Pg C yr−1 is higher than previous estimates owing to a larger stream and river evasion rate. Our analysis predicts global hotspots in stream and river evasion, with about 70 per cent of the flux occurring over just 20 per cent of the land surface. The source of inland water CO2 is still not known with certainty and new studies are needed to research the mechanisms controlling CO2 evasion globally.

  20. Carbon Dioxide Angiography: Scientific Principles and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung Jae

    2015-09-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas which occurs naturally in the atmosphere and human body. With the advent of digital subtraction angiography, the gas has been used as a safe and useful alternative contrast agent in both arteriography and venography. Because of its lack of renal toxicity and allergic potential, CO2 is a preferred contrast agent in patients with renal failure or contrast allergy, and particularly in patients who require large volumes of contrast medium for complex endovascular procedures. Understanding of the unique physical properties of CO2 (high solubility, low viscosity, buoyancy, and compressibility) is essential in obtaining a successful CO2 angiogram and in guiding endovascular intervention. Unlike iodinated contrast material, CO2 displaces the blood and produces a negative contrast for digital subtraction imaging. Indications for use of CO2 as a contrast agent include: aortography and runoff, detection of bleeding, renal transplant arteriography, portal vein visualization with wedged hepatic venous injection, venography, arterial and venous interventions, and endovascular aneurysm repair. CO2 should not be used in the thoracic aorta, the coronary artery, and cerebral circulation. Exploitation of CO2 properties, avoidance of air contamination and facile catheterization technique are important to the safe and effective performance of CO2 angiography and CO2-guided endovascular intervention. PMID:26509137

  1. CO2 sequestration by carbonation of steelmaking slags in an autoclave reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, E-E; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chu, Hsiao-Wen; Wang, Chu-Fang; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2011-11-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) sequestration experiments using the accelerated carbonation of three types of steelmaking slags, i.e., ultra-fine (UF) slag, fly-ash (FA) slag, and blended hydraulic slag cement (BHC), were performed in an autoclave reactor. The effects of reaction time, liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S), temperature, CO(2) pressure, and initial pH on CO(2) sequestration were evaluated. Two different CO(2) pressures were chosen: the normal condition (700 psig) and the supercritical condition (1300 psig). The carbonation conversion was determined quantitatively by using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The major factors that affected the conversion were reaction time (5 min to 12h) and temperature (40-160°C). The BHC was found to have the highest carbonation conversion of approximately 68%, corresponding to a capacity of 0.283 kg CO(2)/kg BHC, in 12h at 700 psig and 160°C. In addition, the carbonation products were confirmed to be mainly in CaCO(3), which was determined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) to analyze samples before and after carbonation. Furthermore, reaction kinetics were expressed with a surface coverage model, and the carbon footprint of the developed technology in this investigation was calculated by a life cycle assessment (LCA). PMID:21889848

  2. Reduction of CO2 emissions by mineral carbonation : steelmaking slags as rawmaterial with a pure calcium carbonate end product

    OpenAIRE

    Eloneva, Sanni

    2010-01-01

    Mineral carbonation is one of the options that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions for climate change mitigation purposes. Steel manufacturing, which is one of the biggest industrial sources of CO2 emissions, could benefit from this option by utilizing its own by-products, i.e., steelmaking slags, to combine with CO2. Additional benefits would be achieved if the end product was a pure and marketable calcium carbonate. The utilization of CaCO3 derived from steelmaking s...

  3. Carbon dioxide kinetics and capnography during critical care

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Cynthia T; Breen, Peter H

    2000-01-01

    Greater understanding of the pathophysiology of carbon dioxide kinetics during steady and nonsteady state should improve, we believe, clinical care during intensive care treatment. Capnography and the measurement of end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PETCO2) will gradually be augmented by relatively new measurement methodology, including the volume of carbon dioxide exhaled per breath (VCO2,br) and average alveolar expired PCO2 (PA̅E̅CO2). Future directions include the study of oxy...

  4. 开放式空气CO2浓度升高对冬小麦生长和N吸收的影响%Effects of Free-air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment on Growth and Uptake of Nitrogen in Winter Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马红亮; 朱建国; 谢祖彬; 刘钢; 张雅丽; 曾青

    2005-01-01

    利用FACE(free-air carbon dioxide enrichment)技术平台,设常CO2(ambient CO2)和高CO2(elevated CO2,ambient+200 μmol*mol-1)2个水平和常N(NN,250 kg N·hm-2)和低N(LN,150 kg N·hm-2)2个水平,研究CO2浓度升高对冬小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)整个生长期生物量和氮(N)吸收的影响.结果表明,CO2浓度升高使冬小麦各部分的生物量平均增加28.3%~44.5%,拔节期增幅最大,达36.8%~91.2%,而且NN处理的生物量增幅比LN处理低.CO2浓度升高不同程度地降低了小麦的N含量,但是增加了N的吸收,在拔节期LN和NN处理下分别增加20.8%和29.2%.CO2浓度升高使小麦在拔节期NN处理的N相对吸收速率增加44.1%.说明在大气CO2浓度升高条件下,小麦会通过生物量的增加固定更多的C,增加对N养分的需求,应着重考虑提高小麦拔节期间的施氮肥水平.

  5. Effect of accelerated carbonation on AOD stainless steel slag for its valorisation as a CO2-sequestering construction material

    OpenAIRE

    Salman, Muhammad Salman; Cizer, Özlem; Pontikes, Yiannis; Santos, Rafael; Vandewalle, Lucie; Blanpain, Bart; Van Balen, Koen

    2014-01-01

    Non-stabilized Argon Oxygen Decarburisation (AODNS) slag in powdered form was examined for its carbon dioxide sequestration capacity and for its potential utilization in the fabrication of high value building materials. The curing of the sample was carried out in two accelerated carbonation environments: i) in a carbonation chamber, maintained at atmospheric pressure, 22 °C, 5 vol.% CO2 and 80% RH; and ii) in a carbonation reactor, where the CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) and temperature could b...

  6. Maintaining quality of not from concentrate peach juice by high pressure carbon dioxide treatment%高压CO2处理保持非还原桃汁的品质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周林燕; 王永涛; 刘凤霞; 毕秀芳; 廖小军

    2013-01-01

    In the juice industry, thermal treatment is the most common and least expensive technology for pasteurization or sterilization. Unfortunately, the method easily leads to degradation of some product qualities as well. HPCD (high pressure carbon dioxide) has been reported as an alternative cold pasteurization technique for foods, since it could effectively inactivate microorganisms and enzymes in liquid food. Some detrimental effects of HPCD on food quality have been reported. But compared to traditional techniques, HPCD avoids drawbacks such as lack of retention of flavor, denaturation of nutrients, of production of side toxic reactions, as well as changes in physical, mechanical, and optical properties of the material involved in the treatment. In this study, the effects of HPCD on NFC (Not from concentrate) peach juice quality were investigated, and temperature, pressure, and time were proposed as the main parameters. The pH value and the total soluble content of untreated NFC peach juice were 3.82 and 10.3°Brix, respectively. HPCD had no effect on the pH values and total soluble contents. This was possibly attributed to a lower pH (3.82) in the original juices. At this pH the carbonic acid formed by CO2 dissolution into juices with difficultly dissociated into free hydrogen ions, because the dissociation constants of carbonic acid and bicarbonate were pKa=6.57 and pKa=10.62, respectively. The L, a, b values of color parameters was decreased while browning degrees were increased in HPCD-treated juice, possibly due to the non-enzyme browning during HPCD. Thereafter, it was found that the polyphenol oxidase was susceptible to HPCD. The main phenolic compounds in the NFC juice were (+)-catechin, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, and ferulic acid measured by HPLC, and the results showed that HPCD had no effect on the phenolic compounds. Moreover, the antioxidant capacities of NFC juice after HPCD were enhanced with increasing treatment time measured by FRAP and

  7. An Empirical Research on Measuring Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Urban Tourism:A Case Study of Shenzhen%城市旅游业CO2排放量估算研究——以深圳市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪清蓉

    2012-01-01

    基于碳排放理论及旅游者的消费结构特征,提出城市旅游业能源消耗及CO2排放测算模型,计算并分析了2008年深圳市旅游业能源消耗及CO2排放.结果表明:各组分排放量从大到小依次是行、食、游、住、购、娱,旅游业产生的温室气体不容忽视;旅游规模、旅游交通工具的选择是影响旅游业CO2排放量的重要因素;在旅游产业日益发展的情况下旅游业面临能源消耗、排放量增加和节能减排的双重压力.最后就能源消耗计算模型的完善、能源参数的研究以及下一步研究方向进行了讨论,并提出了相应的建议.%Measuring carbon dioxide emissions from tourism is the starting point for the realization of industrial energy saving goals and the basis for the formulation of governmental reduction policies. However, it has also become a big problem due to the current situation of tourism in the country and the lack of energy consumption data Case studies on CQz emissions from urban tourism are rare, though city remains the most important space vector for tourism development Based on the theory of carbon dioxide emissions and the consumption structure of tourists, the paper proposes the calculation model of energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Taking Shenzhen City for example, this paper calculates and analyses energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions from Shenzhen s urban tourism in 2008. The result shows that; l)the descending order of carbon dioxide emissions of tourism s component is transportation,food, tour,housing,shopping, entertainment, which indicates that GHG emission from urban tourism cannot be ignored; 2) travel size and travel transport choices are two key factors affecting energy consumption and CO2 emissions from urban, tourism; 3)though growing fast,urban tourism is facing dual pressure from energy consumption, increase in emissions and mitigation. The paper also makes suggestions on the improvement of

  8. Development of a Method for Measuring Carbon Balance in Chemical Sequestration of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Zhongxian; Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, John T.

    2006-09-09

    Anthropogenic CO2 released from fossil fuel combustion is a primary greenhouse gas which contributes to “global warming.” It is estimated that stationary power generation contributes over one-third of total CO2 emissions. Reducing CO2 in the atmosphere can be accomplished either by decreasing the rate at which CO2 is emitted into the atmosphere or by increasing the rate at which it is removed from it. Extensive research has been conducted on determining a fast and inexpensive method to sequester carbon dioxide. These methods can be classified into two categories, CO2 fixation by natural sink process for CO2, or direct CO2 sequestration by artificial processes. In direct sequestration, CO2 produced from sources such as coal-fired power plants, would be captured from the exhausted gases. CO2 from a combustion exhaust gas is absorbed with an aqueous ammonia solution through scrubbing. The captured CO2 is then used to synthesize ammonium bicarbonate (ABC or NH4HCO3), an economical source of nitrogen fertilizer. In this work, we studied the carbon distribution after fertilizer is synthesized from CO2. The synthesized fertilizer in laboratory is used as a “CO2 carrier” to “transport” CO2 from the atmosphere to crops. After biological assimilation and metabolism in crops treated with ABC, a considerable amount of the carbon source is absorbed by the plants with increased biomass production. The majority of the unused carbon source percolates into the soil as carbonates, such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and magnesium carbonate (MgCO3). These carbonates are environmentally benign. As insoluble salts, they are found in normal rocks and can be stored safely and permanently in soil. This investigation mainly focuses on the carbon distribution after the synthesized fertilizer is applied to soil. Quantitative examination of carbon distribution in an ecosystem is a challenging task since the carbon in the soil may come from various sources. Therefore synthesized 14C

  9. 超临界CO2萃取穿心莲内酯的实验研究%Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata: Effect of the Solvent Flow Rate,Pressure,and Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees has been extensively used for traditional medicine and help against fever,dysentery,diarrhoea,inflammation,and sore throat. In this study,andrographolide,the main component of this plant was extracted from the leaves of A. paniculata using supercritical carbon dioxide. The operating pressures were varied from 7.50 to 20 MPa,the temperatures were varied from 30℃ to 60℃,and the flow rates were varied 3g sample of A. paniculata ground-dried leaves. The measured extraction rate was found to be about 0.0174g of andrographolide per gram of andrographolide present in the leaves per hour of operation. The future studies must focus on the interaction between the various operating parameters such as temperature,pressure,and flow rate of supercritical carbon dioxide.

  10. Carbon flow from volcanic CO2 into soil microbial communities of a wetland mofette

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beulig, Felix; Heuer, Verena B.; Akob, Denise M.; Viehweger, Bernhard; Elvert, Marcus; Herrmann, Martina; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Küsel, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Effects of extremely high carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations on soil microbial communities and associated processes are largely unknown. We studied a wetland area affected by spots of subcrustal CO2 degassing (mofettes) with focus on anaerobic autotrophic methanogenesis and acetogenesis because the pore gas phase was largely hypoxic. Compared with a reference soil, the mofette was more acidic (ΔpH ~0.8), strongly enriched in organic carbon (up to 10 times), and exhibited lower prokaryotic diversity. It was dominated by methanogens and subdivision 1Acidobacteria, which likely thrived under stable hypoxia and acidic pH. Anoxic incubations revealed enhanced formation of acetate and methane (CH4) from hydrogen (H2) and CO2 consistent with elevated CH4 and acetate levels in the mofette soil. 13CO2 mofette soil incubations showed high label incorporations with ~512 ng13C g (dry weight (dw)) soil−1 d−1 into the bulk soil and up to 10.7 ng 13C g (dw) soil−1 d−1 into almost all analyzed bacterial lipids. Incorporation of CO2-derived carbon into archaeal lipids was much lower and restricted to the first 10 cm of the soil. DNA-SIP analysis revealed that acidophilic methanogens affiliated withMethanoregulaceae and hitherto unknown acetogens appeared to be involved in the chemolithoautotrophic utilization of 13CO2. Subdivision 1 Acidobacteriaceae assimilated 13CO2 likely via anaplerotic reactions because Acidobacteriaceae are not known to harbor enzymatic pathways for autotrophic CO2 assimilation. We conclude that CO2-induced geochemical changes promoted anaerobic and acidophilic organisms and altered carbon turnover in affected soils.

  11. Studies on the Metabolism of Some Active Oxygen Species in Fruits of Persimmon cv. 'Zaohong' During De-astringency Treatment of Carbon Dioxide%早红柿果实CO2脱涩过程若干活性氧代谢研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金光; 廖汝玉; 郭瑞; 周平; 杨凌; 沈清标; 吴绍钟

    2012-01-01

    Fruits of persimmon cv. 'Zaohong; were subjected to de-astringency treatments with carbon dioxideCO2), and the changes in MDA content, O2- net generation rate, SOD, POD and CAT activities and vitamin C content in them were monitored so as to investigate the effects of CO2 on the metabolism of active oxygen species. MDA content of the fruits rose in the earlier stage of the treatment, reached the maximum and declined thereafter, and the peak occurred earlier with higher CO2 concentration. The net generation rate of O;- showed an increasing trend and decreased only in the 70% and 80; CO2 treatments during the late stage. SOD activity of the fruits increased in the de-astringency treatments with increasing CO2 concentration, the extent of increase being greater in the late stage than in the early stage. POD activity first increased in CO2 treatments and then declined. The changes in POD activity with 70% and 80% CO2 treatments were similar, and the activity was greater with lower CO2 concentration. Higher CAT activity was observed in the CO2 treatment of higher concentration during the early stage, and a decline was detected during the late stage. Vitamin C content kept deceasing except that a slight increase was recorded at the middle stage in the 60; CO2 treatment. The above results suggested that the changes in the indica-tors of active oxygen metabolism were similar to those in tannin content and fruit quality in previous studies, CO2 was the main influencing factor of active oxygen metabolism, and C02 had a positive effect on de-astringency treatment of persimmon fruits.%用CO2对早红柿果实进行脱涩处理,通过对其脱涩过程MDA、O2-净产生速率、SOD、POD、CAT酶活性及抗氧化物质Vc含量变化的研究,探讨CO2对其活性氧代谢的影响,结果表明:CO2处理会使MDA含量增加,均经过一个先上升后下降的过程,且浓度越大,达到峰值的时间越短;O2-净产生速率增大,但脱涩后期80%和70%CO2

  12. Natural CO2 Analogs for Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott H. Stevens; B. Scott Tye

    2005-07-31

    The report summarizes research conducted at three naturally occurring geologic CO{sub 2} fields in the US. The fields are natural analogs useful for the design of engineered long-term storage of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in geologic formations. Geologic, engineering, and operational databases were developed for McElmo Dome in Colorado; St. Johns Dome in Arizona and New Mexico; and Jackson Dome in Mississippi. The three study sites stored a total of 2.4 billion t (46 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} equivalent to 1.5 years of power plant emissions in the US and comparable in size with the largest proposed sequestration projects. The three CO{sub 2} fields offer a scientifically useful range of contrasting geologic settings (carbonate vs. sandstone reservoir; supercritical vs. free gas state; normally pressured vs. overpressured), as well as different stages of commercial development (mostly undeveloped to mature). The current study relied mainly on existing data provided by the CO{sub 2} field operator partners, augmented with new geochemical data. Additional study at these unique natural CO{sub 2} accumulations could further help guide the development of safe and cost-effective design and operation methods for engineered CO{sub 2} storage sites.

  13. Separation of Erucic Acid from Rape-Seed Oil Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide with Entrainer%使用含夹带剂的超临界CO2分离菜籽油中的芥酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云志; 钱仁渊; 邵荣; 杨梅; 史美仁

    2002-01-01

    Separation of erucic acid from rape-seed oil using supercritical carbon dioxide with entrainer was carried on a pilot column with an inner diameter 14 mm and an effective total height 2.2 m. Experiments were focused on the effects of entrainers, i.e. acetone,ethanol and ethyl acetate, on the extraction. It is showed that entrainers made selectivity lower, but separation time shorter.

  14. Developing a molecular platform for potential carbon dioxide fixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mette; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Krebs, Frederik C

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an attempt to develop a new system for fixing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The proposed molecular system has been designed to have the capacity to spontaneously bind CO2 from the atmosphere with high affinity. The molecular system is furthermore designed to have...... the ability to liberate CO2 at a later stage in the process, i.e., in a separate compartment. The liberated CO2 presents a carbon neutral way of obtaining pure CO2. The proposed molecular system is based on a small stable organic molecule that potentially have two forms: one without bound CO2 and one...

  15. Capillary Trapping of CO2 in Oil Reservoirs: Observations in a Mixed-Wet Carbonate Rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Menhali, Ali S; Krevor, Samuel

    2016-03-01

    Early deployment of carbon dioxide storage is likely to focus on injection into mature oil reservoirs, most of which occur in carbonate rock units. Observations and modeling have shown how capillary trapping leads to the immobilization of CO2 in saline aquifers, enhancing the security and capacity of storage. There are, however, no observations of trapping in rocks with a mixed-wet-state characteristic of hydrocarbon-bearing carbonate reservoirs. Here, we found that residual trapping of supercritical CO2 in a limestone altered to a mixed-wet state with oil was significantly less than trapping in the unaltered rock. In unaltered samples, the trapping of CO2 and N2 were indistinguishable, with a maximum residual saturation of 24%. After the alteration of the wetting state, the trapping of N2 was reduced, with a maximum residual saturation of 19%. The trapping of CO2 was reduced even further, with a maximum residual saturation of 15%. Best-fit Land-model constants shifted from C = 1.73 in the water-wet rock to C = 2.82 for N2 and C = 4.11 for the CO2 in the mixed-wet rock. The results indicate that plume migration will be less constrained by capillary trapping for CO2 storage projects using oil fields compared with those for saline aquifers. PMID:26812184

  16. 长三角地区旅游业能源消耗的CO_2排放测度研究%Measuring carbon dioxide emissions from energy consumption by tourism in Yangtze River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢园方; 赵媛

    2012-01-01

    旅游业与气候环境变化息息相关,低碳旅游是旅游业对气候变化的积极响应,也是低碳经济的延伸,将会给全球旅游业带来深远影响。但目前国内大部分有关低碳旅游的研究仍停留在定性阶段,尤其是旅游业碳排放的测度研究仍比较薄弱。本文在深入分析和总结国内外已有研究的基础上,以能源消耗平衡表为依据,借鉴"旅游消费剥离系数"概念,构建出符合我国目前统计口径的旅游业碳排放测度方法。并以长江三角洲地区为研究范围,对江苏、浙江和上海三地旅游业碳排放进行测度和对比分析。研究表明:目前在长三角地区,旅游业碳排放总量持续攀升,并与旅游业总收入成正相关。其中旅游交通仓储和邮电业碳排放在旅游业碳排放总量中占主导地位,而旅游餐饮、住宿和购物过程中的碳排放也不容忽视。旅游收入增长与旅游低碳化发展的矛盾仍然十分突出,迫切需要转变旅游业发展方式。%Climate change is projected to have great impact on tourism in various ways;however,tourism also contributes to climate change through the carbon dioxide emissions from transport,accommodation and other tourist activities.Now low-carbon tourism is becoming a popular choice to protect the environment for tourists.A lot of people have already accepted the low-carbon conception,and more and more people like it.But there are still numerous hurdles on the road to really achieve the low-carbon goal in our travels,because there is a large amount of direct energy consumption in the form of fossil fuels or indirect energy consumption in the form of electricity during the whole journey.And this consumption directly leads to more emissions of carbon dioxide.According to international experience,measuring carbon dioxide emissions from tourism is a key step to developing low-carbon tourism.However,the study of low-carbon tourism in China is still in its

  17. Carbon dioxide dangers demonstration model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venezky, Dina; Wessells, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is a dangerous volcanic gas. When carbon dioxide seeps from the ground, it normally mixes with the air and dissipates rapidly. However, because carbon dioxide gas is heavier than air, it can collect in snowbanks, depressions, and poorly ventilated enclosures posing a potential danger to people and other living things. In this experiment we show how carbon dioxide gas displaces oxygen as it collects in low-lying areas. When carbon dioxide, created by mixing vinegar and baking soda, is added to a bowl with candles of different heights, the flames are extinguished as if by magic.

  18. CyclicCO2R: production of cyclic carbonates from CO2 using renewable feedstocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimball, E.; Schuurbiers, C.A.H.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Håkonsen, S.F.; Heyn, R.; Offermans, W.; Leitner, W.; Ostapowicz, T.; Müller, T. E.; Mul, G.; North, M.; Ngomsik-Fanselow, A.F.; Sarron, E.; Sigurbjörnsson, O.; Schäffner, B.

    2013-01-01

    The consortium behind CyclicCO2R wants to kick-start the implementation of CO2 utilization technologies by converting CO2 into a high value-added product, thus providing a showcase that inspires industry to further develop technologies utilizing CO2 as a sustainable raw material and valorizing CO2 i

  19. Killing wild geese with carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and argon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritzen, M.A.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Lourens, A.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Verhoeven, M.T.W.

    2013-01-01

    The killing of animals is the subject of societal and political debate. Wild geese are caught and killed on a regular basis for fauna conservation and damage control. Killing geese with carbon dioxide (CO2) is commonly practiced, but not listed in legislation on the protection of flora and fauna, an

  20. Surface chemistry of polymers. The adsorption of carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide on polyvinylidene chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Stoeckli, Fritz

    2007-01-01

    Isotherms for the adsorption of nitrogen (77 K), carbon dioxide (195-247 K) and sulfur dioxide (254-293 K) on polyvinylidene chloride have been measured volumetrically. The B.E.T. cross-sectional areas of 18 Å2 (CO2) and 24 Å2 (SO2) are comparable to liquid density values. The isosteric heat of adsorption of CO2 is constant for 0.2

  1. CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FUJITA,E.

    2000-01-12

    Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

  2. Supercritical CO2-driven,periodic patterning on one-dimensionals carbon nanomaterials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    One-dimensional carbon nano-materials,in particular carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs),are of scientific and technological interest due to their satisfactory properties and ability to serve as templates for directed assembly.In this work,linear high density polyethylene (PE) was periodically decorated on CNTs and CNFs using a supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2)antisolvent-induced polymer epitaxy (SAIPE) method,leading to nano-hybrid shish-kebab (NHSK) structures.The formation mechanism of different morphologies of PE lamellae on CNTs and CNFs has been discussed.Palladium nanoparticles were synthesized and immobilized on the PE/CNF NHSK structure with the assistance of scCO2.The obtained hierarchical nano-hybrid architecture may find applications in microfabrication and other related fields.

  3. Accuracy of Transcutaneous Carbon Dioxide Measurement in Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaillac, Marie; Labarinas, Sonia; Pfister, Riccardo E; Karam, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Background. In premature infants, maintaining blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) value within a narrow range is important to avoid cerebral lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of a noninvasive transcutaneous method (TcpCO2), compared to blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2). Methods. Retrospective observational study in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit. We analyzed the correlation between blood pCO2 and transcutaneous values and the accuracy between the trends of blood pCO2 and TcpCO2 in all consecutive premature infants born at weight: 1250 g), providing 1365 pairs of TcpCO2 and blood pCO2 values. Pearson's R correlation between these values was 0.58. The mean bias was -0.93 kPa with a 95% confidence limit of agreement of -4.05 to +2.16 kPa. Correlation between the trends of TcpCO2 and blood pCO2 values was good in only 39.6%. Conclusions. In premature infants, TcpCO2 was poorly correlated to blood pCO2, with a wide limit of agreement. Furthermore, concordance between trends was equally low. We warn about clinical decision-making on TcpCO2 alone when used as continuous monitoring. PMID:27375901

  4. Electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction on rough copper surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kas, R.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development and climate change is considered to be one of the top challenges of humanity. Electrochemical carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction to fuels or fuel precursor using renewable electricity is a very promising way to recycle CO2 and store the electricity. This would also provide renewa

  5. Carbon dioxide concentration in Mediterranean greenhouses : how much lost production?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanghellini, C.; Incrocci, L.; Gazquez, J.C.; Dimauro, B.

    2008-01-01

    In the absence of artificial supply of carbon dioxide in the greenhouse environment, the CO2 absorbed in the process of photosynthesis must ultimately come from the external ambient through the ventilation openings. This requires that the CO2 concentration within the house must be lower than the ext

  6. Synthesis and characterization of zwitterionic carbon dioxide fixing reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mette; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Krebs, Frederik C

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of three amine-based carbon dioxide fixing reagents is presented. The reagents were designed so that they would be able to bind CO2 reversibly through the formation of the well known carbamates that was stabilized through forming a zwitterion. CO2 fixing experiments were performed...

  7. Some Organic Reactions in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Huan-feng; YANG Xiao-yue; LI Guo-ping; ZOU Gang

    2004-01-01

    Organic reactions in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) have facilitated great progress in recent years 1. ScCO2, as an environmentally friendly reaction medium, may be a substitute for volatile and toxic organic solvents and show some special advantages. Firstly, CO2 is inexpensive,nonflammable, nontoxic and chemical inert under many conditions. Secondly, scCO2 possesses hybrid properties of both liquid and gas, to the advantage of some reactions involving gaseous reagents. Control of the solvent density by variation of the temperature and pressure enables the solvent properties to be "tuned" to reactants. Finally, separating of CO2 from the reaction mixture is energy-efficient and simple. Here we disclose our new work on some organic reactions involving small molecules in scCO2.The results showed that the upper reactions in scCO2 could be carried out smoothly and thepressure of CO2 had a remarkable effect on the conversion and selectivity.

  8. CyclicCO2R: production of cyclic carbonates from CO2 using renewable feedstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Kimball, E; Schuurbiers, C.A.H.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Håkonsen, S.F.; Heyn, R.; Offermans, W.; Leitner, W.; Ostapowicz, T.; Müller, T. E.; Mul, G.; North, M.; Ngomsik-Fanselow, A.F.; Sarron, E.; Sigurbjörnsson, O.; Schäffner, B.

    2013-01-01

    The consortium behind CyclicCO2R wants to kick-start the implementation of CO2 utilization technologies by converting CO2 into a high value-added product, thus providing a showcase that inspires industry to further develop technologies utilizing CO2 as a sustainable raw material and valorizing CO2 in such a way that drives the market for CO2 capture and utilization.

  9. Histidine-catalyzed synthesis of cyclic carbonates in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The coupling reaction of carbon dioxide with epoxides was investigated using naturally occurring α-amino acids as the catalyst in supercritical carbon dioxide and it was found that L-histidine is the most active catalyst.In the presence of 0.8 mol% of L-histidine at 130°C under 8 MPa of CO2,the reaction of carbon dioxide with epoxides proceeded smoothly,affording corresponding cyclic carbonates in good to excellent yields.

  10. Chemoselective Synthesis of Carbamates using CO2 as Carbon Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Daniel; Hirapara, Pradipbhai; Das, Shoubhik

    2016-08-01

    Synthesis of carbamates directly from amines using CO2 as the carbon source is a straightforward and sustainable approach. Herein, we describe a highly effective and chemoselective methodology for the synthesis of carbamates at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. This methodology can also be applied to protect the amino group in amino acids and peptides, and also to synthesize important pharmaceuticals. PMID:27376902

  11. Cost Evaluation of CO2 Sequestration by Aqueous Mineral Carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    A cost evaluation of CO2 sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation has been made using either wollastonite (CaSiO3) or steel slag as feedstock. First, the process was simulated to determine the properties of the streams as well as the power and heat consumption of the process equipment. Second, a

  12. 酸钠溶液对CO2的吸收动力学研究现状%Status Quo on Research of Dynamics on Absorption of Carbon Dioxide in Sodium Carbonate Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨鼎

    2010-01-01

    碳酸钠溶液吸收CO2的过程为一带有化学反应的相际间对流传质过程.吸收速率不仅与CO2沿扩散途径的扩散速率有关,而且与液相本体中化学反应速率有关,过程的总推动力较物理吸收为大.近期国内外研究工作者依据不同的思路和数学方法,提出了各自的描述碳酸钠溶液吸收CO2动力学的传质-化学反应模型和计算方法,并与实验结果相对照.本文试以对流传质的溶质渗透、表面更新和双膜等三种理论模型将他们分类,并分别扼要介绍,供业内人士参考.

  13. 1-(3-sulfonic acid group) propyl piperidinium dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid applied in carbon dioxide capture%1-(3-磺酸基)丙基哌啶十二烷基苯磺酸在CO2捕集中的应用∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李工; 丁嘉; 郭剑桥; 徐小军; 王树立; 余益松

    2015-01-01

    A surface active functional ionic liquid, 1⁃(3⁃sulfonic acid group) propyl piperidinium dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid ([ PIPS] DBSA) was synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, FTIR, and element analysis. [ PIPS] DBSA was used to promote the formation of carbon dioxide hydrate, and its effect on the temperature and pressure was investigated. Experimental results show that, by comparing 300 mg·L-1 [ PIPS ] DBSA solution with the 700 mg·kg-1 sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate solution( SDBS) , the phase equilibrium pressure of carbon dioxide hydrate was decreased by 13.60% —14.96% in the range of 4℃ —6℃, and the required time for steady CO2 pressure was reduced by 50 min at 4 ℃. The investigation indicated that [ PIPS] DBSA has a good promotion effect on the formation of cardon dioxide hydrate.%合成了一种具有表面活性功能的离子液体1⁃(3⁃磺酸基)丙基哌啶十二烷基苯磺酸([PIPS]DBSA),采用FT⁃IR,1 H NMR 和元素分析等方法对产物进行表征,并将其用于促进 CO2水合物的生成,考察[ PIPS] DBSA对CO2水合物生成过程中温度和压力的影响.实验表明在温度4℃—6℃时,300 mg·L-1[ PIPS] DBSA溶液中CO2的相平衡压力比700 mg·L-1的十二烷基苯磺酸钠( SDBS)溶液的相平衡压力下降了13�6%—14.96%.在4℃时,300 mg·L-1[ PIPS] DBSA溶液中CO2压力稳定所用的时间与700 mg·L-1 SDBS溶液相比减少了50 min,表明[ PIPS] DBSA对CO2水合物的形成具有良好的促进作用.

  14. Effects of nitrogen addition and precipitation change on soil methane and carbon dioxide fluxes%施氮和降水格局改变对土壤CH4和CO2通量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 白娥; 李善龙; 孙建飞; 彭勃; 姜萍

    2013-01-01

    ,and even,converted the CH4 consumption into CH4 release.However,this inhibition effect only lasted for approximately 5 days.Nitrogen addition also affected the relationships between the CH4 flux and environmental factors (soil temperature,pH,and clay content) to some extent.The changed precipitation regime had no significant effects on the CH4 flux.Nitrogen addition decreased the CO2 flux,with an average decrement of 27.4% after 4 years continuous nitrogen addition.It was predicted that the effects of long-term continuous nitrogen addition on the CO2 flux would be increased with time,and reached the maximum after certain years of nitrogen addition.Oppositely,the effects of single time nitrogen addition would be decreased with time,and disappeared by the end of the 1-month cycle.The inhibition effect of nitrogen addition on the CO2 flux was negatively correlated with soil water filled pore space (WFPS) (P =0.022),and enhanced and extended at higher temperature.Nitrogen addition and precipitation change could possibly alter the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration.Our results indicated that the soil nitrogen in temperate forest in Changbai Mountains had not reached a threshold,and the future nitrogen deposition increase would inhibit the CO2 release and CH4 uptake.Overall,nitrogen addition would inhibit the soil carbon release.

  15. CarbFix I: Rapid CO2 mineralization in basalt for permanent carbon storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, J. M.; Stute, M.; Snæbjörnsdóttir, S.; Gíslason, S. R.; Oelkers, E. H.; Sigfússon, B.; Gunnarsson, I.; Aradottir, E. S.; Gunnlaugsson, E.; Broecker, W. S.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon dioxide mineralization via CO2-fluid-rock reactions provides the most permanent solution for geologic CO2 storage. Basalts, onshore or offshore, have the potential to store million metric tons of CO2 as (Ca, Mg, Fe) carbonates [1, 2]. However, as of today it was unclear how fast CO2 is converted to carbonate minerals in-situ in a basalt storage reservoir. The CarbFix I project in Iceland was designed to verify in-situ CO2 mineralization in basaltic rocks. Two injection tests were performed at the CarbFix I pilot injection site near the Hellisheidi geothermal power plant in 2012. 175 tons of pure CO2 and 73 tons of a CO2+H2S mixture were injection from January to March 2012 and in June 2013, respectively. The gases were injected fully dissolved in groundwater into a permeable basalt formation between 400 and 800 m depth using a novel CO2 injection system. Using conservative (SF6, SF5CF3) and reactive (14C) tracers, we quantitatively monitor and detect dissolved and chemically transformed CO2. Tracer breakthrough curves obtained from the first monitoring well indicate that the injected solution arrived in a fast short pulse and a late broad peak. Ratios of 14C/SF6, 14C/SF5CF3 or DIC/SF6 and DIC/SF5CF3 are significantly lower in the monitoring well compared to the injection well, indicating that the injected dissolved CO2 reacted. Mass balance calculations using the tracer data reveal that >95% of the injected CO2 has been mineralized over a period of two years. Evidence of carbonate precipitation has been found in core samples that were collected from the storage reservoir using wireline core drilling as well as in and on the submersible pump in the monitoring well. Results from the core analysis will be presented with emphasis on the CO2 mineralization. [1] McGrail et al. (2006) JGR 111, B12201; [2] Goldberg et al. (2008) PNAS 105(29), 9920-9925.

  16. Pulsed discharge plasmas in supercritical carbon dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Kiyan, Tsuyoshi; Uemura, A.; Tanaka, K.; Zhang, C. H.; Namihira, Takao; Sakugawa, Takashi; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori; Roy, B.C; Sasaki, M.; Goto, M; キヤン, ツヨシ; ナミヒラ, タカオ; サクガワ, タカシ; カツキ, スナオ

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, several studies about electrical discharge plasma in supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) have been carried out. One of the unique characteristics of supercritical fluid is a large density fluctuation near the critical point that can result in marked dramatic changes of thermal conductivity. Therefore, the electrical discharge plasma produced in supercritical fluid has unique features and reactions unlike those of normal plasma produced in gas phase. In our experiments, two typ...

  17. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16S_2005 (11 January - 24 February, 2005)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyr, Alex [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    2006-08-30

    This report presents methods, and analytical and quality control procedures for salinity, oxygen, nutrient, inorganic carbon, organic carbon, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), and bomb 14C system parameters performed during the A16S_2005 cruise, which took place from January 11 to February 24, 2005, aboard research vessel (R/V) Ronald H. Brown under the auspices of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The R/V Ronald H. Brown departed Punta Arenas, Chile, on January 11, 2005, and ended its cruise in Fortaleza, Brazil, on February 24, 2005. The research conducted was one of a series of repeat hydrography sections jointly funded by NOAA and the National Science Foundation as part of the CLIVAR/CO2/repeat hydrography/tracer program. Samples were taken from 36 depths at 121 stations. The data presented in this report include the analyses of water samples for total inorganic carbon (TCO2), fugacity of CO2 (fCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), CFC, 14C, hydrographic, and other chemical measurements. The R/V Ronald H. Brown A16S_2005 data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The NDP consists of the oceanographic data files and this printed documentation, which describes the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  18. Will peak oil accelerate carbon dioxide emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, K.; Davis, S. J.; Cao, L.

    2008-12-01

    The relative scarcity of oil suggests that oil production is peaking and will decline thereafter. Some have suggested that this represents an opportunity to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. However, in the absence of constraints on carbon dioxide emission, "peak oil" may drive a shift towards increased reliance on coal as a primary energy source. Because coal per unit energy, in the absence of carbon capture and disposal, releases more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere than oil, "peak oil" may lead to an acceleration of carbon dioxide emissions. We will never run out of oil. As oil becomes increasingly scarce, prices will rise and therefore consumption will diminish. As prices rise, other primary energy sources will become increasingly competitive with oil. The developed world uses oil primarily as a source of transportation fuels. The developing world uses oil primarily for heat and power, but the trend is towards increasing reliance on oil for transportation. Liquid fuels, including petroleum derivatives such as gasoline and diesel fuel, are attractive as transportation fuels because of their relative abundance of energy per unit mass and volume. Such considerations are especially important for the air transport industry. Today, there is little that can compete with petroleum-derived transportation fuels. Future CO2 emissions from the transportation sector largely depend on what replaces oil as a source of fuel. Some have suggested that biomass-derived ethanol, hydrogen, or electricity could play this role. Each of these potential substitutes has its own drawbacks (e.g., low power density per unit area in the case of biomass, low power density per unit volume in the case of hydrogen, and low power density per unit mass in the case of battery storage). Thus, it is entirely likely that liquefaction of coal could become the primary means by which transportation fuels are produced. Since the burning of coal produces more CO2 per unit energy than does the burning of

  19. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Elevated Concentrations of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in Unsaturated-Zone Vapors Near a Chemical and Low-Level Radioactivity Waste-Disposal Facility, Amargosa Desert Research Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R. J.; Andraski, B. J.; Walvoord, M. A.; Stonestrom, D. A.; Prudic, D. E.; Luo, W.

    2003-12-01

    As part of its Toxic Substances Hydrology Program, the U.S. Geological Survey is studying contaminant-transport processes in an arid environment at the Amargosa Desert Research Site (http://nevada.usgs.gov/adrs/). The site is near waste-disposal facilities 20 kilometers east of Death Valley National Park. Low-level radioactive waste was buried in unlined trenches of varying depth during 1962-92. Hazardous chemical waste was buried in unlined trenches at an adjacent facility during 1970-88. Mean annual precipitation at the site from 1981 to 2000 was 108 millimeters. The unsaturated zone is aerobic down to the water table, which is about 110 m (meters) deep. Sampling infrastructure south and west of the facility includes a grid of vapor probes 1.5 m deep, a 23.8-m-deep background borehole (JFDB), and two approximately 100-m-deep boreholes (UZB-2 and UZB-3), which are 160 m and 100 m from the nearest trench, respectively, and are instrumented for multi-level sampling. Analytes detected in unsaturated-zone-vapor samples include elevated concentrations of tritium and carbon-14; three chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) compounds, eight chlorinated solvent compounds, and toluene, all at concentrations exceeding 1,000 parts per billion (ppb) in UZB-3, and at lower concentrations in UZB-2 and in the shallow-vapor-probe grid; and CO2 in concentrations up to 2% in UZB-3, whereas maximum CO2 concentrations in JFDB are less than 0.2%. With the notable exception of toluene, VOCs that are known to be highly biodegradable are generally absent or occur at low concentrations (1,000 ppb) in UZB-3 are relatively recalcitrant to biodegradation in this environment. 4. The similarity among their vertical and radial concentration profiles indicates that the same vapor-transport phenomena are responsible for the observed elevated levels of CO2, hydrocarbons, and radionuclides. The CO2- and VOC-concentration data will be used to enhance ongoing efforts to develop process-based models of contaminant

  20. High CO2 subsurface environment enriches for novel microbial lineages capable of autotrophic carbon fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, A. J.; Jerett, J.; Castelle, C. J.; Thomas, B. C.; Sharon, I.; Brown, C. T.; Anantharaman, K.; Emerson, J. B.; Hernsdorf, A. W.; Amano, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Tringe, S. G.; Woyke, T.; Banfield, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Subsurface environments span the planet but remain little understood from the perspective of the capacity of the resident organisms to fix CO2. Here we investigated the autotrophic capacity of microbial communities in range of a high-CO2 subsurface environments via analysis of 250 near-complete microbial genomes (151 of them from distinct species) that represent the most abundant organisms over a subsurface depth transect. More than one third of the genomes belonged to the so-called candidate phyla radiation (CPR), which have limited metabolic capabilities. Approximately 30% of the community members are autotrophs that comprise 70% of the microbiome with metabolism likely supported by sulfur and nitrogen respiration. Of the carbon fixation pathways, the Calvin Benson Basham Cycle was most common, but the Wood-Ljungdhal pathway was present in the greatest phylogenetic diversity of organisms. Unexpectedly, one organism from a novel phylum sibling to the CPR is predicted to fix carbon by the reverse TCA cycle. The genome of the most abundant organism, an archaeon designated "Candidatus Altiarchaeum hamiconexum", was also found in subsurface samples from other continents including Europe and Asia. The archaeon was proven to be a carbon fixer using a novel reductive acetyl-CoA pathway. These results provide evidence that carbon dioxide is the major carbon source in these environments and suggest that autotrophy in the subsurface represents a substantial carbon dioxide sink affecting the global carbon cycle.

  1. Does carbon dioxide pool or stream in the subsurface?

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Silvana S S

    2014-01-01

    Pools of carbon dioxide are found in natural geological accumulations and in engineered storage in saline aquifers. It has been thought that once this CO2 dissolves in the formation water, making it denser, convection streams would transport it efficiently to depth, but this may not be so. Here, we assess the impact of natural chemical reactions between the dissolved CO2 and the rock formation on the convection streams in the subsurface. We show that, while in carbonate rocks the streaming of dissolved carbon dioxide persists, the chemical interactions in silicate-rich rocks may curb this transport drastically and even inhibit it altogether. New laboratory experiments confirm the curtailing of convection by reaction. Wide and narrow streams of dense carbon-rich water are shut-off gradually as reaction strength increases until all transport of the pooled carbon dioxide occurs by slow molecular diffusion. These results show that the complex fluid dynamic and kinetic interactions between pooled carbon dioxide an...

  2. The effect of atmospheric CO2 concentration on carbon isotope fractionation in C3 land plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Brian A.; Jahren, A. Hope

    2012-11-01

    Because atmospheric carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of all land-plant carbon, workers have suggested that pCO2 level may exert control over the amount of 13C incorporated into plant tissues. However, experiments growing plants under elevated pCO2 in both chamber and field settings, as well as meta-analyses of ecological and agricultural data, have yielded a wide range of estimates for the effect of pCO2 on the net isotopic discrimination (Δδ13Cp) between plant tissue (δ13Cp) and atmospheric CO2 (δ13CCO2). Because plant stomata respond sensitively to plant water status and simultaneously alter the concentration of pCO2 inside the plant (ci) relative to outside the plant (ca), any experiment that lacks environmental control over water availability across treatments could result in additional isotopic variation sufficient to mask or cancel the direct influence of pCO2 on Δδ13Cp. We present new data from plant growth chambers featuring enhanced dynamic stabilization of moisture availability and relative humidity, in addition to providing constant light, nutrient, δ13CCO2, and pCO2 level for up to four weeks of plant growth. Within these chambers, we grew a total of 191 C3 plants (128 Raphanus sativus plants and 63 Arabidopsis thaliana) across fifteen levels of pCO2 ranging from 370 to 4200 ppm. Three types of plant tissue were harvested and analyzed for carbon isotope value: above-ground tissues, below-ground tissues, and leaf-extracted nC31-alkanes. We observed strong hyperbolic correlations (R ⩾ 0.94) between the pCO2 level and Δδ13Cp for each type of plant tissue analyzed; furthermore the linear relationships previously suggested by experiments across small (10-350 ppm) changes in pCO2 (e.g., 300-310 ppm or 350-700 ppm) closely agree with the amount of fractionation per ppm increase in pCO2 calculated from our hyperbolic relationship. In this way, our work is consistent with, and provides a unifying relationship for, previous work on carbon isotopes

  3. Kinetics of carbonate dissolution in CO2-saturated aqueous system at reservoir conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng; Crawshaw, John P.; Maitland, Geoffrey; Trusler, J. P. Martin

    2014-05-01

    results of the study indicate that the rotating disc technique can allow accurate measurement of the carbonate dissolution rate under surface-reaction-controlled conditions, and that the carbonate dissolution rate typically increases with the increase of temperature, CO2 partial pressure and solution acidity. The study shows that the dissolution of carbonate in CO2-free acidic solutions can be described as a first order heterogeneous reaction; however, this model is not sufficient to describe the reaction kinetics of carbonate minerals in the (CO2 + H2O) system, particularly for high reactivity carbonates, such as calcite, at reservoir conditions. For these systems, both pH and the activity of CO2(aq) influence the dissolution rate. Based on the experimental results, kinetic models have been developed and parameterised to describe the dissolution of different carbonate minerals. The results of this study should facilitate more rigorous modelling of mineral dissolution in deep saline aquifers used for CO2 storage. We gratefully acknowledge the funding of QCCSRC provided jointly by Qatar Petroleum, Shell, and the Qatar Science & Technology Park. Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, Carbonate, High Pressure, High Temperature, Reaction Kinetics.

  4. Interaction of carbon dioxide with Cu overlayers on Pt(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, N.; Andersson, Klas Jerker; Grabow, L.C.;

    2008-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies on the interaction of carbon dioxide with pseudomorphic and rough copper layers deposited on a platinum (111) single crystal are reported. Evidence for carbon dioxide dissociation and carbonate formation is presented and the relevance to methanol synthesis......) reveals a broad high temperature desorption state for CO2 with peak maximum around 450 K. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) shows that approximately one third of the oxygen accumulated on the surface upon CO2 exposure remains after TPD, indicative of carbonate formation via CO2 dissociation supplying...... O-ads and then facile CO2 + O-ads association, as well as subsequent decomposition at higher temperatures. Density functional theory studies of stepped Cu and Cu/Pt slabs reproduce vibrational frequencies of the carbonate, suggesting a nearly flat tridentate configuration at steps/defect sites....

  5. Suppressing bullfrog larvae with carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jackson A.; Ray, Andrew; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Layhee, Megan J.; Mark Abbey-Lambert,; ,

    2014-01-01

    Current management strategies for the control and suppression of the American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus = Rana catesbeiana Shaw) and other invasive amphibians have had minimal effect on their abundance and distribution. This study evaluates the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on pre- and prometamorphic Bullfrog larvae. Bullfrogs are a model organism for evaluating potential suppression agents because they are a successful invader worldwide. From experimental trials we estimated that the 24-h 50% and 99% lethal concentration (LC50 and LC99) values for Bullfrog larvae were 371 and 549 mg CO2/L, respectively. Overall, larvae that succumbed to experimental conditions had a lower body condition index than those that survived. We also documented sublethal changes in blood chemistry during prolonged exposure to elevated CO2. Specifically, blood pH decreased by more than 0.5 pH units after 9 h of exposure and both blood partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and blood glucose increased. These findings suggest that CO2 treatments can be lethal to Bullfrog larvae under controlled laboratory conditions. We believe this work represents the necessary foundation for further consideration of CO2 as a potential suppression agent for one of the most harmful invaders to freshwater ecosystems.

  6. Aspects of carbon dioxide utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omae, Iwao [Omae Research Laboratories, 335-23 Mizuno, Sayama, Saitama 350-1317 (Japan)

    2006-06-30

    Carbon dioxide reacts with hydrogen, alcohols, acetals, epoxides, amines, carbon-carbon unsaturated compounds, etc. in supercritical carbon dioxide or in other solvents in the presence of metal compounds as catalysts. The products of these reactions are formic acid, formic acid esters, formamides, methanol, dimethyl carbonate, alkylene carbonates, carbamic acid esters, lactones, carboxylic acids, polycarbonate (bisphenol-based engineering polymer), aliphatic polycarbonates, etc. Especially, the productions of formic acid, formic acid methyl ester and dimethylformamide with a ruthenium catalyst; dimethyl carbonate and urethanes with a dialkyltin catalyst; 2-pyrone with a nickel-phosphine catalyst; diphenyl carbonate with a lead phenoxide catalyst; the alternating copolymerization of carbon dioxide and epoxides with a zinc catalyst has attracted attentions as the industrial utilizations of carbon dioxide. The further development of these production processes is expected. (author)

  7. Six-fold coordinated carbon dioxide VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iota, Valentin; Yoo, Choong-Shik; Klepeis, Jae-Hyun; Jenei, Zsolt; Evans, William; Cynn, Hyunchae

    2007-01-01

    Under standard conditions, carbon dioxide (CO2) is a simple molecular gas and an important atmospheric constituent, whereas silicon dioxide (SiO2) is a covalent solid, and one of the fundamental minerals of the planet. The remarkable dissimilarity between these two group IV oxides is diminished at higher pressures and temperatures as CO2 transforms to a series of solid phases, from simple molecular to a fully covalent extended-solid V, structurally analogous to SiO2 tridymite. Here, we present the discovery of an extended-solid phase of CO2: a six-fold coordinated stishovite-like phase VI, obtained by isothermal compression of associated CO2-II (refs 1,2) above 50 GPa at 530-650 K. Together with the previously reported CO2-V (refs 3-5) and a-carbonia, this extended phase indicates a fundamental similarity between CO2 (a prototypical molecular solid) and SiO2 (one of Earth's fundamental building blocks). We present a phase diagram with a limited stability domain for molecular CO2-I, and suggest that the conversion to extended-network solids above 40-50 GPa occurs via intermediate phases II (refs 1,2), III (refs 7,8) and IV (refs 9,10). The crystal structure of phase VI suggests strong disorder along the c axis in stishovite-like P42/mnm, with carbon atoms manifesting an average six-fold coordination within the framework of sp3 hybridization. PMID:17160005

  8. Flue gas CO2 mineralization using thermally activated serpentine: from single- to double-step carbonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Mischa; Hariharan, Subrahmaniam; Mazzotti, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and utilization by mineralization seeks to combine greenhouse gas emission control with the production of value-added materials in the form of solid carbonates. This experimental work demonstrates that the world's most abundant mineralization precursor, the magnesium (Mg) silicate serpentine, in its thermally activated, partially dehydroxylated form can be carbonated without the use of chemical additives at process temperatures (T) below 90 °C and CO2 partial pressures (pCO2) below 1 bar. A first series of single-step batch experiments was performed varying the temperature and slurry density to systematically assess the precipitation regime of the relevant Mg-carbonates and the fate of silicon (Si) species in solution. The results suggested that the reaction progress was hindered by a passivating layer of re-precipitated silica or quartz, as well as by equilibrium limitations. Concurrent grinding proved effective in tackling the former problem. A double-step strategy proved successful in addressing the latter problem by controlling the pH of the solution. This is achieved by continuously removing the Mg from the dissolution reactor and letting it precipitate at a higher T and a lower pCO2 in a separate reactor, thus yielding a combined T-pCO2-swing-the working principle of a new flue gas mineralization route is presented herein. Simulations and experiments of the different individual steps of the process are reported, in order to make an assessment of its feasibility. PMID:25327589

  9. Effect of Activation Temperature on CO2 Capture Behaviors of Resorcinol-based Carbon Aerogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, carbon aerogel (CA) was synthesized using a soft-template method, and the optimum conditions for the adsorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) by the carbon aerogel were evaluated by controlling the activation temperature. KOH was used as the activation agent at a KOH/CA activation ratio of 4:1. Three types of activated CAs were synthesized at activation temperatures of 800 .deg. C (CA-K-800), 900 .deg. C (CA-K-900), and 1000 .deg. C (CA-K-1000), and their surface and pore characteristics along with the CO2 adsorption characteristics were examined. The results showed that with the increase in activation temperature from 800 to 900 .deg. C, the total pore volume and specific surface area sharply increased from 1.2165 to 1.2500 cm3/g and 1281 to 1526 m2/g, respectively. However, the values for both these parameters decreased at temperatures above 1000 .deg. C. The best CO2 adsorption capacity of 10.9 wt % was obtained for the CA-K-900 sample at 298 K and 1 bar. This result highlights the importance of the structural and textural characteristics of the carbon aerogel, prepared at different activation temperatures on CO2 adsorption behaviors

  10. Synergetic effect of carbon nanopore size and surface oxidation on CO2 capture from CO2/CH4 mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Furmaniak, Sylwester; KOWALCZYK, PIOTR; Terzyk, Artur P.; Gauden, Piotr A.; Harris , P. J. F.

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the synergetic effect of confinement (carbon nanopore size) and surface chemistry (the number of carbonyl groups) on CO2 capture from its mixtures with CH4 at typical operating conditions for industrial adsorptive separation (298 K and compressed CO2CH4 mixtures). Although both confinement and surface oxidation have an impact on the efficiency of CO2/CH4 adsorptive separation at thermodynamics equilibrium, we show that surface functionalization is the most important factor in ...

  11. Accuracy of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension measurements during cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stege, G.; Elshout, F.J.J. van den; Heijdra, Y.F.; Ven, M.J.T. van de; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Vos, P.J.E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurements of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension (PtcCO(2)) with current devices are proven to provide clinically acceptable agreement with measurements of partial arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO(2)) in several settings but not during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). O

  12. Experimental studies on removal of carbon dioxide by aqueous ammonia fine spray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Experimental studies on carbon dioxide capture in a spray scrubber were carried out.Fine spray of aqueous ammonia was used as CO2 absorbent.Effects of different operating and design parameters on CO2 removal efficiency including concentration of aqueous ammonia,liquid flow rate,total gas flow rate,initial temperature and concentration of carbon dioxide were investigated.

  13. Palladium-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Primary Amines in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金恒; 江焕峰; 陈鸣才

    2001-01-01

    The chemoselectity of the palladimm-catalyzed carbonylation of amines was affected by the addition of MeOH in supercritical carbon dioxide. The results show different selectivity in supercritical carbon dioxide CO2(sc) from that in alcohol.Methyl carbamate and its derivatives were obtained in high yields in CO2(sc).

  14. Soil organic carbon dust emission: an omitted global source of atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Adrian; Webb, Nicholas P; Butler, Harry J; Strong, Craig L; McTainsh, Grant H; Leys, John F; Viscarra Rossel, Raphael A

    2013-10-01

    Soil erosion redistributes soil organic carbon (SOC) within terrestrial ecosystems, to the atmosphere and oceans. Dust export is an essential component of the carbon (C) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) budget because wind erosion contributes to the C cycle by removing selectively SOC from vast areas and transporting C dust quickly offshore; augmenting the net loss of C from terrestrial systems. However, the contribution of wind erosion to rates of C release and sequestration is poorly understood. Here, we describe how SOC dust emission is omitted from national C accounting, is an underestimated source of CO(2) and may accelerate SOC decomposition. Similarly, long dust residence times in the unshielded atmospheric environment may considerably increase CO(2) emission. We developed a first approximation to SOC enrichment for a well-established dust emission model and quantified SOC dust emission for Australia (5.83 Tg CO(2)-e yr(-1)) and Australian agricultural soils (0.4 Tg CO(2)-e yr(-1)). These amount to underestimates for CO(2) emissions of ≈10% from combined C pools in Australia (year = 2000), ≈5% from Australian Rangelands and ≈3% of Australian Agricultural Soils by Kyoto Accounting. Northern hemisphere countries with greater dust emission than Australia are also likely to have much larger SOC dust emission. Therefore, omission of SOC dust emission likely represents a considerable underestimate from those nations' C accounts. We suggest that the omission of SOC dust emission from C cycling and C accounting is a significant global source of uncertainty. Tracing the fate of wind-eroded SOC in the dust cycle is therefore essential to quantify the release of CO(2) from SOC dust to the atmosphere and the contribution of SOC deposition to downwind C sinks.

  15. Modeling and calculation of open carbon dioxide refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A model of open refrigeration system is developed. • The state of CO2 has great effect on Refrigeration capacity loss by heat transfer. • Refrigeration capacity loss by remaining CO2 has little relation to the state of CO2. • Calculation results are in agreement with the test results. - Abstract: Based on the analysis of the properties of carbon dioxide, an open carbon dioxide refrigeration system is proposed, which is responsible for the situation without external electricity unit. A model of open refrigeration system is developed, and the relationship between the storage environment of carbon dioxide and refrigeration capacity is conducted. Meanwhile, a test platform is developed to simulation the performance of the open carbon dioxide refrigeration system. By comparing the theoretical calculations and the experimental results, several conclusions are obtained as follows: refrigeration capacity loss by heat transfer in supercritical state is much more than that in two-phase region and the refrigeration capacity loss by remaining carbon dioxide has little relation to the state of carbon dioxide. The results will be helpful to the use of open carbon dioxide refrigeration

  16. CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION BY ULTRAMAFIC-HOSTED MINE TAILINGS: EXAMPLE FROM JINCHUAN COPPER-NICKEL MINE TAILING%应用超基性岩尾矿封存CO2——以金川铜镍矿尾矿为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李子波; 刘连文; 赵良; 季峻峰; 陈骏

    2011-01-01

    通过CO2矿物封存可以降低人类活动产生的温室气体的排放,富镁硅酸盐矿物经碳酸盐化作用转化为镁碳酸盐矿物可以实现CO2的封存,而超基性岩尾矿是CO2矿物封存的理想原料.我国可用于封存CO2的超基性岩尾矿包括铜镍矿尾矿、石棉尾矿、蛇纹石尾矿以及钒钛磁铁矿尾矿等.本文重点介绍金川铜镍矿尾矿的粒度、矿物组成、常量和微量元素,以及其自然风化固碳能力和CO2封存潜力.该研究通过对金川铜镍矿1号尾矿坝和2号尾矿坝样品的粒度、元素、红外光谱、扫描电镜、X-射线衍射以及选择性淋溶结果分析,发现1号尾矿坝和2号尾矿坝中五水菱镁矿(lansfordite)的平均含量分别为4.19wt%和1.95wt%,初步估算出金川铜镍矿尾矿自然风化固定大气中CO2的量高达70.68×10t.对尾矿中所含有价金属进行综合利用可以极大的降低CO2矿物封存成本.%Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions may be offset by carbon dioxide mineral sequestration, through carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals to form magnesium carbonate minerals. Ultramafic-hosted mine tailings are ideal raw material for carbon dioxide mineral sequestration. Tailings that can be used to sequestrate carbon dioxide include copper-nickel mine tailings, chrysotile mine tailings, serpentine mine tailings, and V-Ti-magnetite mine tailings in China. We analyzed the particle size, mineral composition, major elements and trace elements, and the potential and capability of natural weathering for carbon dioxide sequestration in Jinchuan copper-nickel mine tailing. Jinchuan is located in the middle of Gansu, China(38° 29'N, 102° 10'E) at an elevation of 1563m. To examine the capability of carbon dioxide fixed in Jinchuan copper-nickel mine tailing, a profile was dug in tailing Dam No. 1 and 9 samples were collected at 10cm intervals,and 5 other samples were collected from Dam No. 2.Particle size ,XRF, FT-IR, XRD, and

  17. CO2 Sequestraion by Mineral Carbonation of Cement Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, H.; Jang, Y.

    2010-12-01

    CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation with cement materials was investigated in this study. Ca extraction and CO2 injection tests were conducted on three different materials (lime, Portland cement, waste concrete) using different extract reagents (NH4Cl, CH3COOH, HCl, and Deionized water) under ambient temperature and pressure conditions. CO2 gas (99.9%) was injected to either supernatant without solids or suspension with solids obtained from extraction tests at 4 ml/min of flow rate. Ca concentrations were measured from filtered solutions before and after CO2 injection. The chemical and mineralogical composition of raw materials and precipitates were determined using X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The morphology and chemical composition of precipitates were analyzed with Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy equipped with the Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis. For the extraction tests, Ca concentrations of the extracts were related with the CaO content and type of CaO bearing minerals of the materials, regardless of the extraction solutions. Lime had a higher Ca concentration ranging between 942.7 and 39945.0 mg/L in the extracts than waste concrete (188.4 ~ 2978.1 mg/L) in the extracts due to its higher content of CaO (CaO : 24.5% and waste concrete : 20.3%). In contrast, the Portland cement (6346.0 and 28903.5 mg/L) had lower Ca concentrations than lime (94.27 ~ 39945.0 mg/L), even though the Portland cement (56.3%) had a higher CaO content than lime (24.5%). For a given extraction solution, lime had the highest CO2 carbonation efficiency. In addition, for a given material, the CO2 carbonation efficiency was the highest when NH4Cl solution was used as an extraction solution. Results of material analyses indicate that precipitates from the CO2 injection tests consisted of mostly CaCO3, regardless of types of materials and extraction solutions.

  18. Carbon dioxide emission from bamboo culms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, E J; Sabulal, B; Nair, D N K; Johnson, A J; Kumar, C S P

    2016-05-01

    Bamboos are one of the fastest growing plants on Earth, and are widely considered to have high ability to capture and sequester atmospheric carbon, and consequently to mitigate climate change. We tested this hypothesis by measuring carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions from bamboo culms and comparing them with their biomass sequestration potential. We analysed diurnal effluxes from Bambusa vulgaris culm surface and gas mixtures inside hollow sections of various bamboos using gas chromatography. Corresponding variations in gas pressure inside the bamboo section and culm surface temperature were measured. SEM micrographs of rhizome and bud portions of bamboo culms were also recorded. We found very high CO2 effluxes from culm surface, nodes and buds of bamboos. Positive gas pressure and very high concentrations of CO2 were observed inside hollow sections of bamboos. The CO2 effluxes observed from bamboos were very high compared to their carbon sequestration potential. Our measurements suggest that bamboos are net emitters of CO2 during their lifespan. PMID:26802362

  19. 生姜中姜油酮超临界CO2萃取条件的优化%Optimization of the Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extraction Process of Zingerone in Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊华; 刘森; 向文良; 马力

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] To optimize the supercritical carbon dioxide fluid conditions for extracting the zingerone in ginger oleoresin from Zingiber officinale Roscoe,so as to provide basis for the further development and application of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. [ Method ] The extraction conditions were optimized by single factor test, and the data were subjected to analysis of variance by general liner model ( GLM ) in software SPSS. [ Result ] The optimum extracting conditions were as follows;pressure of 25 MPa, temperature of 45 ℃ and extraction duration of 150 min. The influencing order of each factor on extraction rate of zingerone was determined to be:pressure > time > temperature. [ Conclusion ] The optimal extraction supercritical carbon dioxide fluid conditions for extracting zingerone was obtained in this study,which provided basis for the further development and application of Zingiber officinale Roscoe.%[目的]优化姜中姜油酮的超临界CO萃取条件,为姜的进一步开发利用奠定基础.[方法]通过单因素试验优化姜油酮的萃取条件,采用SPSS的一般线性模型时试验数据进行单变量多因素方差分析.[结果]最佳萃取奈件为:萃取压力25 MPa,萃取温度45℃,萃取时间150 min.各因素对姜油酮的萃取率影响大小顺序为萃取压力>萃取时间>萃取温度.[结论]该研究得到姜油酮萃取的最佳条件,为姜的进一步开发利用奠定了基础.

  20. Changes in Belowground Carbon Cycling After 10 Years at the Duke Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R. B.; Cook, C. W.; Pippen, J. S.

    2006-05-01

    Carbon dioxide concentrations are increasing rapidly in the earth's atmosphere and have risen by a third since the start of the industrial revolution. Beginning in 1996, the Duke Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment has exposed a loblolly pine forest to an additional 200 parts per million CO2 (high CO2 treatment) compared to trees at ambient CO2. Root biomass has increased significantly at high CO2, as have soil respiration and the concentration of CO2 in the soil at different depths. Peak changes for root biomas, soil respiration, and many other variables occur in mid summer, with responses diminishing or disappearing in winter. This presentation will review the changes over the first decade of the experiment, emphasizing results from the most recent three years.

  1. Carbon dioxide and climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

  2. Influence of Carbonic Anhydrase Activity in Terrestrial Vegetation on the 18O Content of Atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, Jim; Yakir, Dan

    2001-03-01

    The oxygen-18 (18O) content of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important indicator of CO2 uptake on land. It has generally been assumed that during photosynthesis, oxygen in CO2 reaches isotopic equilibrium with oxygen in 18O-enriched water in leaves. We show, however, large differences in the activity of carbonic anhydrase (which catalyzes CO2 hydration and 18O exchange in leaves) among major plant groups that cause variations in the extent of 18O equilibrium (θeq). A clear distinction in θeq between C3 trees and shrubs, and C4 grasses makes atmospheric C18OO a potentially sensitive indicator to changes in C3 and C4 productivity. We estimate a global mean θeq value of ~0.8, which reasonably reconciles inconsistencies between 18O budgets of atmospheric O2 (Dole effect) and CO2.

  3. CO2 Utilization For Mechanochemical Carbonation Of Celestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turianicova Erika

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural celestine (SrSO4 has been succesfully transformed into strontianite (SrCO3 via fast one-step mechanochemical carbonation utilizing gaseous CO2. The process was realized in the environment enriched with LiOH or NaOH additives. The mixtures were milled in a high-energy planetary ball mill for 40 min. The phases formed during the milling were characterized by different characterization techniques, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD and infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. The presence or absence of carbon or sulphur in the products was confirmed by a CHNS analysis.

  4. CO2 activation and carbonate intermediates: an operando AP-XPS study of CO2 electrolysis reactions on solid oxide electrochemical cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Mao, Baohua; Geller, Aaron; Chang, Rui; Gaskell, Karen; Liu, Zhi; Eichhorn, Bryan W

    2014-06-21

    Through the use of ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and specially designed ceria-based solid oxide electrochemical cells, carbon dioxide (CO2) electrolysis reactions (CO2 + 2e(-)→ CO + O(2-)) and carbon monoxide (CO) electro-oxidation reactions (CO + O(2-)→ CO2 + 2e(-)) over cerium oxide electrodes have been investigated in the presence of 0.5 Torr CO-CO2 gas mixtures at ∼600 °C. Carbonate species (CO3(2-)) are identified on the ceria surface as reaction intermediates. When CO2 electrolysis is promoted on ceria electrodes at +2.0 V applied bias, we observe a higher concentration of CO3(2-) over a 400 μm-wide active region on the ceria surface, accompanied by Ce(3+)/Ce(4+) redox changes. This increase in the CO3(2-) steady-state concentration suggests that the process of pre-coordination of CO2 to the ceria surface to form a CO3(2-) intermediate (CO2(g) + O(2-)(surface)→ CO3(2-)(surface)) precedes a rate-limiting electron transfer process involving CO3(2-) reduction to give CO and oxide ions (CO3(2-)(surface) + 2Ce(3+)→ CO(g) + 2O(2-)(surface) + 2Ce(4+)). When the applied bias is switched to -1.5 V to promote CO electro-oxidation on ceria, the surface CO3(2-) concentration slightly decreases from the equilibrium value, suggesting that the electron transfer process is also a rate-limiting process in the reverse direction. PMID:24806971

  5. Carbon dioxide vs. air insufflation in ileo-colonoscopy and in gastroscopy plus ileo-colonoscopy: a comparative study Insuflación de CO2 vs. aire en íleo-colonoscopia y en gastroscopia más íleo-colonoscopia: estudio comparativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernández-Calderón

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: insufflation with carbon dioxide (CO2 during endoscopies compared to air is associated with a decrease in abdominal discomfort after the examination, because CO2 is readily absorbed through the small intestine and eliminated by the lungs. Aims: the objective of this randomized clinical trial was to assess the effect of CO2 insufflation on pain and abdominal distension after an ileo-colonoscopy (I and after an ileo-colonoscopy plus gastroscopy (I+G. Material and methods: we included a total of 309 patients in the study and all endoscopies were performed under sedation with propofol. Two hundred fourteen patients underwent an I (132 with CO2 / 82 with air and 95 underwent an I+G (53 with CO2 / 42 with air. Abdominal pain was studied at 10, 30 and 120 minutes of exploration and abdominal perimeter difference before and after the procedure. Results: both in group I and in group I+G, the use of CO2 translated into an average of abdominal pain significantly lower (p Introducción: la insuflación con dióxido de carbono (CO2 durante las endoscopias digestivas comparado con el aire, se asocia a una disminución de las molestias abdominales después de la exploración, ya que el CO2 es fácilmente absorbido por el intestino delgado y eliminado por los pulmones. Objetivo: el objetivo de este ensayo clínico aleatorizado fue valorar el efecto de la insuflación de CO2 sobre el dolor y la distensión abdominal después de una ileo-colonoscopia (I y después de una íleo-colonoscopia + gastroscopia (I+G. Material y métodos: se incluyeron un total de 309 pacientes en el estudio y todas las endoscopias fueron realizadas bajo sedación con propofol. A 214 pacientes se les realizó una I (132 con CO2 / 82 con aire y a 95 se les realizó una I+G (53 con CO2 / 42 con aire. Se estudió el dolor abdominal a los 10, 30 y 120 min de la exploración y la diferencia de perímetro abdominal antes y después del procedimiento. Resultados: tanto en el grupo

  6. 危重患者呼气末二氧化碳与动脉血二氧化碳的相关性研究%Correlation between end-tidal carbon dioxide and PaCO2 in critically ill adult patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚凤; 李文强; 陈阵; 胡念丹; 魏捷

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨成年患者在急危重状态下呼气末二氧化碳( ETCO2)与动脉血二氧化碳(PaCO2)的相关性.方法:100例ICU患者入院后使用碳酸波形图监测初始ETCO2值,监测完毕迅速抽血做血气分析监测PaCO2值.统计分析ETCO2和PaCO2之间的相关性与一致性,并比较主流法和旁流法监测对ETCO2的影响.结果:100例患者ETCO2平均值为31.32±7.81 mmHg,PaCO2平均值为35.44±8.57 mmHg,ETCO2和PaCO2呈中度相关(r=0.67).Bland-Altman绘图显示PaCO2与ETCO2差值的均值为4.12 mmHg,一致性范围为(-9,+17).主流法和旁流法监测对ETCO2值没有显著影响.结论:碳酸波形图监测的ETCO2不足以准确反映成年患者在急危重状态下PaCO2的变化.%To explore the correlation between end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) and PaCO2 in critically ill adult patients. Methods; Initial ETCO2 of 100 patients were monitored by using capnograph after admitted in ICU. Then blood was taken immediately for gas analysis for monitoring PaCO2 value. The correlation and consistency between ETCO2 and PaCO2 were analyzed, and the effect of ETCO2 monitoring with mainstream and sidestfeam was compared. Results: The mean value of ETCO2 was 31.32 ±7. 81mmHg,and the mean value of PaCO2 was 35.44 ±8.57mmHg,the correlation between ETCO2 and PaCO2 was moderate ( r = 0. 67 ). The Bland-Altman plots showed the mean difference between the PaCO2 and ETCO2 levels was 4.12 mmHg,the limits of agreement were -9 to + 17 mmHg. There was no significant influence on value of ETC02 with the methods of mainstream and sidestream. Conclusion: ETCO2 monitoring with capnograph does not accurately enough to predict PaCO2 in adult patients in critical condition.

  7. Photocatalytic and Electrocatalytic Reduction of Carbon Dioxide in Pressurized Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Voyame, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The depletion of carbon-based fossil fuels and the rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration will force an inevitable change in the future global energy landscape. CO2 reduction presents the advantages of decreasing its atmospheric concentration and storing energy in chemical form in CO2 reduction products. With a predicted conversion to renewable energy such as solar or wind energy, energy storage will become a key process in the near future for buffering the fluctuating energy produc...

  8. Neon and CO2 adsorption on open carbon nanohorns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krungleviciute, Vaiva; Ziegler, Carl A; Banjara, Shree R; Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, S; Migone, Aldo D

    2013-07-30

    We present the results of a thermodynamics and kinetics study of the adsorption of neon and carbon dioxide on aggregates of chemically opened carbon nanohorns. Both the equilibrium adsorption characteristics, as well as the dependence of the kinetic behavior on sorbent loading, are different for these two adsorbates. For neon the adsorption isotherms display two steps before reaching the saturated vapor pressure, corresponding to adsorption on strong and on weak binding sites; the isosteric heat of adsorption is a decreasing function of sorbent loading (this quantity varies by about a factor of 2 on the range of loadings studied), and the speed of the adsorption kinetics increases with increasing loading. By contrast, for carbon dioxide there are no substeps in the adsorption isotherms; the isosteric heat is a nonmonotonic function of loading, the value of the isosteric heat never differs from the bulk heat of sublimation by more than 15%, and the kinetic behavior is opposite to that of neon, with equilibration times increasing for higher sorbent loadings. We explain the difference in the equilibrium properties observed for neon and carbon dioxide in terms of differences in the relative strengths of adsorbate-adsorbate to adsorbate-sorbent interaction for these species.

  9. Carbon dioxide removal in gas treating processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main contribution of this work is the development of a simple and reliable modelling technique on carbon dioxide removal describing the vapor-liquid equilibria of CO2 in aqueous alkanolamine solutions. By making use of measured pH data, the author has circumvented the problem of estimating interaction parameters, activity coefficients, and equilibrium constants in the prediction of vapor-liquid equilibria. The applicability of the model is best demonstrated on the tertiary amine system using MDEA. For this system, the VLE is accurately represented for temperatures in the range 25 to 140oC, for CO2 loadings from 0.001 to 1 mol/mol, and for amine molarities usually encountered in acid gas treating processes. The absorption of CO2 into solutions containing the sterically hindered amine AMP, is also well described by the model. The equilibrium of CO2 in mixed solvents containing a glycol (TEG,DEG) and an alkonolamine (MEA,DEA) has been measured at temperatures encountered in the absorption units. An equilibrium model has been developed for the CO2/TEG/MEA system for estimation of CO2 partial pressures, covering loadings and temperatures for both absorption and desorption conditions. An important spin-off of the work described is that two new experimental set-ups have been designed and built. 154 refs., 38 figs., 22 tabs

  10. Euthanasia of neonatal mice with carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, K.; Corrow, D.; Stockwell, J.; Smith, A.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most prevalent method used to euthanize rodents in biomedical research. The purpose of this study was to determine the time of CO2 exposure required to euthanize neonatal mice (0 to 10 days old). Multiple groups of mice were exposed to 100% CO 2 for time periods between 5 and 60 min. Mice were placed in room air for 10 or 20 min after CO2 exposure, to allow for the chance of recovery. If mice recovered at one time point, a longer exposure was examined. Inbred and outbred mice were compared. Results of the study indicated that time to death varied with the age of the animals and could be as long as 50 min on the day of birth and differed between inbred and outbred mice. Institutions euthanizing neonatal mice with CO2 may wish to adjust their CO 2 exposure time periods according the age of the mice and their genetic background. Copyright 2005 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.

  11. The prevention effect of 5%imiquimod cream on relapse of cervical condyloma acuminatum after carbon dioxide laser surgery%5%咪喹莫特乳膏预防CO2激光术后宫颈尖锐湿疣复发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮肖冰; 王晓霞; 梁少飞; 刘道凡

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevention effect of 5 %imiquimod cream on relapse of cervical condyloma acuminatum(CA) and clearance of human papillomavirus (HPV) after carbon dioxide laser surgery.Methods Ninety-four women with HPV positive cervical CA were treated with carbon dioxide surgery,and then were randomly divided into treatment group (46 cases) and control group (48 cases).The treatment group were applied with 5 % imiquimod cream on the cervix and the posterior fornix twice a week for 12 weeks and followed up for 24 weeks.The control group only received the CO2 laser treatment when CA relapsed.All the patients were tested HPV at 12 and 24 weeks after the first CO2 laser surgery.Results There were significant differences in recurrence rate between the two group at 12 and 24 weeks after the CO2 laser treatment (both P<0.05).The recurrence rate of the treatment group was lower than that of the control group.There were significant differences in HPV clearance rate between the two group at 12 and 24 weeks after treatment (both P<0.05).The HPV clearance rate of the treatment group was higher than that of the control group.Conclusion Topical application of 5%imiquimod cream is effective to prevent relapse of cervical condyloma acuminatum after removing the warts by carbon dioxide.It is a good way to clear HPV infection.%目的 观察5%咪喹莫特乳膏预防二氧化碳(CO2)激光治疗后宫颈尖锐湿疣(CA)的复发情况和对人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)的清除情况.方法 对94例宫颈CA(HPV阳性)患者先进行CO2激光治疗,再随机分为观察组(46例)和对照组(48例),观察组给予5%咪喹莫特乳膏涂布宫颈及阴道后穹窿,每周2次,共12周.随访24周.对照组在CA复发时只进行激光治疗.两组患者均在CO2激光治疗后第12周、第24周进行HPV复查.结果 两组在术后第12周、24周的疣体复发情况比较差异有统计学意义(P均<0.05),观察组的复发率低于对照组.在12周及24周

  12. CO2 emission standards and investment in carbon capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policy makers in a number of countries have proposed or are considering proposing CO2 emission standards for new fossil fuel-fired power plants. The proposed standards require coal-fired power plants to have approximately the same carbon emissions as an uncontrolled natural gas-fired power plant, effectively mandating the adoption of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies for new coal plants. However, given the uncertainty in the capital and operating costs of a commercial scale coal plant with CCS, the impact of such a standard is not apparent a priori. We apply a stochastic generation expansion model to determine the impact of CO2 emission standards on generation investment decisions, and in particular for coal plants with CCS. Moreover, we demonstrate how the incentive to invest in coal-CCS from emission standards depends on the natural gas price, the CO2 price, and the enhanced oil recovery price, as well as on the level of the emission standard. This analysis is the first to consider the entire power system and at the same time allow the capture percentage for CCS plants to be chosen from a continuous range to meet the given standard at minimum cost. Previous system level studies have assumed that CCS plants capture 90% of the carbon, while studies of individual units have demonstrated the costs of carbon capture over a continuous range. We show that 1) currently proposed levels of emission standards are more likely to shift fossil fuel generation from coal to natural gas rather than to incentivize investment in CCS; 2) tighter standards that require some carbon reductions from natural gas-fired power plants are more likely than proposed standards to incentivize investments in CCS, especially on natural gas plants, but also on coal plants at high gas prices; and 3) imposing a less strict emission standard (emission rates higher than natural gas but lower than coal; e.g., 1500 lbs/MWh) is more likely than current proposals to incentivize investment

  13. Amazon river carbon dioxide outgassing fuelled by wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Abril, G.; Martinez, J M; Artigas, L.F.; Moreira-Turcq, P.; Benedetti, M. F.; Vidal, L.; Meziane, T.; Kim, J. -H.; Bernardes, M. C.; Savoye, N.; Deborde, J; Souza, E.L.; Alberic, P; de Souza, M.F.L.; Roland, F.

    2014-01-01

    River systems connect the terrestrial biosphere, the atmosphere and the ocean in the global carbon cycle(1). A recent estimate suggests that up to 3 petagrams of carbon per year could be emitted as carbon dioxide (CO2) from global inland waters, offsetting the carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems(2). It is generally assumed that inland waters emit carbon that has been previously fixed upstream by land plant photosynthesis, then transferred to soils, and subsequently transported downstream ...

  14. Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior and Mechanism of X80 Steel in the Aqueous Solution of Carbon Dioxide%X80钢的CO2腐蚀电化学行为与机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏爱军; 霍富永; 蒋华义

    2011-01-01

    在模拟油田采出水腐蚀环境中,采用电化学交流阻抗和动电位扫描极化曲线测试技术,研究了X80钢在温度为60℃,饱和CO2条件下的腐蚀电化学行为和阳极与阴极的反应机理,实时监测了腐蚀产物膜对腐蚀行为和腐蚀反应机理的影响。研究结果表明:X80钢的阳极反应过程服从Bockris机理;X80钢的阴极反应以H2CO3的还原为主;反应中间产物吸附与腐蚀产物膜覆盖的竞争导致交流阻抗谱随腐蚀时间而变化,影响着钢的腐蚀行为;产物膜对钢基体具有一定的保护作用。%The corrosion environment in oil produced water was simulated in the solution saturated with CO2 , and the electrochemical corrosion behavior of X80 steel and the reaction mechanisms in anode and cathode at 60℃ were studied by means of electrochemical impendence spectroscopy(EIS) and potentialydynamic polarization curve. The effects of corrosion product film on the corrosion behavior and the corrosion reaction mechanism were monitored. The results showed that the anodic reactions obey Bockris mechanism, the predominant cathodic reaction is the reduction of carbonic acid, the competition between the deposition of corrosion product and the adsorption of reaction intermediate product influences the corrosion behavior of X80 steel and leads to the variation of EIS with corrosion time. The corrosion product film prevents X80 steel from further corrosion.

  15. Synthesis of dimethyl carbonate in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ballivet-Tkatchenko

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The reactivity of carbon dioxide with methanol to form dimethyl carbonate was studied in the presence of the n-butylmethoxytin compounds n-Bu3SnOCH3, n-Bu2Sn(OCH32 , and [n-Bu2(CH3OSn]2 O. The reaction occurred under solventless conditions at 423 K and was produced by an increase in CO2 pressure. This beneficial effect is primarily attributed to phase behavior. The mass transfer under liquid-vapor biphasic conditions was not limiting when the system reached the supercritical state for a CO2 pressure higher than 16 MPa. Under these conditions, CO2 acted as a reactant and a solvent.

  16. Carbon Dioxide Reduction Technology Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Frank F.; Anderson, Molly S.; Abney, Morgan B.

    2011-01-01

    For long-term human missions, a closed-loop atmosphere revitalization system (ARS) is essential to minimize consumables. A carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technology is used to reclaim oxygen (O2) from metabolic CO2 and is vital to reduce the delivery mass of metabolic O2. A key step in closing the loop for ARS will include a proper CO2 reduction subsystem that is reliable and with low equivalent system mass (ESM). Sabatier and Bosch CO2 reduction are two traditional CO2 reduction subsystems (CRS). Although a Sabatier CRS has been delivered to International Space Station (ISS) and is an important step toward closing the ISS ARS loop, it recovers only 50% of the available O2 in CO2. A Bosch CRS is able to reclaim all O2 in CO2. However, due to continuous carbon deposition on the catalyst surface, the penalties of replacing spent catalysts and reactors and crew time in a Bosch CRS are significant. Recently, technologies have been developed for recovering hydrogen (H2) from Sabatier-product methane (CH4). These include methane pyrolysis using a microwave plasma, catalytic thermal pyrolysis of CH4 and thermal pyrolysis of CH4. Further, development in Sabatier reactor designs based on microchannel and microlith technology could open up opportunities in reducing system mass and enhancing system control. Improvements in Bosch CRS conversion have also been reported. In addition, co-electrolysis of steam and CO2 is a new technology that integrates oxygen generation and CO2 reduction functions in a single system. A co-electrolysis unit followed by either a Sabatier or a carbon formation reactor based on Bosch chemistry could improve the overall competitiveness of an integrated O2 generation and CO2 reduction subsystem. This study evaluates all these CO2 reduction technologies, conducts water mass balances for required external supply of water for 1-, 5- and 10-yr missions, evaluates mass, volume, power, cooling and resupply requirements of various technologies. A system

  17. CO2 blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this test. DO ...

  18. Calculation of Carbon Dioxide Quantity in Cement Production and Its Using Analysis%水泥生产中CO2产生量计算及利用途径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴萱

    2006-01-01

    CO2具有"温室效应",可以加热地球,使冰川熔化、海平面升高、气候变暖.CO2是宝贵资源,可以回收利用,变废为宝.本文计算了水泥生产中CO2产生量,得出了每生产1t水泥将产生0.41tCO2气体.水泥生产中产生的CO2可以回收利用,并分析了其可利用途径.

  19. Hydroquinone and Quinone-Grafted Porous Carbons for Highly Selective CO2 Capture from Flue Gases and Natural Gas Upgrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Krishna, Rajamani; Yang, Jiangfeng; Deng, Shuguang

    2015-08-01

    Hydroquinone and quinone functional groups were grafted onto a hierarchical porous carbon framework via the Friedel-Crafts reaction to develop more efficient adsorbents for the selective capture and removal of carbon dioxide from flue gases and natural gas. The oxygen-doped porous carbons were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. CO2, CH4, and N2 adsorption isotherms were measured and correlated with the Langmuir model. An ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) selectivity for the CO2/N2 separation of 26.5 (298 K, 1 atm) was obtained on the hydroquinone-grafted carbon, which is 58.7% higher than that of the pristine porous carbon, and a CO2/CH4 selectivity value of 4.6 (298 K, 1 atm) was obtained on the quinone-grafted carbon (OAC-2), which represents a 28.4% improvement over the pristine porous carbon. The highest CO2 adsorption capacity on the oxygen-doped carbon adsorbents is 3.46 mmol g(-1) at 298 K and 1 atm. In addition, transient breakthrough simulations for CO2/CH4/N2 mixture separation were conducted to demonstrate the good separation performance of the oxygen-doped carbons in fixed bed adsorbers. Combining excellent adsorption separation properties and low heats of adsorption, the oxygen-doped carbons developed in this work appear to be very promising for flue gas treatment and natural gas upgrading.

  20. CO2 Sink Effect Of Concrete Carbonation Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Galan Garcia, Isabel; Andrade Perdrix, Maria del Carmen; Mora Peris, Pedro; San Juan Barbudo, Miguel Angel; Lopez Agüi, Juan Carlos; Prieto Rabade, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Although carbonation of cement phases is well known, the amount of carbon dioxide combined during the process has been much less investigated. Related to the greenhouse effect much more attention is being paid to the sinks for C 0 2 in order to correctly compute the gases emission during production of materials. In the case of cement a strict calculation should discount the C 0 2 emitted from that fixed by the concrete. This is the aim of present work which is a study of the cement bas...

  1. Olivine reactivity with CO 2 and H 2O on a microscale: Implications for carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, J.; Bovet, N.; Makovicky, E.; Bechgaard, K.; Balogh, Z.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2012-01-01

    The silicate mineral olivine, (Mg,Fe)2SiO4, reacts exothermally with CO2 and forms secondary minerals, including carbonates. Therefore olivine reaction is a promising process for carbon sequestration, to convert carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to mineral form. The purpose of this study was (1) to explore the composition, structure and reactivity of olivine surfaces during exposure to air and to water at ambient conditions, (2) to investigate the effect of elevated CO2 pressure and temperature, and (3) to identify the secondary minerals. Olivine surfaces have been examined with atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), before and after reaction with CO2. Experiments were carried out in pure water equilibrated with CO2 at total pressures up to 80 bars, at temperatures 25 °C and 120 °C and both in the absence and presence of oxygen. New formation products appeared on the olivine surface as a homogeneous layer of bumps, less than 100 nm in diameter, within hours of exposure to air. Olivine crystals, exposed to water, dissolved and secondary minerals formed within days. Colonies of bacteria populated olivine surfaces on samples stored in water for more than 4 days at room temperature. Loosely attached material formed on olivine surfaces and could easily be scraped away with the AFM tip. A red precipitate formed when crystals where reacted at increased temperatures and CO2 partial pressures for less than 4 days. The new phases were identified as goethite, hematite, silica and carbonate minerals. Olivine surfaces oxidize and iron oxides form even when oxygen is absent, suggesting hydrolysis, where water is converted to hydrogen and oxygen.

  2. Chemoselective Alternating Copolymerization of Limonene Dioxide and Carbon Dioxide: A New Highly Functional Aliphatic Epoxy Polycarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunliang; Sablong, Rafaël J; Koning, Cor E

    2016-09-12

    The alternating copolymerization of biorenewable limonene dioxide with carbon dioxide (CO2 ) catalyzed by a zinc β-diiminate complex is reported. The chemoselective reaction results in linear amorphous polycarbonates that carry pendent methyloxiranes and exhibit glass transition temperatures (Tg ) up to 135 °C. These polycarbonates can be efficiently modified by thiols or carboxylic acids in combination with lithium hydroxide or tetrabutylphosphonium bromide as catalysts, respectively, without destruction of the main chain. Moreover, polycarbonates bearing pendent cyclic carbonates can be quantitatively prepared by CO2 insertion catalyzed by lithium bromide.

  3. Nitrogen and Carbon Cycling in a Grassland Community Ecosystem as Affected by Elevated Atmospheric CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Torbert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 concentration has led to concerns regarding its potential effects on terrestrial ecosystems and the long-term storage of carbon (C and nitrogen (N in soil. This study examined responses to elevated CO2 in a grass ecosystem invaded with a leguminous shrub Acacia farnesiana (L. Willd (Huisache. Seedlings of Acacia along with grass species were grown for 13 months at CO2 concentrations of 385 (ambient, 690, and 980 μmol mol−1. Elevated CO2 increased both C and N inputs from plant growth which would result in higher soil C from litter fall, root turnover, and excretions. Results from the incubation indicated an initial (20 days decrease in N mineralization which resulted in no change in C mineralization. However, after 40 and 60 days, an increase in both C and N mineralization was observed. These increases would indicate that increases in soil C storage may not occur in grass ecosystems that are invaded with Acacia over the long term.

  4. 控制和减缓电力生产过程中CO2排放的技术%Abatement and Mitigation of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Power Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦丰; 阎维平; 丁千岭

    2000-01-01

    One important measure for controlling greenhouse gas CO2 emissions is to capture CO2 from power plant flue gas and store it or utilize it. In this paper, the principal technologies to capture CO2 are introduced,including absorption, adsorption, membrane separation and cryogenic separation. Their application in 4 kinds of power plants is analysed and compared. Some methods to store and utilize CO2 are also discussed.%直接从热力发电站的烟气中分离CO2,然后对其进行储存或加以利用,是控制和减缓温室气体排放的重要措施之一。本文描述了利用吸收、吸附、薄膜分离和低温分离等原理从热力发电站烟气中分离CO2的技术,对它们在4种发电技术上的应用做了分析比较。同时,也给出了一些有可能的储存和利用CO2的途径。

  5. Nitric oxide is involved in the induced stomatal closure of tomato by high level of carbon dioxide%NO参与调节高浓度CO2诱导的番茄气孔关闭

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欢; 肖文丹; 牛耀芳; 柴如山; 刘秒; 章永松

    2015-01-01

    [Objectives]Elevated CO2 has been shown to play a role in enhancing the photosynthesis of plants, and induce stomatal closure of leaf. Stomatal closure significantly decreases plant transpiration, and contributes to enhanced water use efficiency and resistance to water stress. The effect of elevated CO2 on the aperture of stomata, the level of nitric oxide( NO) in guard cells and the role of NO in CO2 elevation-induced stomatal closure in tomato ( Solanum lycocarpum L. ) were examined. In order to identify the enzymatic source of endogenous NO in guard cells, the role of nitric oxide synthase ( NOS ) and nitrate reductase ( NR ) in the CO2 elevation-induced NO accumulation was investigated. [Methods] Tomato( Solanum lycocarpum L. ) was used as experimental material.In E7/2 growth chambers, CO2 treatments and/or pharmacological experiment were initiated by treating stomata at a concentration of either 350 or 800 μL/L. Then, the stomatal aperture and NO level in guard cells were measured. The levels of NO in guard cells of tomato were determined using the cell NO-specific fluorescent probe. NO levels in guard cells were measured based on the intensity of fluorescence. NOS inhibitor L-NAME and NR inhibitor tungstate were used to assess the role of NOS and NR in the CO2 elevation-induced NO production, respectively.[Results] The present study showed that the stomatal aperture decreased to 2. 3 μm after 6 hours of elevated CO2 treatment, and decreased by 32% related to ambient CO2 treatment. The intensity of green fluorescence showed that the level of NO in guard cells were 88% higher under elevated CO2 than that under ambient CO2 . CO2 elevation-induced stomatal closure was reversed by treatment with NO scavenger cPTIO, the level of NO in guard cells decreased by 35% and the stomatal aperture increased to 3. 2μm, similar to those under ambient CO2 . Under elevated CO2 , addition of 200 μmol/L L-NAME increased the stomatal aperture by 30%, and decreased NO

  6. Testing carbon sequestration site monitor instruments using a controlled carbon dioxide release facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Seth D.; Nehrir, Amin R.; Keith, Charlie J.; Repasky, Kevin S.; Dobeck, Laura M.; Carlsten, John L.; Spangler, Lee H.

    2008-02-01

    Two laser-based instruments for carbon sequestration site monitoring have been developed and tested at a controlled carbon dioxide (CO2) release facility. The first instrument uses a temperature tunable distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser capable of accessing the 2.0027-2.0042 μm spectral region that contains three CO2 absorption lines and is used for aboveground atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements. The second instrument also uses a temperature tunable DFB diode laser capable of accessing the 2.0032-2.0055 μm spectral region that contains five CO2 absorption lines for underground CO2 soil gas concentration measurements. The performance of these instruments for carbon sequestration site monitoring was studied using a newly developed controlled CO2 release facility. A 0.3 ton CO2/day injection experiment was performed from 3-10 August 2007. The aboveground differential absorption instrument measured an average atmospheric CO2 concentration of 618 parts per million (ppm) over the CO2 injection site compared with an average background atmospheric CO2 concentration of 448 ppm demonstrating this instrument's capability for carbon sequestration site monitoring. The underground differential absorption instrument measured a CO2 soil gas concentration of 100,000 ppm during the CO2 injection, a factor of 25 greater than the measured background CO2 soil gas concentration of 4000 ppm demonstrating this instrument's capability for carbon sequestration site monitoring

  7. 高密度CO_2预处理对樱桃番茄干燥的影响%Effect of dense phase carbon dioxide pretreatment on drying cherry tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙婉蓉; 郭蕴涵; 赵翠萍; 汪政富; 胡小松

    2012-01-01

    将樱桃番茄经过和未经过高密度CO2(DPCD)预处理,然后进行热风干燥,以比较干燥速率和干燥后产品品质的变化,探索新型干燥工艺。结果发现,经过1、2和3MPaDPCD处理组与对照组相比,干燥速率提高,干燥时间缩短,产品收缩率降低,复水率提高,褐变度没有显著变化;但经高压处理的干燥产品VC和颜色比对照组差。综合各指标分析,除了VC和颜色,DPCD预处理后的干燥指标优于对照组。%In order to explore a new drying technique,cherry tomatoes treated with and without dense phase carbon dioxide(DPCD) were dried with hot air,and their drying rates and physicochemical quality were compared.The results indicated that,as compared to the control group without pretreatment of DPCD,the cherry tomatoes after DPCD treatment at 1,2,and 3MPa reduced in drying time and shrinkage,and increased in drying rate and rehydration rate,while their browning degrees had no significant change.The VC content and color of the dried products after higher DPCD pretreatment were significantly worse than that of the control group,In a word,excepted color and VC,the drying effect of cherry tomatoes after DPCD pretreatment was better than that of the control group.

  8. Pathophysiological and clinical aspects of carbonic dioxide pneumoperitoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jens Fromholt

    by CO 2 -PP ? endocrine and metabolic response may be activated and the inflammatory response blunted by CO 2 -PP   ? mean arterial pressure and heart rate is increased during CO 2 -PP ? preload and afterload is increased, heart performance decreased, but cardiac output not affected during CO 2 -PP...... pneumoperitoneum (CO 2 -PP) and positional changes of the patients are the general methods of exposing the intraperitoneal organs. Carbonic dioxide (CO 2 ) is the preferred gas, because it is inexpensive, highly soluble, and chemically stable. In addition, it suppresses combustion and is a normal product of human...... invasive methods. Based on a randomized design comparing conventional with gasless laparoscopy the effects of CO 2 - PP are investigated in regard to: ? outcome, pain, convalescence, ? coagulation and fibrinolysis ? surgical stress response ? perioperative haemodynamics and heart performance...

  9. CO2 adsorption on chemically modified activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglayan, Burcu Selen; Aksoylu, A Erhan

    2013-05-15

    CO2 adsorption capacity of a commercial activated carbon was improved by using HNO3 oxidation, air oxidation, alkali impregnation and heat treatment under helium gas atmosphere. The surface functional groups produced were investigated by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectrometer (DRIFTS). CO2 adsorption capacities of the samples were determined by gravimetric analyses for 25-200°C temperature range. DRIFTS studies revealed the formation of carboxylic acid groups on the HNO3 oxidized adsorbents. Increased aromatization and uniform distribution of the Na particles were observed on the samples prepared by Na2CO3 impregnation onto HNO3 oxidized AC support. The adsorption capacities of the nonimpregnated samples were increased by high temperature helium treatments or by increasing the adsorption temperature; both leading to decomposition of surface oxygen groups, forming sites that can easily adsorb CO2. The adsorption capacity loss due to cyclic adsorption/desorption procedures was overcome with further surface stabilization of Na2CO3 modified samples with high temperature He treatments. With Na2CO3 impregnation the mass uptakes of the adsorbents at 20 bars and 25 °C were improved by 8 and 7 folds and at 1 bar were increased 15 and 16 folds, on the average, compared to their air oxidized and nitric acid oxidized supports, respectively. PMID:23500788

  10. Supercritical carbon dioxide hop extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfaf-Šovljanski Ivana I.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The hop of Magnum cultivar was extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE-as extractant. Extraction was carried out in the two steps: the first one being carried out at 150 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (Extract A, and the second was the extraction of the same hop sample at 300 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (Extract B. Extraction kinetics of the system hop-SFE-CO2 was investigated. Two of four most common compounds of hop aroma (α-humulene and β-caryophyllene were detected in Extract A. Isomerised α-acids and β-acids were detected too. a-Acid content in Extract B was high (that means it is a bitter variety of hop. Mathematical modeling using empirical model characteristic time model and simple single sphere model has been performed on Magnum cultivar extraction experimental results. Characteristic time model equations, best fitted experimental results. Empirical model equation, fitted results well, while simple single sphere model equation poorly approximated the results.

  11. Carbon dioxide stripping in aquaculture. part 1: terminology and reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colt, John; Watten, Barnaby; Pfeiffer, Tim

    2012-01-01

    The removal of carbon dioxide gas in aquacultural systems is much more complex than for oxygen or nitrogen gas because of liquid reactions of carbon dioxide and their kinetics. Almost all published carbon dioxide removal information for aquaculture is based on the apparent removal value after the CO2(aq) + HOH ⇔ H2CO3 reaction has reached equilibrium. The true carbon dioxide removal is larger than the apparent value, especially for high alkalinities and seawater. For low alkalinity freshwaters (<2000 μeq/kg), the difference between the true and apparent removal is small and can be ignored for many applications. Analytical and reporting standards are recommended to improve our understanding of carbon dioxide removal.

  12. CO2作天然气地下储气库垫层气的可行性分析%Feasibility Analysis about Carbon Dioxide as Cushion Gas for Natural Gas Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭羽非; 曹琳; 林涛

    2006-01-01

    CO2作地下储气库垫层气,可以节省沉积资金,实现碳隔离储存及减少温室效应,是解决天然气工业发展和火力发电等产生环保问题的一个双赢研究项目.通过研究CO2的热力性质及其来源,提出了CO2作储库垫层气的可行性,确定了CO2作为垫层气的最佳热力学条件,为今后我国碳隔离储存和储气库建设运行提供了理论依据.

  13. Application to Polymer Preparation and Processing in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide%超临界CO2在高分子合成与制备中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秋亚

    2005-01-01

    介绍了超临界CO2作为介质在高分子合成与制备中的研究应用.在超临界CO2介质中可以实施氟代单体的均相和非均相聚合,可以用超临界CO2溶胀聚合法渗透小分子添加剂、制备剃度共混物以及对聚合物纤维材料进行染色.此外,超临界CO2还可以用于聚合物微纤和微球的制备.

  14. Technical Analysis of Energy Saving During Preparation of Edible Carbon Dioxide by Using Soda Solution Absorption%碱液吸收法制取食用CO2节能降耗的技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晓丽

    2004-01-01

    纯度99%以上的二氧化碳(CO2),在饮料、焊接、铸造、灭火、化肥及制取水杨酸等方面有着广泛的用途。CO2产品已列入国家产品目录,已有国家标准。美国和日本的CO2产量都很大,与各自国家的纯碱产量相当,我国的CO2产量还很低,与小苏打的产量相当。

  15. 超临界CO2萃取姜黄油的工艺研究%Study on the extraction of curcuma Longa oils with supercritical carbon dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小军; 刘树兴

    2005-01-01

    本文运用均匀试验设计研究了超临界CO2流体萃取姜黄油的工艺条件,试验结果表明:最佳的萃取工艺条件为萃取压力36MPa,萃取温度50℃,CO2流量15kg/h,萃取时间3h.

  16. 高密度CO2在肉制品和水产品加工中的应用%Application of Dense-phase Carbon Dioxide in the Processing of Meat and Aquatic Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亚励; 屈小娟; 郭明慧; 刘书成; 吉宏武; 郝记明

    2014-01-01

    高密度CO2是一种新型的非热食品加工技术,具有加工条件温和、对热敏物质破坏小、能有效保持食品营养、风味和新鲜度等许多优点.近年来,高密度CO2在食品加工领域的应用研究越来越多,但目前研究主要集中在液体食品的杀菌效果和动力学、钝酶效果和动力学、及其对品质的影响方面;由于固体食品体系复杂,CO2不易渗透,使得高密度CO2处理固体食品的研究还相对较少.本文重点对高密度CO2在肉制品和水产品加工中应用的研究进展进行综述,分析高密度CO2对肉制品和水产品的杀菌、肌肉品质(pH、色泽、保水性、质构、嫩度、营养成分、呈味成分等)、蛋白质等的影响规律和作用机理,并对今后高密度CO2加工技术的研究重点进行展望,为推动高密度CO2在肉制品和水产品加工中的应用研究和产业化提供参考.

  17. Optimization of Extraction Process of Papaya Seed Oil by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Based on Neural Network%神经网络优化番木瓜籽油的超临界CO2萃取工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓楚津; 董强; 张常松; 张良; 刘书成

    2012-01-01

    Papaya seed oil was extracted by supercritical CO2. A neural network model of supercritical CO2 extracting papaya seed oil was established to optimize extracting process parameters in JMP 7. 0 software. The parameters were that grinded papaya seeds were screened through a 20 - inch boult,flow of CO2 was 25 L/h,extraction pressure was 27 Mpa,extraction temperature was 54 ℃ ,and extraction time was 3 h. Under these conditions,the extraction rate was above 30%. Papaya seed oil extracted by supercritical CO2 can meet the standard of edible oils and fats.%采用超临界CO2萃取法萃取番木瓜籽油,利用JMP 7.0软件中的神经网络平台,建立超临界CO2萃取番木瓜籽油的神经网络模型,并优化了萃取过程的工艺参数.结果表明:番木瓜籽破碎后过20目筛,CO2流量为25 L/h,萃取压力27 MPa,萃取温度54℃,萃取时间3h,油脂得率达30%以上;超临界CO2萃取的番木瓜籽油的理化性质达到了食用油脂的标准.

  18. CO2在人体内代谢是“碱”不是“酸”%The metabolic result of carbon dioxide in human body is base instead of acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪建; 田维毅

    2015-01-01

    凡涉及人体“酸碱平衡”的教科书,都认为生物氧化产生的CO2可与H2O结合成H2CO3,是机体代谢产生最多的酸.然而CO2在人体内的主要存在形式是碱性物质HCO3-,在血液中HCO3-浓度比H2CO3高20倍,24 h由CO2转化的HCO3-是血液HCO3-含量的110倍.CO2维持了血液HCO3-的恒定,维持了血液pH=7.4;可见CO2在健康人体内发挥着碱性物质的作用.因此,CO2是碱不是酸.

  19. Electrochemical CO2 reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Kriescher, Stefanie M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The atmospheric concentration of CO2 has increased significantly during the last two centuries. Since CO2 is considered to be one of the largest contributors to the greenhouse effect and is postulated to cause global warming, it is important to stabilize and/or reduce its concentration. Apart from regulations for the amount of CO2 that may be emmitted, carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), biological and chemical conversions are potential ways to stabilize and/or reduce the atmospheric co...

  20. Carbon dioxide research conference: carbon dioxide, science and consensus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE program focuses on three areas each of which requires more research before the many CO2-related questions can be answered. These areas include the global carbon cycle, climate effects, and vegetation effects. Additional information is needed to understand the sources and sinks of CO2. Research efforts include an attempt to estimate regional and global changes in temperature and precipitation. Increased atmospheric CO2 may be a potential benefit to vegetation and crops because it is an essential element required for plant growth. Eight separate papers are included

  1. Highly flexible NiCo2O4/CNTs doped carbon nanofibers for CO2 adsorption and supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Nousheen; Wang, Xianfeng; Ahmed Babar, Aijaz; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2016-08-15

    Controllable synthesis of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with hierarchical porosity and high flexibility are extremely desirable for CO2 adsorption and energy storage applications. Herein, we report a nickel cobaltite/carbon nanotubes doped CNFs (NiCo2O4/CNTs CNFs) mesoporous membrane that shows well-developed flexibility, tailored pore structure, hydrophobic character, and high stability. Ascribed to these unique features, NiCo2O4/CNTs CNFs membrane shows high CO2 capture of 1.54mmol/g at 25°C and 1.0bar, and electrochemical measurements for supercapacitors exhibit good performance with specific capacitances of 220F/g (in 1M KOH) at a current density of 1A/g. The successful synthesis of such hybrid membrane provides new insight into development of various multifunctional applications. PMID:27209394

  2. Carbon-13 isotope composition of the mean CO2 source in the urban atmosphere of Krakow, southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimnoch, Miroslaw; Jasek, Alina; Rozanski, Kazimierz

    2014-05-01

    Quantification of carbon emissions in urbanized areas constitutes an important part of the current research on the global carbon cycle. As the carbon isotopic composition of atmospheric carbon dioxide can serve as a fingerprint of its origin, systematic observations of δ13CO2 and/or Δ14CO2, combined with atmospheric CO2mixing ratio measurements can be used to better constrain the urban sources of this gas. Nowadays, high precision optical analysers based on absorption of laser radiation in the cavity allow a real-time monitoring of atmospheric CO2 concentration and its 13CO2/12CO2 ratio, thus enabling better quantification of the contribution of different anthropogenic and natural sources of this gas to the local atmospheric CO2load. Here we present results of a 2-year study aimed at quantifying carbon isotopic signature of the mean CO2 source and its seasonal variability in the urban atmosphere of Krakow, southern Poland. The Picarro G2101-i CRDS isotopic analyser system for CO2and 13CO2/12CO2 mixing ratio measurements has been installed at the AGH University of Science and Technology campus in July 2011. Air inlet was located at the top of a 20m tower mounted on the roof of the faculty building (ca. 42m a.g.l.), close to the city centre. While temporal resolution of the analyser is equal 1s, a 2-minute moving average was used for calculations of δ13CO2 and CO2 mixing ratio to reduce measurement uncertainty. The measurements were calibrated against 2 NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) primary standard tanks for CO2 mixing ratio and 1 JRAC (Jena Reference Air Cylinder) isotope primary standard for δ13C. A Keeling approach based on two-component mass and isotope balance was used to derive daily mean isotopic signatures of local CO2 from individual measurements of δ13CO2 and CO2 mixing ratios. The record covers a 2-year period, from July 2011 to July 2013. It shows a clear seasonal pattern, with less negative and less variable δ13CO2 values

  3. Development of activated carbon derived from banana peel for CO2 removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Azry; Thangamuthu, Subhashini; Taha, Mohd Faisal; Ramdan, Amira Nurain

    2015-08-01

    This research work highlights on the constraints involved in the preparation of the banana peel bio-sorbent, such as impregnation ratio, activation temperature and period of activation for reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Micromeritics ASAP 2020 and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) were used in identifying the best sample preparation method with the largest surface area which directly contributes to the effectiveness of adsorbent in removing CO2. Sample A10 was identified to yield activated carbon with the largest surface area (260.3841 m2/g), total pore volume (0.01638 cm3/g) and pore diameter (0.2508 nm). Through nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm analysis, the existence of sub-micropores was proven when a combination of Type-I and Type-II isotherms were exhibited by the activated carbon produced. The results from the final adsorption test found that the material synthesized from the above mentioned parameter is capable of removing up to 1.65% wt of CO2 through adsorption at 25°C, suggesting that it can be effectively used as an adsorption material.

  4. Past explosive outbursts of entrapped carbon dioxide in salt mines provide a new perspective on the hazards of carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a source of past carbon dioxide accidents which so far has only been sporadically mentioned in the literature. Violent and highly destructive outbursts of hundreds of tons of CO2 occurred regularly, if not routinely, in the now closed salt mines of the former DDR....... The Menzengraben mine experienced an extreme outburst in 1953, possibly involving a several thousand tons of carbon dioxide. This source of accidents fills an important gap in the available carbon dioxide accident history and may provide a unique empirical perspective on the hazards of handling very large amounts...

  5. Net carbon storage in a popular plantation (POPFACE) after three years of free-air CO2 enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    GIELEN B.; Calfapietra, C.; Lukac, M.; Wittig, V.E.; De, Angelis, Maria; I. A. Janssens; Moscatelli, M. C.; Grego, S; Cotrufo, M. F.; Godbold, D.; M. R. Hoosbeek; Long, S.; Miglietta, F.; Polle, A.; Bernacchi, C.

    2005-01-01

    A high-density plantation of three genotypes of Populus was exposed to an elevated concentration of carbon dioxide ([CO2]; 550 µmol mol¿1) from planting through canopy closure using a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) technique. The FACE treatment stimulated gross primary productivity by 22 and 11% in the second and third years, respectively. Partitioning of extra carbon (C) among C pools of different turnover rates is of critical interest; thus, we calculated net ecosystem productivity (NEP) to...

  6. Arterial and end-tidal carbon dioxide difference in pediatric intensive care

    OpenAIRE

    Chulananda Dias Goonasekera; Alison Goodwin; Yanzhong Wang; James Goodman; Akash Deep

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO 2 ) is considered the gold standard for scrupulous monitoring in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), but it is invasive, laborious, expensive, and intermittent. The study aims to explore when we can use end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (P ET CO 2 ) as a reliable, continuous, and noninvasive monitor of arterial CO 2 Materials and Methods: Concurrent P ET CO 2 , fraction of inspired oxygen, PaCO 2 , and arterial oxygen tension values o...

  7. Hierarchical N-Doped Carbon as CO2 Adsorbent with High CO2 Selectivity from Rationally Designed Polypyrrole Precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, John W F; He, Jiajun; Mei, Jianguo; Haghpanah, Reza; Chen, Zheng; Kurosawa, Tadanori; Chen, Shucheng; Bae, Won-Gyu; Pan, Lijia; Tok, Jeffrey B-H; Wilcox, Jennifer; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-01-27

    Carbon capture and sequestration from point sources is an important component in the CO2 emission mitigation portfolio. In particular, sorbents with both high capacity and selectivity are required for reducing the cost of carbon capture. Although physisorbents have the advantage of low energy consumption for regeneration, it remains a challenge to obtain both high capacity and sufficient CO2/N2 selectivity at the same time. Here, we report the controlled synthesis of a novel N-doped hierarchical carbon that exhibits record-high Henry's law CO2/N2 selectivity among physisorptive carbons while having a high CO2 adsorption capacity. Specifically, our synthesis involves the rational design of a modified pyrrole molecule that can co-assemble with the soft Pluronic template via hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions to give rise to mesopores followed by carbonization. The low-temperature carbonization and activation processes allow for the development of ultrasmall pores (d carbon-based materials for various potential applications. PMID:26717034

  8. 不同褐煤在O2/CO2条件下燃烧特性的实验研究%Experimental study on combustion characteristics of brown coal on oxygen/carbon dioxide conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨利

    2010-01-01

    利用热重分析仪,系统地研究了霍林河褐煤、印尼1#褐煤和印尼2#褐煤在空气和O2/CO2条件下的燃烧特性,比较了不同褐煤样品在燃烧过程中失重与温度和时间的关系.实验结果表明,褐煤在O2/CO2条件下的燃烧特性与空气条件下的燃烧特性存在明显的区别,富氧燃烧条件下CO2分压力的大小影响褐煤的反应活性.

  9. Enzymatic conversion of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiafu; Jiang, Yanjun; Jiang, Zhongyi; Wang, Xueyan; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Shaohua; Han, Pingping; Yang, Chen

    2015-10-01

    With the continuous increase in fossil fuels consumption and the rapid growth of atmospheric CO2 concentration, the harmonious state between human and nature faces severe challenges. Exploring green and sustainable energy resources and devising efficient methods for CO2 capture, sequestration and utilization are urgently required. Converting CO2 into fuels/chemicals/materials as an indispensable element for CO2 capture, sequestration and utilization may offer a win-win strategy to both decrease the CO2 concentration and achieve the efficient exploitation of carbon resources. Among the current major methods (including chemical, photochemical, electrochemical and enzymatic methods), the enzymatic method, which is inspired by the CO2 metabolic process in cells, offers a green and potent alternative for efficient CO2 conversion due to its superior stereo-specificity and region/chemo-selectivity. Thus, in this tutorial review, we firstly provide a brief background about enzymatic conversion for CO2 capture, sequestration and utilization. Next, we depict six major routes of the CO2 metabolic process in cells, which are taken as the inspiration source for the construction of enzymatic systems in vitro. Next, we focus on the state-of-the-art routes for the catalytic conversion of CO2 by a single enzyme system and by a multienzyme system. Some emerging approaches and materials utilized for constructing single-enzyme/multienzyme systems to enhance the catalytic activity/stability will be highlighted. Finally, a summary about the current advances and the future perspectives of the enzymatic conversion of CO2 will be presented. PMID:26055659

  10. 在超临界CO2聚合反应中应用的表面活性剂的研究%Study on the Surfactant Used in Polymerization in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕新荣; 任杰

    2004-01-01

    概括了表面活性剂在以超临界CO2为介质的分散反应和乳化反应中的应用研究进展.重点介绍了几种重要的表面活性剂的结构、机理及应用,并指出在应用超临界CO2技术进行的聚合反应中,表面活性剂具有重要的作用及广阔的应用前景.

  11. Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O' Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A

    2014-11-18

    A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

  12. Fluid phase equilibria during propylene carbonate synthesis from propylene oxide in carbon dioxide medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharnati, Loubna; Musko, Nikolai; Jensen, Anker Degn;

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the influence of the amount of carbon dioxide on the catalytic performance during the propylene carbonate synthesis from propylene oxide and CO2 was investigated. The reaction was performed in high-pressure batch autoclaves using immobilized 1-hydroxyethyl-9-propyl-cyclic gua......In the present study the influence of the amount of carbon dioxide on the catalytic performance during the propylene carbonate synthesis from propylene oxide and CO2 was investigated. The reaction was performed in high-pressure batch autoclaves using immobilized 1-hydroxyethyl-9-propyl...

  13. 大气CO2浓度升高对花蜜及传粉昆虫的影响%Effects of elevated carbon dioxide on nectar and pollinating insects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴华; 嵇保中; 刘曙雯; 高江勇; 王国兴; 王彦

    2011-01-01

    植物依赖昆虫传授花粉,昆虫从植物获得花粉和花蜜作为食物,两者在漫长的进化过程中形成了密切的互惠共生关系.大量研究表明,CO2浓度升高对植物花蜜的产量和组成有显著的影响.CO2浓度增加后,有花植物花蜜的产量和组分在不同物种之间的变化差异很大,即使是种内不同基因型植株的花蜜对CO2浓度增加的反应也有所不同.大部分种类花蜜的产量会增加,也有些种类会减少.花蜜中糖类、氨基酸、次生代谢物质等的含量会有不同的改变,但花蜜的主要组分基本不发生变化.CO2浓度升高对访花昆虫的影响主要通过植物间接作用于昆虫.CO2浓度增加引起物候的改变以及花蜜总量、质量、次生代谢物的改变对传粉昆虫的能量分配、繁殖、寿命和访花行为产生了重要的影响.本文综述了国内外相关研究进展,并分析了未来研究趋势及其存在的问题.%Entomophilous flowers depend on the pollination of insects, and at the same time, plants provide pollen and honey as rewards. As a result, a co -evolution has been formed during their long evolutionary history. It has been well demonstrated that elevated CO2 in environment significantly affects concentration and composition of nectar. Once the CO2 concentration increases, production and components of nectar of different species could change differently even within different genotypes of the same species.At elevated CO2 level, nectar production increased, but composition of nectar did not affect significantly,meanwhile, total sugar, amino acids and secondary metabolites per flower changed on some degrees in some species of plants. Elevated CO2 affected pollinating insects indirectly. Changes of flowering phenology, and concentration and composition of secondary metabolites in nectar resulting from elevated CO2, affect energy distribution, reproduction, life longevity and collecting behavior of pollinators. In this

  14. Carbon Dioxide in Arable Soil Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngoni; Plauborg, Finn; Heckrath, Goswin Johann;

    2014-01-01

    ). In a winter wheat field in Denmark, soil CO2 concentrations were measured from 29 November 2011 to 14 June 2012 at upslope and footslope positions of a short catena (25 m). Carbon dioxide was measured at 20 and 40 cm soil depths (i.e., within and below the nominal plough layer) using the two measurement......; however, differences may occur in response to soil spatial variability. A better coverage of spatial variability is more easily addressed using manually operated systems whereas temporal variability can be covered using the automated system. Depending on the aim of the study, the two systems may be used...

  15. Towards quantitave ecological risk assessment of elevated carbon dioxide levels in the marine environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de P.; Tamis, J.E.; Foekema, E.M.; Klok, T.C.; Murk, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The environmental impact of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) levels has become of more interest in recent years. This, in relation to globally rising CO2 levels and related considerations of geological CO2 storage as a mitigating measure. In the present study effect data from literature were collected

  16. The teraton challenge. A review of fixation and transformation of carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mette; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Krebs, Frederik C

    2010-01-01

    The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide is linked to climate changes; hence there is an urgent need to reduce the accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere. The utilization of CO2 as a raw material in the synthesis of chemicals and liquid energy carriers offers a way to mitigate the increasing CO2...

  17. Carbon dioxide reduction in housing: experiences in urban renewal projects in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waals, F.M. van der; Vermeulen, W.J.V.; Glasbergen, P.

    2003-01-01

    It is increasingly being recognised that the housing sector can contribute to reductions in the levels of carbon dioxide (CO2 ). The renewal of existing residential areas offers opportunities to reduce CO2 emissions. However, technical options for CO2-reduction, such as insulation, solar energy, and

  18. Potential impact of DOM accumulation on fCO2 and carbonate ion computations in ocean acidification experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Oschlies

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The internal consistency of measurements and computations of components of the CO2-system, namely total alkalinity (AT, total dissolved carbon dioxide (CT, CO2 fugacity (fCO2 and pH, has been confirmed repeatedly in open ocean studies when the CO2 system had been over determined. Differences between measured and computed properties, such as ΔfCO2 (= fCO2 (measured – fCO2 (computed from AT and CT / fCO2 (measured × 100, are usually below 5%. Recently, Hoppe et al. (2012 provided evidence of significantly larger ΔfCO2 in some experimental setups. These observations are currently not well understood. Here we discuss a case from a series of phytoplankton culture experiments with ΔfCO2 of up to about 25%. ΔfCO2 varied systematically during the course of these experiments and showed a clear correlation with the accumulation of dissolved organic matter (DOM. Culture and mesocosm experiments are often carried out under high initial nutrient concentrations, yielding high biomass concentrations that in turn often lead to a substantial build-up of DOM. In such experiments, DOM can reach concentrations much higher than typically observed in the open ocean. To the extent that DOM includes organic acids and bases, it will contribute to the alkalinity of the seawater contained in the experimental device. Our analysis suggests that whenever substantial amounts of DOM are produced during the experiment, standard computer programmes used to compute CO2 fugacity can underestimate true fCO2 significantly when the computation is based on AT and CT. Unless the effect of DOM-alkalinity can be accounted for, this might lead to significant errors in the interpretation of the system under consideration with respect to the experimentally applied CO2 perturbation. Errors in the inferred fCO2 can misguide the development of parameterisations used in simulations with global carbon cycle models in future CO2-scenarios. Over determination of the CO2-system in

  19. Heterogeneously Catalysed Chemical Reactions in Carbon Dioxide Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musko, Nikolai E.

    the selective hydrogenation of unsaturated aldehydes in carbon dioxide medium. It was found that supported tungstosilicic acid catalysts and acidic resin Amberlyst-15 are very effective for performing aldol reactions. The positive influence of temperature and CO2-content on catalyst activity was studied...... useful for the phase behaviour investigations. The direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from methanol and CO2 has been investigated for quite a long time, however hardly any sufficiently active catalysts have been found so far. Nevertheless, optimisation of the phase equilibria of the reaction mixture...... studies of catalytic chemical reactions in dense and supercritical carbon dioxide have been complemented by the theoretical calculations of phase equilibria using advanced thermodynamic models. In the recent years, the use of compressed carbon dioxide as innovative, non-toxic and non-flammable, cheap...

  20. SEPARATION OF HYDROGEN/CARBON DIOXIDE MIXTURES USING SUPPORTED IONIC LIQUID MEMBRANES%离子液体支撑液膜分离H2/CO2混合气体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振; 秦伟; 常庆辉

    2014-01-01

    将1-丁基-3-甲基咪唑二氰铵盐([BMIM] [DCA])、1-丁基-3-甲基咪唑苯甲酸盐([BMIM][BA])、1-丁基-3-甲基咪唑三氟甲烷磺酸盐([BMIM] [TfO])、1-丁基-3-甲基咪唑双三氟甲磺酰亚铵盐([BMIM][NTf2])等4种离子液体分别固定在PES膜中,制备成离子液体支撑液膜(SILMs)用来分离H2/CO2混合气体.实验结果表明,气体在SILMs中的渗透速率随温度的升高而增加;PES-[BMIM] [TfO]膜对H2/CO2混合气体分离能力最强,40 ℃下分离因子达15.8.利用Gaussian 09软件计算这4种离子液体与H2和CO2分子间的结合能(Ec),通过结合能的差异预测SILMs对H2/CO2的分离能力,计算与实验结果相吻合.

  1. Capturing carbon dioxide as a polymer from natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chih-Chau; Tour, Josiah J; Kittrell, Carter; Espinal, Laura; Alemany, Lawrence B; Tour, James M

    2014-06-03

    Natural gas is considered the cleanest and recently the most abundant fossil fuel source, yet when it is extracted from wells, it often contains 10-20 mol% carbon dioxide (20-40 wt%), which is generally vented to the atmosphere. Efforts are underway to contain this carbon dioxide at the well-head using inexpensive and non-corrosive methods. Here we report nucleophilic porous carbons are synthesized from simple and inexpensive carbon-sulphur and carbon-nitrogen precursors. Infrared, Raman and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance signatures substantiate carbon dioxide fixation by polymerization in the carbon channels to form poly(CO2) under much lower pressures than previously required. This growing chemisorbed sulphur- or nitrogen-atom-initiated poly(CO2) chain further displaces physisorbed hydrocarbon, providing a continuous carbon dioxide selectivity. Once returned to ambient conditions, the poly(CO2) spontaneously depolymerizes, leading to a sorbent that can be easily regenerated without the thermal energy input that is required for traditional sorbents.

  2. Catalytic Formation of Propylene Carbonate from Supercritical Carbon Dioxide/Propylene Oxide Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Propylene carbonate was synthesized from supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2)/ propylene oxide mixture with phthalocyaninatoaluminium chloride (ClAlPc)/ tetrabutylammon-ium bromide (n-Bu4NBr) as catalyst. The high rate of reaction was attributed to rapid diffusion and the high miscibility of propylene oxide in SC-CO2 under employed conditions. Various reaction periods present different formation rate of propylene carbonate, mainly due to the existence of phase change during the reaction. The experimental results demonstrate that SC-CO2 could be used as not only an environmentally benign solvent but also a carbon precursor in synthesis.

  3. Serpentinite Carbonation in the Pollino Massif (southern Italy) for CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmela Dichicco, Maria; Mongelli, Giovanni; Paternoster, Michele; Rizzo, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    and medium to high-grade metamorphic rocks. Primary mantle minerals are olivine, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and spinel whereas serpentine, magnetite, chlorite, and amphibole are pseudomorphic minerals. Olivine is replaced by serpentine forming a mesh texture and orthopyroxene is mostly altered to bastite. Water chemistry indicates serpentinites interact with meteoric water producing a Mg-HCO3 type water in a system open to CO2. Brown Jr., G.E., Calas, G., (2011) - Environmental mineralogy - understanding element behavior in ecosystems. Comptes Rendus Geoscience 343, 90-112. Huijgen W.JJ., and Comans R.N.J., (2003) - Carbon dioxide sequestrationby mineral carbonation. Report Number ECN-C-03-016, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Petten, the Netherlands. Keller PJ, Schmidt AD, Wittbrodt J, Stelzer EHK. (2008) - Reconstruction of zebrafish early embryonic development by scanned light sheet microscopy. Science 322: 1065-1069. Margiotta, S., Mongelli, G., Summa, V., Paternoster, M., Fiore S. (2012) - Trace element distribution and Cr(VI) speciation in Ca-HCO3 and Mg-HCO3 spring waters from the northern sector of the Pollino massif, southern Italy. Journal of Geochemical Exploration. Power I.M., Wilson S.A., Dipple G.M. (2013) - Serpentinite Carbonation for CO2 Sequestration. Elements, 9, 115-121. Sansone M.T.C., Prosser G., Rizzo G., Tartarotti P. (2012) - Spinel-peridotites of the Frido Unit ophiolites: evidence for oceanic evolution. Periodico di Mineralogia. 81, 35-59. 10.2451/2012PM0003

  4. Post-combustion CO2 capture with a commercial activated carbon: Comparison of different regeneration strategies

    OpenAIRE

    González Plaza, Marta; García López, Susana; Rubiera González, Fernando; Pis Martínez, José Juan; Pevida García, Covadonga

    2010-01-01

    A commercial activated carbon supplied by Norit, R2030CO2, was evaluated as CO2 adsorbent under conditions relevant to post-combustion CO2 capture (ambient pressure and diluted CO2). It has been demonstrated that this carbon possesses sufficient CO2/N2 selectivity in order to efficiently separate a binary mixture composed of 17% CO2 in N2. Moreover, this carbon was easily completely regenerated and it did not show capacity decay after 10 consecutive cycles. Three different regeneration strate...

  5. Oxygen Generation from Carbon Dioxide for Advanced Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Sean; Duncan, Keith; Hagelin-Weaver, Helena; Neal, Luke; Sanchez, Jose; Paul, Heather L.; Wachsman, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The partial electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) using ceramic oxygen generators (COGs) is well known and widely studied. However, complete reduction of metabolically produced CO2 (into carbon and oxygen) has the potential of reducing oxygen storage weight for life support if the oxygen can be recovered. Recently, the University of Florida devel- oped novel ceramic oxygen generators employing a bilayer elec- trolyte of gadolinia-doped ceria and erbia-stabilized bismuth ox- ide (ESB) for NASA's future exploration of Mars. The results showed that oxygen could be reliably produced from CO2 at temperatures as low as 400 C. The strategy discussed here for advanced life support systems employs a catalytic layer com- bined with a COG cell so that CO2 is reduced all the way to solid carbon and oxygen without carbon buildup on the COG cell and subsequent deactivation.

  6. Stimulated Raman scattering process for nonlinear Raman lidar monitoring atmospheric carbon dioxide%非线性拉曼激光雷达系统检测CO2气体的受激拉曼过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵曰峰; 张寅超; 洪光烈; 刘小勤; 曹开法; 方欣; 赵培涛; 刘玉丽

    2005-01-01

    利用气体的受激拉曼散射增益效应的非线性雷达技术是探测大气中的CO2气体的重要方法,用Nd:YAG固体激光器(1064 nm)的三倍频光(354.7 nm)注入装有CO2和N2高压气体的拉曼管中,气体的受激拉曼散射(SRS)过程产生两种气体的一阶斯托克斯光,用来作为拉曼雷达的发射种子光源.介绍了产生光源的实验装置,论述了SRS中气体气压变化与一阶斯托克斯光能量输出变化的定量关系,得到最佳能量输出的优化条件,并对SRS中一阶斯托克斯光产生过程的物理机制进行了讨论.并根据光源的试验结果,设计了非线性受激拉曼雷达系统,对前期的普通拉曼雷达进行了实验,得到了初步的实验结果.%The lidar technique based on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) process has been extensively used in monitoring trace gas concentrations in the atmosphere. To monitor the atmospheric CO2 concentration, a nonlinear Raman lidar based on the SRS process was devised. A third harmonic Nd:YAG laser wave (354.7 nm) was injected into the Raman cells filled with high-pressure gases, CO2 and N2. The first order Stokes lights 371.66 nm(CO2) and 386.7 nm(N2) were generated by the stimulated Raman scattering process. The energy of the first order Stokes lights was measured by changing the gas pressure in the Raman cell and the Nd:YAG laser system output energy. The optimum pressures of CO2 and N2 in the Raman cell were achieved, which were 0.8 MPa and 3.5 MPa respectively. The principles of this physics process were also discussed.

  7. Potential impact of DOC accumulation on fCO2 and carbonate ion computations in ocean acidification experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Oschlies

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The internal consistency of measurements and computations of components of the CO2-system, namely total alkalinity (AT, total dissolved carbon dioxide (CT, CO2 fugacity (fCO2, and pH, has been confirmed repeatedly in open ocean studies when the CO2 system had been over determined. Differences between measured and computed properties, such as ΔfCO2 (=fCO2(measured – fCO2(computed from AT and CT/ fCO2(measured× 100, there are usually below 5%. Recently, Hoppe et al. (2010 provided evidence of significantly larger ΔfCO2 in experimental setups. These observations are currently not well understood. Here we discuss a case from a series of phytoplankton culture experiments with ΔfCO2 of up to about 25%. ΔfCO2 varied systematically during the course of these experiments and showed a clear correlation with the accumulation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC. Culture and mesocosm experiments are often carried out under very high initial nutrient concentrations, yielding high biomass concentrations that in turn often lead to a substantial build-up of DOC. DOC can reach concentrations much higher than typically observed in the open ocean. To the extent that DOC includes organic acids and bases, it will contribute to the alkalinity of the seawater contained in the experimental device. Our analysis suggests that whenever substantial amounts of DOC are produced during the experiment, standard computer programs used to compute CO2 fugacity can underestimate true fCO2 significantly when the computation is based on AT and CT. Alternative explanations for large ΔfCO2, e.g. uncertainties of pKs, are explored as well, but are found to be of minor importance. Unless the effect of DOC-alkalinity is accounted for, this might lead to significant errors in the interpretation of the system under consideration to the experimentally applied CO2 perturbation, which could misguide the development of parameterisations used in simulations with global carbon cycle models

  8. 腾冲新生代火山区CO2气体释放通量及其成因%Carbon dioxide emissions from Tengchong Cenozoic volcanic field,Yunnan Province, SW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成智慧; 郭正府; 张茂亮; 张丽红

    2014-01-01

    许多研究结果表明,休眠期火山主要通过喷气孔、温泉以及土壤微渗漏三种方式向大气圈释放温室气体.腾冲是我国重要的新生代火山区之一,同时也是主要的水热活动区,但是关于温室气体释放通量的研究却鲜有报道.本文首次估算了该地区土壤微渗漏和温泉水的CO2释放通量,并根据气体成分的分析结果探讨了这些温室气体的来源.2012 ~ 2013年连续两年使用密闭气室法现场测量了土壤微渗漏CO2通量,结果表明,马站、热海-黄瓜箐和五合-蒲川-团田三个地区通量较高,其中,热海-黄瓜箐地区平均通量最高,马站次之,五合-蒲川-团田地区最低.较高的土壤微渗漏CO2释放地区同前人推断的岩浆囊的分布在空间上具有较好的一致性;三个地区气体的3 He/4 He比值较高,三端元模拟结果表明,它们均有较高含量的幔源He释放;根据气体CO2/3 He与δ13CCO2模拟计算,CO2主要来源于碳酸盐矿物的脱碳作用和岩浆脱气.由此推断,CO2的释放同深部的岩浆囊具有重要的成因联系,它为碳酸盐矿物的脱碳作用提供了主要的热源,同时也是重要的物质来源.根据土壤微渗漏CO2平均通量及火山、地热异常区的分布面积估算出三个地区土壤微渗漏CO2的释放通量分别为1.8×106t/a(马站),3.2×106t/a(热海-黄瓜箐)和2.0×106t/a(五合-蒲川-团田).腾冲新生代火山区每年通过土壤微渗漏向大气圈释放CO2的量至少可达7.0×106t,为意大利Etna火山区释放CO2通量(1.4×107t/a)的二分之一.通过水岩相互作用计算温泉水中CO2气体的释放通量为4.9×104t/a.腾冲温泉气泡及温泉水向大气圈释放CO2气体的总通量为5.3×104t/a,远高于意大利Vulcano火山区温泉释放的CO2总通量(3.7×103t/a).

  9. 太阳能技术对我国未来减排CO2的贡献%Contribution of solar energy technology to reduction of carbon dioxide in china

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉文

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1世界对可再生能源减排作用的估计 可再生能源不但是重要的后续能源,而且对未来减排CO2将发挥重要作用.国际上许多组织和国家预测,本世纪中叶可再生能源在一次性能源消耗中将超过50%.最近20年来,各种可再生能源技术的日趋成熟和生产规模的不断扩大,对能源的贡献也日渐增大.可以预料,随着可再生能源的快速发展,对未来CO2减排的贡献会越来越大.

  10. Study on Phase Equilibria of Plant Oil Deodorizer Condensates with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide%超临界CO2和植物油脱臭馏出物相平衡研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金君素; 李群生; 张泽廷; 于恩平

    2004-01-01

    研究了植物油脱臭馏出物在超临界CO2中的相平衡问题.基于组分的相似性把含有复杂组分的植物油脱臭馏出物简化为两种虚拟组分,用改进的混合规则和超临界组分的能量参数计算式,结合PR状态方程进行计算.理论计算与实验数据相吻合,为间歇式或连续逆流式超临界CO2萃取分离的设计提供了依据.

  11. 深冷轻烃中CO2脱除工艺模拟分析%Simulation analysis of removal process for carbon dioxide from deep cooling light hydrocarbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘龙; 何英华; 李洪涛; 姜道华; 赵晶莹; 宋杰萍

    2011-01-01

    The removal of CO2 was designed by Aspen Plus software with the deep cooling light hydrocarbons from oil field as the raw material. The results showed that under the optimum operating pressure( 1.6 MPa), the stripping tower could remove 90% CO2 (mass fraction) from the light hydrocarbons, the treated product could be used as cracking feedstock.%以油田深冷轻烃为原料,利用Aspen Plus工艺模拟软件,对原料脱除二氧化碳进行模拟设计.结果表明,采用提馏塔分离方案,在提馏塔最佳操作压力为1.6 MPa的条件下,可脱除深冷轻烃中质量分数为90%的二氧化碳,满足裂解装置对原料的要求.

  12. 超临界CO2脱咖啡因绿茶加工对茶内含成分影响的研究%The effects of decaffeination with supercritic carbon dioxide on other constituents of green tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱跃进; 周卫龙; 毛志方; 徐建峰; 刘宗岸; 涂云飞; 李大伟; 王盈峰; 李强

    2009-01-01

    为了满足特殊人群的饮茶需求,利用国产的超临界设备.进行超临界CO2脱咖啡因茶工艺研究,本文报告经超临界CO2脱咖啡因加工后的脱咖啡因绿茶,咖啡因含量达到≤0.4%时,其茶多酚、氨基酸等主要内含成分的变化很小,嫩的原料叶绿素损失较多;也作了感观审评评价.

  13. 辽河三角洲滨海湿地生态系统CO2释放机制%EMISSION OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN THE COASTAL WETLANDS OF THE LIAOHE DELTA, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余雪洋; 叶思源; Anders H Nielsen; 赵广明; 袁红明; 丁喜桂; 王锦; Hans Brix

    2014-01-01

    二氧化碳(CO2)是滨海湿地生态系统主要释放的温室气体,对其释放机制的研究是碳循环研究的重要内容.利用LI-8100A土壤呼吸速率检测系统,应用封闭系统的动态气室法,通过2012年5月对辽河三角洲光滩、翅碱蓬(Suaeda salsa)和芦苇(Phragmites australis)2种典型植被湿地类型的系统呼吸通量及其不同实验处理后的呼吸通量研究,探讨在这一季节条件下湿地生态系统的CO2释放途径与机制.研究表明,芦苇湿地呼吸通量[(3 041.59±320.66) mg·m-2·h-1]高于翅碱蓬湿地[(534.09±56.06)mg·m-2·h-1],且站立植物的呼吸量的贡献在翅碱蓬湿地仅占24%,在芦苇湿地占40%.特别地,当湿地植物被移除后,湿地系统所产生的CO2通量会显著增高,由此揭示了滨海湿地植物一旦被破坏,其生态系统在短时间内会向大气释放大量的CO2.

  14. Carbon Dioxide Corrosion:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup

    2008-01-01

    CO2 corrosion is a general problem in the industry and it is expensive. The focus of this study is an oil gas production related problem. CO2 corrosion is observed in offshore natural gas transportation pipelines. A general overview of the problem is presented in chapter 1. The chemical system...... consists mainly of CO2-Na2CO3-NaHCO3-MEG-H2O. Sodium is injected in the pipelines as NaOH in order to pH-stabilize the pipeline to avoid corrosion and MEG is injected in order to prevent gas hydrates. There are a great number of models available in the literature which may predict CO2 corrosion...... with the basic thermodynamics of electrolytes in chapter 2, the extension and general description of electrolyte mass transport in chapter 3, and the electrochemical kinetics of corrosion in chapter 4. A literature overview of CO2 corrosion is shown in chapter 5 and possible extensions of the models...

  15. 13Cr系列不锈钢在模拟井下介质中的CO2腐蚀研究%INVESTIGATION ON CARBON DIOXIDE CORROSION PERFORMANCE OF VARIOUS 13Cr STEELS IN SIMULATED STRATUM WATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯赞; 周庆军; 王起江; 张忠铧; 齐慧滨; 王俊

    2012-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of various 13Cr steels (marked as 13Cr-0, 13Cr1, M13Cr and S13Cr) in the CO2 corrosion environment was investigated by high temperature and high pressure (HTHP) autoclave under conditions of different temperatures, concentrations of Cl ion and partial pressures of CO2 to simulate the downhole surroundings of a certain oil field. Their corrosion scales were observed and analyzed by scanning elec- tron microscope(SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer(EDS), X-ray diffraction(XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS). The results shown that corrosion rates of all steels increased with rising of temperature, concentration of Cl ion and CO2 partial pressure; temperature had the most notable impact on corrosion rates, at a high temperature, the four 13Cr steels exhibited conspicuous differences in corrosion rates; the order of corrosion rates of the four steels was 13Cr-0〉13Cr-1〉M13Cr〉S13Cr. Furthermore, the morphologies and microstructures of corrosion scales on different steels differed significantly from each other.%根据某油田不同井况条件,配制不同井下模拟溶液,用高温高压釜研究了4种不同成分的13Cr马氏体不锈钢在不同温度、Cl^-浓度和CO2分压下的腐蚀行为,对腐蚀性能进行了评价,用SEM,EDS,XRD和XPS等方法对腐蚀产物的形貌与成分进行了观察分析。结果表明,随着温度的升高及Cl^-浓度和CO2分压的增大,13Cr系列不锈钢的腐蚀速率均相应增大,腐蚀速率由高到低的排序为13Cr-0〉13Cr-1〉M13Cr〉S13Cr;其腐蚀产物膜的形貌与结构也有明显差异。

  16. 氯化铁对高硫石油焦-CO2气化的催化作用%Catalytic Activity of Ferric Chloride for High-Sulfur Petroleum Coke-Carbon Dioxide Gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡启静; 周志杰; 刘鑫; 于广锁

    2012-01-01

    以FeCl3为催化剂,采用热天平考察了FeCl3添加量、气化温度、FeCl3添加方法对高硫石油焦-CO2气化反应转化率和气化反应速率的影响,采用4种动力学模型对石油焦-CO2催化气化动力学曲线进行拟合,并对石油焦催化气化残渣进行XRD分析.结果表明,高硫石油焦催化气化反应速率随气化温度、FeCl3添加量的增加而增大,随转化率的增加而减小,与非催化石油焦气化的单峰动力学曲线不同;采用离子交换法添加FeCl3比采用浸渍法的催化气化效果好.FeCl3催化石油焦-CO2气化反应初始阶段,铁主要以Fe3C形式存在,随着反应的进行大部分Fe3C与石油焦中的S结合形成FeS,导致催化剂活性降低.4种动力学模型拟合结果表明,随机孔模型效果最好,相关系数在0.96以上.%FeCl3 was used as a catalyst for high-sulfur petroleum coke-CO2 gasification. The gasification reactivity of petroleum coke with different FeCl3 loadings and loading methods was examined by using a thermogravimetric analyzer. Four kinetic models were used to fit the kinetic curve for catalytic gasification of petroleum coke. The residue of catalytic petroleum coke-CO2 gasification was analyzed by XRD. The results showed that the gasification rate of petroleum coke increased with increase of FeCl3 loadings within the experiment range, and decreased with the increase of conversion in whole course of catalytic gasification, which is different from the single-peak kinetic curve of non-catalytic petroleum coke-CO2 gasification. In catalytic petroleum coke-CO2 gasification, the catalytic activity of FeCl3 loaded by ion exchange method was higher than that by impregnation method. At the initial stage of gasification the precipitated iron existed as Fe3C, which quickly reacted with S in petroleum coke to form FeS, leading to the catalytic activity loss. The random pore model described well the kinetic curve for catalytic gasification of petroleum coke

  17. Extraction of Rosemary Oil by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid and Activity Component of the Extract%超临界CO2流体萃取法提取迷迭香中主要挥发性成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎乃维; 马丽杰; 金海珠

    2014-01-01

    Essential oil was extracted from the stems and leaves of the plant produced in Yunnan by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extraction. With the single-factor and orthogonal design, to determine the optimal conditions test. Experimental results show that the optimal conditions as follow:Extraction temperature 40℃, Pressure 20 MPa, Time 120 min, CO2 Flow 25 L/h. The activity components of the essential oil were analyzed by GC-MS. From the Experimental date, we can see Essential oil composition is complex and diverse. Mixed aroma of high contents, such as Camphor (25%),Eucalyptol (32%),Ammonium acetat e (9%),beta.-Pinene (4%), make up the featured aroma of Rosemary.%以云南迷迭香为原料,利用超临界CO2流体萃取装置提取迷迭香精油,然后采用GC-MS联用分析仪对所得的萃取物进行分析。通过单因素和正交试验优化萃取条件,实验结果表明萃取温度40℃、萃取压力20 MPa、萃取时间120 min、CO2流量25 L/h为最优萃取条件。通过GC-MS联用进行活性成分分析,所得迷迭香精油主要是樟脑(25%),桉叶油素(32%),乙酸铵(9%), beta.-蒎烯(4%)等混合香气构成了迷迭香的特征香气。

  18. CO2 capture by biomimetic adsorption: enzyme mediated co2 absorption for post-combustion carbon sequestration and storage process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russo, M.E.; Olivieri, G.; Salatino, P.; Marzocchella, A.

    2013-01-01

    The huge emission of greenhouse gases from fossil-fuelled power plants is emphasizing the need for efficient Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies. The biomimetic CO2 absorption in aqueous solutions has been recently investigated as a promising innovative alternative for post-combustion CCS.

  19. Carbon dioxide uptake by a temperate tidal sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Wim

    2007-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange between the atmosphere and the Wadden Sea, a shallow coastal region along the northern Netherlands, has been measured from April 2006 onwards on a tidal flat and over open water. Tidal flat measurements were done using a flux chamber, and ship borne measurements using a

  20. Supercritical carbon dioxide process for pasteurization of fruit juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) nonthermal processing inactivates microorganisms in juices using non-toxic and non-reactive CO2. However, data is lacking on the inactivation of E. coli K12 and L. plantarum in apple cider using pilot plant scale SCCO2 equipment. For this study, pasteurized pres...

  1. Trade, production fragmentation, and China's carbon dioxide emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Pei, Jiansuo; Yang, Cuihong

    2012-01-01

    An input-output framework is adopted to estimate China's carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions as generated by its exports in 2002. More than one half of China's exports are related to international production fragmentation. These processing exports generate relatively little value added but also relativel

  2. Distribution of Carbon Dioxide Produced by People in a Room:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naydenov, Kiril Georgiev; Baránková, Petra; Sundell, Jan;

    2004-01-01

    Carbon dioxide exhaled by people can be used as a tracer gas for air change measurements in homes. Good mixing of tracer gas with room air is a necessary condition to obtain accurate results. However, the use of fans to ensure mixing is inconvenient. The natural room distribution of metabolic CO2...

  3. Drivers of seasonality in Arctic carbon dioxide fluxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbufong, Herbert Njuabe

    and the potential for widespread feedbacks with global consequences. In this thesis, I present and discuss the findings of an investigation of comparable drivers of the seasonality in carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes across heterogeneous Arctic tundra ecosystems. Due to the remoteness and the harsh climatic conditions...

  4. Solubilities of ferrocene and acetylferrocene in supercritical carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazemi, Somayeh; Belandria, Veronica; Janssen, Nico;

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the solubilities of ferrocene and acetylferrocene in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) were measured using an analytical method in a quasi-flow apparatus. High-performance liquid chromatography was applied through an online sampling procedure to determine the concentration...

  5. Application of carbon isotope for discriminating sources of soil CO2 in karst area, Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎廷宇; 王世杰

    2001-01-01

    Using carbon isotope of soil CO2 this paper discussed the sources of soil CO2 in karst area, Guizhou Province, China. Oxidation-decomposition of organic matter, respiration of plant root and activity of microbe are thought to be the major sources of soil CO2. However, in karst area, the contribution of dissolution of underlying carbonate rock to soil CO2 should be considered as in acidic environment. Atmospheric CO2 is the major composition of soil CO2 in surface layer of soil profiles and its proportion in soil CO2 decreases with increase of soil depth. CO2 produced by dissolution of carbonate rock contributes 34%-46% to soil CO2 below the depth of 10cm in the studied soil profiles covered by grass.

  6. Carbon dioxide digital subtraction angiography manifestations of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Wei; LI Yan-hao; HE Xiao-feng; CHEN Yong; ZENG Qing-le; XU Xiao-li

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the imaging features and clinical significance of carbon dioxide digital subtraction angiography (CO2-DSA) in the diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Methods: Both CO2-DSA and conventional DSA were performed in all 47 patients with HCC, and the angiographic manifestations of CO2-DSA were compared with those of conventional DSA in the same patients.Results: Peripheral arterial and capillary imaging by CO2-DSA was inferior to that by conventional DSA, although blood pools were well visualized with CO2. Improved visualization of arterioportal shunting (APS)was obtained with CO2-DSA compared with that by conventional angiography. APS was observed in 33 cases by CO2-DSA and in 12 cases by conventional angiography (P<0. 001). Retrograde visualization of the portal vein (PV) trunk and its large branches was demonstrated in 16 cases by CO2-DSA and in 1 case by conventional DSA (P<0. 001). The manifestation of lipiodol retention in the tumors was consistent with CO2-DSA images after TAE in 38 cases, and with those of conventional DSA in 23 cases (P<0. 01). Conclusion: CO2-DSA was superior to conventional DSA in the detection of APS and retrograde visualization of PV system,and the former can provide usefulness information for the treatment planning (chemoembolization) and patient prognosis. Demonstration of APS by CO2-DSA may suggest the presence of intrahepatic metastases.

  7. Carbon dioxide balneotherapy and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagourelias, Efstathios D.; Zorou, Paraskevi G.; Tsaligopoulos, Miltiadis; Athyros, Vasilis G.; Karagiannis, Asterios; Efthimiadis, Georgios K.

    2011-09-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) balneotherapy is a kind of remedy with a wide spectrum of applications which have been used since the Middle Ages. However, its potential use as an adjuvant therapeutic option in patients with cardiovascular disease is not yet fully clarified. We performed a thorough review of MEDLINE Database, EMBASE, ISI WEB of Knowledge, COCHRANE database and sites funded by balneotherapy centers across Europe in order to recognize relevant studies and aggregate evidence supporting the use of CO2 baths in various cardiovascular diseases. The three main effects of CO2 hydrotherapy during whole body or partial immersion, including decline in core temperature, an increase in cutaneous blood flow, and an elevation of the score on thermal sensation, are analyzed on a pathophysiology basis. Additionally, the indications and contra-indications of the method are presented in an evidence-based way, while the need for new methodologically sufficient studies examining the use of CO2 baths in other cardiovascular substrates is discussed.

  8. Crescimento e índices de troca gasosa em plantas de pepino irrigadas com água enriquecida com CO2 Growth analysis and gaseous exchange in cucumber plants irrigated with carbon dioxide enriched water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathia A.L. Canizares

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do enriquecimento da água de irrigação com CO2 sobre índices fisiológicos de desenvolvimento e troca gasosa de folhas de plantas de pepino do tipo japonês, cultivados em ambiente protegido. Os experimentos realizados em duas épocas do ano foram instalados em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com 4 tratamentos e 5 repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelos híbridos Hokuho e Tsuyataro, irrigados com água comum ou enriquecida com CO2, em uma concentração de 1‰ no primeiro e 0,25‰ no segundo experimento. A produção de massa de material seco e área foliar adotaram tendência exponencial, não sendo possível observar o início da diminuição da taxa de produção de massa do material seco aos 63 dias após transplante (DAT. A taxa de crescimento da comunidade e taxa de crescimento relativa do híbrido Hokuho irrigado com água comum foi diferente do irrigado com água enriquecida com CO2, no entanto, no híbrido Tsuyataro foram semelhantes. A taxa de assimilação líquida atingiu a máxima pendente na fase de crescimento vegetativo e floração, e foi reduzida drasticamente após os 20 DAT no híbrido Hokuho, e após os 35 DAT no híbrido Tsuyataro. A razão de área foliar diminuiu ligeiramente nos dois híbridos com o desenvolvimento do cultivo. No início observaram-se diferenças entre irrigação com água comum e enriquecida com CO2, porém após 20 DAT não se apreciaram mais diferenças. Quanto a troca gasosa, a taxa assimilatória líquida de CO2 e de transpiração, conductância estomática e eficiência no uso da água foram semelhantes entre plantas irrigadas com água comum e enriquecida com CO2 durante o primeiro semestre. Já no segundo semestre, maiores valores foram registrados pelas plantas irrigadas com água enriquecida.Experiments under protected cultivation, in two sowing dates, were set up to evaluate the effect of irrigation water enriched or not with CO2, on

  9. Adsorption of Carbon Dioxide on Activated Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Guo; Liping Chang; Kechang Xie

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption of CO2 on a raw activated carbon A and three modified activated carbon samples B, C, and D at temperatures ranging from 303 to 333 K and the thermodynamics of adsorption have been investigated using a vacuum adsorption apparatus in order to obtain more information about the effect of CO2 on removal of organic sulfur-containing compounds in industrial gases. The active ingredients impregnated in the carbon samples show significant influence on the adsorption for CO2 and its volumes adsorbed on modified carbon samples B, C, and D are all larger than that on the raw carbon sample A. On the other hand, the physical parameters such as surface area, pore volume, and micropore volume of carbon samples show no influence on the adsorbed amount of CO2. The Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) equation was the best model for fitting the adsorption data on carbon samples A and B, while the Freundlich equation was the best fit for the adsorption on carbon samples C and D. The isosteric heats of adsorption on carbon samples A, B, C, and D derived from the adsorption isotherms using the Clapeyron equation decreased slightly increasing surface loading. The heat of adsorption lay between 10.5 and 28.4 kJ/mol, with the carbon sample D having the highest value at all surface coverages that were studied. The observed entropy change associated with the adsorption for the carbon samples A, B, and C (above the surface coverage of 7 ml/g) was lower than the theoretical value for mobile adsorption. However, it was higher than the theoretical value for mobile adsorption but lower than the theoretical value for localized adsorption for carbon sample D.

  10. Nanostructured Graphene-Titanium Dioxide Composites Synthesized by a Single-Step Aerosol Process for Photoreduction of Carbon Dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei-Ning; Jiang, Yi; Fortner, John D.; Biswas, Pratim

    2014-01-01

    Photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) to hydrocarbons by using nanostructured materials activated by solar energy is a promising approach to recycling CO2 as a fuel feedstock. CO2 photoreduction, however, suffers from low efficiency mainly due to the inherent drawback of fast electron-hole recombination in photocatalysts. This work reports the synthesis of nanostructured composites of titania (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulated by reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets via an ...

  11. Sterilization Mechanisms and Synergistic Strategy of Dense-phase Carbon Dioxide (DPCD) Treatment to Heat-sensitive Juice%高密度CO_2杀菌机制与协同措施研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆梅; 周先汉; 杨毅; 司文攻; 李志强; 刘坤; 高媛

    2010-01-01

    高密度CO_2杀菌技术对营养细菌的杀菌是切实可行的,但是在较温和条件下,很难杀灭芽胞:已报道杀菌研究结果绝大部分是将微生物接种在指定的基质开展,基质影响杀菌效果,故研究成果难以实际应用:营养细菌的杀菌机制还没有完全研究清楚,芽胞的杀灭机制几乎没有研究.为此亟待进一步展开营养细菌和芽胞杀菌机制研究,为高密度CO_2杀菌技术的实用化提供理论基础.本文回顾了国内外研究状况,提出了进一步工业化前需要解决的酸化杀菌、萃取杀菌、芽胞杀火机理以及协同措施等应用基础问题.

  12. The Manufacture of Polymer Nanocomposite Materials Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chen

    2011-01-01

    The use of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) as a processing aid to help exfoliate nano-clays and improve their dispersion during melt blending in polymer matrices has been reported in the literature. One of the best processes in terms of improving the degree of nano-clay dispersion and composite mechanical properties was developed in our laboratory. This process allows the clay to be in direct contact with scCO2 and expanding the clay-CO2 mixture via rapid depressurization into a two-stag...

  13. Highly precise atmospheric oxygen measurements as a tool to detect leaks of carbon dioxide from Carbon Capture and Storage sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    In Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuel combustion is stored underground into a geological formation. Although the storage of CO2 is considered as safe, leakage to the atmosphere is an important concern and monitoring is necessary. Detecting and quantifying leaks o

  14. The effects of atmospheric [CO2] on carbon isotope fractionation and magnesium incorporation into biogenic marine calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Veronica

    1997-01-01

    The influences of atmospheric carbon dioxide on the fractionation of carbon isotopes and the magnesium incorporation into biogenic marine calcite were investigated using samples of the calcareous alga Amphiroa and benthic foraminifer Sorites grown in the Biosphere 2 Ocean system under variable atmospheric CO2 concentrations (approximately 500 to 1200 ppm). Carbon isotope fractionation was studied in both the organic matter and the skeletal carbonate. Magnesium analysis was to be performed on the carbonate removed during decalcification. These data have not been collected due to technical problems. Carbon isotope data from Amphiroa yields a linear relation between [CO2] and Delta(sup 13)C(sub Corg)values suggesting that the fractionation of carbon isotopes during photosynthesis is positively correlated with atmospheric [CO2]. [CO2] and Delta(sup 13)C(sub Corg) values for Sorites produce a relation that is best described by a hyperbolic function where Delta(sup 13)C(sub Corg) values increase between 300 and 700 ppm and decrease from 700 to 1200 ppm. Further investigation of this relation and Sorites physiology is needed.

  15. CO2 sequestration using accelerated gas-solid carbonation of pre-treated EAF steel-making bag house dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naas, Muftah H; El Gamal, Maisa; Hameedi, Suhaib; Mohamed, Abdel-Mohsen O

    2015-06-01

    Mineral CO2 sequestration is a promising process for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, alkaline calcium-rich dust particles collected from bag filters of electric arc furnaces (EAF) for steel making were utilized as a viable raw material for mineral CO2 sequestration. The dust particles were pre-treated through hydration, drying and screening. The pre-treated particles were then subjected to direct gas-solid carbonation reaction in a fluidized-bed reactor. The carbonated products were characterized to determine the overall sequestration capacity and the mineralogical structures. Leaching tests were also performed to measure the extracted minerals from the carbonated dust and evaluate the carbonation process on dust stabilization. The experimental results indicated that CO2 could be sequestered using the pre-treated bag house dust. The maximum sequestration of CO2 was 0.657 kg/kg of dust, based on the total calcium content. The highest degree of carbonation achieved was 42.5% and the carbonation efficiency was 69% at room temperature.

  16. SIMULATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM DAIRY FARMS TO ASSESS GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION STRATEGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farming practices can have a large impact on the soil carbon cycle and the resulting net emission of greenhouse gases including carbon dioxide (CO**2), methane and nitrous oxide. Primary sources of CO**2 emission on dairy farms are soil, plant, and animal respiration with smaller contributions from ...

  17. Preparation of Hydrophobic Silica Membranes for Methane and Carbon Dioxide Separation%用于分离CH4/CO2疏水性SiO2膜的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文秀; 葛珂宁; 张兵; 陈立峰; 张志刚

    2013-01-01

    分别采用KH-570,KH-560和A-151代替部分TEOS作为前驱体,通过溶胶-凝胶法制备了疏水性SiO2气体分离膜,利用IR,BET,TG,SEM以及接触角测试仪等对其进行了表征,并对(0.8KH-570)SiO2膜进行了CH4/CO2气体渗透性能评价.结果表明,当A-151,KH-570和KH-560与TEOS的摩尔比均为0.8时,膜的接触角分别从28.6°增大到97.8,94.2°和90.7°.膜样品的疏水性增强,修饰后的膜孔径分布更加狭窄,平均孔径减小,抵抗水蒸汽的能力明显增强;膜层无开裂,表面完整.其中,KH-570修饰的膜性能较好,在n(KH-570)/n(TEOS)=0.8时,压力为30kPa的条件下,(0.8KH-570)SiO2膜对CH4/CO2的分离因子为2.13,大于纯SiO2膜的分离因子(1.58)和努森扩散理论的分离因子(1.67),分离效果较好.%Hydrophobic silica gas separation membranes were prepared by acid catalysed co-hydrolysis and condensation reaction of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxy-silane(KH-570) or γ-glycidyltrimethoxysilane(KH-560) or vinyl triethoxysilane in ethanol,characterized by IR,BET,TG-DTG , SEM, the measurement of contact angle,and (0. 8KH-570) silica membranes were evaluated by CH4/CO2 gas permeability. The results showed that,as the molar ratio of A-151/TEOS, KH-570/TEOS and KH-560/TEOS increased to 0. 8, it was found that the water contact angle were respectively 97. 8,94. 2°and 90. 7°, and the unmodified membrane was only 28. 6°. The hy-drophobicity of modified membrane samples enhanced. Modified silica membranes had a desirable pore structure,pore size distribution was more narrow and pore width gradually reduced. In the moisture environment , modified silica membranes could be better for resisting water vapor than the unmodified silica membranes. Modified silica membranes were basically free crack, and the surfaces were integrated. Modified silica membrane by KH-570 was best. For the modified silica membranes with KH-570/ TEOS molar ratio of 0. 8,CH4/CO2 separation

  18. Carbon analysis for inspecting carbonation of concrete using a TEA CO2 laser-induced plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Kiichiro; Idris, Nasrullah; Wada, Munehide; Kurniawan, Hendrik; Tsuyuki, Kenichiro; Miura, Satoru

    2004-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that a spectrochemical analysis of carbon using the laser plasma method can be successfully applied to inspect the carbonation of concrete by detecting carbon produced in aged concrete by a chemical reaction of Ca(OH)2 with CO2 gas in environmental air, turning into CaCO3, which induces degradation of the quality of building concrete. A comparative study has been made using a TEA CO2 laser (500-1000 mJ) and a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser (50-200 mJ) to search for the optimum conditions for carbon analysis, proving the advantage of the TEA CO2 laser for this purpose. Also, it was clarified that laser irradiation with suitable defocusing conditions is a crucial point for obtaining high sensitivity in the detection of carbon. Practical experiments on the inspection of carbonation were carried out using both a concrete sample that had been intentionally carbonated by exposure to high concentrations of CO2 gas and a naturally carbonated concrete sample. As a result, good coincidence was observed between the laser method and the ordinary method, which uses the chemical indicator phenolphthalein, implying that this laser technique is applicable as an in situ quantitative method of inspection for carbonation of concrete. PMID:18070383

  19. Review on Capture and Utilization Technology of Carbon Dioxide in Coal-fired Power Plant%燃煤电厂CO2捕集与利用技术综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪龙; 曾鸣

    2014-01-01

    随着全球气候变暖的不断加剧,C02排放控制技术正受到越来越多的关注.文章全面介绍了近期国内外适用于燃煤电厂的二氧化碳捕集与利用技术的研究进展,对以氨水作为吸收剂的化学吸收法、CO2碳化利用技术、CO2捕集与矿化利用一体化技术做了重点介绍和客观评价.其中,氨水、法相比其他吸收工艺具有更高的吸收能力,较快的反应速度,不产生腐蚀问题,且能耗和价格较低;碳化利用技术因可用矿物资源储量大、分布广,受地域限制较小而表现出巨大的发展潜力;C02捕集与矿化利用一体化的新工艺,被证明能够克服传统工艺高能耗、低效率的缺点,同时还能生产有较高附加值的副产品来降低成本,有着良好的发展前景.

  20. Analysis of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of fatty acids from Ficus carica L. by GC-MS%超临界CO2萃取无花果脂肪酸的GC—MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强立敏; 苑社强; 韩璐; 寇天舒; 张明; 张子德

    2012-01-01

    The extraction process of fatty acids from Ficus carica L. by supercritical CO2 fluid extraction technology(SFE) was studied with orthogonal test. The result showed that the optimum condition was as follows:extraction pressure was 30MPa,temperature was 45℃,CQ2 flux was 35kg/h,extraction time was 60min, and the extraction rate was 4.5% .After the extracted fatty acids complex was analyzed by GO-MS,24 components were separated ,and 20 compounds were identified. The relative content of unsaturated fatty acids reached up to 82.33%.%以无花果为实验试材,利用正交实验法对超临界CO2萃取无花果脂肪酸的提取条件进行了研究。结果表明,最佳提取条件为:萃取压力30MPa,温度45℃,流量35kg/h,萃取时间60min,此条件下无花果脂肪酸提取率为4.5%。采用气相色谱-质谱联用技术(GC—MS)测定最佳萃取条件下所得脂肪酸的化学成分及其相对质量分数,共分离出24种成分并鉴定出其中的20种,其中不饱和脂肪酸相对含量约占82.33%。

  1. Amazon River carbon dioxide outgassing fuelled by wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, Gwenaël; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Artigas, L. Felipe; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Benedetti, Marc F.; Vidal, Luciana; Meziane, Tarik; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Bernardes, Marcelo C.; Savoye, Nicolas; Deborde, Jonathan; Souza, Edivaldo Lima; Albéric, Patrick; Landim de Souza, Marcelo F.; Roland, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    River systems connect the terrestrial biosphere, the atmosphere and the ocean in the global carbon cycle. A recent estimate suggests that up to 3 petagrams of carbon per year could be emitted as carbon dioxide (CO2) from global inland waters, offsetting the carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. It is generally assumed that inland waters emit carbon that has been previously fixed upstream by land plant photosynthesis, then transferred to soils, and subsequently transported downstream in run-off. But at the scale of entire drainage basins, the lateral carbon fluxes carried by small rivers upstream do not account for all of the CO2 emitted from inundated areas downstream. Three-quarters of the world's flooded land consists of temporary wetlands, but the contribution of these productive ecosystems to the inland water carbon budget has been largely overlooked. Here we show that wetlands pump large amounts of atmospheric CO2 into river waters in the floodplains of the central Amazon. Flooded forests and floating vegetation export large amounts of carbon to river waters and the dissolved CO2 can be transported dozens to hundreds of kilometres downstream before being emitted. We estimate that Amazonian wetlands export half of their gross primary production to river waters as dissolved CO2 and organic carbon, compared with only a few per cent of gross primary production exported in upland (not flooded) ecosystems. Moreover, we suggest that wetland carbon export is potentially large enough to account for at least the 0.21 petagrams of carbon emitted per year as CO2 from the central Amazon River and its floodplains. Global carbon budgets should explicitly address temporary or vegetated flooded areas, because these ecosystems combine high aerial primary production with large, fast carbon export, potentially supporting a substantial fraction of CO2 evasion from inland waters.

  2. Carbon Dioxide - Our Common "Enemy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Macatangay, Ariel

    2009-01-01

    Health effects of brief and prolonged exposure to carbon dioxide continue to be a concern for those of us who manage this pollutant in closed volumes, such as in spacecraft and submarines. In both examples, considerable resources are required to scrub the atmosphere to levels that are considered totally safe for maintenance of crew health and performance. Defining safe levels is not a simple task because of many confounding factors, including: lack of a robust database on human exposures, suspected significant variations in individual susceptibility, variations in the endpoints used to assess potentially adverse effects, the added effects of stress, and the fluid shifts associated with micro-gravity (astronauts only). In 2007 the National Research Council proposed revised Continuous Exposure Guidelines (CEGLs) and Emergency Exposure Guidelines (EEGLs) to the U.S. Navy. Similarly, in 2008 the NASA Toxicology Group, in cooperation with another subcommittee of the National Research Council, revised Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs). In addition, a 1000-day exposure limit was set for long-duration spaceflights to celestial bodies. Herein we examine the rationale for the levels proposed to the U.S. Navy and compare this rationale with the one used by NASA to set its limits. We include a critical review of previous studies on the effects of exposure to carbon dioxide and attempt to dissect out the challenges associated with setting fully-defensible limits. We also describe recent experiences with management of carbon dioxide aboard the International Space Station with 13 persons aboard. This includes the tandem operations of the Russian Vozduk and the U.S. Carbon Dioxide Removal System. A third removal system is present while the station is docked to the Shuttle spacecraft, so our experience includes the lithium hydroxide system aboard Shuttle for the removal of carbon dioxide. We discuss strategies for highly-efficient, regenerable removal of carbon

  3. The underground storages of carbon dioxide. Juridical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the reduction of the carbon dioxide emissions in the air, the underground storage of the CO2 is studied. Some experimentation are already realized in the world and envisaged in France. This document aims to study the juridical aspects of these first works in France. After a presentation of the realization conditions and some recalls on the carbon dioxide its capture and storage, the natural CO2 underground storages and the first artificial storages are discussed. The CO2 waste qualification, in the framework of the environmental legislation is then detailed with a special task on the Lacq region. The problem of the sea underground storages is also presented. (A.L.B.)

  4. Carbon dioxide reduction in housing: experiences in urban renewal projects in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Waals, F.M. van der; Vermeulen, W.J.V.; Glasbergen, P.

    2003-01-01

    It is increasingly being recognised that the housing sector can contribute to reductions in the levels of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The renewal of existing residential areas offers opportunities to reduce CO 2 emissions. However, technical options for CO 2 -reduction, such as insulation, solar energy, and combined heat and power, often fail to materialise. For a better understanding of why options for CO 2 -reduction are applied or rejected, it is insufficient to consider only the economic and ...

  5. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and ECBM in the Powder River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, L. B.; Zoback, M. D.

    2003-12-01

    Coal seams are both a source of coal bed methane (CBM) and a potential carbon dioxide sink. For sub-bituminous coals like those in the Powder River Basin (PRB), the CO2/CH4 adsorption ratio is approximately 10:1, which indicates the significant potential for sequestering carbon dioxide. In addition, injected carbon dioxide would also enhance the production of methane from the coal seam because of its higher adsorption capacity. This means that the injection of carbon dioxide in coal beds may have the dual benefit of sequestering carbon dioxide and enhancing CBM production. Moreover, if carbon dioxide injection efficiently displaces the adsorbed methane, it may reduce the amount of water produced from CBM wells as part of the depressurization process. Our work in the Powder River Basin indicates that drilling and completion operations result in hydraulic fracturing of the coal and possibly the adjacent strata. This would result in both excess CBM water production and inefficient depressurization of coals. We have been able to collect water-enhancement tests data in coals to obtain the magnitude of the least principal stress in the coal seam. The preliminary data we have analyzed indicates that the hydrofracs are horizontal in some areas because the least principal stress corresponds to the overburden. It is interesting to speculate that one could use horizontal hydrofracs near the bottom of the coal seam for carbon dioxide injection and a horizontal hydrofrac near the upper part of the coal seam for methane production.

  6. Bio-Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Removal for Air Revitalization in Exploration Life Support Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An important aspect of the ISS air revitalization system for life support is the removal of carbon dioxide from cabin air and retrieves oxygen from CO2. The current...

  7. EVALUATION OF SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE SOLVENT IN SPRAY COATING APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation, part of the Pollution Prevention Clean Technology Demonstration (CTD) Program, addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues of spray paint application using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2). Anion Carbide has developed this technology and...

  8. Refrigeration plants using carbon dioxide as refrigerant: measuring and modelling the solubility and diffusion of carbon dioxide in polymers used as sealing materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Solms, Nicolas; Kristensen, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    Because of increased environmental pressure, there is currently a movement away from more traditional refrigerants such as HCFC's toward refrigerants with lower global warming potential such as carbon dioxide (CO2). However, the use of CO2 as a refrigerant requires a refrigeration cycle...

  9. Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emission and Carbon Reduction Benefit Due to Implementation of Energy Saving and Emission Reduction in Shanghai%上海市能源CO2排放及节能减排的减碳效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉

    2011-01-01

    以2006年为基准,采用IPCC清单指南推荐的方法测算了上海市能源活动产生的CO2排放清单.并采用情景分析方法,预测了高碳情景和低碳情景下七海市能源需求及相应的二氧化碳排放趋势,探讨了节能减排等低碳政策所产生的碳削减的潜力.研究表明,2006年上海市能源活动所排放的CO2总量为1.80亿t,其中,能源加工转换产生的CO2排放量为7550万t,占排放总量的42%;工业次之,占30%;交通运输的排放比例为18%.煤炭和石油的消费是导致CO2排放的主要原因,2006年煤炭所带来的CO2排放量为1.11亿t,油品所产生的CO2排放量为0.64亿t,分别占到能源活动CO2排放总量的61.5%和35.5%.2006年上海市人均CO2排放量为10.02t/人,是世界平均水平的2.5倍,是中国平均水平的2.7倍.研究表明,在低碳政策下,上海能源需求将有所控制,到2020年全市能源需求总量为1.6亿t标煤,比高碳情景节约1.2亿t标煤.节能减排政策还将使得全市能源活动CO2排放比高碳情景显著下降,到2020年全市CO2排放量为3.26亿t,比高碳情景减少3.1亿t,低碳政策所产生的碳减排效益十分明显.%Taking 2006 as the base year, energy related CO2 emission inventory was built following IPCC guidelines.Based on scenario analysis, energy demand and CO2 emissions were predicted under high carbon and low carbon scenarios. Carbon mitigation potential under low carbon policies such as energy saving and emission reducing was analyzed. Results showed that total energy related CO2 emission in Shanghai in 2006 was 180 million tons, among which CO2 emissions from energy production and transformation were 75.5 million tons, taking a share of 42%, industry 30% and transportation 18%. Coal and oil consumption are major reasons causing huge CO2 emissions. In 2006, coal, oil and natural gas combustion contributed 111, 64 and 4 million tons of CO2 emissions, taking shares of 61.5%, 35.5% and 2.3

  10. Measurement of regional pulmonary function with carbon-11-labeled CO2 and CO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide labelled with carbon-11 have been produced in the remotecontrolled system for a large scale production of short lived radioactive substance with cyclotron in National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The single breath measurement with 11CO2 and 11CO, using inhalation system and a coincidence positron camera combined with an on-line computer system (TOSBAC 3400 Model 31) has been employed to evaluate regional pulmonary blood flow and diffusing capacity in three normal volunteers and seven patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), old lung tuberculosis and benign tumor. Regional clearance rate constant (lambda) and distribution index (lambda i/lambda t) were calculated from monoexponential removal curves measured by external counting over the chest in supine position. This process was performed in a short period of breath-holding (10 - 20 sec.) after a single breath of these radioactive gases mixed with room air. These parameters were calculated for each lung fields divided into four zones (bilateral upper and lower lung region). In our method, the activity of the inspired mixture were 5 - 35 mCi/L and each value in lung fields, divided into four zones, can be measured with time interval for one second. While the clearance rate of 11CO2 seemed to be mainly limited by pulmonary blood flow, it was considered that the rate of 11CO were limited by not only the diffusing capacity but also the perfusion in each lung fields. In normal subjects, the distribution of regional clearance rate was showed approximately even for 11CO2 and 11CO. It was caused of the measurement in supine position. In contrast, the distribution of these parameter was showed uneven in patients with lung disease, particularly with COPD. (author)

  11. Selective hydrogenation of phenol in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Gang; JIANG Huan-feng; ZHAO Yah; YIN Ji-xiang; SHI Chao-feng

    2004-01-01

    Liquid phase hydrogenation of phenol over Pt/C catalysts was investigated under conventional conditions and supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). The equivalent ration of hydrogen to phenol shows a significant effect on the product selectivity. Hydrogenation of phenol in different solvents was also studied, the experimental results show that polarity of solvents influences the yield of cyclohexanone remarkably, scCO2 has the highest one. Catalytic hydrogenation of phenol in scCO2 or sub-scCO2 was emphatically researched. The result is that near the critical point of CO2 phenol has higher reaction activity than that of normal organic solvents, cyclohexanone has 47% in yield and 87% in selectivity.

  12. Carbon dioxide stripping in aquaculture -- part III: model verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colt, John; Watten, Barnaby; Pfeiffer, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Based on conventional mass transfer models developed for oxygen, the use of the non-linear ASCE method, 2-point method, and one parameter linear-regression method were evaluated for carbon dioxide stripping data. For values of KLaCO2 < approximately 1.5/h, the 2-point or ASCE method are a good fit to experimental data, but the fit breaks down at higher values of KLaCO2. How to correct KLaCO2 for gas phase enrichment remains to be determined. The one-parameter linear regression model was used to vary the C*CO2 over the test, but it did not result in a better fit to the experimental data when compared to the ASCE or fixed C*CO2 assumptions.

  13. Atmospheric Measurements by Ultra-Light SpEctrometer (AMULSE Dedicated to Vertical Profile in Situ Measurements of Carbon Dioxide (CO2 Under Weather Balloons: Instrumental Development and Field Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Joly

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere plays an important role in the radiative effects in the Earth’s climate system. Therefore, it is crucial to increase the number of atmospheric observations in order to quantify the natural sinks and emission sources. We report in this paper the development of a new compact lightweight spectrometer (1.8 kg called AMULSE based on near infrared laser technology at 2.04 µm coupled to a 6-m open-path multipass cell. The measurements were made using the Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy (WMS technique and the spectrometer is hence dedicated to in situ measuring the vertical profiles of the CO2 at high precision levels (σAllan = 0.96 ppm in 1 s integration time (1σ and with high temporal/spatial resolution (1 Hz/5 m using meteorological balloons. The instrument is compact, robust, cost-effective, fully autonomous, has low-power consumption, a non-intrusive probe and is plug & play. It was first calibrated and validated in the laboratory and then used for 17 successful flights up to 10 km altitude in the region Champagne—Ardenne, France in 2014. A rate of 100% of instrument recovery was validated due to the pre-localization prediction of the Météo—France based on the flight simulation software.

  14. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), temperature, salinity and other variables collected from surface underway observations using shower head equilibrator, carbon dioxide gas detector, and other instruments from NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson in the Bering Sea and coast of Alaska from 2014-03-03 to 2014-08-13 (NCEI Accession 0132046)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains underway measurements of pCO2, salinity, sea surface temperature, and other parameters collected in 2014 on board NOAA Ship Oscar...

  15. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), temperature, salinity and other variables collected from surface underway observations using shower head equilibrator, carbon dioxide gas detector, and other instruments from container ship Cap Blanche in the Pacific Ocean from 2014-02-01 to 2014-11-26 (NCEI Accession 0132047)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains underway measurements of pCO2, salinity, sea surface temperature, and other parameters were collected during 6 trans-Pacific...

  16. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), temperature, salinity and other variables collected from surface underway observations using shower head equilibrator, carbon dioxide gas detector, and other instruments from 4 trans-Pacific crossings onboard container ship Cap Blanche in the Pacific Ocean from 2015-03-28 to 2015-12-04 (NCEI Accession 0141304)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Underway measurements of pCO2, salinity, sea surface temperature, and other parameters were collected during 4 trans-Pacific crossings in 2015 on the container ship...

  17. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), temperature, salinity and other variables collected from surface underway observations using shower head equilibrator, carbon dioxide gas detector, and other instruments from container ship Cap Vilano in the Pacific Ocean from 2013-02-01 to 2013-06-06 (NCEI Accession 0132054)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains underway measurements of pCO2, salinity, sea surface temperature, and other parameters were collected during 3 trans-Pacific...

  18. Heat of CO2 Absorption in Aqueous Potassium Carbonate Solutions%碳酸钾溶液捕集CO2的吸收热研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志明; 王颖聪; 郜时旺; 郭东方; 王金意

    2015-01-01

    在化学吸收法捕集分离CO2过程中,吸收热和再生能耗是评价吸收剂性能的重要指标,也是进行工艺条件设计和捕集成本评估的重要依据。稠浆型碳酸钾吸收工艺可以降低再生过程中水的参与度,被认为是实现燃煤电厂烟气中CO2大规模捕集的颇具潜力的减排技术之一。文中采用真实热流法测量碳酸钾溶液对 CO2的吸收热,分析反应温度、溶液浓度、CO2负载和结晶效应等对吸收热的影响,为稠浆型工艺的设计和模拟提供了必要的基础数据。研究表明:在没有结晶出现的情况下,反应温度和碳酸钾浓度的影响较小,吸收热随 CO2负载的增加而减小。出现结晶后,温度和浓度的影响增大,同时结晶热效应导致吸收热的规律产生很大变化。此外,对稠浆型工艺进行评估时,需要综合对比考虑水的气化潜热、结晶热和公用冷却水用量等因素。%ABSTRACT:In the process of carbon dioxide capture by chemical absorption, absorption enthalpy and energy consumption for regeneration are important index to evaluate absorbent performance evaluation and design operation conditions. Carbonate slurry process is considered to be one of the potential technologies for large-scale CO2 capture from coal-based power stations, as it can reduce the participation of water in stripper. In this paper, true heat flow method was adopted to measure absorption enthalpy during the absorption of CO2 in aqueous potassium carbonate solutions. The effect of temperature, concentration, CO2 loading and crystallization on absorption heat were also discussed, which provides basic data for the design and simulation of carbonate slurry process. Without crystallization, absorption heat decreases with CO2 loading increasing, effects of reaction temperature and K2CO3 concentration are not significant. In the present of crystallization, temperature and concentration effects become important

  19. Carbonic anhydrase mediated carbon dioxide sequestration: promises, challenges and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Raju R; Krishnamurthi, Kannan; Mudliar, Sandeep N; Devi, S Saravana; Naoghare, Pravin K; Bafana, Amit; Chakrabarti, Tapan

    2014-06-01

    Anthropogenic activities have substantially increased the level of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere and are contributing significantly to the global warming. Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is one of the major GHGs which plays a key role in the climate change. Various approaches and methodologies are under investigation to address CO2 capture and sequestration worldwide. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) mediated CO2 sequestration is one of the promising options. Therefore, the present review elaborates recent developments in CA, its immobilization and bioreactor methodologies towards CO2 sequestration using the CA enzyme. The promises and challenges associated with the efficient utilization of CA for CO2 sequestration and scale up from flask to lab-scale bioreactor are critically discussed. Finally, the current review also recommends the possible future needs and directions to utilize CA for CO2 sequestration. PMID:24740638

  20. Carbon dioxide capturing technologies: a review focusing on metal organic framework materials (MOFs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouni, Rana; Kazemian, Hossein; Rohani, Sohrab

    2014-04-01

    In this study, a relevant literature has been reviewed focusing on the carbon dioxide capture technologies in general, such as amine-based absorption as conventional carbon dioxide capturing technology, aqueous ammonia-based absorption, membranes, and adsorption material (e.g., zeolites, and activated carbons). In more details, metal organic frameworks (MOFs) as new emerging technologies for carbon dioxide adsorption are discussed. The MOFs section is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of MOFs including material characteristics and synthesis, structural features, CO2 adsorption capacity, heat of adsorption and selectivity of CO2. PMID:24338107

  1. Carbon and oxygen isotopes in apatite CO2 and co-existing calcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon and oxygen isotopes were analyzed in carbonate apatite CO2 and in co-existing calcite. Both C and O in apatite CO2 are enriched in the respective light isotopes relative to calcite. These results confirm the proposition that carbonate is part of the apatite structure

  2. High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.

  3. 超临界CO2技术在制备电磁屏蔽材料中的应用%Preparation of electromagnetic shielding material using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑光洪; 蒋学军; 赵习; 掘照夫

    2011-01-01

    Supercritical CO2(SCCO2) fluid technique is applied to the pretreatment of ramie fabrics. It can remove the impurities and lignin with good swelling action. Flexible electromagnetic shielding material is prepared by electroless copper plating with the organometallic complex Palladium (ll)-hexafluoroacetylacetonate, which is dissolved in SCCO2 and impregnated into the ramie fibers. Results show that the impregnation effect can be improved with alcohol as a co-solvent, and the ramie fabric features high electromagnetic shielding effect up to 63 -92 dB in frequency range from 10 to 1 000 MHz.%超临界二氧化碳流体对苎麻纤维有明显的膨化作用.采用超临界二氧化碳流体( SCCO2)技术对苎麻织物进行预处理,能够有效去除苎麻纤维中的杂质及木质素;利用超临界二氧化碳流体的高溶解能力,将六氟乙酰丙酮钯(Ⅱ)溶解并注入苎麻纤维中,并通过化学镀铜制备柔性抗电磁波屏蔽材料.结果表明,采用乙醇作为共溶剂,可以提高钯络合物的注入效果,再经化学镀铜,苎麻织物表现出良好的电磁屏蔽效果,在10~1 000 MHz的频率范围内,电磁屏蔽效果可达到63~92 dB.

  4. Modelling Sublimation of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author reports results in their efforts to model sublimation of carbon dioxide and the associated kinetics order and parameter estimation issues in their model. They have offered the reader two sets of data and several approaches to determine the rate of sublimation of a piece of solid dry ice. They presented several models…

  5. Carbon capture and biogas enhancement by carbon dioxide enrichment of anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge or food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Bajón, Fernández Y; Soares, Ana; Villa, Raffaella; Vale, P; Cartmell, Elise

    2014-01-01

    The increasing concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere and the stringent greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction targets, require the development of CO2 sequestration technologies applicable for the waste and wastewater sector. This study addressed the reduction of CO2 emissions and enhancement of biogas production associated with CO2 enrichment of anaerobic digesters (ADs). The benefits of CO2 enrichment were examined by injecting CO2 at 0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9M fractions into batch ADs...

  6. Ocean uptake of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors controlling the capacity of the ocean for taking up anthropogenic C02 include carbon chemistry, distribution of alkalinity, pCO2 and total concentration of dissolved C02, sea-air pCO2 difference, gas exchange rate across the sea-air interface, biological carbon pump, ocean water circulation and mixing, and dissolution of carbonate in deep sea sediments. A general review of these processes is given and models of ocean-atmosphere system based on our understanding of these regulating processes axe used to estimate the magnitude of C02 uptake by the ocean. We conclude that the ocean can absorb up to 35% of the fossil fuel emission. Direct measurements show that 55% Of C02 from fossil fuel burning remains in the atmosphere. The remaining 10% is not accounted for by atmospheric increases and ocean uptake. In addition, it is estimated that an amount equivalent to 30% of recent annual fossil fuel emissions is released into the atmosphere as a result of deforestation and farming. To balance global carbon budget, a sizable carbon sink besides the ocean is needed. Storage of carbon in terrestrial biosphere as a result of C02 fertilization is a potential candidate for such missing carbon sinks

  7. Experimental reactivity with CO2 of clayey cap-rock and carbonate reservoir of the Paris basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The constant increase in the quantity of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is regarded as being the principal cause of the current global warming. The geological sequestration of CO2 seems to be an ideal solution to reduce the increase of greenhouse gases (of which CO2) in the atmosphere but only if the reservoir's cap-rock keep its integrity for several hundreds or thousands of years. Batch experimental simulations were conducted to observe the reactivity of a cap-rock made of clay and a carbonate reservoir with CO2 at 80 C and 150 C for a pressure of 150 bar with an equilibrated water. The analytical protocol established allowed to compare the rocks before and after experimentations finding a very low reactivity, focusing on aluminium in phyllosilicates. Textural analysis shows that CO2 does not affect the properties of adsorption and the specific surface. The study of carbonate reservoir by confocal microscopy has revealed phenomena of dissolution-precipitation which have no significant impact on chemistry and structure of the reservoir. The numerical simulations carried out on mineral reference as calcium montmorillonite or clinochlore show a significant reaction in the presence of CO2 not achieved experimentally, probably due to lacunas in the thermodynamic databases or the kinetics of reactions. The simulations on Bure show no reaction on the major minerals confirming the results with batch experiments. (author)

  8. 21 CFR 582.1240 - Carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide. 582.1240 Section 582.1240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1240 Carbon dioxide. (a) Product. Carbon dioxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. A Molecular Dynamics Study on the Confinement of Carbon Dioxide Molecules in Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazor, Meagan; Rende, Deniz; Baysal, Nihat; Ozisik, Rahmi

    2012-02-01

    The influence of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration on global warming is considered as one of the primary environmental issues of the past two decades. The main source of CO2 emission is human activity, such as the use of fossil fuels in transportation and industrial plants. Following the release of Kyoto Protocol in 1997, effective ways of controlling CO2 emissions received much attention. As a result, various materials such as activated carbon, zeolites, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were investigated for their CO2 adsorbing properties. CNTs were reported to have CO2 adsorption capability twice that of activated carbon, hence they received the most attention. In the current study, single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were used as one dimensional nanoporous materials and their CO2 adsorption capacity was analyzed with Molecular Dynamics simulations. Results indicated that SWNTs are excellent CO2 adsorbers and their effectiveness increase at low CO2 concentrations. In addition, we showed that by varying temperature, CO2 can be removed from the SWNTs, providing a simple method to reuse SWNTs.

  10. The production of carbon nanotubes from carbon dioxide: challenges and opportunities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geoffrey S. Simate; Sunny E. Iyuke; Sehliselo Ndlovu; Clarence S. Yah; Lubinda F. Walubita

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are reviewed with an emphasis on the use of carbon dioxide (CO2) as a sole source of carbon. Compared to the most widely used carbon precursors such as graphite, methane, acetylene, ethanol, ethylene,and coal-derived hydrocarbons, CO2 is competitively cheaper with relatively high carbon yield content. However, CNT synthesis from CO2 is a newly emerging technology, and hence it needs to be explored further. A theoretical and analytical comparison of the currently existing CNT-CO2 synthesis techniques is given including a review of some of the process parameters (i.e., temperature, pressure, catalyst, etc.) that affect the CO2 reduction rate. Such analysis indicates that there is still a fundamental need to further explore the following aspects so as to realize the full potential of CO2 based CNT technology: (1) the CNT-CO2 synthesis and formation mechanism,(2) catalytic effects of transitional metals and mechanisms, (3) utilization of metallocenes in the CNT-CO2 reactions, (4) applicability of ferrite-organometallic compounds in the CNT-CO2 synthesis reactions, and (5) the effects of process parameters such as temperature,etc.

  11. Significance of pCO2 values in determining carbonate chemistry in groundwater of Pondicherry region,India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S Chidambaram; M.V Prasanna; U Karmegam; C Singaraja; S Pethaperumal; R Manivannan; P Anandhan; K Tirumalesh

    2011-01-01

    The partial pressure of Carbon-Dioxide plays a significant role in the water chemistry.It reflects the geochemical process and relates to the saturation index (SI) of the Carbonate minerals.A total number of 98 samples were collected from layered sequential aquifers like Alluvium,Upper Cuddalore sandstone,Lower Cuddalore Sandstone and Cretaceous formations,during Pre-Monsoon and Post-Monsoon seasons.Chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH,EC,TDS,Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,Cl-,HCO-3,SO2-4,pO3-4 and H4SiO4 were determined.The study shows that an increase in the log pCO2 values during water-rock interaction which influences the process of mineral dissolution.Saturation index of the carbonate minerals like Calcite,Aragonite,Dolomite and Magnesite were derived and compared with the log pCO2 values.In both the seasons the decreasing log pCO2 increases the saturation index of most of the carbonate minerals studied.The saturation index of almost all carbonate minerals during both the seasons showed negative correlation irrespective of the formation.Log pCO2 also develops a negative correlation with pH in groundwater of the study area.

  12. Highly precise atmospheric oxygen measurements as a tool to detect leaks of carbon dioxide from Carbon Capture and Storage sites

    OpenAIRE

    Leeuwen van, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    In Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuel combustion is stored underground into a geological formation. Although the storage of CO2 is considered as safe, leakage to the atmosphere is an important concern and monitoring is necessary. Detecting and quantifying leaks of CO2 in the atmosphere is, however, difficult due to the rapid mixing of the emitted CO2 with the surroundings and the high natural variability of the CO2 concentration. In this thesis we present ...

  13. Synthesis and carbon dioxide sorption of layered double hydroxide/silica foam nanocomposites with hierarchical mesostructure

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Liling

    2014-03-05

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with a hierarchical mesostructure are successfully synthesized on mesoporous silica foams by simple impregnation and hydrothermal treatment. The as-synthesized LDH/silica foam nanocomposites show well-defined mesostructures with high surface areas, large pore volumes, and mesopores of 6-7 nm. The nanocomposites act as carbon dioxide (CO2) sorbents under simulated flue gas conditions. They also exhibit significantly enhanced CO2 capacities under high-pressure conditions and high CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 selectivities. Respect the hierarchy: Hierarchical mesoporous layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposites with high surface areas and large pore volumes are synthesized by controlled hydrothermal growth of LDH precursors on a mesoporous silica foam. The as-synthesized nanocomposites exhibit a significantly enhanced capacity and selectivity towards carbon dioxide, making them very promising candidates for carbon dioxide (CO2) separation applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberoglu, Halil

    Photobiological hydrogen production is an alternative to thermochemical and electrolytic technologies with the advantage of carbon dioxide sequestration. However, it suffers from low solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency due to limited light transfer, mass transfer, and nutrient medium composition. The present study aims at addressing these limitations and can be divided in three parts: (1) experimental measurements of the radiation characteristics of hydrogen producing and carbon dioxide consuming microorganisms, (2) solar radiation transfer modeling and simulation in photobioreactors, and (3) parametric experiments of photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration. First, solar radiation transfer in photobioreactors containing microorganisms and bubbles was modeled using the radiative transport equation (RTE) and solved using the modified method of characteristics. The study concluded that Beer-Lambert's law gives inaccurate results and anisotropic scattering must be accounted for to predict the local irradiance inside a photobioreactor. The need for accurate measurement of the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms was established. Then, experimental setup and analysis methods for measuring the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms have been developed and successfully validated experimentally. A database of the radiation characteristics of representative microorganisms have been created including the cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis, the purple non-sulfur bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides and the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii along with its three genetically engineered strains. This enabled, for the first time, quantitative assessment of the effect of genetic engineering on the radiation characteristics of microorganisms. In addition, a parametric experimental study has been performed to model the growth, CO2 consumption, and H 2 production of Anabaena variabilis as functions of

  15. Alteration of Oceanic Nitrification Under Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beman, J.; Chow, C. E.; Popp, B. N.; Fuhrman, J. A.; Feng, Y.; Hutchins, D. A.

    2008-12-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are increasing exponentially and expected to double by the year 2100. Dissolution of excess CO2 in the upper ocean reduces pH, alters carbonate chemistry, and also represents a potential resource for autotrophic organisms that convert inorganic carbon into biomass--including a broad spectrum of marine microbes. These bacteria and archaea drive global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nitrogen and constitute the vast majority of biomass in the sea, yet their responses to reduced pH and increased pCO2 remain largely undocumented. Here we show that elevated pCO2 may sharply reduce nitrification rates and populations of nitrifying microorganisms in the ocean. Multiple experiments were performed in the Sargasso Sea and the Southern California Bight under glacial maximum (193 ppm), present day (390 ppm), and projected (750 ppm) pCO2 concentrations, over time scales from hours to multiple days, and at depths of 45 m to 240 m. Measurement of nitrification rates using isotopically-labeled nitrogen showed 2-5 fold reduction under elevated pCO2--as well as an increase under glacial maximum pCO2. Marine Crenarchaeota are likely involved in nitrification as ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and are among the most abundant microbial groups in the ocean, yet this group decreased by 40-80% under increased pCO2, based on quantification of both 16S rRNA and ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene copies. Crenarchaeota also steadily declined over the course of multiple days under elevated pCO2, whereas ammonia-oxidizing (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were more variable in their responses or were not detected. These findings suggest that projected increases in pCO2 and subsequent decreases in pH may strongly influence marine biogeochemistry and microbial community structure in the sea.

  16. Overview on CO2 Valorization: Challenge of Molten Carbonates

    OpenAIRE

    Chery, Déborah; Lair, Virginie; Cassir, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The capture and utilization of CO2 is becoming progressively one of the significant challenges in the field of energetic resources. Whatever the energetic device, it is impossible to avoid completely the production of greenhouse gas, even parting from renewable energies. Transforming CO2 into a valuable fuel, such as alcohols, CO, or even C, could constitute a conceptual revolution in the energetic bouquet offering a huge application domain. Although several routes have been tested for this p...

  17. Effects of optimized N fertilization on carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide fluxes in paddy fields in Yellow River water irrigation region of Ningxia%优化施氮对宁夏引黄灌区稻田CO2、H4和H2O 通量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永生; 张爱平; 刘汝亮; 杨世琦; 李存军

    2016-01-01

    Excessive nitrogen(N)fertilizer application is a widespread practice in Yellow River water irrigation region of Ningxia. Previous studies have demonstrated that optimized N fertilization can not only improve rice yield but also reduce nitrogen leaching. However, there was little information available about the responses of soil greenhouse gas fluxes to optimized N fertilization in this region. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different N fertilization on carbon dioxide(CO2), methane(CH4)and nitrous oxide(N2O)fluxes and global warming potential(GWP)in paddy field in Yellow River water irrigation region of Ningxia, using static chamber technique and gas chromatography. Treatments included conventional N fertilization(N300), optimized N fertilization(N240)and no N fertilization(N0). Our results showed obvious differences in greenhouse gas fluxes during the rice growth period. Higher CO2 emissions appeared at filling and ma-ture stages, but CH4 emissions mainly occurred at booting stage. However, the peak of N2O emissions was observed at tillering and elongation stages. Applying nitrogen significantly increased soil CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions and the global warming potential. During the experimen-tal period, average CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes were 18 446.87 kg C·hm-2, 146.57 kg C·hm-2, and 2.93 kg N·hm-2, respectively. One-season optimized N fertilization did not affect CO2 emissions, but significantly reduced CH4 and N2O emissions by 24.42%and 36.28%, respective-ly, as compared with conventional N fertilization. Overall, our results indicate that the global warming potential of paddy field was signifi-cantly reduced by 26.70%by optimized N fertilization in Yellow River water irrigation region of Ningxia. Further research is needed to ana-lyze the mechanisms of soil greenhouse gas fluxes under long-term optimized N fertilization by integrating the variations of soil organic car-bon and N availability and soil microbiology methods.%针对

  18. Carbon dioxide receptor genes in cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Anderson, Alisha

    2015-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is important in insect ecology, eliciting a range of behaviours across different species. Interestingly, the numbers of CO2 gustatory receptors (GRs) vary among insect species. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, two GRs (DmelGR21a and DmelGR63a) have been shown to detect CO2. In the butterfly, moth, beetle and mosquito species studied so far, three CO2 GR genes have been identified, while in tsetse flies, four CO2 GR genes have been identified. In other species including honeybees, pea aphids, ants, locusts and wasps, no CO2 GR genes have been identified from the genome. These genomic differences may suggest different mechanisms for CO2 detection exist in different insects but, with the exception of Drosophila and mosquitoes, limited attention has been paid to the CO2 GRs in insects. Here, we cloned three putative CO2 GR genes from the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera and performed phylogenetic and expression analysis. All three H. armigera CO2 GRs (HarmGR1, HarmGR2 and HarmGR3) are specifically expressed in labial palps, the CO2-sensing tissue of this moth. HarmGR3 is significantly activated by NaHCO3 when expressed in insect Sf9 cells but HarmGR1 and HarmGR2 are not. This is the first report characterizing the function of lepidopteran CO2 receptors, which contributes to our general understanding of the molecular mechanisms of insect CO2 gustatory receptors.

  19. IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF CARBON DIOXIDE SUPPLY ON UREA SYNTHESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Лавренченко, Г. К.; Копытин, А. В.; Афанасьев, С. В.; Рощенко, О. С.

    2011-01-01

    Aggregates of urea synthesis are reconstructed with the purpose decrease in specific expenses and increase their productivity. Supply of additional quantities of carbon dioxide and ammonia is necessary to increase production volumes of urea. In most cases there is a problem with the supply of СО2, as the equipment for its compression is not any necessary reserves. Installation for supply of carbon dioxide using a pump is considered. For liquefaction of CO2 at low pressure the cold of the liqu...

  20. Improved model calculation of atmospheric CO2 increment in affecting carbon stock of tropical mangrove forest

    OpenAIRE

    Jana, Tapan Kumar; Ray, Raghab; Chowdhury, Chumki; Majumder, Natasha; Dutta, Manab Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Sandip Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Because of the difficulties in setting up arrangements in the intertidal zone for free-air carbon dioxide enrichment experimentation, the responses to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide in mangrove forests are poorly studied. This study applied box model to overcome this limitation, and the relative changes in present level of reservoirs organic carbon contents in response to the future increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide were examined in the Avicennia-dominated mangrove forest at the l...

  1. CARBON DIOXIDE AS A FEEDSTOCK.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CREUTZ,C.; FUJITA,E.

    2000-12-09

    This report is an overview on the subject of carbon dioxide as a starting material for organic syntheses of potential commercial interest and the utilization of carbon dioxide as a substrate for fuel production. It draws extensively on literature sources, particularly on the report of a 1999 Workshop on the subject of catalysis in carbon dioxide utilization, but with emphasis on systems of most interest to us. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is an abundant (750 billion tons in atmosphere), but dilute source of carbon (only 0.036 % by volume), so technologies for utilization at the production source are crucial for both sequestration and utilization. Sequestration--such as pumping CO{sub 2} into sea or the earth--is beyond the scope of this report, except where it overlaps utilization, for example in converting CO{sub 2} to polymers. But sequestration dominates current thinking on short term solutions to global warming, as should be clear from reports from this and other workshops. The 3500 million tons estimated to be added to the atmosphere annually at present can be compared to the 110 million tons used to produce chemicals, chiefly urea (75 million tons), salicylic acid, cyclic carbonates and polycarbonates. Increased utilization of CO{sub 2} as a starting material is, however, highly desirable, because it is an inexpensive, non-toxic starting material. There are ongoing efforts to replace phosgene as a starting material. Creation of new materials and markets for them will increase this utilization, producing an increasingly positive, albeit small impact on global CO{sub 2} levels. The other uses of interest are utilization as a solvent and for fuel production and these will be discussed in turn.

  2. Biomimetic sequestration of CO2 in carbonate form: Role of produced waters and other brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of our research is the development of a system resembling a CO2 scrubber, in which carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the rate of CO2 hydration for subsequent fixation into stable mineral carbonates. The present focus is on the use of produced waters as one of various possible sources of the counterions for precipitation. Carbonate precipitation has been studied from synthetic brines corresponding to a range of compositions of produced waters from the Permian and San Juan Basins, and promising results have been obtained with carbonic anhydrase. CO2 sequestration capacities are estimated to be 0.49-1.85x103 tonnes CO2/year and 1.28-2.80x105 tonnes CO2/year for the San Juan and Permian Basins, respectively, per cycle, up to ∼3mt CO2 per year total, based on the volumes of produced waters in 2002. (author)

  3. Optimization of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Oil from Fig Fruit (Ficus Carica L.) Seeds Using Response Surface Methodology%响应面法优化超临界CO2萃取无花果种籽油工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 张子德; 赵丛枝; 唐霞; 马俊莲

    2013-01-01

    以无花果种籽为试验原料,采用响应面分析法(Response Surface Methodology,RSM)建立超临界CO2萃取无花果种籽油(FSO)得率的二次多项数学模型,验证数学模型的有效性,并探讨萃取温度、压力和时间对FSO得率的作用规律.根据该模型进行工艺参数的优化,以FSO得率为指标,试验所得超临界CO2萃取最佳工艺条件是:温度44.7℃,压力29.0 MPa,时间85.1 min.在该条件下FSO得率达25.95%.对FSO的脂肪酸组成进行气相色谱-质谱联用技术(GC-MS)分析,结果表明,FSO中饱和脂肪酸以棕榈酸(19.45%)为主,占脂肪酸总量的26.50%;不饱和脂肪酸主要为油酸(51.41%)和棕榈油酸(14.76%),占脂肪酸总量的73.50%.%Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the process parameters of supercritical carbon dioxide(SC-CO2) extraction of the fig seed oil(FSO). The adequacy of the model equation for predicting the optimum response values was verified effectively by the validation. Effects of temperature, pressure and time on yield of FSO were investigated. Maximum yield of FSO from the mathematical model was predicted to be 25.95% dry basis under the condition of temperature 44.7℃ and pressure 29.0 MPa with extraction time 85.1 min. GC-MS analysis showed that fatty acids in the oil were composed of 26.50% saturated fatty acids and 73.50% unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, oleic acid (51.41%), palmitic acid (19.45%) and palmitoleic acid (14.76%) were the main fatty acids in the FSO.

  4. Optimization of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of the Polysaccharide from Fig Fruit (Ficus Carica L.) Using Response Surface Methodology%响应面法优化超临界CO2提取无花果多糖工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丛枝; 苑社强; 王磊; 张子德

    2013-01-01

    以无花果为试验原料,采用响应面分析法(Response Surface Methodology,RSM)建立超临界CO2提取无花果多糖(FPS)得率的二次多项数学模型,验证数学模型的有效性,并探讨萃取温度(70~90℃)、压力(30~40MPa)和时间(80~100 min)三因素对FPS得率的影响.根据该模型优化工艺参数.以FPS得率为指标,试验所得超临界CO2萃取最佳工艺条件:温度78.5℃,压力33.4 MPa,时间96.2 min.在该条件下做3次重复试验,FPS的实际平均得率高达17.31%,与预测值17.36%无显著差异.%Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the process parameters of supercritical carbon dioxide(SC-CO2) extraction of the fig polysaccharide(FPS).The adequacy of the model equation for predicting the optimum response values was verified effectively by the validation.Effects of temperature (70~90 ℃),pressure (30~40MPa)and time (80~100 min) on yield of FPS were investigated.The optimum parameters within the experimental ranges were determined to be at 78.5 ℃,33.4 MPa and with 96.2 min.Under these conditions,the average value of the actual yield of the FPS in three replicated experiments is 17.31%,and this value is not significantly different from the value of 17.36% predicted by the model.

  5. Effect of CO2 concentrations on the activity of photosynthetic CO2 fixation and extracelluar carbonic anhydrase in the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiongwen; GAO Kunshan

    2003-01-01

    The growth and activity of photosynthetic CO2 uptake and extracellular carbonic anhydrase (Caext) of the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum were investigated while cultured at different levels of CO2 in order to see its physiological response to different CO2 concentrations under either a low (30 μmol·m-2·s-1) or high (210 μmol·m-2·s-1) irradiance. The changes in CO2 concentrations (4-31 μmol/L) affected the growth and net photosynthesis to a greater extent under the low than under the high light regime. Caext was detected in the cells grown at 4 μmol/L CO2 but not at 31 and 12 μmol/L CO2, with its activity being about 2.5-fold higher at the high than at the low irradiance. Photo- synthetic CO2 affinity (1/ K1/2(CO2)) of the cells decreased with increased CO2 concentrations in culture. The cells cultured under the high-light show significantly higher photosynthetic CO2 affinity than those grown at the low-light level. It is concluded that the regulations of Caext activity and photosynthetic CO2 affinity are dependent not only on CO2 concentration but also on light availability, and that the development of higher Caext activity and CO2 affinity under higher light level could sufficiently support the photosynthetic demand for CO2 even at low level of CO2.

  6. CO2-pressure swing activation for efficient production of highly porous carbons

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shuwen; Kaneko, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we describe a new type of activation method of carbon materials using pressure swing of CO2. The porosity development markedly depends on the pressure swinging frequency. The porous carbon obtained from pressure-swing activation shows an additional porosity development without pitting corrosion on the surface, which occurs on CO2 activation without pressure-swing. This phenomenon is ascribed to the enhancement of Knudsen diffusion and/or configurational diffusion of CO2 which is...

  7. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wier, Don R. Chimanhusky, John S.; Czirr, Kirk L.; Hallenbeck, Larry; Gerard, Matthew G.; Dollens, Kim B.; Owen, Rex; Gaddis, Maurice; Moshell, M.K.

    2002-11-18

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO2) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO2 horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields.

  8. ARTICLES: Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data of Carbon Dioxide+Methyl Propionate and Carbon Dioxide+Propyl Propionate Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Xie, Chuan-xin; Li, Hong-ling; Tian, Yi-ling

    2010-06-01

    High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the binary systems of methyl propionate+carbon dioxide and propyl propionate+carbon dioxide were measured at pressure from 1.00 MPa to 12.00 MPa and temperature in the range from 313 K to 373 K. Experimental results were correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state with the two-parameter van der Waals mixing rule. At the same time, the Henry's coefficient, partial molar enthalpy change and partial molar entropy change of CO2 during dissolution at different temperature were also calculated.

  9. Molecular transport: Catch the carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Barbara; Intemann, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the minute details of CO2 transport is key to finding new technologies that reduce the hazardous levels of CO2 in our atmosphere. Now, the observation that the transport of CO2 in molten calcium carbonate occurs faster than standard molecular diffusion brings us one step closer.

  10. Characterization of Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES CO2 for carbon cycle science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Biraud

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We present carbon dioxide (CO2 estimates from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES on the EOS-Aura satellite launched in 2004. For observations between 40° S and 45° N, we find about 1 degree of freedom with peak sensitivity at 511 hPa. The estimated error is ~10 ppm for a single target and about 1.3 ppm for monthly averages on spatial scales of 20°×30°. Monthly spatially-averaged TES results from 2005–2008 processed with a uniform initial guess and prior are compared to CONTRAIL aircraft data over the Pacific ocean, aircraft data at the Southern Great Plains (SGP ARM site in the southern US, and the Mauna Loa and Samoa surface stations. Comparisons to Mauna Loa observatory show a correlation of 0.92, a standard deviation of 1.3 ppm, a predicted error of 1.2 ppm, and a ~2% low bias, which is subsequently corrected, and comparisons to SGP aircraft data over land show a correlation of 0.67 and a standard deviation of 2.3 ppm. TES data between 40° S and 45° N for 2006–2007 are compared to surface flask data, GLOBALVIEW, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS, and CarbonTracker. Comparison to GLOBALVIEW-CO2 ocean surface sites shows a correlation of 0.60 which drops when TES is offset in latitude, longitude, or time. At these same locations, TES shows a 0.62 and 0.67 correlation to CarbonTracker with TES observation operator at the surface and 5 km, respectively. We also conducted an observing system simulation experiment to assess the potential utility of the TES data for inverse modeling of CO2 fluxes. We find that if biases in the data and model are well characterized, the averaged data have the potential to provide sufficient information to significantly reduce uncertainty on annual estimates of regional CO2 sources and sinks. Averaged pseudo-data at 10°×10° reduced uncertainty in flux estimates by as much as 70% for some tropical regions.

  11. Metal–organic framework-based catalysts: Chemical fixation of CO2 with epoxides leading to cyclic organic carbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hassan eBeyzavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a C1 feedstock, CO2 has the potential to be uniquely highly economical in both a chemical and a financial sense. In particular, the highly atom-economical acid-catalyzed cycloaddition of CO2 to epoxides to yield cyclic organic carbonates (OCs, a functionality having many important industrial applications, is an attractive reaction for the utilization of CO2 as a chemical feedstock. Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs are promising candidates in catalysis as they are a class of crystalline, porous and functional materials with remarkable properties including great surface area, high stability, open channels and permanent porosity. MOFs structure tunability and their affinity for CO2, makes them great catalysts for the formation of OCs using CO2 and epoxides. In this review, we examine MOF-based catalytic materials for the cycloaddition of carbon dioxide to epoxides. Catalysts are grouped based on the location of catalytic sites, i.e., at the struts, nodes, defect sites, or some combination thereof. Additionally, important features of each catalyst system are critically discussed.

  12. Effect of Controlled Atmosphere of Carbon Dioxide ( CO2 ) on Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Activity of Three Storage Pests in Chinese Medicinal Materials%二氧化碳气调对3种中药材储藏期害虫SOD酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李灿

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究二氧化碳气调胁迫对昆虫机体SOD酶活性的影响,以分析气调胁迫对昆虫作用的生物学机制.[方法]采用氯化硝基四氮唑蓝光还原法,研究药材甲、烟草甲、和咖啡豆象3种昆虫SOD酶的活性,分析该酶在CO2气调胁迫下的应激反应.[结果]高浓度二氧化碳气调胁迫处理3、6 h时,药材甲、烟草甲和咖啡豆象成虫SOD酶活力均有一定程度的持续升高,其中处理6h,其活力升高显著,分别由对照2.011±0.954 、2.664±0.218、1.458±0.718 U/(头·30 min)上升到3.135±0.105、3.050±0.673、2.975±0.229 U/(头·30 min).[结论]在亚致死事件范围内,高浓度二氧化碳气调胁迫对中药材储藏期害虫SOD酶活力有一定激活作用.研究结果可丰富气调杀虫机理及昆虫抗气性分析的理论体系.%[Objective] The paper was to study the effect of controlled atmosphere stress of carbon dioxide (CO2) on Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of insect, so as to analyze the biological mechanism of the action of controlled atmosphere stress on insect. [ Method ] Using nitro-tetrazolium blue chloride (NBT) light reduction method, SOD activity of drugstore beetle ( Stegobium paniceum) .cigarette beetle (Lasioderma ser-ricorne) and coffee bean beetle (Araecerus fascicuiatus) was studied,and the stress response of the enzyme under controlled atmosphere stress of CO2 was analyzed. [ Result ] SOD activity of drugstore beetle, cigarette beetle and coffee bean beetle exposed to controlled atmosphere stress of high concentrations of CO2 for 3 and 6 h had certain degree of increase, and the activity significantly increased from 2.011 ± 0.954,2.664 ± 0.218 and 1.458 ±0.718 to 3.135 ±0.105,3.050 ±0.673 and 2.975 ±0.229 U/(head · 30 min)after exposure for 6 h. [ Conclusion] Controlled atmosphere stress of high concentrations of CO2 had certain activation effect on SOD activity of storage pest in Chinese medicinal material within the context of sub

  13. Coastal ocean CO2-carbonic acid-carbonate sediment system of the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Andreas J.; MacKenzie, Fred T.; Lerman, Abraham

    2006-03-01

    There is little doubt that human activities such as burning of fossil fuels and land use practices have changed and will continue to change the cycling of carbon in the global coastal ocean. In the present study, two biogeochemical box models were used to investigate the consequences of increasing atmospheric CO2 and subsequent ocean acidification and increasing riverine transport of organic matter and nutrients arising from human activities on land on the global coastal ocean between the years 1700 and 2300. Numerical simulations show that the net flux of CO2 between coastal ocean surface water and the atmosphere is likely to change during this time from net evasion to net invasion owing to increasing atmospheric CO2, increasing net ecosystem production arising from increasing nutrient loading to this region, and decreasing net ecosystem calcification due to lower carbonate ion concentration and subsequent lower surface water saturation state with respect to carbonate minerals. Model calculations show that surface water saturation state with respect to calcite will decrease 73% by the year 2300 under a business-as-usual scenario, which in concert with increasing temperature will cause overall biogenic calcification rate to decrease by 90%. Dissolution of carbonate minerals increased by 267% throughout the model simulation. This increase was in part due to increased invasion of atmospheric CO2, but mainly due to greater deposition and remineralization of land-derived and in situ produced organic matter in the sediments, producing CO2 that caused pore water pH and carbonate saturation state to decrease. This decrease, in turn, drove selective dissolution of metastable carbonate minerals. As a consequence, the relative carbonate composition of the sediments changed in favor of carbonate phases with lower solubility than that of an average 15 mol% magnesian calcite phase. Model projected changes in surface water carbonate saturation state agree well with observations

  14. Oxygen and carbon dioxide sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fan (Inventor); Pearton, Stephen John (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) capable of performing as a CO.sub.2 or O.sub.2 sensor is disclosed, hi one implementation, a polymer solar cell can be connected to the HEMT for use in an infrared detection system. In a second implementation, a selective recognition layer can be provided on a gate region of the HEMT. For carbon dioxide sensing, the selective recognition layer can be, in one example, PEI/starch. For oxygen sensing, the selective recognition layer can be, in one example, indium zinc oxide (IZO). In one application, the HEMTs can be used for the detection of carbon dioxide and oxygen in exhaled breath or blood.

  15. Summer Ice and Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, G.; Gavin, J.

    1981-10-01

    The extent of Antarctic pack ice in the summer, as charted from satellite imagery, decreased by 2.5 million square kilometers between 1973 and 1980. The U.S. Navy and Russian atlases and whaling and research ship reports from the 1930's indicate that summer ice conditions earlier in this century were heavier than the current average. Surface air temperatures along the seasonally shifting belt of melting snow between 55 degrees and 80 degrees N during spring and summer were higher in 1974 to 1978 than in 1934 to 1938. The observed departures in the two hemispheres qualitatively agree with the predicted impact of an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, since it is not known to what extent the changes in snow and ice cover and in temperature can be explained by the natural variability of the climate system or by other processes unrelated to carbon dioxide, a cause-and-effect relation cannot yet be established.

  16. Carbon dioxide direct cycle modular reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, as the micro gas-turbine power generation is clean for environment and has high convenience, it is focused as a small size dispersion electric source for super markets, hospitals, factories, and so on. And, a modular high temperature gas reactor (PBMR) adopting the gas turbine is also focused recently, and is progressed on its construction in South Africa and reported on construction plan of the Exelon Inc. in U.S.A. PBMR has specific safety for a small size and pebble-bed reactor and also has some characters on low construction cost similar to that of LWR due to simplification and small size module adoption of its plant. The PBMR uses helium for its coolants, of which exit temperature is set for at 900degC to get higher thermal efficiency. This is because of its adoption of Brayton cycle to fast reduce the efficiency with falling temperature. However, as helium is a costly and easy-emission vapor, it is desired to alternate to cheaper and more difficult-emission vapor. Here were introduced on carbon dioxide (CO2) direct cycle using carbon dioxide with extremely higher thermal efficiency than helium and its applicability to nuclear reactors. (G.K.)

  17. The Arctic Ocean marine carbon cycle: evaluation of air-sea CO2 exchanges, ocean acidification impacts and potential feedbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. Mathis

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available At present, although seasonal sea-ice cover mitigates atmosphere-ocean gas exchange, the Arctic Ocean takes up carbon dioxide (CO2 on the order of −65 to −175 Tg C year−1, contributing 5–14% to the global balance of CO2 sinks and sources. Because of this, the Arctic Ocean is an important influence on the global carbon cycle, with the marine carbon cycle and atmosphere-ocean CO2 exchanges sensitive to Arctic Ocean and global climate change feedbacks. In the near-term, further sea-ice loss and increases in phytoplankton growth rates are expected to increase the uptake of CO2 by Arctic surface waters, although mitigated somewhat by surface warming in the Arctic. Thus, the capacity of the Arctic Ocean to uptake CO2 is expected to alter in response to environmental changes driven largely by climate. These changes are likely to continue to modify the physics, biogeochemistry, and ecology of the Arctic Ocean in ways that are not yet fully understood. In surface waters, sea-ice melt, river runoff, cooling and uptake of CO2 through air-sea gas exchange combine to decrease the calcium carbonate (CaCO3 mineral saturation states (Ω of seawater that is counteracted by seasonal phytoplankton primary production (PP. Biological processes drive divergent trajectories for Ω in surface and subsurface waters of Arctic shelves with subsurface water experiencing undersaturation with respect to aragonite and calcite. Thus, in response to increased sea-ice loss, warming and enhanced phytoplankton PP, the benthic ecosystem of the Arctic shelves are expected to be negatively impacted by the biological amplification of ocean acidification. This in turn reduces the ability of many species to produce CaCO3 shells or tests with profound implications for Arctic marine ecosystems.

  18. The Arctic Ocean marine carbon cycle: evaluation of air-sea CO2 exchanges, ocean acidification impacts and potential feedbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Bates

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available At present, although seasonal sea-ice cover mitigates atmosphere-ocean gas exchange, the Arctic Ocean takes up carbon dioxide (CO2 on the order of −66 to −199 Tg C year−1 (1012 g C, contributing 5–14% to the global balance of CO2 sinks and sources. Because of this, the Arctic Ocean has an important influence on the global carbon cycle, with the marine carbon cycle and atmosphere-ocean CO2 exchanges sensitive to Arctic Ocean and global climate change feedbacks. In the near-term, further sea-ice loss and increases in phytoplankton growth rates are expected to increase the uptake of CO2 by Arctic Ocean surface waters, although mitigated somewhat by surface warming in the Arctic. Thus, the capacity of the Arctic Ocean to uptake CO2 is expected to alter in response to environmental changes driven largely by climate. These changes are likely to continue to modify the physics, biogeochemistry, and ecology of the Arctic Ocean in ways that are not yet fully understood. In surface waters, sea-ice melt, river runoff, cooling and uptake of CO2 through air-sea gas exchange combine to decrease the calcium carbonate (CaCO3 mineral saturation states (Ω of seawater while seasonal phytoplankton primary production (PP mitigates this effect. Biological amplification of ocean acidification effects in subsurface waters, due to the remineralization of organic matter, is likely to reduce the ability of many species to produce CaCO3 shells or tests with profound implications for Arctic marine ecosystems

  19. Breakthrough adsorption study of a commercial activated carbon for pre-combustion CO2 capture

    OpenAIRE

    García López, Susana; Gil Matellanes, María Victoria; Fernández Martín, Claudia; Pis Martínez, José Juan; Rubiera González, Fernando; Pevida García, Covadonga

    2011-01-01

    In this study a commercial activated carbon (Norit R2030CO2) was assessed as a solid sorbent for precombustion CO2 capture. This technology involves the removal of CO2 from the shifted-syngas prior to the generation of electricity and the production of high-purity clean H2. The CO2 equilibrium adsorption capacity and breakthrough time were evaluated in a flow-through system where the adsorbent was subjected to four consecutive adsorption–desorption cycles. A CO2/H2/N2 gas mixture (20/70/10 vo...

  20. 高密度CO2杀菌和钝酶及其在食品加工中应用的研究进展%Review on Inactivation of Microorganisms and Enzyme by Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide and the Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘书成; 郭明慧; 刘媛; 刘蒙娜; 邓倩琳

    2016-01-01

    总结近10年来国内外在高密度CO2(Dense phase carbon dioxide,DPCD)技术的基础研究和应用研究领域的相关工作。基础研究领域主要包括DPCD与食品体系的相平衡、DPCD杀灭微生物营养体和芽孢的效果与机制、DPCD钝酶的效果与机制等,应用研究领域主要包括DPCD在液体(果蔬汁、啤酒、牛奶)和固体食品(鲜切果蔬、肉制品、海洋食品)加工中应用。提出DPCD技术未来发展可能需要解决的问题。%Dense phase carbon dioxide(DPCD)is one of the verypromising food non-thermal processing technologies, which was mainly used to inactivate microorganism and enzymein food. The paper reviews the progress oflast decademade in the basic research and application research of DPCD technology at home and abroad. The basic research fields of DPCD technology include phase equilibrium between DPCD and food system, effect and mechanism of inactivation microbial vegetative and spore by DPCD, effect and mechanism of inactivation enzyme by DPCD.The application research fields of DPCD technology include liquid food(fruit and vegetable juice,beer, milk)and solid food(fresh cut fruit and vegetable,meat,seafood) processing. Finally,some problems to be solved are discussed on the development of DPCD technology in future. The reviews will provide the reference for the research and application of DPCD in food processing.

  1. Localized surface plasmon fiber device coated with carbon nanotubes for the specific detection of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, T.; Arif, R.; Neal, R.; Kalli, K.; Kundrát, V.; Rozhin, A.; Culverhouse, P.; Webb, D. J.

    2015-08-01

    We explored the potential of a carbon nanotube (CNT) coating working in conjunction with a recently developed localized surface plasmon (LSP) device (based upon a nanostructured thin film consisting of of nano-wires of platinum) with ultra-high sensitivity to changes in the surrounding index. The uncoated LSP sensor's transmission resonances exhibited a refractive index sensitivity of Δλ/Δn ~ -6200nm/RIU and ΔΙ/Δn ~5900dB/RIU, which is the highest reported spectral sensitivity of a fiber optic sensor to bulk index changes within the gas regime. The complete device provides the first demonstration of the chemically specific gas sensing capabilities of CNTs utilizing their optical characteristics. This is proven by investigating the spectral response of the sensor before and after the adhesion of CNTs to alkane gases along with carbon dioxide. The device shows a distinctive spectral response in the presence of gaseous CO2 over and above what is expected from general changes in the bulk refractive index. This fiber device yielded a limit of detection of 150ppm for CO2 at a pressure of one atmosphere. Additionally the adhered CNTs actually reduce sensitivity of the device to changes in bulk refractive index of the surrounding medium. The polarization properties of the LSP sensor resonances are also investigated and it is shown that there is a reduction in the overall azimuthal polarization after the CNTs are applied. These optical devices offer a way of exploiting optically the chemical selectivity of carbon nanotubes, thus providing the potential for real-world applications in gas sensing in many inflammable and explosive environments.

  2. Study of CO2 recovery in a carbonate fuel cell tri-generation plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Giorgio; McLarty, Dustin; Brouwer, Jack; Lanzini, Andrea; Santarelli, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    The possibility of separating and recovering CO2 in a biogas plant that co-produces electricity, hydrogen, and heat is investigated. Exploiting the ability of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) to concentrate CO2 in the anode exhaust stream reduces the energy consumption and complexity of CO2 separation techniques that would otherwise be required to remove dilute CO2 from combustion exhaust streams. Three potential CO2 concentrating configurations are numerically simulated to evaluate potential CO2 recovery rates: 1) anode oxidation and partial CO2 recirculation, 2) integration with exhaust from an internal combustion engine, and 3) series connection of molten carbonate cathodes initially fed with internal combustion engine (ICE) exhaust. Physical models have been calibrated with data acquired from an operating MCFC tri-generating plant. Results illustrate a high compatibility between hydrogen co-production and CO2 recovery with series connection of molten carbonate systems offering the best results for efficient CO2 recovery. In this case the carbon capture ratio (CCR) exceeds 73% for two systems in series and 90% for 3 MCFC in series. This remarkably high carbon recovery is possible with 1.4 MWe delivered by the ICE system and 0.9 MWe and about 350 kg day-1 of H2 delivered by the three MCFC.

  3. Using conservative and reactive tracers to monitor and verify permanent carbon dioxide storage in basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. L.; Matter, J. M.; Stute, M.; Bausch, A.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage methods can assist in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and tackling global warming. Long term, thermodynamically stable storage of carbon dioxide through mineral carbonation is one such method, in which divalent cations released from rocks such as basalt react with CO2 to form carbonates. [1] Currently used monitoring techniques for geologic CO2 storage fail to detect dissolved or chemically transformed CO2. We use conservative and reactive tracers in an ongoing pilot CO2 injection project in Iceland to characterize subsurface CO2 transport and in situ CO2-water-rock reactions. The Carbfix project in Iceland is a field scale pilot project where CO2 and H2S emissions from the Hellisheidi geothermal power plant are dissolved in groundwater and injected into a permeable basalt formation at ~500 m depth below surface. Trifluormethylsulphur pentafluoride (SF5CF3) and sulfurhexafluoride (SF6) are added as conservative tracers to the injected CO2 for the purpose of characterizing the migration of the injected CO2 in the basaltic storage reservoir. Furthermore, the injected CO2 is labeled with radiocarbon (14C) to monitor the extent of CO2-water-rock reactions and mineral carbonation. Initial results from the monitoring wells show a fast dispersion and reaction of the injected CO2. Breakthrough curves of SF6, SF5CF3 and 14C can be observed in nearby monitoring wells from samples collected and analyzed by gas chromatography or accelerator mass spectrometry, respectively. Changes in the ratios between reactive and conservative tracers demonstrate that mixing and CO2-water-rock reactions are occurring. The use of conservative and reactive tracers contributes to the monitoring, verification and accounting information needed to establish the extent and security of carbon storage and be helpful in furthering the public acceptance of geological CO2 storage via mineral carbonation as a contribution to reducing carbon dioxide emissions. [1] Oelkers, et

  4. Enhanced polystyrene surface mobility under carbon dioxide at low temperature for nanoparticle embedding control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Qiuyan; Xu, Qun; Loos, Katja

    2015-01-01

    The surface properties of polystyrene (PS) films under carbon dioxide (CO2) were studied via a particle embedding technique at quite a low temperature range (308 to 323 K) in which polystyrene is typically considered to be in a glassy state without CO2. Atomic force microscope (AFM) technique with a

  5. Kinetics of absorption of carbon dioxide into aqueous potassium salt of proline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Subham; Thomsen, Kaj

    2012-01-01

    The absorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) into aqueous solution of potassium prolinate (KPr) are studied at 303, 313, and 323K within the salt concentration range of 0.5–3.0kmolm−3 using a wetted wall column absorber. The experimental results are used to interpret the kinetics of the reaction of CO2...

  6. Methane and carbon dioxide ratio in excreted air for quantification of the methane production from ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jørgen; Bjerg, Bjarne Schmidt; Hvelplund, Torben;

    2010-01-01

    This technical note presents a simple, fast, reliable and cheap method to estimate the methane (CH4) production from animals by using the CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in air near the animals combined with an estimation of the total CO2 production from information on intake of metab...

  7. Photosynthesis in tropical cover crop legumes influenced by irradiance, external carbon dioxide concentration and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    In plantation crops perennial tropical legumes are grown as understory plants, receive limited irradiance, and are subjected to elevated levels of CO2 and temperature. Independent short-term effects of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), external carbon dioxide concentration [CO2] and temper...

  8. The extreme carbon dioxide outburst at the Menzengraben potash mine 7 July 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2012-01-01

    PHAST. Output from the model is inconsistent with the asphyxiation harm observed. The high-momentum release is predicted to disperse safely and never reach the ground. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) schemes will involve handling and transportation of unprecedented quantities of CO2. Case......Carbon dioxide is an asphyxiant and an irritant gas. An extreme outburst of carbon dioxide took place 7 July 1953 in a potash mine in the former East Germany. During 25 min, a large amount of CO2 was blown out of the mine shaft with great force. It was wind still and concentrated CO2 accumulated...... in a valley leading to multiple asphyxiation casualties. Based on a review of concentration–response relationships, the location of victims, and other information, it is concluded that concentrations of 10–30% carbon dioxide may have occurred 450 m from the point of release for at least 45 min...

  9. Biological carbon dioxide utilisation in food waste anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Y Bajón; Green, K; Schuler, K; Soares, A; Vale, P; Alibardi, L; Cartmell, E

    2015-12-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment of anaerobic digesters (AD) was previously identified as a potential on-site carbon revalorisation strategy. This study addresses the lack of studies investigating this concept in up-scaled units and the need to understand the mechanisms of exogenous CO2 utilisation. Two pilot-scale ADs treating food waste were monitored for 225 days, with the test unit being periodically injected with CO2 using a bubble column. The test AD maintained a CH4 production rate of 0.56 ± 0.13 m(3) CH4·(kg VS(fed) d)(-1) and a CH4 concentration in biogas of 68% even when dissolved CO2 levels were increased by a 3 fold over the control unit. An additional uptake of 0.55 kg of exogenous CO2 was achieved in the test AD during the trial period. A 2.5 fold increase in hydrogen (H2) concentration was observed and attributed to CO2 dissolution and to an alteration of the acidogenesis and acetogenesis pathways. A hypothesis for conversion of exogenous CO2 has been proposed, which requires validation by microbial community analysis. PMID:26143589

  10. Cobalamin Catalytic Centers for Stable Fuels Generation from Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Wesley D.; Jawdat, Benmaan I.; Ennist, Nathan M.; Warncke, Kurt

    2010-03-01

    Our aim is to design and construct protein-based artificial photosynthetic systems that reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) to stable fuel forms within the robust and adaptable (βα)8 TIM-barrel protein structure. The EutB subunit of the adenosylcobalamin-dependent enzyme, ethanolamine ammonia-lyase, from Salmonella typhimurium, was selected as the protein template. This system was selected because the Co^I forms of the native cobalamin (Cbl) cofactor, and the related cobinamide (Cbi), possess redox properties that are commensurate with reduction of CO2. The kinetics of photo- (excited 5'-deazariboflavin electron donor) and chemical [Ti(III)] reduction, and subsequent reaction, of the Cbl and Cbi with CO2 are measured by time-resolved UV/visible absorption spectroscopy. Products are quantified by NMR spectroscopy. The results address the efficacy of the organocobalt catalytic centers for CO2 reduction to stable fuels, towards protein device integration.

  11. Opportunities for Coordinated Observations of CO2 with the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) and Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, David

    2008-01-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) and the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) are the first two satellites designed to make global measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with the precision and sampling needed identify and monitor surface sources and sinks of this important greenhouse gas. Because the operational phases of the OCO and GOSAT missions overlap in time, there are numerous opportunities for comparing and combining the data from these two satellites to improve our understanding of the natural processes and human activities that control the atmospheric CO2 and it variability over time. Opportunities for cross-calibration, cross-validation, and coordinated observations that are currently under consideration are summarized here.

  12. Understanding Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Leakage from Carbon Capture and Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    US EPA held a technical Geochemical Impact Workshop in Washington, DC on July 10 and 11, 2007 to discuss geological considerations and Area of Review (AoR) issues related to geologic sequestration (GS) of Carbon Dioxide (CO2). Seventy=one (71) representatives of the electric uti...

  13. Carbon-Based Adsorbents for Postcombustion CO2 Capture: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Anne Elise; Gao, Bin

    2016-07-19

    The persistent increase in atmospheric CO2 from anthropogenic sources makes research directed toward carbon capture and storage imperative. Current liquid amine absorption technology has several drawbacks including hazardous byproducts and a high-energy requirement for regeneration; therefore, research is ongoing to develop more practical methods for capturing CO2 in postcombustion scenarios. The unique properties of carbon-based materials make them specifically promising for CO2 adsorption at low temperature and moderate to high partial pressure. This critical review aims to highlight the development of carbon-based solid sorbents for postcombustion CO2 capture. Specifically, it provides an overview of postcombustion CO2 capture processes with solid adsorbents and discusses a variety of carbon-based materials that could be used. This review focuses on low-cost pyrogenic carbon, activated carbon (AC), and metal-carbon composites for CO2 capture. Further, it touches upon the recent progress made to develop metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and carbon nanomaterials and their general CO2 sorption potential. PMID:27257991

  14. Carbon-Based Adsorbents for Postcombustion CO2 Capture: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Anne Elise; Gao, Bin

    2016-07-19

    The persistent increase in atmospheric CO2 from anthropogenic sources makes research directed toward carbon capture and storage imperative. Current liquid amine absorption technology has several drawbacks including hazardous byproducts and a high-energy requirement for regeneration; therefore, research is ongoing to develop more practical methods for capturing CO2 in postcombustion scenarios. The unique properties of carbon-based materials make them specifically promising for CO2 adsorption at low temperature and moderate to high partial pressure. This critical review aims to highlight the development of carbon-based solid sorbents for postcombustion CO2 capture. Specifically, it provides an overview of postcombustion CO2 capture processes with solid adsorbents and discusses a variety of carbon-based materials that could be used. This review focuses on low-cost pyrogenic carbon, activated carbon (AC), and metal-carbon composites for CO2 capture. Further, it touches upon the recent progress made to develop metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and carbon nanomaterials and their general CO2 sorption potential.

  15. Numerical investigation on the expansion of supercritical carbon dioxide jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) fluid is characterized by low rock breaking threshold pressure and high rock breaking rate. Meanwhile, SC-CO2 fluid has relatively low viscosity near to gas and high density near to liquid. So, it has great advantages in drilling and rock breaking over water. In this paper, numerical study of SC-CO2 flowing through a nozzle is presented. The purpose of this simulation is to ascertain why the SC-CO2 jet flow has better ability in drilling and rock breaking than the water jet flow. The simulation model was controlled by the RANS equations together with the continuity equation as well as the energy equation. The realizable k-epsilon turbulence model was adopted to govern the turbulent characteristics. Pressure boundary conditions were applied to the inlet and outlet boundary. The properties of carbon dioxide and water were described by UDF. It is found that: (1) under the same boundary conditions, the decay of dimensionless central axial velocity and dynamic pressure of water is quicker than that of the SC-CO2, and the core length of SC-CO2 jet is about 4.5 times of the nozzle diameter, which is 1 times longer than that of the water; (2) With the increase of inlet pressure or the decrease of outlet pressure, the dimensionless central axial velocity and dynamic pressure attenuation of water keeps the same, while the decay of central axial velocity of SC-CO2 turns gentle; (3) the change of central axial temperature of SC-CO2 is more complex than that of the water

  16. Carbon dioxide fluxes from an urban area in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tao; Wang, Yuesi

    2012-03-01

    A better understanding of urban carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions is important for quantifying urban contributions to the global carbon budget. From January to December 2008, CO 2 fluxes were measured, by eddy covariance at 47 m above ground on a meteorological tower in a high-density residential area in Beijing. The results showed that the urban surface was a net source of CO 2 in the atmosphere. Diurnal flux patterns were similar to those previously observed in other cities and were largely influenced by traffic volume. Carbon uptake by both urban vegetation during the growing season and the reduction of fuel consumption for domestic heating resulted in less-positive daily fluxes in the summer. The average daily flux measured in the summer was 0.48 mg m - 2 s - 1 , which was 82%, 35% and 36% lower than those in the winter, spring and autumn, respectively. The reduction of vehicles on the road during the 29th Olympic and Paralympic Games had a significant impact on CO 2 flux. The flux of 0.40 mg m - 2 s - 1 for September 2008 was approximately 0.17 mg m - 2 s - 1 lower than the flux for September 2007. Annual CO 2 emissions from the study site were estimated at 20.6 kg CO 2 m - 2 y - 1 , considerably higher than yearly emissions obtained from other urban and suburban landscapes.

  17. Carbon dioxide conversion by means of coplanar dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiorlin, Milko; Klink, Rouven; Brandenburg, Ronny

    2016-08-01

    To face the worldwide problem of anthropogenic carbon dioxide