WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon cycle studies

  1. [Forest carbon cycle model: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping

    2009-06-01

    Forest carbon cycle is one of the important items in the research of terrestrial carbon cycle, while carbon cycle model is an important means in studying the carbon cycle mechanisms of forest ecosystem and in estimating carbon fluxes. Based on the sum-up of main carbon cycle models, this paper classified the forest carbon cycle models into two categories, i.e., patch scale forest carbon cycle models and regional scale terrestrial carbon cycle models, with their features commented. The future development trend in the research of forest carbon cycle models in China was discussed.

  2. The Contemporary Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R. A.

    2003-12-01

    the past 150 years as a result of human-induced emissions of carbon. The processes responsible for sinks of carbon on land and in the sea are reviewed from the perspective of feedbacks, and the chapter concludes with some prospects for the future.Earlier comprehensive summaries of the global carbon cycle include studies by Bolin et al. (1979, 1986), Woodwell and Pecan (1973), Bolin (1981), NRC (1983), Sundquist and Broecker (1985), and Trabalka (1985). More recently, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has summarized information on the carbon cycle in the context of climate change ( Watson et al., 1990; Schimel et al., 1996; Prentice et al., 2001). The basic aspects of the global carbon cycle have been understood for decades, but other aspects, such as the partitioning of the carbon sink between land and ocean, are being re-evaluated continuously with new data and analyses. The rate at which new publications revise estimates of these carbon sinks and re-evaluate the mechanisms that control the magnitude of the sinks suggests that portions of this review will be out of date by the time of publication.

  3. The Carbon Cycle and the Earth Systems--Studying the Carbon Cycle in Multidisciplinary Environmental Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudovitch, Yossi; Orion, Nir

    This paper describes a method that attempts to confront the challenges of developing an environmentally-based earth sciences program. The research scheme includes five stages: (1) predevelopment study; (2) curriculum development; (3) implementation; (4) formative evaluation; and (5) curriculum modification. The research results indicate that the…

  4. Applications of analytical chemistry to oceanic carbon cycle studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Council, Committee on Oceanic Carbon

    1993-01-01

    ... Carbon Ocean Studies Board Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1993 i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other this and ...

  5. The carbon cycle revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, Bert; Fung, Inez

    1992-01-01

    Discussions during the Global Change Institute indicated a need to present, in some detail and as accurately as possible, our present knowledge about the carbon cycle, the uncertainties in this knowledge, and the reasons for these uncertainties. We discuss basic issues of internal consistency within the carbon cycle, and end by summarizing the key unknowns.

  6. Seeing the Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Pamela; Welty, David J.; Repeta, Daniel; Engle-Belknap, Cheryl A.; Cramer, Catherine; Frashure, Kim; Chen, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a classroom experiment that was developed to introduce middle school learners to the carbon cycle. The experiment deals with transfer of CO[subscript 2] between liquid reservoirs and the effect CO[subscript 2] has on algae growth. It allows students to observe the influence of the carbon cycle on algae growth,…

  7. The global carbon cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier-Reimer, E.

    1991-01-01

    Basic concepts of the global carbon cycle on earth are described; by careful analyses of isotopic ratios, emission history and oceanic ventilation rates are derived, which provide crucial tests for constraining and calibrating models. Effects of deforestation, fertilizing, fossil fuel burning, soil erosion, etc. are quantified and compared, and the oceanic carbon process is evaluated. Oceanic and terrestrial biosphere modifications are discussed and a carbon cycle model is proposed

  8. A Study on Life Cycle CO2 Emissions of Low-Carbon Building in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Hyun Cho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There have been much interest and many efforts to control global warming and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions throughout the world. Recently, the Republic of Korea has also increased its GHG reduction goal and searched for an implementation plan. In buildings, for example, there have been technology developments and deployment policies to reduce GHG emissions from a life cycle perspective, covering construction materials, building construction, use of buildings and waste disposal. In particular, Korea’s Green Standard for Energy and Environmental Design is a certification of environmentally-friendly buildings for their energy saving and reduction of environmental pollution throughout their lives. In fact, the demand and adoption of the certification are rising every year. In construction materials and buildings, as a result, an environmentally-friendly aspect has become crucial. The importance of construction material and building development technologies that can reduce environmental load by diminishing GHG emissions in buildings has emerged. Moreover, there has been a rising necessity to verify the GHG reduction effects of buildings. To assess the reduction of carbon emissions in the buildings built with low-carbon construction technologies and materials, therefore, this study estimated life cycle carbon emissions in reference buildings in which general construction materials are used and in low-carbon buildings. For this, the carbon emissions and their reduction from construction materials (especially concrete between conventional products and low-carbon materials were estimated, using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA. After estimating carbon emissions from a building life cycle perspective, their reduction in low-carbon buildings compared to the reference buildings was reviewed. The results found that compared to conventional buildings, low-carbon buildings revealed a 25% decrease in carbon emissions in terms of the reduction of Life Cycle

  9. Life cycle study. Carbon dioxide emissions lower in electric heating than in oil heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkinen, A.; Jaervinen, P.; Nikula, A.

    1996-11-01

    A primary objective of energy conservation is to cut carbon dioxide emissions. A comparative study on the various heating forms, based on the life cycle approach, showed that the carbon dioxide emissions resulting form heating are appreciably lower now that electric heating has become more common. The level of carbon dioxide emissions in Finland would have been millions of tonnes higher had oil heating been chosen instead of electric heating. (orig.)

  10. Changing global carbon cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadell, Pep

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (C02) is the single largest human perturbation on the earth's radiative balance contributing to climate change. Its rate of change reflects the balance between anthropogenic carbon emissions and the dynamics of a number of terrestrial and ocean processes that remove or emit C02. It is the long term evolution of this balance that will determine to large extent the speed and magnitude of the human induced climate change and the mitigation requirements to stabilise atmospheric C02 concentrations at any given level. In this talk, we show new trends in global carbon sources and sinks, with particularly focus on major shifts occurring since 2000 when the growth rate of atmospheric C02 has reached its highest level on record. The acceleration in the C02 growth results from the combination of several changes in properties of the carbon cycle, including: acceleration of anthropogenic carbon emissions; increased carbon intensity of the global economy, and decreased efficiency of natural carbon sinks. We discuss in more detail some of the possible causes of the reduced efficiency of natural carbon sinks on land and oceans, such as the decreased net sink in the Southern Ocean and on terrestrial mid-latitudes due to world-wide occurrence of drought. All these changes reported here characterise a carbon cycle that is generating stronger than expected climate forcing, and sooner than expected

  11. Task Order 20: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Energy Conversion Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Paul [AREVA Federal Services, LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States); Lindsay, Edward [AREVA Federal Services, LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States); McDowell, Michael [AREVA Federal Services, LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States); Huang, Megan [AREVA Federal Services, LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2015-04-23

    AREVA Inc. developed this study for the US Department of Energy (DOE) office of Nuclear Energy (NE) in accordance with Task Order 20 Statement of Work (SOW) covering research and development activities for the Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (sCO2) Brayton Cycle energy conversion. The study addresses the conversion of sCO2 heat energy to electrical output by use of a Brayton Cycle system and focuses on the potential of a net efficiency increase via cycle recuperation and recompression stages. The study also addresses issues and study needed to advance development and implementation of a 10 MWe sCO2 demonstration project.

  12. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldocchi, Dennis; Ryu, Youngryel; Keenan, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    A growing literature is reporting on how the terrestrial carbon cycle is experiencing year-to-year variability because of climate anomalies and trends caused by global change. As CO 2 concentration records in the atmosphere exceed 50 years and as satellite records reach over 30 years in length, we are becoming better able to address carbon cycle variability and trends. Here we review how variable the carbon cycle is, how large the trends in its gross and net fluxes are, and how well the signal can be separated from noise. We explore mechanisms that explain year-to-year variability and trends by deconstructing the global carbon budget. The CO 2 concentration record is detecting a significant increase in the seasonal amplitude between 1958 and now. Inferential methods provide a variety of explanations for this result, but a conclusive attribution remains elusive. Scientists have reported that this trend is a consequence of the greening of the biosphere, stronger northern latitude photosynthesis, more photosynthesis by semi-arid ecosystems, agriculture and the green revolution, tropical temperature anomalies, or increased winter respiration. At the global scale, variability in the terrestrial carbon cycle can be due to changes in constituent fluxes, gross primary productivity, plant respiration and heterotrophic (microbial) respiration, and losses due to fire, land use change, soil erosion, or harvesting. It remains controversial whether or not there is a significant trend in global primary productivity (due to rising CO 2 , temperature, nitrogen deposition, changing land use, and preponderance of wet and dry regions). The degree to which year-to-year variability in temperature and precipitation anomalies affect global primary productivity also remains uncertain. For perspective, interannual variability in global gross primary productivity is relatively small (on the order of 2 Pg-C y -1 ) with respect to a large and uncertain background (123 +/- 4 Pg-C y -1 ), and

  13. Carbon cycle makeover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene; Kump, Lee R.

    2013-01-01

    In 1845, the French chemist and mining engineer Jacques-Joseph Ebelman figured out why Earth's atmosphere contains oxygen (1). Oxygen is produced by plants during photosynthesis, but almost all of this oxygen is used again in respiration. Ebelman reasoned that small amounts of organic matter rema...... geochemical cycle. But Earth is an old planet, and oxygen levels have changed through time (2). On page 540 of this issue, Schrag et al. (3) challenge the most commonly used geochemical approach to assess long-term changes in the coupled oxygen and carbon cycles....... remaining in sediments after respiration leave a residual of oxygen in the atmosphere. The source of oxygen to the atmosphere represented by organic matter burial is balanced by oxygen sinks associated with rock weathering and chemical reaction with volcanic gases. This is the long-term carbon and oxygen...

  14. Soil, environmental, and watershed measurements in support of carbon cycling studies in northwestern Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, T.G.; Harden, J.W.; Dabney, S.M.; Marion, D.A.; Alonso, C.; Sharpe, J.M.; Fries, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    Measurements including soil respiration, soil moisture, soil temperature, and carbon export in suspended sediments from small watersheds were recorded at several field sites in northwestern Mississippi in support of hillslope process studies associated with the U.S. Geological Survey's Mississippi Basin Carbon Project (MBCP). These measurements were made to provide information about carbon cycling in agricultural and forest ecosystems to understand the potential role of erosion and deposition in the sequestration of soil organic carbon in upland soils. The question of whether soil erosion and burial constitutes an important net sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide is one hypothesis that the MBCP is evaluating to better understand carbon cycling and climate change. This report contains discussion of methods used and presents data for the period December 1996 through March 1998. Included in the report are ancillary data provided by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) ARS National Sedimentation Laboratory and U.S. Forest Service (USFS) Center for Bottomland Hardwoods Research on rainfall, runoff, sediment yield, forest biomass and grain yield. Together with the data collected by the USGS these data permit the construction of carbon budgets and the calibration of models of soil organic matter dynamics and sediment transport and deposition. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has established cooperative agreements with the USDA and USFS to facilitate collaborative research at research sites in northwestern Mississippi.

  15. The Pyrogenic Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Michael I.; Wynn, Jonathan G.; Saiz, Gustavo; Wurster, Christopher M.; McBeath, Anna

    2015-05-01

    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC; includes soot, char, black carbon, and biochar) is produced by the incomplete combustion of organic matter accompanying biomass burning and fossil fuel consumption. PyC is pervasive in the environment, distributed throughout the atmosphere as well as soils, sediments, and water in both the marine and terrestrial environment. The physicochemical characteristics of PyC are complex and highly variable, dependent on the organic precursor and the conditions of formation. A component of PyC is highly recalcitrant and persists in the environment for millennia. However, it is now clear that a significant proportion of PyC undergoes transformation, translocation, and remineralization by a range of biotic and abiotic processes on comparatively short timescales. Here we synthesize current knowledge of the production, stocks, and fluxes of PyC as well as the physical and chemical processes through which it interacts as a dynamic component of the global carbon cycle.

  16. A study of power cycles using supercritical carbon dioxide as the working fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, Andrew Urban

    A real fluid heat engine power cycle analysis code has been developed for analyzing the zero dimensional performance of a general recuperated, recompression, precompression supercritical carbon dioxide power cycle with reheat and a unique shaft configuration. With the proposed shaft configuration, several smaller compressor-turbine pairs could be placed inside of a pressure vessel in order to avoid high speed, high pressure rotating seals. The small compressor-turbine pairs would share some resemblance with a turbocharger assembly. Variation in fluid properties within the heat exchangers is taken into account by discretizing zero dimensional heat exchangers. The cycle analysis code allows for multiple reheat stages, as well as an option for the main compressor to be powered by a dedicated turbine or an electrical motor. Variation in performance with respect to design heat exchanger pressure drops and minimum temperature differences, precompressor pressure ratio, main compressor pressure ratio, recompression mass fraction, main compressor inlet pressure, and low temperature recuperator mass fraction have been explored throughout a range of each design parameter. Turbomachinery isentropic efficiencies are implemented and the sensitivity of the cycle performance and the optimal design parameters is explored. Sensitivity of the cycle performance and optimal design parameters is studied with respect to the minimum heat rejection temperature and the maximum heat addition temperature. A hybrid stochastic and gradient based optimization technique has been used to optimize critical design parameters for maximum engine thermal efficiency. A parallel design exploration mode was also developed in order to rapidly conduct the parameter sweeps in this design space exploration. A cycle thermal efficiency of 49.6% is predicted with a 320K [47°C] minimum temperature and 923K [650°C] maximum temperature. The real fluid heat engine power cycle analysis code was expanded to study a

  17. A Study of the Carbon Cycle Using NASA Observations and the GEOS Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawson, Steven; Gelaro, Ron; Ott, Lesley; Putman, Bill; Chatterjee, Abhishek; Koster, Randy; Lee, Eunjee; Oda, Tom; Weir, Brad; Zeng, Fanwei

    2018-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) model has been developed in the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. From its roots in chemical transport and as a General Circulation Model, the GEOS model has been extended to an Earth System Model based on a modular construction using the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF), combining elements developed in house in the GMAO with others that are imported through collaborative research. It is used extensively for research and for product generation, both as a free-running model and as the core of the GMAO's data assimilation system. In recent years, the GMAO's modeling and assimilation efforts have been strongly supported by Piers Sellers, building on both his earlier legacy as an observationally oriented model developer and his post-astronaut career as a dynamic leader into new territory. Piers' long-standing interest in the carbon cycle and the combination of models with observations motivates this presentation, which will focus on the representation of the carbon cycle in the GEOS Earth System Model. Examples will include: (i) the progression from specified land-atmosphere surface fluxes to computations with an interactive model component (Catchment-CN), along with constraints on vegetation distributions using satellite observations; (ii) the use of high-resolution satellite observations to constrain human-generated inputs to the atmosphere; (iii) studies of the consistency of the observed atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations with those in the model simulations. The presentation will focus on year-to-year variations in elements of the carbon cycle, specifically on how the observations can inform the representation of mechanisms in the model and lead to integrity in global carbon dioxide simulations. Further, applications of the GEOS model to the planning of new carbon-climate observations will be addressed, as an example of the work that was strongly supported by

  18. A Brief Review of the Application of 14C in Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilderson, T; Mcfarlane, K

    2009-10-22

    An over-arching goal of the DOE TCP program is to understand the mechanistic controls over the fate, transport, and residence time of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere. Many of the modern process and modeling studies focus on seasonal to interannual variability. However, much of the carbon on the landscape and in soils is in separate reservoirs with turnover times that are multi-decadal to millennial. It is the controls on these longer term pools or reservoirs that is a critical unknown in the face of rising GHGs and climate change and uncertainties of the terrestrial biosphere as a future global sink or source of atmospheric CO{sub 2} [eg., Friedlingstein et al., 2006; Govindasamy et al., 2005; Thompson et al., 2004]. Radiocarbon measurements, in combination with other data, can provide insight into, and constraints on, terrestrial carbon cycling. Radiocarbon (t{sub 1/2} 5730yrs) is produced naturally in the stratosphere when secondary neutrons generated by cosmic rays collide with {sup 14}N atoms [Libby 1946; Arnold and Libby, 1949]. Upon formation, {sup 14}C is rapidly oxidized to CO and then to CO{sub 2}, and is incorporated into the carbon cycle. Due to anthropogenic activities, the amount of {sup 14}C in the atmosphere doubled in the mid/late 1950s and early 1960s from its preindustrial value of {sup 14}C/{sup 12}C ratio of 1.18 x 10{sup -12} [eg., Nydal and Lovseth, 1983]. Following the atmospheric weapons test ban in 1963, the {sup 14}C/{sup 12}C ratio, has decreased due to the net isotopic exchange between the ocean and terrestrial biosphere [eg., Levin and Hessheimer, 2000] and a dilution effect due to the burning of {sup 14}C-free fossil fuel carbon, the 'Suess Effect' [Suess, 1955]. In the carbon cycle literature, radiocarbon measurements are generally reported as {Delta}{sup 14}C, which includes a correction for mass dependent fractionation [Stuiver and Polach, 1977]. In the context of carbon cycle studies radiocarbon measurements can be

  19. CarboNA: International Studies of the North American Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, S.; Cavallaro, N.; Ste-Marie, C.; Muhlia-Melo, A.

    2009-05-01

    A Science Steering Committee has been formed consisting of carbon cycle scientists from Canada, Mexico, and the United States and government agency contacts from each country, to draft a Science Plan for CarboNA. Science questions that we will address include: 1. What's the current carbon budget of NA and adjacent oceans, including spatial structure and seasonal-to- interannual variations? 2. What mechanisms are involved? What processes control the time mean vs the interannual variability? 3. When will sinks saturate? Will they become sources? Are there surprises in store? What roles will be played by melting permafrost, boreal warming, and subtropical desertification, and tropical development? 4. What are the likely responses of terrestrial ecosystems and coastal oceans to climate change and enhanced CO2? 5. What roles will economic development, energy technology, and trade play in mitigating increases in fossil fuel emissions? In addition to the national research programs already underway in the three countries, we anticipate special collaborative projects of international scope. For example: 1. Studies of the response of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change along an ecological gradient from the Arctic to the Tropics; 2. Truly continental budgets for atmospheric greenhouse gases using data from land-based, airborne, marine, and spaceborne platforms; 3. An aggressively interdisciplinary intensive experiment to understand and quantify carbon cycle processes and budgets in the Gulf of Mexico Basin; 4. Investigation of the turrent state and likely future changes in carbon cycling in coastal ocean environments, including river inputs of POC, DOC, DIC, and nutrients; impacts on fisheries and coastal economies; exchange between coastal oceans and deep ocean basins; and air-sea gas exchange; 5. Government-level agreements on data sharing and harmonization, including but not limited to forest inventories, agricultural data, fossil fuel emissions data, land-use data

  20. Carbon dioxide seasonal cycle in the sea euphotic zone - a study in the Sargasso Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchal, O.

    1996-01-01

    Between 1750 and 1990, the human activities (mainly fossil carbon combustion and deforestation) have lead to an increase of the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere. Nevertheless, the carbon dioxide actively takes part to the greenhouse effect and then to the energetic balance of the climatic system. The study which is carried out consists of the forecasting of the CO 2 future concentrations in the atmosphere (from 10, 100 years). The chosen site (BATS: Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study) is located in the Sargasso Sea. The factors leading to seasonal variations have been determined. Several bio-geochemical models have been developed in order to on the one hand simulate the seasonal dynamics of the mixture layer observed in the Bats site and on the other hand explain the main characteristics of the observed phytoplankton seasonal cycle, of its nutriments and of the dissolved oxygen. (O.M.)

  1. Alternative ways of using field-based estimates to calibrate ecosystem models and their implications for ecosystem carbon cycle studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. He; Q. Zhuang; A.D. McGuire; Y. Liu; M. Chen

    2013-01-01

    Model-data fusion is a process in which field observations are used to constrain model parameters. How observations are used to constrain parameters has a direct impact on the carbon cycle dynamics simulated by ecosystem models. In this study, we present an evaluation of several options for the use of observations inmodeling regional carbon dynamics and explore the...

  2. Towards optimized methods to study viral impacts on soil microbial carbon cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubl, G. G.; Roux, S.; Jang, H. B.; Solonenko, N.; Sullivan, M. B.; Rich, V. I.

    2016-12-01

    Permafrost contains 50% of global soil carbon and is rapidly thawing. While the fate of this carbon is currently unknown, it will undoubtedly be shaped by microbes and their associated viruses, which modulate host activities via mortality and metabolic control. However, little is known about soil viruses generally and their impact on terrestrial biogeochemistry; this is partially due to the presence of inhibitory substances (e.g. humic acids) in soils that interfere with sample processing and sequence-based metagenomics surveys. To address this problem, we examined viral populations in three different peat soils along a permafrost thaw gradient. These samples yielded low viral DNA recoveries, and shallow metagenomic sequencing, but still resulted in the recovery of 40 viral genome fragments. Genome- and network-based classification suggested that these new references represented 11 viral clusters, and ecological patterns (based upon non-redundant fragment recruitment) showed that viral populations were distinct in each habitat. Although only 31% of the genes could be functionally classified, pairwise genome comparisons classified 63% of the viruses taxonomically. Additionally, comparison of the 40 viral genome fragments to 53 previously recovered fragments from the same site showed no overlap, suggesting only a small portion of the resident viral community has been sampled. A follow-up experiment was performed to remove more humics during extraction and thereby obtain better viral metagenomes. Three DNA extraction protocols were tested (CTAB, PowerSoil, and Wizard columns) and the DNA was further purified with an AMPure clean-up. The PowerSoil kit maximized DNA yield (3x CTAB and 6x Wizard), and yielded the purest DNA (based on NanoDrop 260:230 ratio). Given the important roles of viruses in biogeochemical cycles in better-studied systems, further research and humic-removal optimization on these thawing permafrost-associated viral communities is needed to clarify

  3. Mirador - Carbon Cycle and Ecosystems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth Science data access made simple. This Focus Area deals with the cycling of carbon in reservoirs and ecosystems as it changes naturally, is changed by humans,...

  4. Climate and the Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Jim

    2017-04-01

    Climate and the Carbon Cycle EOS3a Science in tomorrow's classroom Students, like too much of the American public, are largely unaware or apathetic to the changes in world climate and the impact that these changes have for life on Earth. A study conducted by Michigan State University and published in 2011 by Science Daily titled 'What carbon cycle? College students lack scientific literacy, study finds'. This study relates how 'most college students in the United States do not grasp the scientific basis of the carbon cycle - an essential skill in understanding the causes and consequences of climate change.' The study authors call for a new approach to teaching about climate. What if teachers better understood vital components of Earth's climate system and were able to impart his understanding to their students? What if students based their responses to the information taught not on emotion, but on a deeper understanding of the forces driving climate change, their analysis of the scientific evidence and in the context of earth system science? As a Middle School science teacher, I have been given the opportunity to use a new curriculum within TERC's EarthLabs collection, Climate and the Carbon Cycle, to awaken those brains and assist my students in making personal lifestyle choices based on what they had learned. In addition, with support from TERC and The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics I joined others to begin training other teachers on how to implement this curriculum in their classrooms to expose their students to our changing climate. Through my poster, I will give you (1) a glimpse into the challenges faced by today's science teachers in communicating the complicated, but ever-deepening understanding of the linkages between natural and human-driven factors on climate; (2) introduce you to a new module in the EarthLabs curriculum designed to expose teachers and students to global scientific climate data and instrumentation; and (3) illustrate how

  5. Carbon cycle feedbacks and future climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlingstein, Pierre

    2015-11-13

    Climate and carbon cycle are tightly coupled on many timescales, from interannual to multi-millennial timescales. Observations always evidence a positive feedback, warming leading to release of carbon to the atmosphere; however, the processes at play differ depending on the timescales. State-of-the-art Earth System Models now represent these climate-carbon cycle feedbacks, always simulating a positive feedback over the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, although with substantial uncertainty. Recent studies now help to reduce this uncertainty. First, on short timescales, El Niño years record larger than average atmospheric CO2 growth rate, with tropical land ecosystems being the main drivers. These climate-carbon cycle anomalies can be used as emerging constraint on the tropical land carbon response to future climate change. Second, centennial variability found in last millennium records can be used to constrain the overall global carbon cycle response to climatic excursions. These independent methods point to climate-carbon cycle feedback at the low-end of the Earth System Models range, indicating that these models overestimate the carbon cycle sensitivity to climate change. These new findings also help to attribute the historical land and ocean carbon sinks to increase in atmospheric CO2 and climate change. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. Seasonal carbon cycling in a Greenlandic fjord: an integrated pelagic and benthic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Heidi Louise; Meire, Lorenz; Juul-Pedersen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to have a pronounced effect on biogeochemical cycling in Arctic fjords, but current insight on the biogeochemical functioning of these systems is limited. Here, we present seasonal data on primary production, export of particulate organic carbon (POC), and the coupling...

  7. Closing carbon cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Fossil fuels are used as raw materials for the manufacture of synthetic organic materials, e.g. plastics, fibres, synthetic rubber, paints, solvents, fertilisers, surfactants, lubricants and bitumen. Since fossil carbon is embodied in these products they may be particularly relevant to climate

  8. Seasonal carbon cycling in a Greenlandic fjord: an integrated pelagic and benthic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Heidi Louise; Meire, Lorenz; Juul-Pedersen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to have a pronounced effect on biogeochemical cycling in Arctic fjords, but current insight on the biogeochemical functioning of these systems is limited. Here, we present seasonal data on primary production, export of particulate organic carbon (POC), and the coupling...... carbon amounted to 3.2 and 5.3 mol C m−2 yr−1, respectively. Sulfate reduction was the most prominent mineralization pathway, accounting for 69% of the benthic mineralization, while denitrification accounted for 2%. Overall, the carbon mineralization and burial in Kobbefjord were significantly higher...... in ice coverage in higher Arctic Greenlandic fjords will, as a first approximation, entail proportional increases in productivity, mineralization, and burial of organic carbon in the fjords, which will thus become similar to present-day southerly systems....

  9. A comparative study of the carbon dioxide transcritical power cycle compared with an organic rankine cycle with R123 as working fluid in waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Lundqvist, P.; Johansson, A.; Platell, P.

    2006-01-01

    The organic rankine cycle (ORC) as a bottoming cycle to convert low-grade waste heat into useful work has been widely investigated for many years. The CO 2 transcritical power cycle, on the other hand, is scarcely treated in the open literature. A CO 2 transcritical power cycle (CO 2 TPC) shows a higher potential than an ORC when taking the behavior of the heat source and the heat transfer between heat source and working fluid in the main heat exchanger into account. This is mainly due to better temperature glide matching between heat source and working fluid. The CO 2 cycle also shows no pinch limitation in the heat exchanger. This study treats the performance of the CO 2 transcritical power cycle utilizing energy from low-grade waste heat to produce useful work in comparison to an ORC using R123 as working fluid. Due to the temperature gradients for the heat source and heat sink the thermodynamic mean temperature has been used as a reference temperature when comparing both cycles. The thermodynamic models have been developed in EES The relative efficiencies have been calculated for both cycles. The results obtained show that when utilizing the low-grade waste heat with the same thermodynamic mean heat rejection temperature, a transcritical carbon dioxide power system gives a slightly higher power output than the organic rankine cycle

  10. River under anthropogenic stress: An isotope study of carbon cycling in the Vistula, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachniew, P.; Rozanski, K.

    2002-01-01

    Rivers play an important role in global carbon cycling as they transform and transport substantial amounts of carbon derived from the terrestrial systems to the oceans. Riverine carbon cycling is affected by anthropogenic influences on hydrology, chemistry and biology of the river and its catchment. The Vistula, one of the most mineralized rivers of the world, drains industrialized and agriculturally-used areas populated by almost 23 million inhabitants. Moreover, much of the industrial and domestic wastewaters discharged into the Vistula river are untreated or insufficiently treated. High levels of pollution have serious environmental and economical consequences. For example, they limit use of Vistula waters as a source of drinking water and for industrial purposes. Pollutants transported by the Vistula river significantly influence water quality far into the open Baltic Sea. The aim of the paper is to show how stable isotope techniques can be used to assess human impact on sources, fluxes and fate of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and other pollutants in rivers, taking the Vistula river as an example. Vistula waters were sampled over a one-year period at Krakow (upper reaches), where the anthropogenic influences are at the extreme, and at the river mouth. Two campaigns were undertaken to sample the Vistula river along its course in summer and in autumn. Analyses of river water included temperature, pH, alkalinity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, δ 13 C of dissolved inorganic carbon and stable isotope composition of water (δ 18 O and δ 2 H)

  11. Bioenergy, the Carbon Cycle, and Carbon Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, D. M.

    2003-12-01

    The evolving energy and land-use policies across North America and Africa provide critical case studies in the relationship between regional development, the management of natural resources, and the carbon cycle. Over 50 EJ of the roughly 430 EJ total global anthropogenic energy budget is currently utilized in the form of direct biomass combustion. In North America 3 - 4 percent of total energy is derived from biomass, largely in combined heat and power (CHP) combustion applications. By contrast Africa, which is a major consumer of 'traditional' forms of biomass, uses far more total bioenergy products, but largely in smaller batches, with quantities of 0.5 - 2 tons/capita at the household level. Several African nations rely on biomass for well over 90 percent of household energy, and in some nations major portions of the industrial energy supply is also derived from biomass. In much of sub-Saharan Africa the direct combustion of biomass in rural areas is exceeded by the conversion of wood to charcoal for transport to the cities for household use there. There are major health, and environmental repercussions of these energy flows. The African, as well as Latin American and Asian charcoal trade has a noticeable signature on the global greenhouse gas cycles. In North America, and notably Scandinavia and India as well, biomass energy and emerging conversion technologies are being actively researched, and provide tremendous opportunities for the evolution of a sustainable, locally based, energy economy for many nations. This talk will examine aspects of these current energy and carbon flows, and the potential that gassification and new silvicultural practices hold for clean energy systems in the 21st century. North America and Africa will be examined in particular as both sources of innovation in this field, and areas with specific promise for application of these energy technologies and biomass/land use practices to further energy and global climate management.

  12. Differentiating moss from higher plants is critical in studying the carbon cycle of the boreal biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Liang, Shunlin; Zhao, Shuqing; Chen, Jingming; Xu, Wenfang; Li, Xianglan; Barr, Alan; Black, T. Andrew; Yan, Wende; Goulden, Michael; Kulmala, Liisa; Lindroth, Anders; Margolis, Hank A.; Matsuura, Yojiro; Moors, Eddy; van der Molen, Michiel; Ohta, Takeshi; Pilegaard, Kim; Varlagin, Andrej; Vesala, Timo

    2014-01-01

    The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is used for estimating gross primary production (GPP), often includes contributions from both mosses and vascular plants in boreal ecosystems. For the same NDVI, moss can generate only about one-third of the GPP that vascular plants can because of its much lower photosynthetic capacity. Here, based on eddy covariance measurements, we show that the difference in photosynthetic capacity between these two plant functional types has never been explicitly included when estimating regional GPP in the boreal region, resulting in a substantial overestimation. The magnitude of this overestimation could have important implications regarding a change from a current carbon sink to a carbon source in the boreal region. Moss abundance, associated with ecosystem disturbances, needs to be mapped and incorporated into GPP estimates in order to adequately assess the role of the boreal region in the global carbon cycle.

  13. Differentiating moss from higher plants is critical in studying the carbon cycle of the boreal biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Liang, Shunlin; Zhao, Shuqing; Chen, Jingming; Xu, Wenfang; Li, Xianglan; Barr, Alan; Andrew Black, T; Yan, Wende; Goulden, Mike L; Kulmala, Liisa; Lindroth, Anders; Margolis, Hank A; Matsuura, Yojiro; Moors, Eddy; van der Molen, Michiel; Ohta, Takeshi; Pilegaard, Kim; Varlagin, Andrej; Vesala, Timo

    2014-06-26

    The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is used for estimating gross primary production (GPP), often includes contributions from both mosses and vascular plants in boreal ecosystems. For the same NDVI, moss can generate only about one-third of the GPP that vascular plants can because of its much lower photosynthetic capacity. Here, based on eddy covariance measurements, we show that the difference in photosynthetic capacity between these two plant functional types has never been explicitly included when estimating regional GPP in the boreal region, resulting in a substantial overestimation. The magnitude of this overestimation could have important implications regarding a change from a current carbon sink to a carbon source in the boreal region. Moss abundance, associated with ecosystem disturbances, needs to be mapped and incorporated into GPP estimates in order to adequately assess the role of the boreal region in the global carbon cycle.

  14. The carbon cycle response to two El Nino types: an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chylek, Petr; Tans, Pieter; Christy, John; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2018-02-01

    We analyze monthly tropical near surface air temperature and Mauna Loa Observatory carbon dioxide (CO2) data within 1960–2016 to identify different carbon cycle responses for two El Nino types: El Ninos originating in the central tropical Pacific (CP El Nino) and El Ninos originating in the eastern tropical Pacific (EP El Nino). We find significant differences between the two types of El Nino events with respect to time delay of the CO2 rise rate that follows the increase in tropical near surface air temperatures caused by El Nino events. The average time lag of the CP El Nino is 4.0 ± 1.7 months, while the mean time lag of EP El Nino is found to be 8.5 ± 2.3 months. The average lag of all considered 1960–2016 El Ninos is 5.2 ± 2.7 months. In contrast the sensitivity of the CO2 growth rate to tropical near surface air temperature increase is determined to be about the same for both El Nino types equal to 2.8 ± 0.9 ppm yr‑1 K‑1 (or 5.9 ± 1.9 GtC yr‑1 K‑1). Our results should be useful for the understanding of the carbon cycle and constraining it in climate models.

  15. Carbon Cycling with Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Klaus S.

    2011-11-01

    Liquid hydrocarbon fuels like gasoline, diesel or jet fuel are the most efficient ways of delivering energy to the transportation sector, in particular cars, ships and airplanes. Unfortunately, their use nearly unavoidably leads to the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Unless an equivalent amount is removed from the air, the carbon dioxide will accumulate and significantly contribute to the man-made greenhouse effect. If fuels are made from biomass, the capture of carbon dioxide is a natural part of the cycle. Here, we discuss technical options for capturing carbon dioxide at much faster rates. We outline the basic concepts, discuss how such capture technologies could be made affordable and show how they could be integrated into a larger system approach. In the short term, the likely source of the hydrocarbon fuels is oil or gas; in the longer term, technologies that can provide energy to remove oxygen from carbon dioxide and water molecules and combine the remaining components into liquid fuels make it possible to recycle carbon between fuels and carbon dioxide in an entirely abiotic process. Here we focus on renewable and nuclear energy options for producing liquid fuels and show how air capture combined with fuel synthesis could be more economic than a transition to electric cars or hydrogen-fueled cars.

  16. Predictability of the terrestrial carbon cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yiqi; Keenan, Trevor F; Smith, Matthew

    2015-05-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems sequester roughly 30% of anthropogenic carbon emission. However this estimate has not been directly deduced from studies of terrestrial ecosystems themselves, but inferred from atmospheric and oceanic data. This raises a question: to what extent is the terrestrial carbon cycle intrinsically predictable? In this paper, we investigated fundamental properties of the terrestrial carbon cycle, examined its intrinsic predictability, and proposed a suite of future research directions to improve empirical understanding and model predictive ability. Specifically, we isolated endogenous internal processes of the terrestrial carbon cycle from exogenous forcing variables. The internal processes share five fundamental properties (i.e., compartmentalization, carbon input through photosynthesis, partitioning among pools, donor pool-dominant transfers, and the first-order decay) among all types of ecosystems on the Earth. The five properties together result in an emergent constraint on predictability of various carbon cycle components in response to five classes of exogenous forcing. Future observational and experimental research should be focused on those less predictive components while modeling research needs to improve model predictive ability for those highly predictive components. We argue that an understanding of predictability should provide guidance on future observational, experimental and modeling research. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The Hamburg oceanic carbon cycle circulation model. Cycle 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier-Reimer, E.; Heinze, C.

    1992-02-01

    The carbon cycle model calculates the prognostic fields of oceanic geochemical carbon cycle tracers making use of a 'frozen' velocity field provided by a run of the LSG oceanic circulation model (see the corresponding manual, LSG=Large Scale Geostrophic). The carbon cycle model includes a crude approximation of interactions between sediment and bottom layer water. A simple (meridionally diffusive) one layer atmosphere model allows to calculate the CO 2 airborne fraction resulting from the oceanic biogeochemical interactions. (orig.)

  18. A comparative study on life cycle analysis of molten carbon fuel cells and diesel engines for marine application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaner, Selim; Zhou, Peilin

    The study performed a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) plant for marine applications. The results are compared to a benchmark conventional diesel engine (DE) which operates as an auxiliary power generating unit. The LCA includes manufacturing of MCFC and DE, fuel supply, operation and decommissioning stages of the system's life cycle. As a new technology in its very early stages of commercialisation, some detailed data for the FC systems are not available. In order to overcome this problem, a series of scenario analysis has also been performed to evaluate the effect of various factors on the overall impact, such as change in power load factors and effect of recycling credit at the end of life cycle. Environmental benefits from fuel cell operation are maximised with the use of hydrogen as an input fuel. For the manufacturing stage of the life cycle, input material and process energy required for fuel cell stack assemblies and balance-of-plants (BOP) represent a bigger impact than that of conventional benchmark mainly due to special materials used in the stack and the weights of the BOP components. Additionally, recovering valuable materials through re-use or re-cycle will reduce the overall environmental burden of the system over its life cycle.

  19. Carbon Stock and Carbon Cycle of Wetland Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Zhangquan; Zhang, Canming; Li, Jiao; Yang, Nan; Li, Xiquan; Niu, Yandong; Wu, Zijian

    2014-01-01

    Wetland ecosystem is an essential ecosystem in the world. Its organic carbon stock and carbon cycle are important basis of global carbon cycle researches and also major contents of global climate change researches. Researches have shown that wetland protection and restoration can promote carbon accumulation and reduce emission of greenhouse gases. This paper discussed influence of carbon stock and carbon balance of wetland ecosystem and emission of greenhouse gases, as well as the relationshi...

  20. The economic implications of carbon cycle uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Steven J.; Edmonds, James A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of uncertainty in the carbon cycle for the cost of stabilizing carbon dioxide concentrations. Using a state of the art integrated assessment model, we find that uncertainty in our understanding of the carbon cycle has significant implications for the costs of a climate stabilization policy, with cost differences denominated in trillions of dollars. Uncertainty in the carbon cycle is equivalent to a change in concentration target of up to 100 ppmv. The impact of carbon cycle uncertainties are smaller than those for climate sensitivity, and broadly comparable to the effect of uncertainty in technology availability

  1. Decadally cycling soil carbon is more sensitive to warming than faster-cycling soil carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Junjie; Zhu, Biao; Cheng, Weixin

    2015-12-01

    The response of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools to globally rising surface temperature crucially determines the feedback between climate change and the global carbon cycle. However, there is a lack of studies investigating the temperature sensitivity of decomposition for decadally cycling SOC which is the main component of total soil carbon stock and the most relevant to global change. We tackled this issue using two decadally (13) C-labeled soils and a much improved measuring system in a long-term incubation experiment. Results indicated that the temperature sensitivity of decomposition for decadally cycling SOC (>23 years in one soil and >55 years in the other soil) was significantly greater than that for faster-cycling SOC (will likely make this large SOC stock vulnerable to loss by global warming in the 21st century and beyond. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Environmental impacts of future low-carbon electricity systems: Detailed life cycle assessment of a Danish case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Tonini, Davide; Nielsen, Christian F.B.

    2014-01-01

    The need to reduce dependency on fossil resources and to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is driving many countries towards the implementation of low-carbon electricity systems. In this study the environmental impact of a future (2030) possible low-carbon electricity system in Denmark....... The results showed that consumption of fossil resources and global warming impacts from the Danish electricity sector could be reduced significantly compared with 2010. Nevertheless, a reduction in GHG may be at the expense of other environmental impacts, such as the increased depletion of abiotic resources...... was assessed and compared with the current situation (2010) and an alternative 2030 scenario using life cycle assessment (LCA). The influence on the final results of the modeling approach used for (i) electricity import, (ii) biomass resources, and (iii) the cogeneration of heat and power was discussed...

  3. Authigenic carbonate and the history of the global carbon cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Daniel P; Higgins, John A; Macdonald, Francis A; Johnston, David T

    2013-02-01

    We present a framework for interpreting the carbon isotopic composition of sedimentary rocks, which in turn requires a fundamental reinterpretation of the carbon cycle and redox budgets over Earth's history. We propose that authigenic carbonate, produced in sediment pore fluids during early diagenesis, has played a major role in the carbon cycle in the past. This sink constitutes a minor component of the carbon isotope mass balance under the modern, high levels of atmospheric oxygen but was much larger in times of low atmospheric O(2) or widespread marine anoxia. Waxing and waning of a global authigenic carbonate sink helps to explain extreme carbon isotope variations in the Proterozoic, Paleozoic, and Triassic.

  4. Carbon Footprint Analysis for Mechanization of Maize Production Based on Life Cycle Assessment: A Case Study in Jilin Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haina Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The theory on the carbon footprint of agriculture can systematically evaluate the carbon emissions caused by artificial factors from the agricultural production process, which is the theoretical basis for constructing low-carbon agriculture and has important guiding significance for realizing low-carbon agriculture. Based on farm production survey data from Jilin Province in 2014, this paper aims to obtain a clear understanding of the carbon footprint of maize production through the following method: (1 one ton of maize production was evaluated systematically by using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA; (2 the carbon emissions of the whole system were estimated based on field measurement data, (3 using the emission factors we estimated Jilin’s carbon footprint for the period 2006–2013, and forecasted it for the period from 2014 to 2020 using the grey system model GM (1, 1.

  5. Carbon cycle modeling calculations for the IPCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuebbles, D.J.; Jain, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    We carried out essentially all the carbon cycle modeling calculations that were required by the IPCC Working Group 1. Specifically, IPCC required two types of calculations, namely, ''inverse calculations'' (input was CO 2 concentrations and the output was CO 2 emissions), and the ''forward calculations'' (input was CO 2 emissions and output was CO 2 concentrations). In particular, we have derived carbon dioxide concentrations and/or emissions for several scenarios using our coupled climate-carbon cycle modelling system

  6. Evaluating the impacts of new walking and cycling infrastructure on carbon dioxide emissions from motorized travel: a controlled longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Christian; Goodman, Anna; Ogilvie, David

    2014-09-01

    Walking and cycling is widely assumed to substitute for at least some motorized travel and thereby reduce energy use and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. While the evidence suggests that a supportive built environment may be needed to promote walking and cycling, it is unclear whether and how interventions in the built environment that attract walkers and cyclists may reduce transport CO 2 emissions. Our aim was therefore to evaluate the effects of providing new infrastructure for walking and cycling on CO 2 emissions from motorised travel. A cohort of 1849 adults completed questionnaires at baseline (2010) and one-year follow-up (2011), before and after the construction of new high-quality routes provided as part of the Sustrans Connect2 programme in three UK municipalities. A second cohort of 1510 adults completed questionnaires at baseline and two-year follow-up (2012). The participants reported their past-week travel behaviour and car characteristics from which CO 2 emissions by mode and purpose were derived using methods described previously. A set of exposure measures of proximity to and use of the new routes were derived. Overall transport CO 2 emissions decreased slightly over the study period, consistent with a secular trend in the case study regions. As found previously the new infrastructure was well used at one- and two-year follow-up, and was associated with population-level increases in walking, cycling and physical activity at two-year follow-up. However, these effects did not translate into sizeable CO 2 effects as neither living near the infrastructure nor using it predicted changes in CO 2 emissions from motorised travel, either overall or disaggregated by journey purpose. This lack of a discernible effect on travel CO 2 emissions are consistent with an interpretation that some of those living nearer the infrastructure may simply have changed where they walked or cycled, while others may have walked or cycled more but few, if any, may have

  7. Evaluating the impacts of new walking and cycling infrastructure on carbon dioxide emissions from motorized travel: a controlled longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Christian; Goodman, Anna; Ogilvie, David

    2015-01-01

    Walking and cycling is widely assumed to substitute for at least some motorized travel and thereby reduce energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. While the evidence suggests that a supportive built environment may be needed to promote walking and cycling, it is unclear whether and how interventions in the built environment that attract walkers and cyclists may reduce transport CO2 emissions. Our aim was therefore to evaluate the effects of providing new infrastructure for walking and cycling on CO2 emissions from motorised travel. A cohort of 1849 adults completed questionnaires at baseline (2010) and one-year follow-up (2011), before and after the construction of new high-quality routes provided as part of the Sustrans Connect2 programme in three UK municipalities. A second cohort of 1510 adults completed questionnaires at baseline and two-year follow-up (2012). The participants reported their past-week travel behaviour and car characteristics from which CO2 emissions by mode and purpose were derived using methods described previously. A set of exposure measures of proximity to and use of the new routes were derived. Overall transport CO2 emissions decreased slightly over the study period, consistent with a secular trend in the case study regions. As found previously the new infrastructure was well used at one- and two-year follow-up, and was associated with population-level increases in walking, cycling and physical activity at two-year follow-up. However, these effects did not translate into sizeable CO2 effects as neither living near the infrastructure nor using it predicted changes in CO2 emissions from motorised travel, either overall or disaggregated by journey purpose. This lack of a discernible effect on travel CO2 emissions are consistent with an interpretation that some of those living nearer the infrastructure may simply have changed where they walked or cycled, while others may have walked or cycled more but few, if any, may have substituted

  8. Carbon footprint estimation of municipal water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Ali A.

    2009-11-01

    This research investigates the embodied energy associated with water use. A geographic information system (GIS) was tested using data from Loudoun County, Virginia. The objective of this study is to estimate the embodied energy and carbon emission levels associated with water service at a geographical location and to improve for sustainability planning. Factors that affect the carbon footprint were investigated and the use of a GIS based model as a sustainability planning framework was evaluated. The carbon footprint metric is a useful tool for prediction and measurement of a system's sustainable performance over its expected life cycle. Two metrics were calculated: tons of carbon dioxide per year to represent the contribution to global warming and watt-hrs per gallon to show the embodied energy associated with water consumption. The water delivery to the building, removal of wastewater from the building and associated treatment of water and wastewater create a sizable carbon footprint; often the energy attributed to this water service is the greatest end use of electrical energy. The embodied energy in water depends on topographical characteristics of the area's local water supply, the efficiency of the treatment systems, and the efficiency of the pumping stations. The questions answered by this research are: What is the impact of demand side sustainable water practices on the embodied energy as represented by a comprehensive carbon footprint? What are the major energy consuming elements attributed to the system? What is a viable and visually identifiable tool to estimate the carbon footprint attributed to those Greenhouse Gas (GHG) producing elements? What is the embodied energy and emission associated with water use delivered to a building? Benefits to be derived from a standardized GIS applied carbon footprint estimation approach include: (1) Improved environmental and economic information for the developers, water and wastewater processing and municipal

  9. Differentiating moss from higher plants is critical in studying the carbon cycle of the boreal biome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie

    2014-01-01

    The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is used for estimating gross primary production (GPP), often includes contributions from both mosses and vascular plants in boreal ecosystems. For the same NDVI, moss can generate only about one-third of the GPP that vascu......The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is used for estimating gross primary production (GPP), often includes contributions from both mosses and vascular plants in boreal ecosystems. For the same NDVI, moss can generate only about one-third of the GPP...... in a substantial overestimation. The magnitude of this overestimation could have important implications regarding a change from a current carbon sink to a carbon source in the boreal region. Moss abundance, associated with ecosystem disturbances, needs to be mapped and incorporated into GPP estimates in order...

  10. Global Carbon Cycle of the Precambrian Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiewióra, Justyna

    The carbon isotopic composition of distinct Archaean geological records provides information about the global carbon cycle and emergence of life on early Earth. We utilized carbon isotopic records of Greenlandic carbonatites, diamonds, graphites, marbles, metacarbonates and ultramafic rocks...... in the surface environment and recycled back into the mantle In the third manuscript we investigate the carbon cycle components, which have maintained the carbon isotope composition of the mantle constant through time. Assuming constant organic ratio of the total carbon burial (f), we show that increased...... to investigate carbon fluxes between Precambrian Earth’s mantle and crust and to trace the evolution of life in the Eoarchaean oceans. The world’s desire for diamonds gives us a unique opportunity to obtain insight into the nature of metasomatic fluids affecting the subcratonic lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath...

  11. Carbon-neutral energy cycles using alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Takashi; Kitano, Sho; Hata, Shinichi; Yamauchi, Miho

    2018-01-01

    Abstract We demonstrated carbon-neutral (CN) energy circulation using glycolic acid (GC)/oxalic acid (OX) redox couple. Here, we report fundamental studies on both catalyst search for power generation process, i.e. GC oxidation, and elemental steps for fuel generation process, i.e. OX reduction, in CN cycle. The catalytic activity test on various transition metals revealed that Rh, Pd, Ir, and Pt have preferable features as a catalyst for electrochemical oxidation of GC. A carbon-supported Pt catalyst in alkaline conditions exhibited higher activity, durability, and product selectivity for electrooxidation of GC rather than those in acidic media. The kinetic study on OX reduction clearly indicated that OX reduction undergoes successive two-electron reductions to form GC. Furthermore, application of TiO2 catalysts with large specific area for electrochemical reduction of OX facilitates the selective formation of GC. PMID:29511392

  12. Environmental impacts of future low-carbon electricity systems: Detailed life cycle assessment of a Danish case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turconi, Roberto; Tonini, Davide; Nielsen, Christian F.B.; Simonsen, Christian G.; Astrup, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Environmental impact of a power system with a high share of wind power assessed. • LCI data for electricity supply in Denmark in 2010 and 2030 (low carbon) provided. • Focus on GHG reduction may lead to increase in other impact categories. • Imported biomass might cause high GHG emissions form Land Use Change. • Need for guidelines for LCA of electricity supply (cogeneration and power import). - Abstract: The need to reduce dependency on fossil resources and to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is driving many countries towards the implementation of low-carbon electricity systems. In this study the environmental impact of a future (2030) possible low-carbon electricity system in Denmark was assessed and compared with the current situation (2010) and an alternative 2030 scenario using life cycle assessment (LCA). The influence on the final results of the modeling approach used for (i) electricity import, (ii) biomass resources, and (iii) the cogeneration of heat and power was discussed. The results showed that consumption of fossil resources and global warming impacts from the Danish electricity sector could be reduced significantly compared with 2010. Nevertheless, a reduction in GHG may be at the expense of other environmental impacts, such as the increased depletion of abiotic resources. Moreover, the results were very dependent upon biomass origin: when agricultural land was affected by biomass import, and land use changes and transportation were included, GHG emissions from imported biomass were comparable to those from fossil fuels. The results were significantly influenced by the modeling approach regarding the import of electricity, biomass provision, and the allocation between heat and power in cogeneration plants. As the importance of all three aspects is likely to increase in the future, transparency in LCA modeling is critical. Characterized impacts for Danish power plants in 2010 and 2030 (including corresponding

  13. Modeling the carbon cycle in Lake Matano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, L B; Laakso, T A; Schrag, D P; Crowe, S A

    2015-09-01

    Lake Matano, Indonesia, is a stratified anoxic lake with iron-rich waters that has been used as an analogue for the Archean and early Proterozoic oceans. Past studies of Lake Matano report large amounts of methane production, with as much as 80% of primary production degraded via methanogenesis. Low δ(13)C values of DIC in the lake are difficult to reconcile with this notion, as fractionation during methanogenesis produces isotopically heavy CO2. To help reconcile these observations, we develop a box model of the carbon cycle in ferruginous Lake Matano, Indonesia, that satisfies the constraints of CH4 and DIC isotopic profiles, sediment composition, and alkalinity. We estimate methane fluxes smaller than originally proposed, with about 9% of organic carbon export to the deep waters degraded via methanogenesis. In addition, despite the abundance of Fe within the waters, anoxic ferric iron respiration of organic matter degrades carbon export, leaving methanogenesis as the largest contributor to anaerobic organic matter remineralization, while indicating a relatively minor role for iron as an electron acceptor. As the majority of carbon exported is buried in the sediments, we suggest that the role of methane in the Archean and early Proterozoic oceans is less significant than presumed in other studies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Alternative ways of using field-based estimates to calibrate ecosystem models and their implications for carbon cycle studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yujie; Zhuang, Qianlai; McGuire, David; Liu, Yaling; Chen, Min

    2013-01-01

    Model-data fusion is a process in which field observations are used to constrain model parameters. How observations are used to constrain parameters has a direct impact on the carbon cycle dynamics simulated by ecosystem models. In this study, we present an evaluation of several options for the use of observations in modeling regional carbon dynamics and explore the implications of those options. We calibrated the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model on a hierarchy of three vegetation classification levels for the Alaskan boreal forest: species level, plant-functional-type level (PFT level), and biome level, and we examined the differences in simulated carbon dynamics. Species-specific field-based estimates were directly used to parameterize the model for species-level simulations, while weighted averages based on species percent cover were used to generate estimates for PFT- and biome-level model parameterization. We found that calibrated key ecosystem process parameters differed substantially among species and overlapped for species that are categorized into different PFTs. Our analysis of parameter sets suggests that the PFT-level parameterizations primarily reflected the dominant species and that functional information of some species were lost from the PFT-level parameterizations. The biome-level parameterization was primarily representative of the needleleaf PFT and lost information on broadleaf species or PFT function. Our results indicate that PFT-level simulations may be potentially representative of the performance of species-level simulations while biome-level simulations may result in biased estimates. Improved theoretical and empirical justifications for grouping species into PFTs or biomes are needed to adequately represent the dynamics of ecosystem functioning and structure.

  15. Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O'Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A

    2014-11-18

    A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

  16. Increase of carbon cycle feedback with climate sensitivity: results from a coupled climate and carbon cycle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govindasamy, B.; Thompson, S.; Mirin, A.; Wickett, M.; Caldeira, K.; Delire, C.

    2005-01-01

    Coupled climate and carbon cycle modelling studies have shown that the feedback between global warming and the carbon cycle, in particular the terrestrial carbon cycle, could accelerate climate change and result in greater warming. In this paper we investigate the sensitivity of this feedback for year 2100 global warming in the range of 0 to 8 K. Differing climate sensitivities to increased CO 2 content are imposed on the carbon cycle models for the same emissions. Emissions from the SRES A2 scenario are used. We use a fully coupled climate and carbon cycle model, the INtegrated Climate and CArbon model (INCCA), the NCAR/DOE Parallel Climate Model coupled to the IBIS terrestrial biosphere model and a modified OCMIP ocean biogeochemistry model. In our integrated model, for scenarios with year 2100 global warming increasing from 0 to 8 K, land uptake decreases from 47% to 29% of total CO 2 emissions. Due to competing effects, ocean uptake (16%) shows almost no change at all. Atmospheric CO 2 concentration increases are 48% higher in the run with 8 K global climate warming than in the case with no warming. Our results indicate that carbon cycle amplification of climate warming will be greater if there is higher climate sensitivity to increased atmospheric CO 2 content; the carbon cycle feedback factor increases from 1.13 to 1.48 when global warming increases from 3.2 to 8 K

  17. An isopycnic ocean carbon cycle model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Assmann

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The carbon cycle is a major forcing component in the global climate system. Modelling studies, aiming to explain recent and past climatic changes and to project future ones, increasingly include the interaction between the physical and biogeochemical systems. Their ocean components are generally z-coordinate models that are conceptually easy to use but that employ a vertical coordinate that is alien to the real ocean structure. Here, we present first results from a newly-developed isopycnic carbon cycle model and demonstrate the viability of using an isopycnic physical component for this purpose. As expected, the model represents well the interior ocean transport of biogeochemical tracers and produces realistic tracer distributions. Difficulties in employing a purely isopycnic coordinate lie mainly in the treatment of the surface boundary layer which is often represented by a bulk mixed layer. The most significant adjustments of the ocean biogeochemistry model HAMOCC, for use with an isopycnic coordinate, were in the representation of upper ocean biological production. We present a series of sensitivity studies exploring the effect of changes in biogeochemical and physical processes on export production and nutrient distribution. Apart from giving us pointers for further model development, they highlight the importance of preformed nutrient distributions in the Southern Ocean for global nutrient distributions. The sensitivity studies show that iron limitation for biological particle production, the treatment of light penetration for biological production, and the role of diapycnal mixing result in significant changes of nutrient distributions and liniting factors of biological production.

  18. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the global carbon cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabalka, J R [ed.

    1985-12-01

    This state-of-the-art volume presents discussions on the global cycle of carbon, the dynamic balance among global atmospheric CO2 sources and sinks. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

  19. Biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur at the Howland Integrated Forest Study site, Howland, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. McLaughlin; Ivan J. Fernandez; Stewart M. Goltz; Lindsey E. Rustad; Larry Zibilske

    1996-01-01

    The biogeochemistry of C, N, and S was studied for six years at the Howland Integrated Forest Study (HIFS) site by measuring those constituents in major above- and below-ground pools and fluxes. Leaching losses of C from the solum were much less than CO2 efflux, with a mean annual leaching rate of 31.2 kg ha-1 yr

  20. Global Carbon Cycle of the Precambrian Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiewióra, Justyna

    The carbon isotopic composition of distinct Archaean geological records provides information about the global carbon cycle and emergence of life on early Earth. We utilized carbon isotopic records of Greenlandic carbonatites, diamonds, graphites, marbles, metacarbonates and ultramafic rocks...... to investigate carbon fluxes between Precambrian Earth’s mantle and crust and to trace the evolution of life in the Eoarchaean oceans. The world’s desire for diamonds gives us a unique opportunity to obtain insight into the nature of metasomatic fluids affecting the subcratonic lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath...

  1. The Wildland Fire Emissions Information System: Providing information for carbon cycle studies with open source geospatial tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, N. H.; Erickson, T.; McKenzie, D.

    2008-12-01

    A major goal of the North American Carbon Program is to resolve uncertainties in understanding and managing the carbon cycle of North America. As carbon modeling tools become more comprehensive and spatially oriented, accurate datasets to spatially quantify carbon emissions from fire are needed, and these data resources need to be accessible to users for decision-making. Under a new NASA Carbon Cycle Science project, Drs. Nancy French and Tyler Erickson, of the Michigan Technological University, Michigan Tech Research Institute (MTRI), are teaming with specialists with the USDA Forest Service Fire and Environmental Research Applications (FERA) team to provide information for mapping fire-derived carbon emissions to users. The project focus includes development of a web-based system to provide spatially resolved fire emissions estimates for North America in a user-friendly environment. The web-based Decision Support System will be based on a variety of open source technologies. The Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS) raster map of fuels and MODIS-derived burned area vector maps will be processed using the Geographic Data Abstraction Library (GDAL) and OGR Simple Features Library. Tabular and spatial project data will be stored in a PostgreSQL/PostGIS, a spatially enabled relational database server. The browser-based user interface will be created using the Django web page framework to allow user input for the decision support system. The OpenLayers mapping framework will be used to provide users with interactive maps within the browser. In addition, the data products will be made available in standard open data formats such as KML, to allow for easy integration into other spatial models and data systems.

  2. Bacterial carbon cycling in a subarctic fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelboe, Mathias; Glud, Ronnie N.; Sejr, Mikael Kristian

    2012-01-01

    of viruses on bacterial mortality (4–36% of cell production) and carbon cycling. Heterotrophic bacterial consumption was closely coupled with autochthonous BDOC production, and the majority of the primary production was consumed by pelagic bacteria at all seasons. The relatively low measured BGE emphasized......In this seasonal study, we examined the environmental controls and quantitative importance of bacterial carbon consumption in the water column and the sediment in the subarctic Kobbefjord, Greenland. Depth-integrated bacterial production in the photic zone varied from 5.0 ± 2.7 mg C m−2 d−1...... in February to 42 ± 28 mg C m−2 d−1 in May and 34 ± 7 mg C m−2 d−1 in September, corresponding to a bacterial production to primary production ratio of 0.34 ± 0.14, 0.07 ± 0.04, and 0.08 ± 0.06, respectively. Based on measured bacterial growth efficiencies (BGEs) of 0.09–0.10, pelagic bacterial carbon...

  3. Implications of carbon dust emission for terrestrail carbon cycling and carbon accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion preferentially removes the finest carbon- and nutrient-rich soil fractions, and consequently its role may be significant within terrestrial carbon (C) cycles. However, the impacts of wind erosion on soil organic carbon (SOC) redistribution are not considered in most carbon cycle models,...

  4. The nuclear fuel cycle versus the carbon cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.C.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear power provides approximately 17% of the world's electricity, which is equivalent to a reduction in carbon emissions of ∼0.5 gigatonnes (Gt) of C/yr. This is a modest reduction as compared with global emissions of carbon, ∼7 Gt C/yr. Most analyses suggest that in order to have a significant and timely impact on carbon emissions, carbon-free sources, such as nuclear power, would have to expand total production of energy by factors of three to ten by 2050. A three-fold increase in nuclear power capacity would result in a projected reduction in carbon emissions of 1 to 2 Gt C/yr, depending on the type of carbon-based energy source that is displaced. This three-fold increase utilizing present nuclear technologies would result in 25,000 metric tonnes (t) of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) per year, containing over 200 t of plutonium. This is compared to a present global inventory of approximately 280,000 t of SNF and >1,700 t of Pu. A nuclear weapon can be fashioned from as little as 5 kg of 239 Pu. However, there is considerable technological flexibility in the nuclear fuel cycle. There are three types of nuclear fuel cycles that might be utilized for the increased production of energy: open, closed, or a symbiotic combination of different types of reactor (such as, thermal and fast neutron reactors). The neutron energy spectrum has a significant effect on the fission product yield, and the consumption of long-lived actinides, by fission, is best achieved by fast neutrons. Within each cycle, the volume and composition of the high-level nuclear waste and fissile material depend on the type of nuclear fuel, the amount of burn-up, the extent of radionuclide separation during reprocessing, and the types of materials used to immobilize different radionuclides. As an example, a 232 Th-based fuel cycle can be used to breed fissile 233 U with minimum production of Pu. In this paper, I will contrast the production of excess carbon in the form of CO 2 from fossil fuels with

  5. Modelling the carbon and nitrogen cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas A Varotsos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The issues of air pollution are inextricably linked to the mechanisms underlying the physicochemical functioning of the biosphere which together with the atmosphere, the cryosphere, the lithosphere, and the hydrosphere constitute the climate system. We herewith present a review of the achievements and unresolved problems concerning the modeling of the biochemical cycles of basic chemicals of the climate system, such as carbon and nitrogen. Although the achievements in this area can roughly describe the carbon and nitrogen cycles, serious problems still remain associated with the accuracy and precision of the processes and assessments employed in the relevant modeling.

  6. Case Study of Carbon Emissions from a Building’s Life Cycle Based on BIM and Ecotect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhai Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using building information modeling (BIM and Ecotect, this paper estimated carbon emissions during an office building’s life cycle. This building’s life cycle CO2 emissions were divided into three parts: the construction, operation, and demolition stages. Among these, the statistics on the schedule of quantities were generated using BIM, and the energy consumption during the building’s operational stage was obtained using ECOTECT simulation. Sensitivity analysis was performed by changing several alternative parameters, to identify which parameter has more impacts on building performance. The paper demonstrated that (1 BIM and Ecotect are very helpful in estimating carbon emissions from a building’s life cycle, (2 the primary and effective measures to reduce the building’s CO2 emissions in hot and humid climate should be arranged as follows: (a within the limits of comfort, reducing the fresh air volume; (b extending the indoor temperature range; (c improving the thermal insulation performance of exterior windows, walls, and roofs; (d exploiting natural ventilation during transition seasons, and (3 currently there are some limitations in performing LCA based on BIM and Ecotect.

  7. A Study of the Abundance and 13C/12C Ratio of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide to Advance the Scientific Understanding of Terrestrial Processes Regulating the Global Carbon Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen C. Piper

    2005-10-15

    The primary goal of our research program, consistent with the goals of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and funded by the terrestrial carbon processes (TCP) program of DOE, has been to improve understanding of changes in the distribution and cycling of carbon among the active land, ocean and atmosphere reservoirs, with particular emphasis on terrestrial ecosystems. Our approach is to systematically measure atmospheric CO2 to produce time series data essential to reveal temporal and spatial patterns. Additional measurements of the 13C/12C isotopic ratio of CO2 provide a basis for distinguishing organic and inorganic processes. To pursue the significance of these patterns further, our research also involved interpretations of the observations by models, measurements of inorganic carbon in sea water, and of CO2 in air near growing land plants.

  8. Africa and the global carbon cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denning A Scott

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The African continent has a large and growing role in the global carbon cycle, with potentially important climate change implications. However, the sparse observation network in and around the African continent means that Africa is one of the weakest links in our understanding of the global carbon cycle. Here, we combine data from regional and global inventories as well as forward and inverse model analyses to appraise what is known about Africa's continental-scale carbon dynamics. With low fossil emissions and productivity that largely compensates respiration, land conversion is Africa's primary net carbon release, much of it through burning of forests. Savanna fire emissions, though large, represent a short-term source that is offset by ensuing regrowth. While current data suggest a near zero decadal-scale carbon balance, interannual climate fluctuations (especially drought induce sizeable variability in net ecosystem productivity and savanna fire emissions such that Africa is a major source of interannual variability in global atmospheric CO2. Considering the continent's sizeable carbon stocks, their seemingly high vulnerability to anticipated climate and land use change, as well as growing populations and industrialization, Africa's carbon emissions and their interannual variability are likely to undergo substantial increases through the 21st century.

  9. The impact of lianas on the carbon cycle of tropical forests: a modeling study using the Ecosystem Demography model

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Porcia e Brugnera, M.; Longo, M.; Verbeek, H.

    2017-12-01

    Lianas are an important component of tropical forests, constituting up to 40% of the woody stems and about 35% of the woody species. Tropical forests have been experiencing large-scale structural changes, including an increase in liana abundance and biomass. This may eventually reduce the projected carbon sink of tropical forests. Despite their crucial role no single terrestrial ecosystem model has included lianas so far. Here, we present the very first implementation of lianas in the Ecosystem Demography model (ED2). ED2 is able to represent the competition for water and light between different vegetation types at the regional level. Our new implementation of ED2 is hence suitable to address important questions such as the impact of lianas on the tropical forest carbon balance. We validated the model against forest inventory and eddy covariance flux data at a dry seasonal site (Barro Colorado Island, Panama), and at a wet rainforest site (Paracou, French Guiana). The model was able to represent size structure and carbon accumulation rates. We also evaluated the impact of the unique allocation strategy of lianas on their competitive ability. Lianas invest only a small fraction of their carbon for structural tissues when compared to trees. As a result, lianas benefit from an extra amount of available carbon, however the trade-offs of low allocation on structural tissues are not yet well understood. We are currently investigating a number of hypotheses, including the possibility for lianas to have high turnover rates for leaves and fine roots, or to have high mortality rates due to the loss of structural support when trees die. As such our model allows us to get a better understanding of the role of lianas in the tropical forest carbon cycle.

  10. Studies of the terrestrial O2 and carbon cycles in sand dune gases and in biosphere 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severinghaus, Jeffrey Peck [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Molecular oxygen in the atmosphere is coupled tightly to the terrestrial carbon cycle by the processes of photosynthesis, respiration, and burning. This dissertation examines different aspects of this coupling in four chapters. Chapter 1 explores the feasibility of using air from sand dunes to reconstruct atmospheric O2 composition centuries ago. Such a record would reveal changes in the mass of the terrestrial biosphere, after correction for known fossil fuel combustion, and constrain the fate of anthropogenic CO2.

  11. Coal weathering and the geochemical carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Soobum; Berner, Robert A.

    1999-10-01

    The weathering rate of sedimentary organic matter in the continental surficial environment is poorly constrained despite its importance to the geochemical carbon cycle. During this weathering, complete oxidation to carbon dioxide is normally assumed, but there is little proof that this actually occurs. Knowledge of the rate and mechanisms of sedimentary organic matter weathering is important because it is one of the major controls on atmospheric oxygen level through geologic time. We have determined the aqueous oxidation rates of pyrite-free bituminous coal at 24° and 50°C by using a dual-cell flow-through method. Coal was used as an example of sedimentary organic matter because of the difficulty in obtaining pyrite-free kerogen for laboratory study. The aqueous oxidation rate obtained in the present study for air-saturated water (270 μM O2) was found to be on the order of 2 × 10-12 mol O2/m2/s at 25°C, which is fast compared to other geologic processes such as tectonic uplift and exposure through erosion. The reaction order with respect to oxygen level is 0.5 on a several thousand hour time scale for both 24° and 50°C experiments. Activation energies, determined under 24° and 50°C conditions, were ≈40 kJ/mol O2 indicating that the oxidation reaction is surface reaction controlled. The oxygen consumption rate obtained in this study is two to three orders of magnitude smaller than that for pyrite oxidation in water, but still rapid on a geologic time scale. Aqueous coal oxidation results in the formation of dissolved CO2, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and solid oxidation products, which are all quantitatively significant reaction products.

  12. Study of the Role of Terrestrial Processes in the Carbon Cycle Based on Measurements of the Abundance and Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, Stephen C; Keeling, Ralph F

    2012-01-03

    The main objective of this project was to continue research to develop carbon cycle relationships related to the land biosphere based on remote measurements of atmospheric CO2 concentration and its isotopic ratios 13C/12C, 18O/16O, and 14C/12C. The project continued time-series observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and isotopic composition begun by Charles D. Keeling at remote sites, including Mauna Loa, the South Pole, and eight other sites. Using models of varying complexity, the concentration and isotopic measurements were used to study long-term change in the interhemispheric gradients in CO2 and 13C/12C to assess the magnitude and evolution of the northern terrestrial carbon sink, to study the increase in amplitude of the seasonal cycle of CO2, to use isotopic data to refine constraints on large scale changes in isotopic fractionation which may be related to changes in stomatal conductance, and to motivate improvements in terrestrial carbon cycle models. The original proposal called for a continuation of the new time series of 14C measurements but subsequent descoping to meet budgetary constraints required termination of measurements in 2007.

  13. The decadal state of the terrestrial carbon cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der I.R.; Bloom, J.; Exbrayat, J.; Feng, L.; Williams, M.

    2016-01-01

    The terrestrial carbon cycle is currently the least constrained component of the global carbon budget. Large uncertainties stem from a poor understanding of plant carbon allocation, stocks, residence times, and carbon use efficiency. Imposing observational constraints on the terrestrial carbon cycle

  14. Soil carbon model alternatives for ECHAM5/JSBACH climate model: Evaluation and impacts on global carbon cycle estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thum, T.; Raisanen, P.; Sevanto, S.

    2011-01-01

    The response of soil organic carbon to climate change might lead to significant feedbacks affecting global warming. This response can be studied by coupled climate-carbon cycle models but so far the description of soil organic carbon cycle in these models has been quite simple. In this work we used...... the coupled climate-carbon cycle model ECHAM5/JSBACH (European Center/Hamburg Model 5/Jena Scheme for Biosphere-Atmosphere Coupling in Hamburg) with two different soil carbon modules, namely (1) the original soil carbon model of JSBACH called CBALANCE and (2) a new soil carbon model Yasso07, to study...... the interaction between climate variability and soil organic carbon. Equivalent ECHAM5/JSBACH simulations were conducted using both soil carbon models, with freely varying atmospheric CO2 for the last 30 years (1977-2006). In this study, anthropogenic CO2 emissions and ocean carbon cycle were excluded. The new...

  15. Interactions between land use change and carbon cycle feedbacks: Land Use and Carbon Cycle Feedbacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahowald, Natalie M. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Randerson, James T. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Lindsay, Keith [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Munoz, Ernesto [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Doney, Scott C. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., Woods Hole, MA (United States); Lawrence, Peter [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Schlunegger, Sarah [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Ward, Daniel S. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Lawrence, David [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Hoffman, Forrest M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-23

    We explore the role of human land use and land cover change (LULCC) in modifying the terrestrial carbon budget in simulations forced by Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5, extended to year 2300 by using the Community Earth System Model, . Overall, conversion of land (e.g., from forest to croplands via deforestation) results in a model-estimated, cumulative carbon loss of 490 Pg C between 1850 and 2300, larger than the 230 Pg C loss of carbon caused by climate change over this same interval. The LULCC carbon loss is a combination of a direct loss at the time of conversion and an indirect loss from the reduction of potential terrestrial carbon sinks. Approximately 40% of the carbon loss associated with LULCC in the simulations arises from direct human modification of the land surface; the remaining 60% is an indirect consequence of the loss of potential natural carbon sinks. Because of the multicentury carbon cycle legacy of current land use decisions, a globally averaged amplification factor of 2.6 must be applied to 2015 land use carbon losses to adjust for indirect effects. This estimate is 30% higher when considering the carbon cycle evolution after 2100. Most of the terrestrial uptake of anthropogenic carbon in the model occurs from the influence of rising atmospheric CO2 on photosynthesis in trees, and thus, model-projected carbon feedbacks are especially sensitive to deforestation.

  16. Hyperdominance in Amazonian forest carbon cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauset, Sophie; Johnson, Michelle O; Gloor, Manuel; Baker, Timothy R; Monteagudo M, Abel; Brienen, Roel J W; Feldpausch, Ted R; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Malhi, Yadvinder; ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C A; Baraloto, Christopher; Engel, Julien; Pétronelli, Pascal; Andrade, Ana; Camargo, José Luís C; Laurance, Susan G W; Laurance, William F; Chave, Jerôme; Allie, Elodie; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Terborgh, John W; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Silveira, Marcos; Aymard C, Gerardo A; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Neill, David; Hérault, Bruno; Dourdain, Aurélie; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Marimon, Beatriz S; Salomão, Rafael P; Comiskey, James A; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Toledo, Marisol; Licona, Juan Carlos; Alarcón, Alfredo; Prieto, Adriana; Rudas, Agustín; van der Meer, Peter J; Killeen, Timothy J; Marimon Junior, Ben-Hur; Poorter, Lourens; Boot, Rene G A; Stergios, Basil; Torre, Emilio Vilanova; Costa, Flávia R C; Levis, Carolina; Schietti, Juliana; Souza, Priscila; Groot, Nikée; Arets, Eric; Moscoso, Victor Chama; Castro, Wendeson; Coronado, Euridice N Honorio; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Stahl, Clement; Barroso, Jorcely; Talbot, Joey; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; van der Heijden, Geertje; Thomas, Raquel; Vos, Vincent A; Almeida, Everton C; Davila, Esteban Álvarez; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Erwin, Terry L; Morandi, Paulo S; de Oliveira, Edmar Almeida; Valadão, Marco B X; Zagt, Roderick J; van der Hout, Peter; Loayza, Patricia Alvarez; Pipoly, John J; Wang, Ophelia; Alexiades, Miguel; Cerón, Carlos E; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau; Di Fiore, Anthony; Peacock, Julie; Camacho, Nadir C Pallqui; Umetsu, Ricardo K; de Camargo, Plínio Barbosa; Burnham, Robyn J; Herrera, Rafael; Quesada, Carlos A; Stropp, Juliana; Vieira, Simone A; Steininger, Marc; Rodríguez, Carlos Reynel; Restrepo, Zorayda; Muelbert, Adriane Esquivel; Lewis, Simon L; Pickavance, Georgia C; Phillips, Oliver L

    2015-04-28

    While Amazonian forests are extraordinarily diverse, the abundance of trees is skewed strongly towards relatively few 'hyperdominant' species. In addition to their diversity, Amazonian trees are a key component of the global carbon cycle, assimilating and storing more carbon than any other ecosystem on Earth. Here we ask, using a unique data set of 530 forest plots, if the functions of storing and producing woody carbon are concentrated in a small number of tree species, whether the most abundant species also dominate carbon cycling, and whether dominant species are characterized by specific functional traits. We find that dominance of forest function is even more concentrated in a few species than is dominance of tree abundance, with only ≈1% of Amazon tree species responsible for 50% of carbon storage and productivity. Although those species that contribute most to biomass and productivity are often abundant, species maximum size is also influential, while the identity and ranking of dominant species varies by function and by region.

  17. Climate extremes and the carbon cycle (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichstein, M.; Bahn, M.; Ciais, P.; Mahecha, M. D.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Zscheischler, J.

    2013-12-01

    The terrestrial biosphere is a key component of the global carbon cycle and its carbon balance is strongly influenced by climate. Ongoing environmental changes are thought to increase global terrestrial carbon uptake. But evidence is mounting that rare climate extremes can lead to a decrease in ecosystem carbon stocks and therefore have the potential to negate the expected increase in terrestrial carbon uptake. Here we explore the mechanisms and impacts of climate extremes on the terrestrial carbon cycle, and propose a pathway to improve our understanding of present and future impacts of climate extremes on the terrestrial carbon budget. In addition to direct impact on the carbon fluxes of photosynthesis and respiration via extreme temperature and (or) drought, effects of extreme events may also lead to lagged responses, such as wildfires triggered by heat waves and droughts, or pest and pathogen outbreaks following wind-throw caused by heavy storms, reduced plant health due to drought stress or due to less frequent cold extremes in presently cold regions. One extreme event can potentially override accumulated previous carbon sinks, as shown by the Western European 2003 heat wave.. Extreme events have the potential to affect the terrestrial ecosystem carbon balance through a single factor, or as a combination of factors. Climate extremes can cause carbon losses from accumulated stocks, as well as long-lasting impacts on (e.g. lagged effects) on plant growth and mortality, extending beyond the duration of the extreme event itself. The sensitivity of terrestrial ecosystems and their carbon balance to climate change and extreme events varies according to the type of extreme, the climatic region, the land cover, and the land management. Extreme event impacts are very relevant in forests due to the importance of lagged and memory effects on tree growth and mortality, the longevity of tree species, the large forest carbon stocks and their vulnerability, as well as the

  18. Subsurface Carbon Cycling Below the Root Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Kim, Y.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Bill, M.; Conrad, M. E.; Williams, K. H.; Long, P. E.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon in the subsurface below the root zone is an important yet poorly understood link in the terrestrial C cycle, interfacing between overlying soil and downstream aquatic systems. Thus, the nature and behavior of C in the vadose zone and groundwater, particularly the dynamics of mobile dissolved and suspended aqueous species, need to be understood for predicting C cycling and responses to climate change. This study is designed to understand the C balance (influxes, effluxes, and sequestration) and mechanisms controlling subsurface organic and inorganic C transport and transformation. Our initial investigations are being conducted at the Rifle Site floodplain along the Colorado River, in Colorado (USA). Within this floodplain, sediment samples were collected and sampling/monitoring instruments were installed down to 7 m depth at three sites. Pore water and gas samplers at 0.5 m depth intervals within the ~3.5 m deep vadose zone, and multilevel aquifer samplers have yielded depth- and time-resolved profiles of dissolved and suspended organic and inorganic C, and CO2 for over 1.5 years. Analyses conducted to determine seasonally and vertically resolved geochemical profiles show that dissolved organic matter (DOM) characteristics vary among three distinct hydrobiogeochemical zones; the vadose zone, capillary fringe, and saturated zone. The concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) are many times higher in the vadose zone and the capillary fringe than in groundwater, and vary seasonally. The DOM speciation, aqueous geochemistry, solid phase analyses, and d13C isotope data show the importance of both biotic and abiotic C transformations during transport through the vertical gradients of moisture and temperature. In addition to DOM, suspended organic C and bacteria have been collected from samplers within the capillary fringe. Based on the field-based findings, long-term laboratory column experiments are being conducted under simulated field moisture

  19. Study of CaCl2 as an agent that modifies the surface of activated carbon used in sorption/treatment cycles for nitrate removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zanella

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of the application of a chemically-modified activated carbon surface was investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of treatment with CaCl2 solution at a concentration of 2000 mg.L-1 on the sorption of nitrate ions from aqueous solutions in successive sorption/t reatment cycles. The sorbent was initially subjected to chemical treatment with CaCl2 and subsequently to the sorption process. Nine sorption cycles were performed. The concentrations of nitrate ions in the solution were measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometry before and after sorption. The results show that treatment with CaCl2 caused a significant increase in the percentage removal for each treatment step, reaching a removal rate of 80% of nitrate in the solution after nine cycles.

  20. Solar cycle variations in mesospheric carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae N.; Wu, Dong L.; Ruzmaikin, Alexander; Fontenla, Juan

    2018-05-01

    As an extension of Lee et al. (2013), solar cycle variation of carbon monoxide (CO) is analyzed with MLS observation, which covers more than thirteen years (2004-2017) including maximum of solar cycle 24. Being produced primarily by the carbon dioxide (CO2) photolysis in the lower thermosphere, the variations of the mesospheric CO concentration are largely driven by the solar cycle modulated ultraviolet (UV) variation. This solar signal extends down to the lower altitudes by the dynamical descent in the winter polar vortex, showing a time lag that is consistent with the average descent velocity. To characterize a global distribution of the solar impact, MLS CO is correlated with the SORCE measured total solar irradiance (TSI) and UV. As high as 0.8 in most of the polar mesosphere, the linear correlation coefficients between CO and UV/TSI are more robust than those found in the previous work. The photochemical contribution explains most (68%) of the total variance of CO while the dynamical contribution accounts for 21% of the total variance at upper mesosphere. The photochemistry driven CO anomaly signal is extended in the tropics by vertical mixing. The solar cycle signal in CO is further examined with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) 3.5 simulation by implementing two different modeled Spectral Solar Irradiances (SSIs): SRPM 2012 and NRLSSI. The model simulations underestimate the mean CO amount and solar cycle variations of CO, by a factor of 3, compared to those obtained from MLS observation. Different inputs of the solar spectrum have small impacts on CO variation.

  1. Carbonate-silicate cycle models of the long-term carbon cycle, carbonate accumulation in the oceans, and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldeira, K.G.

    1991-01-01

    Several models of the long-term carbon cycle, incorporating models of the carbonate-silicate cycle, were developed and utilized to investigate issues relating to global climate and the causes and consequences of changes in calcium carbonate accumulation in the oceans. Model results indicate that the marked mid-Cretaceous (120 Ma) global warming could be explained by increased rates of release of carbon dioxide from subduction-zone metamorphism and mid-ocean-ridges, in conjunction with paleogeographic factors. Since the mid-Cretaceous, the primary setting for calcium carbonate accumulation in the oceans has shifted from shallow-water to deep-water environments. Model results suggest that this shift could have major consequences for the carbonate-silicate cycle and climate, and lead to significant increases in the flux of metamorphic carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Increases in pelagic carbonate productivity, and decreases in tropical shallow-water area available for neritic carbonate accumulation, have both been proposed as the primary cause of this shift. Two lines of evidence developed here (one involving a statistical analysis of Tertiary carbonate-accumulation and oxygen-isotope data, and another based on modeling the carbonate-silicate cycle and ocean chemistry) suggest that a decrease in tropical shallow-water area was more important than increased pelagic productivity in explaining this shift. Model investigations of changes in ocean chemistry at the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary (66 Ma) indicate that variations in deep-water carbonate productivity may affect shallow-water carbonate accumulation rates through a mechanism involving surface-water carbonate-ion concentration. In the aftermath of the K/T boundary event, deep-water carbonate production and accumulation were significantly reduced as a result of the extinction of calcareous plankton

  2. Measurable Pools of Soil Carbon for Carbon Cycle Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, M. A.; Wang, G.; Abramoff, R. Z.; Xu, X.; Hartman, M. D.; Feng, W.; Davidson, E.; Finzi, A.; Moorhead, D.; Schimel, J.; O'Brien, S. L.; Thornton, P. E.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon in soils can have long residence times, but the exact mechanisms are not well understood, which complicates defining pools and parameters for carbon cycling models. Physical protection involves the formation of hierarchical aggregates of mineral-associated carbon, microbes, and particulate carbon. Aggregation leads to a complex pore structure, which can alter moisture potentials, gas diffusion rates, ionic strength and composition of soil solutions, and nutrient availability for microbes. Diffusion gradients between pore size classes can also sequester organic materials from microbes and their accompanying enzymes. Mineral protection is considered to involve sorption of dissolved organic compounds onto reactive clays and iron and aluminum oxides, but there is controversy as to whether sorption occurs as a monolayer or in complex architectures, as well as the degree of mineral coverage. Further, pore structure can alter the ionic composition of porewaters, thereby influencing the extent and nature of adsorption and desorption. Only mineral protection is thought to yield the long residence times found in soils, but dynamics of these pools are poorly constrained in models due to an absence of long-term measurements and an accompanying lack of process understanding. This talk will review the evidence for and against these different mechanisms of carbon preservation, with particular attention to definitions of soil pools for modeling and the influence of protection mechanisms on carbon pool residence times.

  3. The Carbon Cycle: Teaching Youth about Natural Resource Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, William A.

    2015-01-01

    The carbon cycle was used as a conceptual construct for organizing the curriculum for a youth summer camp on natural resource use and sustainability. Several studies have indicated the importance of non-traditional youth education settings for science education and understanding responsible natural resource use. The Sixth Grade Forestry Tour, a…

  4. Coupling between the continental carbon and water cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentine, P.; Lemordant, L. A.; Green, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    The continental carbon adn water cycles are fundamentally coupled through leaf gas exchange at the stomata level. IN this presnetation we will emphasize the importance of this coupling for the future of the water cycle (runoff, evaporation, soil moisture) and in turn the implications for the carbon cycle and the capacity of continents to act as a carbon dioxyde sink in the future. Opprtunites from coupled carbon-water monitoring platforms will be then emphasized.

  5. Past and present of sediment and carbon biogeochemical cycling models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. T. Mackenzie

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The global carbon cycle is part of the much more extensive sedimentary cycle that involves large masses of carbon in the Earth's inner and outer spheres. Studies of the carbon cycle generally followed a progression in knowledge of the natural biological, then chemical, and finally geological processes involved, culminating in a more or less integrated picture of the biogeochemical carbon cycle by the 1920s. However, knowledge of the ocean's carbon cycle behavior has only within the last few decades progressed to a stage where meaningful discussion of carbon processes on an annual to millennial time scale can take place. In geologically older and pre-industrial time, the ocean was generally a net source of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere owing to the mineralization of land-derived organic matter in addition to that produced in situ and to the process of CaCO3 precipitation. Due to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations because of fossil fuel combustion and land use changes, the direction of the air-sea CO2 flux has reversed, leading to the ocean as a whole being a net sink of anthropogenic CO2. The present thickness of the surface ocean layer, where part of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions are stored, is estimated as of the order of a few hundred meters. The oceanic coastal zone net air-sea CO2 exchange flux has also probably changed during industrial time. Model projections indicate that in pre-industrial times, the coastal zone may have been net heterotrophic, releasing CO2 to the atmosphere from the imbalance between gross photosynthesis and total respiration. This, coupled with extensive CaCO3 precipitation in coastal zone environments, led to a net flux of CO2 out of the system. During industrial time the coastal zone ocean has tended to reverse its trophic status toward a non-steady state situation of net autotrophy, resulting in net uptake of anthropogenic CO2 and storage of carbon in the coastal ocean, despite the significant calcification

  6. Life Cycle Building Carbon Emissions Assessment and Driving Factors Decomposition Analysis Based on LMDI—A Case Study of Wuhan City in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Gong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon emissions calculation at the sub-provincial level has issues in limited data and non-unified measurements. This paper calculated the life cycle energy consumption and carbon emissions of the building industry in Wuhan, China. The findings showed that the proportion of carbon emissions in the construction operation phase was the largest, followed by the carbon emissions of the indirect energy consumption and the construction material preparation phase. With the purpose of analyzing the contributors of the construction carbon emissions, this paper conducted decomposition analysis using Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI. The results indicated that the increasing buidling area was the major driver of energy consumption and carbon emissions increase, followed by the behavior factor. Population growth and urbanization, to some extent, increased the carbon emissions as well. On the contrary, energy efficiency was the main inhibitory factor for reducing the carbon emissions. Policy implications in terms of low-carbon construction development were highlighted.

  7. Carbon dioxide seasonal cycle in the sea euphotic zone - a study in the Sargasso Sea; Cycle saisonnier du CO{sub 2} dans la zone euphotique marine - une etude dans la mer des sargasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchal, O.

    1996-05-28

    Between 1750 and 1990, the human activities (mainly fossil carbon combustion and deforestation) have lead to an increase of the CO{sub 2} concentration in the atmosphere. Nevertheless, the carbon dioxide actively takes part to the greenhouse effect and then to the energetic balance of the climatic system. The study which is carried out consists of the forecasting of the CO{sub 2} future concentrations in the atmosphere (from 10, 100 years). The chosen site (BATS: Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study) is located in the Sargasso Sea. The factors leading to seasonal variations have been determined. Several bio-geochemical models have been developed in order to on the one hand simulate the seasonal dynamics of the mixture layer observed in the Bats site and on the other hand explain the main characteristics of the observed phytoplankton seasonal cycle, of its nutriments and of the dissolved oxygen. (O.M.). 375 refs.

  8. Some aspects of understanding changes in the global carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, W. R.; Moore, B., III; Shugart, H. H.

    1984-01-01

    The collective character of carbon exchanges between the atmosphere and other pools is partially revealed by comparing the record of CO2 concentration beginning in 1958 with estimates of the releases from fossil fuels during this period. In analyzing the secular increase in CO2 concentration induced by fossil fuel use, the atmosphere is generally treated as a single well-mixed reservoir; however, to study finer structure in the CO2 records, the influence of atmospheric circulation must be more carefully considered. The rate of carbon uptake by the oceans, the primary sink for fossil fuel CO2, is assessed more reliably than influences on the atmosphere due to interactions with other pools. Models of the global carbon cycle are being substantially refined while data that reflect the response of the cycle to fossil fuel use and other perturbations are being extended.

  9. Terrestrial carbon turnover time constraints on future carbon cycle-climate feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, N.; Carvalhais, N.; Reichstein, M.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the terrestrial carbon cycle-climate feedback is essential to reduce the uncertainties resulting from the between model spread in prognostic simulations (Friedlingstein et al., 2006). One perspective is to investigate which factors control the variability of the mean residence times of carbon in the land surface, and how these may change in the future, consequently affecting the response of the terrestrial ecosystems to changes in climate as well as other environmental conditions. Carbon turnover time of the whole ecosystem is a dynamic parameter that represents how fast the carbon cycle circulates. Turnover time τ is an essential property for understanding the carbon exchange between the land and the atmosphere. Although current Earth System Models (ESMs), supported by GVMs for the description of the land surface, show a strong convergence in GPP estimates, but tend to show a wide range of simulated turnover times (Carvalhais, 2014). Thus, there is an emergent need of constraints on the projected response of the balance between terrestrial carbon fluxes and carbon stock which will give us more certainty in response of carbon cycle to climate change. However, the difficulty of obtaining such a constraint is partly due to lack of observational data on temporal change of terrestrial carbon stock. Since more new datasets of carbon stocks such as SoilGrid (Hengl, et al., 2017) and fluxes such as GPP (Jung, et al., 2017) are available, improvement in estimating turnover time can be achieved. In addition, previous study ignored certain aspects such as the relationship between τ and nutrients, fires, etc. We would like to investigate τ and its role in carbon cycle by combining observatinoal derived datasets and state-of-the-art model simulations.

  10. MEDUSA-2.0: an intermediate complexity biogeochemical model of the marine carbon cycle for climate change and ocean acidification studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yool

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available MEDUSA-1.0 (Model of Ecosystem Dynamics, nutrient Utilisation, Sequestration and Acidification was developed as an "intermediate complexity" plankton ecosystem model to study the biogeochemical response, and especially that of the so-called "biological pump", to anthropogenically driven change in the World Ocean (Yool et al., 2011. The base currency in this model was nitrogen from which fluxes of organic carbon, including export to the deep ocean, were calculated by invoking fixed C:N ratios in phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus. However, due to anthropogenic activity, the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2 has significantly increased above its natural, inter-glacial background. As such, simulating and predicting the carbon cycle in the ocean in its entirety, including ventilation of CO2 with the atmosphere and the resulting impact of ocean acidification on marine ecosystems, requires that both organic and inorganic carbon be afforded a more complete representation in the model specification. Here, we introduce MEDUSA-2.0, an expanded successor model which includes additional state variables for dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen and detritus carbon (permitting variable C:N in exported organic matter, as well as a simple benthic formulation and extended parameterizations of phytoplankton growth, calcification and detritus remineralisation. A full description of MEDUSA-2.0, including its additional functionality, is provided and a multi-decadal spin-up simulation (1860–2005 is performed. The biogeochemical performance of the model is evaluated using a diverse range of observational data, and MEDUSA-2.0 is assessed relative to comparable models using output from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5.

  11. Studies of the Terrestrial Molecular Oxygen and Carbon Cycles in Sand Dune Gases and in Biosphere 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severinghaus, Jeffrey Peck

    Molecular oxygen in the atmosphere is coupled tightly to the terrestrial carbon cycle by the processes of photosynthesis, respiration, and burning. This dissertation examines different aspects of this coupling in four chapters. Chapter 1 explores the feasibility of using air from sand dunes to reconstruct atmospheric O_2 composition centuries ago. Such a record would reveal changes in the mass of the terrestrial biosphere, after correction for known fossil fuel combustion, and constrain the fate of anthropogenic CO_2. Test drilling in sand dunes shows that sand dunes do contain old air, as shown by the concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons and ^{85}Kr. Diffusion is shown to dominate mixing rather than advection. However, biological respiration in dunes corrupts the signal, and isotopic analysis of O_2 and N _2 shows that fractionation of the gases precludes use of sand dunes as archives. Chapter 2 further explores this fractionation, revealing a previously unknown "water vapor flux fractionation" process. A flux of water vapor out of the moist dune into the dry desert air sweeps out the other gases, forcing them to diffuse back into the dune. The heavy isotopes of N_2 and O_2 diffuse more slowly, creating a steady state depletion of heavy isotopes in the dune interior. Molecular diffusion theory and a laboratory simulation of the effect agree well with the observations. Additional fractionation of the dune air occurs via thermal diffusion and gravitational settling, and it is predicted that soil gases in general will enjoy all three effects. Chapter 3 examines the cause of a mysterious drop in O _2 concentrations in the closed ecosystem of Biosphere 2, located near Tucson, Arizona. The organic -rich soil manufactured for the experiment is shown to be the culprit, with CO_2 produced by bacterial respiration of the organic matter reacting with the extensive concrete surfaces inside. Chapter 4 examines the O_2:C stoichiometry of terrestrial soil respiration and

  12. The changing carbon cycle of the coastal ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, James E; Cai, Wei-Jun; Raymond, Peter A; Bianchi, Thomas S; Hopkinson, Charles S; Regnier, Pierre A G

    2013-12-05

    The carbon cycle of the coastal ocean is a dynamic component of the global carbon budget. But the diverse sources and sinks of carbon and their complex interactions in these waters remain poorly understood. Here we discuss the sources, exchanges and fates of carbon in the coastal ocean and how anthropogenic activities have altered the carbon cycle. Recent evidence suggests that the coastal ocean may have become a net sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide during post-industrial times. Continued human pressures in coastal zones will probably have an important impact on the future evolution of the coastal ocean's carbon budget.

  13. Towards a quantitative understanding of the late Neoproterozoic carbon cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Christian Jannik; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2011-01-01

    The cycles of carbon and oxygen at the Earth surface are intimately linked, where the burial of organic carbon into sediments represents a source of oxygen to the surface environment. This coupling is typically quantified through the isotope records of organic and inorganic carbon. Yet, the late...... Neoproterozoic Eon, the time when animals first evolved, experienced wild isotope fluctuations which do not conform to our normal understanding of the carbon cycle and carbon-oxygen coupling. We interpret these fluctuations with a new carbon cycle model and demonstrate that all of the main features...... of the carbonate and organic carbon isotope record can be explained by the release of methane hydrates from an anoxic dissolved organic carbon-rich ocean into an atmosphere containing oxygen levels considerably less than today....

  14. Elevated temperature alters carbon cycling in a model microbial community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosier, A.; Li, Z.; Thomas, B. C.; Hettich, R. L.; Pan, C.; Banfield, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Earth's climate is regulated by biogeochemical carbon exchanges between the land, oceans and atmosphere that are chiefly driven by microorganisms. Microbial communities are therefore indispensible to the study of carbon cycling and its impacts on the global climate system. In spite of the critical role of microbial communities in carbon cycling processes, microbial activity is currently minimally represented or altogether absent from most Earth System Models. Method development and hypothesis-driven experimentation on tractable model ecosystems of reduced complexity, as presented here, are essential for building molecularly resolved, benchmarked carbon-climate models. Here, we use chemoautotropic acid mine drainage biofilms as a model community to determine how elevated temperature, a key parameter of global climate change, regulates the flow of carbon through microbial-based ecosystems. This study represents the first community proteomics analysis using tandem mass tags (TMT), which enable accurate, precise, and reproducible quantification of proteins. We compare protein expression levels of biofilms growing over a narrow temperature range expected to occur with predicted climate changes. We show that elevated temperature leads to up-regulation of proteins involved in amino acid metabolism and protein modification, and down-regulation of proteins involved in growth and reproduction. Closely related bacterial genotypes differ in their response to temperature: Elevated temperature represses carbon fixation by two Leptospirillum genotypes, whereas carbon fixation is significantly up-regulated at higher temperature by a third closely related genotypic group. Leptospirillum group III bacteria are more susceptible to viral stress at elevated temperature, which may lead to greater carbon turnover in the microbial food web through the release of viral lysate. Overall, this proteogenomics approach revealed the effects of climate change on carbon cycling pathways and other

  15. Field Investigation and Modeling Development for Hydrological and Carbon Cycles in Southwest Karst Region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X. B.

    2017-12-01

    It is required to understanding water cycle and carbon cycle processes for water resource management and pollution prevention and global warming influence in southwest karst region of China. Lijiang river basin is selected as our study region. Interdisciplinary field and laboratory experiments with various technologies are conducted to characterize the karst aquifers in detail. Key processes in the karst water cycle and carbon cycle are determined. Based on the MODFLOW-CFP model, new watershed flow and carbon cycle models are developed coupled subsurface and surface water flow models. Our study focus on the karst springshed in Mao village, the mechanisms coupling carbon cycle and water cycle are explored. This study provides basic theory and simulation method for water resource management and groundwater pollution prevention in China karst region.

  16. Simulated Effect of Carbon Cycle Feedback on Climate Response to Solar Geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Long; Jiang, Jiu

    2017-12-01

    Most modeling studies investigate climate effects of solar geoengineering under prescribed atmospheric CO2, thereby neglecting potential climate feedbacks from the carbon cycle. Here we use an Earth system model to investigate interactive feedbacks between solar geoengineering, global carbon cycle, and climate change. We design idealized sunshade geoengineering simulations to prevent global warming from exceeding 2°C above preindustrial under a CO2 emission scenario with emission mitigation starting from middle of century. By year 2100, solar geoengineering reduces the burden of atmospheric CO2 by 47 PgC with enhanced carbon storage in the terrestrial biosphere. As a result of reduced atmospheric CO2, consideration of the carbon cycle feedback reduces required insolation reduction in 2100 from 2.0 to 1.7 W m-2. With higher climate sensitivity the effect from carbon cycle feedback becomes more important. Our study demonstrates the importance of carbon cycle feedback in climate response to solar geoengineering.

  17. A review on Life Cycle Assessment, Life Cycle Energy Assessment and Life Cycle Carbon Emissions Assessment on buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, C.K.; Leung, T.M.; Ng, W.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Three streams of life cycle studies, namely LCA, LCEA and LCCO 2 A, were compared. • Previous findings from the three streams were reviewed. • Cases led to discrepancies of results arising from different types of life cycle studies were discussed. • Limitations in using life cycle studies as decision tools for building design were identified. - Abstract: This paper provides a review on three streams of life cycle studies that have been frequently applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of building construction with a major focus on whether they can be used for decision making. The three streams are Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Life Cycle Energy Assessment (LCEA) and Life Cycle Carbon Emissions Assessment (LCCO 2 A). They were compared against their evaluation objectives, methodologies, and findings. Although they share similar objectives in evaluating the environmental impacts over the life cycle of building construction, they show some differences in the major focuses of evaluation and methodologies employed. Generally, it has been revealed that quite consistent results can be derived from the three streams with regard to the relative contribution of different phases of life cycle. However, discrepancies occur among the findings obtained from the three streams when different compositions of fuel mixes are used in power generation, or when the overall impacts are not contributed mostly by greenhouse gases emissions. The use of different functional units in different studies also makes it difficult to compare results with benchmarks or results from previous studies. Besides, there are drawbacks in boundary scoping, methodology framework, data inventory and practices which impair their usefulness as a decision making support tool for sustainable building designs

  18. Reconciling carbon-cycle concepts, terminology, and methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.S. III Chapin; G.M Woodwell; J.T. Randerson; G.M. Lovett; E.B. Rastetter; D.D. Baldocchi; D.A. Clark; M.E. Harmon; D.S. Schimel; Valentini R.; Wirth C.; Aber J.D.; Cole J.J.; Goulden M.L.; Harden J.W.; Heimann M.; Howarth R.W.; Matson P.A.; McGuire A.D.; Melillo J.M.; H.A. Mooney; J.C. Neff; R.A. Houghton; M.L. Pace; M.G. Ryan; S.W. Running; O.E. Sala; W.H. Schlesinger; E. D. Schulze

    2005-01-01

    Recent projections of climatic change have focused a great deal of scientific and public attention on patterns of carbon (C) cycling as well as its controls, particularly the factors that determine whether an ecosystem is a net source or sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Net ecosystem production (NEP), a central concept in C-cycling research, has been used by...

  19. Testing Urey's carbonate-silicate cycle using the calcium isotopic composition of sedimentary carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blättler, Clara L.; Higgins, John A.

    2017-12-01

    Carbonate minerals constitute a major component of the sedimentary geological record and an archive of a fraction of the carbon and calcium cycled through the Earth's surface reservoirs for over three billion years. For calcium, carbonate minerals constitute the ultimate sink for almost all calcium liberated during continental and submarine weathering of silicate minerals. This study presents >500 stable isotope ratios of calcium in Precambrian carbonate sediments, both limestones and dolomites, in an attempt to characterize the isotope mass balance of the sedimentary carbonate reservoir through time. The mean of the dataset is indistinguishable from estimates of the calcium isotope ratio of bulk silicate Earth, consistent with the Urey cycle being the dominant mechanism exchanging calcium among surface reservoirs. The variability in bulk sediment calcium isotope ratios within each geological unit does not reflect changes in the global calcium cycle, but rather highlights the importance of local mineralogical and/or diagenetic effects in the carbonate record. This dataset demonstrates the potential for calcium isotope ratios to help assess these local effects, such as the former presence of aragonite, even in rocks with a history of neomorphism and recrystallization. Additionally, 29 calcium isotope measurements are presented from ODP (Ocean Drilling Program) Site 801 that contribute to the characterization of altered oceanic crust as an additional sink for calcium, and whose distinct isotopic signature places a limit on the importance of this subduction flux over Earth history.

  20. Climate, carbon cycling, and deep-ocean ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K L; Ruhl, H A; Bett, B J; Billett, D S M; Lampitt, R S; Kaufmann, R S

    2009-11-17

    Climate variation affects surface ocean processes and the production of organic carbon, which ultimately comprises the primary food supply to the deep-sea ecosystems that occupy approximately 60% of the Earth's surface. Warming trends in atmospheric and upper ocean temperatures, attributed to anthropogenic influence, have occurred over the past four decades. Changes in upper ocean temperature influence stratification and can affect the availability of nutrients for phytoplankton production. Global warming has been predicted to intensify stratification and reduce vertical mixing. Research also suggests that such reduced mixing will enhance variability in primary production and carbon export flux to the deep sea. The dependence of deep-sea communities on surface water production has raised important questions about how climate change will affect carbon cycling and deep-ocean ecosystem function. Recently, unprecedented time-series studies conducted over the past two decades in the North Pacific and the North Atlantic at >4,000-m depth have revealed unexpectedly large changes in deep-ocean ecosystems significantly correlated to climate-driven changes in the surface ocean that can impact the global carbon cycle. Climate-driven variation affects oceanic communities from surface waters to the much-overlooked deep sea and will have impacts on the global carbon cycle. Data from these two widely separated areas of the deep ocean provide compelling evidence that changes in climate can readily influence deep-sea processes. However, the limited geographic coverage of these existing time-series studies stresses the importance of developing a more global effort to monitor deep-sea ecosystems under modern conditions of rapidly changing climate.

  1. Historical constraints on the origins of the carbon cycle concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, Matthieu Emmanuel; Gaillardet, Jérôme

    2012-11-01

    Understanding the geological carbon cycle remains a major scientific challenge, although studies dedicated to this issue, in particular those of J.J. Ebelmen in the mid 19th century, have existed for over 200 years. The exact scientific and social pathways leading to the construction of the contemporaneous carbon cycle requires further investigation, which in turn may provide valuable insights into the modern state of scientific knowledge. The present study contributes to this question by demonstrating that, following the discovery of the compound nature of carbonic acid by A.L. Lavoisier at the end of the 18th century, studies initially investigated the mechanisms of respiration and photosynthesis until they were recognized as exerting an antagonistic effect on the composition of air. In the early 19th century, the consequence of these studies at the global scale had been foreseen, and applied to investigate the stability of the atmospheric composition over time. These early steps were only concerned with the fate of carbonic acid through life processes. However, between 1820 and 1840, the works of A.L. Brongniard and J.B. Boussingault established that geologic processes, such as the burial of carbonaceous material (CM) in sedimentary rocks and the release of CO2 by volcanoes, affect the composition of the atmosphere. By 1845, J.J. Ebelmen had brilliantly contributed to the emerging question of atmospheric composition by proposing that the alteration of silicates on continents and the precipitation of carbonates in the ocean should be considered as a sink of atmospheric CO2. He also used chemical formula of the time to quantify this process, which led him to mention a carbon rotation for the first time. The rotation of this element through geologic processes became, in itself, a matter worthy of investigation as was the composition of the atmosphere. We argue that J.J. Ebelmen's brilliant synthesis was made possible by the parallel development of the atomistic

  2. Iron cycling at corroding carbon steel surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason S.; McBeth, Joyce M.; Ray, Richard I.; Little, Brenda J.; Emerson, David

    2013-01-01

    Surfaces of carbon steel (CS) exposed to mixed cultures of iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) and dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (FeRB) in seawater media under aerobic conditions were rougher than surfaces of CS exposed to pure cultures of either type of microorganism. The roughened surface, demonstrated by profilometry, is an indication of loss of metal from the surface. In the presence of CS, aerobically grown FeOB produced tight, twisted helical stalks encrusted with iron oxides. When CS was exposed anaerobically in the presence of FeRB, some surface oxides were removed. However, when the same FeOB and FeRB were grown together in an aerobic medium, FeOB stalks were less encrusted with iron oxides and appeared less tightly coiled. These observations suggest that iron oxides on the stalks were reduced and solubilized by the FeRB. Roughened surfaces of CS and denuded stalks were replicated with three culture combinations of different species of FeOB and FeRB under three experimental conditions. Measurements of electrochemical polarization resistance established different rates of corrosion of CS in aerobic and anaerobic media, but could not differentiate rate differences between sterile controls and inoculated exposures for a given bulk concentration of dissolved oxygen. Similarly, total iron in the electrolyte could not be used to differentiate treatments. The experiments demonstrate the potential for iron cycling (oxidation and reduction) on corroding CS in aerobic seawater media. PMID:24093730

  3. Global Carbon Cycling on a Heterogeneous Seafloor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelgrove, Paul V R; Soetaert, Karline; Solan, Martin; Thrush, Simon; Wei, Chih-Lin; Danovaro, Roberto; Fulweiler, Robinson W; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Ingole, Baban; Norkko, Alf; Parkes, R John; Volkenborn, Nils

    2018-02-01

    Diverse biological communities mediate the transformation, transport, and storage of elements fundamental to life on Earth, including carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. However, global biogeochemical model outcomes can vary by orders of magnitude, compromising capacity to project realistic ecosystem responses to planetary changes, including ocean productivity and climate. Here, we compare global carbon turnover rates estimated using models grounded in biological versus geochemical theory and argue that the turnover estimates based on each perspective yield divergent outcomes. Importantly, empirical studies that include sedimentary biological activity vary less than those that ignore it. Improving the relevance of model projections and reducing uncertainty associated with the anticipated consequences of global change requires reconciliation of these perspectives, enabling better societal decisions on mitigation and adaptation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Orbital Signals in Carbon Isotopes: Phase Distortion as a Signature of the Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Jiří; Rąžek, Bohuslav; Giorgioni, Martino

    2017-11-01

    Isotopic mass balance models are employed here to study the response of carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of the ocean-atmosphere system to amplitude-modulated perturbations on Milankovitch time scales. We identify a systematic phase distortion, which is inherent to a leakage of power from the carrier precessional signal to the modulating eccentricity terms in the global carbon cycle. The origin is partly analogous to the simple cumulative effect in sinusoidal signals, reflecting the residence time of carbon in the ocean-atmosphere reservoir. The details of origin and practical implications are, however, different. In amplitude-modulated signals, the deformation is manifested as a lag of the 405 kyr eccentricity cycle behind amplitude modulation (AM) of the short ( 100 kyr) eccentricity cycle. Importantly, the phase of AM remains stable during the carbon cycle transfer, thus providing a reference framework against which to evaluate distortion of the 405 kyr term. The phase relationships can help to (1) identify depositional and diagenetic signatures in δ13C and (2) interpret the pathways of astronomical signal through the climate system. The approach is illustrated by case studies of Albian and Oligocene records using a new computational tool EPNOSE (Evaluation of Phase in uNcertain and nOisy SEries). Analogous phase distortions occur in other components of the carbon cycle including atmospheric CO2 levels; hence, to fully understand the causal relationships on astronomical time scales, paleoclimate models may need to incorporate realistic, amplitude-modulated insolation instead of monochromatic sinusoidal approximations. Finally, detection of the lagged δ13C response can help to reduce uncertainties in astrochronological age models that are tuned to the 405 kyr cycle.

  5. Nitrogen attenuation of terrestrial carbon cycle response to global environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atul Jain; Xiaojuan Yang; Haroon Kheshgi; A. David McGuire; Wilfred Post; David. Kicklighter

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen cycle dynamics have the capacity to attenuate the magnitude of global terrestrial carbon sinks and sources driven by CO2 fertilization and changes in climate. In this study, two versions of the terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycle components of the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM) are used to evaluate how variation in nitrogen...

  6. Trailblazing the Carbon Cycle of Tropical Forests from Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra Brown; Ariel Lugo

    2017-01-01

    We review the literature that led to clarifying the role of tropical forests in the global carbon cycle from a time when they were considered sources of atmospheric carbon to the time when they were found to be atmospheric carbon sinks. This literature originates from work conducted by US Forest Service scientists in Puerto Rico and their collaborators. It involves the...

  7. Advanced Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Mark [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Sienicki, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, Anton [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Nellis, Gregory [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Klein, Sanford [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Fluids operating in the supercritical state have promising characteristics for future high efficiency power cycles. In order to develop power cycles using supercritical fluids, it is necessary to understand the flow characteristics of fluids under both supercritical and two-phase conditions. In this study, a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) methodology was developed for supercritical fluids flowing through complex geometries. A real fluid property module was implemented to provide properties for different supercritical fluids. However, in each simulation case, there is only one species of fluid. As a result, the fluid property module provides properties for either supercritical CO2 (S-CO2) or supercritical water (SCW). The Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM) was employed to model the two-phase flow. HEM assumes two phases have same velocity, pressure, and temperature, making it only applicable for the dilute dispersed two-phase flow situation. Three example geometries, including orifices, labyrinth seals, and valves, were used to validate this methodology with experimental data. For the first geometry, S-CO2 and SCW flowing through orifices were simulated and compared with experimental data. The maximum difference between the mass flow rate predictions and experimental measurements is less than 5%. This is a significant improvement as previous works can only guarantee 10% error. In this research, several efforts were made to help this improvement. First, an accurate real fluid module was used to provide properties. Second, the upstream condition was determined by pressure and density, which determines supercritical states more precise than using pressure and temperature. For the second geometry, the flow through labyrinth seals was studied. After a successful validation, parametric studies were performed to study geometric effects on the leakage rate. Based on these parametric studies, an optimum design strategy for the see

  8. Compositional, mechanical and transport properties of carbonate fault rocks and the seismic cycle in limestone terrains : A case study of surface exposures on the Longmenshan Fault, Sichuan, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Jianye

    2015-01-01

    Destructive earthquakes are common in tectonically active regions dominated by carbonate cover rocks. The catastrophic Wenchuan earthquake that struck Sichuan, China, also affected a section of carbonate cover terrain. Numerous studies have focused on characterizing the compositional, transport and

  9. Carbon cycling and calcification in hypersaline microbial mats

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Phototrophic microbial mats are laminated aggregations of microorganisms that thrive in extreme and oligotrophic environments. Primary production rates by oxygenic phototrophs are extremely high. Primary producers supply heterotrophic mat members with organic carbon, which in turn regenerate CO2 needed for autotrophic carbon fixation. Another potential source of CO2 is calcification, which is known to shift the carbonate equilibrium towards CO2. This thesis investigated the carbon cycle of mi...

  10. Importance of vegetation dynamics for future terrestrial carbon cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlström, Anders; Xia, Jianyang; Arneth, Almut; Luo, Yiqi; Smith, Benjamin

    2015-05-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems currently sequester about one third of anthropogenic CO2 emissions each year, an important ecosystem service that dampens climate change. The future fate of this net uptake of CO2 by land based ecosystems is highly uncertain. Most ecosystem models used to predict the future terrestrial carbon cycle share a common architecture, whereby carbon that enters the system as net primary production (NPP) is distributed to plant compartments, transferred to litter and soil through vegetation turnover and then re-emitted to the atmosphere in conjunction with soil decomposition. However, while all models represent the processes of NPP and soil decomposition, they vary greatly in their representations of vegetation turnover and the associated processes governing mortality, disturbance and biome shifts. Here we used a detailed second generation dynamic global vegetation model with advanced representation of vegetation growth and mortality, and the associated turnover. We apply an emulator that describes the carbon flows and pools exactly as in simulations with the full model. The emulator simulates ecosystem dynamics in response to 13 different climate or Earth system model simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 ensemble under RCP8.5 radiative forcing. By exchanging carbon cycle processes between these 13 simulations we quantified the relative roles of three main driving processes of the carbon cycle; (I) NPP, (II) vegetation dynamics and turnover and (III) soil decomposition, in terms of their contribution to future carbon (C) uptake uncertainties among the ensemble of climate change scenarios. We found that NPP, vegetation turnover (including structural shifts, wild fires and mortality) and soil decomposition rates explained 49%, 17% and 33%, respectively, of uncertainties in modelled global C-uptake. Uncertainty due to vegetation turnover was further partitioned into stand-clearing disturbances (16%), wild fires (0%), stand

  11. Importance of vegetation dynamics for future terrestrial carbon cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlström, Anders; Smith, Benjamin; Xia, Jianyang; Luo, Yiqi; Arneth, Almut

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems currently sequester about one third of anthropogenic CO 2 emissions each year, an important ecosystem service that dampens climate change. The future fate of this net uptake of CO 2 by land based ecosystems is highly uncertain. Most ecosystem models used to predict the future terrestrial carbon cycle share a common architecture, whereby carbon that enters the system as net primary production (NPP) is distributed to plant compartments, transferred to litter and soil through vegetation turnover and then re-emitted to the atmosphere in conjunction with soil decomposition. However, while all models represent the processes of NPP and soil decomposition, they vary greatly in their representations of vegetation turnover and the associated processes governing mortality, disturbance and biome shifts. Here we used a detailed second generation dynamic global vegetation model with advanced representation of vegetation growth and mortality, and the associated turnover. We apply an emulator that describes the carbon flows and pools exactly as in simulations with the full model. The emulator simulates ecosystem dynamics in response to 13 different climate or Earth system model simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 ensemble under RCP8.5 radiative forcing. By exchanging carbon cycle processes between these 13 simulations we quantified the relative roles of three main driving processes of the carbon cycle; (I) NPP, (II) vegetation dynamics and turnover and (III) soil decomposition, in terms of their contribution to future carbon (C) uptake uncertainties among the ensemble of climate change scenarios. We found that NPP, vegetation turnover (including structural shifts, wild fires and mortality) and soil decomposition rates explained 49%, 17% and 33%, respectively, of uncertainties in modelled global C-uptake. Uncertainty due to vegetation turnover was further partitioned into stand-clearing disturbances (16%), wild fires (0%), stand

  12. A Carbon Cycle Model for the Social-Ecological Process in Coastal Wetland: A Case Study on Gouqi Island, East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lihu; Zhu, Wenjia

    2017-01-01

    Coastal wetlands offer many important ecosystem services both in natural and in social systems. How to simultaneously decrease the destructive effects flowing from human activities and maintaining the sustainability of regional wetland ecosystems are an important issue for coastal wetlands zones. We use carbon credits as the basis for regional sustainable developing policy-making. With the case of Gouqi Island, a typical coastal wetlands zone that locates in the East China Sea, a carbon cycle model was developed to illustrate the complex social-ecological processes. Carbon-related processes in natural ecosystem, primary industry, secondary industry, tertiary industry, and residents on the island were identified in the model. The model showed that 36780 tons of carbon is released to atmosphere with the form of CO2, and 51240 tons of carbon is captured by the ecosystem in 2014 and the three major resources of carbon emission are transportation and tourism development and seawater desalination. Based on the carbon-related processes and carbon balance, we proposed suggestions on the sustainable development strategy of Gouqi Island as coastal wetlands zone. PMID:28286690

  13. A Carbon Cycle Model for the Social-Ecological Process in Coastal Wetland: A Case Study on Gouqi Island, East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanxia; Xiong, Lihu; Zhu, Wenjia

    2017-01-01

    Coastal wetlands offer many important ecosystem services both in natural and in social systems. How to simultaneously decrease the destructive effects flowing from human activities and maintaining the sustainability of regional wetland ecosystems are an important issue for coastal wetlands zones. We use carbon credits as the basis for regional sustainable developing policy-making. With the case of Gouqi Island, a typical coastal wetlands zone that locates in the East China Sea, a carbon cycle model was developed to illustrate the complex social-ecological processes. Carbon-related processes in natural ecosystem, primary industry, secondary industry, tertiary industry, and residents on the island were identified in the model. The model showed that 36780 tons of carbon is released to atmosphere with the form of CO 2 , and 51240 tons of carbon is captured by the ecosystem in 2014 and the three major resources of carbon emission are transportation and tourism development and seawater desalination. Based on the carbon-related processes and carbon balance, we proposed suggestions on the sustainable development strategy of Gouqi Island as coastal wetlands zone.

  14. A Carbon Cycle Model for the Social-Ecological Process in Coastal Wetland: A Case Study on Gouqi Island, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxia Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal wetlands offer many important ecosystem services both in natural and in social systems. How to simultaneously decrease the destructive effects flowing from human activities and maintaining the sustainability of regional wetland ecosystems are an important issue for coastal wetlands zones. We use carbon credits as the basis for regional sustainable developing policy-making. With the case of Gouqi Island, a typical coastal wetlands zone that locates in the East China Sea, a carbon cycle model was developed to illustrate the complex social-ecological processes. Carbon-related processes in natural ecosystem, primary industry, secondary industry, tertiary industry, and residents on the island were identified in the model. The model showed that 36780 tons of carbon is released to atmosphere with the form of CO2, and 51240 tons of carbon is captured by the ecosystem in 2014 and the three major resources of carbon emission are transportation and tourism development and seawater desalination. Based on the carbon-related processes and carbon balance, we proposed suggestions on the sustainable development strategy of Gouqi Island as coastal wetlands zone.

  15. The role of harvest residue in rotation cycle carbon balance in loblolly pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asko Noormets; Steve G. Mcnulty; Jean-Christophe Domec; Michael Gavazzi; Ge Sun; John S. King

    2012-01-01

    Timber harvests remove a significant portion of ecosystem carbon. While some of the wood products moved off-site may last past the harvest cycle of the particular forest crop, the effect of the episodic disturbances on long-term on-site carbon sequestration is unclear. The current study presents a 25 year carbon budget estimate for a typical commercial loblolly pine...

  16. Feedback of global warming to soil carbon cycling in forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakane, Kaneyuki

    1993-01-01

    Thus in this study the simulation of soil carbon cycling and dynamics of its storage in several types of mature forests developed from the cool-temperate to the tropics was carried out for quantitatively assessing carbon loss from the soil under several scenarios of global warming, based on the model of soil carbon cycling in forest ecosystems (Nakane et al. 1984, 1987 and Nakane 1992). (J.P.N.)

  17. The role of urbanization in the global carbon cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina eChurkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas account for more than 70% of CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels. Urban expansion in tropics is responsible for 5% of the annual emissions from land use change. Here I show that the effect of urbanization on the global carbon cycle extends beyond these emissions. I quantify the contribution of urbanization to the major carbon fluxes and pools globally and identify gaps crucial for predicting the evolution of the carbon cycle in the future. Urban residents currently control ~22 (12-40 % of the land carbon uptake (112 PgC/yr and ~24 (15-39 % of the carbon emissions (117 PgC/yr from land globally. Urbanization resulted in the creation of new carbon pools on land such as buildings (~6.7 PgC and landfills (~30 PgC. Together these pools store 1.6 (±0.3 % of the total vegetation and soil carbon pools globally. The creation and maintenance of these new pools has been associated with high emissions of CO2, which are currently better understood than the processes associated with the dynamics of these pools and accompanying uptake of carbon. Predictions of the future trajectories of the global carbon cycle will require a much better understanding of how urban development affects the carbon cycle over the long term.

  18. Fuel cycle studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Programs are being conducted in the following areas: advanced solvent extraction techniques, accident consequences, fuel cycles for nonproliferation, pyrochemical and dry processes, waste encapsulation, radionuclide transport in geologic media, hull treatment, and analytical support for LWBR

  19. Modelling the inorganic ocean carbon cycle under past and future climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewan, T.L.

    2004-01-01

    This study used a coupled ocean-atmosphere-sea ice model with an inorganic carbon component to examine the inorganic ocean carbon cycle with particular reference to how climate feedback influences future uptake. In the last 150 years, the increase in atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations have been higher than any time during the Earth's history. Although the oceans are the largest sink for carbon dioxide, it is not know how the ocean carbon cycle will respond to increasing anthropogenic carbon dioxide concentrations in the future. Climate feedbacks could potentially reduce further uptake of carbon by the ocean. In addition to examining past climate transitions, including both abrupt and glacial-interglacial climate transitions, this study also examined the sensitivity of the inorganic carbon cycle to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels were also projected under a range of global warming scenarios. Most simulations identified a transient weakening of the North Atlantic and increased sea surface temperatures (SST). These positive feedbacks act on the carbon system to reduce uptake. However, the ocean has the capacity to take up 65 to 75 per cent of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide increases. An analysis of climate feedback on future carbon uptake shows that oceans store 7 per cent more carbon when there are no climate feedbacks acting on the system. Sensitivity experiments using the Gent McWilliams parameterization for mixing associated with mesoscale eddies show a further 6 per cent increase in oceanic uptake. Inclusion of sea ice dynamics resulted in a 2 per cent difference in uptake. This study also examined changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration that occur during abrupt climate change events. Changes in ocean circulation and carbon solubility cause significant increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations when melt water episodes are simulated in both hemispheres. The response of the carbon

  20. How positive is the feedback between climate change and the carbon cycle?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedlingstein, P.; Rayner, P.

    2003-01-01

    Future climate change induced by atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases is believed to have a large impact on the global carbon cycle. Several offline studies focusing either on the marine or on the terrestrial carbon cycle highlighted such potential effects. Two recent online studies, using ocean-atmosphere general circulation models coupled to land and ocean carbon cycle models, investigated in a consistent way the feedback between the climate change and the carbon cycle. These two studies used observed anthropogenic CO 2 emissions for the 1860-1995 period and IPCC scenarios for the 1995-2100 period to force the climate - carbon cycle models. The study from the Hadley Centre group showed a very large positive feedback, atmospheric CO 2 reaching 980 ppmv by 2100 if future climate impacts on the carbon cycle, but only about 700 ppmv if the carbon cycle is included but assumed to be insensitive to the climate change. The IPSL coupled climate - carbon cycle model simulated a much smaller positive feedback: climate impact on the carbon cycle leads by 2100 to an addition of less than 100 ppmv in the atmosphere. Here we perform a detailed feedback analysis to show that such differences are due to two key processes that are still poorly constrained in these coupled models: first Southern Ocean circulation, which primarily controls the geochemical uptake of CO 2 , and second vegetation and soil carbon response to global warming. Our analytical analysis reproduces remarkably the results obtained by the fully coupled models. Also it allows us to identify that, amongst the two processes mentioned above, the latter (the land response to global warming) is the one that essentially explains the differences between the IPSL and the Hadley results

  1. Climate change and global carbon cycle: Perspectives and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn D.; Pohlman, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The relevance of methane hydrates research to broader societal themes is often framed in terms of methane’s role in the global carbon cycle and its potential contribution to future climate change. To date, investigations of these fundamental issues have remained largely disconnected from applied studies focused on locating natural gas hydrate deposits, developing production technologies, and analyzing and mitigating hydrate-related geohazards. The 2005 reauthorization of the 2000 Methane Hydrate Research and Development Act provides broad latitude for better integration of applied and basic research related to methane hydrates, the carbon cycle, and climate change through its direction “to assess and to mitigate the environmental impact of hydrate degassing.” This mandate includes sponsoring research that evaluates whether methane hydrate degassing triggered by either natural or anthropogenic perturbations will (1) contribute to global climate change and (2) release significant quantities of currently sequestered carbon to the ocean-atmosphere system. This article provides an overview of progress and challenges in these areas and sets the stage for future research on related issues under the auspices of the Methane Hydrate Act.

  2. Student Development of Model-Based Reasoning about Carbon Cycling and Climate Change in a Socio-Scientific Issues Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangori, Laura; Peel, Amanda; Kinslow, Andrew; Friedrichsen, Patricia; Sadler, Troy D.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon cycling is a key natural system that requires robust science literacy to understand how and why climate change is occurring. Studies show that students tend to compartmentalize carbon movement within plants and animals and are challenged to make sense of how carbon cycles on a global scale. Studies also show that students hold faulty models…

  3. Mixed-layer carbon cycling at the Kuroshio Extension Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Andrea J.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Cronin, Meghan F.; Sutton, Adrienne J.

    2017-02-01

    Seven years of data from the NOAA Kuroshio Extension Observatory (KEO) surface mooring, located in the North Pacific Ocean carbon sink region, were used to evaluate drivers of mixed-layer carbon cycling. A time-dependent mass balance approach relying on two carbon tracers was used to diagnostically evaluate how surface ocean processes influence mixed-layer carbon concentrations over the annual cycle. Results indicate that the annual physical carbon input is predominantly balanced by biological carbon uptake during the intense spring bloom. Net annual gas exchange that adds carbon to the mixed layer and the opposing influence of net precipitation that dilutes carbon concentrations make up smaller contributions to the annual mixed-layer carbon budget. Decomposing the biological term into annual net community production (aNCP) and calcium carbonate production (aCaCO3) yields 7 ± 3 mol C m-2 yr-1 aNCP and 0.5 ± 0.3 mol C m-2 yr-1 aCaCO3, giving an annually integrated particulate inorganic carbon to particulate organic carbon production ratio of 0.07 ± 0.05, as a lower limit. Although we find that vertical physical processes dominate carbon input to the mixed layer at KEO, it remains unclear how horizontal features, such as eddies, influence carbon production and export by altering nutrient supply as well as the depth of winter ventilation. Further research evaluating linkages between Kuroshio Extension jet instabilities, eddy activity, and nutrient supply mechanisms is needed to adequately characterize the drivers and sensitivities of carbon cycling near KEO.

  4. Where Carbon Goes When Water Flows: Carbon Cycling across the Aquatic Continuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Nicholas D.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Medeiros, Patricia M.; Seidel, Michael; Richey, Jeffrey E.; Keil, Richard G.; Sawakuchi, Henrique O.

    2017-01-31

    The purpose of this review is to highlight progress in unraveling carbon cycling dynamics across the continuum of landscapes, inland waters, coastal oceans, and the atmosphere. Earth systems are intimately interconnected, yet most biogeochemical studies focus on specific components in isolation. The movement of water drives the carbon cycle, and, as such, inland waters provide a critical intersection between terrestrial and marine biospheres. Inland, estuarine, and coastal waters are well studied in regions near centers of human population in the Northern hemisphere. However, many of the world’s large river systems and their marine receiving waters remain poorly characterized, particularly in the tropics, which contribute to a disproportionately large fraction of the transformation of terrestrial organic matter to carbon dioxide, and the Arctic, where positive feedback mechanisms are likely to amplify global climate change. There are large gaps in current coverage of environmental observations along the aquatic continuum. For example, tidally-influenced reaches of major rivers and near-shore coastal regions around river plumes are often left out of carbon budgets due to a combination of methodological constraints and poor data coverage. We suggest that closing these gaps could potentially alter global estimates of CO2 outgassing from surface waters to the atmosphere by several-fold. Finally, in order to identify and constrain/embrace uncertainties in global carbon budget estimations it is important that we further adopt statistical and modeling approaches that have become well-established in the fields of oceanography and paleoclimatology, for example.

  5. Marine geochemistry ocean circulation, carbon cycle and climate change

    CERN Document Server

    Roy-Barman, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    Marine geochemistry uses chemical elements and their isotopes to study how the ocean works. It brings quantitative answers to questions such as: What is the deep ocean mixing rate? How much atmospheric CO2 is pumped by the ocean? How fast are pollutants removed from the ocean? How do ecosystems react to the anthropogenic pressure? The book provides a simple introduction to the concepts (environmental chemistry, isotopes), the methods (field approach, remote sensing, modeling) and the applications (ocean circulation, carbon cycle, climate change) of marine geochemistry with a particular emphasis on isotopic tracers. Marine geochemistry is not an isolated discipline: numerous openings on physical oceanography, marine biology, climatology, geology, pollutions and ecology are proposed and provide a global vision of the ocean. It includes new topics based on ongoing research programs such as GEOTRACES, Global Carbon Project, Tara Ocean. It provides a complete outline for a course in marine geochemistry. To favor a...

  6. The decadal state of the terrestrial carbon cycle: Global retrievals of terrestrial carbon allocation, pools, and residence times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, A Anthony; Exbrayat, Jean-François; van der Velde, Ivar R; Feng, Liang; Williams, Mathew

    2016-02-02

    The terrestrial carbon cycle is currently the least constrained component of the global carbon budget. Large uncertainties stem from a poor understanding of plant carbon allocation, stocks, residence times, and carbon use efficiency. Imposing observational constraints on the terrestrial carbon cycle and its processes is, therefore, necessary to better understand its current state and predict its future state. We combine a diagnostic ecosystem carbon model with satellite observations of leaf area and biomass (where and when available) and soil carbon data to retrieve the first global estimates, to our knowledge, of carbon cycle state and process variables at a 1° × 1° resolution; retrieved variables are independent from the plant functional type and steady-state paradigms. Our results reveal global emergent relationships in the spatial distribution of key carbon cycle states and processes. Live biomass and dead organic carbon residence times exhibit contrasting spatial features (r = 0.3). Allocation to structural carbon is highest in the wet tropics (85-88%) in contrast to higher latitudes (73-82%), where allocation shifts toward photosynthetic carbon. Carbon use efficiency is lowest (0.42-0.44) in the wet tropics. We find an emergent global correlation between retrievals of leaf mass per leaf area and leaf lifespan (r = 0.64-0.80) that matches independent trait studies. We show that conventional land cover types cannot adequately describe the spatial variability of key carbon states and processes (multiple correlation median = 0.41). This mismatch has strong implications for the prediction of terrestrial carbon dynamics, which are currently based on globally applied parameters linked to land cover or plant functional types.

  7. The decadal state of the terrestrial carbon cycle: Global retrievals of terrestrial carbon allocation, pools, and residence times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, A. Anthony; Exbrayat, Jean-François; van der Velde, Ivar R.; Feng, Liang; Williams, Mathew

    2016-01-01

    The terrestrial carbon cycle is currently the least constrained component of the global carbon budget. Large uncertainties stem from a poor understanding of plant carbon allocation, stocks, residence times, and carbon use efficiency. Imposing observational constraints on the terrestrial carbon cycle and its processes is, therefore, necessary to better understand its current state and predict its future state. We combine a diagnostic ecosystem carbon model with satellite observations of leaf area and biomass (where and when available) and soil carbon data to retrieve the first global estimates, to our knowledge, of carbon cycle state and process variables at a 1° × 1° resolution; retrieved variables are independent from the plant functional type and steady-state paradigms. Our results reveal global emergent relationships in the spatial distribution of key carbon cycle states and processes. Live biomass and dead organic carbon residence times exhibit contrasting spatial features (r = 0.3). Allocation to structural carbon is highest in the wet tropics (85–88%) in contrast to higher latitudes (73–82%), where allocation shifts toward photosynthetic carbon. Carbon use efficiency is lowest (0.42–0.44) in the wet tropics. We find an emergent global correlation between retrievals of leaf mass per leaf area and leaf lifespan (r = 0.64–0.80) that matches independent trait studies. We show that conventional land cover types cannot adequately describe the spatial variability of key carbon states and processes (multiple correlation median = 0.41). This mismatch has strong implications for the prediction of terrestrial carbon dynamics, which are currently based on globally applied parameters linked to land cover or plant functional types. PMID:26787856

  8. The carbon cycle and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Five land-use-based approaches can be used to slow the buildup of CO 2 in the atmosphere: slowing or stopping the loss of existing forests, thus preserving current carbon reservoirs; adding to the planet's vegetative cover through reforestation or other means, thus enlarging living terrestrial carbon reservoirs; increasing the carbon stored in nonliving carbon reservoirs such as agricultural soils; increasing the carbon stored in artificial reservoirs, including timber products; and substituting sustainable biomass energy sources for fossil fuel consumption, thus reducing energy-related carbon emissions. These approaches are all based on the same basic premise: adding to the planet's net carbon stores in vegetative cover or soil, or preventing any net loss, will help moderate global warming by keeping atmospheric CO 2 levels lower than they would otherwise be. Because biotic policy options appear capable of contributing significantly to the mitigation of global warming while also furthering many other public policy objectives, their role deserves careful consideration on a country-by-country basis

  9. Glassy carbon supercapacitor: 100,000 cycles demonstrated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baertsch, M.; Braun, A.; Schnyder, B.; Koetz, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    A 5 V glassy carbon capacitor stack was built consisting of four bipolar and two end-plate electrodes. More than 100,000 charging/discharging cycles were applied to test the stability of the double-layer capacitor. Low and high frequency resistances were measured as a function of the number of cycles. (author) 2 figs., 1 ref.

  10. Interglacials, Milankovitch Cycles, Solar Activity, and Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald E. Marsh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing understanding of interglacial periods is that they are initiated by Milankovitch cycles enhanced by rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. During interglacials, global temperature is also believed to be primarily controlled by carbon dioxide concentrations, modulated by internal processes such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation. Recent work challenges the fundamental basis of these conceptions.

  11. Interglacials, Milankovitch Cycles, Solar Activity, and Carbon Dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald E. Marsh

    2014-01-01

    The existing understanding of interglacial periods is that they are initiated by Milankovitch cycles enhanced by rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. During interglacials, global temperature is also believed to be primarily controlled by carbon dioxide concentrations, modulated by internal processes such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation. Recent work challenges the fundamental basis of these conceptions.

  12. Carbon cycle observations: gaps threaten climate mitigation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Birdsey; Nick Bates; MIke Behrenfeld; Kenneth Davis; Scott C. Doney; Richard Feely; Dennis Hansell; Linda Heath; et al.

    2009-01-01

    Successful management of carbon dioxide (CO2) requires robust and sustained carbon cycle observations. Yet key elements of a national observation network are lacking or at risk. A U.S. National Research Council review of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program earlier this year highlighted the critical need for a U.S. climate observing system to...

  13. Investigators share improved understanding of the North American carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Birdsey; Robert Cook; Scott Denning; Peter Griffith; Beverly Law; Jeffrey Masek; Anna Michalak; Stephen Ogle; Dennis Ojima; Yude Pan; Christopher Sabine; Edwin Sheffner; Eric Sundquist

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. North American Carbon Program (NACP) sponsored an "all-scientist" meeting to review progress in understanding the dynamics of the carbon cycle of North American and adjacent oceans, and to chart a course for improved integration across scientifi c disciplines, scales, and Earth system boundaries. The meeting participants also addressed the need for...

  14. The impact of carbon prices on generation-cycling costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denny, Eleanor; O'Malley, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of mechanisms aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions can have a serious impact on electricity system costs. A carbon mechanism that forces generators to internalise their emissions costs may alter the merit order in which generators are dispatched in the market. Heavy carbon dioxide polluters may switch from operating continuously to having to operate on the margin more often. This results in these units being required to switch on and off and vary their output more frequently, which has a significant impact on their costs. In this paper, the impact of carbon prices on the operating profiles of generators in a real electricity system is investigated. A large number of potential scenarios are considered and it is found that carbon prices significantly increase the cycling costs. These increased cycling costs significantly offset the carbon dioxide reduction benefits of the carbon price

  15. Dinoflagellate biogeochemistry: developing new proxies for past carbon cycling (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluijs, A.; Hoins, M.; van de Waal, D.; Reichart, G.; Rost, B.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate reconstructions of atmospheric CO2 levels for time intervals that are beyond the reach of the ice cores (> ~850 kyr) remain one of the grand challenges of paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental research. Despite recent progress in analytical techniques and application in several proxies, uncertainties in reconstructed values remain large. Based on culturing experiments combined with gene expression analysis and physiological assays, we quantify and mechanistically underpin the geochemical response of dinoflagellates and their cysts to various CO2 concentrations. The results confirm theoretical inferences that the isotopic composition of both organic and calcite dinoflagellate cysts may serve as a proxy for past ocean carbonate chemistry, notably pCO2. We found a strong effect (~10x as strong as in foraminifera) of pCO2 on the stable oxygen isotopic composition of a calcareous dinoflagellate cyst. Moreover, we found that the stable carbon isotopic composition of four dinoflagellate species, of which two have organic dinocyst fossil records down to the early Cenozoic and Cretaceous, strongly respond to pCO2. Critically, the experiments show that the mechanisms forcing the changes in fractionation factors differ between species, opening a suite of opportunities to study past carbon cycling as well as protist physiology during Earth System perturbations. The dinoflagellate Apectodinium dominated dinoflagellate assemblages during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Will its carbon isotopic composition reveal CO2 concentrations at that time?

  16. Trailblazing the Carbon Cycle of Tropical Forests from Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Brown

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We review the literature that led to clarifying the role of tropical forests in the global carbon cycle from a time when they were considered sources of atmospheric carbon to the time when they were found to be atmospheric carbon sinks. This literature originates from work conducted by US Forest Service scientists in Puerto Rico and their collaborators. It involves the classification of forests by life zones, estimation of carbon density by forest type, assessing carbon storage changes with ecological succession and land use/land cover type, describing the details of the carbon cycle of forests at stand and landscape levels, assessing global land cover by forest type and the complexity of land use change in tropical regions, and assessing the ecological fluxes and storages that contribute to net carbon accumulation in tropical forests. We also review recent work that couples field inventory data, remote sensing technology such as LIDAR, and GIS analysis in order to more accurately determine the role of tropical forests in the global carbon cycle and point out new avenues of carbon research that address the responses of tropical forests to environmental change.

  17. Carbon cycle in the paleoenvironment: an abrupt increase of biogenic carbon in the end-Cretaceous atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryunosuke Kikuchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A knowledge of what has happened in the past seems helpful in improving the predictability of the link between global-scale phenomena and the carbon cycle; this paper therefore attempts to reconstruct the end-Cretaceous carbon cycle (65 million years ago by means of modeling. The performed simulation suggests that a great amount (130 gigatons at least of biogenic carbon was rapidly injected to the atmosphere. Methane originating from gas hydrate (GH is the most likely candidate for the input of biogenic carbon at the end of the ereCretaceous period because it is considered that thick GH stability zones were damaged by perturbations associated with the Chicxulub asteroid impact, and the vast amount of methane was released to the atmosphere as a gas blast. Though GH deposits are greater than other major reservoirs of carbon, these deposits are not commonly categorized as typical carbon reservoirs in terms of the global carbon cycle. How to integrate GH-related methane with well-known carbon reservoirs remains for a future study in order to improve the predictability of the future carbon cycle.

  18. The changing global carbon cycle: Linking plant-soil carbon dynamics to global consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, F. S.; McFarland, J.; McGuire, David A.; Euskirchen, E.S.; Ruess, Roger W.; Kielland, K.

    2009-01-01

    Most current climate-carbon cycle models that include the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle are based on a model developed 40 years ago by Woodwell & Whittaker (1968) and omit advances in biogeochemical understanding since that time. Their model treats net C emissions from ecosystems as the balance between net primary production (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration (HR, i.e. primarily decomposition).

  19. The changing global carbon cycle: linking local plant-soil carbon dynamics to global consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Stuart Chapin; Jack McFarland; A. David McGuire; Eugenie S. Euskirchen; Roger W. Ruess; Knut. Kielland

    2009-01-01

    Most current climate-carbon cycle models that include the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle are based on a model developed 40 years ago by Woodwell & Whittaker (1968) and omit advances in biogeochemical understanding since that time. Their model treats net C emissions from ecosystems as the balance between net primary production (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration (HR,...

  20. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Feedback to Climate Warming: Experimental Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.; Zhou, X.; Sherry, R.

    2006-12-01

    Global climate modeling has demonstrated that climate warming would stimulate respiratory CO2 release from the terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere, which in turn leads to more warming in the climate system. This positive feedback between the climate change and the terrestrial carbon cycle can form a vicious cycle that potentially leads to a dangerous threat to ecosystem functioning and service. Some of the key processes underlying this feedback loop, however, have not been carefully examined by experimental studies. Those key processes include temperature sensitivity of ecosystem carbon influx; regulation of carbon processes by warming-induced changes in species composition, and nutrient and water availability; and phenology and timing of ecosystem processes under warming. We have conducted two warming experiments in a Southern Great Plains prairie to examine ecosystem responses to climate warming. We used infrared heaters to elevate soil temperature by approximately 2.0 and 4.0 oC, respectively, during the experimental period. Our results indicate that plant biomass growth increased by approximately 20% in the warmed plots in comparison to that in the control plots. The increased plant productivity likely resulted from extended length of growing seasons since warming advanced phenology of early-flowering species and delayed phenology of late-flowering species, leading to an extension of the growing season. Leaf photosynthesis, however, was not strongly affected by warming. Warming also considerably increased C4 plant biomass and caused slight decreases in growth of C3 plants. Increased C4 biomass and litter production resulted in decreases in quality and decomposition of bulk litter at the ecosystem scale, leading to an increase in litter mass at the soil surface. Soil respiration did not significantly increase in the first two years but increased by 8-10% in the last several years, largely due to increased root respiration and litter pool sizes. We did not

  1. Role of the seasonal cycle in coupling climate and carbon cycling in subanartic zone

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Monteiro, PMS

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available components of the carbon cycle in the Southern Ocean. It is also the mode that couples climate forcing to ecosystem responses such as productivity and ultimately biogeochemical signals including carbon export. With this as an overarching theme, a workshop...

  2. Contribution of fish to the marine inorganic carbon cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R W; Millero, F J; Taylor, J R; Walsh, P J; Christensen, V; Jennings, S; Grosell, M

    2009-01-16

    Oceanic production of calcium carbonate is conventionally attributed to marine plankton (coccolithophores and foraminifera). Here we report that marine fish produce precipitated carbonates within their intestines and excrete these at high rates. When combined with estimates of global fish biomass, this suggests that marine fish contribute 3 to 15% of total oceanic carbonate production. Fish carbonates have a higher magnesium content and solubility than traditional sources, yielding faster dissolution with depth. This may explain up to a quarter of the increase in titratable alkalinity within 1000 meters of the ocean surface, a controversial phenomenon that has puzzled oceanographers for decades. We also predict that fish carbonate production may rise in response to future environmental changes in carbon dioxide, and thus become an increasingly important component of the inorganic carbon cycle.

  3. Carbon Cycling in Wetland Forest Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl C. Trettin; Martin F. Jurgensen

    2003-01-01

    Wetlands comprise a small proportion (i.e., 2 to 3%) of earth's terrestrial surface, yet they contain a significant proportion of the terrestrial carbon (C) pool. Soils comprise the largest terrestrial C pool (ca. 1550 Pg C in upper 100 cm; Eswaran et al., 1993; Batjes, 1996), and wetlands contain the single largest component, with estimates ranging between 18...

  4. Soil organic carbon enrichment of dust emissions: Magnitude, mechanisms and its implications for the carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil erosion is an important component of the global carbon cycle. However, little attention has been given to the role of aeolian processes in influencing soil organic carbon (SOC) flux and the release of greenhouse gasses, such as carbon-dioxide (CO2), to the atmosphere. Understanding the magnitu...

  5. A long marine history of carbon cycle modulation by orbital-climatic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, T D

    1997-08-05

    Pacing of the marine carbon cycle by orbital forcing during the Pliocene and Pleistocene Ice Ages [past 2.5 million years (Myr)] is well known. As older deep-sea sediment records are being studied at greater temporal resolution, it is becoming clear that similar fluctuations in the marine carbon system have occurred throughout the late Mesozoic and Tertiary, despite the absence of large continental ice sheets over much of this time. Variations in both the organic and the calcium carbonate components of the marine carbon system seem to have varied cyclically in response to climate forcing, and carbon and carbonate time series appear to accurately characterize the frequency spectrum of ancient climatic change. For the past 35 Myr, much of the variance in carbonate content carries the "polar" signal of obliquity [41,000 years (41 kyr)] forcing. Over the past 125 Myr, there is evidence from marine sediments of the continued role of precessional (approximately 21 kyr) climatic cycles. Repeat patterns of sedimentation at about 100, 400, and 2,400 kyr, the modulation periods of precession, persistently enter into marine carbon cycle records as well. These patterns suggest a nonlinear response of climate and/or the sedimentation of organic carbon and carbonates to precessional orbital perturbations. Nonlinear responses of the carbon system may help to amplify relatively weak orbital insolation anomalies into more significant climatic perturbations through positive feedback effects. Nonlinearities in the carbon cycle may have transformed orbital-climatic cycles into long-wavelength features on time scales comparable to the residence times of carbon and nutrient elements in the ocean.

  6. Observing terrestrial ecosystems and the carbon cycle from space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimel, David [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA 91101 USA; Pavlick, Ryan [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA 91101 USA; Fisher, Joshua B. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA 91101 USA; Asner, Gregory P. [Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution for Science, 260 Panama St. Stanford CA 94305 USA; Saatchi, Sassan [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA 91101 USA; Townsend, Philip [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison WI 53706 USA; Miller, Charles [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA 91101 USA; Frankenberg, Christian [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA 91101 USA; Hibbard, Kathy [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999 MSIN: K9-34 Richland WA 99352 USA; Cox, Peter [College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, North Park Road Streatham Campus Harrison Building Exeter EX4 4QF UK

    2015-02-06

    Modeled terrestrial ecosystem and carbon cycle feedbacks contribute substantial uncertainty to projections of future climate. The limitations of current observing networks contribute to this uncertainty. Here we present a current climatology of global model predictions and observations for photosynthesis, biomass, plant diversity and plant functional diversity. Carbon cycle tipping points occur in terrestrial regions where fluxes or stocks are largest, and where biological variability is highest, the tropics and Arctic/Boreal zones. Global observations are predominately in the mid-latitudes and are sparse in high and low latitude ecosystems. Observing and forecasting ecosystem change requires sustained observations of sufficient density in time and space in critical regions. Using data and theory available now, we can develop a strategy to detect and forecast terrestrial carbon cycle-climate interactions, by combining in situ and remote techniques.

  7. Simulations of the global carbon cycle and anthropogenic CO2 transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmiento, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    This research focuses on improving the understanding of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide transient using observations and models of the past and present. In addition, an attempt is made to develop an ability to predict the future of the carbon cycle in response to continued anthropogenic perturbations and climate change. Three aspects of the anthropogenic carbon budget were investigated: (1) the globally integrated budget at the present time; (2) the time history of the carbon budget; and (3) the spatial distribution of carbon fluxes. One of the major activities of this study was the participation in the model comparison study of Enting, et al. [1994] carried out in preparation for the IPCC 1994 report

  8. Africa and the global carbon cycle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Williams, CA

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available , Millero FJ, Peng TH, Kozyr A, Ono T, Rios AF: The oceanic sink for anthropogenic CO2. Science 2004, 305:367-371. 11. Ciais P, Tans PP, Trolier M, White JWC, Francey RJ: A Large Northern-Hemisphere Terrestrial Co2 Sink Indicated by the C-13/C-12 Ratio... from fossil-fuel burning, cement pro- duction, and gas flaring: 1751-2000. 2003 [http:// cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/ndps/ndp030.html]. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tenn...

  9. Orbital forcing of the Paleocene and Eocene carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeebe, Richard E.; Westerhold, Thomas; Littler, Kate; Zachos, James C.

    2017-05-01

    Multimillion-year proxy records across the Paleocene and Eocene show prominent variations on orbital time scales. The cycles, which have been identified at various sites across the globe, preferentially concentrate spectral power at eccentricity and precessional frequencies. It is evident that these cycles are an expression of changes in global climate and carbon cycling paced by astronomical forcing. However, little is currently known about the link between orbital forcing and the carbon cycle-climate system and the amplitude of associated atmospheric CO2 variations. Here we use simple and complex carbon cycle models to explore the basic effect of different orbital forcing schemes and noise on the carbon cycle. Our primary modeling target is the high-resolution, ˜7.7 Myr long, benthic isotope record at Ocean Drilling Program Site 1262 in the South Atlantic. For direct insolation forcing (as opposed to artificial eccentricity-tilt-precession), one major challenge is understanding how the system transfers spectral power from high to low frequencies. We discuss feasible solutions, including insolation transformations analogous to electronic AC-DC conversion (DC'ing). Regarding mechanisms, we focus on tropical insolation and a long-term carbon imbalance in terrestrial organic burial/oxidation but do not rule out other scenarios. Our analysis shows that high-latitude mechanisms are unlikely drivers of orbitally paced changes in the late Paleocene-early Eocene (LPEE) Earth system. Furthermore, we provide constraints on the origin and isotopic composition of a possible LPEE cyclic carbon imbalance/source responding to astronomical forcing. Our simulations also reveal a mechanism for the large δ13C-eccentricity lag at the 400 kyr period observed in Paleocene, Oligocene, and Miocene sections. We present the first estimates of orbital-scale variations in atmospheric CO2 during the late Paleocene and early Eocene.

  10. Effects of biotic disturbances on forest carbon cycling in the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey A. Hicke; Craig D. Allen; Ankur R. Desai; Michael C. Dietze; Ronald J. Hall; Edward H. Hogg; Daniel M. Kashian; David Moore; Kenneth F. Raffa; Rona N. Sturrock; James. Vogelmann

    2011-01-01

    Forest insects and pathogens are major disturbance agents that have affected millions of hectares in North America in recent decades, implying significant impacts to the carbon (C) cycle. Here, we review and synthesize published studies of the effects of biotic disturbances on forest C cycling in the United States and Canada. Primary productivity in stands was reduced...

  11. A new stepwise carbon cycle data assimilation system using multiple data streams to constrain the simulated land surface carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peylin, Philippe; Bacour, Cédric; MacBean, Natasha; Leonard, Sébastien; Rayner, Peter; Kuppel, Sylvain; Koffi, Ernest; Kane, Abdou; Maignan, Fabienne; Chevallier, Frédéric; Ciais, Philippe; Prunet, Pascal

    2016-09-01

    Large uncertainties in land surface models (LSMs) simulations still arise from inaccurate forcing, poor description of land surface heterogeneity (soil and vegetation properties), incorrect model parameter values and incomplete representation of biogeochemical processes. The recent increase in the number and type of carbon cycle-related observations, including both in situ and remote sensing measurements, has opened a new road to optimize model parameters via robust statistical model-data integration techniques, in order to reduce the uncertainties of simulated carbon fluxes and stocks. In this study we present a carbon cycle data assimilation system that assimilates three major data streams, namely the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) observations of vegetation activity, net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and latent heat (LE) flux measurements at more than 70 sites (FLUXNET), as well as atmospheric CO2 concentrations at 53 surface stations, in order to optimize the main parameters (around 180 parameters in total) of the Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamics Ecosystems (ORCHIDEE) LSM (version 1.9.5 used for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations). The system relies on a stepwise approach that assimilates each data stream in turn, propagating the information gained on the parameters from one step to the next. Overall, the ORCHIDEE model is able to achieve a consistent fit to all three data streams, which suggests that current LSMs have reached the level of development to assimilate these observations. The assimilation of MODIS-NDVI (step 1) reduced the growing season length in ORCHIDEE for temperate and boreal ecosystems, thus decreasing the global mean annual gross primary production (GPP). Using FLUXNET data (step 2) led to large improvements in the seasonal cycle of the NEE and LE fluxes for all ecosystems (i.e., increased amplitude for temperate ecosystems). The

  12. Development and evaluation of the carbon-nitrogen cycle module for the GPFARM-Range model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangelands cover approximately 50% of the terrestrial surface of the earth. The soil carbon and nitrogen storage and turnover in rangeland systems are becoming increasingly important for sustainable grazing management and adaptations to climate change. In this study, a carbon-nitrogen (C-N) cycle m...

  13. Exploring the Interactions between Land Use, Climate Change and Carbon Cycle using Satellite Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R. L.; Fares, A.; He, Y.; Awal, R.; Risch, E.

    2017-12-01

    Most climate change impacts are linked to terrestrial vegetation productivity, carbon stocks and land use change. Changes in land use and climate drive the dynamics of terrestrial carbon cycle. These carbon cycle dynamics operate at different spatial and temporal scales. Quantification of the spatial and temporal variability of carbon flux has been challenging because land-atmosphere-carbon exchange is influenced by many factors, including but not limited to, land use change and climate change and variability. The study of terrestrial carbon cycle, mainly gross primary product (GPP), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), soil organic carbon (SOC) and ecosystem respiration (Re) and their interactions with land use and climate change, are critical to understanding the terrestrial ecosystem. The main objective of this study was to examine the interactions among land use, climate change and terrestrial carbon cycling in the state of Texas using satellite measurements. We studied GPP, NEE, Re and SOC distributions for five selected major land covers and all ten climate zones in Texas using Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) carbon products. SMAP Carbon products (Res=9 km) were compared with observed CO2 flux data measured at EC flux site on Prairie View A&M University Research Farm. Results showed the same land cover in different climate zones has significantly different carbon sequestration potentials. For example, cropland of the humid climate zone has higher (-228 g C/m2) carbon sequestration potentials than the semiarid climate zone (-36 g C/m2). Also, shrub land in the humid zone and in the semiarid zone showed high (-120 g C/m2) and low (-36 g C/m2) potentials of carbon sequestration, respectively, in the state. Overall, the analyses indicate CO2 storage and exchange respond differently to various land covers, and environments due to differences in water availability, root distribution and soil properties.

  14. The decadal state of the terrestrial carbon cycle : Global retrievals of terrestrial carbon allocation, pools, and residence times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloom, A Anthony; Exbrayat, Jean-François; van der Velde, Ivar R; Feng, Liang; Williams, Mathew

    2016-01-01

    The terrestrial carbon cycle is currently the least constrained component of the global carbon budget. Large uncertainties stem from a poor understanding of plant carbon allocation, stocks, residence times, and carbon use efficiency. Imposing observational constraints on the terrestrial carbon cycle

  15. Role of the seasonal cycle in coupling climate and carbon cycling in the subantarctic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Boyd, Philip; Bellerby, Richard

    2011-07-01

    Workshop on the Seasonal Cycle of the Carbon-Climate System in the Southern Ocean; Cape Town, South Africa, 23-25 August 2010; There is increasing evidence in the Southern Ocean that mesoscales and seasonal scales play an important role in the coupling of ocean carbon cycling and climate. The seasonal cycle is one of the strongest modes of variability in different components of the carbon cycle in the Southern Ocean. It is also the mode that couples climate forcing to ecosystem responses such as productivity and ultimately biogeochemical signals including carbon export. However, not only are these scales of coupling poorly understood, but also there appear to be important regional differences in the way they couple climate to carbon. With this as an overarching theme, a workshop in South Africa brought together scientists working in the Southern Ocean, the waters south of Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa. The importance of the Subantarctic Zone (SAZ) as a carbon sink made it an ideal system on which to focus the workshop.

  16. Redesigning Urban Carbon Cycles: from Waste Stream to Commodity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabander, D. J.; Fitzstevens, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    While there has been extensive research on the global scale to quantify the fluxes and reservoirs of carbon for predictive climate change models, comparably little attention has been focused on carbon cycles in the built environment. The current management of urban carbon cycles presents a major irony: while cities produce tremendous fluxes of organic carbon waste, their populations are dependent on imported carbon because most urban have limited access to locally sourced carbon. The persistence of outdated management schemes is in part due to the fact that reimagining the handling of urban carbon waste streams requires a transdisciplinary approach. Since the end of the 19th century, U.S. cities have generally relied on the same three options for managing organic carbon waste streams: burn it, bury it, or dilute it. These options still underpin the framework for today's design and management strategies for handling urban carbon waste. We contend that urban carbon management systems for the 21st century need to be scalable, must acknowledge how climate modulates the biogeochemical cycling of urban carbon, and should carefully factor local political and cultural values. Urban waste carbon is a complex matrix ranging from wastewater biosolids to municipal compost. Our first goal in designing targeted and efficient urban carbon management schemes has been examining approaches for categorizing and geochemically fingerprinting these matrices. To date we have used a combination of major and trace element ratio analysis and bulk matrix characteristics, such as pH, density, and loss on ignition, to feed multivariable statistical analysis in order to identify variables that are effective tracers for each waste stream. This approach was initially developed for Boston, MA, US, in the context of identifying components of municipal compost streams that were responsible for increasing the lead inventory in the final product to concentrations that no longer permitted its use in

  17. Nuclear fuel cycle studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    For the metal-matrix encapsulation of radioactive waste, brittle-fracture, leach-rate, and migration studies are being conducted. For fuel reprocessing, annular and centrifugal contactors are being tested and modeled. For the LWBR proof-of-breeding project, the full-scale shear and the prototype dissolver were procured and tested. 5 figures

  18. Anthropogenic chemical carbon cycle for a sustainable future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George A; Prakash, G K Surya; Goeppert, Alain

    2011-08-24

    Nature's photosynthesis uses the sun's energy with chlorophyll in plants as a catalyst to recycle carbon dioxide and water into new plant life. Only given sufficient geological time, millions of years, can new fossil fuels be formed naturally. The burning of our diminishing fossil fuel reserves is accompanied by large anthropogenic CO(2) release, which is outpacing nature's CO(2) recycling capability, causing significant environmental harm. To supplement the natural carbon cycle, we have proposed and developed a feasible anthropogenic chemical recycling of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is captured by absorption technologies from any natural or industrial source, from human activities, or even from the air itself. It can then be converted by feasible chemical transformations into fuels such as methanol, dimethyl ether, and varied products including synthetic hydrocarbons and even proteins for animal feed, thus supplementing our food chain. This concept of broad scope and framework is the basis of what we call the Methanol Economy. The needed renewable starting materials, water and CO(2), are available anywhere on Earth. The required energy for the synthetic carbon cycle can come from any alternative energy source such as solar, wind, geothermal, and even hopefully safe nuclear energy. The anthropogenic carbon dioxide cycle offers a way of assuring a sustainable future for humankind when fossil fuels become scarce. While biosources can play a limited role in supplementing future energy needs, they increasingly interfere with the essentials of the food chain. We have previously reviewed aspects of the chemical recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether. In the present Perspective, we extend the discussion of the innovative and feasible anthropogenic carbon cycle, which can be the basis of progressively liberating humankind from its dependence on diminishing fossil fuel reserves while also controlling harmful CO(2) emissions to the atmosphere. We also

  19. Variation in the carbon cycle of the Sevastopol Bay (Black Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orekhova, N. A.; Konovalov, S. K.

    2018-01-01

    Continuous increase in CO2 inventory in the ocean results in dramatic changes in marine biogeochemistry, e.g. acidification. That is why temporal and spatial variabilities in atmospheric pCO2 and dissolved inorganic carbon, including CO2, pH and alkalinity in water, as well as organic and inorganic carbon in bottom sediments have to be studied together making possible to resolve the key features of the carbon cycle transformation. A 30% increase of pCO2 in the Sevastopol Bay for 2008 - 2016 evidences changes in the DIC components ratios and a significant decrease in the ability to absorb atmospheric CO2 by surface waters. High organic carbon content in the bottom sediments and predominance of organic carbon production in the biological pump at inner parts of the bay reveal ongoing transformation of the carbon cycle. This has negative consequences for recreation, social and economic potentials of the Sevastopol region.

  20. Life Cycle Analysis of Carbon Flow and Carbon Footprint of Harvested Wood Products of Larix principis-rupprechtii in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Larix principis-rupprechtii is a native tree species in North China with a large distribution; and its harvested timbers can be used for producing wood products. This study focused on estimating and comparing carbon flows and carbon footprints of different harvested wood products (HWPs from Larix principis-ruppechtii based on the life cycle analysis (from seedling cultivation to HWP final disposal. Based on our interviews and surveys, the system boundary in this study was divided into three processes: the forestry process, the manufacturing process, and the use and disposal process. By tracking carbon flows of HWPs along the entire life cycle, we found that, for one forest rotation period, a total of 26.81 tC/ha sequestered carbon was transferred into these HWPs, 66.2% of which were still stored in the HWP when the rotation period had ended; however, the HWP carbon storage decreased to 0.25 tC/ha (only 0.9% left in the 100th year after forest plantation. The manufacturing process contributed more than 90% of the total HWP carbon footprint, but it was still smaller than the HWP carbon storage. In terms of the carbon storage and the carbon footprint, construction products had the largest net positive carbon balance compared to furniture and panel products. In addition, HWP are known to have a positive impact on global carbon mitigation because they can store parts of the sequestered carbon for a certain period of time and they have a substitution effect on carbon mitigation. Furthermore, there still exist great opportunities for carbon mitigation from HWPs through the use of cleaner energy and increasing the utilization efficiency of wood fuel.

  1. [Responses of forest soil carbon pool and carbon cycle to the changes of carbon input].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-kui

    2011-04-01

    Litters and plant roots are the main sources of forest soil organic carbon (C). This paper summarized the effects of the changes in C input on the forest soil C pool and C cycle, and analyzed the effects of these changes on the total soil C, microbial biomass C, dissoluble organic C, and soil respiration. Different forests in different regions had inconsistent responses to C input change, and the effects of litter removal or addition and of root exclusion or not differed with tree species and regions. Current researches mainly focused on soil respiration and C pool fractions, and scarce were about the effects of C input change on the changes of soil carbon structure and stability as well as the response mechanisms of soil organisms especially soil fauna, which should be strengthened in the future.

  2. A Carbon Cycle Science Update Since IPCC AR-4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolman, A.J.; Werf, van der G.R.; Molen, van der M.K.; Ganssen, G.; Erisman, J.W.; Strengers, B.

    2010-01-01

    We review important advances in our understanding of the global carbon cycle since the publication of the IPCC AR4. We conclude that: the anthropogenic emissions of CO2 due to fossil fuel burning have increased up through 2008 at a rate near to the high end of the IPCC emission scenarios; there are

  3. Autonomous observing strategies for the ocean carbon cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, James K.; Davis, Russ E.

    2000-07-26

    Understanding the exchanges of carbon between the atmosphere and ocean and the fate of carbon delivered to the deep sea is fundamental to the evaluation of ocean carbon sequestration options. An additional key requirement is that sequestration must be verifiable and that environmental effects be monitored and minimized. These needs can be addressed by carbon system observations made from low-cost autonomous ocean-profiling floats and gliders. We have developed a prototype ocean carbon system profiler based on the Sounding Oceanographic Lagrangian Observer (SOLO; Davis et al., 1999). The SOLO/ carbon profiler will measure the two biomass components of the carbon system and their relationship to physical variables, such as upper ocean stratification and mixing. The autonomous observations within the upper 1500 m will be made on daily time scales for periods of months to seasons and will be carried out in biologically dynamic locations in the world's oceans that are difficult to access with ships (due to weather) or observe using remote sensing satellites (due to cloud cover). Such an observational capability not only will serve an important role in carbon sequestration research but will provide key observations of the global ocean's natural carbon cycle.

  4. Evolving Human Alteration of the Carbon Cycle: the Watershed Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, S.; Delaney Newcomb, K.; Newcomer Johnson, T.; Pennino, M. J.; Smith, R. M.; Beaulieu, J. J.; Belt, K.; Grese, M.; Blomquist, J.; Duan, S.; Findlay, S.; Likens, G.; Mayer, P. M.; Murthy, S.; Utz, R.; Yepsen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Watersheds experiencing land development are constantly evolving, and their biogeochemical signatures are expected to evolve across both space and time in drainage waters. We investigate how land development influences spatial and temporal evolution of the carbon cycle from small streams to major rivers in the Eastern U.S. Along the watershed continuum, we show that there is spatial evolution in: (1) the amount, chemical form, and bioavailability of carbon; (2) carbon retention/release at the reach scale; and (3) ecosystem metabolism of carbon from headwaters to coastal waters. Over shorter time scales, the interaction between land use and climate variability alters magnitude and frequency of carbon "pulses" in watersheds. Amounts and forms of carbon pulses in agricultural and urban watersheds respond similarly to climate variability due to headwater alteration and loss of ecosystem services to buffer runoff and temperature changes. Over longer time scales, land use change has altered organic carbon concentrations in tidal waters of Chesapeake Bay, and there have been increased bicarbonate alkalinity concentrations in rivers throughout the Eastern U.S. due to human activities. In summary, our analyses indicates that the form and reactivity of carbon have evolved over space and time along the watershed continuum with major implications for downstream ecosystem metabolism, biological oxygen demand, carbon dioxide production, and river alkalinization.

  5. Urbanization and the Carbon Cycle: Synthesis of Ongoing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, K. R.; Duren, R. M.; Hutyra, L.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Patarasuk, R.; Song, Y.; Huang, J.; Davis, K.; Kort, E. A.; Shepson, P. B.; Turnbull, J. C.; Lauvaux, T.; Rao, P.; Eldering, A.; Miller, C. E.; Wofsy, S.; McKain, K.; Mendoza, D. L.; Lin, J. C.; Sweeney, C.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Cambaliza, M. O. L.

    2015-12-01

    Given the explosive growth in urbanization and its dominant role in current and future global greenhouse gas emissions, urban areas have received increasing research attention from the carbon cycle science community. The emerging focus is driven by the increasingly dense atmospheric observing capabilities - ground and space-based - in addition to the rising profile of cities within international climate change policymaking. Dominated by anthropogenic emissions, urban carbon cycle research requires a cross-disciplinary perspective with contributions from disciplines such as engineering, economics, social theory, and atmospheric science. We review the recent results from a sample of the active urban carbon research efforts including the INFLUX experiment (Indianapolis), the Megacity carbon project (Los Angeles), Salt Lake City, and Boston. Each of these efforts represent unique approaches in pursuit of different scientific and policy questions and assist in setting priorities for future research. From top-down atmospheric measurement systems to bottom-up estimation, these research efforts offer a view of the challenges and opportunities in urban carbon cycle research.

  6. A LEO Hyperspectral Mission Implementation for Global Carbon Cycle Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervin, Janette C.; Esper, Jaime; McClain, Charles R.; Hall, Forrest G.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Gregg, Watson W.; Mannino, Antonio; Knox, Robert G.; Huemmrich, K. Fred

    2004-01-01

    For both terrestrial and ocean carbon cycle science objectives, high resolution (less than l0 nm) imaging spectrometers capable of acquiring multiple regional to global scale observations per day should enable the development of new remote sensing measurements for important but as yet unobservable variables, with the overall goal of linking both terrestrial and ocean carbon cycle processes to climate variability. For terrestrial research, accurate estimates of carbon, water and energy (CWE) exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere a needed to id- the geographical locations and temporal dynamics of carbon sources/sinks and to improve regional climate models and climate change assessments. It is an enormous challenge to estimate CWE exchange from the infrequent temporal coverage and sparse spectral information provided by most single polar-orbiting, earth-looking satellite. The available satellite observations lack a sufficient number of well-placed narrow bands from which to derive spectral indices that capture vegetation responses to stress conditions associated with down-regulation of photosynthesis. Physiological status can best be assessed with spectral indices based on continuous, narrow bands in the visible/near infrared spectra, as can seasonal and annual terrestrial productivity. For coastal and ocean constituents, narrow-band observations in the ultraviolet and visible are essential to investigate the variability, dynamics and biogeochemical cycles of the world's coastal and open ocean regions, which will in turn help in measuring ocean productivity and predicting the variability of ocean carbon uptake and its role in climate change.

  7. Herbivores modify the carbon cycle in a warming arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, S. M.; Sullivan, P.; Welker, J. M.; Post, E.

    2009-12-01

    Typically, our studies of arctic terrestrial ecosystem responses to changes in climate focus on abiotic drivers (i.e. warming or added rain or added snow) and subsequent biogeochemical cycles and plant physiological performance. However, many arctic systems, such as those in western Greenland, are home ranges for large herbivores such as muskoxen and caribou. In order to fully understand how tundra landscapes in Greenland will respond to change, experiments are needed that allow us to quantify whether abiotic (climate warming) and or biotic (presence or absence of herbivores) drivers or their combinations regulate ecosystem function and structure. Here we present the results of two consecutive field seasons in western Greenland in which we quantified the interactive effects of local herbivore foraging and simulated climate warming on ecosystem C and N cycling and leaf level physiology. Large exclosure fences were erected in 2002, and ITEX passive warming chambers were established in 2003 within and adjacent to the fences. We performed weekly CO2 flux measurements during the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons which we normalized to a common irradiance by generating light-response curves at all plots (n=9). Although we observed interannual variability in soil moisture and average daily air temperature, browsing by herbivores was a key factor in the seasonal carbon dynamics. By physically removing leaves and upper stems, caribou and muskoxen altered the community composition, reduced leaf area and in turn decreased gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP), regardless of the warming treatment. Neither herbivory nor warming significantly affected ecosystem respiration rates. Thus the reduction in net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was primarily driven by reductions in GEP associated with leaf area removal by grazers. Our results indicate that the biotic influence from large herbivores can significantly influence carbon-derived climatic feedbacks and can no longer be overlooked in

  8. Nonlinear Interactions between Climate and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Drivers of Terrestrial and Marine Carbon Cycle Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, F. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Moore, J. K.; Goulden, M.; Fu, W.; Koven, C.; Swann, A. L. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Lindsay, K. T.; Munoz, E.

    2017-12-01

    Quantifying interactions between global biogeochemical cycles and the Earth system is important for predicting future atmospheric composition and informing energy policy. We applied a feedback analysis framework to three sets of Historical (1850-2005), Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (2006-2100), and its extension (2101-2300) simulations from the Community Earth System Model version 1.0 (CESM1(BGC)) to quantify drivers of terrestrial and ocean responses of carbon uptake. In the biogeochemically coupled simulation (BGC), the effects of CO2 fertilization and nitrogen deposition influenced marine and terrestrial carbon cycling. In the radiatively coupled simulation (RAD), the effects of rising temperature and circulation changes due to radiative forcing from CO2, other greenhouse gases, and aerosols were the sole drivers of carbon cycle changes. In the third, fully coupled simulation (FC), both the biogeochemical and radiative coupling effects acted simultaneously. We found that climate-carbon sensitivities derived from RAD simulations produced a net ocean carbon storage climate sensitivity that was weaker and a net land carbon storage climate sensitivity that was stronger than those diagnosed from the FC and BGC simulations. For the ocean, this nonlinearity was associated with warming-induced weakening of ocean circulation and mixing that limited exchange of dissolved inorganic carbon between surface and deeper water masses. For the land, this nonlinearity was associated with strong gains in gross primary production in the FC simulation, driven by enhancements in the hydrological cycle and increased nutrient availability. We developed and applied a nonlinearity metric to rank model responses and driver variables. The climate-carbon cycle feedback gain at 2300 was 42% higher when estimated from climate-carbon sensitivities derived from the difference between FC and BGC than when derived from RAD. We re-analyzed other CMIP5 model results to quantify the

  9. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Variability [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Baldocchi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A growing literature is reporting on how the terrestrial carbon cycle is experiencing year-to-year variability because of climate anomalies and trends caused by global change. As CO2 concentration records in the atmosphere exceed 50 years and as satellite records reach over 30 years in length, we are becoming better able to address carbon cycle variability and trends. Here we review how variable the carbon cycle is, how large the trends in its gross and net fluxes are, and how well the signal can be separated from noise. We explore mechanisms that explain year-to-year variability and trends by deconstructing the global carbon budget. The CO2 concentration record is detecting a significant increase in the seasonal amplitude between 1958 and now. Inferential methods provide a variety of explanations for this result, but a conclusive attribution remains elusive. Scientists have reported that this trend is a consequence of the greening of the biosphere, stronger northern latitude photosynthesis, more photosynthesis by semi-arid ecosystems, agriculture and the green revolution, tropical temperature anomalies, or increased winter respiration. At the global scale, variability in the terrestrial carbon cycle can be due to changes in constituent fluxes, gross primary productivity, plant respiration and heterotrophic (microbial respiration, and losses due to fire, land use change, soil erosion, or harvesting. It remains controversial whether or not there is a significant trend in global primary productivity (due to rising CO2, temperature, nitrogen deposition, changing land use, and preponderance of wet and dry regions. The degree to which year-to-year variability in temperature and precipitation anomalies affect global primary productivity also remains uncertain. For perspective, interannual variability in global gross primary productivity is relatively small (on the order of 2 Pg-C y-1 with respect to a large and uncertain background (123 +/- 4 Pg-C y-1

  10. Modelling feedback mechanisms in the carbon cycle: balancing the carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotmans, J.; den Elzen, M. G. J.

    1993-09-01

    Within the carbon cycle feedback, mechanisms that amplify or dampen the exchange of carbon dioxide between the different reservoirs to enhance concentrations of carbon dioxide and increase temperature from anthropogenic perturbations, play a crucial rôle. Quite a lot of these feedbacks are known, but most of them only potentially. This article evaluates the role of a number of these feedback processes within the carbon cycle. In order to assess their impact, some terrestrial feedbacks have been built into a coupled carbon cycle and climate model, as part of the integrated climate assessment model IMAGE. A number of simulation experiments have been performed with this coupled carbon cycle/climate model to compare historical atmospheric concentration values of carbon dioxide with simulated values. Also global biospheric and oceanic carbon fluxes were validated against other modelling estimates. Based on the assumptions of the IPCC's 1990 Business-as-Usual (BaU-1990) scenario, future projections of the carbon dioxide concentration have been made. A key principle in this is that we have used the modelled feedbacks in order to balance the past and present carbon budget. For atmospheric carbon dioxide, this results in substantially lower projections than the IPCC-estimates: the difference in 2100 is approximately 16% from the 1990 level. Furthermore, the IPCC's 'best guess' or 'central estimate' value of the CO2 concentration in 2100 falls outside the uncertainty range estimated with our balanced modelling approach. Sensitivity experiments with the model have been performed to quantify to what extent the terrestrial feedback processes and oceanic fluxes influence the global carbon balance in the model. It is shown that a historical and present carbon balance can be obtained in many different ways, resulting in different biospheric fluxes and thus in considerably different atmospheric CO2 projections.

  11. Science and Observation Recommendations for Future NASA Carbon Cycle Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Charles R.; Collatz, G. J.; Kawa, S. R.; Gregg, W. W.; Gervin, J. C.; Abshire, J. B.; Andrews, A. E.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Demaio, L. D.; Knox, R. G.

    2002-01-01

    Between October 2000 and June 2001, an Agency-wide planning, effort was organized by elements of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to define future research and technology development activities. This planning effort was conducted at the request of the Associate Administrator of the Office of Earth Science (Code Y), Dr. Ghassem Asrar, at NASA Headquarters (HQ). The primary points of contact were Dr. Mary Cleave, Deputy Associate Administrator for Advanced Planning at NASA HQ (Headquarters) and Dr. Charles McClain of the Office of Global Carbon Studies (Code 970.2) at GSFC. During this period, GSFC hosted three workshops to define the science requirements and objectives, the observational and modeling requirements to meet the science objectives, the technology development requirements, and a cost plan for both the science program and new flight projects that will be needed for new observations beyond the present or currently planned. The plan definition process was very intensive as HQ required the final presentation package by mid-June 2001. This deadline was met and the recommendations were ultimately refined and folded into a broader program plan, which also included climate modeling, aerosol observations, and science computing technology development, for contributing to the President's Climate Change Research Initiative. This technical memorandum outlines the process and recommendations made for cross-cutting carbon cycle research as presented in June. A separate NASA document outlines the budget profiles or cost analyses conducted as part of the planning effort.

  12. Low/Medium Density Biomass, Coastal and Ocean Carbon: A Carbon Cycle Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, Jaime; Gervin, Jan; Kirchman, Frank; Middleton, Elizabeth; Knox, Robert; Gregg, Watson; Mannino, Antonio; McClain, Charles; Herman, Jay; Hall, Forrest

    2003-01-01

    As part of the Global Carbon Cycle research effort, an agency-wide planning initiative was organized between October 2000 and June 2001 by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) at the behest of the Associate Administrator for Earth Science. The goal was to define future research and technology development activities needed for implementing a cohesive scientific observation plan. A timeline for development of missions necessary to acquire the selected new measurements was laid out, and included missions for low - medium density terrestrial biomass / coastal ocean / and ocean carbon. This paper will begin with the scientific justification and measurement requirements for these specific activities, explore the options for having separate or combined missions, and follow-up with an implementation study centered on a hyperspectral imager at geosynchronous altitudes.

  13. Study on the supercritical CO2 power cycles for landfill gas firing gas turbine bottoming cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Seok; Ahn, Yoonhan; Kim, Beomjoo; Lee, Jeong Ik

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a comparison of nine supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO 2 ) bottoming power cycles in conjunction with a topping cycle of landfill gas (LFG) fired 5MWe gas turbine is presented. For the comparison purpose, a sensitivity study of the cycle design parameters for nine different cycles was conducted and each cycle thermodynamic performance is evaluated. In addition, the cycle performance evaluation dependency on the compressor inlet temperature variation is performed to investigate how S-CO 2 cycles sensitive to the heat sink temperature variation. Furthermore, the development of new S-CO 2 cycle layouts is reported and the suggested cycles' performances are compared to the existing cycle layouts. It was found that a recompression cycle is not suitable for the bottoming cycle application, but a partial heating cycle has relatively higher net produced work with a simple layout and small number of components. Although a dual heated and flow split cycle has the highest net produced work, it has disadvantages of having numerous components and complex process which requires more sophisticated operational strategies. This study identified that the recuperation process is much more important than the intercooling process to the S-CO 2 cycle design for increasing the thermal efficiency and the net produced work point of view. - Highlights: • Study of nine S-CO 2 power cycle layouts for a small scale landfill gas power generation application. • Development of new S-CO 2 cycle layouts. • Sensitivity analysis of S-CO 2 cycles to evaluate and compare nine cycles' performances.

  14. Terrestrial nitrogen-carbon cycle interactions at the global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaehle, S

    2013-07-05

    Interactions between the terrestrial nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) cycles shape the response of ecosystems to global change. However, the global distribution of nitrogen availability and its importance in global biogeochemistry and biogeochemical interactions with the climate system remain uncertain. Based on projections of a terrestrial biosphere model scaling ecological understanding of nitrogen-carbon cycle interactions to global scales, anthropogenic nitrogen additions since 1860 are estimated to have enriched the terrestrial biosphere by 1.3 Pg N, supporting the sequestration of 11.2 Pg C. Over the same time period, CO2 fertilization has increased terrestrial carbon storage by 134.0 Pg C, increasing the terrestrial nitrogen stock by 1.2 Pg N. In 2001-2010, terrestrial ecosystems sequestered an estimated total of 27 Tg N yr(-1) (1.9 Pg C yr(-1)), of which 10 Tg N yr(-1) (0.2 Pg C yr(-1)) are due to anthropogenic nitrogen deposition. Nitrogen availability already limits terrestrial carbon sequestration in the boreal and temperate zone, and will constrain future carbon sequestration in response to CO2 fertilization (regionally by up to 70% compared with an estimate without considering nitrogen-carbon interactions). This reduced terrestrial carbon uptake will probably dominate the role of the terrestrial nitrogen cycle in the climate system, as it accelerates the accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere. However, increases of N2O emissions owing to anthropogenic nitrogen and climate change (at a rate of approx. 0.5 Tg N yr(-1) per 1°C degree climate warming) will add an important long-term climate forcing.

  15. The State of the Carbon Cycle: Ten Years On

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A. W.; Dilling, L.; Fairman, D. M.; Houghton, R. A.; Marland, G.; Rose, A.; Wilbanks, T. J.; Zimmerman, G.

    2015-12-01

    It has been nearly ten years since the First State of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR-1) was published in 2007. Much has changed in the intervening years, but much has remained the same. In anticipation of a Second State of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR-2), we, the members of the SOCCR-1 Coordinating Team, felt that a perspective from the first SOCCR and reflection on changes in the state of carbon cycle science and policy in the intervening years would be appropriate. The purpose of SOCCR-1 was to provide "…a synthesis and integration of the current knowledge of the North American carbon budget and its context within the global carbon cycle [i]n a format useful to decision makers." Being "useful to decision makers" was a guiding theme with three stakeholder workshops an integral part of the process. Drafting and revision of SOCCR-1 took place between 2005 and early 2007; the report's carbon budget was for circa 2003. In 2003, North America's fossil-fuel CO2 emissions were approximately 27% of global emissions. Nearly 85% of North American emissions were from the US, still at that time the world's largest emitter of fossil-fuel CO2. China's annual CO2 emissions exceeded those of the US for the first time while SOCCR-1 was being written. Today global CO2 emissions are dominated by emissions from China (28% in 2013), with US emissions only 14% of global emissions. Emissions from the US and North America have actually declined by approximately 10% since 2003 while emissions from China have doubled. Based on inventories of terrestrial carbon stocks, SOCCR-1 estimated that circa 2003 North American vegetation removed and stored a net 500 Mt C y-1 (±50%) from the atmosphere. A more recent synthesis incorporating additional estimates from atmospheric inversions and terrestrial biosphere modeling estimated the North American land sink for the decade of 2000-2009 at 350-470 Mt C y-1, with a slightly greater uncertainty due to the wider range of estimates from the

  16. An approach to include soil carbon changes in life cycle assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjorn Molt; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Hermansen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    Globally, soil carbon sequestration is expected to hold a major potential to mitigate agricultural greenhouse gas emissions. However, the majority of life cycle assessments (LCA) of agricultural products have not included possible changes in soil carbon sequestration. In the present study, a method...... production in China. The suggested approach considers the time of the soil CO2 emissions for the LCA by including the Bern Carbon Cycle Model. Time perspectives of 20,100 and 200 years are used and a soil depth of 0-100 cm is considered. The application of the suggested method showed that the results were...... to estimate carbon sequestration to be included in LCA is suggested and applied to two examples where the inclusion of carbon sequestration is especially relevant: 1) Bioenergy: removal of straw from a Danish soil for energy purposes and 2) Organic versus conventional farming: comparative study of soybean...

  17. [Simulating and predicting of carbon cycling in typical wetland ecosystems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-ju; Tong, Cheng-li; Wu, Jin-shui; Xu, Ming-Gang; Song, Chang-chun

    2007-09-01

    A model was developed based on the theories of physiological ecology and turnover dynamics of organic carbon in wetland ecosystem. It aimed to illustrate the process and characteristics of carbon cycling and its potential changes under climate change scenarios in wetland ecosystems. The key environmental parameters to determine the effects of temperature, water-logging, and freeze-thaw were gained from the results of incubation experiments. Effects of CO2 fertilizing on the carbon sequestration and plant cover on organic carbon mineralization were also taken into account in this model. It was verified by the conventional observed meteorologic data in temperate and subtropical wetland ecosystems. Sensitivity analysis and prediction under climate change scenarios by this model were also discussed. There were significant correlations between the simulated and observed values of sediment respiration in temperate wetlands in Northeast China. It was estimated that the annual net carbon sequestration rate was about 104 g x m(-2) in permanently water-logged wetland ecosystems and 76 g x m(-2) in the seasonally water logged ones in temperate northeast China. The simulated value of the accumulated organic carbon density was within the changing range of the investigated data. The model was sensitive to the change of parameters of CO2 concentration and temperature. The potential changes in carbon cycling characteristics were also predicted under assumed climate change scenarios of A1B and A1FI. It indicated that the exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and the wetland ecosystem became more active under climate change scenario of warming and increased CO2 concentration assuming no changing of hydrological condition. The net primary production (NPP) and the organic carbon density in temperate wetland ecosystems would increase under the scenario of doubled CO2 concentration and less than 2.5 degrees C increment of temperature. In this case wetland ecosystem would act as a

  18. Glacial weathering, sulfide oxidation, and global carbon cycle feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Mark A.; Moosdorf, Nils; Hartmann, Jens; Adkins, Jess F.; West, A. Joshua

    2017-08-01

    Connections between glaciation, chemical weathering, and the global carbon cycle could steer the evolution of global climate over geologic time, but even the directionality of feedbacks in this system remain to be resolved. Here, we assemble a compilation of hydrochemical data from glacierized catchments, use this data to evaluate the dominant chemical reactions associated with glacial weathering, and explore the implications for long-term geochemical cycles. Weathering yields from catchments in our compilation are higher than the global average, which results, in part, from higher runoff in glaciated catchments. Our analysis supports the theory that glacial weathering is characterized predominantly by weathering of trace sulfide and carbonate minerals. To evaluate the effects of glacial weathering on atmospheric pCO2, we use a solute mixing model to predict the ratio of alkalinity to dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) generated by weathering reactions. Compared with nonglacial weathering, glacial weathering is more likely to yield alkalinity/DIC ratios less than 1, suggesting that enhanced sulfide oxidation as a result of glaciation may act as a source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Back-of-the-envelope calculations indicate that oxidative fluxes could change ocean-atmosphere CO2 equilibrium by 25 ppm or more over 10 ky. Over longer timescales, CO2 release could act as a negative feedback, limiting progress of glaciation, dependent on lithology and the concentration of atmospheric O2. Future work on glaciation-weathering-carbon cycle feedbacks should consider weathering of trace sulfide minerals in addition to silicate minerals.

  19. Modelling the soil carbon cycle of pine ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakane, K.

    1994-01-01

    Soil carbon cycling rates and carbon budgets were calculated for stands of four pine species. Pinus sylvestris (at Jaedraaas, Sweden), P. densiflora (Hiroshima, Japan), P. elliottii (Florida, USA) and P. radiata (Canberra, Australia), using a simulation model driven by daily observations of mean air temperature and precipitation. Inputs to soil carbon through litterfall differ considerably among the four pine forests, but the accumulation of the A 0 layer and humus in mineral soil is less variable. Decomposition of the A 0 layer and humus is fastest for P. densiflora and slowest for P. sylvestris stands with P. radiata and P. elliottii intermediate. The decomposition rate is lower for the P. elliottii stand than for P. densiflora in spite of its higher temperatures and slightly higher precipitation. Seasonal changes in simulated soil carbon are observed only for the A 0 layer at the P. densiflora site. Simulated soil respiration rates vary seasonally in three stands (P. sylvestris, P. densiflora and P. radiata). In simulations for pine trees planted on bare soil, all soil organic matter fractions except the humus in mineral soil recover to half their asymptotic values within 30 to 40 years of planting for P. sylvestris and P. densiflora, compared with 10 to 20 years for P. radiata and P. elliottii. The simulated recovery of soil carbon following clear-cutting is fastest for the P. elliottii stand and slowest for P. sylvestris. Management of P. elliottii and P. radiata stands on 40-years rotations is sustainable because carbon removed through harvest is restored in the interval between successive clear-cuts. However p. densiflora and P. sylvestris stands may be unable to maintain soil carbon under such a short rotation. High growth rates of P. elliottii and p. radiata stands in spite of relatively poor soil conditions and slow carbon cycling may be related to the physiological responses of species to environmental conditions. (Abstract Truncated)

  20. A model ensemble for explaining the seasonal cycle of globally averaged atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Georgii; Eliseev, Alexey

    2015-04-01

    The seasonal cycle of the globally averaged atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations results from the seasonal changes in the gas exchange between the atmosphere and other carbon pools. Terrestrial pools are the most important. Boreal and temperate ecosystems provide a sink for carbon dioxide only during the warm period of the year, and, therefore, the summertime reduction in the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is usually explained by the seasonal changes in the magnitude of terrestrial carbon sink. Although this explanation seems almost obvious, it is surprisingly difficult to support it by calculations of the seasonal changes in the strength of the sink provided by boreal and temperate ecosystems. The traditional conceptual framework for modelling net ecosystem exchange (NEE) leads to the estimates of the NEE seasonal cycle amplitude which are too low for explaining the amplitude of the seasonal cycle of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. To propose a more suitable conceptual framework we develop a model ensemble that consists of nine structurally different models and covers various approaches to modelling gross primary production and heterotrophic respiration, including the effects of light saturation, limited light use efficiency, limited water use efficiency, substrate limitation and microbiological priming. The use of model ensembles is a well recognized methodology for evaluating structural uncertainty of model-based predictions. In this study we use this methodology for exploratory modelling analysis - that is, to identify the mechanisms that cause the observed amplitude of the seasonal cycle of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and its slow but steady growth.

  1. Microbial contributions to climate change through carbon cycle feedbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardgett, Richard D; Freeman, Chris; Ostle, Nicholas J

    2008-08-01

    There is considerable interest in understanding the biological mechanisms that regulate carbon exchanges between the land and atmosphere, and how these exchanges respond to climate change. An understanding of soil microbial ecology is central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle-climate feedbacks, but the complexity of the soil microbial community and the many ways that it can be affected by climate and other global changes hampers our ability to draw firm conclusions on this topic. In this paper, we argue that to understand the potential negative and positive contributions of soil microbes to land-atmosphere carbon exchange and global warming requires explicit consideration of both direct and indirect impacts of climate change on microorganisms. Moreover, we argue that this requires consideration of complex interactions and feedbacks that occur between microbes, plants and their physical environment in the context of climate change, and the influence of other global changes which have the capacity to amplify climate-driven effects on soil microbes. Overall, we emphasize the urgent need for greater understanding of how soil microbial ecology contributes to land-atmosphere carbon exchange in the context of climate change, and identify some challenges for the future. In particular, we highlight the need for a multifactor experimental approach to understand how soil microbes and their activities respond to climate change and consequences for carbon cycle feedbacks.

  2. Hidden cycle of dissolved organic carbon in the deep ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Christopher L; Repeta, Daniel J; Rothman, Daniel H; Xu, Li; Santinelli, Chiara

    2014-11-25

    Marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a large (660 Pg C) reactive carbon reservoir that mediates the oceanic microbial food web and interacts with climate on both short and long timescales. Carbon isotopic content provides information on the DOC source via δ(13)C and age via Δ(14)C. Bulk isotope measurements suggest a microbially sourced DOC reservoir with two distinct components of differing radiocarbon age. However, such measurements cannot determine internal dynamics and fluxes. Here we analyze serial oxidation experiments to quantify the isotopic diversity of DOC at an oligotrophic site in the central Pacific Ocean. Our results show diversity in both stable and radio isotopes at all depths, confirming DOC cycling hidden within bulk analyses. We confirm the presence of isotopically enriched, modern DOC cocycling with an isotopically depleted older fraction in the upper ocean. However, our results show that up to 30% of the deep DOC reservoir is modern and supported by a 1 Pg/y carbon flux, which is 10 times higher than inferred from bulk isotope measurements. Isotopically depleted material turns over at an apparent time scale of 30,000 y, which is far slower than indicated by bulk isotope measurements. These results are consistent with global DOC measurements and explain both the fluctuations in deep DOC concentration and the anomalous radiocarbon values of DOC in the Southern Ocean. Collectively these results provide an unprecedented view of the ways in which DOC moves through the marine carbon cycle.

  3. Response of land carbon cycle to stratospheric aerosol geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Ji, D.

    2016-12-01

    Stabilizing the climate through geoengineering aims to mitigate the climate change induced by increasing atmospheric CO2 and other green house gases. These impacts in climate affect terrestrial ecosystem considerably because terrestrial carbon fluxes are sensitivity to climate change. Here we analyzed the responses of land carbon cycle to GeoMIP G4 experiment from six Earth System Models (ESMs), in which negative radiative forcing is produced by an injection of SO2 into the stratosphere to compensate the global warming in RCP4.5. From the year 2020 to 2090, there was an increase in land carbon uptake with significant discrepancy among models (20 PgC to 260 PgC) for both G4 and RCP4.5 scenario, due to the CO2 fertilization effect. For comparison with RCP4.5, all of the models showed higher land carbon uptakes in G4 scenario (30 Pg C on average), with both increases in vegetation and soil carbon stores. These land carbon increases relative to RCP4.5 are mainly resulted from reduced heterotrophic respiration under cooler temperature, whilst changes in vegetation productivity only account a negligible part of land carbon changes. The models also varied in their sensitivities of carbon fluxes to changes in air temperature and precipitation. Partial correlation analysis shows that interannual sensitivities of NBP to temperature and precipitation increased by 2 folds in the G4 experiment, due to higher sensitivities of NPP and Rh, yet with large differences among ESMs and spatial heterogeneity. This work suggests that stratospheric aerosol engineering would have small and positive impact on land carbon uptake but could increase climate sensitivities of terrestrial carbon fluxes significantly.

  4. Uncertainty in the carbon cycle and its contributions to overall uncertainty in future climate projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Andrei

    2010-05-01

    The contribution of carbon cycle uncertainty to the uncertainty in future climate projections is studied by means of numerical simulations with the MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM). Three ensembles of 21st century climate simulations were carried out using input probability distributions for climate sensitivity, rate of heat uptake by the ocean and strength of aerosol forcing consistent with the changes in climate over 20th century. Uncertainties in the rate of oceanic carbon uptake and strength of CO2 fertilization were also included. Each ensemble consists of 400 simulations. In first ensemble all sub-components of the IGSM were fully coupled. To evaluate uncertainty in the feedback between climate and carbon cycle, an additional ensemble of radiatively uncoupled simulations was carried out. Because the terrestrial ecosystem model used in the IGSM takes into account nitrogen limitation on carbon uptake by vegetation, feedbacks associated with terrestrial and oceanic carbon cycle have different signs. As a result, total feedback between climate and carbon cycle is rather weak and can be either positive or negative. This explains why the probability distribution for surface warming obtained from simulations with the IGSM is more symmetric than ones presented in the IPCC AR4. Reference greenhouse gases and aerosol emissions for business as usual scenario were used in first two ensembles. In all simulations of the third ensemble the IGSM was forced by the GHGs concentrations from the simulation with the median values of all climate parameter, thus eliminating uncertainty in the carbon cycle. Contribution of carbon cycle uncertainty to the uncertainties in projected climate changes turned out to be surprisingly small, at least for business as usual emission scenario.

  5. Linking water and carbon cycles through salinity observed from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, X.; Liu, W. T.

    2017-12-01

    The association of ocean surface salinity in global hydrological cycle and climate change has been traditionally studied through the examination of its tendency and advection as manifestation of ocean's heat and water fluxes with the atmosphere. The variability of surface heat and water fluxes are linked to top of atmosphere radiation, whose imbalance is the main cause of global warming. Besides the link of salinity to greenhouse warming through water balance, this study will focus on the effect of changing salinity on carbon dioxide flux between the ocean and the atmosphere. We have built statistical models to estimate the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and ocean acidification (in terms of total alkalinity and pH) using spacebased data. PCO2 is a critical parameter governing ocean as source and sink of the accumulated greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. The exchange also causes ocean acidification, which is detrimental to marine lives and ecology. Before we had sufficient spacebased salinity measurements coincident with in situ pCO2 measurement, we trained our statistical models to use satellite sea surface temperature and chlorophyll, with one model using salinity climatology and the other without. We found significant differences between the two models in regions of strong water input through river discharge and surface water flux. The pCO2 output follows the seasonal salinity advection of the Amazon outflow. The seasonal salinity advection between Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea are followed by change of pCO2 and total alkalinity. At shorter time scales, the signatures of rain associated with intraseasonal organized convection of summer monsoon can be detected. We have observed distribution agreement of among pCO2, surface salinity, and surface water flux for variation from a few days to a few years under the Pacific ITCZ; the agreement varies slightly with season and longitudes and the reason is under study.

  6. Evaluating the travel, physical activity and carbon impacts of a 'natural experiment' in the provision of new walking and cycling infrastructure: methods for the core module of the iConnect study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, David; Bull, Fiona; Cooper, Ashley; Rutter, Harry; Adams, Emma; Brand, Christian; Ghali, Karen; Jones, Tim; Mutrie, Nanette; Powell, Jane; Preston, John; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Song, Yena

    2012-01-01

    Improving infrastructure to support walking and cycling is often regarded as fundamental to encouraging their widespread uptake. However, there is little evidence that specific provision of this kind has led to a significant increase in walking or cycling in practice, let alone wider impacts such as changes in overall physical activity or carbon emissions. Connect2 is a major new project that aims to promote walking and cycling in the UK by improving local pedestrian and cycle routes. It therefore provides a useful opportunity to contribute new evidence in this field by means of a natural experimental study. iConnect is an independent study that aims to integrate the perspectives of public health and transport research on the measurement and evaluation of the travel, physical activity and carbon impacts of the Connect2 programme. In this paper, the authors report the study design and methods for the iConnect core module. This comprised a cohort study of residents living within 5 km of three case study Connect2 projects in Cardiff, Kenilworth and Southampton, supported by a programme of qualitative interviews with key informants about the projects. Participants were asked to complete postal questionnaires, repeated before and after the opening of the new infrastructure, which collected data on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, travel, car fuel purchasing and physical activity, and potential psychosocial and environmental correlates and mediators of those behaviours. In the absence of suitable no-intervention control groups, the study design drew on heterogeneity in exposure both within and between case study samples to provide for a counterfactual. The study was approved by the University of Southampton Research Ethics Committee. The findings will be disseminated through academic presentations, peer-reviewed publications and the study website (http://www.iconnect.ac.uk) and by means of a national seminar at the end of the study.

  7. The methylaspartate cycle in haloarchaea and its possible role in carbon metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjian, Farshad; Han, Jing; Hou, Jing; Xiang, Hua; Berg, Ivan A

    2016-03-01

    Haloarchaea (class Halobacteria) live in extremely halophilic conditions and evolved many unique metabolic features, which help them to adapt to their environment. The methylaspartate cycle, an anaplerotic acetate assimilation pathway recently proposed for Haloarcula marismortui, is one of these special adaptations. In this cycle, acetyl-CoA is oxidized to glyoxylate via methylaspartate as a characteristic intermediate. The following glyoxylate condensation with another molecule of acetyl-CoA yields malate, a starting substrate for anabolism. The proposal of the functioning of the cycle was based mainly on in vitro data, leaving several open questions concerning the enzymology involved and the occurrence of the cycle in halophilic archaea. Using gene deletion mutants of H. hispanica, enzyme assays and metabolite analysis, we now close these gaps by unambiguous identification of the genes encoding all characteristic enzymes of the cycle. Based on these results, we were able to perform a solid study of the distribution of the methylaspartate cycle and the alternative acetate assimilation strategy, the glyoxylate cycle, among haloarchaea. We found that both of these cycles are evenly distributed in haloarchaea. Interestingly, 83% of the species using the methylaspartate cycle possess also the genes for polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis, whereas only 34% of the species with the glyoxylate cycle are capable to synthesize this storage compound. This finding suggests that the methylaspartate cycle is shaped for polyhydroxyalkanoate utilization during carbon starvation, whereas the glyoxylate cycle is probably adapted for growth on substrates metabolized via acetyl-CoA.

  8. Effects of climate extremes on the terrestrial carbon cycle: concepts, processes and potential future impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Dorothea; Reichstein, Markus; Bahn, Michael; Thonicke, Kirsten; Frank, David; Mahecha, Miguel D; Smith, Pete; van der Velde, Marijn; Vicca, Sara; Babst, Flurin; Beer, Christian; Buchmann, Nina; Canadell, Josep G; Ciais, Philippe; Cramer, Wolfgang; Ibrom, Andreas; Miglietta, Franco; Poulter, Ben; Rammig, Anja; Seneviratne, Sonia I; Walz, Ariane; Wattenbach, Martin; Zavala, Miguel A; Zscheischler, Jakob

    2015-08-01

    Extreme droughts, heat waves, frosts, precipitation, wind storms and other climate extremes may impact the structure, composition and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, and thus carbon cycling and its feedbacks to the climate system. Yet, the interconnected avenues through which climate extremes drive ecological and physiological processes and alter the carbon balance are poorly understood. Here, we review the literature on carbon cycle relevant responses of ecosystems to extreme climatic events. Given that impacts of climate extremes are considered disturbances, we assume the respective general disturbance-induced mechanisms and processes to also operate in an extreme context. The paucity of well-defined studies currently renders a quantitative meta-analysis impossible, but permits us to develop a deductive framework for identifying the main mechanisms (and coupling thereof) through which climate extremes may act on the carbon cycle. We find that ecosystem responses can exceed the duration of the climate impacts via lagged effects on the carbon cycle. The expected regional impacts of future climate extremes will depend on changes in the probability and severity of their occurrence, on the compound effects and timing of different climate extremes, and on the vulnerability of each land-cover type modulated by management. Although processes and sensitivities differ among biomes, based on expert opinion, we expect forests to exhibit the largest net effect of extremes due to their large carbon pools and fluxes, potentially large indirect and lagged impacts, and long recovery time to regain previous stocks. At the global scale, we presume that droughts have the strongest and most widespread effects on terrestrial carbon cycling. Comparing impacts of climate extremes identified via remote sensing vs. ground-based observational case studies reveals that many regions in the (sub-)tropics are understudied. Hence, regional investigations are needed to allow a global

  9. Impact of a Regional Drought on Terrestrial Carbon Fluxes and Atmospheric Carbon: Results from a Coupled Carbon Cycle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunjee; Koster, Randal D.; Ott, Lesley E.; Weir, Brad; Mahanama, Sarith; Chang, Yehui; Zeng, Fan-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the underlying processes that control the carbon cycle is key to predicting future global change. Much of the uncertainty in the magnitude and variability of the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) stems from uncertainty in terrestrial carbon fluxes, and the relative impacts of temperature and moisture variations on regional and global scales are poorly understood. Here we investigate the impact of a regional drought on terrestrial carbon fluxes and CO2 mixing ratios over North America using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Model. Results show a sequence of changes in carbon fluxes and atmospheric CO2, induced by the drought. The relative contributions of meteorological changes to the neighboring carbon dynamics are also presented. The coupled modeling approach allows a direct quantification of the impact of the regional drought on local and proximate carbon exchange at the land surface via the carbon-water feedback processes.

  10. LC-MS/MS identification of the one-carbon cycle metabolites in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Lidia A; Desiderio, Dominic M; Groover, Chassidy J; Hartzes, Anastasia; Yates, Charles R; Zucker-Levin, Audrey R; Bloom, Leonard; Levin, Michael C

    2013-06-01

    The one-carbon cycle is composed of four major biologically important molecules: methionine (L-Met), S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), and homocysteine (Hcy). In addition to these key metabolites, there are multiple enzymes, vitamins, and cofactors that play essential roles in the cascade of the biochemical reactions that convert one metabolite into another in the cycle. Simultaneous quantitative measurement of four major metabolites can be used to detect possible aberrations in this vital cycle. Abnormalities in the one-carbon cycle might lead to hyper- or hypomethylation, homocystinemia, liver dysfunction, and accumulation of white-matter hyperintensities in the human brain. Previously published methods describe evaluation of several components of the one-carbon cycle, but none to our knowledge demonstrated simultaneous measurement of all four key molecules (L-Met, SAM, SAH, and Hcy). We describe a novel analytical method suitable for simultaneous identification and quantification of L-Met, SAM, SAH, and Hcy with LC-MS/MS. Moreover, we tested this method to identify these metabolites in human plasma collected from patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy individuals. In a pilot feasibility study, our results indicate that patients with multiple sclerosis showed abnormalities in the one-carbon cycle. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Current views on the regulation of autotrophic carbon dioxide fixation via the Calvin cycle in bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, L.; Harder, W.

    1984-01-01

    The Calvin cycle of carbon dioxide fixation constitutes a biosynthetic pathway for the generation of (multi-carbon) intermediates of central metabolism from the one-carbon compound carbon dioxide. The product of this cycle can be used as a precursor for the synthesis of all components of cell

  12. Comparing American and Chinese Students' Learning Progression on Carbon Cycling in Socio-Ecological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Anderson, C. W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies identified a learning progression on the concept of carbon cycling that was typically followed by American students when they progress from elementary to high school. This study examines the validity of this previously identified learning progression for a different group of learners--Chinese students. The results indicate that…

  13. Anaerobic carbon metabolism by the tricarboxylic acid cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanlerberghe, G.C.; Horsey, A.K.; Weger, H.G.; Turpin, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    Nitrogen-limited cells of Selenastrum minutum (Naeg.) Collins are able to assimilate NH 4 + in the dark under anaerobic conditions. Addition of NH 4 + to anaerobic cells results in a threefold increase in tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCAC) CO 2 efflux and an eightfold increase in the rate of anaplerotic carbon fixation via phosphoenspyruvate carboxylase. Both of these observations are consistent with increased TCAC carbon flow to supply intermediates for amino acid biosynthesis. Addition of H 14 CO 3 - to anaerobic cells assimilating NH 4 + results in the incorporation of radiolabel into the α-carboxyl carbon of glutamic acid. Incorporation of radiolabel into glutamic acid is not simply a short-term phenomenon following NH 4 + addition as the specific activity of glutamic acid increases over time. This indicates that this alga is able to maintain partial oxidative TCAC carbon flow while under anoxia to supply αketoglutarate for glutamate production. During dark aerobic NH 4 + assimilation, no radiolabel appears in fumarate or succinate and only a small amount occurs in malate. During anaerobic NH 4 + assimilation, these metabolites contain a large proportion of the total radiolabel and radiolabel accumulates in succinate over time. Also, the ratio of dark carbon fixation to NH 4 + assimilation is much higher under anaerobic than aerobic conditions. These observations suggest the operation of a partial reductive TCAC from oxaloacetic acid to malate, fumarate, and succinate. Such a pathway might contribute to redox balance in an anaerobic cell maintaining partial oxidative TCAC activity

  14. Effects of climate extremes on the terrestrial carbon cycle: concepts, processes and potential future impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Dorothea; Reichstein, Markus; Bahn, Michael; Thonicke, Kirsten; Frank, David; Mahecha, Miguel D; Smith, Pete; van der Velde, Marijn; Vicca, Sara; Babst, Flurin; Beer, Christian; Buchmann, Nina; Canadell, Josep G; Ciais, Philippe; Cramer, Wolfgang; Ibrom, Andreas; Miglietta, Franco; Poulter, Ben; Rammig, Anja; Seneviratne, Sonia I; Walz, Ariane; Wattenbach, Martin; Zavala, Miguel A; Zscheischler, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Extreme droughts, heat waves, frosts, precipitation, wind storms and other climate extremes may impact the structure, composition and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, and thus carbon cycling and its feedbacks to the climate system. Yet, the interconnected avenues through which climate extremes drive ecological and physiological processes and alter the carbon balance are poorly understood. Here, we review the literature on carbon cycle relevant responses of ecosystems to extreme climatic events. Given that impacts of climate extremes are considered disturbances, we assume the respective general disturbance-induced mechanisms and processes to also operate in an extreme context. The paucity of well-defined studies currently renders a quantitative meta-analysis impossible, but permits us to develop a deductive framework for identifying the main mechanisms (and coupling thereof) through which climate extremes may act on the carbon cycle. We find that ecosystem responses can exceed the duration of the climate impacts via lagged effects on the carbon cycle. The expected regional impacts of future climate extremes will depend on changes in the probability and severity of their occurrence, on the compound effects and timing of different climate extremes, and on the vulnerability of each land-cover type modulated by management. Although processes and sensitivities differ among biomes, based on expert opinion, we expect forests to exhibit the largest net effect of extremes due to their large carbon pools and fluxes, potentially large indirect and lagged impacts, and long recovery time to regain previous stocks. At the global scale, we presume that droughts have the strongest and most widespread effects on terrestrial carbon cycling. Comparing impacts of climate extremes identified via remote sensing vs. ground-based observational case studies reveals that many regions in the (sub-)tropics are understudied. Hence, regional investigations are needed to allow a global

  15. Slow growth rates of Amazonian trees: Consequences for carbon cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Simone; Trumbore, Susan; Camargo, Plinio B.; Selhorst, Diogo; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Higuchi, Niro; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Quantifying age structure and tree growth rate of Amazonian forests is essential for understanding their role in the carbon cycle. Here, we use radiocarbon dating and direct measurement of diameter increment to document unexpectedly slow growth rates for trees from three locations spanning the Brazilian Amazon basin. Central Amazon trees, averaging only ≈1mm/year diameter increment, grow half as fast as those from areas with more seasonal rainfall to the east and west. Slow growth rates mean that trees can attain great ages; across our sites we estimate 17-50% of trees with diameter >10 cm have ages exceeding 300 years. Whereas a few emergent trees that make up a large portion of the biomass grow faster, small trees that are more abundant grow slowly and attain ages of hundreds of years. The mean age of carbon in living trees (60-110 years) is within the range of or slightly longer than the mean residence time calculated from C inventory divided by annual C allocation to wood growth (40-100 years). Faster C turnover is observed in stands with overall higher rates of diameter increment and a larger fraction of the biomass in large, fast-growing trees. As a consequence, forests can recover biomass relatively quickly after disturbance, whereas recovering species composition may take many centuries. Carbon cycle models that apply a single turnover time for carbon in forest biomass do not account for variations in life strategy and therefore may overestimate the carbon sequestration potential of Amazon forests. PMID:16339903

  16. A Paleogene Silicon Stable Isotope Record: Long-Term Carbon and Silicon Cycling Interaction Revealed By Sponges and Radiolarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontorbe, G.; De La Rocha, C. L.; Hendry, K. R.; Frings, P.; Conley, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Silicon and carbon cycling are related both on short time scales via the uptake of carbon dioxide and dissolved silica (DSi) by diatoms, and on geological time scales via weathering of silicate rocks consuming carbon dioxide. Long-term changes in oceanic silicon cycling and DSi concentration have been mostly attributed to the evolution of siliceous organisms, especially the colonization of the surface waters by diatoms and their diversification. Thus, impacts of geological mechanisms and changes in carbon cycling have been, in our opinion, overlooked. During the past decade, progress has been made in using silicon isotopes in marine archives to investigate the paleo-silicon cycle. Silicon isotope fractionation in siliceous sponges is closely related to ambient DSi concentration. It follows from this relationship that sponge spicules from marine sediment cores provide a good proxy for reconstructing the paleo-DSi concentration and isotopic composition. The Paleogene period (65.5 to 23Ma) is highly relevant for studying the long-term silicon and carbon cycling relationship due to radiance of diatoms, high variability in the carbon cycle and initiation of the Himalayan orogeny. Here, we will present a sponge spicules and radiolarian silicon isotopes record from ODP Leg 171B (Blake Nose, Western North Atlantic) spanning most of the Paleogene. Our data show similar patterns in both foraminiferal carbon and spicule silicon stable isotopes, providing information on the mechanisms coupling the long-term silicon and carbon cycle.

  17. The interaction between milk and beef production and emissions from land use change – critical considerations in life cycle assessment and carbon footprint studies of milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria; Cederberg, Christel; Henriksson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    , when also accounting for other systems affected (e.g. beef production) it is not certain that an increase in milk yield per cow leads to a reduction in total GHG emissions per kg milk. In the present study the correlation between carbon footprint (CF) of milk and the amount of milk delivered per cow...... is investigated for 23 dairy farms (both organic and conventional) in Sweden. Use of a fixed allocation factor of 90% (based on economic value) indicates a reduction in CF with increased milk yield, while no correlation can be noted when system expansion is applied. The average CF for two groups of farms, organic...

  18. Evaluation of 11 terrestrial carbon-nitrogen cycle models against observations from two temperate Free-Air CO2 Enrichment studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaehle, Sönke; Medlyn, Belinda E; De Kauwe, Martin G; Walker, Anthony P; Dietze, Michael C; Hickler, Thomas; Luo, Yiqi; Wang, Ying-Ping; El-Masri, Bassil; Thornton, Peter; Jain, Atul; Wang, Shusen; Warlind, David; Weng, Ensheng; Parton, William; Iversen, Colleen M; Gallet-Budynek, Anne; McCarthy, Heather; Finzi, Adrien; Hanson, Paul J; Prentice, I Colin; Oren, Ram; Norby, Richard J

    2014-05-01

    We analysed the responses of 11 ecosystem models to elevated atmospheric [CO2 ] (eCO2 ) at two temperate forest ecosystems (Duke and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments) to test alternative representations of carbon (C)-nitrogen (N) cycle processes. We decomposed the model responses into component processes affecting the response to eCO2 and confronted these with observations from the FACE experiments. Most of the models reproduced the observed initial enhancement of net primary production (NPP) at both sites, but none was able to simulate both the sustained 10-yr enhancement at Duke and the declining response at ORNL: models generally showed signs of progressive N limitation as a result of lower than observed plant N uptake. Nonetheless, many models showed qualitative agreement with observed component processes. The results suggest that improved representation of above-ground-below-ground interactions and better constraints on plant stoichiometry are important for a predictive understanding of eCO2 effects. Improved accuracy of soil organic matter inventories is pivotal to reduce uncertainty in the observed C-N budgets. The two FACE experiments are insufficient to fully constrain terrestrial responses to eCO2 , given the complexity of factors leading to the observed diverging trends, and the consequential inability of the models to explain these trends. Nevertheless, the ecosystem models were able to capture important features of the experiments, lending some support to their projections. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Microbial diversity and carbon cycling in San Francisco Bay wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theroux, Susanna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Hartman, Wyatt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; He, Shaomei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Tringe, Susannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.

    2014-03-21

    Wetland restoration efforts in San Francisco Bay aim to rebuild habitat for endangered species and provide an effective carbon storage solution, reversing land subsidence caused by a century of industrial and agricultural development. However, the benefits of carbon sequestration may be negated by increased methane production in newly constructed wetlands, making these wetlands net greenhouse gas (GHG) sources to the atmosphere. We investigated the effects of wetland restoration on below-ground microbial communities responsible for GHG cycling in a suite of historic and restored wetlands in SF Bay. Using DNA and RNA sequencing, coupled with real-time GHG monitoring, we profiled the diversity and metabolic potential of wetland soil microbial communities. The wetland soils harbor diverse communities of bacteria and archaea whose membership varies with sampling location, proximity to plant roots and sampling depth. Our results also highlight the dramatic differences in GHG production between historic and restored wetlands and allow us to link microbial community composition and GHG cycling with key environmental variables including salinity, soil carbon and plant species.

  20. Landslide disturbance: implications for chemical weathering, vegetation and carbon cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milledge, D.; Hilton, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    Landslides disturb physical and ecological systems by periodically stripping away soil and vegetation. This turnover influences the makeup and productivity of vegetation as well as the chemical weathering rate for the soil. Recent research has highlighted these links focusing on landslide magnitude and frequency and calculating turnover on a catchment wide basis. However, landslide probability and therefore turnover is not uniform in space. We investigate the influence of this spatial variability on the frequency distribution of landslide turnover and its implications for: vegetation disturbance, carbon cycling and chemical weathering. We use first synthetic landslide risk distributions then real distributions from the Western Southern Alps and Oregon Coast Range. We use these to generate turnover distributions then compare these with the turnover rate predicted assuming spatially uniform landslide probability. We use published relations to work through the implications for: vegetation disturbance, carbon cycling and chemical weathering. We find that: 1) landslide turnover rates are too slow even in the most active parts of the landscape to chronically disturb the vegetation; 2) the changes to productivity are generally subtle leading to only minor changes in the carbon flux; and 3) landslide related chemical weathering rates are reduced in areas with strongly non-uniform landslide risk distributions.

  1. Cycling of beryllium and carbon through hillslope soils in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, J.W.; Fries, T.L.; Pavich, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Isotopes of Be and C were used to reconstruct loess accumulation, hillslope evolution, and agricultural modification in soils of western Iowa. While both elements are derived from additions by the atmosphere (via plants in the case of carbon), the differences in element cycling allow erosional and depositional processes to be separated from biochemical processing. Based on 10Be, loess accumulation likely occurred simultaneously with hillslope degradation. Rates of loess accumulation declined five-fold between early stages (late Pleistocene and early Holocene) and later stages (late Holocene) of accumulation, but the absolute timing of accumulation requires independent dating methods. Based on 14C measurements, plant inputs and decomposition are significant near the surface, but below 1-1.5 m carbon inputs are minimal and decomposition is nearly arrested. The amount of carbon below 1.5 m is constant (0.1%) and is composed of soil organic matter that was buried by loess. Agricultural modification results in a dramatic redistribution of 10Be through soil erosion and deposition. By contrast, the redistribution of soil organic matter is masked by the rapid cycling of C through the topsoil as it continually decomposes and is replaced by plant inputs.

  2. Bacteria in the greenhouse: Modeling the role of oceanic plankton in the global carbon cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducklow, H.W.; Fasham, M.J.R.

    1992-01-01

    To plan effectively to deal with the greenhouse effect, a fundamental understanding is needed of the biogeochemical and physical machinery that cycles carbon in the global system; in addition, models are needed of the carbon cycle to project the effects of increasing carbon dioxide. In this chapter, a description is given of efforts to simulate the cycling of carbon and nitrogen in the upper ocean, concentrating on the model's treatment of marine phytoplankton, and what it reveals of their role in the biogeochemical cycling of carbon between the ocean and atmosphere. The focus is on the upper ocean because oceanic uptake appears to regulate the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

  3. Exploring Viral Mediated Carbon Cycling in Thawing Permafrost Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubl, G. G.; Solonenko, N.; Moreno, M.; Sullivan, M. B.; Rich, V. I.

    2014-12-01

    Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on Earth and their impact on carbon cycling in permafrost habitats is poorly understood. Arctic C cycling is particularly important to interpret due to the rapid climate change occurring and the large amount of C stockpiled there (~1/3 of global soil C is stored in permafrost). Viruses of microbes (i.e. phages) play central roles in C cycling in the oceans, through cellular lysis (phage drive the largest ocean C flux about 150 Gt yr-1, dwarfing all others by >5-fold), production of associated DOC, as well as transport and expression during infection (1029 transduction events day-1). C cycling in thawing permafrost systems is critical in understanding the climate trajectory and phages may be as important for C cycling here as they are in the ocean. The thawed C may become a food source for microbes, producing CO2 and potentially CH4, both potent greenhouse gases. To address the potential role of phage in C cycling in these dynamic systems, we are examining phage from an arctic permafrost thaw gradient in northern Sweden. We have developed a protocol for successfully extracting phage from peat soils and are quantifying phage in 15 peat and 2 lake sediment cores, with the goal of sequencing viromes. Preliminary data suggest that phage are present at 109 g-1 across the permafrost thaw gradient (compared to the typical marine count ~105 ml-1), implying a potentially robust phage-host interaction web in these changing environments. We are examining phage from 11 depth intervals (covering the active and permafrost layer) in the cores to assess phage-host community dynamics. Phage morphology and abundance for each layer and environment are being determined using qTEM and EFM. Understanding the phage that infect bacteria and archaea in these rapidly changing habitats will provide insight into the controls on current and future CH4 and CO2 emissions in permafrost habitats.

  4. Biogeochemical cycling of carbon, water, energy, trace gases and aerosols in Amazonia: the LBA EUSTACH experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreae, M.O.; Artaxo, P.; Brandão, C.; Carswell, F.E.; Ciccioli, P.; Costa, da A.L.; Culf, A.D.; Esteves, J.L.; Gash, J.H.C.; Grace, J.; Kabat, P.; Lelieveld, J.; Malhi, Y.; Manzi, A.O.; Meixner, F.X.; Nobre, A.D.; Nobre, C.; Lourdes Ruivo, de M.; Silva-Dias, M.A.; Stefani, P.; Valentini, R.; Jouanne, von J.; Waterloo, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of carbon, water, energy, aerosols, and trace gases in the Amazon Basin was investigated in the project European Studies on Trace Gases and Atmospheric Chemistry as a Contribution to the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA-EUSTACH). We present an

  5. Methane hydrate in the global organic carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvenvolden, K.A.

    2002-01-01

    The global occurrence of methane hydrate in outer continental margins and in polar regions, and the magnitude of the amount of methane sequestered in methane hydrate suggest that methane hydrate is an important component in the global organic carbon cycle. Various versions of this cycle have emphasized the importance of methane hydrate, and in the latest version the role of methane hydrate is considered to be analogous to the workings of an electrical circuit. In this circuit the methane hydrate is a condenser and the consequences of methane hydrate dissociation are depicted as a resistor and inductor, reflecting temperature change and changes in earth surface history. These consequences may have implications for global change including global climate change.

  6. Plumbing the global carbon cycle: Integrating inland waters into the terrestrial carbon budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, J.; Prairie, Y.T.; Caraco, N.; McDowell, W.H.; Tranvil, L.; Striegl, R.G.; Duarte, C.M.; Kortelainen, P.; Downing, J.A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Melack, J.

    2007-01-01

    Because freshwater covers such a small fraction of the Earth’s surface area, inland freshwater ecosystems (particularly lakes, rivers, and reservoirs) have rarely been considered as potentially important quantitative components of the carbon cycle at either global or regional scales. By taking

  7. Soil organic matter dynamics and the global carbon cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, W.M.; Emanuel, W.R.; King, A.W.

    1992-01-01

    The large size and potentially long residence time of the soil organic matter pool make it an important component of the global carbon cycle. Net terrestrial primary production of about 60 Pg C·yr -1 is, over a several-year period of time, balanced by an equivalent flux of litter production and subsequent decomposition of detritus and soil organic matter. We will review many of the major factors that influence soil organic matter dynamics that need to be explicitly considered in development of global estimates of carbon turnover in the world's soils. We will also discuss current decomposition models that are general enough to be used to develop a representation of global soil organic matter dynamics

  8. Responses in Arctic marine carbon cycle processes: conceptual scenarios and implications for ecosystem function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen S. Findlay

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic Ocean is one of the fastest changing oceans, plays an important role in global carbon cycling and yet is a particularly challenging ocean to study. Hence, observations tend to be relatively sparse in both space and time. How the Arctic functions, geophysically, but also ecologically, can have significant consequences for the internal cycling of carbon, and subsequently influence carbon export, atmospheric CO2 uptake and food chain productivity. Here we assess the major carbon pools and associated processes, specifically summarizing the current knowledge of each of these processes in terms of data availability and ranges of rates and values for four geophysical Arctic Ocean domains originally described by Carmack & Wassmann (2006: inflow shelves, which are Pacific-influenced and Atlantic-influenced; interior, river-influenced shelves; and central basins. We attempt to bring together knowledge of the carbon cycle with the ecosystem within each of these different geophysical settings, in order to provide specialist information in a holistic context. We assess the current state of models and how they can be improved and/or used to provide assessments of the current and future functioning when observational data are limited or sparse. In doing so, we highlight potential links in the physical oceanographic regime, primary production and the flow of carbon within the ecosystem that will change in the future. Finally, we are able to highlight priority areas for research, taking a holistic pan-Arctic approach.

  9. Superior flexibility of a wrinkled carbon shell under electrochemical cycling

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Qianqian

    2014-01-01

    Nanocarbon composites have been extensively employed in engineering alloy-type anodes in order to improve the poor cyclability caused by the enormous volume changes during lithium (Li+) insertion/extraction. The chemical vapor deposited wrinkled carbon shell (WCS) shows high electrical conductivity, excellent thermal stability and remarkable mechanical robustness, which help in retaining the structural integrity around the tin (Sn) anode core despite ∼250% variation in volume during repetitive lithiation and delithiation. In situ transmission electron microscopy reveals no embrittlement in the lithiated WCS, which fully recovers its original shape after severe mechanical deformation with no obvious structural change. Further analysis indicates that the capacity to accommodate large strains is closely related to the construction of the carbon shell, that is, the stacking of wrinkled few-layer graphenes. Both the pre-existing wrinkles and the few-layer thickness render the carbon shell superior flexibility and good elasticity under bending or expansion of the interior volume. Moreover, the WCS possesses fast lithium ion diffusion channels, which have lower activation barriers (∼0.1 eV) than that on a smooth graphene (∼0.3 eV). The results provide an insight into the improvement in cycle performance that can be achieved through carbon coating of anodes of lithium ion batteries. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Current systematic carbon-cycle observations and the need for implementing a policy-relevant carbon observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Ciais; A. J. Dolman; A. Bombelli; R. Duren; A. Peregon; P. J. Rayner; C. Miller; N. Gobron; G. Kinderman; G. Marland; N. Gruber; F. Chevallier; R. J. Andres; G. Balsamo; L. Bopp; F.-M. Bréon; G. Broquet; R. Dargaville; T. J. Battin; A. Borges; H. Bovensmann; M. Buchwitz; J. Butler; J. G. Canadell; R. B. Cook; R. DeFries; R. Engelen; K. R. Gurney; C. Heinze; M. Heimann; A. Held; M. Henry; B. Law; S. Luyssaert; J. Miller; T. Moriyama; C. Moulin; R. B. Myneni; C. Nussli; M. Obersteiner; D. Ojima; Y. Pan; J.-D. Paris; S. L. Piao; B. Poulter; S. Plummer; S. Quegan; P. Raymond; M. Reichstein; L. Rivier; C. Sabine; D. Schimel; O. Tarasova; R. Valentini; R. Wang; G. van der Werf; D. Wickland; M. Williams; C. Zehner

    2014-01-01

    A globally integrated carbon observation and analysis system is needed to improve the fundamental understanding of the global carbon cycle, to improve our ability to project future changes, and to verify the effectiveness of policies aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Building an integrated carbon observation system requires...

  11. A review of the role of carbon cycle science in supporting carbon management policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilling, L.; Doney, S.; Edmonds, J.; Gurney, K. R.; Harriss, R.; Schimel, D.; Stephens, B.; Stokes, G.

    2003-12-01

    Over the past few centuries, concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have increased in the atmosphere, leading to potential changes in climate. Concern has risen such that societies are now contemplating actions designed to mitigate or prevent further increases. A variety of approaches has been suggested: direct reduction of emissions, deliberate manipulation of the natural carbon cycle to enhance sequestration, and capture and isolation of carbon from fossil fuel use. Policy development to date has laid out some of the principles to which carbon management should adhere, including quantification and verification, additionality and separation, permanence, and environmental acceptability. Much of this policy is still being debated, however, and many of the issues involve significant scientific and technological challenges. This presentation will summarize these carbon management principles, and briefly review examples of the scientific knowledge base available to support specific application of policy options. The issues of scaling of observations and mechanistic understanding of the carbon cycle in North America will be emphasized.

  12. Interannual Variations of MLS Carbon Monoxide Induced by Solar Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae N.; Wu, Dong L.; Ruzmaikin, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    More than eight years (2004-2012) of carbon monoxide (CO) measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are analyzed. The mesospheric CO, largely produced by the carbon dioxide (CO2) photolysis in the lower thermosphere, is sensitive to the solar irradiance variability. The long-term variation of observed mesospheric MLS CO concentrations at high latitudes is likely driven by the solar-cycle modulated UV forcing. Despite of different CO abundances in the southern and northern hemispheric winter, the solar-cycle dependence appears to be similar. This solar signal is further carried down to the lower altitudes by the dynamical descent in the winter polar vortex. Aura MLS CO is compared with the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) total solar irradiance (TSI) and also with the spectral irradiance in the far ultraviolet (FUV) region from the SORCE Solar-Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE). Significant positive correlation (up to 0.6) is found between CO and FUVTSI in a large part of the upper atmosphere. The distribution of this positive correlation in the mesosphere is consistent with the expectation of CO changes induced by the solar irradiance variations.

  13. The oceanic response to carbon emissions over the next century: investigation using three ocean carbon cycle models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuck, A.; Tyrrell, T.; Holligan, P.M.; Totterdell, I.J.

    2005-01-01

    A recent study of coupled atmospheric carbon dioxide and the biosphere found alarming sensitivity of next-century atmospheric pCO 2 (and hence planetary temperature) to uncertainties in terrestrial processes. Here we investigate whether there is similar sensitivity associated with uncertainties in the behaviour of the ocean carbon cycle. We investigate this important question using three models of the ocean carbon cycle of varying complexity: (1) a new three-box oceanic carbon cycle model; (2) the HILDA multibox model with high vertical resolution at low latitudes; (3) the Hadley Centre ocean general circulation model (HadOCC). These models were used in combination to assess the quantitative significance (to year 2100 pCO 2 ) of potential changes to the ocean stimulated by global warming and other anthropogenic activities over the period 2000-2100. It was found that an increase in sea surface temperature and a decrease in the mixing rate due to stratification give rise to the greatest relative changes in pCO 2 , both being positive feedbacks. We failed to find any comparable large sensitivity due to the ocean

  14. On the linkages between the global carbon-nitrogen-phosphorus cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsumasa; Mackenzie, Fred; Bouchez, Julien; Knutti, Reto

    2013-04-01

    State-of-the-art earth system models used for long-term climate projections are becoming ever more complex in terms of not only spatial resolution but also the number of processes. Biogeochemical processes are beginning to be incorporated into these models. The motivation of this study is to quantify how climate projections are influenced by biogeochemical feedbacks. In the climate modeling community, it is virtually accepted that climate-Carbon (C) cycle feedbacks accelerate the future warming (Cox et al. 2000; Friedlingstein et al. 2006). It has been demonstrated that the Nitrogen (N) cycle suppresses climate-C cycle feedbacks (Thornton et al. 2009). On the contrary, biogeochemical studies show that the coupled C-N-Phosphorus (P) cycles are intimately interlinked via biosphere and the N-P cycles amplify C cycle feedbacks (Ver et al. 1999). The question as to whether the N-P cycles enhance or attenuate C cycle feedbacks is debated and has a significant implication for projections of future climate. We delve into this problem by using the Terrestrial-Ocean-aTmosphere Ecosystem Model 3 (TOTEM3), a globally-aggregated C-N-P cycle box model. TOTEM3 is a process-based model that describes the biogeochemical reactions and physical transports involving these elements in the four domains of the Earth system: land, atmosphere, coastal ocean, and open ocean. TOTEM3 is a successor of earlier TOTEM models (Ver et al. 1999; Mackenzie et al. 2011). In our presentation, we provide an overview of fundamental features and behaviors of TOTEM3 such as the mass balance at the steady state and the relaxation time scales to various types of perturbation. We also show preliminary results to investigate how the N-P cycles influence the behavior of the C cycle. References Cox PM, Betts RA, Jones CD, Spall SA, Totterdell IJ (2000) Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model. Nature, 408, 184-187. Friedlingstein P, Cox P, Betts R, Bopp L, von Bloh

  15. Sensitivity of the carbon cycle in the Arctic to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, A. David; Anderson, Leif G.; Christensen, Torben R.; Dallimore, Scott; Guo, Laodong; Hayes, Daniel J.; Heimann, Martin; Lorenson, T.D.; Macdonald, Robie W.; Roulet, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    The recent warming in the Arctic is affecting a broad spectrum of physical, ecological, and human/cultural systems that may be irreversible on century time scales and have the potential to cause rapid changes in the earth system. The response of the carbon cycle of the Arctic to changes in climate is a major issue of global concern, yet there has not been a comprehensive review of the status of the contemporary carbon cycle of the Arctic and its response to climate change. This review is designed to clarify key uncertainties and vulnerabilities in the response of the carbon cycle of the Arctic to ongoing climatic change. While it is clear that there are substantial stocks of carbon in the Arctic, there are also significant uncertainties associated with the magnitude of organic matter stocks contained in permafrost and the storage of methane hydrates beneath both subterranean and submerged permafrost of the Arctic. In the context of the global carbon cycle, this review demonstrates that the Arctic plays an important role in the global dynamics of both CO2 and CH4. Studies suggest that the Arctic has been a sink for atmospheric CO2 of between 0 and 0.8 Pg C/yr in recent decades, which is between 0% and 25% of the global net land/ocean flux during the 1990s. The Arctic is a substantial source of CH4 to the atmosphere (between 32 and 112 Tg CH4/yr), primarily because of the large area of wetlands throughout the region. Analyses to date indicate that the sensitivity of the carbon cycle of the Arctic during the remainder of the 21st century is highly uncertain. To improve the capability to assess the sensitivity of the carbon cycle of the Arctic to projected climate change, we recommend that (1) integrated regional studies be conducted to link observations of carbon dynamics to the processes that are likely to influence those dynamics, and (2) the understanding gained from these integrated studies be incorporated into both uncoupled and fully coupled carbon

  16. Assessing Students' Disciplinary and Interdisciplinary Understanding of Global Carbon Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Hye Sun; Marshall, Jill A.; Delgado, Cesar

    2018-01-01

    Global carbon cycling describes the movement of carbon through atmosphere, biosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere; it lies at the heart of climate change and sustainability. To understand the global carbon cycle, students will require "interdisciplinary knowledge." While standards documents in science education have long promoted…

  17. Including an ocean carbon cycle model into iLOVECLIM (v1.0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouttes, N.; Roche, D.M.V.A.P.; Mariotti, V.; Bopp, L.

    2015-01-01

    The atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration plays a crucial role in the radiative balance and as such has a strong influence on the evolution of climate. Because of the numerous interactions between climate and the carbon cycle, it is necessary to include a model of the carbon cycle within a

  18. Evaluation of carbon-14 life cycle in reactors VVER-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysakova, Katerina; Neumann, Jan; Vonkova, Katerina

    2012-09-01

    This work is aimed at the evaluation of carbon-14 life cycle in light water reactors VVER-1000. Carbon-14 is generated as a side product in different systems of nuclear reactors and has been an issue not only in radioactive waste management but mainly in release into the environment in the form of gaseous effluents. The principal sources of this radionuclide are in primary cooling water and fuel. Considerable amount of C-14 is generated by neutron reactions with oxygen 17 O and nitrogen 14 N present in water coolant and fuel. The reaction likelihood and consequently volume of generated radioisotope depends on several factors, especially on the effective cross-section, concentrations of parent elements and conditions of power plant operating strategies. Due to its long half-life and high capability of integration into the environment and thus into the living species, it is very important to monitor the movement of carbon-14 in all systems of nuclear power plant and to manage its release out of NPP. The dominant forms of radioactive carbon-14 are the hydrocarbons owing to the combinations with hydrogen used for absorption of radiolytic oxygen. These organic compounds, such as formaldehyde, methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol and formic acid can be mostly retained on ion exchange resins used in the system for purifying primary cooling water. The gaseous carbon compounds (CH 4 and CO 2 ) are released into the atmosphere via the ventilation systems of NPP. Based on the information and data obtained from different sources, it has been designed a balance model of possible carbon-14 pathways throughout the whole NPP. This model includes also mass balance model equations for each important node in system and available sampling points which will be the background for further calculations. This document is specifically not to intended to describe the best monitoring program attributes or technologies but rather to provide evaluation of obtained data and find the optimal way to

  19. Carbon Cycling, Climate Regulation, and Disturbances in Canadian Forests: Scientific Principles for Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Sébastien Landry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Canadian forests are often perceived as pristine and among the last remaining wilderness, but the majority of them are officially managed and undergo direct land use, mostly for wood harvest. This land use has modified their functions and properties, often inadvertently (e.g., age structure but sometimes purposefully (e.g., fire suppression. Based on a review of the literature pertaining to carbon cycling, climate regulation, and disturbances from logging, fire, and insect outbreaks, we propose five scientific principles relevant for Canadian managed forests. Among these, a principle we wish to highlight is the need to properly account for the management-related fossil fuel emissions, because they will affect the global carbon cycle and climate for millennia unless massive atmospheric carbon dioxide removal becomes a reality. We also use these five principles to address questions of current interest to research scientists, forest managers, and policy makers. Our review focusses on total ecosystem carbon storage and various mechanisms through which forests affect climate, in particular albedo and aerosols forcings—including how disturbances influence all these elements—but also touches on other ecosystem goods and services. Our review underscores the importance of conducting >100-year time horizon studies of carbon cycling, climate regulation, and disturbances in Canadian managed forests.

  20. Carbon exergy tax applied to biomass integrated gasification combined cycle in sugarcane industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Filho, Valdi Freire da; Matelli, José Alexandre; Perrella Balestieri, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The development of technologies based on energy renewable sources is increasing worldwide in order to diversify the energy mix and satisfy the rigorous environmental legislation and international agreements to reduce pollutant emission. Considering specific characteristics of biofuels available in Brazil, studies regarding such technologies should be carried out aiming energy mix diversification. Several technologies for power generation from biomass have been presented in the technical literature, and plants with BIGCC (biomass integrated gasification combined cycle) emerge as a major technological innovation. By obtaining a fuel rich in hydrogen from solid biomass gasification, BIGCC presents higher overall process efficiency than direct burning of the solid fuel in conventional boilers. The objective of this paper is to develop a thermodynamic and chemical equilibrium model of a BIGCC configuration for sugarcane bagasse. The model embodies exergetic cost and CO 2 emission analyses through the method of CET (carbon exergy tax). An exergetic penalty comparison between the BIGCC technology (with and without CO 2 capture and sequestration), a natural gas combined cycle and the traditional steam cycle of sugarcane sector is then presented. It is verified that the BIGCC configuration with CO 2 capture and sequestration presents technical and environmental advantages when compared to traditional technology. - Highlights: • We compared thermal cycles with the exergetic carbon exergy tax. • Thermal cycles with and without carbon capture and sequestration were considered. • Burned and gasified sugarcane bagasse was assumed as renewable fuel. • Exergetic carbon penalty tax was imposed to all studied configurations. • BIGCC with carbon sequestration revealed to be advantageous.

  1. Building carbon-carbon bonds using a biocatalytic methanol condensation cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogorad, Igor W; Chen, Chang-Ting; Theisen, Matthew K; Wu, Tung-Yun; Schlenz, Alicia R; Lam, Albert T; Liao, James C

    2014-11-11

    Methanol is an important intermediate in the utilization of natural gas for synthesizing other feedstock chemicals. Typically, chemical approaches for building C-C bonds from methanol require high temperature and pressure. Biological conversion of methanol to longer carbon chain compounds is feasible; however, the natural biological pathways for methanol utilization involve carbon dioxide loss or ATP expenditure. Here we demonstrated a biocatalytic pathway, termed the methanol condensation cycle (MCC), by combining the nonoxidative glycolysis with the ribulose monophosphate pathway to convert methanol to higher-chain alcohols or other acetyl-CoA derivatives using enzymatic reactions in a carbon-conserved and ATP-independent system. We investigated the robustness of MCC and identified operational regions. We confirmed that the pathway forms a catalytic cycle through (13)C-carbon labeling. With a cell-free system, we demonstrated the conversion of methanol to ethanol or n-butanol. The high carbon efficiency and low operating temperature are attractive for transforming natural gas-derived methanol to longer-chain liquid fuels and other chemical derivatives.

  2. Plumbing the global carbon cycle: Integrating inland waters into the terrestrial carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J.J.; Prairie, Y.T.; Caraco, N.F.; McDowell, W.H.; Tranvik, L.J.; Striegl, Robert G.; Duarte, C.M.; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Downing, J.A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Melack, J.

    2007-01-01

    Because freshwater covers such a small fraction of the Earth's surface area, inland freshwater ecosystems (particularly lakes, rivers, and reservoirs) have rarely been considered as potentially important quantitative components of the carbon cycle at either global or regional scales. By taking published estimates of gas exchange, sediment accumulation, and carbon transport for a variety of aquatic systems, we have constructed a budget for the role of inland water ecosystems in the global carbon cycle. Our analysis conservatively estimates that inland waters annually receive, from a combination of background and anthropogenically altered sources, on the order of 1.9 Pg C y-1 from the terrestrial landscape, of which about 0.2 is buried in aquatic sediments, at least 0.8 (possibly much more) is returned to the atmosphere as gas exchange while the remaining 0.9 Pg y-1 is delivered to the oceans, roughly equally as inorganic and organic carbon. Thus, roughly twice as much C enters inland aquatic systems from land as is exported from land to the sea. Over prolonged time net carbon fluxes in aquatic systems tend to be greater per unit area than in much of the surrounding land. Although their area is small, these freshwater aquatic systems can affect regional C balances. Further, the inclusion of inland, freshwater ecosystems provides useful insight about the storage, oxidation and transport of terrestrial C, and may warrant a revision of how the modern net C sink on land is described. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  3. Chemistry of organic carbon in soil with relationship to the global carbon cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, W.M. III.

    1988-01-01

    Various ecosystem disturbances alter the balances between production of organic matter and its decomposition and therefore change the amount of carbon in soil. The most severe perturbation is conversion of natural vegetation to cultivated crops. Conversion of natural vegetation to cultivated crops results in a lowered input of slowly decomposing material which causes a reduction in overall carbon levels. Disruption of soil matrix structure by cultivation leads to lowered physical protection of organic matter resulting in an increased net mineralization rate of soil carbon. Climate change is another perturbation that affects the amount and composition of plant production, litter inputs, and decomposition regimes but does not affect soil structure directly. Nevertheless, large changes in soil carbon storage are probable with anticipated CO 2 induced climate change, particularly in northern latitudes where anticipated climate change will be greatest (MacCracken and Luther 1985) and large amounts of soil organic matter are found. It is impossible, given the current state of knowledge of soil organic matter processes and transformations to develop detailed process models of soil carbon dynamics. Largely phenomenological models appear to be developing into predictive tools for understanding the role of soil organic matter in the global carbon cycle. In particular, these models will be useful in quantifying soil carbon changes due to human land-use and to anticipated global climate and vegetation changes. 47 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Is Titan's shape explained by its meteorology and carbon cycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukroun, M.; Sotin, C.

    2012-04-01

    Titan, Saturn's largest satellite, is unique in the Solar System: it is the only satellite bearing a dense atmosphere and it is the only place besides Earth with stable liquid bodies at its surface. In addition complex organics are produced in its atmosphere by the photolysis of methane, the second most abundant atmospheric molecule that irreversibly produces ethane and other more complex carbon bearing molecules. The Cassini/Huygens mission has revealed that the difference between its equatorial and polar radii is several hundred meters larger than that expected from its spin rate, and that it is in hydrostatic equilibrium. Global circulation models predict a large meridional circulation with upwelling at the summer hemisphere and downwelling at the winter pole where ethane can condense and fall at the surface. Lakes and Mare have been observed at the poles only (Stofan et al., Nature, 2007). Ethane has been spectroscopically identified in one of the lakes (Brown et al., Nature, 2008). The present study investigates the subsidence associated with ethane rain at the poles. As suggested by laboratory experiments, ethane flows very easily in a porous crust made of either pure water ice or methane clathrates. Loading of the lithosphere by liquid hydrocarbons induces a tendency of the polar terrains to subside relative to the lower latitudes terrains. In addition, laboratory experiments suggest that ethane substitutes to methane in a methane clathrate crust. The present study estimates the kinetics of this transformation. It suggests that such a transformation would occur on timescales much smaller than geological timescales. To explain a value of 270 m of the subsidence as determined by the radar instrument onboard the Cassini spacecraft (Zebker et al., Science, 2009), our study predicts that the percolation of ethane liquid in the polar crust should have operated during the last 300 - 1,200 Myr. This number is in agreement with the isotopic age of the atmospheric

  5. Hydrological effects on carbon cycles of Canada's forests and wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Weimin; Chen, Jing M.; Black, T. Andrew; Barr, Alan G.; Mccaughey, Harry; Roulet, Nigel T.

    2006-01-01

    The hydrological cycle has significant effects on the terrestrial carbon (C) balance through its controls on photosynthesis and C decomposition. A detailed representation of the water cycle in terrestrial C cycle models is essential for reliable estimates of C budgets. However, it is challenging to accurately describe the spatial and temporal variations of soil water, especially for regional and global applications. Vertical and horizontal movements of soil water should be included. To constrain the hydrology-related uncertainty in modelling the regional C balance, a three-dimensional hydrological module was incorporated into the Integrated Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon-budget model (InTEC V3.0). We also added an explicit parameterization of wetlands. The inclusion of the hydrological module considerably improved the model's ability to simulate C content and balances in different ecosystems. Compared with measurements at five flux-tower sites, the model captured 85% and 82% of the variations in volumetric soil moisture content in the 0-10 cm and 10-30 cm depths during the growing season and 84% of the interannual variability in the measured C balance. The simulations showed that lateral subsurface water redistribution is a necessary mechanism for simulating water table depth for both poorly drained forest and peatland sites. Nationally, soil C content and their spatial variability are significantly related to drainage class. Poorly drained areas are important C sinks at the regional scale, however, their soil C content and balances are difficult to model and may have been inadequately represented in previous C cycle models. The InTEC V3.0 model predicted an annual net C uptake by Canada's forests and wetlands for the period 1901-1998 of 111.9 Tg C/yr, which is 41.4 Tg C/yr larger than our previous estimate (InTEC V2.0). The increase in the net C uptake occurred mainly in poorly drained regions and resulted from the inclusion of a separate wetland parameterization

  6. Solar Cycle Variations as Observed by MLS Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. N.; Wu, D. L.; Ruzmaikin, A.; Fontenla, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    More than thirteen years (2004-2017) of carbon monoxide (CO) measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are analyzed to better understand impacts of solar cycle 24. The upper mesospheric CO, produced primarily by the carbon dioxide (CO2) photolysis in the lower thermosphere, is sensitive to solar irradiance variability. We find that interannual variations of the mesospheric CO concentration are largely driven by the solar-cycle modulated ultraviolet (UV) variation in most of the UV wavelengths (120 to 280 nm) in high latitude regions. Despite different mean CO abundances in the SH and NH winters, their solar-cycle dependence appears to be symmetric with respect to the winter pole. This solar signal extends down to the lower altitudes by the dynamical descent in the polar vortex, showing a time lag that is consistent with the average descent velocity. To characterize a global distribution of the solar influence, Aura MLS CO is correlated with the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) measured total solar irradiance (TSI) and with the SORCE Solar-Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) measured UV. As high as 0.8 in most of the polar mesosphere, the linear correlation coefficients between CO and UV/TSI are more robust than those found in the previous work, with the extended analysis period. Different from the result shown in Lee et al. (2013), the downward propagation of the solar signals is similar in both NH and SH high latitudes. Effects of solar forcing on mesospheric CO extend far beyond the polar region. CO is a good tracer to show that the solar induced CO anomaly seems to follow the global meridional residual circulation and hemispheric transition from pole to pole in every six months. WACCM simulation experiment with two different solar spectral irradiance models, SRPM (Solar Radiation Physical Modeling) 2012 and NRLSSI (Naval Research Laboratory Spectral Solar Irradiance), shows that the

  7. The geological carbon cycle and the global warming / climate debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, F.

    2013-01-01

    The extensively cited seasonal carbon cycle describes the size and the annual fluxes between the temporary reservoirs (ocean, atmosphere, biosphere and soils). Compared with these large annual fluxes (approx. 200 GtC/y) the human contribution seems to be of minor amount and is currently (2011) in the range of 4-5%. However, in the geological carbon cycle, which describes the nearly equal amounts of input (volcanoes etc.) and output (sediments) into and from the temporary reservoirs, the human contribution has now reached 30-50 times the average natural level (9.5 Gt C/y versus ca. 0.2-0.3Gt C/y). In the long-term range (1-10x106y), the variable, but much smaller net imbalance between these geological sources und sinks was responsible for the atmospheric CO2-level in the last 400 My (since then comparable temporary reservoirs exist) and influenced via the various feedbacks the climate on earth. In nearly 95% of this long time the climate system was in (nearly) equilibrium conditions and changes occurred extremely slow. Whenever a certain range of higher rate of change of these driving forces were reached, it had - together with other effects - severe influence on the evolution of life, causing 5 large and many minor 'geological accidents'. Based on isotope geochemistry and a fairly good time resolution by orbitally tuned cyclostratigraphy (astrochronology) in the sedimentary record, we are able to quantify these rates of change with reasonable errors. It turns out that the present rate of change - caused by the C-based fossil energy use - is one to two orders of magnitude more rapid than these severe events (impacts excluded) in the earth system. A vast amount of data is available from the ice age cycles. Climate geology (e.g. the group of M. Sarnthein) made considerable progress in understanding the related geological/oceanic processes and proposed a reasonably constrained mass balance of CO2 during the last cycle, which could help us to understand the future

  8. New Adsorption Cycles for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Ritter; Armin Ebner; Steven Reynolds Hai Du; Amal Mehrotra

    2008-07-31

    The objective of this three-year project was to study new pressure swing adsorption (PSA) cycles for CO{sub 2} capture and concentration at high temperature. The heavy reflux (HR) PSA concept and the use of a hydrotalcite like (HTlc) adsorbent that captures CO{sub 2} reversibly at high temperatures simply by changing the pressure were two key features of these new PSA cycles. Through the completion or initiation of nine tasks, a bench-scale experimental and theoretical program has been carried out to complement and extend the process simulation study that was carried out during Phase I (DE-FG26-03NT41799). This final report covers the entire project from August 1, 2005 to July 31, 2008. This program included the study of PSA cycles for CO{sub 2} capture by both rigorous numerical simulation and equilibrium theory analysis. The insight gained from these studies was invaluable toward the applicability of PSA for CO{sub 2} capture, whether done at ambient or high temperature. The rigorous numerical simulation studies showed that it is indeed possible to capture and concentrate CO{sub 2} by PSA. Over a wide range of conditions it was possible to achieve greater than 90% CO{sub 2} purity and/or greater than 90% CO{sub 2} recovery, depending on the particular heavy reflux (HR) PSA cycle under consideration. Three HR PSA cycles were identified as viable candidates for further study experimentally. The equilibrium theory analysis, which represents the upper thermodynamic limit of the performance of PSA process, further validated the use of certain HR PSA cycles for CO{sub 2} capture and concentration. A new graphical approach for complex PSA cycle scheduling was also developed during the course of this program. This new methodology involves a priori specifying the cycle steps, their sequence, and the number of beds, and then following a systematic procedure that requires filling in a 2-D grid based on a few simple rules, some heuristics and some experience. It has been

  9. Carbon-Carbon Recuperators in Closed-Brayton-Cycle Space Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Michael J.; Johnson, Paul K.; Naples, Andrew G.

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of using carbon-carbon (C-C) recuperators in conceptual closed-Brayton-cycle space power conversion systems was assessed. Recuperator performance expectations were forecast based on notional thermodynamic cycle state values for potential planetary missions. Resulting thermal performance, mass and volume for plate-fin C-C recuperators were estimated and quantitatively compared with values for conventional offset-strip-fin metallic designs. Mass savings of 30 to 60 percent were projected for C-C recuperators with effectiveness greater than 0.9 and thermal loads from 25 to 1400 kWt. The smaller thermal loads corresponded with lower mass savings; however, 60 percent savings were forecast for all loads above 300 kWt. System-related material challenges and compatibility issues were also discussed.

  10. Multiple Observation Types Jointly Constrain Terrestrial Carbon and Water Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, M. R.; Haverd, V.; Briggs, P. R.; Canadell, J.; Davis, S. J.; Isaac, P. R.; Law, R.; Meyer, M.; Peters, G. P.; Pickett Heaps, C.; Roxburgh, S. H.; Sherman, B.; van Gorsel, E.; Viscarra Rossel, R.; Wang, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Information about the carbon cycle potentially constrains the water cycle, and vice versa. This paper explores the utility of multiple observation sets to constrain carbon and water fluxes and stores in a land surface model, and a resulting determination of the Australian terrestrial carbon budget. Observations include streamflow from 416 gauged catchments, measurements of evapotranspiration (ET) and net ecosystem production (NEP) from 12 eddy-flux sites, litterfall data, and data on carbon pools. The model is a version of CABLE (the Community Atmosphere-Biosphere-Land Exchange model), coupled with CASAcnp (a biogeochemical model) and SLI (Soil-Litter-Iso, a soil hydrology model including liquid and vapour water fluxes and the effects of litter). By projecting observation-prediction residuals onto model uncertainty, we find that eddy flux measurements provide a significantly tighter constraint on Australian continental net primary production (NPP) than the other data types. However, simultaneous constraint by multiple data types is important for mitigating bias from any single type. Results emerging from the multiply-constrained model are as follows (with all values applying over 1990-2011 and all ranges denoting ±1 standard error): (1) on the Australian continent, a predominantly semi-arid region, over half (0.64±0.05) of the water loss through ET occurs through soil evaporation and bypasses plants entirely; (2) mean Australian NPP is 2200±400 TgC/y, making the NPP/precipitation ratio about the same for Australia as the global land average; (3) annually cyclic ("grassy") vegetation and persistent ("woody") vegetation respectively account for 0.56±0.14 and 0.43±0.14 of NPP across Australia; (4) the average interannual variability of Australia's NEP (±180 TgC/y) is larger than Australia's total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in 2011 (149 TgCeq/y), and is dominated by variability in desert and savannah regions. The mean carbon budget over 1990

  11. Effects of nitrogen deposition on carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystems of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Hao; Li, Dejun; Gurmesa, Geshere Abdisa

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition in China has increased greatly, but the general impact of elevated N deposition on carbon (C) dynamics in Chinese terrestrial ecosystems is not well documented. In this study we used a meta-analysis method to compile 88 studies on the effects of N deposition C cycling...... and rate of N addition. Overall, our findings suggest that 1) decreased below-ground plant C pool may limit long-term soil C sequestration; and 2) it is better to treat N-rich and N-limited ecosystems differently in modeling effects of N deposition on ecosystem C cycle....

  12. The terrestrial carbon cycle on the regional and global scale : modeling, uncertainties and policy relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnen, van J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Contains the chapters: The importance of three centuries of climate and land-use change for the global and regional terrestrial carbon cycle; and The terrestrial C cycle and its role in the climate change policy

  13. The Ocean Carbon States Database: a proof-of-concept application of cluster analysis in the ocean carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latto, Rebecca; Romanou, Anastasia

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we present a database of the basic regimes of the carbon cycle in the ocean, the ocean carbon states, as obtained using a data mining/pattern recognition technique in observation-based as well as model data. The goal of this study is to establish a new data analysis methodology, test it and assess its utility in providing more insights into the regional and temporal variability of the marine carbon cycle. This is important as advanced data mining techniques are becoming widely used in climate and Earth sciences and in particular in studies of the global carbon cycle, where the interaction of physical and biogeochemical drivers confounds our ability to accurately describe, understand, and predict CO2 concentrations and their changes in the major planetary carbon reservoirs. In this proof-of-concept study, we focus on using well-understood data that are based on observations, as well as model results from the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) climate model. Our analysis shows that ocean carbon states are associated with the subtropical-subpolar gyre during the colder months of the year and the tropics during the warmer season in the North Atlantic basin. Conversely, in the Southern Ocean, the ocean carbon states can be associated with the subtropical and Antarctic convergence zones in the warmer season and the coastal Antarctic divergence zone in the colder season. With respect to model evaluation, we find that the GISS model reproduces the cold and warm season regimes more skillfully in the North Atlantic than in the Southern Ocean and matches the observed seasonality better than the spatial distribution of the regimes. Finally, the ocean carbon states provide useful information in the model error attribution. Model air-sea CO2 flux biases in the North Atlantic stem from wind speed and salinity biases in the subpolar region and nutrient and wind speed biases in the subtropics and tropics. Nutrient biases are shown to be most important in

  14. The Ocean Carbon States Database: A Proof-of-Concept Application of Cluster Analysis in the Ocean Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latto, Rebecca; Romanou, Anastasia

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a database of the basic regimes of the carbon cycle in the ocean, the 'ocean carbon states', as obtained using a data mining/pattern recognition technique in observation-based as well as model data. The goal of this study is to establish a new data analysis methodology, test it and assess its utility in providing more insights into the regional and temporal variability of the marine carbon cycle. This is important as advanced data mining techniques are becoming widely used in climate and Earth sciences and in particular in studies of the global carbon cycle, where the interaction of physical and biogeochemical drivers confounds our ability to accurately describe, understand, and predict CO2 concentrations and their changes in the major planetary carbon reservoirs. In this proof-of-concept study, we focus on using well-understood data that are based on observations, as well as model results from the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) climate model. Our analysis shows that ocean carbon states are associated with the subtropical-subpolar gyre during the colder months of the year and the tropics during the warmer season in the North Atlantic basin. Conversely, in the Southern Ocean, the ocean carbon states can be associated with the subtropical and Antarctic convergence zones in the warmer season and the coastal Antarctic divergence zone in the colder season. With respect to model evaluation, we find that the GISS model reproduces the cold and warm season regimes more skillfully in the North Atlantic than in the Southern Ocean and matches the observed seasonality better than the spatial distribution of the regimes. Finally, the ocean carbon states provide useful information in the model error attribution. Model air-sea CO2 flux biases in the North Atlantic stem from wind speed and salinity biases in the subpolar region and nutrient and wind speed biases in the subtropics and tropics. Nutrient biases are shown to be most important

  15. Gap formation and carbon cycling in the Brazilian Amazon: measurement using high-resolution optical remote sensing and studies in large forest plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. D. B. Espirito-Santo; M. M. Keller; E. Linder; R. C. Oliveira Junior; C. Pereira; C. G. Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Background: The dynamics of gaps plays a role in the regimes of tree mortality, production of coarse woody debris (CWD) and the variability of light in the forest understory. Aims: To quantify the area affected by, and the carbon fluxes associated with, natural gap-phase disturbances in a tropical lowland evergreen rain forest by use of ground measurements and high-...

  16. Sink- or Source-driven Phanerozoic carbon cycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godderis, Y.; Donnadieu, Y.; Maffre, P.; Carretier, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Phanerozoic evolution of the atmospheric CO2 level is controlled by the fluxes entering or leaving the exospheric system. Those fluxes (including continental weathering, magmatic degassing, organic carbon burial, oxidation of sedimentary organic carbon) are intertwined, and their relative importance in driving the global carbon cycle evolution may have fluctuated through time. Deciphering the causes of the Phanerozoic climate evolution thus requires a holistic and quantitative approach. Here we focus on the role played by the paleogeographic configuration on the efficiency of the CO2 sink by continental silicate weathering, and on the impact of the magmatic degassing of CO2. We use the spatially resolved numerical model GEOCLIM (geoclimmodel.worpress.com) to compute the response of the silicate weathering and atmospheric CO2 to continental drift for 22 time slices of the Phanerozoic. Regarding the CO2 released by the magmatic activity, we reconstruct several Phanerozoic histories of this flux, based on published indexes. We calculate the CO2 evolution for each degassing scenario, and accounting for the paleogeographic setting. We show that the paleogeographic setting is a main driver of the climate from 540 Ma to about the beginning of the Jurassic. Regarding the role of the magmatic degassing, the various reconstructions do not converge towards a single signal, and thus introduce large uncertainties in the calculated CO2 level over time. Nevertheless, the continental dispersion, which prevails since the Jurassic, promotes the CO2 consumption by weathering and forces atmospheric CO2 to stay low. Warm climates of the "middle" Cretaceous and early Cenozoic require enhanced CO2 degassing by magmatic activity. In summary, the Phanerozoic climate evolution can be hardly assigned to a single process, but is the result of complex and intertwined processes.

  17. Carbon cycling in the deep eastern North Pacific benthic food web: Investigating the effect of organic carbon input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunlop, K.M.; Van Oevelen, D.; Ruhl, H.A.; Huffard, C.L.; Kuhnz, L.A.; Smith, K.L.

    2016-01-01

    The deep ocean benthic environment plays a role in long-term carbon sequestration. Understanding carbon cycling in the deep ocean floor is critical to evaluate the impact of changing climate on the oceanic systems. Linear inverse modeling was used to quantify carbon transfer between compartments in

  18. Modeling the grazing effect on dry grassland carbon cycling with modified Biome-BGC grazing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Geping; Han, Qifei; Li, Chaofan; Yang, Liao

    2014-05-01

    Identifying the factors that determine the carbon source/sink strength of ecosystems is important for reducing uncertainty in the global carbon cycle. Arid grassland ecosystems are a widely distributed biome type in Xinjiang, Northwest China, covering approximately one-fourth the country's land surface. These grasslands are the habitat for many endemic and rare plant and animal species and are also used as pastoral land for livestock. Using the modified Biome-BGC grazing model, we modeled carbon dynamics in Xinjiang for grasslands that varied in grazing intensity. In general, this regional simulation estimated that the grassland ecosystems in Xinjiang acted as a net carbon source, with a value of 0.38 Pg C over the period 1979-2007. There were significant effects of grazing on carbon dynamics. An over-compensatory effect in net primary productivity (NPP) and vegetation carbon (C) stock was observed when grazing intensity was lower than 0.40 head/ha. Grazing resulted in a net carbon source of 23.45 g C m-2 yr-1, which equaled 0.37 Pg in Xinjiang in the last 29 years. In general, grazing decreased vegetation C stock, while an increasing trend was observed with low grazing intensity. The soil C increased significantly (17%) with long-term grazing, while the soil C stock exhibited a steady trend without grazing. These findings have implications for grassland ecosystem management as it relates to carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation, e.g., removal of grazing should be considered in strategies that aim to increase terrestrial carbon sequestrations at local and regional scales. One of the greatest limitations in quantifying the effects of herbivores on carbon cycling is identifying the grazing systems and intensities within a given region. We hope our study emphasizes the need for large-scale assessments of how grazing impacts carbon cycling. Most terrestrial ecosystems in Xinjiang have been affected by disturbances to a greater or lesser extent in the past

  19. Effects of biotic disturbances on forest carbon cycling in the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelmann, James E.; Allen, Craig D.; Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Desai, Ankur R.; Dietze, Michael C.; Hall, Ronald J.; ,

    2012-01-01

    Forest insects and pathogens are major disturbance agents that have affected millions of hectares in North America in recent decades, implying significant impacts to the carbon (C) cycle. Here, we review and synthesize published studies of the effects of biotic disturbances on forest C cycling in the United States and Canada. Primary productivity in stands was reduced, sometimes considerably, immediately following insect or pathogen attack. After repeated growth reductions caused by some insects or pathogens or a single infestation by some bark beetle species, tree mortality occurred, altering productivity and decomposition. In the years following disturbance, primary productivity in some cases increased rapidly as a result of enhanced growth by surviving vegetation, and in other cases increased slowly because of lower forest regrowth. In the decades following tree mortality, decomposition increased as a result of the large amount of dead organic matter. Net ecosystem productivity decreased immediately following attack, with some studies reporting a switch to a C source to the atmosphere, and increased afterward as the forest regrew and dead organic matter decomposed. Large variability in C cycle responses arose from several factors, including type of insect or pathogen, time since disturbance, number of trees affected, and capacity of remaining vegetation to increase growth rates following outbreak. We identified significant knowledge gaps, including limited understanding of carbon cycle impacts among different biotic disturbance types (particularly pathogens), their impacts at landscape and regional scales, and limited capacity to predict disturbance events and their consequences for carbon cycling. We conclude that biotic disturbances can have major impacts on forest C stocks and fluxes and can be large enough to affect regional C cycling. However, additional research is needed to reduce the uncertainties associated with quantifying biotic disturbance effects on

  20. Bacterioplankton carbon cycling along the Subtropical Frontal Zone off New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltar, Federico; Stuck, Esther; Morales, Sergio; Currie, Kim

    2015-06-01

    Marine heterotrophic bacterioplankton (Bacteria and Archaea) play a central role in ocean carbon cycling. As such, identifying the factors controlling these microbial populations is crucial to fully understanding carbon fluxes. We studied bacterioplankton activities along a transect crossing three water masses (i.e., Subtropical waters [STW], Sub-Antarctic waters [SAW] and neritic waters [NW]) with contrasting nutrient regimes across the Subtropical Frontal Zone. In contrast to bacterioplankton production and community respiration, bacterioplankton respiration increased in the offshore SAW, causing a seaward increase in the contribution of bacteria to community respiration (from 7% to 100%). Cell-specific bacterioplankton respiration also increased in SAW, but cell-specific production did not, suggesting that prokaryotic cells in SAW were investing more energy towards respiration than growth. This was reflected in a 5-fold decline in bacterioplankton growth efficiency (BGE) towards SAW. One way to explain this decrease in BGE could be due to the observed reduction in phytoplankton biomass (and presumably organic matter concentration) towards SAW. However, this would not explain why bacterioplankton respiration was highest in SAW, where phytoplankton biomass was lowest. Another factor affecting BGE could be the iron limitation characteristic of high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions like SAW. Our field-study based evidences would agree with previous laboratory experiments in which iron stress provoked a decrease in BGE of marine bacterial isolates. Our results suggest that there is a strong gradient in bacterioplankton carbon cycling rates along the Subtropical Frontal Zone, mainly due to the HNLC conditions of SAW. We suggest that Fe-induced reduction of BGE in HNLC regions like SAW could be relevant in marine carbon cycling, inducing bacterioplankton to act as a link or a sink of organic carbon by impacting on the quantity of organic carbon they incorporate

  1. Features of supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle coupled with reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Chengjie; Wang Jie; Yang Xiaoyong

    2010-01-01

    In order to obtain acceptable cycle efficiency, current helium gas turbine power cycle technology needs high cycle temperature which means that the cycle needs high core-out temperature. The technology has high requirements on reactor structure and fuel elements materials, and also on turbine manufacture. While utilizing CO 2 as cycle working fluid, it can guarantee to lower the cycle temperature and turbo machine Janume but achieve the same cycle efficiency, so as to enhance the safety and economy of reactor. According to the laws of thermodynamics, a calculation model of supercritical CO 2 power cycle was established to analyze the feature, and the decisive parameters of the cycle and also investigate the effect of each parameter on the cycle efficiency in detail were obtained. The results show that supercritical CO 2 power cycle can achieve quite satisfied efficiency at a lower cycle highest temperature than helium cycle, and CO 2 is a promising working fluid. (authors)

  2. Variations in microbial carbon sources and cycling in the deep continental subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkus, Danielle N.; Slater, Greg F.; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Wilkie, Kenna; Kieft, Thomas L.; Magnabosco, Cara; Lau, Maggie C. Y.; Pullin, Michael J.; Hendrickson, Sarah B.; Wommack, K. Eric; Sakowski, Eric G.; van Heerden, Esta; Kuloyo, Olukayode; Linage, Borja; Borgonie, Gaetan; Onstott, Tullis C.

    2016-01-01

    Deep continental subsurface fracture water systems, ranging from 1.1 to 3.3 km below land surface (kmbls), were investigated to characterize the indigenous microorganisms and elucidate microbial carbon sources and their cycling. Analysis of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) abundances and direct cell counts detected varying biomass that was not correlated with depth. Compound-specific carbon isotope analyses (δ13C and Δ14C) of the phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and carbon substrates combined with genomic analyses did identify, however, distinct carbon sources and cycles between the two depth ranges studied. In the shallower boreholes at circa 1 kmbls, isotopic evidence indicated microbial incorporation of biogenic CH4 by the in situ microbial community. At the shallowest site, 1.05 kmbls in Driefontein mine, this process clearly dominated the isotopic signal. At slightly deeper depths, 1.34 kmbls in Beatrix mine, the isotopic data indicated the incorporation of both biogenic CH4 and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) derived from CH4 oxidation. In both of these cases, molecular genetic analysis indicated that methanogenic and methanotrophic organisms together comprised a small component (3 kmbls in Tau Tona mine (TT107, TT109 Bh2), the CH4 had an isotopic signature suggesting a predominantly abiogenic origin with minor inputs from microbial methanogenesis. In these samples, the isotopic enrichments (δ13C and Δ14C) of the PLFAs relative to CH4 were consistent with little incorporation of CH4 into the biomass. The most 13C-enriched PLFAs were observed in TT107 where the dominant CO2-fixation pathway was the acetyl-CoA pathway by non-acetogenic bacteria. The differences in the δ13C of the PLFAs and the DIC and DOC for TT109 Bh2 were ∼-24‰ and 0‰, respectively. The dominant CO2-fixation pathways were 3-HP/4-HB cycle > acetyl-CoA pathway > reductive pentose phosphate cycle.

  3. Synthesis and application of carbonated fatty acid esters from carbon dioxide including a life cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffner, Benjamin; Blug, Matthias; Kruse, Daniela; Polyakov, Mykola; Köckritz, Angela; Martin, Andreas; Rajagopalan, Prasanna; Bentrup, Ursula; Brückner, Angelika; Jung, Sebastian; Agar, David; Rüngeler, Bettina; Pfennig, Andreas; Müller, Karsten; Arlt, Wolfgang; Woldt, Benjamin; Grass, Michael; Buchholz, Stefan

    2014-04-01

    Carbon dioxide can be used in various ways as a cheap C1 source. However, the utilization of CO2 requires energy or energy-rich reagents, which leads to further emissions, and therefore, diminishes the CO2-saving potential. Therefore, life cycle assessment (LCA) is required for each process that uses CO2 to provide valid data for CO2 savings. Carbon dioxide can be incorporated into epoxidized fatty acid esters to provide the corresponding carbonates. A robust catalytic process was developed based on simple halide salts in combination with a phase-transfer catalyst. The CO2-saving potential was determined by comparing the carbonates as a plasticizer with an established phthalate-based plasticizer. Although CO2 savings of up to 80 % were achieved, most of the savings arose from indirect effects and not from CO2 utilization. Furthermore, other categories have been analyzed in the LCA. The use of biobased material has a variety of impacts on categories such as eutrophication and marine toxicity. Therefore, the benefits of biobased materials have to be evaluated carefully for each case. Finally, interesting properties as plasticizers were obtained with the carbonates. The volatility and water extraction could be improved relative to the epoxidized system. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The decrease of carbonation efficiency of CaO along calcination-carbonation cycles: Experiments and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouquet, E.; Leyssens, G.; Schonnenbeck, C.; Gilot, P. [Laboratoire de Gestion des Risques et Environnement, Mulhouse (France)

    2009-05-15

    Successive calcination-carbonation cycles, using CaO as sorbent, have been performed either in a classical fixed bed reactor or using a thermogravimetric analyser. Significant differences in carbonation efficiencies were obtained, possibly due to different conditions prevailing for CaO sintering during the calcination stage. The effect of the presence of CO{sub 2} on sintering was confirmed. A simple model of the decay of the carbonation capacity along cycles based on the specific surface area of non-sintered micrograins of CaO is able to predict the decrease of the extent of conversion obtained after 40 carbonations along calcination-carbonation cycles. The asymptotic extent of conversion is obtained when all the micrograins present within a grain are sintered. A detailed model of the carbonation shows that the voids present between the micrograins are filled up by carbonate when a critical thickness of the carbonate layer around each micrograin reaches 43 nm. Then, carbonation becomes controlled by diffusion at the scale of the whole grain, with the CO{sub 2} diffusion coefficient decreasing (at 650 {sup o}C) from 2 x 10{sup -12} to 6.5 x 10{sup -14} m{sup 2}/s as carbonation proceeds from 50% conversion to 76% (first cycle). This scale change for diffusion is responsible for the drastic decrease of the carbonation rate after the voids between micrograins are filled up.

  5. Global Cycling of Carbon Constrained by Partial Melting Experiments of Carbonated Mantle Peridotite and Eclogite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, R.; Hirschmann, M. M.; Withers, A. C.

    2005-12-01

    The mass of carbon stored in the mantle exceeds that in all other Earth's reservoirs combined1 and large fluxes of carbon are cycled into and out of the mantle via subduction and volcanic emission. Outgassing of CO2 from the mantle has a critical influence on Earth's climate for time scales of 108-109 yr1. The residence time for carbon in the mantle is thought to exceed the age of the Earth1,2, but it could be significantly less owing to pervasive deep melting beneath oceanic ridges. The chief flux of subducted carbon is via carbonate in altered ocean-floor basalts, which survives dehydration during subduction. Because solidi of carbonated eclogite remain hotter than average subduction geotherms at least up to transition zone3, significant subducted C is delivered to the deep Earth. In upwelling mantle, however, partial melting of carbonated eclogite releases calcio-dolomitic carbonatite melt at depths near ~400 km and metasomatically implants carbonate to surrounding peridotite. Thus, volcanic release of CO2 to basalt source regions is controlled by the solidus of carbonated peridotite. We conducted experiments with nominally anhydrous, carbonated garnet lherzolite (PERC: MixKLB-1+2.5 wt.% CO2) using Pt/C capsules in piston cylinder (3 GPa) and Walker-style multi-anvil presses (4 to 10 GPa) and between 1075-1500 °C. The stable near-solidus crystalline carbonate is dolomitess at 3 GPa and magnesitess from 4 to 10 GPa. Carbonate melt is stabilized at the solidus and crystalline carbonate disappears within 20-60°. The solidus increases from ≥1075 °C at 3 GPa to 1110-1140 °C at 4.1 GPa as the stable carbonate transforms from dolomitess to magnesitess. From 4.1 GPa, the solidus of PERC magnesite lherzolite increases to ~1500 °C at 10 GPa. In upwelling mantle the solidus of carbonated lherzolite is ~100-200 km shallower than that of eclogite+CO2, but beneath oceanic ridges, initial melting occurs as deep as 300-330 km. For peridotite with ~120-1200 ppm CO2, this

  6. Constraining future terrestrial carbon cycle projections using observation-based water and carbon flux estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mystakidis, Stefanos; Davin, Edouard L; Gruber, Nicolas; Seneviratne, Sonia I

    2016-06-01

    The terrestrial biosphere is currently acting as a sink for about a third of the total anthropogenic CO2  emissions. However, the future fate of this sink in the coming decades is very uncertain, as current earth system models (ESMs) simulate diverging responses of the terrestrial carbon cycle to upcoming climate change. Here, we use observation-based constraints of water and carbon fluxes to reduce uncertainties in the projected terrestrial carbon cycle response derived from simulations of ESMs conducted as part of the 5th phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). We find in the ESMs a clear linear relationship between present-day evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary productivity (GPP), as well as between these present-day fluxes and projected changes in GPP, thus providing an emergent constraint on projected GPP. Constraining the ESMs based on their ability to simulate present-day ET and GPP leads to a substantial decrease in the projected GPP and to a ca. 50% reduction in the associated model spread in GPP by the end of the century. Given the strong correlation between projected changes in GPP and in NBP in the ESMs, applying the constraints on net biome productivity (NBP) reduces the model spread in the projected land sink by more than 30% by 2100. Moreover, the projected decline in the land sink is at least doubled in the constrained ensembles and the probability that the terrestrial biosphere is turned into a net carbon source by the end of the century is strongly increased. This indicates that the decline in the future land carbon uptake might be stronger than previously thought, which would have important implications for the rate of increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration and for future climate change. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. 1.5 °C carbon budget dependent on carbon cycle uncertainty and future non-CO2 forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengis, Nadine; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Jalbert, Jonathan; Matthews, H Damon

    2018-04-11

    Estimates of the 1.5 °C carbon budget vary widely among recent studies, emphasizing the need to better understand and quantify key sources of uncertainty. Here we quantify the impact of carbon cycle uncertainty and non-CO 2 forcing on the 1.5 °C carbon budget in the context of a prescribed 1.5 °C temperature stabilization scenario. We use Bayes theorem to weight members of a perturbed parameter ensemble with varying land and ocean carbon uptake, to derive an estimate for the fossil fuel (FF) carbon budget of 469 PgC since 1850, with a 95% likelihood range of (411,528) PgC. CO 2 emissions from land-use change (LUC) add about 230 PgC. Our best estimate of the total (FF + LUC) carbon budget for 1.5 °C is therefore 699 PgC, which corresponds to about 11 years of current emissions. Non-CO 2 greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions represent equivalent cumulative CO 2 emissions of about 510 PgC and -180 PgC for 1.5 °C, respectively. The increased LUC, high non-CO 2 emissions and decreased aerosols in our scenario, cause the long-term FF carbon budget to decrease following temperature stabilization. In this scenario, negative emissions would be required to compensate not only for the increasing non-CO 2 climate forcing, but also for the declining natural carbon sinks.

  8. Quantification of carbon footprint of urban roads via life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Ruichang; Duan, Huabo; Dong, Dan

    2017-01-01

    studies attempted to examine the impacts from transport infrastructure, especially at a city or country level. This paper, taking Shenzhen in China (a fast developing megacity) as the case study, is specially designed to quantify the carbon footprint of the urban roads by using streamlined life cycle...... assessment method. For given years (ranged from 2004 to 2013), various activities of urban roads (e.g. newly planned road construction, maintenance of road in use, and road renovation and demolition) have been examined in this study. The results show that the total carbon footprint from urban roads...... in Shenzhen was 260 (±20) thousand tons CO2e in 2013. The major contributor was the materials use (embodied impact) from newly constructed roads, which accounts for 52.3% of the total carbon footprint, followed by the maintenance stage (24.3%). The eco-design process of road construction plays a vital role...

  9. Capturing and sequestering carbon by enhancing the natural carbon cycle: Prelimary identification of basic science needs and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, S.M.

    1997-07-01

    This document summarizes proceedings and conclusions of a US DOE workshop. The purpose of the workshop was to identify the underlying research needed to answer the following questions: (1) Can the natural carbon cycle be used to aid in stabilizing or decreasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} by: (a) Increasing carbon capture; (b) Preventing carbon from returning to the atmosphere through intermediate (<100 years) to long-term sequestration (> 100 years)?; and (2) What kind of ecosystem management practices could be used to achieve this? Three working groups were formed to discuss the terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and methane. Basic research needs identified included fundamental understanding of carbon cycling and storage in soils, influence of climate change and anthropogenic emissions on the carbon cycle, and carbon capture and sequestration in oceans. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. The GLOBE Carbon Cycle Project: Using a systems approach to understand carbon and the Earth's climate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, S. K.; Ollinger, S. V.; Martin, M. E.; Gengarelly, L. M.; Schloss, A. L.; Bourgeault, J. L.; Randolph, G.; Albrechtova, J.

    2009-12-01

    National Science Content Standards identify systems as an important unifying concept across the K-12 curriculum. While this standard exists, there is a recognized gap in the ability of students to use a systems thinking approach in their learning. In a similar vein, both popular media as well as some educational curricula move quickly through climate topics to carbon footprint analyses without ever addressing the nature of carbon or the carbon cycle. If students do not gain a concrete understanding of carbon’s role in climate and energy they will not be able to successfully tackle global problems and develop innovative solutions. By participating in the GLOBE Carbon Cycle project, students learn to use a systems thinking approach, while at the same time, gaining a foundation in the carbon cycle and it's relation to climate and energy. Here we present the GLOBE Carbon Cycle project and materials, which incorporate a diverse set of activities geared toward upper middle and high school students with a variety of learning styles. A global carbon cycle adventure story and game let students see the carbon cycle as a complete system, while introducing them to systems thinking concepts including reservoirs, fluxes and equilibrium. Classroom photosynthesis experiments and field measurements of schoolyard vegetation brings the global view to the local level. And the use of computer models at varying levels of complexity (effects on photosynthesis, biomass and carbon storage in global biomes, global carbon cycle) not only reinforces systems concepts and carbon content, but also introduces students to an important scientific tool necessary for understanding climate change.

  11. Development of Specific Rules for the Application of Life Cycle Assessment to Carbon Capture and Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Gallo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS is a very innovative and promising solution for greenhouse gases (GHG reduction, i.e., capturing carbon dioxide (CO2 at its source and storing it indefinitely to avoid its release to the atmosphere. This paper investigates a set of key issues in the development of specific rules for the application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA to CCS. The following LCA-based information are addressed in this work: definition of service type, definition of functional unit, definition of system boundaries, choice of allocation rules, choice of selected Life Cycle Inventory (LCI results or other selected parameters for description of environmental performance. From a communication perspective, the specific rules defined in this study have been developed coherently with the requirements of a type III environment label scheme, the International EPD® System, according to the ISO 14025 standard.

  12. Tropical wetlands: A missing link in the global carbon cycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögersten, Sofie; Black, Colin R; Evers, Stephanie; Hoyos-Santillan, Jorge; Wright, Emma L; Turner, Benjamin L

    2014-01-01

    Tropical wetlands are not included in Earth system models, despite being an important source of methane (CH4) and contributing a large fraction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from land use, land use change, and forestry in the tropics. This review identifies a remarkable lack of data on the carbon balance and gas fluxes from undisturbed tropical wetlands, which limits the ability of global change models to make accurate predictions about future climate. We show that the available data on in situ carbon gas fluxes in undisturbed forested tropical wetlands indicate marked spatial and temporal variability in CO2 and CH4 emissions, with exceptionally large fluxes in Southeast Asia and the Neotropics. By upscaling short-term measurements, we calculate that approximately 90 ± 77 Tg CH4 year−1 and 4540 ± 1480 Tg CO2 year−1 are released from tropical wetlands globally. CH4 fluxes are greater from mineral than organic soils, whereas CO2 fluxes do not differ between soil types. The high CO2 and CH4 emissions are mirrored by high rates of net primary productivity and litter decay. Net ecosystem productivity was estimated to be greater in peat-forming wetlands than on mineral soils, but the available data are insufficient to construct reliable carbon balances or estimate gas fluxes at regional scales. We conclude that there is an urgent need for systematic data on carbon dynamics in tropical wetlands to provide a robust understanding of how they differ from well-studied northern wetlands and allow incorporation of tropical wetlands into global climate change models. PMID:26074666

  13. Pervasive drought legacies in forest ecosystems and their implications for carbon cycle models

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. R. L. Anderegg; C. Schwalm; F. Biondi; J. J. Camarero; G. Koch; M. Litvak; K. Ogle; J. D. Shaw; E. Shevliakova; A. P. Williams; A. Wolf; E. Ziaco; S. Pacala

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of climate extremes on terrestrial ecosystems are poorly understood but important for predicting carbon cycle feedbacks to climate change. Coupled climate-carbon cycle models typically assume that vegetation recovery from extreme drought is immediate and complete, which conflicts with the understanding of basic plant physiology. We examined the recovery of...

  14. Not all droughts are created equal: The impacts of interannual drought pattern and magnitude on grassland carbon cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, David L.; Rogers, Brendan M.

    2016-01-01

    Climate extremes, such as drought, may have immediate and potentially prolonged effects on carbon cycling. Grasslands store approximately one-third of all terrestrial carbon and may become carbon sources during droughts. However, the magnitude and duration of drought-induced disruptions to the carbon cycle, as well as the mechanisms responsible, remain poorly understood. Over the next century, global climate models predict an increase in two types of drought: chronic but subtle ‘press-droughts’, and shorter term but extreme ‘pulse-droughts’. Much of our current understanding of the ecological impacts of drought comes from experimental rainfall manipulations. These studies have been highly valuable, but are often short term and rarely quantify carbon feedbacks. To address this knowledge gap, we used the Community Land Model 4.0 to examine the individual and interactive effects of pulse- and press-droughts on carbon cycling in a mesic grassland of the US Great Plains. A series of modeling experiments were imposed by varying drought magnitude (precipitation amount) and interannual pattern (press- vs. pulse-droughts) to examine the effects on carbon storage and cycling at annual to century timescales. We present three main findings. First, a single-year pulse-drought had immediate and prolonged effects on carbon storage due to differential sensitivities of ecosystem respiration and gross primary production. Second, short-term pulse-droughts caused greater carbon loss than chronic press-droughts when total precipitation reductions over a 20-year period were equivalent. Third, combining pulse- and press-droughts had intermediate effects on carbon loss compared to the independent drought types, except at high drought levels. Overall, these results suggest that interannual drought pattern may be as important for carbon dynamics as drought magnitude and that extreme droughts may have long-lasting carbon feedbacks in grassland ecosystems.

  15. Management Tools and Potential of Dry Miombo Woodland in Carbon Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwakalukwa, Ezekiel Edward

    , this thesis aims to develop management tools and generate information that will enhance our understanding of the actual and potential contribution of dry Miombo woodlands in carbon cycling. This is done through a detailed assessment of floristic composition, structure, species associations and through......Abstract Tools to support sustainable management of dry Miombo woodlands and precise assessment of carbon storage and sequestration potential are in most cases lacking in Tanzania. Accordingly, using Gangalamtumba Village Land Forest Reserve as a case study area located in Iringa region...... in above- and below-ground soil carbon pools. Assuming that other species’ production are equal to B. spiciformis, which is the most dominant species in the study area, the estimated C sequestration potential of the dry Miombo woodlands was found to vary from 0.42 ± 0.03 Mg C ha-1year-1 to 1.39 ± 0.08 Mg C...

  16. Climate-carbon cycle feedbacks under stabilization: uncertainty and observational constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Chris D.; Cox, Peter M.; Huntingford, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Avoiding 'dangerous climate change' by stabilization of atmospheric CO 2 concentrations at a desired level requires reducing the rate of anthropogenic carbon emissions so that they are balanced by uptake of carbon by the natural terrestrial and oceanic carbon cycles. Previous calculations of profiles of emissions which lead to stabilized CO 2 levels have assumed no impact of climate change on this natural carbon uptake. However, future climate change effects on the land carbon cycle are predicted to reduce its ability to act as a sink for anthropogenic carbon emissions and so quantification of this feedback is required to determine future permissible emissions. Here, we assess the impact of the climate-carbon cycle feedback and attempt to quantify its uncertainty due to both within-model parameter uncertainty and between-model structural uncertainty. We assess the use of observational constraints to reduce uncertainty in the future permissible emissions for climate stabilization and find that all realistic carbon cycle feedbacks consistent with the observational record give permissible emissions significantly less than previously assumed. However, the observational record proves to be insufficient to tightly constrain carbon cycle processes or future feedback strength with implications for climate-carbon cycle model evaluation

  17. Viral impacts on microbial carbon cycling in thawing permafrost soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubl, G. G.; Roux, S.; Bolduc, B.; Jang, H. B.; Emerson, J. B.; Solonenko, N.; Li, F.; Solden, L. M.; Vik, D. R.; Wrighton, K. C.; Saleska, S. R.; Sullivan, M. B.; Rich, V. I.

    2017-12-01

    Permafrost contains 30-50% of global soil carbon (C) and is rapidly thawing. While the fate of this C is unknown, it will be shaped in part by microbes and their associated viruses, which modulate host activities via mortality and metabolic control. To date, viral research in soils has been outpaced by that in aquatic environments, due to the technical challenges of accessing viruses as well as the dramatic physicochemical heterogeneity in soils. Here, we describe advances in soil viromics from our research on permafrost-associated soils, and their implications for associated terrestrial C cycling. First, we optimized viral resuspension-DNA extraction methods for a range of soil types. Second, we applied cutting-edge viral-specific informatics methods to recover viral populations, define their gene content, connect them to potential hosts, and analyze their relationships to environmental parameters. A total of 781 viral populations were recovered from size-fractionated virus samples of three soils along a permafrost thaw gradient. Ecological analyses revealed endemism as recovered viral populations were largely unique to each habitat and unlike those in aquatic communities. Genome- and network-based classification assigned these viruses into 226 viral clusters (VCs; genus-level taxonomy), 55% of which were novel. This increases the number of VCs by a third and triples the number of soil viral populations in the RefSeq database (currently contains 256 VCs and 316 soil viral populations). Genomic analyses revealed 85% of the genes were functionally unknown, though 5% of the annotatable genes contained C-related auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs; e.g. glycoside hydrolases). Using sequence-based features and microbial population genomes, we were able to in silico predict hosts for 30% of the viral populations. The identified hosts spanned 3 phyla and 6 genera but suggested these viruses have species-specific host ranges as >80% of hosts for a given virus were in the same

  18. Carbon and nitrogen cycles in European ecosystems respond differently to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, C; Emmett, B A; Peñuelas, J; Schmidt, I K; Tietema, A; Estiarte, M; Gundersen, P; Llorens, L; Riis-Nielsen, T; Sowerby, A; Gorissen, A

    2008-12-15

    The global climate is predicted to become significantly warmer over the next century. This will affect ecosystem processes and the functioning of semi natural and natural ecosystems in many parts of the world. However, as various ecosystem processes may be affected to a different extent, balances between different ecosystem processes as well as between different ecosystems may shift and lead to major unpredicted changes. In this study four European shrubland ecosystems along a north-south temperature gradient were experimentally warmed by a novel nighttime warming technique. Biogeochemical cycling of both carbon and nitrogen was affected at the colder sites with increased carbon uptake for plant growth as well as increased carbon loss through soil respiration. Carbon uptake by plant growth was more sensitive to warming than expected from the temperature response across the sites while carbon loss through soil respiration reacted to warming in agreement with the overall Q10 and response functions to temperature across the sites. Opposite to carbon, the nitrogen mineralization was relatively insensitive to the temperature increase and was mainly affected by changes in soil moisture. The results suggest that C and N cycles respond asymmetrically to warming, which may lead to progressive nitrogen limitation and thereby acclimation in plant production. This further suggests that in many temperate zones nitrogen deposition has to be accounted for, not only with respect to the impact on water quality through increased nitrogen leaching where N deposition is high, but also in predictions of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems under future climatic conditions. Finally the results indicate that on the short term the above-ground processes are more sensitive to temperature changes than the below ground processes.

  19. Evaluation and optimization of a supercritical carbon dioxide power conversion cycle for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvego, Edwin A.; McKellar, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    There have been a number of studies involving the use of gases operating in the supercritical mode for power production and process heat applications. Supercritical carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is particularly attractive because it is capable of achieving relatively high power conversion cycle efficiencies in the temperature range between 550degC and 750degC. Therefore, it has the potential for use with any type of high-temperature nuclear reactor concept, assuming reactor core outlet temperatures of at least 550degC. The particular power cycle investigated in this paper is a supercritical CO 2 recompression Brayton Cycle. The CO 2 recompression Brayton Cycle can be used as either a direct or indirect power conversion cycle, depending on the reactor type and reactor outlet temperature. The advantage of this cycle when compared to the helium Brayton Cycle is the lower required operating temperature; 550degC versus 750degC. However, the supercritical CO 2 recompression Brayton Cycle requires a high end operating pressure in the range of 20 MPa, which is considerably higher than the required helium Brayton cycle high end operating pressure of 7 MPa. This paper presents results of analyses performed using the UniSim process analyses software to evaluate the performance of the supercritical CO 2 recompression Brayton cycle for different reactor coolant outlet temperatures and mass flow rates. The UniSim model assumed a 600 MWt reactor power source, which provides heat to the power cycle at a maximum temperature of between 550degC and 850degC. Sensitivity calculations were also performed to determine the affect of reactor coolant mass flow rates for a reference reactor coolant outlet temperature of 750degC. The UniSim model used realistic component parameters and operating conditions to model the complete power conversion system. CO 2 properties were evaluated, and the operating range for the cycle was adjusted to take advantage of the rapidly changing conditions near the

  20. Integrating Natural Gas Hydrates in the Global Carbon Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Archer; Bruce Buffett

    2011-12-31

    We produced a two-dimensional geological time- and basin-scale model of the sedimentary margin in passive and active settings, for the simulation of the deep sedimentary methane cycle including hydrate formation. Simulation of geochemical data required development of parameterizations for bubble transport in the sediment column, and for the impact of the heterogeneity in the sediment pore fluid flow field, which represent new directions in modeling methane hydrates. The model is somewhat less sensitive to changes in ocean temperature than our previous 1-D model, due to the different methane transport mechanisms in the two codes (pore fluid flow vs. bubble migration). The model is very sensitive to reasonable changes in organic carbon deposition through geologic time, and to details of how the bubbles migrate, in particular how efficiently they are trapped as they rise through undersaturated or oxidizing chemical conditions and the hydrate stability zone. The active margin configuration reproduces the elevated hydrate saturations observed in accretionary wedges such as the Cascadia Margin, but predicts a decrease in the methane inventory per meter of coastline relative to a comparable passive margin case, and a decrease in the hydrate inventory with an increase in the plate subduction rate.

  1. Optimising the FAMOUS climate model: inclusion of global carbon cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. T. Williams

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available FAMOUS fills an important role in the hierarchy of climate models, both explicitly resolving atmospheric and oceanic dynamics yet being sufficiently computationally efficient that either very long simulations or large ensembles are possible. An improved set of carbon cycle parameters for this model has been found using a perturbed physics ensemble technique. This is an important step towards building the "Earth System" modelling capability of FAMOUS, which is a reduced resolution, and hence faster running, version of the Hadley Centre Climate model, HadCM3. Two separate 100 member perturbed parameter ensembles were performed; one for the land surface and one for the ocean. The land surface scheme was tested against present-day and past representations of vegetation and the ocean ensemble was tested against observations of nitrate. An advantage of using a relatively fast climate model is that a large number of simulations can be run and hence the model parameter space (a large source of climate model uncertainty can be more thoroughly sampled. This has the associated benefit of being able to assess the sensitivity of model results to changes in each parameter. The climatologies of surface and tropospheric air temperature and precipitation are improved relative to previous versions of FAMOUS. The improved representation of upper atmosphere temperatures is driven by improved ozone concentrations near the tropopause and better upper level winds.

  2. Systematic long-term observations of the global carbon cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, R J; Monteiro, P M S; Sabine, C L; Canadell, J G

    2009-08-01

    Imagine a meeting convened to avert a global financial crisis where none of the finance ministers had access to reliable information on changes in the stock market, national gross domestic product or international trade flows. It is hardly conceivable. Yet the infinitely more existence-threatening planetary social and ecological crisis we refer to as 'global change' (comprising the linked issues of biogeochemical, climate, biotic and human system change) is in an analogous situation. Our information on the profound and accelerating changes currently depends to an unacceptable degree on serendipity, individual passion, redirected funding and the largely uncoordinated efforts of a few nations. The thesis of this paper is that navigation of the very narrow 'safe passages' that lie ahead requires a comprehensive and systematic approach to Earth observations, supported by a globally coordinated long-term funding mechanism. We developed the argument based on observations of the carbon cycle, because the issues there are compelling and easily demonstrated, but we believe the conclusions also to be true for many other types of observations relating to the state and management of the biosphere.

  3. Criterion 5: Maintenance of forest contributions to global carbon cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    Northern forests cover more than 42 percent of the region and are enormous reservoirs of carbon. Through photosynthesis, live trees emit oxygen in exchange for carbon dioxide they pull from the atmosphere. As a tree grows it stores carbon in wood above and below ground, and sequestered carbon comprises about half of its dry weight. Dead trees and down logs are also...

  4. Deep water convection and biogeochemical cycling of carbon in the Northern North Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buch, E.; Gissel Nielsen, T.; Lundsgaard, C.; Bendtsen, J.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, the Danish Research Council launched the Global Change project 'Biochemical cycling of carbon and ocean circulation in the Northern North Atlantic'. The overall aim of the project was to describe the effect of high latitude carbon dynamics on the global ocean-atmosphere carbon system, in general, and on the atmospheric pCO 2 in particular. At present, knowledge concerning the seasonal differences in turnover rates of organic material in polar and sub-polar regions is limited. Thus, in order to achieve the aim of the project, it was necessary to obtain biological and chemical rate measurements for production and mineralization of dissolved and particulate organic material at high latitudes and relate these to ocean dynamics at different times of the year. This was investigated in the project by performing three cruises to the Greenland Sea area at different times of the year. The purpose of the present chapter is to give a review of: 1) The physical environment of the Northern North Atlantic (ocean circulation, deep convection, North Atlantic Oscillation) and its variability including the recent trends of importance to climate change. 2) The chemical and biological processes of importance to carbon cycle and the importance of the carbon cycle to our understanding of climate variability. Additionally preliminary results from the Danish global change investigation in the Greenland Sea will be presented. With regard to circulation it is concluded that the deep water in the Greenland Sea continues to warm up, indicating that the deep water formation in this area is reduced. The biological investigations are providing a highly needed basic knowledge of the structure and function of the pelagic food web as well as of the microbial food web of the intermediate and deep water. These studies form a basis for assessing the productivity, export mechanisms, mineralization rates and mineralization depth-scales in these areas. Especially the questions about the

  5. Simulation of an integrated gasification combined cycle with chemical-looping combustion and carbon dioxide sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez Álvaro, Ángel; López Paniagua, Ignacio; González Fernández, Celina; Rodríguez Martín, Javier; Nieto Carlier, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A chemical-looping combustion based integrated gasification combined cycle is simulated. • The energetic performance of the plant is analyzed. • Different hydrogen-content synthesis gases are under study. • Energy savings accounting carbon dioxide sequestration and storage are quantified. • A notable increase on thermal efficiency up to 7% is found. - Abstract: Chemical-looping combustion is an interesting technique that makes it possible to integrate power generation from fuels combustion and sequestration of carbon dioxide without energy penalty. In addition, the combustion chemical reaction occurs with a lower irreversibility compared to a conventional combustion, leading to attain a somewhat higher overall thermal efficiency in gas turbine systems. This paper provides results about the energetic performance of an integrated gasification combined cycle power plant based on chemical-looping combustion of synthesis gas. A real understanding of the behavior of this concept of power plant implies a complete thermodynamic analysis, involving several interrelated aspects as the integration of energy flows between the gasifier and the combined cycle, the restrictions in relation with heat balances and chemical equilibrium in reactors and the performance of the gas turbines and the downstream steam cycle. An accurate thermodynamic modeling is required for the optimization of several design parameters. Simulations to evaluate the energetic efficiency of this chemical-looping-combustion based power plant under diverse working conditions have been carried out, and a comparison with a conventional integrated gasification power plant with precombustion capture of carbon dioxide has been made. Two different synthesis gas compositions have been tried to check its influence on the results. The energy saved in carbon capture and storage is found to be significant and even notable, inducing an improvement of the overall power plant thermal efficiency of

  6. Life cycle GHG assessment of fossil fuel power plants with carbon capture and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odeh, Naser A.; Cockerill, Timothy T.

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from power generation with carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a critical factor in energy and policy analysis. The current paper examines life cycle emissions from three types of fossil-fuel-based power plants, namely supercritical pulverized coal (super-PC), natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), with and without CCS. Results show that, for a 90% CO 2 capture efficiency, life cycle GHG emissions are reduced by 75-84% depending on what technology is used. With GHG emissions less than 170 g/kWh, IGCC technology is found to be favorable to NGCC with CCS. Sensitivity analysis reveals that, for coal power plants, varying the CO 2 capture efficiency and the coal transport distance has a more pronounced effect on life cycle GHG emissions than changing the length of CO 2 transport pipeline. Finally, it is concluded from the current study that while the global warming potential is reduced when MEA-based CO 2 capture is employed, the increase in other air pollutants such as NO x and NH 3 leads to higher eutrophication and acidification potentials

  7. A Carbon Dioxide Gas Turbine Direct Cycle with Partial Condensation for Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuyoshi Kato; Takeshi Nitawaki; Yoshio Yoshizawa

    2002-01-01

    A carbon dioxide gas turbine power generation system with a partial condensation cycle has been proposed for thermal and fast nuclear reactors, in which compression is done partly in the liquid phase and partly in the gas phase. This cycle achieves higher cycle efficiency than a He direct cycle mainly due to reduced compressor work of the liquid phase and of the carbon dioxide real gas effect, especially in the vicinity of the critical point. If this cycle is applied to a thermal reactor, efficiency of this cycle is about 55% at a reactor outlet temperature of 900 deg. C and pressure of 12.5 MPa, which is higher by about 10% than a typical helium direct gas turbine cycle plant (PBMR) at 900 deg. C and 8.4 MPa; this cycle also provides comparable cycle efficiency at the moderate core outlet temperature of 600 deg. C with that of the helium cycle at 900 deg. C. If this cycle is applied to a fast reactor, it is anticipated to be an alternative to liquid metal cooled fast reactors that can provide slightly higher cycle efficiency at the same core outlet temperature; it would eliminate safety problems, simplify the heat transport system and simplify plant maintenance. A passive decay heat removal system is realized by connecting a liquid carbon dioxide storage tank with the reactor vessel and by supplying carbon dioxide gasified from the tank to the core in case of depressurization event. (authors)

  8. Evaluation of carbon dioxide blends with isopentane and propane as working fluids for organic Rankine cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Pardeep; Kumar, Pramod; Srinivasan, Kandadai; Dutta, Pradip

    2013-01-01

    The main theme of this paper is to study the flammability suppression of hydrocarbons by blending with carbon dioxide, and to evaluate these mixtures as possible working fluids in organic Rankine cycle for medium temperature concentrated solar power applications. The analysis takes into account inevitable irreversibilities in the turbine, the pump, and heat exchangers. While the isopentane + CO 2 mixture suffers from high irreversibility mainly in the regenerator owing to a large temperature glide, the propane + CO 2 mixture performs more or less the same as pure propane albeit with high cycle pressures. In general, large temperature glides at condensing pressures extend the heat recovery into the two-phase dome, which is an advantage. However, at the same time, the shift of the pinch point towards the warm end of the regenerator is found to be a major cause of irreversibility. In fact, as the number of carbon atoms in alkanes decreases, their blend with CO 2 moves the pinch point to the colder end of the regenerator. This results in lower entropy generation in the regenerator and improved cycle efficiency of propane + CO 2 mixtures. With this mixture, real cycle efficiencies of 15–18% are achievable at a moderate source temperature of 573 K. Applicability for a wide range of source temperatures is found to be an added advantage of this mixture. -- Highlights: ► Non-water based working fluids and their mixtures for power generation. ► Results for carbon dioxide blends with isopentane and propane. ► Appropriation of irreversibilities in cycle components. ► Entropy generation based on pinch point of regenerator and heat source temperature

  9. Quantitative assessment of the differential impacts of arbuscular and ectomycorrhiza on soil carbon cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A.; van der Heijden, Marcel G A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/240923901; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Makarov, Mikhail I.; Onipchenko, Vladimir G.; Maslov, Mikhail N.; Akhmetzhanova, Asem A.; van Bodegom, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    A significant fraction of carbon stored in the Earth's soil moves through arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) and ectomycorrhiza (EM). The impacts of AM and EM on the soil carbon budget are poorly understood. We propose a method to quantify the mycorrhizal contribution to carbon cycling, explicitly

  10. Water cycle dynamic increases resilience of vegetation under higher atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemordant, L. A.; Gentine, P.; Stéfanon, M.; Drobinski, P. J.; Fatichi, S.

    2015-12-01

    Plant stomata couple the energy, water and carbon cycles. Photosynthesis requires stomata to open to take up carbon dioxide. In the process water vapor is released as transpiration. As atmospheric CO2 concentration rises, for the same amount of CO2 uptake, less water vapor is transpired, translating into higher water use efficiency. Reduced water vapor losses will increase soil water storage if the leaf area coverage remains similar. This will in turn alter the surface energy partitioning: more heat will be dissipated as sensible heat flux, resulting in possibly higher surface temperatures. In contrast with this common hypothesis, our study shows that the water saved during the growing season by increased WUE can be mobilized by the vegetation and help reduce the maximum temperature of mid-latitude heat waves. The large scale meteorological conditions of 2003 are the basis of four regional model simulations coupling an atmospheric model to a surface model. We performed two simulations with respectively 2003 (CTL) and 2100 (FUT) atmospheric CO2 applied to both the atmospheric and surface models. A third (RAD) and a fourth (FER) simulations are run with 2100 CO2 concentration applied to respectively the atmospheric model only and the surface model only. RAD investigates the impact of the radiative forcing, and FER the response to vegetation CO2 fertilization. Our results show that the water saved through higher water use efficiency during the growing season enabled by higher atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations helps the vegetation to cope during severe heat and dryness conditions in the summer of mid-latitude climate. These results demonstrate that consideration of the vegetation carbon cycle is essential to model the seasonal water cycle dynamic and land-atmosphere interactions, and enhance the accuracy of the model outputs especially for extreme events. They also have important implications for the future of agriculture, water resources management, ecosystems

  11. Reconstructing Sulfur Cycling at Cretaceous Methane Seeps: Novel Perspectives from Carbonate-Associated Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, L. G.; Lyons, T. W.; Gill, B. C.; Formolo, M.; Shapiro, R. S.; Tripati, A.; Loyd, S. J.; Bates, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    The mechanisms of methane cycling have been studied extensively, but its full role in the chemical and organismal evolution of the ocean through time, including its closely coupled relationship to the sulfur cycle, is still largely unresolved. Modern and ancient seeps are ideal natural labs for studying coupled methane-sulfur cycles and their geochemical fingerprints as a function of the flux of methane through these systems and its availability in the ocean and marine sediments more generally. Many seep studies examine sulfur in pyrite, but pyrite formation in these settings is typically limited by the availability of reactive iron, thus only capturing the earliest diagenetic processes. In such cases, a better way to track sulfur and its role in modulating methane production and consumption is by following the pathways of dissolved sulfate, using carbonate-associated sulfate or CAS. While commonly used to track evolving seawater composition, CAS can also constrain conditions of diagenetic carbonate precipitation. This study focuses on a Cretaceous system of methane seeps, the Tepee Buttes in Colorado--which is marked by complex carbonate paragenesis--and traces sulfur, carbon, and oxygen isotopes to unravel ancient methane cycling, its relationship to sulfur metabolic pathways, and the preservational history of proxies such as CAS during burial. Burial history of this system is further unraveled through use of carbon and oxygen isotopes of various carbonate fabrics, including clumped isotope analysis. Additional geochemical measurements from the surrounding shales, such as data for redox sensitive metals, provide a context for the host setting in the Western Interior Seaway. Preliminary data suggest that paired isotopic and concentration measurements of CAS could be used to closely track spatiotemporal variation in rates of microbial sulfate reduction as coupled to anaerobic methane oxidation. These rates in both ancient and modern settings vary spatially and

  12. Studies of iron carbon alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagnostopoulos, T.

    1971-01-01

    Precipitation of carbon in α iron during a thermal treatment was followed using the magnetic after effect. A study was made of the influence of different parameters such as quenching speed, annealing rate, carbon concentration with or without impurity, irradiation effects. A transient sur-saturation occurs during dissolution of carbon in iron at 500 C. (author) [fr

  13. High resolution remote sensing for reducing uncertainties in urban forest carbon offset life cycle assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigges, Jan; Lakes, Tobia

    2017-10-04

    Urban forests reduce greenhouse gas emissions by storing and sequestering considerable amounts of carbon. However, few studies have considered the local scale of urban forests to effectively evaluate their potential long-term carbon offset. The lack of precise, consistent and up-to-date forest details is challenging for long-term prognoses. Therefore, this review aims to identify uncertainties in urban forest carbon offset assessment and discuss the extent to which such uncertainties can be reduced by recent progress in high resolution remote sensing. We do this by performing an extensive literature review and a case study combining remote sensing and life cycle assessment of urban forest carbon offset in Berlin, Germany. Recent progress in high resolution remote sensing and methods is adequate for delivering more precise details on the urban tree canopy, individual tree metrics, species, and age structures compared to conventional land use/cover class approaches. These area-wide consistent details can update life cycle inventories for more precise future prognoses. Additional improvements in classification accuracy can be achieved by a higher number of features derived from remote sensing data of increasing resolution, but first studies on this subject indicated that a smart selection of features already provides sufficient data that avoids redundancies and enables more efficient data processing. Our case study from Berlin could use remotely sensed individual tree species as consistent inventory of a life cycle assessment. However, a lack of growth, mortality and planting data forced us to make assumptions, therefore creating uncertainty in the long-term prognoses. Regarding temporal changes and reliable long-term estimates, more attention is required to detect changes of gradual growth, pruning and abrupt changes in tree planting and mortality. As such, precise long-term urban ecological monitoring using high resolution remote sensing should be intensified

  14. CO{sub 2} capture behavior of shell during calcination/carbonation cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.J.; Zhao, C.S.; Chen, H.C.; Duan, L.B.; Chen, X.P. [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing (China)

    2009-08-15

    The cyclic carbonation performances of shells as CO{sub 2} sorbents were investigated during multiple calcination/carbonation cycles. The carbonation kinetics of the shell and limestone are similar since they both exhibit a fast kinetically controlled reaction regime and a diffusion controlled reaction regime, but their carbonation rates differ between these two regions. Shell achieves the maximum carbonation conversion for carbonation at 680-700 C. The mactra veneriformis shell and mussel shell exhibit higher carbonation conversions than limestone after several cycles at the same reaction conditions. The carbonation conversion of scallop shell is slightly higher than that of limestone after a series of cycles. The calcined shell appears more porous than calcined limestone, and possesses more pores >230 nm, which allow large CO{sub 2} diffusion-carbonation reaction rates and higher conversion due to the increased surface area of the shell. The pores of the shell that are greater than 230 nm do not sinter significantly. The shell has more sodium ions than limestone, which probably leads to an improvement in the cyclic carbonation performance during the multiple calcination/carbonation cycles. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Integrating the nitrogen cycle in carbon and GHG observation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsch, W. L.; Brummer, C.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen is an important factor for the regulation of carbon and GHG fluxes within ecosystems and between ecosystems and the atmosphere. Nitrogen fertilization is important for high agricultural yields but also increases N2O emissions. In Germany, e.g., N2O emissions from agriculture comprise about 6 % of the total GHG inventory. Nitrogen deposition may enhance productivity of ecosystems (e.g. forests, natural grasslands or wetlands) but may also change community structure - in particular in ecosystems that are adapted to low nitrogen availability. It also can lead to increased N2O emissions. Global nitrogen fluxes due to the trade of agricultural products may concentrate nitrogen in specific areas (e.g. in areas with high animal stock). In these areas increased N2O emissions are to be expected. The Thünen Institute of Climate-Smart Agriculture drives parts of the German ICOS consortium with a special focus on agricultural sites or indirect effects of agriculture on GHG emissions. We propose a concept to integrate nitrogen into research infrastructures for GHG monitoring. A conceptual frame will identify the most important parameters of the N cycle. Data from the CarboEurope and NitroEurope core site Gebesee (crop) will be presented to show first integrative results.Finally, first experiences with new technologies will be presented, comprising quantum cascade laser measurements of N2O and ammonia used with eddy covariance (EC) and chambers and EC measurements of total reactive nitrogen with the TRANC methodology (Marx et al. 2012).

  16. Mixing it up in the ocean carbon cycle and the removal of refractory dissolved organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuan; Benner, Ronald

    2018-02-07

    A large quantity of reduced carbon is sequestered in the ocean as refractory dissolved molecules that persist through several circuits of global overturning circulation. Key aspects of the cycling of refractory dissolved organic carbon (DOC) remain unknown, making it challenging to predict how this large carbon reservoir will respond to climate change. Herein we investigate mechanisms that remove refractory DOC using bioassay experiments with DOC isolated from surface, mesopelagic and deep waters of the Atlantic Ocean. The isolated DOC was refractory to degradation by native microbial communities, even at elevated concentrations. However, when the refractory DOC was introduced to a series of novel environmental conditions, including addition of a labile substrate, a microbial community from coastal waters and exposure to solar radiation, a substantial fraction (7-13%) was removed within 1.5 years. Our results suggest that while refractory molecules can persist in the ocean for millennia, removal is rapid when they encounter their fate. The observed and projected climate-induced slowdown of global overturning circulation could reduce the exposure of refractory molecules to disparate removal processes. Assuming a constant rate of production, the reservoir size of refractory DOC could increase as overturning circulation slows, providing a negative feedback to rising atmospheric CO 2 .

  17. Effects of climate extremes on the terrestrial carbon cycle: concepts, processes and potential future impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Dorothea; Reichstein, Markus; Bahn, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Extreme droughts, heat waves, frosts, precipitation, wind storms and other climate extremes may impact the structure, composition and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, and thus carbon cycling and its feedbacks to the climate system. Yet, the interconnected avenues through which climate...... extremes drive ecological and physiological processes and alter the carbon balance are poorly understood. Here, we review the literature on carbon cycle relevant responses of ecosystems to extreme climatic events. Given that impacts of climate extremes are considered disturbances, we assume the respective...... which climate extremes may act on the carbon cycle. We find that ecosystem responses can exceed the duration of the climate impacts via lagged effects on the carbon cycle. The expected regional impacts of future climate extremes will depend on changes in the probability and severity of their occurrence...

  18. Sulfate-reducing microorganisms in wetlands – fameless actors in carbon cycling and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael ePester

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater wetlands are a major source of the greenhouse gas methane but at the same time can function as carbon sink. Their response to global warming and environmental pollution is one of the largest unknowns in the upcoming decades to centuries. In this review, we highlight the role of sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM in the intertwined element cycles of wetlands. Although regarded primarily as methanogenic environments, biogeochemical studies have revealed a previously hidden sulfur cycle in wetlands that can sustain rapid renewal of the small standing pools of sulfate. Thus, dissimilatory sulfate reduction, which frequently occurs at rates comparable to marine surface sediments, can contribute up to 36–50% to anaerobic carbon mineralization in these ecosystems. Since sulfate reduction is thermodynamically favored relative to fermentative processes and methanogenesis, it effectively decreases gross methane production thereby mitigating the flux of methane to the atmosphere. However, very little is known about wetland SRM. Molecular analyses using dsrAB [encoding subunit A and B of the dissimilatory (bisulfite reductase] as marker genes demonstrated that members of novel phylogenetic lineages, which are unrelated to recognized SRM, dominate dsrAB richness and, if tested, are also abundant among the dsrAB-containing wetland microbiota. These discoveries point towards the existence of so far unknown SRM that are an important part of the autochthonous wetland microbiota. In addition to these numerically dominant microorganisms, a recent stable isotope probing study of SRM in a German peatland indicated that rare biosphere members might be highly active in situ and have a considerable stake in wetland sulfate reduction. The hidden sulfur cycle in wetlands and the fact that wetland SRM are not well represented by described SRM species explains their so far neglected role as important actors in carbon cycling and climate change.

  19. Carbon Quantum Dots and Their Derivative 3D Porous Carbon Frameworks for Sodium-Ion Batteries with Ultralong Cycle Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hongshuai; Banks, Craig E; Jing, Mingjun; Zhang, Yan; Ji, Xiaobo

    2015-12-16

    A new methodology for the synthesis of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) for large production is proposed. The as-obtained CQDs can be transformed into 3D porous carbon frameworks exhibiting superb sodium storage properties with ultralong cycle life and ultrahigh rate capability, comparable to state-of-the-art carbon anode materials for sodium-ion batteries. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Floodplain Impact on Riverine Dissolved Carbon Cycling in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelDuco, E.; Xu, Y. J.

    2017-12-01

    Studies have shown substantial increases in the export of terrestrial carbon by rivers over the past several decades, and have linked these increases to human activity such as changes in land use, urbanization, and intensive agriculture. The Mississippi River (MR) is the largest river in North America, and is among the largest in the world, making its carbon export globally significant. The Atchafalaya River (AR) receives 25% of the Mississippi River's flow before traveling 189 kilometers through the largest bottomland swamp in North America, providing a unique opportunity to study floodplain impacts on dissolved carbon in a large river. The aim of this study was to determine how dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the AR change spatially and seasonally, and to elucidate which processes control carbon cycling in this intricate swamp river system. From May 2015 -May 2016, we conducted monthly river sampling from the river's inflow to its outflow, analyzing samples for DOC and DIC concentrations and δ 13C stable isotope composition. During the study period, the river discharged a total of 5.35 Tg DIC and a total of 2.34 Tg DOC into the Gulf of Mexico. Based on the mass inflow-outflow balance, approximately 0.53 Tg ( 10%) of the total DIC exported was produced within the floodplain, while 0.24 Tg ( 10%) of DOC entering the basin was removed. The AR was consistently saturated with pCO2 above atmospheric pressure, indicating that this swamp-river system acts a large source of DIC to the atmosphere as well as to coastal margins. Largest changes in carbon constituents occurred during periods of greatest inundation of the basin, and corresponded with shifts in isotopic composition that indicated large inputs of DIC from floodplains. This effect was particularly pronounced during initial flood stages. This study demonstrates that a major river with extensive floodplains in its coastal margin can act as an important source of DIC as well

  1. Formulating energy policies related to fossil fuel use: Critical uncertainties in the global carbon cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, W.M.; Dale, V.H.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; O' Neill, R.V.; Peng, T.-H.; Farrell, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    The global carbon cycle is the dynamic interaction among the earth's carbon sources and sinks. Four reservoirs can be identified, including the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and sediments. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is determined by characteristics of carbon fluxes among major reservoirs of the global carbon cycle. The objective of this paper is to document the knowns, and unknowns and uncertainties associated with key questions that if answered will increase the understanding of the portion of past, present, and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} attributable to fossil fuel burning. Documented atmospheric increases in CO{sub 2} levels are thought to result primarily from fossil fuel use and, perhaps, deforestation. However, the observed atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase is less than expected from current understanding of the global carbon cycle because of poorly understood interactions among the major carbon reservoirs. 87 refs.

  2. Formulating Energy Policies Related to Fossil Fuel Use: Critical Uncertainties in the Global Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, W. M.; Dale, V. H.; DeAngelis, D. L.; Mann, L. K.; Mulholland, P. J.; O`Neill, R. V.; Peng, T. -H.; Farrell, M. P.

    1990-02-01

    The global carbon cycle is the dynamic interaction among the earth's carbon sources and sinks. Four reservoirs can be identified, including the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and sediments. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is determined by characteristics of carbon fluxes among major reservoirs of the global carbon cycle. The objective of this paper is to document the knowns, and unknowns and uncertainties associated with key questions that if answered will increase the understanding of the portion of past, present, and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} attributable to fossil fuel burning. Documented atmospheric increases in CO{sub 2} levels are thought to result primarily from fossil fuel use and, perhaps, deforestation. However, the observed atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase is less than expected from current understanding of the global carbon cycle because of poorly understood interactions among the major carbon reservoirs.

  3. Use of Landsat-based monitoring of forest change to sample and assess the role of disturbance and regrowth in the carbon cycle at continental scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren B. Cohen; Sean P. Healey; Samuel Goward; Gretchen G. Moisen; Jeffrey G. Masek; Robert E. Kennedy; Scott L. Powell; Chengquan Huang; Nancy Thomas; Karen Schleeweis; Michael A. Wulder

    2007-01-01

    The exchange of carbon between forests and the atmosphere is a function of forest type, climate, and disturbance history, with previous studies illustrating that forests play a key role in the terrestrial carbon cycle. The North American Carbon Program (NACP) has supported the acquisition of biennial Landsat image time-series for sample locations throughout much of...

  4. Monitoring, modelling and managing Canada's forest carbon cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurz, W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents information concerning the management of carbon stocks both globally and in Canada, with reference to the fact that forests may contribute to carbon emissions problems. Global fossil carbon emissions statistics were provided, as well as data of forest area per capita in Canada and various countries. Details of forest management options and carbon accounting with reference to the Kyoto Protocol were reviewed. An explanation of forest management credits in national accounts was provided. An explanation of carbon sinks and carbon sources was also presented, along with details of stand level carbon dynamics. A model for calculating landscape level carbon stocks was presented, with reference to increasing and decreasing disturbances. A hypothetical landscape example was provided. It was concluded that age-class structure affect the amount of carbon stored in landscape; age-class structure also affect carbon dynamics; and responses reflect the change in disturbance regimes. An overview of international reporting requirements was presented. Canadian harvests equal 54,000 tonnes of carbon per year. It was recommended that managed forests could increase carbon in forests while also managing carbon harvests to meet society's needs. A chart presenting forest management details was presented, along with a hypothetical landscape example and a forecast for cumulative changes after 50 years, The benefits and challenges of forest management were reviewed as well as options regarding salvaging and deforestation avoidance. A carbon budget model was presented. It was concluded that forests in Canada could be used in a greenhouse gas management strategy. However, changes in disturbance may mean the difference between net source or net sink. Details of biomass were presented and multi-mode combustion facilities. The feasibility of biomass as a fuel source was discussed, with reference to hydrogen fuel. Gas composition profiles were provided, as well as details of

  5. a Numerical Model of the Global Carbon Cycle to Predict Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambis, Alexis Demitrios

    1995-01-01

    A numerical model of the global carbon cycle is presented which includes the effects of anthropogenic CO_2 emissions (CO_2 produced from fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, and deforestation) on the global carbon cycle. The model is validated against measured atmospheric CO_2 concentrations. Future levels of atmospheric CO_2 are then predicted for the following scenarios: (1) Business as Usual (BaU) for the period 1990 -2000; (2) Same as (1), but with no biomass burning; (3) Same as (1), but with no fossil fuel combustion; (4) Same as (1), but with a doubled atmospheric CO_2 concentration and a 2 K warmer surface temperature associated with the doubled atmospheric CO_2 concentration. The global model presented here consists of four different modules which are fully coupled with respect to CO_2. These modules represent carbon cycling by the terrestrial biosphere and the ocean, anthropogenic CO_2 emissions, and atmospheric transport of CO_2.. The prognostic variable of interest is the atmospheric CO_2 concentration field. The CO_2 concentration field depends on both the sources and sinks of CO_2 as well as the atmospheric circulation. In addition, the sources and sinks vary significantly as a function of both time and geographic location. The model output agrees well with measured data at the equatorial and mid latitudes, but this agreement weakens at higher latitudes. This is due to the less adequate representation of the terrestrial ecosystem models at these latitudes. In the first scenario, the predicted concentration of atmospheric CO_2 is 362 parts per million by volume (ppmv) at the end of the 10 year model run. This establishes a baseline for the next three scenarios, which predict that biomass burning will contribute 3 ppmv of CO_2 to the atmosphere by the year 2000, while fossil fuel combustion will contribute 5 ppmv. The net effect of a 2 K average global warming was to increase the atmospheric CO_2 concentration by approximately 1 ppmv, due to

  6. Design of catalytic monoliths for closed-cycle carbon dioxide lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, R. K.; Guinn, K.; Goldblum, S.; Noskowski, E.

    1989-01-01

    Pulsed carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers have many applications in aeronautics, space research, weather monitoring and other areas. Full exploitation of the potential of these lasers in hampered by the dissociation of CO2 that occurs during laser operation. The development of closed-cycle CO2 lasers requires active CO-O2 recombination (CO oxidation) catalyst and design methods for implementation of catalysts in CO2 laser systems. A monolith catalyst section model and associated design computer program, LASCAT, are presented to assist in the design of a monolith catalyst section of a closed cycle CO2 laser system. Using LASCAT,the designer is able to specify a number of system parameters and determine the monolith section performance. Trade-offs between the catalyst activity, catalyst dimensions, monolith dimensions, pressure drop, O2 conversion, and other variables can be explored and adjusted to meet system design specifications. An introduction describes a typical closed-cycle CO2 system, and indicates some advantages of a closed cycle laser system over an open cycle system and some advantages of monolith support over other types of supports. The development and use of a monolith catalyst model is presented. The results of a design study and a discussion of general design rules are given.

  7. Pyrogenic Carbon as a Nonlinear Driver in the Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, C. A.; Silberg, J. J.; Cheng, H. Y.; Gao, X.; Del Valle, I.

    2016-12-01

    Our first conceptual models of pyrogenic carbon's effects on the carbon cycle treated this material as a form of organic matter whose environmental residence time was long enough to render it inert, and PyC was modeled as an unreactive mass that moved through C cycle reservoirs essentially unmodified. This concept saw modifications with the recognition that some fractions of PyC were labile. For example, the reactive sugars and lignin monomers cleaved off the lignocellulose matrix by heating have lifetimes on the order of hours to weeks. However, the now-common multiple component model of PyC does not satisfactorily explain many nonlinearities that have been observed when it is added to soils. These nonlinearities include the positive and negative "priming" effects sometimes triggered, where the presence of PyC in some matrices can trigger shifts in the overall microbial community metabolism, as well as alteration of microbial community structure, shifts in the behavior of belowground and aboveground plant parasites, and shifted rates of greenhouse gas emissions that are not well-correlated to shifts in soil hydrologic processes. To understand the effects of PyC on the global C and N cycles, we will need a better understanding of the mechanisms behind PyC-driven C and N cycle nonlinearities. This talk will examine potential mechanisms driving the nonlinearities observed in soil systems following the introduction of PyC. Potential mechanisms discussed will include PyC effects on soil microbial communication and PyC effects on microbial electron transfer. Cell-cell communication through the secretion and detection of small molecules is used by soil microbes to manage many biogeochemically relevant processes including production of biofilms, production of extracellular enzymes, and management of methanogenesis and denitrification. PyC disrupts microbial cell-cell communication differentially, altering some species' ability to communicate more than others. Electron

  8. Coupling a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle to a Helium-Cooled Reactor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleton, Bobby [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pasch, James Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kruizenga, Alan Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Walker, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report outlines the thermodynamics of a supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) recompression closed Brayton cycle (RCBC) coupled to a Helium-cooled nuclear reactor. The baseline reactor design for the study is the AREVA High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). Using the AREVA HTGR nominal operating parameters, an initial thermodynamic study was performed using Sandia's deterministic RCBC analysis program. Utilizing the output of the RCBC thermodynamic analysis, preliminary values of reactor power and of Helium flow rate through the reactor were calculated in Sandia's HelCO2 code. Some research regarding materials requirements was then conducted to determine aspects of corrosion related to both Helium and to sCO2 , as well as some mechanical considerations for pressures and temperatures that will be seen by the piping and other components. This analysis resulted in a list of materials-related research items that need to be conducted in the future. A short assessment of dry heat rejection advantages of sCO2> Brayton cycles was also included. This assessment lists some items that should be investigated in the future to better understand how sCO2 Brayton cycles and nuclear can maximally contribute to optimizing the water efficiency of carbon free power generation

  9. A coupled model of the global cycles of carbonyl sulfide and CO2: A possible new window on the carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Joe; Wolf, Adam; Campbell, J. Elliott; Baker, Ian; Blake, Nicola; Blake, Don; Denning, A. Scott; Kawa, S. Randy; Montzka, Stephen A.; Seibt, Ulrike; Stimler, Keren; Yakir, Dan; Zhu, Zhengxin

    2013-06-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is an atmospheric trace gas that participates in some key reactions of the carbon cycle and thus holds great promise for studies of carbon cycle processes. Global monitoring networks and atmospheric sampling programs provide concurrent data on COS and CO2 concentrations in the free troposphere and atmospheric boundary layer over vegetated areas. Here we present a modeling framework for interpreting these data and illustrate what COS measurements might tell us about carbon cycle processes. We implemented mechanistic and empirical descriptions of leaf and soil COS uptake into a global carbon cycle model (SiB 3) to obtain new estimates of the COS land flux. We then introduced these revised boundary conditions to an atmospheric transport model (Parameterized Chemical Transport Model) to simulate the variations in the concentration of COS and CO2 in the global atmosphere. To balance the threefold increase in the global vegetation sink relative to the previous baseline estimate, we propose a new ocean COS source. Using a simple inversion approach, we optimized the latitudinal distribution of this ocean source and found that it is concentrated in the tropics. The new model is capable of reproducing the seasonal variation in atmospheric concentration at most background atmospheric sites. The model also reproduces the observed large vertical gradients in COS between the boundary layer and free troposphere. Using a simulation experiment, we demonstrate that comparing drawdown of CO2 with COS could provide additional constraints on differential responses of photosynthesis and respiration to environmental forcing. The separation of these two distinct processes is essential to understand the carbon cycle components for improved prediction of future responses of the terrestrial biosphere to changing environmental conditions.

  10. An engineered Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle for carbon dioxide fixation in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Borzyskowski, Lennart Schada; Carrillo, Martina; Leupold, Simeon; Glatter, Timo; Kiefer, Patrick; Weishaupt, Ramon; Heinemann, Matthias; Erb, Tobias J

    2018-04-03

    Organisms are either heterotrophic or autotrophic, meaning that they cover their carbon requirements by assimilating organic compounds or by fixing inorganic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The conversion of a heterotrophic organism into an autotrophic one by metabolic engineering is a long-standing goal in synthetic biology and biotechnology, because it ultimately allows for the production of value-added compounds from CO 2 . The heterotrophic Alphaproteobacterium Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 is a platform organism for a future C1-based bioeconomy. Here we show that M. extorquens AM1 provides unique advantages for establishing synthetic autotrophy, because energy metabolism and biomass formation can be effectively separated from each other in the organism. We designed and realized an engineered strain of M. extorquens AM1 that can use the C1 compound methanol for energy acquisition and forms biomass from CO 2 by implementation of a heterologous Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle. We demonstrate that the heterologous CBB cycle is active, confers a distinct phenotype, and strongly increases viability of the engineered strain. Metabolic 13 C-tracer analysis demonstrates the functional operation of the heterologous CBB cycle in M. extorquens AM1 and comparative proteomics of the engineered strain show that the host cell reacts to the implementation of the CBB cycle in a plastic way. While the heterologous CBB cycle is not able to support full autotrophic growth of M. extorquens AM1, our study represents a further advancement in the design and realization of synthetic autotrophic organisms. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Pipeline bottoming cycle study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of applying bottoming cycles to the prime movers that drive the compressors of natural gas pipelines was studied. These bottoming cycles convert some of the waste heat from the exhaust gas of the prime movers into shaft power and conserve gas. Three typical compressor station sites were selected, each on a different pipeline. Although the prime movers were different, they were similar enough in exhaust gas flow rate and temperature that a single bottoming cycle system could be designed, with some modifications, for all three sites. Preliminary design included selection of the bottoming cycle working fluid, optimization of the cycle, and design of the components, such as turbine, vapor generator and condensers. Installation drawings were made and hardware and installation costs were estimated. The results of the economic assessment of retrofitting bottoming cycle systems on the three selected sites indicated that profitability was strongly dependent upon the site-specific installation costs, how the energy was used and the yearly utilization of the apparatus. The study indicated that the bottoming cycles are a competitive investment alternative for certain applications for the pipeline industry. Bottoming cycles are technically feasible. It was concluded that proper design and operating practices would reduce the environmental and safety hazards to acceptable levels. The amount of gas that could be saved through the year 2000 by the adoption of bottoming cycles for two different supply projections was estimated as from 0.296 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a low supply projection to 0.734 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a high supply projection. The potential market for bottoming cycle equipment for the two supply projections varied from 170 to 500 units of varying size. Finally, a demonstration program plan was developed.

  12. Global geochemical cycles of carbon, sulfur and oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Time resolved data on the carbon isotopic composition of carbonate minerals and the sulfur isotopic composition or sulfate minerals show a strong negative correlation during the Cretaceous. Carbonate minerals are isotopically heavy during this period while sulfate minerals are isotopically light. The implication is that carbon is being transferred from the oxidized, carbonate reservoir to the reservoir of isotopically light reduced organic carbon in sedimentary rocks while sulfur is being transferred from the reservoir of isotopically light sedimentary sulfide to the oxidized, sulfate reservoir. These apparently oppositely directed changes in the oxidation state of average sedimentary carbon and sulfur are surprising because of a well-established and easy to understand correlation between the concentrations of reduced organic carbon and sulfide minerals in sedimentary rocks. Rocks rich in reduced carbon are also rich in reduced sulfur. The isotopic and concentration data can be reconciled by a model which invokes a significant flux of hydrothermal sulfide to the deep sea, at least during the Cretaceous.

  13. A Natural Light/Dark Cycle Regulation of Carbon-Nitrogen Metabolism and Gene Expression in Rice Shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haixing; Liang, Zhijun; Ding, Guangda; Shi, Lei; Xu, Fangsen; Cai, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Light and temperature are two particularly important environmental cues for plant survival. Carbon and nitrogen are two essential macronutrients required for plant growth and development, and cellular carbon and nitrogen metabolism must be tightly coordinated. In order to understand how the natural light/dark cycle regulates carbon and nitrogen metabolism in rice plants, we analyzed the photosynthesis, key carbon-nitrogen metabolites, and enzyme activities, and differentially expressed genes and miRNAs involved in the carbon and nitrogen metabolic pathway in rice shoots at the following times: 2:00, 6:00, 10:00, 14:00, 18:00, and 22:00. Our results indicated that more CO2 was fixed into carbohydrates by a high net photosynthetic rate, respiratory rate, and stomatal conductance in the daytime. Although high levels of the nitrate reductase activity, free ammonium and carbohydrates were exhibited in the daytime, the protein synthesis was not significantly facilitated by the light and temperature. In mRNA sequencing, the carbon and nitrogen metabolism-related differentially expressed genes were obtained, which could be divided into eight groups: photosynthesis, TCA cycle, sugar transport, sugar metabolism, nitrogen transport, nitrogen reduction, amino acid metabolism, and nitrogen regulation. Additionally, a total of 78,306 alternative splicing events have been identified, which primarily belong to alternative 5' donor sites, alternative 3' acceptor sites, intron retention, and exon skipping. In sRNA sequencing, four carbon and nitrogen metabolism-related miRNAs (osa-miR1440b, osa-miR2876-5p, osa-miR1877 and osa-miR5799) were determined to be regulated by natural light/dark cycle. The expression level analysis showed that the four carbon and nitrogen metabolism-related miRNAs negatively regulated their target genes. These results may provide a good strategy to study how natural light/dark cycle regulates carbon and nitrogen metabolism to ensure plant growth and

  14. SONNE: Solar-Based Man-Made Carbon Cycle and the Carbon Dioxide Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Detlev [Brandenburg Technical Univ., Berlin (Germany)], e-mail: moe@btu-lc.fta-berlin.de

    2012-06-15

    Humans became a global force in the chemical evolution with respect to climate change by interrupting naturally evolved biogeochemical cycles. However, humans also have all the facilities to turn the 'chemical revolution' into a sustainable chemical evolution. I define a sustainable society as one able to balance the environment, other life forms, and human interactions over an indefinite time period. There is much discussion on 'sustainable chemistry' (often called green chemistry), but, in my understanding, the basic principle, is to transfer matter for energetic and material use only within global cycles, without changing reservoir concentrations above a critical level. With respect to atmospheric pollution, the last unsolved issues (remaining pollutants) are 'greenhouse' gases, namely CO{sub 2}, which contributes to about 70 % of anthropogenically caused global warming (other important gases such as CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O contribute to roughly 25 % of warming; these gases are associated mainly with agricultural activities). The dilemma is given simply by time scales: limits of the 2 deg threshold by 2050 and drastic reduction in global CO{sub 2} emission; that is, the cumulative CO{sub 2} emissions determine atmospheric (and oceanic) CO{sub 2} levels. Because of the large CO{sub 2} residence time in natural reservoirs, in the order of 1000 years in the atmosphere and about 200 000 years for dissolved inorganic carbon-DIC in surface seawater, humans now determine the still unknown relationships of possible climate recovery, irreversible climate change, and future abatement strategies. (Solomon et al. 2009). The percentage not accumulated in the atmosphere must have been taken up by the ocean and terrestrial biosphere as well. Mining and the combustion of fossils fuels now results in the geological reservoir redistribution of carbon close to (or even surpassing) the 'tipping point'. It is assumed that in the near future

  15. Implications of plant acclimation for future climate-carbon cycle feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Lina; Kattge, Jens; Cox, Peter; Sitch, Stephen; Knorr, Wolfgang; Lloyd, Jon; Huntingford, Chris

    2010-05-01

    The response of land ecosystems to climate change and associated feedbacks are a key uncertainty in future climate prediction (Friedlingstein et al. 2006). However global models generally do not account for the acclimation of plant physiological processes to increased temperatures. Here we conduct a first global sensitivity study whereby we modify the Joint UK land Environment Simulator (JULES) to account for temperature acclimation of two main photosynthetic parameters, Vcmax and Jmax (Kattge and Knorr 2007) and plant respiration (Atkin and Tjoelker 2003). The model is then applied over the 21st Century within the IMOGEN framework (Huntingford et al. 2004). Model simulations will provide new and improved projections of biogeochemical cycling, forest resilience, and thus more accurate projections of climate-carbon cycle feedbacks and the future evolution of the Earth System. Friedlingstein P, Cox PM, Betts R et al. (2006) Climate-carbon cycle feedback analysis, results from the C4MIP model intercomparison. Journal of Climate, 19, 3337-3353. Kattge J and Knorr W (2007): Temperature acclimation in a biochemical model of photosynthesis: a reanalysis of data from 36 species. Plant, Cell and Environment 30, 1176-1190 Atkin O.K and Tjoelker, M. G. (2003): Thermal acclimation and the dynamic response of plant respiration to temperature. Trends in Plant Science 8 (7), 343-351 Huntingford C, et al. (2004) Using a GCM analogue model to investigate the potential for Amazonian forest dieback. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 78, 177-185.

  16. A GEO Hyperspectral Mission For Continental-Scale Carbon Cycle Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervin, Janette C.; Esper, Jaime; McClain, Charles R.; Hall, Forrest G.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Gregg, Watson W.; Mannino, Antonio; Knox, Robert G.; Dabney, Philip W.; Huemmrich, K. Fred

    2004-01-01

    For both terrestrial and ocean carbon cycle science objectives, a hyperspectral geostationary sensor should enable the development of new remote sensing measurements for important but as yet unobservable variables, and with the overall goal of linking both terrestrial and ocean carbon cycle processes to climate variability. For terrestrial research, accurate estimates of carbon, water and energy (CWE) exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere are needed to identify the geographical locations of carbon sources/sinks and to improve regional climate models and global climate change assessments. It is an enormous challenge to estimate CWE exchange from the infrequent temporal coverage provided by most polar-orbiting satellites, and without benefit of spectral indices that capture vegetation responses to stress conditions that down-regulate photosynthesis. Physiological status can be better assessed with spectral indices based on continuous, narrow (5 nm) bands, as can seasonal and annual terrestrial productivity. For coastal and ocean constituents, narrow-band observations in the ultraviolet and visible are essential to investigate the variability, dynamics and biogeochemical cycles of the world s coastal and open ocean regions, which will in turn help in measuring ocean productivity and predicting the variability of Ocean carbon uptake and its role in climate change scenarios. The GSFC Carbon Team has been pursuing a geostationary hyperspectral instrument, which would revolutionize our knowledge of biological processes on land, in the ocean, and along the coast by providing multiple, diurnal coverage. Preliminary studies in Goddard's Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory (ISAL) indicate that we can meet many of our science requirements: full spectral coverage (360-1000 nm); narrow bandwidths (5-10 nm); adequate ground resolution (100-200 m); and continental-scale coverage 4-6 times per day; all the while achieving a signal to noise ratio of

  17. Nanotoxicity and Life Cycle Assessment: First attempt towards the determination of characterization factors for carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Gonzalo; Weil, Marcel; Zimmermann, Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    Carbon materials, whether at macro, micro or at nanoscale, play an important role in the battery industry, as they can be used as electrodes, electrode enhancers, bipolar separators, or current collectors. When conducting a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of novel batteries manufacturing processes, we also need to consider the fate of potentially emitted carbon based nanomaterials. However, the knowledge generated in the last decade regarding the behavior of such materials in the environment and its toxicological effects has yet to be included in the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methodologies. Conventional databases of chemical products (e.g. ECHA, ECOTOX) offer little information regarding engineered nanomaterials (ENM). It is thus necessary to go one step further and compile physicochemical and toxicological data directly from scientific literature. Such studies do not only differ in their results, but also in their methodologies, and several calls have been made towards a more consistent approach that would allow us model the fate of ENM in the environment as well as their potentially harmful effects. Trying to overcome these limitations we have developed a tool based on Microsoft Excel ® combining several methods for the estimation of physicochemical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT). The information generated with this tool is combined with degradation rates and toxicological data consistent with the methods followed by the USEtox methodology. Thus, it is possible to calculate the characterization factors of CNTs and integrate them as a first proxy in future LCA of products including these ENM

  18. Nanotoxicity and Life Cycle Assessment: First attempt towards the determination of characterization factors for carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Gonzalo; Zimmermann, Benedikt; Weil, Marcel

    2014-08-01

    Carbon materials, whether at macro, micro or at nanoscale, play an important role in the battery industry, as they can be used as electrodes, electrode enhancers, bipolar separators, or current collectors. When conducting a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of novel batteries manufacturing processes, we also need to consider the fate of potentially emitted carbon based nanomaterials. However, the knowledge generated in the last decade regarding the behavior of such materials in the environment and its toxicological effects has yet to be included in the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methodologies. Conventional databases of chemical products (e.g. ECHA, ECOTOX) offer little information regarding engineered nanomaterials (ENM). It is thus necessary to go one step further and compile physicochemical and toxicological data directly from scientific literature. Such studies do not only differ in their results, but also in their methodologies, and several calls have been made towards a more consistent approach that would allow us model the fate of ENM in the environment as well as their potentially harmful effects. Trying to overcome these limitations we have developed a tool based on Microsoft Excel® combining several methods for the estimation of physicochemical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT). The information generated with this tool is combined with degradation rates and toxicological data consistent with the methods followed by the USEtox methodology. Thus, it is possible to calculate the characterization factors of CNTs and integrate them as a first proxy in future LCA of products including these ENM.

  19. Synthetic fuel production via carbon neutral cycles with high temperature nuclear reactors as a power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konarek, E.; Coulas, B.; Sarvinis, J. [Hatch Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    This paper analyzes a number of carbon neutral cycles, which could be used to produce synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. Synthetic hydrocarbons are produced via the synthesis of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen. The . cycles considered will either utilize Gasification processes, or carbon capture as a source of feed material. In addition the cycles will be coupled to a small modular Nuclear Reactor (SMR) as a power and heat source. The goal of this analysis is to reduce or eliminate the need to transport diesel and other fossil fuels to remote regions and to provide a carbon neutral, locally produced hydrocarbon fuel for remote communities. The technical advantages as well as the economic case are discussed for each of the cycles presented. (author)

  20. Can we bet on negative emissions to achieve the 2°C target even under strong carbon cycle feedbacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.; Yamagata, Y.; Yokohata, T.; Emori, S.; Hanaoka, T.

    2015-12-01

    Negative emission technologies such as Bioenergy with Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (BioCCS) play an ever more crucial role in meeting the 2°C stabilization target. However, such technologies are currently at their infancy and their future penetrations may fall short of the scale required to stabilize the warming. Furthermore, the overshoot in the mid-century prior to a full realization of negative emissions would give rise to a risk because such a temporal but excessive warming above 2°C might amplify itself by strengthening climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. It has not been extensively assessed yet how carbon cycle feedbacks might play out during the overshoot in the context of negative emissions. This study explores how 2°C stabilization pathways, in particular those which undergo overshoot, can be influenced by carbon cycle feedbacks and asks their climatic and economic consequences. We compute 2°C stabilization emissions scenarios under a cost-effectiveness principle, in which the total abatement costs are minimized such that the global warming is capped at 2°C. We employ a reduced-complexity model, the Aggregated Carbon Cycle, Atmospheric Chemistry, and Climate model (ACC2), which comprises a box model of the global carbon cycle, simple parameterizations of the atmospheric chemistry, and a land-ocean energy balance model. The total abatement costs are estimated from the marginal abatement cost functions for CO2, CH4, N2O, and BC.Our preliminary results show that, if carbon cycle feedbacks turn out to be stronger than what is known today, it would incur substantial abatement costs to keep up with the 2°C stabilization goal. Our results also suggest that it would be less expensive in the long run to plan for a 2°C stabilization pathway by considering strong carbon cycle feedbacks because it would cost more if we correct the emission pathway in the mid-century to adjust for unexpectedly large carbon cycle feedbacks during overshoot. Furthermore, our

  1. Lipid Biomarkers and Molecular Carbon Isotopes for Elucidating Carbon Cycling Pathways in Hydrothermal Vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C. L.; Dai, J.; Campbell, B.; Cary, C.; Sun, M.

    2003-12-01

    . Molecular DNA data from these vent environments indicate that the reversed TCA cycle may be used for CO2 fixation by the epsilon Proteobacteria for chemolithoautotrophic growth. Isotopic fractionation patterns between lipid biomarkers and the bulk organic carbon can provide independent information on this unique biosynthetic pathway.

  2. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and the Global Carbon Cycle: The Key Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, T. H.; Post, W. M.; DeAngelis, D. L.; Dale, V. H.; Farrell, M. P.

    1987-12-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of carbon between its sources and sinks determines the rate of increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. The observed increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} content is less than the estimated release from fossil fuel consumption and deforestation. This discrepancy can be explained by interactions between the atmosphere and other global carbon reservoirs such as the oceans, and the terrestrial biosphere including soils. Undoubtedly, the oceans have been the most important sinks for CO{sub 2} produced by man. But, the physical, chemical, and biological processes of oceans are complex and, therefore, credible estimates of CO{sub 2} uptake can probably only come from mathematical models. Unfortunately, one- and two-dimensional ocean models do not allow for enough CO{sub 2} uptake to accurately account for known releases. Thus, they produce higher concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} than was historically the case. More complex three-dimensional models, while currently being developed, may make better use of existing tracer data than do one- and two-dimensional models and will also incorporate climate feedback effects to provide a more realistic view of ocean dynamics and CO{sub 2} fluxes. The instability of current models to estimate accurately oceanic uptake of CO{sub 2} creates one of the key uncertainties in predictions of atmospheric CO{sub 2} increases and climate responses over the next 100 to 200 years.

  3. Energy generation and the sulfur-carbon cycles: Final technical report for period March 1981 thru February 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeikus, J.G.

    1987-05-01

    The aim of this research was to understand the role of anaerobic bacteria in natural and man-influenced carbon cycles in nature. The major goal was to elucidate how sulfur metabolism influenced organic decomposition in aquatic sediments. The research compared these processes in two different anaerobic ecosystems: the sulfate-depleted sediments of Lake Mendota, Wisconsin and the sulfate-saturated sediments of Great Salt Lake, Utah. The approach was both ecological and physiological, and employed both in situ characterization of carbon and sulfur metabolism with radiotracers and laboratory species isolation-characterization studies with pure and defined mixed cultures to demonstrate the prevalent environmental paths of carbon electrons, and sulfur during the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter. The significance of this research encompassed fundamental knowledge of the carbon sulfur cycles, applied knowledge on the microbial genesis of flammable gas and oil and extended knowledge on the diversity and metabolic activity of obligately anaerobic bacteria in nature. 13 refs

  4. CO2-free power generation in combined cycles-Integration of post-combustion separation of carbon dioxide in the steam cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Bjoern Fredriksson; Assadi, Mohsen; Potts, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the release of the Kyoto protocol the demand for CO 2 -free processes have been increasing. One of the most expanding sources of electric power in the industrialised world today is the gas-fired combined cycle, combining high efficiency and low investment cost. In this paper, the integration of a post-combustion CO 2 -separation unit into a combined cycle is studied from a thermodynamic and economic point-of-view. A standard dual-pressure combined cycle is chosen as a reference cycle. It is compared to a dual-pressure combined cycle and a triple-pressure combined cycle with the lowest pressure level producing steam for a CO 2 -separation unit. The steam pressure levels in the different cycles are optimised for maximum efficiency and minimum specific cost, respectively, using genetic algorithms. The efficiency drop due to CO 2 -separation is approximately 8% points, from 54 to 46%. The specific cost of the power plant is expected to increase with almost 100% and the cost of electricity with approximately 30%. In several countries a carbon dioxide tax is already introduced as an incentive for more efficient power cycles and use of fuels with lower content of coal. The result above implies that the level of such a tax would be in the order of 30% of the price of electricity to encourage CO 2 -free power generation

  5. Climate Change Impacts on the Organic Carbon Cycle at the Land-Ocean Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuel, Elizabeth A.; Cammer, Sarah S.; McIntosh, Hadley A.; Pondell, Christina R.

    2012-05-01

    Estuaries are among the most altered and vulnerable marine ecosystems. These ecosystems will likely continue to deteriorate owing to increased population growth in coastal regions, expected temperature and precipitation changes associated with climate change, and their interaction with each other, leading to serious consequences for the ecological and societal services they provide. A key function of estuaries is the transfer, transformation, and burial of carbon and other biogenic elements exchanged between the land and ocean systems. Climate change has the potential to influence the carbon cycle through anticipated changes to organic matter production in estuaries and through the alteration of carbon transformation and export processes. This review discusses the effects of climate change on processes influencing the cycling of organic carbon in estuaries, including examples from three temperate estuaries in North America. Our goal is to evaluate the impact of climate change on the connectivity of terrestrial, estuarine, and coastal ocean carbon cycles.

  6. The African contribution to the global climate-carbon cycle feedback of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Friedlingstein

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Future climate change will have impact on global and regional terrestrial carbon balances. The fate of African tropical forests over the 21st century has been investigated through global coupled climate carbon cycle model simulations. Under the SRES-A2 socio-economic CO2 emission scenario of the IPCC, and using the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace coupled ocean-terrestrial carbon cycle and climate model, IPSL-CM4-LOOP, we found that the warming over African ecosystems induces a reduction of net ecosystem productivity, making a 38% contribution to the global climate-carbon cycle positive feedback. Most of this contribution comes from African grasslands, followed by African savannahs, African tropical forest contributing little to the global climate-carbon feedback. However, the vulnerability of the African rainforest ecosystem is quite large. In contrast, the Amazon forest, despite its lower vulnerability, has a much larger overall contribution due to its 6 times larger extent.

  7. Projections of forest contributions to global carbon cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Goerndt; Stephen R. Shifley; Patrick D. Miles; Dave Wear; Francisco X. Aguilar

    2016-01-01

    Forests cover 42 percent of the Northern United States, and collectively they store 13 billion tons of carbon in live trees (29 percent), roots (6 percent), forest floor (9 percent), dead trees (6 percent), and soils (50 percent). About half the biomass of a live tree (dry weight basis) is sequestered carbon (Woodall et al. 2011) - not the largest but the most dynamic...

  8. Carbonate thermochemical cycle for the production of hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack L [Knoxville, TN; Dole, Leslie R [Knoxville, TN; Ferrada, Juan J [Knoxville, TN; Forsberg, Charles W [Oak Ridge, TN; Haire, Marvin J [Oak Ridge, TN; Hunt, Rodney D [Oak Ridge, TN; Lewis, Jr, Benjamin E [Knoxville, TN; Wymer, Raymond G [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-02-23

    The present invention is directed to a thermochemical method for the production of hydrogen from water. The method includes reacting a multi-valent metal oxide, water and a carbonate to produce an alkali metal-multi-valent metal oxide compound, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen.

  9. A life-cycle carbon footprint of Yosemite National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalba, Gara; Tarnay, Leland; Campbell, Elliott; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Like cities, many large national parks in the United States often include “urban” visitor and residential areas that mostly demand (rather than produce) energy and key urban materials. The U.S. National Park Service has committed to quantifying and reducing scopes 1 and 2 emissions by 35% and scope 3 emissions by 10% by 2020 for all parks. Current inventories however do not provide the specificity or granularity to evaluate solutions that address fundamental inefficiencies in these inventories. By quantifying and comparing the importance of different inventory sectors as well as upstream and downstream emissions in Yosemite National Park (YNP), this carbon footprint provides a case study and potential template for quantifying future emissions reductions, and for evaluating tradeoffs between them. Results indicate that visitor-related emissions comprise the largest fraction of the Yosemite carbon footprint, and that increases in annual visitation (3.43–3.90 million) coincide with and likely drive interannual increases in the magnitude of Yosemite′s extended inventory (126,000–130,000 t CO 2 e). Given this, it is recommended that “per visitor” efficiency be used as a metric to track progress. In this respect, YNP has annually decreased kilograms of GHG emissions per visitor from 36.58 (2008) to 32.90 (2011). We discuss opportunities for reducing this measure further. - Highlights: • A potential template for inventorying GHG emissions in national parks is presented. • Given variability in visitation, GHG/visitor is a better metric to measure efficiency. • Yosemite has reduced from 36.58 kg (2008) GHG emissions/visitor to 32.90 (2011)

  10. The Second State of the Carbon Cycle Report: A Scientific Basis for Policy and Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsey, R.; Mayes, M. A.; Reed, S.; Najjar, R.; Romero-Lankao, P.

    2017-12-01

    The second "State of the Carbon Cycle of North America Report" (SOCCR-2) includes an overview of the North American carbon budget and future projections, the consequences of changes to the carbon budget, details of the carbon budget in major terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems (including coastal ocean waters), information about anthropogenic drivers, and implications for policy and carbon management. SOCCR-2 includes new focus areas such as soil carbon, arctic and boreal ecosystems, tribal lands, and greater emphasis on aquatic systems and the role of societal drivers and decision making on the carbon cycle. In addition, methane is considered to a greater extent than before. SOCCR-2 will contribute to the next U.S. National Climate Assessment, as well as providing information to support science-based management decisions and policies that include climate change mitigation and adaptation in Canada, the United States, and Mexico. Although the Report is still in the review process, preliminary findings indicate that North America is a net emitter of carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere, and that natural sinks offset about 25% of emitted carbon dioxide. Combustion of fossil fuels represents the largest source of emissions, but show a decreasing trend over the last decade and a lower share (20%) of the global total compared with the previous decade. Forests, soils, grasslands, and coastal oceans comprise the largest carbon sinks, while emissions from inland waters are a significant source of carbon dioxide. The Report also documents the lateral transfers of carbon among terrestrial ecosystems and from terrestrial to near-coastal ecosystems, to complete the carbon cycle accounting. Further, the Report explores the consequences of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide on terrestrial and oceanic systems, and the capacity of these systems to continue to act as carbon sinks based on the drivers of future carbon cycle changes, including carbon-climate feedbacks

  11. Exploring diurnal and seasonal characteristics of global carbon cycle with GISS Model E2 GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleinov, I. D.; Kiang, N. Y.; Romanou, A.

    2017-12-01

    The ability to properly model surface carbon fluxes on the diurnal and seasonal time scale is a necessary requirement for understanding of the global carbon cycle. It is also one of the most challenging tasks faced by modern General Circulation Models (GCMs) due to complexity of the algorithms and variety of relevant spatial and temporal scales. The observational data, though abundant, is difficult to interpret at the global scale, because flux tower observations are very sparse for large impact areas (such as Amazon and African rainforest and most of Siberia) and satellite missions often struggle to produce sufficiently high confidence data over the land and may be missing CO2 amounts near the surface due to the nature of the method. In this work we use the GISS Model E2 GCM to perform a subset of experiments proposed by the Coupled Climate-Carbon Cycle Model Intercomparison Project (C4MIP) and relate the results to available observations.The GISS Model E2 GCM is currently equipped with a complete global carbon cycle algorithm. Its surface carbon fluxes are computed by the Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model (Ent TBM) over the land with observed leaf area index of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and by the NASA Ocean Biogeochemistry Model (NOBM) over the ocean. The propagation of atmospheric CO2 is performed by a generic Model E2 tracer algorithm, which is based on a quadratic upstream method (Prather 1986). We perform a series spin-up experiments for preindustrial climate conditions and fixed preindustrial atmospheric CO2 concentration. First, we perform separate spin-up simulations each for terrestrial and ocean carbon. We then combine the spun-up states and perform a coupled spin-up simulation until the model reaches a sufficient equilibrium. We then release restrictions on CO2 concentration and allow it evolve freely, driven only by simulated surface fluxes. We then study the results of the unforced run, comparing the amplitude and the phase

  12. Decoupling of microbial carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycling in response to extreme temperature events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooshammer, Maria; Hofhansl, Florian; Frank, Alexander H; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hämmerle, Ieda; Leitner, Sonja; Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Watzka, Margarete; Keiblinger, Katharina M; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Richter, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    Predicted changes in the intensity and frequency of climate extremes urge a better mechanistic understanding of the stress response of microbially mediated carbon (C) and nutrient cycling processes. We analyzed the resistance and resilience of microbial C, nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) cycling processes and microbial community composition in decomposing plant litter to transient, but severe, temperature disturbances, namely, freeze-thaw and heat. Disturbances led temporarily to a more rapid cycling of C and N but caused a down-regulation of P cycling. In contrast to the fast recovery of the initially stimulated C and N processes, we found a slow recovery of P mineralization rates, which was not accompanied by significant changes in community composition. The functional and structural responses to the two distinct temperature disturbances were markedly similar, suggesting that direct negative physical effects and costs associated with the stress response were comparable. Moreover, the stress response of extracellular enzyme activities, but not that of intracellular microbial processes (for example, respiration or N mineralization), was dependent on the nutrient content of the resource through its effect on microbial physiology and community composition. Our laboratory study provides novel insights into the mechanisms of microbial functional stress responses that can serve as a basis for field studies and, in particular, illustrates the need for a closer integration of microbial C-N-P interactions into climate extremes research.

  13. Decoupling of microbial carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycling in response to extreme temperature events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooshammer, Maria; Hofhansl, Florian; Frank, Alexander H.; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hämmerle, Ieda; Leitner, Sonja; Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Watzka, Margarete; Keiblinger, Katharina M.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Richter, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Predicted changes in the intensity and frequency of climate extremes urge a better mechanistic understanding of the stress response of microbially mediated carbon (C) and nutrient cycling processes. We analyzed the resistance and resilience of microbial C, nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) cycling processes and microbial community composition in decomposing plant litter to transient, but severe, temperature disturbances, namely, freeze-thaw and heat. Disturbances led temporarily to a more rapid cycling of C and N but caused a down-regulation of P cycling. In contrast to the fast recovery of the initially stimulated C and N processes, we found a slow recovery of P mineralization rates, which was not accompanied by significant changes in community composition. The functional and structural responses to the two distinct temperature disturbances were markedly similar, suggesting that direct negative physical effects and costs associated with the stress response were comparable. Moreover, the stress response of extracellular enzyme activities, but not that of intracellular microbial processes (for example, respiration or N mineralization), was dependent on the nutrient content of the resource through its effect on microbial physiology and community composition. Our laboratory study provides novel insights into the mechanisms of microbial functional stress responses that can serve as a basis for field studies and, in particular, illustrates the need for a closer integration of microbial C-N-P interactions into climate extremes research. PMID:28508070

  14. Effects of gas Hydrates on Archaeal Community Structure and Carbon Cycle in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Y.; Li, S.; Pearson, A.; Noakes, J.; Culp, R.; Zhang, C.

    2006-12-01

    The Gulf of Mexico is a unique place to study biological carbon cycle because dynamic microbial communities exist in association with the huge amounts of gas hydrates in the marine sediments. The abundance of Archaea is significantly enhanced in the hydrate environment and these organisms may play an important role in the oceanic carbon cycle. We examined the Archaeal lipids from the Gulf of Mexico using the high performance liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The lipid profiles showed distinct patterns between gas hydrates and non-hydrate samples, suggesting variation in Archaeal communities with changing environments. In particular, a previously unknown biomarker was found in a gas hydrate sample, which may represent a novel group of Archaea. The relative abundance of this unidentified lipid varied significantly among non-gas hydrate and gas hydrate samples and may serve as a proxy for the presence of gas hydrate-related archaeal populations. The TEX86 index showed that the average paleo sea-surface temperature in the hydrate samples was higher (by 3°C) than the non-hydrate samples. The current annual sea-surface temperature is about 20~24°C in the winter and around 29°C in the summer, which is consistent with the results we got from the non-hydrate samples. Our results reveal that the archaeal community was significantly affected by the presence of hydrate, which contribute to oceanic carbon cycle and may also affect the utilization of TEX86 for paleo-climate studies.

  15. Major role of marine vegetation on the oceanic carbon cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Duarte

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The carbon burial in vegetated sediments, ignored in past assessments of carbon burial in the ocean, was evaluated using a bottom-up approach derived from upscaling a compilation of published individual estimates of carbon burial in vegetated habitats (seagrass meadows, salt marshes and mangrove forests to the global level and a top-down approach derived from considerations of global sediment balance and a compilation of the organic carbon content of vegeatated sediments. Up-scaling of individual burial estimates values yielded a total carbon burial in vegetated habitats of 111 Tmol C y-1. The total burial in unvegetated sediments was estimated to be 126 Tg C y-1, resulting in a bottom-up estimate of total burial in the ocean of about 244 Tg C y-1, two-fold higher than estimates of oceanic carbon burial that presently enter global carbon budgets. The organic carbon concentrations in vegetated marine sediments exceeds by 2 to 10-fold those in shelf/deltaic sediments. Top-down recalculation of ocean sediment budgets to account for these, previously neglected, organic-rich sediments, yields a top-down carbon burial estimate of 216 Tg C y-1, with vegetated coastal habitats contributing about 50%. Even though vegetated carbon burial contributes about half of the total carbon burial in the ocean, burial represents a small fraction of the net production of these ecosystems, estimated at about 3388 Tg C y-1, suggesting that bulk of the benthic net ecosystem production must support excess respiration in other compartments, such as unvegetated sediments and the coastal pelagic compartment. The total excess organic carbon available to be exported to the ocean is estimated at between 1126 to 3534 Tg C y-1, the bulk of which must be respired in the open ocean. Widespread loss of vegetated coastal habitats must have reduced carbon burial in the ocean by about 30 Tg C y-1, identifying the destruction of these ecosystems as an important loss of CO

  16. Drought and Carbon Cycling of Grassland Ecosystems under Global Change: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianjie Lei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increased intensity and duration of droughts have dramatically altered the structure and function of grassland ecosystems, which have been forced to adapt to this change in climate. Combinations of global change drivers such as elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, warming, nitrogen (N deposition, grazing, and land-use change have influenced the impact that droughts have on grassland C cycling. This influence, to some extent, can modify the relationship between droughts and grassland carbon (C cycling in the multi-factor world. Unfortunately, prior reviews have been primarily anecdotal from the 1930s to the 2010s. We investigated the current state of the study on the interactive impacts of multiple factors under drought scenarios in grassland C cycling and provided scientific advice for dealing with droughts and managing grassland C cycling in a multi-factor world. Currently, adequate information is not available on the interaction between droughts and global change drivers, which would advance our understanding of grassland C cycling responses. It was determined that future experiments and models should specifically test how droughts regulate grassland C cycling under global changes. Previous multi-factor experiments of current and future global change conditions have studied various drought scenarios poorly, including changes in precipitation frequency and amplitude, timing, and interactions with other global change drivers. Multi-factor experiments have contributed to quantifying these potential changes and have provided important information on how water affects ecosystem processes under global change. There is an urgent need to establish a systematic framework that can assess ecosystem dynamic responses to droughts under current and future global change and human activity, with a focus on the combined effects of droughts, global change drivers, and the corresponding hierarchical responses of an ecosystem.

  17. Finite Element Modeling of Thermal Cycling Induced Microcracking in Carbon/Epoxy Triaxial Braided Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Morscher, Gregory; Martin, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    The microcrack distribution and mass change in PR520/T700s and 3502/T700s carbon/epoxy braided composites exposed to thermal cycling was evaluated experimentally. Acoustic emission was utilized to record the crack initiation and propagation under cyclic thermal loading between -55 C and 120 C. Transverse microcrack morphology was investigated using X-ray Computed Tomography. Different performance of two kinds of composites was discovered and analyzed. Based on the observations of microcrack formation, a meso-mechanical finite element model was developed to obtain the resultant mechanical properties. The simulation results exhibited a decrease in strength and stiffness with increasing crack density. Strength and stiffness reduction versus crack densities in different orientations were compared. The changes of global mechanical behavior in both axial and transverse loading conditions were studied. Keywords: Thermal cycles; Microcrack; Finite Element Model; Braided Composite

  18. Structures of dolomite at ultrahigh pressure and their influence on the deep carbon cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlini, Marco; Crichton, Wilson A; Hanfland, Michael; Gemmi, Mauro; Müller, Harald; Kupenko, Ilya; Dubrovinsky, Leonid

    2012-08-21

    Carbon-bearing solids, fluids, and melts in the Earth's deep interior may play an important role in the long-term carbon cycle. Here we apply synchrotron X-ray single crystal micro-diffraction techniques to identify and characterize the high-pressure polymorphs of dolomite. Dolomite-II, observed above 17 GPa, is triclinic, and its structure is topologically related to CaCO(3)-II. It transforms above 35 GPa to dolomite-III, also triclinic, which features carbon in [3 + 1] coordination at the highest pressures investigated (60 GPa). The structure is therefore representative of an intermediate between the low-pressure carbonates and the predicted ultra-high pressure carbonates, with carbon in tetrahedral coordination. Dolomite-III does not decompose up to the melting point (2,600 K at 43 GPa) and its thermodynamic stability demonstrates that this complex phase can transport carbon to depths of at least up to 1,700 km. Dolomite-III, therefore, is a likely occurring phase in areas containing recycled crustal slabs, which are more oxidized and Ca-enriched than the primitive lower mantle. Indeed, these phases may play an important role as carbon carriers in the whole mantle carbon cycling. As such, they are expected to participate in the fundamental petrological processes which, through carbon-bearing fluids and carbonate melts, will return carbon back to the Earth's surface.

  19. Climate-induced interannual variability of marine primary and export production in three global coupled climate carbon cycle models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, B.; Bopp, L.; Gehlen, M.; Segschneider, J.; Frölicher, T. L.; Cadule, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Doney, S. C.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Joos, F.

    2008-04-01

    Fully coupled climate carbon cycle models are sophisticated tools that are used to predict future climate change and its impact on the land and ocean carbon cycles. These models should be able to adequately represent natural variability, requiring model validation by observations. The present study focuses on the ocean carbon cycle component, in particular the spatial and temporal variability in net primary productivity (PP) and export production (EP) of particulate organic carbon (POC). Results from three coupled climate carbon cycle models (IPSL, MPIM, NCAR) are compared with observation-based estimates derived from satellite measurements of ocean colour and results from inverse modelling (data assimilation). Satellite observations of ocean colour have shown that temporal variability of PP on the global scale is largely dominated by the permanently stratified, low-latitude ocean (Behrenfeld et al., 2006) with stronger stratification (higher sea surface temperature; SST) being associated with negative PP anomalies. Results from all three coupled models confirm the role of the low-latitude, permanently stratified ocean for anomalies in globally integrated PP, but only one model (IPSL) also reproduces the inverse relationship between stratification (SST) and PP. An adequate representation of iron and macronutrient co-limitation of phytoplankton growth in the tropical ocean has shown to be the crucial mechanism determining the capability of the models to reproduce observed interactions between climate and PP.

  20. Climate-induced interannual variability of marine primary and export production in three global coupled climate carbon cycle models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Schneider

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Fully coupled climate carbon cycle models are sophisticated tools that are used to predict future climate change and its impact on the land and ocean carbon cycles. These models should be able to adequately represent natural variability, requiring model validation by observations. The present study focuses on the ocean carbon cycle component, in particular the spatial and temporal variability in net primary productivity (PP and export production (EP of particulate organic carbon (POC. Results from three coupled climate carbon cycle models (IPSL, MPIM, NCAR are compared with observation-based estimates derived from satellite measurements of ocean colour and results from inverse modelling (data assimilation. Satellite observations of ocean colour have shown that temporal variability of PP on the global scale is largely dominated by the permanently stratified, low-latitude ocean (Behrenfeld et al., 2006 with stronger stratification (higher sea surface temperature; SST being associated with negative PP anomalies. Results from all three coupled models confirm the role of the low-latitude, permanently stratified ocean for anomalies in globally integrated PP, but only one model (IPSL also reproduces the inverse relationship between stratification (SST and PP. An adequate representation of iron and macronutrient co-limitation of phytoplankton growth in the tropical ocean has shown to be the crucial mechanism determining the capability of the models to reproduce observed interactions between climate and PP.

  1. A carbon dioxide partial condensation cycle for high-temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshi, Nitawaki; Yasuyoshi, Kato

    2002-01-01

    A carbon dioxide partial condensation direct cycle concept has been proposed for thermal reactors. This cycle makes it possible to improve cycle efficiency due to low compression work in liquid phase and non-ideal gas behaviour of carbon dioxide, and effective utilisation of recuperative heat. The thermal reactor integrating this concept is expected to be an alternative solution to current high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) with helium gas turbines, allowing comparable cycle efficiency of about 45% at the moderate temperature of 650 deg C instead of 900 deg C in PBMR. By using an ultra high-purity Cr-Fe alloy, a reactor outlet temperature of 900 deg C can be attained, and the cycle efficiency of the direct cycle is about 50% at a pressure of 12.5 MPa. (authors)

  2. Land use change effects on forest carbon cycling throughout the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter B. Woodbury; Linda S. Heath; James E. Smith

    2006-01-01

    We modeled the effects of afforestation and deforestation on carbon cycling in forest floor and soil from 1900 to 2050 throughout 13 states in the southern United States. The model uses historical data on gross (two-way) transitions between forest, pasture, plowed agriculture, and urban lands along with equations describing changes in carbon over many decades for each...

  3. Carbon cycling in benthic diatom mats: Novel applications of LC/IRMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerdijk-Poortvliet, T.C.W.

    2016-01-01

    Life on our planet is based on carbon and this life-sustaining element is essential in order to live, grow and reproduce. The cycling of carbon from the atmosphere, land and ocean into organisms, and back again needs to be in balance. If not, serious consequences, such as global climate disruption,

  4. Life cycle impacts of forest management and wood utilization on carbon mitigation : knowns and unknowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Lippke; Elaine Oneil; Rob Harrison; Kenneth Skog; Leif Gustavsson; Roger Sathre

    2011-01-01

    This review on research on life cycle carbon accounting examines the complexities in accounting for carbon emissions given the many different ways that wood is used. Recent objectives to increase the use of renewable fuels have raised policy questions, with respect to the sustainability of managing our forests as well as the impacts of how best to use wood from our...

  5. LOSCAR: Long-term Ocean-atmosphere-Sediment CArbon cycle Reservoir Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeebe, R. E.

    2011-06-01

    The LOSCAR model is designed to efficiently compute the partitioning of carbon between ocean, atmosphere, and sediments on time scales ranging from centuries to millions of years. While a variety of computationally inexpensive carbon cycle models are already available, many are missing a critical sediment component, which is indispensable for long-term integrations. One of LOSCAR's strengths is the coupling of ocean-atmosphere routines to a computationally efficient sediment module. This allows, for instance, adequate computation of CaCO3 dissolution, calcite compensation, and long-term carbon cycle fluxes, including weathering of carbonate and silicate rocks. The ocean component includes various biogeochemical tracers such as total carbon, alkalinity, phosphate, oxygen, and stable carbon isotopes. We have previously published applications of the model tackling future projections of ocean chemistry and weathering, pCO2 sensitivity to carbon cycle perturbations throughout the Cenozoic, and carbon/calcium cycling during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. The focus of the present contribution is the detailed description of the model including numerical architecture, processes and parameterizations, tuning, and examples of input and output. Typical CPU integration times of LOSCAR are of order seconds for several thousand model years on current standard desktop machines. The LOSCAR source code in C can be obtained from the author by sending a request to loscar.model@gmail.com.

  6. Ewing Symposium in Honor of Taro Takahashi: The controversial aspects of the contemporary [carbon] cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broecker, Wallace Smith

    2001-12-31

    This Ewing Symposium in honor of Taro Takahashi's work on the carbon cycle was held at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, New York, on October 26-27, 2000. A program and set of abstracts are appended to this report. A summary of the meeting (included in this report) will be published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles. The theme of the symposium was the magnitude and cause of excess carbon storage on the north temperate continents. Disagreement exists on the relative roles of forest regrowth and fertilization by excess fixed nitrogen and carbon dioxide, as well as the distribution of this storage. Phenomena playing important roles include pre-anthropogenic gradients in carbon dioxide, the so-called rectification effect, uptake and release of carbon dioxide by the ocean, soil nitrogen dynamics, atmospheric carbon-13 gradients, and the role of fire.

  7. Impact of climate change on carbon cycle in freshwater ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankaala, P.; Ojala, A.; Tulonen, T.; Haapamaeki, J.; Arvola, L. [Helsinki Univ., Lammi (Finland). Lammi Biological Station

    1996-12-31

    The impacts of the expected climate change on Finnish lake ecosystems were studied with the biota of the mesohumic Lake Paeaejaervi, southern Finland. Experimental conditions, from small-scale experiments on single species level to a large-scale ecosystem manipulation, were established to simulate directly the future climate and/or loading of nutrients and dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the drainage area. The experimental studies were accomplished by modelling the carbon flow in the pelagic food web as well as the growth of littoral macrophytes. The main hypothese tested were as follows: As a consequence of the climate change (rising temperature and increasing precipitation) the loading of nutrients and dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the drainage area to the lake will increase. In the pelagic zone this will be first reflected i higher productivity of primary producers and bacteria, but will later affect the entire food chain. Increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and ambient temperature as well as longer growing season will enhance the overall productivity of littoral macrophytes. The higher productivity of the littoral zone will be reflected in the pelagic zone an thus may change the whole ecosystem of the lake

  8. Exploring New Multi-Instrument Approaches To Observing Terrestrial Ecosystems And The Carbon Cycle From Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlick, R.; Schimel, D.; Dubayah, R.; Wennberg, P. O.

    2015-12-01

    In October 2015, we held a five-day workshop at the Keck Institute for Space Studies, bringing together experts on terrestrial ecology and the carbon cycle, remote sensing, in-situ networks, modeling, and systems engineering. The goals of the workshop were to: 1) Identify grand challenges in terrestrial ecology and carbon cycle science and outline how new multi-instrument remote sensing products can enable revolutionary advancements towards unlocking those challenges 2) Collaborate on using existing airborne, space-based, and ground-based measurements to highlight and quantify those potential advancements 3) Explore how multi-instrument data products can reduce key parameter and structural uncertainties in terrestrial biosphere models The more general themes of the workshop were framed around the potential, that in a few years time, we could see co-flight of suite of sensors aboard the International Space Station providing simultaneous observations of ecosystem structure, functioning, and composition. These include two instruments recently selected by the NASA Earth Venture Instrument program, GEDI, a LiDAR which will measure the 3D structure and biomass of forests, and ECOSTRESS, a thermal radiometer, which will estimate evapotranspiration and plant water stress. These also include two proposed instruments, OCO-3, capable of targeted mapping of solar-induced fluorescence and column CO2, and an imaging spectrometer, which would provide near-global maps of plant biodiversity and plant canopy biochemistry. The workshop sought to break down the 'stovepiping', that can arise from the traditionally contingency-adverse systems engineering approach to mission planning, by developing a broader strategy that would combine data products from multiple sensors to address carbon cycle grand challenge questions that no single sensor can address alone. We will present highlights from the workshop, as well as results from the discussion of observation needs, potential data

  9. Carbon footprint evaluation of coal-to-methanol chain with the hierarchical attribution management and life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Zhen; Zhai, Guofu; Wu, Xiaomei; Yu, Yunsong; Zhang, Zaoxiao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hierarchical attribution management method is proposed for life cycle assessment. • Carbon footprint of the coal-to-methanol chain in China is at 2.971 t CO 2,e /t methanol. • Gasification and WGS unit are the main contributors for GHG generation in life cycle chain. • Methanol synthesis unit is a potential “carbon sink” for CO 2 utilization. • CCS is proved to be an effective method to reduce carbon footprint. - Abstract: Coal is considered as an abundant energy source in China and coal-to-methanol chain is an essential routing on account of methanol’s irreplaceable status in chemical industries. However, coal-based methanol production aroused controversy due to its intensive energy consumption and high greenhouse gas emission, compared with other processes by oil or natural gas. Carbon footprint is an improved indicator that evaluates both direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions in the life cycle perspective and guides policymakers for better industry-chain planning. In this study we proposed the idea of hierarchical attribution management (HAM) to provide a classified method for evaluating carbon footprint of coal-to-methanol chain, combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) and the tool of ASPEN Plus. The results show that the life cycle carbon footprint was 2.971 t CO 2,e /t methanol. By the HAM, it’s concluded that methanol production process was the largest emission contributor in the defined life cycle system with a share of 92.86%, followed by coal mining process with 4.34%. Gasification unit and water-gas shift unit were two major greenhouse gas generators, accounting for 21.26% and 52.80% of life cycle emission, respectively, while methanol synthesis unit showed the potential for CO 2 utilization and emission reduction. Additionally, the results of sensitivity analysis showed that electricity emission factor with a sensitivity factor of 189.11 was the most extensive influence factor on life cycle emission due to its

  10. The Carbon and Sulfur Cycles through the Cenozoic: Insight from Oxygen Isotopes in Marine Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchyn, A. V.; Schrag, D. P.

    2004-12-01

    Marine sulfate plays an important role in the cycling of biochemicals in organic rich sediments, serving as the terminal electron acceptor in the remineralization of organic matter and responsible for nearly all anaerobic methane oxidation. Because sulfur isotopes are largely conserved during sulfur cycling in organic rich sediments, they reflect mostly changes in net sulfur burial, and have been used to study fluctuations in sulfur mineral burial over Earth history. Recently, we have shown that temporal variability in oxygen isotopes measured in marine sulfate (d18O-SO4) highlight changes the pathways of sulfur cycling on continental margins because the d18O-SO4 is reset during sulfate reduction and sulfide reoxidation. The fluxes associated with sulfur cycling, predominantly in shallow sediments, are nearly three times larger than riverine input. We present a continuous record of d18O-SO4 in marine barite over the Cenozoic. There is considerable variability in the d18OSO4, with major peaks 55, 15, and 3 million years ago. There is little correlation between sulfur isotopes in marine sulfate and d18O-SO4, illustrating the fact that different processes control the sulfur and oxygen isotopic composition of sulfate. The peaks in the d18O-SO4 at 55 and 15 Ma coincide with peaks in the d13C of benthic foraminifera, highlighting the connection between the carbon and sulfur cycles in organic rich sediments. In addition, the increase in the d18O of the ocean (measured in benthic foraminifera) between 34 and 28 Ma coincides with a slight increase in the d18O-SO4. We have modeled the sulfur cycle for both sulfur and oxygen isotopes and will show model results and interpretation over several key intervals over the Cenozoic, including the Mid-Miocene Climate Optimum, the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, and the Paleocene productivity high.

  11. Evaluation and intercomparison of three-dimensional global marine carbon cycle models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldeira, K., LLNL

    1998-07-01

    The addition of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere from fossil fuel burning and deforestation has profound implications for the future of the earth`s climate and hence for humankind itself. Society is looking toward the community of environmental scientists to predict the consequences of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide so that sound input can be provided to economists, environmental engineers, and, ultimately, policy makers. Environmental scientists have responded to this challenge through the creation of several ambitious, highly-coordinated programs, each focused on a different aspect of the climate system. Recognizing that numerical models, be they relatively simple statistical-empirical models or highly complex process-oriented models, are the only means for predicting the future of the climate system, all of these programs include the development of accurate, predictive models as a central goal. The Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) is one such program, and was built on the well-founded premise that biological, chemical and physical oceanographic processes have a profound influence on the C0{sub 2} content of the atmosphere. The, cap-stone, phase of JGOFS, the Synthesis and Modeling Project (SMP), is charged with the development of models that can be used in the prediction of future air-sea partitioning of C0{sub 2}. JGOFS, particularly the SMP phase, has a number of interim goals as well, including the determination of fluxes and inventories of carbon in the modern ocean that air germane to the air-sea partitioning of C0{sub 2}. Models have a role to play here too, because many of these fluxes and inventories, such as the distributions of anthropogenic dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), new primary production and aphotic zone remineralization, while not amenable to direct observation on the large scale, can be determined using a variety of modeling approaches (Siegenthaler and Oeschger, 1987; Maier-Reimer and Hasselman, 1987, Bacastow and Maier

  12. Carbon dioxide power cycles using liquid natural gas as heat sink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelino, Gianfranco; Invernizzi, Costante M.

    2009-01-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is recognized as a source of usable cryogenic exergy for power cycles. The performance of conventional cycles are calculated. A binary steam-Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) at 550 deg. C has an efficiency of about 52%, somewhat higher than that of a nitrogen Brayton cycle (50.7% at 700 deg. C). Carbon dioxide is recognized as an almost ideal medium for implementing single fluid condensation cycles. Its proven practical use both at low temperature (by the refrigeration industry) and at high temperature (by the nuclear reactor industry) makes it suitable for direct utilization without any extended preliminary research. A carbon dioxide cycle in its basic configuration featuring a pump, a regenerator, a heater and a condenser is much simpler than the binary steam-ORC cycle but has a lower efficiency (around 47%). All condensing cycles (ORC,CO 2 ,...) exhibit a limited capability of exploiting the whole cryogenic exergy of LNG in that they cannot heat the natural gas at temperatures above the condensation temperature. This drawback is fully overcome in nitrogen Brayton cycles which can heat LNG up to ambient temperature. Slightly modifying the basic CO 2 cycle so that it can partially use free thermal energy from sea water increases efficiency to 51%. Multiple condensation cycles allow a better overall performance at the cost of a more complex layout. Compound CO 2 cycles, featuring also a gas compressor, exhibit an improved thermodynamics by reducing the temperature difference within the regenerator, with the result of increasing the overall efficiency at values better than those of both binary and Brayton cycles. At 600 deg. C top temperature, for example, a compound cycle at 100 bar maximum pressure has an efficiency of 55.3% (52.3% for a binary steam-ORC cycle at 550 deg. C, 150 bar steam parameters; 46.5% for the nitrogen cycle at 600 deg. C top temperature).

  13. Remote sensing of wetland parameters related to carbon cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, David S.; Johnson, Robert W.

    1985-01-01

    Measurement of the rates of important biogeochemical fluxes on regional or global scales is vital to understanding the geochemical and climatic consequences of natural biospheric processes and of human intervention in those processes. Remote data gathering and interpretation techniques were used to examine important cycling processes taking place in wetlands over large geographic expanses. Large area estimation of vegetative biomass and productivity depends upon accurate, consistent measurements of canopy spectral reflectance and upon wide applicability of algorithms relating reflectance to biometric parameters. Results of the use of airborne multispectral scanner data to map above-ground biomass in a Delaware salt marsh are shown. The mapping uses an effective algorithm linking biomass to measured spectral reflectance and a means to correct the scanner data for large variations in the angle of observation of the canopy. The consistency of radiometric biomass algorithms for marsh grass when they are applied over large latitudinal and tidal range gradients were also examined. Results of a 1 year study of methane emissions from tidal wetlands along a salinity gradient show marked effects of temperature, season, and pore-water chemistry in mediating flux to the atmosphere.

  14. Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, P.M.; Betts, R.A.; Jones, C.D.; Spall, S.A.; Totterdell, I.J.

    2000-01-01

    The continued increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide due to anthropogenic emissions is predicted to lead to significant changes in climate. About half of the current emissions are being absorbed by the ocean and by land ecosystems, but this absorption is sensitive to climate as well as to atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, creating a feedback loop. General circulation models have generally excluded the feedback between climate and the biosphere, using static vegetation distributions and CO 2 concentrations from simple carbon-cycle models that do not include climate change. Here we present results from a fully coupled, three-dimensional carbon-climate model, indicating that carbon-cycle feedbacks could significantly accelerate climate change over the twenty-first century. We find that under a 'business as usual' scenario, the terrestrial biosphere acts as an overall carbon sink until about 2050, but turns into a source thereafter. By 2100, the ocean uptake rate of 5 Gt C yr -1 is balanced by the terrestrial carbon source, and atmospheric CO 2 concentrations are 250 p.p.m.v. higher in our fully coupled simulation than in uncoupled carbon models, resulting in a global-mean warming of 5.5 K, as compared to 4 K without the carbon-cycle feedback. (author)

  15. Sensitivity analysis of parameters affecting carbon footprint of fossil fuel power plants based on life cycle assessment scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dalir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study a pseudo comprehensive carbon footprint model for fossil fuel power plants is presented. Parameters which their effects are considered in this study include: plant type, fuel type, fuel transmission type, internal consumption of the plant, degradation, site ambient condition, transmission and distribution losses. Investigating internal consumption, degradation and site ambient condition effect on carbon footprint assessment of fossil fuel power plant is the specific feature of the proposed model. To evaluate the model, a sensitivity analysis is performed under different scenarios covering all possible choices for investigated parameters. The results show that carbon footprint of fossil fuel electrical energy that is produced, transmitted and distributed, varies from 321 g CO2 eq/kWh to 980 g CO2 equivalent /kWh. Carbon footprint of combined cycle with natural gas as main fuel is the minimum carbon footprint. Other factors can also cause indicative variation. Fuel type causes a variation of 28%. Ambient condition may change the result up to 13%. Transmission makes the carbon footprint larger by 4%. Internal consumption and degradation influence the result by 2 and 2.5%, respectively. Therefore, to minimize the carbon footprint of fossil fuel electricity, it is recommended to construct natural gas ignited combined cycles in low lands where the temperature is low and relative humidity is high. And the internal consumption is as least as possible and the maintenance and overhaul is as regular as possible.

  16. Studies of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneba, Gerard T.

    2005-01-01

    The fellowship experience for this summer for 2004 pertains to carbon nanotube coatings for various space-related applications. They involve the following projects: (a) EMI protection films from HiPco-polymers, and (b) Thermal protection nanosilica materials. EMI protection films are targeted to be eventually applied onto casings of laptop computers. These coatings are composites of electrically-conductive SWNTs and compatible polymers. The substrate polymer will be polycarbonate, since computer housings are typically made of carbon composites of this type of polymer. A new experimental copolymer was used last year to generate electrically-conductive and thermal films with HiPco at 50/50 wt/wt composition. This will be one of the possible formulations. Reference films will be base polycarbonate and neat HiPco onto polycarbonate films. Other coating materials that will be tried will be based on HiPco composites with commercial enamels (polyurethane, acrylic, polyester), which could be compatible with the polycarbonate substrate. Nanosilica fibers are planned for possible use as thermal protection tiles on the shuttle orbiter. Right now, microscale silica is used. Going to the nanoscale will increase the surface-volume-per-unit-area of radiative heat dissipation. Nanoscale carbon fibers/nanotubes can be used as templates for the generation of nanosilica. A sol-gel operation is employed for this purpose.

  17. Light-dark (12:12) cycle of carbon and nitrogen metabolism in Crocosphaera watsonii WH8501: relation to the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Anthony; Rabouille, Sophie; Claquin, Pascal; Le Roy, Bertrand; Talec, Amélie; Sciandra, Antoine

    2012-04-01

    This study provides with original data sets on the physiology of the unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium Crocosphaera watsonii WH8501, maintained in continuous culture in conditions of obligate diazotrophy. Cultures were exposed to a 12:12 light-dark regime, representative of what they experience in nature and where growth is expected to be balanced. Nitrogen and carbon metabolism were monitored at high frequency and their dynamics was compared with the cell cycle. Results reveal a daily cycle in the physiological and biochemical parameters, tightly constrained by the timely decoupled processes of N(2) fixation and carbon acquisition. The cell division rate increased concomitantly to carbon accumulation and peaked 6 h into the light. The carbon content reached a maximum at the end of the light phase. N(2) fixation occurred mostly during the dark period and peaked between 9 and 10 h into the night, while DNA synthesis, reflected by DNA fluorescence, increased until the end of the night. Consequently, cells in G1- and S-phases present a marked decrease in their C:N ratio. Nitrogen acquisition through N(2) fixation exceeded 1.3- to 3-fold the nitrogen requirements for growth, suggesting that important amounts of nitrogen are excreted even under conditions supposed to favour balanced, carbon and nitrogen acquisitions. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. The annual cycle of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasing, T.J.; Marland, G.; Broniak, C.T.

    2005-01-01

    Time-series of estimated monthly carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of coal, petroleum and natural gas in the United States from 1981 to 2002 have been derived from energy consumption data. The data series for coal and natural gas each reveal a consistent seasonal pattern, with a winter peak for gas and two peaks (summer and winter) for coal. The annual cycle of total emissions has an amplitude of about 20 Tg-C, and is dominated by CO 2 released from consumption of natural gas. Summation of the monthly estimates to obtain annual values reveals good agreement with other estimates of CO 2 emissions. The varying proportions of CO 2 emitted from each fuel type over the course of a year lead to an annual cycle in the carbon isotope ratio ( 13 C), with a range of about 2 . These monthly carbon emissions estimates should be helpful in understanding the carbon cycle by providing (1) monthly/seasonal input for carbon cycle models, (2) estimates of the annual cycle of the 13 C isotope ratio in fossil-fuel CO 2 emissions and (3) data at fine enough time intervals to investigate effects of seasonal climate variations and changes in seasonally dependent use patterns of certain appliances (e.g. air conditioners) on fossil-fuel carbon emissions

  19. The Atmospheric Constraint: What we Know About the State of the Carbon Cycle by Observing Carbon Dioxide and Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, S.; Jacobson, A. R.; Miller, J. B.; Ballantyne, A.; Bruhwiler, L.; Chatterjee, A.; Davis, K. J.; Duncan, B. N.; Gurney, K. R.; Houghton, R. A.; Keppel-Aleks, G.; Michalak, A. M.; Ott, L.

    2016-12-01

    Much of what is known about the global carbon cycle has been learned by studying the time rate of change and spatial distribution of carbon gases in the atmosphere. In the past decade, the network of measurements of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 has increased by leaps and bounds. Observations now include many programs of sample collection; commercial as well as academic and government measurement programs; in-situ measurements from towers, ships, and aircraft; and new satellite sensors with near-global coverage. Quantitative estimates of regional budgets for both CO2 and CH4 require atmospheric tracer transport inversion. These methods have been further developed and improved in recent years and several groups are now providing updated regional fluxes using a suite of such models. Analysis of atmospheric CO2 has shown that ongoing sink processes continue to sequester about half of global fossil fuel emissions, with about half the sink activity on land and half in the oceans. Enhanced observing and improved inverse modeling of CO2 has been evaluated for smaller regions and shown to match direct carbon inventories. Aircraft sampling and satellite observations have finally begun to converge on the partition between tropical and extratropical land sinks and on the influence of climate variability. Additional tracers such as 13CO2, 14CO2, and COS as well as new remote sensing products such as solar induced fluorescence are helping carbon cycle scientists to better understand and predict sink mechanisms. An emerging area of work is the use of atmospheric data to conduct monitoring, reporting, and verification of emissions from point sources and cities. A major field campaign to study CO2 transport by convective and frontal storms is now underway. After a period of stable concentrations, concentrations of atmospheric CH4 have again begun to increase. Campaigns using mobile instruments and in-situ measurements made from fixed towers have established that leakage of CH4

  20. Asia-MIP: Multi Model-data Synthesis of Terrestrial Carbon Cycles in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, K.; Kondo, M.; Ito, A.; Kang, M.; Sasai, T.; SATO, H.; Ueyama, M.; Kobayashi, H.; Saigusa, N.; Kim, J.

    2013-12-01

    Asia, which is characterized by monsoon climate and intense human activities, is one of the prominent understudied regions in terms of terrestrial carbon budgets and mechanisms of carbon exchange. To better understand terrestrial carbon cycle in Asia, we initiated multi-model and data intercomparison project in Asia (Asia-MIP). We analyzed outputs from multiple approaches: satellite-based observations (AVHRR and MODIS) and related products, empirically upscaled estimations (Support Vector Regression) using eddy-covariance observation network in Asia (AsiaFlux, CarboEastAsia, FLUXNET), ~10 terrestrial biosphere models (e.g. BEAMS, Biome-BGC, LPJ, SEIB-DGVM, TRIFFID, VISIT models), and atmospheric inversion analysis (e.g. TransCom models). We focused on the two difference temporal coverage: long-term (30 years; 1982-2011) and decadal (10 years; 2001-2010; data intensive period) scales. The regions of covering Siberia, Far East Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia (60-80E, 10S-80N), was analyzed in this study for assessing the magnitudes, interannual variability, and key driving factors of carbon cycles. We will report the progress of synthesis effort to quantify terrestrial carbon budget in Asia. First, we analyzed the recent trends in Gross Primary Productivities (GPP) using satellite-based observation (AVHRR) and multiple terrestrial biosphere models. We found both model outputs and satellite-based observation consistently show an increasing trend in GPP in most of the regions in Asia. Mechanisms of the GPP increase were analyzed using models, and changes in temperature and precipitation play dominant roles in GPP increase in boreal and temperate regions, whereas changes in atmospheric CO2 and precipitation are important in tropical regions. However, their relative contributions were different. Second, in the decadal analysis (2001-2010), we found that the negative GPP and carbon uptake anomalies in 2003 summer in Far East Asia is one of the largest

  1. Orbital control on carbon cycle and oceanography in the mid-Cretaceous greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgioni, Martino; Weissert, Helmut; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Hochuli, Peter A.; Coccioni, Rodolfo; Keller, Christina E.

    2012-03-01

    We established a new high-resolution carbonate carbon isotope record of the Albian interval of the Marne a Fucoidi Formation (Central Apennines, Italy), which was deposited on the southern margin of the western Tethys Ocean. Bulk carbonate sampled with 10-15 cm spacing was used for the construction of a continuous carbon isotope curve through the Albian stage. Spectral analyses reveal prominent 400 kyr cyclicity in the δ13C curve, which correlates with Milankovitch long eccentricity changes. Cycles occurring in our record resemble those observed in several Cenozoic δ13C records, suggesting that a link between orbital forcing and carbon cycling existed also under mid-Cretaceous greenhouse conditions. Based on comparisons with Cenozoic eccentricity-carbon cycle links we hypothesize that 400 kyr cycles in the mid-Cretaceous were related to a fluctuating monsoonal regime, coupled with an unstable oceanic structure, which made the oceanic carbon reservoir sensitive to orbital variations. In the Tethys these oceanographic conditions lasted until the Late Albian, and then were replaced by a more stable circulation mode, less sensitive to orbital forcing.

  2. Melting phase relation of nominally anhydrous, carbonated pelitic-eclogite at 2.5-3.0 GPa and deep cycling of sedimentary carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuno, Kyusei; Dasgupta, Rajdeep

    2011-05-01

    We have experimentally investigated melting phase relation of a nominally anhydrous, carbonated pelitic eclogite (HPLC1) at 2.5 and 3.0 GPa at 900-1,350°C in order to constrain the cycling of sedimentary carbon in subduction zones. The starting composition HPLC1 (with 5 wt% bulk CO2) is a model composition, on a water-free basis, and is aimed to represent a mixture of 10 wt% pelagic carbonate unit and 90 wt% hemipelagic mud unit that enter the Central American trench. Sub-solidus assemblage comprises clinopyroxene + garnet + K-feldspar + quartz/coesite + rutile + calcio-ankerite/ankeritess. Solidus temperature is at 900-950°C at 2.5 GPa and at 900-1,000°C at 3.0 GPa, and the near-solidus melt is K-rich granitic. Crystalline carbonates persist only 50-100°C above the solidus and at temperatures above carbonate breakdown, carbon exists in the form of dissolved CO2 in silica-rich melts and as a vapor phase. The rhyodacitic to dacitic partial melt evolves from a K-rich composition at near-solidus condition to K-poor, and Na- and Ca-rich composition with increasing temperature. The low breakdown temperatures of crystalline carbonate in our study compared to those of recent studies on carbonated basaltic eclogite and peridotite owes to Fe-enrichment of carbonates in pelitic lithologies. However, the conditions of carbonate release in our study still remain higher than the modern depth-temperature trajectories of slab-mantle interface at sub-arc depths, suggesting that the release of sedimentary carbonates is unlikely in modern subduction zones. One possible scenario of carbonate release in modern subduction zones is the detachment and advection of sedimentary piles to hotter mantle wedge and consequent dissolution of carbonate in rhyodacitic partial melt. In the Paleo-NeoProterozoic Earth, on the other hand, the hotter slab-surface temperatures at subduction zones likely caused efficient liberation of carbon from subducting sedimentary carbonates. Deeply subducted

  3. Change impact analysis on the life cycle carbon emissions of energy systems – The nuclear example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nian, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper evaluates the life cycle carbon emission of nuclear power in a scenario based approach. • It quantifies the impacts to the LCA results from the change in design parameters. • The methodology can give indications towards preferred or favorable designs. • The findings contribute to the life cycle inventories of energy systems. - Abstract: The life cycle carbon emission factor (measured by t-CO 2 /GW h) of nuclear power is much lower than those of fossil fueled power generation technologies. However, the fact of nuclear energy being a low carbon power source comes with many assumptions. These assumptions range from system and process definitions, to input–output definitions, to system boundary and cut-off criteria selections, and life cycle inventory dataset. However, there is a somewhat neglected but critical aspect – the design aspect. This refers to the impacts on the life cycle carbon emissions from the change in design parameters related to nuclear power. The design parameters identified in this paper include: (1) the uranium ore grade, (2) the critical process technologies, represented by the average initial enrichment concentration of 235 U in the reactor fuel, and (3) the size of the nuclear power reactor (measured by the generating capacity). If not properly tested, assumptions in the design aspect can lead to an erroneous estimation on the life cycle carbon emission factor of nuclear power. In this paper, a methodology is developed using the Process Chain Analysis (PCA) approach to quantify the impacts of the changes in the selected design parameters on the life cycle carbon emission factor of nuclear power. The concept of doing so broadens the scope of PCAs on energy systems from “one-off” calculation to analysis towards favorable/preferred designs. The findings from the analyses can serve as addition to the life cycle inventory database for nuclear power as well as provide indications for the sustainability of

  4. Land-use and carbon cycle responses to moderate climate change: implications for land-based mitigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpenöder, Florian; Popp, Alexander; Stevanovic, Miodrag; Müller, Christoph; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Bonsch, Markus; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Weindl, Isabelle; Biewald, Anne; Rolinski, Susanne

    2015-06-02

    Climate change has impacts on agricultural yields, which could alter cropland requirements and hence deforestation rates. Thus, land-use responses to climate change might influence terrestrial carbon stocks. Moreover, climate change could alter the carbon storage capacity of the terrestrial biosphere and hence the land-based mitigation potential. We use a global spatially explicit economic land-use optimization model to (a) estimate the mitigation potential of a climate policy that provides economic incentives for carbon stock conservation and enhancement, (b) simulate land-use and carbon cycle responses to moderate climate change (RCP2.6), and (c) investigate the combined effects throughout the 21st century. The climate policy immediately stops deforestation and strongly increases afforestation, resulting in a global mitigation potential of 191 GtC in 2100. Climate change increases terrestrial carbon stocks not only directly through enhanced carbon sequestration (62 GtC by 2100) but also indirectly through less deforestation due to higher crop yields (16 GtC by 2100). However, such beneficial climate impacts increase the potential of the climate policy only marginally, as the potential is already large under static climatic conditions. In the broader picture, this study highlights the importance of land-use dynamics for modeling carbon cycle responses to climate change in integrated assessment modeling.

  5. Electron requirements for carbon incorporation along a diel light cycle in three marine diatom species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelle, Jérôme; Claquin, Pascal

    2018-02-23

    Diatoms account for about 40% of primary production in highly productive ecosystems. The development of a new generation of fluorometers has made it possible to improve estimation of the electron transport rate from photosystem II, which, when coupled with the carbon incorporation rate enables estimation of the electrons required for carbon fixation. The aim of this study was to investigate the daily dynamics of these electron requirements as a function of the diel light cycle in three relevant diatom species and to apprehend if the method of estimating the electron transport rate can lead to different pictures of the dynamics. The results confirmed the species-dependent capacity for photoacclimation under increasing light levels. Despite daily variations in the photosynthetic parameters, the results of this study underline the low daily variability of the electron requirements estimated using functional absorption of the photosystem II compared to an estimation based on a specific absorption cross section of chlorophyll a. The stability of the electron requirements throughout the day would suggest it is potentially possible to estimate high-frequency primary production by using autonomous variable fluorescence measurements from ships-of-opportunity or moorings, without taking potential daily variation in this parameter into consideration, but this result has to be confirmed on natural phytoplankton assemblages. The results obtained in this study confirm the low electron requirements of diatoms to perform photosynthesis, and suggest a potential additional source of energy for carbon fixation, as recently described in the literature for this class.

  6. In Vivo Toxicity Assessment of Occupational Components of the Carbon Nanotube Life Cycle To Provide Context to Potential Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Lindsey; Cena, Lorenzo; Orandle, Marlene; Yanamala, Naveena; Dahm, Matthew M; Birch, M Eileen; Evans, Douglas E; Kodali, Vamsi K; Eye, Tracy; Battelli, Lori; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; Casuccio, Gary; Bunker, Kristin; Lupoi, Jason S; Lersch, Traci L; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Sager, Tina; Afshari, Aliakbar; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Friend, Sherri; Kang, Jonathan; Siegrist, Katelyn J; Mitchell, Constance A; Lowry, David T; Kashon, Michael L; Mercer, Robert R; Geraci, Charles L; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Sargent, Linda M; Erdely, Aaron

    2017-09-26

    Pulmonary toxicity studies on carbon nanotubes focus primarily on as-produced materials and rarely are guided by a life cycle perspective or integration with exposure assessment. Understanding toxicity beyond the as-produced, or pure native material, is critical, due to modifications needed to overcome barriers to commercialization of applications. In the first series of studies, the toxicity of as-produced carbon nanotubes and their polymer-coated counterparts was evaluated in reference to exposure assessment, material characterization, and stability of the polymer coating in biological fluids. The second series of studies examined the toxicity of aerosols generated from sanding polymer-coated carbon-nanotube-embedded or neat composites. Postproduction modification by polymer coating did not enhance pulmonary injury, inflammation, and pathology or in vitro genotoxicity of as-produced carbon nanotubes, and for a particular coating, toxicity was significantly attenuated. The aerosols generated from sanding composites embedded with polymer-coated carbon nanotubes contained no evidence of free nanotubes. The percent weight incorporation of polymer-coated carbon nanotubes, 0.15% or 3% by mass, and composite matrix utilized altered the particle size distribution and, in certain circumstances, influenced acute in vivo toxicity. Our study provides perspective that, while the number of workers and consumers increases along the life cycle, toxicity and/or potential for exposure to the as-produced material may greatly diminish.

  7. Dry Air Cooler Modeling for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moisseytsev, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, J. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lv, Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-07-28

    Modeling for commercially available and cost effective dry air coolers such as those manufactured by Harsco Industries has been implemented in the Argonne National Laboratory Plant Dynamics Code for system level dynamic analysis of supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) Brayton cycles. The modeling can now be utilized to optimize and simulate sCO2 Brayton cycles with dry air cooling whereby heat is rejected directly to the atmospheric heat sink without the need for cooling towers that require makeup water for evaporative losses. It has sometimes been stated that a benefit of the sCO2 Brayton cycle is that it enables dry air cooling implying that the Rankine steam cycle does not. A preliminary and simple examination of a Rankine superheated steam cycle and an air-cooled condenser indicates that dry air cooling can be utilized with both cycles provided that the cycle conditions are selected appropriately

  8. Drivers of the Seasonal Carbon Cycle in the Coastal Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, D.; Siedlecki, S. A.; Hermann, A. J.; Coyle, K. O.; Mathis, J. T.

    2016-02-01

    The Coastal Gulf of Alaska serves as a significant carbon sink annually, but varies seasonally from net carbon efflux in winter, to net carbon uptake from spring through fall. This significant uptake of anthropogenic CO2 combined with the naturally cold, low calcium carbonate surface waters is expected to accelerate ocean acidification. Observational evidence has already detected subsurface aragonite undersaturation, likely resulting from carbon remineralization of sinking organic matter. Other processes such as storm-induced vertical mixing, glacial runoff, temperature change, and nutrient supply can further modify the carbon cycle. Improving knowledge of these seasonal processes is critical for the region's fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services and can be adversely impacted by sub-optimal aragonite saturation conditions. We use a regional model of the Coastal Gulf of Alaska coupled to an ecosystem model with full carbonate chemistry to investigate the physical and biogeochemical mechanisms that drive the seasonal carbon cycle. Boundary conditions are set from the coarser Northeast Pacific model, with alkalinity and carbon concentrations determined from empirical relationships with salinity. Model output from a 2009 hindcast simulation is compared to observations of alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations for model verification and to elucidate seasonal mechanisms.

  9. Melting curve of compressed barium carbonate from in situ ionic conductivity measurements: Implications for the melting behavior of alkaline earth carbonates in Earth's deep carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, J.; Li, J.; Zhu, F.; Li, Z.; Farawi, R.

    2017-12-01

    The whereabouts of subducted carbonates place a major constraint on the Earth's deep carbon cycle, but the fraction of carbon retained in the slab and transported into the deep mantle, compared to that released from the slab and recycled to the surface, is still under debate. Knowledge of the stability of carbonated mantle rocks is pivotal for assessing the ability of slabs to carry carbonates into the deep mantle. Determination and systematic comparison of the melting curves of alkali and alkaline earth carbonates at high pressure can help construct thermodynamic models to predict the melting behavior of complex carbonated mantle rocks. Among alkaline earth carbonates, the melting behavior of barium carbonate (BaCO3) has not been adequately understood. The reported melting point of BaCO3at 1 bar differ by nearly 800 °C and constraints on the melting curve of BaCO3 at high pressure are not available. In this study, the melting temperatures of BaCO3 were determined up to 11 GPa from in situ ionic conductivity measurements using the multi-anvil apparatus at the University of Michigan. The solid-liquid boundary at high pressure was detected on the basis of a steep rise in conductivity through the sample upon melting. The melting point of BaCO3 was found to drop from 1797 °C at 3.3 GPa to 1600 °C at 5.5 GPa and then rise with pressure to 2180 °C at 11 GPa. The observed melting depression point at 5.5 GPa corresponds to the phase transition of BaCO3 from the aragonite structure (Pmcn) to post-aragonite structure (Pmmn) at 6.3 GPa, 877 °C and 8.0 GPa, 727 °C, determined from synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements using laser-heated DAC experiments at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. These results are also compared with ex situ falling marker experiments, and the three methods together place tight constraints on the melting curve of BaCO3 and elucidates the effect of structural phase transitions on its melting behavior.

  10. Comparing Terrestrial Organic Carbon Cycle Dynamics in Interglacial and Glacial Climates in the South American Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornace, K. L.; Galy, V.; Hughen, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    The application of compound-specific radiocarbon dating to molecular biomarkers has allowed for tracking of specific organic carbon pools as they move through the environment, providing insight into complex processes within the global carbon cycle. Here we use this technique to investigate links between glacial-interglacial climate change and terrestrial organic carbon cycling in the catchments of Cariaco Basin and Lake Titicaca, two tropical South American sites with well-characterized climate histories since the last glacial period. By comparing radiocarbon ages of terrestrial biomarkers (leaf wax compounds) with deposition ages in late glacial and Holocene sediments, we are able to gauge the storage time of these compounds in the catchments in soils, floodplains, etc. before transport to marine or lacustrine sediments. We are also able to probe the effects of temperature and hydrologic change individually by taking advantage of opposite hydrologic trends at the two sites: while both were colder during the last glacial period, precipitation at Titicaca decreased from the last glacial period to the Holocene, but the late glacial was marked by drier conditions at Cariaco. Preliminary data from both sites show a wide range of apparent ages of long-chain n-fatty acids (within error of 0 to >10,000 years older than sediment), with the majority showing ages on the order of several millennia at time of deposition and age generally increasing with chain length. While late glacial leaf waxes appear to be older relative to sediment than those deposited in the Holocene at both sites, at Cariaco we find a ~2-3 times larger glacial-interglacial age difference than at Titicaca. We hypothesize that at Titicaca the competing influences of wetter and colder conditions during the last glacial period, which respectively tend to increase and decrease the rate of organic carbon turnover on land, served to minimize the contrast between glacial and interglacial leaf wax storage time

  11. Regional nuclear fuel cycle centers study project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, L.; Catlin, R.G.; Meckoni, V.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of regional fuel cycle centers (RFCC) has attracted wide interest. The concept was endorsed by many countries in discussions at the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency and at the General Assembly of the United Nations. Accordingly, in 1975, the IAEA initiated a detailed study of the RFCC concept. The Agency study has concentrated on what is referred to as the ''back-end'' of the fuel cycle because that is the portion which is currently problematic. The study covers transport, storage, processing and recycle activities starting from the time the spent fuel leaves the reactor storage pools and through all steps until the recycled fuel is in finished fuel elements and shipped to the reactor. A detailed evaluation of the specific features of large regional fuel cycle centers established on a multinational basis vis-a-vis smaller dispersed fuel cycle facilities set up on a national basis has been carried out. The methodology for assessment of alternative strategies for fuel storage, reprocessing, and recycling of plutonium has been developed, characteristic data on material flows and cost factors have been generated, and an analytic system has been developed to carry out such evaluations including appropriate sensitivity analysis. Studies in related areas on institutional and legal, organizational, environmental, materials control and other essential aspects have also been made. The material developed during the course of this Study would enable any group of interested Member States to examine and work out alternative strategies pertinent to their present and projected nuclear fuel cycle needs, as well as evolve institutional, legal and other appropriate frameworks or agreements for the establishment of fuel cycle centers on a multinational cooperative basis

  12. Aligning ecology and markets in the forest carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew D. Hurteau; Bruce A. Hungate; George W. Koch; Malcolm P. North; Gordon R Smith

    2013-01-01

    A forest carbon (C) offset is a quantifiable unit of C that is commonly developed at the local or regional project scale and is designed to counterbalance anthropogenic C emissions by sequestering C in trees. In capand- trade programs, forest offsets have market value if the sequestered C is additional (more than would have occurred in the absence of the project) and...

  13. The Role of Prokaryotes in Sediment Carbon Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piil, Kristoffer

    of atmospheric carbon, as CO2 is readily exchanged between the atmosphere and the surface ocean. Organic matter derived from bacteria has been suggested to be more resistant to degradation than bulk organic matter and there is evidence that D-amino acids, which are uniquely produced by bacteria, are more...

  14. Disrupted carbon cycling in restored and unrestored urban streams: Critical timescales and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, L. G.; Harvey, Judson

    2017-01-01

    Carbon fixation and respiration in flowing waterways play significant roles in global and regional carbon budgets, yet how land use and watershed management interact with temporal disturbances (storms) to influence metabolism remains poorly understood. Here, we combine long-term with synoptic sampling of metabolism and its variable controls in neighboring watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay to resolve limiting factors and critical timescales associated with recovery from disturbance. We found that, relative to predictions of the river continuum concept, focal streams have “disrupted” carbon cycles, with carbon balances closer to zero, and, in some cases, tighter coupling between gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER), attributable to carbon limitation. Carbon became limiting to ER where flashy storm hydrographs and simplified channel geomorphology inhibited accumulation of fine sediment. Shannon entropy analysis of timescales revealed that fine sediment served as a time-release capsule for nutrients and carbon over 4–6 months, fueling biogeochemical transformations. Loss of fines through hydraulic disturbance had up to 30-d impacts on GPP and 50-d impacts on ER in the stream with carbon limitation. In contrast, where GPP and ER were not tightly coupled, recovery occurred within 1 d. Results suggest that a complex interplay between nutrient and carbon limitation and mechanical and chemical disturbance governs patterns and consequences of disrupted carbon cycling in urban streams. Carbon limitation and tight GPP/ER coupling enhance the vulnerability of stream ecosystem functions, but best management practices that target stormflow reduction and channel geomorphic diversity can break that coupling and minimize carbon cycle disruptions.

  15. Disturbance and decoupling of belowground carbon and nitrogen cycles in a northern temperate forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, L. E.; Nadelhoffer, K.; Le Moine, J.; Hardiman, B. S.; Sparks, J. P.; Strahm, B. D.; Munoz, A.; Gough, C. M.; Vogel, C. S.; Curtis, P.

    2011-12-01

    Belowground carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles are tightly coupled in many northern temperate forests. However, disturbances that cause tree mortality can decouple linkages between belowground components of these biogeochemical cycles. We measured a suite of belowground processes following a treatment to accelerate the natural senescence of early-successional dominants in a northern temperate forest, hypothesizing that tree mortality would decrease belowground C allocation, increase belowground N availability and cycling rates, and trigger N leaching in this highly N-limited forest. In the Forest Accelerated Succession ExperimenT, we stem girdled >6700 aspen and birch trees (39% of basal area) on 40 ha of forestland at the University of Michigan Biological Station to test these and other hypotheses related to forest development and biogeochemistry. Here, we present the cascade of changes in belowground C and N cycling that occurred in the first two growing seasons following initiation of FASET in April 2008. Aspen and birch mortality decreased stand-level fine root nonstructural carbohydrate contents, accelerating fine root turnover and causing a net reduction in fine root biomass. These decreases in belowground C allocation and root functioning increased forest floor net NH4+ availability, which accelerated nitrification rates, increased net NO3- availability, and led to small NO3- leaching losses. These belowground perturbations were registered by the forest canopy through shifts in foliar 13C and 15N natural abundances, which indicated water stress among girdled aspens and faster, leakier cycling in a source N pool shared by foliage of all tree species. We interpret the results of this initial disturbance phase of the FASET study in the context of our conceptual model of N availability and ecosystem C storage over longer-term (successional) time scales. We predict that, following minor N leaching losses during disturbance, reorganization of belowground N cycling

  16. Key issues and options in accounting for carbon sequestration and temporary storage in life cycle assessment and carbon footprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandao, Miguel; Levasseur, Annie; Kirschbaum, Miko U. F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Biological sequestration can increase the carbon stocks of non-atmospheric reservoirs (e.g. land and landbased products). Since this contained carbon is sequestered from, and retained outside, the atmosphere for a period of time, the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is temporarily...... footprinting (CF) are increasingly popular tools for the environmental assessment of products, that take into account their entire life cycle. There have been significant efforts to develop robust methods to account for the benefits, if any, of sequestration and temporary storage and release of biogenic carbon....... However, there is still no overall consensus on the most appropriate ways of considering and quantifying it. Method: This paper reviews and discusses six available methods for accounting for the potential climate impacts of carbon sequestration and temporary storage or release of biogenic carbon in LCA...

  17. Picophytoplankton and carbon cycle on the northeastern shelf of the Gulf of Cádiz (SW Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ribas-Ribas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four surveys (Jun’06 and Nov’06; Feb’07 and May’07 were carried out on the northeastern shelf of the Gulf of Cádiz (southwest Iberian Peninsula to relate the spatio-temporal distribution of the carbon cycle parameters (dissolved inorganic carbon and dissolved organic carbon to picophytoplankton biomass and community composition. In addition, the net ecosystem production and the picophytoplankton contribution to the air-sea CO2 exchange process were investigated. The results showed that chlorophyll-a, carbon cycle parameters and picophytoplankton composition showed large seasonality, and the Guadalquivir Estuary plays an important role in the contribution of nutrient and suspended particular material over the year. Regarding picophytoplankton composition, the flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus were the main populations in the studied area and their temporal and spatial distributions were complementary: the Prochlorococcus population showed its maximum concentration in May’07 and Jun’06 and in the surface oceanic water, whereas the Synechococcus population was at its maximum during Feb’07 and Nov’06, and off the Guadalquivir Estuary and Bay of Cádiz. In addition, a relationship between the studied parameters and the fugacity of CO2 was also observed, suggesting that primary production is an important factor in the regulation of this parameter in the studied area. The calculated carbon budget showed that the area acts as a carbon sink on an annual basis.

  18. Effects of nitrogen deposition on carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystems of China: A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hao; Li, Dejun; Gurmesa, Geshere A.; Yu, Guirui; Li, Linghao; Zhang, Wei; Fang, Huajun; Mo, Jiangming

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition in China has increased greatly, but the general impact of elevated N deposition on carbon (C) dynamics in Chinese terrestrial ecosystems is not well documented. In this study we used a meta-analysis method to compile 88 studies on the effects of N deposition C cycling on Chinese terrestrial ecosystems. Our results showed that N addition did not change soil C pools but increased above-ground plant C pool. A large decrease in below-ground plant C pool was observed. Our result also showed that the impacts of N addition on ecosystem C dynamics depend on ecosystem type and rate of N addition. Overall, our findings suggest that 1) decreased below-ground plant C pool may limit long-term soil C sequestration; and 2) it is better to treat N-rich and N-limited ecosystems differently in modeling effects of N deposition on ecosystem C cycle. - Highlights: • Meta-analysis was used to address the effects of N addition on C cycle. • N addition caused an large decease in belowground plant C pool. • N-rich and N-limited ecosystems had different responses to N addition. - N addition caused a large decrease in below-ground plant C pool.

  19. Life’s Critical Role in the Long-term Carbon Cycle: the Biotic Enhancement of Weathering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Schwartzman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The biotic enhancement of weathering (BEW has important implications for the long-term carbon cycle, in particular as a driver of climatic cooling. The BEW factor is defined as how much faster the silicate weathering carbon sink is under biotic conditions than under abiotic conditions at the same atmospheric pCO2 level and surface temperature. The BEW factor and its evolution over geological time can potentially be inferred from consideration of empirical and theoretical weathering studies. Estimates of the global magnitude of the BEW are presented, drawing from laboratory, field, watershed data and models of the long-term carbon cycle, with values ranging from one to two orders of magnitude.

  20. Dependency of climate change and carbon cycle on CO2 emission pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohara, Daisuke; Yoshida, Yoshikatsu; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Ohba, Masamichi

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that the response of globally average temperature is approximately proportional to cumulative CO 2 emissions, yet evidence of the robustness of this relationship over a range of CO 2 emission pathways is lacking. To address this, we evaluate the dependency of climate and carbon cycle change on CO 2 emission pathways using a fully coupled climate–carbon cycle model. We design five idealized pathways (including an overshoot scenario for cumulative emissions), each of which levels off to final cumulative emissions of 2000 GtC. The cumulative emissions of the overshoot scenario reach 4000 GtC temporarily, subsequently reducing to 2000 GtC as a result of continuous negative emissions. Although we find that responses of climatic variables and the carbon cycle are largely independent of emission pathways, a much weakened Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is projected in the overshoot scenario despite cessation of emissions. This weakened AMOC is enhanced by rapid warming in the Arctic region due to considerable temporary elevation of atmospheric CO 2 concentration and induces the decline of surface air temperature and decrease of precipitation over the northern Atlantic and Europe region. Moreover, the weakened AMOC reduces CO 2 uptake by the Atlantic and Arctic oceans. However, the weakened AMOC contributes little to the global carbon cycle. In conclusion, although climate variations have been found to be dependent on emission pathways, the global carbon cycle is relatively independent of these emission pathways, at least superficially. (letter)

  1. Elemental and isotopic (C, O, Sr, Nd) compositions of Late Paleozoic carbonated eclogite and marble from the SW Tianshan UHP belt, NW China: Implications for deep carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianjiang; Zhang, Lifei; Lü, Zeng; Bader, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Subduction zones are important for understanding of the global carbon cycle from the surface to deep part of the mantle. The processes involved the metamorphism of carbonate-bearing rocks largely control the fate of carbon and contribute to local carbon isotopic heterogeneities of the mantle. In this study, we present petrological and geochemical results for marbles and carbonated eclogites in the Southwestern Tianshan UHP belt, NW China. Marbles are interlayered with coesite-bearing pelitic schists, and have Sr-Nd isotopic values (εNd (T=320Ma) = -3.7 to -8.9, 87Sr/86Sr (i) = 0.7084-0.7089), typical of marine carbonates. The marbles have dispersed low δ18OVSMOW values (ranging from 14 to 29‰) and unaffected carbon isotope (δ13CVPDB = -0.2-3.6‰), possibly due to infiltration of external H2O-rich fluids. Recycling of these marbles into mantle may play a key role in the carbon budget and contributed to the mantle carbon isotope heterogeneity. The carbonated eclogites have high Sr isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr (i) = 0.7077-0.7082) and positive εNd (T = 320 Ma) values (from 7.6 to 8.2), indicative of strong seafloor alteration of their protolith. The carbonates in the carbonated eclogites are mainly dolomite (Fe# = 12-43, Fe# = Fe2+/(Fe2+ + Mg)) that were added into oceanic basalts during seafloor alteration and experienced calcite - dolomite - magnesite transformation during the subduction metamorphic process. The uniformly low δ18O values (∼11.44‰) of carbonates in the carbontaed eclogites can be explained by closed-system equilibrium between carbonate and silicate minerals. The low δ13C values (from -3.3 to -7.7‰) of the carbonated eclogites most likely reflect contribution from organic carbon. Recycling of these carbonated eclogites with C isotope similar to typical mantle reservoirs into mantle may have little effect on the mantle carbon isotope heterogeneity.

  2. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Energy Conversion System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jae Eun; Kim, S. O.; Seong, S. H.; Eoh, J. H.; Lee, T. H.; Choi, S. K.; Han, J. W.; Bae, S. W

    2007-12-15

    This report contains the description of the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle coupled to KALIMER-600 as an alternative energy conversion system. For system development, a computer code was developed to calculate heat balance of 100% power operation condition. Based on the computer code, the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle energy conversion system was constructed for the KALIMER-600. Using the developed turbomachinery models, the off-design characteristics and the sensitivities of the S-CO{sub 2} turbomachinery were investigated. For the development of PCHE models, a one-dimensional analysis computer code was developed to evaluate the performance of the PCHE. Possible control schemes for power control in the KALIMER-600 S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle were investigated by using the MARS code. Simple power reduction and recovery event was selected and analyzed for the transient calculation. For the evaluation of Na/CO{sub 2} boundary failure event, a computer was developed to simulate the complex thermodynamic behaviors coupled with the chemical reaction between liquid sodium and CO{sub 2} gas. The long term behavior of a Na/CO{sub 2} boundary failure event and its consequences which lead to a system pressure transient were evaluated.

  3. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Energy Conversion System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Jae Eun; Kim, S. O.; Seong, S. H.; Eoh, J. H.; Lee, T. H.; Choi, S. K.; Han, J. W.; Bae, S. W.

    2007-12-01

    This report contains the description of the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle coupled to KALIMER-600 as an alternative energy conversion system. For system development, a computer code was developed to calculate heat balance of 100% power operation condition. Based on the computer code, the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle energy conversion system was constructed for the KALIMER-600. Using the developed turbomachinery models, the off-design characteristics and the sensitivities of the S-CO 2 turbomachinery were investigated. For the development of PCHE models, a one-dimensional analysis computer code was developed to evaluate the performance of the PCHE. Possible control schemes for power control in the KALIMER-600 S-CO 2 Brayton cycle were investigated by using the MARS code. Simple power reduction and recovery event was selected and analyzed for the transient calculation. For the evaluation of Na/CO 2 boundary failure event, a computer was developed to simulate the complex thermodynamic behaviors coupled with the chemical reaction between liquid sodium and CO 2 gas. The long term behavior of a Na/CO 2 boundary failure event and its consequences which lead to a system pressure transient were evaluated

  4. Carbonation by fluid-rock interactions at High-Pressure conditions: implications for Carbon cycling in subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Francesca; Vitale Brovarone, Alberto; Beyssac, Olivier; Martinez, Isabelle; Ague, Jay J.; Chaduteau, Carine

    2016-04-01

    Carbonate-bearing lithologies are the main carbon carrier into subduction zones. Their evolution during metamorphism largely controls the fate of carbon regulating its fluxes between shallow and deep reservoirs. In subduction zones, most works have focused on subtractive processes responsible for carbon release from subducting slabs. As an example, several recent works have stressed on the importance of carbonate dissolution as a mean to mobilize large amounts of carbon in subduction zones. By contrast, little is known on additive processes such as rock carbonation at high-pressure (HP) conditions. At shallow depths (e.g. ocean floor and shallow subduction zones, i.e. geo-biosphere and the atmosphere. We report the occurrence of eclogite-facies marbles associated with metasomatic systems in HP metamorphic unit in Alpine Corsica (France). We performed a field-based study on metasomatic marbles. We will present the petrology and geochemistry that characterize carbonate metasomatism together with fluid inclusions study and pseudosection modeling. Altogether, we bring strong evidences for the precipitation of these carbonate-rich assemblages from carbonic fluids during HP metamorphism. We propose that rock carbonation can occur at HP conditions by either vein-injection or chemical replacement mechanisms. Rock carbonation indicates that carbonic fluids produced by decarbonation reactions and carbonate dissolution may not be directly transferred to the mantle wedge, but may have a preferential and complex pathway within the slab and along slab/mantle interface. Rock carbonation by fluid-rock interactions has a potentially great impact on the residence time of carbon and oxygen and on carbonates isotopic signature in subduction zones. Lastly, carbonation may modulate the emission of CO2 at volcanic arcs over geological time scales.

  5. Continental Scale research of the coupled carbon and water cycles in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleugh, Helen; van Gorsel, Eva; Held, Alex; Huete, Alfredo; Karan, Mirko; Liddell, Michael; Phinn, Stuart; Prentice, Colin

    2013-04-01

    It is essential to understand the drivers and processes that regulate uptake and release of carbon and water by the terrestrial biosphere to quantify the sink and source strengths under current climatic conditions. In addition, understanding the consequences of a changing climate on the capacity of the biosphere to sequester carbon by using a certain amount of water and the impacts of disturbances on resilience and thresholds of the terrestrial biosphere is critical. Recently there has been increasing general interest in how human activities may be affecting Australia's natural carbon cycles. Quantification of carbon and water exchanges requires process understanding over long temporal and large spatial scales, but at fine levels of detail. This requires integration of long term, high frequency observations, models and information from process studies and can only be achieved through research infrastructure that can provide easy access to meta-data and data that have been collected in a systematic and standardized way. The Australian Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) provides such nationally networked infrastructure, along with multi-disciplinary capabilities and end-user-focused products to deliver better ways of measuring and estimating Australia's current and future environmental carbon stocks and flows. Multiple Facilities in TERN are studying carbon and water dynamics across a range of distance and time scales. OzFlux, the Australasian arm of the global initiative Fluxnet, is the most obvious deployment of field hardware in TERN with close to 30 flux towers and their associated micrometeorological instrumentation in place around the country, from Central Australia to the Alps, covering ecosystems ranging from rainforest to alpine grasslands to mulga. Intensive monitoring is carried out at the 10 TERN Supersites which carry a suite of environmental instrumentation and perform standardised vegetation, faunal, soil and water monitoring.TERN Aus

  6. The Influence of Leaf Fall and Organic Carbon Availability on Nitrogen Cycling in a Headwater Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S. A.; Kristin, A.; Doyle, B.; Goodale, C. L.; Gurwick, N. P.; Lepak, J.; Kulkari, M.; McIntyre, P.; McCalley, C.; Raciti, S.; Simkin, S.; Warren, D.; Weiss, M.

    2005-05-01

    The study of allochthonous carbon has a long and distinguished history in stream ecology. Despite this legacy, relatively little is known regarding the influence of leaf litter on nutrient dynamics. We conducted 15N-NO3 tracer additions to a headwater stream in upstate New York before and after autumn leaf fall to assess the influence of leaf litter on nitrogen spiraling. In addition, we amended the stream with labile dissolved organic carbon (as acetate) midway through each experiment to examine whether organic carbon availability differentially stimulated nitrogen cycling. Leaf standing stocks increased from 53 to 175 g dry mass m-2 and discharge more than tripled (6 to 20 L s-1) between the pre- and post-leaf fall period. In contrast, nitrate concentration fell from approximately 50 to less then 10 ug L-1. Despite higher discharge, uptake length was shorter following leaf fall under both ambient (250 and 72 m, respectively) and DOC amended (125 and 45 m) conditions. Uptake velocity increased dramatically following leaf fall, despite a slight decline in the areal uptake rate. Dissolved N2 gas samples were also collected to estimate denitrification rates under each experimental condition. The temporal extent of increased nitrogen retention will also be explored.

  7. A Simulation Model of Carbon Cycling and Methane Emissions in Amazon Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.; Melack, J.; Hess, L.; Forsberg, B.; Novo, E. M.; Klooster, S.

    2004-12-01

    An integrative carbon study is investigating the hypothesis that measured fluxes of methane from wetlands in the Amazon region can be predicted accurately using a combination of process modeling of ecosystem carbon cycles and remote sensing of regional floodplain dynamics. A new simulation model has been build using the NASA-CASA concept for predicting methane production and emission fluxes in Amazon river and floodplain ecosystems. Numerous innovations area being made to model Amazon wetland ecosystems, including: (1) prediction of wetland net primary production (NPP) as the source for plant litter decomposition and accumulation of sediment organic matter in two major vegetation classes -- flooded forests (varzea or igapo) and floating macrophytes, (2) representation of controls on carbon processing and methane evasion at the diffusive boundary layer, through the lake water column, and in wetland sediments as a function of changes in floodplain water level, (3) inclusion of surface emissions controls on wetland methane fluxes, including variations in daily surface temperature and of hydrostatic pressure linked to water level fluctuations. A model design overview and early simulation results are presented.

  8. A Simulation Model of Carbon Cycling and Methane Emissions in Amazon Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher; Melack, John; Hess, Laura; Forsberg, Bruce; Novo, Evlyn Moraes; Klooster, Steven

    2004-01-01

    An integrative carbon study is investigating the hypothesis that measured fluxes of methane from wetlands in the Amazon region can be predicted accurately using a combination of process modeling of ecosystem carbon cycles and remote sensing of regional floodplain dynamics. A new simulation model has been build using the NASA- CASA concept for predicting methane production and emission fluxes in Amazon river and floodplain ecosystems. Numerous innovations area being made to model Amazon wetland ecosystems, including: (1) prediction of wetland net primary production (NPP) as the source for plant litter decomposition and accumulation of sediment organic matter in two major vegetation classes - flooded forests (varzea or igapo) and floating macrophytes, (2) representation of controls on carbon processing and methane evasion at the diffusive boundary layer, through the lake water column, and in wetland sediments as a function of changes in floodplain water level, (3) inclusion of surface emissions controls on wetland methane fluxes, including variations in daily surface temperature and of hydrostatic pressure linked to water level fluctuations. A model design overview and early simulation results are presented.

  9. Future Projections and Consequences of the Changing North American Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntzinger, D. N.; Cooley, S. R.; Moore, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    The rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), primarily due to human-caused fossil fuel emissions and land-use change, has been dampened by carbon uptake by the oceans and terrestrial biosphere. Nevertheless, today's atmospheric CO2 levels are higher than at any time in the past 800,000 years. Over the past decade, there has been considerable effort to understand how carbon cycle changes interact with, and influence, atmospheric CO2 concentrations and thus climate. Here, we summarize the key findings related to projected changes to the North American carbon cycle and the consequences of these changes as reported in Chapters 17 and 19 of the 2nd State of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR-2). In terrestrial ecosystems, increased atmospheric CO2 causes enhanced photosynthesis, plant growth, and water-use efficiency. Together, these may lead to changes in vegetation composition, carbon storage, hydrology and biogeochemical cycling. In the ocean, increased uptake of atmospheric CO2 causes ocean acidification, which leads to changes in reproduction, survival, and growth of many marine species. These direct physiological responses to acidification are likely to have indirect ecosystem-scale consequences that we are just beginning to understand. In all environments, the effects of rising CO2 also interact with other global changes. For example, nutrient availability can set limits on growth and a warming climate alters carbon uptake depending on a number of other factors. As a result, there is low confidence in the future evolution of the North American carbon cycle. For example, models project that terrestrial ecosystems could continue to be a net sink (of up to 1.19 PgC yr-1) or switch to a net source of carbon to the atmosphere (of up to 0.60 PgC yr-1) by the end of the century under business-as-usual emission scenarios. And, while North American coastal areas have historically been a sink of carbon (e.g., 2.6 to 3.5 PgC since 1995) and are projected to continue to take up

  10. [Design of dynamic simulation system for carbon cycle in forest ecosystem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian-Gang; Yu, Xin-Xiao; Zhang, Zhen-Ming; Wang, Chen; Gan, Jing; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Li, Jin-Hai

    2009-11-01

    Modeling techniques are indispensable for the researches on the carbon cycle of forest ecosystem. In this paper, a new general simulation system FORCASS (FORest CArbon Simulation System) was designed and developed under Simulink environment, with the objectives of modeling the carbon cycle dynamics of forest ecosystems. A comprehensive analysis on the framework, design solution, and development process showed that the FORCASS was feasible. This simulation system had the characteristics of 1) it divided the carbon storage in forest ecosystem into four compartments, i.e., vegetation, litter, soil, and animal, and took into account the carbon flows between the compartments, possessing high mechanism and easily to be comprehended, 2) it was a process-based system, taking the Richards growth function of vegetation component biomass carbon storage as the input to solve difference equations, and was easily to export the outputs such as net primary productivity (NPP) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) at different stand ages, and 3) it had the explicit expansibility because it was developed based on a general framework for carbon cycle patterns.

  11. Global redox cycle of biospheric carbon: Interaction of photosynthesis and earth crust processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivlev, Alexander A

    2015-11-01

    A model of the natural global redox cycle of biospheric carbon is introduced. According to this model, carbon transfer between biosphere and geospheres is accompanied by a conversion of the oxidative forms, presented by CO2, bicarbonate and carbonate ions, into the reduced forms, produced in photosynthesis. The mechanism of carbon transfer is associated with two phases of movement of lithospheric plates. In the short-term orogenic phase, CO2 from the subduction (plates' collisions) zones fills the "atmosphere-hydrosphere" system, resulting in climate warming. In the long-term quiet (geosynclynal) phase, weathering and photosynthesis become dominant depleting the oxidative forms of carbon. The above asymmetric periodicity exerts an impact on climate, biodiversity, distribution of organic matter in sedimentary deposits, etc. Along with photosynthesis expansion, the redox carbon cycle undergoes its development until it reaches the ecological compensation point, at which CO2 is depleted to the level critical to support the growth and reproduction of plants. This occurred in the Permo-Carboniferous time and in the Neogene. Shorter-term perturbations of the global carbon cycle in the form of glacial-interglacial oscillations appear near the ecological compensation point. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Carbon cycling in the mantled karst of the Ozark Plateaus, central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierim, Katherine J.; Pollock, Erik D.; Covington, Matthew D.; Hays, Phillip D.; Brye, Kristofor R.

    2017-01-01

    The nature of carbon (C) cycling in the unsaturated zone where groundwater is in contact with abundant gas-filled voids is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to trace inorganic-C cycling in a karst landscape using stable-C isotopes, with emphasis on a shallow groundwater flow path through the soil, to an underlying cave, and to the spring outlet of a cave stream in the Ozark Plateaus of northwestern Arkansas. Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and isotopic composition (δ13C-CO2) in gas and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration and isotopic composition (δ13C-DIC) in water were measured in samples collected from two suction-cup soil samplers above the cave, three sites in the cave, and at the spring outlet of the cave stream. Soil-gas CO2 concentration (median 2,578 ppm) and δ13C-CO2 (median − 21.5‰) were seasonally variable, reflecting the effects of surface temperature changes on soil-CO2 production via respiration and organic-matter decomposition. Cave-air CO2 (median 1,026 ppm) was sourced from the soil zone and the surface atmosphere, with seasonally changing proportions of each source controlled by surface temperature-driven air density gradients. Soil-DIC concentration (median 1.7 mg L− 1) was lower and soil-δ13C-DIC (median − 19.5‰) was lighter compared to the cave (median 23.3 mg L− 1 and − 14.3‰, respectively) because carbonate-bedrock dissolution provided an inorganic source of C to the cave. Carbon species in the soil had a unique, light stable-C isotopic signature compared to the cave. Discrimination of soil-C sources to karst groundwater was achieved, which is critical for developing hydrologic budgets using environmental tracers such as C.

  13. Dynamics of carbon, water and energy cycles in a heterogeneous landscape and a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A.; Law, B. E.; Still, C. J.; Hilker, T.

    2016-12-01

    The combined effects of changes in land-use and land cover (LULC) and climate on carbon and water cycling need to be assessed at regional scales. LULC changes over time have many drivers such as expanding urban areas, exploration of new agricultural areas due to overused natural resources of current agricultural areas (e.g. degraded soil), economical reasons, or policy changes that encourage the use of alternative energy resources. Our study assesses the effects of conversion of semi-arid sagebrush and agricultural crops to bioenergy production on carbon, water and energy cycling, and resulting heating or cooling effects. Our project focusses on Oregon, where agricultural crops, significant forest area, and urban expansion are coupled with a strong spatial climate gradient that allows us to examine influences on carbon sequestration by the terrestrial biosphere. Our inverse modeling results showed that the prior fluxes modelled with CLM4.5 underestimated NEE in the highly productive western Douglas fir forests by more than 50%. Based on the results of our Bayesian inversion, we optimized ecosystem fluxes and changed CLM model parameters accordingly. By integrating remote sensing LULC data, eddy covariance data from flux sites, tall tower CO2 observations, biomass estimates from field samples, and CLM4.5, we predict current and future statewide carbon sequestration with unprecedented accuracy. Using inventories and tower flux data, we determined the effect of conversion of hay and grass seed cropland (323,200 ha) to hybrid poplar and found the state NEP increased from 4 TgCO2 per year to 13 TgCO2 per year for that area. The last coal power plant in the state (Boardman) is in the process of switching from coal combustion to biofuel burning to meet the state's goal for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Our results show that the 7816 tons of biomass per day to keep the 518 MW power plant running at base load would amount to 35,000 hectares of hybrid poplar per

  14. Impacts of continental arcs on global carbon cycling and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. T.; Jiang, H.; Carter, L.; Dasgupta, R.; Cao, W.; Lackey, J. S.; Lenardic, A.; Barnes, J.; McKenzie, R.

    2017-12-01

    On myr timescales, climatic variability is tied to variations in atmospheric CO2, which in turn is driven by geologic sources of CO2 and modulated by the efficiency of chemical weathering and carbonate precipitation (sinks). Long-term variability in CO2 has largely been attributed to changes in mid-ocean ridge inputs or the efficiency of global weathering. For example, the Cretaceous greenhouse is thought to be related to enhanced oceanic crust production, while the late Cenozoic icehouse is attributed to enhanced chemical weathering associated with the Himalayan orogeny. Here, we show that continental arcs may play a more important role in controlling climate, both in terms of sources and sinks. Continental arcs differ from island arcs and mid-ocean ridges in that the continental plate through which arc magmas pass may contain large amounts of sedimentary carbonate, accumulated over the history of the continent. Interaction of arc magmas with crustal carbonates via assimilation, reaction or heating can significantly add to the mantle-sourced CO2 flux. Detrital zircons and global mapping of basement rocks shows that the length of continental arcs in the Cretaceous was more than twice that in the mid-Cenozoic; maps also show many of these arcs intersected crustal carbonates. The increased length of continental arc magmatism coincided with increased oceanic spreading rates, placing convergent margins into compression, which favors continental arcs. Around 50 Ma, however, nearly all the continental arcs in Eurasia and North America terminated as India collided with Eurasia and the western Pacific rolled back, initiating the Marianas-Tonga-Kermadec intra-oceanic subduction complex and possibly leading to a decrease in global CO2 production. Meanwhile, extinct continental arcs continued to erode, resulting in regionally enhanced chemical weathering unsupported by magmatic fluxes of CO2. Continental arcs, during their magmatic lifetimes, are thus a source of CO2, driving

  15. Influences of the Landscape on Life Cycle Carbon Intensity of Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, P. R.; Del Grosso, S.; Parton, W. J.; Spatari, S.

    2011-12-01

    program. Modeling results showed that N2O emissions varied across the landscape; NO3 leaching was higher on the sandy coastal plains soils leading to higher indirect N2O emissions, but direct N2O emissions were higher on the finer textured clay soils. In spite of the variabilities present due to landscape characteristics noted above, when DayCent estimates of changes in N2O emissions and SOC from addition of winter barley into the corn soybean rotation in the Mid Atlantic region were coupled with life cycle inventory results developed for winter barley-to-ethanol fuel expected to be produced from this region, results indicate that the fuel could meet advanced fuel status under EISA because the life cycle carbon intensity of the biofuel is at least 50% lower than a baseline gasoline fuel. This case study demonstrates a possible benefit of one approach to nitrogen management that also meets an important market opportunity mandated by law.

  16. Quasi-100 ky glacial-interglacial cycles triggered by subglacial burial carbon release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zeng

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism is proposed in which climate, carbon cycle and icesheets interact with each other to produce a feedback that can lead to quasi-100 ky glacial-interglacial cycles. A central process is the burial and preservation of organic carbon by icesheets which contributes to the observed glacial-interglacial CO2 change (the glacial burial hypothesis, Zeng, 2003. Allowing carbon cycle to interact with physical climate, here I further hypothesize that deglaciation can be triggered by the ejection of glacial burial carbon when a major icesheet grows to sufficiently large size after a prolonged glaciation so that subglacial transport becomes significant. Glacial inception may be initiated by CO2 drawdown due to a relaxation from a high but transient interglacial CO2 value as the land-originated CO2 invades into deep ocean via thermohaline circulation and CaCO3 compensation. Also important for glacial inception may be the CO2 uptake by vegetation and soil regrowth in the previously ice-covered regions. When tested in a fully coupled Earth system model with comprehensive carbon cycle components and semi-empirical physical climate components, it produced under certain parameter regimes self-sustaining glacial-interglacial cycles with durations of 93 ky, CO2 changes of 90 ppmv, temperature changes of 6°C. Since the 100 ky cycles can not be easily explained by the Milankovitch astronomical forcing alone, this carbon-climate-icesheet mechanism provides a strong feedback that could interact with external forcings to produce the major observed Quaternary climatic variations. It is speculated that some glacial terminations may be triggered by this internal feedback while others by orbital forcing. Some observable consequences are highlighted that may support or falsify the theory.

  17. Airway exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes disrupts the female reproductive cycle without affecting pregnancy outcomes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, H K L; Hansen, J S; Elfving, B; Lund, S P; Kyjovska, Z O; Loft, S; Barfod, K K; Jackson, P; Vogel, U; Hougaard, K S

    2017-05-30

    The use of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) is increasing due to a growing use in a variety of products across several industries. Thus, occupational exposure is also of increasing concern, particularly since airway exposure to MWCNTs can induce sustained pulmonary acute phase response and inflammation in experimental animals, which may affect female reproduction. This proof-of-principle study therefore aimed to investigate if lung exposure by intratracheal instillation of the MWCNT NM-400 would affect the estrous cycle and reproductive function in female mice. Estrous cycle regularity was investigated by comparing vaginal smears before and after exposure to 67 μg of NM-400, whereas reproductive function was analyzed by measuring time to delivery of litters after instillation of 2, 18 or 67 μg of NM-400. Compared to normal estrous cycling determined prior to exposure, exposure to MWCNT significantly prolonged the estrous cycle during which exposure took place, but significantly shortened the estrous cycle immediately after the exposed cycle. No consistent effects were seen on time to delivery of litter or other gestational or litter parameters, such as litter size, sex ratio, implantations and implantation loss. Lung exposure to MWCNT interfered with estrous cycling. Effects caused by MWCNTs depended on the time of exposure: the estrous stage was particularly sensitive to exposure, as animals exposed during this stage showed a higher incidence of irregular cycling after exposure. Our data indicates that MWCNT exposure may interfere with events leading to ovulation.

  18. Ocean and Atmospheric Profiling Lidar Observations and Its Link to Ocean Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yongxiang

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces space-based ocean and atmospheric profiling lidar for improving modeling and understanding of ocean carbon cycle. Unique measurements from space-based profiling lidars include (1) the global ocean surface mean square slope measurements for improving air-sea turbulence exchange estimates; (2) the backscatter and beam attenuation measurements for improving the global estimate of partial pressure of CO2 of the ocean with the reduction of uncertainties in primary productivity estimates. Global statistics of CALIOP integrated ocean subsurface backscatter measurements of coastal waters will be presented. The study will also assess the impact of CALIOP on the uncertainty reduction of primary productivity and the improvement of CO2 partial pressure estimates. Ocean surface roughness statistics, its applications in air-sea interaction and its comparisons with other measurements will also be presented

  19. Prospective life cycle carbon abatement for pyrolysis biochar systems in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Jim; Shackley, Simon; Sohi, Saran; Brownsort, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) of slow pyrolysis biochar systems (PBS) in the UK for small, medium and large scale process chains and ten feedstocks was performed, assessing carbon abatement and electricity production. Pyrolysis biochar systems appear to offer greater carbon abatement than other bioenergy systems. Carbon abatement of 0.7-1.3 t CO 2 equivalent per oven dry tonne of feedstock processed was found. In terms of delivered energy, medium to large scale PBS abates 1.4-1.9 t CO 2 e/MWh, which compares to average carbon emissions of 0.05-0.30 t CO 2 e/MWh for other bioenergy systems. The largest contribution to PBS carbon abatement is from the feedstock carbon stabilised in biochar (40-50%), followed by the less certain indirect effects of biochar in the soil (25-40%)-mainly due to increase in soil organic carbon levels. Change in soil organic carbon levels was found to be a key sensitivity. Electricity production off-setting emissions from fossil fuels accounted for 10-25% of carbon abatement. The LCA suggests that provided 43% of the carbon in the biochar remains stable, PBS will out-perform direct combustion of biomass at 33% efficiency in terms of carbon abatement, even if there is no beneficial effect upon soil organic carbon levels from biochar application. - Research highlights: → Biochar systems offer greater carbon abatement than combustion or gasification. → Carbon abatement of 0.7-1.4t CO 2 e/dry tonne of feedstock processed was found. → Change in soil organic carbon stocks induced by biochar is the key sensitivity. → Biochar systems produce less electricity then combustion or gasification.

  20. Effects of Lime and Concrete Waste on Vadose Zone Carbon Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Eike Marie; Jessen, Søren; Postma, D.

    2014-01-01

    .) grown on podzolic soil material, we have investigated inorganic carbon cycling through the gaseous and liquid phases and how it is affected by different soil amendments. The mesocosm amendments comprised the addition of 0, 9.6, or 21.2 kg m−2 of crushed concrete waste (CCW) or 1 kg lime m−2. The CCW......In this work we investigate how lime and crushed concrete waste (CCW) affect carbon cycling in the vadose zone and explore whether these amendments could be employed to mitigate climate change by increasing the transport of CO2 from the atmosphere to the groundwater. We use a combination...

  1. Integration between direct steam generation in linear solar collectors and supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton power cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Coco Enríquez, Luis; Muñoz Antón, Javier; Martínez-Val Peñalosa, José María

    2015-01-01

    Direct Steam Generation in Parabolic Troughs or Linear Fresnel solar collectors is a technology under development since beginning of nineties (1990's) for replacing thermal oils and molten salts as heat transfer fluids in concentrated solar power plants, avoiding environmental impacts. In parallel to the direct steam generation technology development, supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton power cycles are maturing as an alternative to traditional Rankine cycles for increasing net plant efficie...

  2. Interhemispheric controls on deep ocean circulation and carbon chemistry during the last two glacial cycles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wilson, D.J.; Galy, A.; Piotrowski, A.M.; Banakar, V.K.

    Sample Preparation System attached to a VG SIRA or VG PRISM mass spectrometer. Each run of 30 samples was accompanied by 10 reference carbonates and 2 control samples. The results are reported with reference to the international standard Vienna Pee... of ~0.7‰ (Figure 5c), approximately twice as large as the deglacial whole-ocean change related to carbon budget reorganisation [Tagliabue et al., 2009], indicating additional controls such as from water mass sourcing or nutrient cycling. Both...

  3. How interactions between top-down and bottom-up controls on carbon cycling affect fluxes within and from lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadro, S.; Piovia-Scott, J.; Nelson, C.; Sickman, J. O.; Knapp, R.

    2017-12-01

    While the role of inland waters in global carbon cycling has grown clearer in recent decades, the extent to which top-down and bottom-up mechanisms interact to regulate dynamics at the catchment scale is not well understood. The degree to which lakes process, export, or store terrestrial carbon is influenced by hydrological variability, variation in the magnitude of terrestrial organic matter (t-OM) entering a system, the efficiency with which such material is metabolized by bacterioplankton, the extent to which it is incorporated into secondary consumer biomass, and by the effects of food-web structure, such as the presence or absence of top predators. However, how these processes interact to mediate carbon fluxes between terrestrial, aquatic, and atmospheric reservoirs remains unclear. We develop a conceptual model that explores how interactions among these factors ultimately affects carbon dynamics using data from lakes located in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California. The Sierra are an excellent system for studies of carbon cycling because elevation-induced landscape gradients in soil development and vegetation cover provide large natural variation in terrestrial inputs to lakes, while variation in confounding factors such as lake morphometry or trophic state is comparatively small. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations increase 100 fold in lakes spanning the alpine to montane elevation gradient found in the Sierra, and fluorescence characteristics reflect an increasingly terrestrial signature with decreasing elevation. Bacterioplankton make up a large proportion of total ecosystem metabolism in these systems, and their metabolic efficiency is tightly coupled to the composition of dissolved organic matter. Stable isotope food web data (δ13C, Δ14C, and δ2H) and measurements of pCO2 from lakes indicate the magnitude of allochthony, rates if carbon cycling, and ecosystem heterotrophy all increase with the increasingly terrestrial signature of dissolved

  4. The Yeast Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Routes Carbon Fluxes to Fuel Cell Cycle Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Jennifer C; Kuehne, Andreas; Zamboni, Nicola; Skotheim, Jan M

    2016-05-19

    Cell division entails a sequence of processes whose specific demands for biosynthetic precursors and energy place dynamic requirements on metabolism. However, little is known about how metabolic fluxes are coordinated with the cell division cycle. Here, we examine budding yeast to show that more than half of all measured metabolites change significantly through the cell division cycle. Cell cycle-dependent changes in central carbon metabolism are controlled by the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk1), a major cell cycle regulator, and the metabolic regulator protein kinase A. At the G1/S transition, Cdk1 phosphorylates and activates the enzyme Nth1, which funnels the storage carbohydrate trehalose into central carbon metabolism. Trehalose utilization fuels anabolic processes required to reliably complete cell division. Thus, the cell cycle entrains carbon metabolism to fuel biosynthesis. Because the oscillation of Cdk activity is a conserved feature of the eukaryotic cell cycle, we anticipate its frequent use in dynamically regulating metabolism for efficient proliferation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Aspects of the carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystems of Northeastern Smaaland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagesson, Torbern

    2006-02-01

    Boreal and temperate ecosystems of the northern hemisphere are important for the future development of global climate. In this study, the carbon cycle has been studied in a pine forest, a meadow, a spruce forest and two deciduous forests in the Simpevarp investigation area in southern Sweden (57 deg 5 min N, 34 deg 55 min E). Ground respiration and ground Gross Primary Production (GPP) has been measured three times during spring 2004 with the closed chamber technique. Soil temperature, soil moisture and Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) were also measured. An exponential regression with ground respiration against soil temperature was used to extrapolate respiration over spring 2004. A logarithmic regression with ground GPP against PAR was used to extrapolate GPP in meadow over spring 2004. Ground respiration is affected by soil temperature in all ecosystems but pine, but still it only explains a small part of the variation in respiration and this indicates that other abiotic factors also have an influence. Soil moisture affects respiration in spruce and one of the deciduous ecosystems. A comparison between measured and extrapolated ground respiration indicated that soil temperature could be used to extrapolate ground respiration. PAR is the main factor influencing GPP in all ecosystems but pine, still it could not be used to extrapolate GPP in meadow since too few measurements were done and they were from different periods of spring. Soil moisture did not have any significant effect on GPP. A Dynamic Global Vegetation Model, a DGVM called LPJ-GUESS, was downscaled to the Simpevarp investigation area. The downscaled DGVM was evaluated against measured respiration and soil organic acids for all five ecosystems. In meadow, it was evaluated against Net Primary Production, NPP. For the forest ecosystems, it was evaluated against tree layer carbon pools. The evaluation indicated that the DGVM is reasonably well downscaled to the Simpevarp investigation area and

  6. Environmental assessment of amine-based carbon capture Scenario modelling with life cycle assessment (LCA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brekke, Andreas; Askham, Cecilia; Modahl, Ingunn Saur; Vold, Bjoern Ivar; Johnsen, Fredrik Moltu

    2012-07-01

    This report contains a first attempt at introducing the environmental impacts associated with amines and derivatives in a life cycle assessment (LCA) of gas power production with carbon capture and comparing these with other environmental impacts associated with the production system. The report aims to identify data gaps and methodological challenges connected both to modelling toxicity of amines and derivatives and weighting of environmental impacts. A scenario based modelling exercise was performed on a theoretical gas power plant with carbon capture, where emission levels of nitrosamines were varied between zero (gas power without CCS) to a worst case level (outside the probable range of actual carbon capture facilities). Because of extensive research and development in the areas of solvents and emissions from carbon capture facilities in the latter years, data used in the exercise may be outdated and results should therefore not be taken at face value.The results from the exercise showed: According to UseTox, emissions of nitrosamines are less important than emissions of formaldehyde with regard to toxicity related to operation of (i.e. both inputs to and outputs from) a carbon capture facility. If characterisation factors for emissions of metals are included, these outweigh all other toxic emissions in the study. None of the most recent weighting methods in LCA include characterisation factors for nitrosamines, and these are therefore not part of the environmental ranking.These results shows that the EDecIDe project has an important role to play in developing LCA methodology useful for assessing the environmental performance of amine based carbon capture in particular and CCS in general. The EDecIDe project will examine the toxicity models used in LCA in more detail, specifically UseTox. The applicability of the LCA compartment models and site specificity issues for a Norwegian/Arctic situation will be explored. This applies to the environmental compartments

  7. Extension of the supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle for application to the Very High Temperature Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    An investigation has been carried out of the feasibility of applying the supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO 2 ) Brayton cycle to the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Direct application of the standard S-CO 2 recompression cycle to the VHTR was found to be challenging because of the mismatch in the inherent temperature drops across the He and CO 2 sides of the reactor heat exchanger resulting in a relatively low cycle efficiency of 45 % compared to 48 % for a direct helium cycle. Two approaches consisting of either a cascaded cycle arrangement with three separate cascaded S-CO 2 cycles or, alternately, operation of a single S-CO 2 cycle with the minimum pressure below the critical pressure and the minimum temperature above the critical temperature have been identified and shown to successfully enable the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle to be adapted to the VHTR such that the benefits of the higher S-CO 2 cycle efficiency can be realized. For both approaches, S-CO 2 cycle efficiencies in excess of 49 % are calculated. (authors)

  8. Supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton power conversion cycle for battery optimized reactor integral system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T. W.; Kim, N. H.; Suh, K. Y.

    2007-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO 2 ) promises a high power conversion efficiency of the recompression Brayton cycle due to its excellent compressibility reducing the compression work at the bottom of the cycle and to a higher density than helium or steam decreasing the component size. The SCO 2 Brayton cycle efficiency as high as 45% furnishes small sized nuclear reactors with economical benefits on the plant construction and maintenance. A 23 MWth lead-cooled Battery Optimized Reactor Integral System (BORIS) is being developed as an ultra-long-life, versatile-purpose, fast-spectrum reactor. BORIS is coupled to the SCO 2 Brayton cycle needing less room relative to the Rankine steam cycle because of its smaller components. The SCO 2 Brayton cycle of BORIS consists of a 16 MW turbine, a 32 MW high temperature recuperator, a 14 MW low temperature recuperator, an 11 MW precooler and 2 and 2.8 MW compressors. Entering six heat exchangers between primary and secondary system at 19.9 MPa and 663 K, the SCO 2 leaves the heat exchangers at 19.9 MPa and 823 K. The promising secondary system efficiency of 45% was calculated by a theoretical method in which the main parameters include pressure, temperature, heater power, the turbine's, recuperators' and compressors' efficiencies, and the flow split ratio of SCO 2 going out from the low temperature recuperator. Development of Modular Optimized Brayton Integral System (MOBIS) is being devised as the SCO 2 Brayton cycle energy conversion cycle for BORIS. MOBIS consists of Loop Operating Brayton Optimization Study (LOBOS) for experimental Brayton cycle loop and Gas Advanced Turbine Operation Study (GATOS) for the SCO 2 turbine. Liquid-metal Energy Exchanger Integral System (LEXIS) serves to couple BORIS and MOBIS. LEXIS comprises Physical Aspect Thermal Operation System (PATOS) for SCO 2 thermal hydraulic characteristics, Shell-and-tube Overall Layout Optimization Study (SOLOS) for shell-and-tube heat exchanger, Printed

  9. Development of a system emulating the global carbon cycle in Earth system models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tachiiri

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have indicated that the uncertainty in the global carbon cycle may have a significant impact on the climate. Since state of the art models are too computationally expensive for it to be possible to explore their parametric uncertainty in anything approaching a comprehensive fashion, we have developed a simplified system for investigating this problem. By combining the strong points of general circulation models (GCMs, which contain detailed and complex processes, and Earth system models of intermediate complexity (EMICs, which are quick and capable of large ensembles, we have developed a loosely coupled model (LCM which can represent the outputs of a GCM-based Earth system model, using much smaller computational resources. We address the problem of relatively poor representation of precipitation within our EMIC, which prevents us from directly coupling it to a vegetation model, by coupling it to a precomputed transient simulation using a full GCM. The LCM consists of three components: an EMIC (MIROC-lite which consists of a 2-D energy balance atmosphere coupled to a low resolution 3-D GCM ocean (COCO including an ocean carbon cycle (an NPZD-type marine ecosystem model; a state of the art vegetation model (Sim-CYCLE; and a database of daily temperature, precipitation, and other necessary climatic fields to drive Sim-CYCLE from a precomputed transient simulation from a state of the art AOGCM. The transient warming of the climate system is calculated from MIROC-lite, with the global temperature anomaly used to select the most appropriate annual climatic field from the pre-computed AOGCM simulation which, in this case, is a 1% pa increasing CO2 concentration scenario.

    By adjusting the effective climate sensitivity (equivalent to the equilibrium climate sensitivity for an energy balance model of MIROC-lite, the transient warming of the LCM could be adjusted to closely follow the low sensitivity (with an equilibrium

  10. Aquatic carbon cycling in the conterminous United States and implications for terrestrial carbon accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, David; Stackpoole, Sarah M.; Stets, Edward G.; McDonald, Cory P.; Clow, David W.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Inland water ecosystems dynamically process, transport, and sequester carbon. However, the transport of carbon through aquatic environments has not been quantitatively integrated in the context of terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we present the first integrated assessment, to our knowledge, of freshwater carbon fluxes for the conterminous United States, where 106 (range: 71–149) teragrams of carbon per year (TgC⋅y−1) is exported downstream or emitted to the atmosphere and sedimentation stores 21 (range: 9–65) TgC⋅y−1 in lakes and reservoirs. We show that there is significant regional variation in aquatic carbon flux, but verify that emission across stream and river surfaces represents the dominant flux at 69 (range: 36–110) TgC⋅y−1 or 65% of the total aquatic carbon flux for the conterminous United States. Comparing our results with the output of a suite of terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs), we suggest that within the current modeling framework, calculations of net ecosystem production (NEP) defined as terrestrial only may be overestimated by as much as 27%. However, the internal production and mineralization of carbon in freshwaters remain to be quantified and would reduce the effect of including aquatic carbon fluxes within calculations of terrestrial NEP. Reconciliation of carbon mass–flux interactions between terrestrial and aquatic carbon sources and sinks will require significant additional research and modeling capacity.

  11. Nuclear fuel cycle transition scenario studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Future nuclear fuel cycles could effectively address radioactive waste issues with the implementation of partitioning and transmutation (P and T). Previous studies have defined the infrastructure requirements for several key technical approaches. While these studies have proven extremely valuable, several countries have also recognised the complex, dynamic nature of the infrastructure problem: severe new issues arise when attempting to transit from current open or partially closed cycles to a final equilibrium or burn-down mode. While the issues are country-specific when addressed in detail, it is believed that there exists a series of generic issues related only to the current situation and to the desired end point. These issues are critical to implementing a sustainable nuclear energy infrastructure. The present report focuses on the definition of key issues, the assessment of technologies and national scenario assessments. (author)

  12. Climate and landscape influence on indicators of lake carbon cycling through spatial patterns in dissolved organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Jean-Francois; Seekell, David A; Del Giorgio, Paul A

    2015-12-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are strongly influenced by both climate and the surrounding landscape, yet the specific pathways connecting climatic and landscape drivers to the functioning of lake ecosystems are poorly understood. Here, we hypothesize that the links that exist between spatial patterns in climate and landscape properties and the spatial variation in lake carbon (C) cycling at regional scales are at least partly mediated by the movement of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the aquatic component of the landscape. We assembled a set of indicators of lake C cycling (bacterial respiration and production, chlorophyll a, production to respiration ratio, and partial pressure of CO2 ), DOC concentration and composition, and landscape and climate characteristics for 239 temperate and boreal lakes spanning large environmental and geographic gradients across seven regions. There were various degrees of spatial structure in climate and landscape features that were coherent with the regionally structured patterns observed in lake DOC and indicators of C cycling. These different regions aligned well, albeit nonlinearly along a mean annual temperature gradient; whereas there was a considerable statistical effect of climate and landscape properties on lake C cycling, the direct effect was small and the overall effect was almost entirely overlapping with that of DOC concentration and composition. Our results suggest that key climatic and landscape signals are conveyed to lakes in part via the movement of terrestrial DOC to lakes and that DOC acts both as a driver of lake C cycling and as a proxy for other external signals. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Spin-Up and Tuning of the Global Carbon Cycle Model Inside the GISS ModelE2 GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleinov, Igor; Kiang, Nancy Y.; Romanou, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Planetary carbon cycle involves multiple phenomena, acting at variety of temporal and spacial scales. The typical times range from minutes for leaf stomata physiology to centuries for passive soil carbon pools and deep ocean layers. So, finding a satisfactory equilibrium state becomes a challenging and computationally expensive task. Here we present the spin-up processes for different configurations of the GISS Carbon Cycle model from the model forced with MODIS observed Leaf Area Index (LAI) and prescribed ocean to the prognostic LAI and to the model fully coupled to the dynamic ocean and ocean biology. We investigate the time it takes the model to reach the equilibrium and discuss the ways to speed up this process. NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model (GISS ModelE2) is currently equipped with all major algorithms necessary for the simulation of the Global Carbon Cycle. The terrestrial part is presented by Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model (Ent TBM), which includes leaf biophysics, prognostic phenology and soil biogeochemistry module (based on Carnegie-Ames-Stanford model). The ocean part is based on the NASA Ocean Biogeochemistry Model (NOBM). The transport of atmospheric CO2 is performed by the atmospheric part of ModelE2, which employs quadratic upstream algorithm for this purpose.

  14. Soil mineralogy and microbes determine forest life history strategy and carbon cycling in humid tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, J.; Verbruggen, E.; Peñuelas, J.; Janssens, I. A.; Grau, O.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical forests account for over one third of global terrestrial gross primary productivity and cycle more C than any other ecosystem on Earth. However, we still lack a mechanistic understanding of how such high productivity is maintained on the old, highly weathered and phosphorus depleted soils in the tropics. We hypothesized that heterogeneity in soil texture, mineralogy and microbial community composition may be the major drivers of differences in soil C storage and P limitation across tropical forests. We sampled 12 forest sites across a 200 km transect in the humid neo-tropics of French Guiana that varied in soil texture, precipitation and mineralogy. We found that soil texture was a major driver of soil carbon stocks and forest life history strategy, where sandy forests have lower soil C stocks, slower turnover and decomposition and a more closed nutrient cycle while clayey forests have higher soil C stocks, faster turnover and a more leaky nutrient cycle (using natural abundance stable isotope evidence). We found that although the presence of Al and Fe oxides in the clayey soils occludes soil organic matter and P, a greater abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi help forests to access occluded P in clayey soils fueling higher turnover and faster decomposition rates. Evidence from a laboratory incubation of tropical soils with nutrient additions further demonstrates the de-coupling of microbial P demands from C:N limitations providing further evidence for the need to examine microbial stoichiometry to explain C cycling in the P-limited tropics. We argue that microbial community composition and physiological demands, constrained within the limitations of soil mineralogical reactivity, largely controls nutrient and C cycling in tropical forest soils. Together our observational field study and laboratory incubation provide a unique dataset to shed light on the mineralogical and microbial controls on C and nutrient cycling in tropical soils. By integrating

  15. A carbon dioxide partial condensation direct cycle for advanced gas cooled fast and thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuyoshi, Kato; Takeshi, NItawaki; Yoshio, Yoshizawa

    2001-01-01

    A carbon dioxide partial condensation direct cycle concept has been proposed for gas cooled fast and thermal reactors. The fast reactor with the concept are evaluated to be a potential alternative option to liquid metal cooled fast reactors, providing comparable cycle efficiency at the same core outlet temperature, eliminating the safety problems, simplifying the heat transport system and making easier plant maintenance. The thermal reactor with the concept is expected to be an alternative solution to current high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGRs) with helium gas turbines, allowing comparable cycle efficiency at the moderate temperature of 650 C instead of 800 C in HTGRs. (author)

  16. Impact of brine-induced stratification on the glacial carbon cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bouttes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available During the cold period of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, about 21 000 years ago atmospheric CO2 was around 190 ppm, much lower than the pre-industrial concentration of 280 ppm. The causes of this substantial drop remain partially unresolved, despite intense research. Understanding the origin of reduced atmospheric CO2 during glacial times is crucial to comprehend the evolution of the different carbon reservoirs within the Earth system (atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere and ocean. In this context, the ocean is believed to play a major role as it can store large amounts of carbon, especially in the abyss, which is a carbon reservoir that is thought to have expanded during glacial times. To create this larger reservoir, one possible mechanism is to produce very dense glacial waters, thereby stratifying the deep ocean and reducing the carbon exchange between the deep and upper ocean. The existence of such very dense waters has been inferred in the LGM deep Atlantic from sediment pore water salinity and δ18O inferred temperature. Based on these observations, we study the impact of a brine mechanism on the glacial carbon cycle. This mechanism relies on the formation and rapid sinking of brines, very salty water released during sea ice formation, which brings salty dense water down to the bottom of the ocean. It provides two major features: a direct link from the surface to the deep ocean along with an efficient way of setting a strong stratification. We show with the CLIMBER-2 carbon-climate model that such a brine mechanism can account for a significant decrease in atmospheric CO2 and contribute to the glacial-interglacial change. This mechanism can be amplified by low vertical diffusion resulting from the brine-induced stratification. The modeled glacial distribution of oceanic δ13C as well as the deep ocean salinity are substantially improved and better agree with reconstructions from

  17. The contribution of China's Grain to Green Programto carbon and water cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W.

    2017-12-01

    The Chinese government started implementation of the Grain for Green Project (GGP) in 1999, aiming to convert cropland to forestland to mitigate soil erosion problems in areas across the country. Although the project has generated substantial environmental benefits, such as erosion reduction, carbon sequestration and water quality improvements, the magnitude of these benefits has not yet been well quantified due to the lack of location specific data describing the afforestation efforts. Remote sensing is well suited to detect afforestation locations, a prerequisite for estimating the impacts of the project on carbon and water cycles. In this study, we first examined the practicability of using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover product to detect afforestation locations; however, the results showed that the MODIS product failed to distinguish the afforestation areas of GGP. Then, we used a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series analysis approach for detecting afforestation locations, applying statistical data to determine the NDVI threshold of converted croplands. The technique provided the necessary information for location of afforestation implemented under GGP, explaining 85% of conversion from cropland to forestlands across all provinces. Second, we estimated the changes in carbon fluxes and stocks caused by forests converted from croplands under the GGP using a process-based ecosystem model (i.e., IBIS). Our results showed that the converted areas from croplands to forests under the GGP program could sequester 110.45 Tg C by 2020, and 524.36 Tg C by the end of this century. The sequestration capacity showed substantial spatial variations with large sequestration in southern China. The economic benefits of carbon sequestration from the GGP were also estimated according to the current carbon price. The estimated economic benefits ranged from 8.84 to 44.20 billion from 2000 through 2100, which may exceed the

  18. Nitrogen management through coupling carbon and nitrogen cycling in agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonitto, C.; Gardner, J. B.; David, M. B.; Drinkwater, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    We examined the potential to reduce N loss from agroecosystems through management practices which promote coupled C and N cycling. Point application of inorganic N fertilizer in conventional agricultural systems has decoupled C and N cycling. We compared alternative rotations which reduce bare fallow periods to conventional corn-soybean rotations with a winter bare fallow which are common across the Corn Belt. In a review using meta-analysis we demonstrated that including cover crops in current annual grain rotations reduces nitrate leaching an average of 70% relative to conventional rotations, with no statistically significant change in crop yield. The potential for significant reductions in nitrate leaching in alternative relative to conventional rotations was also demonstrated through simulations using the DNDC model. Rotations including a winter cover crop showed a 35% and 55% reduction in nitrate leaching from corn and soybean fields respectively relative to conventional management; more complex rotations which included a legume N source averaged a 50% reduction in nitrate leaching from corn and soybean fields relative to the conventional system. Our comparison of crop rotations using the DNDC model also demonstrated increasing rotation complexity reduced N2O emissions relative to conventional systems. Examination of N2O loss under different crop rotations using an empirical modeling approach verified a reduced cumulative N2O emission rate under complex rotations. However, while extreme N2O emissions were observed in DNDC simulation outcomes, empirical modeling work concludes extreme N2O flux events are statistically rare given currently available observations. Quantification of 15N recovery using meta-analysis demonstrated that management which varies the type, timing, or placement of inorganic fertilizer resulted in 0-26% recovery of N applied in vegetation or soil. In contrast in legume-fertilized systems 42% of legume-derived N inputs are recovered in

  19. Linking Microbial Community Structure, Activity and Carbon Cycling in Biological Soil Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, T.; Karaoz, U.; Swenson, J.; Bowen, B.; Northen, T.

    2016-12-01

    Soils play a key role in the global carbon cycle, but the relationships between soil microbial communities and metabolic pathways are poorly understood. In this study, biological soil crusts (biocrusts) from the Colorado Plateau are being used to develop soil metabolomics methods and statistical models to link active microbes to the abundance and turnover of soil metabolites and to examine the detailed substrate and product profiles of individual soil bacteria isolated from biocrust. To simulate a pulsed activity (wetting) event and to analyze the subsequent correlations between soil metabolite dynamics, community structure and activity, biocrusts were wetup with water and samples (porewater and DNA) were taken at various timepoints up to 49.5 hours post-wetup. DNA samples were sequenced using the HiSeq sequencing platform and porewater metabolites were analyzed using untargeted liquid chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Exometabolite analysis revealed the release of a breadth of metabolites including sugars, amino acids, fatty acids, dicarboxylic acids, nucleobases and osmolytes. In general, many metabolites (e.g. amino acids and nucleobases) immediately increased in abundance following wetup and then steadily decreased. However, a few continued to increase over time (e.g. xanthine). Interestingly, in a previous study exploring utilization of soil metabolites by sympatric bacterial isolates from biocrust, we observed xanthine to be released by some Bacilli sp. Furthermore, our current metagenomics data show that members of the Paenibacillaceae family increase in abundance in late wetup samples. Previous 16S amplicon data also show a "Firmicutes bloom" following wetup with the new metagenomic data resolving this at genome-level. Our continued metagenome and exometabolome analyses are allowing us to examine complex pulsed-activity events in biocrust microbial communities specifically by correlating the abundance of microbes to the release of soil metabolites

  20. A natural light/dark cycle regulation of carbon-nitrogen metabolism and gene expression in rice shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixing Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Light and temperature are two particularly important environmental cues for plant survival. Carbon and nitrogen are two essential macronutrients required for plant growth and development, and cellular carbon and nitrogen metabolism must be tightly coordinated. In order to understand how the natural light/dark cycle regulates carbon and nitrogen metabolism in rice plants, we analyzed the photosynthesis, key carbon-nitrogen metabolites and enzyme activities, and differentially expressed genes and miRNAs involved in the carbon and nitrogen metabolic pathway in rice shoots at the following times: 2:00, 6:00, 10:00, 14:00, 18:00 and 22:00. Our results indicated that more CO2 was fixed into carbohydrates by a high net photosynthetic rate, respiratory rate and stomatal conductance in the daytime. Although high levels of the nitrate reductase activity, free ammonium and carbohydrates were exhibited in the daytime, the protein synthesis was not significantly facilitated by the light and temperature. In mRNA sequencing, the carbon and nitrogen metabolism-related differentially expressed genes were obtained, which could be divided into eight groups: photosynthesis, TCA cycle, sugar transport, sugar metabolism, nitrogen transport, nitrogen reduction, amino acid metabolism and nitrogen regulation. Additionally, a total of 78,306 alternative splicing events have been identified, which primarily belong to alternative 5' donor sites, alternative 3' acceptor sites, intron retention and exon skipping. In sRNA sequencing, four carbon and nitrogen metabolism-related miRNAs (osa-miR1440b, osa-miR2876-5p, osa-miR1877 and osa-miR5799 were determined to be regulated by natural light/dark cycle. The expression level analysis showed that the four carbon and nitrogen metabolism-related miRNAs negatively regulated their target genes. These results may provide a good strategy to study how natural light/dark cycle regulates carbon and nitrogen metabolism to ensure plant

  1. Towards real energy economics: Energy policy driven by life-cycle carbon emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenny, R.; Law, C.; Pearce, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Alternative energy technologies (AETs) have emerged as a solution to the challenge of simultaneously meeting rising electricity demand while reducing carbon emissions. However, as all AETs are responsible for some greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during their construction, carbon emission 'Ponzi Schemes' are currently possible, wherein an AET industry expands so quickly that the GHG emissions prevented by a given technology are negated to fabricate the next wave of AET deployment. In an era where there are physical constraints to the GHG emissions the climate can sustain in the short term this may be unacceptable. To provide quantitative solutions to this problem, this paper introduces the concept of dynamic carbon life-cycle analyses, which generate carbon-neutral growth rates. These conceptual tools become increasingly important as the world transitions to a low-carbon economy by reducing fossil fuel combustion. In choosing this method of evaluation it was possible to focus uniquely on reducing carbon emissions to the recommended levels by outlining the most carbon-effective approach to climate change mitigation. The results of using dynamic life-cycle analysis provide policy makers with standardized information that will drive the optimization of electricity generation for effective climate change mitigation.

  2. ANNUAL AND DIURNAL CYCLES OF THE INVERSE RELATION BETWEEN PLANT TRANSPIRATION AND CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Alonso Moreno

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding biogeochemical cycles and especially carbon budgets is clue to validate global change models in the present and near future. As a consequence, sinks and sources of carbon in the world are being studied. One of those sinks is the non-well known behavior of the planet vegetation which involves the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. Carbon sequestration rates are highly related to the transpiration through a molecular diffusion process occurring at the stomatal level which can be recorded by an eddy covariance micrometeorological station. This paper explores annual and diurnal cycles of latent heat (LE and CO2 net (FC fluxes over 6 different ecosystems. Based on the physics of the transpiration process, different time-scale analysis are performed, finding a near-linear relation between LE and CO2 net fluxes, which is stronger at the more vegetated areas. The North American monsoon season increases carbon up taking and LE-CO2 flux relation preserves at different time scales analysis (hours to days to months.El conocimiento de los ciclos biogeoquímicos y, en especial, de los balances de carbono es clave para la validación de los modelos de cambio global para el presente y el futuro cercano. Como consecuencia, en el mundo se estudian las fuentes y los sumideros de carbono. Uno de esos sumideros es la vegetación del planeta, que involucra los procesos de respiración y fotosíntesis y cuyo comportamiento se empieza a estudiar. Las tasas de captura del carbono están muy ligadas a la transpiración mediante un proceso de difusión molecular en los estomas, que puede registrarse por un sistema micrometeorológico de eddy covarianza. Este artículo explora los ciclos anuales y diurnos de los flujos netos de CO2 y calor latente de seis ecosistemas diferentes. Se desarrollan diversos análisis de escala temporal, basados en la física de la transpiración, y se halla una relación cuasilineal entre los flujos netos de calor

  3. Soil Erosion and the Carbon Cycle: Perspectives From the Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleezer, R. O.; Smith, S. V.; Renwick, W. H.; Buddemeier, R. W.

    2006-12-01

    Soil erosion, particularly accelerated erosion associated with agriculture and other human modification of land cover, has traditionally been viewed as a source of CO2 release to the atmosphere. The two primary lines of evidence for this interpretation have been the removal of soil organic carbon (SOC) at erosional sites and the low proportional transport of eroded SOC in rivers to the ocean. The imbalance between eroded SOC and the SOC in river sediments is explained via deposition as colluvium, floodplain sediments, or in natural and artificial water bodies and subsequent oxidation. In this context floodplains have been viewed as major sediment sinks in agricultural regions and erosion is a net source of CO2. Both model studies and regional budgetary analyses in the Mississippi River Basin lead to an alternative interpretation. Erosion at a site displaces SOC-rich topsoil. SOC displacement does not necessarily establish accelerated oxidation rates for this SOC. Rivers transport a small proportion of bulk erosion products (~10%) to the ocean; and most bulk erosion products are re-deposited after erosion. Important sites for re-deposition include geomorphic features such as natural lakes, both large and small artificial water bodies (reservoirs and ponds), and alluvial depositional sites. In recent decades the locus of the dominant sediment sinks has shifted to ponds and reservoirs as artificial impoundments have proliferated. Thus an increasing proportion of eroded soil is being deposited in subaqueous rather than subaerial environments. Regional examination of the SOC in depositional sites indicates that these sites have about the same SOC concentrations as their upland counterparts. Depositional areas occupy ~10% of the upland (erosional) area and have deposition rates of a magnitude capable of balancing the erosional loss. Various lines of evidence suggest that the oxidation rates per unit area in the depositional sites are about the same as or lower than the

  4. Carbon Catabolite Repression Regulates Glyoxylate Cycle Gene Expression in Cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, I. A.; Denby, K. J.; Leaver, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    We have previously proposed that metabolic status is important in the regulation of cucumber malate synthase (MS) and isocitrate lyase (ICL) gene expression during plant development. In this article, we used a cell culture system to demonstrate that intracellular metabolic status does influence expression of both of these genes. Starvation of cucumber cell cultures resulted in the coordinate induction of the expression of MS and ICL genes, and this effect was reversed when sucrose was returned to the culture media. The induction of gene expression was closely correlated with a drop in intracellular sucrose, glucose, and fructose below threshold concentrations, but it was not correlated with a decrease in respiration rate. Glucose, fructose, or raffinose in the culture media also resulted in repression of MS and ICL. Both 2-deoxyglucose and mannose, which are phosphorylated by hexokinase but not further metabolized, specifically repressed MS and ICL gene expression relative to a third glyoxylate cycle gene, malate dehydrogenase. However, the addition of 3-methylglucose, an analog of glucose that is not phosphorylated, did not result in repression of either MS or ICL. It is proposed that the signal giving rise to a change in gene expression originates from the intracellular concentration of hexose sugars or the flux of hexose sugars into glycolysis. PMID:12244257

  5. Interactions of the marine phosphorus and carbon cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froelich, P. N.

    1984-01-01

    About 30 to 50% of the fluvial P-input to the oceans derives from release of reactive-P from particles during their passage through estuaries. The input is matched by P-removal into three approximately equivalent sink: (1) burial in phosphorites on productive shelves; (2) burial with (org) in the deep-sea; and (3) burial with biogenic calcite in the deep-sea. The P/C burial ratio in these three phases is very different: P/C (org) approximately .004; P/C (CaCO3) approximately .001; and P/C (PHOS) approximately .03. The removal mechanisms are all coupled to primary production in the surface ocean, but the details of the feedback mechanisms controlling the steady-state nutrient and carbon budgets in the sea are doscured by lack of knowledge of how the P/C ratios in the sinks adjust, and how shifts in oceanic nutrients affect oceanic ecology and the relative fraction of biogenic CaCO3 and (org) production.

  6. Accelerating the carbon cycle: the ethics of enhanced weathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford-Smith, H; Currie, A

    2017-04-01

    Enhanced weathering, in comparison to other geoengineering measures, creates the possibility of a reduced cost, reduced impact way of decreasing atmospheric carbon, with positive knock-on effects such as decreased oceanic acidity. We argue that ethical concerns have a place alongside empirical, political and social factors as we consider how to best respond to the critical challenge that anthropogenic climate change poses. We review these concerns, considering the ethical issues that arise (or would arise) in the large-scale deployment of enhanced weathering. We discuss post-implementation scenarios, failures of collective action, the distribution of risk and externalities and redress for damage. We also discuss issues surrounding 'dirty hands' (taking conventionally immoral action to avoid having to take action that is even worse), whether enhanced weathering research might present a moral hazard, the importance of international governance and the notion that the implementation of large-scale enhanced weathering would reveal problematic hubris. Ethics and scientific research interrelate in complex ways: some ethical considerations caution against research and implementation, while others encourage them. Indeed, the ethical perspective encourages us to think more carefully about how, and what types of, geoengineering should be researched and implemented. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. The Carbonate-Silicate Cycle on Earth-like Planets Near The End Of Their Habitable Lifetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushby, A. J.; Mills, B.; Johnson, M.; Claire, M.

    2016-12-01

    The terrestrial cycle of silicate weathering and metamorphic outgassing buffers atmospheric CO2 and global climate over geological time on Earth. To first order, the operation of this cycle is assumed to occur on Earth-like planets in the orbit of other main-sequence stars in the galaxy that exhibit similar continent/ocean configurations. This has important implications for studies of planetary habitability, atmospheric and climatic evolution, and our understanding of the potential distribution of life in the Universe. We present results from a simple biogeochemical carbon cycle model developed to investigate the operation of the carbonate-silicate cycle under conditions of differing planet mass and position within the radiative habitable zone. An active carbonate-silicate cycle does extend the length of a planet's habitable period through the regulation of the CO2 greenhouse. However, the breakdown of the negative feedback between temperature, pCO2, and weathering rates towards the end of a planet's habitable lifespan results in a transitory regime of `carbon starvation' that would inhibit the ability of oxygenic photoautotrophs to metabolize, and result in the collapse of any putative biosphere supported by these organisms, suggesting an earlier limit for the initiation of inhabitable conditions than when considering temperature alone. This conclusion stresses the importance of considering the full suite of planetary properties when determining potential habitability. A small sample of exoplanets was tested using this model, and the length of their habitable periods were found to be significantly longer than that of the Earth, primarily as a function of the differential rates of stellar evolution expected from their host stars. Furthermore, we carried out statistical analysis of a series of model input parameters, determining that both the mass of the planet and the sensitivity of seafloor weathering processes to dissolved CO2 exhibit significant controls on the

  8. Role of organic soils in the world carbon cycle: problem analysis and research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armentano, T.V. (ed.)

    1980-02-01

    In May 1979, The Institute of Ecology held a workshop to determine the role of organic soils in the global carbon cycle and to ascertain their past, present and future significance in world carbon flux. Wetlands ecologists and soil scientists who participated in the workshop examined such topics as Soils as Sources of Atmospheric CO/sub 2/, Organic Soils, Primary Production and Growth of Wetlands Ecosystems, and Management of Peatlands. The major finding of the workshop is that the organic soils are important in the overall carbon budget. Histosols and Gleysols, the major organic soil deposits of the world, normally sequester organic carbon fixed by plants. They may now be releasing enough carbon to account for nearly 10% of the annual rise in atmospheric content of CO/sub 2/.

  9. Effects of nitrogen deposition on carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystems of China: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Li, Dejun; Gurmesa, Geshere A; Yu, Guirui; Li, Linghao; Zhang, Wei; Fang, Huajun; Mo, Jiangming

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition in China has increased greatly, but the general impact of elevated N deposition on carbon (C) dynamics in Chinese terrestrial ecosystems is not well documented. In this study we used a meta-analysis method to compile 88 studies on the effects of N deposition C cycling on Chinese terrestrial ecosystems. Our results showed that N addition did not change soil C pools but increased above-ground plant C pool. A large decrease in below-ground plant C pool was observed. Our result also showed that the impacts of N addition on ecosystem C dynamics depend on ecosystem type and rate of N addition. Overall, our findings suggest that 1) decreased below-ground plant C pool may limit long-term soil C sequestration; and 2) it is better to treat N-rich and N-limited ecosystems differently in modeling effects of N deposition on ecosystem C cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Intensification of terrestrial carbon cycle related to El Niño-Southern Oscillation under greenhouse warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Soo; Kug, Jong-Seong; Jeong, Su-Jong

    2017-11-22

    The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) drives interannual variation in the global carbon cycle. However, the relationship between ENSO and the carbon cycle can be modulated by climate change due to anthropogenic forcing. We show herein that the sensitivity of the terrestrial carbon flux to ENSO will be enhanced under greenhouse warming by 44% ( ± 15%), indicating a future amplification of carbon-climate interactions. Separating the contributions of the changes in carbon sensitivity reveals that the response of land surface temperature to ENSO and the sensitivity of gross primary production to local temperature are significantly enhanced under greenhouse warming, thereby amplifying the ENSO-carbon-cycle coupling. In a warm climate, depletion of soil moisture increases temperature response in a given ENSO event. These findings suggest that the ENSO-related carbon cycle will be enhanced by hydroclimate changes caused by anthropogenic forcing.

  11. DESIGN OF HYBRID POWER GENERATION CYCLES EMPLOYING AMMONIA-WATER-CARBON DIOXIDE MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashish Gupta

    2002-06-01

    A power cycle generates electricity from the heat of combustion of fossil fuels. Its efficiency is governed by the cycle configuration, the operating parameters, and the working fluid. Typical. designs use pure water as the fluid. in the last two decades, hybrid cycles based on ammonia-water, and carbon-dioxide mixtures as the working fluid have been proposed. These cycles may improve the power generation efficiency of Rankine cycles by 15%. Improved efficiency is important for two reasons: it lowers the cost of electricity being produced, and by reducing the consumption of fossil fuels per unit power, it reduces the generation of environmental pollutants. The goal of this project is to develop a computational optimization-based method for the design and analysis of hybrid bottoming power cycles to minimize the usage of fossil fuels. The development of this methodology has been achieved by formulating this task as that of selecting the least cost power cycle design from all possible configurations. They employ a detailed thermodynamic property prediction package they have developed under a DOE-FETC grant to model working fluid mixtures. Preliminary results from this work suggest that a pure NH{sub 3} cycle outperforms steam or the expensive Kalina cycle.

  12. Influence of advective bio-irrigation on carbon and nitrogen cycling in sandy sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Na, T.H.; Gribsholt, B.; Galaktionov, O.; van der Lee, T.A.J.; Meysman, F.J.R.

    2008-01-01

    In sandy sediments, the burrow ventilation activity of benthic macrofauna can generate substantial advective flows within the sediment surrounding their burrows. Here we investigated the effects of such advective bio-irrigation on carbon and nitrogen cycling in sandy sediments. To this end, we

  13. Coupling of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen cycles in sediments from a Mediterranean lagoon: a seasonal perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dedieu, K.; Rabouille, C.; Gilbert, F.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Metzger, E.; Simonucci, C.; Jézéquel, D.; Prévot, F.; Anschutz, P.; Hulth, S.; Ogier, S.; Mesnage, V.

    2007-01-01

    Experimental data and simulations were used to investigate the seasonal coupling between carbon, nitrogen and oxygen cycles in marine sediments from a eutrophic shallow lagoon in the Mediterranean Sea area. A negative seasonal correlation was observed between oxygen consumption and coupled

  14. The Environmental Impact of Industrial Bamboo Products : Life-cycle Assessment and Carbon Sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogtlander, J.G.; Van der Lugt, P.

    2014-01-01

    This report gives a Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) and carbon footprint analysis on a selection of industrial bamboo products. The LCA is made for cradle-to-gate, plus the end-of-life stages of the bamboo products. For end-of-life it is assumed that 90% of the bamboo products are incinerated in an

  15. Life Cycle Assessment as a Tool to Enhance the Environmental Performanceof Carbon Nanotube Products: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of evaluating the environmental performance of emerging carbon nanotube (CNT) products from a life cycle perspective is emphasized in this work. Design, development and deployment of CNT products offer many potential benefits to society, but not without negative im...

  16. Hierarchical responses of plant–soil interactions to climate change: consequences for the global carbon cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardgett, R.D.; Manning, P.; Morrien, E.; De Vries, F.T.

    2013-01-01

    1.Interactions between plant and soil communities play a major role in determining the impact of climate change on ecosystem functioning and the carbon cycle, and the mechanisms involved operate over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. 2.We present a framework for understanding the

  17. Uncertainty analysis of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from petroleum-based fuels and impacts on low carbon fuel policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Aranya; Jaramillo, Paulina; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2011-01-01

    The climate change impacts of U.S. petroleum-based fuels consumption have contributed to the development of legislation supporting the introduction of low carbon alternatives, such as biofuels. However, the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions estimated for these policies using life cycle assessment methods are predominantly based on deterministic approaches that do not account for any uncertainty in outcomes. This may lead to unreliable and expensive decision making. In this study, the uncertainty in life cycle GHG emissions associated with petroleum-based fuels consumed in the U.S. is determined using a process-based framework and statistical modeling methods. Probability distributions fitted to available data were used to represent uncertain parameters in the life cycle model. Where data were not readily available, a partial least-squares (PLS) regression model based on existing data was developed. This was used in conjunction with probability mixture models to select appropriate distributions for specific life cycle stages. Finally, a Monte Carlo simulation was performed to generate sample output distributions. As an example of results from using these methods, the uncertainty range in life cycle GHG emissions from gasoline was shown to be 13%-higher than the typical 10% minimum emissions reductions targets specified by low carbon fuel policies.

  18. Algal evolution in relation to atmospheric CO2: carboxylases, carbon-concentrating mechanisms and carbon oxidation cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Raven, John A.; Giordano, Mario; Beardall, John; Maberly, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis evolved at least 2.4 Ga; all oxygenic organisms use the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco)–photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle (PCRC) rather than one of the five other known pathways of autotrophic CO2 assimilation. The high CO2 and (initially) O2-free conditions permitted the use of a Rubisco with a high maximum specific reaction rate. As CO2 decreased and O2 increased, Rubisco oxygenase activity increased and 2-phosphoglycolate was produced, with...

  19. The Plio-Pleistocene climatic evolution as a consequence of orbital forcing on the carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Didier

    2017-09-01

    Since the discovery of ice ages in the 19th century, a central question of climate science has been to understand the respective role of the astronomical forcing and of greenhouse gases, in particular changes in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide. Glacial-interglacial cycles have been shown to be paced by the astronomy with a dominant periodicity of 100 ka over the last million years, and a periodicity of 41 ka between roughly 1 and 3 million years before present (Myr BP). But the role and dynamics of the carbon cycle over the last 4 million years remain poorly understood. In particular, the transition into the Pleistocene about 2.8 Myr BP or the transition towards larger glaciations about 0.8 Myr BP (sometimes referred to as the mid-Pleistocene transition, or MPT) are not easily explained as direct consequences of the astronomical forcing. Some recent atmospheric CO2 reconstructions suggest slightly higher pCO2 levels before 1 Myr BP and a slow decrease over the last few million years (Bartoli et al., 2011; Seki et al., 2010). But the dynamics and the climatic role of the carbon cycle during the Plio-Pleistocene period remain unclear. Interestingly, the δ13C marine records provide some critical information on the evolution of sources and sinks of carbon. In particular, a clear 400 kyr oscillation has been found at many different time periods and appears to be a robust feature of the carbon cycle throughout at least the last 100 Myr (e.g. Paillard and Donnadieu, 2014). This oscillation is also visible over the last 4 Myr but its relationship with the eccentricity appears less obvious, with the occurrence of longer cycles at the end of the record, and a periodicity which therefore appears shifted towards 500 kyr (see Wang et al., 2004). In the following we present a simple dynamical model that provides an explanation for these carbon cycle variations, and how they relate to the climatic evolution over the last 4 Myr. It also gives an explanation for

  20. Carbon dioxide emission in hydrogen production technology from coke oven gas with life cycle approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burmistrz Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of Carbon Footprint (CF for technology of hydrogen production from cleaned coke oven gas was performed. On the basis of real data and simulation calculations of the production process of hydrogen from coke gas, emission indicators of carbon dioxide (CF were calculated. These indicators are associated with net production of electricity and thermal energy and direct emission of carbon dioxide throughout a whole product life cycle. Product life cycle includes: coal extraction and its transportation to a coking plant, the process of coking coal, purification and reforming of coke oven gas, carbon capture and storage. The values were related to 1 Mg of coking blend and to 1 Mg of the hydrogen produced. The calculation is based on the configuration of hydrogen production from coke oven gas for coking technology available on a commercial scale that uses a technology of coke dry quenching (CDQ. The calculations were made using ChemCAD v.6.0.2 simulator for a steady state of technological process. The analysis of carbon footprint was conducted in accordance with the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA.

  1. Closing the carbon cycle through rational use of carbon-based fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacElroy, J M Don

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a brief overview is presented of natural gas as a fuel resource with subsequent carbon capture and re-use as a means to facilitate reduction and eventual elimination of man-made carbon emissions. A particular focus is shale gas and, to a lesser extent, methane hydrates, with the former believed to provide the most reasonable alternative as a transitional fuel toward a low-carbon future. An emphasis is placed on the gradual elimination of fossil resource usage as a fuel over the coming 35 to 85 years and its eventual replacement with renewable resources and nuclear power. Furthermore, it is proposed that synthesis of chemical feedstocks from recycled carbon dioxide and hydrogen-rich materials should be undertaken for specific applications in the transport sector which require access to high energy density fuels. To achieve the latter, carbon dioxide capture is imperative and possible synthetic routes for chemical feedstock production are briefly reviewed.

  2. Increased resiliency and activity of microbial mediated carbon cycling enzymes in diversified bioenergy cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, R.; Bach, E.; Hofmockel, K. S.

    2017-12-01

    Microbes are mediators of soil carbon (C) and are influenced in membership and activity by nitrogen (N) fertilization and inter-annual abiotic factors. Microbial communities and their extracellular enzyme activities (EEA) are important parameters that influence ecosystem C cycling properties and are often included in microbial explicit C cycling models. In an effort to generate model relevant, empirical findings, we investigated how both microbial community structure and C degrading enzyme activity are influenced by inter-annual variability and N inputs in bioenergy crops. Our study was performed at the Comparison of Biofuel Systems field-site from 2011 to 2014, in three bioenergy cropping systems, continuous corn (CC) and two restored prairies, both fertilized (FP) and unfertilized (P). We hypothesized microbial community structure would diverge during the prairie restoration, leading to changes in C cycling enzymes over time. Using a sequencing approach (16S and ITS) we determined the bacterial and fungal community structure response to the cropping system, fertilization, and inter-annual variability. Additionally, we used EEA of β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, and β-xylosidase to determine inter-annual and ecosystem impacts on microbial activity. Our results show cropping system was a main effect for microbial community structure, with corn diverging from both prairies to be less diverse. Inter-annual changes showed that a drought occurring in 2012 significantly impacted microbial community structure in both the P and CC, decreasing microbial richness. However, FP increased in microbial richness, suggesting the application of N increased resiliency to drought. Similarly, the only year in which C cycling enzymes were impacted by ecosystem was 2012, with FP supporting higher potential enzymatic activity then CC and P. The highest EEA across all ecosystems occurred in 2014, suggesting the continued root biomass and litter build-up in this no till system

  3. Intertidal foraminifera (Protista) and carbon-nitrogen cycling: combined effects of temperature and diet quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wukovits, Julia; Enge, Annekatrin Julie; Oberrauch, Max; Watzka, Margarete; Wanek, Wolfgang; Heinz, Petra

    2017-04-01

    Benthic foraminifera (eukaryotic protists) are to a large extent acting as detrivores, feeding on microalgal detritus. Phytodetritus constitutes a main component of the intertidal carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pool, thus making foraminifera important players in intertidal nutrient fluxes. These fluxes are strongly dependent on interactions between biotic and abiotic environmental factors, as e.g. the energetic value or the quality of phytodetritus that depends on environmental nutrient availability. Increased inorganic C concentrations in coastal water bodies (e.g. due to increased atmospheric CO2) can have a negative effect on the phytodetrital quality by increasing microalgal C:N ratios. Simultanous warming of the environment can cause increased metabolic rates of exposed heterotrophic organisms, like foraminifera. The combination of lower food quality and increased metabolic rates is supposed to cause cascading effects on organismic C cycling, potentially diminishing the role of detrivorous food as a C sink in marine food webs by increased discharge of excess C. In this study, the above described scenario was tested in laboratory feeding experiments on a common and abundant intertidal foraminiferal species (Haynesina germanica, collected in the German Wadden Sea). Two batches of artificially produced and dual isotope labeled (13C and 15N) chlorophyte detritus (1.5 gDW m-2) with different C:N ratios (5.5 and 7.6) and one batch of isotopically labelled diatom detritus (C:N 5.6) were fed under controlled conditions at three different temperatures. Results were extrapolated to the in situ abundance of live H. germanica individuals in the sampling area (sediment core data), to estimate the magnitude of the effect on an areal basis within the natural habitat. The study revealed significant, temperature induced variations in the carbon and nitrogen processing of H. germanica. The food source with an increased C:N ratio doubled the release of carbon from the H. germanica

  4. Constraining land carbon cycle process understanding with observations of atmospheric CO2 variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collatz, G. J.; Kawa, S. R.; Liu, Y.; Zeng, F.; Ivanoff, A.

    2013-12-01

    We evaluate our understanding of the land biospheric carbon cycle by benchmarking a model and its variants to atmospheric CO2 observations and to an atmospheric CO2 inversion. Though the seasonal cycle in CO2 observations is well simulated by the model (RMSE/standard deviation of observations 40N though fluxes match poorly at regional to continental scales. Regional and global fire emissions are strongly correlated with variability observed at northern flask sample sites and in the global atmospheric CO2 growth rate though in the latter case fire emissions anomalies are not large enough to account fully for the observed variability. We discuss remaining unexplained variability in CO2 observations in terms of the representation of fluxes by the model. This work also demonstrates the limitations of the current network of CO2 observations and the potential of new denser surface measurements and space based column measurements for constraining carbon cycle processes in models.

  5. Carbon Cycle in South China Sea: Flux, Controls and Global Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, M.; Cao, Z.; Yang, W.; Guo, X.; Yin, Z.; Gan, J.

    2016-12-01

    The contemporary coastal ocean is generally seen as a significant CO2 sink of 0.2-0.4 Pg C/yr at the global scale. However, mechanistic understanding of the coastal ocean carbon cycle remains limited, leading to the unanswered question of why some coastal systems are sources while others are sinks of atmospheric CO2. As the largest marginal sea of Northern Pacific, the South China Sea (SCS) is a mini-ocean with wide shelves in both its southern and northern parts. Its northern shelf, which receives significant land inputs from the Pearl River, a world major river, can be categorized as a River-Dominated Margin (RioMar) during peak discharges, and is characterized as a CO2 sink to the atmosphere. The SCS basin is identified as an Ocean-Dominated Margin (OceMar) and a CO2 source. OceMar is characterized by exchange with the open ocean via a two-dimensional (at least) process, i.e., the horizontal intrusion of open ocean water and subsequent vertical mixing and upwelling. Depending on the different ratios of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and nutrients from the source waters into the continental margins, the relative consumption or removal bwtween DIC and nutrients, when being transported into the euphotic zones where biogeochemical processes take over, determines the CO2 fluxes. Thus, excess DIC relative to nutrients existing in the upper layer will lead to CO2 degassing. The CO2 fluxes in both RioMars and OceMars can be quantified using a semi-analytical diagnostic approach by coupling the physical dynamics and biogeochemical processes. We extended our mechanistic studies in the SCS to other OceMars including the Caribbean Sea, the Arabian Sea, and the upwelling system off the Oregon-California coast, and RioMars including the East China Sea and Amazon River plume to demonstrate the global implications of our SCS carbon studies.

  6. Belowground Carbon Cycling Processes at the Molecular Scale: An EMSL Science Theme Advisory Panel Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Nancy J.; Brown, Gordon E.; Plata, Charity

    2014-02-21

    As part of the Belowground Carbon Cycling Processes at the Molecular Scale workshop, an EMSL Science Theme Advisory Panel meeting held in February 2013, attendees discussed critical biogeochemical processes that regulate carbon cycling in soil. The meeting attendees determined that as a national scientific user facility, EMSL can provide the tools and expertise needed to elucidate the molecular foundation that underlies mechanistic descriptions of biogeochemical processes that control carbon allocation and fluxes at the terrestrial/atmospheric interface in landscape and regional climate models. Consequently, the workshop's goal was to identify the science gaps that hinder either development of mechanistic description of critical processes or their accurate representation in climate models. In part, this report offers recommendations for future EMSL activities in this research area. The workshop was co-chaired by Dr. Nancy Hess (EMSL) and Dr. Gordon Brown (Stanford University).

  7. A synthesis of the arctic terrestrial and marine carbon cycles under pressure from a dwindling cryosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmentier, Frans-Jan W; Christensen, Torben R; Rysgaard, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The current downturn of the arctic cryosphere, such as the strong loss of sea ice, melting of ice sheets and glaciers, and permafrost thaw, affects the marine and terrestrial carbon cycles in numerous interconnected ways. Nonetheless, processes in the ocean and on land have been too often....... This review, therefore, provides an overview of the current state of knowledge of the arctic terrestrial and marine carbon cycle, connections in between, and how this complex system is affected by climate change and a declining cryosphere. Ultimately, better knowledge of biogeochemical processes combined...... considered in isolation while it has become increasingly clear that the two environments are strongly connected: Sea ice decline is one of the main causes of the rapid warming of the Arctic, and the flow of carbon from rivers into the Arctic Ocean affects marine processes and the air-sea exchange of CO2...

  8. Effects of Lime and Concrete Waste on Vadose Zone Carbon Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Eike Marie; Jessen, Søren; Postma, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we investigate how lime and crushed concrete waste (CCW) affect carbon cycling in the vadose zone and explore whether these amendments could be employed to mitigate climate change by increasing the transport of CO2 from the atmosphere to the groundwater. We use a combination.......) grown on podzolic soil material, we have investigated inorganic carbon cycling through the gaseous and liquid phases and how it is affected by different soil amendments. The mesocosm amendments comprised the addition of 0, 9.6, or 21.2 kg m−2 of crushed concrete waste (CCW) or 1 kg lime m−2. The CCW...... and lime treatments increased the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) percolation flux by about 150 and 100%, respectively,compared to the controls. However, concurrent increases in the CO2 efflux to the atmosphere (ER) were more than one order of magnitude higher than increases in the DIC percolation flux...

  9. Earth's Early Biosphere and the Biogeochemical Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesMarais, David

    2004-01-01

    Our biosphere has altered the global environment principally by influencing the chemistry of those elements most important for life, e g., C, N, S, O, P and transition metals (e.g., Fe and Mn). The coupling of oxygenic photosynthesis with the burial in sediments of photosynthetic organic matter, and with the escape of H2 to space, has increased the state of oxidation of the Oceans and atmosphere. It has also created highly reduced conditions within sedimentary rocks that have also extensively affected the geochemistry of several elements. The decline of volcanism during Earth's history reduced the flow of reduced chemical species that reacted with photosynthetically produced O2. The long-term net accumulation of photosynthetic O2 via biogeochemical processes has profoundly influenced our atmosphere and biosphere, as evidenced by the O2 levels required for algae, multicellular life and certain modem aerobic bacteria to exist. When our biosphere developed photosynthesis, it tapped into an energy resource that was much larger than the energy available from oxidation-reduction reactions associated with weathering and hydrothermal activity. Today, hydrothermal sources deliver globally (0.13-1.1)x10(exp l2) mol yr(sup -1) of reduced S, Fe(2+), Mn(2+), H2 and CH4; this is estimated to sustain at most about (0.2-2)xl0(exp 12)mol C yr(sup -1) of organic carbon production by chemautotrophic microorganisms. In contrast, global photosynthetic productivity is estimated to be 9000x10(exp 12) mol C yr(sup -1). Thus, even though global thermal fluxes were greater in the distant geologic past than today, the onset of oxygenic photosynthesis probably increased global organic productivity by some two or more orders of magnitude. This enormous productivity materialized principally because oxygenic photosynthesizers unleashed a virtually unlimited supply of reduced H that forever freed life from its sole dependence upon abiotic sources of reducing power such as hydrothermal emanations

  10. Multi-cycle operation of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) with different carbon sources under high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Nan; Chen, Yun; Zhou, Yan

    2017-05-01

    Many studies reported that it is challenging to apply enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process at high temperature. Glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) could easily gain their dominance over poly-phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) when the operating temperature was in the range of 25 °C-30 °C. However, a few successful EBPR processes operated at high temperature have been reported recently. This study aimed to have an in-depth understanding on the impact of feeding strategy and carbon source types on EBPR performance in tropical climate. P-removal performance of two EBPR systems was monitored through tracking effluent quality and cyclic studies. The results confirmed that EBPR was successfully obtained and maintained at high temperature with a multi-cycle strategy. More stable performance was observed with acetate as the sole carbon source compared to propionate. Stoichiometric ratios of phosphorus and carbon transformation during both anaerobic and aerobic phases were higher at high temperature than low temperature (20±1 °C) except anaerobic PHA/C ratios within most of the sub-cycles. Furthermore, the fractions of PHA and glycogen in biomass were lower compared with one-cycle pulse feed operation. The microbial community structure was more stable in acetate-fed sequencing batch reactor (C2-SBR) than that in propionate-fed reactor (C3-SBR). Accumulibacter Clade IIC was found to be highly abundant in both reactors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nutrient limitation reduces land carbon uptake in simulations with a model of combined carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Goll

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial carbon (C cycle models applied for climate projections simulate a strong increase in net primary productivity (NPP due to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration during the 21st century. These models usually neglect the limited availability of nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P, nutrients that commonly limit plant growth and soil carbon turnover. To investigate how the projected C sequestration is altered when stoichiometric constraints on C cycling are considered, we incorporated a P cycle into the land surface model JSBACH (Jena Scheme for Biosphere–Atmosphere Coupling in Hamburg, which already includes representations of coupled C and N cycles.

    The model reveals a distinct geographic pattern of P and N limitation. Under the SRES (Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B scenario, the accumulated land C uptake between 1860 and 2100 is 13% (particularly at high latitudes and 16% (particularly at low latitudes lower in simulations with N and P cycling, respectively, than in simulations without nutrient cycles. The combined effect of both nutrients reduces land C uptake by 25% compared to simulations without N or P cycling. Nutrient limitation in general may be biased by the model simplicity, but the ranking of limitations is robust against the parameterization and the inflexibility of stoichiometry. After 2100, increased temperature and high CO2 concentration cause a shift from N to P limitation at high latitudes, while nutrient limitation in the tropics declines. The increase in P limitation at high-latitudes is induced by a strong increase in NPP and the low P sorption capacity of soils, while a decline in tropical NPP due to high autotrophic respiration rates alleviates N and P limitations. The quantification of P limitation remains challenging. The poorly constrained processes of soil P sorption and biochemical mineralization are identified as the main uncertainties in the strength of P limitation

  12. Effects of ion insertion on cycling performance of miniaturized electrochemical capacitor of carbon nanotubes array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Dah-Shyang; Chang, Chuan-hua; Chiang, Wei-Wen; Lee, Kuei-Yi; Huang, Ying-Sheng

    2014-10-24

    Capacity degradation and ion insertion of a miniaturized electrochemical capacitor are studied using ionic liquid [EMI] [TFSI] as the electrolyte. This capacitor is featured with two comb-like electrodes of vertical carbon nanotubes, ∼70 μm in height and 20 μm in interelectrode gap. We quantify the levels of ion insertion damage with Raman spectroscopy after the electrode experiences 120 consecutive voltammetric cycles to various potential limits. Distinct structural damage emerges due to [EMI] when the negative potential reaches -1.7 V, and those due to [TFSI] arise when the positive potential reaches 1.7 V vs. RHE. Judging from the peak broadenings, [EMI] is more detrimental than [TFSI]. When the voltage window ΔU is set as less than or equal to 2.8 V, both electrode potentials are within the two intercalation limits, little or no decay is observed in 10(4) charge/discharge cycles. When ΔU is 3.4 V, the positive potential exceeds the upper limit, but the negative potential stays within the lower limit, the cell capacitance decreases moderately. When ΔU increases to 3.8 V, both electrodes suffer from damages because of exceeding the intercalation limits. And the cell capacitance decreases substantially, even leading to a premature failure.

  13. Cycle Analysis of Micro Gas Turbine-Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimijima, Shinji; Kasagi, Nobuhide

    A hybrid system based on a micro gas turbine (µGT) and a high-temperature fuel cell, i.e., molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) or solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), is expected to achieve a much higher efficiency than conventional distributed power generation systems. In this study, a cycle analysis method and the performance evaluation of a µGT-MCFC hybrid system, of which the power output is 30kW, are investigated to clarify its feasibility. We developed a general design strategy in which a low fuel input to a combustor and higher MCFC operating temperature result in a high power generation efficiency. A high recuperator temperature effectiveness and a moderate steam-carbon ratio are the requirements for obtaining a high material strength in a turbine. In addition, by employing a combustor for complete oxidation of MCFC effluents without additional fuel input, i.e., a catalytic combustor, the power generation efficiency of a µGT-MCFC is achieved at over 60%(LHV).

  14. Assimilation of repeated woody biomass observations constrains decadal ecosystem carbon cycle uncertainty in aggrading forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallman, T. L.; Exbrayat, J.-F.; Mencuccini, M.; Bloom, A. A.; Williams, M.

    2017-03-01

    Forest carbon sink strengths are governed by plant growth, mineralization of dead organic matter, and disturbance. Across landscapes, remote sensing can provide information about aboveground states of forests and this information can be linked to models to estimate carbon cycling in forests close to steady state. For aggrading forests this approach is more challenging and has not been demonstrated. Here we apply a Bayesian approach, linking a simple model to a range of data, to evaluate their information content, for two aggrading forests. We compare high information content analyses using local observations with retrievals using progressively sparser remotely sensed information (repeated, single, and no woody biomass observations). The net biome productivity of both forests is constrained to be a net sink with litter dynamics at one forest, while at the second forest total dead organic matter estimates are within observational uncertainty. The uncertainty of retrieved ecosystem traits in the repeated biomass analysis is reduced by up to 50% compared to analyses with less biomass information. This study quantifies the importance of repeated woody observations in constraining the dynamics of both wood and dead organic matter, highlighting the benefit of proposed remote sensing missions.

  15. Modelling carbon dynamics from urban land conversion: fundamental model of city in relation to a local carbon cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schellnhuber Hans-Joachim

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main task is to estimate the qualitative and quantitative contribution of urban territories and precisely of the process of urbanization to the Global Carbon Cycle (GCC. Note that, on the contrary to many investigations that have considered direct anthropogenic emission of CO2(urbanized territories produce ca. 96–98% of it, we are interested in more subtle, and up until the present time, weaker processes associated with the conversion of the surrounding natural ecosystems and landscapes into urban lands. Such conversion inevitably takes place when cities are sprawling and additional "natural" lands are becoming "urbanized". Results In order to fulfil this task, we first develop a fundamental model of urban space, since the type of land cover within a city makes a difference for a local carbon cycle. Hence, a city is sub-divided by built-up, „green" (parks, etc. and informal settlements (favelas fractions. Another aspect is a sub-division of the additional two regions, which makes the total number reaching eight regions, while the UN divides the world by six. Next, the basic model of the local carbon cycle for urbanized territories is built. We consider two processes: carbon emissions as a result of conversion of natural lands caused by urbanization; and the transformation of carbon flows by "urbanized" ecosystems; when carbon, accumulated by urban vegetation, is exported to the neighbouring territories. The total carbon flow in the model depends, in general, on two groups of parameters. The first includes the NPP, and the sum of living biomass and dead organic matter of ecosystems involved in the process of urbanization, and namely them we calculate here, using a new more realistic approach and taking into account the difference in regional cities' evolution. Conclusion There is also another group of parameters, dealing with the areas of urban territories, and their annual increments. A method of dynamic forecasting

  16. New era of satellite chlorophyll fluorescence and soil moisture observations leads to advances in the predictive understanding of global terrestrial coupled carbon-water cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, B.; Xue, Y.; Fisher, J.; Guo, W.

    2017-12-01

    The terrestrial carbon cycle and water cycle are coupled through a multitude of connected processes among soil, roots, leaves, and the atmosphere. The strength and sensitivity of these couplings are not yet well known at the global scale, which contributes to uncertainty in predicting the terrestrial water and carbon budgets. For the first time, we now have synchronous, high fidelity, global-scale satellite observations of critical terrestrial carbon and water cycle components: sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) and soil moisture. We used these observations within the framework of a well-established global terrestrial biosphere model (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model version 2.0, SSiB2) to investigate carbon-water coupling processes. We updated SSiB2 to include a mechanistic representation of SIF and tested the sensitivity of model parameters to improve the simulation of both SIF and soil moisture with the ultimate objective of improving the first-order terrestrial carbon component, gross primary production (GPP). Although several vegetation parameters, such as leaf area index (LAI) and green leaf fraction, improved the simulated SIF, and several soil parameters, such as hydraulic conductivity, improved simulated soil moisture, their effects were mainly limited to their respective cycles. One parameter emerged as the key coupler between the carbon and water cycles: the wilting point. Updates to the wilting point significantly improved the simulations for both soil moisture and SIF, as well as GPP. This study demonstrates the value of synchronous global measurements of the terrestrial carbon and water cycles in improving the understanding of coupled carbon-water cycles.

  17. Similar below-ground carbon cycling dynamics but contrasting modes of nitrogen cycling between arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guigang; McCormack, M Luke; Ma, Chengen; Guo, Dali

    2017-02-01

    Compared with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) forests, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) forests are hypothesized to have higher carbon (C) cycling rates and a more open nitrogen (N) cycle. To test this hypothesis, we synthesized 645 observations, including 22 variables related to below-ground C and N dynamics from 100 sites, where AM and ECM forests co-occurred at the same site. Leaf litter quality was lower in ECM than in AM trees, leading to greater forest floor C stocks in ECM forests. By contrast, AM forests had significantly higher mineral soil C concentrations, and this result was strongly mediated by plant traits and climate. No significant differences were found between AM and ECM forests in C fluxes and labile C concentrations. Furthermore, inorganic N concentrations, net N mineralization and nitrification rates were all higher in AM than in ECM forests, indicating 'mineral' N economy in AM but 'organic' N economy in ECM trees. AM and ECM forests show systematic differences in mineral vs organic N cycling, and thus mycorrhizal type may be useful in predicting how different tree species respond to multiple environmental change factors. By contrast, mycorrhizal type alone cannot reliably predict below-ground C dynamics without considering plant traits and climate. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Exploring global carbon turnover and radiocarbon cycling in terrestrial biosphere models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graven, H. D.; Warren, H.

    2017-12-01

    The uptake of carbon into terrestrial ecosystems through net primary productivity (NPP) and the turnover of that carbon through various pathways are the fundamental drivers of changing carbon stocks on land, in addition to human-induced and natural disturbances. Terrestrial biosphere models use different formulations for carbon uptake and release, resulting in a range of values in NPP of 40-70 PgC/yr and biomass turnover times of about 25-40 years for the preindustrial period in current-generation models from CMIP5. Biases in carbon uptake and turnover impact simulated carbon uptake and storage in the historical period and later in the century under changing climate and CO2 concentration, however evaluating global-scale NPP and carbon turnover is challenging. Scaling up of plot-scale measurements involves uncertainty due to the large heterogeneity across ecosystems and biomass types, some of which are not well-observed. We are developing the modelling of radiocarbon in terrestrial biosphere models, with a particular focus on decadal 14C dynamics after the nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s-60s, including the impact of carbon flux trends and variability on 14C cycling. We use an estimate of the total inventory of excess 14C in the biosphere constructed by Naegler and Levin (2009) using a 14C budget approach incorporating estimates of total 14C produced by the weapons tests and atmospheric and oceanic 14C observations. By simulating radiocarbon in simple biosphere box models using carbon fluxes from the CMIP5 models, we find that carbon turnover is too rapid in many of the simple models - the models appear to take up too much 14C and release it too quickly. Therefore many CMIP5 models may also simulate carbon turnover that is too rapid. A caveat is that the simple box models we use may not adequately represent carbon dynamics in the full-scale models. Explicit simulation of radiocarbon in terrestrial biosphere models would allow more robust evaluation of biosphere

  19. A two-fold increase of carbon cycle sensitivity to tropical temperature variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuhui; Piao, Shilong; Ciais, Philippe; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Myneni, Ranga B; Cox, Peter; Heimann, Martin; Miller, John; Peng, Shushi; Wang, Tao; Yang, Hui; Chen, Anping

    2014-02-13

    Earth system models project that the tropical land carbon sink will decrease in size in response to an increase in warming and drought during this century, probably causing a positive climate feedback. But available data are too limited at present to test the predicted changes in the tropical carbon balance in response to climate change. Long-term atmospheric carbon dioxide data provide a global record that integrates the interannual variability of the global carbon balance. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrate that most of this variability originates in the terrestrial biosphere. In particular, the year-to-year variations in the atmospheric carbon dioxide growth rate (CGR) are thought to be the result of fluctuations in the carbon fluxes of tropical land areas. Recently, the response of CGR to tropical climate interannual variability was used to put a constraint on the sensitivity of tropical land carbon to climate change. Here we use the long-term CGR record from Mauna Loa and the South Pole to show that the sensitivity of CGR to tropical temperature interannual variability has increased by a factor of 1.9 ± 0.3 in the past five decades. We find that this sensitivity was greater when tropical land regions experienced drier conditions. This suggests that the sensitivity of CGR to interannual temperature variations is regulated by moisture conditions, even though the direct correlation between CGR and tropical precipitation is weak. We also find that present terrestrial carbon cycle models do not capture the observed enhancement in CGR sensitivity in the past five decades. More realistic model predictions of future carbon cycle and climate feedbacks require a better understanding of the processes driving the response of tropical ecosystems to drought and warming.

  20. Carbon cycle dynamics within Oregon’s urban-suburban-forested-agricultural landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Beverly E. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Still, Christopher Jason [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Schmidt, Andres [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Our overarching goal was to develop and utilize an observation-based analysis framework to assess interactions between climate and mosaics of land use, land cover and urbanization on regional carbon, water, and energy dynamics, and potential changes associated with land management and climate. Carbon, water and energy cycling was quantified for the range of current and potential land uses under present and future climates. The study region of Oregon has a strong climatic gradient from the coastal mesic forests (2500mm ppt) to the Willamette Valley, Cascade Mountains, and the Northern Great Basin semi-arid “cold desert” to the east (300 mm). The study was focused on the effects of (1) conversion of semi-arid sagebrush and Willamette Valley agricultural crops to bioenergy production; (2) afforestation of idle land and rangelands deemed suitable for forests or poplar crops under future climate conditions. We found that net ecosystem production (NEP), the net of ecosystem photosynthesis and respiration, was 10 times higher in the high biomass forests of the Coast Range compared with drier regions like sagebrush in the Northern Great Basin, which was nearly zero (Schmidt et al. 2016). The state total NEP averaged about 30 teragrams carbon (Tg C) per year for the years 2012 to 2014 using our model framework that we developed for predictions of current and future NEP, and compared well with our detailed inventory estimates (28 Tg C annual average for 2011-2015 for forests only; Law et al. 2017). Running our model framework until the year 2050, we found that climate alone only increased NEP by less than 1 Tg C per decade (~3%) using the current trajectory of carbon dioxide emissions, however, changes are expected to be more rapid in subsequent years. We evaluated the possibility of land use change from grass seed crops to poplar for bioenergy, which slightly increased NEP by 2050. The most important variable for carbon sequestration estimates (net carbon sources and

  1. NASA's Carbon Monitoring System Flux-Pilot Project: A Multi-Component Analysis System for Carbon-Cycle Research and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawson, S.; Gunson, M.; Potter, C.; Jucks, K.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of greenhouse gas increases for climate motivates NASA s observing strategy for CO2 from space, including the forthcoming Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) mission. Carbon cycle monitoring, including attribution of atmospheric concentrations to regional emissions and uptake, requires a robust modeling and analysis infrastructure to optimally extract information from the observations. NASA's Carbon-Monitoring System Flux-Pilot Project (FPP) is a prototype for such analysis, combining a set of unique tools to facilitate analysis of atmospheric CO2 along with fluxes between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere or ocean. NASA's analysis system is unique, in that it combines information and expertise from the land, oceanic, and atmospheric branches of the carbon cycle and includes some estimates of uncertainty. Numerous existing space-based missions provide information of relevance to the carbon cycle. This study describes the components of the FPP framework, assessing the realism of computed fluxes, thus providing the basis for research and monitoring applications. Fluxes are computed using data-constrained terrestrial biosphere models and physical ocean models, driven by atmospheric observations and assimilating ocean-color information. Use of two estimates provides a measure of uncertainty in the fluxes. Along with inventories of other emissions, these data-derived fluxes are used in transport models to assess their consistency with atmospheric CO2 observations. Closure is achieved by using a four-dimensional data assimilation (inverse) approach that adjusts the terrestrial biosphere fluxes to make them consistent with the atmospheric CO2 observations. Results will be shown, illustrating the year-to-year variations in land biospheric and oceanic fluxes computed in the FPP. The signals of these surface-flux variations on atmospheric CO2 will be isolated using forward modeling tools, which also incorporate estimates of transport error. The

  2. Fingerprints of changes in the terrestrial carbon cycle in response to large reorganizations in ocean circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bozbiyik

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available CO2 and carbon cycle changes in the land, ocean and atmosphere are investigated using the comprehensive carbon cycle-climate model NCAR CSM1.4-carbon. Ensemble simulations are forced with freshwater perturbations applied at the North Atlantic and Southern Ocean deep water formation sites under pre-industrial climate conditions. As a result, the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation reduces in each experiment to varying degrees. The physical climate fields show changes qualitatively in agreement with results documented in the literature, but there is a clear distinction between northern and southern perturbations. Changes in the physical variables, in turn, affect the land and ocean biogeochemical cycles and cause a reduction, or an increase, in the atmospheric CO2 concentration by up to 20 ppmv, depending on the location of the perturbation. In the case of a North Atlantic perturbation, the land biosphere reacts with a strong reduction in carbon stocks in some tropical locations and in high northern latitudes. In contrast, land carbon stocks tend to increase in response to a southern perturbation. The ocean is generally a sink of carbon although large reorganizations occur throughout various basins. The response of the land biosphere is strongest in the tropical regions due to a shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. The carbon fingerprints of this shift, either to the south or to the north depending on where the freshwater is applied, can be found most clearly in South America. For this reason, a compilation of various paleoclimate proxy records of Younger Dryas precipitation changes are compared with our model results. The proxy records, in general, show good agreement with the model's response to a North Atlantic freshwater perturbation.

  3. Warm spring reduced carbon cycle impact of the 2012 US summer drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Sebastian; Keenan, Trevor F; Fisher, Joshua B; Baldocchi, Dennis D; Desai, Ankur R; Richardson, Andrew D; Scott, Russell L; Law, Beverly E; Litvak, Marcy E; Brunsell, Nathaniel A; Peters, Wouter; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T

    2016-05-24

    The global terrestrial carbon sink offsets one-third of the world's fossil fuel emissions, but the strength of this sink is highly sensitive to large-scale extreme events. In 2012, the contiguous United States experienced exceptionally warm temperatures and the most severe drought since the Dust Bowl era of the 1930s, resulting in substantial economic damage. It is crucial to understand the dynamics of such events because warmer temperatures and a higher prevalence of drought are projected in a changing climate. Here, we combine an extensive network of direct ecosystem flux measurements with satellite remote sensing and atmospheric inverse modeling to quantify the impact of the warmer spring and summer drought on biosphere-atmosphere carbon and water exchange in 2012. We consistently find that earlier vegetation activity increased spring carbon uptake and compensated for the reduced uptake during the summer drought, which mitigated the impact on net annual carbon uptake. The early phenological development in the Eastern Temperate Forests played a major role for the continental-scale carbon balance in 2012. The warm spring also depleted soil water resources earlier, and thus exacerbated water limitations during summer. Our results show that the detrimental effects of severe summer drought on ecosystem carbon storage can be mitigated by warming-induced increases in spring carbon uptake. However, the results also suggest that the positive carbon cycle effect of warm spring enhances water limitations and can increase summer heating through biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks.

  4. Biocatalytic carbon capture via reversible reaction cycle catalyzed by isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shunxiang; Frigo-Vaz, Benjamin; Zhao, Xueyan; Kim, Jungbae; Wang, Ping

    2014-09-12

    The practice of carbon capture and storage (CCS) requires efficient capture and separation of carbon dioxide from its gaseous mixtures such as flue gas, followed by releasing it as a pure gas which can be subsequently compressed and injected into underground storage sites. This has been mostly achieved via reversible thermochemical reactions which are generally energy-intensive. The current work examines a biocatalytic approach for carbon capture using an NADP(H)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) which catalyzes reversibly carboxylation and decarboxylation reactions. Different from chemical carbon capture processes that rely on thermal energy to realize purification of carbon dioxide, the biocatalytic strategy utilizes pH to leverage the reaction equilibrium, thereby realizing energy-efficient carbon capture under ambient conditions. Results showed that over 25 mol of carbon dioxide could be captured and purified from its gas mixture for each gram of ICDH applied for each carboxylation/decarboxylation reaction cycle by varying pH between 6 and 9. This work demonstrates the promising potentials of pH-sensitive biocatalysis as a green-chemistry route for carbon capture. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. NERI Quarterly Progress Report -- April 1 - June 30, 2005 -- Development of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle: Improving PBR Efficiency and Testing Material Compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Oh

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research is to improve a helium Brayton cycle and to develop a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle for the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) that can also be applied to the Fast Gas-Cooled Reactor (FGR) and the Very-High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR). The proposed supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle will be used to improve the PBR, FGR, and VHTR net plant efficiency. Another objective of this research is to test materials to be used in the power conversion side at supercritical carbon dioxide conditions. Generally, the optimized Brayton cycle and balance of plant (BOP) to be developed from this study can be applied to Generation-IV reactor concepts. Particularly, we are interested in VHTR because it has a good chance of being built in the near future

  6. FY-05 Second Quarter Report On Development of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle: Improving PBR Efficiency and Testing Material Compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Oh

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research is to improve a helium Brayton cycle and to develop a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle for the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) that can also be applied to the Fast Gas-Cooled Reactor (FGR) and the Very-High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR). The proposed supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle will be used to improve the PBR, FGR, and VHTR net plant efficiency. Another objective of this research is to test materials to be used in the power conversion side at supercritical carbon dioxide conditions. Genera