WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon burning

  1. On Carbon Burning in Super Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, R; Timmes, F X

    2015-01-01

    We explore the detailed and broad properties of carbon burning in Super Asymptotic Giant Branch (SAGB) stars with 2755 MESA stellar evolution models. The location of first carbon ignition, quenching location of the carbon burning flames and flashes, angular frequency of the carbon core, and carbon core mass are studied as a function of the ZAMS mass, initial rotation rate, and mixing parameters such as convective overshoot, semiconvection, thermohaline and angular momentum transport. In general terms, we find these properties of carbon burning in SAGB models are not a strong function of the initial rotation profile, but are a sensitive function of the overshoot parameter. We quasi-analytically derive an approximate ignition density, $\\rho_{ign} \\approx 2.1 \\times 10^6$ g cm$^{-3}$, to predict the location of first carbon ignition in models that ignite carbon off-center. We also find that overshoot moves the ZAMS mass boundaries where off-center carbon ignition occurs at a nearly uniform rate of $\\Delta M_{\\rm...

  2. 3D Hydrodynamic Simulations of Carbon Burning in Massive Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cristini, Andrea; Hirschi, Raphael; Arnett, David; Georgy, Cyril; Viallet, Maxime

    2016-01-01

    We present the first detailed three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic implicit large eddy simulations of turbulent convection of carbon burning in massive stars. The simulations start with initial radial profiles mapped from a carbon burning shell within a 15$\\,\\textrm{M}_\\odot$ 1D stellar evolution model. We consider 4 resolutions from $128^3$ to $1024^3$ zones. The turbulent flow properties of these carbon burning simulations are very similar to the oxygen burning case. We performed a mean field analysis of the kinetic energy budgets within the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes framework. For the upper convective boundary region, we find that the inferred numerical dissipation is insensitive to resolution for linear mesh resolutions between 512 and 1,024 grid points. For the stiffer and more stratified lower boundary, our highest resolution model still shows signs of decreasing dissipation suggesting that it is not yet fully resolved numerically. We estimate the widths of the upper and lower boundaries to be roug...

  3. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... home, work, and school. Remove electrical cords from floors and keep them out of reach. Know about and practice fire escape routes at ... Burn, thermal - close-up Airway burn Skin First degree burn ...

  4. Molecular Characterization of Brown Carbon in Biomass Burning Aerosol Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Peng; Aiona, Paige K.; Li, Ying; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Emissions from biomass burning are a significant source of brown carbon (BrC) in the atmosphere. In this study, we investigate the molecular composition of freshly-emitted biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) samples collected during test burns of selected biomass fuels: sawgrass, peat, ponderosa pine, and black spruce. We characterize individual BrC chromophores present in these samples using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a photodiode array detector and a high-resolution mass spectrometer. We demonstrate that both the overall BrC absorption and the chemical composition of light-absorbing compounds depend significantly on the type of biomass fuels and burning conditions. Common BrC chromophores in the selected BBOA samples include nitro-aromatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives, and polyphenols spanning a wide range of molecular weights, structures, and light absorption properties. A number of biofuel-specific BrC chromophores are observed, indicating that some of them may be used as potential markers of BrC originating from different biomass burning sources. On average, ~50% of the light absorption above 300 nm can be attributed to a limited number of strong BrC chromophores, which may serve as representative light-absorbing species for studying atmospheric processing of BrC aerosol. The absorption coefficients of BBOA are affected by solar photolysis. Specifically, under typical atmospheric conditions, the 300 nm absorbance decays with a half-life of 16 hours. A “molecular corridors” analysis of the BBOA volatility distribution suggests that many BrC compounds in the fresh BBOA have low volatility (<1 g m-1) and will be retained in the particle phase under atmospherically relevant conditions.

  5. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    A burn is damage to your body's tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight, or radiation. Scalds from hot ... and gases are the most common causes of burns. Another kind is an inhalation injury, caused by ...

  6. Biomass burning in boreal forests and peatlands: Effects on ecosystem carbon losses and soil carbon stabilization as black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turetsky, M. R.; Kane, E. S.; Benscoter, B.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change has increased both annual area burned and the severity of biomass combustion in some boreal regions. For example, there has been a four-fold increase in late season fires in boreal Alaska over the last decade relative to the previous 50 years. Such changes in the fire regime are expected to stimulate ecosystem carbon losses through fuel combustion, reduced primary production, and increased decomposition. However, biomass burning also will influence the accumulation of black carbon in soils, which could promote long-term soil carbon sequestration. Variations in slope and aspect regulate soil temperatures and drainage conditions, and affect the development of permafrost and thick peat layers. Wet soil conditions in peatlands and permafrost forests often inhibit combustion during wildfires, leading to strong positive correlations between pre- and post- fire organic soil thickness that persist through multiple fire cycles. However, burning can occur in poorly drained ecosystems through smouldering combustion, which has implications for emission ratios of CO2:CH4:CO as well as black carbon formation. Our studies of combustion severity and black carbon concentrations in boreal soils show a negative relationship between concentrations of black carbon and organic carbon in soils post-fire. Relative to well drained stands, poorly drained sites with thick peat layers (such as north-facing stands) had less severe burning and low concentrations of black carbon in mineral soils post-fire. Conversely, drier forests lost a greater proportion of their organic soils during combustion but retained larger black carbon stocks following burning. Overall, we have quantified greater black carbon concentrations in surface mineral soil horizons than in organic soil horizons. This is surprising given that wildfires typically do not consume the entire organic soil layer in boreal forests, and could be indicative of the vulnerability of black carbon formed in organic horizons

  7. Carbon production on accreting neutron stars in a new regime of stable nuclear burning

    CERN Document Server

    Keek, L

    2015-01-01

    Accreting neutron stars exhibit Type I X-ray bursts from both frequent hydrogen/helium flashes as well as rare carbon flashes. The latter (superbursts) ignite in the ashes of the former. Hydrogen/helium bursts, however, are thought to produce insufficient carbon to power superbursts. Stable burning could create the required carbon, but this was predicted to only occur at much larger accretion rates than where superbursts are observed. We present models of a new steady-state regime of stable hydrogen and helium burning that produces pure carbon ashes. Hot CNO burning of hydrogen heats the neutron star envelope and causes helium to burn before the conditions of a helium flash are reached. This takes place when the mass accretion rate is around 10% of the Eddington limit: close to the rate where most superbursts occur. We find that increased heating at the base of the envelope sustains steady-state burning by steepening the temperature profile, which increases the amount of helium that burns before a runaway can...

  8. How do Biomass Burning Carbon Monixide Emissions from South America influence Satellite Observed Columns over Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, M. C.; van Leeuwen, T. T.; Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G.

    2015-12-01

    Large amounts of Carbon Monoxide (CO) are emitted during biomass burning events. These emissions severely perturb the atmospheric composition. For this reason, satellite observations of CO can help to constrain emissions from biomass burning. Other sources of CO, such as the production of CO from naturally emitted non-methane hydrocarbons, may interfere with CO from biomass burning and inverse modeling efforts to estimate biomass burning emissions have to account for these CO sources. The atmospheric lifetime of CO varies from weeks to months, depending on the availability of atmospheric OH for atmospheric oxidation of CO to carbon dioxide. This means that CO can be transported over relatively long distances. It also implies that satellite-observed CO does not necessarily originate from the underlying continent, but may be caused by distant emissions transported to the observation location. In this presentation we focus on biomass burning emissions from South America and Southern Africa during 2010. This year was particularly dry over South America with a large positive anomaly in biomass burning in the 2010 burning season (July-October). We will adress the question how CO plumes from South America biomass burning influence satellite observations from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) instrument over Southern Africa. For this we employ the TM5 atmospheric chemistry model, with 1x1 degree zoom resolutions over Africa and South America. Also, we use the TM5-4DVAR code to estimate CO biomass burning emissions using IASI CO observations. The accompanying image shows IASI CO oberservations over Africa on August 27, 2010, compared to the columns simulated with TM5. Clear signs of intercontinental transport from South America are visible over the Southermost region.

  9. Carbon Synthesis in Steady-State Hydrogen and Helium Burning On Accreting Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Stevens, Jeremy; Cumming, Andrew; Cyburt, Richard; Schatz, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Superbursts from accreting neutron stars probe nuclear reactions at extreme densities ($\\rho \\approx 10^{9}~g\\,cm^{-3}$) and temperatures ($T>10^9~K$). These bursts ($\\sim$1000 times more energetic than type I X-ray bursts) are most likely triggered by unstable ignition of carbon in a sea of heavy nuclei made during the rp-process of regular type I X-ray bursts (where the accumulated hydrogen and helium are burned). An open question is the origin of sufficient amounts of carbon, which is largely destroyed during the rp-process in X-ray bursts. We explore carbon production in steady-state burning via the rp-process, which might occur together with unstable burning in systems showing superbursts. We find that for a wide range of accretion rates and accreted helium mass fractions large amounts of carbon are produced, even for systems that accrete solar composition. This makes stable hydrogen and helium burning a viable source of carbon to trigger superbursts. We also investigate the sensitivity of the results to...

  10. Wood-burning stoves in low-carbon dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Afshari, Alireza;

    2013-01-01

    The European climate change strategy intends to encourage the erection of low-carbon buildings and the upgrading of existing buildings to low-carbon level. At the same time, it is an EU vision to maximise the use of renewable energy resources. In this strategy, small-scale wood...

  11. Carbon, Water, and Heat Flux Responses to Experimental Burning and Drought in a Tallgrass Prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M. L.; Torn, M. S.; Billesbach, D. P.; Doyle, G. L.; Northup, B.; Biraud, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    Natural fires and prescribed burning represent a long-standing and currently prevalent disturbance to biogeochemical cycling in grassland ecosystems. We report eddy covariance ecosystem-atmosphere fluxes and biometric variables measured in approximately paired, burned and unburned plots in the US Southern Great Plains over a two-year period spanning a well watered growing season beginning in March, 2005 and a much drier one starting in March, 2006. Just prior to the burn (in early March, 2005), burned and unburned fields initially contained 520 ± 60 g C m-2 and 360 ± 40 g C m-2 of above ground biomass respectively. The fire removed approximately 38% of the above ground biomass, leaving a layer of partially charred moist residual litter. In the growing season immediately following the burn, maximum green biomass was 450 ± 60 g C m-2 and 270 ± 40 g C m-2 in the burned and unburned fields respectively. Cumulative net exchange of CO2 totaled -330 ± 30 and -150 ± 30 g C m-2 in the burned and unburned fields respectively. This resulted in the burned field approximately recovering the carbon lost to the fire relative to the unburned. Ecosystem respiration (measured by partitioning the eddy covariance fluxes) was 1850 ± 100 g C m-2 in both fields, agreeing closely with independent measurements made with soil respiration chambers. Insufficient precipitation during the 2006 growing season generated water stress, which reduced maximum green biomass to 210 ± 30 g C m-2 in the burned and 140 ± 30 g C m-2 unburned fields, representing roughly a factor of two reduction compared to 2005. Net carbon exchange in 2006 was reduced to 45 ± 20 and 13 ± 20 g C m-2 for the burned and unburned fields respectively, indicating near-zero net exchange in both fields. Ecosystem respiration was also reduced to 1250 ± 50 and 1130 ± 50 g C m-2, and was again approximately consistent with chamber measurements. On the basis of this study we conclude that carbon, water, and energy

  12. Unburned Carbon Loss in Fly Ash of CFB Boilers Burning Hard Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Junfu(吕俊复); WANG Qimin(王启民); LI Yong(黎永); YUE Guangxi(岳光溪); Yam Y.Lee; Baldur Eliasson; SHEN Jiezhong(沈解忠); YU Long(于龙)

    2003-01-01

    The unburned carbon loss in fly ash of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers, most of which are burning active fuels such as lignite or peat, is normally very low. However, most CFB boilers in China usually burn hard coals such as anthracite and bituminous coal and coal wastes, so the carbon content in the fly ash from these boilers is higher than expected. This paper investigates the source of unburned carbon in the fly ash of CFB boilers burning hard coal through a series of field tests and laboratory investigations. The char behavior during combustion, including fragmentation and deactivation, which is related to the parent coal, has an important impact on the carbon burnout in CFB boilers. The research shows that char deactivation occurs during char burnout in fluidized bed combustion, especially for large particles of low rank coal. The uneven mixing of solids and air in the core region of the furnace also causes poor burnout of carbon in CFB fly ash. An index describing the volatile content (as dry ash free basis) over the heating value is proposed to present the coal rank. The coal combustion efficiency is shown to be strongly connected with this coal index. Several changes in the CFB boiler design are suggested to reduce the unburned carbon loss in the fly ash.

  13. Stable Carbon Isotopic Fractionation in Smoke and Char Produced During Biomass Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Hsieh, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Stable isotopic ratio of carbon has been used extensively as a tracer of carbon sources in the environment. It has been documented that burning of C4 grasses resulted in significant depletion of C13 in the charcoal while burning of wood and C3 grass did not. This study was initiated to investigate the stable carbon isotopic fractionation of the smoke and char produced during biomass burnings. Samples of Juncus romerianus (C3 salt marsh grass) and Spartina alterniflora (C4 salt marsh grass), Eremochloa ophiuroides (centipede, a C4 lawn grass) and woody debris of a pine forest were colleted and burned in open air fire place. The particulate matter with diameters less than 2.5 micron (PM2.5) emitted from the burning was collected using a PM sampler. The original biomass, PM2.5, black C in PM2.5 and char (ash) were analyzed for their C, N and S thermograms using a multi-elemental scanning thermal analyzer and their stable C isotopic ratios were measured using an EA-IRMS. The results indicate that burning of wood and C3 grass did not produce significant C isotopic fractionation in PM2.5, black C in PM2.5 and char with respect to the original material. However, there was a significant C13-depletion in PM2.5 (-6.2 per mil), black C in PM2.5 (-4.6 per mil) and chars (-4.6 per mil) produced by burning of the C4 centipede grass; whereas the C4 Spartina salt marsh grass produced a C13-depletion in PM2.5 (-2.3 per mil) and black C in PM2.5 (-3.6 per mil), and a slight C13-enrichment in char (0.5 per mil). The isotope fractionation associated with burning of C4 vegetation is probably dependent on species and burning conditions and warrant further study.

  14. Dissolved organic carbon in rainwater from areas heavily impacted by sugar cane burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, C. H.; Francisco, J. G.; Nogueira, R. F. P.; Campos, M. L. A. M.

    This work reports on rainwater dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from Ribeirão Preto (RP) and Araraquara over a period of 3 years. The economies of these two cities, located in São Paulo state (Brazil), are based on agriculture and related industries, and the region is strongly impacted by the burning of sugar cane foliage before harvesting. Highest DOC concentrations were obtained when air masses traversed sugar cane fields burned on the same day as the rain event. Significant increases in the DOC volume weighted means (VWM) during the harvest period, for both sites, and a good linear correlation ( r = 0.83) between DOC and K (a biomass burning marker) suggest that regional scale organic carbon emissions prevail over long-range transport. The DOC VWMs and standard deviations were 272 ± 22 μmol L -1 ( n = 193) and 338 ± 40 μmol L -1 ( n = 80) for RP and Araraquara, respectively, values which are at least two times higher than those reported for other regions influenced by biomass burning, such as the Amazon. These high DOC levels are discussed in terms of agricultural activities, particularly the large usage of biogenic fuels in Brazil, as well as the analytical method used in this work, which includes volatile organic carbon when reporting DOC values. Taking into account rainfall volume, estimated annual rainwater DOC fluxes for RP (4.8 g C m -2 yr -1) and Araraquara (5.4 g C m -2 yr -1) were close to that previously found for the Amazon region (4.8 g C m -2 yr -1). This work also discusses whether previous calculations of the global rainwater carbon flux may have been underestimated, since they did not consider large inputs from biomass combustion sources, and suffered from a possible analytical bias.

  15. Biomass burning contribution to black carbon in the western United States mountain ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Mao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires are an important source to carbonaceous aerosols in the western United States (WUS. We quantify the relative contribution of biomass burning to black carbon (BC in the WUS mountain ranges by analyzing surface BC observations for 2006 from the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE network using the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Observed surface BC concentrations show broad maxima during late June to early November. Enhanced potassium concentrations and potassium/sulfur ratios observed during the high-BC events indicate a dominant biomass burning influence during the peak fire season. Model surface BC reproduces the observed day-to-day and synoptic variabilities in regions downwind of and near urban centers. Major discrepancies are found at elevated mountainous sites during the July–October when simulated BC concentrations are biased low by a factor of two. We attribute these biases largely to the underestimated and temporally misplaced biomass burning emissions of BC in the model. Additionally, we find that the biomass burning contribution to surface BC concentrations in the US likely was underestimated in a previous study using GEOS-Chem (Park et al., 2003, because of the unusually low planetary boundary layer (PBL heights and weak precipitation in the GEOS-3 meteorological reanalysis data used to drive the model. PBL heights from GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 reanalysis data are comparable to those from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR. Model simulations show improved agreements with the observations when driven by GEOS-5 reanalysis data, but model results are still biased low. The use of biomass burning emissions with diurnal cycle, synoptic variability, and plume injection has relatively small impact on the simulated surface BC concentrations in the WUS.

  16. Biomass burning contribution to black carbon in the Western United States Mountain Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Mao

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires are an important source to carbonaceous aerosols in the Western United States (WUS. We quantify the relative contribution of biomass burning to black carbon (BC in the WUS mountain ranges by analyzing surface BC observations for 2006 from the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE network using the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Observed surface BC concentrations show broad maxima during late June to early November. Enhanced potassium concentrations and potassium/sulfur ratios observed during the high-BC events indicate a dominant biomass burning influence during the peak fire season. Model surface BC reproduces the observed day-to day and synoptic variabilities in regions downwind of but near urban centers. Major discrepancies are found at elevated mountainous sites during the July-October fire season when simulated BC concentrations are biased low by a factor of two. We attribute these low biases largely to the underestimated (by more than a factor of two and temporally misplaced biomass burning emissions of BC in the model. Additionally, we find that the biomass burning contribution to surface BC concentrations in the USA likely was underestimated in a previous study using GEOS-Chem (Park et al., 2003, because of the unusually low planetary boundary layer (PBL heights in the GEOS-3 meteorological reanalysis data used to drive the model. PBL heights from GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 reanalysis data are comparable to those from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR. Model simulations show slightly improved agreements with the observations when driven by GEOS-5 reanalysis data, but model results are still biased low. The use of biomass burning emissions with diurnal cycle, synoptic variability, and plume injection has relatively small impact on the simulated surface BC concentrations in the WUS.

  17. Al4C3 Hydration Thermochemical Analysis for Burned Carbon-containing Refractories with Al

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ding'ao; YU Zhiming; FAN Liuwu

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, X-ray diffractogram analysis and SEM observation of Al4 C3 formed at high temperature from carbon-containing refractories with Al have been carried out.Aluminum added to carbon-containing refractories reacts with C(s)to form Al4 C3(s) gradually during heating from 600 ℃ to 1200℃.It is considered that the interlocked structure of Al4 C3 plate crystals promotes the outstanding increase of hot modulus of rupture of carbon-containing refractories with Al. The HMOR of carbon-containing refractories added with Al additive from 0 to 5wt% increases by 2.8 times being from 6.5MPa to 18.2MPa.After a thermochemical calculation for hydration reaction processes of Al4 C3 and H2O(g), the equilibrium partial pressure chart of H2O(g)in H2O-Al4C3-Al(OH)3 system vs various temperatures has been attained . The H2O (g) partial pressure in the air needed for the Al4 C3 hydration reaction is no more than 10~18 atm at the temperature below 120℃.It is considered that the burned carbon-containing refractories with Al is extremely easy to hydrate and the cracking of burned carbon-containing refractories is generated because that the hydration expansion is 2.11 times during transforming from Al4 C3 to Al(OH)3.The fundamental measure against hydration of the refractories is to insulate the refractories from H2O(g)by various means such as pitch impregnation or other sealing materials.

  18. Forensic aspects of carbon monoxide poisoning by charcoal burning in Denmark, 2008-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pia Rude; Gheorghe, Alexandra; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation is a well-known method of committing suicide. There has been a drastic increase in suicide by inhalation of CO, produced from burning charcoal, in some parts of Asia, and a few studies have reported an increased number of these deaths in Europe. CO-related deaths...... found in 9 cases. Data suggest that this method of death has increased significantly in Denmark. Therefore, it is highly relevant to draw attention to the subject, to increase awareness as well as prevent future escalation....

  19. Absorptivity of brown carbon in fresh and photo-chemically aged biomass-burning emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Saleh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted to investigate light absorption of organic aerosol (OA in fresh and photo-chemically aged biomass-burning emissions. The experiments considered residential hardwood fuel (oak and fuels commonly consumed in wild-land and prescribed fires in the United States (pocosin pine and gallberry. Photo-chemical aging was performed in an environmental chamber. We constrained the effective light-absorption properties of the OA using conservative limiting assumptions, and found that both primary organic aerosol (POA in the fresh emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA produced by photo-chemical aging contain brown carbon, and absorb light to a significant extent. This work presents the first direct evidence that SOA produced in aged biomass-burning emissions is absorptive. For the investigated fuels, SOA is less absorptive than POA in the long visible, but exhibits stronger wavelength-dependence and is more absorptive in the short visible and near-UV. Light absorption by SOA in biomass-burning emissions might be an important contributor to the global radiative forcing budget.

  20. Absorptivity of brown carbon in fresh and photo-chemically aged biomass-burning emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Saleh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted to investigate light absorption of organic aerosol (OA in fresh and photo-chemically aged biomass-burning emissions. The experiments considered residential hardwood fuel (oak and fuels commonly consumed in wild-land and prescribed fires in the United States (pocosin pine and gallberry. Photo-chemical aging was performed in an environmental chamber. We constrained the light-absorption properties of the OA using conservative limiting assumptions, and found that both primary organic aerosol (POA in the fresh emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA produced by photo-chemical aging absorb light to a significant extent, and are categorized as brown carbon. This work presents the first direct evidence that SOA produced in aged biomass-burning emissions is absorptive. For the investigated fuels, SOA is less absorptive than POA in the long visible, but exhibits steeper wavelength-dependence (larger Absorption Ångström Exponent and is more absorptive in the short visible and near-UV. Light absorption by SOA in biomass-burning emissions might be an important contributor to the global radiative forcing budget.

  1. Prevention of burn-on defect on surface of hydroturbine blade casting of ultra-low-carbon refining stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ling

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The burn-on sand is common surface defect encountered in CO2-cured silicate-bonded sand casting of hydroturbine blade of ultra-low-carbon martensitic stainless steel, its feature, causes and prevention measures are presented in this paper. Experiments showed that the burn-on defect is caused by oxidization of chromium in the molten steel at high temperature and can be effectively eliminated by using chromium-corundum coating.

  2. Modeling biomass burning and related carbon emissions during the 21st century in Europe

    KAUST Repository

    Migliavacca, Mirco

    2013-12-01

    In this study we present an assessment of the impact of future climate change on total fire probability, burned area, and carbon (C) emissions from fires in Europe. The analysis was performed with the Community Land Model (CLM) extended with a prognostic treatment of fires that was specifically refined and optimized for application over Europe. Simulations over the 21st century are forced by five different high-resolution Regional Climate Models under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B. Both original and bias-corrected meteorological forcings is used. Results show that the simulated C emissions over the present period are improved by using bias corrected meteorological forcing, with a reduction of the intermodel variability. In the course of the 21st century, burned area and C emissions from fires are shown to increase in Europe, in particular in the Mediterranean basins, in the Balkan regions and in Eastern Europe. However, the projected increase is lower than in other studies that did not fully account for the effect of climate on ecosystem functioning. We demonstrate that the lower sensitivity of burned area and C emissions to climate change is related to the predicted reduction of the net primary productivity, which is identified as the most important determinant of fire activity in the Mediterranean region after anthropogenic interaction. This behavior, consistent with the intermediate fire-productivity hypothesis, limits the sensitivity of future burned area and C emissions from fires on climate change, providing more conservative estimates of future fire patterns, and demonstrates the importance of coupling fire simulation with a climate driven ecosystem productivity model.

  3. Emissions of Black Carbon Particles from Biomass Burning and Their Physical and Chemical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Y.; Sahu, L.; Moteki, N.; Takegawa, N.; Zhao, Y.; Vay, S. A.; Diskin, G. S.; Wisthaler, A.; Huey, L. G.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    Large amounts of aerosol, including black carbon (BC), are emitted from biomass burning. It is therefore important to understand the chemical composition, rate of emissions, and mixing state of aerosols generated by this combustion process to estimate the impacts of aerosols on climate. Thus far, these physical and chemical quantities have been compiled by combining the data from laboratory and field experiments, but the data from the Arctic region are still very limited. These parameters were measured by an SP2 instrument based on the laser-induced incandescence technique on board the NASA DC-8 during the ARCTAS campaign. Aircraft sampling was made in plumes emitted by wildfires in Canada and the USA, and in those transported over long distances from Russia. First, we extract biomass burning plumes using CH3CN and SO2 data. Then, we derived the slopes of the CO-CO2-CH3CN-aerosol correlations for each burning plume. Based on this, we derive the average CO/CO2, CH3CN/CO2, BC/CO2, and BC/CO ratios together with their variability in the plumes strongly influenced by forest fires over Siberia, California, and Canada. A similar analysis is made for light-scattering particles. Using these relationships, the transport efficiencies of BC particles from the boundary layer to the free troposphere are also estimated. It is found that the BC particles were thickly coated upon emission. From comparison with AMS measurements, the coating materials are found to be mainly composed of organic compounds. This indicates the importance of the enhanced light absorption by BC particles emitted by biomass burning.

  4. Chemical characteristics and light-absorbing property of water-soluble organic carbon in Beijing: Biomass burning contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Caiqing; Zheng, Mei; Sullivan, Amy P.; Bosch, Carme; Desyaterik, Yury; Andersson, August; Li, Xiaoying; Guo, Xiaoshuang; Zhou, Tian; Gustafsson, Örjan; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    2015-11-01

    Emissions from biomass burning contribute significantly to water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and light-absorbing organic carbon (brown carbon). Ambient atmospheric samples were collected at an urban site in Beijing during winter and summer, along with source samples from residential crop straw burning. Carbonaceous aerosol species, including organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), WSOC and multiple saccharides as well as water-soluble potassium (K+) in PM2.5 (fine particulate matter with size less than 2.5 μm) were measured. Chemical signatures of atmospheric aerosols in Beijing during winter and summer days with significant biomass burning influence were identified. Meanwhile, light absorption by WSOC was measured and quantitatively compared to EC at ground level. The results from this study indicated that levoglucosan exhibited consistently high concentrations (209 ± 145 ng m-3) in winter. Ratios of levoglucosan/mannosan (L/M) and levoglucosan/galacosan (L/G) indicated that residential biofuel use is an important source of biomass burning aerosol in winter in Beijing. Light absorption coefficient per unit ambient WSOC mass calculated at 365 nm is approximately 1.54 ± 0.16 m2 g-1 in winter and 0.73 ± 0.15 m2 g-1 in summer. Biomass burning derived WSOC accounted for 23 ± 7% and 16 ± 7% of total WSOC mass, and contributed to 17 ± 4% and 19 ± 5% of total WSOC light absorption in winter and summer, respectively. It is noteworthy that, up to 30% of total WSOC light absorption was attributed to biomass burning in significant biomass-burning-impacted summer day. Near-surface light absorption (over the range 300-400 nm) by WSOC was about ∼40% of that by EC in winter and ∼25% in summer.

  5. Burning management in the tallgrass prairie affects root decomposition, soil food web structure and carbon flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, E. A.; Denef, K.; Milano de Tomasel, C.; Cotrufo, M. F.; Wall, D. H.

    2015-09-01

    Root litter decomposition is a major component of carbon (C) cycling in grasslands, where it provides energy and nutrients for soil microbes and fauna. This is especially important in grasslands where fire is a common management practice and removes aboveground litter accumulation. In this study, we investigated whether fire affects root decomposition and C flow through the belowground food web. In a greenhouse experiment, we applied 13C-enriched big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) root litter to intact tallgrass prairie soil cores collected from annually burned (AB) and infrequently burned (IB) treatments at the Konza Prairie Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. Incorporation of 13C into microbial phospholipid fatty acids and nematode trophic groups was measured on six occasions during a 180-day decomposition study to determine how C was translocated through the soil food web. Results showed significantly different soil communities between treatments and higher microbial abundance for IB. Root decomposition occurred rapidly and was significantly greater for AB. Microbes and their nematode consumers immediately assimilated root litter C in both treatments. Root litter C was preferentially incorporated in a few groups of microbes and nematodes, but depended on burn treatment: fungi, Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and fungivore nematodes for AB and only omnivore nematodes for IB. The overall microbial pool of root litter-derived C significantly increased over time but was not significantly different between burn treatments. The nematode pool of root litter-derived C also significantly increased over time, and was significantly higher for the AB treatment at 35 and 90 days after litter addition. In conclusion, the C flow from root litter to microbes to nematodes is not only measurable, but significant, indicating that higher nematode trophic levels are critical components of C flow during root decomposition which, in turn, is significantly

  6. Biomass burning losses of carbon estimated from ecosystem modeling and satellite data analysis for the Brazilian Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher; Brooks Genovese, Vanessa; Klooster, Steven; Bobo, Matthew; Torregrosa, Alicia

    To produce a new daily record of gross carbon emissions from biomass burning events and post-burning decomposition fluxes in the states of the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE), 1991. Anuario Estatistico do Brasil, Vol. 51. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil pp. 1-1024). We have used vegetation greenness estimates from satellite images as inputs to a terrestrial ecosystem production model. This carbon allocation model generates new estimates of regional aboveground vegetation biomass at 8-km resolution. The modeled biomass product is then combined for the first time with fire pixel counts from the advanced very high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) to overlay regional burning activities in the Amazon. Results from our analysis indicate that carbon emission estimates from annual region-wide sources of deforestation and biomass burning in the early 1990s are apparently three to five times higher than reported in previous studies for the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Houghton et al., 2000. Nature 403, 301-304; Fearnside, 1997. Climatic Change 35, 321-360), i.e., studies which implied that the Legal Amazon region tends toward a net-zero annual source of terrestrial carbon. In contrast, our analysis implies that the total source fluxes over the entire Legal Amazon region range from 0.2 to 1.2 Pg C yr -1, depending strongly on annual rainfall patterns. The reasons for our higher burning emission estimates are (1) use of combustion fractions typically measured during Amazon forest burning events for computing carbon losses, (2) more detailed geographic distribution of vegetation biomass and daily fire activity for the region, and (3) inclusion of fire effects in extensive areas of the Legal Amazon covered by open woodland, secondary forests, savanna, and pasture vegetation. The total area of rainforest estimated annually to be deforested did not differ substantially among the previous analyses cited and our own.

  7. Carbon Danganese Furnace Burning Serious New%新开碳锰炉炉底严重烧损处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施永生

    2016-01-01

    随着铁合金电炉大型化,新开高碳锰铁电炉炉底烧损现象将给企业带来很大损失。结合9000 kV·A和16500 kV·A电炉的炉底烧损情况,分析了炉底烧损的原因,对炉底积碳和积铁的处理情况进行了阐述。%With the large-scale electric furnace ferroalloy, new high carbon ferromanganese furnace hearth burning phenomenon will bring great loss to the enterprises. Combined with the 9 000 kV·A and 16 500 kV·A, a furnace hearth burning situation, analysis the hearth burning, on the bottom of the carbon deposition and product processing of iron are described.

  8. Use of levoglucosan, potassium, and water-soluble organic carbon to characterize the origins of biomass-burning aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Roberta Cerasi; Lima-Souza, Michele; Caetano-Silva, Letícia; Queiroz, Maria Eugênia C.; Nogueira, Raquel F. P.; Allen, Andrew G.; Cardoso, Arnaldo A.; Held, Gerhard; Campos, Maria Lucia A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Three chemical species related to biomass burning, levoglucosan, potassium and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), were measured in aerosol samples collected in a rural area on the outskirts of the municipality of Ourinhos (São Paulo State, Brazil). This region is representative of the rural interior of the State, where the economy is based on agro-industrial production, and the most important crop is sugar cane. The manual harvesting process requires that the cane be first burned to remove excess foliage, leading to large emissions of particulate materials to the atmosphere. Most of the levoglucosan (68-89%) was present in small particles (fertilizers. When only the fine particles (<1.5 μm; typical of biomass burning) were considered, the linear coefficient increased to 0.91 (n = 9). In this case, the average levoglucosan/K+ ratio was 0.24, which may be typical of biomass burning in the study region. This ratio is about 5 times lower than that previously found for Amazon aerosol collected during the day, when flaming combustion prevails. This suggests that the levoglucosan/K+ ratio may be especially helpful for characterization of the type of vegetation burned (such as crops or forest), when biomass-burning is the dominant source of potassium. The relatively high concentrations of WSOC (and inorganic ions) suggest an important influence on the formation of cloud condensation nuclei, which is likely to affect cloud formation and precipitation patterns.

  9. Carbon content of Amazon forest biomass and changes after burning; Conteudo de carbono na biomassa florestal da Amazonia e alteracoes apos a queima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graca, Paulo Mauricio Lima de Alencastro

    1997-04-01

    The carbon contained in the various types of vegetation in the Brazilian legal Amazon was estimated in 80 Pg, based on data from the literature. Transformations of biomass caused by burning took place in an open forest located in Nova Vida Ranch, Arquimedes, Roraima state. The direct and indirect method to estimate the biomass and charcoal after burning were compared and correlation coefficients are presented. Based on combustion efficiency from the above mentioned location and other localities in the Amazon, the carbon released upon burning was calculated. The annual contribution of carbon emitted to the atmosphere was also calculated and presented 119 refs., 18 figs., 16 tabs.

  10. Inferring brown carbon content from UV aerosol absorption measurements during biomass burning season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Arola, A. T.; Torres, O.; Jethva, H. T.; Andrade, M.; Labow, G. J.; Eck, T. F.; Li, Z.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stenchikov, G. L.; Osipov, S.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring spectral dependence of light absorption by colored organic or "brown" carbon (BrC) is important, because of its effects on photolysis rates of ozone and surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Enhanced UV spectral absorption by BrC can in turn be exploited for simultaneous retrievals of BrC and black carbon (BC) column amounts in field campaigns. We present an innovative ground-based retrieval of BC and BrC volume fractions and their mass absorption efficiencies during the biomass burning season in Santa Cruz, Bolivia in September-October 2007. Our method combines retrieval of BC volume fraction using AERONET inversion in visible wavelengths with the inversion of total BC+BrC absorption (i.e., column effective imaginary refractive index, kmeas) using Diffuse/Direct irradiance measurements in UV wavelengths. First, we retrieve BrC volume fraction by fitting kmeas at 368nm using Maxwell-Garnett (MG) mixing rules assuming: (1) flat spectral dependence of kBC, (2) known value of kBrC at 368nm from laboratory absorption measurements or smoke chamber experiments, and (3) known BC volume fraction from AERONET inversion. Next, we derive kBrC in short UVB wavelengths by fitting kmeas at 305nm, 311nm, 317nm, 325nm, and 332nm using MG mixing rules and fixed volume fractions of BC and BrC. Our retrievals show larger than expected spectral dependence of kBrC in UVB wavelengths, implying reduced surface UVB irradiance and inhibited photolysis rates of surface ozone destruction. We use a one-dimensional chemical box model to show that the observed strong wavelength dependence of BrC absorption leads to inhibited photolysis of ozone to O(1D), a loss mechanism, while having little impact or even accelerating photolysis of NO2, an ozone production mechanism. Although BC only absorption in biomass burning aerosols is important for climate radiative forcing in the visible wavelengths, additional absorption by BrC is important because of its impact on surface UVB radiation

  11. Climate vs. carbon dioxide controls on biomass burning: a model analysis of the glacial-interglacial contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martin Calvo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate controls fire regimes through its influence on the amount and types of fuel present and their dryness; CO2 availability, in turn, constrains primary production by limiting photosynthetic activity in plants. However, although fuel accumulation depends on biomass production, and hence CO2 availability, the links between atmospheric CO2 and biomass burning are not well known. Here a fire-enabled dynamic global vegetation model (the Land surface Processes and eXchanges model, LPX is used to attribute glacial-interglacial changes in biomass burning to CO2 increase, which would be expected to increase primary production and therefore fuel loads even in the absence of climate change, vs. climate change effects. Four general circulation models provided Last Glacial Maximum (LGM climate anomalies – that is, differences from the pre-industrial (PI control climate – from the Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project Phase 2, allowing the construction of four scenarios for LGM climate. Modelled carbon fluxes in biomass burning were corrected for the model's observed biases in contemporary biome-average values. With LGM climate and low CO2 (185 ppm effects included, the modelled global flux was 70 to 80% lower at the LGM than in PI time. LGM climate with pre-industrial CO2 (280 ppm however yielded unrealistic results, with global and Northern Hemisphere biomass burning fluxes greater than in the pre-industrial climate. Using the PI CO2 concentration increased the modelled LGM biomass burning fluxes for all climate models and latitudinal bands to between four and ten times their values under LGM CO2 concentration. It is inferred that a substantial part of the increase in biomass burning after the LGM must be attributed to the effect of increasing CO2 concentration on productivity and fuel load. Today, by analogy, both rising CO2 and global warming must be considered as risk factors for increasing biomass burning. Both effects need to be

  12. Prevention of burn-on defect on surface of hydroturbine blade casting of ultra-low-carbon refining stainless steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ling; Xie Huasheng; Huang Danzhong; Li Hankun; Tan Rui; Zhou Jingyi

    2008-01-01

    The burn-on sand is common surface defect encountered in CO2-cured silicate-bonded sand casting of hydroturbine blade of ultra-low-carbon martensitic stainless steel, its feature, causes and prevention measures are presented in this paper. Experiments showed that the bum-on defect is caused by oxidization of chromium in the molten steel at high temperature and can be effectively eliminated by using chromium-corundum coating.

  13. Atmospheric black carbon deposition and characterization of biomass burning tracers in a northern temperate forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, F.; Fraser, M. P.; Bird, J. A.

    2014-10-01

    Aerosol black carbon (BC) is considered the second largest contributor to global warming after CO2, and is known to increase the atmosphere's temperature, decrease the albedo in snow/ice, and influence the properties and distribution of clouds. BC is thought to have a long mean residence time in soils, and its apparent stability may represent a significant stable sink for atmospheric CO2. Despite recent efforts to quantify BC in the environment, the quantification of BC deposition rates from the atmosphere to terrestrial ecosystems remains scarse. To better understand the contribution of atmospheric BC inputs to soils via dry deposition and its dominant emission sources, atmospheric fine particle (PM2.5) were collected at the University of Michigan Biological Station from July to September in 2010 and 2011. PM2.5 samples were analyzed for organic C, BC, and molecular markers including particulate sugars, carboxylic acids, n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and cholestane. Average atmospheric BC concentrations in northern Michigan were 0.048 ± 0.06 μg m-3 in summer 2010, and 0.049 ± 0.064 μg m-3 in summer 2011. Based on atmospheric concentrations, particulate deposition calculations, and documented soil BC, we conclude that atmospheric deposition is unlikely to comprise a significant input pathway for BC in northern forest ecosystem. The major organic tracers identified in fine particulates (e.g. levoglucosan and docosanoic acid) suggest that ambient PM2.5 concentrations were mainly influenced by biomass burning and epicuticular plant waxes. These results provide baseline data needed for future assessments of atmospheric BC in rural temperate forests.

  14. Impacts of brown carbon from biomass burning on surface UV and ozone photochemistry in the Amazon Basin

    KAUST Repository

    Mok, Jungbin

    2016-11-11

    The spectral dependence of light absorption by atmospheric particulate matter has major implications for air quality and climate forcing, but remains uncertain especially in tropical areas with extensive biomass burning. In the September-October 2007 biomass-burning season in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, we studied light absorbing (chromophoric) organic or “brown” carbon (BrC) with surface and space-based remote sensing. We found that BrC has negligible absorption at visible wavelengths, but significant absorption and strong spectral dependence at UV wavelengths. Using the ground-based inversion of column effective imaginary refractive index in the range 305–368 nm, we quantified a strong spectral dependence of absorption by BrC in the UV and diminished ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation reaching the surface. Reduced UV-B means less erythema, plant damage, and slower photolysis rates. We use a photochemical box model to show that relative to black carbon (BC) alone, the combined optical properties of BrC and BC slow the net rate of production of ozone by up to 18% and lead to reduced concentrations of radicals OH, HO2, and RO2 by up to 17%, 15%, and 14%, respectively. The optical properties of BrC aerosol change in subtle ways the generally adverse effects of smoke from biomass burning.

  15. Impacts of brown carbon from biomass burning on surface UV and ozone photochemistry in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Jungbin; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Arola, Antti; Torres, Omar; Jethva, Hiren; Andrade, Marcos; Labow, Gordon; Eck, Thomas F.; Li, Zhanqing; Dickerson, Russell R.; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Osipov, Sergey; Ren, Xinrong

    2016-11-01

    The spectral dependence of light absorption by atmospheric particulate matter has major implications for air quality and climate forcing, but remains uncertain especially in tropical areas with extensive biomass burning. In the September-October 2007 biomass-burning season in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, we studied light absorbing (chromophoric) organic or “brown” carbon (BrC) with surface and space-based remote sensing. We found that BrC has negligible absorption at visible wavelengths, but significant absorption and strong spectral dependence at UV wavelengths. Using the ground-based inversion of column effective imaginary refractive index in the range 305–368 nm, we quantified a strong spectral dependence of absorption by BrC in the UV and diminished ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation reaching the surface. Reduced UV-B means less erythema, plant damage, and slower photolysis rates. We use a photochemical box model to show that relative to black carbon (BC) alone, the combined optical properties of BrC and BC slow the net rate of production of ozone by up to 18% and lead to reduced concentrations of radicals OH, HO2, and RO2 by up to 17%, 15%, and 14%, respectively. The optical properties of BrC aerosol change in subtle ways the generally adverse effects of smoke from biomass burning.

  16. After the Burn: Forest Carbon Stocks and Fluxes across fire disturbed landscapes in Colorado, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, R. T.; Buma, B.; Wolf, K.; Elwood, K. K.; Fehsenfeld, T.; Kehlenbeck, M.

    2015-12-01

    In terrestrial ecosystems, ecological disturbances can strongly regulate material and energy flows. This often results from the reduction in biomass and associated ecological relationships and physiological processes. Researchers have noted an increase in the size and severity of disturbances, such as wildfire, in recent decades. While there is significant research examining post-disturbance carbon stocks and recovery, there is less known about the fate and quality of post-disturbance carbon pools. In an effort to understand the recovery and resilience of forest carbon stocks to severe wildfire we examined the carbon and black carbon (pyrogenic) stocks (e.g. above ground biomass, coarse woody debris, charcoal, soils) and export fluxes (stream export, soil respiration) within the burn scars of three Colorado fires (Hayman in 2002, Hinman in 2002, and Waldo Canyon in 2012) and compared them to nearby unburned forested ecosystems. The Hayman and Hinman fire comparison allows us to quantify differences between fire impacts in Ponderosa-Douglas Fir (montane) and Spruce-Fir (subalpine) ecosystems, while the Hayman and Waldo Canyon comparison gives us insights into how recovery time influences carbon biogeochemistry in these systems. We will present preliminary data comparing and relating terrestrial carbon and black carbon stocks, soil respiration rates, and watershed export fluxes.

  17. LandCarbon Conterminous United States Burned Area and Severity Mosaics 2001-2050 Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The burn area and severity data were stochastically generated using a probabilistic ignition model and mechanistic fire-spread model. The ignition model consisted of...

  18. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS AND ISHIKAWA DIAGRAM FOR BURN ON EFFECT ON MANGANESE SILICON ALLOY MEDIUM CARBON STEEL SHAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AsmamawTegegne

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Burn on/metal penetration is one of the surface defects of metal castings in general and steel castings in particular. A research on the effect of burn on the six ton medium carbon steel shaft for making a roller of cold rolled steel sheet produced at one of the metals industry was carried out. The shaft was cast using sand casting by pouring through riser/feeding head step by step (with time interval of pouring. As it was required to use foam casting method for better surface finish and dimensional accuracy of the cast, the pattern was prepared from polystyrene and embedded by silica sand. Physical observations, photographic analysis, visual inspection, measurement of depth of penetration and fish bone diagram were used as method of results analysis. The shaft produced has strongly affected by sand sintering (burn on/metal penetration. Many reasons may be the case for these defects, however analysis results showed that the use of poorly designed gating system led to turbulence flow, uncontrollable high temperature fused the silica sand and liquid polystyrene penetrated the poorly reclaimed and rammed sand mold as a result of which eroded sand has penetrated the liquid metal deeply and reacted with it, consequently after solidification and finishing the required 240mm diameter of the shaft has reduced un evenly to 133mm minimum and 229mm maximum mm that end in the rejection of the shaft from the product since it is below the required standard for the designed application. In addition, it was not possible to remove the adhered sand by grinding. Thus burn on is included in mechanical type burn on.

  19. Impacts of Frequent Burning on Live Tree Carbon Biomass and Demography in Post-Harvest Regrowth Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Collins

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The management of forest ecosystems to increase carbon storage is a global concern. Fire frequency has the potential to shift considerably in the future. These shifts may alter demographic processes and growth of tree species, and consequently carbon storage in forests. Examination of the sensitivity of forest carbon to the potential upper and lower extremes of fire frequency will provide crucial insight into the magnitude of possible change in carbon stocks associated with shifts in fire frequency. This study examines how tree biomass and demography of a eucalypt forest regenerating after harvest is affected by two experimentally manipulated extremes in fire frequency (i.e., ~3 year fire intervals vs. unburnt sustained over a 23 year period. The rate of post-harvest biomass recovery of overstorey tree species, which constituted ~90% of total living tree biomass, was lower within frequently burnt plots than unburnt plots, resulting in approximately 20% lower biomass in frequently burnt plots by the end of the study. Significant differences in carbon biomass between the two extremes in frequency were only evident after >15–20 years of sustained treatment. Reduced growth rates and survivorship of smaller trees on the frequently burnt plots compared to unburnt plots appeared to be driving these patterns. The biomass of understorey trees, which constituted ~10% of total living tree biomass, was not affected by frequent burning. These findings suggest that future shifts toward more frequent fire will potentially result in considerable reductions in carbon sequestration across temperate forest ecosystems in Australia.

  20. Anthropogenic, biomass burning, and volcanic emissions of black carbon, organic carbon, and SO2 from 1980 to 2010 for hindcast model experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Streets

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Two historical emission inventories of black carbon (BC, primary organic carbon (OC, and SO2 emissions from land-based anthropogenic sources, ocean-going vessels, air traffic, biomass burning, and volcanoes are presented and discussed for the period 1980–2010. These gridded inventories are provided to the internationally coordinated AeroCom Phase II multi-model hindcast experiments. The horizontal resolution is 0.5°×0.5° and 1.0°×1.0°, while the temporal resolution varies from daily for volcanoes to monthly for biomass burning and aircraft emissions, and annual averages for land-based and ship emissions. One inventory is based on inter-annually varying activity rates of land-based anthropogenic emissions and shows strong variability within a decade, while the other one is derived from interpolation between decadal endpoints and thus exhibits linear trends within a decade. Both datasets capture the major trends of decreasing anthropogenic emissions over the USA and Western Europe since 1980, a sharp decrease around 1990 over Eastern Europe and the former USSR, and a steep increase after 2000 over East and South Asia. The inventory differences for the combined anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions in the year 2005 are 34% for BC, 46% for OC, and 13% for SO2. They vary strongly depending on species, year and region, from about 10% to 40% in most cases, but in some cases the inventories differ by 100% or more. Differences in emissions from wild-land fires are caused only by different choices of the emission factors for years after 1996 which vary by a factor of about 1 to 2 for OC depending on region, and by a combination of emission factors and the amount of dry mass burned for years up to 1996. Volcanic SO2 emissions, which are only provided in one inventory, include emissions from explosive, effusive, and quiescent degassing events for 1167 volcanoes.

  1. Towards multi-tracer data-assimilation: biomass burning and carbon isotope exchange in SiBCASA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. van der Velde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an enhanced version of the SiBCASA photosynthetic/biogeochemical model for a future integration with a multi-tracer data-assimilation system. We extended the model with (a biomass burning emissions from the SiBCASA carbon pools using remotely sensed burned area from Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED version 3.1, (b a new set of 13C pools that cycle consistently through the biosphere, and (c, a modified isotopic discrimination scheme to estimate variations in 13C exchange as a~response to stomatal conductance. Previous studies suggest that the observed variations of atmospheric 13C/12C are driven by processes specifically in the terrestrial biosphere rather than in the oceans. Therefore, we quantify in this study the terrestrial exchange of CO2 and 13CO2 as a function of environmental changes in humidity and biomass burning. Based on an assessment of observed respiration signatures we conclude that SiBCASA does well in simulating global to regional plant discrimination. The global mean discrimination value is 15.2‰, and ranges between 4 and 20‰ depending on the regional plant phenology. The biomass burning emissions (annually and seasonally compare favorably to other published values. However, the observed short-term changes in discrimination and the respiration 13C signature are more difficult to capture. We see a too weak drought response in SiBCASA and too slow return of anomalies in respiration. We demonstrate possible ways to improve this, and discuss the implications for our current capacity to interpret atmospheric 13C observations.

  2. The application of FORMOSAT-2 high-temporal- and high-spatial resolution imagery for monitoring open straw burning and carbon emission detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice is produced in more than 95 countries worldwide and is a staple food for over half of the world's population. Rice is also a major food crop of Taiwan. There are numerous rice crops planted on the western plains of Taiwan, and, after the harvest season, the left-over straw is often burned on-site. The air pollutants from the burning emissions include CO2, CO, CH4 and other suspended particles, most of these being the greenhouse gases which cause global climate change. In this study FORMOSAT-2 satellite images and ground-truth data from 2008 and 2009 are used to conduct supervised classification and calculate the extent of the straw burning areas. It was found that 10% of the paddies in the study area were burned after harvest during this 2-yr period. On this pro rata basis, we calculated the overall carbon emissions from the burning of the straw. The findings showed that these few farmers produced up to 34 000 tons of carbon emissions in 2008, and 40 000 tons in 2009. The study results indicate that remotely sensed images can be used to efficiently evaluate the important characteristics for carbon emission detection. It also provides quantitative results that are relevant to tracking sources of transport pollution, postharvest burning, and Asian dust in Taiwan.

  3. The application of FORMOSAT-2 high-temporal- and high-spatial resolution imagery for monitoring open straw burning and carbon emission detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.-C.; Tseng, P.-Y.; Chen, C.-Y.

    2013-03-01

    Rice is produced in more than 95 countries worldwide and is a staple food for over half of the world's population. Rice is also a major food crop of Taiwan. There are numerous rice crops planted on the western plains of Taiwan, and, after the harvest season, the left-over straw is often burned on-site. The air pollutants from the burning emissions include CO2, CO, CH4 and other suspended particles, most of these being the greenhouse gases which cause global climate change. In this study FORMOSAT-2 satellite images and ground-truth data from 2008 and 2009 are used to conduct supervised classification and calculate the extent of the straw burning areas. It was found that 10% of the paddies in the study area were burned after harvest during this 2-yr period. On this pro rata basis, we calculated the overall carbon emissions from the burning of the straw. The findings showed that these few farmers produced up to 34 000 tons of carbon emissions in 2008, and 40 000 tons in 2009. The study results indicate that remotely sensed images can be used to efficiently evaluate the important characteristics for carbon emission detection. It also provides quantitative results that are relevant to tracking sources of transport pollution, postharvest burning, and Asian dust in Taiwan.

  4. Facile fabrication of large-scale stable superhydrophobic surfaces with carbon sphere films by burning rapeseed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Mengnan; He, Jinmei; Cao, Biyun

    2010-10-01

    Stable anti-corrosive superhydrophobic surfaces were successfully prepared with the carbon nanosphere films by means of depositing the soot of burning rapeseed oil. The method is extremely cheap, facile, time-saving and avoided any of the special equipments, special reagents and complex process control. The method is suitable for the large-scale preparation of superhydrophobic surface and the substrate can be easily changed. The as-prepared surfaces showed stable superhydrophobicity and anti-corrosive property even in many corrosive solutions, such as acidic or basic solutions over a wide pH range. The as-prepared superhydrophobic surface was carefully characterized by the field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope to confirm the synergistic binary geometric structures at micro- and nanometer scale. This result will open a new avenue in the superhydrophobic paint research with these easily obtained carbon nanospheres in the near future.

  5. The Great African Plume from biomass burning: Generalizations from a three-dimensional study of TRACE A carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, R. B.; Vastano, J. A.; Li, L.; Sachse, G. W.; Connors, V. S.

    1998-11-01

    The "Great African Plume" flows westward from a wind divergence line over Central Africa to pollute the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. The plume arises from agricultural burning fumes which mix in a 3-4 km deep boundary layer over Africa, then override cooler rainforest air, and finally swerve westward, where their progress into the Atlantic is "gated" by southern storm systems. Another prominent elevated "Global Burning Plume" from Tropical South America flows past South Africa above 8 km altitude. Joining elevated African plumes, it influences the South Indian and Southern Oceans. These are results from our GRACES (Global Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Event Simulator), which was used to study carbon monoxide during an intensive experimental period, September-October 1992. Traces of the plumes are also evident in observations of CO in the Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) samples of October, 1994, suggesting a general phenomena. To arrive at these conclusions, we used the detailed weather reconstructions afforded by MM5 meteorological model dynamics to drive GRACES. Both statistical and detailed (event) comparisons of CO and observed aboard the NASA DC-8 are good, especially <6 km altitude. The following model adaptations that we required may inform global analysis and global models: (1) Parameterized vertical transport like planetary boundary layer convection and deep cumulonimbus convection strongly control CO, allowing far more precision than trajectory studies and models using only large-scale motions. (2) CO sources during this period were consistent with the Hao and Liu [1994] report-based carbon-burn rates; (3) deep convection is even more active than as parameterized by MM5's Grell-scheme: on the large scale: mass fluxes effective for CO redistribution may be over twice core-updraft values diagnosed strengths.

  6. Burn Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Burn Pits Burn Pits Registry Studies Photo: U.S. Department ... the health of deployed Veterans. Health effects from burn pit smoke Toxins in burn pit smoke may ...

  7. Burn Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Now Help keep local seniors safe from fire! Burn Survivor Support If you are reading this, chances ... year – a burn injury. Learn more Fire and Burn Prevention Each year, the Burn Institute provides fire ...

  8. Effects of biomass burning on climate, accounting for heat and moisture fluxes, black and brown carbon, and cloud absorption effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2014-07-01

    This paper examines the effects on climate and air pollution of open biomass burning (BB) when heat and moisture fluxes, gases and aerosols (including black and brown carbon, tar balls, and reflective particles), cloud absorption effects (CAEs) I and II, and aerosol semidirect and indirect effects on clouds are treated. It also examines the climate impacts of most anthropogenic heat and moisture fluxes (AHFs and AMFs). Transient 20 year simulations indicate BB may cause a net global warming of ~0.4 K because CAE I (~32% of BB warming), CAE II, semidirect effects, AHFs (~7%), AMFs, and aerosol absorption outweigh direct aerosol cooling and indirect effects, contrary to previous BB studies that did not treat CAEs, AHFs, AMFs, or brown carbon. Some BB warming can be understood in terms of the anticorrelation between instantaneous direct radiative forcing (DRF) changes and surface temperature changes in clouds containing absorbing aerosols. BB may cause ~250,000 (73,000-435,000) premature mortalities/yr, with >90% from particles. AHFs from all sources and AMFs + AHFs from power plants and electricity use each may cause a statistically significant +0.03 K global warming. Solar plus thermal-IR DRFs were +0.033 (+0.027) W/m2 for all AHFs globally without (with) evaporating cooling water, +0.009 W/m2 for AMFs globally, +0.52 W/m2 (94.3% solar) for all-source BC outside of clouds plus interstitially between cloud drops at the cloud relative humidity, and +0.06 W/m2 (99.7% solar) for BC inclusions in cloud hydrometeor particles. Modeled post-1850 biomass, biofuel, and fossil fuel burning, AHFs, AMFs, and urban surfaces accounted for most observed global warming.

  9. Determination of wood burning and fossil fuel contribution of black carbon at Delhi, India using aerosol light absorption technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S; Pipal, A S; Srivastava, A K; Bisht, D S; Pandithurai, G

    2015-02-01

    A comprehensive measurement program of effective black carbon (eBC), fine particle (PM2.5), and carbon monoxide (CO) was undertaken during 1 December 2011 to 31 March 2012 (winter period) in Delhi, India. The mean mass concentrations of eBC, PM2.5, and CO were recorded as 12.1 ± 8.7 μg/m(3), 182.75 ± 114.5 μg/m(3), and 3.41 ± 1.6 ppm, respectively, during the study period. Also, the absorption Angstrom exponent (AAE) was estimated from eBC and varied from 0.38 to 1.29 with a mean value of 1.09 ± 0.11. The frequency of occurrence of AAE was ~17 % less than unity whereas ~83 % greater than unity was observed during the winter period in Delhi. The mass concentrations of eBC were found to be higher by ~34 % of the average value of eBC (12.1 μg/m(3)) during the study period. Sources of eBC were estimated, and they were ~94 % from fossil fuel (eBCff) combustion whereas only 6 % was from wood burning (eBCwb). The ratio between eBCff and eBCwb was 15, which indicates a higher impact from fossil fuels compared to biomass burning. When comparing eBCff during day and night, a factor of three higher concentrations was observed in nighttime than daytime, and it is due to combustion of fossil fuel (diesel vehicle emission) and shallow boundary layer conditions. The contribution of eBCwb in eBC was higher between 1800 and 2100 hours due to burning of wood/biomass. A significant correlation between eBC and PM2.5 (r = 0.78) and eBC and CO (r = 0.46) indicates the similarity in location sources. The mass concentration of eBC was highest (23.4 μg/m(3)) during the month of December when the mean visibility (VIS) was lowest (1.31 km). Regression analysis among wind speed (WS), VIS, soot particles, and CO was studied, and significant negative relationships were seen between VIS and eBC (-0.65), eBCff (-0.66), eBCwb (-0.34), and CO (-0.65); however, between WS and eBC (-0.68), eBCff (-0.67), eBCwb (-0.28), and CO (-0.53). The regression analysis indicated

  10. Only small changes in soil organic carbon and charcoal concentrations found one year after experimental slash-and-burn in a temperate deciduous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Eckmeier

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic fires affected the temperate deciduous forests of Central Europe over millennia. Biomass burning releases carbon to the atmosphere and produces charcoal, which potentially contributes to the stable soil carbon pools and is an important archive of environmental history. The fate of charcoal in soils of temperate deciduous forests, i.e. the processes of charcoal incorporation and transportation, and the effects on soil organic matter are still not clear. In a long-term experimental burning site, we investigated the effects of slash-and-burn and determined soil organic carbon, charcoal carbon and nitrogen concentrations and the soil lightness of colour (L* in the topmost soil material (0–1, 1–2.5 and 2.5–5 cm depths before, immediately after the fire and one year after burning. The main results are that (i only few charcoal particles from the forest floor were incorporated into the soil matrix by soil mixing animals. In 0–1 cm and during one year, the charcoal C concentrations increased only by 0.4 g kg−1 and the proportion of charcoal C to SOC concentrations increased from 2.8 to 3.4%; (ii the SOC concentrations did not show any significant differences; (iii soil lightness significantly decreased in the topmost soil layer and correlated with the concentrations of charcoal C (r=-0.87** and SOC (r=−0.94** in samples 0–5 cm. We concluded that the soil colour depends on the proportion of aromatic charcoal carbon in total organic matter and that Holocene burning could have influenced soil charcoal concentrations and soil colour.

  11. Only small changes in soil organic carbon and charcoal concentrations found one year after experimental slash-and-burn in a temperate deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmeier, E.; Gerlach, R.; Skjemstad, J. O.; Ehrmann, O.; Schmidt, M. W. I.

    2007-02-01

    Anthropogenic fires affected the temperate deciduous forests of Central Europe over millennia. Biomass burning releases carbon to the atmosphere and produces charcoal, which potentially contributes to the stable soil carbon pools and is an important archive of environmental history. The fate of charcoal in soils of temperate deciduous forests, i.e. the processes of charcoal incorporation and transportation, and the effects on soil organic matter are still not clear. In a long-term experimental burning site, we investigated the effects of slash-and-burn and determined soil organic carbon, charcoal carbon and nitrogen concentrations and the soil lightness of colour (L*) in the topmost soil material (0-1, 1-2.5 and 2.5-5 cm depths) before, immediately after the fire and one year after burning. The main results are that (i) only few charcoal particles from the forest floor were incorporated into the soil matrix by soil mixing animals. In 0-1 cm and during one year, the charcoal C concentrations increased only by 0.4 g kg-1 and the proportion of charcoal C to SOC concentrations increased from 2.8 to 3.4%; (ii) the SOC concentrations did not show any significant differences; (iii) soil lightness significantly decreased in the topmost soil layer and correlated with the concentrations of charcoal C (r=-0.87**) and SOC (r=-0.94**) in samples 0-5 cm. We concluded that the soil colour depends on the proportion of aromatic charcoal carbon in total organic matter and that Holocene burning could have influenced soil charcoal concentrations and soil colour.

  12. Carbon Detonation and Shock-Triggered Helium Burning in Neutron Star Superbursts

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberg, Nevin N

    2007-01-01

    The strong degeneracy of the 12C ignition layer on an accreting neutron star results in a hydrodynamic thermonuclear runaway, in which the nuclear heating time becomes shorter than the local dynamical time. We model the resulting combustion wave during these superbursts as an upward propagating detonation. We solve the reactive fluid flow and show that the detonation propagates through the deepest layers of fuel and drives a shock wave that steepens as it travels upward into lower density material. The shock is sufficiently strong upon reaching the freshly accreted H/He layer that it triggers unstable 4He burning if the superburst occurs during the latter half of the regular Type I bursting cycle; this is likely the origin of the bright Type I precursor bursts observed at the onset of superbursts. The cooling of the outermost shock-heated layers produces a bright, ~0.1s, flash that precedes the Type I burst by a few seconds; this may be the origin of the spike seen at the burst onset in 4U 1820-30 and 4U 1636...

  13. Critical Size for the Particle Burn-out of Solid Carbon and/or Boron as the High-Energy Density Fuel

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    It is intended to demonstrate an existence of the critical size for the particle burn-out, exposed directly to oxidizers at high temperatures under which oxide vaporization can be facilitated, with the solid carbon taken as an example, under recognition that particles considered are too small to support a gas-phase envelop-flame even at elevated temperatures. After describing the temporal variations of the particle temperature and size, use has been made of the asymptotics to derive the gover...

  14. Minor changes in soil organic carbon and charcoal concentrations detected in a temperate deciduous forest a year after an experimental slash-and-burn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmeier, E.; Gerlach, R.; Skjemstad, J. O.; Ehrmann, O.; Schmidt, M. W. I.

    2007-06-01

    Anthropogenic fires affected the temperate deciduous forests of Central Europe over millennia. Biomass burning releases carbon to the atmosphere and produces charcoal, which potentially contributes to the stable soil carbon pools and is an important archive of environmental history. The fate of charcoal in soils of temperate deciduous forests, i.e. the processes of charcoal incorporation and transportation and the effects on soil organic matter are still not clear. We investigated the effects of slash-and-burn at a long-term experimental burning site and determined soil organic carbon and charcoal carbon concentrations as well as the soil lightness of colour (L*) in the topmost soil material (0-1, 1-2.5 and 2.5-5 cm depths) before, immediately after the fire and one year later. The main results are that (i) only a few of the charcoal particles from the forest floor were incorporated into the soil matrix, presumably by soil mixing animals. In the 0-1 cm layer, during one year, the charcoal C concentration increased only by 0.4 g kg-1 and the proportion of charcoal C to SOC concentration increased from 2.8 to 3.4%; (ii) the SOC concentrations did not show any significant differences; (iii) soil lightness decreased significantly in the topmost soil layer and correlated well with the concentrations of charcoal C (r=-0.87**) and SOC (r=-0.94**) in the samples from the 0-5 cm layer. We concluded that Holocene biomass burning could have influenced soil charcoal concentrations and soil colour.

  15. Pyrogenic carbon from tropical savanna burning: production and stable isotope composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Saiz

    2014-10-01

    C4 grasses ranging from 35 to 99% of total biomass. Residues from each fire were partitioned into PyC and further into recalcitrant (HyPyC components, with each of these also partitioned into proximal (> 125 μm and distal (13C compositions of PyC and HyPyC were generally lower by 1–3‰ relative to the original biomass, with marked depletion up to 7 ‰ for grasslands dominated by C4 biomass. δ13C values of CO2 produced by combustion was computed by mass balance and ranged from ~0.4 to 1.3‰. The depletion of 13C in PyC and HyPyC relative to the original biomass has significant implications for the interpretation of δ13C values of savanna soil organic carbon and of ancient PyC preserved in the geologic record, and for global 13C isotopic disequilibria calculations.

  16. Diurnal variations of organic molecular tracers and stable carbon isotopic composition in atmospheric aerosols over Mt. Tai in the North China Plain: an influence of biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Q. Fu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic tracer compounds, as well as organic carbon (OC, elemental carbon (EC, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, and stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C of total carbon (TC have been investigated in aerosol samples collected during early and late periods of the Mount Tai eXperiment 2006 (MTX2006 field campaign in the North China Plain. Total solvent-extractable fractions were investigated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. More than 130 organic compounds were detected in the aerosol samples. They were grouped into twelve organic compound classes, including biomass burning tracers, biogenic primary sugars, biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA tracers, and anthropogenic tracers such as phthalates, hopanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. In early June when the field burning activities of wheat straws in the North China Plain were very active, the total identified organics (2090 ± 1170 ng m−3 were double those in late June (926 ± 574 ng m−3. All the compound classes were more abundant in early June than in late June, except phthalate esters, which were higher in late June. Levoglucosan (88–1210 ng m−3, mean 403 ng m−3 was found as the most abundant single compound in early June, while diisobutyl phthalate was the predominant species in late June. During the biomass-burning period in early June, the diurnal trends of most of the primary and secondary organic aerosol tracers were characterized by the concentration peaks observed at mid-night or in early morning, while in late June most of the organic species peaked in late afternoon. This suggests that smoke plumes from biomass burning can uplift the aerosol particulate matter to a certain altitude, which could be further transported to and encountered the summit of Mt. Tai during nighttime. On the basis of the tracer-based method for the estimation of biomass-burning OC, fungal-spore OC and biogenic secondary

  17. Impact of Combustion Efficiency of Open Biomass Burning on the Mixing State of Black Carbon Containing Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    PAN, X.; Kanaya, Y.; Taketani, F.; Miyakawa, T.; Inomata, S.; Komazaki, Y.; Tanimoto, H.; Uno, I.; Wang, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Open biomass burning (OBB) experiments were performed in the laboratory environment to investigate the mixing state of refractory black carbon (rBC) in fresh smoke and its dependence on combustion state. A Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) was adopted to measure variation of number size distribution of rBC-containing particles in high temporal resolution. General combustion state of each OBB case was indicated by modified combustion efficiency (MCE) using accumulated enhancement of mixing ratios of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide during the experiments. We found that mass equivalent diameter (MED) of rBC increased apparently with increase of MCE values, indicating the flaming-dominant combustion tend to produce the rBC particles with relative larger size, probably because of coagulation processes in high concentration condition. Coating thickness of rBC-containing particle was calculated by leading edge only fitting (LEO-fitting) method. In the present study we defined the rBC-containing particles with shell/core (S/C) ratio larger than 2 as "thickly coated" and that less then 1.5 as "thinly coated". As a result, thickly coated rBC particles normally had a relatively small core (MED of rBC less than 150 nm) and its number fraction showed an evident decrease as a function of MCE value, whereas, larger rBC particles (MED larger than 150 nm) were normally thinly coated. Number fraction of both thinly coated and uncoated rBC particles had an positive correlation with MCE value. Substantial amount of light scattering particles (LSP) observed in the smoldering-dominant OBB plumes could partially explain the increase of number fraction of coated rBC particles. ∆rBC/∆CO ratio showed a good positive correlation with MCE with an average value of 16.8 (1.2 - 51.6) ng/m3/ppbv, and ∆rBC/∆CO2 ratio was found 628.7 ng/m3/ppmv, generally consistent with previous studies.

  18. Scavenging of biomass burning refractory black carbon and ice nuclei in a Western Pacific extratropical storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Stith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ airborne sampling of refractory black carbon (rBC particles and Ice Nuclei (IN was conducted in and near an extratropical cyclonic storm in the Western Pacific Ocean during the Pacific Dust Experiment, PACDEX, in the spring of 2007. Airmass origins were from Eastern Asia. Cloud hydrometeors were evaporated by a counterflow virtual impactor and the residue was sampled by a single particle soot photometer (SP2 instrument and a continuous flow diffusion chamber ice nucleus detector. Clouds associated primarily with the warm sector of the storm were sampled at various locations and altitudes. In storm midlevels at temperatures where heterogeneous freezing is expected to be significant (here −24 to −29 °C, IN measurements from ice particle residues generally agreed well with simultaneous measurements of total ice concentrations provided that the measurements were made at ambient temperatures similar to those in the CFDC chamber, suggesting heterogeneous freezing as the dominant ice formation process in the mid levels of these warm sector clouds. Lower in the storm, at warmer temperatures (−22 to −6.4 °C, ice particle concentrations were similar to IN concentrations at CFDC chamber temperatures representative of colder temperatures. This is consistent with ice particles forming at storm mid-levels by heterogeneous freezing on IN, followed by sedimentation to lower altitudes. Homogeneous freezing did not appear to contribute significantly to midlevel ice concentrations and rime-splintering was also unlikely due to the absence of significant supercooled liquid water in the warm sector clouds. IN number concentrations were typically about a~factor of five to ten lower than simultaneous measurements of rBC concentrations in cloud.

  19. Emissions of Black Carbon, Organic, and Inorganic Aerosols From Biomass Burning in North America and Asia in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Y.; Matsui, H.; Moteki, N.; Sahu, L.; Takegawa, N.; Kajino, M.; Zhao, Y.; Cubison, M. J.; Jimenez, J. L.; Vay, S.; Diskin, G. S.; Anderson, B.; Wisthaler, A.; Mikoviny, T.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Blake, D. R.; Huey, G.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Knapp, D. J.; Brune, W. H.

    2011-01-01

    Reliable assessment of the impact of aerosols emitted from boreal forest fires on the Arctic climate necessitates improved understanding of emissions and the microphysical properties of carbonaceous (black carbon (BC) and organic aerosols (OA)) and inorganic aerosols. The size distributions of BC were measured by an SP2 based on the laser-induced incandescence technique on board the DC-8 aircraft during the NASA ARCTAS campaign. Aircraft sampling was made in fresh plumes strongly impacted by wildfires in North America (Canada and California) in summer 2008 and in those transported from Asia (Siberia in Russia and Kazakhstan) in spring 2008. We extracted biomass burning plumes using particle and tracer (CO, CH3CN, and CH2Cl2) data. OA constituted the dominant fraction of aerosols mass in the submicron range. The large majority of the emitted particles did not contain BC. We related the combustion phase of the fire as represented by the modified combustion efficiency (MCE) to the emission ratios between BC and other species. In particular, we derived the average emission ratios of BC/CO = 2.3 +/- 2.2 and 8.5 +/- 5.4 ng/cu m/ppbv for BB in North America and Asia, respectively. The difference in the BC/CO emission ratios is likely due to the difference in MCE. The count median diameters and geometric standard deviations of the lognormal size distribution of BC in the BB plumes were 136-141 nm and 1.32-1.36, respectively, and depended little on MCE. These BC particles were thickly coated, with shell/core ratios of 1.3-1.6. These parameters can be used directly for improving model estimates of the impact of BB in the Arctic.

  20. Scald Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safety Tips & Info Scald Burns Thousands of scald burns occur annually, and ALL are preventable! The two high-risk populations are children under the age ... the single most important factor in preventing scald burns. Increased awareness is the key to scald prevention! ...

  1. Estimating contributions from biomass burning, fossil fuel combustion, and biogenic carbon to carbonaceous aerosols in the Valley of Chamonix: a dual approach based on radiocarbon and levoglucosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvalot, Lise; Tuna, Thibaut; Fagault, Yoann; Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc; Jacob, Véronique; Chevrier, Florie; Bard, Edouard

    2016-11-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) affects the climate in various ways and has a negative impact on human health. In populated mountain valleys in Alpine regions, emissions from road traffic contribute to carbonaceous aerosols, but residential wood burning can be another source of PM during winter. We determine the contribution of fossil and non-fossil carbon sources by measuring radiocarbon in aerosols using the recently installed AixMICADAS facility. The accelerator mass spectrometer is coupled to an elemental analyzer (EA) by means of a gas interface system directly connected to the gas ion source. This system provides rapid and accurate radiocarbon measurements for small samples (10-100 µgC) with minimal preparation from the aerosol filters. We show how the contamination induced by the EA protocol can be quantified and corrected for. Several standards and synthetic samples are then used to demonstrate the precision and accuracy of aerosol measurements over the full range of expected 14C / 12C ratios, ranging from modern carbon to fossil carbon depleted in 14C. Aerosols sampled in Chamonix and Passy (Arve River valley, French Alps) from November 2013 to August 2014 are analyzed for both radiocarbon (124 analyses in total) and levoglucosan, which is commonly used as a specific tracer for biomass burning. NOx concentration, which is expected to be associated with traffic emissions, is also monitored. Based on 14C measurements, we can show that the relative fraction of non-fossil carbon is significantly higher in winter than in summer. In winter, non-fossil carbon represents about 85 % of total carbon, while in summer this proportion is still 75 % considering all samples. The largest total carbon and levoglucosan concentrations are observed for winter aerosols with values up to 50 and 8 µg m-3, respectively. These levels are higher than those observed in many European cities, but are close to those for other polluted Alpine valleys. The non-fossil carbon

  2. Burn Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Aydemir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are important in terms of causing serious disability and threatening life. With the establishment of modern burn treatment units and advances in acute care management contributed to a reduced mortality rate over the last decades. As a result of improved outcome, more attention has to be given to a comprehensive burn rehabilitation program. Burn rehabilitation is a process that starts from day of admission and continues for months or sometimes years after the initial event. The term ‘burn rehabilitation’ incorporates the physical, physiological and social aspects of care. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Burn rehabilitation aims to prevent the possible complications, minimalize joint contractures and deformities, increase range of motion, control hypertrophic scarring, achieve the best possible functional capacity and to regain the patients vocational and recreational activities. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 70-7

  3. Effects of erosion in the fate of soil organic carbon and soil aggregation in a burned Mediterranean hill-slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Julian; Cammeraat, Erik; Gimeno-García, Eugenia; Andreu, Vicente

    2016-04-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change indicated a higher degree of confidence that meteorological conditions associated to climate change will be propitious to increasing extreme events manifested, among others, in bigger and more frequent wildfires (IPCC, 2014). Wildfires contribute to shaping the landscape, and also the geomorphological and hydrological processes that operate on soil are affected (Bento-Gonçalves et al., 2012). Whereas, it is well documented that wildfires produce significant changes on erosion processes, the associated fate of soil organic carbon (SOC) has received less attention. This research assesses this gap by studying the loss, redistribution, and stabilization of SOC in a Mediterranean forest hill-slope burned the 28-08-2014, with high severity fire, at the Natural Park of Sierra de Espadán, Spain (39°50'45.11"N, 0°22'20.52"W). To this end, soil was sampled (19-9-2014) in the foot's slope (depositional), middle part (transport) and top (eroding) at two depths (146 drops). Significant differences (ANOVA, pBS) and soil depths (topsoil>subsoil). However, no significant differences were observed among eroding (58.8+20.8 gC kg-1), transport (67.3+34.4 gC kg-1), and depositional zones (62.0+31.3 gC kg-1), which is not in agreement with other SOC redistribution studies (Wang et al., 2014). Significant differences (Kruskal-Wallis, pBS) but not between soil depths or hill-slope positions. In the first post-fire erosive rains occurred in the area (29-11-14), closest pluviometer (Sot de Ferrer: 4.5 km) registered a total daily rain up to 64.2 l m-2. In this event a total of 12.7 kg of sediment were collected (contributing area ≈0.25 ha), with a content of 252.6 gC kg-1 the total SOC transported or stored in the depositional zone can reach up to 3.2 kg. In the second erosive event (23-3-15: 103.2 l m-2), total sediment in the fences was 143.6 kg, with content of 112.2 gC kg-1, made a total SOC eroded of up to 16.1 kg. It is hypothesized

  4. Uplifting of carbon monoxide from biomass burning and anthropogenic sources to the free troposphere in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, K.; Liu, J.; Ding, A.; Liu, Q.; Zhao, T. L.; Shi, J.; Han, Y.; Wang, H.; Jiang, F.

    2015-03-01

    East Asia has experienced rapid development with increasing carbon monoxide (CO) emission in the past decades. Therefore, uplifting CO from the boundary layer to the free troposphere in East Asia can have great implications on regional air quality around the world. It can also influence global climate due to the longer lifetime of CO at higher altitudes. In this study, three cases of high CO episodes in the East China Sea and the Sea of Japan from 2003 to 2005 are examined with spaceborne Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) data, in combination with aircraft measurements from the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) program. High CO abundances of 300-550 ppbv are observed in MOZAIC data in the free troposphere during these episodes. These are among the highest CO abundances documented at these altitudes. On average, such episodes with CO over 400 ppbv (in the 2003 and 2004 cases) and between 200 and 300 ppbv (in the 2005 case) may occur 2-5 and 10-20% in time, respectively, in the respective altitudes over the region. Correspondingly, elevated CO is shown in MOPITT daytime data in the middle to upper troposphere in the 2003 case, in the lower to middle troposphere in the 2004 case, and in the upper troposphere in the 2005 case. Through analyses of the simulations from a chemical transport model GEOS-Chem and a trajectory dispersion model FLEXPART, we found different CO signatures in the elevated CO and distinct transport pathways and mechanisms for these cases. In the 2003 case, emissions from large forest fires near Lake Baikal dominated the elevated CO, which had been rapidly transported upward by a frontal system from the fire plumes. In the 2004 case, anthropogenic CO from the North China Plain experienced frontal lifting and mostly reached ~ 700 hPa near the East China Sea, while CO from biomass burning over Indochina experienced orographic lifting, lee-side-trough-induced convection, and frontal lifting

  5. Comparison of the carbon-sequestering abilities of pineapple leaf residue chars produced by controlled combustion and by field burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, L Y; Husni, M H A; Samsuri, A W

    2011-11-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the chemical properties and yields of pineapple leaf residue (PLR) char produced by field burning (CF) with that produced by a partial combustion of air-dried PLR at 340 °C for 3 h in a furnace (CL). Higher total C, lignin content, and yield from CL as well as the presence of aromatic compounds in the Fourier Transform Infrared spectra of the char produced from CL suggest that the CL process was better in sequestering C than was the CF process. Although the C/N ratio of char produced from CL was low indicating a high N content of the char, the C in the char produced from CL was dominated by lignin suggesting that the decomposition of char produced from CL would be slow. To sequester C by char application, the PLR should be combusted in a controlled process rather than by burning in the field.

  6. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions in the particulate phase from burning incenses with various atomic hydrogen/carbon ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Tzu-Ting, E-mail: d89844001@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering and Health, Yuanpei University, No. 306, Yuanpei St., Hsin Chu, 300, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shaw-Tao [Department of Applied Chemistry, Providence University, 200 Chung-Chi Rd., Salu Dist., Taichung City 43301, Taiwan (China); Lin, Tser-Sheng [Department of Safety, Health, and Environmental Engineering, National United University, 2 Lien Da, Maioli, 360, Taiwan (China); Hong, Wei-Lun [Department of Environmental Engineering and Health, Yuanpei University, No. 306, Yuanpei St., Hsin Chu, 300, Taiwan (China)

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the particulate phase generated from burning various incense was investigated by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Among the used incenses, the atomic H/C ratio ranged from 0.51 to 1.69, yielding the emission factor ranges for total particulate mass and PAHs of 4.19-82.16 mg/g and 1.20-9.50 {mu}g/g, respectively. The atomic H/C ratio of the incense was the key factor affecting particulate mass and the PAHs emission factors. Both the maximum emission factor and the slowest burning rate appear at the H/C ratio of 1.57. The concentrations of the four-ring PAHs predominated and the major species among the 16 PAHs were fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and chrysene for most incense types. The benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene accounted for 87.08-93.47% of the total toxic equivalency emission factor. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The atomic H/C ratio of incense was the key factor affecting PAHs emission factors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Burning incense with lower atomic H/C ratio minimized the production of total PAHs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The BaP, BaA, BbF, and DBA accounted for 87.08-93.47% of the TEQ emission factor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Special PAH ratios were regarded as characteristic ratios for burning incense.

  7. Evaluation of wound healing activity of Thunbergia laurifolia supercritical carbon dioxide extract in rats with second-degree burn wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juthaporn Kwansang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl (TL has been traditionally used as an antidote, anti-inflammatory, and anti-drug addiction. This study investigated the burn wound healing activity of TL leaf extract (TLL from supercritical CO 2 extraction in rats. The extract was prepared to 2.5%, 5%, and 10% gel (TLL gel. Rats were induced to second-degree burn wounds. They were randomly divided into six groups (six rats/group, which five groups were topically applied gel base, 1% silver sulfadiazine gel, 2.5%, 5%, and 10% TLL gel, respectively, for 14 days. Six untreated burn rats were used as the control group. The rats in each group were evaluated for wound healing rate, histological parameters, and wound collagen content. Rats treated with 10% TLL gel had a higher wound healing rate than rats in the control and untreated groups. An increase in collagen content, which indicates good regeneration of wound skin, was observed in the TLL treated rats from a pathological study by Masson′s trichrome and collagen content assay. The results from this study suggest that T. laurifolia leaf extract obtained by supercritical CO 2 extraction promotes the recovery of wound skin by shortening the inflammation phase, increasing collagen content, and stimulating fibroblasts proliferation and migration in wound healing.

  8. Effects of the 2006 El Nino on Tropospheric Ozone and Carbon Monoxide: Implications for Dynamics and Biomass Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, S.; Ziemke, J. R.; Duncan, B. N.; Diehl, t. L.

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the effects of the 2006 El Nino on tropospheric O3 and CO at tropical and sub-tropical latitudes measured from the OMI and MLS instruments on the Aura satellite. The 2006 El Nino-induced drought allowed forest fires set to clear land to burn out of control during October and November in the Indonesian region. The effects of these fires are clearly seen in the enhancement of GO concentration measured from the MLS instrument. We have used a global model of atmospheric chemistry and transport (GMI CTM) to quantify the relative irrrportance of biomass burning and large scale transport: in producing observed changes in tropospheric O3 and CO . The model results show that during October and November both biomass burning and meteorological changes contributed almost equally to the observed increase in tropospheric O3 in the Indonesian region. The biomass component was 4-6 DU but it was limited to the Indonesian region where the fires were most intense, The dynamical component was 4-8 DU but it covered a much larger area in the Indian Ocean extending from South East Asia in the north to western Australia in the south. By December 2006, the effect of biomass taming was reduced to zero and the obsemed changes in tropospheric O3 were mostly due to dynamical effects. The model results show an increase of 2-3% in the global burden of tropospheric ozone. In comparison, the global burdean of CO increased by 8-12%.

  9. Sources of Error in Remote Sensing-Based Bottom-Up Emission Estimates of Carbon and Air Quality Emissions from Crop Residue Burning in the Contiguous United States and the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, J. L.; Romanenkov, V.

    2010-12-01

    Since its publication in 1980, the Seiler and Crutzen bottom-up method of estimating biomass burning emissions has become an accepted and standard approach cited in nearly 500 peer-reviewed scientific publications. As the science of biomass burning emissions advances, the need to quantify error in variable inputs has also grown. This research focuses on bottom-up emission estimates of black carbon (BC), CO2, CO, CH4, PM10, PM2.5, NO2, and SO2 from crop residue burning in the contiguous U.S. (CONUS) and the Russian Federation. Crop residue burning emissions for the CONUS were estimated for a five-year period, 2003 through 2007, using multispectral remote sensing-derived products, specifically multi-year crop type maps, an 8-day difference Normalized Burn Ratio product, and calibrated area estimates of cropland burning from 1 km MODIS Active Fire Points. An emission factor database was assembled from eleven published sources while fuel loads and combustion completeness were derived from expert knowledge and governmental reports. With the aim of transferring technique and knowledge to in-country collaborators, crop residue burning emissions in Russia were calculated from burned area estimates derived from the 1 km MODIS Active Fire Points. A second analysis of burned area estimates from both a regionally tuned 8-day difference Normalized Burn Ratio product and the standard MODIS Burned Area product focused on the European region of Russia. For these analyses, BC emission factors were estimated by multiplying published BC to PM2.5 ratios to PM2.5 emission factors for similar crops in the CONUS. Errors and uncertainties were quantified for emission factors, fuel loads, combustion completeness, and accuracies of remote sensing products for both burned area and land cover type for the analyses in the CONUS and Russia. The uncertainty for the non-remote sensing variables was difficult to quantify given the lack of observations available. The results from this uncertainty

  10. Spatial modelling of organic carbon in burned mountain soils using hyperspectral images, field datasets and NiR spectroscopy (Cantabrian Range; NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Susana; Peón, Juanjose; Recondo, Carmen; Calleja, Javier

    2014-05-01

    In the North-West of the Cantabrian Range (north of Spain) the climate is oceanic and vegetation cover is continuous. Nevertheless, in the western part of the territory fires are very common, although small in size; their recurrence affects severely to soil properties. Soil organic matter is seriously affected by fires and suffers changes in stock, composition and distribution. In former researches stocks of oxidizable organic carbon increases in these burnt soils (32 Mg/ha in non-burned in front of 90 Mg/ha of oxidizable carbon measured in burned forest soils); however, biochart compounds, which are typically produced by fires, have not been found in all the fire-affected soils. In order to perfect a cartographic technique to identify areas with increases in soil carbon stocks caused by historical fire management we try to test a technique to transfer spectral calibrated model of soil organic carbon to hyperspectral images (AHS sensor). Total (TOC) and oxidizable carbon (OC) were measured in a population of 89 soil samples. OC mean was 19, 48 with STD 10,32. The samples were scanning with VNIR-SWIR spectrometer (350-2500nm) and chemometric model of OC was calibrated with very high level of adjust (R2 0,85) using Unscrambler 10.3. In order to transfer the chemiometric model to the hyperspectral images the model was recalculated using only the wavelengths present in the hyperspectral images (AHS sensor with cannels in 0,43-1,03;1,55-1,75;1,99-2,54 and 3,3-5,4nm of wavelengths). The most highlighting result was the increase in the adjust of model (R2 0,89) when the wavelengths were restricted between 2200 to 2400 nm. The model was regionalized to a large area using Arc Map 10 and crossing validate with RMSE 10. Finally, in order to analyze the influence of the relief in the OC landscape pattern the slope steepness was considered. Digital Terrain Model with 10m of resolution was used. Those areas with long, steep hillsides covered with heaths have lower amounts of OC

  11. Effect of Prescribed Burning on Soil Carbon Storage of Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gord. Var. langbianensis%思茅松林区计划烧除对土壤碳贮量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高仲亮; 周汝良; 李浩; 戴柔毅; 李俊

    2011-01-01

    Jinggu in Yunnan was viewed as research object, from the pursuit of maximum efficiency of the largest carbon sequestration as a starting point, research and evaluation prescribed burning and regular forest under two different forest management models moisture content of humus,thickness,load and organic carbon storage, and organic carbon content of 0 -60 cm of soil carbon levels and organic carbon storage to analyze prescribed burning efficiency of soil carbon sequestration. Results show that kesiya forest humus by the planning burning average is thicker than conventional thick forest with 0. 527 cm, contained high levels of 3.362 t/hm2, average organic carbon storage of 2. 145 t/hm2.0 - 60 cm soil depth, the prescribed burning forests of different organic carbon content and different slope compared to the same level of conventional forest, are up nearly 0.5%; by the planning burning forest, forest organic carbon storage are higher than 38.526 t/hm2 of conventional forest, from the three aspects of the data, it prescribed that the burning of forest soil carbon sequestration can increase the amount of benefits to forest sinks.%以云南景谷为研究对象,以追求最大固碳效率为出发点,研究和评价了计划烧除和常规林2种不同森林管理模式下腐殖质层含水率、厚度、栽量和有机碳贮量,以及0~60 cm土壤层次有机碳含量和有机碳聍量来分析计划烧除对土壤的固碳效率.结果表明,思茅松经计划烧除林腐殖质层厚度较常规林平均厚0.527 cm,栽量高3.362 t/hm,平均有机碳贮量高2.145 t/hm;不同立地条件下经计划烧除林0~60 cm土层有机碳含量与常规林同层次相比,都高出约0.5%;经计划烧除林土壤有机碳贮量比常规林高38.526 t/hm,说明计划烧除可增加森林土壤的固碳量,达到森林增汇效益.

  12. Hydrogen-Accreting Carbon-Oxygen White Dwarfs of Low Mass Thermal and Chemical Behavior of Burning Shells

    CERN Document Server

    Piersanti, L; Iben, I; Tornambé, A

    2000-01-01

    Numerical experiments have been performed to investigate the thermal behavior of a cooled down white dwarf of initial mass $M_{\\rm WD} = 0.516 M_{\\sun}$ which accretes hydrogen-rich matter with Z = 0.02 at the rate $\\dot{M}=10^{-8}$ \\msun \\yrm1, typical for a recurrent hydrogen shell flash regime. The evolution of the main physical quantities of a model during a pulse cycle is examined in detail. From selected models in the mass range $M_{\\rm WD} = 0.52\\div 0.68$ \\msunend, we derive the borders in the $M_{\\rm WD}$ - $\\dot{M}$ plane of the steady state accretion regime when hydrogen is burned at a constant rate as rapidly as it is accreted. The physical properties during a hydrogen shell flash in white dwarfs accreting hydrogen-rich matter with metallicities Z = 0.001 and Z = 0.0001 are also studied. For a fixed accretion rate, a decrease in the metallicity of the accreted matter leads to an increase in the thickness of the hydrogen-rich layer at outburst and a decrease in the hydrogen-burning shell efficiency...

  13. Uplifting of carbon monoxide from biomass burning and anthropogenic sources to the free troposphere in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ding

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available East Asia has experienced rapid development with increasing CO emission in the past decades. Therefore, uplifting CO from the boundary layer to the free troposphere in East Asia can have great implications on regional air quality. It can also influence global climate due to the longer lifetime of CO at higher altitudes. In this study, three cases of high CO episodes in East Asia from 2003 to 2005 are examined with spaceborne Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT data, in combination with aircraft measurements from the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC program. High CO abundances of 300–550 ppbv were observed in MOZAIC data in the free troposphere during these episodes. These are among the highest CO abundances documented at these altitudes. Correspondingly, elevated CO was shown in MOPITT daytime data in the middle to upper troposphere in the 2003 case, mostly in the lower to middle troposphere in the 2004 case, and in the upper troposphere in the 2005 case. Through analyses of the simulations from a chemical transport model GEOS-Chem and a trajectory dispersion model FLEXPART, we found different CO signatures in the elevated CO and distinct transport pathways and mechanisms for these cases. In the 2003 case, CO from large forest fires near Lake Baikal dominated the elevated CO, which had been rapidly transported upward by a~frontal system from the fire plumes. In the 2004 case, anthropogenic CO from the North China Plain experienced frontal lifting and mostly reached ~ 700 hPa near the East China Sea, while CO from biomass burning from Indochina experienced orographic lifting, leeside-trough induced convection, and frontal lifting through two separate transport pathways, leading to two distinct CO enhancements around 700 hPa and 300 hPa. In the 2005 case, high CO of ~ 300 ppbv, observed in the MOZAIC data around 350 hPa, originated from the anthropogenic source over the vicinity of the

  14. Burns (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > Burns A A A What's ... outlets, etc.) overexposure to the sun Types of Burns Burns are often categorized as first-, second-, or ...

  15. Black carbon aerosol dynamics and isotopic composition in Alaska linked with boreal fire emissions and depth of burn in organic soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouteva, G. O.; Czimczik, C. I.; Fahrni, S. M.; Wiggins, E. B.; Rogers, B. M.; Veraverbeke, S.; Xu, X.; Santos, G. M.; Henderson, J.; Miller, C. E.; Randerson, J. T.

    2015-11-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosol emitted by boreal fires has the potential to accelerate losses of snow and ice in many areas of the Arctic, yet the importance of this source relative to fossil fuel BC emissions from lower latitudes remains uncertain. Here we present measurements of the isotopic composition of BC and organic carbon (OC) aerosols collected at two locations in interior Alaska during the summer of 2013, as part of NASA's Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment. We isolated BC from fine air particulate matter (PM2.5) and measured its radiocarbon (Δ14C) content with accelerator mass spectrometry. We show that fires were the dominant contributor to variability in carbonaceous aerosol mass in interior Alaska during the summer by comparing our measurements with satellite data, measurements from an aerosol network and predicted concentrations from a fire inventory coupled to an atmospheric transport model. The Δ14C of BC from boreal fires was 131 ± 52‰ in the year 2013 when the Δ14C of atmospheric CO2 was 23 ± 3‰, corresponding to a mean fuel age of 20 years. Fire-emitted OC had a similar Δ14C (99 ± 21‰) as BC, but during background (low fire) periods OC (45 to 51‰) was more positive than BC (-354 to -57‰). We also analyzed the carbon and nitrogen elemental and stable isotopic composition of the PM2.5. Fire-emitted aerosol had an elevated carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio (29 ± 2) and δ15N (16 ± 4‰). Aerosol Δ14C and δ13C measurements were consistent with a mean depth of burning in organic soil horizons of 20 cm (and a range of 8 to 47 cm). Our measurements of fire-emitted BC and PM2.5 composition constrain the end-member of boreal forest fire contributions to aerosol deposition in the Arctic and may ultimately reduce uncertainties related to the impact of a changing boreal fire regime on the climate system.

  16. Evaluation of the carbon content of aerosols from the burn- ing of biomass in the Brazilian Amazon using thermal, op- tical and thermal-optical analysis methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto-Garcia, Lydia L.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Andreae, Tracey W.; taxo, Paulo Ar-; Maenhaut, Willy; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Novakov, T.; Chow, Judith C.; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.

    2011-06-03

    Aerosol samples were collected at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin as part of the project LBA-SMOCC-2002 (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia - Smoke Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall and Climate: Aerosols from Biomass Burning Perturb Global and Regional Climate). Sampling was conducted during the late dry season, when the aerosol composition was dominated by biomass burning emissions, especially in the submicron fraction. A 13-stage Dekati low-pressure impactor (DLPI) was used to collect particles with nominal aerodynamic diameters (D{sub p}) ranging from 0.03 to 0.10 m. Gravimetric analyses of the DLPI substrates and filters were performed to obtain aerosol mass concentrations. The concentrations of total, apparent elemental, and organic carbon (TC, EC{sub a}, and OC) were determined using thermal and thermal-optical analysis (TOA) methods. A light transmission method (LTM) was used to determine the concentration of equivalent black carbon (BC{sub e}) or the absorbing fraction at 880 nm for the size-resolved samples. During the dry period, due to the pervasive presence of fires in the region upwind of the sampling site, concentrations of fine aerosols (D{sub p} < 2.5 {mu}m: average 59.8 {mu}g m{sup -3}) were higher than coarse aerosols (D{sub p} > 2.5 {mu}m: 4.1 {mu}g m{sup -3}). Carbonaceous matter, estimated as the sum of the particulate organic matter (i.e., OC x 1.8) plus BC{sub e}, comprised more than 90% to the total aerosol mass. Concentrations of EC{sub a} (estimated by thermal analysis with a correction for charring) and BCe (estimated by LTM) averaged 5.2 {+-} 1.3 and 3.1 {+-} 0.8 {mu}g m{sup -3}, respectively. The determination of EC was improved by extracting water-soluble organic material from the samples, which reduced the average light absorption {angstrom} exponent of particles in the size range of 0.1 to 1.0 {mu}m from > 2.0 to approximately 1.2. The size-resolved BC{sub e} measured by the LTM showed a clear maximum between 0.4 and

  17. Technology for the Recovery of Fuel and Adsorbent Carbons from Coal Burning Utility Ash Ponds and Landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.G. Groppo; T.L. Robl

    2005-09-30

    Several sampling techniques were evaluated to recover representative core samples from the ash ponds at Western Kentucky Energy's Coleman Station. The most successful was a combination of continuous-flight augers and specially designed soft-sediment sampling tubes driven by a Hammerhead drill mounted on an amphibious ARGO vehicle. A total of 51 core samples were recovered and analyzed in 3 ft sections and it was determined that there are 1,354,974 tons of ash in Pond C. Of the over 1.35M tons of ash present, 14% or 190K tons can be considered as coarse (+100 mesh). Pond C contains approximately 88K tons of carbon, nearly half of which is coarse and potentially recoverable with spiral concentration while the fine carbon (-100 mesh) is recoverable with froth flotation. There are 1.27M tons of carbon-free ash, 12% of which is coarse and potentially usable as block sand. Spiral concentration testing on bulk samples showed that product grade of 30 to 38% C (4200 to 5500 Btu/lb) was obtainable. When this product was cleaned again in an additional stage of spiral concentration, the product grade was improved to 7200 to 8200 Btu/lb with an accompanying 13 to 29% decrease in yield. Release analysis of hydraulically classified pond ash showed that froth flotation could provide froth products with as high a grade as 9000 Btu/lb with a yield of 5%. Increasing yield to 10% reduced froth grade to 7000 Btu/lb. Batch flotation provided froth grades as high as 6500 Btu/lb with yields of 7% with 1.5 lb/ton SPP and 1 lb/ton frother. Column flotation test results were similar to those achieved in batch flotation in terms of both grade and yield, however, carbon recoveries were lower (<70%). High airflow rate was required to achieve >50% carbon recovery and using wash water improved froth grade. Bottom ash samples were recovered from each of the units at Coleman Station. Characterization confirmed that sufficient quantity and quality of material is generated to produce a

  18. Technology for the Recovery of Fuel and Adsorbent Carbons from Coal Burning Utility Ash Ponds and Landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.G. Groppo; T.L. Robl

    2005-09-30

    Several sampling techniques were evaluated to recover representative core samples from the ash ponds at Western Kentucky Energy's Coleman Station. The most successful was a combination of continuous-flight augers and specially designed soft-sediment sampling tubes driven by a Hammerhead drill mounted on an amphibious ARGO vehicle. A total of 51 core samples were recovered and analyzed in 3 ft sections and it was determined that there are 1,354,974 tons of ash in Pond C. Of the over 1.35M tons of ash present, 14% or 190K tons can be considered as coarse (+100 mesh). Pond C contains approximately 88K tons of carbon, nearly half of which is coarse and potentially recoverable with spiral concentration while the fine carbon (-100 mesh) is recoverable with froth flotation. There are 1.27M tons of carbon-free ash, 12% of which is coarse and potentially usable as block sand. Spiral concentration testing on bulk samples showed that product grade of 30 to 38% C (4200 to 5500 Btu/lb) was obtainable. When this product was cleaned again in an additional stage of spiral concentration, the product grade was improved to 7200 to 8200 Btu/lb with an accompanying 13 to 29% decrease in yield. Release analysis of hydraulically classified pond ash showed that froth flotation could provide froth products with as high a grade as 9000 Btu/lb with a yield of 5%. Increasing yield to 10% reduced froth grade to 7000 Btu/lb. Batch flotation provided froth grades as high as 6500 Btu/lb with yields of 7% with 1.5 lb/ton SPP and 1 lb/ton frother. Column flotation test results were similar to those achieved in batch flotation in terms of both grade and yield, however, carbon recoveries were lower (<70%). High airflow rate was required to achieve >50% carbon recovery and using wash water improved froth grade. Bottom ash samples were recovered from each of the units at Coleman Station. Characterization confirmed that sufficient quantity and quality of material is generated to produce a

  19. Burning vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Priyanka; Hobday, Dorian; O'Connor, Edmund Fitzgerald; D'Cruz, David

    2016-04-26

    We present the case of a 69-year-old man who was found collapsed close to a heat source and admitted to hospital for severe sepsis. He was also found to have widespread blistering and ulceration of his right leg; however, a history was unobtainable due to reduced consciousness levels. The leg lesions had the initial appearance of mixed depth burns and a management plan was made to transfer the patient to a burns unit for debridement. It was subsequently noted that the patient had a previous diagnosis of seropositive erosive rheumatoid arthritis. A biopsy of the leg lesion was performed and a diagnosis of rheumatoid vasculitis confirmed. Treatment with systemic steroids, intravenous antibiotics and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for severe hypogammaglobulinaemia was started, and the patient was not transferred for surgical debridement. Rheumatoid vasculitis is a rare and extremely serious complication of rheumatoid arthritis that can manifest in a number of ways, occasionally mimicking other conditions. This case is essential to raise awareness of rare, severe rheumatoid vasculitis and of the potential for its misdiagnosis as a mixed depth burn.

  20. Uplifting of carbon monoxide from biomass burning and anthropogenic sources to the free troposphere in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ke; Liu, Jane; Ding, Aijun; Liu, Qiang; Zhao, Tianliang; Shi, Jiancheng; Han, Yong; Wang, Hengmao; Jiang, Fei

    2016-04-01

    East Asia has experienced rapid development with increasing carbon monoxide (CO) emission in the past decades. Therefore, uplifting CO from the boundary layer to the free troposphere in East Asia can have great implications on regional air quality around the world. It can also influence global climate due to the longer lifetime of CO at higher altitudes. In this study, three cases of high CO episodes in the East China Sea and the Sea of Japan from 2003 to 2005 are examined with spaceborne Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) data, in combination with aircraft measurements from the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) program. Through analyses of the simulations from a chemical transport model GEOS-Chem and a trajectory dispersion model FLEXPART, we found different CO signatures in the elevated CO and distinct transport pathways and mechanisms for these cases.

  1. Bioprocesses for removal of carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide by microalgae for the utilization of gas generated during coal burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Michele Greque de; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the removal of CO{sub 2} and NO by microalgae and to evaluate the kinetic characteristics of the cultures. Spirulina sp. showed {mu}{sub max} and X{sub max} (0.11 d{sup -1}, 1.11 g L{sup -1} d{sup -1}) when treated with CO{sub 2} and NaNO{sub 3}. The maximum CO{sub 2} removal was 22.97% for S. obliquus treated with KNO{sub 3} and atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The S. obliquus showed maximum NO removal (21.30%) when treated with NO and CO{sub 2}. Coupling the cultivation of these microalgae with the removal of CO{sub 2} and NO has the potential not only to reduce the costs of culture media but also to offset carbon and nitrogen emissions. 19 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Century-long Record of Black Carbon in an Ice Core from the Eastern Pamirs: Estimated Contributions from Biomass Burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Mo; Xu, B.; Kaspari, Susan D.; Gleixner, Gerd; Schwab, Valerie; Zhao, Huabiao; Wang, Hailong; Yao, Ping

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed refractory black carbon (rBC) in an ice core spanning 1875-2000 AD from Mt. Muztagh Ata, the Eastern Pamirs, using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). Additionally a pre-existing levoglucosan record from the same ice core was used to differentiate rBC that originated from open fires, energy-related combustion of biomass, and fossil fuel combustion. Mean rBC concentrations increased four-fold since the mid-1970s and reached maximum values at the end of 1980s. The observed decrease of the rBC concentrations during the 1990s was likely driven by the economic recession of former USSR countries in Central Asia. Levoglucosan concentrations showed a similar temporal trend to rBC concentrations, exhibiting a large increase around 1980 AD followed by a decrease in the 1990s that was likely due to a decrease in energy-related biomass combustion. The time evolution of levoglucosan/rBC ratios indicated stronger emissions from open fires during the 1940s-1950s, while the increase in rBC during the 1980s-1990s was caused from an increase in energy-related combustion of biomass and fossil fuels.

  3. First Aid: Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns A A A Scald burns from hot water and other liquids are the most common burns in early childhood. Because burns range from mild ...

  4. First Aid: Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Scald burns from hot water and other liquids are the most common burns in early childhood. Because burns range from mild to life threatening, ...

  5. Contributions of biomass/biofuel burning to organic aerosols and particulate matter in Tanzania, East Africa, based on analyses of ionic species, organic and elemental carbon, levoglucosan and mannosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Mkoma

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosol samples of PM2.5 and PM10 were collected at a rural site in Tanzania, East Africa, in 2011 during wet and dry seasons and were analysed for carbonaceous components, levoglucosan, mannosan and water-soluble inorganic ions. The contributions of biomass/biofuel burning to the organic carbon (OC and particulate matter (PM mass were estimated to be 46–52% and 87–13%, respectively. The mean mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were 28 ± 6 μg m−3 and 47 ± 8 μg m−3 in wet season, and 39 ± 10 μg m−3 and 61 ± 19 μg m−3 in dry season, respectively. Total carbon (TC accounted for 16–19% of the PM2.5 mass and 13–15% of the PM10 mass. On average, 86 to 89% of TC in PM2.5 and 87 to 90% of TC in PM10 was OC, of which 67–72% and 63% was found to be water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC in PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. We found that concentrations of levoglucosan and mannosan (specific organic tracers of pyrolysis of cellulose well correlated with non-sea-salt potassium (nss-K+ (r2 = 0.56–0.75, OC (r2 = 0.75–0.96 and WSOC (r2 = 0.52–0.78. The K+ / OC ratios varied from 0.06 to 0.36 in PM2.5 and from 0.03 to 0.36 in PM10 with slightly higher ratios in dry season. Mean percent ratios of levoglucosan and mannosan to OC were found to be 3–4% for PM2.5 and PM10 in both seasons. We found lower levoglucosan / K+ ratios and higher K+ / EC (elemental carbon ratios in the biomass-burning aerosols from Tanzania than those reported from other regions. This feature is consistent with the high levels of potassium reported in the soils of Morogoro, Tanzania, suggesting an importance of direct emission of potassium by soil resuspension although K+ is present mostly in fine particles. It is also likely that biomass burning of vegetation of Tanzania emits high levels of potassium that may be enriched in plant tissues. The present study demonstrates that emissions from mixed biomass- and biofuel-burning activities largely

  6. Burn Injuries: Burn Depth, Physiopathology and Type of Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemalettin Koltka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A significant burn injury is a serious and mortal event. The most important threat to life is hypovolemic shock with complex pathophysiologic mechanisms. Burn depth is classified as first, second, or third degree. Local inflammatory response results a vasodilatation and an increase in vascular permeability. A burn injury is a three dimensional ischemic wound. Zone of coagulation is the zone with maximum damage. Zone of stasis consists of damaged but viable tissues, the tissue is salvageable. In zone of hyperemia tissue perfusion is increased. At the beginning, cardiac output falls and systemic vascular resistance increases; cardiac performance improves as hypovolemia is corrected with fluid resuscitation. While cardiac output increases systemic vascular resistance falls below normal values and a hypermetabolic state develops. Pulmonary vascular resistance increases immediately after thermal injury and this is more prolonged. To avoid secondary pulmonary complications, the smallest resuscitation volume of fluids that maintains adequate tissue perfusion should be given. Changes parallel to the cardiovascular response develop in other organ systems. The reasons of burn injury can be thermal, electrical, chemical or radiation. It is important to know the exact mechanism of burn injury because of different therapies for a specific cause. In this review information about burn depth, local and systemic responses to burn injury and major causes of burn injury are presented. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl:1-6

  7. Emergency in Burn; Burn in Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Bayram

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Physicians who first meet with burned patients are often emergency service employees. When the patient was admitted to emergency service, especially in patients with major burn injury, is a matter should be dealt with strongly. Before sending the patients to a burn center, some interventions could became life saving which should be done as a first line treatment. Herein, review of the literature related to emergency burn treatment was performed and presented to all physicians as a summary guide. In addition, some questions such as how should be physician, who first meet with the burned patient, evaluated the patient, what should be physician paid attention, which principles should be employed for fluid replacement, how should be approached to burn wound are tried to be addressed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 365-368

  8. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...... followed the diffusion-limited gasification model, showing a change in the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and its evaporating gases, as well as a decreasing gasification rate, as the burning progressed. This burning mechanism implies that the residue composition and burning efficiency mainly depend...

  9. Minor burns - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the burn: Use cool water, not ice. The extreme cold from ice can injure the tissue even more. If possible, especially if the burn is caused by chemicals, hold the burned skin under cool running water for 10 to 15 minutes until it ...

  10. Optimization of burn referrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiband, Hanna K; Lundin, Kira; Alsbjørn, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Correct estimation of the severity of burns is important to obtain the right treatment of the patient and to avoid over- and undertriage. In this study we aimed to assess how often the guidelines for referral of burn injured patients are met at the national burn centre (NBC), Denmar...

  11. Learn Not To Burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Nancy; Hendricks, Charlotte M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the "Learn Not to Burn Preschool Program," a low-cost fire safety awareness and burn prevention curriculum for young children. The program promotes eight burn prevention methods--including practicing an escape plan--using developmentally appropriate learning objectives to increase children's fire safety knowledge, skill, and…

  12. Epidemiology of burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to understand the epidemiology, treatment and outcomes of specialized burn care in The Netherlands. This thesis is mainly based on historical data of the burn centre in Rotterdam from 1986, combined with historical data from the burn centres in Groningen and Beverwijk from

  13. Partial Burn Laws in Propellant Erosive Burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Finjakov

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and computer methods were developed for investigating the combustion phenomena in the propellants which burn in streams of hot gas flowing along the burn surfaces of the propellants. The experimental investigations allowed establishment of different dependencies for erosive burning. Computer solutions of the problem for double-base (DB propellants showed a good agreement with the experimental results. The suggested variant of modified theory considers the change of heat release in solids, the real burn surface roughness, the nonisothermality of boundary layer and the effect of gas mass blow from the propellant burn surface into the gas stream. This modified theory was used for studying burn laws at 30-1000 atm and up to gas stream sound velocities for different DB propellants. It was found that gas stream leads to splitting of the propellant burn laws, m = bp/sup v/. Pressure power (v, in this case depends on gas stream velocity (W, diameter of the propellant tube canal (d and gas stream temperature (T/sub w/. It is because of this that these burn laws were named partial burn laws. They have the form (m = bp/sup w(omega/ w,d,T/sub w/ -const. The dependencies w(omega = f(w,d,T/sub w/ were obtained by the modified theory. It was found that omega values mainly decrease when pressure increases beginning from ~200 to 400 atm and they can decrease up to w(omega = 0,1- 0,3. Similar results can be obtained for composite propellants.

  14. Revised (Mixed-Effects) Estimation for Forest Burning Emissions of Gases and Smoke, Fire/Emission Factor Typology, and Potential Remote Sensing Classification of Types for Ozone and Black-Carbon Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, Robert B.; Segal Rozenhaimer, M.

    2014-01-01

    We summarize recent progress (a) in correcting biomass burning emissions factors deduced from airborne sampling of forest fire plumes, (b) in understanding the variability in reactivity of the fresh plumes sampled in ARCTAS (2008), DC3 (2012), and SEAC4RS (2013) airborne missions, and (c) in a consequent search for remotely sensed quantities that help classify forest-fire plumes. Particle properties, chemical speciation, and smoke radiative properties are related and mutually informative, as pictures below suggest (slopes of lines of same color are similar). (a) Mixed-effects (random-effects) statistical modeling provides estimates of both emission factors and a reasonable description of carbon-burned simultaneously. Different fire plumes will have very different contributions to volatile organic carbon reactivity; this may help explain differences of free NOx(both gas- and particle-phase), and also of ozone production, that have been noted for forest-fire plumes in California. Our evaluations check or correct emission factors based on sequential measurements (e.g., the Normalized Ratio Enhancement and similar methods). We stress the dangers of methods relying on emission-ratios to CO. (b) This work confirms and extends many reports of great situational variability in emissions factors. VOCs vary in OH reactivity and NOx-binding. Reasons for variability are not only fuel composition, fuel condition, etc., but are confused somewhat by rapid transformation and mixing of emissions. We use "unmixing" (distinct from mixed-effects) statistics and compare briefly to approaches like neural nets. We focus on one particularly intense fire the notorious Yosemite Rim Fire of 2013. In some samples, NOx activity was not so suppressed by binding into nitrates as in other fires. While our fire-typing is evolving and subject to debate, the carbon-burned delta(CO2+CO) estimates that arise from mixed effects models, free of confusion by background-CO2 variation, should provide a

  15. 重度火烧对大兴安岭天然林土壤有机碳和黑碳的影响1)%Impact of Severe Burning on Soil Organic Carbon and Black Carbon Content in Natural Forest of Daxing’ an Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷雨雨; 辛颖; 赵雨森; 陈璐; 王丽红

    2014-01-01

    In the severe burned area of Daxing’ an Mountains, we studied the impact of severe burning on the soil organic carbon and black carbon content of natural forest.Both soil organic carbon and black carbon content decreased with deeper soil ho-rizon in unburned natural forest and severe burned area.Compared with unburned natural forest, the soil organic carbon content at 0-5 cm increased by 41.56%in severe burned area.Soil organic carbon content at 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm hori-zon had little change.Soil black carbon content at 0-5 cm increased by 21.37 g/kg ( p<0.05) , which at 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm increased by 1.25 g/kg and 1.15 g/kg, respectively.However, the increase of soil black carbon in 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm didn’ t reach significant levels.The proportion of soil black carbon to organic carbon was in 14.0%-18.1%in unburned natural forest, and rose first then fell with soil horizon deepening.While the proportion of soil black carbon to organic car-bon in severe burned area was in 17.3%-28.0%and decreased with deeper soil horizon.The proportion of soil black car-bon to organic carbon in severe burned area was higher than that in unburned natural forest.The soil organic carbon content displayed a significant linear correlation with the soil black carbon content in both severe burned and unburned forest ( p<0.01) , which meant soil black carbon played an important role in the immobilization of soil organic carbon in Daxing’ an Mountains forests.%以大兴安岭重度火烧迹地土壤为研究对象,通过对比研究,探讨重度火烧对大兴安岭天然林土壤有机碳和黑碳的影响。结果表明:对照样地和重度火烧迹地的土壤有机碳和黑碳质量分数都随土层深入而降低。与对照样地相比,重度火烧迹地0~5 cm土层土壤有机碳质量分数增加了41.56%,>5~10 cm和>10~20 cm土层有机碳质量分数变化不大。0~5 cm土层黑碳质量分数增加了21.37 g/kg ( p<0.05

  16. Influence of biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions on ozone, carbon monoxide and black carbon at the Mt. Cimone GAW-WMO global station (Italy, 2165 m a.s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cristofanelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the variability of ozone (O3, carbon monoxide (CO and equivalent black carbon (BC at the Italian Climate Observatory "O. Vittori" (ICO-OV, part of the Mt. Cimone global GAW-WMO station (Italy. For this purpose, ICO-OV observations carried out in the period January 2007–June 2009, have been analyzed and correlated with the outputs of the FLEXPART Lagrangian dispersion model to specifically evaluate the influence of biomass burning (BB and anthropogenic emissions younger than 20 days. During the investigation period, the average O3, CO and BC at ICO-OV were 54 ± 3 ppb, 122 ± 7 ppb and 213 ± 34 ng m−3 (mean ± expanded uncertainty with p < 95%, with clear seasonal cycles characterized by summer maxima and winter minima for O3 and BC and spring maximum and summer minimum for CO.

    According to FLEXPART outputs, BB impact is maximized during the warm months from July to September but appeared to have a significant contribution to the observed tracers only during specific transport events. We characterised in detail five "representative" events with respect to transport scales (i.e. global, regional and local, source regions and O3, CO and BC variations. For these events, very large variability of enhancement ratios O3/CO (from −0.22 to 0.71 and BC/CO (from 2.69 to 29.83 ng m−3 ppb−1 were observed.

    CO contributions related with anthropogenic emissions (COant contributed to 17.4% of the mean CO value observed at ICO-OV, with the warm months appearing particularly affected by transport events of air-masses rich in anthropogenic pollution. The proportion of tracer variability that is described by FLEXPART COant peaked to 37% (in May–September for CO, 19% (in May–September for O3 and 32% (in January–April for BC. During May–September, the analysis of the correlation

  17. [The pain from burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, J

    2002-03-01

    The painful events associated with the treatment of a severe burn can, because of their long-lasting and repetitive characteristics, be one of the most excruciating experiences in clinical practice. Moreover, burn pain has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Although nociception and peripheral hyperalgesia are considered the major causes of burn pain, the study of more hypothetical mechanisms like central hyperalgesia and neuropathic pain may lead to a better understanding of burn pain symptoms and to new therapeutic approaches. Continuous pain and intermittent pain due to therapeutic procedures are two distinct components of burn pain. They have to be evaluated and managed separately. Although continuous pain is by far less severe than intermittent pain, the treatment is, in both cases, essentially pharmacological relying basically on opioids. Because of wide intra- and inter-individual variations, protocols will have to leave large possibilities of adaptation for each case, systematic pain evaluation being mandatory to achieve the best risk/benefit ratio. Surprisingly, the dose of medication decreases only slowly with time, a burn often remaining painful for long periods after healing. Non pharmacological treatments are often useful and sometimes indispensable adjuncts; but their rationale and their feasibility depends entirely on previous optimal pharmacological control of burn pain. Several recent studies show that burn pain management is inadequate in most burn centres.

  18. Burns and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, M

    1997-01-01

    This is a report of the first descriptive analytic study of a group of 183 burn patients, treated in the Burn Unit at the University Hospital of Cartagena, Colombia during the period since January 1985 until December 1990. There is presented experience with the selected group of 24 patients in whom the diagnosis of burn was associated with epilepsy. There is also analysed and described the gravity of the scars sequels, neurological disorders, the complication of the burn and an impact of this problem on the patient, his (her) family and the community. It is very important to report that there was found Neurocisticercosis in 66.6% of the group of burn patients with epilepsy, and it is probably the first risk factor of burn in this group.

  19. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): emissions of trace gases and light-absorbing carbon from wood and dung cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Christian, Ted J.; Goetz, J. Douglas; Jayarathne, Thilina; Bhave, Prakash V.; Praveen, Puppala S.; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Stone, Elizabeth A.; Saikawa, Eri; Blake, Donald R.; Simpson, Isobel J.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Panday, Arnico K.

    2016-09-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE) campaign took place in and around the Kathmandu Valley and in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) of southern Nepal during April 2015. The source characterization phase targeted numerous important but undersampled (and often inefficient) combustion sources that are widespread in the developing world such as cooking with a variety of stoves and solid fuels, brick kilns, open burning of municipal solid waste (a.k.a. trash or garbage burning), crop residue burning, generators, irrigation pumps, and motorcycles. NAMaSTE produced the first, or rare, measurements of aerosol optical properties, aerosol mass, and detailed trace gas chemistry for the emissions from many of the sources. This paper reports the trace gas and aerosol measurements obtained by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, whole-air sampling (WAS), and photoacoustic extinctiometers (PAX; 405 and 870 nm) based on field work with a moveable lab sampling authentic sources. The primary aerosol optical properties reported include emission factors (EFs) for scattering and absorption coefficients (EF Bscat, EF Babs, in m2 kg-1 fuel burned), single scattering albedos (SSAs), and absorption Ångström exponents (AAEs). From these data we estimate black and brown carbon (BC, BrC) emission factors (g kg-1 fuel burned). The trace gas measurements provide EFs (g kg-1) for CO2, CO, CH4, selected non-methane hydrocarbons up to C10, a large suite of oxygenated organic compounds, NH3, HCN, NOx, SO2, HCl, HF, etc. (up to ˜ 80 gases in all). The emissions varied significantly by source, and light absorption by both BrC and BC was important for many sources. The AAE for dung-fuel cooking fires (4.63 ± 0.68) was significantly higher than for wood-fuel cooking fires (3.01 ± 0.10). Dung-fuel cooking fires also emitted high levels of NH3 (3.00 ± 1.33 g kg-1), organic acids (7.66 ± 6.90 g kg-1), and HCN (2.01 ± 1.25 g kg-1), where the latter could

  20. The Burning Saints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xygalatas, Dimitris

    . Carrying the sacred icons of the saints, participants dance over hot coals as the saint moves them. The Burning Saints presents an analysis of these rituals and the psychology behind them. Based on long-term fieldwork, The Burning Saints traces the historical development and sociocultural context......, The Burning Saints presents a highly original analysis of how mental processes can shape social and religious behaviour....

  1. Understanding the Crystallinity Indices Behavior of Burned Bones and Teeth by ATR-IR and XRD in the Presence of Bioapatite Mixed with Other Phosphate and Carbonate Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Piga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have critically investigated the ATR-IR spectroscopy data behavior of burned human teeth as opposed to the generally observed behavior in human bones that were subjected to heat treatment, whether deliberate or accidental. It is shown that the deterioration of the crystallinity index (CI behavior sometimes observed in bones subjected to high temperature appears to be of higher frequency in the case of bioapatite from teeth. This occurs because the formation of the β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP phase, otherwise known as whitlockite, clearly ascertained by the X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns collected on the same powdered specimens investigated by ATR-IR. These results point to the need of combining more than one physicochemical technique even if apparently well suitable, in order to verify whether the assumed conditions assessed by spectroscopy are fully maintained in the specimens after temperature and/or mechanical processing.

  2. Critical issues in burn care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, James H

    2008-01-01

    Burn care, especially for serious burn injuries, represents a considerable challenge for the healthcare system. The American Burn Association has established a number of strategies for the management of burn patients and dedicates its efforts and resources to promoting and supporting burn-related research, education, care, rehabilitation, and prevention, often in collaboration with other organizations. The American Burn Association has recommended that patients with serious burns be referred to a designated burn center, ie, a hospital outfitted with specialized personnel and equipment dedicated to burn care. Burn centers have been operational for over 50 years, but the complexity and costs of providing specialized burn care have given rise to a number of critical administrative and political issues. These include logistical limitations imposed by the uneven national distribution of burn centers and a potential shortage of burn beds, both during everyday conditions and in the event of a mass disaster. Burn surgeon shortages have also been identified, stemming, in part, from a lack of specialized burn care training opportunities. There is currently a lack of quality outcome data to support evidence-based recommendations for burn care, and burn care centers are compromised by problems obtaining reimbursement for the care of uninsured and publicly insured out-of-state burn patients. Initiatives are underway to maintain efficient burn care facilities that are fully funded, easily accessible, and most importantly, provide optimal, evidence-based care on a daily basis, and are well-equipped to handle a surge of patients during a disaster situation.

  3. Pain in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, J; Choinère, M

    1995-08-01

    While severe pain is a constant component of the burn injury, inadequate pain management has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Pain-generating mechanisms in burns include nociception, primary and secondary hyperalgesia and neuropathy. The clinical studies of burn pain characteristics reveal very clear-cut differences between continuous pain and pain due to therapeutic procedures which have to be treated separately. Some of the main features of burn pain are: (1) its long-lasting course, often exceeding healing time, (2) the repetition of highly nociceptive procedures which can lead to severe psychological disturbances if pain control is inappropriate. Pharmaco-therapy with opioids is the mainstay for analgesia in burned patients, but non-pharmacological techniques may be useful adjuncts. Routine pain evaluation is mandatory for efficient and safe analgesia. Special attention must be given to pain in burned children which remains too often underestimated and undertreated. More educational efforts from physicians and nursing staff are necessary to improve pain management in burned patients.

  4. Geographic patterns of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring on a one degree by one degree grid cell basis: 1950 to 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenkert, A.L. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Andres, R.J. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Inst. of Northern Engineering; Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Fung, I. [Univ. of Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)]|[National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies; Matthews, E. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)]|[National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies

    1997-03-01

    Data sets of one degree latitude by one degree longitude carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in units of thousand metric tons of carbon (C) per year from anthropogenic sources have been produced for 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980 and 1990. Detailed geographic information on CO{sub 2} emissions can be critical in understanding the pattern of the atmospheric and biospheric response to these emissions. Global, regional and national annual estimates for 1950 through 1992 were published previously. Those national, annual CO{sub 2} emission estimates were based on statistics on fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing and gas flaring in oil fields as well as energy production, consumption and trade data, using the methods of Marland and Rotty. The national annual estimates were combined with gridded one-degree data on political units and 1984 human populations to create the new gridded CO{sub 2} emission data sets. The same population distribution was used for each of the years as proxy for the emission distribution within each country. The implied assumption for that procedure was that per capita energy use and fuel mix is uniform over a political unit. The consequence of this first-order procedure is that the spatial changes observed over time are solely due to changes in national energy consumption and nation-based fuel mix. Increases in emissions over time are apparent for most areas.

  5. New field-based agricultural biomass burning trace gas, PM2.5, and black carbon emission ratios and factors measured in situ at crop residue fires in Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianran; Wooster, Martin J.; Green, David C.; Main, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    Despite policy attempts to limit or prevent agricultural burning, its use to remove crop residues either immediately after harvest (e.g. field burning of wheat stubble) or after subsequent crop processing (e.g. "bonfires" of rice straw and rapeseed residues) appears to remain widespread across parts of China. Emission factors for these types of small but highly numerous fire are therefore required to fully assess their impact on atmospheric composition and air pollution. Here we describe the design and deployment of a new smoke measurement system for the close-range sampling of key gases and particles within smoke from crop residue fires, using it to assess instantaneous mixing ratios of CO and CO2 and mass concentrations of black carbon (BC) and PM2.5 from wheat stubble, rice straw, and rapeseed residue fires. Using data of our new smoke sampling system, we find a strong linear correlation between the PM2.5 mass and BC, with very high PM2.5 to BC emission ratios found in the smouldering phase (up to 80.7 mg m-3.(mg m-3)-1) compared to the flaming phase (2.0 mg m-3.(mg m-3)-1). We conclude that the contribution of BC to PM2.5 mass was as high as 50% in the flaming phase of some burns, whilst during smouldering it sometimes decreased to little over one percent. A linear mixing model is used to quantify the relative contribution of each combustion phase to the overall measured smoke composition, and we find that flaming combustion dominated the total emission of most species assessed. Using time series of trace gas concentrations from different fire cases, we calculated 'fire integrated' trace gas emission factors (EFs) for wheat, rice and rapeseed residue burns as 1739 ± 19 g kg-1, 1761 ± 30 g kg-1and 1704 ± 27 g kg-1 respectively for CO2, and 60 ± 12 g kg-1, 47 ± 19 g kg-1 and 82 ± 17 g kg-1 respectively for CO. Where comparisons were possible, our EFs agreed well with those derived via a simultaneously-deployed open path Fourier transform infrared (OP

  6. Hand chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elliot P; Chhabra, A Bobby

    2015-03-01

    There is a vast and ever-expanding variety of potentially harmful chemicals in the military, industrial, and domestic landscape. Chemical burns make up a small proportion of all skin burns, yet they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the hand and upper extremity are the most frequently involved parts of the body in chemical burns, and therefore these injuries may lead to severe temporary or permanent loss of function. Despite this fact, discussion of the care of these injuries is sparse in the hand surgery literature. Although most chemical burns require only first response and wound care, some require the attention of a specialist for surgical debridement and, occasionally, skin coverage and reconstruction. Exposure to certain chemicals carries the risk of substantial systemic toxicity and even mortality. Understanding the difference between thermal and chemical burns, as well as special considerations for specific compounds, will improve patient treatment outcomes.

  7. [Chickenpox, burns and grafts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Zegers, J; Fidel Avendaño, L

    1979-01-01

    An outbreak of chickenpox that occurred at the Burns Repair Surgery Unit, Department of Children's Surgery, Hospital R. del Río, between June and November, 1975, is reported. 27 cases of burned children were studied, including analysis of correlations of the stages and outcome of the disease (varicela), the trauma (burns) and the graft (repair surgery). As a result, the authors emphasize the following findings: 1. Burns and their repair are not aggravating factors for varicella. In a small number of cases the exanthema looked more confluent in the graft surgical areas and in the first degree burns healing spontaneously. 2. Usually there was an uneventful outcome of graft repair surgery on a varicella patient, either during the incubation period, the acme or the convalescence. 3. The fact that the outmost intensity of secondary viremia of varicella occurs before the onset of exanthemia, that is, during the late incubation period, is confirmed.

  8. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...

  9. Biomass Burning Observation Project Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinman, KI [Brookhaven National Laboratory; Sedlacek, AJ [Brookhaven National Laboratory

    2013-09-01

    Aerosols from biomass burning perturb Earth’s climate through the direct radiative effect (both scattering and absorption) and through influences on cloud formation and precipitation and the semi-direct effect. Despite much effort, quantities important to determining radiative forcing such as the mass absorption coefficients (MAC) of light-absorbing carbon, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation rates, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity remain in doubt. Field campaigns in northern temperate latitudes have been overwhelmingly devoted to other aerosol sources in spite of biomass burning producing about one-third of the fine particles (PM2.5) in the U.S.

  10. New Perspectives on African Biomass Burning Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gareth; Wooster, Martin J.

    2007-09-01

    Biomass burning is a key Earth system process and, in particular a major element of the terrestrial carbon cycle and a globally significant source of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Smoke emitted during combustion affects air quality, atmospheric chemical composition, and Earth's radiation budget [Le Canut et al., 1996]. In terms of carbon emissions, vegetation fires are, globally and on average, believed to generate emissions equivalent to between perhaps one third and one half of those from fossil fuel combustion, and savanna fires are responsible for around 50% of the global vegetation fire carbon release [Williams et al., 2007].

  11. Prescribed burning plan : Stillwater NWR : de Braga Burn Unit 67

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1991 Annual Prescribed Burning Plan for Stillwater NWR calls for all 67 acres of the de Braga burn unit to be burned. The objective of this burn is to remove...

  12. New Fashioned Book Burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Reports on results of a teacher's experiment in book burning as a lesson accompanying the teaching of Ray Bradbury's "Fahrenheit 451." Discusses student reactions and the purpose of or justification for the experimental lesson. (TB)

  13. Management of burn wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin; Trop, Marija; Neuhaus, Kathrin

    2013-10-01

    Small and moderate scalds in toddlers are still the most frequent thermal injuries the pediatric surgeons have to face today. Over the last years, surgical treatment of these patients has changed in many aspects. Due to new dressing materials and new surgical treatment strategies that are particularly suitable for children, today, far better functional and aesthetic long-term results are possible. While small and moderate thermal injuries can be treated in most European pediatric surgical departments, the severely burned child must be transferred to a specialized, ideally pediatric, burn center, where a well-trained multidisciplinary team under the leadership of a (ideally pediatric) burn surgeon cares for these highly demanding patients. In future, tissue engineered full thickness skin analogues will most likely play an important role, in pediatric burn as well as postburn reconstructive surgery.

  14. PBXN-110 Burn Rate Estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascoe, E

    2008-08-11

    It is estimated that PBXN-110 will burn laminarly with a burn function of B = (0.6-1.3)*P{sup 1.0} (B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is pressure in MPa). This paper provides a brief discussion of how this burn behavior was estimated.

  15. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third......-degree burn injury was induced with a hot-air blower. The third-degree burn was confirmed histologically. At 48 h, a decline in the concentration of peripheral blood leucocytes was observed in the group of mice with burn wound. The reduction was ascribed to the decline in concentration of polymorphonuclear...... neutrophil leucocytes and monocytes. When infecting the skin with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a dissemination of bacteria was observed only in the burn wound group. Histological characterization of the skin showed an increased polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes dominated inflammation in the group of mice...

  16. Furniture wood wastes: experimental property characterisation and burning tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatàno, Fabio; Barbadoro, Luca; Mangani, Giovanna; Pretelli, Silvia; Tombari, Lucia; Mangani, Filippo

    2009-10-01

    Referring to the industrial wood waste category (as dominant in the provincial district of Pesaro-Urbino, Marche Region, Italy), this paper deals with the experimental characterisation and the carrying out of non-controlled burning tests (at lab- and pilot-scale) for selected "raw" and primarily "engineered" ("composite") wood wastes. The property characterisation has primarily revealed the following aspects: potential influence on moisture content of local weather conditions at outdoor wood waste storage sites; generally, higher ash contents in "engineered" wood wastes as compared with "raw" wood wastes; and relatively high energy content values of "engineered" wood wastes (ranging on the whole from 3675 to 5105 kcal kg(-1) for HHV, and from 3304 to 4634 kcal kg(-1) for LHV). The smoke qualitative analysis of non-controlled lab-scale burning tests has primarily revealed: the presence of specific organic compounds indicative of incomplete wood combustion; the presence exclusively in "engineered" wood burning tests of pyrroles and amines, as well as the additional presence (as compared with "raw" wood burning) of further phenolic and containing nitrogen compounds; and the potential environmental impact of incomplete industrial wood burning on the photochemical smog phenomenon. Finally, non-controlled pilot-scale burning tests have primarily given the following findings: emission presence of carbon monoxide indicative of incomplete wood combustion; higher nitrogen oxide emission values detected in "engineered" wood burning tests as compared with "raw" wood burning test; and considerable generation of the respirable PM(1) fraction during incomplete industrial wood burning.

  17. Burns Caused by Medical Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    fear of litigation, patients with such injuries, even if the injuries are minor, arc often referred to a burn center for care. Burn injury...the potential burn hazards found elsewhere in the hospital. Even fewer studies have addressed the burn risks posed by medical therapy administered...35. Mills GH, Ralph S). Bums due to pulse oximetry [ letter ]. Anaesthesia 1992j47:276·7. 36. Shdlock: FG, Kana! E. Burns associated with the use of

  18. Aerial sampling of emissions from biomass pile burns in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matter (PM2.5 µm), ...

  19. Probing thermonuclear burning on accreting neutron stars

    OpenAIRE

    Keek, L.

    2008-01-01

    Neutron stars are the most compact stars that can be directly observed, which makes them ideal laboratories to study physics at extreme densities. Neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries accrete hydrogen and helium from a lower-mass companion star through Roche lobe overflow. This matter undergoes thermonuclear burning in the neutron star envelope, creating carbon and heavier elements. The fusion process may proceed in an unstable manner, resulting in a thermonuclear runaway. Within one seco...

  20. 低碳混合醇燃烧热的测定%The determination of low carbon mixed alcohol burning hot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金和; 兰翠玲; 韦刘连; 韦云川; 秦娇梅

    2015-01-01

    测量甲醇、乙醇及甲醇/乙醇体积比19∶1,18∶2,17∶3⋯1∶19的20组燃烧热。结果表明,乙醇含量越高,燃烧值也越大。甲醇/乙醇体积比1∶19时燃烧放出的热量最高。但综合价格与燃烧热,-Q V/价格在甲醇/乙醇体积比17∶3时最佳,可作为大规模使用低碳混合醇作替代能源的参考。%Methanol,ethanol,and methanol/ethanol volume ratio of 19∶1,18∶2,17∶3⋯1∶19,20 groups of combustion heat .The results show that the ethanol content is higher , the greater the combustion value . Methanol/ethanol than in 1∶19 when a-B mixed alcohol combustion heat the highest .But the comprehen-sive price and the heat of combustion ,the price of-QV/in methanol ethanol is 17∶3 best,reference the large-scale use of low carbon mixed alcohol as a feasible alternative energy .

  1. Psychiatric aspects of burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries and their subsequent treatment cause one of the most excruciating forms of pain imaginable. The psychological aspects of burn injury have been researched in different parts of the world, producing different outcomes. Studies have shown that greater levels of acute pain are associated with negative long-term psychological effects such as acute stress disorder, depression, suicidal ideation, and post-traumatic stress disorder for as long as 2 years after the initial burn injury. The concept of allostatic load is presented as a potential explanation for the relationship between acute pain and subsequent psychological outcomes. A biopsychosocial model is also presented as a means of obtaining better inpatient pain management and helping to mediate this relationship.

  2. Mexico City aerosol analysis during MILAGRO using high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry at the urban supersite (T0 – Part 2: Analysis of the biomass burning contribution and the modern carbon fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Jimenez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Submicron aerosol was analyzed during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City with a High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS and complementary instrumentation. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF of high resolution AMS spectra identified a biomass burning OA (BBOA component, which includes several large plumes that appear to be from forest fires within the region. Here, we show that the AMS BBOA concentration at T0 correlates with fire counts in the vicinity of Mexico City and that most of the BBOA variability is captured when the FLEXPART model is used for the dispersion of fire emissions as estimated from satellite fire counts. The resulting FLEXPART fire impact index correlates well with the observed BBOA, CH3CN, levoglucosan, and potassium, indicating that wildfires in the region surrounding Mexico City are the dominant source of BBOA at T0 during MILAGRO. The impact of distant BB sources such as the Yucatan is small during this period. All fire tracers are correlated, with BBOA and levoglucosan showing little background, acetonitrile having a well-known tropospheric background of ~100–150 ppt, and PM2.5 potassium having a background of ~160 ng m−3 (two-thirds of its average concentration, which does not appear to be related to BB sources. We define two high fire periods based on satellite fire counts and predicted fire impacts. We then compare these periods with a low fire period when the impact of regional fires is about a factor of 5 smaller. Fire tracers are very elevated in the high fire periods whereas tracers of urban pollution do not change between these periods. Dust is also elevated during the high BB period but this appears to be coincidental due to the drier conditions and not driven by direct dust emission from the fires. The AMS oxygenated OA factor (OOA, mostly secondary OA or SOA does not show an increase during the fire periods or a

  3. An assessment of burn care professionals' attitudes to major burn.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, A D

    2008-06-01

    The resuscitation of severe burn remains a controversial area within the burn care profession. There is ongoing debate as to what percentage burn is associated with a sufficient quality of life to support initial resuscitation efforts. We conducted a survey of delegates at the 39th Annual Meeting of the British Burns Association (2005), regarding attitudes towards resuscitation following major burns. Respondents were asked the maximum percentage total body surface area (TBSA) burn beyond which they would not wish to be resuscitated. They were also asked what maximum TBSA they perceived to be commensurate with an acceptable quality of life (QOL). One hundred and forty three of 300 delegates responded to the questionnaire. Thirty three percent of respondents would not wish to be resuscitated with 50-75% TBSA burns or greater. A further 35% would not wish to have life-sustaining intervention with 75-95% TBSA burns or greater. The remaining 32% indicated that they would not want resuscitation with TBSA burns>95%. Regardless of TBSA affected, 16% would not wish resuscitation if they had full thickness facial burns, a further 10% did not want resuscitation if both their hands and faces were affected. Our survey demonstrates the diversity of personal preference amongst burn care professionals. This would suggest that a unifying philosophy regarding the resuscitation of extensive burns will remain elusive.

  4. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Professionals Phoenix Society is the leader in connecting the burn recovery community and creating resources for survivors. Since 1977, we have partnered with survivors, families, health care professionals, burn centers, and the fire ...

  5. Back Bay Wilderness burning support

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a memorandum concerning prescribed burns between members of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. It states that burning should be supported...

  6. TIRES, OPEN BURNING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

  7. PLASTIC SURGERY AND BURNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Objective Endotoxin as the inciting agentof cytokines and other mediators, whose highlevel expression correlates with the septicshock and MOF, has been the one of leadingcauses of death in ICU. Methods For treatingsepsis and MOF caused by endotoxin, the anti-lipid A of LPS antibody was used. 19 burned

  8. Chemical burn or reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000059.htm Chemical burn or reaction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chemicals that touch skin can lead to a reaction on the skin, throughout the body, or both. ...

  9. The year in burns 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Steven E

    2009-12-01

    For 2008, approximately 1200 original burn research articles were published in scientific journals using the English language. This article reviews those with the most impact on burn treatment according to the Editor of one of the major journals (Burns). As in the previous year's review, articles were divided into the following topic areas: epidemiology, wound characterisation, critical care physiology, inhalation injury, infection, metabolism and nutrition, psychological considerations, pain management, rehabilitation, and burn reconstruction. Each selected article is mentioned briefly with editorial comment.

  10. Silica Derived from Burned Rice Hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. de Souza

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Three new processes to obtain silica having high specific surface area from burned pre-treated rice hulls are presented and discussed. These procedures allow for the simultaneous recovery of biomass energy and the production of high quality silica at thermoelectric plants, without the risk of using corrosive substances in the burning process. The first method involves treatment of the hull with hot organic acid solutions before burning, the second with boiling water, both using an autoclave at temperatures close to150 °C, while the third method renders the hull fragile by treating it at 250 °C and reducing it to a fine powder before burning. The first two methods result in white amorphous silica that can show 500 m²/g of specific surface area. The third method, which does not remove the alkaline elements from the hull, produces an amorphous gray carbon-free powder whose specific surface area can be as high as 250 m²/g. An investigation of the specific surface area of the prepared silica indicates the alkaline elements are not mixed with silica in the hulls or combined as insoluble compounds. A comparison is made of these processes and the dissolution of silica by sodium hydroxide solutions is discussed.

  11. Burn epidemiology and cost of medication in paediatric burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Zeliha; Sağlam, Zeynep

    2012-09-01

    Burns are common injuries that cause problems to societies throughout the world. In order to reduce the cost of burn treatment in children, it is extremely important to determine the burn epidemiology and the cost of medicines used in burn treatment. The present study used a retrospective design, with data collected from medical records of 140 paediatric patients admitted to a burn centre between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2009. Medical records were examined to determine burn epidemiology, medication administered, dosage, and duration of use. Descriptive statistical analysis was completed for all variables; chi-square was used to examine the relationship between certain variables. It was found that 62.7% of paediatric burns occur in the kitchen, with 70.7% involving boiling water; 55.7% of cases resulted in third-degree burns, 19.3% required grafting, and mean duration of hospital stay was 27.5 ± 1.2 days. Medication costs varied between $1.38 US dollars (USD) and $14,159.09, total drug cost was $46,148.03 and average cost per patient was $329.63. In this study, the medication cost for burn patients was found to be relatively high, with antibiotics comprising the vast majority of medication expenditure. Most paediatric burns are preventable, so it is vital to educate families about potential household hazards that can be addressed to reduce the risk of a burn. Programmes are also recommended to reduce costs and the inappropriate prescribing of medication.

  12. The year in burns 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Steven E; Arnoldo, Brett D

    2012-12-01

    For 2011, approximately 1746 original research articles in burns were published in English in scientific journals. This article reviews those with the most potential impact on for burn therapeutics and outcomes according to the Editor of one of the major journals (Burns) and his colleague. As done previously, articles were found and divided into these topic areas: epidemiology of injury and burn prevention, wound and scar characterisation, acute care and critical care, inhalation injury, infection, psychological considerations, pain and itching management, rehabilitation and long-term outcomes, and burn reconstruction. Each selected article is mentioned briefly with editorial comment.

  13. [Burning mouth syndrome (glossalgia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (glossalgia) is manifested by oral pin and tingling sensations, numbness and even burning and severe pains, more frequently in the tongue. Unpleasant sensations may involve the anterior two thirds of the tongue or be extended to the front part of the hard palate and the mucous membrane of the lower lip. This condition is characterized by "mirror" and "food dominant" symptoms, disordered salivation, dysgeusia, or psychological disorders. The disease shows a chronic course. Its etiology may be multifactorial. There are no universally accepted diagnostic criteria; the diagnosis of glossalgia is made to rule out all other causes. A thorough examination should be conducted to establish a differential diagnosis. Glossalgia occurs primarily in middle-aged and elderly people. Women get sick much more frequently than men of the same age. Glossalgia remains difficult to treat. Continuous symptomatic treatment and follow-up help relieve its symptoms.

  14. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated.

  15. Flight-based chemical characterization of biomass burning aerosols within two prescribed burn smoke plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Pratt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning represents a major global source of aerosols impacting direct radiative forcing and cloud properties. Thus, the goal of a number of current studies involves developing a better understanding of how the chemical composition and mixing state of biomass burning aerosols evolve during atmospheric aging processes. During the Ice in Clouds Experiment-Layer Clouds (ICE-L in the fall of 2007, smoke plumes from two small Wyoming Bureau of Land Management prescribed burns were measured by on-line aerosol instrumentation aboard a C-130 aircraft, providing a detailed chemical characterization of the particles. After ~2–4 min of aging, submicron smoke particles, produced primarily from sagebrush combustion, consisted predominantly of organics by mass, but were comprised primarily of internal mixtures of organic carbon, elemental carbon, potassium chloride, and potassium sulfate. Significantly, the fresh biomass burning particles contained minor mass fractions of nitrate and sulfate, suggesting that hygroscopic material is incorporated very near or at the point of emission. The mass fractions of ammonium, sulfate, and nitrate increased with aging up to ~81–88 min and resulted in acidic particles. Decreasing black carbon mass concentrations occurred due to dilution of the plume. Increases in the fraction of oxygenated organic carbon and the presence of dicarboxylic acids, in particular, were observed with aging. Cloud condensation nuclei measurements suggested all particles >100 nm were active at 0.5% water supersaturation in the smoke plumes, confirming the relatively high hygroscopicity of the freshly emitted particles. For immersion/condensation freezing, ice nuclei measurements at −32 °C suggested activation of ~0.03–0.07% of the particles with diameters greater than 500 nm.

  16. Flight-based chemical characterization of biomass burning aerosols within two prescribed burn smoke plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Pratt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning represents a major global source of aerosols impacting direct radiative forcing and cloud properties. Thus, the goal of a number of current studies involves developing a better understanding of how the chemical composition and mixing state of biomass burning aerosols evolve during atmospheric aging processes. During the Ice in Cloud Experiment – Layer Clouds (ICE-L in fall of 2007, smoke plumes from two small Wyoming Bureau of Land Management prescribed burns were measured by on-line aerosol instrumentation aboard a C-130 aircraft, providing a detailed chemical characterization of the particles. After ~2–4 min of aging, submicron smoke particles, produced primarily from sagebrush combustion, consisted predominantly of organics by mass, but were comprised primarily of internal mixtures of organic carbon, elemental carbon, potassium chloride, and potassium sulfate. Significantly, 100 % of the fresh biomass burning particles contained minor mass fractions of nitrate and sulfate, suggesting that hygroscopic material is incorporated very near or at the point of emission. The mass fractions of ammonium, sulfate, and nitrate increased with aging up to ~81–88 min and resulted in acidic particles, with both nitric acid and sulfuric acid present. Decreasing black carbon mass concentrations occurred due to dilution of the plume. Increases in the fraction of oxygenated organic carbon and the presence of dicarboxylic acids, in particular, were observed with aging. Cloud condensation nuclei measurements suggested all particles >100 nm were active at 0.5 % water supersaturation in the smoke plumes, confirming the relatively high hygroscopicity of the freshly emitted particles. For immersion/condensation freezing, ice nuclei measurements at −32 °C suggested activation of ~0.03–0.07 % of the particles with diameters greater than 500 nm.

  17. Burning Used Automotive Tires for Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byung-Chul; Choi, Wook; Lim, Myung-Taeck

    Shredded tire, considered as a single compound in defining theoretical air/fuel ratio, was heated in a quartz reactor placed in an electric furnace under conditions of various excess air ratios, temperatures and heating rates; temperature of up to 1050°C, heating rate of 20, 50, and 80°C/min, and FR of 0.2-1.0. Mass of solid char decreased as the final reaction temperature was raised up to about 600°C around which it maintained a relatively constant value before beginning to increase again at the final reaction temperature of about 800°C. The two-phased decrease of solid char mass with a transition seems to be caused by different modes of combustion. The effects of heating rate and FR (Feed Ratio) were relatively smaller than that of temperature on the mass reduction of solid char, but were significant on the emission of CO and its oxidation to CO2. The fraction of smaller pores in solid char grew bigger as the final reaction temperature went up, resulting in higher surface area. Surface area also increased with decreasing FR from 0.8 to 0.4. Water injection proved so effective in increasing the surface area that the BET value almost doubled when proper amount of water was injected during combustion.

  18. Seasonal characteristics of biomass burning contribution to Beijing aerosol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Xiaoyan; LIU; Xiande; ZHAO; Fenghua; DUAN; Fengkui

    2005-01-01

    110 atmospheric aerosol samples collected from November 1997 to October 1998 at two monitoring sites (Ming Tomb and Temple Heaven) in Beijing were analyzed for the concentration of organic carbon (OC) and water-soluble potassium (K+). Four biomass burning episodes, namely spring farming, summer harvesting, autumn harvesting and leaf falling were identified using the tracer of K+. Biomass burning contribution to the urban aerosol OC concentration in Beijing was estimated by regression analysis of OC and K+ concentration data. The slopes of regression analysis are similar at the two monitoring sites, presenting regional characteristics. Severe air pollution event occurred during autumn harvesting period in 1998 with substantial secondary OC formed, in which biomass burning was one of the major emission sources. Biomass burning is a prominent source of aerosol OC in Beijing and is featured by its seasonality and periodicity. It may contribute as much as 30 to 60 percent of the total OC in typical cases.

  19. Fine particles and carbon monoxide from wood burning in 17th-19th century Danish kitchens: Measurements at two reconstructed farm houses at the Lejre Historical-Archaeological Experimental Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryhl-Svendsen, Morten; Clausen, Geo; Chowdhury, Zohir; Smith, Kirk R.

    2010-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM 2.5) were measured in two reconstructed Danish farmhouses (17-19th century) during two weeks of summer. During the first week intensive measurements were performed while test cooking fires were burned, during the second week the houses were monitored while occupied by guest families. A masonry hearth was located in the middle of each house for open cooking fires and with heating stoves. One house had a chimney leading to the outside over the hearth; in the other, a brickwork hood led the smoke into an attic and through holes in the roof. During the first week the concentration of PM 2.5 averaged daily between 138 and 1650 μg m -3 inside the hearths and 21-160 μg m -3 in adjacent living rooms. CO averaged daily between 0.21 and 1.9 ppm in living areas, and up to 12 ppm in the hearths. Highest concentrations were measured when two fires were lit at the same time, which would cause high personal exposure for someone working in the kitchens. 15 min averages of up to 25 400 μg m -3 (PM 2.5) and 260 ppm CO were recorded. WHO air quality guidelines were occasionally exceeded for CO and constantly for PM 2.5. However, air exchange and air distribution measurements revealed a large draw in the chimney, which ensured a fast removal of wood smoke from the hearth area. The guest families were in average exposed to no more than 0.21 ppm CO during 48 h. Based on a hypothetical time-activity pattern, however, a woman living in this type of house during the 17-19th century would be exposed to daily averages of 1.1 ppm CO and 196 μg m -3 PM 2.5, which exceeds WHO guideline for PM 2.5, and is comparable to what is today observed for women in rural areas of developing countries.

  20. The hair color-highlighting burn: a unique burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, W

    2000-01-01

    A unique, preventable, 2.8 x 3.7-cm, full-thickness scalp burn resulted after a woman underwent a professional color-highlighting procedure at a hair salon. The burn appeared to result from scalp contact with aluminum foil that had been overheated by a hair dryer during the procedure. The wound required debridement and skin grafting and 3 subsequent serial excisions to eliminate the resulting area of burn scar alopecia. The preventive aspects of this injury are discussed.

  1. [The organization of burn care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, Jacques

    2002-12-15

    In 2002, the organisation of burn care is confronted to a great deficiency in burn epidemiological datas. The main mechanisms of hospitalized burns are somehow wellknown in industrialized countries: about 60% scalds and 30% flame burns; as well as the place of occurrence (60% at home, and 20% at work), and the risk groups (3 times more important for the age group 0-4 years old). The incidence of burns needing medical care (all levels) (250/100,000 inh/yr) or hospitalization (15-20/100,000 inh/yr) is much more uncertain. The statistics of Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG), for hospitalized patients will allow in France very shortly to know more about the most rational ways of dispatching and treating them. They already show that only 30% of hospitalized burned patients are treated in specialized facilities.

  2. Mexico city aerosol analysis during MILAGRO using high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry at the urban supersite (T0) - Part 2: Analysis of the biomass burning contribution and the non-fossil carbon fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiken, A.C.; Wang, J.; de Foy, B.; Wiedinmyer, C.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Ulbrich, I. M.; Wehrli, M. N.; Szidat, S.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Noda, J.; Wacker, L.; Volkamer, R.; Fortner, E.; Laskin, A.; Shutthanandan, V.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.; Paredes-Miranda, G.; Arnott, W. P.; Molina, L. T.; Sosa, G.; Querol, X.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2010-06-16

    Submicron aerosol was analyzed during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City with a High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and complementary instrumentation. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) of high resolution AMS spectra identified a biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) component, which includes several large plumes that appear to be from forest fires within the region. Here, we show that the AMS BBOA concentration at T0 correlates with fire counts in the vicinity of Mexico City and that most of the BBOA variability is captured when the FLEXPART model is used for the dispersion of fire emissions as estimated from satellite fire counts. The resulting FLEXPART fire impact factor (FIF) correlates well with the observed BBOA, acetonitrile (CH3CN), levoglucosan, and potassium, indicating that wildfires in the region surrounding Mexico City are the dominant source of BBOA at T0 during MILAGRO. The impact of distant BB sources such as the Yucatan is small during this period. All fire tracers are correlated, with BBOA and levoglucosan showing little background, acetonitrile having a well-known tropospheric background of {approx}100-150 pptv, and PM2.5 potassium having a background of {approx}160 ng m3 (two-thirds of its average concentration), which does not appear to be related to BB sources. We define two high fire periods based on satellite fire counts and FLEXPART-predicted FIFs. We then compare these periods with a low fire period when the impact of regional fires is about a factor of 5 smaller. Fire tracers are very elevated in the high fire periods whereas tracers of urban pollution do not change between these periods. Dust is also elevated during the high BB period but this appears to be coincidental due to the drier conditions and not driven by direct dust emission from the fires. The AMS oxygenated organic aerosol (OA) factor (OOA, mostly secondary OA or SOA) does not show an increase during the fire

  3. Genital burns and vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, R; Manandhar, V; Wittgenstein, F; Fortney, J A; Fukushima, C

    1995-07-01

    Obstetric complications may result from burn scarring in the genital area. Women in developing countries typically squat around cooking fires, and burns are common. This recent case in Nepal describes obstructed labor in a young woman whose genital area had extensive scarring from a cooking fire injury. Proper antenatal assessment by health care providers can reduce the risk to mothers and infants of the consequences of a birth canal damaged or obstructed by burn scarring.

  4. [Epidemiology of burns in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, Jacques; Ravat, François

    2012-01-01

    As with most traumas, the epidemiology of the "burn" health-event has long been neglected by public health doctors and rarely considered by burns specialists. There were therefore few verified data and many approximations and preconceived ideas. The gathering of information recently undertaken in France enables the reliability of the data to be improved and the diagnostic and demographic elements relating to hospitalised patients with burns to be established.

  5. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high-inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  6. Exercise following burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lateur, Barbara J; Shore, Wendy S

    2011-05-01

    Fatigue is a major barrier to recovery for burned individuals. Studies indicate that a slow return to normal or near-normal muscle strength is the natural course of recovery. With no special interventions, other than the "usual care" tailored to the needs of the individual, postburn patients will make gradual improvement in strength and aerobic capacity. Using the principle of initial condition (the worse the initial condition, the greater the response to exercise intervention) the authors outline an augmented exercise program that should result in a robust improvement in aerobic capacity.

  7. Nutrition Support in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Aydoğan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Severe burn trauma causes serious metabolic derangements. Increased metabolic rate which is apart of a pathophysiologic characteristic of burn trauma results in protein-energy malnutrition. This situation causes impaired wound healing, muscle and fat tissue’s breakdown, growth retardation in children and infections. Nutrition support is vital in the treatment strategies of burn victims to prevent high mortal and disabling complications in this devastating trauma. Our aim in this study is to review management of nutrition in burn victims. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2012; 10: 74-83

  8. Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

  9. How to manage burns in primary care.

    OpenAIRE

    Waitzman, A. A.; Neligan, P. C.

    1993-01-01

    Burns are common injuries; more than 200,000 occur in Canada annually. Nearly all burn injuries can be managed on on outpatient basis. Appropriate treatment depends on burn depth, extent, and location. Special types of burns, such as chemical, tar, and electrical injuries, need specific management strategies. Prevention through education is important to reduce the incidence of burns.

  10. Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-24

    Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface

  11. Combustion of biomass as a global carbon sink

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This note is intended to highlight the important role of black carbon produced from biomass burning in the global carbon cycle, and encourage further research in this area. Consideration of the fundamental physical chemistry of cellulose thermal decomposition suggests that suppression of biomass burning or biasing burning practices to produce soot-free flames must inevitably transfer more carbon to the atmosphere. A simple order-of-magnitude quantitative analysis indicates that black carbon m...

  12. Bad advice; bad burn: a new problem in burn prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, L; Slater, H; Goldfarb, I W

    1990-01-01

    Deep partial-thickness burns had been inflicted on the perineal area of an infant who was recently treated in our Burn Center. The burns were a result of advice to the patient's mother by a pediatrician. The doctor told her to use a hair dryer to prevent diaper rash. We surveyed pediatricians, well-baby clinics, and pediatric nurse practitioners in our area and found that approximately half of them advised the use of hair dryers to treat or prevent diaper rash. We tested four widely available hand-held hair dryers to determine potential for inflicting burn injury. All of the dryers are capable of delivering air heated to at least 53 degrees C after 2 minutes of use. We believe that warnings against the use of hair dryers for perineal hygiene should be included in burn prevention programs.

  13. Characterization of biomass burning particles: chemical composition and processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, P. K.; Murphy, D. M.; Cziczo, D. J.; Thomson, D. S.; Degouw, J.; Warneke, C.

    2003-12-01

    During the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) mission in April and May of 2002, a forest fire plume was intercepted over Utah on May 19. Gas phase species acetonitrile (CH3CN) (a biomass burning tracer) and carbon monoxide (CO) measured greater than five fold enhancements over background concentrations during this plume crossing. In the 100 sec plume crossing, the Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry (PALMS) instrument acquired 202 positive mass spectra of biomass burning particles. Many of these particles contained potassium in addition to organics, carbon, and NO+ (which is a signature for any nitrogen containing compound such as ammonium or nitrate). From characterization of the particle mass spectra obtained during the plume crossing, a qualitative signature has been determined for identifying biomass burning particles. By applying this analysis to the entire ITCT mission, several transport events of smoke plumes have been identified and were confirmed by gas phase measurements. Additional species, such as sulfate, found in the mass spectra of the transported particles indicated processing or aging of the biomass burning particles that had taken place. The analysis has been extended to other field missions (Crystal-Face, ACCENT, and WAM) to identify biomass burning particles without the added benefit of gas phase measurements.

  14. Wanted: Clean Coal Burning Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China is intent on developing clean coal burning technology, an objective it can achieve through installing desulfurization facilities at coal-burning power plants that will control SO2 emissions and environmental pollution. According to kuo Yi, deputy director general of the Department of Science and Technology of the State Environmental Protection Agency, China is a major coal-buming country:

  15. Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nfpa.org Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen The air is normally 21% oxygen. Oxygen is not flammable, but fire needs it to burn. ¾ When more oxygen is present, any fire that starts will burn ...

  16. Burn, thermal - close-up (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first degree burns cause only reddening of the epidermis (outer layer of the skin), as seen in this photograph. Second degree burns cause blistering and extend into the dermis (lower layer of skin). Third degree burns cause ...

  17. The year in burns 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Steven E; Phelan, Herbert A; Arnoldo, Brett D

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 3415 research articles were published with burns in the title, abstract, and/or keyword in 2013. We have continued to see an increase in this number; the following reviews articles selected from these by the Editor of one of the major journals (Burns) and colleagues that in their opinion are most likely to have effects on burn care treatment and understanding. As we have done before, articles were found and divided into the following topic areas: epidemiology of injury and burn prevention, wound and scar characterization, acute care and critical care, inhalation injury, infection, psychological considerations, pain and itching management, rehabilitation and long-term outcomes, and burn reconstruction. The articles are mentioned briefly with notes from the authors; readers are referred to the full papers for details.

  18. The biology of burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Lars H; Bhavsar, Dhaval; Mailänder, Peter

    2010-09-01

    Burn injury is a complex traumatic event with various local and systemic effects, affecting several organ systems beyond the skin. The pathophysiology of the burn patient shows the full spectrum of the complexity of inflammatory response reactions. In the acute phase, inflammation mechanism may have negative effects because of capillary leak, the propagation of inhalation injury and the development of multiple organ failure. Attempts to mediate these processes remain a central subject of burn care research. Conversely, inflammation is a necessary prologue and component in the later-stage processes of wound healing. In this review, we are attempting to present the current science of burn wound pathophysiology and wound healing. We also describe the evolution of innovative strategies for burn management.

  19. After-burning of nitropenta products in a calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, A L; Neuwald, P; Reichenbach, H

    1999-06-18

    Explored here are the ''after-burning'' effects for explosions of Nitropenta (NP) charges in air. Detonation of the charge transforms the solid explosive ( C HNO 5 8412 , also known as PETN) into gaseous products that are rich in carbon and CO, which subsequently act as a fuel. When these hot ({approximately}3500 K) gases mix with air, rapid combustion (after-burning) takes place. The dynamics of this exothermic process was studied in ''pressure calorimeter'' experiments performed at EMI.

  20. Mixing between a stratospheric intrusion and a biomass burning plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brioude

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Ozone, carbon monoxide, aerosol extinction coefficient, acetonitrile, nitric acid and relative humidity measured from the NOAA P3 aircraft during the TexAQS/GoMACCS 2006 experiment, indicate mixing between a biomass burning plume and a stratospheric intrusion in the free troposphere above eastern Texas. Lagrangian-based transport analysis and satellite imagery are used to investigate the transport mechanisms that bring together the tropopause fold and the biomass burning plume originating in southern California, which may affect the chemical budget of tropospheric trace gases.

  1. Mixing between a stratospheric intrusion and a biomass burning plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brioude

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Ozone, carbon monoxide, aerosol extinction coefficient, acetonitrile, nitric acid and relative humidity measured from the NOAA P3 aircraft during the TexAQS/GoMACCS 2006 experiment, indicate mixing between a biomass burning plume and a stratospheric intrusion in the free troposphere above eastern Texas. Lagrangian-based transport analysis and satellite imagery are used to investigate the transport mechanisms that bring together the tropopause fold and the biomass burning plume originating in southern California, which may affect the chemical budget of tropospheric trace gases.

  2. Impact of biomass burning on the atmosphere. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dignon, J.

    1994-04-01

    Fire has played an important part in biogeochemical cycling throughout much of the history of our plant. This report addresses the coupled evolution of our planet`s atmospheric composition and biomass burning. Special attention is paid to the chemical and climatic impacts of biomass burning on the atmosphere throughout the last century, specifically looking at the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. Information from ice core measurements may be useful in understanding the history of fire and its historic affect on the composition of the atmosphere and climate.

  3. Levoglucosan indicates high levels of biomass burning aerosols over oceans from the Arctic to Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q.; Xie, Z.; Wang, X.; Kang, H.; Zhang, P.

    2015-12-01

    Biomass burning discharges numerous kinds of gases and aerosols, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), black carbon (BC), alcohols, organic acids and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and is known to affect air quality, global carbon cycle, and climate. However, the extent to which biomass burning gases/aerosols are present on a global scale, especially in the marine atmosphere, is poorly understood. Here we measure levoglucosan, a superior molecular tracer of biomass burning aerosols because of its single source, in marine air from the Arctic Ocean through the North and South Pacific Ocean to coastal Antarctica during burning season. Levoglucosan was found to be present in all regions at ng/m3 levels. As a whole, levoglucosan concentrations in the Southern Hemisphere were comparable to those in the Northern Hemisphere. Marine air in the mid-latitudes (30°-60° N and S) has the highest levoglucosan loading due to the emission from adjacent lands. Air over the Arctic Ocean which affected by biomass burning in the east Siberia has intermediate loading. Equatorial latitudes is the main source of biomass burning emissions, however, levoglucosan is in relatively low level. Large amount of precipitation and high hydroxyl radical concentration in this region cause more deposition and degradation of levoglucosan during transport. Previous studies were debatable on the influence of biomass burning on the Antarctic because of uncertain source of BC. Here via levoglucosan, it is proved that although far away from emission sources, the Antarctic is still affected by biomass burning aerosols which may be derived from South America. Biomass burning has a significant impact on mercury (Hg) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in marine aerosols from pole to pole, with more contribution to WSOC in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere.

  4. Topical agents in burn care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injured. It was not until the XX century, after the discovery of antibiotics, when this condition was fulfilled. In 1968, combining silver and sulfadiazine, fox made silver-sulfadiazine, which is a 1% hydro-soluble cream and a superior agent in topical treatment of burns today. Current topical agents None of the topical antimicrobial agents available today, alone or combined, have the characteristics of ideal prophylactic agents, but they eliminate colonization of burn wound, and invasive infections are infrequent. With an excellent spectrum of activity, low toxicity, and ease of application with minimal pain, silver-sulfadiazine is still the most frequently used topical agent. Conclusion The incidence of invasive infections and overall mortality have been significantly reduced after introduction of topical burn wound antimicrobial agents into practice. In most burn patients the drug of choice for prophylaxis is silver sulfadiazine. Other agents may be useful in certain clinical situations.

  5. Sedation and Analgesia in Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan Akıncı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury is one of the most serious injuries that mankind may face. In addition to serious inflammation, excessive fluid loss, presence of hemodynamic instability due to intercurrent factors such as debridements, infections and organ failure, very different levels and intensities of pain, psychological problems such as traumatic stress disorder, depression, delirium at different levels that occur in patient with severe burn are the factors which make it difficult to provide the patient comfort. In addition to a mild to moderate level of baseline permanent pain in burn patients, which is due to tissue damage, there is procedural pain as well, which occurs by treatments such as grafting and dressings, that are severe, short-term burst style 'breakthrough' pain. Movement and tactile stimuli are also seen in burn injury as an effect to sensitize the peripheral and central nervous system. Even though many burn centers have established protocols to struggle with the pain, studies show that pain relief still inadequate in burn patients. Therefore, the treatment of burn pain and the prevention of possible emergence of future psychiatric problems suc as post-traumatic stress disorder, the sedative and anxiolytic agents should be used as a recommendation according to the needs and hemodynamic status of individual patient. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 26-30

  6. Rehabilitation of the burn patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procter Fiona

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ′Burns Rehabilitation′ incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for burn patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these areas following a burn injury. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of burn rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration

  7. [Reconstruction of facial burn sequelae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyatier, J L; Comparin, J P; Boulos, J P; Bichet, J C; Jacquin, F

    2001-06-01

    The deep burns of the face can lead to horrible scars functionally and aesthetically. Treatment of these scars need several surgical interventions frequently and during many years. In our region we deal with this type of wounds as team work, multidisciplinary approach carrying out many process starting by emergency treatment of acute burns till the social rehabilitation. The expansion technique was great help in improving the shape of scars, by using the expanding skin as full thickness grafts. Reconstruction of the anatomical units and application of aesthetic techniques (like rhinoplasty, lifting, tattooing and autologous fat injections) participate equally in improving the quality of results. Many examples of treatments of burns scars are shown.

  8. Hair bleaching and skin burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, K; Lingitz, R; Prattes, G; Schneider, G; Sutter, S; Schintler, M; Trop, M

    2012-12-31

    Hairdressing-related burns are preventable and therefore each case is one too many. We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond and placed under a dryer to accelerate the highlighting procedure. The wound on the nape of the neck required surgical debridement and skin grafting. The grafted area resulted in subsequent scar formation.

  9. Regimes Of Helium Burning

    CERN Document Server

    Timmes, F X

    2000-01-01

    The burning regimes encountered by laminar deflagrations and ZND detonations propagating through helium-rich compositions in the presence of buoyancy-driven turbulence are analyzed. Particular attention is given to models of X-ray bursts which start with a thermonuclear runaway on the surface of a neutron star, and the thin shell helium instability of intermediate-mass stars. In the X-ray burst case, turbulent deflagrations propagating in the lateral or radial directions encounter a transition from the distributed regime to the flamlet regime at a density of 10^8 g cm^{-3}. In the radial direction, the purely laminar deflagration width is larger than the pressure scale height for densities smaller than 10^6 g cm^{-3}. Self-sustained laminar deflagrations travelling in the radial direction cannot exist below this density. Similarily, the planar ZND detonation width becomes larger than the pressure scale height at 10^7 g cm^{-3}, suggesting that a steady-state, self-sustained detonations cannot come into exista...

  10. Efecto de la severidad de quemado sobre la concentración de carbono orgánico en montículos e intermontículos en el monte austral Effect of burn severity on the soil organic carbon concentration mounds and intermounds in the monte austral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Gaitán

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El efecto de la severidad de quemado sobre la concentración de carbono orgánico (COS en los montículos vegetados y en los intermontículos de suelo desnudo fue evaluado 4 años luego de la ocurrencia de un incendio natural en un área del Monte Austral (provincia de Río Negro. Los montículos actúan como "islas de fertilidad" dado que la concentración de COS fue mayor que en los intermontículos. La concentración de COS en los intermontículos no fue afectada por el incendio. En cambio en los montículos se halló una disminución en la concentración de COS al incrementarse la severidad de quemado. La pérdida de COS podría inducir una degradación de los pastizales, por lo tanto las prácticas de manejo del fuego deberían tender a la realización de quemas de baja severidad.The effect of burn severity on soil organic carbon concentration (COS in vegetated mounds and in bare soil intermounds was evaluated 4 years after the occurrence of a natural fire in an area of the Monte Austral (Río Negro province. The mounds act as "fertility islands" since COS concentration was higher than in the intermounds. The COS concentration in the intermounds was not affected by fire. On the other hand, in the mounds a decrease in the COS concentration was found when the burn severity increased. The COS loss could induce rangelands degradation, therefore fire management practices should tend to the realization of low severity burns.

  11. Hair dryer burns in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, P R

    1990-11-01

    Three children with burn injuries caused by home hair dryers are described. In one patient the injury was believed to be accidental, and in the other two cases the injuries were deliberately caused by a caretaker. The lack of prior experience with hair dryer burns initially led to suspicion of other causes. The characteristics of each case aided in the final determination of accidental vs nonaccidental injury. These cases prompted testing of home hair dryers to determine their heat output. At the highest heat settings, the dryers rapidly generated temperatures in excess of 110 degrees C. After the dryers were turned off, the protective grills maintained sufficient temperatures to cause full-thickness burns for up to 2 minutes. These cases and the results of testing demonstrate that hair dryers must be added to the list of known causes of accidental and nonaccidental burns in children.

  12. Burns, hypertrophic scar and galactorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Hamid; Nourizad, Samad; Momeni, Mahnoush; Rahbar, Hosein; Momeni, Mazdak; Farhadi, Khosro

    2013-07-01

    An 18-year-old woman was admitted to Motahari Burn Center suffering from 30% burns. Treatment modalities were carried out for the patient and she was discharged after 20 days. Three to four months later she developed hypertrophic scar on her chest and upper limbs. At the same time she developed galactorrhea in both breasts and had a disturbed menstrual cycle four months post-burn. On investigation, we found hyperprolactinemia and no other reasons for the high level of prolactin were detected.She received treatment for both the hypertrophic scar and the severe itching she was experiencing. After seven months, her prolactin level had decreased but had not returned to the normal level. It seems that refractory hypertrophic scar is related to the high level of prolactin in burns patients.

  13. Burns, hypertrophic scar and galactorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Karimi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year old woman was admitted to Motahari Burn Center suffering from 30% burns. Treatment modalities were carried out for the patient and she was discharged after 20 days. Three to four months later she developed hypertrophic scar on her chest and upper limbs .At the same time she developed galactorrhea in both breasts and had a disturbed menstrual cycle four months post-burn. On investigation, we found hyperprolactinemia and no other reasons for the high level of prolactin were detected. She received treatment for both the hypertrophic scar and the severe itching she was experiencing. After seven months, her prolactin level had decreased but had not returned to the normal level. It seems that refractory hypertrophic scar is related to the high level of prolactin in burns patients.

  14. Effect of fasting on the metabolic response of liver to experimental burn injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet A Orman

    Full Text Available Liver metabolism is altered after systemic injuries such as burns and trauma. These changes have been elucidated in rat models of experimental burn injury where the liver was isolated and perfused ex vivo. Because these studies were performed in fasted animals to deplete glycogen stores, thus simplifying quantification of gluconeogenesis, these observations reflect the combined impact of fasting and injury on liver metabolism. Herein we asked whether the metabolic response to experimental burn injury is different in fed vs. fasted animals. Rats were subjected to a cutaneous burn covering 20% of the total body surface area, or to similar procedures without administering the burn, hence a sham-burn. Half of the animals in the burn and sham-burn groups were fasted starting on postburn day 3, and the others allowed to continue ad libitum. On postburn day 4, livers were isolated and perfused for 1 hour in physiological medium supplemented with 10% hematocrit red blood cells. The uptake/release rates of major carbon and nitrogen sources, oxygen, and carbon dioxide were measured during the perfusion and the data fed into a mass balance model to estimate intracellular fluxes. The data show that in fed animals, injury increased glucose output mainly from glycogen breakdown and minimally impacted amino acid metabolism. In fasted animals, injury did not increase glucose output but increased urea production and the uptake of several amino acids, namely glutamine, arginine, glycine, and methionine. Furthermore, sham-burn animals responded to fasting by triggering gluconeogenesis from lactate; however, in burned animals the preferred gluconeogenic substrate was amino acids. Taken together, these results suggest that the fed state prevents the burn-induced increase in hepatic amino acid utilization for gluconeogenesis. The role of glycogen stores and means to increase and/or maintain internal sources of glucose to prevent increased hepatic amino acid

  15. Corneal Protection for Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Amniotic Membrane for the Treatment of Severe Exposure Keratopathy in the New Zealand White Rabbit Introduction: Patients with severe facial burns...often suffer indirect damage to their eyes as a sequela of ocular surface exposure keratopathy. Burn wound contracture of the periocular skin causes...inflammatory properties, amniotic membrane has developed into a mainstay of treatment to help maintain the ocular surface when skin grafting is delayed

  16. Emissions from prescribed burning of timber slash piles in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurell, Johanna; Gullett, Brian K.; Tabor, Dennis; Yonker, Nick

    2017-02-01

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash (Douglas-fir) in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, ultraviolet absorbing PM, elemental/organic carbon, filter-based metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled to determine emission factors, the amount of pollutant formed per amount of biomass burned. The effect on emissions from covering the piles with polyethylene (PE) sheets to prevent fuel wetting versus uncovered piles was also determined. Results showed that the uncovered ("wet") piles burned with lower combustion efficiency and higher emission factors for VOCs, PM2.5, PCDD/PCDF, and PAHs. Removal of the PE prior to ignition, variation of PE size, and changing PE thickness resulted in no statistical distinction between emissions. Results suggest that dry piles, whether covered with PE or not, exhibited statistically significant lower emissions than wet piles due to better combustion efficiency.

  17. Erosive burning of solid propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Merrill K.

    1993-01-01

    Presented here is a review of the experimental and modeling work concerning erosive burning of solid propellants (augmentation of burning rate by flow of product gases across a burning surface). A brief introduction describes the motor design problems caused by this phenomenon, particularly for low port/throat area ratio motors and nozzleless motors. Various experimental techniques for measuring crossflow sensitivity of solid propellant burning rates are described, with the conclusion that accurate simulation of the flow, including upstream flow development, in actual motors is important since the degree of erosive burning depends not only on local mean crossflow velocity and propellant nature, but also upon this upstream development. In the modeling area, a brief review of simplified models and correlating equations is presented, followed by a description of more complex numerical analysis models. Both composite and double-base propellant models are reviewed. A second generation composite model is shown to give good agreement with data obtained in a series of tests in which composite propellant composition and heterogeneity (particle size distribution) were systematically varied. Finally, the use of numerical models for the development of erosive burning correlations is described, and a brief discussion of scaling is presented.

  18. DIFFERENTIATING PERIMORTEM AND POSTMORTEM BURNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmaji Master

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging cases in forensic medicine is ascertaining the cause of death of burnt bodies under suspicious circumstances. The key questions that arise at the time of investigation include: 1  Was the person alive or dead prior to fire accident?  Did the victim die because of burn?  If death was not related to burns, could burns play a role in causing death?  Were the burns sustained accidentally, did the person commit suicide or was the person murdered?  Are the circumstances suggesting an attempt to conceal crime?  How was the fire started?  How was the victim identified?  In case of mass fatalities, who died first? Postmortem burning of corpses is supposed to be one of the ways to hide a crime. Differentiating the actual cause of death in burn patients is therefore important. Medical examiners usually focus on the defining the changes that occur in tissues while forensic anthropologists deal with the changes related to the bone with or without any the influence of other tissues. Under the circumstances of fire, differentiating the perimortem trauma from that of postmortem cause of bone fractures is vital in determining the cause and motive of death

  19. Burn treatment in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, M; Lumenta, D B; Andel, H; Kamolz, L P; Frey, M

    2009-12-01

    The population of elderly patients is expected to rise continuously over the next decades due to global demographic changes. The elderly seem to be most vulnerable to burns and their management remains undoubtedly a challenge. A clear age margin for elderly patients is not yet defined, but most studies adhere to the inclusion of patients 65 years and above, but the general condition and social situation must be taken into account. The understanding of the physiological basis of aging and its related pathophysiological changes has only marginally influenced treatment and decision making in elderly burn patients. When looking at treatment regimens currently applied in elderly burn patients, the discussion of standards in intensive care as well as surgical strategies is ongoing. However, trends towards a moderate, non-aggressive resuscitation approach and careful inclusion of key parameters like physiological age, pre-burn functional status and premorbid conditions, seem to be useful guidelines for interdisciplinary treatment decisions. Once ordered for surgical treatment, the amount of body surface area operated in one session should be adapted to the general status of the patient. Even if older burn victims have a reported higher mortality rate than younger patients, improved therapeutic options have contributed to a reduced mortality rate even in the elderly over the last decades. As a result of improved outcome, more attention has to be given to a comprehensive rehabilitation program. This review will give an overview of the current literature and will draw attention to specific topics related to this important subpopulation of burn patients.

  20. Treatment of Palm Burns in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Argirova, M.; Hadzhiyski, O.

    2005-01-01

    The timing and methods of treatment of palm burns in children vary widely. From January 2002 to November 2004, 492 children with burns - 125 of them with hand burns or other body burns - were hospitalized and treated at the N.I. Pirogov Clinic for Burns and Plastic Surgery in Bulgaria. Fifty-four children (for a total of 73 burned hands) presented isolated palm burns.Twenty-two hands were operated on. In this review we present the incidence, causes, treatment methods, functional results, and ...

  1. Probing thermonuclear burning on accreting neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keek, L.

    2008-12-01

    Neutron stars are the most compact stars that can be directly observed, which makes them ideal laboratories to study physics at extreme densities. Neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries accrete hydrogen and helium from a lower-mass companion star through Roche lobe overflow. This matter undergoes thermonuclear burning in the neutron star envelope, creating carbon and heavier elements. The fusion process may proceed in an unstable manner, resulting in a thermonuclear runaway. Within one second the entire surface is burned, which is observable as a sharp rise in the emitted X-ray flux: a type I X-ray burst. Afterwards the neutron star surface cools down on a timescale of ten to one hundred seconds. During these bursts the surface of an accreting neutron star can be observed directly, which makes them instrumental for studying this type of stars. We have studied rare kinds of X-ray bursts. One such rare burst is the superburst, which lasts a thousand times longer than an ordinary burst. Superbursts are thought to result from the explosive burning of a thick carbon layer, which lies deeper inside the neutron star, close to a layer known as the crust. A prerequisite for the occurrence of a superburst is a high enough temperature, which is set by the temperature of the crust and the heat conductivity of the envelope. The latter is lowered by the presence of heavy elements that are produced during normal X-ray bursts. Using a large set of observations from the Wide Field Camera's onboard the BeppoSAX satellite, we find that, at high accretion rate, sources which do not exhibit normal bursts likely have a longer superburst recurrence time, than the observed superburst recurrence time of one burster. We analyze in detail the first superburst from a transient source, which went into outburst only 55 days before the superburst. Recent models of the neutron star crust predict that this is too small a time to heat the crust sufficiently for superburst ignition, indicating

  2. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    OpenAIRE

    Yalcin Kulahci; Fatih Zor; Mehmet Bozkurt; Serdar Ozturk; Mustafa Sengezer

    2007-01-01

    Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloon...

  3. Chemistry of burning the forest floor during the FROSTFIRE experimental burn, interior Alaska, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, J.W.; Neff, J.C.; Sandberg, D.V.; Turetsky, M.R.; Ottmar, R.; Gleixner, G.; Fries, T.L.; Manies, K.L.

    2004-01-01

    Wildfires represent one of the most common disturbances in boreal regions, and have the potential to reduce C, N, and Hg stocks in soils while contributing to atmospheric emissions. Organic soil layers of the forest floor were sampled before and after the FROSTFIRE experimental burn in interior Alaska, and were analyzed for bulk density, major and trace elements, and organic compounds. Concentrations of carbon, nutrients, and several major and trace elements were significantly altered by the burn. Emissions of C, N, and Hg, estimated from chemical mass balance equations using Fe, Al, and Si as stable constituents, indicated that 500 to 900 g C and up to 0 to 4 ?? 10-4 g Hg/M2 were lost from the site. Calculations of nitrogen loss range from -4 to +6 g/m2 but were highly variable (standard deviation 19), with some samples showing increased N concentrations post-burn potentially from canopy ash. Noncombustible major nutrients such as Ca and K also were inherited from canopy ash. Thermogravimetry indicates a loss of thermally labile C and increase of lignin-like C in char and ash relative to unburned counterparts. Overall, atmospheric impacts of boreal fires include large emissions of C, N and Hg that vary greatly as a function of severe fire weather and its access to deep organic layers rich in C, N, and Hg. In terrestrial systems, burning rearranges the vertical distribution of nutrients in fuels and soils, the proximity of nutrients and permafrost to surface biota, and the chemical composition of soil including its nutrient and organic constituents, all of which impact C cycling. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Modeling Deep Burn TRISO Particle Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Samolyuk, German D [ORNL; Schuck, Paul C [ORNL; Rudin, Sven [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wills, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wirth, Brian D. [University of California, Berkeley; Kim, Sungtae [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Morgan, Dane [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Szlufarska, Izabela [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2012-01-01

    Under the DOE Deep Burn program TRISO fuel is being investigated as a fuel form for consuming plutonium and minor actinides, and for greater efficiency in uranium utilization. The result will thus be to drive TRISO particulate fuel to very high burn-ups. In the current effort the various phenomena in the TRISO particle are being modeled using a variety of techniques. The chemical behavior is being treated utilizing thermochemical analysis to identify phase formation/transformation and chemical activities in the particle, including kernel migration. First principles calculations are being used to investigate the critical issue of fission product palladium attack on the SiC coating layer. Density functional theory is being used to understand fission product diffusion within the plutonia oxide kernel. Kinetic Monte Carlo techniques are shedding light on transport of fission products, most notably silver, through the carbon and SiC coating layers. The diffusion of fission products through an alternative coating layer, ZrC, is being assessed via DFT methods. Finally, a multiscale approach is being used to understand thermal transport, including the effect of radiation damage induced defects, in a model SiC material.

  5. Impact of biomass burning on the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dignon, J.

    1993-03-01

    Fire has played an important part in biogeochemical cycling throughout most of the history of our planet. Ice core studies have been very beneficial in paleoclimate studies and constraining the budgets of biogeochemical cycles through the past 160,000 years of the Vostok ice core. Although to date there has been no way of determining cause and effect, concentration of greenhouse gases directly correlates with temperature in ice core analyses. Recent ice core studies on Greenland have shown that significant climate change can be very rapid on the order of a decade. This chapter addresses the coupled evolution of our planet`s atmospheric composition and biomass burning. Special attention is paid to the chemical and climatic impacts of biomass burning on the atmosphere throughout the last century, specifically looking at the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. Information from ice core measurements may be useful in understanding the history of fire and its historic affect on the composition of the atmosphere and climate.

  6. Burn Patient Expectations from Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Yilmaz sahin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Burn is a kind of painful trauma that requires a long period of treatment and also changes patients body image. For this reason, nursing care of burn patients is very important. In this study in order to provide qualified care to the burned patients, patient and #8217;s expectations from nurses were aimed to be established. METHODS: Patients and #8217; expectations were evaluated on 101 patients with burn in Ministry of Health Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital Burn Service and Gulhane Military Medical Academy Education and Research Hospital Burn Center. A questionnaire which was developed by the researchers was used for collecting data. The questions on the questionnaire were classified into four groups to evaluate the patients and #8217; expectations about communication, information, care and discharge. Data was evaluated by using SPSS 12 package software. RESULTS: In this study, 48.5% of patients were at 18-28 age group, 79.2% were male and 51.5% of patients were employed. Almost all of patients expect nurses to give them confidence (98% and to give them information about latest developments with the disease. Patients prior expectation from nurses about care was to do their treatments regularly (100% and to take the necessary precautions in order to prevent infection (100%. 97% of patient expect nurses to give them information about the drugs, materials and equipment that they are going to use while discharge. CONCLUSION: As a result we found that burn patient expectations from nurses about communication, information, care and discharge were high. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(1.000: 37-46

  7. Characterization of the Particulate Emissions from the BP Deepwell Horizon Spill Surface Oil Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    A particle sample gathered from the plume of the purposely-burned surface oil during the BP Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico was analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic acids, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), metals, and chloro-org...

  8. LA50 in burn injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed-Forootan, K; Karimi, H; Motevalian, S A; Momeni, M; Safari, R; Ghadarjani, M

    2016-03-31

    Burn injuries put a huge financial burden on patients and healthcare systems. They are the 8th leading cause of mortality and the 13th most common cause of morbidity in our country. We used data from our Burn Registry Program to evaluate risk factors for mortality and lethal area fifty percent (LA50) in all burn patients admitted over two years. We used multiple logistic regressions to identify risk factors for mortality. LA50 is a reliable aggregate index for hospital care quality and a good measure for comparing results, also with those of other countries. 28,690 burn patients sought medical attention in the Emergency Department, and 1721 of them were admitted. Male to female ratio was 1,75:1. 514 patients were under 15 years old. Median age was 25 (range: 3 months - 93 years). Overall, probability of death was 8.4%. LA50 was 62.31% (CI 95%: 56.57-70.02) for patients aged 15 and over and 72.52% (CI 95%: 61.01-100) for those under 15. In the final model, we found that Adjusted OR was significant for age, female sex, TBSA and inhalation injury (P age and inhalation injury were the main risk factors for death. Authorities should pay special attention to these variables, especially in prevention programs, to reduce mortality and improve patient outcome. Children have better outcome than adults given equal burn size. Suicide rates are higher for women than men in our country.

  9. Telemedicine and burns: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyeh, B; Dibo, S A; Janom, H H

    2014-06-30

    Access to specialized burn care is becoming more difficult and is being restricted by the decreasing number of specialized burn centers. It is also limited by distance and resources for many patients, particularly those living in poverty or in rural medically underserved communities. Telemedicine is a rapidly evolving technology related to the practice of medicine at a distance through rapid access to remote medical expertise by telecommunication and information technologies. Feasibility of telemedicine in burn care has been demonstrated by various centers. Its use facilitates the delivery of care to patients with burn injuries of all sizes. It allows delivery of acute care and can be appropriately used for a substantial portion of the long-term management of patients after a burn by guiding less-experienced surgeons to treat and follow-up patients more appropriately. Most importantly, it allows better effective triage which reduces unnecessary time and resource demanding referrals that might overwhelm system capacities. However, there are still numerous barriers to the implementation of telemedicine, including technical difficulties, legal uncertainties, limited financial support, reimbursement issues, and an inadequate evidence base of its value and efficiency.

  10. Meteorological Controls on Biomass Burning During Santa Ana Events in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veraverbeke, Sander; Capps, Scott; Hook, Simon J.; Randerson, James T.; Jin, Yufang; Hall, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Fires occurring during Santa Ana (SA) events in southern California are driven by extreme fire weather characterized by high temperatures, low humidities, and high wind speeds. We studied the controls on burned area and carbon emissions during two intensive SA burning periods in 2003 and 2007. We therefore used remote sensing data in parallel with fire weather simulations of the Weather and Regional Forecast model. Total carbon emissions were approximately 1800 gigagrams in 2003 and 900 gigagrams in 2007, based on a daily burned area and a fire emission model that accounted for spatial variability in fuel loads and combustion completeness. On a regional scale, relatively strong positive correlations were found between the daily Fosberg fire weather index and burned area/emissions (probability is less than 0.01). Our analysis provides a quantitative assessment of relationships between fire activity and weather during severe SA fires in southern California.

  11. BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF BURNS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shareen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A burn is a wound in which there is coagulative necrosis of the tissue, majority of which are caused by heat. Burn injury is a major public health problem in many areas of the world. Burns predispose to infection by damaging the protective barrier function of the skin, thus facilitating the entry of pa thogenic microorganisms and by inducing systemic immunosuppression . (1 OBJECTIVE : The present study was therefore undertaken to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial flora in burn patients and its antibiotic susceptibility pattern. MATERIAL & METHODS : A total of 100 patients admitted with different degree of burns were studied. Wound swabs were taken with aseptic precautions by dry sterile cotton swab sticks. These swabs were transported to the microbiology laboratory and the isolates were identified based on standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method. RESULT : A total of 127 bacterial pathogens were isolated from 100 patients. Of these, 69% were monomicrobial in nature and 28% wer e polymicrobial. The most frequent cause of infection was found to be Staphylococcus aureus (39.4%, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.2%, Klebsiella pneumonia (13.4%, E.coli (8.7% and Acinetobacter species (7.9%.Out of the total Staphylococcus au reus isolates, 19 were Methicillin sensitive and 31 were Methicillin resistant (MRSA. All the MRSA strains were 100% sensitive to Vancomycin and Linezolid. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were most sensitive to Amikacin (9 4.4%, Fluroquinolones (61.1% . CONCLUSION : Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were major causes of infection in burn wounds. Therefore it is necessary to implement urgent measures for restriction of nosocomial infections, sensible limitation on the use of antimicrobial agents, strict disinfection and hygiene.

  12. American Burn Association Consensus Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Veterans Affairs, 1996. 20. Davidson JRT, Book SW, Colket JT, Tupler LA, Roth S, Hertzberg M, Mellman T, Beckham JC, Smith RD, David- son RM, Katz R...episodes in severely burned children. J Trauma 2007;62:676–81. 3. Kelemen JJ 3rd, Cioffi WG Jr, Mason AD Jr, Mozingo DW, McManus WF, Pruitt BA Jr...versus late enteral nu- tritional support in adults with burn injury: a systematic re- view. J Hum Nutr Diet 2007;20:75–3. 12. Wilmore DW, Mason AD Jr

  13. Interannual variability in global biomass burning emissions from 1997 to 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, G. R.; Randerson, J. T.; Giglio, L.; Collatz, G. J.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Arellano, A. F., Jr.

    2006-08-01

    Biomass burning represents an important source of atmospheric aerosols and greenhouse gases, yet little is known about its interannual variability or the underlying mechanisms regulating this variability at continental to global scales. Here we investigated fire emissions during the 8 year period from 1997 to 2004 using satellite data and the CASA biogeochemical model. Burned area from 2001-2004 was derived using newly available active fire and 500 m. burned area datasets from MODIS following the approach described by Giglio et al. (2006). ATSR and VIRS satellite data were used to extend the burned area time series back in time through 1997. In our analysis we estimated fuel loads, including organic soil layer and peatland fuels, and the net flux from terrestrial ecosystems as the balance between net primary production (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh), and biomass burning, using time varying inputs of precipitation (PPT), temperature, solar radiation, and satellite-derived fractional absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR). For the 1997-2004 period, we found that on average approximately 58 Pg C year-1 was fixed by plants as NPP, and approximately 95% of this was returned back to the atmosphere via Rh. Another 4%, or 2.5 Pg C year-1 was emitted by biomass burning; the remainder consisted of losses from fuel wood collection and subsequent burning. At a global scale, burned area and total fire emissions were largely decoupled from year to year. Total carbon emissions tracked burning in forested areas (including deforestation fires in the tropics), whereas burned area was largely controlled by savanna fires that responded to different environmental and human factors. Biomass burning emissions showed large interannual variability with a range of more than 1 Pg C year-1, with a maximum in 1998 (3.2 Pg C year-1) and a minimum in 2000 (2.0 Pg C year-1).

  14. Interannual variability of global biomass burning emissions from 1997 to 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, G. R.; Randerson, J. T.; Giglio, L.; Collatz, G. J.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Arellano, A. F., Jr.

    2006-04-01

    Biomass burning represents an important source of atmospheric aerosols and greenhouse gases, yet little is known about its interannual variability or the underlying mechanisms regulating this variability at continental to global scales. Here we investigated fire emissions during the 8 year period from 1997 to 2004 using satellite data and the CASA biogeochemical model. Burned area from 2001-2004 was derived using newly available active fire and 500 m burned area datasets from MODIS following the approach described by Giglio et al. (2005). ATSR and VIRS satellite data were used to extend the burned area time series back in time through 1997. In our analysis we estimated fuel loads, including peatland fuels, and the net flux from terrestrial ecosystems as the balance between net primary production (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh), and biomass burning, using time varying inputs of precipitation (PPT), temperature, solar radiation, and satellite-derived fractional absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR). For the 1997-2004 period, we found that on average approximately 58 Pg C year-1 was fixed by plants, and approximately 95% of this was returned back to the atmosphere via Rh. Another 4%, or 2.5 Pg C year-1 was emitted by biomass burning; the remainder consisted of losses from fuel wood collection and subsequent burning. At a global scale, burned area and total fire emissions were largely decoupled from year to year. Total carbon emissions tracked burning in forested areas (including deforestation fires in the tropics), whereas burned area was largely controlled by savanna fires that responded to different environmental and human factors. Biomass burning emissions showed large interannual variability with a range of more than 1 Pg C year-1, with a maximum in 1998 (3.2 Pg C year-1) and a minimum in 2000 (2.0 Pg C year-1).

  15. Interannual variability in global biomass burning emissions from 1997 to 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. van der Werf

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning represents an important source of atmospheric aerosols and greenhouse gases, yet little is known about its interannual variability or the underlying mechanisms regulating this variability at continental to global scales. Here we investigated fire emissions during the 8 year period from 1997 to 2004 using satellite data and the CASA biogeochemical model. Burned area from 2001–2004 was derived using newly available active fire and 500 m. burned area datasets from MODIS following the approach described by Giglio et al. (2006. ATSR and VIRS satellite data were used to extend the burned area time series back in time through 1997. In our analysis we estimated fuel loads, including organic soil layer and peatland fuels, and the net flux from terrestrial ecosystems as the balance between net primary production (NPP, heterotrophic respiration (Rh, and biomass burning, using time varying inputs of precipitation (PPT, temperature, solar radiation, and satellite-derived fractional absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR. For the 1997–2004 period, we found that on average approximately 58 Pg C year−1 was fixed by plants as NPP, and approximately 95% of this was returned back to the atmosphere via Rh. Another 4%, or 2.5 Pg C year−1 was emitted by biomass burning; the remainder consisted of losses from fuel wood collection and subsequent burning. At a global scale, burned area and total fire emissions were largely decoupled from year to year. Total carbon emissions tracked burning in forested areas (including deforestation fires in the tropics, whereas burned area was largely controlled by savanna fires that responded to different environmental and human factors. Biomass burning emissions showed large interannual variability with a range of more than 1 Pg C year−1, with a maximum in 1998 (3.2 Pg C year−1 and a minimum in 2000 (2.0 Pg C year−1.

  16. A review of hydrofluoric acid burn management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Daniel; Thoma, Achilleas; Bailey, Kristy; Fish, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes a unique chemical burn. Much of the current treatment knowledge of HF burns is derived from case reports, small case series, animal studies and anecdotal evidence. The management can be challenging because clinical presentation and severity of these burns vary widely. Plastic surgeons managing burn patients must have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology, the range of severity in presentation and the current treatment options available for HF burns. The present article reviews the current understanding of the pathophysiology and systemic effects associated with severe HF burns. Furthermore, it distinguishes between minor and life-threatening HF burns and describes several of the basic techniques that are available to treat patients with HF burns.

  17. Protect the Ones You Love: Burns Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Youth Violence Prevention Burn Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir We ... to prevent leading causes of child injury, like burns, is a step toward this goal. Every day, ...

  18. Topical Pain Relievers May Cause Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Updates Topical Pain Relievers May Cause Burns Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... rare, have ranged from mild to severe chemical burns with use of such brand-name topical muscle ...

  19. Abdominal Complications after Severe Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    abdominal compartment syndrome, schemic bowel, biliary disease , peptic ulcer disease and astritis requiring laparotomy, small bowel obstruction, rimary fungal...complications in- luded trauma exploratory laparotomy, abdominal com- artment syndrome, ischemic bowel, biliary disease , peptic lcer disease and gastritis, large...because it was almost uniformly ssociated with serious lethal burns. This was in the period efore effective gastric acid control, explaining the high

  20. Airborne characterization of smoke marker ratios from prescribed burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, A. P.; May, A. A.; Lee, T.; McMeeking, G. R.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Akagi, S. K.; Yokelson, R. J.; Urbanski, S. P.; Collett, J. L., Jr.

    2014-10-01

    A Particle-Into-Liquid Sampler - Total Organic Carbon (PILS-TOC) and fraction collector system was flown aboard a Twin Otter aircraft sampling prescribed burning emissions in South Carolina in November 2011 to obtain smoke marker measurements. The fraction collector provided 2 min time-integrated offline samples for carbohydrate (i.e., smoke markers levoglucosan, mannosan, and galactosan) analysis by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. Each fire location appeared to have a unique Δlevoglucosan/Δwater-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) ratio (RF01/RF02/RF03/RF05 = 0.163 ± 0.007 μg C μg-1 C, RF08 = 0.115 ± 0.011 μg C μg-1 C, RF09A = 0.072 ± 0.028 μg C μg-1 C, and RF09B = 0.042 ± 0.008 μg C μg-1 C, where RF means research flight). These ratios were comparable to those obtained from controlled laboratory burns and suggested that the emissions sampled during RF01/F02/RF03/RF05 were dominated by the burning of grasses, RF08 by leaves, RF09A by needles, and RF09B by marsh grasses. These findings were further supported by the Δgalactosan/Δlevoglucosan ratios (RF01/RF02/RF03/RF05 = 0.067 ± 0.004 μg μg-1, RF08 = 0.085 ± 0.009 μg μg-1, and RF09A = 0.101 ± 0.029 μg μg-1) obtained as well as by the ground-based fuel and filter sample analyses during RF01/RF02/RF03/RF05. Differences between Δpotassium/Δlevoglucosan ratios obtained for these prescribed fires vs. laboratory-scale measurements suggest that some laboratory burns may not accurately represent potassium emissions from prescribed burns. The Δlevoglucosan/ΔWSOC ratio had no clear dependence on smoke age or fire dynamics suggesting that this ratio is more dependent on the type of fuel being burned. Levoglucosan was stable over a timescale of at least 1.5 h and could be useful to help estimate the air quality impacts of biomass burning.

  1. Airborne characterization of smoke marker ratios from prescribed burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Sullivan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A Particle-into-Liquid Sampler – Total Organic Carbon and fraction collector system was flown aboard aTwin Otter aircraft sampling prescribed burning emissions in South Carolina in November2011 to obtain smoke marker measurements. The fraction collector provided 2 min time-integrated off-line samples for carbohydrate (i.e., smoke markers levoglucosan, mannosan, galactosan analysis by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. Each fire location appeared to have aunique Δ levoglucosan / Δ water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC ratio (RF01/RF02/RF03/RF05 = 0.163 ± 0.007 μg C μg C−1, RF08 = 0.115 ± 0.011 μg C μg C−1, RF09A = 0.072 ± 0.028 μg C μg C−1, RF09B = 0.042 ± 0.008 μg C μg C−1. These ratios were comparable to those obtained from controlled laboratory burns and suggested that the emissions sampled during RF01/RF02/RF03/RF05 were dominated by the burning of grasses, RF08 by leaves, RF09A by needles, and RF09B by marsh grasses. These findings were further supported by the Δ galactosan / Δ levoglucosan ratios (RF01/RF02/RF03/RF05 = 0.067 ± 0.004 μg μg−1, RF08 = 0.085 ± 0.009 μg μg−1, RF09A = 0.101 ± 0.029 μg μg−1 obtained as well as by the ground-based fuel and filter sample analyses during RF01/RF02/RF03/RF05. Differences between Δ potassium / Δ levoglucosan ratios obtained for these prescribed fires vs. laboratory-scale measurements suggest that some laboratory burns may not accurately represent potassium emissions from prescribed burns. The Δ levoglucosan / Δ WSOC ratio had no clear dependence on smoke age or fire dynamics suggesting that this ratio is more dependent on the type of fuel being burned. Levoglucosan was stable over a timescale of at least 1.5 h and could be useful to help estimate the air quality impacts of biomass burning.

  2. MHD control in burning plasmas MHD control in burning plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donné, Tony; Liang, Yunfeng

    2012-07-01

    Fusion physics focuses on the complex behaviour of hot plasmas confined by magnetic fields with the ultimate aim to develop a fusion power plant. In the future generation of tokamaks like ITER, the power generated by the fusion reactions substantially exceeds the external input power (Pfusion}/Pin >= 10). When this occurs one speaks of a burning plasma. Twenty per cent of the generated fusion power in a burning plasma is carried by the charged alpha particles, which transfer their energy to the ambient plasma in collisions, a process called thermalization. A new phenomenon in burning plasmas is that the alpha particles, which form a minority but carry a large fraction of the plasma kinetic energy, can collectively drive certain types of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) modes, while they can suppress other MHD modes. Both types of MHD modes can have desirable effects on the plasma, as well as be detrimental to the plasma. For example, the so-called sawtooth instability, on the one hand, is largely responsible for the transport of the thermalized alpha particles out of the core, but, on the other hand, may result in the loss of the energetic alphas before they have fully thermalized. A further undesirable effect of the sawtooth instability is that it may trigger other MHD modes such as neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs). These NTMs, in turn, are detrimental to the plasma confinement and in some cases may even lead to disruptive termination of the plasma. At the edge of the plasma, finally, so-called edge localized modes or ELMs occur, which result in extremely high transient heat and particle loads on the plasma-facing components of a reactor. In order to balance the desired and detrimental effects of these modes, active feedback control is required. An additional complication occurs in a burning plasma as the external heating power, which is nowadays generally used for plasma control, is small compared to the heating power of the alpha particles. The scientific challenge

  3. Indoor air pollution by different heating systems: coal burning, open fireplace and central heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriske, H J; Drews, M; Ebert, G; Menk, G; Scheller, C; Schöndube, M; Konieczny, L

    1996-11-01

    Investigations of indoor air pollution by different heating systems in private homes are described. Sixteen homes, 7 with coal burning, 1 with open fireplace (wood burning) and 8 with central heating have been investigated. We measured the concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and sedimented dust in indoor air, of total suspended particulates, heavy metals and of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor and outdoor air. Measurements were taken during winter (heating period) and during summer (non-heating period). Generally, we found higher indoor air pollution in homes with coal burning and open fireplace than in homes with central heating. Especially, the concentrations of carbon monoxide, sedimented dust and of some heavy metals were higher. In one case, we found also high indoor air pollution in a home with central heating. This apartment is on the ground floor of a block of flats, and the central heating system in the basement showed a malfunctioning of the exhaust system.

  4. Use of previously burned skin as random cutaneous local flaps in pediatric burn reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Herndon, DN; McCauley, RL

    2002-01-01

    Reconstruction after post-burn scarring remains a challenge. It is especially true in the severely burned patient, who normally presents with a paucity of donor sites Healed skin from areas that had been burned and skin from grafted areas (termed as previously burned skin) have been occasionally use

  5. Titanium tetrachloride burns to the eye.

    OpenAIRE

    Chitkara, D K; McNeela, B. J.

    1992-01-01

    We present eight cases of chemical burns of the eyes from titanium tetrachloride, an acidic corrosive liquid. However it causes severe chemical burns which have a protracted course and features more akin to severe alkali burns. Injuries related to titanium tetrachloride should be treated seriously and accordingly appropriate management is suggested.

  6. A review of hydrofluoric acid burn management

    OpenAIRE

    McKee, Daniel; Thoma, Achilleas; Bailey, Kristy; Fish, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The clinical presentation and severity of hydrofluoric acid burns vary considerably, making management particularly challenging. Given that current knowledge of HF burns is derived from small case series, case reports, animal studies and anecdotal evidence, this narrative review discusses the current understanding of the effects associated with severe hydrofluoric acid burns, describing the mechanism of injury, systemic toxicity and treatment options.

  7. Uncertainty analysis of moderate- versus coarse-scale satellite fire products for quantifying agricultural burning: Implications for Air Quality in European Russia, Belarus, and Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, J. L.; Krylov, A.; Prishchepov, A. V.; Banach, D. M.; Potapov, P.; Tyukavina, A.; Rukhovitch, D.; Koroleva, P.; Turubanova, S.; Romanenkov, V.

    2015-12-01

    Cropland and pasture burning are common agricultural management practices that negatively impact air quality at a local and regional scale, including contributing to short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs). This research focuses on both cropland and pasture burning in European Russia, Lithuania, and Belarus. Burned area and fire detections were derived from 500 m and 1 km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), 30 m Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data. Carbon, particulate matter, volatile organic carbon (VOCs), and harmful air pollutants (HAPs) emissions were then calculated using MODIS and Landsat-based estimates of fire and land-cover and land-use. Agricultural burning in Belarus, Lithuania, and European Russia showed a strong and consistent seasonal geographic pattern from 2002 to 2012, with the majority of fire detections occurring in March - June and smaller peak in July and August. Over this 11-year period, there was a decrease in both cropland and pasture burning throughout this region. For Smolensk Oblast, a Russian administrative region with comparable agro-environmental conditions to Belarus and Lithuania, a detailed analysis of Landsat-based burned area estimations for croplands and pastures and field data collected in summer 2014 showed that the agricultural burning area can be up to 10 times higher than the 1 km MODIS active fire estimates. In general, European Russia is the main source of agricultural burning emissions compared to Lithuania and Belarus. On average, all cropland burning in European Russia as detected by the MCD45A1 MODIS Burned Area Product emitted 17.66 Gg of PM10 while annual burning of pasture in Smolensk Oblast, Russia as detected by Landsat burn scars emitted 494.85 Gg of PM10, a 96% difference. This highlights that quantifying the contribution of pasture burning and burned area versus cropland burning in agricultural regions is important for accurately

  8. Laminar burning velocities and flame instabilities of butanol isomers-air mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Xiaolei; Huang, Zuohua; Wu, Si; Li, Qianqian [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Laminar burning velocities and flame instabilities of the butanol-air premixed flames and its isomers are investigated using the spherically expanding flame with central ignition at initial temperature of 428 K and initial pressures of 0.10 MPa, 0.25 MPa, 0.50 MPa and 0.75 MPa. Laminar burning velocities and sensitivity factor of n-butanol-air mixtures are computed using a newly developed kinetic mechanism. Unstretched laminar burning velocity, adiabatic temperature, Lewis number, Markstein length, critical flame radius and Peclet number are obtained over a wide range of equivalence ratios. Effect of molecular structure on laminar burning velocity of the isomers of butanol is analyzed from the aspect of C-H bond dissociation energy. Study indicates that although adiabatic flame temperatures of the isomers of butanol are the same, laminar burning velocities give an obvious difference among the isomers of butanol. This indicates that molecular structure has a large influence on laminar burning velocities of the isomers of butanol. Branching (-CH3) will decrease laminar burning velocity. Hydroxyl functional group (-OH) attaching to the terminal carbon atoms gives higher laminar burning velocity compared to that attaching to the inner carbon atoms. Calculated dissociation bond energies show that terminal C-H bonds have larger bond energies than that of inner C-H bonds. n-Butanol, no branching and with hydroxyl functional group (-OH) attaching to the terminal carbon atom, gives the largest laminar burning velocity. tert-Butanol, with highly branching and hydroxyl functional group (-OH) attaching to the inner carbon atom, gives the lowest laminar burning velocity. Laminar burning velocities of iso-butanol and sec-butanol are between those of n-butanol and tert-butanol. The instant of transition to cellularity is experimentally determined for the isomers of butanol and subsequently interpreted on the basis of hydrodynamic and diffusion-thermal instabilities. Little effect

  9. Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry at the Urban Supersite (T0). Part 2: Analysis of the Biomass Burning Contribution and the Modern Carbon Fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiken, Allison; de Foy, B.; Wiedinmyer, Christine; DeCarlo, Peter; Ulbrich, Ingrid M.; Wehrli, M. N.; Szidat, S.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Noda, J.; Wacker, L.; Volkamer, Rainer M.; Fortner, Edward; Wang, J. X.; Laskin, Alexander; Shutthanandan, V.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, Renyi; Paredes-Miranda, Guadalupe L.; Arnott, W. P.; Molina, Luis; Sosa, G.; Querol, X.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2010-06-16

    Submicron aerosol was analyzed during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City with a High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and complementary instrumentation. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) of high resolution AMS spectra identified a biomass burning OA (BBOA) component, which includes several large plumes that appear to be from forest fires within the region. Here, we show that the AMS BBOA concentration at T0 correlates with fire counts in the vicinity of Mexico City and that most of the BBOA variability is captured when the FLEXPART model is used for the dispersion of fire emissions as estimated from satellite fire counts. The resulting FLEXPART fire impact index correlates well with the observed BBOA, CH3CN, levoglucosan, and potassium, indicating that wildfires in the region surrounding Mexico City are the dominant source of BBOA at T0 during MILAGRO. The impact of distant BB sources such as the Yucatan is very small during this period. All fire tracers are correlated, with BBOA and levoglucosan showing little background, acetonitrile having a well-known tropospheric background of ~100-150 ppt, and PM2.5 potassium having a background of ~160 ng m-3 (two-thirds of its average concentration), which does not appear to be related to BB sources.

  10. Combustion of biomass as a global carbon sink

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Rowena

    2008-01-01

    This note is intended to highlight the important role of black carbon produced from biomass burning in the global carbon cycle, and encourage further research in this area. Consideration of the fundamental physical chemistry of cellulose thermal decomposition suggests that suppression of biomass burning or biasing burning practices to produce soot-free flames must inevitably transfer more carbon to the atmosphere. A simple order-of-magnitude quantitative analysis indicates that black carbon may be a significant carbon reservoir that persists over geological time scales.

  11. Helium burning and neutron sources in the stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliotta, M. [University of Edinburgh, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Junker, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), Assergi (Italy); Prati, P. [Universita degli Studi di Genova (Italy); INFN, Genova (Italy); Straniero, O. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, Teramo (Italy); Strieder, F. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Helium burning represents an important stage of stellar evolution as it contributes to the synthesis of key elements such as carbon, through the triple- α process, and oxygen, through the {sup 12}C(α, γ){sup 16}O reaction. It is the ratio of carbon to oxygen at the end of the helium burning stage that governs the following phases of stellar evolution leading to different scenarios depending on the initial stellar mass. In addition, helium burning in Asymptotic Giant Branch stars, provides the two main sources of neutrons, namely the {sup 13}C(α, n){sup 16}O and the {sup 22}Ne(α, n){sup 25}Mg, for the synthesis of about half of all elements heavier than iron through the s-process. Given the importance of these reactions, much experimental work has been devoted to the study of their reaction rates over the last few decades. However, large uncertainties still remain at the energies of astrophysical interest which greatly limit the accuracy of stellar models predictions. Here, we review the current status on the latest experimental efforts and show how measurements of these important reaction cross sections can be significantly improved at next-generation deep underground laboratories. (orig.)

  12. The colors of biomass burning aerosols in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Chung, Chul Eddy; Zhang, Feng; Yin, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Biomass burning aerosols mainly consist of black carbon (BC) and organic aerosols (OAs), and some of OAs are brown carbon (BrC). This study simulates the colors of BrC, BC and their mixture with scattering OAs in the ambient atmosphere by using a combination of light scattering simulations, a two-stream radiative transfer model and a RGB (Red, Green, Blue) color model. We find that both BCs and tar balls (a class of BrC) appear brownish at small particle sizes and blackish at large sizes. This is because the aerosol absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) largely controls the color and larger particles give smaller AAE values. At realistic size distributions, BCs look more blackish than tar balls, but still exhibit some brown color. However, when the absorptance of aerosol layer at green wavelength becomes larger than approximately 0.8, all biomass burning aerosols look blackish. The colors for mixture of purely scattering and absorptive carbonaceous aerosol layers in the atmosphere are also investigated. We suggest that the brownishness of biomass burning aerosols indicates the amount of BC/BrC as well as the ratio of BC to BrC.

  13. Modeling the impacts of biomass burning on air quality in and around Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The local and regional impacts of open fires and trash burning on ground-level ozone (O3 and fine carbonaceous aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA and surrounding region during two high fire periods in March 2006 have been evaluated using WRF-CHEM model. The model captured reasonably well the measurement-derived magnitude and temporal variation of the biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA, and the simulated impacts of open fires on organic aerosol (OA were consistent with many observation-based estimates. We did not detect significant effects of open fires and trash burning on surface O3 concentrations in the MCMA and surrounding region. In contrast, they had important influences on OA and elemental carbon (EC, contributing about 60, 22, 33, and 22% to primary OA (POA, secondary OA (SOA, total OA (TOA, and EC, respectively, on both the local and regional scales. Although the emissions of trash burning are substantially lower than those from open fires, trash burning made slightly smaller but comparable contributions to OA as open fires did, and exerted an even higher influence on EC. SOA formation due to the open fires and trash burning enhanced the OA concentration by about 10 and 5% in the MCMA, respectively. On the annual basis and taking the biofuel use emissions into consideration, we estimated that biomass burning contributed about 60, 30, and 25%, respectively, to the loadings of POA, SOA and EC in both the MCMA and its surrounding region, with about 35, 18, and 15% from open fires and trash burning. The estimates of biomass burning impacts in this study may contain considerable uncertainties due to the uncertainties in their emission estimates, extrapolations and the nature of spot comparison. More observation and modeling studies are needed to accurately assess the impacts of biomass burning on tropospheric chemistry, regional and global air quality, and climate change.

  14. New type of sauna-related burn: conductive contact burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung Jun; Yoo, Heon; Park, Myong Chul

    2013-01-01

    A 70-year-old woman visited a Korean-style hot dry sauna room. The patient had a medical history of hypertension and hyperlipidemia. During the sauna, the patient slept for 30 minutes. During the sleep, the right medial thigh was covered with a fully wet towel. The patient sustained a second-degree burn on the right medial thigh area with multiple bullas. On physical examination, erythema, heating sensation, and swelling around the bullas were noted. The patient was admitted and received intravenous antibiotics for 7 days. A dressing with Silmazine 1% cream (sulfadiazine) was applied twice a day for prevention of local infection. The patient was discharged on day 14 without complication. In this case, the mechanism of the burn was different. Hot air has much thermal energy but is not conducted to the skin directly. A wet towel will have a relatively higher thermal capacity or heat capacity than a dry or damp towel, and the sodden water might be a medium for the conduction of thermal energy. Owing to the global popularity of sauna bathing, it is important to recognize all sources of sauna-related burns.

  15. Modelling burned area in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lehsten

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of current and projected wildfires is essential for predicting crucial aspects of vegetation patterns, biogeochemical cycling as well as pyrogenic emissions across the African continent. This study uses a data-driven approach to parameterize two burned area models applicable to dynamic vegetation models (DVMs and Earth system models (ESMs. We restricted our analysis to variables for which either projections based on climate scenarios are available, or that are calculated by DVMs, and we consider a spatial scale of one degree as the scale typical for DVMs and ESMs. By using the African continent here as an example, an analogue approach could in principle be adopted for other regions, for global scale dynamic burned area modelling.

    We used 9 years of data (2000–2008 for the variables: precipitation over the last dry season, the last wet season and averaged over the last 2 years, a fire-danger index (the Nesterov index, population density, and annual proportion of area burned derived from the MODIS MCD45A1 product. Two further variables, tree and herb cover were only available for 2001 as a remote sensing product. Since the effect of fires on vegetation depends strongly on burning conditions, the timing of wildfires is of high interest too, and we were able to relate the seasonal occurrence of wildfires to the daily Nesterov index.

    We parameterized two generalized linear models (GLMs, one with the full variable set (model VC and one considering only climate variables (model C. All introduced variables resulted in an increase in model performance. Model VC correctly predicts the spatial distribution and extent of fire prone areas though the total variability is underrepresented. Model VC has a much lower performance in both aspects (correlation coefficient of predicted and observed ratio of burned area: 0.71 for model VC and 0.58 for model C. We expect the remaining variability to be attributed to additional

  16. Management of post burn hand deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabapathy S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The hand is ranked among the three most frequent sites of burns scar contracture deformity. One of the major determinants of the quality of life in burns survivors is the functionality of the hands. Burns deformities, although largely preventable, nevertheless do occur when appropriate treatment is not provided in the acute situation or when they are part of a major burns. Reconstructive procedures can greatly improve the function of the hands. Appropriate choice of procedures and timing of surgery followed by supervised physiotherapy can be a boon for a burns survivor.

  17. Pediatric burn rehabilitation: Philosophy and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Ohgi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are a huge public health issue for children throughout the world, with the majority occurring in developing countries. Burn injuries can leave a pediatric patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of pediatric burn treatment. The aim of this article was to review the literature on pediatric burn rehabilitation from the Medline, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases. An attempt has been made to present the basic aspects of burn rehabilitation, provide practical information, and discuss the goals and conceptualization of rehabilitation as well as the development of rehabilitation philosophy and strategies.

  18. BURN SEVERITY MAPPING IN AUSTRALIA 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. McKinley

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR algorithm.

  19. [Current treatment strategies for paediatric burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küntscher, M V; Hartmann, B

    2006-06-01

    Paediatric burns occupy the third place in the severe accident statistics in Germany after traffic injuries and drowning. The paper reviews current treatment concepts of pre-hospital management, fluid resuscitation and surgical therapy in paediatric burned patients. Specific features in the approximation of the total body surface area burn and indications for transfer of paediatric burn victims to specialized units are discussed. The therapy of severe paediatric burns requires an interdisciplinary team consisting of especially skilled plastic or paediatric surgeons,anaesthetists, psychiatrists or psychologists, specifically trained nurses, physiotherapists and social workers. The rehabilitation process starts basically with admission to the burn unit. A tight cooperation between therapists and the relatives of the paediatric burn victim is needed for psychological recovery and reintegration into society.'The adaptation to the suffered trauma resulting in life-long disability and disfigurement is the main task of psychotherapy.

  20. Septicemia: The Principal Killer of Burns Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Sharma

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury is a major problem in many areas of the world and it has been estimated that 75% of all deaths following burns are related to infection. Burns impair the skin’s normal barrier function thus allowing microbial colonization of the burn wounds and even with the use of topical antimicrobial agents, contamination is almost unavoidable. It is therefore essential for every burn institution to determine its specific pattern of burn wound microbial colonization, time related changes in predominant flora and antimicrobial resistance profiles. This would allow early management of septic episodes with proper empirical systemic antibiotics before the results of microbiologic culture becomes available, thus improving the overall infection-related morbidity and mortality. We attempted to examine the factors affecting risk of infection; strategies for infection control and prevention in burn victims.

  1. Airborne measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in southern Africa during the dry, biomass burning season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Novakov, T.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Magi, Brian

    2002-06-17

    Particulate matter collected aboard the University of Washington's Convair-580 research aircraft over southern Africa during the dry, biomass burning season was analyzed for total carbon, organic carbon, and black carbon contents using thermal and optical methods. Samples were collected in smoke plumes of burning savanna and in regional haze. A known artifact, produced by the adsorption of organic gases on the quartz filter substrates used to collect the particulate matter samples, comprised a significant portion of the total carbon collected. Consequently, conclusions derived from the data are greatly dependent on whether or not organic carbon concentrations are corrected for this artifact. For example, the estimated aerosol co-albedo (1 - single scattering albedo), which is a measure of aerosol absorption, of the biomass smoke samples is 60 percent larger using corrected organic carbon concentrations. Thus, the corrected data imply that the biomass smoke is 60 percent more absorbing than do the uncorrected data. The black carbon to (corrected) organic carbon mass ratio (BC/OC) of smoke plume samples (0.18/2610.06) is lower than that of samples collected in the regional haze (0.25/2610.08). The difference may be due to mixing of biomass smoke with background air characterized by a higher BC/OC ratio. A simple source apportionment indicates that biomass smoke contributes about three-quarters of the aerosol burden in the regional haze, while other sources (e.g., fossil fuel burning) contribute the remainder.

  2. Zinc supplementation in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldis-Coutris, Nancy; Gawaziuk, Justin P; Logsetty, Sarvesh

    2012-01-01

    Micronutrient supplementation is a common practice throughout many burn centers across North America; however, uncertainty pertaining to dose, duration, and side effects of such supplements persists. The authors prospectively collected data from 23 hospitalized patients with burn sizes ranging from 10 to 93% TBSA. Each patient received a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement, 50 mg zinc (Zn) daily, and 500 mg vitamin C twice daily. Supplements were administered orally or enterally. Albumin, prealbumin, C-reactive protein, serum Zn, and serum copper were measured weekly during hospital admission until levels were within normal reference range. Our study concluded that 50 mg daily dose of Zn resulted in normal serum levels in 19 of 23 patients at discharge; 50 mg Zn supplementation did not interfere with serum copper levels; and Zn supplements, regardless of administration route, did not result in gastrointestinal side effects.

  3. Southeast U.S. burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggs, William Ward

    Human beings were responsible for most of 12,000 forest fires in the southeastern United States that burned for 10 days in late October and early November 1987. 910 km2, mostly hardwood forest, were destroyed in the fires, with arson and carelessness as the primary causes, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.Measured in monetary terms, the toll was more than $40 million in resource and property damage. While the amount of forest burned did not rival the 3390 km2 lost to fires in the western United States last summer, the human impact was severe in the southeast and all along the East Coast. Favorable winds blew smoke from the southern and central Appalachians as far north as New England and as far east as Delaware, and cool fall air close to the ground prevented the smoke from rising, thickening the air in many northeastern cities on November 8 and 9.

  4. Fluconazole Pharmacokinetics in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Bradley A.; King, Stephen R.; Wandschneider, Heidi L.; Hickerson, William L.; Hanes, Scott D.; Herring, Vanessa L.; Canada, Todd W.; Hess, Mary M.

    1998-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in nine adult patients with severe (30 to 95% total body surface area) burns were studied. There was no significant difference in half-life (t1/2), clearance (CL), or volume of distribution (V) over time in five patients on days 3 and 8 of the study (P > 0.05). Combined parameter estimates (means ± standard deviations) for all nine patients for the two study periods were as follows: t1/2, 24.4 ± 5.8 h; CL, 0.36 ± 0.09 ml/min/kg; and V, 0.72 ± 0.12 liters/kg. These estimates of t1/2 and CL in burn patients were approximately 13% shorter and 30% more rapid, respectively, than the most extreme estimates reported for other populations. PMID:9559811

  5. Burn injuries related to suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persley, G V; Pegg, S P

    1981-02-07

    Of 1060 admissions to the burns unit, Royal Brisbane Hospital, over a 12-year period, there were 30 cases (2.8%) of attempted suicide. Fourteen (47%) of these patients died. The psychosocial features of people using self-ignition as a method of suicide are consistent with those of suicide in general. The morbidity if high and the outcome is often fatal, especially for those using a flammable liquid.

  6. Rehabilitation of the Burned Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    13 Mallet and swan-neck deformities Thermal injury to the terminal slip of the extensor tendon can result in loss of DIP joint extension or mallet...deformity. Injury to the terminal slip can be a result of direct thermal injury or tendon ischemia induced as the injured tendon is compressed between...elastic bandage or self-adherent wrap may be necessary. Cotton socks over the splint may prevent the child from removing the splint. Contact burns

  7. [Treatment of burns in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyatier, J L; Latarjet, J; Comparin, J P; Zaragori, M; Robert, A; Braye, F; Weill, E; Masson, C L

    1995-10-01

    Because of the potential severity of their residual deformities, burn injuries in infants justify an early management in specialized centres when they cover more than 5% of body surface and in every case when hands, face, or external genitalia are concerned. Cooling with cold water is the first aid treatment to be performed as early as possible after the injury. The treatment in specialized centres must be both general and surgical. General treatment includes fluid and electrolyte therapy, temperature control, appropriate nutrition and pain suppression. Pain suppression is a major part of the treatment and morphine must be largely used. Surgical treatment starts as soon as the patient arrives in the centre and is eventually performed under general anesthesia: all the burned areas are covered with occlusive dressings. Infections are prevented by systematic cultures and adjusted antibiotic therapy. A vigorous rehabilitation program must be instituted as soon as possible: massages, compressive clothes, splints, physical therapy, plastic surgery. Primary prevention by sustained parental education is important in order to reduce the frequency of burn injuries in infants.

  8. Characteristics of atmospheric ice nucleating particles associated with biomass burning in the US: Prescribed burns and wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Christina S.

    addition to LRT of mineral dust. The chemical compositions of INP were probed directly via TEM imaging. Single particle analyses of residual INP showed that they comprised various C-containing particle types, but with a higher abundance of mineral and metal oxide containing INP in emissions from flaming phase combustion. Fractal soot was found as an INP type comprising up to 60% of collected INP in young smoke emissions from the Georgia prescribed burns. In a series of laboratory combustion experiments, the use of a new instrumental set up, pairing the CFDC with a single particle soot photometer, revealed up to a 60% decrease in active INP after the removal of refractory black carbon from smoke aerosol emitted from a highly flaming burn of wiregrass, supporting that soot particles serve as INP in fire emissions. The presence of soil minerals was clearly evident in TEM images of samples taken during the wildfires in addition to tarballs, carbon balls most commonly associated with aged smoke plumes. These results demonstrate that the ice nucleating particles observed in the wildfires were influenced by other factors not represented in the smoke emitted from the laboratory or prescribed burns. Finally, an INP parameterization was developed based on the temperature dependent relationship between nINP and n500nm, following methods used by previous studies. This parameterization is likely only representative of the Hewlett and High Park wildfires due to the apparent impact of non-biomass-burning aerosol. However, all wildfires are typically associated with vigorous localized convection and arid soils, required for the lofting of the soils and dusts similar to these wildfires. It will be useful to compare future wildfires in various regions to the proposed parameterization. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  9. Fuel characteristics and trace gases produced through biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAMBANG HERO SAHARJO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Saharjo BH, Sudo S, Yonemura S, Tsuruta H (2010 Fuel characteristics and trace gases produced through biomass burning. Biodiversitas 11: 40-45. Indonesian 1997/1998 forest fires resulted in forest destruction totally 10 million ha with cost damaged about US$ 10 billion, where more than 1 Gt CO2 has been released during the fire episode and elevating Indonesia to one of the largest polluters of carbon in the world where 22% of world’s carbon dioxide produced. It has been found that 80-90% of the fire comes from estate crops and industrial forest plantation area belongs to the companies which using fire illegally for the land preparation. Because using fire is cheap, easy and quick and also support the companies purpose in achieving yearly planted area target. Forest management and land use practices in Sumatra and Kalimantan have evolved very rapidly over the past three decades. Poor logging practices resulted in large amounts of waste will left in the forest, greatly elevating fire hazard. Failure by the government and concessionaires to protect logged forests and close old logging roads led to and invasion of the forest by agricultural settlers whose land clearances practices increased the risk of fire. Several field experiments had been done in order to know the quality and the quantity of trace produced during biomass burning in peat grass, peat soil and alang-alang grassland located in South Sumatra, Indonesia. Result of research show that different characteristics of fuel burned will have the different level also in trace gasses produced. Peat grass with higher fuel load burned produce more trace gasses compared to alang-alang grassland and peat soil.

  10. American Burn Association consensus conference to define sepsis and infection in burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, David G; Saffle, Jeffrey R; Holmes, James H; Gamelli, Richard L; Palmieri, Tina L; Horton, Jureta W; Tompkins, Ronald G; Traber, Daniel L; Mozingo, David W; Deitch, Edwin A; Goodwin, Cleon W; Herndon, David N; Gallagher, James J; Sanford, Art P; Jeng, James C; Ahrenholz, David H; Neely, Alice N; O'Mara, Michael S; Wolf, Steven E; Purdue, Gary F; Garner, Warren L; Yowler, Charles J; Latenser, Barbara A

    2007-01-01

    Because of their extensive wounds, burn patients are chronically exposed to inflammatory mediators. Thus, burn patients, by definition, already have "systemic inflammatory response syndrome." Current definitions for sepsis and infection have many criteria (fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, leukocytosis) that are routinely found in patients with extensive burns, making these current definitions less applicable to the burn population. Experts in burn care and research, all members of the American Burn Association, were asked to review the literature and prepare a potential definition on one topic related to sepsis or infection in burn patients. On January 20, 2007, the participants met in Tucson, Arizona to develop consensus for these definitions. After review of the definitions, a summary of the proceedings was prepared. The goal of the consensus conference was to develop and publish standardized definitions for sepsis and infection-related diagnoses in the burn population. Standardized definitions will improve the capability of performing more meaningful multicenter trials among burn centers.

  11. A regional estimate of convective transport of CO from biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Kenneth E.; Scala, John R.; Thompson, Anne M.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne

    1992-01-01

    A regional-scale estimate of the fraction of biomass burning emissions that are transported to the free troposphere by deep convection is presented. The focus is on CO and the study region is a part of Brazil that underwent intensive deforestation in the 1980s. The method of calculation is stepwise, scaling up from a prototype convective event, the dynamics of which are well-characterized, to the vertical mass flux of carbon monoxide over the region. Given uncertainties in CO emissions from biomass burning and the representativeness of the prototype event, it is estimated that 10-40 percent of CO emissions from the burning region may be rapidly transported to the free troposphere over the burning region. These relatively fresh emissions will produce O3 efficiently in the free troposphere where O3 has a longer lifetime than in the boundary layer.

  12. Coal and cremation at the Tschudi burn, Chan Chan, Northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, W.E.; Galvez, Mora C.; Jackson, J.C.; McGeehin, J.P.; Hood, D.G.

    2008-01-01

    Analyses of a 20-30 cm thick, completely combusted ash at the 25 ?? 70 m Tschudi burn at Chan Chan, northern Peru??, contain 52-55 wt% SiO2, 180-210 ppm zirconium and are consistent with coal ash. Soil geochemistry across the burn showed elevated calcium and phosphorus content, possible evidence for reported human cremation. A calcined, 5 g, 4.5 cm skull fragment recovered from the burn was confirmed as human by protein radioimmunoassay (pRIA). X-ray diffraction showed that the bone had been heated to 520??C. The burn took place c. ad 1312-1438 based on interpretation of a 14C date on carbonized plant tinder. ?? 2008 University of Oxford.

  13. Seasonal, interannual, and long-term variabilities in biomass burning activity over South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, P; Naja, M; Kumar, R; Chandola, H C

    2016-03-01

    The seasonal, interannual, and long-term variations in biomass burning activity and related emissions are not well studied over South Asia. In this regard, active fire location retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the retrievals of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from MODIS Terra, and tropospheric column NO2 from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) are used to understand the effects of biomass burning on the tropospheric pollution loadings over South Asia during 2003-2013. Biomass burning emission estimates from Global Fire Emission Database (GFED) and Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) are also used to quantify uncertainties and regional discrepancies in the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and black carbon (BC) due to biomass burning in South Asia. In the Asian continent, the frequency of fire activity is highest over Southeast Asia, followed by South Asia and East Asia. The biomass burning activity in South Asia shows a distinct seasonal cycle that peaks during February-May with some differences among four (north, central, northeast, and south) regions in India. The annual biomass burning activity in north, central, and south regions shows an increasing tendency, particularly after 2008, while a decrease is seen in northeast region during 2003-2013. The increase in fire counts over the north and central regions contributes 24 % of the net enhancement in fire counts over South Asia. MODIS AOD and OMI tropospheric column NO2 retrievals are classified into high and low fire activity periods and show that biomass burning leads to significant enhancement in tropospheric pollution loading over both the cropland and forest regions. The enhancement is much higher (110-176 %) over the forest region compared to the cropland (34-62 %) region. Further efforts are required to understand the implications of biomass burning on the regional air quality and climate of South Asia.

  14. Increasing the utility of the Functional Assessment for Burns Score: Not just for major burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smailes, Sarah T; Engelsman, Kayleen; Rodgers, Louise; Upson, Clara

    2016-02-01

    The Functional Assessment for Burns (FAB) score is established as an objective measure of physical function that predicts discharge outcome in adult patients with major burn. However, its validity in patients with minor and moderate burn is unknown. This is a multi-centre evaluation of the predictive validity of the FAB score for discharge outcome in adult inpatients with minor and moderate burns. FAB assessments were undertaken within 48 h of admission to (FAB 1), and within 48 h of discharge (FAB 2) from burn wards in 115 patients. Median age was 45 years and median burn size 4%. There were significant improvements in the patients' FAB scores (pburns.

  15. Source profiles of particulate organic matters emitted from cereal straw burnings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuan-xun; SHAO Min; ZHANG Yuan-hang; ZENG Li-min; HE Ling-yan; ZHU Bin; WEI Yong-jie; ZHU Xian-lei

    2007-01-01

    Cereal straw is one of the most abundant biomass burned in China but its contribution to fine particulates is not adequately understood.In this study, three main kinds of cereal straws were collected from five grain producing areas in China. Fine particulate matters (PM2.5) from the cereal straws subjected to control burnings, both under smoldering and flaming status, were sampled by using a custom made dilution chamber and sampling system in the laboratory. Element carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) was analyzed.141 compounds of organic matters were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS). Source profiles of particulate organic matters emitted from cereal straw burnings were obtained. The results indicated that organic matters contribute a large fraction in fine particulate matters. Levoglucosan had the highest contributions with averagely 4.5% in mass of fine particulates and can be considered as the tracer of biomass burnings. Methyloxylated phenols from lignin degradation also had high concentrations in PM2.5,and contained approximately equal amounts of guaiacyl and syringyl compounds. β-Sitostrol also made up relatively a large fraction of PM2.5 compared with the other sterols (0.18%-0.63% of the total fine particle mass). Normal aikanes, PAHs, fatty acids, as well as normal alkanols had relatively lower concentrations compared with the compounds mentioned above. Carbon preference index (CPI) of normal alkanes and alkanoic acids showed characteristics of biogenic fuel burnings. Burning status significantly influenced the formations of EC and PAHs. The differences between the emission profiles of straw and wood combustions were displayed by the fingerprint compounds, which may be used to identify the contributions between wood and straw burnings in source apportionment researches.

  16. Charring temperatures are driven by the fuel types burned in a peatland wildfire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A. Hudspith

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands represent a globally important carbon store; however, the human exploitation of this ecosystem is increasing both the frequency and severity of fires on drained peatlands. Yet, the interactions between the hydrological conditions (ecotopes, the fuel types being burned, the burn severity, and the charring temperatures (pyrolysis intensity remain poorly understood. Here we present a post-burn assessment of a fire on a lowland raised bog in Co. Offaly, Ireland (All Saints Bog. Three burn severities were identified in the field (light, moderate, and deeply burned, and surface charcoals were taken from 17 sites across all burn severities. Charcoals were classified into two fuel type categories (either ground or aboveground fuel and the reflectance of each charcoal particle was measured under oil using reflectance microscopy. Charcoal reflectance shows a positive relationship with charring temperature and as such can be used as a temperature proxy to reconstruct minimum charring temperatures after a fire event. Resulting median reflectance values for ground fuels are 1.09 ± 0.32%Romedian, corresponding to estimated minimum charring temperatures of 447°C ± 49°C. In contrast, the median charring temperatures of aboveground fuels were found to be considerably higher, 646°C ± 73°C (3.58 ± 0.77%Romedian. A mixed-effects modelling approach was used to demonstrate that the interaction effects of burn severity, as well as ecotope classes, on the charcoal reflectance is small compared to the main effect of fuel type. Our findings reveal that the different fuel types on raised bogs are capable of charring at different temperatures within the same fire, and that the pyrolysis intensity of the fire on All Saints Bog was primarily driven by the fuel types burning, with only a weak association to the burn severity or ecotope classes.

  17. Global combustion: the connection between fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions (1997-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, Jennifer K; Nagy, R Chelsea; Archibald, Sally; Bowman, David M J S; Moritz, Max A; Roos, Christopher I; Scott, Andrew C; Williamson, Grant J

    2016-06-05

    Humans use combustion for heating and cooking, managing lands, and, more recently, for fuelling the industrial economy. As a shift to fossil-fuel-based energy occurs, we expect that anthropogenic biomass burning in open landscapes will decline as it becomes less fundamental to energy acquisition and livelihoods. Using global data on both fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions, we tested this relationship over a 14 year period (1997-2010). The global average annual carbon emissions from biomass burning during this time were 2.2 Pg C per year (±0.3 s.d.), approximately one-third of fossil fuel emissions over the same period (7.3 Pg C, ±0.8 s.d.). There was a significant inverse relationship between average annual fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions. Fossil fuel emissions explained 8% of the variation in biomass burning emissions at a global scale, but this varied substantially by land cover. For example, fossil fuel burning explained 31% of the variation in biomass burning in woody savannas, but was a non-significant predictor for evergreen needleleaf forests. In the land covers most dominated by human use, croplands and urban areas, fossil fuel emissions were more than 30- and 500-fold greater than biomass burning emissions. This relationship suggests that combustion practices may be shifting from open landscape burning to contained combustion for industrial purposes, and highlights the need to take into account how humans appropriate combustion in global modelling of contemporary fire. Industrialized combustion is not only an important driver of atmospheric change, but also an important driver of landscape change through companion declines in human-started fires.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'.

  18. Helium Burning Reaction Rate Uncertainties and Consequences for Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tur, C.; Heger, A.; Austin, S. M.

    2007-10-01

    The triple alpha and ^12C(,)^16O reaction rates determine the carbon to oxygen ratio at the completion of core helium burning in stars, which, in turn, influences the later stellar burning stages. We explored the dependence of massive star evolution and nucleosynthesis yields on the experimental uncertainties in the triple alpha rate (10 to 12%) and the ^12C(,)^16O rate (25 to 35%) using full stellar models followed to core collapse and including supernova explosion. The production factors of medium-weight elements obtained by using the Lodders (2003) solar abundances for the initial star composition, rather than the abundances of Anders & Grevesse (1989), provide a less stringent constraint on the ^12C(,)^16O rate. Variations within the current uncertainties in both reaction rates, however, induce significant changes in the central carbon abundance at core carbon ignition and in the mass of the supernova remnant. An experiment is being carried out by an NSCL/WMU collaboration to improve the accuracy of the triple alpha reaction rate.

  19. Acute pain management in burn patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst-Jensen, Hejdi; Vedel, Pernille Nygaard; Lindberg-Larsen, Viktoria Oline

    2014-01-01

    management addresses and alleviates these complications. The aim of our study was to compare clinical guidelines for pain management in burn patients in selected European and non-European countries. We included pediatric guidelines due to the high rate of children in burn units. METHOD: The study had...... patients. The most highly recommended guidelines provided clear and accurate recommendations for the nursing and medical staff on pain management in burn patients. We recommend the use of a validated appraisal tool such as the AGREE instrument to provide more consistent and evidence-based care to burn......OBJECTIVE: Burn patients suffer excruciating pain due to their injuries and procedures related to surgery, wound care, and mobilization. Acute Stress Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, chronic pain and depression are highly prevalent among survivors of severe burns. Evidence-based pain...

  20. Fire emissions simulated by prescribing burned area observations in a global vegetation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlystova, Iryna G.; Wilkenskjeld, Stiig; Kloster, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    The emissions of trace gases and aerosols from large vegetation fires into the atmosphere have an important climate impact. In this study we integrate observed burned area into a global vegetation model to derive global fire emissions. A global continuous burned area products provided by GFED (Global Fire Emissions Dataset) were obtained from MODIS (and pre-MODIS) satellites and are available for the time period 1997-2011. We integrate the global burned area product into the global vegetation model JSBACH, a land part of the Earth-System model developed at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology. JSBACH simulates land biomass in terms of carbon, which can be combined with the satellite burned area information to derive fire carbon emissions. Some assumptions on fire fuel consumptions have to be made during the integration of satellite burned area into the JSBACH. This includes processes such as tree mortality and combustion completeness, i.e. how much of the vegetation biomass gets combusted during a fire. Partially, this information can be also obtained from measurements. In this study we follow closely the approach of GFED, incorporating also GFED supplemental information, to simulate fuel consumption in JSBACH. And we compare simulated by this approach fire carbon emissions with the fire emissions from GFED. Global vegetation models often use prescribed land cover maps. The simulated in the JSBACH vegetation biomass and thus the simulated fire carbon emissions critically depend on the land cover distribution. In our study we derive fire carbon emissions using two different land cover parameterizations, based on two different satellite datasets. We will present the results obtained from simulations using the JSBACH standard MODIS based vegetation distribution and compare them to the results derived using the recently released ESA CCI land cover satellite product to demonstrate the sensitivity of simulated fire carbon emissions to the underlying land cover

  1. Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0429 TITLE: Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Perenlei Enkhbaatar, MD., PhD...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Our recent findings demonstrate that burn injury significantly depleted stores of vitamin E in adipose tissue of children by nearly...oxidative stress. The objectives of our proposal were to a) attenuate alpha-tocopherol depletion in burn patients by vitamin E supplementation, b) to

  2. Fluid management in major burn injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haberal Mehmet

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is a widely accepted fact that severe fluid loss is the greatest problem faced following major burn injuries. Therefore, effective fluid resuscitation is one of the cornerstones of modern burn treatment. The aim of this article is to review the current approaches available for modern trends in fluid management for major burn patients. As these current approaches are based on various experiences all over the world, the knowledge is essential to improve the status of this patient group.

  3. Infection control in severely burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    Coban, Yusuf Kenan

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, much progress has been made in the control of burn wound infection and nasocomial infections (NI) in severely burned patients. The continiually changing epidemiology is partially related to greater understanding of and improved techniques for burn patient management as well as effective hospital infection control measures. With the advent of antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents, infection of the wound site is now not as common as, for example, urinary and blood strea...

  4. Catalytic combustion in small wood burning appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    There is over a million hand fired small heating appliances in Finland where about 5,4 million cubic meters of wood fuel is used. Combustion in such heating appliances is a batch-type process. In early stages of combustion when volatiles are burned, the formation of carbon monoxide (CO) and other combustible gases are difficult to avoid when using fuels that have high volatile matter content. Harmful emissions are formed mostly after each fuel adding but also during char burnout period. When the CO-content in flue gases is, say over 0.5 %, also other harmful emissions will be formed. Methane (CH{sub 4}) and other hydrocarbons are released and the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-compounds can be remarkable. Some PAH-compounds are very carcinogenic. It has been estimated that in Finland even more than 90 % of hydrocarbon and PAH emissions are due to small scale wood combustion. Emissions from transportation is excluded from these figures. That is why wood combustion has a net effect on greenhouse gas phenomena. For example carbon monoxide emissions from small scale wood combustion are two fold compared to that of energy production in power plants. Methane emission is of the same order as emission from transportation and seven fold compared with those of energy production. Emissions from small heating appliances can be reduced by developing the combustion techniques, but also by using other means, for example catalytic converters. In certain stages of the batch combustion, temperature is not high enough, gas mixing is not good enough and residence time is too short for complete combustion. When placed to a suitable place inside a heating appliance, a catalytic converter can oxidize unburned gases in the flue gas into compounds that are not harmful to the environment. (3 refs.)

  5. Managing burn patients in a fire disaster: Experience from a burn unit in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashreky S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Although burn disaster is not a frequent event, with urbanisation and industrialisation, burn disaster is becoming an emerging problem in Bangladesh. On 3 June 2010, a fire disaster killed 124 people in Neemtali, Dhaka, Bangladesh. This paper narrates the management of burn patients of this disaster in the burn unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital. The burn unit managed 192 burn victims of the disaster. Forty-two victims were admitted and 150 of them received primary care at the emergency room and were sent back home. Ten patients among 42 in-patients died. The in-patient mortality was 23.8%. Burn unit in Dhaka Medical College Hospital is the only burn management centre in Bangladesh. Proper planning and coordinated effort by all sectors and persons concerned were the key elements in this successful management.

  6. Understanding the stagnation and burn of implosions on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilkenny, J. D.; Caggiano, J. A.; Hatarik, R.; Knauer, J. P.; Sayre, D. B.; Spears, B. K.; Weber, S. V.; Yeamans, C. B.; Cerjan, C. J.; Divol, L.; Eckart, M. J.; Glebov, V. Yu; Herrmann, H. W.; Le Pape, S.; Munro, D. H.; Grim, G. P.; Jones, O. S.; Berzak-Hopkins, L.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Meezan, N. B.; Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Mcnaney, J. M.; Petrasso, R.; Rinderknecht, H.; Stoeffl, W.; Zylstra, A. B.

    2016-03-01

    An improved the set of nuclear diagnostics on NIF measures the properties of the stagnation plasma of implosions, including the drift velocity, areal density (ρr) anisotropy and carbon ρr of the compressed core. Two types of deuterium-tritium (DT) gas filled targets are imploded by shaped x-ray pulses, producing stagnated and burning DT cores of radial convergence (Cr) ∼ 5 or ∼20. Comparison with two-dimensional modeling with inner and outer surface mix shows good agreement with nuclear measurements.

  7. Renal failure in burn patients: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emara, S S; Alzaylai, A A

    2013-03-31

    Burn care providers are usually challenged by multiple complications during the management of acute burns. One of the most common complications worldwide is renal failure. This article reviews the various aspects of renal failure management in burn patients. Two different types of renal failures develop in these patients. The different aetiological factors, incidence, suspected prognosis, ways of diagnosing, as well as prevention methods, and the most accepted treatment modalities are all discussed. A good understanding and an effective assessment of the problem help to reduce both morbidity and mortality in burn management.

  8. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Jonathan L. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Hall, Kevin A. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-05-01

    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  9. Hospital costs associated with pediatric burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Matthew B; Hollingworth, William; Rivara, Frederick P; Kramer, C Bradley; Askay, Shelley W; Heimbach, David M; Gibran, Nicole S

    2008-01-01

    Modern burn care is a resource intensive endeavor requiring specialized equipment, personnel, and facilities in order to provide optimum care. The costs associated with burn injury to both patients and society as a whole can be multifaceted and large. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between hospital costs, patient characteristics, and injury factors in a cohort of pediatric patients admitted to a regional burn center. We performed a review of the hospital charges accrued by pediatric patients (age dollar costs using an inflation index and a cost to charge ratio. Univariate and multivariate regressions were performed to identify the factors most significantly associated with cost. In addition, we performed a subset cost analysis for patients with burns more than 20% TBSA. A total of 1443 pediatric patients (age dollars was dollars 9026 (SD = dollars 25,483; median = dollars 2138). Area of full thickness burn was the only patient or injury factor significantly associated with greater hospital costs (P < .05) on multivariate analysis. No single anatomic area was associated with increased hospital costs when adjusted for total overall burn size. Injury severity was the most significant factor impacting index hospitalization costs following pediatric burn injury. Further studies defining the long-term societal costs impact of burn injury are needed as are studies that evaluate the impact of burn injury on quality of life.

  10. Aeromonas hydrophila in a burn patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasti, Ahmet Cinar; Otan, Emrah; Doganay, Mutlu; Kama, Nuri A

    2009-01-01

    Infectious consequences are still a major problem and leading cause of mortality in burn patients. Among others, aeromonads need special concern because they mimic pseudomonal infections; however, they have a more rapid progression with considerable mortality if undiagnosed promptly. Here, we present a major burn case extinguished with tap water pooled in a tank. With the possibility of aeromonal infection in mind, the patient underwent aggressive debridement with proper antibiotic medication, which resulted in a successful patient management. Aeromonads should always be kept in mind in burn cases that contacted with tanked water or soil after the burn.

  11. Burn healing plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Fahimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Burns are known as one of the most common forms of injury with devastating consequences. Despite the discovery of several antiseptics, burn wound healing has still remained a challenge to modern medicine. Herbal products seem to possess moderate efficacy with no or less toxicity and are less expensive compared to synthetic drugs. Burn is a well-known disorder in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM. Iranian physicians have divided burns into various types based on the cause and recommended treatment for each type. According to ITM references, herbal therapy was the major treatment prescribed by Iranian physicians for burns. In the present study, seven ancient Iranian medical texts were screened for the herbs with burn healing effects along with their applied dosage forms. The medicinal herbs were listed and scored based on the frequency of their repetition. Moreover, the best scientific name that was suitable for each plant as well as surveying modern studies about their biological effects has been carried out. In our investigation eighteen plants with seven topical application categories have been obtained as the most frequent herbs for burn healing in ITM. Modern studies have revealed that these plants have shown some biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects which might establish the relationship between the mentioned activities and burn wound healing property. This list can provide a suitable resource for future researches in the field of burn treatment.

  12. Patient safety measures in burn care: do National reporting systems accurately reflect quality of burn care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Samuel P; Robinson, Ellen F; Cooper, Claudette L; Klein, Matthew B; Gibran, Nicole S

    2010-01-01

    Recently, much attention has been placed on quality of care metrics and patient safety. Groups such as the University Health-System Consortium (UHC) collect and review patient safety data, monitor healthcare facilities, and often report data using mortality and complication rates as outcomes. The purpose of this study was to analyze the UHC database to determine if it differentiates quality of care across burn centers. We reviewed UHC clinical database (CDB) fields and available data from 2006 to 2008 for the burn product line. Based on the September 2008 American Burn Association (ABA) list of verified burn centers, we categorized centers as American Burn Association-verified burn centers, self-identified burn centers, and other centers that are not burn units but admit some burn patients. We compared total burn admissions, risk pool, complication rates, and mortality rates. Overall mortality was compared between the UHC and National Burn Repository. The UHC CDB provides fields for number of admissions, % intensive care unit admission, risk pool, length of stay, complication profiles, and mortality index. The overall numbers of burn patients in the database for the study period included 17,740 patients admitted to verified burn centers (mean 631 admissions/burn center/yr or per 2 years), 10,834 for self-identified burn centers (mean 437 admissions/burn center/yr or per 2 years), and 1,487 for other centers (mean 11.5 admissions/burn center/yr or per 2 years). Reported complication rates for verified burn centers (21.6%), self-identified burn centers (21.3%), and others (20%) were similar. Mortality rates were highest for self-identified burn centers (3.06%), less for verified centers (2.88%), and lowest for other centers (0.74%). However, these outcomes data may be misleading, because the risk pool criteria do not include burn-specific risk factors, and the inability to adjust for injury severity prevents rigorous comparison across centers. Databases such as the

  13. Deciding Where to Burn: Stakeholder Priorities for Prescribed Burning of a Fire-Dependent Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K. Costanza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiagency partnerships increasingly work cooperatively to plan and implement fire management. The stakeholders that comprise such partnerships differ in their perceptions of the benefits and risks of fire use or nonuse. These differences inform how different stakeholders prioritize sites for burning, constrain prescribed burning, and how they rationalize these priorities and constraints. Using a survey of individuals involved in the planning and implementation of prescribed fire in the Onslow Bight region of North Carolina, we examined how the constraints and priorities for burning in the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris ecosystem differed among three stakeholder groups: prescribed burn practitioners from agencies, practitioners from private companies, and nonpractitioners. Stakeholder groups did not differ in their perceptions of constraints to burning, and development near potentially burned sites was the most important constraint identified. The top criteria used by stakeholders to decide where to burn were the time since a site was last burned, and a site's ecosystem health, with preference given to recently burned sites in good health. Differences among stakeholder groups almost always pertained to perceptions of the nonecological impacts of burning. Prescribed burning priorities of the two groups of practitioners, and particularly practitioners from private companies, tended to be most influenced by nonecological impacts, especially through deprioritization of sites that have not been burned recently or are in the wildland-urban interface (WUI. Our results highlight the difficulty of burning these sites, despite widespread laws in the southeast U.S. that limit liability of prescribed burn practitioners. To avoid ecosystem degradation on sites that are challenging to burn, particularly those in the WUI, conservation partnerships can facilitate demonstration projects involving public and private burn practitioners on those sites. In summary

  14. Medical management of paediatric burn injuries: best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Leo K P; Martin, Hugh C O; Holland, Andrew J A

    2012-04-01

    Burns commonly occur in children and their first aid remains inadequate despite burn prevention programmes. While scald injuries predominate, contact and flame burns remain common. Although typically less severe injuries overall than those in adults, hypertrophic scarring complicating both the burn wound and even donor sites occur more frequently in children. The heterogeneous nature of burn wounds, coupled with the difficulties associated with the early clinical assessment of burn depth, has stimulated the application of novel technologies to predict burn wound outcome. This review explores current best practice in the management of paediatric burns, with a focus on prevention, optimal first aid, resuscitation, burn wound prediction and wound management strategies.

  15. Latitudinal distribution of trace gases from biomass burning emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridder, Theo; Warneke, Thorsten [Institut fuer Umweltphysik, Universitaet Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Gerbig, Christoph; Jordan, Armin; Rothe, Michael [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biogeochemie, Hans-Knoell-Str. 10, 07745 Jena (Germany); Schrems, Otto [Alfred-Wegener-Institut fuer Polar- und Meeresforschung, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570 Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    We study the latitudinal distribution of trace gases in the atmosphere with ground-based Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) Spectrometry and in situ measurements. Our measurements have been performed during several ship cruises on the Atlantic (55 N - 30 S) between the years 1995 and 2005 on board of the research vessel Polarstern. Here we report on the latitudinal variability of trace gases originating from biomass burning emissions. We analyze the distribution of these gases for recent cruises and compare it to the results from former trips. Thereby we concentrate on the distribution of carbon monoxide (CO), which is a suitable tracer for biomass burning. We compare our data to in situ measurements, which have been accomplished during some of our cruises. In situ measurements have been performed by flask sampling and were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In addition we studied the backward trajectories of air masses to reveal the origin of enhanced trace gas concentrations due to biomass burning emissions.

  16. Electrical burns of the abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old male farmer came in contact with 11,000 volts high tension electric wire and sustained full thickness burn wounds over scapula, upper limb and anterior abdominal wall along with perforation of the intestine. Patient was initially managed conservatively in general surgery ward and was referred to us after 3 days with necrosis of the burned skin and muscles over the shoulder and abdomen. Patient was initially managed conservatively and then thorough debridement of the necrotic skin over the left shoulder and upper arm was done and the area was split skin grafted. Patient developed enterocutaneous fistula, which healed over a period of 8 weeks. The granulating wound over the abdomen was also skin grafted and patient was discharged after 18 days. About 4 months, after the discharge patient presented with ventral hernia. Repair of ventral hernia by synthetic mesh application and reconstruction of the abdominal wall with a free tensor fascia lata flap was done over the mesh, but the flap failed. Then after debridement two random pattern transposition skin flaps, one from the right upper and another from the left lower abdomen were transposed over the abdominal wound and donor area was skin grafted. Patient was discharged after 17 days.

  17. Survey of care and evaluation of East African burn unit feasibility: an academic burn center exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Katrina B; Giiti, Geofrey; Gallagher, James J

    2013-01-01

    Weill Cornell Medical College in New York, partnered with Weill Bugando Medical College and Sekou Toure Regional Referral Hospital, in Mwanza, Tanzania, to consider the development of a burn unit there. This institutional partnership provided a unique opportunity to promote sustainable academic exchange and build burn care capacity in the East African region. A Weill Cornell burn surgeon and burn fellow collaborated with the Sekou Toure department of surgery to assess its current burn care capabilities and potential for burn unit development. All aspects of interdisciplinary burn care were reviewed and institutional infrastructure evaluated. Sekou Toure is a 375-bed regional referral center and teaching hospital of Weill Bugando Medical College. In 2010-2011, it admitted 5244 pediatric patients in total; 100 of these patients were burn-injured children (2% of admissions). There was no specific data kept on percentage of body surface burned, degree of burn, length of stay, or complications. No adult, operative, or outpatient burn data were available. There are two operating theaters. Patient's families perform wound care with nursing supervision. Rehabilitation therapists consult as needed. Meals are provided three times daily by a central kitchen. Public health outreach is possible through village-based communication networks. Infrastructure to support the development of a burn care unit exists at Sekou Toure, but needs increased clinical focus, human resource capacity building, and record-keeping to track accurate patient numbers. A multidisciplinary center could improve record-keeping and outcomes, encourage referrals, and facilitate outreach through villages.

  18. How Disabling Are Pediatric Burns? Functional Independence in Dutch Pediatric Patients with Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; Van Baar, Margriet E.; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Mouton, Leonora J.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.

    2013-01-01

    Although the attention for functional outcomes after burn injury has grown over the past decades, little is known about functional independence in performing activities of daily living in children after burn injury. Therefore, in this prospective cohort study functional independence was measured by burn care professionals with the WeeFIM[R]…

  19. National programme for prevention of burn injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme.

  20. Parameterization of single-scattering albedo (SSA) and absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) with EC / OC for aerosol emissions from biomass burning

    OpenAIRE

    Pokhrel, R. P.; N. L. Wagner; Langridge, J. M.; D. A. Lack; T. Jayarathne; E. A. Stone; C. E. Stockwell; Yokelson, R. J.; S. M. Murphy

    2016-01-01

    Single-scattering albedo (SSA) and absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) are two critical parameters in determining the impact of absorbing aerosol on the Earth's radiative balance. Aerosol emitted by biomass burning represent a significant fraction of absorbing aerosol globally, but it remains difficult to accurately predict SSA and AAE for biomass burning aerosol. Black carbon (BC), brown carbon (BrC), and non-absorbing coatings all make substantial contributions to the absor...

  1. Removal of NOx and NOy in biomass burning plumes in the boundary layer over northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegawa, N.; Kondo, Y.; Koike, M.; Ko, M.; Kita, K.; Blake, D. R.; Nishi, N.; Hu, W.; Liley, J. B.; Kawakami, S.; Shirai, T.; Miyazaki, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Russel-Smith, J.; Ogawa, T.

    2003-05-01

    The Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment Phase B (BIBLE-B) aircraft measurement campaign was conducted over the western Pacific and Australia in August and September 1999. In situ aircraft measurements of carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), total reactive nitrogen (NOy), ozone (O3), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and other species were made during BIBLE-B. Meteorological analysis shows that the trace gases emitted from biomass burning in northern Australia were mostly confined within the planetary boundary layer (below ˜3 km) by strong subsidence in the free troposphere. Removal processes of NOx (equal to measured NO + calculated NO2) and NOy in biomass burning plumes in the boundary layer are examined on the basis of correlation analysis. The photochemical lifetime of NOx in biomass burning plumes during the daytime is estimated to be 0.1 to 0.3 days using the correlations of NOx with short-lived NMHCs and hydroxyl radical (OH) concentration calculated from a constrained photochemical model. Correlation of NOy with CO shows that ˜60% of the NOy molecules originating from biomass burning were removed in the boundary layer within 2-3 days. This result is consistent with dry deposition of nitric acid (HNO3) in the plumes. It is likely that only a small fraction of NOy emitted from biomass burning was exported from the boundary layer to the free troposphere during the BIBLE-B period.

  2. Evolution of Massive Stars Up to the End of Central Oxygen Burning

    CERN Document Server

    Eid, M F E; The, L S; Eid, Mounib F. El; Meyer, Bradley S.; The, Lih-Sin

    2004-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the evolution of massive stars of masses 15, 20, 25 and 30 $\\msun$ assuming solar-like initial chemical composition. The stellar sequences were evolved through the advanced burning phases up to the end of core oxygen burning. We present a careful analysis of the physical characteristics of the stellar models. In particular, we investigate the effect of the still unsettled reaction $^{12}$C($\\alpha$,$\\gamma$)$^{16}$O on the advanced evolution by using recent compilations of this rate. We find that this rate has a significant impact on the evolution not only during the core helium burning phase, but also during the late burning phases, especially the shell carbon-burning. We have also considered the effect of different treatment of convective instability based on the Ledoux criterion in regions of varying molecular weight gradient during the hydrogen and helium burning phases. We compare our results with other investigations whenever available. Finally, our present study constitut...

  3. 7 CFR 29.6004 - Burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burn. 29.6004 Section 29.6004 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6004 Burn. The duration of combustion or length of time that a...

  4. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 291-296

  5. How Does the Freezer Burn Our Food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Shelly J.; Lee, Joo Won

    2009-01-01

    Freezer burn is a common problem that significantly affects the color, texture, and flavor of frozen foods. Food science students should be able to clearly explain the causes and consequences of freezer burn. However, it is difficult to find a modern, detailed, accurate, yet concise, explanation of the mechanism and factors influencing the rate of…

  6. STUDY ON PRETHROMBOTIC STATE IN BURNED PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鸿利; 邵慧珍; 支立民; 肖玉瑞; 杨丽英; 史济湘

    1992-01-01

    Seventy-eight burned patients (53 males and 25 females) were classified into 4 groups (mild type: 14 cases, moderate type: 13 cases, severe type: 17 cases and super-severe type: 34 cases) in accordence with criteria established by the Chinese Society for burns. Twenty-two parameters related to platelet, coagulant and anticoagulant factors, fibrinolysis system and hemorrheology were determined at first 24 hours, on third and fifth post-burn days. The results were as follow: Fibrinogen antigen, von Willebrand factor antigen, plasminogen activitor inhibitor activity, thromboxane B2 and hematocrit and whole blood viscosity significantly increased, however antithrombin Ⅲ, protein C antigen, free protein S and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α markedly decreased compared with normal control at first 24 hours post burn. In addition, fibrinogen antigen, von Willebrand factor antigen, plasminogen activitor inhibitor activity, thromboxane B2 and whole blood viscosity were persistently elevated, however, antithrombin Ⅲ, protein C, free protein S and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α declined on third and fifth post burn days. These changes resulted in a prethrombotic state, being an important factor in genesis of microthrombosis on burn site and the cause of the deepening and aggravation of burn wound on the third and fifth days in burned patients.

  7. BURN WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF Euphorbia hirta

    OpenAIRE

    Jaiprakash, B.; Chandramohan,; Reddy, D. Narishma

    2006-01-01

    The Ethanolic extract of whole plant of Euphorbia hirta was screened for burn wound healing activity in rats as 2% W/W cream. The study was carried out based on the assessment of percentage reduction in original wound. It showed significant burn wound healing activity.

  8. Treating burns caused by hydrofluoric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Anthony

    2011-06-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is an ingredient of many common household and industrial solutions. Even seemingly minor burns caused by this acid can have catastrophic effects if they are treated inappropriately or late. This article describes the signs and symptoms, the pathophysiology and the emergency management of hydrofluoric acid burns.

  9. Current approach to burn critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakallioglu, A E; Haberal, M

    2007-10-01

    Burn trauma is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. Advancements in resuscitation, surgical tecniques, infection control and nutritional/metaolic support decreased mortality and morbidity. This article intends to review current outlines for initial treatment and resuscitation nutritional/metabolic support and wound management peculiar to burn patients.

  10. Predictive Factors of Mortality in Burn Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Fazeli; Karami-Matin; Kakaei; Pourghorban; Safari-Faramani

    2014-01-01

    Background: Burn injuries impose a considerable burden on healthcare systems in Iran. It is among the top ten causes of mortality and a main cause of disability. Objectives: This study aimed to examine factors influencing mortality in burn patients admitted to the main educational tertiary referral hospital in Kermanshah. Patients and Methods: All patients admitted to the Imam Khom...

  11. 'Sabbath' electric plate burn: a ritual hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmeir, P; Sagi, A; Rosenberg, L; Picard, E; Ben Yakar, Y

    1989-02-01

    This report describes the burns caused by an electric hot plate which is used by orthodox Jews for keeping food and liquids warm during the Sabbath (Saturday). An illustrative case is presented and the preventable aspects of this particular burn are discussed.

  12. Pathophysiologic Response to Burns in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G; Patsouris, David; Stanojcic, Mile; Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Rehou, Sarah; Pinto, Ruxandra; Chen, Peter; Burnett, Marjorie; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2015-10-01

    Over the last decades advancements have improved survival and outcomes of severely burned patients except one population, elderly. The Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) burn size in elderly has remained the same over the past three decades, and so has morbidity and mortality, despite the increased demand for elderly burn care. The objective of this study is to gain insights on why elderly burn patients have had such a poor outcome when compared to adult burn patients. The significance of this project is that to this date, burn care providers recognize the extreme poor outcome of elderly, but the reason remains unclear. In this prospective translational trial, we have determined clinical, metabolic, inflammatory, immune, and skin healing aspects. We found that elderly have a profound increased mortality, more premorbid conditions, and stay at the hospital for longer, p 0.05, but a significant increased incidence of multi organ failure, p response, increased hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic responses, inversed inflammatory response, immune-compromisation and substantial delay in wound healing predominantly due to alteration in characteristics of progenitor cells, p responses to burns when compared to adults associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study indicates that these responses are complex and not linear, requiring a multi-modal approach to improve the outcome of severely burned elderly.

  13. Osteomyelitis in burn patients requiring skeletal fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Desai, MH; Herndon, DN

    2000-01-01

    Deep and severe burns often present with the exposure of musculoskeletal structures and severe deformities. Skeletal fixation, suspension and/or traction are part of their comprehensive treatment. Several factors put burn patients at risk for osteomyelitis, osteosynthesis material being one of them.

  14. Epidemiology of pediatric burn in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsai-Ming; Wang, Kai-Hung; Lai, Cheng-Sheng; Lin, Sin-Daw

    2005-03-01

    A 5-year retrospective review of 157 pediatric patients admitted to burn center of Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital (Kaohsiung, Taiwan) was undertaken to identify the incidence, mechanism, and agents of pediatric burn. The highest incidence of pediatric burn was in children aged 1-6 years (57.3%), followed by age group 6-14 years (31.8%). Scald burn (75.2%) made up the major cause of this injury and was dominant in each age group compared to non-scald burn. The kitchen/dining area (57.3%) and living room (29.9%) accounted for the most frequent places where pediatric burns occurred. Among the agents of scald burn, hot drink (49.2%) and soup (32.2%) were the two leading causes. There were more pediatric burns reported in colder seasons (38.2% and 33.1% in winter and fall respectively) and during dining time (19.7% in 11 a.m.-1 p.m. and 35.0% in 5 p.m.-8 p.m.). The results of this report may be closely related to special culinary habits (use of chafing-dish and making hot tea) in the south of Taiwan.

  15. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 291-296

  16. Pathophysiologic Response to Burns in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc G. Jeschke

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades advancements have improved survival and outcomes of severely burned patients except one population, elderly. The Lethal Dose 50 (LD50 burn size in elderly has remained the same over the past three decades, and so has morbidity and mortality, despite the increased demand for elderly burn care. The objective of this study is to gain insights on why elderly burn patients have had such a poor outcome when compared to adult burn patients. The significance of this project is that to this date, burn care providers recognize the extreme poor outcome of elderly, but the reason remains unclear. In this prospective translational trial, we have determined clinical, metabolic, inflammatory, immune, and skin healing aspects. We found that elderly have a profound increased mortality, more premorbid conditions, and stay at the hospital for longer, p  0.05, but a significant increased incidence of multi organ failure, p < 0.05. These clinical outcomes were associated with a delayed hypermetabolic response, increased hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic responses, inversed inflammatory response, immune-compromisation and substantial delay in wound healing predominantly due to alteration in characteristics of progenitor cells, p < 0.05. In summary, elderly have substantially different responses to burns when compared to adults associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study indicates that these responses are complex and not linear, requiring a multi-modal approach to improve the outcome of severely burned elderly.

  17. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips Video Special Needs Burns and Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs Watch ... learn what you need to know about burn prevention if you have a child with special needs. ...

  18. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs Watch this video to learn what you need to know about burn prevention if you have a child with special needs. Read our burn prevention tips | Visit our YouTube ...

  19. Sexual Function Following Burn Injuries: Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Atisha A; Corkill, Helen A; Goutos, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Sexual function is a profound facet of the human personality. Burns due their sudden and devastating nature can have longstanding effects on intimate function by virtue of physical sequelae as well as alterations in body image and perceived desirability. A considerable number of patients encounter problems with intimate function in burns rehabilitation; nevertheless, the topic appears to be poorly addressed in specialist centers worldwide. Review of the literature suggests that a number of parameters can affect the quality of sexual life following burn injuries including age at the time of injury, location, and severity of the burn as well as coping mechanisms employed by the individual survivor. Addressing issues of intimacy relies on awareness, education, and a holistic approach on behalf of the multidisciplinary team members and, to this effect, recommendations are made on managing sexual function concerns in burns rehabilitation.

  20. Crusted Scabies in the Burned Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jais Oliver; Alsbjørn, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to describe a case of crusted scabies (CS) in a burned patient, which was primarily undiagnosed and led to a nosocomial outbreak in the burn unit; 2) to analyze and discuss the difficulties in diagnosing and treating this subset of patients with burn injury......; and 3) to design a treatment strategy for future patients. Case analysis and literature review were performed. The index patient had undiagnosed crusted scabies (sive Scabies norvegica) with the ensuing mite hyperinfestation when admitted to the department with minor acute dermal burns. Conservative...... healing and autograft healing were impaired because of the condition. Successful treatment of the burns was only accomplished secondarily to scabicide treatment. An outbreak of scabies among staff members indirectly led to diagnosis. CS is ubiquitous, and diagnosis may be difficult. This is the first...

  1. Modern trends in fluid therapy for burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricklebank, Stephen

    2009-09-01

    The majority of burn centres use the crystalloid-based Parkland formula to guide fluid therapy, but patients actually receive far more fluid than the formula predicts. Resuscitation with large volumes of crystalloid has numerous adverse consequences, including worsening of burn oedema, conversion of superficial into deep burns, and compartment syndromes. Resuscitation fluids influence the inflammatory response to burns in different ways and it may be possible, therefore to affect this response using the appropriate fluid, at the appropriate time. Starches are effective volume expanders and early use of newer formulations may limit resuscitation requirements and burn oedema by reducing inflammation and capillary leak. Advanced endpoint monitoring may guide clinicians in when to 'turn off' aggressive fluid therapy and therefore avoid the problems of over-resuscitation.

  2. Long hair, smoking, and deep facial burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koljonen, Virve

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe deep facial burn injuries by cigarette lighters in longhaired adults and to report our experience in their treatment. Eight consecutive cigarette lighter burn victims are treated in the Helsinki Burn Center in the year 2006. Seven of the patients were women; their mean age was 50 years. All were under the influence of alcohol at the time of injury. The mean burnt area was 3.5% TBSA. The burnt areas were primarily forehead, cheek, and ipsilateral ear. After a conservative treatment, all the patients underwent an operation, whereby the nonhealing burns were excised and covered with autologous split thickness skin grafts. Postoperative period was uneventful in all the patients. Besides having severe detrimental effects on general health status and wound healing, smoking is the leading cause of residential and total fire deaths worldwide. The patients in this article suffered deep facial burns because of cigarette lighters.

  3. Detection of Burn Area and Severity with MODIS Satellite Images and Spatial Autocorrelation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, S.; Kavzoglu, T.; Tonbul, H.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of forest fires and implications are one of the most important natural disasters all over the world. Statistical data observed that forest fires had a variable structure in the last century in Turkey, but correspondingly the population growth amount of forest fires and burn area increase widely in recent years. Depending on this, erosion, landslides, desertification and mass loss come into existence. In addition; after forest fires, renewal of forests and vegetation are very important for land management. Classic methods used for detection of burn area and severity requires a long and challenging process due to time and cost factors. Thanks to advanced techniques used in the field of Remote Sensing, burn area and severity can be determined with high detail and precision. The purpose of this study based on blending MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectradiometer) satellite images and spatial autocorrelation techniques together, thus detect burn area and severity absolutely. In this context, spatial autocorrelation statistics like Moran's I and Get is-Ord Local Gi indexes were used to measure and analyze to burned area characteristics. Prefire and postfire satellite images were used to determine fire severity depending on spectral indexes corresponding to biomass loss and carbon emissivity intensities. Satellite images have used for identification of fire damages and risks in terms of fire management for a long time. This study was performed using prefire and postfire satellite images and spatial autocorrelation techniques to determining and analyzing forest fires in Antalya, Turkey region which serious fires occurred. In this context, this approach enables the characterization of distinctive texture of burned area and helps forecasting more precisely. Finally, it is observed that mapping of burned area and severity could be performed from local scale to national scale. Key Words: Spatial autocorrelation, MODIS, Fire, Burn Severity

  4. Coping with severe burns in the early stage after burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras, Marijana; Loncar, Zoran; Brajković, Lovorka; Gregurek, Rudolf; Micković, Vlatko

    2007-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between coping strategies, anxiety and depression levels and burn injury characteristics in the early phase of the treatment in burn-injured patients. Seventy patients with severe burns were interviewed within two weeks of their burn trauma. Coping strategies were measured by the coping with burns questionnaire (CBQ). Anxiety and depression levels were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. There were no statistically significant gender differences in various coping strategies. Avoidance was associated with higher levels of anxiety, depression and hopelessness. The percentage of total body surface area (TBSA) and localization of burns were not associated with coping patterns. Implications for the assessment and management of burn injured patients were discussed.

  5. Wood-burning stoves worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    global environmental health risk, since these sources are important contributors to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the ambient air that increase climate and health risks. This thesis explores the social-technical dimensions of both the use of wood-burning stoves (WBSs) and transition to the use...... focused on understanding the effects of cookstove use on the indoor air quality of 20 rural houses. In Europe, qualitative interviews were conducted to study the operation of WBSs in 24 dwellings. The energy and environmental performance of a fireplace, an ordinary wood stove and an automatic stove, were......, the advanced gasifiers and automatic stoves (Digital and Forced air) were identified to be among the best performing technologies. In spite of the fact that the thermal efficiency of the most advanced type of heating stoves (Gasifier) is around twice larger than that achieved for the most advanced type...

  6. The Ocular Surface Chemical Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medi Eslani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular chemical burns are common and serious ocular emergencies that require immediate and intensive evaluation and care. The victims of such incidents are usually young, and therefore loss of vision and disfigurement could dramatically affect their lives. The clinical course can be divided into immediate, acute, early, and late reparative phases. The degree of limbal, corneal, and conjunctival involvement at the time of injury is critically associated with prognosis. The treatment starts with simple but vision saving steps and is continued with complicated surgical procedures later in the course of the disease. The goal of treatment is to restore the normal ocular surface anatomy and function. Limbal stem cell transplantation, amniotic membrane transplantation, and ultimately keratoprosthesis may be indicated depending on the patients’ needs.

  7. Threshold age and burn size associated with poor outcomes in the elderly after burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G; Pinto, Ruxandra; Costford, Sheila R; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2016-03-01

    Elderly burn care represents a vast challenge. The elderly are one of the most susceptible populations to burn injuries, but also one of the fastest growing demographics, indicating a substantial increase in patient numbers in the near future. Despite the need and importance of elderly burn care, survival of elderly burn patients is poor. Additionally, little is known about the responses of elderly patients after burn. One central question that has not been answered is what age defines an elderly patient. The current study was conducted to determine whether there is a cut-off age for elderly burn patients that is correlated with an increased risk for mortality and to determine the burn size in modern burn care that is associated with increased mortality. To answer these questions, we applied appropriate statistical analyses to the Ross Tilley Burn Centre and the Inflammatory and Host Response to Injury databases. We could not find a clear cut-off age that differentiates or predicts between survival and death. Risk of death increased linearly with increasing age. Additionally, we found that the LD50 decreases from 45% total body surface area (TBSA) to 25% TBSA from the age of 55 years to the age of 70 years, indicating that even small burns lead to poor outcome in the elderly. We therefore concluded that age is not an ideal to predictor of burn outcome, but we strongly suggest that burn care providers be aware that if an elderly patient sustains even a 25% TBSA burn, the risk of mortality is 50% despite the implementation of modern protocolized burn care.

  8. [Quantification of crop residue burned areas based on burning indices using Landsat 8 image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian-hang; Song, Kai-shar; Wen, Zhi-dan; Shao, Tian-tian; Li, Bo-nan; Qi, Cai

    2015-11-01

    Crop residue burning leads to atmospheric pollution and is an enormous waste of crop residue resource. Crop residue burning can be monitored timely in large regions as the fire points can be recognized through remotely sensed image via thermal infrared bands. However, the area, the detailed distribution pattern and especially the severity of the burning areas cannot be derived only by the thermal remote sensing approach. The burning index, which was calculated with two or more spectral bands at where the burned and unburned areas have distinct spectral characteristics, is widely used in the forest fire investigation. However its potential application for crop residue burning evaluation has not been explored. With two Landsat 8 images that cover a part of the Songnen Plain, three burning indices, i.e., the normalized burned ratio (NBR), the normalized burned ratio incorporating the thermal band (NBRT), and the burned area index (BAI), were used to classify the crop residue burned and unburned areas. The overall classification accuracies were 91.9%, 92.3%, and 87.8%, respectively. The correlation analysis between the indices and the crop residue coverage indicated that the NBR and NBRT were positively correlated with the crop residue coverage (R2 = 0.73 and 0.64, respectively) with linear regression models, while the BAI was exponentially correlated with the crop residue coverage (R2 = 0.68). The results indicated that the use of burning indices in crop residue burning monitoring could quantify crop residue burning severity and provide valuable data for evaluating atmospheric pollution.

  9. Re-burning of ash in grate boilers; Omfoerbraenning av askor i rosterpannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergqvist, Kristina; Myringer, Aase; Nordgren, Daniel; Rydberg, Stina [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden)

    2005-03-01

    High contents of unburnt carbon in ashes that are dumped or recycled, is questionable from both an economical and an environmental point of view. The content of unburnt carbon in bottom and fly ash from grate boilers varies greatly between different plants but can sometimes exceed 50 %. Re-burning of ash that is separated before a final dust separation, is a relatively cheep and simple method for reducing the content of unburnt carbon in ash, which both reduces the fuel cost and the deposit cost, i.e. the cost of landfilling or recycling. As from 2005 it is prohibited to deposit ash with a too high content of unburnt organic material; the content is limited to 18 weight % of unburnt carbon. The study was carried out in two phases. The aim of the first phase was to map the different techniques used for re-burning ash that are used in grate boilers today. The mapping was done through telephone interviews and comprises technical descriptions of the systems, gathering of operational know-how, installations costs and the effect of the systems on the amount of ash generated at the plants and the content of unburnt carbon in the ash. In order to accomplish a deeper technical and economical evaluation of ash re-burning systems, the second phase involved field studies at two plants. In addition screening tests were done to investigate the connection between the content of unburnt carbon and particle size. The potential of reducing the amount of circulated inorganic material by sieving the ash before bringing it back to the furnace could thereby be determined. 13 plants that utilize re-burning of ash were identified, of which two plants re-burn the bottom ash that floats up to the surface in the wet ash removal system. The remaining 11 plants re-burn fly ash. At three plants the fly ash is first separated in a mesh sieve or similar equipment and only the coarser fly ash is re-burnt. As the amount of bottom ash that surfaces in the wet ash-removal is relatively small

  10. Reactive burn models and ignition & growth concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic-bonded explosives are heterogeneous materials. Experimentally, shock initiation is sensitive to small amounts of porosity, due to the formation of hot spots (small localized regions of high temperature. This leads to the Ignition & Growth concept, introduced by LeeTarver in 1980, as the basis for reactive burn models. A homo- genized burn rate needs to account for three meso-scale physical effects: (i the density of active hot spots or burn centers; (ii the growth of the burn fronts triggered by the burn centers; (iii a geometric factor that accounts for the overlap of deflagration wavelets from adjacent burn centers. These effects can be combined and the burn model defined by specifying the reaction progress variable λ = g(s as a function of a dimensionless reaction length s(t = rbc/ℓbc, rather than by specifying an explicit burn rate. The length scale ℓbc(Ps = [Nbc(Ps]−1/3 is the average distance between burn centers, where Nbc is the number density of burn centers activated by the lead shock. The reaction length rbc(t = ∫t0 D(P(t′dt′ is the distance the burn front propagates from a single burn center, where D(P is the deflagration speed as a function of the local pressure and t is the time since the shock arrival. A key implementation issue is how to determine the lead shock strength in conjunction with a shock capturing scheme. We have developed a robust algorithm for this purpose based on the Hugoniot jump condition for the energy. The algorithm utilizes the time dependence of density, pressure and energy within each cell. The method is independent of the numerical dissipation used for shock capturing. It is local and can be used in one or more space dimensions. The burn model has a small number of parameters which can be calibrated to fit velocity gauge data from shock initiation experiments.

  11. Lean-burn engines UHC emission reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karll, B.; Kristensen, P.G.; Nielsen, M.; Iskov, H. [Danish Gas Technology Centre a/s (Denmark); Broe Bendtsen, A.; Glarborg, P.; Dam-Johansen, K. [Technical University of Denmark. CHEC, Department of Chemical Engineering (Denmark)

    1999-04-01

    The effect of adding hydrogen to methane as a fuel for spark ignited engines has been extensively investigated. Both the possibility of adding a limited amount of hydrogen as well as equal amounts of hydrogen and carbon dioxide to natural gas has been investigated. A 10 vol% addition of hydrogen to the natural gas caused a reduction in UHC of approximately 40%, and an increase in efficiency of approximately three percentage points at the test engine. It is unknown if the gain is representative for large engines. Similar results for UHC reduction and efficiency were obtained for combined hydrogen and carbon dioxide addition. The carbon dioxide was added by exhaust gas recirculation. However, the price of hydrogen, makes this idea uneconomical even when carbon dioxide is readily available through recirculation of engine exhaust. Adiabatic prereforming may be used to convert natural gas into methane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide in order to generate hydrogen and at the same time increase the methane number. The process has been found to be competitive with adding of hydrogen but it is still not economical. The effect of NO/NO{sub 2} on methane oxidation has been studied both theoretically and experimentally. A detailed kinetic modelling study of the UHC conversion dependency of exhaust gas parameters is reported and the project has contributed to the theoretical understanding of the oxidation chemistry. Both NO and NH{sub 3} addition to the engine inlet was used to increase the NO{sub x} level, and the general trend was a decrease in UHC as the NO{sub x} level increased, both in cylinger, manifold and rector. From the data it is concluded that NO and NH{sub 3} addition have identical effects. The results show a 15-35% decrease in manifold UHC. However, the increased emissions of NO{sub x} and CO associated with this process must be realised. Field tests show a 28% UHC reduction without an increase in CO emission. The UHC oxidation in the exhaust reactor has been tested

  12. Lean-burn engines UHC emission reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karll, B.; Kristensen, P.G.; Nielsen, M.; Iskov, H. [Danish Gas Technology Centre a/s (Denmark); Broe Bendtsen, A.; Glarborg, P.; Dam-Johansen, K. [Technical University of Denmark. CHEC, Department of Chemical Engineering (Denmark)

    1999-04-01

    The effect of adding hydrogen to methane as a fuel for spark ignited engines has been extensively investigated. Both the possibility of adding a limited amount of hydrogen as well as equal amounts of hydrogen and carbon dioxide to natural gas has been investigated. A 10 vol% addition of hydrogen to the natural gas caused a reduction in UHC of approximately 40%, and an increase in efficiency of approximately three percentage points at the test engine. It is unknown if the gain is representative for large engines. Similar results for UHC reduction and efficiency were obtained for combined hydrogen and carbon dioxide addition. The carbon dioxide was added by exhaust gas recirculation. However, the price of hydrogen, makes this idea uneconomical even when carbon dioxide is readily available through recirculation of engine exhaust. Adiabatic prereforming may be used to convert natural gas into methane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide in order to generate hydrogen and at the same time increase the methane number. The process has been found to be competitive with adding of hydrogen but it is still not economical. The effect of NO/NO{sub 2} on methane oxidation has been studied both theoretically and experimentally. A detailed kinetic modelling study of the UHC conversion dependency of exhaust gas parameters is reported and the project has contributed to the theoretical understanding of the oxidation chemistry. Both NO and NH{sub 3} addition to the engine inlet was used to increase the NO{sub x} level, and the general trend was a decrease in UHC as the NO{sub x} level increased, both in cylinger, manifold and rector. From the data it is concluded that NO and NH{sub 3} addition have identical effects. The results show a 15-35% decrease in manifold UHC. However, the increased emissions of NO{sub x} and CO associated with this process must be realised. Field tests show a 28% UHC reduction without an increase in CO emission. The UHC oxidation in the exhaust reactor has been tested

  13. Pediatric burn wound impetigo after grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikins, Kimberly; Prasad, Narayan; Menon, Seema; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-01-01

    Modern burn care techniques have reduced the risk of infection of the acute burn wound, resulting in more rapid healing and a lower incidence of graft loss. Secondary breakdown may still occur. The loss of epithelium in association with multifocal superficial abscesses and ulceration has been termed burns impetigo. This may result in considerable morbidity and require prolonged treatment. The events preceding development, the impact on the patient, and the ideal treatment appear unclear and poorly reported. In 5 years, between 2006 and 2011, 406 pediatric burns were treated with skin grafts, with 7% developing burns impetigo. Time to resolution ranged from 5 to 241 days: the mean time to complete healing was greatest with conservative management (96 days), followed by antibacterial dressings (37 days), oral antibiotics (36 days), topical steroids (16 days), and oral antibiotics in combination with topical steroids (13.5 days). Burns impetigo resulted in significant morbidity, requiring multiple visits to the treatment center and prolonged symptoms. Delay in diagnosis and treatment resulted in worse outcomes. Prompt consideration of burns impetigo should occur when postgraft patients present with suggestive clinical signs and treatment with oral antibiotics plus topical steroids should be considered.

  14. Burning characteristics of microcellular combustible objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-tao Yang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Microcellular combustible objects for application of combustible case, caseless ammunition or combustible detonator-holding tubes are fabricated through one-step foaming process, in which supercritical CO2 is used as foaming agent. The formulations consist of inert polymer binder and ultra fine RDX. For the inner porous structures of microcellular combustible objects, the cell sizes present a unimodal or bimodal distribution by adjusting the foaming conditions. Closed bomb test is to investigate the influence of both porous structure style and RDX content on burning behavior. The sample with bimodal distribution of cell sizes burns faster than that with unimodal distribution, and the concentration of RDX can influence the burning characteristics in a positive manner. In addition, the translation of laminar burning to convective burning is determined by burning rate versus pressure curves of samples at two different loading densities, and the resulting transition pressure is 30 MPa. Moreover, the samples with bigger sample size present higher burning rate, resulting in providing deeper convective depth. Dynamic vivacity of samples is also studied. The results show that the vivacity increases with RDX content and varies with inner structure.

  15. Infections in critically ill burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, F; Mas, D; Rubio, M; Garcia-Hierro, P

    2016-04-01

    Severe burn patients are one subset of critically patients in which the burn injury increases the risk of infection, systemic inflammatory response and sepsis. The infections are usually related to devices and to the burn wound. Most infections, as in other critically ill patients, are preceded by colonization of the digestive tract and the preventative measures include selective digestive decontamination and hygienic measures. Early excision of deep burn wound and appropriate use of topical antimicrobials and dressings are considered of paramount importance in the treatment of burns. Severe burn patients usually have some level of systemic inflammation. The difficulty to differentiate inflammation from sepsis is relevant since therapy differs between patients with and those without sepsis. The delay in prescribing antimicrobials increases morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the widespread use of antibiotics for all such patients is likely to increase antibiotic resistance, and costs. Unfortunately the clinical usefulness of biomarkers for differential diagnosis between inflammation and sepsis has not been yet properly evaluated. Severe burn injury induces physiological response that significantly alters drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. These alterations impact antimicrobials distribution and excretion. Nevertheless the current available literature shows that there is a paucity of information to support routine dose recommendations.

  16. Ultrasound assessed thickness of burn scars in association with laser Doppler imaging determined depth of burns in paediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Qing; Mill, Julie; Kravchuk, Olena; Kimble, Roy M

    2010-12-01

    This study describes the ultrasound assessment of burn scars in paediatric patients and the association of these scar thickness with laser Doppler imaging (LDI) determined burn depth. A total of 60 ultrasound scar assessments were conducted on 33 scars from 21 paediatric burn patients at 3, 6 and 9 months after-burn. The mean of peak scar thickness was 0.39±0.032 cm, with the thickest at 6 months (0.40±0.036 cm). There were 17 scald burn scars (0.34±0.045 cm), 4 contact burn scars (0.61±0.092 cm), and 10 flame burn scars (0.42±0.058 cm). Each group of scars followed normal distributions. Twenty-three scars had original burns successfully scanned by LDI and various depths of burns were presented by different colours according to blood perfusion units (PU), with dark blue burns, with the thinnest scars for green coloured burns and the thickest for dark blue coloured burns. Within light blue burns, grafted burns healed with significantly thinner scars than non-grafted burns. This study indicates that LDI can be used for predicting the risk of hypertrophic scarring and for guiding burn care. To our knowledge, this is the first study to correlate the thickness of burns scars by ultrasound scan with burn depth determined by LDI.

  17. Burn care professionals' attitudes and practices regarding discussions of sexuality and intimacy with adult burn survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, Ruth Brubaker; Rutter, Cindy E; Lessard, Collette R; Pressman, Melissa Singer; Jost, Janet Cusick; Bosch, James; Foster, Kevin N; Caruso, Daniel M

    2010-01-01

    Burn injury survival means coping with more than just the physical changes and disabilities often encountered after burn injury. Overall quality of life is important, and issues such as sexuality and intimacy are significant facets of quality of life. A literature review revealed limited research regarding current burn center practices related to sexuality and intimacy concerns of burn survivors and their partners. A 28-item survey, designed by seasoned burn care professionals and survivors, was distributed to burn care practitioners attending general sessions at several burn conferences in the United States. Seventy-one (86%) of the invited respondents completed the survey, with nursing representing the majority (63%). Mean tenure working in burn care was 10 years. Mean age of respondents was 40.5 years, with 75% being female and 25% male. Nearly half (47%) reported that specific staff was not designated to discuss sexuality and intimacy with survivors in their center. Sixty-two percent reported that special training regarding sexuality and intimacy was not available at their burn center. Only 14% of respondents indicated that they were "very comfortable" initiating conversation regarding these topics. Fifty-five percent said they were only likely to discuss sexuality and intimacy if the patient/partner initiated the discussion; however, 95% agreed that the patient should not have this responsibility. Although results represent findings from only 37 burn centers, the issues of sexuality and intimacy are not being effectively addressed in the participating centers. Designated staff to provide education is lacking, and there is limited comfort on the part of health care providers in initiating such conversations. These factors seem to often prevent burn care professionals from adequately addressing burn survivor's sexuality and intimacy needs and establish the need for further development of training and educational materials specific to sexuality, intimacy, and

  18. Burning of droplets and particles of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondrikov, B.N. [Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    Small droplets of organic diazides investigated by C.K. Law and coworkers burn in hot gas at 1 atm with rates inversely proportional to the droplet diameter presumably owing to leading chemical reaction proceeds in gas phase. These burning rates are obviously much lower than those obtained by extrapolation of the results measured for the some substances in glass tubes (at pressure of about 10{sup -2}-10{sup -1} atm, and temperature 0-100 deg C) on the burning conditions of the droplets. Kinetic constants estimated using Zel`dovich equation for the burning rate in gas phase and Semenov relation for delay time of the droplets micro-explosion in liquid phase are about the same: E {approx_equal} 0.17 MJ/mol, log{sub 10}k{sub o} {approx_equal} 15(S{sup -1}). In both of the cases the leading chemical reaction is supposed to be of the first order. Landau instability is assumed to be reflected in distortion of the droplets at burning but, as opposed to the liquids pools or columns burning, it is not followed by the burning rate augmentation or (as it is observed sometimes) by the combustion extinguishment. Simple dependence of burning rate of droplets of diazides of the row of normal alkanes on their enthalpy of formation is obtained. Burning rate of ball-shaped particles of polyvinyl-nitrate estimated by A. Merzhanov and collaborators is about the same as measured by the data E.I. Maximov, the member of the same team, for PVN strands, at extrapolation of his results on the suggested preheating temperature of the particle. Probably it is a result of the leading chemical reaction proceeding in condensed phase. (author) 10 refs.

  19. Childhood burns in south eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoro Philemon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burns injuries are recognized as a major health problem worldwide. In children and, particularly, in our environment where poverty, ignorance and disease are still high, they constitute significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies on this topic in parts of Nigeria either lumped adults and children together or were retrospective. We, therefore, prospectively studied the current trends in burns in children. Patients and Methods: This prospective study of burns spanned over a period of 18 months (June 2006-December 2007 at the Paediatric Surgery Units of the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, and the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State. Data were collected and analysed for age, sex, cause/type of burn, place of burn, presence or absence of adult/s, initial prehospital intervention, interval between injury and presentation, surface area and depth of burn and treatment and outcome. Results: Fifty-three patients were studied, 31 (58.4% were male and 22 (41.6% were female (M:F = 1.4:1. Patients mostly affected were aged 2 years and below. The most common cause of burns was hot water in 31 (58.5% patients. The vast majority of these injuries happened in a domestic environment (92.5% and in the presence of competent adult/s (88.7%. Outcome of treatment was good: there were two (3.8% deaths and 46 (86% patients had complete recovery. Conclusion: Burns is still a major health problem among children in south eastern Nigeria. Fortunately, outcome of appropriate treatment is good. However, we think that poor safety consciousness among parents is a major predisposing factor. Public enlightenment on measures to ensure safe home environment may be necessary to avoid or limit childhood burns.

  20. The Application of Erosive Burning to Propellant Charge Interior Ballistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-lin

    2009-01-01

    Erosive burning is a common burning phenomenon of the gunpowder with inner holes. The actual combustion law of the gunpowder with inner holes can be changed by erosive burning. Pressure difference between the inner and the outer of hole caused by loading density variation of the propellant charge makes erosive burning occur at inner holes during in-bore burning. The effect of erosive burning on burning speed of the propellant is studied by using the effects of flow rate, heat transfer and erosion of the combustion gas in inner holes on burning rate. The mathematic model of erosive burning of the propellant is established. The effects of the factors such as loading density, inner hole size and grain length on erosive burning and interior ballistic performance are analyzed .The method to improve the bore pressure for small charge mass and small firing range by erosive burning is proposed.

  1. Burn Injury Caused by Laptop Computers

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, G

    2013-01-01

    Laptop burn is a real condition and medical reports indicate that using a laptop across the legs can indeed cause it. in very rare cases, the condition can cause damage leading to skin cancer. A 24-year-old man presented with an asymptomatic reddish brown pigmentation on the thighs. After an extensive work-up, burning caused by use of a laptop was observed. Burning was induced in 3 days by using laptop for 4 h daily. Laptop should be used in properly ventilated and air-conditioned rooms. The ...

  2. The initial management of acute burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treharne, L J; Kay, A R

    2001-06-01

    The initial management of burns, in common with all trauma, follows the ABCDE approach. The outline management plan detailed above assumes the availability of certain medical supplies but even simple measures are invaluable in burn care if they are all that are available. The most basic supplies required to resuscitate a casualty are oral salt and water in appropriate volumes. Similarly it should be possible in field conditions to monitor vital signs and urine output, dress the burns with clingfilm or plastic bags and wrap the casualty in absorbent materials.

  3. Ciguatera neurotoxin poisoning mimicking burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heir, Gary M

    2005-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a condition in which the patient perceives a sensation of intraoral burning, typically of the anterior tongue. This article presents a case report of a patient presenting for orofacial pain evaluation in whom ciguatera neurotoxin poisoning is diagnosed. The clinician should be aware of neurotoxin poisoning as a possible cause of symptoms of burning mouth, especially among patients who have recently traveled to a tropical area. Recognition of this condition in this case highlights the need for a detailed and accurate patient history.

  4. Avaliação de atributos físicos e estoques de carbono e nitrogênio em solos com queima e sem queima de canavial Evaluation of physical properties and soil carbon and nitrogen stocks as affected by burning or green trash management of sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Fernando de Luca

    2008-04-01

    carried out in cropping systems involving pre-harvest burning of aerial sugarcane residues. Nowadays the green trash management of sugarcane residues has become a common practice, although the effects are still poorly documented. The objective of this work was to compare topsoil carbon and nitrogen stocks, aggregation and bulk density in Brazilian sugarcane plantations where aerial residues were either burned (Cq or left on the soil surface (Sq after harvest. The study was carried out in three plantations, one on a clayey soil (Latossolo Vermelho, LVdf, i.e. Typic Hapludox and two on sandy soils (Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, PVAd, i.e. Typic Hapludult, and Neossolo Quartzarênico, RQo, i.e. Quartzpsamment. On each plantation, the experimental design included six replications per treatment. After three crops, the accumulated aerial residue biomass in Sq treatment amounted to 40 t ha-1 of DM from which 4.5 and 3.6 t ha-1 of DM (i.e. 11 and 9 % were still present at the soil surface in LVdf and RQo, respectively. This represented 1.60 and 1.35 t ha-1 of C and 0.022 and 0.021 t ha-1 of N, respectively. As a result, soil carbon at a 0-20 cm depth increased by 6.3 and 4.7 t ha-1 in LVdf and RQo, respectively. Over the three-year period, the rate of carbon sequestration in the litter and topsoil in the Sq treatment was 2.63 and 2.02 t ha-1 yr-1 in LVdf and RQo, respectively. Topsoil content of stable macroaggregates was also higher with Sq than with Cq: 814 vs. 693 g kg-1 in LVdf, and 516 vs, 420 g kg-1 in RQo, respectively. On the other hand, Sq caused topsoil compaction (PVAd and RQo due to the mechanized harvest system. In the Brazilian soils under study, green trash management of sugarcane residues improved the topsoil properties and promoted carbon and nitrogen sequestration in the litter and topsoil.

  5. Sediment availability on burned hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Petter; Sheridan, Gary J.; Moody, John A.; Smith, Hugh G.; Noske, Philip J.; Lane, Patrick N. J.

    2013-12-01

    describes the inherent resistance of soil to erosion. Hillslope erosion models typically consider erodibility to be constant with depth. This may not be the case after wildfire because erodibility is partly determined by the availability of noncohesive soil and ash at the surface. This study quantifies erodibility of burned soils using methods that explicitly capture variations in soil properties with depth. Flume experiments on intact cores from three sites in western United States showed that erodibility of fire-affected soil was highest at the soil surface and declined exponentially within the top 20 mm of the soil profile, with root density and soil depth accounting for 62% of the variation. Variation in erodibility with depth resulted in transient sediment flux during erosion experiments on bounded field plots. Material that contributed to transient flux was conceptualized as a layer of noncohesive material of variable depth (dnc). This depth was related to shear strength measurements and sampled spatially to obtain the probability distribution of noncohesive material as a function of depth below the surface. After wildfire in southeast Australia, the initial dnc ranged from 7.5 to 9.1 mm, which equated to 97-117 Mg ha-1 of noncohesive material. The depth decreased exponentially with time since wildfire to 0.4 mm (or < 5 Mg ha-1) after 3 years of recovery. The results are organized into a framework for modeling fire effects on erodibility as a function of the production and depletion of the noncohesive layer overlying a cohesive layer.

  6. The ALMR actinide burning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, J.E. (General Electric Co., San Jose, CA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR) actinide burning system is being developed under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy to bring its unique capabilities to fruition for deployment in the early 21st century. The system consists of four major parts: the reactor plant, the metal fuel and its recycle, the processing of light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel to extract the actinides, and the development of a residual waste package. This paper addresses the status and outlook for each of these four major elements. The ALMR is being developed by an industrial group under the leadership of General Electric (GE) in a cost-sharing arrangement with the US Department of Energy. This effort is nearing completion of the advanced conceptual design phase and will enter the preliminary design phase in 1994. The innovative modular reactor design stresses simplicity, economics, reliability, and availability. The design has evolved from GE's PRISM design initiative and has progressed to the final stages of a prelicensing review by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); a safety evaluation report is expected by the end of 1993. All the major issues identified during this review process have been technically resolved. The next design phases will focus on implementation of the basic safety philosophy of passive shutdown to a safe, stable condition, even without scram, and passive decay heat removal. Economic projections to date show that it will be competitive with non- nuclear and advanced LWR nuclear alternatives.

  7. TIGER Burned Brightly in JAMIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Sandra L.; Kashiwagi, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    The Transition From Ignition to Flame Growth Under External Radiation in 3D (TIGER- 3D) experiment, which is slated to fly aboard the International Space Station, conducted a series of highly successful tests in collaboration with the University of Hokkaido using Japan's 10-sec JAMIC drop tower. The tests were conducted to test engineering versions of advanced flight diagnostics such as an infrared camera for detailed surface temperature measurements and an infrared spectroscopic array for gas-phase species concentrations and temperatures based on detailed spectral emissions in the near infrared. Shown in the top figure is a visible light image and in the bottom figure is an infrared image at 3.8 mm obtained during the microgravity tests. The images show flames burning across cellulose samples against a slow wind of a few centimeters per second (wind is from right to left). These flow velocities are typical of spacecraft ventilation systems that provide fresh air for the astronauts. The samples are ignited across the center with a hot wire, and the flame is allowed to spread upwind and/or downwind. As these images show, the flames prefer to spread upwind, into the fresh air, which is the exact opposite of flames on Earth, which spread much faster downwind, or with the airflow, as in forest fires.

  8. Characteristics of burn deaths from 2003 to 2009 in a burn center: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mortality remains one of the most important end-point quality control parameters to evaluate a burn care system. We retrospectively reviewed the characteristics and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS patterns of burn deaths in our center from January 2003 to December 2009. The mortality rate during this time period was 2.3%. Fifty-six patients died, including 49 males and 7 females. The mean survival time was 28.45 ± 24.60 days. The burn percentage was (76.70 ± 26.86 % total burn surface area (TBSA, with (27.74 ± 24.95 % deep-partial thickness burns and (46.88 ± 33.84 % full-thickness burns. Inhalation injury was diagnosed in 36 (64.29% patients. Patients who had undergone an operation, particularly in the first week post-burn, had a significantly longer survival time. An average of 5.50 ± 1.35 malfunctioning organs per patient and a mean sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA score of 13.91 ± 3.65 were observed. The most frequently malfunctioning organs were involved in the respiratory, hematologic, circulatory, and central nervous systems. Most of the organ damage occurred during the first week post-burn, followed by 4 weeks later, with relatively less organ damage observed in the third week. Among patients with a TBSA over 50%, non-survivors had larger burn sizes (particularly larger full-thickness burns and a higher incidence of inhalation injury compared with survivors; non-survivors were also more likely to have microorganism-positive blood and sputum cultures. In conclusion, burn deaths are related to a higher burn percentage, inhalation injury, MODS, and infection. Early operation may help improve survival duration.

  9. On burning a lump of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Serrano, Ana; Visser, Matt

    2016-06-01

    Burning something, (e.g. the proverbial lump of coal, or an encyclopaedia for that matter), in a blackbody furnace leads to an approximately Planck emission spectrum with an average entropy/information transfer of approximately 3.9 ± 2.5 bits per emitted photon. This quantitative and qualitative result depends only on the underlying unitarity of the quantum physics of burning, combined with the statistical mechanics of blackbody radiation. The fact that the utterly standard and unitarity preserving process of burning something (in fact, burning anything) nevertheless has an associated entropy/information budget, and the quantitative size of that entropy/information budget, is a severely under-appreciated feature of standard quantum statistical physics.

  10. On burning a lump of coal

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso-Serrano, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Burning something, (e.g. the proverbial lump of coal, or an encyclopaedia for that matter), in a blackbody furnace leads to an approximately Planck emission spectrum with an average entropy/information transfer of approximately $3.9 \\pm 2.5$ bits per emitted photon. This quantitative and qualitative result depends only on the underlying unitarity of the quantum physics of burning, combined with the statistical mechanics of blackbody radiation. The fact that the utterly standard and unitarity preserving process of burning something (in fact, burning anything) nevertheless *has* an associated entropy/information budget, and the quantitative *size* of that entropy/information budget, is a severely under-appreciated feature of standard quantum statistical physics.

  11. Radioactivity released from burning gas lantern mantles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetzelschwab, J W; Googins, S W

    1984-04-01

    Gas lantern mantles contain thorium to produce incandescence when lantern fuel is burned on the mantle. Although only thorium is initially present on the mantle, the thorium daughters build up, some over a period of weeks and some over a period of years, and significant quantities of these daughters are present when the mantle is used. Some of these daughters are released when the lantern fuel is burned on the mantle. The amounts of radioactivity released during burning is studied by measuring the gamma radiation emitted by the daughters. Results of this study show that some of the radium (224Ra and 228Ra) and more than half the 212Pb and 212Bi is released during the first hour of a burn. The actual amounts release depend on the age of the mantle.

  12. Prescribed Burn Cycles 4-yr Rotation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a map and a table showing the number of acres and locations of planned burns and wildfires on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge between...

  13. Erosive Burning Study Utilizing Ultrasonic Measurement Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfaro, James A.

    2003-01-01

    A 6-segment subscale motor was developed to generate a range of internal environments from which multiple propellants could be characterized for erosive burning. The motor test bed was designed to provide a high Mach number, high mass flux environment. Propellant regression rates were monitored for each segment utilizing ultrasonic measurement techniques. These data were obtained for three propellants RSRM, ETM- 03, and Castor@ IVA, which span two propellant types, PBAN (polybutadiene acrylonitrile) and HTPB (hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene). The characterization of these propellants indicates a remarkably similar erosive burning response to the induced flow environment. Propellant burnrates for each type had a conventional response with respect to pressure up to a bulk flow velocity threshold. Each propellant, however, had a unique threshold at which it would experience an increase in observed propellant burn rate. Above the observed threshold each propellant again demonstrated a similar enhanced burn rate response corresponding to the local flow environment.

  14. Burned Microporous Alumina-Graphite Brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the definition,classifica-tion,technical requirements,test methods,inspection rules,marking,packing,transportation and quality certificate of burned microporous alumina-graphite brick.

  15. Clay Improvement with Burned Olive Waste Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkan Mutman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is concentrated in the Mediterranean basin countries. Since the olive oil industries are incriminated for a high quantity of pollution, it has become imperative to solve this problem by developing optimized systems for the treatment of olive oil wastes. This study proposes a solution to the problem. Burned olive waste ash is evaluated for using it as clay stabilizer. In a laboratory, bentonite clay is used to improve olive waste ash. Before the laboratory, the olive waste is burned at 550°C in the high temperature oven. The burned olive waste ash was added to bentonite clay with increasing 1% by weight from 1% to 10%. The study consisted of the following tests on samples treated with burned olive waste ash: Atterberg Limits, Standard Proctor Density, and Unconfined Compressive Strength Tests. The test results show promise for this material to be used as stabilizer and to solve many of the problems associated with its accumulation.

  16. Burns - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Translations Korean (한국어) Burn Care 화상 관리 - 한국어 ... Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  17. Early Sequential Excision of Chemical Burns - our Experience in Riyadh Burns Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the treatment of chemical burns in a burns unit in Saudi Arabia in the 10-yr period 1993 to 2003. In 1993, in line with new approaches, the protocol for treating deep chemical burns in the first 48 h was modified to employ sequential excision followed by a second-look approach after 24 h, at which stage autografts/homografts were effected, depending upon the extent of the burn and having ascertained that the wound was bleeding and that there was no necrotic tissue. Resul...

  18. Epidemiology and screening of intentional burns in children in a Dutch burn centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousema, Sara; Stas, Helene G; van de Merwe, Marjolijn H; Oen, Irma M M H; Baartmans, Martin G A; van Baar, Margriet E

    2016-09-01

    International estimates of the incidence of non-accidental burns (NAB) in children admitted to burn centres vary from 1% to 25%. Hardly any data about Dutch figures exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, treatment and outcome of burns due to suspected child abuse in paediatric burns. We described the process of care and outcome, including the accuracy of the SPUTOVAMO screening tool and examined child, burn and treatment characteristics related to suspicions of child abuse or neglect. A retrospective study was conducted in children aged 0-17 years with a primary admission after burn injuries to the burn centre Rotterdam in the period 2009-2013. Data on patient, injury and treatment characteristics were collected, using the Dutch Burn Repository R3. In addition, medical records were reviewed. In 498 paediatric admissions, suspected child abuse or neglect was present in 43 children (9%). 442 screening questionnaires (89%) were completed. In 52 out of 442 questionnaires (12%) the completed SPUTOVAMO had one or more positive signs. Significant independent predictors for suspected child abuse were burns in the genital area or buttocks (OR=3.29; CI: 143-7.55) and a low socio-economic status (OR=2.52; 95%CI: 1.30-4.90). The incidence of suspected child abuse indicating generation of additional support in our population is comparable to studies with a similar design in other countries.

  19. [Treatment of pain in children burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, J; Pommier, C; Robert, A; Comparin, J P; Foyatier, J L

    1997-03-01

    Burn injury is considered by children as one of the most painful traumas (just after bone factures). Burn pain in children can and must be controlled as well as for adult patients, with almost identical techniques. Continuous pain from injury and intermittent pain caused by therapeutic procedures must be evaluated and treated separately. Due to very high levels of nociception, satisfactory management of procedural pain requires the use of opioid therapy. Non pharmacological methods are meaningless if pharmacological treatment is not optimal.

  20. Stability of Rocket Flight during Burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Srivastava

    1967-10-01

    Full Text Available Stability of the rocket motion during burning is discussed taking into consideration gravity, aerodynamic forces and torques. Conditions for stabilizing the rocket motion are investigated. Analysis for initial and final phases of burning is given separately. Stability regions of the projected motions on two dimensional co-ordinate planes are obtained and thereby stability region of the actual motion is derived. Stability diagrams illustrate statically and dynamically stable and unstable regions.

  1. Segmentation and Classification of Burn Color Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    2Grupo de Ingeniería Biomédica. Escuela Superior de Ingenieros. Universidad de Sevilla. Spain. e-mail: bacha@viento.us.es, cserrano@viento.us.es...Abstract-The aim of the algorithm described in this paper is to separate burned skin from normal skin in burn color images and to classify them...Segmentation Results To perform the segmentation, a previous characterization of the hue and saturation component histograms for both normal and burnt skin

  2. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Ippolito, Luigi; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2010-06-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a complex and multifaceted disorder characterized by the activation of coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways, consumption of coagulation factors, and depletion of coagulation regulatory proteins. The introduction into the circulation of cellular debris characterized by strong thromboplastic activity due to tissue factor exposition or release (in or from burned tissues), which can thereby activate extrinsic pathway of coagulation system and trigger massive thrombin generation when present in sufficient concentration, represents the most plausible biological explanation to support the development of intravascular coagulation in patients with burn injury. Severe burns left untreated might also lead to an immunological and inflammatory response (activation of the complement cascade), which can amplify fibrinolysis and blood clotting. Overall, the real prevalence of DIC in patients with burns is as yet unclear. Postmortem, retrospective, and even longitudinal investigations are in fact biased by several factors, such as the objective difficulty to establish whether DIC might have occurred as a primary complication of burns or rather as a consequence of other superimposed pathologies (e.g., sepsis, multiple organ failure), the different diagnostic criteria for assessing DIC, and the heterogeneity of the patient samples studied. Nevertheless, the current scientific evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that biochemical changes suggestive for DIC (hypercoagulability, hypo- and hyperfibrinolysis) are commonplace in patients with burn trauma, and their severity increases exponentially with the severity of injury. Overt DIC seems to occur especially in critically ill burn patients or in those with severe burns (up to third degree) and large involvement of body surface area, in whom an appropriate therapy might be effective to prevent the otherwise fulminant course. Although early prophylaxis with antithrombin concentrates

  3. 40 CFR 266.101 - Management prior to burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.101 Management prior to burning. (a) Generators. Generators of hazardous waste that is burned in a boiler or industrial furnace... burned in a boiler or industrial furnace are subject to part 263 of this chapter. (c) Storage...

  4. 49 CFR 195.226 - Welding: Arc burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding: Arc burns. 195.226 Section 195.226 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.226 Welding: Arc burns. (a) Each arc burn must be repaired. (b) An arc burn...

  5. Randomized controlled trial of the absorbency of four dressings and their effects on the evaporation of burn wounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jiong; HAN Chun-mao; SU Guo-liang; TANG Zhi-jian; SU Shi-jie; LIN Xiao-wei

    2007-01-01

    Background Wound dressings are divided into traditional and new types. The new dressings are thought to accelerate wound healing. The purpose of this study was to supplement the scanty data on the absorbency of the new dressings and their effects on evaporation from the burn surface.Methods The water absorption rate of four dressings (carbon fiber dressing, hydrogel dressing, silver nanoparticle dressing, and vaseline gauze) were measured by the immersion-weight gain method. A total of 120 inpatients with 10%superficial partial-thickness burn wounds were randomly assigned to four groups, each with 30 participants. Carbon fiber dressing, hydrogel dressing, and silver nanoparticle dressing were used in groups A, B, and C as the primary dressing,and traditional vaseline gauze was used in group D as the control. Multi-spot evaporation from normal skin and naked wound, and from wounds covered with each of the four dressings was measured post-burn on days 1, 3, 5, and 7 by an EP-I evaporimeter under conditions of 21 ℃ -22 ℃ ambient temperature and 74%-78% humidity.Results The absorption rates of the four dressings were 988% with carbon fiber dressing, 96% with silver nanoparticle,41% with vaseline gauze, and 6% with hydrogel. Evaporation from the naked burn wounds was about 1/3 higher than from normal skin (P<0.01). Compared with wounds without applied dressing, evaporation from dressed wounds decreased and was time-dependent (P<0.01). The evaporation of wounds with carbon fiber dressing was the lowest ((13.40±2.82)ml·h-1·m-2,P<0.01) on day 1 post-burn,compared with the other groups.Conclusion All four dressings have water retention capacity while carbon fiber dressing has the highest absorption rate and shows the best containment and evaporation from the burn wound.

  6. In situ metabolic flux analysis to quantify the liver metabolic response to experimental burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Sharma, Nripen S; Uygun, Basak; Bieganski, Robert; Saeidi, Nima; Nahmias, Yaakov; Uygun, Korkut; Yarmush, Martin L; Berthiaume, Francois

    2011-04-01

    Trauma such as burns induces a hypermetabolic response associated with altered central carbon and nitrogen metabolism. The liver plays a key role in these metabolic changes; however, studies to date have evaluated the metabolic state of liver using ex vivo perfusions or isotope labeling techniques targeted to specific pathways. Herein, we developed a unique mass balance approach to characterize the metabolic state of the liver in situ, and used it to quantify the metabolic changes to experimental burn injury in rats. Rats received a sham (control uninjured), 20% or 40% total body surface area (TBSA) scald burn, and were allowed to develop a hypermetabolic response. One day prior to evaluation, all animals were fasted to deplete glycogen stores. Four days post-burn, blood flow rates in major vessels of the liver were measured, and blood samples harvested. We combined measurements of metabolite concentrations and flow rates in the major vessels entering and leaving the liver with a steady-state mass balance model to generate a quantitative picture of the metabolic state of liver. The main findings were: (1) Sham-burned animals exhibited a gluconeogenic pattern, consistent with the fasted state; (2) the 20% TBSA burn inhibited gluconeogenesis and exhibited glycolytic-like features with very few other significant changes; (3) the 40% TBSA burn, by contrast, further enhanced gluconeogenesis and also increased amino acid extraction, urea cycle reactions, and several reactions involved in oxidative phosphorylation. These results suggest that increasing the severity of injury does not lead to a simple dose-dependent metabolic response, but rather leads to qualitatively different responses.

  7. Biomass Burning, Land-Cover Change, and the Hydrological Cycle in Northern Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke T.; Willmot, K. Elena; Matsui, Toshihisa; Dezfuli, Amin K.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Wang, Jun; Wilcox, Eric M.; Lee, Jejung; Adegoke, Jimmy; Okonkwo, Churchill; Bolten, John; Policelli, Frederick S.; Habib, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    The Northern Sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, which accounts for 20%-25%of the global carbon emissions from biomass burning, also suffers from frequent drought episodes and other disruptions to the hydrological cycle whose adverse societal impacts have been widely reported during the last several decades. This paper presents a conceptual framework of the NSSA regional climate system components that may be linked to biomass burning, as well as detailed analyses of a variety of satellite data for 2001-2014 in conjunction with relevant model-assimilated variables. Satellite fire detections in NSSA show that the vast majority (greater than 75%) occurs in the savanna and woody savanna land-cover types. Starting in the 2006-2007 burning season through the end of the analyzed data in 2014, peak burning activity showed a net decrease of 2-7% /yr in different parts of NSSA, especially in the savanna regions. However, fire distribution shows appreciable coincidence with land-cover change. Although there is variable mutual exchange of different land cover types, during 2003-2013, cropland increased at an estimated rate of 0.28% /yr of the total NSSA land area, with most of it (0.18% /yr) coming from savanna.During the last decade, conversion to croplands increased in some areas classified as forests and wetlands, posing a threat to these vital and vulnerable ecosystems. Seasonal peak burning is anti-correlated with annual water-cycle indicators such as precipitation, soil moisture, vegetation greenness, and evapotranspiration, except in humid West Africa (5 deg-10 deg latitude),where this anti-correlation occurs exclusively in the dry season and burning virtually stops when monthly mean precipitation reaches 4 mm/d. These results provide observational evidence of changes in land-cover and hydrological variables that are consistent with feedbacks from biomass burning in NSSA, and encourage more synergistic modeling and observational studies that can elaborate this feedback

  8. Vegetation structure and fire weather influence variation in burn severity and fuel consumption during peatland wildfires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Davies

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperate peatland wildfires are of significant environmental concern but information on their environmental effects is lacking. We assessed variation in burn severity and fuel consumption within and between wildfires that burnt British moorlands in 2011 and 2012. We adapted the Composite Burn Index (pCBI to provide semi-quantitative estimates of burn severity. Pre- and post-fire surface (shrubs and graminoids and ground (litter, moss, duff fuel loads associated with large wildfires were assessed using destructive sampling and analysed using a Generalised Linear Mixed Model (GLMM. Consumption during wildfires was compared with published estimates of consumption during prescribed burns. Burn severity and fuel consumption were related to fire weather, assessed using the Canadian Fire Weather Index System (FWI System, and pre-fire fuel structure. pCBI varied 1.6 fold between, and up to 1.7 fold within, wildfires. pCBI was higher where moisture codes of the FWI System indicated drier fuels. Spatial variation in pre- and post-fire fuel load accounted for a substantial proportion of the variance in fuel loads. Average surface fuel consumption was a linear function of pre-fire fuel load. Average ground fuel combustion completeness could be predicted by the Buildup Index. Carbon release ranged between 0.36 and 1.00 kg C m−2. The flammability of ground fuel layers may explain the higher C release-rates seen for wildfires in comparison to prescribed burns. Drier moorland community types appear to be at greater risk of severe burns than blanket-bog communities.

  9. Biomass burning, land-cover change, and the hydrological cycle in Northern sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke T.; Willmot, K. Elena; Matsui, Toshihisa; Dezfuli, Amin K.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Wang, Jun; Wilcox, Eric M.; Lee, Jejung; Adegoke, Jimmy; Okonkwo, Churchill; Bolten, John; Policelli, Frederick S.; Habib, Shahid

    2016-09-01

    The Northern Sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, which accounts for 20%-25% of the global carbon emissions from biomass burning, also suffers from frequent drought episodes and other disruptions to the hydrological cycle whose adverse societal impacts have been widely reported during the last several decades. This paper presents a conceptual framework of the NSSA regional climate system components that may be linked to biomass burning, as well as detailed analyses of a variety of satellite data for 2001-2014 in conjunction with relevant model-assimilated variables. Satellite fire detections in NSSA show that the vast majority (>75%) occurs in the savanna and woody savanna land-cover types. Starting in the 2006-2007 burning season through the end of the analyzed data in 2014, peak burning activity showed a net decrease of 2-7%/yr in different parts of NSSA, especially in the savanna regions. However, fire distribution shows appreciable coincidence with land-cover change. Although there is variable mutual exchange of different land cover types, during 2003-2013, cropland increased at an estimated rate of 0.28%/yr of the total NSSA land area, with most of it (0.18%/yr) coming from savanna. During the last decade, conversion to croplands increased in some areas classified as forests and wetlands, posing a threat to these vital and vulnerable ecosystems. Seasonal peak burning is anti-correlated with annual water-cycle indicators such as precipitation, soil moisture, vegetation greenness, and evapotranspiration, except in humid West Africa (5°-10° latitude), where this anti-correlation occurs exclusively in the dry season and burning virtually stops when monthly mean precipitation reaches 4 mm d-1. These results provide observational evidence of changes in land-cover and hydrological variables that are consistent with feedbacks from biomass burning in NSSA, and encourage more synergistic modeling and observational studies that can elaborate this feedback mechanism.

  10. Impacts of prescribed burning on soil greenhouse gas fluxes in a suburban native forest of south-eastern Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Prescribed burning is a forest management practice that is widely used in Australia to reduce the risk of damaging wildfires. It can affect both carbon (C and nitrogen (N cycling in the forest and thereby influence the soil–atmosphere exchange of major greenhouse gases, i.e. carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O. To quantify the impact of a prescribed burning (conducted on 27 May 2014 on greenhouse gas exchange and the potential controlling mechanisms, we carried out a series of field measurements before (August 2013 and after (August 2014 and November 2014 the fire. Gas exchange rates were determined at 4 replicate sites which were burned during the combustion and another 4 adjacent unburned sites located in green islands, using a set of static chambers. Surface soil properties including temperature, pH, moisture, soil C and N pools were also determined either by in situ measurement or by analysing surface 10 cm soil samples. All of the chamber measurements indicated a net sink of atmospheric CH4, with mean CH4 uptake ranging from 1.15 to 1.99 mg m−2 day−1. The burning significantly enhanced CH4 uptake as indicated by the significant higher CH4 uptake rates at the burned sites measured in August 2014. While within the next 3 months the CH4 uptake rate was recovered to pre-burning levels. Mean CO2 emission from forest soils ranged from 2721.76 to 7113.49 mg m−2 day−1. The effect of prescribed burning on CO2 emission was limited within the first 3 months, as no significant difference was observed between the burned and the adjacent unburned sites in both August and November 2014. The temporal dynamics of the CO2 emission presented more seasonal variations, rather than burning effects. The N2O emission at the studied sites was quite low, and no significant impact of burning was observed. The changes in understory plants and litter layers, surface soil temperature, C and N substrate availability and microbial activities

  11. Characterization of the particulate emissions from the BP Deepwater Horizon surface oil burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullett, Brian K; Hays, Michael D; Tabor, Dennis; Wal, Randy Vander

    2016-06-15

    Sampling of the smoke plumes from the BP Deepwater Horizon surface oil burns led to the unintentional collection of soot particles on the sail of an instrument-bearing, tethered aerostat. This first-ever plume sampling from oil burned at an actual spill provided an opportunistic sample from which to characterize the particles' chemical properties for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic carbon, elemental carbon, metals, and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) and physical properties for size and nanostructure. Thermal-optical analyses indicated that the particulate matter was 93% carbon with 82% being refractory elemental carbon. PAHs accounted for roughly 68μg/g of the PM filter mass and 5mg/kg oil burned, much lower than earlier laboratory based studies. Microscopy indicated that the soot is distinct from more common soot by its aggregate size, primary particle size, and nanostructure. PM-bound metals were largely unremarkable but PCDD/PCDF formation was observed, contrary to other's findings. Levels of lighter PCDD/PCDF and PAH compounds were reduced compared to historical samples, possibly due to volatilization or photo-oxidation.

  12. What could have caused pre-industrial biomass burning emissions to exceed current rates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. van der Werf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies based on trace gas mixing ratios in ice cores and charcoal data indicate that biomass burning emissions over the past millennium exceeded contemporary emissions by up to a factor of 4 for certain time periods. This is surprising because various sources of biomass burning are linked with population density, which has increased over the past centuries. We have analysed how emissions from several landscape biomass burning sources could have fluctuated to yield emissions that are in correspondence with recent results based on ice core mixing ratios of carbon monoxide (CO and its isotopic signature measured at South Pole station (SPO. Based on estimates of contemporary landscape fire emissions and the TM5 chemical transport model driven by present-day atmospheric transport and OH concentrations, we found that CO mixing ratios at SPO are more sensitive to emissions from South America and Australia than from Africa, and are relatively insensitive to emissions from the Northern Hemisphere. We then explored how various landscape biomass burning sources may have varied over the past centuries and what the resulting emissions and corresponding CO mixing ratio at SPO would be, using population density variations to reconstruct sources driven by humans (e.g., fuelwood burning and a new model to relate savanna emissions to changes in fire return times. We found that to match the observed ice core CO data, all savannas in the Southern Hemisphere had to burn annually, or bi-annually in combination with deforestation and slash and burn agriculture exceeding current levels, despite much lower population densities and lack of machinery to aid the deforestation process. While possible, these scenarios are unlikely and in conflict with current literature. However, we do show the large potential for increased emissions from savannas in a pre-industrial world. This is mainly because in the past, fuel beds were probably less fragmented compared to the

  13. What could have caused pre-industrial biomass burning emissions to exceed current rates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. van der Werf

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies based on trace gas mixing ratios in ice cores and charcoal data indicate that biomass burning emissions over the past millennium exceeded contemporary emissions by up to a factor of 4 for certain time periods. This is surprising because various sources of biomass burning are linked with population density, which has increased over the past centuries. Here we have analyzed how emissions from several biomass burning sources could have fluctuated to yield emissions that are in correspondence with recent results based on ice core mixing ratios of carbon monoxide (CO and its isotopic signature measured at South Pole station (SPO. Based on estimates of contemporary fire emissions and the TM5 chemical transport model, we found that CO mixing ratios at SPO are more sensitive to emissions from South America and Australia than from Africa, and are relatively insensitive to emissions from the Northern Hemisphere. We then explored how various biomass burning sources may have varied over the past centuries and what the resulting emissions and corresponding CO mixing ratio at SPO would be, using population density variations to reconstruct sources driven by humans (e.g. fuelwood burning and a new model to relate savanna emissions to changes in fire return times. We found that to match the observed ice core CO data all savannas in the Southern Hemisphere had to burn annually, or bi-annually in combination with deforestation and slash and burn agriculture matching current levels despite much lower population densities and lack of machinery to aid the deforestation process. While possible, these scenarios are unlikely and in conflict with current literature. However, we do show the large potential for increased emissions from savannas in a pre-industrial world. This is mainly because in the past, fuel beds were probably less fragmented compared to the current situation; we show that the majority of savannas have not burned in the past 10 yr, even

  14. Psychiatric Assessment and Rehabilitation of Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Akarsu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Psychiatric rehabilitation has gained significance owing to improved healthcare facilities for burn injuries and decreased mortality/ morbidity rates. Burn traumas may result in psychiatric signs such as denial, anger, guilt, confusion, disgrace, anxiety, distress, and nervousness. Psychiatric disorders such as delirium, depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and sexual problems can also be encountered. Therefore, it is necessary to look for these signs and disorders through regular sessions with burn patients and appropriate psychometric tests. This study aims at examining the process of psychological rehabilitation for burn patients in light of the current literature. Material and Methods: This study has been carried out in the light of the main and current literature review. The study intends to put forth the data observed in the course of the psychological diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of burn patients. The study has been conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration Guidelines. Results: Treatment and rehabilitation process requires a multidisciplinary teamwork that consists of physicians, dieticians, psychologists, social service specialists, and other healthcare workers who can meet the needs of burn patients and their families. It is necessary for the team to contribute both to the hospitalization process and the social environment of the patients and their families. Conclusion: It is observed that the quality of life of these patients can be considerably improved with the effective assessment of psychiatric signs that occur during or after the injury and with appropriate treatment methods.

  15. Instrumented tube burns: theoretical and experimental observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarrington, Cole Davis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Obrey, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Foley, Timothy J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Son, Steven F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The advent of widely available nanoscale energetic composites has resulted in a flurry of novel applications. One of these applications is the use of nanomaterials in energetic compositions. In compositions that exhibit high sensitivity to stimulus, these materials are often termed metastable intermolecular composites (MIC). More generally, these compositions are simply called nanoenergetics. Researchers have used many different experimental techniques to analyze the various properties of nanoenergetic systems. Among these various techniques, the confined tube burn is a simple experiment that is capable of obtaining much data related to the combustion of these materials. The purpose of this report is to review the current state of the confined tube burn experiment, including the drawbacks of the technique and possible remedies. As this report is intended to focus on the specific experimental technique, data from many different energetic materials, and experimental configurations will be presented. The qualitative and quantitative data that can be gathered using confined tube burn experiments include burning rates, total impulse, pressure rise rate, and burning rate differences between different detector types. All of these measurements lend insight into the combustion properties and mechanisms of specific nanoenergetics. Finally, certain data indicates a more complicated flow scenario which may need to be considered when developing burn tube models.

  16. The Correlation Between the Burning Features, the Burning Agent and Motivation in Burn Victims Attending Shahid Motahari Hospital in Tehran During 2009: letter to Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Aghakhani M.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Burning is one of the commonest causes of death. Due to the high rate of death among burn victims epidemiological investigation of burning, burning agents and the relevant motivations can be of great preventive value.1 In this cross-sectional study all the hospitalized patients in Shahid Motahari Burn Hospital at Tehran city in the year 2009 were included in the study. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS (ver. 17 software. Out of the 1548 hospitalized patients for burn, 1134 (73.3% left hospital in good conditions, 47 (3% left in relatively good conditions, 289 (18.7% died and 78 (5% persons left the Hospital satisfactorily on their own volition. About two-thirds of the patients were men. The mean age of the burn victims was 27.9±18.3 years, 16% of them being 5 years old or younger. The highest percentage of burn area was 30% of the total body surface which was seen in 20 to 30-year old patients. 58.7% of burns had been caused by fire. 94% of the burns had happened accidentally, 5% by suicidal and 1% by homicidal acts. The highest percentage of burn was observed in patients in whom the burn agent was fire. Six (4% persons had first degree, 820 (53% persons had second degree and 722 (46.6% had third degree burns. In patients who had committed suicide third degree burns were higher than second degree burns (7.7% vs. 2%. 24.4% of women and 16.6% of men died due to the burns. The rate of death in patients less than 50 years of age was 18% but the figure increased to 24% in those above 50. A burn area less than or more than 10% was, respectively correlated with 2.1% and 22.1% of deaths. 34.8% of the patients with third degree burns and 4.6% of those with second and first degree burns died. 58.3% of the suicidal patient died due to the severity of the burns relative to 16.7% due to other causes. 89 (5.7% patients had respiratory tract burns and the death rate was 58.4% among these patients while the death rate was 16.2% in patients without

  17. Holocene linkages between char, soot, biomass burning and climate from Lake Daihai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Y. M.; Marlon, J. R.; Cao, J. J.; Jin, Z. D.; An, Z. S.

    2012-12-01

    Black or elemental carbon (EC), including soot and char, are byproducts of anthropogenic fossil-fuel and biomass burning, and also of wildfires. EC, and particularly soot, strongly affects atmospheric chemistry and physics and thus radiative forcing; it can also alter regional climate and precipitation. Pre-industrial variations in EC as well as its source areas and controls however, are poorly known. Here we use a lake-sediment EC record from China to reconstruct Holocene variations in soot (combustion emissions formed via gas-to-particle conversion processes) and char (combustion residues from pyrolysis) measured with a thermal/optical method. Comparisons with sedimentary charcoal records (i.e., particles measured microscopically), climate and population data are used to infer variations in biomass burning and its controls. During the Holocene, positive correlations are observed between EC and an independent index of regional biomass burning. Negative correlations are observed between EC and monsoon intensity, and tree cover inferred from arboreal pollen percentages. Abrupt declines in temperature are also linked with widespread declines in fire. Our results 1) confirm the robustness of a relatively new method for reconstructing variations in EC; 2) document variations in regional biomass burning; 3) support a strong climatic control of biomass burning throughout the Holocene; and 4) indicate that char levels are higher today than at any time during the Holocene.

  18. Orion Burn Management, Nominal and Response to Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegard, Ryan; Goodman, John L.; Barrett, Charles P.; Pohlkamp, Kara; Robinson, Shane

    2016-01-01

    An approach for managing Orion on-orbit burn execution is described for nominal and failure response scenarios. The burn management strategy for Orion takes into account per-burn variations in targeting, timing, and execution; crew and ground operator intervention and overrides; defined burn failure triggers and responses; and corresponding on-board software sequencing functionality. Burn-to- burn variations are managed through the identification of specific parameters that may be updated for each progressive burn. Failure triggers and automatic responses during the burn timeframe are defined to provide safety for the crew in the case of vehicle failures, along with override capabilities to ensure operational control of the vehicle. On-board sequencing software provides the timeline coordination for performing the required activities related to targeting, burn execution, and responding to burn failures.

  19. Transported vs. local contributions from secondary and biomass burning sources to PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong Mann; Seo, Jihoon; Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Ji Yi; Kim, Yumi

    2016-11-01

    The concentration of fine particulates in Seoul, Korea has been lowered over the past 10 years, as a result of the city's efforts in implementing environmental control measures. Yet, the particulate concentration level in Seoul remains high as compared to other urban areas globally. In order to further improve fine particulate air quality in the Korea region and design a more effective control strategy, enhanced understanding of the sources and contribution of fine particulates along with their chemical compositions is necessary. In turn, relative contributions from local and transported sources on Seoul need to be established, as this city is particularly influenced by sources from upwind geographic areas. In this study, PM2.5 monitoring was conducted in Seoul from October 2012 to September 2013. PM2.5 mass concentrations, ions, metals, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water soluble OC (WSOC), humic-like substances of carbon (HULIS-C), and 85 organic compounds were chemically analyzed. The multivariate receptor model SMP was applied to the PM2.5 data, which then identified nine sources and estimated their source compositions as well as source contributions. Prior studies have identified and quantified the transported and local sources. However, no prior studies have distinguished contributions of an individual source between transported contribution and locally produced contribution. We differentiated transported secondary and biomass burning sources from the locally produced secondary and biomass burning sources, which was supported with potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis. Of the total secondary source contribution, 32% was attributed to transported secondary sources, and 68% was attributed to locally formed secondary sources. Meanwhile, the contribution from the transported biomass burning source was revealed as 59% of the total biomass burning contribution, which was 1.5 times higher than that of the local biomass burning source

  20. Climate effects of seasonally varying Biomass Burning emitted Carbonaceous Aerosols (BBCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.-R. Jeong

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The climate impact of the seasonality of Biomass Burning emitted Carbonaceous Aerosols (BBCA is studied using an aerosol-climate model coupled with a slab ocean model in a set of 60-year long simulations, driven by BBCA emission data with and without seasonal variation, respectively. The model run with seasonally varying emission of BBCA leads to an increase in the external mixture of carbonaceous aerosols as well as in the internal mixture of organic carbon and sulfate but a decrease in the internal mixture of black carbon and sulfate relative to those in the run with constant annual BBCA emissions, as a result of different strengths of source/sink processes. The differences in atmospheric direct radiative forcing (DRF caused by BBCA seasonality are in phase with the differences in column concentrations of the external mixture of carbonaceous aerosols in space and time. In contrast, the differences in all-sky radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the earth's surface extend beyond the BBCA source regions due to climate feedback through cloud distribution and precipitation. The seasonality of biomass burning emissions uniquely affects the global distributions of convective clouds and precipitation, indicating that these emissions have an impact on atmospheric circulation. In addition, the climate response to the periodic climate forcing of BBCA is not limited to biomass burning seasons but dynamically extends into non-biomass burning seasons as well.

  1. Mechanism of Burn Resistance of Alloy Ti40

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Ti fire found in high performance engines promotes the development of burn resistant Ti alloys. The burn resistant mechanism of Ti40 alloy is investigated. Ti40 alloy reveals good burn resistance. Its interfacial products between burning products and the matrix are tenacious,which retard the diffusion of oxygen into the matrix. Two burn resistant mechanisms, that is, fast scatter dispersion of heat and suppression of oxygen diffusion, are proposed.

  2. Treatment of secondary burn wound progression in contact burns-a systematic review of experimental approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmauss, Daniel; Rezaeian, Farid; Finck, Tom; Machens, Hans-Guenther; Wettstein, Reto; Harder, Yves

    2015-01-01

    After a burn injury, superficial partial-thickness burn wounds may progress to deep partial-thickness or full-thickness burn wounds, if kept untreated. This phenomenon is called secondary burn wound progression or conversion. Burn wound depth is an important determinant of patient morbidity and mortality. Therefore, reduction or even the prevention of secondary burn wound progression is one goal of the acute care of burned patients. The objective of this study was to review preclinical approaches evaluating therapies to reduce burn wound progression. A systematic review of experimental approaches in animals that aim at reducing or preventing secondary burn wound progression was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. The selected references consist of all the peer-reviewed studies performed in vivo in animals and review articles published in English, German, Italian, Spanish, or French language relevant to the topic of secondary burn wound progression. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar including all the articles published from the beginning of notations to the present. The search was conducted between May 3, 2012 and December 26, 2013. We included 29 experimental studies in this review, investigating agents that maintain or increase local perfusion conditions, as well as agents that exhibit an anti-coagulatory, an anti-inflammatory, or an anti-apoptotic property. Warm water, simvastatin, EPO, or cerium nitrate may represent particularly promising approaches for the translation into clinical use in the near future. This review demonstrates promising experimental approaches that might reduce secondary burn wound progression. Nevertheless, a translation into clinical application needs to confirm the results compiled in experimental animal studies.

  3. Ceruloplasmin and Hypoferremia: Studies in Burn and Non-Burn Trauma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Dubick

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Normal iron handling appears to be disrupted in critically ill patients leading to hypoferremia that may contribute to systemic inflammation. Ceruloplasmin (Cp, an acute phase reactant protein that can convert ferrous iron to its less reactive ferric form facilitating binding to ferritin, has ferroxidase activity that is important to iron handling. Genetic absence of Cp decreases iron export resulting in iron accumulation in many organs. The objective of this study was to characterize iron metabolism and Cp activity in burn and non-burn trauma patients to determine if changes in Cp activity are a potential contributor to the observed hypoferremia. Material and Methods: Under Brooke Army Medical Center Institutional Review Board approved protocols, serum or plasma was collected from burn and non-burn trauma patients on admission to the ICU and at times up to 14 days and measured for indices of iron status, Cp protein and oxidase activity and cytokines. Results: Burn patients showed evidence of anemia and normal or elevated ferritin levels. Plasma Cp oxidase activity in burn and trauma patients were markedly lower than controls on admission and increased to control levels by day 3, particularly in burn patients. Plasma cytokines were elevated throughout the 14 days study along with evidence of an oxidative stress. No significant differences in soluble transferrin receptor were noted among groups on admission, but levels in burn patients were lower than controls for the first 5 days after injury. Conclusion: This study further established the hypoferremia and inflammation associated with burns and trauma. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show an early decrease in Cp oxidase activity in burn and non-burn trauma patients. The results support the hypothesis that transient loss of Cp activity contributes to hypoferremia and inflammation. Further studies are warranted to determine if decreased Cp activity increases the risk of

  4. Pulsations in Hydrogen Burning Low Mass Helium White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Steinfadt, Justin D R; Arras, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Helium core white dwarfs (WDs) with mass M < 0.20 M_sun undergo several Gyrs of stable hydrogen burning as they evolve. We show that in a certain range of WD and hydrogen envelope masses, these WDs may exhibit g-mode pulsations similar to their passively cooling, more massive carbon/oxygen core counterparts, the ZZ Cetis. Our models with stably burning hydrogen envelopes on helium cores yield g-mode periods and period spacings longer than the canonical ZZ Cetis by nearly a factor of two. We show that core composition and structure can be probed using seismology since the g-mode eigenfunctions predominantly reside in the helium core. Though we have not carried out a fully nonadiabatic stability analysis, the scaling of the thermal time in the convective zone with surface gravity highlights several low mass helium WDs that should be observed in search of pulsations: NLTT 11748, SDSS J0822+2753, and the companion to PSR J1012+5307. Seismological studies of these He core WDs may prove especially fruitful, as t...

  5. Biomass Burning and Polonium-210 in the Atmosphere: a Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P. [Instituto Superior Tecnico/Campus Tecnologico e Nuclear/(IST/CTN), Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10 - ao km 139,7 - 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2014-07-01

    Naturally-occurring radionuclides, such as those of uranium series, are part of the lithosphere and hydrosphere and plants do accumulate them up to a certain extent being the activity concentrations in plants generally low, less than 10 Bq/kg (dry weight). Forest and vegetation fires, as well as biomass burning for energy production, release large amounts of carbon, particulate materials, and gaseous compounds into the atmosphere including the naturally-occurring radionuclides present in plants. Near forest fires, and at local and regional scales, surface aerosol sampling followed by radionuclide analysis showed enhanced radionuclide concentrations, especially those of {sup 210}Po. In surface air with smoke from wild fires {sup 210}Po concentration attained 70 mBq/m{sup 3}, more than 2000 times above {sup 210}Po background in surface air, and aerosols displayed {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb concentration ratios up to 12, i.e., about 20 times higher than the average concentration ratio in surface air. Taking into account the amount of plant biomass burned every year, the total activity of {sup 210}Po released into the atmosphere from this source is able to disrupt the usual {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb concentration ratios in atmosphere and atmospheric depositions. A review of atmospheric polonium sources is presented. (authors)

  6. Honey oil burns: a growing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Guy; Bertelotti, Robert; Greenhalgh, David; Palmieri, Tina; Maguina, Pirko

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging mechanism of burn injury as a result of the ignition of butane, during the manufacture of a tetrahydrocannabinol concentrate known as butane honey oil. The authors report of a series of patients who presented with this mechanism of injury and a description of the process that causes these burns. Patient data were gathered from the medical records of eight patients treated at the University of California Davis Medical Center and Shriners Hospital of Northern California. Information on the manufacturing process of butane honey oil was gathered from Internet searches and published literature on the topic. The burns witnessed at the abovementioned institutions ranged from 16 to 95% TBSA, with an average of 49.9%. The average length of stay for the patients was 118.3 hospital days and 114.4 intensive care unit days, with an average of 43.8 days spent on mechanical ventilation. The average age of patients was 22 years, with only one patient above the age of 30 years. Accidents during honey oil production have resulted in a surge of burn injuries in our community during the past year. The manufacture of this product, which involves the use of volatile butane gas, is gaining in popularity. Although considered to be safer than previous methods, multiple casualties with extensive burn injuries have resulted from this process. Associated injuries from blast trauma or chemical burns are not likely to occur in these types of explosions and have not been observed in the series reported in this article. In light of the increasing popularity of honey oil, it is important for burn care providers to gain awareness and understanding of this problem and its growing presence in the community.

  7. Evolution of anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of air pollutants at global and regional scales during the 1980-2010 period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granier, C.; Bessagnet, B.; Bond, T.; D'Angiola, A.; Gon, H.D. van der; Frost, G.J.; Heil, A.; Kaiser, J.W.; Kinne, S.; Klimont, Z.; Kloster, S.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Liousse, C.; Masui, T.; Meleux, F.; Mieville, A.; Ohara, T.; Raut, J.-C.; Riahi, K.; Schultz, M.G.; Smith, S.J.; Thompson, A.; Aardenne, J. van; Werf, G.R. van der; Vuuren, D.P. van

    2011-01-01

    Several different inventories of global and regional anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions are assessed for the 1980-2010 period. The species considered in this study are carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and black carbon. The inventories considered include the ACCMIP historical

  8. Angiogenin expression in burn blister fluid: implications for its role in burn wound neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shin-Chen; Wu, Li-Wha; Chen, Chung-Lin; Shieh, Shyh-Jou; Chiu, Haw-Yen

    2012-01-01

    Deep partial thickness burn (DPTB) wound fluids have a greater propensity for establishing neovascularization than did superficial partial thickness burn (SPTB) wound fluids in our previous study. To investigate the factors responsible for this activity, cytokine array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to perform an expression analysis of angiogenic factors in burn fluid. Although present in approximately equal amounts in both SPTB and DPTB blister fluids from burn patients, angiogenin does appear to be involved in the ability of DPTB blister fluid to promote neovascularization in vitro and in vivo. Angiogenin alone was sufficient to induce endothelial differentiation of circulating angiogenic cells (CAC) without vascular endothelial growth factor A involvement. In addition, angiogenin was positively associated with CAC differentiation in the burn blister fluid. Blocking the effect of angiogenin in burn blister fluids resulted in a significant reduction of endothelial cell proliferation, CAC differentiation, and new blood vessels formation in vivo. Moreover, immunohistochemistry revealed that high angiogenin expression colocalizes with high vascularity in human burn wounds at day 7, further supporting our hypothesis that angiogenin is involved in burn wound neovascularization.

  9. Vaporization order and burning efficiency of crude oils during in-situ burning on water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    of multicomponent fuels. The alkanes were tested as benchmark fuels with a uniform vaporization order, for which all components evaporate simultaneously. As expected, these pure fuels showed a steady state burning with a near-constant surface temperature, flame height and burning rate. The alkane mixture showed...... similar steady state results but became dominated by the heaviest component towards the end of the burning. These results indicate that the lightest components had been depleted from the mixture. A near-uniform vaporization order in which the lighter components evaporate preferably best matched......In order to improve the understanding of the burning efficiency and its observed size dependency of in-situ burning of crude oil on water, the vaporization order of the components in crude oils was studied. The vaporization order of such multicomponent fuels was assessed by studying the surface...

  10. Simulation of triton burn-up in JET plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughlin, M.J.; Balet, B.; Jarvis, O.N.; Stubberfield, P.M. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    This paper presents the first triton burn-up calculations for JET plasmas using the transport code TRANSP. Four hot ion H-mode deuterium plasmas are studied. For these discharges, the 2.5 MeV emission rises rapidly and then collapses abruptly. This phenomenon is not fully understood but in each case the collapse phase is associated with a large impurity influx known as the ``carbon bloom``. The peak 14 MeV emission occurs at this time, somewhat later than that of the 2.5 MeV neutron peak. The present results give a clear indication that there are no significant departures from classical slowing down and spatial diffusion for tritons in JET plasmas. (authors). 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. A New Metric for Quantifying Burn Severity: The Relativized Burn Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean A. Parks

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-inferred burn severity data have become increasingly popular over the last decade for management and research purposes. These data typically quantify spectral change between pre-and post-fire satellite images (usually Landsat. There is an active debate regarding which of the two main equations, the delta normalized burn ratio (dNBR and its relativized form (RdNBR, is most suitable for quantifying burn severity; each has its critics. In this study, we propose and evaluate a new Landsat-based burn severity metric, the relativized burn ratio (RBR, that provides an alternative to dNBR and RdNBR. For 18 fires in the western US, we compared the performance of RBR to both dNBR and RdNBR by evaluating the agreement of these metrics with field-based burn severity measurements. Specifically, we evaluated (1 the correspondence between each metric and a continuous measure of burn severity (the composite burn index and (2 the overall accuracy of each metric when classifying into discrete burn severity classes (i.e., unchanged, low, moderate, and high. Results indicate that RBR corresponds better to field-based measurements (average R2 among 18 fires = 0.786 than both dNBR (R2 = 0.761 and RdNBR (R2 = 0.766. Furthermore, the overall classification accuracy achieved with RBR (average among 18 fires = 70.5% was higher than both dNBR (68.4% and RdNBR (69.2%. Consequently, we recommend RBR as a robust alternative to both dNBR and RdNBR for measuring and classifying burn severity.

  12. The epidemiology of geriatric burns in Iran: A national burn registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Seyed-Abolhassan; Motevalian, Seyed Abbas; Momeni, Mahnoush; Karimi, Hamid

    2016-08-01

    Defining the epidemiology and outcome of geriatric burn patients is critical for specialized burn centers, health-care workers, and governments. Better resource use and effective guidelines are some of the advantages of studies focusing on this aspect. The outcome of these patients serves as an objective criterion for quality control, research, and preventive programs. We used data from the burn registry program in our country. For 2 years, >28,700 burn patients were recorded, 1721 of whom were admitted. Among them, 187 patients were ≥55 years old. Sixty-nine percent of patients were male and 31% female, with a male to female ratio of 2.22:1. The mean±standard deviation (SD) of age was 63.4±8.1. The cause of burns was flame (58.2%) and scalds (20.3%). Most of the burns were sustained at home. The mean duration of hospital stay was 19.5 days (range 3-59 days). The mean (SD) of the total body surface area (TBSA) was 20.3% (8.4%). The median hospital stay (length of stay (LOS)) was 11 days (SD=14). The increase in TBSA was related to a longer LOS (pBurn wound infection developed in 44.3% of patients. The presence of inhalation injury was significantly related to mortality (ppatients, 9% recovered completely, 74.9% recovered partially (requiring further treatment), 1% underwent amputation, and 12.8% died. The lack of insurance coverage did not affect the survival of our geriatric burn patients. However, being alone or single, ignition of clothing, cause of burn, comorbid illnesses, complications following the burn, TBSA, age, and sepsis were positively correlated with mortality. The mean cost of treatment for each patient was about $7450.

  13. Burning characteristics of chemically isolated biomass ingredients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.; Kucukbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Department, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    This study was performed to investigate the burning characteristics of isolated fractions of a biomass species. So, woody shells of hazelnut were chemically treated to obtain the fractions of extractives-free bulk, lignin, and holocellulose. Physical characterization of these fractions were determined by SEM technique, and the burning runs were carried out from ambient to 900 C applying thermal analysis techniques of TGA, DTG, DTA, and DSC. The non-isothermal model of Borchardt-Daniels was used to DSC data to find the kinetic parameters. Burning properties of each fraction were compared to those of the raw material to describe their effects on burning, and to interpret the synergistic interactions between the fractions in the raw material. It was found that each of the fractions has its own characteristic physical and thermal features. Some of the characteristic points on the thermograms of the fractions could be followed definitely on those of the raw material, while some of them seriously shifted to other temperatures or disappeared as a result of the co-existence of the ingredients. Also, it is concluded that the presence of hemicellulosics and celluloses makes the burning of lignin easier in the raw material compared to the isolated lignin. The activation energies can be arranged in the order of holocellulose < extractives-free biomass < raw material < lignin. (author)

  14. Ventilator associated pneumonia in major paediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Alan David; Deal, Cailin; Argent, Andrew Charles; Hudson, Donald Anthony; Rode, Heinz

    2014-09-01

    More than three-quarters of deaths related to major burns are a consequence of infection, which is frequently ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). A retrospective study was performed, over a five-year period, of ventilated children with major burns. 92 patients were included in the study; their mean age was 3.5 years and their mean total body surface area burn was 30%. 62% of the patients sustained flame burns, and 31% scalds. The mean ICU stay was 10.6 days (range 2-61 days) and the mean ventilation time was 8.4 days (range 2-45 days). There were 59 documented episodes of pneumonia in 52 patients with a rate of 30 infections per 1000 ventilator days. Length of ventilation and the presence of inhalational injury correlate with the incidence of VAP. 17.4% of the patients died (n=16); half of these deaths may be attributed directly to pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii and Staphylococcus aureus were the most prominent aetiological organisms. Broncho-alveolar lavage was found to be more specific and sensitive at identifying the organism than other methods. This study highlights the importance of implementing strictly enforced strategies for the prevention, detection and management of pneumonia in the presence of major burns.

  15. Bilateral maculopathy following electrical burn: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Dario Faustino

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Electrical burns are an important etiology in dealing with patients suffering from burns. In situations of extensive deep lesions of multiple organs and systems affecting young and economically active people, there is a need for expensive multidisciplinary treatment, with a high socioeconomic cost for the community. Among the permanent injuries that explain this high cost, eye injuries stand out, since they are widely disabling. Although rare, lesions of the posterior segment of the eye are associated with higher incidence of major sequelae, and thus deserve special attention for dissemination and discussion of the few cases observed.CASE REPORT: The authors report the case of a patient who suffered high-voltage electrical burns and presented bilateral maculopathy, which evolved with a need for a surgical approach to repair retinal detachment and permanent low visual acuity.CONCLUSION: This report highlights the rarity of the etiology of maculopathy and the need for campaigns for prevention not only of burns in general, but also especially of electrical burns.

  16. Increased mortality in hypernatremic burned patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In-hospital hypernatremia develops usually iatrogenically from inadequate or inappropriate fluid prescription. In severely burned patient an extensive initial fluid resuscitation is necessary for burn shock survival. After recovering of cellular integrity the circulating volume has to be normalized. Hereby extensive water and electrolyte shifts can provoke hypernatremia. Purpose: Is a hypernatremic state associated with increased mortality? Method: Retrospective study for the incidence of hypernatremia and survival in 40 patients with a totally burned surface area (TBSA >10%. Age, sex, TBSA, ABSI-Score and fluid resuscitation within the first 24 hours were analyzed. Patients were separated in two groups without (Group A or with (Group B hypernatremia. Results: Hypernatremia occurred on day 5±1.4. No significant difference for age, sex, TBSA, ABSI-Score and fluid resuscitation within the first 24 hours were calculated. In Group A all patients survived, while 3 of the hypernatremic patient in Group B died during ICU-stay (Odds-ratio = 1.25; 95% CI 0.971–1.61; p=0.046. Conclusion: Burned patients with an in-hospital acquired hypernatremia have an increased mortality risk. In case of a hypernatremic state early intervention is obligatory. There is a need of a fluid removal strategy in severely burned patient to avoid water imbalance.

  17. Advanced Chemical Measurements of Smoke from DoD-prescribed Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    NFDRS National Fire Danger Rating System NH3 Ammonia NIFC National Interagency Fire Center NIOSH National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health...amounts of many other compounds such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), and a multitude...of-the-art instrumentation. The data from these controlled laboratory burns were ultimately synthesized with data from actual field measurements

  18. Effects of Oxidizer Particle Size on Composite Solid Propellant Burning: Normal Burning, Plateau Burning and Intermediate Pressure Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-10-01

    butadiene Acrylic Acid Propellants 14 10 807 AP + 20% PBAA Data Plotted as (p/r) vs (p2/3) 14 11 DB and CMDB Propellant Data Plotted as (p/r) vs (p2/3...1.2% stabilizer causes a striking differ- ) ence in its burning behavior. This composite-modified double-base ( CMDB ) pro- pellant burns like a normal...dominated by a granular diffusion flame mechanism. It is to be noted that since the binder in a CMDB propellant is itself a monopropellant, there is no

  19. Burn wound: How it differs from other wounds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Tiwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of burn injury has always been the domain of burn specialists. Since ancient time, local and systemic remedies have been advised for burn wound dressing and burn scar prevention. Management of burn wound inflicted by the different physical and chemical agents require different regimes which are poles apart from the regimes used for any of the other traumatic wounds. In extensive burn, because of increased capillary permeability, there is extensive loss of plasma leading to shock while whole blood loss is the cause of shock in other acute wounds. Even though the burn wounds are sterile in the beginning in comparison to most of other wounds, yet, the death in extensive burns is mainly because of wound infection and septicemia, because of the immunocompromised status of the burn patients. Eschar and blister are specific for burn wounds requiring a specific treatment protocol. Antimicrobial creams and other dressing agents used for traumatic wounds are ineffective in deep burns with eschar. The subeschar plane harbours the micro-organisms and many of these agents are not able to penetrate the eschar. Even after complete epithelisation of burn wound, remodelling phase is prolonged. It may take years for scar maturation in burns. This article emphasizes on how the pathophysiology, healing and management of a burn wound is different from that of other wounds.

  20. Combustion studies of coal derived solid fuels by thermogravimetric analysis. III. Correlation between burnout temperature and carbon combustion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; DeBarr, J.A.; Chen, W.T.

    1990-01-01

    Burning profiles of 35-53 ??m size fractions of an Illinois coal and three partially devolatilized coals prepared from the original coal were obtained using a thermogravimetric analyzer. The burning profile burnout temperatures were higher for lower volatile fuels and correlated well with carbon combustion efficiencies of the fuels when burned in a laboratory-scale laminar flow reactor. Fuels with higher burnout temperatures had lower carbon combustion efficiencies under various time-temperature conditions in the laboratory-scale reactor. ?? 1990.

  1. Epidemiology, etiology and outcomes of burn patients in a Referral Burn Hospital, Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burns and its complications are regarded as a major problem in the society. Skin injuries resulted from ultraviolet radiation, radioactivity, electricity or chemicals as well as respiratory damage from smoke inhalation are considered burns. This study aimed to determine the epidemiology and outcome of burn patients admitted to Motahari Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Methods: Two hundred patients with second-degree burns admitted to Motahari Referral Center of Burn in Tehran, Iran. They were studied during a period of 12 months from May 2012 to May 2013. During the first week of treatment swabs were collected from the burn wounds after cleaning the site with sterile normal saline. Samples were inoculated in blood agar and McConkey agar, then incubation at 37 C for 48 hours. Identification was carried out according to standard conventional biochemical tests. Treatment continued up to epithelial formation and wound healing. Results of microbial culture for each patient was recorded. Healing time of the burn wounds in patients was recorded in log books. Chi-square test and SPSS Software v.19 (IBM, NY, USA were used for data analysis. Results: Our findings indicate that the most causes of burns are hot liquids in 57% of cases and flammable liquid in 21% of cases. The most cases of burns were found to be in the range of 21 to 30 percent with 17.5% and 7% in male and female respectively. Gram-negative bacteria were dominated in 85.7% and among them pseudomonas spp. with 37.5% were the most common cause of infected burns, followed by Enterobacter, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter and Klebsiella spp. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the most cause of burns in both sex is hot liquid. Men were more expose to burn than women and this might be due to the fact that men are involved in more dangerous jobs than female. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common organism encountered in burn infection.

  2. Carbon and water fluxes from ponderosa pine forests disturbed by wildfire and thinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, S; Kolb, T E; Montes-Helu, M; Eckert, S E; Sullivan, B W; Hungate, B A; Kaye, J P; Hart, S C; Koch, G W; Finkral, A

    2010-04-01

    Disturbances alter ecosystem carbon dynamics, often by reducing carbon uptake and stocks. We compared the impact of two types of disturbances that represent the most likely future conditions of currently dense ponderosa pine forests of the southwestern United States: (1) high-intensity fire and (2) thinning, designed to reduce fire intensity. High-severity fire had a larger impact on ecosystem carbon uptake and storage than thinning. Total ecosystem carbon was 42% lower at the intensely burned site, 10 years after burning, than at the undisturbed site. Eddy covariance measurements over two years showed that the burned site was a net annual source of carbon to the atmosphere whereas the undisturbed site was a sink. Net primary production (NPP), evapotranspiration (ET), and water use efficiency were lower at the burned site than at the undisturbed site. In contrast, thinning decreased total ecosystem carbon by 18%, and changed the site from a carbon sink to a source in the first posttreatment year. Thinning also decreased ET, reduced the limitation of drought on carbon uptake during summer, and did not change water use efficiency. Both disturbances reduced ecosystem carbon uptake by decreasing gross primary production (55% by burning, 30% by thinning) more than total ecosystem respiration (TER; 33-47% by burning, 18% by thinning), and increased the contribution of soil carbon dioxide efflux to TER. The relationship between TER and temperature was not affected by either disturbance. Efforts to accurately estimate regional carbon budgets should consider impacts on carbon dynamics of both large disturbances, such as high-intensity fire, and the partial disturbance of thinning that is often used to prevent intense burning. Our results show that thinned forests of ponderosa pine in the southwestern United States are a desirable alternative to intensively burned forests to maintain carbon stocks and primary production.

  3. Stellar helium burning in other universes: A solution to the triple alpha fine-tuning problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Fred C.; Grohs, Evan

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by the possible existence of other universes, with different values for the fundamental constants, this paper considers stellar models in universes where 8Be is stable. Many previous authors have noted that stars in our universe would have difficulty producing carbon and other heavy elements in the absence of the well-known 12C resonance at 7.6 MeV. This resonance is necessary because 8Be is unstable in our universe, so that carbon must be produced via the triple alpha reaction to achieve the requisite abundance. Although a moderate change in the energy of the resonance (200-300 keV) will indeed affect carbon production, an even smaller change in the binding energy of beryllium (∼100 keV) would allow 8Be to be stable. A stable isotope with A = 8 would obviate the need for the triple alpha process in general, and the 12C resonance in particular, for carbon production. This paper explores the possibility that 8Be can be stable in other universes. Simple nuclear considerations indicate that bound states can be realized, with binding energy ∼ 0.1 - 1 MeV, if the fundamental constants vary by a ∼ few - 10 %. In such cases, 8Be can be synthesized through helium burning, and 12C can be produced later through nuclear burning of beryllium. This paper focuses on stellar models that burn helium into beryllium; once the universe in question has a supply of stable beryllium, carbon production can take place during subsequent evolution in the same star or in later stellar generations. Using both a semi-analytic stellar structure model as well as a state-of-the-art stellar evolution code, we find that viable stellar configurations that produce beryllium exist over a wide range of parameter space. Finally, we demonstrate that carbon can be produced during later evolutionary stages.

  4. Burning plasmas in ITER for energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Nobuyuki [Atomic Energy Commission, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    Fusion research and development has two aspects. One is an academic research on science and technology, i.e., discovery and understanding of unexpected phenomena and, development of innovative technology, respectively. The other is energy source development to realize fusion as a viable energy future. Fusion research has been made remarkable progress in the past several decades, and ITER will soon realize burning plasma that is essential for both academic research and energy development. With ITER, scientific research on unknown phenomena such as self-organization of the plasma in burning state will become possible and it contributes to create a variety of academic outcome. Fusion researchers will have a responsibility to generate actual energy, and electricity generation immediately after the success of burning plasma control experiment in ITER is the next important step that has to be discussed seriously. (author)

  5. [Ischemic cholangiopathy induced by extended burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Laurence; Angot, Emilie; Goria, Odile; Koning, Edith; François, Arnaud; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe

    2013-04-01

    Ischemic cholangiopathy is a recently described entity occurring mainly after hepatic grafts. Very few cases after intensive care unit (ICU) for extended burn injury were reported. We report the case of a 73-year-old woman consulting in an hepatology unit, for a jaundice appearing during a hospitalisation in an intensive care unit and increasing from her leaving from ICU, where she was treated for an extended burn injury. She had no pre-existing biological features of biliary disease. Biological tests were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging acquisitions of biliary tracts pointed out severe stenosing lesions of diffuse cholangiopathy concerning intrahepatic biliary tract, mainly peri-hilar. Biopsie from the liver confirmed the diagnosis, showing a biliary cirrhosis with bile infarcts. This case is the fourth case of ischemic cholangiopathy after extended burn injury, concerning a patient without a prior history of hepatic or biliary illness and appearing after hospitalisation in intensive care unit.

  6. Severe metabolic acidosis following assault chemical burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roock, Sophie D; Deleuze, Jean-Paul; Rose, Thomas; Jennes, Serge; Hantson, Philippe

    2012-04-01

    Assault chemical burns are uncommon in northern Europe. Besides local toxicity, systemic manifestations are possible after strong acid exposure. A 40-year-old woman was admitted 1 h after a criminal assault with sulfuric acid. The total burned surface area was 35%, third degree. Injury was due to sulfuric acid (measured pH 0.9) obtained from a car battery. Immediate complications were obstructive dyspnea and metabolic acidosis. The admission arterial pH was 6.92, with total bicarbonate 8.6 mEq/l and base deficit 23.4 mEq/l. The correction of metabolic acidosis was achieved after several hours by the administration of bicarbonate and lactate buffers. The patient developed several burns-related complications (sepsis and acute renal failure). Cutaneous projections of strong acids may cause severe metabolic acidosis, particularly when copious irrigation and clothes removal cannot be immediately performed at the scene.

  7. Severe metabolic acidosis following assault chemical burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie De Roock

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Assault chemical burns are uncommon in northern Europe. Besides local toxicity, systemic manifestations are possible after strong acid exposure. A 40-year-old woman was admitted 1 h after a criminal assault with sulfuric acid. The total burned surface area was 35%, third degree. Injury was due to sulfuric acid (measured pH 0.9 obtained from a car battery. Immediate complications were obstructive dyspnea and metabolic acidosis. The admission arterial pH was 6.92, with total bicarbonate 8.6 mEq/l and base deficit 23.4 mEq/l. The correction of metabolic acidosis was achieved after several hours by the administration of bicarbonate and lactate buffers. The patient developed several burns-related complications (sepsis and acute renal failure. Cutaneous projections of strong acids may cause severe metabolic acidosis, particularly when copious irrigation and clothes removal cannot be immediately performed at the scene.

  8. Fungal infections in burns: Diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capoor Malini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn wound infection (BWI is a major public health problem and the most devastating form of trauma worldwide. Fungi cause BWI as part of monomicrobial or polymicrobial infection, fungaemia, rare aggressive soft tissue infection and as opportunistic infections. The risk factors for acquiring fungal infection in burns include age of burns, total burn size, body surface area (BSA (30-60%, full thickness burns, inhalational injury, prolonged hospital stay, late surgical excision, open dressing, artificial dermis, central venous catheters, antibiotics, steroid treatment, long-term artificial ventilation, fungal wound colonisation (FWC, hyperglycaemic episodes and other immunosuppressive disorders. Most of the fungal infections are missed owing to lack of clinical awareness and similar presentation as bacterial infection coupled with paucity of mycology laboratories. Expedient diagnosis and treatment of these mycoses can be life-saving as the mortality is otherwise very high. Emergence of resistance in non-albicans Candida spp., unusual yeasts and moulds in fungal BWI, leaves very few fungi susceptible to antifungal drugs, leaving many patients susceptible. There is a need to speciate fungi as far as the topical and systemic antifungal is concerned. Deep tissue biopsy and other relevant samples are processed by standard mycological procedures using direct microscopy, culture and histopathological examination. Patients with FWC should be treated by aggressive surgical debridement and, in the case of fungal wound infection (FWI, in addition to surgical debridement, an intravenous antifungal drug, most commonly amphotericin B or caspofungin, is prescribed followed by de-escalating with voriconazole or itraconazole, or fluconazole depending upon the species or antifungal susceptibility, if available. The propensity for fungal infection increases, the longer the wound is present. Therefore, the development of products to close the wound more rapidly

  9. Soil heating and impact of prescribed burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoof, Cathelijne

    2016-04-01

    Prescribed burning is highly uncommon in the Netherlands, where wildfire awareness is increasing but its risk management does not yet include fuel management strategies. A major exception is on two military bases, that need to burn their fields in winter and spring to prevent wildfires during summer shooting practice. Research on these very frequent burns has so far been limited to effects on biodiversity, yet site managers and policy makers have questions regarding the soil temperatures reached during these burns because of potential impact on soil properties and soil dwelling fauna. In March 2015, I therefore measured soil and litter temperatures under heath and grass vegetation during a prescribed burn on military terrain in the Netherlands. Soil and litter moisture were sampled pre- and post-fire, ash was collected, and fireline intensity was estimated from flame length. While standing vegetation was dry (0.13 g water/g biomass for grass and 0.6 g/g for heather), soil and litter were moist (0.21 cm3/cm3 and 1.6 g/g, respectively). Soil heating was therefore very limited, with maximum soil temperature at the soil-litter interface remaining being as low as 6.5 to 11.5°C, and litter temperatures reaching a maximum of 77.5°C at the top of the litter layer. As a result, any changes in physical properties like soil organic matter content and bulk density were not significant. These results are a first step towards a database of soil heating in relation to fuel load and fire intensity in this temperate country, which is not only valuable to increase understanding of the relationships between fire intensity and severity, but also instrumental in the policy debate regarding the sustainability of prescribed burns.

  10. Combustion products of plastics as indicators for refuse burning in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneit, Bernd R T; Medeiros, Patricia M; Didyk, Borys M

    2005-09-15

    Despite all of the economic problems and environmental discussions on the dangers and hazards of plastic materials, plastic production worldwide is growing at a rate of about 5% per year. Increasing techniques for recycling polymeric materials have been developed during the last few years; however, a large fraction of plastics are still being discarded in landfills or subjected to intentional or incidental open-fire burning. To identify specific tracer compounds generated during such open-fire combustion, both smoke particles from burning and plastic materials from shopping bags, roadside trash, and landfill garbage were extracted for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Samples were collected in Concón, Chile, an area frequently affected by wildfire incidents and garbage burning, and the United States for comparison. Atmospheric samples from various aerosol sampling programs are also presented as supportive data. The major components of plastic extracts were even-carbon-chain n-alkanes (C16-C40), the plasticizer di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, and the antioxidants and lubricants/antiadhesives Irganox 1076, Irgafos 168, and its oxidation product tris(2,4-di-tertbutylphenyl) phosphate. Major compounds in smoke from burning plastics include the non-source-specific n-alkanes (mainly even predominance), terephthalic acid, phthalates, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, with minor amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (including triphenylbenzenes) and tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)phosphate. 1,3,5-Triphenylbenzene and tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)- phosphate were found in detectable amounts in atmospheric samples where plastics and refuse were burned in open fires, and thus we propose these two compounds as specific tracers for the open-burning of plastics.

  11. Influence of fuel mass load, oxygen supply and burning rate on emission factor and size distribution of carbonaceous particulate matter from indoor corn straw burning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guofeng Shen; Miao Xue; Siye Wei; Yuanchen Chen; Bin Wang; Rong Wang; Huizhong Shen

    2013-01-01

    The uncertainty in emission estimation is strongly associated with the variation in emission factor (EF),which could be influenced bya variety of factors such as fuel properties,stove type,fire management and even methods used in measurements.The impacts of thesefactors are complicated and often interact with each other.Controlled burning experiments were conducted to investigate the influencesof fuel mass load,air supply and burning rate on the emissions and size distributions of carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) fromindoor corn straw bunting in a cooking stove.The results showed that the EFs of PM (EFpM),organic carbon (EFoc) and elementalcarbon (EFEc) were independent of the fuel mass load.The differences among them under different burning rates or air supply amountswere also found to be insignificant (P > 0.05) in the tested circumstances.PM from the indoor corn straw burning was dominated byfine PM with diameter less than 2.1 μm,contributing 86.4% ± 3.9% of the total.The size distribution of PM was influenced by theburning rate and air supply conditions.On average,EFPM,EFoc and EFEC for corn straw burned in a residential cooking stove were(3.84 ± 1.02),(0.846 ± 0.895) and (0.391 ± 0.350) g/kg,respectively.EFPM,EFoc and EFEc were found to be positively correlatedwith each other (P < 0.05),but they were not significantly correlated with the EF of co-emitted CO,suggesting that special attentionshould be paid to the use of CO as a surrogate for other incomplete combustion pollutants.

  12. Molecular characterization of urban organic aerosol in tropical India: contributions of biomass/biofuel burning, plastic burning, and fossil fuel combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Q. Fu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic molecular composition of PM10 samples, collected at Chennai in tropical India, was studied using capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Twelve organic compound classes were detected in the aerosols, including aliphatic lipids, sugar compounds, lignin products, terpenoid biomarkers, sterols, aromatic acids, phthalates, hopanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. At daytime, phthalates was found to be the most abundant compound class; while at nighttime, fatty acids was the dominant one. Concentrations of total quantified organics were higher in summer (611–3268 ng m−3, average 1586 ng m−3 than in winter (362–2381 ng m−3, 1136 ng m−3, accounting for 11.5±1.93% and 9.35±1.77% of organic carbon mass in summer and winter, respectively. Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate, C16 fatty acid, and levoglucosan were identified as the most abundant single compounds. The nighttime maxima of most organics in the aerosols indicate a land/sea breeze effect in tropical India, although some other factors such as local emissions and long-range transport may also influence the composition of organic aerosols. The abundances of anhydrosugars (e.g., levoglucosan, lignin and resin products, hopanes and PAHs in the Chennai aerosols suggest that biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion are significant sources of organic aerosols in tropical India. Interestingly, terephthalic acid was maximized at nighttime, which is different from those of phthalic and isophthalic acids. A positive correlation was found between the concentration of 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene (a tracer for plastic burning and terephthalic acid, suggesting that field burning of municipal solid wastes including plastics is a significant source of terephthalic acid. This study demonstrates that, in addition to biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion, the open-burning of plastics also contributes to the organic

  13. Effect of Topical Platelet-Rich Plasma on Burn Healing After Partial-Thickness Burn Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcelik, Umit; Ekici, Yahya; Bircan, Huseyin Yuce; Aydogan, Cem; Turkoglu, Suna; Ozen, Ozlem; Moray, Gokhan; Haberal, Mehmet

    2016-06-05

    BACKGROUND To investigate the effects of platelet-rich plasma on tissue maturation and burn healing in an experimental partial-thickness burn injury model. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups of 10 rats each. Group 1 (platelet-rich plasma group) was exposed to burn injury and topical platelet-rich plasma was applied. Group 2 (control group) was exposed to burn injury only. Group 3 (blood donor group) was used as blood donors for platelet-rich plasma. The rats were killed on the seventh day after burn injury. Tissue hydroxyproline levels were measured and histopathologic changes were examined. RESULTS Hydroxyproline levels were significantly higher in the platelet-rich plasma group than in the control group (P=.03). Histopathologically, there was significantly less inflammatory cell infiltration (P=.005) and there were no statistically significant differences between groups in fibroblast development, collagen production, vessel proliferations, or epithelization. CONCLUSIONS Platelet-rich plasma seems to partially improve burn healing in this experimental burn injury model. As an initial conclusion, it appears that platelet-rich plasma can be used in humans, although further studies should be performed with this type of treatment.

  14. Burns in patients over 90: a fifteen-year series from a regional burns centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Zakir; Rodrigues, Jeremy N; Anwar, Umair; Austin, Orla; Phipps, Alan

    2015-03-01

    The elderly constitute an expanding subgroup within society, and may have differences in health needs compared to younger patients. The specific needs and outcomes of elderly patients with burns have been widely studied. However, the definition of elderly often used in previous studies is a cut off of 65 years old. Within this broadly defined group, the very elderly may have distinct health care needs and issues. This study investigated aetiology, management and outcome of burns in those over 90 years treated at a single UK burns service over a period of 15 years between 1998 and 2013, and compares these data to published data describing 'younger' elderly burns patients. Twenty two patients were included, with a 2:1 female:male ration, and a mean 9%TBSA burn. Six of the 22 died during their admission, and those who survived averaged 8 days inpatient stay per %TBSA. The very elderly with burns may fare worse than younger elderly patients. Although burns in the very elderly are relatively infrequent events, they require significant resource. Further work to optimise their outcome is required.

  15. Changing boreal methane sources and constant biomass burning during the last termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Hubertus; Behrens, Melanie; Bock, Michael

    2008-01-01

    using methane isotopic information from ice cores. Here we present an ice core record of carbon isotopic ratios in methane over the entire last glacial-interglacial transition. Our data show that the carbon in atmospheric methane was isotopically much heavier in cold climate periods. With the help...... of a box model constrained by the present data and previously published results, we are able to estimate the magnitude of past individual methane emission sources and the atmospheric lifetime of methane. We find that methane emissions due to biomass burning were about 45 Tg methane per year...

  16. The contributions of biomass burning to primary and secondary organics: A case study in Pearl River Delta (PRD), China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, BaoLin; Liu, Ying; Shao, Min; Lu, SiHua; Wang, Ming; Yuan, Bin; Gong, ZhaoHeng; He, LingYan; Zeng, LiMin; Hu, Min; Zhang, YuanHang

    2016-11-01

    Synchronized online measurements of gas- and particle- phase organics including non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) and submicron organic matters (OM) were conducted in November 2010 at Heshan, Guangdong provincial supersite, China. Several biomass burning events were identified by using acetonitrile as a tracer, and enhancement ratios (EnRs) of organics to carbon monoxide (CO) obtained from this work generally agree with those from rice straw burning in previous studies. The influences of biomass burning on NMHCs, OVOCs and OM were explored by comparing biomass burning impacted plumes (BB plumes) and non-biomass burning plumes (non-BB plumes). A photochemical age-based parameterization method was used to characterize primary emission and chemical behavior of those three organic groups. The emission ratios (EmRs) of NMHCs, OVOCs and OM to CO increased by 27-71%, 34-55% and 67% in BB plumes, respectively, in comparison with non-BB plumes. The estimated formation rate of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in BB plumes was found to be 24% faster than non-BB plumes. By applying the above emission ratios to the whole PRD, the annual emissions of VOCs and OM from open burning of crop residues would be 56.4 and 3.8Gg in 2010 in PRD, respectively.

  17. Financial burden of burn injuries in iran: a report from the burn registry program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, H; Motevalian, S A; Momeni, M; Ghadarjani, M

    2015-12-31

    Understanding the cost of burn treatment is very important for patients, their families, governmental authorities and insurance companies. It alleviates patient and familial stress, provides a framework for better use of resources, and facilitates better performance between burn centers. Hospital burn costs can provide a basis for authorities to budget for acute burn treatment, for further management of chronic complications, and for planning prevention and public educational programs in Iran. To identify costs we used data from our burn registry program. Over the two-year assessment period, we treated roughly 28,700 burn patients, 1,721 of whom were admitted, with a mortality rate of 5.9%. The male to female ratio was 1.7:1 (63% male; 37% female). Flame burns were most frequent (49.8%) followed by scalds (35.7%). Mean hospital stay was 14.41 days (range 0-64 days). Mean TBSA was 17.39%. Skin grafts were carried out in 65.4% of the patients, with a mean of 5.2 surgeries per patient. The total cost of all patient admissions over the two years was US$ 4,835,000. The maximum treatment cost for one patient was US$ 91,000. The mean cost per patient was US$ 2,810 (29,500,000 Rials). The mean cost for each percent of burn was US$ 162. The mean cost for a one-day stay in hospital was US$ 195. The mean cost of each operation was US$ 540. Patients who contracted infections endured longer hospital stays, meaning increased costs of US$ 195 per day. With comparable outcome and results, the cost of burn treatment in Iran is cheaper than in the US and Europe.

  18. Physicochemical characterization of winter PM10 aerosol impacted by sugarcane burning from São Paulo city, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caumo, Sofia E. S.; Claeys, Magda; Maenhaut, Willy; Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Behrouzi, Shabnam; Safi Shalamzari, Mohammad; Vasconcellos, Pérola C.

    2016-11-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter samples (PM10) were collected at an urban site in São Paulo (SPA) city in winter episodes of 2012 and 2013. Several organic compounds were determined in the samples to characterize the composition of the particulate matter with emphasis on marker compounds for biomass burning. Organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), monosaccharide anhydrides, monosaccharides, nitroaromatic compounds, isoprene secondary organic aerosol markers, and polyols were measured. The PM10, OC and EC median concentrations were higher for samples collected in 2013 than in 2012, with the contribution of OC to the PM10 mass being 17% and 11% in 2012 and 2013. The three anhydrosugars, levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan together, accounted, on average, for 2.0 and 2.2% of the OC mass in 2012 and 2013, whereas the nitro-aromatic compounds, including 4-nitrophenol, 4-nitrocatechol, isomeric methyl nitrocatechols and dimethyl catechols, showed the same trend, contributing, on average, for 0.28% and 0.35% to the OC mass in 2012 and 2013, and thus indicating a higher contribution from biomass burning in 2013 compared to 2012. The methyl nitrocatechols were substantially correlated with levoglucosan, consistent with their proposed origin from biomass burning. The results demonstrate that biomass burning compounds are important contributors to the OC mass, especially in winter. Furthermore, it is suggested that a levoglucosan/galactosan ratio smaller than about 30 may be indicative for regional sugarcane burning and not for advected air from sites that are impacted by tropical forest fires.

  19. "Burn catatonia": a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Davin Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Thermal injuries have been recognized to cause significant neuropsychiatric symptoms and disability in their sufferers since the middle of the 20th century, when Drs. Stanley Cobb and Erich Lindemann of the Massachusetts General Hospital (Boston, MA) studied survivors of the Cocoanut Grove nightclub fire in Boston. Although "burn encephalopathy" or burn-induced delirium is a common occurrence in the acute phase, catatonia in burn patients is not often reported. This report describes a case of malignant catatonia occurring in a 51-year-old male patient acutely suffering from burns acquired in a chemical explosion, effectively treated with reinstitution of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. The literature on burn encephalopathy and catatonia in burns is reviewed. Few examples of burn catatonia exist. Burn encephalopathy is common, and may occur in patients with low TBSA burns such as described in the case above. Descriptions of burn encephalopathy are numerous, but have not included catatonia as a possible etiology. Catatonia in burn patients as an etiology of burn encephalopathy is likely underrecognized. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of catatonia when a patient's confusional state after a burn does not respond to usual care.

  20. Incidence and Bacteriology of Burn Infections at a Military Burn Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    is independently associated with mortality in burn patients. Ann Surg 2007;245: 978–85. [27] Griffith ME, Lazarus DR, Mann PB, Boger JA, Hospenthal DR...SE. Effects of delayed wound excision and grafting in severely burned children. Arch Surg 2002;137(9):1049–54. [30] Hart DW, Wolf SE, Chinkes DL ...F, Thompson P, Linares HA, Stein M, Traber DL . Pulmonary injury in burned patients. Surg Clin North Am 1987;67(1):31–46. [42] Santucci SG, Gobara S

  1. Clinker burning kinetics and mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telschow, S.

    2012-07-01

    The industrial cement process is subject to several changes in order to reduce the high energy consumption and thereby increase the profitability of cement production. These changes also affect the core of the entire cement producing process: the clinker formation in the rotary kiln. Thus, in order to maintain or even improve clinker quality (and output), we need a better understanding of the development of clinker properties inside the kiln to react upon the impact of process changes. Clinker formation in industrial rotary kilns is very complex due to a vast number of interacting parameters: kiln dimensions, rotation velocity, temperature, gas composition, heat transfer phenomena, etc. These conditions can only be partly simulated in ordinary lab-scale experiments. Thus, the objectives of this project have been to establish test equipment to simulate the industrial clinker burning process on a laboratory scale and to conduct clinker formation experiments in order to derive knowledge on gradual clinker property development, as a function of different process parameters. A new lab-scale setup rotary kiln simulator (RKS) was designed and built for this purpose. It is assembled of two parts: an ordinary lab-scale heating furnace and a sample motion system. The motion system consists of a SiC tube, which moves the sample, placed in a Pt/Rh-crucible, at a chosen velocity through the heating furnace. Simultaneously, the sample is rotated around its horizontal axis with a chosen rotation velocity. The heating furnace consists of five individual heating zones, which are set to obtain a temperature ramp from {approx}00-1540 deg. C. Furthermore, the atmosphere in the system can be set to any mixture of N2, O2 and CO{sup 2}. Thus, the rotary kiln simulator features most important parameters of the industrial cement rotary kiln (ICRK): gradual temperature increase, rotation velocity and gas phase composition. An investigation of clinker formation vs. heating profile and

  2. Toddlers at High Risk of Chemical Eye Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_160258.html Toddlers at High Risk of Chemical Eye Burns: Study Access to household cleaning products to blame, ... and 2 years have relatively high rates of chemical eye burns, with everyday cleaners a common cause, researchers say. ...

  3. Reality Therapy as an Antidote to Burn-Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubbolding, Robert E.; Kessler-Bolotin, Else

    1979-01-01

    Counselor burn-out is characterized by feelings of frustration, rigidity, omnipotence, and the like. Reality therapy uses systematic plans to increase love, worth, fun, and self-discipline to deal effectively with burn-out. (Author)

  4. Etiology of Burn Injuries Among 0-6 Aged Children in One University Hospital Burn Unit, Bursa, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neriman Akansel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background; Children whose verbal communications are not fully developed are the ones at risk for burn injuries. Causes of burn injuries vary among different age groups and scald injuries are the common cause of burn injuries among children. The majority of burns result from contact with thermal agents such as flame, hot surfaces, or hot liquids.Aim: The aim of this study was to determine etiologic factors of the burn injured children Methods: Data were collected for burn injured children treated in Uludag University Medical Hospital Burn Unit between January 2001 – December 2008. Patients’ demographic variables, etiology of burn injury, TBSA(total body surface area, degree of the burn injury, duration of hospitalization was detected from medical records of the hospitalized patients.Results: The mean age of the children was 2.5±1.5 (median=2. Although 4.6 % of burned patients were under one year of age, most of the children (67.8% were between 1-3 years. All of the patients were burned as a result of accident and house environment was the place where the burn incident occurred. Burn injuries occurredmostly during summer (29.9% and spring (28.7%. Scald injuries (75.3% were mostly seen burn injury types all among other burn injuries.Conclusions: Lack of supervision and observation are usually the most common causes of burn injuries in children. Statistical differences were found among age groups according to their burn etiology (p<0.05. An effect of TBSA on patient survival was statistically significant (p<0.000 and also statistically significant results were seen among age groups according to their TBSA’s (p<0.005.

  5. Electric field effects on droplet burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyal, Advitya; Kyritsis, Dimitrios; Matalon, Moshe

    2015-11-01

    The effects of an externally applied electric field are studied on the burning characteristics of a spherically symmetric fuel drop including the structure, mass burning rate and extinction characteristics of the diffusion flame. A reduced three-step chemical kinetic mechanism that reflects the chemi-ionization process for general hydrocarbon fuels has been proposed to capture the production and destruction of ions inside the flame zone. Due to the imposed symmetry, the effect of the ionic wind is simply to modify the pressure field. Our study thus focuses exclusively on the effects of Ohmic heating and kinetic effects on the burning process. Two distinguished limits of weak and strong field are identified, highlighting the relative strength of the internal charge barrier compared to the externally applied field, and numerically simulated. For both limits, significantly different charged species distributions are observed. An increase in the mass burning rate is noticed with increasing field in either limit with negligible change in the flame temperature. Increasing external voltages pushes the flame away from the droplet and causes a strengthening of the flame with a reduction in the extinction Damkhöler number.

  6. In-Situ Burn Gaps Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Li, K., Identification and Measurement of PAH and Other Organic Compounds in Crude Oil Burning Samples. Environmental Emergencies Technology...Lab tests on the biodegradation rates of chemically dispersed oil must consider natural dilution. In: Proceedings of the 2011 International Oil Spill

  7. Protect the Ones You Love From Burns

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-10

    This podcast, developed as part of the Protect the Ones You Love initiative, discusses steps parents can take to help protect their children from burns, one of the leading causes of child injury.  Created: 12/10/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 12/10/2008.

  8. Process and apparatus for burning solid fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, W.; Van den Bleek, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    Abstract of NL 9301828 (A) Described is a process for burning solid fuel, in which nitrogen in the form of NH3 is released from said fuel, for example by gasification, said NH3 being excluded from the combustion process but being admixed, together with CO likewise released, to the gases released

  9. Extracorporeal Blood Purification in Burns: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    exclusion chromatography and nonselective hydrophobic interactions. Small molecules, below 10 kDa, travel through the pores of the beads while larger...3] Chung KK, Lundy JB, Matson JR, Renz EM, White CE, King BT, et al. Continuous venovenous hemofiltration in severely burned patients with acute

  10. Burning mouth syndrome: a review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Francisco J; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier; López-Jornet, Pía

    2015-05-16

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is mainly found in middle aged or elderly women and is characterized by intense burning or itching sensation of the tongue or other regions of the oral mucosa. It can be accompanied by xerostomia and dysgeusia. The syndrome generally manifests spontaneously, and the discomfort is typically of a continuous nature but increases in intensity during the evening and at night. Although BMS classically has been attributed to a range of factors, in recent years evidence has been obtained relating it peripheral (sensory C and/or trigeminal nerve fibers) or central neuropathic disturbances (involving the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system). The differential diagnosis requires the exclusion of oral mucosal lesions or blood test alterations that can produce burning mouth sensation. Patient management is based on the avoidance of causes of oral irritation and the provision of psychological support. Drug treatment for burning sensation in primary BMS of peripheral origin can consist of topical clonazepam, while central type BMS appears to improve with the use of antidepressants such as duloxetine, antiseizure drugs such as gabapentin, or amisulpride.

  11. Burn Resuscitation Decision Support System (BRDSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    first year of the study and provided to USAISR with the BRDSS prototypes. Environmental test certifications (primarily: EMC and RFID testing) was...also conducted hardware based testing, such as electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and radio-frequency identification ( RFID ) compatibility testing...in three areas could improve effectiveness of this technology . Field Feedback. The BRDSS / Burn Navigator™ devices are now in Full Rate Production

  12. Burns B. Crookston: Life and Legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Burns B. Crookston was a man ahead of his times. He left a legacy to the student affairs profession that inspired the practice of student development education. His writings described a role for higher education in training students to become active citizens by learning about leadership, decision making, and conflict resolution in democratic…

  13. Validation of the burns itch questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loey, N E; Hofland, H W; Hendrickx, H; Van de Steenoven, J; Boekelaar, A; Nieuwenhuis, M K

    2016-01-01

    Itch (pruritus) is a common multidimensional complaint after burn that can persist for months to years. A questionnaire able to investigate itch and its consequences is imperative for clinical and research purposes. The current study investigated the factor structure, internal consistency and constr

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS FROM BURNING INCENSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary objective of this study was to improve the characterization of particulate matter emissions from burning incense. Emissions of particulate matter were measured for 23 different types of incense using a cyclone/filter method. Emission rates for PM2.5 (particulate matte...

  15. Analysis of antibiotic consumption in burn patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymanzadeh-Moghadam, Somayeh; Azimi, Leila; Amani, Laleh; Rastegar Lari, Aida; Alinejad, Faranak; Rastegar Lari, Abdolaziz

    2015-01-01

    Infection control is very important in burn care units, because burn wound infection is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality among burn patients. Thus, the appropriate prescription of antibiotics can be helpful, but unreasonable prescription can have detrimental consequences, including greater expenses to patients and community alike. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of antibiotic therapy on the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. 525 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from 335 hospitalized burn patients. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed after identification the strains. The records of patients were audited to find the antibiotic used. The results indicated that P. aeruginosa is the most prevalent Gram-negative bacteria. Further, it showed a relation between abuse of antibiotics and emergence of antibiotic resistance. Control of resistance to antibiotics by appropriate prescription practices not only facilitates prevention of infection caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) microorganisms, but it can also decrease the cost of treatment. PMID:26124986

  16. Analysis of antibiotic consumption in burn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleymanzadeh-Moghadam, Somayeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection control is very important in burn care units, because burn wound infection is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality among burn patients. Thus, the appropriate prescription of antibiotics can be helpful, but unreasonable prescription can have detrimental consequences, including greater expenses to patients and community alike. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of antibiotic therapy on the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. 525 strains of and were isolated from 335 hospitalized burn patients. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed after identification the strains. The records of patients were audited to find the antibiotic used.The results indicated that is the most prevalent Gram-negative bacteria. Further, it showed a relation between abuse of antibiotics and emergence of antibiotic resistance. Control of resistance to antibiotics by appropriate prescription practices not only facilitates prevention of infection caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR microorganisms, but it can also decrease the cost of treatment.

  17. Long standing intra oral acid burn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.V. Kumar; S. Ebenezer; F. Lobbezoo

    2015-01-01

    Oral burn due to ingestion of corrosive substances can bring about debilitating consequences. It often brings mortality, and the survivors can have severe impairment of functions, especially in relation to the stomatognathic and gastrointestinal systems. This article presents a long-standing case (2

  18. Thermoregulation in burn patients during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, K G; Hansbrough, J F; Dore, C; Noordenbos, J; Buono, M J

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of patients with burns on 30 to 40% and 60% or greater of their BSA to thermoregulate their core temperature during exercise in the heat. Two groups (n = 3 in each) of subjects with healed third-degree burns (34.0 +/- 1.4% and 77.7 +/- 12.4%, respectively) and a group of unburned subjects (n = 2) exercised for 1 hour on a cycle ergometer at 75 Watts in an environmental chamber set at 35 degrees C and 60% relative humidity. Subjects were monitored for rectal and skin temperatures, heart rate, whole body sweat rate, skin blood flow, and active sweat gland density (number per cm ) in unburned, burned, and harvested skin. The results demonstrated that patients with burns on 60% or greater BSA did not show an intolerance to moderate exercise in the heat, as evidenced by only a moderate rise in rectal temperature and heart rate. Furthermore, the responses were similar to those of the unburned subjects.

  19. Burning of olive tree branches: a major organic aerosol source in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kostenidou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol produced during the burning of olive tree branches was characterized with both direct source sampling (using a mobile smog chamber and with ambient measurements during the burning season. The fresh particles were composed of 80% organic matter, 8–10% black carbon (BC, 5% potassium, 3–4% sulfate, 2–3% nitrate and 0.8% chloride. Almost half of the fresh olive tree branches burning organic aerosol (otBB-OA consisted of alkane groups. Their mode diameter was close to 70 nm. The oxygen to carbon (O : C ratio of the fresh otBB-OA was 0.29 ± 0.04. The mass fraction of levoglucosan in PM1 was 0.034–0.043, relatively low in comparison with most fuel types. This may lead to an underestimation of the otBB-OA contribution if levoglucosan is being used as a wood burning tracer. Chemical aging was observed during smog chamber experiments, as f44 and O : C ratio increased, due to reactions with OH radicals and O3. The otBB-OA AMS mass spectrum differs from the other published biomass burning spectra, with a main difference at m/z 60, used as levoglucosan tracer. In addition to particles, volatile organic compounds (VOCs such as methanol, acetonitrile, acrolein, benzene, toluene and xylenes are also emitted. Positive matrix factorization (PMF was applied to the ambient organic aerosol data and 3 factors could be identified: OOA (oxygenated organic aerosol, 55%, HOA (hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol, 11.3% and otBB-OA 33.7%. The fresh chamber otBB-OA AMS spectrum is close to the PMF otBB-OA spectrum and resembles the ambient mass spectrum during olive tree branches burning periods. We estimated an otBB-OA emission factor of 3.5 ± 0.9 g kg−1. Assuming that half of the olive tree branches pruned is burned in Greece, 2300 ± 600 tons of otBB-OA are emitted every year. This activity is one of the most important fine aerosol sources during the winter months in Mediterranean countries.

  20. Burning of olive tree branches: a major organic aerosol source in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kostenidou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol produced during the burning of olive tree branches was characterized with both direct source-sampling (using a mobile smog chamber and with ambient measurements during the burning season. The fresh particles were composed of 80% organic matter, 8–10% black carbon (BC, 5% potassium, 3–4% sulfate, 2–3% nitrate and 0.8% chloride. Almost half of the fresh olive tree branches burning organic aerosol (otBB-OA consisted of alkane groups. Their mode diameter was close to 70 nm. The oxygen to carbon (O:C ratio of the fresh otBB-OA was 0.29 ± 0.04. The mass fraction of levoglucosan in PM1 was 0.034–0.043, relatively low in comparison with most fuel types. This may lead to an underestimation of the otBB-OA contribution if levoglucosan is being used as a wood burning tracer. Chemical aging was observed during smog chamber experiments, as f44 and O:C ratio increased, due to reactions with OH radicals and O3. The otBB-OA AMS mass spectrum differs from the other published biomass burning spectra, with a main difference at m/z 60, used as levoglucosan tracer. In addition to particles, volatile organic compounds (VOCs such as methanol, acetonitrile, acrolein, benzene, toluene and xylenes are also emitted. Positive matrix factorization (PMF was applied to the ambient organic aerosol data and 3 factors could be identified: OOA (oxygenated organic aerosol, 55%, HOA (hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol, 11.3% and otBB-OA 33.7%. The fresh chamber otBB-OA AMS spectrum is close to the PMF otBB-OA spectrum and resembles the ambient mass spectrum during olive tree branches burning periods. We estimated an otBB-OA emission factor of 3.5 ± 0.2 g kg−1. Assuming that half of the olive tree branches pruned is burned in Greece 2280 ± 140 tons of otBB-OA are emitted every year. This activity is one of the most important fine aerosol sources during the winter months in the Mediterranean countries.

  1. Reactive burn models and ignition & growth concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shaw, Milton S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Plastic-bonded explosives are heterogeneous materials. Experimentally, shock initiation is sensitive to small amounts of porosity, due to the formation of hot spots (small localized regions of high temperature). This leads to the Ignition and Growth concept, introduced by Lee and Tarver in 1980, as the basis for reactive burn models. A homogeneized burn rate needs to account for three mesoscale physical effects (i) the density of burnt hot spots, which depends on the lead shock strength; (ii) the growth of the burn fronts triggered by hot spots, which depends on the local deflagration speed; (iii) a geometric factor that accounts for the overlap of deflagration wavelets from adjacent hot spots. These effects can be combined and the burn model defined by specifying the reaction progress variable {lambda}(t) as a function of a dimensionless reaction length {tau}{sub hs}(t)/{ell}{sub hs}, rather than by xpecifying an explicit burn rate. The length scale {ell}{sub hs} is the average distance between hot spots, which is proportional to [N{sub hs}(P{sub s})]{sup -1/3}, where N{sub hs} is the number density of hot spots activated by the lead shock. The reaction length {tau}{sub hs}(t) = {line_integral}{sub 0}{sup t} D(P(t'))dt' is the distance the burn front propagates from a single hot spot, where D is the deflagration speed and t is the time since the shock arrival. A key implementation issue is how to determine the lead shock strength in conjunction with a shock capturing scheme. They have developed a robust algorithm for this purpose based on the Hugoniot jump condition for the energy. The algorithm utilizes the time dependence of density, pressure and energy within each cell. The method is independent of the numerical dissipation used for shock capturing. It is local and can be used in one or more space dimensions. The burn model has a small number of parameters which can be calibrated to fit velocity gauge data from shock initiation experiments.

  2. Burn Pre-Approval Area, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2000) [burn_preapproval_area_LOSCO_2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a region dataset delineating the areas of offshore Louisiana having Regional Response Team VI (RRT 6) pre-approval for the use of in-situ burning, according...

  3. An unusual burn caused by hot argy wormwood leaf water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Guo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available An unusual burn case caused by hot wormwood leaf water was discussed. A 29-year-old woman sustained a 7% second-degree burn on both buttocks and left thigh. This case report highlights a rare cause of a chemical burn that may become more common with increasing use of this Chinese traditional medicine. The prevention measures of this burn injury were also presented.

  4. Management of chemical burns of the canine cornea

    OpenAIRE

    Christmas, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Significant clinical signs and general principles of treatment for chemical burns of the canine cornea are presented using three typical case studies for illustration. Alkali burns are more common in dogs than acid burns. The sources of alkali in this study were soap, cement, and mortar dust. Common signs of chemical burns are ocular pain, corneal ulceration, tear film inadequacy, corneal edema, and marked corneal neovascularity. Successful treatment requires thorough ocular lavage, treatment...

  5. A Hydrodynamical Analysis of the Burning of a Neutron Star

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, H T; Speliotopoulos, Achilles D; 10.1016/0370-2693(94)91201-7

    2009-01-01

    The burning of a neutron star by strange matter is analyzed using relativistic combustion theory with a planar geometry. It is shown that such burning is probably neither slow combustion nor simple detonation. Fast combustion without detonation is possible under certain circumstances, but would involve very efficient heat transfer mechanisms. It is found, however, that the burning is most likely absolutely unstable with no well defined burn front.

  6. Continental cement trial burn strategy follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodford, J. [Gossman Consulting, Inc., Springboro, OH (United States); Winders, H. [Continental Cement Company, Hannibal, MO (United States); Constans, D.L. [Gossman Consulting, Inc., Peachtree City, GA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Continental Trial Burn strategy, presented at the 1995 BIF Conference, included the use of {open_quotes}data-in-lieu-of{close_quotes} from previous compliance testing conducted at the facility. Since the submission of the Trial Burn Plan and the 1995 presentation, Continental Cement has completed their two campaign trial burn. This paper will update the implementation of the Continental Trial Burn strategy. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Seawater Immersion Aggravates Burn Injury Causing Severe Blood Coagulation Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the endothelial function in a canine model of burn injury combined with seawater immersion. The model of burn injury was established. The dogs were randomly divided into four groups including dogs with burn injury (B group), or burn injury combined with seawater immersion (BI group), or only immersion in seawater (I group), or control animals with no injury or immersion (C group). The circulating endothelial cell (CEC) count and coagulation-fibrinolysis paramet...

  8. Understorey fire frequency and the fate of burned forests in southern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D C; Le Page, Y; DeFries, R; Collatz, G J; Hurtt, G C

    2013-06-05

    Recent drought events underscore the vulnerability of Amazon forests to understorey fires. The long-term impact of fires on biodiversity and forest carbon stocks depends on the frequency of fire damages and deforestation rates of burned forests. Here, we characterized the spatial and temporal dynamics of understorey fires (1999-2010) and deforestation (2001-2010) in southern Amazonia using new satellite-based estimates of annual fire activity (greater than 50 ha) and deforestation (greater than 10 ha). Understorey forest fires burned more than 85 500 km(2) between 1999 and 2010 (2.8% of all forests). Forests that burned more than once accounted for 16 per cent of all understorey fires. Repeated fire activity was concentrated in Mato Grosso and eastern Pará, whereas single fires were widespread across the arc of deforestation. Routine fire activity in Mato Grosso coincided with annual periods of low night-time relative humidity, suggesting a strong climate control on both single and repeated fires. Understorey fires occurred in regions with active deforestation, yet the interannual variability of fire and deforestation were uncorrelated, and only 2.6 per cent of forests that burned between 1999 and 2008 were deforested for agricultural use by 2010. Evidence from the past decade suggests that future projections of frontier landscapes in Amazonia should separately consider economic drivers to project future deforestation and climate to project fire risk.

  9. Human amplification of drought-induced biomass burning in Indonesia since 1960

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R. D.; van der Werf, G. R.; Shen, S. S.

    2009-05-01

    Much of the interannual variability in global atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations has been attributed to variability of emissions from biomass burning. Under drought conditions, agricultural burning in Indonesia escapes control, and is a disproportionate contributor to these emissions, as seen in the 1997/98 haze disaster. Yet our understanding of the frequency, severity and underlying causes of severe biomass burning in Indonesia is limited because of the absence of satellite data that are useful for fire monitoring before the mid- 1990s. Here we present a continuous monthly record of severe burning events from 1960 to 2006 using the visibility reported at airports in the region. We find that these fires cause what are possibly the world's worst air quality conditions and that they occur only during years when precipitation falls below a well defined threshold. Historically, large fire events have occurred in Sumatra at least since the 1960s. By contrast, the first large fires are recorded in Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) in the 1980s, despite earlier severe droughts. We attribute this difference to different patterns of changes in land use and population density. Fires in Indonesia have often been linked with El Niño, but we find that the Indian Ocean Dipole pattern is as important a contributing factor.

  10. Abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training: fat burning or hydrocarbon source redistribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chia-Hua; Harris, M Brennan

    2016-07-01

    Fat burning, defined by fatty acid oxidation into carbon dioxide, is the most described hypothesis to explain the actual abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training. This hypothesis is strengthened by evidence of increased whole-body lipolysis during exercise. As a result, aerobic training is widely recommended for obesity management. This intuition raises several paradoxes: first, both aerobic and resistance exercise training do not actually elevate 24 h fat oxidation, according to data from chamber-based indirect calorimetry. Second, anaerobic high-intensity intermittent training produces greater abdominal fat reduction than continuous aerobic training at similar amounts of energy expenditure. Third, significant body fat reduction in athletes occurs when oxygen supply decreases to inhibit fat burning during altitude-induced hypoxia exposure at the same training volume. Lack of oxygen increases post-meal blood distribution to human skeletal muscle, suggesting that shifting the postprandial hydrocarbons towards skeletal muscle away from adipose tissue might be more important than fat burning in decreasing abdominal fat. Creating a negative energy balance in fat cells due to competition of skeletal muscle for circulating hydrocarbon sources may be a better model to explain the abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise than the fat-burning model.

  11. Methoxyphenols in smoke from biomass burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaellstrand, J.

    2000-07-01

    Wood and other forest plant materials were burned in laboratory experiments with the ambition to simulate the natural burning course in a fireplace or a forest fire. Smoke samples were taken and analysed with respect to methoxyphenols, using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Different kinds of bio pellets, intended for residential heating were studied in the same way. The aim of a first study was to establish analytical data to facilitate further research. Thirty-six specific methoxyphenols were identified, and gas chromatographic retention and mass spectrometric data were determined for these. In a subsequent study, the methoxyphenol emissions from the burning of wood and other forest plant materials were investigated. Proportions and concentrations of specific methoxyphenols were determined. Methoxyphenols and anhydrosugars, formed from the decomposition of lignin and cellulose respectively, were the most prominent semi-volatile compounds in the biomass smoke. The methoxyphenol compositions reflected the lignin structures of different plant materials. Softwood smoke contained almost only 2-methoxyphenols, while hardwood smoke contained both 2-methoxyphenols and 2,6-dimethoxyphenols. The methoxyphenols in smoke from pellets, made of sawdust, bark and lignin, reflected the source of biomass. Although smoke from incompletely burned wood contains mainly methoxyphenols and anhydrosugars, there is also a smaller amount of well-known hazardous compounds present. The methoxyphenols are antioxidants. They appear mainly condensed on particles and are presumed to be inhaled together with other smoke components. As antioxidants, phenols interrupt free radical chain reactions and possibly counteract the effect of hazardous smoke components. Health hazards of small-scale wood burning should be re-evaluated considering antioxidant effects of the methoxyphenols.

  12. A Goniometry Paradigm Shift to Measure Burn Scar Contracture in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    cost extension has been granted to extend the study period to September 14, 2017. Standard Goniometry (SG) Position to Measure Wrist Extension 42...1 AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0148 TITLE: A Goniometry Paradigm Shift to Measure Burn Scar Contracture in Burn Patients...subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO

  13. Epidermal-dermal crosstalk during burn wound scar maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.E. Hakvoort (Eveline)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractBurn injuries arc among the worst traumas which can happen to man. The larger a burn injury, the more severe the consequences and the highcr the chance of an adverse outcome or even death. In The Netherlands each year 40,000 people visit a general practitioner for treatment of a burn wou

  14. The trend of acute burns pre-hospital management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Hamdiya

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: Burn injuries are common in our settings, a more reason for all to know the immediate intervention to give to victims of such accidents. The kind of first aid administered to burns victims possibly affects the burns management outcome. Thus, the earlier the right intervention implemented, the lesser the complications.

  15. Primary and secondary biomass burning aerosols determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy during the 2008 EUCAARI campaign in the Po Valley (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglione, M.; Saarikoski, S.; Carbone, S.; Hillamo, R.; Facchini, M. C.; Finessi, E.; Giulianelli, L.; Carbone, C.; Fuzzi, S.; Moretti, F.; Tagliavini, E.; Swietlicki, E.; Eriksson Stenström, K.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Massoli, P.; Canaragatna, M.; Worsnop, D.; Decesari, S.

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric organic aerosols are generally classified as primary and secondary (POA and SOA) according to their formation processes. An actual separation, however, is challenging when the timescales of emission and gas-to-particle formation overlap. The presence of SOA formation in biomass burning plumes leads to scientific questions about whether the oxidized fraction of biomass burning aerosol is rather of secondary or primary origin, as some studies would suggest, and about the chemical compositions of oxidized biomass burning POA and SOA. In this study, we apply nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to investigate the functional group composition of fresh and aged biomass burning aerosols during an intensive field campaign in the Po Valley, Italy. The campaign was part of the EUCAARI project and was held at the rural station of San Pietro Capofiume in spring 2008. Factor analysis applied to the set of NMR spectra was used to apportion the wood burning contribution and other organic carbon (OC) source contributions, including aliphatic amines. Our NMR results, referred to the polar, water-soluble fraction of OC, show that fresh wood burning particles are composed of polyols and aromatic compounds, with a sharp resemblance to wood burning POA produced in wood stoves, while aged samples are clearly depleted of alcohols and are enriched in aliphatic acids with a smaller contribution of aromatic compounds. The comparison with biomass burning organic aerosols (BBOA) determined by high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry (HR-TOF-AMS) at the site shows only a partial overlap between NMR BB-POA and AMS BBOA, which can be explained by either the inability of BBOA to capture all BB-POA composition, especially the alcohol fraction, or the fact that BBOA account for insoluble organic compounds unmeasured by the NMR. Therefore, an unambiguous composition for biomass burning POA could not be derived from this study, with NMR analysis indicating a higher O / C ratio

  16. Primary and secondary biomass burning aerosols determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR) spectroscopy during the 2008 EUCAARI campaign in the Po Valley (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglione, M.; Saarikoski, S.; Carbone, S.; Hillamo, R.; Facchini, M. C.; Finessi, E.; Giulianelli, L.; Carbone, C.; Fuzzi, S.; Moretti, F.; Tagliavini, E.; Swietlicki, E.; Eriksson Stenström, K.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Massoli, P.; Canaragatna, M.; Worsnop, D.; Decesari, S.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric organic aerosols are generally classified into primary and secondary (POA and SOA) according to their formation processes. An actual separation, however, is challenging when the timescales of emission and of gas-to-particle formation overlap. The presence of SOA formation in biomass burning plumes leads to scientific questions about whether the oxidized fraction of biomass burning aerosol is rather of secondary or primary origin, as some studies would suggest, and about the chemical compositions of oxidized biomass burning POA and SOA. In this study, we apply nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to investigate the functional group composition of fresh and aged biomass burning aerosols during an intensive field campaign in the Po Valley, Italy. The campaign was part of the EUCAARI project and was held at the rural station of San Pietro Capofiume in spring 2008. Factor analysis applied to the set of NMR spectra was used to apportion the wood burning contribution and other organic carbon (OC) source contributions, including aliphatic amines. Our NMR results, referred to the polar, water-soluble fraction of OC, show that fresh wood burning particles are composed of polyols and aromatic compounds, with a sharp resemblance with wood burning POA produced in wood stoves, while aged samples are clearly depleted of alcohols and are enriched in aliphatic acids with a smaller contribution of aromatic compounds. The comparison with biomass burning organic aerosols (BBOA) determined by high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry (HR-TOF-AMS) at the site shows only a partial overlap between NMR BB-POA and AMS BBOA, which can be explained by either the inability of BBOA to capture all BB-POA composition, especially the alcohol fraction, or the fact that BBOA account for insoluble organic compounds unmeasured by the NMR. Therefore, an unambiguous composition for biomass burning POA could not be derived from this study, with NMR analysis indicating a higher O / C

  17. Sexuality after burn in Brazil: survey of burn health-care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Monica Sarto; Daher, Ricardo Piccolo; Gragnani, Alfredo; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2011-12-01

    Patients who survive a major burn must live with emotional and physical sequela. In a literature review, we found that sexuality concerns of burn victims are rarely a focus of therapy. After suggestions from Rimmer et al. [12], using their questionnaire translated into Portuguese, we held a survey of burn-care professionals at the VII Brazilian Burn Congress. More than 120 practitioners from 41 centres, aged in average 41.2 years (1 standard deviation 10.96), completed the survey. A proportion of 63.7% were female, and 58.1% were Caucasians; 37.1% were physicians, 20.9% nurse practitioners and 16.9 were occupational therapists/physical therapists (OTs/PT)s. Psychologists made up 3.2%. Only 28% of the respondents felt comfortable in initiating a conversation about sexual intimacy with their patients. The vast majority believed it should be done by the psychologist. Only 38% felt their burn centre did an adequate job in that area. When compared with a study of our country's general population, we find similar results indicating that intimacy, sexuality and sexual intercourse are considered most important in a relationship. There is a significant lack of literature in sexuality after burn; most likely meaning it is ignored by most centres. There is a need for other similar surveys to be performed, as well as a collective consciousness of the need for discussions about sexuality with patients and their partners, providing counselling and treatment, when need.

  18. Interaction mechanisms of organic contaminants with burned straw ash charcoal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhai Huang; Baoliang Chen

    2010-01-01

    Black carbons (e.g.,charcoal) have a great impact on the transport of organic contaminants in soil and water because of its strong affinity and ubiquity in the environment.To further elucidate their interaction mechanism,sorption of polar (p-nitrotoluene,m-dinitrobenzene and nitrobenzene) and nonpolar (naphthalene) aromatic contaminants to burned straw ash charcoal under different de-ashed treatments were investigated.The sorption isotherms fitted well with Freundlich equation,and the Freundlich N values were all around 0.31-0.38,being independent of the sorbate properties and sorbent types.After sequential removal of ashes by acid treatments (HCl and HCl-HF),both adsorption and partition were enhanced due to the enrichment of charcoal component.The separated contribution of adsorption and partition to total sorption were quantified.The effective carbon content in ash charcoal functioned as adsorption sites,partition phases,and hybrid regions with adsorption and partition were conceptualized and calculated.The hybrid regions increased obviously after de-ashed treatment.The linear relationships of Freundlich N values with the charring-temperature of charcoal or biochar (the charred byproduct in biomass pyrolysis) were observed based on the current study and the cited publications which included 15 different temperatures (100-850℃),10 kinds of precursors of charcoal/biochar,and 10 organic sorbates.

  19. Interaction mechanisms of organic contaminants with burned straw ash charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenhai; Chen, Baoliang

    2010-01-01

    Black carbons (e.g., charcoal) have a great impact on the transport of organic contaminants in soil and water because of its strong affinity and ubiquity in the environment. To further elucidate their interaction mechanism, sorption of polar (p-nitrotoluene, m-dinitrobenzene and nitrobenzene) and nonpolar (naphthalene) aromatic contaminants to burned straw ash charcoal under different de-ashed treatments were investigated. The sorption isotherms fitted well with Freundlich equation, and the Freundlich N values were all around 0.31-0.38, being independent of the sorbate properties and sorbent types. After sequential removal of ashes by acid treatments (HCl and HCl-HF), both adsorption and partition were enhanced due to the enrichment of charcoal component. The separated contribution of adsorption and partition to total sorption were quantified. The effective carbon content in ash charcoal functioned as adsorption sites, partition phases, and hybrid regions with adsorption and partition were conceptualized and calculated. The hybrid regions increased obviously after de-ashed treatment. The linear relationships of Freundlich N values with the charring-temperature of charcoal or biochar (the charred byproduct in biomass pyrolysis) were observed based on the current study and the cited publications which included 15 different temperatures (100-850 degrees C), 10 kinds of precursors of charcoal/biochar, and 10 organic sorbates.

  20. Atmospheric tar balls: aged primary droplets from biomass burning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, A.; Hoffer, A.; Nyirő-Kósa, I.; Pósfai, M.; Gelencsér, A.

    2014-07-01

    Atmospheric tar balls are particles of special morphology and composition that are fairly abundant in the plumes of biomass smoke. These particles form a specific subset of brown carbon (BrC) which has been shown to play a significant role in atmospheric shortwave absorption and, by extension, climate forcing. Here we suggest that tar balls are produced by the direct emission of liquid tar droplets followed by heat transformation upon biomass burning. For the first time in atmospheric chemistry we generated tar-ball particles from liquid tar obtained previously by dry distillation of wood in an all-glass apparatus in the laboratory with the total exclusion of flame processes. The particles were perfectly spherical with a mean optical diameter of 300 nm, refractory, externally mixed, and homogeneous in the contrast of the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. They lacked any graphene-like microstructure and exhibited a mean carbon-to-oxygen ratio of 10. All of the observed characteristics of laboratory-generated particles were very similar to those reported for atmospheric tar-ball particles in the literature, strongly supporting our hypothesis regarding the formation mechanism of atmospheric tar-ball particles.

  1. New treatment strategies to reduce burn wound progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmauss, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: After a burn injury certain superficial partial-thickness burn wounds spontaneously progress into deep partial-thickness or full-thickness burn wounds. This poorly understood phenomenon is called burn wound progression. The aim of this study was to investigate whether treatment strategies using warm water (preservation of microcirculation on the one side and erythropoietin (EPO (molecule with anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, vasodilatory and neoangiogenic properties can prevent, delay and/or reduce secondary burn wound progression in a rat model.Methods: We used a burn comb model in 63 rats, creating eight rectangular contact burns (2x1 cm each intercalated by unburned zones (2x0.5 cm prone to burn wound progression. In a first experimental set we treated burn wounds with locally applied warm (37°C or cold (17°C water for 20 minutes.In a second experimental set, animals were treated systemically with EPO at two different dosages of 500 and 2,500 IU/kg bodyweight (bw and initiated at 2 different time-points (45 minutes vs. 6 hours after burn injury. Evaluation of microcirculatory perfusion, interspace necrosis and burn depth was performed using respectively laser Doppler flowmetry, planimetry and histology. For statistical analysis the two-way ANOVA-test followed by an adequate post-hoc test (Bonferroni were used. Results: In untreated control animals a conversion from superficial to full-thickness burns was observed within 24 hours. Warm and cold water treatment significantly delayed burn depth progression, nevertheless after 4 days, burn depth was similar in all three groups. Warm water significantly reduced interspace necrosis compared to untreated controls and cold water with a significantly improved perfusion in the warm water group. Surface extension and particularly burn depth progression were significantly decreased by EPO only if administered at a dosage of bw and initiated 45 minutes after burn injury. EPO

  2. A clinico-epidemiological study of rescuer burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basra, Baljeet Kumar; Suri, Manav P; Patil, Nilesh; Atha, Ravish; Patel, Natvar; Sachde, Jayesh P; Shaikh, M F

    2014-08-01

    Rescuer burn is a relatively newer terminology introduced to define the burns sustained by a person attempting to rescue a primary burn victim. Few studies have been published thus far on this peculiar type of burns. Due to the general neglect of the rescuer burns victim and discontinuation of treatment in most cases, once the primary victim dies, the rescuer often ends up in badly infected wounds and has a delayed return to work. A prospective study was conducted at the B J Medical College and Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad from January 2009 to December 2012 on the rescuer burns patients treated in its burns and plastic surgery department. 3074 patients of burns received treatment during the period of study. Of these, 48 patients gave the history of sustaining burns while trying to rescue a burns victim. Male to female ratio of rescuers was approximately 7:1. It was significantly higher as compared to the ratio of 1:0.8 of females to male burn victims observed at our centre (p≤0.01). Average age of the rescuers was higher in males as compared to females but the difference was not significant (p≥0.05). Of the 45 cases of female primary burns victims, male rescuer was husband of the primary victim in 41/45 cases (91.1%), mother was rescuer in three cases (6.6% cases) and sister was rescuer in one case. Though multiple people came to rescue a burns victim, in all cases, it was seen that it was the first rescuer who sustained burns himself or herself. None of the rescuers had any knowledge of the techniques and precautions to be taken while performing a rescue operation irrespective of their education status, indirectly pointing to the lack of any teaching on burns rescue in the school education curriculum.

  3. Wildfire Risk to Aboveground Terrestrial Carbon Stocks in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, K. L.; Finney, M.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfire is an important part of the terrestrial carbon cycle, moving carbon stored in wood, leaves, litter, and duff into the black carbon and emissions pools. Here, we utilize a national raster of burn probabilities from wildland fire, a tree list for the western United States, and a national map of fuel loading models to calculate the risk to terrestrial carbon from wildland fires in the western United States. Annual burn probabilities are estimated by the Large Fire Simulator (FSim), based on current static landscape conditions and at least 10,000 years of statistically plausible weather sequences. For fires of varying intensity, forest carbon retained onsite and carbon emissions are estimated by the Fire and Fuels Extension of the Forest Vegetation Simulator. In grasslands and shrublands, carbon retained and emitted by wildfire is estimated based on current fuel loading and estimated consumption. We summarize expected carbon stocks and expected annual carbon loss at a variety of scales, aggregating values from the 270m pixel to National Forest, ecoregion, state, and regional scales. Our results indicate that following even a high intensity wildland fire in forested areas, the majority of aboveground carbon is retained onsite in the form of tree trunks. Because of the low annual probability of burning, emissions are small relative to carbon stocks. Additional work will be needed to integrate the complex temporal dimension of the carbon cycle, with areas burned in recent years being at first a carbon source and then a carbon sink after less than a decade in most areas.

  4. Using online blogs to explore positive outcomes after burn injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, Kirsty; Harcourt, Diana; Buchanan, Heather

    2016-03-27

    This study uses blog analysis, a new and novel technique, to explore the positive outcomes experienced by burn survivors. This study examined 10 burn survivor blogs to offer a unique, longitudinal insight into burn survivor recovery. Using thematic analysis, three themes emerged: shift in self-perception, enhanced relationships and a change in life outlook. Many of these themes contained stories and experiences unique to a traumatic burn injury, suggesting that standardised trauma scales are not effectively measuring the impact of a burn in this population. Reflections on blog analysis are discussed, along with a recommendation that health researchers utilise the vast amount of data available from online blogs.

  5. Importance of proper initial treatment of moderate and major burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulović Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Burns are common injuries with frequency depending on human factors, development of protection, industry and traffic, eventual wars. Organized treatment of major burn injuries has tremendous medical, social and economic importance. The aim of this study was to analyze initial treatment of major and moderate burns, to compare it with the current recommendations and to signify the importance of organized management of burns. Methods. In a prospective study 547 adult patients with major burns were analyzed, covering a period of eight years, with the emphasis on the initial hospital admission and emergency care for burns greater than 10% of total body surface area (TBSA. Results. In the different groups of major burns, the percentage of hospital admission was: 81.5 in burns greater than 10% TBSA, 37.7 in burns of the functional areas, 54.5 in the III degree burns, 81.6 in electrical burns, 55.9 in chemical burns, 61.9 in inhalation injury, 41.0 in burns in patients with the greater risk and 100 in burns with a concomitant trauma. In the group of 145 patients with burns greater than 10% TBSA, intravenous fluids were given in 87 patients, analgesics in 45, corticosteroids in 29, antibiotics in 23 and oxygen administration in 14. In the same group, wound irrigation was done in 14.4%, removing of the clothing and shoes in 29.6%, elevation of the legs in 8.9% and prevention of hypothermia in 7.6% of the victims. There were no initial estimations of burn extent (percentage of a burn, notes about the patient and injury and tetanus immunizations. Conclusion. Based on these findings, it is concluded that there should be much more initial hospital admissions of major burns, and also, necessary steps in the emergency care of burns greater than 10% TBSA should be taken more frequently. On the other side, unnecessary or wrong steps should be avoided in the initial burn treatment.

  6. Olive Tree Branches Burning: A major pollution source in the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostenidou, Evangelia; Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Tsiflikiotou, Maria; Louvaris, Evangelos; Russell, Lynn; Pandis, Spyros

    2013-04-01

    Olive tree branches burning is a common agricultural waste management practice after the annual pruning of olive trees from November to February. Almost 1 billion (90%) of the olive trees in our planet are located around the Mediterranean, so the corresponding emissions of olive tree branches burning can be a significant source of fine aerosols during the cold months. Organic aerosol produced during the burning of olive tree branches (otBB-OA) was characterized with both direct source-sampling (using a mobile smog chamber) and ambient measurements during the burning season in the area of Patras, Greece. The aerosol emitted consists of organics, black carbon (BC), potassium, chloride, nitrate and sulfate. In addition to NOx, O3, CO and CO2, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) such as methanol, acetonitrile, benzene and toluene were also produced. The Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS) mass spectrum of otBB-OA is characterized by the m-z's27, 29, 39, 41, 43, 44, 55, 57, 67, 69 and 91 and changes as the emissions react with OH and O3. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis showed that otBB-OA was composed of 48% alkane groups, 27% organic hydroxyl groups, 11% carboxylic acid groups, 11% primary amine groups and 4% carbonyl groups. The oxygen to carbon (O:C) ratio is 0.29±0.04. The otBB-OA AMS mass spectrum differs from the other published biomass burning spectra. The m-z60, used as levoglucosan tracer, is lower than in most biomass burning sources. This is confirmed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis on filters where the levoglucosan to OC mass ratio was between 0.034 and 0.043, close to the lower limit of the reported values for most fuel types. This may lead to an underestimation of the otBB-OA contribution in Southern Europe if levoglucosan is being used as a wood burning tracer. During the olive tree branches burning season, 20 days of ambient measurements were performed. Applying positive matrix factorization (PMF) to the

  7. Possible indicators for bio-mass burning in a small Swedish city as studied by energy dispersive fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selin Lindgren, Eva; Henriksson, Dag; Lundin, Magnus

    2006-01-01

    Biomass is increasingly used in energy plants of different size and sophistication in Sweden. Biomass is also available in Sweden owing to its large forest-covered areas. Incineration of biomass in an environmentally friendly manner is one of the key issues in Swedish policy for sustainable...... development. Hence there is ongoing research on the effects of biomass burning on the air quality in Swedish cities. The relative contributions of anthropogenic sources to pollution in the urban environment are usually difficult to evaluate owing to the complexity of the ambient aerosol. In order...... of biomass burning to particulate air pollution. In order to identify typical indicators for biomass burning, principle component analysis was performed on data on elemental contents and black carbon. Analysis suggests that the K/Zn ratio will be useful as an indicator for biomass incineration....

  8. Scaling of the burning efficiency for multicomponent fuel pool fires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Farahani, Hamed Farmahini; Rangwala, Ali S.;

    In order to improve the validity of small scale crude oil burning experiments, which seem to underestimate the burning efficiency obtained in larger scales, the gasification mechanism of crude oil was studied. Gasification models obtained from literature were used to make a set of predictions...... for relevant burning related parameters which were then compared to experimental results. These parameters, the surface temperature, mass loss rate, flame height and residue composition, were studied for three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane) and two crude oils (DUC and REBCO). Based...... on the models-experiments comparison, it was suggested that crude oil burns according to a distillation-like mechanism, with the light components burning off first, followed by increasingly heavier components as the burning progresses. Thus, in order for the crude oil to burn near 100%, the surface temperature...

  9. Do burns increase the severity of terror injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Kobi; Liran, Alon; Tessone, Ariel; Givon, Adi; Orenstein, Arie; Haik, Josef

    2008-01-01

    The use of explosives and suicide bombings has become more frequent since October 2000. This change in the nature of terror attacks has marked a new era in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. We previously reported that the incidence of thermal injuries has since risen. However, the rise in the incidence of burns among victims of terror was proportionate to the rise in the incidence of burns among all trauma victims. This paper presents data from the Israeli National Trauma Registry during the years 1997--2003, to compare the severity of injuries and outcome (mortality rates) in terror victims with and without burn injuries. We also compare the severity of injuries and outcome (mortality rates) for patients with terror-attack related burns to non terror-attack related burns during the same period. Data was obtained from the Israeli National Trauma Registry for all patients admitted to 8 to 10 hospitals in Israel between 1997 and 2003. We analyzed and compared demographic and clinical characteristics of 219 terror-related burn patients (terror/burn), 2228 terror patients with no associated burns (Terror/no-burn) and 6546 non terror related burn patients (burn/no-terror). Severity of injuries was measured using the injury severity score, and burn severity by total body surface percentage indices. Admission rates to Intensive Care Units (ICU) and total length of hospitalization were also used to measure severity of injuries. In-hospital mortality rates were used to indicate outcome. Of burn/terror patients, 87.2% suffered other accompanying injuries, compared with 10.4% of burn/no-terror patients. Of burn/terror patients, 49.8% were admitted to ICU compared with only 11.9% of burn/no-terror patients and 23.8% of no-burn/terror patients. Mean length of hospital stay was 18.5 days for the terror/burn group compared with 11.1 days for the burn/no-terror group and 9.5 days for the terror/no-burn group. Burn/terror patients had a significantly higher injury severity score

  10. Early diagnostics and treatment with acute burn sepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmedov A.A.; Shakirov B.M.; Karabaev H.K

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the value of the procalcitonin test used for early diagnosis of sepsis and to study the course and treatment of burn sepsis in patients with severe burns. Methods: Eighty patients in the Burn Department of Republican Scientific Centre of Emergency Medical Care, aged 17-75 years with burn injuries covering 30%-85% of the body surface, were enrolled in the study. Procalcitonin is marker of sepsis, procalcitonin > 2 ng/mL, sensitivity -89%, specific feature -94%. Results: The result showed that among septic patients with severe burns, rational use of intensive therapy for burn sepsis and septic shock in combination with parentrial ozonotherapy resulted in decreases of syndrome of poly organ insufficiency and lethal outcomes from 70%accordingly. The result allows the conclusion that the treatment examined leads to a significant increase in survival coefficient. Conclusions: This in turn confirms the efficacy of early necrectomy and auto dermoplasty of deep burn wounds in victims with sepsis.

  11. An overview of acute burn management in the Emergency Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adaira Landry

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the frequency and severity of burns in Low Income Countries, including many in Africa, there is a paucity of research and funding for these populations to aid in prevention, treatment and recovery of burn patients. The objectives of this paper are four-fold. First, by addressing the pathophysiology of burns the reader may strengthen understanding of the clinical progression of burns. Second, through describing proper assessment of burn patients one will learn how to decide if patients can be discharged, admitted or transferred to burn centre. Third, the inclusion of treatments solidifies the steps necessary to manage a patient in a hospital setting. Lastly, the overall goal of the paper, is to raise awareness that more research, publication and funding is required to create a better understanding of burns in Africa and why they continue to be devastating social and economic burdens.

  12. Biomass Burning Emissions from Fire Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the emission source strengths of different (particulate and gaseous) atmospheric constituents is one of the principal ingredients upon which the modeling and forecasting of their distribution and impacts depend. Biomass burning emissions are complex and difficult to quantify. However, satellite remote sensing is providing us tremendous opportunities to measure the fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP), which has a direct relationship with the rates of biomass consumption and emissions of major smoke constituents. In this presentation, we will show how the satellite measurement of FRP is facilitating the quantitative characterization of biomass burning and smoke emission rates, and the implications of this unique capability for improving our understanding of smoke impacts on air quality, weather, and climate. We will also discuss some of the challenges and uncertainties associated with satellite measurement of FRP and how they are being addressed.

  13. Modeling Deep Burn TRISO particle nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M., E-mail: besmanntm@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Stoller, R.E., E-mail: stollerre@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Samolyuk, G., E-mail: samolyukgd@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Schuck, P.C., E-mail: schuckpc@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Golubov, S.I., E-mail: golubovsi@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Rudin, S.P., E-mail: srudin@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Wills, J.M., E-mail: jxw@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Coe, J.D., E-mail: jcoe@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Wirth, B.D., E-mail: bdwirth@utk.edu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-0750 (United States); Kim, S., E-mail: sungtae@cae.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin, 1509 University Ave., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Morgan, D.D., E-mail: ddmorgan@engr.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin, 1509 University Ave., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Szlufarska, I., E-mail: izabela@engr.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin, 1509 University Ave., Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Under the DOE Deep Burn program TRISO fuel is being investigated as a fuel form for consuming plutonium and minor actinides, and for greater efficiency in uranium utilization. The result will thus be to drive TRISO particulate fuel to very high burn-ups. In the current effort the various phenomena in the TRISO particle are being modeled using a variety of techniques. The chemical behavior is being treated utilizing thermochemical analysis to identify phase formation/transformation and chemical activities in the particle, including kernel migration. Density functional theory is being used to understand fission product diffusion within the plutonia oxide kernel, the fission product's attack on the SiC coating layer, as well as fission product diffusion through an alternative coating layer, ZrC. Finally, a multiscale approach is being used to understand thermal transport, including the effect of radiation damage induced defects, in a model SiC material.

  14. Parents’ experience confronting child burning situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdira Vieira de Oliveira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to understand experiences of parents in a child burning situation during the hospitalization process. Methods: phenomenological research in view of Martin Heidegger, held with seven assisting parents at a pediatrics unit of a general hospital in Montes Claros. The information was obtained by phenomenological interview, containing the question guide: “What does it mean to you being with a son who is suffering with burns?”. Results: during the experience, parents revealed anguish, fear, helplessness, concerns and expectations of “being-in-the-world”. Conclusion: respect, understanding and care from the health team were fundamental for the adaptation and the confrontation demanded by the consequent suffering of the event.

  15. Violates stem wood burning sustainable development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    With reference to the paradigme shift regarding the formation of dioxins in municiplan solid waste incinerators experimental results are taken into account which lead to the suspicion that the same mechanism of de-novo-synthesis also applies to fireplace chimneys. This can explain the dioxin...... burning are characterised together with particle and PAH emissions. The positive treatment of wood stove-technology in the Danish strategy for sustainable development (draft 2007) is critically evaluated and approaches to better regulation are identified....

  16. Extracorporeal blood purification in burns: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Katharina; Stewart, Ian J; Kreyer, Stefan F X; Scaravilli, Vittorio; Cannon, Jeremy W; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Batchinsky, Andriy I; Chung, Kevin K

    2014-09-01

    A prolonged and fulminant inflammatory state, with high levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, is seen after extensive thermal injury. Blood purification techniques including plasma exchange, continuous venovenous hemofiltration, and adsorbing membranes have the potential to modulate this response, thereby improving outcomes. This article describes the scientific rationale behind blood purification in burns and offers a review of literature regarding its potential application in this patient cohort.

  17. [Physical rehabilitation in extensively burned patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Martínez, V; Díez Sanz, Ma J; Corona Fernández, O; García Aragón, A; González Fraile, L

    2014-02-01

    The rehabilitation of the extensively burned patient aims to prevent and minimize consequences of the own lesion this is supported by three pillars: 1) postural treatment to prevent contractures; 2) kinesiotherapy to maintain/restore joint range of movement and muscle strength; 3) functional recovery. Physical therapy is essential in the multidisciplinary team. A coordinated team assures better results and positively influences the quality of life of the patients.

  18. Light absorption by pollution, dust, and biomass burning aerosols. A global model study and evaluation with AERONET measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Mian; Holben, B.N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Lab. for Atmospheres; Diehl, T.; Eck, T.F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Lab. for Atmospheres; Maryland Univ., Baltimore County, MD (United States); Dubovik, O. [Univ. de Lille 1/CNRS, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France). Lab. d' Optique Atmospherique; Sinyuk, A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Lab. for Atmospheres; Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Lanham, MD (United States); Streets, D.G. [Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Atmospheric aerosol distributions from 2000 to 2007 are simulated with the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model to attribute light absorption by aerosol to its composition and sources from pollution, dust, and biomass burning. The 8-year, global averaged total aerosol optical depth ({tau}), absorption optical depth ({tau}{sub a}), and single scattering albedo ({omega}) at 550 nm are estimated at 0.14, 0.0086, and 0.95, respectively, with sulfate making the largest fraction of {tau} (37%), followed by dust (30%), sea salt (16%), organic matter (OM) (13%), and black carbon (BC) (4%). BC and dust account for 43% and 53% of {tau}{sub a}, respectively. From a model experiment with ''tagged'' sources, natural aerosols are estimated to be 58% of {tau} and 53% of {tau}{sub a}, with pollution and biomass burning aerosols to share the rest. Comparing with data from the surface sunphotometer network AERONET, the model tends to reproduce much better the AERONET direct measured data of {tau} and the Aangstroem exponent ({alpha}) than its retrieved quantities of {omega} and {tau}{sub a}. Relatively small in its systematic bias of {tau} for pollution and dust regions, the model tends to underestimate {tau} for biomass burning aerosols by 30-40%. The modeled {alpha} is 0.2-0.3 too low (particle too large) for pollution and dust aerosols but 0.2-0.3 too high (particle too small) for the biomass burning aerosols, indicating errors in particle size distributions in the model. Still, the model estimated {omega} is lower in dust regions and shows a much stronger wavelength dependence for biomass burning aerosols but a weaker one for pollution aerosols than those quantities from AERONET. These comparisons necessitate model improvements on aerosol size distributions, the refractive indices of dust and black carbon aerosols, and biomass burning emissions in order to better quantify the aerosol absorption in the atmosphere. (orig.)

  19. Hospital bioterrorism planning and burn surge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Randy D; Myers, Brent; Cairns, Charles B; Rich, Preston B; Hultman, C Scott; Charles, Anthony G; Jones, Samuel W; Schmits, Grace L; Skarote, Mary Beth; Holmes, James H; Cairns, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    On the morning of June 9, 2009, an explosion occurred at a manufacturing plant in Garner, North Carolina. By the end of the day, 68 injured patients had been evaluated at the 3 Level I trauma centers and 3 community hospitals in the Raleigh/Durham metro area (3 people who were buried in the structural collapse died at the scene). Approximately 300 employees were present at the time of the explosion, when natural gas being vented during the repair of a hot water heater ignited. The concussion from the explosion led to structural failure in multiple locations and breached additional natural gas, electrical, and ammonia lines that ran overhead in the 1-story concrete industrial plant. Intent is the major difference between this type of accident and a terrorist using an incendiary device to terrorize a targeted population. But while this disaster lacked intent, the response, rescue, and outcomes were improved as a result of bioterrorism preparedness. This article discusses how bioterrorism hospital preparedness planning, with an all-hazards approach, became the basis for coordinated burn surge disaster preparedness. This real-world disaster challenged a variety of systems, hospitals, and healthcare providers to work efficiently and effectively to manage multiple survivors. Burn-injured patients served as a focus for this work. We describe the response, rescue, and resuscitation provided by first responders and first receivers as well as efforts made to develop burn care capabilities and surge capacity.

  20. U.S. BURNING PLASMA ORGANIZATION ACTIVITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond J. Fonck

    2009-08-11

    The national U.S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO) was formed to provide an umbrella structure in the U.S. fusion science research community. Its main purpose is the coordination of research activities in the U.S. program relevant to burning plasma science and preparations for participation in the international ITER experiment. This grant provided support for the continuing development and operations of the USBPO in its first years of existence. A central feature of the USBPO is the requirement for broad community participation in and governance of this effort. We concentrated on five central areas of activity of the USBPO during this grant period. These included: 1) activities of the Director and support staff in continuing management and development of the USBPO activity; 2) activation of the advisory Council; 3) formation and initial research activities of the research community Topical Groups; 4) formation of Task Groups to perform specific burning plasma related research and development activities; 5) integration of the USBPO community with the ITER Project Office as needed to support ITER development in the U.S.

  1. A Model For The Burning of Teflon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Jess M.; Wilson, D. Bruce; Beeson, Harold D.; Fries, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Teflon has been identified as suitable material for use in oxygen-enriched atmospheres because of its low specific enthalpy of combustion that is, less than 1500 cal/gram. However, once ignited, Teflon burns in a heterogeneous reaction until total consumption or depletion of oxygen occurs. A model is developed for the burning of Teflon in pure, high-pressure oxygen, 3.4 to 68.9 MPa. The Teflon polymer chain dissociates via monomer units due to pyrolysis. These monomer units diffuse to the surface due to free convection. The model consists of coupled mass and energy balances for the polymer and an energy balance for the free convection of product gases. The model is used to obtain appropriate kinetic parameters for the dissociation and surface reactions. The model is validated against experimental measurements of Teflon discs supported on aluminum rods (2216) at oxygen pressures of 3.4, 6.8, 34.4, and 68.9 MPa. The model simulates the temperature distribution in the product gases above burning Teflon.

  2. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia and burn pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtman, Joseph R; Jellish, W Scott

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of pain produced during the management of burn injury has been an ongoing problem for physicians caring for these patients. The main therapeutic option for analgesia has been the repeated and prolonged use of opioids. The adverse effects of opioids are well known but the long term use of opioids which produces tolerance with accompanying dose escalation and dependence is most problematic. Another potentially important consequence of opioid exposure that sometimes masks as tolerance is that of opioid induced hyperalgesia. This syndrome is manifest as enhanced pain, sensitivity and loss of analgesic efficacy in patients treated with opioids who actually become sensitized to painful stimuli. This article focuses on the treatment of burn pain and how current analgesic therapies with opioids may cause hyperalgesia and affect the adequacy of treatment for burn pain. This article also provides possible modalities to help therapeutically manage these patients and considers future analgesic strategies which may help to improve pain management in this complicated patient population.

  3. Soil C and N Pools in Chinese Fir and Evergreen Broadleaf Forests and their Changes with Slash Burning in Mid-Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jian-Fen; YANG Yu-Sheng; CHEN Guang-Shui; XIE Jin-Sheng; LIN Peng

    2006-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (C) and total nitrogen (N) pools of a Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.)(CF) forest, and an evergreen broadleaf (EB) forest located in mid-subtropical, southeastern China, were compared before clearcutting, with the effect of slash burning on organic C and total N in the top 10 cm of soil before and after burning also being evaluated. Prior to clearcutting CF forest had significantly lower (P < 0.05) organic C and total N in the soil(0-100 cm) compared to EB forest with approximately 60% of the C and N at the two forest sites stored at the 0 to 40 cm soil. In post-burn samples of the 0-10 cm depth at 5 days, 1 year, and 5 years for CF and EB forests, significantly lower levels (P < 0.05) of organic C and total N than those in the pre-burn samples were observed. Compared to the pre-burn levels, at post-burn year 5, surface soil organic C storage was only 85% in CF forest and 72% in EB forest, while total N storage was 77% for CF forest and 73% for EB forest. Slash burning caused marked long-term changes in surface soil C and N in the two forest types.

  4. Current concepts on burn wound conversion-A review of recent advances in understanding the secondary progressions of burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salibian, Ara A; Rosario, Angelica Tan Del; Severo, Lucio De Almeida Moura; Nguyen, Long; Banyard, Derek A; Toranto, Jason D; Evans, Gregory R D; Widgerow, Alan D

    2016-08-01

    Burn wound conversion describes the process by which superficial partial thickness burns convert into deeper burns necessitating surgical intervention. Fully understanding and thus controlling this phenomenon continues to defy burn surgeons. However, potentially guiding burn wound progression so as to obviate the need for surgery while still bringing about healing with limited scarring is the major unmet challenge. Comprehending the pathophysiologic background contributing to deeper progression of these burns is an essential prerequisite to planning any intervention. In this study, a review of articles examining burn wound progression over the last five years was conducted to analyze trends in recent burn progression research, determine changes in understanding of the pathogenesis of burn conversion, and subsequently examine the direction for future research in developing therapies. The majority of recent research focuses on applying therapies from other disease processes to common underlying pathogenic mechanisms in burn conversion. While ischemia, inflammation, and free oxygen radicals continue to demonstrate a critical role in secondary necrosis, novel mechanisms such as autophagy have also been shown to contribute affect significantly burn progression significantly. Further research will have to determine whether multiple mechanisms should be targeted when developing clinical therapies.

  5. Biomass burning in the Amazon region: Aerosol source apportionment and associated health risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Alves, Nilmara; Brito, Joel; Caumo, Sofia; Arana, Andrea; de Souza Hacon, Sandra; Artaxo, Paulo; Hillamo, Risto; Teinilä, Kimmo; Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia Regina; de Castro Vasconcellos, Pérola

    2015-11-01

    The Brazilian Amazon represents about 40% of the world's remaining tropical rainforest. However, human activities have become important drivers of disturbance in that region. The majority of forest fire hotspots in the Amazon arc due to deforestation are impacting the health of the local population of over 10 million inhabitants. In this study we characterize western Amazonia biomass burning emissions through the quantification of 14 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Organic Carbon, Elemental Carbon and unique tracers of biomass burning such as levoglucosan. From the PAHs dataset a toxic equivalence factor is calculated estimating the carcinogenic and mutagenic potential of biomass burning emissions during the studied period. Peak concentration of PM10 during the dry seasons was observed to reach 60 μg m-3 on the 24 h average. Conversely, PM10 was relatively constant throughout the wet season indicating an overall stable balance between aerosol sources and sinks within the filter sampling resolution. Similar behavior is identified for OC and EC components. Levoglucosan was found in significant concentrations (up to 4 μg m-3) during the dry season. Correspondingly, the estimated lung cancer risk calculated during the dry seasons largely exceeded the WHO health-based guideline. A source apportionment study was carried out through the use of Absolute Principal Factor Analysis (APFA), identifying a three-factor solution. The biomass burning factor is found to be the dominating aerosol source, having 75.4% of PM10 loading. The second factor depicts an important contribution of several PAHs without a single source class and therefore was considered as mixed sources factor, contributing to 6.3% of PM10. The third factor was mainly associated with fossil fuel combustion emissions, contributing to 18.4% of PM10. This work enhances the knowledge of aerosol sources and its impact on climate variability and local population, on a site representative of the

  6. Mixing State and Optical Properties of Biomass Burning Aerosol during the SAMBBA 2012 Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Jennifer; Brooks, Barbara; McQuaid, Jim; Osborne, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Emissions of black carbon are a global phenomenon associated with combustion activities with an estimated 40 % of global emissions from biomass burning. These emissions are typically dominated in regional hotspots, such as along the edges of the Amazon Basin, and contribute to the regional air quality and have associated health impacts as well as the global climatic impacts of this major source of black carbon as well as other radiatively active species. New airborne measurements will be presented of biomass burning emissions across the Amazon region from the South AMerican Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) campaign based at Porto Vehlo, Rondônia, Brazil in September 2012. This airborne campaign aboard the FAAM BAe-146 coincided with the seasonal peak in South American biomass burning emissions, which make up the most dominant source of atmospheric pollutants in the region at this time. SAMBBA included dedicated flights involving in-situ measurements and remote sensing of single plume studies through to multi-plume sampling of smouldering and flaming vegetation fires, regional haze sampling, and measurements of biogenic aerosol and gases across Amazonas. This presentation summarises early findings from the SAMBBA aircraft observations focusing on the relationship between biomass burning aerosol properties; size distributions, aerosol mixing state and optical properties from a suite of instruments onboard the FAAM BAe-146. The interplay of these properties influences the regional radiative balance impacting on weather and climate. The Leeds airborne VACC (Volatile Aerosol Concentration and Composition) instrument is designed to investigate the volatility properties of different aerosol species in order to determine aerosol composition; furthermore it can be used to infer the mixing state of the aerosol. Size distributions measured with the volatility system will be compared with ambient size distribution measurements this allows information on organic coating

  7. Holocene Biomass Burning, Environmental Change, and Human Land Use in the Southern Maya Lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L.; Wahl, D.

    2013-12-01

    strategies may have included intensive agricultural much earlier than previously thought. Preliminary results showing concentrations of soot/black carbon during the middle and late Preclassic periods have intriguing implications regarding the efficiency of Maya fuel consumption. This period marks a time of peak lime production requiring very high rates of biomass harvest and burning, yet concentration levels of soot/black carbon are lower than modern global background values.

  8. Physical functional outcome assessment of patients with major burns admitted to a UK Burn Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smailes, Sarah T; Engelsman, Kayleen; Dziewulski, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Determining the discharge outcome of burn patients can be challenging and therefore a validated objective measure of functional independence would assist with this process. We developed the Functional Assessment for Burns (FAB) score to measure burn patients' functional independence. FAB scores were taken on discharge from ICU (FAB 1) and on discharge from inpatient burn care (FAB 2) in 56 patients meeting the American Burn Association criteria for major burn. We retrospectively analysed prospectively collected data to measure the progress of patients' physical functional outcomes and to evaluate the predictive validity of the FAB score for discharge outcome. Mean age was 38.6 years and median burn size 35%. Significant improvements were made in the physical functional outcomes between FAB 1 and FAB 2 scores (ppatients were discharged home, 8 of these with social care. 8 patients were transferred to another hospital for further inpatient rehabilitation. FAB 1 score (≤ 9) is strongly associated with discharge outcome (pburn patients.

  9. Sources of the PM10 aerosol in Flanders, Belgium, and re-assessment of the contribution from wood burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maenhaut, Willy, E-mail: willy.maenhaut@ugent.be [Ghent University (UGent), Department of Analytical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); University of Antwerp - UA, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610, Antwerpen (Belgium); Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Claeys, Magda [University of Antwerp - UA, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610, Antwerpen (Belgium); Vercauteren, Jordy; Roekens, Edward [Flemish Environment Agency (VMM), Kronenburgstraat 45, B-2000, Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2016-08-15

    From 30 June 2011 to 2 July 2012 PM10 aerosol samples were simultaneously taken every 4th day at four urban background sites in Flanders, Belgium. The sites were in Antwerpen, Gent, Brugge, and Oostende. The PM10 mass concentration was determined by weighing; organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) were measured by thermal-optical analysis, the wood burning tracers levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, 8 water-soluble ions were measured by ion chromatography, and 15 elements were determined by a combination of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry. The multi-species dataset was subjected to receptor modeling by PMF. The 10 retained factors (with their overall average percentage contributions to the experimental PM10 mass) were wood burning (9.5%), secondary nitrate (24%), secondary sulfate (12.6%), sea salt (10.0%), aged sea salt (19.2%), crustal matter (9.7%), non-ferrous metals (1.81%), traffic (10.3%), non-exhaust traffic (0.52%), and heavy oil burning (3.0%). The average contributions of wood smoke for the four sites were quite substantial in winter and ranged from 12.5 to 20% for the PM10 mass and from 47 to 64% for PM10 OC. Wood burning appeared to be also a notable source of As, Cd, and Pb. The contribution from wood burning to the PM10 mass and OC was also assessed by making use of levoglucosan as single marker compound and the conversion factors of Schmidl et al. (2008), as done in our previous study on wood burning in Flanders (Maenhaut et al., 2012). However, the apportionments were much lower than those deduced from PMF. It seems that the conversion factors of Schmidl et al. (2008) may not be applicable to wood burning in Flanders. From scatter plots of the PMF-derived wood smoke OC and PM versus levoglucosan, we arrived at conversion factors of 9.7 and 22.6, respectively. - Highlights: • A one-year study with 4 urban background sites and a total of 372

  10. Treatment strategies for mass burn casualties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI Jia-ke; SHENG Zhi-yong; YANG Hong-ming; HAO Dai-feng; SHEN Chuan-an; JIA Xiao-ming; LI Feng; JING Sa; LI Li-gen; SONG Hui-feng; JIA Chi-yu; TUO Xiao-ye; SUN Tian-jun; HU Quan

    2009-01-01

    Background Mass burn casualties are always a great challenge to a medical team because a large number of seriously injured patients were sent in within a short time. Usually a high mortality is impending. Experiences gained from successful treatment of the victims may be useful in guiding the care of mass casualties in an armed conflict.Methods Thirty-five burn victims in a single batch, being transferred nonstop by air and highway from a distant province,were admitted 48 hours post-injury. All patients were male with a mean age of (22.4±8.7) years. The burn extent ranged from 4% to 75% ((13.6±12.9)%) total body surface area. Among them, thirty-two patients were complicated by moderate and severe inhalation injury, and tracheostomy had been performed in 15 patients. Decompression incisions of burn eschar on extremities were done in 17 cases before transportation. All the thirty-five patients arrived at the destination smoothly via 4-hour airlift and road transportation. Among them, twenty-five patients were in critical condition.Results These thirty-five patients were evacuated 6 hours from the scene of the injury, and they were transferred to a local hospital for primary emergency care. The patients were in very poor condition when admitted to our hospital because of the severe injury with delayed and inadequate treatment. Examination of these patients at admission showed that one patient was suffering from sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Dysfunction of the heart, lung, liver,kidney, and coagulation were all found in the patients. Forty-eight operations were performed in the 23 patients during one month together with comprehensive treatment, and the function of various organs was ameliorated after appropriate treatment. All the 35 patients survived.Conclusions A well-organized team consisting of several cooperative groups with specified duties is very important. As a whole, the treatment protocol should be individualized, basing on the extent of

  11. Short-term effects of air pollution from biomass burning in mucociliary clearance of Brazilian sugarcane cutters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Ceccato, Aline Duarte; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cípulo; de Carvalho, Luiz Carlos Soares; Xavier, Rafaella Fagundes; Teixeira, Marcos Fernando de Souza; Raymundo-Pereira, Paulo Augusto; Proença, Camila dos Anjos; de Toledo, Alessandra Choqueta; Ramos, Dionei

    2011-11-01

    Nasal mucociliary system is the first line of defense of the upper airways and may be affected acutely by exposure to particulate matter (PM) from biomass burning. Several epidemiologic studies have demonstrated a consistent association between levels of air pollution from biomass burning with increases in hospitalization for respiratory diseases and mortality. To determine the acute effects of exposure to particulate matter from biomass burning in nasal mucociliary transport by saccharin transit time (STT) test, we studied thirty-three non-smokers and twelve light smokers sugarcane cutters in two periods: pre-harvest season and 4 h after harvest at the first day after biomass burning. Lung function, exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), nasal symptoms questionnaire and mucociliary clearance (MC) were assessed. Exhaled CO was increased in smokers compared to non-smokers but did not change significantly after harvest. In contrast, STT was similar between smokers and non-smokers and decreased significantly after harvest in both groups (p acute exposure to particulate matter from sugarcane burned affects mucociliary clearance in smokers and non-smokers workers in the absence of symptoms.

  12. A carbon sink pathway increases carbon productivity in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, John W K; Atsumi, Shota

    2015-05-01

    The burning of fossil reserves, and subsequent release of carbon into the atmosphere is depleting the supply of carbon-based molecules used for synthetic materials including plastics, oils, medicines, and glues. To provide for future society, innovations are needed for the conversion of waste carbon (CO2) into organic carbon useful for materials. Chemical production directly from photosynthesis is a nascent technology, with great promise for capture of CO2 using sunlight. To improve low yields, it has been proposed that photosynthetic capacity can be increased by a relaxation of bottlenecks inherent to growth. The limits of carbon partitioning away from growth within the cell and the effect of partitioning on carbon fixation are not well known. Here we show that expressing genes in a pathway between carbon fixation and pyruvate increases partitioning to 2,3-butanediol (23BD) and leads to a 1.8-fold increase in total carbon yield in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. Specific 2,3-butanediol production increases 2.4-fold. As partitioning increases beyond 30%, it leads to a steep decline in total carbon yield. The data suggests a local maximum for carbon partitioning from the Calvin Benson cycle that is scalable with light intensity.

  13. Single particle characterization of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA: evidence for non-uniform mixing of high molecular weight organics and potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Y. Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning is a major source of black carbon (BC and primary organic aerosol globally. In particular, biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA is strongly associated with atmospheric brown carbon (BrC that absorbs near ultraviolet and visible light, resulting in significant impacts on regional visibility degradation and radiative forcing. The mixing state of BBOA can play a critical role in the prediction of aerosol optical properties. In this work, single particle measurements from a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer coupled with a light scattering module (LS-SP-AMS were performed to examine the mixing state of BBOA, refractory black carbon (rBC and potassium (K+, a tracer for biomass burning aerosol in an air mass influenced by aged biomass burning. Cluster analysis of single particle measurements identified five BBOA-related particle types. rBC accounted for 3–14 w.t. % of these particle types on average. Only one particle type exhibited a strong ion signal for K+, with mass spectra characterized by low molecular weight organic species. The remaining four particle types were classified based on the apparent molecular weight of the BBOA constituents. Two particle types were associated with low potassium content and significant amounts of high molecular weight (HMW organic compounds. Our observations indicate non-uniform mixing of particles within a biomass burning plume in terms of molecular weight and illustrate that HMW BBOA can be a key contributor to low-volatility BrC observed in BBOA particles.

  14. Changes in Temperature and Fate of Soil Organic Matter in an Andisol due to Soil Surface Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuchi, Atsuko; Nishimura, Taku; Mizoguchi, Masaru; Imoto, Hiromi; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi

    This is a print of a camera-ready Japanese manuscript for the Transactions of JSIDRE. This will provide an example and directions for the layout and font size/style to be used. Please refer to this when preparing the headings, figures/table and text of your manuscript. The manuscript should be submitted on A4 size. Changes in temperature, soil moisture, and carbon and nitrogen contents were measured in Andisol under soil surface burning. Soil samples were packed into an unglazed cylinder of 15 cm inner diameter and 30 cm high. Charcoal was burned for 6 hours on the surface of the soil column. During the burning soil surface temperature rose to between 600-700°C. In initially wet soil, rise in soil temperature was retarded for a while at around 95-100°C. On the other hand, in initially dry Toyoura sand showed more rapid temperature increase without retardation. The temperature retardation in the wet soil could be caused by consumption of latent heat by vaporization of soil water. Rate of proceeding of the 100°C front was proportional to square root of the burning time. This indicates that higher the initial volumetric water content, shallower the depth affected by burning. Soil samples suffered temperature above 500°C still had total carbon and nitrogen contents of over 20 and 1 g kg-1, respectively, whereas the soil that was heated up to over 500°C by muffle furnace contained less than 0.4 and 0.1 g kg-1 of the carbon and nitrogen.

  15. Amish Culture and Their Utilization of Burns and Wounds Ointment for the Treatment of Burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkle, Krystal Melich

    2016-01-01

    As indicated in the 2010 United States Religion Census, there are approximately 251,000 Amish people in the United States and Ontario. This census also demonstrated that a new Amish community is founded on average about every three-and-a-half weeks, suggesting that this religious culture is the fastest-growing religion throughout the United States. Because of the rapid growth of the Amish population, it is essential for health care workers to understand their background, cultural, and health care beliefs, especially in the treatment of burns. The purpose of this article is to examine the Amish background, cultural, and health care beliefs, specifically the utilization of burns and wounds ointment and burdock leaves in the treatment of burns.

  16. A comparative study of the ignition and burning characteristics of after burning aluminum and magnesium particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ji Hwan; Lee, Sang Hyup; Yoon, Woong Sup [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Ignition and the burning of air-born single aluminum and magnesium particles are experimentally investigated. Particles of 30 to 106 μm-diameters were electrodynamically levitated, ignited, and burnt in atmospheric air. The particle combustion evolution was recorded by high-speed cinematography. Instant temperature and thermal radiation intensity were measured using two-wavelength pyrometry and photomultiplier tube methods. Ignition of the magnesium particle is prompt and substantially advances the aluminum particle by 10 ms. Burning time of the aluminum particles is extended 3 to 5 times longer than the magnesium particles. Exponents of a power-law fit of the burning rates are 1.55 and 1.24 for aluminum and magnesium particles, respectively. Flame temperature is slightly lower than the oxide melting temperature. For the aluminum, dimensionless flame diameter is inert to the initial particle size, but for the magnesium inversely proportional to the initial diameter.

  17. Interim Status Closure Plan Open Burning Treatment Unit Technical Area 16-399 Burn Tray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-07

    This closure plan describes the activities necessary to close one of the interim status hazardous waste open burning treatment units at Technical Area (TA) 16 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Facility), hereinafter referred to as the 'TA-16-399 Burn Tray' or 'the unit'. The information provided in this closure plan addresses the closure requirements specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 265, Subparts G and P for the thermal treatment units operated at the Facility under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. Closure of the open burning treatment unit will be completed in accordance with Section 4.1 of this closure plan.

  18. Pediatric Burns in the Bedouin Population in Southern Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnon D. Cohen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Burn trauma is an important public health concern, with increased risk for burns in children. A cross-sectional study was performed to describe the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors for burns in hospitalized Bedouin children in Soroka University Medical Center during the years 2001–2002. In a population of 558 hospitalized burn-injured patients, 282 Bedouin children were identified. Two hundred and sixty five patients (94.0% had burns involving less than 20% of the body surface area. Cause of the burns was scald in 190 patients (67.4%, fire in 80 patients (28.4%, chemical in 8 patients (2.8%, and explosion in 2 patients (0.7%. Two female patients (0.7% aged 11 and 17 years died of their burns that were caused by fire. The mean length of hospitalization was 9.8 days. Pediatric burn injury has become a significant public health problem in the Bedouin population of the Negev. To reduce the burden of burn injury, it is necessary to increase current efforts in prevention of burns.

  19. Rehabilitation and social adjustment of people with burns in society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Sirajud; Shah, Mussawar; Asadullah; Jamal, Humera; Bilal, Muhammad

    2015-02-01

    The present study was conducted on rehabilitation and social adjustment of people with burns in society with the main objective to determine the relationship between social adjustment of people with burns and their psychosocial rehabilitation. The study was limited to the Burn Unit, Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan. At bi-variate level, the following were observed: the relationship of psychosocial rehabilitation was highly significant (P=0.000) considering that people with burns feel shame in the society, a highly significant relation (P=0.000) was found between psychosocial rehabilitation and burn as the hurdle to contact other members of the society, a highly significant (P=0.000) relation was found between psychosocial rehabilitation and perception that society provides social support to people with burns, a highly significant (P=0.000) relationship between psychosocial rehabilitation and people with burns feel alienated from the society, a significant association (P=0.024) was found between psychosocial rehabilitation and loss of social network, and a significant (P=0.002) association between psychosocial rehabilitation and society insult toward people with burns. Regular provision of treatment, quota in job allocation for people with burns, initiation of stipend through Benazir Income Support Program, and keeping and updating record of burns at the district level in census centers were suggested as recommendations in light of the study.

  20. Burn wound: Pathophysiology and its management by herbal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirender Kaushik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In human body, wound healing is a normal biological phenomenon. Burns may be acute or chronic depending upon the source and its time of exposure. Burn wounds may be superficial, partial or full thickness wounds. When skin comes in contact with higher temperature, protein denaturation takes place due to which the plasma membrane integrity is lost. When skin is burned, a number of inflammatory mediators and releasing agents such as histamine, nitric oxide, oxygen free radicals, eicosanoid products, tumor necrosis factors, and interleukins etc., are released at the site. For wound healing mechanism, the keratinocytes has to move from uninjured site to the burned area. For deeper burns this process takes a long time. By some unknown mechanisms, burn wounds may convert from one form to another form. So burn wound depth must be accurately measured before starting the treatment to prevent the complications. Burns can be induced in experimental animals by using different models. Many treatments such as herbal drugs, topical agents, gene therapy, volume therapy, and rehabilitation can be employed. This review article mainly deals with the theoretical and practical aspects of burn wound healing. Some burn wound healing plants with their chemical constituents, plant part used, uses and animal models are described here.

  1. Oxidative stress and anti-oxidative mobilization in burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Arti; Parihar, Mordhwaj S; Milner, Stephen; Bhat, Satyanarayan

    2008-02-01

    A severe burn is associated with release of inflammatory mediators which ultimately cause local and distant pathophysiological effects. Mediators including Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS) are increased in affected tissue, which are implicated in pathophysiological events observed in burn patients. The purpose of this article is to understand the role of oxidative stress in burns, in order to develop therapeutic strategies. All peer-reviewed, original and review articles published in the English language literature relevant to the topic of oxidative stress in burns in animals and human subjects were selected for this review and the possible roles of ROS and RNS in the pathophysiology of burns are discussed. Both increased xanthine oxidase and neutrophil activation appear to be the oxidant sources in burns. Free radicals have been found to have beneficial effects on antimicrobial action and wound healing. However following a burn, there is an enormous production of ROS which is harmful and implicated in inflammation, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, immunosuppression, infection and sepsis, tissue damage and multiple organ failure. Thus clinical response to burn is dependent on the balance between production of free radicals and its detoxification. Supplementation of antioxidants in human and animal models has proven benefit in decreasing distant organ failure suggesting a cause and effect relationship. We conclude that oxidative damage is one of the mechanisms responsible for the local and distant pathophysiological events observed after burn, and therefore anti-oxidant therapy might be beneficial in minimizing injury in burned patients.

  2. Evaluation of burn injuries related to liquefied petroleum gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarim, Mehmet Akin

    2014-01-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is a fuel that is widely used for domestic, agricultural, and industrial purposes. LPG is also commonly used in restaurants, industries, and cars; however, the home continues to be the main site for accidents. In Turkey, the increased usage of LPG as a cooking or heating fuel has resulted in many burn injuries from LPG mishaps. Between January 2000 and June 2011, 56 LPG-burned patients were compared with 112 flame-burned patients. There were no significant differences with respect to the mean age, sex, hospitalization time, and mortality in both groups. In the LPG-caused burn cases, 41 burns (73.2%) occurred at home, seven (12.5) were work-related mishaps, and eight (14.3) were associated with car accidents. The majority of the LPG burns (82%, 46 patients) resulted from a gas leak, and 18% of them were related to the failure to close LPG tubes in the patients' kitchens (10 patients). Burns to the face and neck (82 vs 67%, P = .039) and upper (62 vs 23%, P = .000) and lower (70 vs 45%, P = .002) extremities were significantly higher in LPG-caused burn cases than flame-burned cases. General awareness regarding the risk of LPG and first aid for burns appears to be lacking. The LPG delivery system should be standardized throughout countries that widely use LPG.

  3. Relationship between trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning in Southeast Asia using satellite and emission data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Yoshimi; Nakamura, Maya; Kuji, Makoto

    2012-11-01

    Southeast Asia is one of the biggest regions of biomass burning with forest fires and slash-and-burn farming. From the fire events, a large amount of air pollutants are emitted such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and aerosol (black carbon; BC). Biomass burning generally causes not only local, but also transboundary air pollution, and influences the atmospheric environment in the world accordingly. However, impact of air pollutants' emissions from large-scale fire in Southeast Asia is not well investigated compared to other regions such as South America and Africa. In this study, characteristics of the atmospheric environment were investigated with correlative analyses among several satellite data (MOPITT, OMI, and MODIS) and emission inventory (GFEDv3) in Southeast Asia from October 2004 to June 2008 on a monthly basis. As a result, it is suggested that the transboundary air pollution from the biomass burning regions occurred over Southeast Asia, which caused specifically higher air pollutants' concentration at Hanoi, Vietnam in spring dry season.

  4. Burn patients' experience of pain management: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuxiang, Li; Lingjun, Zhou; Lu, Tang; Mengjie, Liu; Xing, Ming; Fengping, Shen; Jing, Cui; Xianli, Meng; Jijun, Zhao

    2012-03-01

    Pain is a major problem after burns and researchers continue to report that pain from burns remains undertreated. The inadequate pain control results in adverse sequalae physically and psychologically in the burn victims. A better understanding of a burn patient's experience is important in identifying the factors responsible for undertreated pain and establishing effective pain management guidelines or recommendation in the practice of pain relief for burn injuries. This study sought to explore and describe the experience that patients have about pain related to burn-injury during hospitalization. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on eight patients with moderate to severe pain from burn injuries recruited from a Burn Centre in Northwest China. Data was collected by in-depth interviews and qualitative description after full transcription of each interview. Analysis involved the identification of themes and the development of a taxonomy of patients' experience of burn pain and its management. Three themes were indentified: (1) patients' experience of pain control, (2) patients' perception on burn pain management, and (3) patients' expectation of burn pain management. Findings from this study suggested that patients experience uncontrolled pain both physically and psychologically which may serve as an alert for awareness of health professionals to recognize and establish a multidisciplinary pain management team for burn victims, including surgeons, critical care specialists, anesthesiologists, nurses, psychologists, and social workers to accomplish safe and effective strategies for pain control to reach an optimal level of pain management in burn patients. It also provides insights and suggestions for future research directions to address this significant clinical problem.

  5. Proposing "the burns suite" as a novel simulation tool for advancing the delivery of burns education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadideen, Hazim; Wilson, David; Moiemen, Naiem; Kneebone, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Educational theory highlights the importance of contextualized simulation for effective learning. We explored this concept in a burns scenario in a novel, low-cost, high-fidelity, portable, immersive simulation environment (referred to as distributed simulation). This contextualized simulation/distributed simulation combination was named "The Burns Suite" (TBS). A pediatric burn resuscitation scenario was selected after high trainee demand. It was designed on Advanced Trauma and Life Support and Emergency Management of Severe Burns principles and refined using expert opinion through cognitive task analysis. TBS contained "realism" props, briefed nurses, and a simulated patient. Novices and experts were recruited. Five-point Likert-type questionnaires were developed for face and content validity. Cronbach's α was calculated for scale reliability. Semistructured interviews captured responses for qualitative thematic analysis allowing for data triangulation. Twelve participants completed TBS scenario. Mean face and content validity ratings were high (4.6 and 4.5, respectively; range, 4-5). The internal consistency of questions was high. Qualitative data analysis revealed that participants felt 1) the experience was "real" and they were "able to behave as if in a real resuscitation environment," and 2) TBS "addressed what Advanced Trauma and Life Support and Emergency Management of Severe Burns didn't" (including the efficacy of incorporating nontechnical skills). TBS provides a novel, effective simulation tool to significantly advance the delivery of burns education. Recreating clinical challenge is crucial to optimize simulation training. This low-cost approach also has major implications for surgical education, particularly during increasing financial austerity. Alternative scenarios and/or procedures can be recreated within TBS, providing a diverse educational immersive simulation experience.

  6. Estimation of Direct Carbon Emissions from Chinese Forest Fires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIANXiaorui; GAOChengde; SHULifu; WANGMingyu; YANGXiaohui

    2004-01-01

    Many studies indicated that the products of biosphere burning have short and long-term effects on the atmosphere. Vegetation burning can produce some gases which have significant influence on environment, including some greenhouse gases as CO2 and CH4, etc. Smoke aerosols produced from burning also influence global climate and atmospheric chemistry. The paper calculates the consumed biomass due to forest fires according to the statistics of forest fires from 1991 to 2000 and research results of biomass of Chinese forests. During the study period, forest fires burned average 5Tg-7Tg biomass each year and directly emitted 20.24 Tg-28.56 Tg carbon. In 1991-2000, average emission of carbon dioxide and CH4 account for 2.7%-3.9% and 3.3%-4.7% of the total emission of China (calculating with the data of 2000), respectively.

  7. Tropical Peatland Burn Depth and Combustion Heterogeneity Assessed Using UAV Photogrammetry and Airborne LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake E. Simpson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We provide the first assessment of tropical peatland depth of burn (DoB using structure from motion (SfM photogrammetry, applied to imagery collected using a low-cost, low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV system operated over a 5.2 ha tropical peatland in Jambi Province on Sumatra, Indonesia. Tropical peat soils are the result of thousands of years of dead biomass accumulation, and when burned are globally significant net sources of carbon emissions. The El Niño year of 2015 saw huge areas of Indonesia affected by tropical peatland fires, more so than any year since 1997. However, the Depth of Burn (DoB of these 2015 fires has not been assessed, and indeed has only previously been assessed in few tropical peatland burns in Kalimantan. Therefore, DoB remains arguably the largest uncertainty when undertaking fire emissions calculations in these tropical peatland environments. We apply a SfM photogrammetric methodology to map this DoB metric, and also investigate combustion heterogeneity using orthomosaic photography collected using the UAV system. We supplement this information with pre-burn airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR data, reducing uncertainty by estimating pre-burn soil height more accurately than from interpolation of adjacent unburned areas alone. Our pre-and post-fire Digital Terrain Models (DTMs show accuracies of 0.04 and 0.05 m (root-mean-square error, RMSE respectively, compared to ground-based global navigation satellite system (GNSS surveys. Our final DoB map of a 5.2 ha degraded peat swamp forest area neighboring Berbak National Park (Sumatra, Indonesia shows burn depths extending from close to zero to over 1 m, with a mean (±1σ DoB of 0.23 ± 0.19 m. This lies well within the range found by the few other studies available (on Kalimantan; none are available on Sumatra. Our combustion heterogeneity analysis suggests the deepest burns, which extend to ~1.3 m, occur around tree roots. We use these DoB data within

  8. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF MOIST EXPOSED BURN THERAPY/MOIST EXPOSED BURN OINTMENT ON MAINTAINING A PHYSIOLOGICAL MOIST ENVIRONMENT IN BURN WOUND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To verify the moisture maintaining effect of moist exposed burn ointment (MEBO) in treating burn wound. Methods: Rabbit model with II degree burn wound was used in this study. Observations were conducted at 0 (before burn), 0.5, 6, 24, 48, 72, and 168 hours postburn. The data of wound water evaporation, wound appearance and pathological changes of the wounds were compared with that of the burn wounds treated with Vaseline or conventional dry exposed therapy. Results: It was found that wounds treated with MEBO had water evaporation close to that of normal skin and was significantly less than that of the wounds treated with dry exposed therapy (P<0.01) MEBO did not obstruct water evaporation from wound as Vaseline did(P<0.01).Wounds treated with MEBO had good permeability and adequate drainage. Conclusion: MEBO provided the wounds with a physiological moist environment

  9. Firefighter burn injuries: predictable patterns influenced by turnout gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Steven A; Patel, Jignesh H; Lentz, Christopher W; Bell, Derek E

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 100 firefighters suffer fatal injuries annually and tens of thousands receive nonfatal injuries. Many of these injuries require medical attention and restricted activity but may be preventable. This study was designed to elucidate etiology, circumstances, and patterns of firefighter burn injury so that further prevention strategies can be designed. In particular, modification of protective equipment, or turnout gear, is one potential strategy to prevent burn injury. An Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective review was conducted with records of firefighters treated for burn injury from 2005 to 2009. Data collected included age, gender, TBSA, burn depth, anatomic location, total hospital days per patient, etiology, and circumstances of injury. Circumstances of injury were stratified into the following categories: removal/dislodging of equipment, failure of equipment to protect, training errors, and when excessive external temperatures caused patient sweat to boil under the gear. Over the 4-year period, 20 firefighters were treated for burn injury. Mean age was 38.9 ± 8.9 years and 19 of 20 patients were male. Mean burn size was 1.1 ± 2.7% TBSA. Eighteen patients suffered second-degree burns, while two patients suffered first-degree burns. Mean length of hospitalization was 2.45 days. Scald burns were responsible for injury to 13 firefighters (65%). Flame burns caused injury to four patients (20%). Only three patients received contact burns (15%). The face was the site most commonly burned, representing 29% of injuries. The hand/wrist and ears were the next largest groups, with 23 and 16% of the injuries, respectively. Other areas burned included the neck (10%), arm (6.5%), leg (6.5%), knees (3%), shoulders (3%), and head (3%). Finally, the circumstance of injury was evaluated for each patient. Misuse and noncontiguous areas of protective equipment accounted for 14 of the 20 injuries (70%). These burns were caused when hot steam

  10. Emissions of polychlorinated-p-dibenzo dioxin, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from rice straw biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shun-Shiang; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Holsen, Thomas M.; Li, Hsing-Wang; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2014-09-01

    Biomass burning in Asia has been widely studied owing to its adverse effects on visibility, human health, and global climate. However the impact of rice straw burning on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) concentrations is not known. In this study concentrations of these pollutants were measured at a farm site and two nearby sites during rice straw (open) burning and non-burning periods. During non-burning periods atmospheric PCDD/F and PBDE concentrations ranged from 0.0263 to 0.0329 pg I-TEQ/Nm3 and 43.5 to 58.3 pg/Nm3 respectively, and were similar at all of the sites. During rice straw burning periods PCDD/F and PBDE concentrations measured near the combustion (farm) site increased dramatically by six to twenty times. The strong correlation between the natural logarithm of PBDE and PCDD/F concentrations (r = 0.949, p PBDEs were due to emissions from the rice straw burning. The calculated emission factors, determined using the burned carbon method and the Industrial Source Complex Short-Term Dispersion Model (ISCST3), ranged from 12.6 to 14.5 ng TEQ/kg Cburned and 11.7 to 14.5 μg/kg Cburned, for PCDD/Fs and PBDEs respectively. The PBDE emission factors were at least 38 times higher than those of PCDD/Fs, revealing that rice straw burning is an important PBDE emission source.

  11. Burn-injured adolescents report gaining multiple developmental benefits and improved life skills as a result of burn camp attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, Ruth Brubaker; Pressman, Melissa S; Takach, Oliver P; Bay, R Curtis; Croteau, Renee; Hansen, Linda D; Foster, Kevin N; Caruso, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotally, burn camp has been reported to be a positive developmental and rehabilitative experience for attendees; there is little empirical data to support this belief. This study sought to explore whether burn camp either directly or indirectly elicits positive development outcomes in pediatric burn survivors or increases their psychosocial well-being and achievement. The Youth Experience Survey 2.0, a 66-item self-report inventory designed to measure developmental experiences in an organized youth activity, was administered to children aged 11 to 18 years attending summer burn camp. One hundred and ten burn-injured youth, 58 male and 52 female, reported that burn camp had positively impacted their lives through improved identity exploration, goal-setting and problem-solving abilities, increased physical activity, communication, emotional regulation, and time management skills (P camp for more than 5 years resulted in greater improvement. Study results support the burn camp experience as a far-reaching and positive developmental activity. Participants credited the camp experience with helping them with identity formation and reflection, improved social interactions, and increased initiative; all positive developmental outcomes for youth. Results suggest that burn camp participation not only helps burn-injured youth to deal with their burns but also assists them in the development of social and basic life skills, which will allow them to navigate the transition from youth to adulthood, more effectively and successfully.

  12. Novel application of a combustion chamber for experimental assessment of biomass burning emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusini, Ilaria; Pallozzi, E.; Corona, P.; Ciccioli, P.; Calfapietra, C.

    2014-09-01

    Biomass burning is an important ecological factor in the Mediterranean ecosystem and a significant source of several atmospheric gases and particles. This paper demonstrates the performance of a recently developed combustion chamber, showing its capability in estimating the emission from wildland fire through a case study with dried leaf litter of Quercus robur. The combustion chamber was equipped with a thermocouple, a high resolution balance, an epiradiometer, two different sampling lines to collect volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particles, and a portable analyzer to measure carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. VOCs were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after enrichment on adsorption traps, but also monitored on-line with a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). Preliminary qualitative analyses of emissions from burning dried leaf litter of Q. robur found CO and CO2 as the main gaseous species emitted during the flaming and smoldering stages. Aromatic VOCs, such as benzene and toluene, were detected together with several oxygenated VOCs, like acetaldehyde and methanol. Moreover, a clear picture of the carbon balance during the biomass combustion was obtained with the chamber used. The combustion chamber will allow to distinguish the contribution of different plant tissues to the emissions occurring during different combustion phases.

  13. Assessment of the contribution from wood burning to the PM10 aerosol in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenhaut, Willy; Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Claeys, Magda; Vercauteren, Jordy; Matheeussen, Christina; Roekens, Edward

    2012-10-15

    From February 2010 to February 2011 PM10 aerosol samples were simultaneously taken every 4th day at 7 monitoring sites in Flanders, Belgium. Two of the sites (i.e., Borgerhout and Gent) were urban background sites; one (i.e., Mechelen) a suburban background site, and the other four (i.e., Hamme, Lier, Retie, and Houtem) rural background sites, whereby Hamme and Lier were expected to be particularly impacted by biomass burning. The samplings were done for 24h and 47-mm diameter Pallflex® Tissuquartz™ 2500 QAT-UP filters were used. After sampling the PM10 mass concentration was determined by weighing; organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) were measured by thermal-optical transmission analysis and the wood burning tracers levoglucosan, mannosan, and galactosan were determined by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The atmospheric concentrations of levoglucosan and the other two monosaccharide anhydrides showed a very clear seasonal variation at each site, with highest levels in winter, followed by autumn, spring, and summer. The levoglucosan levels for 5 of our 7 sites (i.e., Retie, Lier, Mechelen, Borgerhout, and Gent) were very highly correlated with each other (all between site correlation coefficients r>0.9, except for one value of 0.86) and the levels in the parallel samples of these 5 sites were similar, indicating that wood burning at these 5 sites was a regional phenomenon and that it was taking place in many individual houses on similar occasions (e.g., on cold days, weekends or holidays). The levoglucosan levels at Houtem and the correlation coefficients of the 5 sites with Houtem were lower, which is explained by the fact that the latter site is at less than 20 km from the North Sea so that the air there is often diluted by rather clean westerly maritime air. A peculiar behavior was seen for Hamme, with on many occasions very high levoglucosan levels, which was attributed to the fact that there is wood burning going on in several houses

  14. Prognostic indicators in acute burned patients-a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sherif Emara

    2015-01-01

    Burn trauma is in need for prognostic indicators or admission scores. This aims for realistic documentation of the burn injury, expectation of the prognosis, and to facilitate a patient stratification to evaluate therapeutic strategies. A computer search through different medical websites was performed looking for articles correlating prognosis with different burn indices. These were carefully summarized and analyzed for this review. Variable studies were found related to that issue; the reliable indicators found had been classified as general or specific. All of them had certain clinical importance, but limitations are a common feature. All the listed indices are useful to serve in the only special clinical situations. We couldn't claim that they are actual prognostic indicator in burn victims. We believe that we still lack the proper prognostic indicator in burn patients. Researchers are invited for more effort to organize a more reliable prognostic indicator and scoring system for burn patients.

  15. [Risk factors for development of hypomagnesemia in the burned patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Vega, Héctor César; Romero-Aviña, Francisco Javier; Gutiérrez-Salgado, Jorge Eduardo; Silva-Díaz, Teresita; Ramos-Durón, Luis Ernesto; Carrera-Gómez, Francisco Javier

    2004-01-01

    Electrolyte abnormalities are common in the severely burned patient. There is little information with regard to the frequency and magnitude of hypomagnesemia, as well as on risk factors for this condition. We performed an observational, retrospective analysis of 35 burned patients treated at the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Service at the Hospital Central Sur PEMEX, Mexico City. We determined serum magnesium behavior and divided patients into two groups: the first included 11 patients with burns and hypomagnesemia, and the second, 24 patients with burns but without hypomagnesemia. Risk factor identification was performed. We found patient at risk was the one with more than 40% of 2nd or 3rd degree total burned body area, in day 4 or 10 after the burn, and with hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, or both, and without intravenous (i.v.) supplementation of magnesium. The best way to prevent or avoid major complications is to identify the high-risk patient, or to diagnose earlier.

  16. Feet sunk in molten aluminium: The burn and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Peña, David; Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Valero-Gasalla, Javier Luis; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Campillo-Campaña, Ramón; Alonso-Peña, Javier; González-Santos, Jose María; Fernández-Díaz, Alaska Leonor; Arnáiz, Javier

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, despite improvements in safety rules and inspections in the metal industry, foundry workers are not free from burn accidents. Injuries caused by molten metals include burns secondary to molten iron, aluminium, zinc, copper, brass, bronze, manganese, lead and steel. Molten aluminium is one of the most common causative agents of burns (60%); however, only a few publications exist concerning injuries from molten aluminium. The main mechanisms of lesion from molten aluminium include direct contact of the molten metal with the skin or through safety apparel, or when the metal splash burns through the pants and rolls downward along the leg. Herein, we report three cases of deep dermal burns after 'soaking' the foot in liquid aluminium and its evolutive features. This paper aims to show our experience in the management of burns due to molten aluminium. We describe the current management principles and the key features of injury prevention.

  17. Predictors of PTSD symptoms in caregivers of pediatric burn survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Del Carmen Quezada Berumen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Facing a severe injury in the children is one of the most devastating experiences that parents may face. The aim of this study was to explore the role of resilience showed by fathers and mothers of children with burns, the TBSA burned, age at the time of the burn and time since the burn in PTSD symptoms in caregivers. It was a cross-sectional study where fathers, mothers and guardians of 51 burn patients were evaluated. Results showed that the higher strength and confidence in caregivers, less severity in PTSD symptoms. The post-burn reactions of parents and guardians can affect the responses and welfare of their children. Therefore, a better understanding of factors related to the adaptation in caregivers, better attention by health services.

  18. Prognostic indicators in acute burned patients–a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif Emara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Burn trauma is in need for prognostic indicators or admission scores. This aims for realistic documentation of the burn injury, expectation of the prognosis, and to facilitate a patient stratification to evaluate therapeutic strategies. A computer search through different medical websites was performed looking for articles correlating prognosis with different burn indices. These were carefully summarized and analyzed for this review. Variable studies were found related to that issue; the reliable indicators found had been classified as general or specific. All of them had certain clinical importance, but limitations are a common feature. All the listed indices are useful to serve in the only special clinical situations. We couldn't claim that they are actual prognostic indicator in burn victims. We believe that we still lack the proper prognostic indicator in burn patients. Researchers are invited for more effort to organize a more reliable prognostic indicator and scoring system for burn patients.

  19. Specific unresponsiveness to skin allografts in burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, G T; Moon, D J; Cunningham, P R; Johnson, T D; Thomas, J M; Thomas, F T

    1989-05-01

    We have examined the potential to provide long-term or even permanent wound coverage in a mouse model of a 30% total body surface area burn using skin allografts. Treatment of the recipient mouse with rabbit anti-mouse thymocyte serum (ATS) followed by donor bone marrow infusion induces a state of specific unresponsiveness to the skin allograft without the need for chronic immunosuppression. Specifically, a B6AF1 mouse receives a burn on Day -2 relative to grafting, ATS on Day -1, and Day +2, a skin allograft from a C3H/He mouse on Day 0, and infusion of C3H/He donor bone marrow on Day +6. We studied three groups of burned mice: Group I, allograft control (n = 5); Group II, allograft plus ATS (n = 12); and Group III, allograft plus ATS and bone marrow infusion (n = 15). Mean graft survival was compared using a one-way analysis of variance and a Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc test. There was no statistical difference in animal mortality among any of the three groups, and there was no evidence of infectious morbidity. Mean skin allograft survival was as follows: Group I, 9 days; Group II, 29 days; and Group III, 66 days (P less than 0.05 vs Group I and II). Nine animals in Group III had intact hair bearing grafts at 90 days when the study was terminated. This study suggests the potential use of induced specific unresponsiveness to skin allografts for wound coverage in thermal injury without use of chronic immunosuppression. In our animal study this was accomplished without increased mortality or apparent infectious morbidity.

  20. The elderly patient with burns: treatment considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, M; Richard, R

    1993-01-01

    When therapists treat elderly patients with burns, they should ask themselves several questions: Am I treating elderly patients with burns "just like other patients with burns?" Am I assessing the patient's joint mobility and strength as critically as I should? Am I ensuring that further tissue trauma is avoided by instructing the nursing staff in turning/transfer techniques? Am I routinely monitoring heart rate and blood pressure? Am I requiring repetition and practice of exercises before the patient's discharge? Is my patient safe to function in the environment to which he or she is being discharged? Most physical changes in the elderly population are attributed to the aging process but often are due to diminished movement disorders arising from poor physical fitness and disuse. The "slowdown" in the older adult may result from a lack of appropriate movement practice and failure to receive reinforcement for activity. Regardless of age, physiological challenges result in enhanced functional status. Training for a specific skill increases performance in that skill just as strength training increases strength. Practice or repetition of a task improves movement and response time for that task. Appropriate physical training programs for the elderly can (1) counterbalance age-associated declines in work capacity and physical performance; (2) maintain and improve range of motion, strength, flexibility, balance, and endurance; and (3) reduce the disability of the cardiovascular, respiratory, and musculoskeletal systems that may result in decreased risk of falls and accidents. Practice of a task and maintenance of physical fitness helps ensure a high level of motor performance and speed as a person grows older. One is never too old to exercise!

  1. Pyrolytic characteristics of burning residue of fire-retardant wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Guangjie; LUO Wensheng; Furuno T; REN Qiang; MA Erni

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the pyrolytic characteristics of the burning residue of fire-retardant wood,a multifunctional fire-resistance test oven aimed at simulating the course of a fire was used to burn fire-retardant wood and untreated wood.Samples at different distances from the combustion surface were obtained and a thennogravimetric analysis (TG) was applied to test the pyrolytic process of the burning residue in an atmosphere of nitrogen.The results showed that:1) there was little difference between fireretardant wood and its residue in the initial temperature of thermal degradation.The initial temperature of thermal degradation of the combustion layer in untreated wood was higher than that in the no burning wood sample;2) the temperature of the flame retardant in fire-retardant wood was 200℃ in the differential thermogravimetry (DTG).The peak belonging to the flame retardant tended to dissipate during the time of burning;3) for the burning residue of fire-retardant wood,the peak belonging to hemicellulose near 230℃ in the DTG disappeared and there was a gentle shoulder from 210 to 240℃;4) the temperature of the main peaks of the fireretardant wood and its burning residue in DTG was 100℃ lower than that of the untreated wood and its burning residue.The rate of weight loss also decreased sharply;5) the residual weight of fire-retardant wood at 600~C clearly increased compared with that of untreated wood.Residual weight of the burning residue increased markedly as the heating temperature increased when burning;6) there was a considerable difference with respect to the thermal degradation temperature of the no burning sample and the burning residue between fire-retardant wood and untreated wood.

  2. A `fast-burning' mechanism for magnetic diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Bo; Kan, Ming-xian; Wang, Gang-hua; Zhao, Jian-heng

    2016-01-01

    Fast-burning mechanism describes the rapid penetration, with a sharp-shaped wave-front, of a strong magnetic field into a conductive metal whose electric resistance poses an abrupt rise at some critical temperature. With its wave-front sweeping over a solid metal, the fast-burning can melt or vaporize the metal very rapidly. This paper derives formulas for the existence conditions and wave-front velocity of a fast-burning.

  3. Simulation study of burning control with transport barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateishi, Gonta [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masayoshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    2000-07-01

    Dynamics of burning plasmas are studied by use of one dimensional simulation code with current diffusive ballooning mode model. Focusing on the effects of current profile control, burning performance is evaluated. The ohmic plasma is heated by additional heating and ignited state of the plasma is reached. Due to the formation of negative shear, improved confinement is obtained with the L-mode boundary condition. Controlling the external current drive, burning state is sustained longer than 1000 sec. (author)

  4. Burning Rate Studies of Energetic Double Base Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Bhat

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study was carried out on the combustion characteristics of CMDB propellants containing ammonium nitrate, ammonium perchlorate, potassium nitrate, potassium perchlorate, RDX and PETN. While ammonium and potassium perchlorates increased burning rates, other additives maintained either the same burning rate or reduced burning rates marginally. Propellants containing these additives showed marginally higher peak temperatures, indicating interaction among the species of double base propellant decomposition and those of additives.

  5. REGULATION OF INTESTINAL DYSBACTERIOSIS OF BURNED RATS BY MICROECOSYSTEM REGULATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of using synbiotics and probiotics to prevent and cure intestinal dysbacteriosis after burn. Methods Burned rats were fed with synbiotics and probiotics reagents, and the amounts of major intestinal florae in caecal contents were detected. Results The major physiological anaerobes were mostly stable, and the conditioned pathogens had no abnormal. Conclusion The micro-ecosystem regulator can quickly supplement the decreased physiological anaerobes caused by burning,and avoid the occurrence of dysbacteriosis.

  6. Aerodigestive tract burn from ingestion of microwaved food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Michael; Jeanmonod, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Aerodigestive tract burns represent a rare but potentially devastating injury pattern throughout the world. Although the majority of these injuries do not require intervention, these burns have the potential for poor outcomes. Traditionally this disease has been caused by superheated gases found in explosions or fire-related injury. However, as technology advances, it brings novel methods for injury that require physician awareness of potential hazards. We describe a case of laryngeal and esophageal thermal burn caused by a microwave heated food bolus.

  7. Treatment of acute burn blisters in unscheduled care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Sarah; Cole, Elaine

    2012-09-01

    Many patients with minor burns present at emergency departments and urgent care centres, where their management is often undertaken by experienced nurses rather than experts in treating burns. This article describes a small study of the clinical decision making that underpins nurses' management of minor burns in these non-specialist settings. The results suggest that, due to a lack of relevant research, nurses base their decisions on previous experience or expert colleagues' opinions and advice rather than on the evidence.

  8. Burn Injuries in Children and the Use of Biological Dressings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    is the subcutaneous fat, which con- tains free nerve endings and the roots of hair follicles . Burns are classified as first, second, or third degree...and hair follicles , is also destroyed, third-degree burns appear dry, white, charred, or leathery, and the tissue has no sensation. Burns that extend...Emer Care 2013;29: 939Y948) TARGET AUDIENCE This CME activity is intended for physicians who care for children. Pediatricians, emergency physicians

  9. Spectral hole burning studies of photosystem II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H.C.

    1995-11-01

    Low temperature absorption and hole burning spectroscopies were applied to the D1-D2-cyt b{sub 559} and the CP47 and CP43 antenna protein complexes of Photosystem H from higher plants. Low temperature transient and persistent hole-burning data and theoretical calculations on the kinetics and temperature dependence of the P680 hole profile are presented and provide convincing support for the linker model. Implicit in the linker model is that the 684-nm-absorbing Chl a serve to shuttle energy from the proximal antenna complex to reaction center. The stoichiometry of isolated Photosystem H Reaction Center (PSII RC) in several different preparations is also discussed. The additional Chl a are due to 684-nm-absorbing Chl a, some contamination by the CP47 complex, and non-native Chl a absorbing near 670 nm. In the CP47 protein complex, attention is focused on the lower energy chlorophyll a Q{sub y}-states. High pressure hole-burning studies of PSII RC revealed for the first time a strong pressure effect on the primary electron transfer dynamics. The 4.2 K lifetime of P680*, the primary donor state, increases from 2.0 ps to 7.0 ps as pressure increases from 0.1 to 267 MPa. Importantly, this effect is irreversible (plastic) while the pressure induced effect on the low temperature absorption and non-line narrowed P680 hole spectra are reversible (elastic). Nonadiabatic rate expressions, which take into account the distribution of energy gap values, are used to estimate the linear pressure shift of the acceptor state energy for both the superexchange and two-step mechanisms for primary charge separation. It was found that the pressure dependence could be explained with a linear pressure shift of {approximately} 1 cm{sup -1}/MPa in magnitude for the acceptor state. The results point to the marriage of hole burning and high pressures as having considerable potential for the study of primary transport dynamics in reaction centers and antenna complexes.

  10. Burning invariant manifolds in reactive front propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Mahoney, John; Mitchell, Kevin; Solomon, Tom

    2011-01-01

    We present theory and experiments on the dynamics of reaction fronts in a two-dimensional flow composed of a chain of alternating vortices. Inspired by the organization of passive transport by invariant manifolds, we introduce burning invariant manifolds (BIMs), which act as one-sided barriers to front propagation. The BIMs emerge from the theory when the advection-reaction- diffusion system is recast as an ODE for reaction front elements. Experimentally, we demonstrate how these BIMs can be measured and compare their behavior with simulation. Finally, a topological BIM formalism yields a maximum front propagation speed.

  11. 'I have seen Königsberg burning'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wentzer, Thomas Schwarz

    2014-01-01

    It is December 1944 in East Prussia, and a German mother with the four youngest of her thirteen children is fleeing from the Red Army. Some thirty years later one of her sons talks about his memories, using the phrase: ‘I have seen Königsberg burning.’ – What a sentence. The city of Immanuel Kant...... experience has to be deconstructed (against historical realism or historicism) and defended (against constructivism and structuralism) at the very same time. The concept of responsiveness is introduced in order to encompass the paradox contained in this agenda, in particular the need to think of the human...

  12. On turbulent transport in burning plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Yagi, M.; Itoh, S.-I. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Fukuyama, A. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2000-03-01

    The change of the transport coefficient due to the fusion energy source is studied. The scale invariance property of the reduced set of equations is investigated in the presence of the self-heating term due to the fusion reaction. The pressure gradient as well as the fusion power are the free energy sources that dictate the turbulent transport. It is shown that the burning transport coefficient can have a form with much wider variety, and that the transport property could be different owing to the self-heating by the fusion reactions. (author)

  13. Inflammatory pain in experimental burns in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J L

    2000-01-01

    by the measurements, and the discrepancies in results between studies. Inflammation has been evaluated in the model by skin erythema intensity, area of flare, and blister formation. The major determinant of skin erythema intensity is the amount of blood in the most superficial part of the dermis, and burn......-induced erythema may be primarily due to congestion of capillary loops and postcapillary venules. The area of flare may be used to evaluate the efferent function of heat-sensitive A delta- and C-fibre nociceptors, whereas blisters may be used to assess edema formation and the degree of injury. Hyperalgesia...

  14. A Man With Two Burned Ears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范图雨

    2001-01-01

    Mr Smith was in troublethose days. He drove a car forMr Black, a rich business-man. He worked hard and theshopkeeper liked him. But hecouldn't work when he dranktoo much. And once he al-most fell into the river whenhe drove along the bridge. MrBlack became angry and wasgoing to send him away. Hehad a big family and wasafraid of that and promisedhe would stop drinking atonce. The man told him towait to be dealt with. OneMonday morning, Mr Smithcame into the office, with twobadly burned ears. “Whathappened to your ears?”asked Mr Black.

  15. Spectral hole burning: examples from photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, Robin; Völker, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    The optical spectra of photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes usually show broad absorption bands, often consisting of a number of overlapping, "hidden" bands belonging to different species. Spectral hole burning is an ideal technique to unravel the optical and dynamic properties of such hidden species. Here, the principles of spectral hole burning (HB) and the experimental set-up used in its continuous wave (CW) and time-resolved versions are described. Examples from photosynthesis studied with hole burning, obtained in our laboratory, are then presented. These examples have been classified into three groups according to the parameters that were measured: (1) hole widths as a function of temperature, (2) hole widths as a function of delay time and (3) hole depths as a function of wavelength. Two examples from light-harvesting (LH) 2 complexes of purple bacteria are given within the first group: (a) the determination of energy-transfer times from the chromophores in the B800 ring to the B850 ring, and (b) optical dephasing in the B850 absorption band. One example from photosystem II (PSII) sub-core complexes of higher plants is given within the second group: it shows that the size of the complex determines the amount of spectral diffusion measured. Within the third group, two examples from (green) plants and purple bacteria have been chosen for: (a) the identification of "traps" for energy transfer in PSII sub-core complexes of green plants, and (b) the uncovering of the lowest k = 0 exciton-state distribution within the B850 band of LH2 complexes of purple bacteria. The results prove the potential of spectral hole burning measurements for getting quantitative insight into dynamic processes in photosynthetic systems at low temperature, in particular, when individual bands are hidden within broad absorption bands. Because of its high-resolution wavelength selectivity, HB is a technique that is complementary to ultrafast pump-probe methods. In this review, we have

  16. AGING OF DIESEL AND WOOD BURNING SOOT IN SMOGCHAMBER EXPERIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevot, A. S.; Chirico, R.; Heringa, M.; Decarlo, P. F.; Tritscher, T.; Laborde, M.; Gysel, M.; Weingartner, E.; Elsässer, M.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.; Zimmermann, R.; Aiken, A. C.; Sierau, B.; Filep, A.; Ajtaj, T.; Bozoki, Z.; Baltensperger, U.

    2009-12-01

    Photochemical aging experiments were performed for emissions of a diesel passenger car and logwood-burner at the smogchamber at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland. The measurements include black carbon measurements (with Aethalometer, Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer, Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP-2), and Photoacoustic Spectrometer), organic mass measurements with the Aerodyne high-resolution Aerosol mass spectrometer and off-line GC-MS measurements. Single particle composition was measured with the TSI-Aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The size distribution is characterized with a scanning mobility particle sizer, and the hygroscopicity with a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer. The given overview of the results of experiments during the last 1.5 years will include the discussion of the formation secondary organic aerosol, the oxidation of primary organic aerosols and the change of optical and hygroscopic properties. A considerable variability of most results are found for different load experiments with the diesel car and for different burning conditions of the log-wood burner which will be discussed in detail.

  17. Aging of Diesel and Wood Burning Emissions in Smogchamber Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevot, Andre S. H.

    2010-05-01

    Photochemical aging experiments were performed for emissions of a diesel passenger car and logwood-burner at the smogchamber at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland. The measurements include black carbon measurements (with Aethalometer, Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer, Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP-2), and Photoacoustic Spectrometer), organic mass measurements with the Aerodyne high-resolution Aerosol mass spectrometer and off-line GC-MS measurements. Single particle composition was measured with the TSI-Aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The size distribution is characterized with a scanning mobility particle sizer, and the hygroscopicity with a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer. The given overview of the results of experiments during the last 1.5 years will focus on the formation secondary organic aerosol and include the oxidation of primary organic aerosols and the change of optical and hygroscopic properties. A considerable variability of most results is found for different after treatment systems of diesel cars and for different burning conditions of the log-wood burner which will be discussed in detail.

  18. Atmospheric Tar Balls: Particles from Biomass and Biofuel Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posfai, Mihaly; Gelencser, Andras; Simonics, Renata; Arato, Krisztina; Li, Jia; Hobbs, Peter V.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    Tar balls are amorphous, carbonaceous spherules that occur in the tropospheric aerosol as a result of biomass and biofuel burning. They form a distinct group of particles with diameters typically between 30 and 500 nm and readily identifiable with electron microscopy. Their lack of a turbostratic microstructure distinguishes them from soot, and their morphology and composition (approximately 90 mol% carbon) renders them distinct from other carbonaceous particles. Tar balls are particularly abundant in slightly aged (minutes to hours old) biomass smoke, indicating that they likely form by gas-to-particle conversion within smoke plumes. The material of tar balls is initially hygroscopic; however, the particles become largely insoluble as a result of free radical polymerization of their organic molecules. Consequently, tar balls are primarily externally mixed with other particle types, and they do not appreciably increase in size during aging. When tar balls coagulate with water-bearing particles, their material may partly dissolve and no longer be recognizable as distinct particles. Tar balls may contain organic compounds that absorb sunlight. They are an important, previously unrecognized type of carbonaceous (organic) atmospheric particle.

  19. Atmospheric tar balls: Particles from biomass and biofuel burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pósfai, MiháLy; GelencséR, AndráS.; Simonics, RenáTa; Arató, Krisztina; Li, Jia; Hobbs, Peter V.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2004-03-01

    "Tar balls" are amorphous, carbonaceous spherules that occur in the tropospheric aerosol as a result of biomass and biofuel burning. They form a distinct group of particles with diameters typically between 30 and 500 nm and readily identifiable with electron microscopy. Their lack of a turbostratic microstructure distinguishes them from soot, and their morphology and composition (˜90 mol % carbon) renders them distinct from other carbonaceous particles. Tar balls are particularly abundant in slightly aged (minutes to hours old) biomass smoke, indicating that they likely form by gas-to-particle conversion within smoke plumes. The material of tar balls is initially hygroscopic; however, the particles become largely insoluble as a result of free radical polymerization of their organic molecules. Consequently, tar balls are primarily externally mixed with other particle types, and they do not appreciably increase in size during aging. When tar balls coagulate with water-bearing particles, their material may partly dissolve and no longer be recognizable as distinct particles. Tar balls may contain organic compounds that absorb sunlight. They are an important, previously unrecognized type of carbonaceous (organic) atmospheric particle.

  20. Discrimination of Biomass Burning Smoke and Clouds in MAIAC Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyapustin, A.; Korkin, S.; Wang, Y.; Quayle, B.; Laszlo, I.

    2012-01-01

    The multi-angle implementation of atmospheric correction (MAIAC) algorithm makes aerosol retrievals from MODIS data at 1 km resolution providing information about the fine scale aerosol variability. This information is required in different applications such as urban air quality analysis, aerosol source identification etc. The quality of high resolution aerosol data is directly linked to the quality of cloud mask, in particular detection of small (sub-pixel) and low clouds. This work continues research in this direction, describing a technique to detect small clouds and introducing the smoke test to discriminate the biomass burning smoke from the clouds. The smoke test relies on a relative increase of aerosol absorption at MODIS wavelength 0.412 micrometers as compared to 0.47-0.67 micrometers due to multiple scattering and enhanced absorption by organic carbon released during combustion. This general principle has been successfully used in the OMI detection of absorbing aerosols based on UV measurements. This paper provides the algorithm detail and illustrates its performance on two examples of wildfires in US Pacific North-West and in Georgia/Florida of 2007.