WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon based materials

  1. Carbon-based electrode materials for DNA electroanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Dai; Niwa, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    This review addresses recent studies of newly developed carbon-based electrode materials and their use for DNA electroanalysis. Recently, new carbon materials including carbon nanotubes (CNT), graphene and diamond-based nanocarbon electrodes have been actively developed as sensing platforms for biomolecules, such as DNA and proteins. Electrochemical techniques using these new material-based electrodes can provide very simple and inexpensive sensing platforms, and so are expected to be used as one of the "post-light" DNA analysis methods, which include coulometric detection, amperometric detection with electroactive tags or intercalators, and potentiometric detection. DNA electroanalysis using these new carbon materials is summarized in view of recent advances on electrodes.

  2. Yeast-based microporous carbon materials for carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wenzhong; He, Yue; Zhang, Shouchun; Li, Junfen; Fan, Weibin

    2012-07-01

    A hierarchical microporous carbon material with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of 1348 m(2) g(-1) and a pore volume of 0.67 cm(3) g(-1) was prepared from yeast through chemical activation with potassium hydroxide. This type of material contains large numbers of nitrogen-containing groups (nitrogen content >5.3 wt%), and, consequently, basic sites. As a result, this material shows a faster adsorption rate and a higher adsorption capacity of CO(2) than the material obtained by directly carbonizing yeast under the same conditions. The difference is more pronounced in the presence of N(2) or H(2)O, showing that chemical activation of discarded yeast with potassium hydroxide could afford high-performance microporous carbon materials for the capture of CO(2).

  3. Carbon-based nanomaterials: multifunctional materials for biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chaenyung; Shin, Su Ryon; Annabi, Nasim; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-04-23

    Functional carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) have become important due to their unique combinations of chemical and physical properties (i.e., thermal and electrical conductivity, high mechanical strength, and optical properties), and extensive research efforts are being made to utilize these materials for various industrial applications, such as high-strength materials and electronics. These advantageous properties of CBNs are also actively investigated in several areas of biomedical engineering. This Perspective highlights different types of carbon-based nanomaterials currently used in biomedical applications.

  4. Multiscale experimental mechanics of hierarchical carbon-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Horacio D; Filleter, Tobin; Naraghi, Mohammad

    2012-06-05

    Investigation of the mechanics of natural materials, such as spider silk, abalone shells, and bone, has provided great insight into the design of materials that can simultaneously achieve high specific strength and toughness. Research has shown that their emergent mechanical properties are owed in part to their specific self-organization in hierarchical molecular structures, from nanoscale to macroscale, as well as their mixing and bonding. To apply these findings to manmade materials, researchers have devoted significant efforts in developing a fundamental understanding of multiscale mechanics of materials and its application to the design of novel materials with superior mechanical performance. These efforts included the utilization of some of the most promising carbon-based nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and graphene, together with a variety of matrix materials. At the core of these efforts lies the need to characterize material mechanical behavior across multiple length scales starting from nanoscale characterization of constituents and their interactions to emerging micro- and macroscale properties. In this report, progress made in experimental tools and methods currently used for material characterization across multiple length scales is reviewed, as well as a discussion of how they have impacted our current understanding of the mechanics of hierarchical carbon-based materials. In addition, insight is provided into strategies for bridging experiments across length scales, which are essential in establishing a multiscale characterization approach. While the focus of this progress report is in experimental methods, their concerted use with theoretical-computational approaches towards the establishment of a robust material by design methodology is also discussed, which can pave the way for the development of novel materials possessing unprecedented mechanical properties.

  5. Mesoporous Carbon-based Materials for Alternative Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Kimberly Michelle

    Increasing concerns for the escalating issues activated by the effect of carbon dioxide emissions on the global climate from extensive use of fossil fuels and the limited amount of fossil resources has led to an in-depth search for alternative energy systems, primarily based on nuclear or renewable energy sources. Recent innovations in the production of more efficient devices for energy harvesting, storage, and conversion are based on the incorporation of nanostructured materials into electrochemical systems. The aforementioned nano-electrochemical energy systems hold particular promise for alternative energy transportation related technologies including fuel cells, hydrogen storage, and electrochemical supercapacitors. In each of these devices, nanostructured materials can be used to increase the surface area where the critical chemical reactions occur within the same volume and mass, thereby increasing the energy density, power density, electrical efficiency, and physical robustness of the system. Durable corrosion resistant carbon support materials for fuel cells have been designed by adding conductive low cost carbon materials with chemically robust ceramic materials. Since a strict control of the pore size is mandatory to optimize properties for improved performance, chemical activation agents have been utilized as porogens to tune surface areas, pore size distributions, and composition of carbon-based mesoporous materials. Through the use of evaporative self-assembly methods, both randomly disordered and surfactant-templated, ordered carbon-silica nanocomposites have been synthesized with controlled surface area, pore volume, and pore size ranging from 50-800 m2/g, 0.025-0.75 cm3/g, and 2-10 nm, respectively. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) ranging from 0.05-1.0 wt. % were added to the aforementioned carbon-silica nanocomposites, which provided an additional increase in surface area and improved conductivity. Initially, a conductivity value of 0.0667 S

  6. Lignin Based Carbon Materials for Energy Storage Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Sabornie [ORNL; Saito, Tomonori [ORNL; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Johs, Alexander [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of Li-ion battery technology into electric and hybrid electric vehicles and portable electronic devices such as smart phones, laptops and tablets, creates a demand for efficient, economic and sustainable materials for energy storage. However, the high cost and long processing time associated with manufacturing battery-grade anode and cathode materials are two big constraints for lowering the total cost of batteries and environmentally friendly electric vehicles. Lignin, a byproduct of the pulp and paper industry and biorefinery, is one of the most abundant and inexpensive natural biopolymers. It can be efficiently converted to low cost carbon fibers with optimal properties for use as anode materials. Recent developments in the preparation of lignin precursors and conversion to carbon fiber-based anode materials have created a new class of anode materials with excellent electrochemical characteristics suitable for immediate use in existing Li- or Na-ion battery technologies.

  7. Graphene-Based Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of their unique 2D structure and numerous fascinating properties, graphene-based materials have attracted particular attention for their potential applications in energy storage devices. In this review paper, we focus on the latest work regarding the development of electrode materials for batteries and supercapacitors from graphene and graphene-based carbon materials. To begin, the advantages of graphene as an electrode material and the existing problems facing its use in this application will be discussed. The next several sections deal with three different methods for improving the energy storage performance of graphene: the restacking of the nanosheets, the doping of graphene with other elements, and the creation of defects on graphene planes. State-of-the-art work is reviewed. Finally, the prospects and further developments in the field of graphene-based materials for electrochemical energy storage are discussed.

  8. Nanoporous Carbide-Derived Carbon Material-Based Linear Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janno Torop

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Devices using electroactive polymer-supported carbon material can be exploited as alternatives to conventional electromechanical actuators in applications where electromechanical actuators have some serious deficiencies. One of the numerous examples is precise microactuators. In this paper, we show for first time the dilatometric effect in nanocomposite material actuators containing carbide-derived carbon (CDC and polytetrafluoroetylene polymer (PTFE. Transducers based on high surface area carbide-derived carbon electrode materials are suitable for short range displacement applications, because of the proportional actuation response to the charge inserted, and high Coulombic efficiency due to the EDL capacitance. The material is capable of developing stresses in the range of tens of N cm-2. The area of an actuator can be dozens of cm2, which means that forces above 100 N are achievable. The actuation mechanism is based on the interactions between the high-surface carbon and the ions of the electrolyte. Electrochemical evaluations of the four different actuators with linear (longitudinal action response are described. The actuator electrodes were made from two types of nanoporous TiC-derived carbons with surface area (SA of 1150 m2 g-1 and 1470 m2 g-1, respectively. Two kinds of electrolytes were used in actuators: 1.0 M tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF4 solution in propylene carbonate and pure ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (EMITf. It was found that CDC based actuators exhibit a linear movement of about 1% in the voltage range of 0.8 V to 3.0 V at DC. The actuators with EMITf electrolyte had about 70% larger movement compared to the specimen with TEABF4 electrolyte.

  9. N-Modified Carbon-Based Materials: Nanoscience for Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Laura; Chan-Thaw, Carine E; Campisi, Sebastiano; Villa, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    Carbon-based materials constitute a large family of materials characterized by some peculiarities such as resistance to both acidic and basic environments, flexibility of structure, and surface chemical groups. Moreover, they can be deeply modified by simple organic reactions (acid-base or redox) to acquire different properties. In particular, the introduction of N-containing groups, achieved by post-treatments or during preparation of the material, enhances the basic properties. Moreover, it has been revealed that the position and chemical nature of the N-containing groups is important in determining the interaction with metal nanoparticles, and thus, their reactivity. The modified activity was addressed to a different metal dispersion. Moreover, experiments on catalysts, showing the same metal dispersion, demonstrated that the best results were obtained when N was embedded into the carbon structure and not very close to the metal active site.

  10. Hybrid Aluminum Composite Materials Based on Carbon Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana S. Koltsova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated formation of carbon nanofibers grown by chemical deposition (CVD method using an acetylene-hydrogen mixture on the surface of micron-sized aluminum powder particles. To obtain uniform distribution of the carbon nanostructures on the particles we deposited nickel catalyst on the surface by spraying from the aqueous solution of nickel nitrate. It was found that increasing the time of the synthesis lowers the rate of growth of carbon nanostructures due to the deactivation of the catalyst. The Raman spectroscopy measurements confirm the presence of disordered carbon corresponding to CNFs in the specimen. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed the presence of aluminum carbide in the hot pressed samples. An aluminum composite material prepared using 1 wt.% CNFs obtained by uniaxial cold pressing and sintering showed 30% increase in the hardness compared to pure aluminum, whereas the composites prepared by hot pressing showed 80% increase in the hardness. Composite materials have satisfactory ductility. Thus, the aluminum based material reinforced with carbon nanostructures should be appropriate for creating high-strength and light compacts for aerospace and automotive applications and power engineering.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.7355

  11. Electric Double-layer Capacitor Based on Activated Carbon Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this study electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) based on activated carbon material and organic electrolyte (tetraethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate) were explored. The fabrication method for EDLC is presented and the performance of EDLC was examined by using the cyclic voltammetry, constant-current charging and discharging technique, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Influence of various components and design parameters on the performance of the capacitors were preliminarily investigated. Up to now, EDLC based on carbon materials can deliver 20.7 W/kg at the discharge rate ofI=0.3 mA, together with the energy density of 8.5 Wh/kg. Equivalent series resistance (ESR) is 0.716 Ω.cm2. The specific power of the capacitor is low and further attempts to raise the power capability of the capacitors are necessary. Some considerations are put forward to further improve the performance of EDLC.

  12. Towards Flexible Transparent Electrodes Based on Carbon and Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible transparent electrodes (FTEs with high stability and scalability are in high demand for the extremely widespread applications in flexible optoelectronic devices. Traditionally, thin films of indium thin oxide (ITO served the role of FTEs, but film brittleness and scarcity of materials limit its further application. This review provides a summary of recent advances in emerging transparent electrodes and related flexible devices (e.g., touch panels, organic light-emitting diodes, sensors, supercapacitors, and solar cells. Mainly focusing on the FTEs based on carbon nanomaterials (e.g., carbon nanotubes and graphene and metal materials (e.g., metal grid and metal nanowires, we discuss the fabrication techniques, the performance improvement, and the representative applications of these highly transparent and flexible electrodes. Finally, the challenges and prospects of flexible transparent electrodes will be summarized.

  13. Supercapacitors based on carbon materials and ionic liquids

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents performance of supercapacitor built from different carbon materials. The general principle of supercapacitor and formula connected with its operation are also described. The role of carbon nanotexture has been underlined selecting carbons prepared by template techniques. It has been demonstrated that mainly micropores and small mesopores play important role for charging of electrical double layer, however, interconnectivity of pores is crucial for charge propagation. The p...

  14. Carbon material based microelectromechanical system (MEMS): Fabrication and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenjun

    This PhD dissertation presents the exploration and development of two carbon materials, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon fiber (CF), as either key functional components or unconventional substrates for a variety of MEMS applications. Their performance in three different types of MEMS devices, namely, strain/stress sensors, vibration-powered generators and fiber solar cells, were evaluated and the working mechanisms of these two non-traditional materials in these systems were discussed. The work may potentially enable the development of new types of carbon-MEMS devices. Carbon nanotubes were selected from the carbon family due to several advantageous characteristics that this nanomaterial offers. They carry extremely high mechanical strength (Ey=1TPa), superior electrical properties (current density of 4x109 A/cm2), exceptional piezoresistivity (G=2900), and unique spatial format (high aspect ratio hollow nanocylinder), among other properties. If properly utilized, all these merits can give rise to a variety of new types of carbon nanotube based micro- and nanoelectronics that can greatly fulfill the need for the next generation of faster, smaller and better devices. However, before these functions can be fully realized, one substantial issue to cope with is how to implement CNTs into these systems in an effective and controllable fashion. Challenges associated with CNTs integration include very poor dispersibility in solvents, lack of melting/sublimation point, and unfavorable rheology with regard to mixing and processing highly viscous, CNT-loaded polymer solutions. These issues hinder the practical progress of CNTs both in a lab scale and in the industrial level. To this end, a MEMS-assisted electrophoretic deposition technique was developed, aiming to achieve controlled integration of CNT into both conventional and flexible microsystems at room temperature with a relatively high throughput. MEMS technology has demonstrated strong capability in developing

  15. Processing and applications of carbon based nano-materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Aiping

    Carbon-based nanomaterials, including single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and graphite nanoplatelets (GNPs, multi-layer graphene), possess exceptional electrical, thermal and mechanical properties coupled with high aspect ratio and high temperature stability. These unique properties have attracted increased attention during the past decade. These materials form the basis of the work presented here, which includes research targeting fabrication, processing and applications in new composites and devices. As-prepared SWNTs are typically contaminated with amorphous carbon as well as metal catalyst and graphitic nanoparticles. We have demonstrated an efficient approach for removing most of these impurities by the combination of nitric acid treatment and both low speed (2000 g) and high speed centrifugation (20,000 g). This approach gives rise to the highest-purified arc-discharge SWNTs which are almost free from impurities, and in addition are left in a low state of aggregation. The new purification process offers a convenient way to obtain different grade of SWNTs and allows the study of the effect purity on the thermal conductivity of SWNT epoxy composite. Purified functionalized SWNTs provide a significantly greater enhancement of the thermal conductivity, whereas AP-SWNTs allow the best electrical properties because of their ability to form efficient percolating network. We found that purified SWNTs provide ˜5 times greater enhancement of the thermal conductivity than the impure SWNT fraction demonstrating the significance of SWNTs quality for thermal management. The introduced GNPs have directed the thermal management project to a new avenue due to the significant improvement of the thermal conductivity of the composites in comparison with that of SWNTs. A novel process was demonstrated to achieve a 4-graphene layer structure referred to GNPs with a thickness of ˜2 nm. This material was embedded in an epoxy resin matrix and the measured thermal conductivity of

  16. Carbon nanotube-based functional materials for optical limiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Lin, Ying; Liu, Ying; Doyle, James; He, Nan; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Bai, Jinrui; Blau, Werner J

    2007-01-01

    Optical limiting is an important application of nonlinear optics, useful for the protection of human eyes, optical elements, and optical sensors from intense laser pulses. An optical limiter is such a device that strongly attenuates high intensity light and potentially damaging light such as focused laser beams, whilst allowing for the high transmission of ambient light. Optical limiting properties of carbon nanotube suspensions, solubilized carbon nanotubes, small molecules doped carbon nanotubes and polymer/carbon nanotube composites have been reviewed. The optical limiting responses of carbon nanotube suspensions are shown to be dominated by nonlinear scattering as a result of thermally induced solvent-bubble formation and sublimation of the nanotubes, while the solubilized carbon nanotubes optically limit through nonlinear absorption mechanism and exhibit significant solution-concentration-dependent optical limiting responses. In the former case the optical limiting results are independent of nanotube concentrations at the same linear transmittance as that of the solubilized systems. Many efforts have been invested into the research of polymer/carbon nanotube composites in an attempt to allow for the fabrication of films required for the use of nanotubes in a real optical limiting application. The higher carbon nanotube content samples block the incident light more effectively at higher incident energy densities or intensities. The optical limiting mechanism of these composite materials is quite complicated. Besides nonlinear scattering contribution to the optical limiting, there may also be other contributions e.g., nonlinear absorption, nonlinear refraction, electronic absorption and others to the optical limiting. Further improvements in the optical limiting efficiency of the composites and in the dispersion and alignment properties of carbon nanotubes in the polymer matrix could be realized by variation of both nanostructured guest and polymer host, and by

  17. Carbon-Based Functional Materials Derived from Waste for Water Remediation and Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qinglang; Yu, Yifu; Sindoro, Melinda; Fane, Anthony G; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Hua

    2017-01-23

    Carbon-based functional materials hold the key for solving global challenges in the areas of water scarcity and the energy crisis. Although carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have shown promising results in various fields of application, their high preparation cost and low production yield still dramatically hinder their wide practical applications. Therefore, there is an urgent call for preparing carbon-based functional materials from low-cost, abundant, and sustainable sources. Recent innovative strategies have been developed to convert various waste materials into valuable carbon-based functional materials. These waste-derived carbon-based functional materials have shown great potential in many applications, especially as sorbents for water remediation and electrodes for energy storage. Here, the research progress in the preparation of waste-derived carbon-based functional materials is summarized, along with their applications in water remediation and energy storage; challenges and future research directions in this emerging research field are also discussed.

  18. Carbon Cryogel and Carbon Paper-Based Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. 6 One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nano-foams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. 1-5 Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  19. Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Based on Carbon Cryogels and Carbon Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nanofoams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  20. Advanced materials based on carbon nanotube arrays, yarns and papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Phlip David

    Carbon nanotubes have hundreds of potential applications but require innovative processing techniques to manipulate the microscopic carbon dust into useful devices and products. This thesis describes efforts to process carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using novel methods with the goals of: (1) improving the properties of energy absorbing and composite carbon nanotube materials and (2) increasing understanding of fundamental structure-property relationships within these materials. Millimeter long CNTs, in the form of arrays, yarns and papers, were used to produce energy absorbing foams and high volume fraction CNT composites. Vertically aligned CNT arrays were grown on silicon substrates using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of ethylene gas over iron nano-particles. The low density, millimeter thick arrays were tested under compression as energy absorbing foams. With additional CVD processing steps, it was possible to tune the compressive properties of the arrays. After the longest treatment, the compressive strength of the arrays was increased by a factor of 35 with a density increase of only six fold, while also imparting recovery from compression to the array. Microscopy revealed that the post-synthesis CVD treatment increased the number of CNT walls through an epitaxial type radial growth on the surface of the as-grown tubes. The increase in tube radius and mutual support between nanotubes explained the increases in compressive strength while an increase in nanotube roughness was proposed as the morphological change responsible for recovery in the array. Carbon nanotube yarns were used as the raw material for macroscopic textile preforms with a multi-level hierarchical carbon nanotube (CNT) structure: nanotubes, bundles, spun single yarns, plied yarns and 3-D braids. In prior tensile tests, composites produced from the 3-D braids exhibited unusual mechanical behavior effects. The proposed physical hypotheses explained those effects by molecular level interactions and

  1. Nanostructures formed on carbon-based materials with different levels of crystallinity using oxygen plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Tae-Jun [Institute for Multidisciplinary Convergence of Matter, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Wonjin; Lee, Heon Ju [Institute for Multidisciplinary Convergence of Matter, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Kyu Hwan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Myoung-Woon, E-mail: mwmoon@kist.re.kr [Institute for Multidisciplinary Convergence of Matter, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-01

    Nanostructure formation was explored for various carbon-based materials, such as diamond, carbon fiber, polyethylene terephthalate and poly (methyl methacrylate), which have different levels of crystallinity, ranging from perfect crystal to polymeric amorphous. After treatment of oxygen plasma glow discharge, the nanostructures on these carbon-based materials were found to evolve via preferential etching due to the co-deposition of metal elements sputtered from the metal cathode plate. Local islands or clusters formed by the metal co-deposition have a low etching rate compared to pristine regions on each material, resulting in anisotropic patterns on the carbon-based materials. This pattern formation mechanism was confirmed by covering the cathode or preventing the co-deposition of metallic sources with a polymeric material. Regardless of the level of crystallinity of the carbon-based materials, no patterns were observed on the surfaces covered with the polymeric material, and the surfaces were uniformly etched. It was found that the materials with low crystallinity had a high etching rate due to low carbon atom density, which thus easily formed high-aspect-ratio nanostructures for the same plasma treatment duration. - Highlight: • Reactive ion etching & metal deposition were occurred in oxygen plasma treatment. • High-aspect-ratio nanostructures can be fabricated on carbon-based materials. • Materials with low crystallinity easily formed high-aspect-ratio nanostructure. • Amount of etching inhibitors affects the pattern formation and configuration.

  2. Development of sensors based on advanced micro- and nanostructured carbon materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Centeno, Frank Willi

    The thesis is focused on the development of sensors based on advanced micro- and nano-structured carbon materials. In particular, we developed prototype diamond-based ultraviolet photodetectors and carbon nanotubes-based gas sensors. We describe the method of preparation and characterization of the active carbon-based materials and their structural and compositional characterizations. This is followed by the corresponding device fabrication and testing. The thesis briefly gives an introduction to our current understanding about carbon materials, with emphasis on synthetic diamond and bamboo-like carbon nanotubes, and to the materials' properties that are useful for ultraviolet photodetectors and gas sensor applications. The thesis also give an overview of the experience gained through this research, and some suggestions for those who would like follow the research methods employ here. It provides experimental information learned through experience that may be helpful and avoid delays to the newer experimentalists.

  3. Nanoengineered thermal materials based on carbon nanotube array composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor); Dangelo, Carlos (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method for providing for thermal conduction using an array of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). An array of vertically oriented CNTs is grown on a substrate having high thermal conductivity, and interstitial regions between adjacent CNTs in the array are partly or wholly filled with a filler material having a high thermal conductivity so that at least one end of each CNT is exposed. The exposed end of each CNT is pressed against a surface of an object from which heat is to be removed. The CNT-filler composite adjacent to the substrate provides improved mechanical strength to anchor CNTs in place and also serves as a heat spreader to improve diffusion of heat flux from the smaller volume (CNTs) to a larger heat sink.

  4. Experimental Results on Performance Improvement of Doped Carbon-base Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUZengyu; JointResearchGroup

    2001-01-01

    Carbon-base materials is one of candidate plasma facing materials and have been widely used in current tokamak facilities in the world. But some defect properties are presented on high yield of chemical sputtering, high yield of radiation enhancement sublimate (RES), cracking after heat flux in divertor and so on. These characteris are related to the interstitial carbon atom producing and mobile, so it can be improved by doped some little other elements into the carbon-base materials, such as boron, silicon, titanium and so on.

  5. Nanoengineered Thermal Materials Based on Carbon Nanotube Array Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Meyyappan, Meyya; Dangelo, Carols

    2012-01-01

    State-of-the-art integrated circuits (ICs) for microprocessors routinely dissipate power densities on the order of 50 W/cm2. This large power is due to the localized heating of ICs operating at high frequencies and must be managed for future high-frequency microelectronic applications. As the size of components and devices for ICs and other appliances becomes smaller, it becomes more difficult to provide heat dissipation and transport for such components and devices. A thermal conductor for a macro-sized thermal conductor is generally inadequate for use with a microsized component or device, in part due to scaling problems. A method has been developed for providing for thermal conduction using an array of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). An array of vertically oriented CNTs is grown on a substrate having high thermal conductivity, and interstitial regions between adjacent CNTs in the array are partly or wholly filled with a filler material having a high thermal conductivity so that at least one end of each CNT is exposed. The exposed end of each CNT is pressed against a surface of an object from which heat is to be removed. The CNT-filler-composite adjacent to the substrate provides improved mechanical strength to anchor CNTs in place, and also serves as a heat spreader to improve diffusion of heat flux from the smaller volume (CNTs) to a larger heat sink.

  6. Effect of carbonation on the linear and nonlinear dynamic properties of cement-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiras, Jesus N.; Kundu, Tribikram; Popovics, John S.; Monzó, José; Borrachero, María V.; Payá, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Carbonation causes a physicochemical alteration of cement-based materials, leading to a decrease of porosity and an increase of material hardness and strength. However, carbonation will decrease the pH of the internal pore water solution, which may depassivate the internal reinforcing steel, giving rise to structural durability concerns. Therefore, the proper selection of materials informed by parameters sensitive to the carbonation process is crucial to ensure the durability of concrete structures. The authors investigate the feasibility of using linear and nonlinear dynamic vibration response data to monitor the progression of the carbonation process in cement-based materials. Mortar samples with dimensions of 40×40×160 mm were subjected to an accelerated carbonation process through a carbonation chamber with 55% relative humidity and >95% of CO2 atmosphere. The progress of carbonation in the material was monitored using data obtained with the test setup of the standard resonant frequency test (ASTM C215-14), from a pristine state until an almost fully carbonated state. Linear dynamic modulus, quality factor, and a material nonlinear response, evaluated through the upward resonant frequency shift during the signal ring-down, were investigated. The compressive strength and the depth of carbonation were also measured. Carbonation resulted in a modest increase in the dynamic modulus, but a substantive increase in the quality factor (inverse attenuation) and a decrease in the material nonlinearity parameter. The combined measurement of the vibration quality factor and nonlinear parameter shows potential as a sensitive measure of material changes brought about by carbonation.

  7. High Flux Laser Radiation and Residual Gas Interactions with Carbon-Based Structural Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    and (111) single crystal faces of Ti reacted with CO. The interest in titanium carbide is based on its importance as a high temperature material...artificial superlattices of titanium carbides and comparing their properties to that of naturally occurring titanium carbide which is a cubic metallic...conductor. Keywords: Carbon Monoxide; Titanium; Carbon; Sodium Chloride; Titanium Carbide .

  8. Synthesis and characterization of lignin-based carbon materials with tunable microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Sabornie [ORNL; Clingenpeel, Amy [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (Magnet Lab), Florida; McKenna, Amy [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (Magnet Lab), Florida; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Johs, Alexander [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Lignin-based carbons can be used as a low-cost alternative to graphite and petroleum-based carbons enabling the production of sustainable, functional carbon materials for various applications. The microstructure development of these carbons can be controlled through chemical modification of the lignin precursor and choice of carbonization parameters. In this work, microstructured carbon materials are synthesized from lignin using a combination of chemical modification and carbon fiber processing techniques. Lignin is modified by incorporating different ester groups which results in a precursor highly compatible with melt processing using the fiber extrusion technique and conversion into microstructured carbons by oxidative stabilization and subsequent carbonization. Furthermore, the impact of esterifications on precursor chemistry and carbonizations is investigated. A nuclear magnetic resonance study of modified lignins shows characteristic spectral changes as a result of esterifications. Ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry shows the modification process does not affect the polymeric character of the lignin backbone. Esterifications result in moderate shifts in O:C and H:C ratios. Thermogravimetric analysis of lignins reveals distinct differences in mass loss trends during oxidations and carbonizations.

  9. Glycerol-based carbon materials for the catalytic wet peroxide oxidation process

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Rui S.; Silva, Adrián; Pinho, Maria; Figueiredo,José; Faria, Joaquim; Gomes, Helder

    2013-01-01

    It is known that metal-free carbon materials can act as catalysts for the catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) process to treat organic pollutants in aqueous solutions [I]. On the other hand, crude glycerol, such as resulting from biodiesel production, is being offered as an abundant and low cost feedstock [2]. In the present work, glycerol-based carbon materials (OBCMs) with distinct properties were produced and tested as catalysts for CWPO, using 2-nitrophenol (2-NP) as a ...

  10. Mechanical Testing of Carbon Based Woven Thermal Protection Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, John; Agrawal, Parul; Arnold, James O.; Peterson, Keith; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2013-01-01

    Three Dimensional Woven thermal protection system (TPS) materials are one of the enabling technologies for mechanically deployable hypersonic decelerator systems. These materials have been shown capable of serving a dual purpose as TPS and as structural load bearing members during entry and descent operations. In order to ensure successful structural performance, it is important to characterize the mechanical properties of these materials prior to and post exposure to entry-like heating conditions. This research focuses on the changes in load bearing capacity of woven TPS materials after being subjected to arcjet simulations of entry heating. Preliminary testing of arcjet tested materials [1] has shown a mechanical degradation. However, their residual strength is significantly more than the requirements for a mission to Venus [2]. A systematic investigation at the macro and microstructural scales is reported here to explore the potential causes of this degradation. The effects of heating on the sizing (an epoxy resin coating used to reduce friction and wear during fiber handling) are discussed as one of the possible causes for the decrease in mechanical properties. This investigation also provides valuable guidelines for margin policies for future mechanically deployable entry systems.

  11. Carbon-Based Nanomaterials: Multi-Functional Materials for Biomedical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chaenyung; Shin, Su Ryon; Annabi, Nasim; Dokmeci, Mehmet R.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Functional carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) have become important due to their unique combinations of chemical and physical properties (i.e., thermal and electrical conductivity, high mechanical strength, and optical properties), extensive research efforts are being made to utilize these materials for various industrial applications, such as high-strength materials and electronics. These advantageous properties of CBNs are also actively investigated in several areas of biomedical engineering. This Perspective highlights different types of carbon-based nanomaterials currently used in biomedical applications. PMID:23560817

  12. Nanostructured composites based on carbon nanotubes and epoxy resin for use as radar absorbing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Valdirene Aparecida [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Folgueras, Luiza de Castro; Candido, Geraldo Mauricio; Paula, Adriano Luiz de; Rezende, Mirabel Cerqueira, E-mail: mirabelmcr@iae.cta.br [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Materiais; Costa, Michelle Leali [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (DMT/UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Materiais e Tecnologia

    2013-07-01

    Nanostructured polymer composites have opened up new perspectives for multifunctional materials. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) present potential applications in order to improve mechanical and electrical performance in composites with aerospace application. The combination of epoxy resin with multi walled carbon nanotubes results in a new functional material with enhanced electromagnetic properties. The objective of this work was the processing of radar absorbing materials based on formulations containing different quantities of carbon nanotubes in an epoxy resin matrix. To reach this objective the adequate concentration of CNTs in the resin matrix was determined. The processed structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, rheology, thermal and reflectivity in the frequency range of 8.2 to 12.4 GHz analyses. The microwave attenuation was up to 99.7%, using only 0.5% (w/w) of CNT, showing that these materials present advantages in performance associated with low additive concentrations (author)

  13. Carbon nanotube composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2015-03-24

    A material consisting essentially of a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes dissolved in a solvent. Un-functionalized carbon nanotube concentrations up to 30 wt % and hydroxylated carbon nanotube concentrations up to 40 wt % can be used with even small concentrations of each (less than 2 wt %) useful in producing enhanced conductivity properties of formed thin films.

  14. Preparation and magnetic properties of phthalocyanine-based carbon materials containing transition metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Z.; Sato, S.; Hagiwara, M.; Kida, T.; Sakai, M.; Fukuda, T.; Kamata, N.

    2016-07-01

    A simple method for the preparation of bulk quantities of magnetic carbon materials, which contain uniformly dispersed transition metals (M = Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu) as the magnetic components, is presented. By using highly chlorinated metal phthalocyanine as the building block and potassium as the coupling reagent, phthalocyanine-based carbon materials (PBCMs) containing transition metals were obtained. Our experiments demonstrate the structure of these PBCMs consists of transition metals embedded in graphitic carbon that includes a square planar MN4 magnetic core and the Fe and Co-PBCM possess spontaneous magnetization at room temperature. In addition, carbon-coated transition metal particles were obtained by the Wurtz-type reaction with excess amount of potassium coupling agent. The large transition metal surface area and magnetization of these M-PBCMs are useful for spintronic and catalytic applications.

  15. Early Carbonation Behavior of High-volume Dolomite Powder-cement Based Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Huamei; HE zhen; SHAO Yixin

    2015-01-01

    Combined with DTG analysis, X-Ray diffraction analysis (XRD) andfi eld emission scanning electron microscopy analysis (FSEM) affi liated with energy dispersive spectrometer analysis (EDS), the early hydration and carbonation behavior of cement paste compacts incorporated with 30% of dolomite powder at low water to cement ratio (0.15) was investigated. The results showed that early carbonation curing was capable of developing rapid early strength. It is noted that the carbonation duration should be strictly controlled otherwise subsequent hydration might be hindered. Dolomite powder acted as nuclei of crystallization, resulting in acceleration of products formation and refi nement of products crystal size. Therefore, as for cement-based material, it was found that early carbonation could reduce cement dosages to a large extent and promote rapid strength gain resulting from rapid formation of products, supplemental enhancement due to water release in the reaction of carbonation, and formation of nanometer CaCO3 skeleton network at early age.

  16. Theoretical studies of carbon-based nanostructured materials with applications in hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuc, Agnieszka

    2008-07-01

    The main goal of this work is to search for new stable porous carbon-based materials, which have the ability to accommodate and store hydrogen gas. Theoretical and experimental studies suggest a close relation between the nano-scale structure of the material and its storage capacity. In order to design materials with a high storage capacity, a compromise between the size and the shape of the nanopores must be considered. Therefore, a number of different carbon-based materials have been investigated: carbon foams, dislocated graphite, graphite intercalated by C60 molecules, and metal-organic frameworks. The structures of interest include experimentally well-known as well as hypothetical systems. The studies were focused on the determination of important properties and special features, which may result in high storage capacities. Although the variety of possible pure carbon structures and metal-organic frameworks is almost infinite, the materials described in this work possess the main structural characteristics, which are important for gas storage. (orig.)

  17. Classification of carbon materials for developing structure-properties relationships based on the aggregate state of the precursors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oleksiy V. Khavryuchenko; Volodymyr D.Khavryuchenko

    2014-01-01

    Modern carbon science lacks an efficient structure-related classi-fication of materials. We present an approach based on dividing carbon materials by the aggregate state of the precursor. The common features in the structure of carbon particles that allow putting them into a group are discussed, with particular attention to the potential energy stored in the carbon structure from differ-ent rates of relaxation during the synthesis and prearrangement of structural motifs due to the effect of the precursor structure.

  18. Synthesis of organic carbonates based on CO{sub 2} as raw material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aresta, M.; Dibenedetto, A. [University of Bari, Bari (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry

    2001-07-01

    The global market of carbonates (open chain or cyclic) and polycarbonate is increasing very rapidly. The conventional syntheses are based on the use, as starting material, of phosgene, a dangerous chemical. The possibility of developing alternative technologies that substitute phosgene with carbon dioxide for the synthesis of carbonates is very attractive. In fact CO{sub 2} is non toxic, very cheap and potentially ubiquitous. In this paper the potential of the utilisation of CO{sub 2} for the synthesis of carbonates and polycarbonate is discussed. An assessment of the different synthetic strategies of dimethylcarbonate will be also given using LCA and the potential of utilisation of CO{sub 2} will be defined. 23 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Lyocell Based Carbon Carbon Composite for Use as a Large Exit Cone Material Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) has identified a "carbon-carbon nozzle (domestic source)" as a "Top Technical Challenge" in the 2011-2016 timeframe...

  20. Metallic carbon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, M.L.; Crespi, V.H.; Louie, S.G.S.; Zettl, A.K.

    1999-11-30

    Novel metallic forms of planar carbon are described, as well as methods of designing and making them. Nonhexagonal arrangements of carbon are introduced into a graphite carbon network essentially without destroying the planar structure. Specifically a form of carbon comprising primarily pentagons and heptagons, and having a large density of states at the Fermi level is described. Other arrangements of pentagons and heptagons that include some hexagons, and structures incorporating squares and octagons are additionally disclosed. Reducing the bond angle symmetry associated with a hexagonal arrangement of carbons increases the likelihood that the carbon material will have a metallic electron structure.

  1. Degradation of carbon-based materials under ablative conditions produced by a high enthalpy plasma jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Petraconi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A stationary experiment was performed to study the degradation of carbon-based materials by immersion in a plasma jet. In the experiment, graphite and C/C composite were chosen as the target materials, and the reactive plasma jet was generated by an air plasma torch. For macroscopic study of the material degradation, the sample’s mass losses were measured as function of the exposure time under various temperatures on the sample surface. A microscopic analysis was then carried out for the study of microscopic aspects of the erosion of material surface. These experiments showed that the mass loss per unit area is approximately proportional to the exposure time and strongly depends on the temperature of the material surface. The mass erosion rate of graphite was appreciably higher than the C/C composite. The ablation rate in the carbon matrix region in C/C composite was also noticeably higher than that in the fiber region. In addition, the latter varied according to the orientation of fibers relatively to the flow direction. These tests indicated an excellent ablation resistance of the C/C composite, thus being a reliable material for rocket nozzles and heat shielding elements of the protection systems of hypersonic apparatuses from aerodynamic heating.

  2. Active 2D and carbon-based materials: physics and devices (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorger, Volker J.

    2016-09-01

    In nanophotonics we create material-systems, which are structured at length scales smaller than the wavelength of light. When light propagates inside such effective materials numerous novel physics phenomena emerge including thresholdless lasing, atto-joule per bit efficient modulators, and exciton-polariton effects. However, in order to make use of these opportunities, synergistic device designs have to be applied to include materials, electric and photonic constrains - all at the nanoscale. In this talk, I present our recent progress in exploring 2D and TCO materials for active optoelectronics. I highlight nanoscale device demonstrations including their physical operation principle and performance benchmarks. Details include epsilon-bear-zero tuning of thin-film ITO, Graphene electro-static gating via Pauli-blocking, plasmonic electro-optic modulation, and hetero-integrated III-V and carbon-based plasmon lasers on Silicon photonics.

  3. Electrical percolation threshold of cementitious composites possessing self-sensing functionality incorporating different carbon-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dahawi, Ali; Haroon Sarwary, Mohammad; Öztürk, Oğuzhan; Yıldırım, Gürkan; Akın, Arife; Şahmaran, Mustafa; Lachemi, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    An experimental study was carried out to understand the electrical percolation thresholds of different carbon-based nano- and micro-scale materials in cementitious composites. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) and carbon black (CB) were selected as the nano-scale materials, while 6 and 12 mm long carbon fibers (CF6 and CF12) were used as the micro-scale carbon-based materials. After determining the percolation thresholds of different electrical conductive materials, mechanical properties and piezoresistive properties of specimens produced with the abovementioned conductive materials at percolation threshold were investigated under uniaxial compressive loading. Results demonstrate that regardless of initial curing age, the percolation thresholds of CNT, GNP, CB and CFs in ECC mortar specimens were around 0.55%, 2.00%, 2.00% and 1.00%, respectively. Including different carbon-based conductive materials did not harm compressive strength results; on the contrary, it improved overall values. All cementitious composites produced with carbon-based materials, with the exception of the control mixtures, exhibited piezoresistive behavior under compression, which is crucial for sensing capability. It is believed that incorporating the sensing attribute into cementitious composites will enhance benefits for sustainable civil infrastructures.

  4. Development of Novel Metal Hydride-Carbon Nanomaterial Based Nanocomposites as Anode Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-30

    Final Progress Report (27-02-2012 To 26-02-2014) Project Title:- Development of novel metal hydride -carbon nanomaterial based nanocomposites as...anode electrode materials for Lithium ion battery Objectives:- The aim of this study is to develop metal hydride –carbon nanomaterial based...be as follows:- Milestone I • Synthesis of nanosized metal hydrides (NMH)-carbon nanotubes (CNT) hybridizing with G (NMH- CNT-G) nanocomposites

  5. Nonlinear absorption and optical damage threshold of carbon-based nanostructured material embedded in a protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janulewicz, K. A.; Hapiddin, A.; Joseph, D.; Geckeler, K. E.; Sung, J. H.; Nickles, P. V.

    2014-12-01

    Physical processes in laser-matter interaction used to be determined by generation of fast electrons resulting from efficient conversion of the absorbed laser radiation. Composite materials offer the possibility to control the absorption by choice of the host material and dopants. Reported here strong absorption of ultrashort laser pulse in a composite carbon-based nanomaterial including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) or multilayer graphene was measured in the intensity range between 1012 and 1016 W cm-2. A protein (lysozyme) was used as the host. The maximum absorption of femtosecond laser pulse has reached 92-96 %. The optical damage thresholds of the coatings were registered at an intensity of (1.1 ± 0.5) × 1013 W cm-2 for the embedded SWCNTs and at (3.4 ± 0.3) × 1013 W cm-2 for the embedded graphene. Encapsulated variant of the dispersed nanomaterial was investigated as well. It was found that supernatant protein in the coating material tends to dominate the absorption process, independently of the embedded nanomaterial. The opposite was observed for the encapsulated material.

  6. All-carbon-based porous topological semimetal for Li-ion battery anode material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junyi; Wang, Shuo; Sun, Qiang

    2017-01-24

    Topological state of matter and lithium batteries are currently two hot topics in science and technology. Here we combine these two by exploring the possibility of using all-carbon-based porous topological semimetal for lithium battery anode material. Based on density-functional theory and the cluster-expansion method, we find that the recently identified topological semimetal bco-C16 is a promising anode material with higher specific capacity (Li-C4) than that of the commonly used graphite anode (Li-C6), and Li ions in bco-C16 exhibit a remarkable one-dimensional (1D) migration feature, and the ion diffusion channels are robust against the compressive and tensile strains during charging/discharging. Moreover, the energy barrier decreases with increasing Li insertion and can reach 0.019 eV at high Li ion concentration; the average voltage is as low as 0.23 V, and the volume change during the operation is comparable to that of graphite. These intriguing theoretical findings would stimulate experimental work on topological carbon materials.

  7. A bolometer based on single-walled carbon nanotubes and hybrid materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylova, D. S.; Boldyrev, N. Yu.; Iakovlev, V. Ya.; Gladush, Yu. G.; Nasibulin, A. G.

    2016-12-01

    We have designed a bolometric IR detector based on freestanding aerosol synthesised carbon nanotubes and hybrid graphene materials deposited on a film suspended over a hole in the substrate. In this case, graphene serves as an absorber. The effect of the amount of the deposited absorber on the spectral characteristics, voltage sensitivity, response time and noise of the bolometer is investigated. The best response time is observed for the samples of pristine carbon nanotubes, whereas the hybrid sample with the largest amount of graphene demonstrates the highest sensitivity to radiation. Moreover, we have measured and analysed the bolometer parameters as functions of the ambient pressure and temperature, which has allowed us to determine the optimum operating conditions for the device.

  8. Carbon-Based Perovskite Solar Cells without Hole Transport Materials: The Front Runner to the Market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haining; Yang, Shihe

    2017-02-21

    Organometal trihalide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have garnered recent interest in the scientific community. In the past few years, they have achieved power conversion efficiencies comparable to traditional commercial solar cells (e.g., crystalline Si, CuInGaSe and CdTe) due to their low-cost of production via solution-processed fabrication techniques. However, the stability of PSCs must be addressed before their commercialization is viable. Among various kinds of PSCs, carbon-based PSCs without hole transport materials (C-PSCs) seem to be the most promising for addressing the stability issue because carbon materials are stable, inert to ion migration (which originates from perovskite and metal electrodes), and inherently water-resistant. Despite the significant development of C-PSCs since they were first reported in 2013, some pending issues still need to be addressed to increase their commercial competitiveness. Herein, recent developments in C-PSCs, including (1) device structure and working principles, (2) categorical progress of and comparison between meso C-PSCs, embedment C-PSCs and paintable PSCs, are reviewed. Promising research directions are then suggested (e.g., materials, interfaces, structure, stability measurement and scaling-up of production) to further improve and promote the commercialization of C-PSCs.

  9. Materials for carbon dioxide separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qingqing

    2014-10-01

    The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at room temperature have been investigated by comparing carbon nanotubes, fullerene, graphenes, graphite and granular activated carbons. It turned out that the amount of the micropore surface area was dominating the CO{sub 2} adsorption ability. Another promising class of materials for CO{sub 2} capture and separation are CaO derived from the eggshells. Two aspects were studied in present work: a new hybrid materials synthesized by doping the CaTiO{sub 3} and the relationship between physisorption and chemisorption properties of CaO-based materials.

  10. Importance of Micropore-Mesopore Interfaces in Carbon Dioxide Capture by Carbon-Based Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá, Gema; Budarin, Vitaliy L; Castro-Osma, José A; Shuttleworth, Peter S; Quek, Sophie C Z; Clark, James H; North, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Mesoporous carbonaceous materials (Starbons®) derived from low-value/waste bio-resources separate CO2 from CO2 /N2 mixtures. Compared to Norit activated charcoal (AC), Starbons® have much lower microporosities (8-32 % versus 73 %) yet adsorb up to 65 % more CO2 . The presence of interconnected micropores and mesopores is responsible for the enhanced CO2 adsorption. The Starbons® also showed three-four times higher selectivity for CO2 adsorption rather than N2 adsorption compared to AC.

  11. Correlation between charge transfer and exchange coupling in carbon-based magnetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Anh Tuan, E-mail: tuanna@hus.edu.vn [Faculty of Physics, VNU University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Science and Technology Department, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, 144 Xuan Thuy, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1, Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa, 923-1292 Japan (Japan); Nguyen, Van Thanh; Nguyen, Huy Sinh [Faculty of Physics, VNU University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Pham, Thi Tuan Anh [Faculty of Physics, VNU University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Faculty of Science, College of Hai Duong, Nguyen Thi Due, Hai Duong (Viet Nam); Do, Viet Thang [Faculty of Physics, VNU University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Faculty of Science, Haiphong University, 171 Phan Dang Luu, Kien An, Hai Phong (Viet Nam); Dam, Hieu Chi [Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1, Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa, 923-1292 Japan (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Several forms of carbon-based magnetic materials, i.e. single radicals, radical dimers, and alternating stacks of radicals and diamagnetic molecules, have been investigated using density-functional theory with dispersion correction and full geometry optimization. Our calculated results demonstrate that the C{sub 31}H{sub 15} (R{sub 4}) radical has a spin of ½. However, in its [R{sub 4}]{sub 2} dimer structure, the net spin becomes zero due to antiferromagnetic spin-exchange between radicals. To avoid antiferromagnetic spin-exchange of identical face-to-face radicals, eight alternating stacks, R{sub 4}/D{sub 2m}/R{sub 4} (with m = 3-10), were designed. Our calculated results show that charge transfer (Δn) between R{sub 4} radicals and the diamagnetic molecule D{sub 2m} occurs with a mechanism of spin exchange (J) in stacks. The more electrons that transfer from R{sub 4} to D{sub 2m}, the stronger the ferromagnetic spin-exchange in stacks. In addition, our calculated results show that Δn can be tailored by adjusting the electron affinity (E{sub a}) of D{sub 2m}. The correlation between Δn, E{sub a}, m, and J is discussed. These results give some hints for the design of new ferromagnetic carbon-based materials.

  12. The influence of carbon fibre content on the tribological properties of polyarylate based composites materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Burya; A.I.; Chigvintseva; O.P

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of scientific-technical literature has shown the prospectiveness of applyinghigh-temperature thermoplastic polymers - among which there are complex aromatic polyesters -as constructive materials. Mixed polyarylates of DV mark based on diphenilolpropane and themixture of iso- and terephtale acid are mentioned to make the most valuable practical interest. Forimproving technological and exploitation properties the authors of the article have suggested toreinforce the polymer linking element with uglen-9 mark. Combination of the composition compo-nents was realized within the rotating electromagnetic field with the help of non-equiaxial ferro-magnetic elements. The study of tribotechnical characteristics (coefficient of friction, intensity oflinear wear, temperature in the contact zone "polymer specimen - counterbody" of elaborated car-bon plastics) has been made at the disc machine of friction. Investigation of exploitation regimes’(specific pressure and slip velocity) influence on the mentioned properties of the initial polymer hasshown that polyarylate can be recommended for work at values of PV criterion not greater than 1.2MPa · m/s. Hardening the exploitation regimes is accompanied by the catastrophic wear of plastic.Reinforcement of polyarylate with carbon fibre is noted to enable significant improvement (to de-crease the coefficient of friction, to increase resistance to wear) of tribotechnical characteristics ofcarbon plastics. The most optimal is the content of carbon fibre in polyarylate in amount of 25mass.%.

  13. Characterization and electrochemical application of carbon materials based on poly(phenylene oxide)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Hunter

    Carbon materials possess excellent electrical and surface properties for the next generation of energy storage devices. Polymers provide a carbon rich and tailorable precursor for the production of carbon materials. Therefore, activated carbons were prepared from poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) via a three step process: thermal oxidation, carbonization, and activation with KOH. The activated carbons are predominately microporous with BET specific surface areas up to 2638 m2/g. Impedance spectroscopy revealed these carbons possess electrical conductivities comparable to commercial carbon blacks and consequently were employed in thin-film composite electrodes in electrochemical double-layer capacitors. Cyclic voltammetry confirmed maximum specific capacitances of 13.23 F/g and 2.848 F/g for aqueous and organic electrolyte systems, respectively. Additionally, carbon nanotubes were synthesized from PPO and other polymers with a nickel catalyst via chemical vapor deposition as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. This is the first report of carbon nanotubes produced from PPO.

  14. Understanding the Atomic Scale Mechanisms that Control the Attainment of Ultralow Friction and Wear in Carbon-Based Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-16

    all other materials . Diamond, the stiffest and hardest bulk material known, can be grown in a smooth nanocrystalline thin film form with equivalent... materials Robert Carpick TRUSTEES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA Final Report 05/16/2016 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. AF...Scale Mechanism that controls the attainment of ultralow friction and wear in carbon based materials 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER Grant

  15. Substrate pre-treatment of flexible material for printed electronics with carbon nanotube based ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denneulin, Aurore; Bras, Julien; Blayo, Anne; Neuman, Charles

    2011-02-01

    In this work, an innovative solution was developed in order to make paper-based material, used traditionally in the packaging and labelling industries, compatible with the printing of functional conductive inks. In order to avoid the deterioration of the ink functionalities due to different paper properties, a UV-curing inkjettable primer layer was developed. This pre-treatment enables homogeneous surface properties such as smoothness, absorption capacity and surface energy to be obtained, for almost all the examined substrates. To confirm the positive impact of such pre-treatment, conductivity has been measured when using a new conductive ink, combining the processability of the PEDOT-PSS conductive polymer with the high electrical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Significant improvement has been measured for all paper materials and similar conductivity (close to reference PET film) has been obtained whatever the substrate involved. This pre-treatment now makes it possible to consider paper-based material as a potential substrate for printed electronics. In this case, the substrate adaptation technique offers an innovative solution to produce low-cost and flexible electronics.

  16. Theoretical realization of cluster-assembled hydrogen storage materials based on terminated carbon atomic chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Sheng; An, Hui; Guo, Ling-Ju; Zeng, Zhi; Ju, Xin

    2011-01-14

    The capacity of carbon atomic chains with different terminations for hydrogen storage is studied using first-principles density functional theory calculations. Unlike the physisorption of H(2) on the H-terminated chain, we show that two Li (Na) atoms each capping one end of the odd- or even-numbered carbon chain can hold ten H(2) molecules with optimal binding energies for room temperature storage. The hybridization of the Li 2p states with the H(2)σ orbitals contributes to the H(2) adsorption. However, the binding mechanism of the H(2) molecules on Na arises only from the polarization interaction between the charged Na atom and the H(2). Interestingly, additional H(2) molecules can be bound to the carbon atoms at the chain ends due to the charge transfer between Li 2s2p (Na 3s) and C 2p states. More importantly, dimerization of these isolated metal-capped chains does not affect the hydrogen binding energy significantly. In addition, a single chain can be stabilized effectively by the C(60) fullerenes termination. With a hydrogen uptake of ∼10 wt.% on Li-coated C(60)-C(n)-C(60) (n = 5, 8), the Li(12)C(60)-C(n)-Li(12)C(60) complex, keeping the number of adsorbed H(2) molecules per Li and stabilizing the dispersion of individual Li atoms, can serve as better building blocks of polymers than the (Li(12)C(60))(2) dimer. These findings suggest a new route to design cluster-assembled hydrogen storage materials based on terminated sp carbon chains.

  17. Charge transport in carbon nanotubes based materials: a Kubo-Greenwood computational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Hiroyuki; Triozon, François; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko; Hirose, Kenji; Roche, Stephan

    2009-05-01

    In this contribution, we present a numerical study of quantum transport in carbon nanotubes based materials. After a brief presentation of the computational approach used to investigate the transport coefficient (Kubo method), the scaling properties of quantum conductance in ballistic regime as well as in the diffusive regimes are illustrated. The impact of elastic (impurities) and dynamical disorders (phonon vibrations) are analyzed separately, with the extraction of main transport length scales (mean free path and localization length), as well as the temperature dependence of the nanotube resistance. The results are found in very good agreement with both analytical results and experimental data, demonstrating the predictability efficiency of our computational strategy. To cite this article: H. Ishii et al., C. R. Physique 10 (2009).

  18. Composite material based on an ablative phenolic resin and carbon fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIMKO DIMESKI

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a technological procedure for the production of a molding compound based on short carbon fibers and an ablative phenol–formaldehyde resin for high temperature application was optimized. The starting raw materials were characterized and molding compounds with different fiber/matrix ratios and different fiber lengths were obtained. From the different laboratory samples, molded parts were made by thermocompression. The basic mechanical and thermal properties of the composites were determined. From the obtained results, the optimal fiber/matrix ratio was determined for a production of molding compound for high temperature application. The molding process of the composite material was optimized and all the parameters for good mechanical properties and high thermal stability of the composite were obtained. Optimization of the composite molding process was performed by the application of a numerical method for a planned experiment, i.e., a full three-factorial experimental design with variance of all three parameters (fiber length, temperature and time of the press cycle on two levels. The obtained mechanical properties (flexural strength: 247 MPa, modulus: 27.6 GPa, impact resistance: 110 (for test moldings 10 mm´10 mm and 91 kJ/m2 (for test moldings 15 mm´15 mm justified the application of this composite material in the automotive, leisure, military and other industries where high temperature resistance and high mechanical strength is required.

  19. Materials Integration and Doping of Carbon Nanotube-based Logic Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Michael

    Over the last 20 years, extensive research into the structure and properties of single- walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) has elucidated many of the exceptional qualities possessed by SWCNTs, including record-setting tensile strength, excellent chemical stability, distinctive optoelectronic features, and outstanding electronic transport characteristics. In order to exploit these remarkable qualities, many application-specific hurdles must be overcome before the material can be implemented in commercial products. For electronic applications, recent advances in sorting SWCNTs by electronic type have enabled significant progress towards SWCNT-based integrated circuits. Despite these advances, demonstrations of SWCNT-based devices with suitable characteristics for large-scale integrated circuits have been limited. The processing methodologies, materials integration, and mechanistic understanding of electronic properties developed in this dissertation have enabled unprecedented scales of SWCNT-based transistor fabrication and integrated circuit demonstrations. Innovative materials selection and processing methods are at the core of this work and these advances have led to transistors with the necessary transport properties required for modern circuit integration. First, extensive collaborations with other research groups allowed for the exploration of SWCNT thin-film transistors (TFTs) using a wide variety of materials and processing methods such as new dielectric materials, hybrid semiconductor materials systems, and solution-based printing of SWCNT TFTs. These materials were integrated into circuit demonstrations such as NOR and NAND logic gates, voltage-controlled ring oscillators, and D-flip-flops using both rigid and flexible substrates. This dissertation explores strategies for implementing complementary SWCNT-based circuits, which were developed by using local metal gate structures that achieve enhancement-mode p-type and n-type SWCNT TFTs with widely separated and

  20. Graphene and Carbon Quantum Dot-Based Materials in Photovoltaic Devices: From Synthesis to Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Paulo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Graphene and carbon quantum dots have extraordinary optical and electrical features because of their quantum confinement properties. This makes them attractive materials for applications in photovoltaic devices (PV. Their versatility has led to their being used as light harvesting materials or selective contacts, either for holes or electrons, in silicon quantum dot, polymer or dye-sensitized solar cells. In this review, we summarize the most common uses of both types of semiconducting materials and highlight the significant advances made in recent years due to the influence that synthetic materials have on final performance.

  1. Carbon material for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourlinos, Athanasios; Steriotis, Theodore; Stubos, Athanasios; Miller, Michael A

    2016-09-13

    The present invention relates to carbon based materials that are employed for hydrogen storage applications. The material may be described as the pyrolysis product of a molecular precursor such as a cyclic quinone compound. The pyrolysis product may then be combined with selected transition metal atoms which may be in nanoparticulate form, where the metals may be dispersed on the material surface. Such product may then provide for the reversible storage of hydrogen. The metallic nanoparticles may also be combined with a second metal as an alloy to further improve hydrogen storage performance.

  2. Final Report: Characterization of Hydrogen Adsorption in Carbon-Based Materials by NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yue; Kleinhammes, Alfred

    2011-07-11

    In support of DOE/EERE's Fuel Cell Technologies Program Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE), UNC conducted Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements that contributed spectroscopic information as well as quantitative analysis of adsorption processes. While NMR based Langmuir isotherms produce reliable H2 capacity measurements, the most astute contribution to the center is provided by information on dihydrogen adsorption on the scale of nanometers, including the molecular dynamics of hydrogen in micropores, and the diffusion of dihydrogen between macro and micro pores. A new method to assess the pore width using H2 as probe of the pore geometry was developed and is based on the variation of the observed chemical shift of adsorbed dihydrogen as function of H2 pressure. Adsorbents designed and synthesized by the Center were assessed for their H2 capacity, the binding energy of the adsorption site, their pore structure and their ability to release H2. Feedback to the materials groups was provided to improve the materials’ properties. To enable in situ NMR measurements as a function of H2 pressure and temperature, a unique, specialized NMR system was designed and built. Pressure can be varied between 10-4 and 107 Pa while the temperature can be controlled between 77K and room temperature. In addition to the 1H investigation of the H2 adsorption process, NMR was implemented to measure the atomic content of substituted elements, e.g. boron in boron substituted graphitic material as well as to determine the local environment and symmetry of these substituted nuclei. The primary findings by UNC are the following: • Boron substituted for carbon in graphitic material in the planar BC3 configuration enhances the binding energy for adsorbed hydrogen. • Arrested kinetics of H2 was observed below 130K in the same boron substituted carbon samples that combine enhanced binding energy with micropore structure. • Hydrogen storage material made from

  3. Carbon materials for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang

    As an important energy storage device, electrochemical supercapacitors or ultracapacitors fill the gap between conventional dielectric capacitors and batteries in terms of specific energy and power. Although supercapacitors have been used in electric vehicles, digital communication instruments, and pulsed lasers, further improvement of supercapacitor performance is highly needed to enhance the energy density without significantly losing the power density. Additionally, the conventional supercapacitors use rigid packages and liquid electrolytes, which limit applications in transparent and flexible electronics. To address these challenges, the research efforts in this dissertation mainly focused on: 1) improvement of the energy density of carbon nanoonions by chemical activation; 2) laser-assisted activation of carbon nanotubes for improved energy density; 3) fabrication of flexible solid-state supercapacitors based on nanocarbon and manganese dioxide (MnO2) hybrid electrodes; and 4) investigation of the electrochemical performance of graphene as transparent and flexible supercapacitor electrodes.

  4. Damping Property of a Cement-Based Material Containing Carbon Nanotube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Wen Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the damping property of a cement-based material with carbon nanotube (CNT. In the study, the cement composites with different contents of CNT (0 wt%, 0.033 wt%, 0.066 wt%, and 0.1 wt% were investigated. Logarithmic Decrement method and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA method were utilized to study the damping property of CNT/cement composite. The influences of CNT on pore size distribution and microstructure of composite were analyzed by Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry (MIP and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, respectively. The experimental results showed that CNT/cement composite presented higher flexural strength index than that of a pure cement paste. Additional CNT could improve the vibration-reduction capacity of cement paste. Furthermore, the experiments proved that CNT could bridge adjacent hydration products and support load transfer within cement matrix, which contributed to the energy dissipation during the loading process.

  5. STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE MATERIAL BASED ON GYPSUM BINDER AND CARBON NANOTUBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHUMAK Anastasia Gennadievna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to carry out a number of studies in the area of nanomodi­fication of gypsum binder matrix and to investigate the influence of multilayer carbon nanotubes on the structure, physical and mechanical properties of obtained compos­ites. The study of the gypsum binders structure formation mechanisms with the use of nanoadditives makes it possible to control the production processes of gypsum materi­als and articles with the given set of properties. The main tasks of the binder nanomodification are: even distribution of carbon nanostructures over the whole volume of material and provision of stability for the nanodimensional modifier during production process of the construction composite.

  6. Multifunctional Material Structures Based on Laser-Etched Carbon Nanotube Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Emplit

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available High-power electronics in the transportation and aerospace sectors need size and weight reduction. Multifunctional and multistructured materials are currently being developed to couple electromagnetic (EM and thermal properties, i.e., shielding against electromagnetic impulsions, and thermal management across the thermal interface material (TIM. In this work, we investigate laser-machined patterned carbon nanotube (CNT micro-brushes as an alternative to metallic structures for driving simultaneously EM and heat propagation. The thermal and electromagnetic response of the CNT array is expected to be sensitive to the micro-structured pattern etched in the CNT brush.

  7. Gelatin-derived sustainable carbon-based functional materials for energy conversion and storage with controllability of structure and component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Li; Xu, Dan; Zhong, Hai-Xia; Wang, Jun; Meng, Fan-Lu; Zhang, Xin-Bo

    2015-02-01

    Nonprecious carbon catalysts and electrodes are vital components in energy conversion and storage systems. Despite recent progress, controllable synthesis of carbon functional materials is still a great challenge. We report a novel strategy to prepare simultaneously Fe-N-C catalysts and Fe3O4/N-doped carbon hybrids based on the sol-gel chemistry of gelatin and iron with controllability of structure and component. The catalysts demonstrate higher catalytic activity and better durability for oxygen reduction than precious Pt/C catalysts. The active sites of FeN4/C (D1) and N-FeN2+2/C (D3) are identified by Mössbauer spectroscopy, and most of the Fe ions are converted into D1 or D3 species. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity correlates well with the surface area, porosity, and the content of active Fe-N x /C (D1 + D3) species. As an anode material for lithium storage, Fe3O4/carbon hybrids exhibit superior rate capability and excellent cycling performance. The synthetic approach and the proposed mechanism open new avenues for the development of sustainable carbon-based functional materials.

  8. Mesoporous carbon materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng; Fulvio, Pasquale Fernando; Mayes, Richard T.; Wang, Xiqing; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Bingkun

    2014-09-09

    A conductive mesoporous carbon composite comprising conductive carbon nanoparticles contained within a mesoporous carbon matrix, wherein the conductive mesoporous carbon composite possesses at least a portion of mesopores having a pore size of at least 10 nm and up to 50 nm, and wherein the mesopores are either within the mesoporous carbon matrix, or are spacings delineated by surfaces of said conductive carbon nanoparticles when said conductive carbon nanoparticles are fused with each other, or both. Methods for producing the above-described composite, devices incorporating them (e.g., lithium batteries), and methods of using them, are also described.

  9. Application of Carbon Based Nano-Materials to Aeronautics and Space Lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Wal, Randy L. Vander

    2007-01-01

    The tribology program at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, is investigating carbon based nano-particles for their potential in advanced concept lubrication products. Service conditions range from high temperature atmospheric to low temperature vacuum. Some of the lubricants and surface coatings of tribological significance that we have evaluated include neat nano-particles, both grown in-situ and as bulk material deposited on the substrate, and nano-particles dispersed in oils which are all highly substrate interactive. We discuss results of testing these systems in a spiral orbit tribometer (SOT) and a unidirectional pin-on-disc (PoD) tribometer. A nano-onions/Krytox mixture evaluated as a lubricant for angular contact bearings in air caused a marked lowering of the coefficient of friction (CoF) (0.04 to 0.05) for the mixture with an eight-fold improvement in lifetime over that of the Krytox alone. In vacuum, no effect was observed from the nano-onions. Multi-walled nanotubes (MWNT) and graphitized MWNT were tested under sliding friction in both air and vacuum. The MWNT which were grown in-situ oriented normal to the sliding surface exhibited low CoF (0.04) and long wear lives. Bulk MWNT also generate low CoF (0.01 to 0.04, vacuum; and 0.06, air) and long wear life (>1 million orbits, vacuum; and >3.5 million, air). Dispersed graphitized MWNT were superior to MWNT and both were superior to aligned MWNT indicating that orientation is not an issue for solid lubrication. Single-walled nanotubes (SWNT) were modified by cutting into shorter segments and by fluorination. All SWNTs exhibited low CoF in air, with good wear lives. The SWNT with slight fluorination yielded an ultra-low CoF of 0.002 although the best wear life was attributed to the nascent SWNT.

  10. Nanoengineered Carbon-Based Materials For Reactive Adsorption of Toxic Industrial Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-13

    ChemSusChem, (03 2011): 0. doi: 10.1002/cssc.201000296 Camille Petit, Teresa J. Bandosz. Synthesis , Characterization, and Ammonia Adsorption...Bandosz. The synthesis and characterization of copper-based metal organic framework/graphene composites, Carbon, (9 2010): . doi: C. Petit, B...Mendoza, T.J. Bandosz. Reactive adsorption of ammonia on Cu-based MOF /graphene composites , Langmuir, (7 2010): . doi: Kavindra Singh, Nikolina A

  11. Low-temperature plasma synthesis of carbon nanotubes and graphene based materials and their fuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Wang, Xiangke; Chai, Zhifang; Hu, Wenping

    2013-12-07

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene, and materials based on these, are largely used in multidisciplinary fields. Many techniques have been put forward to synthesize them. Among all kinds of approaches, the low-temperature plasma approach is widely used due to its numerous advantages, such as highly distributed active species, reduced energy requirements, enhanced catalyst activation, shortened operation time and decreased environmental pollution. This tutorial review focuses on the recent development of plasma synthesis of CNTs and graphene based materials and their electrochemical application in fuel cells.

  12. Commercialization of New Carbon Fiber Materials Based on Sustainable Resources for Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberle, Cliff [ORNL; Webb, Daniel C [ORNL; Albers, Tracy [GrafTech International; Chen, Chong [GrafTech International

    2013-03-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and GrafTech International have collaborated to develop and demonstrate the performance of high temperature thermal insulation prototypes made from lignin-based carbon fibers. This project will potentially lead to the first commercial application of lignin-based carbon fibers (LBCF). The goal of the commercial application is to replace expensive, Chinese-sourced isotropic pitch carbon fibers with lower cost carbon fibers made from a domestically sourced, bio-derived (renewable) feedstock. LBCF can help recapture jobs that were previously exported to China while resolving a supply chain vulnerability and reducing the production cost for GrafTech s high temperature thermal insulation. The performance of the LBCF prototypes was measured and found to be comparable to that of the current commercial product. During production of the insulation prototypes, ORNL and GrafTech demonstrated lignin compounding/pelletization, fiber production, heat treatment, and compositing at scales far surpassing those previously demonstrated in LBCF R&D or production. A plan was developed for the commercialization of LBCF thermal insulation, with key milestones including qualification of multiple scalable lignin sources in 2013, tons-scale production and field testing by customers in 2014, and product launch as soon thereafter as production capabilities can be constructed and commissioned.

  13. Surface Crack Detection for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic Materials Using Pulsed Eddy Current Based on Rectangular Differential Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialong Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the surface defect inspection of carbon fiber reinforced composite, the differential and the direct measurement finite element simulation models of pulsed eddy current flaw detection were built. The principle of differential pulsed eddy current detection was analyzed and the sensitivity of defect detection was compared through two kinds of measurements. The validity of simulation results was demonstrated by experiments. The simulation and experimental results show that the pulsed eddy current detection method based on rectangular differential probe can effectively improve the sensitivity of surface defect detection of carbon fiber reinforced composite material.

  14. Antimicrobial nanocomposites based on natural modified materials: a review of carbons and clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynková, Grazyna Simha; Valásková, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The review is focused on the recent research and development of antimicrobial nanocomposites based on selected carbon nanomaterials and natural nanoclay minerals. The nanocomposites comprised of two or several components, where at least one presents antimicrobial properties, are discussed. Yet the most popular agent remains silver as nanoparticle or in ionic form. Second, broadly studied group, are organics as additives or polymeric matrices. Both carbons and clays in certain forms possess antimicrobial properties. A lot of interest is put on to research graphene oxide. The low-environmental impact technologies-based on sustainable biopolymers have been studied. Testing of antimicrobial properties of nanomaterials is performed most frequently on E. coli and S. aureus bacterias.

  15. Preparation of novel carbon microfiber/carbon nanofiber-dispersed polyvinyl alcohol-based nanocomposite material for lithium-ion electrolyte battery separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajit K; Khare, Prateek; Singh, Jayant K; Verma, Nishith

    2013-04-01

    A novel nanocomposite polyvinyl alcohol precursor-based material dispersed with the web of carbon microfibers and carbon nanofibers is developed as lithium (Li)-ion electrolyte battery separator. The primary synthesis steps of the separator material consist of esterification of polyvinyl acetate to produce polyvinyl alcohol gel, ball-milling of the surfactant dispersed carbon micro-nanofibers, mixing of the milled micron size (~500 nm) fibers to the reactant mixture at the incipience of the polyvinyl alcohol gel formation, and the mixing of hydrophobic reagents along with polyethylene glycol as a plasticizer, to produce a thin film of ~25 μm. The produced film, uniformly dispersed with carbon micro-nanofibers, has dramatically improved performance as a battery separator, with the ion conductivity of the electrolytes (LiPF6) saturated film measured as 0.119 S-cm(-1), approximately two orders of magnitude higher than that of polyvinyl alcohol. The other primary characteristics of the produced film, such as tensile strength, contact angle, and thermal stability, are also found to be superior to the materials made of other precursors, including polypropylene and polyethylene, discussed in the literature. The method of producing the films in this study is novel, simple, environmentally benign, and economically viable.

  16. A computational study on novel carbon-based lithium materials for hydrogen storage and the role of carbon in destabilizing complex metal hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghouri, Mohammed Minhaj

    One of the major impediments in the way of the realization of hydrogen economy is the storage of hydrogen gas. This involves both the storage for stationary applications as well as that of storage onboard vehicles for transportation applications. For obvious reasons, the system targets for the automotive applications are more stringent. There are many approaches which are still being researched for the storage of hydrogen for vehicular applications. Among them are the high pressure storage of hydrogen gas and the storing of liquid hydrogen in super insulated cryogenic cylinders. While both of them have been demonstrated practically, the high stakes of their respective shortcomings is hindering the wide spread application of these methods. Thus different solid state storage materials are being looked upon as promising solutions. Metal hydrides are a class of solid state hydrogen storage materials which are formed by the reaction of metals or their alloys with hydrogen. These materials have very good gravimetric storage densities, but are very stable thermodynamically to desorp hydrogen at room temperatures. Research is going on to improve the thermodynamics and the reaction kinetics of different metal hydrides. This dissertation tries to address the problem of high thermodynamic stability of the existing metal hydrides in two ways. First, a novel carbon based lithium material is proposed as a viable storage option based on its promising thermodynamic heat of formation. Pure beryllium (Be) clusters and the carbon-beryllium (C-Be) clusters are studied in detail using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) computational methods. Their interactions with hydrogen molecule are further studied. The results of these calculations indicate that hydrogen is more strongly physisorbed to the beryllium atom in the C-Be cluster, rather than to a carbon atom. After these initial studies, we calculated the geometries and the energies of more than 100 different carbon based lithium

  17. Metal-Free Carbon-Based Materials: Promising Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Microbial Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandesh Y. Sawant

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs are a promising green approach for wastewater treatment with the simultaneous advantage of energy production. Among the various limiting factors, the cathodic limitation, with respect to performance and cost, is one of the main obstacles to the practical applications of MFCs. Despite the high performance of platinum and other metal-based cathodes, their practical use is limited by their high cost, low stability, and environmental toxicity. Oxygen is the most favorable electron acceptor in the case of MFCs, which reduces to water through a complicated oxygen reduction reaction (ORR. Carbon-based ORR catalysts possessing high surface area and good electrical conductivity improve the ORR kinetics by lowering the cathodic overpotential. Recently, a range of carbon-based materials have attracted attention for their exceptional ORR catalytic activity and high stability. Doping the carbon texture with a heteroatom improved their ORR activity remarkably through the favorable adsorption of oxygen and weaker molecular bonding. This review provides better insight into ORR catalysis for MFCs and the properties, performance, and applicability of various metal-free carbon-based electrocatalysts in MFCs to find the most appropriate cathodic catalyst for the practical applications. The approaches for improvement, key challenges, and future opportunities in this field are also explored.

  18. Metal-Free Carbon-Based Materials: Promising Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Microbial Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Sandesh Y.; Han, Thi Hiep; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a promising green approach for wastewater treatment with the simultaneous advantage of energy production. Among the various limiting factors, the cathodic limitation, with respect to performance and cost, is one of the main obstacles to the practical applications of MFCs. Despite the high performance of platinum and other metal-based cathodes, their practical use is limited by their high cost, low stability, and environmental toxicity. Oxygen is the most favorable electron acceptor in the case of MFCs, which reduces to water through a complicated oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Carbon-based ORR catalysts possessing high surface area and good electrical conductivity improve the ORR kinetics by lowering the cathodic overpotential. Recently, a range of carbon-based materials have attracted attention for their exceptional ORR catalytic activity and high stability. Doping the carbon texture with a heteroatom improved their ORR activity remarkably through the favorable adsorption of oxygen and weaker molecular bonding. This review provides better insight into ORR catalysis for MFCs and the properties, performance, and applicability of various metal-free carbon-based electrocatalysts in MFCs to find the most appropriate cathodic catalyst for the practical applications. The approaches for improvement, key challenges, and future opportunities in this field are also explored. PMID:28029116

  19. Metal-Free Carbon-Based Materials: Promising Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Microbial Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Sandesh Y; Han, Thi Hiep; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2016-12-24

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a promising green approach for wastewater treatment with the simultaneous advantage of energy production. Among the various limiting factors, the cathodic limitation, with respect to performance and cost, is one of the main obstacles to the practical applications of MFCs. Despite the high performance of platinum and other metal-based cathodes, their practical use is limited by their high cost, low stability, and environmental toxicity. Oxygen is the most favorable electron acceptor in the case of MFCs, which reduces to water through a complicated oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Carbon-based ORR catalysts possessing high surface area and good electrical conductivity improve the ORR kinetics by lowering the cathodic overpotential. Recently, a range of carbon-based materials have attracted attention for their exceptional ORR catalytic activity and high stability. Doping the carbon texture with a heteroatom improved their ORR activity remarkably through the favorable adsorption of oxygen and weaker molecular bonding. This review provides better insight into ORR catalysis for MFCs and the properties, performance, and applicability of various metal-free carbon-based electrocatalysts in MFCs to find the most appropriate cathodic catalyst for the practical applications. The approaches for improvement, key challenges, and future opportunities in this field are also explored.

  20. Material Flows and Carbon Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrell, E.

    2003-12-01

    The industrial sector emits almost 43 percent of the global anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions to produce materials and products. Furthermore, energy is used to move materials and products and process the waste. Hence, a large amount of energy is consumed and CO2 is emitted to sustain our materials system. Until recently, studies investigating mitigation options focused on changes in the energy system. For industrial processes most studies evaluate how the current materials system can be maintained producing fewer greenhouse gas emissions. Three elements of a strategy to improve the long-term materials productivity are the reduction of dissipative uses of non-biodegradable materials, secondly, the re-design of products to use less material or design for re-use or recycling, and thirdly, develop more efficient technologies for material conversion and recycling. This will reduce or eliminate the need to extract virgin materials from the environment, and reduce CO2 emissions from the energy-intensive production processes. To assess measures to reduce materials consumption, fossil fuels consumption and CO2 emissions, detailed understanding of the material system is needed. The lifecycle of materials has to be investigated including all branches of industry with all the inputs and outputs. We start with a discussion of materials and the carbon cycle focusing on the contribution of materials to anthropogenic carbon flows. We discuss CO2 emissions from energy use in materials extraction and production, fossil (e.g. plastics) and biomass carbon (e.g. lumber, paper) used as feedstock of materials, and mineral sources (e.g. cement). We discuss opportunities to reduce CO2 emissions by improving the efficiency with which society uses materials through product design, material substitution, product reuse and material recycling.

  1. Carbon Materials Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    electrodes, high temperature molds, rocket nozzles and exit cones, tires , ink, nuclear reactors and fuel particles, filters, prosthetics, batteries and...carbon would be highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), which is formed by depositing one atom at a time on a surface utilizing the pyrolysis of a...Moreover, it is well known that during pyrolysis , mesophase converts into a matrix that is very anisotropic. The formation of onion-like “sheaths

  2. New Nanotech from an Ancient Material: Chemistry Demonstrations Involving Carbon-Based Soot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Andrews, Mark J.; Stevenson, Keith J.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon soot has been known since antiquity, but has recently been finding new uses as a robust, inexpensive nanomaterial. This paper describes the superhydrophobic properties of carbon soot films prepared by combustion of candle wax or propane gas and introduces some of the optical absorption and fluorescence properties of carbon soot particles.…

  3. A novel carbon fiber based porous carbon monolith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchell, T.D.; Klett, J.W.; Weaver, C.E.

    1995-06-01

    A novel porous carbon material based on carbon fibers has been developed. The material, when activated, develops a significant micro- or mesopore volume dependent upon the carbon fiber type utilized (isotropic pitch or polyacrylonitrile). The materials will find applications in the field of fluid separations or as a catalyst support. Here, the manufacture and characterization of our porous carbon monoliths are described. A novel adsorbent carbon composite material has been developed comprising carbon fibers and a binder. The material, called carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS), was developed through a joint research program between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research (UKCAER).

  4. The Erosion and Erosion Products of Tungsten and Carbon Based Materials Bombarded by High Energy Pulse Electron Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUXiang; N.Yoshida; N.Noda; ZHANGFu; XUZengyu; LIUYong

    2001-01-01

    High Z and low Z materials are both the candidate plasma facing materials (PFM), up to now, the typical representative of high Z materials is tungsten, and the representatives of low Z materials are carbon materials (such as graphite, C/C composite) and beryllium. Most of these materials have been used as PFM limiters and diverter armor tiles of tokamak machines, tungsten, molybdenum and C/C composite are always used as high heat flux components.

  5. New Carbon-Based Porous Materials with Increased Heats of Adsorption for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snurr, Randall Q.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Nguyen, SonBinh T.

    2014-11-03

    Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are a promising alternative to internal combustion engines that burn gasoline. A significant challenge in developing fuel cell vehicles is to store enough hydrogen on-board to allow the same driving range as current vehicles. One option for storing hydrogen on vehicles is to use tanks filled with porous materials that act as “sponges” to take up large quantities of hydrogen without the need for extremely high pressures. The materials must meet many requirements to make this possible. This project aimed to develop two related classes of porous materials to meet these requirements. All materials were synthesized from molecular constituents in a building-block approach, which allows for the creation of an incredibly wide variety of materials in a tailorable fashion. The materials have extremely high surface areas, to provide many locations for hydrogen to adsorb. In addition, they were designed to contain cations that create large electric fields to bind hydrogen strongly but not too strongly. Molecular modeling played a key role as a guide to experiment throughout the project. A major accomplishment of the project was the development of a material with record hydrogen uptake at cryogenic temperatures. Although the ultimate goal was materials that adsorb large quantities of hydrogen at room temperature, this achievement at cryogenic temperatures is an important step in the right direction. In addition, there is significant interest in applications at these temperatures. The hydrogen uptake, measured independently at NREL was 8.0 wt %. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest validated excess hydrogen uptake reported to date at 77 K. This material was originally sketched on paper based on a hypothesis that extended framework struts would yield materials with excellent hydrogen storage properties. However, before starting the synthesis, we used molecular modeling to assess the performance of the material for hydrogen uptake

  6. New Carbon-Based Porous Materials with Increased Heats of Adsorption for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snurr, Randall Q.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Nguyen, SonBinh T.

    2014-11-03

    Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are a promising alternative to internal combustion engines that burn gasoline. A significant challenge in developing fuel cell vehicles is to store enough hydrogen on-board to allow the same driving range as current vehicles. One option for storing hydrogen on vehicles is to use tanks filled with porous materials that act as “sponges” to take up large quantities of hydrogen without the need for extremely high pressures. The materials must meet many requirements to make this possible. This project aimed to develop two related classes of porous materials to meet these requirements. All materials were synthesized from molecular constituents in a building-block approach, which allows for the creation of an incredibly wide variety of materials in a tailorable fashion. The materials have extremely high surface areas, to provide many locations for hydrogen to adsorb. In addition, they were designed to contain cations that create large electric fields to bind hydrogen strongly but not too strongly. Molecular modeling played a key role as a guide to experiment throughout the project. A major accomplishment of the project was the development of a material with record hydrogen uptake at cryogenic temperatures. Although the ultimate goal was materials that adsorb large quantities of hydrogen at room temperature, this achievement at cryogenic temperatures is an important step in the right direction. In addition, there is significant interest in applications at these temperatures. The hydrogen uptake, measured independently at NREL was 8.0 wt %. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest validated excess hydrogen uptake reported to date at 77 K. This material was originally sketched on paper based on a hypothesis that extended framework struts would yield materials with excellent hydrogen storage properties. However, before starting the synthesis, we used molecular modeling to assess the performance of the material for hydrogen uptake

  7. Engineering carbon materials from the hydrothermal carbonization process of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Wang, Kan; Wu, Liheng; Yu, Shu-Hong; Antonietti, Markus; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena

    2010-02-16

    Energy shortage, environmental crisis, and developing customer demands have driven people to find facile, low-cost, environmentally friendly, and nontoxic routes to produce novel functional materials that can be commercialized in the near future. Amongst various techniques, the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process of biomass (either of isolated carbohydrates or crude plants) is a promising candidate for the synthesis of novel carbon-based materials with a wide variety of potential applications. In this Review, we will discuss various synthetic routes towards such novel carbon-based materials or composites via the HTC process of biomass. Furthermore, factors that influence the carbonization process will be analyzed and the special chemical/physical properties of the final products will be discussed. Despite the lack of a clear mechanism, these novel carbonaceous materials have already shown promising applications in many fields such as carbon fixation, water purification, fuel cell catalysis, energy storage, CO(2) sequestration, bioimaging, drug delivery, and gas sensors. Some of the most promising examples will also be discussed here, demonstrating that the HTC process can rationally design a rich family of carbonaceous and hybrid functional carbon materials with important applications in a sustainable fashion.

  8. Reduction of Photoluminescence Quenching by Deuteration of Ytterbium-Doped Amorphous Carbon-Based Photonic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Lin Hsu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In situ Yb-doped amorphous carbon thin films were grown on Si substrates at low temperatures (<200 °C by a simple one-step RF-PEMOCVD system as a potential photonic material for direct integration with Si CMOS back end-of-line processing. Room temperature photoluminescence around 1 µm was observed via direct incorporation of optically active Yb3+ ions from the selected Yb(fod3 metal-organic compound. The partially fluorinated Yb(fod3 compound assists the suppression of photoluminescence quenching by substitution of C–H with C–F bonds. A four-fold enhancement of Yb photoluminescence was demonstrated via deuteration of the a-C host. The substrate temperature greatly influences the relative deposition rate of the plasma dissociated metal-organic species, and hence the concentration of the various elements. Yb and F incorporation are promoted at lower substrate temperatures, and suppressed at higher substrate temperatures. O concentration is slightly elevated at higher substrate temperatures. Photoluminescence was limited by the concentration of Yb within the film, the concentration of Yb ions in the +3 state, and the relative amount of quenching due to the various de-excitation pathways associated with the vibrational modes of the host a-C network. The observed wide full-width-at-half-maximum photoluminescence signal is a result of the variety of local bonding environments due to the a-C matrix, and the bonding of the Yb3+ ions to O and/or F ions as observed in the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses.

  9. Natural materials for carbon capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myshakin, Evgeniy M. (National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA); Romanov, Vyacheslav N. (National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA); Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2010-11-01

    Naturally occurring clay minerals provide a distinctive material for carbon capture and carbon dioxide sequestration. Swelling clay minerals, such as the smectite variety, possess an aluminosilicate structure that is controlled by low-charge layers that readily expand to accommodate water molecules and, potentially, carbon dioxide. Recent experimental studies have demonstrated the efficacy of intercalating carbon dioxide in the interlayer of layered clays but little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the process and the extent of carbon capture as a function of clay charge and structure. A series of molecular dynamics simulations and vibrational analyses have been completed to assess the molecular interactions associated with incorporation of CO2 in the interlayer of montmorillonite clay and to help validate the models with experimental observation.

  10. A New Type of Multielements-Doped, Carbon-based Materials Characterized by High-thermoconductiv ity, Low Chemical Sputtering, Low RES Yield and Exposure to Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许增裕; 刘翔; 谌继明; 王明旭; 宋进仁; 翟更太; 李承新

    2002-01-01

    Low-Z materials, such as carbon-based materials and Be, are major plasma-facing material (PFM) for current, even in future fusion devices. In this paper, a new type of multielement-doped carbon-based materials developed are presented along with experimental re sults of their properties. The results indicate a decrease in chemical sputtering yield by one order of magnitude, a decrease in both thermal shock resistance and radiation-enhanced sublimation, an evidently lower temperature desorption spectrum, and combined properties of exposing to plasma.

  11. B4C as a stable non-carbon-based oxygen electrode material for lithium-oxygen batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Shidong; Xu, Wu; Cao, Ruiguo; Luo, Langli; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bowden, Mark E.; Liu, Bin; Estevez, Luis; Wang, Chong-Min; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2017-01-19

    Lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries have extremely high theoretical specific capacities and energy densities when compared with Li-ion batteries. However, the instability of both electrolyte and carbon-based oxygen electrode related to the nucleophilic attack of reduced oxygen species during oxygen reduction reaction and the electrochemical oxidation during oxygen evolution reaction are recognized as the major challenges in this field. Here we report the application of boron carbide (B4C) as the non-carbon based oxygen electrode material for aprotic Li-O2 batteries. B4C has high resistance to chemical attack, good conductivity, excellent catalytic activity and low density that are suitable for battery applications. The electrochemical activity and chemical stability of B4C are systematically investigated in aprotic electrolyte. Li-O2 cells using B4C based air electrodes exhibit better cycling stability than those used TiC based air electrode in 1 M LiTf-Tetraglyme electrolyte. The degradation of B4C based electrode is mainly due to be the loss of active sites on B4C electrode during cycles as identified by the structure and composition characterizations. These results clearly demonstrate that B4C is a very promising alternative oxygen electrode material for aprotic Li-O2 batteries. It can also be used as a standard electrode to investigate the stability of electrolytes.

  12. Functional Materials Based on Surface Modification of Carbon Nanotubes for Biomedical and Environmental Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Mashat, Afnan

    2015-05-01

    Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), they have gained much interest in many science and engineering fields. The modification of CNTs by introducing different functional groups to their surface is important for CNTs to be tailored to fit the need of specific applications. This dissertation presents several CNT-based systems that can provide biomedical and environmental advantages. In this research, polyethylenimine (PEI) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were used to coat CNTs through hydrogen bonding. The release of doxorubicin (DOX, an anticancer drug) from this system was controlled by temperature. This system represents a promising method for incorporating stimuli triggered polymer-gated CNTs in controlled release applications. To create an acid responsive system CNTs were coated with 1,2-Distearoyl-snglycero- 3-Phosphoethanolamine-N-[Amino(Polyethylene glycol)2000]-(PE-PEG) and Poly(acrylic acid) modified dioleoy lphosphatidyl-ethanolamine (PE-PAA). An acidlabile linker was used to cross-link PAA, forming ALP@CNTs, thus making the system acid sensitive. The release of DOX from ALP@CNTs was found to be higher in an acidic environment. Moreover, near infrared (NIR) light was used to enhance the release of DOX from ALP@CNTs. A CNT-based membrane with controlled diffusion was prepared in the next study. CNTs were used as a component of a cellulose/gel membrane due to their optical property, which allows them to convert NIR light into heat. Poly(Nisopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) was used due to its thermo-sensitivity. The properties of both the CNTs and PNIPAm’s were used to control the diffusion of the cargo from the system, under the influence of NIR. CNTs were also used to fabricate an antibacterial agent, for which they were coated with polydopamine (PDA) and decorated with silver particles (Ag). Galactose (Gal) terminated with thiol groups conjugated with the above system was used to strengthen the bacterial targeting ability. The antibacterial activity of

  13. Single-walled carbon nanotubes covalently functionalized with polytyrosine: A new material for the development of NADH-based biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguílaz, Marcos; Gutierrez, Fabiana; González-Domínguez, Jose Miguel; Martínez, María T; Rivas, Gustavo

    2016-12-15

    We report for the first time the use of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) covalently functionalized with polytyrosine (Polytyr) (SWCNT-Polytyr) as a new electrode material for the development of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-based biosensors. The oxidation of glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) modified with SWCNT-Polytyr at potentials high enough to oxidize the tyrosine residues have allowed the electrooxidation of NADH at low potentials due to the catalytic activity of the quinones generated from the primary oxidation of tyrosine without any additional redox mediator. The amperometric detection of NADH at 0.200V showed a sensitivity of (217±3)µAmM(-1)cm(-2) and a detection limit of 7.9nM. The excellent electrocatalytic activity of SWCNT-Polytyr towards NADH oxidation has also made possible the development of a sensitive ethanol biosensor through the immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) via Nafion entrapment, with excellent analytical characteristics (sensitivity of (5.8±0.1)µAmM(-1)cm(-2), detection limit of 0.67µM) and very successful application for the quantification of ethanol in different commercial beverages.

  14. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-12-07

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure-property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templated carbon, are discussed.

  15. Investigation of Structure and Physico-Mechanical Properties of Composite Materials Based on Copper - Carbon Nanoparticles Powder Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovtun V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Physico-mechanical and structural properties of electrocontact sintered copper matrix- carbon nanoparticles composite powder materials are presented. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the influence of preliminary mechanical activation of the powder system on distribution of carbon nanoparticles in the metal matrix. Mechanical activation ensures mechanical bonding of nanoparticles to the surface of metal particles, thus giving a possibility for manufacture of a composite with high physico-mechanical properties.

  16. Sustainable carbon materials from hydrothermal processes

    CERN Document Server

    Titirici, Maria-Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The production of low cost and environmentally friendly high performing carbon materials is crucial for a sustainable future. Sustainable Carbon Materials from Hydrothermal Processes describes a sustainable and alternative technique to produce carbon from biomass in water at low temperatures, a process known as Hydrothermal Carbonization (HTC). Sustainable Carbon Materials from Hydrothermal Processes presents an overview of this new and rapidly developing field, discussing various synthetic approaches, characterization of the final products, and modern fields of application fo

  17. Synthesis of small metallic Mg-based nanoparticles confined in porous carbon materials for hydrogen sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotea, Claudia; Chevalier-César, Clotaire; Léonel, Eric; Leroy, Eric; Cuevas, Fermin; Dibandjo, Philippe; Vix-Guterl, Cathie; Martens, Thierry; Latroche, Michel

    2011-01-01

    MgH2, Mg-Ni-H and Mg-Fe-H nanoparticles inserted into ordered mesoporous carbon templates have been synthesized by decomposition of organometallic precursors under hydrogen atmosphere and mild temperature conditions. The hydrogen desorption properties of the MgH2 nanoparticles are studied by thermo-desorption spectroscopy. The particle size distribution of MgH2, as determined by TEM, is crucial for understanding the desorption properties. The desorption kinetics are significantly improved by downsizing the particle size below 10 nm. Isothermal absorption/desorption cycling of the MgH2 nanoparticles shows a stable capacity over 13 cycles. The absorption kinetics are unchanged though the desorption kinetics are slower on cycling.

  18. Carbon nanotube-based glucose oxidase nanocomposite anode materials for bio-fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzik, Jonathan

    The field of nanotechnology has benefited medicine, science, and engineering. The advent of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and protein-inorganic interfacing have received much attention due to their unique nanostructures which can be modified to act as a scaffold to house proteins or create nanowires. The current trend incorporates the robustness and specificity characteristics of proteins to the mechanical strength, enlarged surface area, and conductive capabilities emblematic of their inorganic counterparts. Bio-Fuel Cells (BFCs) and Biosensors remain at the forefront and devices such as implantable glucose monitors are closer to realization than ever before. This research strives to exploit potential energy from the eukaryotic enzyme Glucose Oxidase (GOx) during oxidation of its substrate, glucose. During this process, a two-electron transfer occurs at its two FAD redox centres which can be harnessed via an electrochemical setup involving a Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube (MWCNTs) modified electrode. The objective is to develop a MWCNT-GOx bionanocomposite capable of producing and sustaining a competitive power output. To help with this aim, investigation into a crosslinked enzyme cluster (CEC) immobilization technique is envisioned to amplify power output due to its highly concentrated, reusable, and thermally stable characteristics. Numerous CEC-GOx-MWCNT composites were fabricated with the highest initial output reaching 170 muW/cm 2. It was hypothesized that the carbohydrate moiety increased tunnelling distance and therefore hindered electron transfer. Efforts to produce a recombinant GOx without the encumbrance were unsuccessful. Two sub-clone constructs were explored and although a recombinant protein was identified, it was not confirmed to be GOx. BFC testing on bionanocomposites integrating non-glycosylated GOx could not be performed although there remains a strong contention that the recombinant would demonstrate superior power densities in comparison to its

  19. Potentiometric urea biosensor based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/silica composite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahuja, Tarushee [National Physical Laboratory (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110012 (India); Department of Applied Chemistry, Delhi College of Engineering, University of Delhi, Bawana Road, Delhi-110042 (India); Kumar, D. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Delhi College of Engineering, University of Delhi, Bawana Road, Delhi-110042 (India); Singh, Nahar; Biradar, A.M. [National Physical Laboratory (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110012 (India); Rajesh, E-mail: rajesh_csir@yahoo.com [National Physical Laboratory (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110012 (India)

    2011-03-12

    A novel potentiometric urea biosensor has been fabricated with urease (Urs) immobilized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) embedded in silica matrix deposited on the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass plate. The enzyme Urs was covalently linked with the exposed free -COOH groups of functionalized MWCNTs (F-MWCNTs), which are subsequently incorporated within the silica matrix by sol-gel method. The Urs/MWCNTs/SiO{sub 2}/ITO composite modified electrode was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and UV-visible spectroscopy. The morphologies and electrochemical performance of the modified Urs/MWCNTs/SiO{sub 2}/ITO electrode have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and potentiometric method, respectively. The synergistic effect of silica matrix, F-MWCNTs and biocompatibility of Urs/MWCNTs/SiO{sub 2} made the biosensor to have the excellent electro catalytic activity and high stability. The resulting biosensor exhibits a good response performance to urea detection with a wide linear range from 2.18 x 10{sup -5} to 1.07 x 10{sup -3} M urea. The biosensor shows a short response time of 10-25 s and a high sensitivity of 23 mV/decade/cm{sup 2}.

  20. Low-voltage ionization of air with carbon-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M. S.; Zhang, W.; Fisher, T. S.; Garimella, S. V.

    2005-11-01

    Polycrystalline diamond and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhibit excellent vacuum field emission properties, characterized by low turn-on voltage and high current density. Their atmospheric field emission and ionization capabilities are reported in this paper. Highly graphitic polycrystalline diamond (HGPD) film was grown in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition process, and its ability to ionize atmospheric air was characterized and compared against CNTs. The HGPD sample was activated by applying a moderate voltage bias (340 V) for an extended period across a 10 µm electrode gap. After activation, a turn-on voltage of 20 V and a sustainable current of 10 µA were observed with the same gap. Results also indicate that field emission helps to create a moderate ionization effect without catastrophic air breakdown. A hydrogen plasma treatment is shown to restore emission current back to or even exceeding the original level, which suggests an important role of surface termination in the electron emission process. CNTs were grown and tested but did not perform as well under similar conditions.

  1. Carbon-based catalysts:Opening new scenario to develop next-generation nano-engineered catalytic materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claudio Ampelli; Siglinda Perathoner; Gabriele Centi

    2014-01-01

    This essay analyses some of the recent development in nanocarbons (carbon materials having a defined and controlled nano-scale dimension and functional properties which strongly depend on their nano-scale features and architecture), with reference to their use as advanced catalytic materials. It is remarked how their features open new possibilities for catalysis and that they represent a new class of catalytic materials. Although carbon is used from long time in catalysis as support and electrocatalytic applications, nanocarbons offer unconventional ways for their utilization and to address some of the new challenges deriving from moving to a more sustainable future. This essay comments how nanocarbons are a key element to develop next-generation catalytic materials, but remarking that this goal requires overcoming some of the actual limits in current research. Some aspects are discussed to give a glimpse on new directions and needs for R&D to progress in this direction.

  2. Self-response multi-functional composite material base on carbon nanotube paper using deicing, flame retardancy, thermal insulation, and lightning-strike protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hetao; Zhang, Zhichun; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2015-04-01

    Carbon nanotube paper (CNP) based multi-functional composite material is an attractive candidate for deicing, flame retardancy, thermal insulation and lighting strike protection due to the excellent conductivity, light weight and thin dimensions. In this article, multi-functional carbon nanotube paper was fabricated successfully by using commercial carbon nanotube. As a deicing composite material, carbon nanotube was used directly without pretreatment in fabricating carbon nanotube paper. The conductivities of the carbon nanotube paper and deicing composite were 77.8S/cm and 64.9S/ respectively. Electrical heating and deicing performance were test by infrared camera with deicing time less than 220s and 450s to melt a certain amount of ice under different ambient condition. CNT was grafted by zirconium (IV) butoxide solution and dimethyl dichlorosilicane to form co-oligomers on the tube surface while oligomers decompose under a certain temperature to develop an inorganic layer of silicon zirconium oxide. The oxidizing temperature of carbon nanotube increases more than 20°C and the weight loss rate decreases 20% than the untreated carbon nanotube. Lightning protection material required high electro conductivity, due to the utmost high current in a short time. Therefore, silver nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of carbon nanotube with the diameter around 100nm. The conductivity increased sharply from 84s/cm to1756s/cm with the mount of 5.9wt% Ag of the modified carbon nanotube paper because the silver nanoparticles deposited on the surface. In addition, the silver modified also can be used as thermal insulation material decreasing the infrared radiation.

  3. Composite materials based on poly(trimethylene carbonate) and beta-tricalcium phosphate for orbital floor and wall reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Anne C.; Bos, Rudolf R. M.; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    2012-01-01

    Poly(trimethylene carbonate) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (PTMC/beta-TCP) composite materials were prepared by coprecipitation and compression molding. The effect of different amounts of the ceramic component (15 and 30 vol %) on the properties was investigated. The effect of lamination with minima

  4. Carbon nanotube materials from hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, A.C.; Bekkedahl, T.A.; Cahill, A.F. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The lack of convenient and cost-effective hydrogen storage is a major impediment to wide scale use of hydrogen in the United States energy economy. Improvements in the energy densities of hydrogen storage systems, reductions in cost, and increased compatibility with available and forecasted systems are required before viable hydrogen energy use pathways can be established. Carbon-based hydrogen adsorption materials hold particular promise for meeting and exceeding the U.S. Department of Energy hydrogen storage energy density targets for transportation if concurrent increases in hydrogen storage capacity and carbon density can be achieved. These two goals are normally in conflict for conventional porous materials, but may be reconciled by the design and synthesis of new adsorbent materials with tailored pore size distributions and minimal macroporosity. Carbon nanotubes offer the possibility to explore new designs for adsorbents because they can be fabricated with small size distributions, and naturally tend to self-assemble by van der Waals forces. This year we report heats of adsorption for hydrogen on nanotube materials that are 2 and 3 times greater than for hydrogen on activated carbon. The hydrogen which is most strongly bound to these materials remains on the carbon surface to temperatures greater than 285 K. These results suggest that nanocapillary forces are active in stabilizing hydrogen on the surfaces of carbon nanotubes, and that optimization of the adsorbent will lead to effective storage at higher temperatures. In this paper we will also report on our activities which are targeted at understanding and optimizing the nucleation and growth of single wall nanotubes. These experiments were made possible by the development of a unique feedback control circuit which stabilized the plasma-arc during a synthesis run.

  5. Electron Field Emission from Nanostructured Carbon Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanju

    2005-03-01

    Fabricating small structures has almost become fashionable and the rationale is that reducing one or more dimensions below some critical length changes the systems' physical properties drastically, where nanocrystalline diamond (n-D) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the class of advanced carbon materials serve model examples. Emission of electrons at room temperature - cold electron emitters - are of vital importance for a variety of vacuum microelectronic devices - electron microscopes, photo multipliers, X-ray generators, lamps, and flat panel displays and microwave cathodes. Electron emitters may lead to otherwise difficult to obtain advantages in performance and/or design. This is the driving force to investigate the carbon-related materials as cold cathodes. In this talk, the performance of various forms of carbon in thin film form including diamond, n-D, and vertically aligned CNTs as cold cathodes for their potential use in field emission displays (FEDs) in terms of I-V characteristics and corresponding spatial imaging will be presented. Physics based models such as, NEA, surface modification, geometric enhancement, and microstructure alteration due to particle bombardment, and doping, will be described to support the experimental observations of electron field enhancement (low turn-on voltage, high current and emission site density) and its reliability from the abovementioned carbon-related materials. Other vacuum device applications such as thermionic power generators will be mentioned briefly.

  6. Carbon The Future Material for Advanced Technology Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Messina, Giacomo

    2006-01-01

    Carbon-based materials and their applications constitute a burgeoning topic of scientific research among scientists and engineers attracted from diverse areas such as applied physics, materials science, biology, mechanics, electronics and engineering. Further development of current materials, advances in their applications, and discovery of new forms of carbon are the themes addressed by the frontier research in these fields. This book covers all the fundamental topics concerned with amorphous and crystalline C-based materials, such as diamond, diamond-like carbon, carbon alloys, carbon nanotubes. The goal is, by coherently progressing from growth - and characterisation techniques to technological applications for each class of material, to fashion the first comprehensive state-of-the-art review of this fast evolving field of research in carbon materials.

  7. Functional Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huihui

    create uniformly distributed nanopores with large surface area, leading to high-performance electrodes with high capacitance, excellent rate performance and stable cycling, even under a high working voltage of 1.6V. The second part of this dissertation work further improved the capacitance of the carbon electrodes by fluorine doping. This doping process enhances the affinity of the carbon surface with organic electrolytes, leading to further improved capacitance and energy density. In the third part, carbon materials were synthesized with high surface area, capacitance and working voltage of 4V in organic electrolyte, leading to the construction of prototyped devices with energy density comparable to those of the current lead-acid batteries. Besides the abovementioned research, hierarchical graphitic carbons were also explored for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors. Overall, through rational design of carbons with optimized pore configuration and surface chemistry, carbon electrodes with improved energy density and rate performance were improved significantly. Collectively, this thesis work systematically unveils simple yet effective strategies to achieve high performance carbon-based supercapacitors with high power density and high energy density, including the following aspects: 1) Constructed electrodes with high capacitance through building favorable ion/electron transportation pathways, tuning pore structure and pore size. 2) Improved the capacitance through enhancing the affinity between the carbon electrodes and electrolytes by doping the carbons with heteroatoms. 3) Explored and understand the roles of heteroatom doping in the capacitive behavior by both experimental measurement and computational modeling. 4) Improved energy density of carbon electrodes by enlarging their working voltage in aqueous and organic electrolyte. 5) Scalable and effective production of hierarchically porous graphite particles through aerosol process for use as the anode materials

  8. Electronic transition imaging of carbon based materials: The photothreshold of melanin and thermionic field emission from diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garguilo, Jacob

    This study explores electronic transitions in carbon based materials through the use of a custom built, non rastering electron emission microscope. The specifics and history of electron emission are described as well as the equipment used in this study. The materials examined fall into two groups, melanosome films isolated from the human body and polycrystalline diamond tip arrays. A novel technique for determining the photothreshold of a heterogeneous material on a microscopic or smaller scale is developed and applied to melanosome films isolated from the hair, eyes, and brain of human donors. The conversion of the measured photothreshold on the vacuum scale to an electrochemical oxidation potential is discussed and the obtained data is considered based on this conversion. Pheomelanosomes isolated from human hair are shown to have significantly lower photoionization energy than eumelanosomes, indicating their likelihood as sources of oxidative stress. The ionization energies of the hair melanosomes are checked with complimentary procedures. Ocular melanosomes from the retinal pigment epithelium are measured as a function of patient age and melanosome shape. Lipofuscin, also found in the eye, is examined with the same microscopy technique and shown to have a significantly lower ionization threshold than RPE melanosomes. Neuromelanin from the substantia nigra is also examined and shown to have an ionization threshold close to that of eumelanin. A neuromelanin formation model is proposed based on these results. Polycrystalline diamond tip arrays are examined for their use as thermionic energy converter emitters. Thermionic energy conversion is accomplished through the combination of a hot electron emitter in conjunction with a somewhat cooler electron collector. The generated electron current can be used to do work in an external load. It is shown that the tipped structures of these samples result in enhanced emission over the surrounding flat areas, which may prove

  9. Carbon dioxide conversion over carbon-based nanocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavarian, Mehrnoush; Chai, Siang-Piao; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2013-07-01

    The utilization of carbon dioxide for the production of valuable chemicals via catalysts is one of the efficient ways to mitigate the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is known that the carbon dioxide conversion and product yields are still low even if the reaction is operated at high pressure and temperature. The carbon dioxide utilization and conversion provides many challenges in exploring new concepts and opportunities for development of unique catalysts for the purpose of activating the carbon dioxide molecules. In this paper, the role of carbon-based nanocatalysts in the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide and direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from carbon dioxide and methanol are reviewed. The current catalytic results obtained with different carbon-based nanocatalysts systems are presented and how these materials contribute to the carbon dioxide conversion is explained. In addition, different strategies and preparation methods of nanometallic catalysts on various carbon supports are described to optimize the dispersion of metal nanoparticles and catalytic activity.

  10. An overview of carbon materials for flexible electrochemical capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongmin; Chen, Wanjun; Gao, Caitian; Zhou, Jinyuan; Li, Xiaodong; Xie, Erqing

    2013-10-07

    Under the background of the quick development of lightweight, flexible, and wearable electronic devices in our society, a flexible and highly efficient energy management strategy is needed for their counterpart energy-storage systems. Among them, flexible electrochemical capacitors (ECs) have been considered as one of the most promising candidates because of their significant advantages in power and energy densities, and unique properties of being flexible, lightweight, low-cost, and environmentally friendly compared with current energy storage devices. In a common EC, carbon materials play an irreplaceable and principal role in its energy-storage performance. Up till now, most progress towards flexible ECs technologies has mostly benefited from the continuous development of carbon materials. As a result, in view of the dual remarkable highlights of ECs and carbon materials, a summary of recent research progress on carbon-based flexible EC electrode materials is presented in this review, including carbon fiber (CF, consisting of carbon microfiber-CMF and carbon nanofiber-CNF) networks, carbon nanotube (CNT) and graphene coatings, CNT and/or graphene papers (or films), and freestanding three-dimensional (3D) flexible carbon-based macroscopic architectures. Furthermore, some promising carbon materials for great potential applications in flexible ECs are introduced. Finally, the trends and challenges in the development of carbon-based electrode materials for flexible ECs and their smart applications are analyzed.

  11. The microwave adsorption behavior and microwave-assisted heteroatoms doping of graphene-based nano-carbon materials

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Pei; Hu, Gang; Gao, Yongjun; Li, Wenjing; Yao, Siyu; Liu, Zongyuan; Ma, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Microwave-assisted heating method is used to treat graphite oxide (GO), pyrolytic graphene oxide (PGO) and hydrogen-reduced pyrolytic graphene oxide (HPGO). Pure or doped graphene are prepared in the time of minutes and a thermal deoxygenization reduction mechanism is proposed to understand their microwave adsorption behaviors. These carbon materials are excellent catalysts in the reduction of nitrobenzene. The defects are believed to play an important role in the catalytic performance.

  12. Design of antimicrobial membrane based on polymer colloids/multiwall carbon nanotubes hybrid material with silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusen, Edina; Mocanu, Alexandra; Nistor, Leona Cristina; Dinescu, Adrian; Călinescu, Ioan; Mustăţea, Gabriel; Voicu, Ştefan Ioan; Andronescu, Corina; Diacon, Aurel

    2014-10-22

    The aim of this study was to obtain membranes with antimicrobial activity presenting a complex sandwich-type structure. The outer layers are comprised of poly(methyl methacrylate) membranes, whereas the inner active layer consists of a modified commercial membrane to achieve antimicrobial properties. This activity arises due to the presence of silver nanoparticles in a material with a hybrid composition deposited on a commercial membrane. This hybrid material consists of polymer colloids and multiwall carbon nanotubes used for both the stabilization of the active layer by the interconnections of the polymer particles and as active component. The filtration tests revealed a good stability of the materials and an increased hydrophilicity of the hybrid membranes. The antimicrobial properties have been evaluated using Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and have been correlated with the content and migration rate of silver ions.

  13. Cyclophosphazene based conductive polymer-carbon nanotube composite as novel supporting material for methanol fuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, Dakshinamoorthy; Selvaraj, Vaithilingam

    2016-06-15

    This present study reports the development of novel catalyst support of amine terminated cyclophosphazene/cyclophosphazene/hexafluoroisopropylidenedianiline-carbon nanotube (ATCP/CP/HFPA-CNT) composite. The ATCP/CP/HFPA-CNT composite has been used as a catalyst support for platinum (Pt) and platinum-gold (Pt-Au) nanoparticles towards electrooxidation of methanol in alkaline medium. The obtained anode materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Electrocatalytic performances of Pt/ATCP/CP/HFPA-CNT and Pt-Au/ATCP/CP/HFPA-CNT catalysts were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, CO stripping and chronoamperometric techniques. The electrooxidation of methanol and CO stripping results conclude that the metal nanocatalyst embedded with ATCP/CP/HFPA-CNT composite shows significantly higher anodic oxidation current, more CO tolerance and lower onset potential when compared to that of the Pt/CNT and Pt/C (Vulcan carbon) catalysts.

  14. Fabrication of free-standing pure carbon-based composite material with the combination of sp{sup 2}–sp{sup 3} hybridizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, M., E-mail: varga@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, Prague 6 16253 (Czech Republic); Institute of Electronics and Photonics, FEI STU, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); Vretenar, V. [Danubia NanoTech, s.r.o., Ilkovicova 3, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Institute of Physics of the SAS, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Kotlar, M. [Institute of Electronics and Photonics, FEI STU, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); Skakalova, V. [Danubia NanoTech, s.r.o., Ilkovicova 3, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Physics of Nanostructured Materials, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Kromka, A. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, Prague 6 16253 (Czech Republic)

    2014-07-01

    Composite structures have been in a center of interest for many decades. Carbon–carbon composites combine different carbon-based allotropes. Combining different carbon structures each with its unique property results in a new composite material with designed properties. In this contribution we present a technological procedure for preparation of a new flexible material consisting of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD). The fabrication process starts from the preparation of a paper made of SWNTs bundles followed by the CVD-growth of NCD in the interior of the SWNT paper. Keeping balance between the two competing processes during the CVD, i.e. growth of diamond particles versus etching SWNTs, is found as a key factor for the formation of a compact SWNT/NCD composite material. From a technological point of view, both processes are influenced mainly by the CVD conditions (temperature, gas composition, etc.) and/or substrate pretreatment. The essential idea of the diamond integration into the SWNT paper is demonstrated and discussed in more details. The morphology and structural aspects of the prepared composite material are further characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy.

  15. Investigation on the Mechanical Properties of a Cement-Based Material Containing Carbon Nanotube under Drying and Freeze-Thaw Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Wen Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to explore the mechanical properties of a cement-based material with carbon nanotube (CNT under drying and freeze-thaw environments. Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry and Scanning Electron Microscopy were used to analyze the pore structure and microstructure of CNT/cement composite, respectively. The experimental results showed that multi-walled CNT (MWCNT could improve to different degrees the mechanical properties (compressive and flexural strengths and physical performances (shrinkage and water loss of cement-based materials under drying and freeze-thaw conditions. This paper also demonstrated that MWCNT could interconnect hydration products to enhance the performance of anti-microcracks for cement-based materials, as well as the density of materials due to CNT’s filling action.

  16. Three-dimensional helical carbon materials: Microcoiled carbon fibers, carbon nanocoils, carbon nanotubes: Synthesis, properties and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jining

    . Due to their extraordinary properties, carbon nanotubes have been expected to have wide applications. Efforts have been made on the synthesis of high quality carbon nanotubes economically in this work. A novel catalyst/catalyst support pair, iron/magnesium carbonate, has been developed for synthesis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with high purity. The coil morphology is induced by insertion of pentagon-heptagon pairs into hexagonal network of nanotube wall periodically. Thorough purification of carbon nanotubes is always a concern before investigating their properties and potential applications. Impurities in raw carbon nanotube material have to be removed by chemical treatment. A couple of purification methods are presented in this work. Various techniques have been used to characterize these micro- and nano-3D materials, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer Emmett-Teller (BET), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), etc. Growth mechanisms are proposed based on the experimental and characterization results. It is verified that the nonuniform carbon deposition rate on catalyst particles leads to the bending of the carbon fiber/tubule, and hence results in the coil morphology. To conclude, the research work reported here is a systematic study on synthesis, characterizations, and applications of micro- and nano-3D helical carbon materials, such as micro coiled carbon fibers, carbon nanocoils and carbon nanotubes. A few suggestions for future research directions are also listed.

  17. Carbon nanotubes grown on bulk materials and methods for fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchhofer, Paul A.; Montgomery, Frederick C.; Baker, Frederick S.

    2011-11-08

    Disclosed are structures formed as bulk support media having carbon nanotubes formed therewith. The bulk support media may comprise fibers or particles and the fibers or particles may be formed from such materials as quartz, carbon, or activated carbon. Metal catalyst species are formed adjacent the surfaces of the bulk support material, and carbon nanotubes are grown adjacent the surfaces of the metal catalyst species. Methods employ metal salt solutions that may comprise iron salts such as iron chloride, aluminum salts such as aluminum chloride, or nickel salts such as nickel chloride. Carbon nanotubes may be separated from the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species by using concentrated acids to oxidize the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species.

  18. Ultrasensitive and simultaneous detection of heavy metal ions based on three-dimensional graphene-carbon nanotubes hybrid electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hui; Chen, Ting [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of State Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Liu, Xiuyu [Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan 250114 (China); Ma, Houyi, E-mail: hyma@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of State Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2014-12-10

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional graphene-MWCNTs nanocomposites were prepared. • Graphene-MWCNTs based electrochemical sensor was used to detect heavy metal ions for the first time. • The proposed sensor was certified capable for real sample with satisfactory results. - Abstract: A green and facile method was developed to prepare a novel hybrid nanocomposite that consisted of one-dimensional multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and two-dimensional graphene oxide (GO) sheets. The as-prepared three-dimensional GO–MWCNTs hybrid nanocomposites exhibit excellent water-solubility owing to the high hydrophilicity of GO components; meanwhile, a certain amount of MWCNTs loaded on the surface of GO sheets through π–π interaction seem to be “dissolved” in water. Moreover, the graphene(G)-MWCNTs nanocomposites with excellent conductivity were obtained conveniently by the direct electrochemical reduction of GO–MWCNTs nanocomposites. Seeing that there is a good synergistic effect between MWCNTs and graphene components in enhancing preconcentration efficiency of metal ions and accelerating electron transfer rate at G-MWCNTs/electrolyte interface, the G-MWCNTs nanocomposites possess fast, simultaneous and sensitive detection performance for trace amounts of heavy metal ions. The electrochemical results demonstrate that the G-MWCNTs nanocomposites can act as a kind of practical sensing material to simultaneously determine Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} ions in terms of anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The linear calibration plots for Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} ranged from 0.5 μg L{sup −1} to 30 μg L{sup −1}. The detection limits were determined to be 0.2 μg L{sup −1} (S/N = 3) for Pb{sup 2+} and 0.1 μg L{sup −1} (S/N = 3) for Cd{sup 2+} in the case of a deposition time of 180 s. It is worth mentioning that the G-MWCNTs modified electrodes were successfully applied to the simultaneous detection of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} ions in real electroplating

  19. MORPHOLOGY, CONDUCTIVITY AND ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF HYDROTHERMAL CARBONIZED POROUS CARBON MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Nagirna

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the morphology, conductivity and electrochemical properties of carbon materials, obtained from raw plant materials at different condition of hydrothermal carbonization, using low-temperature porometry, impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge/discharge. It is set, that in porous structure of carbon materials micropores are dominant; when carbonization temperature increased the specific surface and pore volume decrease more than 10 times. The temperature growth results in increasing the electrical conductivity of the carbon material more than 6 orders. It is found, that the maximal value of specific capacity (1138 mА·h/g has an electrochemical system based on porous carbon carbonized at 1023 K.

  20. Conversion of biomass-derived sorbitol to glycols over carbon-materials supported Ru-based catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xingcui; Guan, Jing; Li, Bin; Wang, Xicheng; Mu, Xindong; Liu, Huizhou

    2015-11-01

    Ruthenium (Ru) supported on activated carbon (AC) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was carried out in the hydrogenolysis of sorbitol to ethylene glycol (EG) and 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD) under the promotion of tungsten (WOx) species and different bases. Their catalytic activities and glycols selectivities strongly depended on the support properties and location of Ru on CNTs, owning to the altered metal-support interactions and electronic state of ruthenium. Ru located outside of the tubes showed excellent catalytic performance than those encapsulated inside the nanotubes. Additionally, the introduction of WOx into Ru/CNTs significantly improved the hydrogenolysis activities, and a complete conversion of sorbitol with up to 60.2% 1,2-PD and EG yields was obtained on RuWOx/CNTs catalyst upon addition of Ca(OH)2. Stability study showed that this catalyst was highly stable against leaching and poisoning and could be recycled several times.

  1. Lignin-Based Thermoplastic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Kelley, Stephen S; Venditti, Richard A

    2016-04-21

    Lignin-based thermoplastic materials have attracted increasing interest as sustainable, cost-effective, and biodegradable alternatives for petroleum-based thermoplastics. As an amorphous thermoplastic material, lignin has a relatively high glass-transition temperature and also undergoes radical-induced self-condensation at high temperatures, which limits its thermal processability. Additionally, lignin-based materials are usually brittle and exhibit poor mechanical properties. To improve the thermoplasticity and mechanical properties of technical lignin, polymers or plasticizers are usually integrated with lignin by blending or chemical modification. This Review attempts to cover the reported approaches towards the development of lignin-based thermoplastic materials on the basis of published information. Approaches reviewed include plasticization, blending with miscible polymers, and chemical modifications by esterification, etherification, polymer grafting, and copolymerization. Those lignin-based thermoplastic materials are expected to show applications as engineering plastics, polymeric foams, thermoplastic elastomers, and carbon-fiber precursors.

  2. Surface analysis of carbon black waste materials from tire residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W. H.; Kim, J. Y.; Ko, Y. K.; Reucroft, P. J.; Zondlo, J. W.

    1999-03-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to obtain surface chemical state information on two carbon black waste materials in terms of the surface element distribution/concentration and chemical structure. Small amounts of sulfur in the form of CS 2 were detected on the surface (less than 1.7 mass %). C-H/C-C was the major carbon functional component on the surface of carbon black samples but other functional forms of carbon were also present such as CO and C-O. The surface of the carbon black obtained from a hydropyrolysis process was highly oxidized primarily in the form of carbon based oxygen groups. On the other hand, surface oxygen atoms on the surface of the carbon black obtained from a pyrolysis process in the absence of H 2 were in the form of both metal oxides and carbon based oxygen groups.

  3. Transition Metal Ion Implantation into Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings: Development of a Base Material for Gas Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Markwitz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micrometre thick diamond-like carbon (DLC coatings produced by direct ion deposition were implanted with 30 keV Ar+ and transition metal ions in the lower percentage (<10 at.% range. Theoretical calculations showed that the ions are implanted just beneath the surface, which was confirmed with RBS measurements. Atomic force microscope scans revealed that the surface roughness increases when implanted with Ar+ and Cu+ ions, whereas a smoothing of the surface from 5.2 to 2.7 nm and a grain size reduction from 175 to 93 nm are measured for Ag+ implanted coatings with a fluence of 1.24×1016 at. cm−2. Calculated hydrogen and carbon depth profiles showed surprisingly significant changes in concentrations in the near-surface region of the DLC coatings, particularly when implanted with Ag+ ions. Hydrogen accumulates up to 32 at.% and the minimum of the carbon distribution is shifted towards the surface which may be the cause of the surface smoothing effect. The ion implantations caused an increase in electrical conductivity of the DLC coatings, which is important for the development of solid-state gas sensors based on DLC coatings.

  4. Carbon Nanotube-based Nanohybrid Materials as Counter Electrode for Highly Efficient Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji-Soo; Sim, Eun-Ju; Dao, Van-Duong; Choi, Ho-Suk [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    In this study, we present an excellent approach for easily and uniformly immobilizing Pt, Au and bimetallic PtAu nanoparticles (NPs) on a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT)-coated layer through dry plasma reduction. The NPs are stably and uniformly immobilized on the surface of MWNTs and the nanohybrid materials are applied to counter electrode (CE) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The electrochemical properties of CEs are examined through cyclic voltammogram, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and Tafel measurements. As a result, both electrochemical catalytic activity and electrical conductivity are highest for PtAu/MWNT electrode. The DSC employing PtAu/MWNT CE exhibits power conversion efficiency of 7.9%. The efficiency is better than those of devices with MWNT (2.6%), AuNP/MWNT (2.7%) and PtNP/MWNT (7.5%) CEs.

  5. Carbon based prosthetic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, D.J.; Carroll, D.W.; Barbero, R.S.; Archuleta, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Klawitter, J.J.; Ogilvie, W.; Strzepa, P. [Ascension Orthopedics (US); Cook, S.D. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (US). School of Medicine

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objective was to evaluate the use of carbon/carbon-fiber-reinforced composites for use in endoprosthetic devices. The application of these materials for the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joints of the hand was investigated. Issues concerning mechanical properties, bone fixation, biocompatibility, and wear are discussed. A system consisting of fiber reinforced materials with a pyrolytic carbon matrix and diamond-like, carbon-coated wear surfaces was developed. Processes were developed for the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of pyrolytic carbon into porous fiber preforms with the ability to tailor the outer porosity of the device to provide a surface for bone in-growth. A method for coating diamond-like carbon (DLC) on the articulating surface by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was developed. Preliminary results on mechanical properties of the composite system are discussed and initial biocompatibility studies were performed.

  6. Role of the Material Electrodes on Resistive Behaviour of Carbon Nanotube-Based Gas Sensors for H2S Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lucci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Miniaturized gas-sensing devices that use single-walled carbon nanotubes as active material have been fabricated using two different electrode materials, namely, Au/Cr and NbN. The resistive sensors have been assembled aligning by dielectrophoresis the nanotube bundles between 40 μm spaced Au/Cr or NbN multifinger electrodes. The sensing devices have been tested for detection of the H2S gas, in the concentration range 10–100 ppm, using N2 as carrier gas. No resistance changes were detected using sensor fabricated with NbN electrodes, whereas the response of the sensor fabricated with Au/Cr electrodes was characterized by an increase of the resistance upon gas exposure. The main performances of this sensor are a detection limit for H2S of 10 ppm and a recovery time of few minutes. The present study suggests that the mechanism involved in H2S gas detection is not a direct charge transfer between molecules and nanotubes. The hypothesis is that detection occurs through passivation of the Au surfaces by H2S molecules and modification of the contact resistance at the Au/nanotube interface.

  7. High value carbon materials from PET recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, J. B.; Ania, C. O.; Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Pis, J. J.

    2004-11-01

    Poly(ethylene) terephthalate (PET), has become one of the major post-consumer plastic waste. In this work special attention was paid to minimising PET residues and to obtain a high value carbon material. Pyrolysis and subsequent activation of PET from post-consumer soft-drink bottles was performed. Activation was carried out at 925 °C under CO2 atmosphere to different burn-off degrees. Textural characterisation of the samples was carried out by performing N2 adsorption isotherms at -196 °C. The obtained carbons materials were mainly microporous, presenting low meso and macroporosity, and apparent BET surface areas of upto 2500 m2 g-1. The capacity of these materials for phenol adsorption and PAHs removal from aqueous solutions was measured and compared with that attained with commercial active carbons. Preliminary tests also showed high hydrogen uptake values, as good as the results obtained with high-tech carbon materials.

  8. Carbon as a hard template for nano material catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kake Zhu; Junming Sun; He Zhang; Jun Liu; Yong Wang

    2012-01-01

    As one of the naturally abundant elements,carbon can present in different molecular structures (allotropes) and thus lead to various physical/chemical properties of carbon-based materials which have found wide applications in a variety of fields including electrochemistry,optical,adsorption and catalysis,etc.On the other hand,its different allotropes also endow carbon-based materials with various morphostructures,which have been recently explored to prepare oxides and zeolites/zeotypes with tailored structures.In this review,we mainly summarize the recent advances in using carbon materials as hard templates to synthesize structural materials.Specifically,we focus on the development in the synthetic strategies,such as endotemplating,exotemplating approaches and using carbon materials as chemical reagents for the synthesis of metal carbides or nitrides,with an emphasis laid on the control of morphostructure.Meanwhile,the applications of the obtained materials will be highlighted,especially,in the field of heterogeneous catalysis where enhanced performances have been achieved with the materials derived from carbon-templated methods.

  9. CO2 capture in different carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Vicente; Ramírez-Lucas, Ana; Díaz, José Antonio; Sánchez, Paula; Romero, Amaya

    2012-07-03

    In this work, the CO(2) capture capacity of different types of carbon nanofibers (platelet, fishbone, and ribbon) and amorphous carbon have been measured at 26 °C as at different pressures. The results showed that the more graphitic carbon materials adsorbed less CO(2) than more amorphous materials. Then, the aim was to improve the CO(2) adsorption capacity of the carbon materials by increasing the porosity during the chemical activation process. After chemical activation process, the amorphous carbon and platelet CNFs increased the CO(2) adsorption capacity 1.6 times, whereas fishbone and ribbon CNFs increased their CO(2) adsorption capacity 1.1 and 8.2 times, respectively. This increase of CO(2) adsorption capacity after chemical activation was due to an increase of BET surface area and pore volume in all carbon materials. Finally, the CO(2) adsorption isotherms showed that activated amorphous carbon exhibited the best CO(2) capture capacity with 72.0 wt % of CO(2) at 26 °C and 8 bar.

  10. Advanced Carbon Materials for Environmental and Energy Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Dua, Rubal

    2014-05-01

    Carbon based materials, including porous carbons and carbon layer composites, are finding increased usage in latest environmental and energy related research. Among porous carbon materials, hierarchical porous carbons with multi-modal porosity are proving out to be an effective solution for applications where the traditional activated carbons fail. Thus, there has been a lot of recent interest in developing low-cost, facile, easy to scale-up, synthesis techniques for producing such multi-modal porous carbons. This dissertation offers two novel synthesis techniques: (i) ice templating integrated with hard templating, and (ii) salt templating coupled with hard templating, for producing such hierarchically porous carbons. The techniques offer tight control and tunability of porosity (macro- meso- and microscale) in terms of both size and extent. The synthesized multi-modal porous carbons are shown to be an effective solution for three important environment related applications – (i) Carbon dioxide capture using amine supported hierarchical porous carbons, (ii) Reduction in irreversible fouling of membranes used for wastewater reuse through a deposition of a layer of hierarchical porous carbons on the membrane surface, (iii) Electrode materials for electrosorptive applications. Finally, because of their tunability, the synthesized multi-modal porous carbons serve as excellent model systems for understanding the effect of different types of porosity on the performance of porous carbons for these applications. Also, recently, there has been a lot of interest in developing protective layer coatings for preventing photo-corrosion of semiconductor structures (in particular Cu2O) used for photoelectrochemical water splitting. Most of the developed protective strategies to date involve the use of metals or co-catalyst in the protective layer. Thus there is a big need for developing low-cost, facile and easy to scale protective coating strategies. Based on the expertise

  11. Activated, coal-based carbon foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Darren Kenneth; Plucinski, Janusz Wladyslaw

    2004-12-21

    An ablation resistant, monolithic, activated, carbon foam produced by the activation of a coal-based carbon foam through the action of carbon dioxide, ozone or some similar oxidative agent that pits and/or partially oxidizes the carbon foam skeleton, thereby significantly increasing its overall surface area and concurrently increasing its filtering ability. Such activated carbon foams are suitable for application in virtually all areas where particulate or gel form activated carbon materials have been used. Such an activated carbon foam can be fabricated, i.e. sawed, machined and otherwise shaped to fit virtually any required filtering location by simple insertion and without the need for handling the "dirty" and friable particulate activated carbon foam materials of the prior art.

  12. Activated, coal-based carbon foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Darren Kenneth [Wheeling, WV; Plucinski, Janusz Wladyslaw [Glen Dale, WV

    2009-06-09

    An ablation resistant, monolithic, activated, carbon foam produced by the activation of a coal-based carbon foam through the action of carbon dioxide, ozone or some similar oxidative agent that pits and/or partially oxidizes the carbon foam skeleton, thereby significantly increasing its overall surface area and concurrently increasing its filtering ability. Such activated carbon foams are suitable for application in virtually all areas where particulate or gel form activated carbon materials have been used. Such an activated carbon foam can be fabricated, i.e. sawed, machined and otherwise shaped to fit virtually any required filtering location by simple insertion and without the need for handling the "dirty" and friable particulate activated carbon foam materials of the prior art.

  13. Structural features of carbon materials synthesized by different methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streletskii, O. A.; Ivanenko, I. P.; Khvostov, V. V.; Savchenko, N. F.; Nishchak, O. Yu.; Aleksandrov, A. F.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations of three types of carbon structures synthesized by different methods, such as arc discharge plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of carbon in a magnetic field, chemical dehydrohalogenation of the poly(vinyl chloride)/poly(vinylidene chloride) precursor, and pulsed plasma ion assisted deposition. It has been found that the samples prepared by different methods have a common feature, i.e., the presence of three-dimensional clusters based on sp 2- or sp 3-bonds surrounded by quasi-one-dimensional carbon chains. It has been shown that the structure of carbon materials changes depending on the synthesis conditions.

  14. Hydrogen storage by carbon materials synthesized from oil seeds and fibrous plant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharon, Maheshwar; Bhardwaj, Sunil; Jaybhaye, Sandesh [Nanotechnology Research Center, Birla College, Kalyan 421304 (India); Soga, T.; Afre, Rakesh [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Sathiyamoorthy, D.; Dasgupta, K. [Powder Metallurgy Division, BARC, Trombay 400 085 (India); Sharon, Madhuri [Monad Nanotech Pvt. Ltd., A702 Bhawani Tower, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2007-12-15

    Carbon materials of various morphologies have been synthesized by pyrolysis of various oil-seeds and plant's fibrous materials. These materials are characterized by SEM and Raman. Surface areas of these materials are determined by methylene blue method. These carbon porous materials are used for hydrogen storage. Carbon fibers with channel type structure are obtained from baggas and coconut fibers. It is reported that amongst the different plant based precursors studied, carbon from soyabean (1.09 wt%) and baggas (2.05 wt%) gave the better capacity to store hydrogen at 11kg/m{sup 2} pressure of hydrogen at room temperature. Efforts are made to correlate the hydrogen adsorption capacity with intensities and peak positions of G- and D-band obtained with carbon materials synthesized from plant based precursors. It is suggested that carbon materials whose G-band is around 1575cm{sup -1} and the intensity of D-band is less compared to G-band, may be useful material for hydrogen adsorption study. (author)

  15. Carbon fiber-reinforced carbon as a potential implant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, D; Williams, D F; Hill, J

    1978-01-01

    A carbon fiber-reinforced carbon is being evaluated as a promising implant material. In a unidirectional composite, high strengths (1200 MN/m2 longitudinal flexural strength) and high modulus (140 GN/m2 flexural modulus) may be obtained with an interlaminar shear strength of 18 MN/m2. Alternatively, layers of fibers may be laid in two directions to give more isotopic properties. The compatibility of the material with bone has been studied by implanting specimens in holes drilled in rat femora. For a period of up to 8 weeks, a thin layer of fibrous tissue bridged the gap between bone and implant; but this tissue mineralizes and by 10 weeks, bone can be observed adjacent to the implant, giving firm fixation. Potential applications include endosseous dental implants where a greater strength in the neck than that provided by unreinforced carbon would be advantageous.

  16. Heat Treated Carbon Fiber Material Selection Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effinger, M.; Patel, B.; Koenig, J.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon fibers are used in a variety high temperature applications and materials. However, one limiting factor in their transition into additional applications is an understanding of their functional properties during component processing and function. The requirements on the fibers are governed by the nature of the materials and the environments in which they will be used. The current carbon fiber vendor literature is geared toward the polymeric composite industry and not the ceramic composite industry. Thus, selection of carbon fibers is difficult, since their properties change as a function of heat treatment, processing or component operational temperature, which ever is greatest. To enable proper decisions to be made, a program was established wherein multiple fibers were selected and heat treated at different temperatures. The fibers were then examined for their physical and mechanical properties which are reported herein.

  17. LDEF materials data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Joan G.; Strickland, John W.; Davis, John M.

    1993-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and the accompanying experiments were composed of and contained a wide variety of materials representing the largest collection of materials flown in low Earth orbit (LEO) and retrieved for ground based analysis to date. The results and implications of the mechanical, thermal, optical, and electrical data from these materials are the foundation on which future LEO space missions will be built. The LDEF Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG) has been charged with establishing and developing data bases to document these materials and their performance to assure not only that the data are archived for future generations but also that the data are available to the spacecraft user community in an easily accessed, user-friendly form. This paper discusses the format and content of the three data bases developed or being developed to accomplish this task. The hardware and software requirements for each of these three data bases are discussed along with current availability of the data bases. This paper also serves as a user's guide to the MAPTIS LDEF Materials Data Base.

  18. Friction and wear behavior of carbon fiber reinforced brake materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du-qing CHENG; Xue-tao WANG; Jian ZHU; Dong-bua QIU; Xiu-wei CHENG; Qing-feng GUAN

    2009-01-01

    A new composite brake material was fabri-cated with metallic powders, barium sulphate and modified phenolic resin as the matrix and carbon fiber as the reinforced material. The friction, wear and fade character-istics of this composite were determined using a D-MS friction material testing machine. The surface structure of carbon fiber reinforced friction materials was analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Glass fiber-reinforced and asbestos fiber-reinforced composites with the same matrix were also fabricated for comparison. The carbon fiber-reinforced friction materials (CFRFM) shows lower wear rate than those of glass fiber- and asbestos fiber-reinforced composites in the temperature range of 100℃-300℃. It is interesting that the frictional coefficient of the carbon fiber-reinforced friction materials increases as frictional temperature increases from 100℃ to 300℃, while the frictional coefficients of the other two composites decrease during the increasing temperatures. Based on the SEM observation, the wear mechanism of CFRFM at low temperatures included fiber thinning and pull-out. At high temperature, the phenolic matrix was degraded and more pull-out enhanced fiber was demonstrated. The properties of carbon fiber may be the main reason that the CFRFM possess excellent tribological performances.

  19. A Comprehensive Review of Gas Sensors Using Carbon Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Il; Lee, Young-Seak

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, interest in carbon materials for use in gas sensors has increased. Carbon materials have unique electrical, optical and mechanical properties, making these materials very interesting. In this review, the properties of carbon materials are first introduced. Surface modification for carbon materials, fabrication for gas sensors, and the gas-sensing conditions and mechanisms according to the different types of carbon materials are chiefly described. In particular, this review focuses on the enhancement of the gas-sensing properties of carbon materials depending on the modification methods used and its mechanism.

  20. Materials design for electrocatalytic carbon capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xin; Tahini, Hassan A.; Smith, Sean C.

    2016-05-01

    We discuss our philosophy for implementation of the Materials Genome Initiative through an integrated materials design strategy, exemplified here in the context of electrocatalytic capture and separation of CO2 gas. We identify for a group of 1:1 X-N graphene analogue materials that electro-responsive switchable CO2 binding behavior correlates with a change in the preferred binding site from N to the adjacent X atom as negative charge is introduced into the system. A reconsideration of conductive N-doped graphene yields the discovery that the N-dopant is able to induce electrocatalytic binding of multiple CO2 molecules at the adjacent carbon sites.

  1. Hybrid Composites Based on Carbon Fiber/Carbon Nanofilament Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Tehrani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanofilament and nanotubes (CNTs have shown promise for enhancing the mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced composites (FRPs and imparting multi-functionalities to them. While direct mixing of carbon nanofilaments with the polymer matrix in FRPs has several drawbacks, a high volume of uniform nanofilaments can be directly grown on fiber surfaces prior to composite fabrication. This study demonstrates the ability to create carbon nanofilaments on the surface of carbon fibers employing a synthesis method, graphitic structures by design (GSD, in which carbon structures are grown from fuel mixtures using nickel particles as the catalyst. The synthesis technique is proven feasible to grow nanofilament structures—from ethylene mixtures at 550 °C—on commercial polyacrylonitrile (PAN-based carbon fibers. Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy were employed to characterize the surface-grown carbon species. For comparison purposes, a catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD technique was also utilized to grow multiwall CNTs (MWCNTs on carbon fiber yarns. The mechanical characterization showed that composites using the GSD-grown carbon nanofilaments outperform those using the CCVD-grown CNTs in terms of stiffness and tensile strength. The results suggest that further optimization of the GSD growth time, patterning and thermal shield coating of the carbon fibers is required to fully materialize the potential benefits of the GSD technique.

  2. Behavior of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the porosity and microstructure of cement-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nochaiya, Thanongsak; Chaipanich, Arnon

    2011-01-01

    The porosity and microstructure of a Portland cement-multi-walled carbon nanotube composite were investigated. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), up to 1 wt.% of cement, synthesized by infusion chemical vapor deposition, and Portland cement type I (PC) were used to produce pastes with a water to cement ratio of 0.5. Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize Portland cement-CNTs systems. MIP analysis of the results indicates that total porosity of the mixes with CNTs was found to decrease with increasing CNTs content. Moreover, an important effect of additional CNTs was a reduction in the number of mesopores, while SEM technique showed dispersion of CNTs between the hydration phases of Portland cement pastes.

  3. General Overview Over Investigations on Low-Dimensional Carbon-Based Materials in Magnetic Fields above 50 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugall, Oliver

    Carbon nanotubes have been intensively investigated in pulsed magnetic fields, mainly to identify the effect of a magnetic flux along the tube axis on the energy band structure. Clear manifestations of the Ahoronov-Bohm effect have been observed in near-infrared absorption measurements on suspended tubes1 as well as in single-tube transport experiments.2 Subsequent studies have shed light on the excitonic nature of optical excitations3 and the magnetic-field induced optical activity of such excitons.4,5 Ongoing activities are focussing on the magnetic alignment dynamics of carbon nanotubes in liquid suspension which has the potential to provide valuable information on their magnetic susceptibility. Experimental investigations on graphene in pulsed magnetic fields are far less advanced than those on carbon nanotubes. This is due to various experimental factors such as intrinsically short integration times for optical experiments and the destructive effect of electromagnetic perturbations on insufficiently screened transport samples. First results have nevertheless been obtained in both cases: Previous absorption measurements6 up to 32 T have been extended to higher fields thereby confirming the characteristic B1/2-dependence of energy levels. Transport measurements, on the other hand, have revealed extended plateaus in the two-terminal resistance of graphene.7 In this talk we gave a complete overview over recent and ongoing experimental investigations on carbon nanotubes and graphene in magnetic fields above 50 T. We referred to the work of several international collaborations including groups from Houston, Los Alamos, Berlin, Oxford, Tokyo, Dublin, Grenoble and Toulouse. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.

  4. Surface Crack Detection for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic Materials Using Pulsed Eddy Current Based on Rectangular Differential Probe

    OpenAIRE

    Jialong Wu; Deqiang Zhou; Jun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the surface defect inspection of carbon fiber reinforced composite, the differential and the direct measurement finite element simulation models of pulsed eddy current flaw detection were built. The principle of differential pulsed eddy current detection was analyzed and the sensitivity of defect detection was compared through two kinds of measurements. The validity of simulation results was demonstrated by experiments. The simulation and experimental results show that the pulsed ed...

  5. Adsorption of ciprofloxacin on surface-modified carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabineiro, S A C; Thavorn-Amornsri, T; Pereira, M F R; Figueiredo, J L

    2011-10-01

    The adsorption capacity of ciprofloxacin (CPX) was determined on three types of carbon-based materials: activated carbon (commercial sample), carbon nanotubes (commercial multi-walled carbon nanotubes) and carbon xerogel (prepared by the resorcinol/formaldehyde approach at pH 6.0). These materials were used as received/prepared and functionalised through oxidation with nitric acid. The oxidised materials were then heat treated under inert atmosphere (N2) at different temperatures (between 350 and 900°C). The obtained samples were characterised by adsorption of N2 at -196 °C, determination of the point of zero charge and by temperature programmed desorption. High adsorption capacities ranging from approximately 60 to 300 mgCPxgC(-1) were obtained (for oxidised carbon xerogel, and oxidised thermally treated activated carbon Norit ROX 8.0, respectively). In general, it was found that the nitric acid treatment of samples has a detrimental effect in adsorption capacity, whereas thermal treatments, especially at 900 °C after oxidation, enhance adsorption performance. This is due to the positive effect of the surface basicity. The kinetic curves obtained were fitted using 1st or 2nd order models, and the Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to describe the equilibrium isotherms obtained. The 2nd order and the Langmuir models, respectively, were shown to present the best fittings.

  6. Multifunctional Carbon Electromagnetic Materials, Motors, and Actuators Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the proposal is to apply multifunctional carbon electromagnetic materials, including carbon nanotube electrical thread (replaces copper wire) and...

  7. Carbon Nanotube Composites: Strongest Engineering Material Ever?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeaux, Brian; Nikolaev, Pavel; Proft, William; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The primary goal of the carbon nanotube project at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is to fabricate structural materials with a much higher strength-to-weight ratio than any engineered material today, Single-wall nanotubes present extraordinary mechanical properties along with new challenges for materials processing. Our project includes nanotube production, characterization, purification, and incorporation into applications studies. Now is the time to move from studying individual nanotubes to applications work. Current research at JSC focuses on structural polymeric materials to attempt to lower the weight of spacecraft necessary for interplanetary missions. These nanoscale fibers present unique new challenges to composites engineers. Preliminary studies show good nanotube dispersion and wetting by the epoxy materials. Results of tensile strength tests will also be reported. Other applications of nanotubes are also of interest for energy storage, gas storage, nanoelectronics, field emission, and biomedical uses.

  8. Adsorptive removal of antibiotics from aqueous solution using carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Li, Yong; Han, Sheng; Ma, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics, an important type of environmental contamination, have attracted many researchers to the study of their removal from aqueous solutions. Adsorption technology is a fast, efficient, and economical physicochemical method that is extensively used in wastewater treatment. From original activated carbon and carbon nanotubes to the latest graphene-based materials, carbon-based materials have been widely used as highly effective adsorbents for contaminant removal from aqueous solution because of their large specific surface area, high porosity, and high reaction activity. In this article, adsorption removal methods for four major types of antibiotic (tetracyclines, sulfonamides, macrolides, and quinolones) are reviewed. We also provide an overview of the application development of carbon materials as adsorbents for antibiotic removal from aqueous solution. The most promising works are discussed, and the main challenges in preparing high-performance adsorbents and the development tendency of adsorbents are also analyzed. This work provides theoretical guidance for subsequent research in the design and modification of carbon materials for applications in the adsorption removal of antibiotics from aqueous solution.

  9. Experimental Studies of Carbon Nanotube Materials for Space Radiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanSoucie, MIchael P.; Rogers, Jan R.; Craven, Paul D.; Hyers, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Game ]changing propulsion systems are often enabled by novel designs using advanced materials. Radiator performance dictates power output for nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon fiber materials have the potential to offer significant improvements in thermal conductivity and mass properties. A test apparatus was developed to test advanced radiator designs. This test apparatus uses a resistance heater inside a graphite tube. Metallic tubes can be slipped over the graphite tube to simulate a heat pipe. Several sub ]scale test articles were fabricated using CNT cloth and pitch ]based carbon fibers, which were bonded to a metallic tube using an active braze material. The test articles were heated up to 600 C and an infrared (IR) camera captured the results. The test apparatus and experimental results are presented here.

  10. A universal model for nanoporous carbon supercapacitors applicable to diverse pore regimes, carbon materials, and electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G; Meunier, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Supercapacitors, commonly called electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), are emerging as a novel type of energy-storage device with the potential to substitute batteries in applications that require high power densities. In response to the latest experimental breakthrough in nanoporous carbon supercapacitors, we propose a heuristic theoretical model that takes pore curvature into account as a replacement for the EDLC model, which is based on a traditional parallel-plate capacitor. When the pore size is in the mesopore regime (2-50 nm), counterions enter mesoporous carbon materials and approach the pore wall to form an electric double-cylinder capacitor (EDCC); in the micropore regime (50 nm) at which pores are large enough so that pore curvature is no longer significant, the EDCC model can be reduced naturally to the EDLC model. We present density functional theory calculations and detailed analyses of available experimental data in various pore regimes, which show the significant effects of pore curvature on the supercapacitor properties of nanoporous carbon materials. It is shown that the EDCC/EWCC model is universal for carbon supercapacitors with diverse carbon materials, including activated carbon materials, template carbon materials, and novel carbide-derived carbon materials, and with diverse electrolytes, including organic electrolytes, such as tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF(4)) and tetraethylammonium methylsulfonate (TEAMS) in acetonitrile, aqueous H(2)SO(4) and KOH electrolytes, and even an ionic liquid electrolyte, such as 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (EMI-TFSI). The EDCC/EWCC model allows the supercapacitor properties to be correlated with pore size, specific surface area, Debye length, electrolyte concentration and dielectric constant, and solute ion size It may lend support for the systematic optimization of the properties of carbon supercapacitors through experiments. On the basis of the insight

  11. Evaluation of assemblies based on carbon materials modified with dendrimers containing platinum nanoparticles for PEM-fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledesma-Garcia, J.; Barbosa, R.; Chapman, T.W.; Arriaga, L.G.; Godinez, Luis A. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, S.C. Parque Tecnologico Queretaro-Sanfandila, 76703 Pedro Escobedo, Qro. (Mexico)

    2009-02-15

    Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer-encapsulated Pt nanoparticles (G4OHPt) are synthesized by chemical reduction and characterized by transmission electronic microscopy. An H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} fuel cell has been constructed with porous carbon electrodes modified with the dendrimer nanocomposites. Electrochemical and physical impregnation methods of electrocatalyst immobilization are compared. The modified surfaces are used as electrodes and gas-diffusion layers in the construction of three different membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs). The MEAs have been tested in a single polymer-electrolyte membrane-fuel cell at 30 C and 20 psig. The fuel cell is, then characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry, and its performance evaluated in terms of polarization curves and power profiles. The highest fuel cell performance is reached in the MEA constructed by physical impregnation method. The results are compared with a 32 cm{sup 2} prototype cell using commercial electrocatalyst operated at 80 C, obtaining encouraging results. (author)

  12. Development of supercapacitors based on carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Block-type electrodes made of carbon nanotubes were fabricated by different processes. The volumetric specific capacitance based on such electrodes reached 107 F/cm3, which proves carbon nanotubes to be ideal candidate materials for supercapacitors. The composite electrodes consisting of carbon nanotubes and RuO2.xH2O were developed by the deposition of RuO2 on the surface of carbon nanotubes. Supercapacitors based on the composite electrodes show much higher specific capacitance than those based on pure carbon nanotube ones. A specific capacitance of 600 F/g can be achieved when the weight percent of RuO2.xH2O in the composite electrodes reaches 75%. In addition, supercapacitors based on the composite electrodes show both high energy density and high power density characteristics.

  13. Development of supercapacitors based on carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马仁志; 魏秉庆; 徐才录; 梁吉; 吴德海

    2000-01-01

    Block-type electrodes made of carbon nanotubes were fabricated by different processes. The volumetric specific capacitance based on such electrodes reached 107 F/cm3, which proves carbon nanotubes to be ideal candidate materials for supercapacitors. The composite electrodes consisting of carbon nanotubes and RuO2 ·xH2O were developed by the deposition of RuO2 on the surface of carbon nanotubes. Supercapacitors based on the composite electrodes show much higher specific capacitance than those based on pure carbon nanotube ones. A specific capacitance of 600 F/g can be achieved when the weight percent of RuO2· xH2O in the composite electrodes reaches 75% . In addition , supercapacitors based on the composite electrodes show both high energy density and high power density characteristics.

  14. Carbon Nanotubes Filled with Ferromagnetic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Leonhardt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNT filled with ferromagnetic metals like iron, cobalt or nickel are new and very interesting nanostructured materials with a number of unique properties. In this paper we give an overview about different chemical vapor deposition (CVD methods for their synthesis and discuss the influence of selected growth parameters. In addition we evaluate possible growth mechanisms involved in their formation. Moreover we show their identified structural and magnetic properties. On the basis of these properties we present different application possibilities. Some selected examples reveal the high potential of these materials in the field of medicine and nanotechnology.

  15. About aerogels based on carbon nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fail Sultanov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review a current trends in development and application of carbon nanomaterials and derivatives based on them are presented. Aerogels based on graphene and other carbon nanomaterials present a class of novel ultralight materials in which a liquid phase is completely substituted by gaseous. In its turn graphene based aerogel was named as the lightest material, thus the record of aerographite, which has retained for a long time was beaten. Aerogels are characterized by low density, high surface area and high index of hydrophobicity. In addition, depending on its application, aerogels based on carbon nanomaterials can be electrically conductive and magnetic, while retaining the flexibility of its 3D structure. Impressive properties of novel material – aerogels causes a huge interest of scientists in order to find their application in various fields, ranging from environment problems to medicine and electronics.

  16. Characterization of electrospun lignin based carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poursorkhabi, Vida; Mohanty, Amar; Misra, Manjusri

    2015-05-01

    The production of lignin fibers has been studied in order to replace the need for petroleum based precursors for carbon fiber production. In addition to its positive environmental effects, it also benefits the economics of the industries which cannot take advantage of carbon fiber properties because of their high price. A large amount of lignin is annually produced as the byproduct of paper and growing cellulosic ethanol industry. Therefore, finding high value applications for this low cost, highly available material is getting more attention. Lignin is a biopolymer making about 15 - 30 % of the plant cell walls and has a high carbon yield upon carbonization. However, its processing is challenging due to its low molecular weight and also variations based on its origin and the method of separation from cellulose. In this study, alkali solutions of organosolv lignin with less than 1 wt/v% of poly (ethylene oxide) and two types of lignin (hardwood and softwood) were electrospun followed by carbonization. Different heating programs for carbonization were tested. The carbonized fibers had a smooth surface with an average diameter of less than 5 µm and the diameter could be controlled by the carbonization process and lignin type. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study morphology of the fibers before and after carbonization. Thermal conductivity of a sample with amorphous carbon was 2.31 W/m.K. The electrospun lignin carbon fibers potentially have a large range of application such as in energy storage devices and water or gas purification systems.

  17. Comparative Investigation of the Efficiency of Absorption of Solar Energy by Carbon Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikhod‧ko, N. G.; Smagulova, G. T.; Rakhymzhan, N. B.; Kim, S.; Lesbaev, B. T.; Nazhipkyzy, M.; Mansurov, Z. A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research on the efficiency of absorption of solar energy by various carbon materials (soot, carbonized apricot pits and rice husks, and carbon nanotubes in the form of a ″forest″), as well as by composites based on them with inclusions of metal oxide nanoparticles. An analysis of the efficiency of absorption of solar energy by various carbon materials has demonstrated the advantage of the carbon material from carbonized apricot pits. The results of the comparative investigation of the absorptivity of apricot pits with that of the coating of a production prototype of solar collector are presented.

  18. Materials design for electrocatalytic carbon capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Tan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss our philosophy for implementation of the Materials Genome Initiative through an integrated materials design strategy, exemplified here in the context of electrocatalytic capture and separation of CO2 gas. We identify for a group of 1:1 X–N graphene analogue materials that electro-responsive switchable CO2 binding behavior correlates with a change in the preferred binding site from N to the adjacent X atom as negative charge is introduced into the system. A reconsideration of conductive N-doped graphene yields the discovery that the N-dopant is able to induce electrocatalytic binding of multiple CO2 molecules at the adjacent carbon sites.

  19. Electroanalysis using modified hierarchical nanoporous carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rusbel Coneo; Moncada, Angelica Baena; Acevedo, Diego F; Planes, Gabriel A; Miras, Maria C; Barbero, Cesar A

    2013-01-01

    The role of the electrode nanoporosity in electroanalytical processes is discussed and specific phenomena (slow double layer charging, local pH effects) which can be present in porous electrode are described. Hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) materials are synthesized using a hard template method. The three dimensional carbon porosity is examined using scanning electron microscopy on flat surfaces cut using a focused ion beam (FIB-SEM). The electrochemical properties of the HPC are measured using cyclic voltammetry, AC impedance, chronoamperometry and Probe Beam Deflection (PBD) techniques. Chronoamperometry measurements of HPC seems to fit a transmission line model. PBD data show evidence of local pH changes inside the pores, during double layer charging. The HPC are modified by in situ (chemical or electrochemical) formation of metal (Pt/Ru) or metal oxide (CoOx, Fe3O4) nanoparticles. Additionally, HPC loaded with Pt decorated magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles is produced by galvanic displacement. The modified HPC materials are used for the electroanalysis of different substances (CO, O2, AsO3(-3)). The role of the nanoporous carbon substrate in the electroanalytical data is evaluated.

  20. A facile approach for the synthesis of monolithic hierarchical porous carbons – high performance materials for amine based CO2 capture and supercapacitor electrode

    KAUST Repository

    Estevez, Luis

    2013-05-03

    An ice templating coupled with hard templating and physical activation approach is reported for the synthesis of hierarchically porous carbon monoliths with tunable porosities across all three length scales (macro- meso- and micro), with ultrahigh specific pore volumes [similar]11.4 cm3 g−1. The materials function well as amine impregnated supports for CO2 capture and as supercapacitor electrodes.

  1. Advanced Thermal Protection Systems (ATPS), Aerospace Grade Carbon Bonded Carbon Fiber Material Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Carbon bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulating material is the basis for several highly successful NASA developed thermal protection systems (TPS). Among the...

  2. Advanced Thermal Protection Systems (ATPS), Aerospace Grade Carbon Bonded Carbon Fiber Material Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Carbon bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulating material is the basis for several highly successful NASA developed thermal protection systems (TPS). Included among...

  3. Functionalization of Organic Semiconductors and Other Carbon-based Materials by Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs) and Charge Transport in Organic Field-effect Transistors (OFETs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bumsu

    ]thiophene) and 30 ± 20 Scm-1 for poly(3-hexyl)thiophene upon bulk doping with FTS. Interestingly, SAM-doped polythiophene exhibits an intrinsic sensing effect: drastic and reversible change of the conductivity in response to polar molecules. (3) FTS growth is also performed on other carbon-based materials such as graphite, graphene and CNTs, which resulted in a strong hole-doping. Hall-effect and field-effect confirm that the order of 1013 cm-2 and 1014 cm-2 holes are induced on graphene layer and CNT sheets by FTS growth, respectively.

  4. Proton catalysis with active carbons and partially pyrolyzed carbonaceous materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V. V. Strelko; S. S. Stavitskaya; Yu. I. Gorlov

    2014-01-01

    The development of environmentally friendly solid acid catalysts is a priority task. Highly oxidized activated carbon and their ion-substituted (saline) forms are effective proton transfer catalysts in esterification, hydrolysis, and dehydration, and thus are promising candidates as solid acid cata-lysts. Computations by the ab initio method indicated the cause for the enchanced acidity of the carboxylic groups attached to the surface of highly oxidized carbon. The synthesis of phosphorilated carbon was considered, and the proton transfer reactions catalyzed by them in recent studies were analyzed. The development of an amorphous carbon acid catalyst comprising polycyclic carbonaceous (graphene) sheets with-SO3H,-COOH and phenolic type OH-groups was carried out. These new catalysts were synthesized by partial pyrolysis and subsequent sulfonation of carbohydrates, polymers, and other organic compounds. Their high catalytic activities in proton transfere reactions including the processing of bio-based raw materials was demonsrated.

  5. Carbon nanotube materials for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, A.C.; Parilla, P.A.; Jones, K.M.; Riker, G.; Heben, M.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) are essentially elongated pores of molecular dimensions and are capable of adsorbing hydrogen at relatively high temperatures and low pressures. This behavior is unique to these materials and indicates that SWNTs are the ideal building block for constructing safe, efficient, and high energy density adsorbents for hydrogen storage applications. In past work the authors developed methods for preparing and opening SWNTs, discovered the unique adsorption properties of these new materials, confirmed that hydrogen is stabilized by physical rather than chemical interactions, measured the strength of interaction to be {approximately} 5 times higher than for adsorption on planar graphite, and performed infrared absorption spectroscopy to determine the chemical nature of the surface terminations before, during, and after oxidation. This year the authors have made significant advances in synthesis and characterization of SWNT materials so that they can now prepare gram quantities of high-purity SWNT samples and measure and control the diameter distribution of the tubes by varying key parameters during synthesis. They have also developed methods which purify nanotubes and cut nanotubes into shorter segments. These capabilities provide a means for opening the tubes which were unreactive to the oxidation methods that successfully opened tubes, and offer a path towards organizing nanotube segments to enable high volumetric hydrogen storage densities. They also performed temperature programmed desorption spectroscopy on high purity carbon nanotube material obtained from collaborator Prof. Patrick Bernier and finished construction of a high precision Seivert`s apparatus which will allow the hydrogen pressure-temperature-composition phase diagrams to be evaluated for SWNT materials.

  6. Carbon nanotube materials for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, A.C.; Jones, K.M.; Heben, M.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen burns pollution-free and may be produced from renewable energy resources. It is therefore an ideal candidate to replace fossil fuels as an energy carrier. However, the lack of a convenient and cost-effective hydrogen storage system greatly impedes the wide-scale use of hydrogen in both domestic and international markets. Although several hydrogen storage options exist, no approach satisfies all of the efficiency, size, weight, cost and safety requirements for transportation or utility use. A material consisting exclusively of micropores with molecular dimensions could simultaneously meet all of the requirements for transportation use if the interaction energy for hydrogen was sufficiently strong to cause hydrogen adsorption at ambient temperatures. Small diameter ({approx}1 mm) carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) are elongated micropores of molecular dimensions, and materials composed predominantly of SWNTs may prove to be the ideal adsorbent for ambient temperature storage of hydrogen. Last year the authors reported that hydrogen could be adsorbed on arc-generated soots containing 12{Angstrom} diameter nanotubes at temperatures in excess of 285K. In this past year they have learned that such adsorption does not occur on activated carbon materials, and that the cobalt nanoparticles present in their arc-generated soots are not responsible for the hydrogen which is stable at 285 K. These results indicate that enhanced adsorption forces within the internal cavities of the SWNTs are active in stabilizing hydrogen at elevated temperatures. This enhanced stability could lead to effective hydrogen storage under ambient temperature conditions. In the past year the authors have also demonstrated that single-wall carbon nanotubes in arc-generated soots may be selectively opened by oxidation in H{sub 2}O resulting in improved hydrogen adsorption, and they have estimated experimentally that the amount of hydrogen stored is {approximately}10% of the nanotube weight.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and application of functional carbon nano materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jin

    The synthesis, characterizations and applications of carbon nanomaterials, including carbon nanorods, carbon nanosheets, carbon nanohoneycombs and carbon nanotubes were demonstrated. Different growth techniques such as pulsed laser deposition, DC/RF sputtering, hot filament physical vapour deposition, evaporative casting and vacuum filtration methods were introduced or applied for synthesizing carbon nanomaterials. The morphology, chemical compositions, bond structures, electronic, mechanical and sensing properties of the obtained samples were investigated. Tilted well-aligned carbon micro- and nano- hybrid rods were fabricated on Si at different substrate temperatures and incident angles of carbon source beam using the hot filament physical vapour deposition technique. The morphologic surfaces and bond structures of the oblique carbon rod-like structures were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron diffraction and Raman scattering spectroscopy. The field emission behaviour of the fabricated samples was also tested. Carbon nanosheets and nanohoneycombs were also synthesized on Si substrates using a hot filament physical vapor deposition technique under methane ambient and vacuum, respectively. The four-point Au electrodes are then sputtered on the surface of the nanostructured carbon films to form prototypical humidity sensors. The sensing properties of prototypical sensors at different temperature, humidity, direct current, and alternative current voltage were characterized. Linear sensing response of sensors to relative humidity ranging from 11% to 95% is observed at room temperature. Experimental data indicate that the carbon nanosheets based sensors exhibit an excellent reversible behavior and long-term stability. It also has higher response than that of the humidity sensor with carbon nanohoneycombs materials. Conducting composite films containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared in

  8. Graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials and use as electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tour, James M.; Zhu, Yu; Li, Lei; Yan, Zheng; Lin, Jian

    2016-09-27

    Provided are methods of making graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials. Such methods generally include: (1) associating a graphene film with a substrate; (2) applying a catalyst and a carbon source to the graphene film; and (3) growing carbon nanotubes on the graphene film. The grown carbon nanotubes become covalently linked to the graphene film through carbon-carbon bonds that are located at one or more junctions between the carbon nanotubes and the graphene film. In addition, the grown carbon nanotubes are in ohmic contact with the graphene film through the carbon-carbon bonds at the one or more junctions. The one or more junctions may include seven-membered carbon rings. Also provided are the formed graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials.

  9. Report on Carbon Nano Material Workshop: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    Lubricating Grease Thickened by Carbon Nanotubes, presented at Carbon Nano Materials and Applications Workshop, Rapid City, SD, October 31–November 1...Carbon Nano Material Workshop: Challenges and Opportunities S. Acharya a , J. Alvarado b , D. Banerjee b , W. E. Billups c , G. Chen d , B. A. Cola e...Carbon Nano Material Workshop: Challenges and Opportunities 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  10. Evaluation of carbon-based nanosorbents synthesised by ethylene decomposition on stainless steel substrates as potential sequestrating materials for nickel ions in aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.J.Lee; L.Y.Lee; L.P.Y.Foo; K.W.Tan; D.G.Hassell

    2012-01-01

    The present work covers the preparation of carbon-based nanosorbents by ethylene decomposition on stainless steel mesh without the use of external catalyst for the treatment of water containing nickel ions (Ni2+).The reaction temperature was varied from 650 to 850℃,while reaction time and ethylene to nitrogen flow ratio were maintained at 30 min and 1:1 cm3/min,respectively.Results show that nanosorbents synthesised at a reaction temperature of 650℃ had the smallest average diameter (75 nm),largest BET surface area (68.95m2/g) and least amount of impurity (0.98 wt.% Fe).A series of batch sorption tests were performed to evaluate the effects of initial pH,initial metal concentration and contact time on Ni2+ removal by the nanosorbents.The equilibrium data fitted well to Freundlich isotherm.The kinetic data were best correlated to a pseudo second-order model indicating that the process was of chemisorption type.Further analysis by the Boyd kinetic model revealed that boundary layer diffusion was the controlling step.This primary study suggests that the prepared material with Freundlich constants compared well with those in the literature,is a promising sorbent for the sequestration of Ni2+ in aqueous solutions.

  11. Synthesis of carbon materials via the cold compression of aromatic molecules and carbon nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbons, Thomas C.

    Carbon's ability for catenation makes it a remarkable element and allows for many interesting and surprising properties and structures. Carbon can exist in one of its two thermodynamically stable bulk crystals, graphite or diamond, one of its several nanostructures: fullerene, nanotube, or graphene, or as an amorphous material with a mixed bonding pattern. Carbon also has an ability to bond heteroatoms such as hydrogen which can increase its properties and structures even further. Pressure has been shown to be able to drastically change the bonding in and structure of carbon based materials. In this dissertation I will present how pressure can be used to synthesize new amorphous hydrogenated carbons and how a battery of analytical techniques can be used to elicit the microstructure of the carbon networks. This microstructure can then be related back to the reaction conditions and more importantly the starting small molecule. This work has been expanded to looking for a molecular analogue to the cold compressed graphite system by investigating the high pressure stability and reactivity of 2-D polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This work was followed by discovering the failure of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes at high static pressures. When the tubes fail they transform into nano-graphitic polyhedra. It has been found that metallic tubes preferentially collapse, leaving the semiconducting tubes intact for the most part. Finally, the most influential work performed in my dissertation has been related to the kinetically controlled solid state reaction of molecular benzene to form diamond nanothreads. These nanothreads pack into hexagonal bundles without axial order. A combination of Raman spectroscopy, x-ray and neutron scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and first principles calculations were performed to confirm their existence. The three data chapters in this dissertation are enhanced by an introduction to carbon based materials and high pressure chemistry

  12. Thermal properties of graphene and nanostructured carbon materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balandin, Alexander A.

    2011-08-01

    Recent years have seen a rapid growth of interest by the scientific and engineering communities in the thermal properties of materials. Heat removal has become a crucial issue for continuing progress in the electronic industry, and thermal conduction in low-dimensional structures has revealed truly intriguing features. Carbon allotropes and their derivatives occupy a unique place in terms of their ability to conduct heat. The room-temperature thermal conductivity of carbon materials span an extraordinary large range -- of over five orders of magnitude -- from the lowest in amorphous carbons to the highest in graphene and carbon nanotubes. Here, I review the thermal properties of carbon materials focusing on recent results for graphene, carbon nanotubes and nanostructured carbon materials with different degrees of disorder. Special attention is given to the unusual size dependence of heat conduction in two-dimensional crystals and, specifically, in graphene. I also describe the prospects of applications of graphene and carbon materials for thermal management of electronics.

  13. In vivo adsorption study of fluoxetine using carbon materials,

    OpenAIRE

    Nabais, Joao; Tinoco, Teresa; Morais, Julio

    2011-01-01

    The in vivo adsorption of fluoxetine by a commercial activated carbon and a laboratory prepared activated carbon fibre were studied. The results showthat the carbon materials tested are not toxic toWistar rats and both materials had a high efficacy in the in vivo adsorption of fluoxetine preventing toxicity of the drug overdose administered to the animals.

  14. Carbonized asphaltene-based carbon-carbon fiber composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert, George; Lula, James; Bowen, III, Daniel E.

    2016-12-27

    A method of making a carbon binder-reinforced carbon fiber composite is provided using carbonized asphaltenes as the carbon binder. Combinations of carbon fiber and asphaltenes are also provided, along with the resulting composites and articles of manufacture.

  15. Carbon-based metal-free catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xien; Dai, Liming

    2016-11-01

    Metals and metal oxides are widely used as catalysts for materials production, clean energy generation and storage, and many other important industrial processes. However, metal-based catalysts suffer from high cost, low selectivity, poor durability, susceptibility to gas poisoning and have a detrimental environmental impact. In 2009, a new class of catalyst based on earth-abundant carbon materials was discovered as an efficient, low-cost, metal-free alternative to platinum for oxygen reduction in fuel cells. Since then, tremendous progress has been made, and carbon-based metal-free catalysts have been demonstrated to be effective for an increasing number of catalytic processes. This Review provides a critical overview of this rapidly developing field, including the molecular design of efficient carbon-based metal-free catalysts, with special emphasis on heteroatom-doped carbon nanotubes and graphene. We also discuss recent advances in the development of carbon-based metal-free catalysts for clean energy conversion and storage, environmental protection and important industrial production, and outline the key challenges and future opportunities in this exciting field.

  16. Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes as Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Bina; WU Feng; WANG Fang; CHEN Shi; CAO Gao-Ping; YANG Yu-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Large-scale synthesized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) prepared by electric arc discharge method and a mixture of NiO and Y2O3 as catalyst have been used as electrode materials for supercapacitors. N2 adsorption/desorption measurement shows that the SWNT is a microporous and mesoporous material with specific surface area 435 m2g1.Thespecific capacitance of the nitric acid treated SWNT in aqueous electrolyte reaches as high as 105 F/g, which is a combination of electric double layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance. The SWNT-based capacitors also have good charge/discharge reversibility and cycling perdurability.

  17. Materials based on carbon-filled porous layers of PVC cyclam derivatives cross-linked with the surfaces of asbestos fabric fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzivadze, A. Yu.; Fridman, A. Ya.; Morozova, E. M.; Sokolova, N. P.; Voloshchuk, A. M.; Petukhova, G. A.; Bardishev, I. I.; Gorbunov, A. M.; Novikov, A. K.; Polyakova, I. Ya.; Titova, V. N.; Yavich, A. A.; Petrova, N. V.

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of bilayer materials with porous upper layers composed of PVC hydroxyethylcyclam derivatives filled with carbon and a layer consisting of hydroxyethylcyclam, cross-linked via Si-O-C groups with the silica chains of a developed surface of asbestos fabric, is described. The aza-crown groups in these materials are bound with aqua complexes of H2SO4 or NaOH. The structure of the materials is examined, their adsorption characteristics are determined, and the rate of motion of H+ or OH- ions in electrochemical bridges is measured, while the formation of H2 and O2 in their cathodic and anodic polarization is determined as a function of voltage. It is shown that the upper layer of these materials is adsorption-active and electronand H+- or OH-- conductive, while the bottom layer is only H+- or OH-- conductive; through it, the upper layer is supplied with the H+ or OH- ions needed for the regeneration of the aqua complexes broken down to H2 and O2 on carbon particles.

  18. Recent progress on carbon-based superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubozono, Yoshihiro; Eguchi, Ritsuko; Goto, Hidenori; Hamao, Shino; Kambe, Takashi; Terao, Takahiro; Nishiyama, Saki; Zheng, Lu; Miao, Xiao; Okamoto, Hideki

    2016-08-24

    This article reviews new superconducting phases of carbon-based materials. During the past decade, new carbon-based superconductors have been extensively developed through the use of intercalation chemistry, electrostatic carrier doping, and surface-proving techniques. The superconducting transition temperature T c of these materials has been rapidly elevated, and the variety of superconductors has been increased. This review fully introduces graphite, graphene, and hydrocarbon superconductors and future perspectives of high-T c superconductors based on these materials, including present problems. Carbon-based superconductors show various types of interesting behavior, such as a positive pressure dependence of T c. At present, experimental information on superconductors is still insufficient, and theoretical treatment is also incomplete. In particular, experimental results are still lacking for graphene and hydrocarbon superconductors. Therefore, it is very important to review experimental results in detail and introduce theoretical approaches, for the sake of advances in condensed matter physics. Furthermore, the recent experimental results on hydrocarbon superconductors obtained by our group are also included in this article. Consequently, this review article may provide a hint to designing new carbon-based superconductors exhibiting higher T c and interesting physical features.

  19. Purity Evaluation of Bulk Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettlaff-Weglikowska, U.; Wang, J.; Liang, J.; Hornbostel, B.; Cech, J.; Roth, S.

    2005-09-01

    We report on our experience using a preliminary protocol for quality control of bulk single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) materials produced by the electric arc-discharge and laser ablation method. The first step in the characterization of the bulk material is mechanical homogenization. Quantitative evaluation of purity has been performed using a previously reported procedure based on solution phase near-infrared spectroscopy. Our results confirm that this method is reliable in determining the nanotube content in the arc-discharge sample containing carbonaceous impurities (amorphous carbon and graphitic particles). However, the application of this method to laser ablation samples gives a relative purity value over 100 %. The possible reason for that might be different extinction coefficient meaning different oscillator strength of the laser ablation tubes. At the present time, a 100 % pure reference sample of laser ablation SWNT is not available, so we chose to adopt the sample showing the highest purity as a new reference sample for a quantitative purity evaluation of laser ablation materials. The graphitic part of the carbonaceous impurities has been estimated using X-ray diffraction of 1:1 mixture of nanotube material and C60 as an internal reference. To evaluate the metallic impurities in the as prepared and homogenized carbon nanotube soot inductive coupled plasma (ICP) has been used.

  20. Characterization of electrospun lignin based carbon fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poursorkhabi, Vida; Mohanty, Amar; Misra, Manjusri [School of Engineering, Thornbrough Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, N1G 2W1, Ontario (Canada); Bioproducts Discovery and Development Centre, Department of Plant Agriculture, Crop Science Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, N1G 2W1, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-05-22

    The production of lignin fibers has been studied in order to replace the need for petroleum based precursors for carbon fiber production. In addition to its positive environmental effects, it also benefits the economics of the industries which cannot take advantage of carbon fiber properties because of their high price. A large amount of lignin is annually produced as the byproduct of paper and growing cellulosic ethanol industry. Therefore, finding high value applications for this low cost, highly available material is getting more attention. Lignin is a biopolymer making about 15 – 30 % of the plant cell walls and has a high carbon yield upon carbonization. However, its processing is challenging due to its low molecular weight and also variations based on its origin and the method of separation from cellulose. In this study, alkali solutions of organosolv lignin with less than 1 wt/v% of poly (ethylene oxide) and two types of lignin (hardwood and softwood) were electrospun followed by carbonization. Different heating programs for carbonization were tested. The carbonized fibers had a smooth surface with an average diameter of less than 5 µm and the diameter could be controlled by the carbonization process and lignin type. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study morphology of the fibers before and after carbonization. Thermal conductivity of a sample with amorphous carbon was 2.31 W/m.K. The electrospun lignin carbon fibers potentially have a large range of application such as in energy storage devices and water or gas purification systems.

  1. Carbon materials in the treatment of soft and hard tissue injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blazewicz M.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon-based implant materials are of interest because they are well accepted by the biological environment. Carbon fibrous materials developed in the Department of Special Ceramics of the University of Mining and Metallurgy in Cracow were tested in in vivo studies to determine their influence on the living body. For comparative purposes, different carbon fibers were prepared and subjected to different surface modifications. Carbon materials prepared in the form of braids were implanted in subcutaneous tissue of rabbits and into skeletal muscle of rats. Carbon fabrics were examined as scaffolds in reconstruction of bone defects. The present study examined the synthesis-structure-property relationships of fibrous carbon samples with respect to the tissue response. It was shown that the tissue response depends on the form of the material form, the degree of order of the crystallites, the surface state and microstructural parameters. Carbon fibers with higher crystallinity and a better-organized graphite structure were assimilated by the body with more difficulty and small particles coming from these materials were found in the regional lymph nodes. Low-carbonized carbon fibers (small crystallite size underwent partial fragmentation and reacted with the biological environment by being gradually resorbed in the implantation site. The presence of acidic groups on the surface of the carbon fibers enhanced phagocytosis of the carbon material by macrophages. Depending on the surface state of carbon fibers different rates of bone wound healing were observed.

  2. Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Deng, Hexiang; Liu, Cong; Yaghi, Omar M; Eisenberg, David S

    2014-01-07

    New materials capable of binding carbon dioxide are essential for addressing climate change. Here, we demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture. Solid-state NMR proves that amyloid fibers containing alkylamine groups reversibly bind carbon dioxide via carbamate formation. Thermodynamic and kinetic capture-and-release tests show the carbamate formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence of water, in both a natural amyloid and designed amyloids having increased carbon dioxide capacity. Heating to 100 °C regenerates the material. These results demonstrate the potential of amyloid fibers for environmental carbon dioxide capture.

  3. Influence of exopolymeric materials on bacterially induced mineralization of carbonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Amrita; Dhami, Navdeep Kaur; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Reddy, M Sudhakara

    2015-04-01

    Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation is an immensely growing technology for restoration and remediation of building materials. The investigation on role of exopolymeric substances and biofilms in microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation suggested that these exopolymeric materials play major role in carbonate precipitation in Bacillus megaterium SS3 along with enzymes urease and carbonic anhydrase. The concentration of EPS directly affects the precipitation of carbonate precipitates which might be due to capturing of Ca(2+) ions by acting as nucleation site. Components of the media and presence of calcium also play crucial role in production of exopolymeric substances along with affecting the morphology of carbonate precipitates.

  4. Electromagnetic characteristics of carbon nanotube film materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotube (CNT possesses remarkable electrical conductivity, which shows great potential for the application as electromagnetic shielding material. This paper aims to characterize the electromagnetic parameters of a high CNT loading film by using waveguide method. The effects of layer number of CNT laminate, CNT alignment and resin impregnation on the electromagnetic characteristics were analyzed. It is shown that CNT film exhibits anisotropic electromagnetic characteristic. Pristine CNT film shows higher real part of complex permittivity, conductivity and shielding effectiveness when the polarized direction of incident wave is perpendicular to the winding direction of CNT film. For the CNT film laminates, complex permittivity increases with increasing layer number, and correspondingly, shielding effectiveness decreases. The five-layer CNT film shows extraordinary shielding performance with shielding effectiveness ranging from 67 dB to 78 dB in X-band. Stretching process induces the alignment of CNTs. When aligned direction of CNTs is parallel to the electric field, CNT film shows negative permittivity and higher conductivity. Moreover, resin impregnation into CNT film leads to the decrease of conductivity and shielding effectiveness. This research will contribute to the structural design for the application of CNT film as electromagnetic shielding materials.

  5. The application of prepared porous carbon materials: Effect of different components on the heavy metal adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min; Wei, Yuexing; Yu, Lei; Tang, Xinhong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, five typical municipal solid waste (MSW) components (tyres, cardboard, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), acrylic textile, toilet paper) were used as raw materials to prepare four kinds of MSW-based carbon materials (paperboard-based carbon materials (AC1); the tyres and paperboard-based carbon materials (AC2); the tyres, paperboard and PVC-based carbon materials (AC3); the tyres, paperboard, toilet paper, PVC and acrylic textile-based carbon materials (AC4)) by the KOH activation method. The characteristic results illustrate that the prepared carbon adsorbents exhibited a large pore volume, high surface area and sufficient oxygen functional groups. Furthermore, the application of AC1, AC2, AC3, AC4 on different heavy metal (Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Pb(2+), Cr(3+)) removals was explored to investigate their adsorption properties. The effects of reaction time, pH, temperature and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption capability of heavy metals were investigated. Comparisons of heavy metal adsorption on carbon of different components were carried out. Among the four samples, AC1 exhibits the highest adsorption capacity for Cu(2+); the highest adsorption capacities of Pb(2+) and Zn(2+) are obtained for AC2; that of Cr(3+) are obtained for AC4. In addition, the carbon materials exhibit better adsorption capability of Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) than the other two kind of metal ions (Zn(2+) and Cr(3+)).

  6. Carbon Cryogel Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. 10 One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nano-foams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. 1-4,9 Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  7. Study on Strain Resistance Effect of Part-stromatolithic Carbon Fiber Cement-base Materials%局部叠层碳纤维水泥基材料的应变电阻效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑立霞; 朱四荣; 李卓球; 郑华升

    2011-01-01

    The continuous carbon fiber-bundle was used to replace the chopped carbon fiber in the traditional carbon fiber reinforced concrete. The changing rule of the resistance of three-point-bending beams with the part-stromatolithic carbon fiber cement-based material was studied when they were loaded on monotonous or cyclic tension stress. The strain resistance effect of part-stromatolithic carbon fiber cement-based material was analyzed and compared with that of the continuous carbon fiber cement-based materials. The results showed that the part-stromatolithic carbon fiber cement-based material was near 23 times the gauge factor of the continuous carbon fiber cement-based material, but their stability was worse. The resistance of the part-stromatolithic carbon fiber cement-based material increased along with the increase of tension strain and decreased along with the decrease of tension strain. The part-stromatolithic carbon fiber reinforced cement-based material was expected to performance the health monitoring of the civil engineering structure and infrastructure.%将碳纤维加入普通混凝土中,普通混凝土便成为具有自诊断功能特性的智能混凝土.利用这些功能特性可望实现土木工程结构和基础设施的健康监测.使用连续碳纤维束取代传统碳纤维增强混凝土中的短切碳纤维,研究了局部叠层碳纤维水泥基材料三点弯曲梁在单调和循环拉应力作用下电阻的变化规律,分析了局部叠层碳纤维水泥基材料的应变-电阻效应,并与连续碳纤维水泥基材料应变-电阻效应作了比较.结果表明,局部叠层碳纤维水泥基材料的应变灵敏系数是连续碳纤维水泥基材料应变灵敏系数的近23倍,但稳定性要差一些;局部叠层碳纤维水泥基材料的电阻随着拉伸应变的增大而增大,随着拉伸应变的减小而减小,可望用于土木工程结构和基础设施的健康监测.

  8. Superlubricity in vehicles. New carbon-based materials reduce fuel consumption and wear; Supraschmierung im Automobil. Neue, kohlenstoffbasierte Werkstoffe mindern Kraftstoffverbrauch und Verschleiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Franz

    2012-07-01

    During the long development history of mechanical engineering, engineers have substantially exhausted the traditional methods of reducing friction. Further optimisations are mostly just a matter of a few per cent. Innovative coatings made of diamond-like, shiny black carbon compounds can now exploit their advantages. They combine extraordinary lubricity with anti-adhesive properties, chemical stability and extreme material hardness. In the Pegasus research project, scientists from research and industry are working on their large-scale use for drive trains in vehicles. (orig.)

  9. Effect of Carbon Containing Materials on Pure Carbon Reaction-bonded SiC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Xiaoli; WEI Lei; SUN Feng

    2008-01-01

    Petroleum coke, graphite, gas carbon and lower sulfur carbon black were used to prepare reaction-bonded silicon carbide. The influences of different carbon containing materials on properties of carbonaceous precursors, sintering process, and microstructure of the prepared SiC were researched. The results show that:(1)With the density of carbon containing materials increasing, the porosity of carbonaceous precursors decreases and the infiltrating process of liquid silicon is more difficult.(2)The reaction between carbon containing materials and liquid silicon, the volume effect is more obvious with the density of carbon containing materials increasing.(3)As the carbon containing materials density decreasing, residual carbon in reaction bonded SiC also decreases.

  10. Carbon Nanotubes Based Quantum Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian-Ping

    1999-01-01

    This document represents the final report for the NASA cooperative agreement which studied the application of carbon nanotubes. The accomplishments are reviewed: (1) Wrote a review article on carbon nanotubes and its potentials for applications in nanoscale quantum devices. (2) Extensive studies on the effects of structure deformation on nanotube electronic structure and energy band gaps. (3) Calculated the vibrational spectrum of nanotube rope and the effect of pressure. and (4) Investigate the properties of Li intercalated nanotube ropes and explore their potential for energy storage materials and battery applications. These studies have lead to four publications and seven abstracts in international conferences.

  11. Peak position differences observed during XPS sputter depth profiling of the SEI on lithiated and delithiated carbon-based anode material for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, S.; Hoffmann, M.; Zier, M.

    2017-04-01

    The ability of delivering chemical information from peak shift phenomena has ever since made X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) an ideal tool for material characterization in Li-ion batteries (LIB). Upon investigation, charging is inevitable as most of the chemical species involved are non-conducting. Thus, the binding energy (BE) scale must be corrected to allow an accurate interpretation of the results. This is usually done using the peak position of the ubiquitous surface carbon contamination detectable for all Li-ion battery relevant materials. We herein report on the occurrence of peak shift phenomena that can be observed when investigating surface layers on graphite anodes using sputter depth-profiling. These shifts, however, are not related to classical static electric charging, but are depending on the state of charge (lithiation) of the anode material. The observations presented are in agreement with previous findings on other Li-containing materials and are obviously caused by the presence of Li in its elemental state. As aging and failure mechanisms in LIBs are closely linked to electrolyte reaction products on electrode surfaces it is of high importance to draw the correct conclusions on their chemical origin from XP spectra. In order to avoid misinterpretation of the BE positions, implanted Ar can be used for identification of relevant peak positions and species involved in the phenomena observed.

  12. Carbon nanotubes for thermal interface materials in microelectronic packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei

    As the integration scale of transistors/devices in a chip/system keeps increasing, effective cooling has become more and more important in microelectronics. To address the thermal dissipation issue, one important solution is to develop thermal interface materials with higher performance. Carbon nanotubes, given their high intrinsic thermal and mechanical properties, and their high thermal and chemical stabilities, have received extensive attention from both academia and industry as a candidate for high-performance thermal interface materials. The thesis is devoted to addressing some challenges related to the potential application of carbon nanotubes as thermal interface materials in microelectronics. These challenges include: 1) controlled synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on various bulk substrates via chemical vapor deposition and the fundamental understanding involved; 2) development of a scalable annealing process to improve the intrinsic properties of synthesized carbon nanotubes; 3) development of a state-of-art assembling process to effectively implement high-quality vertically aligned carbon nanotubes into a flip-chip assembly; 4) a reliable thermal measurement of intrinsic thermal transport property of vertically aligned carbon nanotube films; 5) improvement of interfacial thermal transport between carbon nanotubes and other materials. The major achievements are summarized. 1. Based on the fundamental understanding of catalytic chemical vapor deposition processes and the growth mechanism of carbon nanotube, fast synthesis of high-quality vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on various bulk substrates (e.g., copper, quartz, silicon, aluminum oxide, etc.) has been successfully achieved. The synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on the bulk copper substrate by the thermal chemical vapor deposition process has set a world record. In order to functionalize the synthesized carbon nanotubes while maintaining their good vertical alignment

  13. Materials engineering data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The various types of materials related data that exist at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and compiled into databases which could be accessed by all the NASA centers and by other contractors, are presented.

  14. Field Sensing Characteristic Research of Carbon Fiber Smart Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaoyu; Lü Yong; CHEN Jianzhong; LI Zhuoqiu

    2015-01-01

    In order to research the field sensing characteristic of the carbon fiber smart material, the Tikhonov regularization principle and the modiifed Newton-Raphson(MNR) algorithm were adopted to solve the inverse problem of the electrical resistance tomography (ERT). An ERT system of carbon fiber smart material was developed. Field sensing characteristic was researched with the experiment. The experimental results show that the speciifc resistance distribution of carbon ifber smart material is highly consistent with the distribution of structural strain. High resistance zone responds to high strain area, and the speciifc resistance distribution of carbon ifber smart material relfects the distribution of sample strain in covering area. Monitoring by carbon ifber smart material on complicated strain status in sample ifeld domain is realized through theoretical and experimental study.

  15. Progress in 3D Printing of Carbon Materials for Energy-Related Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kun; Yao, Yonggang; Dai, Jiaqi; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-03-01

    The additive-manufacturing (AM) technique, known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, has attracted much attention in industry and academia in recent years. 3D printing has been developed for a variety of applications. Printable inks are the most important component for 3D printing, and are related to the materials, the printing method, and the structures of the final 3D-printed products. Carbon materials, due to their good chemical stability and versatile nanostructure, have been widely used in 3D printing for different applications. Good inks are mainly based on volatile solutions having carbon materials as fillers such as graphene oxide (GO), carbon nanotubes (CNT), carbon blacks, and solvent, as well as polymers and other additives. Studies of carbon materials in 3D printing, especially GO-based materials, have been extensively reported for energy-related applications. In these circumstances, understanding the very recent developments of 3D-printed carbon materials and their extended applications to address energy-related challenges and bring new concepts for material designs are becoming urgent and important. Here, recent developments in 3D printing of emerging devices for energy-related applications are reviewed, including energy-storage applications, electronic circuits, and thermal-energy applications at high temperature. To close, a conclusion and outlook are provided, pointing out future designs and developments of 3D-printing technology based on carbon materials for energy-related applications and beyond.

  16. Carbon materials for drug delivery & cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Liu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes and graphene are both low-dimensional sp2 carbon nanomaterials exhibiting many unique physical and chemical properties that are interesting in a wide range of areas including nanomedicine. Since 2004, carbon nanotubes have been extensively explored as drug delivery carriers for the intracellular transport of chemotherapy drugs, proteins, and genes. In vivo cancer treatment with carbon nanotubes has been demonstrated in animal experiments by several different groups. Recently, graphene, another allotrope of carbon, has also shown promise in various biomedical applications. In this article, we will highlight recent research on these two categories of closely related carbon nanomaterials for applications in drug delivery and cancer therapy, and discuss the opportunities and challenges in this rapidly growing field.

  17. Photophysics of Carbon Nanotubes Interfaced with Organic and Inorganic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Levitsky, Igor A; Karachevtsev, Victor A

    2012-01-01

    Photophysics of Carbon Nanotubes Interfaced with Organic and Inorganic Materials describes physical, optical and spectroscopic properties of the emerging class of nanocomposites formed from carbon nanotubes (CNTs)  interfacing with organic and inorganic materials. The three main chapters detail novel trends in  photophysics related to the interaction of  light with various carbon nanotube composites from relatively simple CNT/small molecule assemblies to complex hybrids such as CNT/Si and CNT/DNA nanostructures.   The latest experimental results are followed up with detailed discussions and scientific and technological perspectives to provide a through coverage of major topics including: ·   Light harvesting, energy conversion, photoinduced charge separation  and transport  in CNT based nanohybrids · CNT/polymer composites exhibiting photoactuation; and ·         Optical  spectroscopy  and structure of CNT/DNA complexes. Including original data and a short review of recent research, Phot...

  18. Novel sintered ceramic materials incorporated with EAF carbon steel slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayannis, V.; Ntampegliotis, K.; Lamprakopoulos, S.; Papapolymerou, G.; Spiliotis, X.

    2017-01-01

    In the present research, novel sintered clay-based ceramic materials containing electric arc furnace carbon steel slag (EAFC) as a useful admixture were developed and characterized. The environmentally safe management of steel industry waste by-products and their valorization as secondary resources into value-added materials towards circular economy have attracted much attention in the last years. EAF Carbon steel slag in particular, is generated during the manufacture of carbon steel. It is a solid residue mainly composed of rich-in- Fe, Ca and Si compounds. The experimental results show that the beneficial incorporation of lower percentages of EAFC up to 6%wt. into ceramics sintered at 950 °C is attained without significant variations in sintering behavior and physico-mechanical properties. Further heating up to 1100 °C strongly enhances the densification of the ceramic microstructures, thus reducing the porosity and strengthening their mechanical performance. On the other side, in terms of thermal insulation behavior as well as energy consumption savings and production cost alleviation, the optimum sintering temperature appears to be 950 °C.

  19. Environmental assessment of biomass based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Susanne Vedel

    non-standard impacts from land use and land use change (LULUC) Some of the impacts associated with LULUC for biomass production, which are often not addressed in LCAs have been addressed through a theoretic case study in this PhD project. These impacts are changes in surface albedo, biogenic carbon...... with temporary carbon storage in biomaterials, in a way that quantifies the potential climate change benefit in relation to avoiding crossing near-term climatic targets. The geographical scope in this PhD project is global, as the focus is on methodology development and assessment of biomaterials at a global...... materials. Background The society today is highly dependent on fossil oil and gas for producing fuels, chemicals and materials, however many of those can alternatively be produced from biomass. The potential of biomaterials to substitute fossil based materials receives increased attention, and their global...

  20. [Carbon fiber-reinforced plastics as implant materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, R; Steinhauser, E; Rechl, H; Siebels, W; Mittelmeier, W; Gradinger, R

    2003-01-01

    Carbon fiber-reinforced plastics have been used clinically as an implant material for different applications for over 20 years.A review of technical basics of the composite materials (carbon fibers and matrix systems), fields of application,advantages (e.g., postoperative visualization without distortion in computed and magnetic resonance tomography), and disadvantages with use as an implant material is given. The question of the biocompatibility of carbon fiber-reinforced plastics is discussed on the basis of experimental and clinical studies. Selected implant systems made of carbon composite materials for treatments in orthopedic surgery such as joint replacement, tumor surgery, and spinal operations are presented and assessed. Present applications for carbon fiber reinforced plastics are seen in the field of spinal surgery, both as cages for interbody fusion and vertebral body replacement.

  1. Carbonization kinetics of La2O3-Mo cathode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金淑; 周美玲; 左铁镛; 张久兴; 聂祚仁; 胡延槽

    2001-01-01

    The carbonization kinetics of La2O3-Mo cathode materials was studied by thermal analysis method. Three-stage model of the carbonization was presented. The carbonization rate is initially controlled by chemical reaction, then by chemical reaction mixed with diffusion, finally by diffusion. The experimental data are processed according to this model and the correlation coefficients of the kinetic curves are satisfactory. The apparent activation energy of carbonization of La2O3-Mo cathode materials was obtained. At the same time, the empirical expressions of the rate constant against temperature in the temperature range of 1393~1493K were deduced.

  2. Carbon fiber CVD coating by carbon nanostructured for space materials protection against atomic oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Roberto; Bueno Morles, Ramon; Micheli, Davide

    2016-07-01

    adhesion and durability in the environment. Though these coatings are efficient in protecting polymer composites, their application imposes severe constraints. Their thermal expansion coefficients may differ markedly from those of polymer composite substrates: as a result, cracks develop in the coatings on thermal cycling and AO can penetrate through them to the substrate. In addition to the technicalities of forming an effective barrier, such factors as cost, convenience of application and ease of repair are important considerations in the selection of a coating for a particular application. The latter issues drive the aerospace research toward the development of novel light composite materials, like the so called polymer nanocomposites, which are materials with a polymer matrix and a filler with at least one dimension less than 100 nanometers. Current interest in nanocomposites has been generated and maintained because nanoparticle-filled polymers exhibit unique combinations of properties not achievable with traditional composites. These combinations of properties can be achieved because of the small size of the fillers, the large surface area the fillers provide, and in many cases the unique properties of the fillers themselves. In particular, the carbon fiber-based polymeric composite materials are the basic point of interest: the aim of the present study is to find new solution to produce carbon fiber-based composites with even more upgraded performances. One intriguing strategy to tackle such an issue has been picked out in the coupling between the carbon fibers and the carbon nanostructures. That for two main reasons: first, carbon nanostructures have shown fancy potentialities for any kind of technological applications since their discovery, second, the chemical affinity between fiber and nanostructure (made of the same element) should be a likely route to approach the typical problems due to thermo-mechanical compatibility. This work is joined in such framework

  3. Effect of the nature the carbon precursor on the physico-chemical characteristics of the resulting activated carbon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Vicente, E-mail: vicente.jimenez@uclm.es [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Sanchez, Paula; Valverde, Jose Luis [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Romero, Amaya [Escuela Tecnica Agricola, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2010-11-01

    Carbon materials, including amorphous carbon, graphite, carbon nanospheres (CNSs) and different types of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) [platelet, herringbone and ribbon], were chemically activated using KOH. The pore structure of carbon materials was analyzed using N{sub 2}/77 K adsorption isotherms. The presence of oxygen groups was analyzed by temperature programmed desorption in He and acid-base titration. The structural order of the materials was studied by X-ray diffraction and temperature programmed oxidation. The morphology and diameter distribution of CNFs and CNSs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The materials were also characterized by temperature-desorption programmed of H{sub 2} and elemental composition. The ways in which the different structures were activated are described, showing the type of pores generated. Relationships between carbon yield, removed carbon, activation degree and graphitic character were also examined. The oxygen content in the form of oxygen-containing surface groups increased after the activation giving qualitative information about them. The average diameter of both CNFs and CNSs was decreased after the activation process as consequence of the changes produced on the material surface.

  4. High-Conductance Thermal Interfaces Based on Carbon Nanotubes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a novel thermal interface material (TIM) that is based on an array of vertical carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for high heat flux applications. For...

  5. Batteries: Recent Advances in Carbon Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Francis Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We welcome readers to this Special Issue of C. From the standpoint of economics of energy storage, carbon electrodes offer the practicality of large-scale applications with the promise of improved performance.[...

  6. Effect of preparation methods on the adsorption property of municipal solid waste-based carbon materials%制备方法对城市固体废弃物基炭材料吸附性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋敏; 唐心红; 唐美; 卫月星

    2016-01-01

    采用水蒸气物理活化法、催化炭化法和KOH活化法制备了城市固体废弃物基炭材料。利用亚甲基蓝吸附值来评价制备碳材料的吸附特性,研究了不同制备方法对碳材料得率和吸附容量的影响。其中催化炭化法制备的碳材料的得率最高;KOH活化法次之。就吸附性能而言,KOH活化法是一种更好的活化方法。在不同组分固体废弃物基碳材料中,单组分的纸板,双组分的轮胎和纸板,三组分的轮胎、纸板。 PVC及多组分混合物混合制备的碳材料的吸附特性要分别优于其他单组分、双组分、三组分及多组分混合物。%Three different preparation methods including steam physical activation, catalytic carbonation and KOH chemical activation methods were used to prepare municipal solid waste-based carbon materials. The methylene blue ( MB) adsorption value was applied to evaluate the adsorption capabilities of the prepared carbon materials. The effects of preparation methods on adsorption capability and yield of products were investigated. The yield of carbon materials with the catalytic carbonation method is the highest, and the KOH activation method is the second level. Considering the adsorption performance, the KOH activation method is much more favorable. Among the different components of municipal solid waste-based carbon materials, the adsorption properties of the single component of paperboard, the double components of tire and paperboard, the triple components of tire, paperboard and polyvinyl chloride ( PVC ) , and the multi-component mixtures are better than those of other single-, double-, triple-and multi-component mixtures, respectively.

  7. Glassy carbon based supercapacitor stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baertsch, M.; Braun, A.; Koetz, R.; Haas, O. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Considerable effort is being made to develop electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC) that store relatively large quantities of electrical energy and possess at the same time a high power density. Our previous work has shown that glassy carbon is suitable as a material for capacitor electrodes concerning low resistance and high capacity requirements. We present the development of bipolar electrochemical glassy carbon capacitor stacks of up to 3 V. Bipolar stacks are an efficient way to meet the high voltage and high power density requirements for traction applications. Impedance and cyclic voltammogram measurements are reported here and show the frequency response of a 1, 2, and 3 V stack. (author) 3 figs., 1 ref..

  8. Morphology of polyethylene ski base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jörg; Wallner, Gernot M; Pieber, Alois

    2010-03-01

    We used high-resolution Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry for a comprehensive analysis of carbon black-filled polyethylene ski base grades at processing stages from the raw material to the structured ski base. Based on Raman mapping, we assessed the applicability of an advanced evaluation procedure for amorphous, disordered, and crystalline phase fractions of polyethylene for polyethylene extrusion and sinter grades. For sinter grades, a sufficient segregation between carbon black and polyethylene was confirmed, allowing for a comprehensive Raman spectroscopic morphological analysis. Significant morphological changes in polyethylene due to processing from the raw material to the semi-finished film and to the structured ski base were identified. Throughout the processing chain, we observed a decrease in crystallinity and an increase in the amorphous phase fraction. Although the raw material and the sintered semi-finished film exhibited a different but uniform polyethylene morphology, the morphological changes due to structuring of the ski base are limited to the top surface layer. The highest amorphous phase fractions were detected in the surface of the structured ski bases.

  9. Damage Mechanisms/Failure Mechanics of Carbon-Carbon Composite Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    cutting method was used to minimize material waste, not because * carbon-carbon is difficult to machine . 2.2 Tension Testing 2.2.1 Specimen Configuration...was made to bond the strain gages to fiber bundles if possible rather than to a layer of matrix material. Ex- tensometers were also employed to measure

  10. BaFe12O19-chitosan Schiff-base Ag (I) complexes embedded in carbon nanotube networks for high-performance electromagnetic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Xie, Yu; Guan, Dongsheng; Hua, Helin; Zhong, Rong; Qin, Yuancheng; Fang, Jing; Liu, Huilong; Chen, Junhong

    2015-07-28

    The multiwalled carbon nanotubes/BaFe12O19-chitosan (MCNTs/BF-CS) Schiff base Ag (I) complex composites were synthesized successfully by a chemical bonding method. The morphology and structures of the composites were characterized with electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Their conductive properties were measured using a four-probe conductivity tester at room temperature, and their magnetic properties were tested by a vibrating sample magnetometer. The results show that the BF-CS Schiff base Ag (I) complexes are embedded into MCNT networks. When the mass ratio of MCNTs and BF-CS Schiff base is 0.95:1, the conductivity, Ms (saturation magnetization), Mr (residual magnetization), and Hc (coercivity) of the BF-CS Schiff base composites reach 1.908 S cm(-1), 28.20 emu g(-1), 16.66 emu g(-1) and 3604.79 Oe, respectively. Finally, a possible magnetic mechanism of the composites has also been proposed.

  11. Electrochemical horseradish peroxidase biosensor based on dextran-ionic liquid-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanobelt composite material modified carbon ionic liquid electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Zhihong [Institute of Nano-Science and Technology Center, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Sun Xiaoying; Wang Yan [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, 53 Zhenzhou Road, Qingdao 266042 (China); Zeng Yan [Institute of Nano-Science and Technology Center, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Sun Wei, E-mail: sunwei_1975@public.qd.sd.cn [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, 53 Zhenzhou Road, Qingdao 266042 (China); Huang Xintang [Institute of Nano-Science and Technology Center, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China)

    2010-11-01

    Direct electrochemistry of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was realized in a dextran (De), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulphate ([EMIM]EtOSO{sub 3}) and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanobelt composite material modified carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE). Spectroscopic results indicated that HRP retained its native structure in the composite. A pair of well-defined redox peaks of HRP appeared in pH 3.0 phosphate buffer solution with the formal potential of -0.213 V (vs. SCE), which was the characteristic of HRP heme Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couple. The result was attributed to the specific characteristics of De-IL-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanocomposite and CILE, which promoted the direct electron transfer rate of HRP with electrode. The electrochemical parameters of HRP on the composite modified electrode were calculated and the electrocatalysis of HRP to the reduction of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) was examined. Under the optimal conditions the reduction peak current increased with TCA concentration in the range from 0.4 to 16.0 mmol L{sup -1}. The proposed electrode is valuable for the third-generation electrochemical biosensor.

  12. Carbon Nanotubes: Miracle of Materials Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Files, Bradley S.; Mayeaux, Brian M.

    1999-01-01

    Article to be sent to Advanced Materials and Processes, journal of ASM International, as attached. This is a news-type technical journal for a large organization of scientists, engineers, salesmen, and managers. The article is quite general, meant to be an introduction to the properties of nanotubes. This is a materials science organization, therefore the article is geared toward using nanotubes for materials uses. Pictures have not been included in this version.

  13. Epoxy based photoresist/carbon nanoparticle composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillemose, Michael; Gammelgaard, Lauge; Richter, Jacob;

    2008-01-01

    We have fabricated composites of SU-8 polymer and three different types of carbon nanoparticles (NPs) using ultrasonic mixing. Structures of composite thin films have been patterned on a characterization chip with standard UV photolithography. Using a four-point bending probe, a well defined stress...... is applied to the composite thin film and we have demonstrated that the composites are piezoresistive. Stable gauge factors of 5-9 have been measured, but we have also observed piezoresistive responses with gauge factors as high as 50. As SU-8 is much softer than silicon and the gauge factor of the composite...... material is relatively high, carbon nanoparticle doped SU-8 is a valid candidate for the piezoresistive readout in polymer based cantilever sensors, with potentially higher sensitivity than silicon based cantilevers....

  14. Polyphosphazine-based polymer materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V.; Avci, Recep; Groenewold, Gary S.

    2010-05-25

    Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

  15. Investigation of Thermostability of a Composite Resistive Material with Nanodimensional Carbon Fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinovskaya, T. D.; Vlasov, V. A.; Volokitin, G. G.; Melentyev, S. V.

    2014-06-01

    Thermostability of resistive materials based on polyurethane used as heat-liberating elements in the design of heating elements of thermoactive formworks is investigated. The application of polyurethane as a binder provides solid contact of polymer molecules with nanodimensional carbon fillers and their uniform distribution in a composite material. The influence of thermal treatment and dispersed fillers on the stability of electrophysical and thermophysical properties of carbon-filled polyurethane coatings is established.

  16. A solid-phase microextraction fiber with carbon nanoparticles as sorbent material prepared by a simple flame-based preparation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Feng, Juanjuan; Qiu, Huamin; Fan, Lulu; Li, Leilei; Luo, Chuannan

    2013-07-26

    A novel carbon nanoparticles-coated solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was prepared via a simple and low-cost flame-based preparation process, with stainless steel wire as support. Surface characteristic of the fiber was studied with scanning electron microscope. A nano-scaled brushy structure was observed. Coupled to gas chromatography (GC), the fiber was used to extract phthalate esters (PAEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aqueous samples. Analytical performances of the proposed method were investigated under the optimum extraction conditions (extraction temperature, 40°C; content of KCl, 30% (w/v); extraction time, 50min for PAEs and 40min for PAHs) and compared with other reports for the same analytes. Calibration ranges were 0.06-500μgL(-1) for di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and 0.1-300μgL(-1) for di-cyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP). For the eight PAHs, good linearity was obtained ranging from 0.01 to 150μgL(-1). Limits of detection were 0.005μgL(-1) for three PAEs and 0.001-0.003μgL(-1) for eight PAHs. The fiber exhibited excellent stability. It can be used for 100 times with RSDs of extraction efficiency less than 22.4%. The as-established SPME-GC method was applied to determine PAEs in food-wrap and PAHs in cigarette ash and snow water, and satisfactory results were obtained. The carbon nanoparticles-coated SPME fiber was efficient for sampling of organic compounds from aqueous samples.

  17. Laser irradiation of carbon-tungsten materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, A.; Avotina, L.; Marin, A.; Lungu, C. P.; Grigorescu, C. E. A.; Demitri, N.; Ursescu, D.; Porosnicu, C.; Osiceanu, P.; Kizane, G.; Grigoriu, C.

    2014-09-01

    Carbon-tungsten layers deposited on graphite by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) were directly irradiated with a femtosecond terawatt laser. The morphological and structural changes produced in the irradiated area by different numbers of pulses were systematically explored, both along the spots and in their depths. Although micro-Raman and Synchrotron-x-ray diffraction investigations have shown no carbide formation, they have shown the unexpected presence of embedded nano-diamonds in the areas irradiated with high fluencies. Scanning electron microscopy images show a cumulative effect of the laser pulses on the morphology through the ablation process. The micro-Raman spatial mapping signalled an increased percentage of sp3 carbon bonding in the areas irradiated with laser fluencies around the ablation threshold. In-depth x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations suggested a weak cumulative effect on the percentage increase of the sp2-sp3 transitions with the number of laser pulses just for nanometric layer thicknesses.

  18. Densified ultra-light cement-based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteves, Luis Pedro

    2015-01-01

    be used as a “clean technology” in the production of cement-based materials for structural applications with a low carbon footprint. This paper describes the principles of this concept coupled with experimental results on the basic properties of this enhanced type of cement-based materials with combined...

  19. Nitrogen-doped carbons in Li-S batteries: materials design and electrochemical mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia eLi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Li-S batteries have been considered as next generation Li batteries due to their high theoretical energy density. Over the past few years, researchers have made significant efforts in breaking through critical bottlenecks which impede the commercialization of Li-S batteries. Beginning with a basic introduction to Li-S systems and their associated mechanism, this review will highlight the application of one specific carbon family, nitrogen-doped carbon materials in sulfur based cathodes. These materials will include nitrogen doped porous carbon, carbon nanotubes, nanofibers and graphene. The article will conclude with a summary of recent research efforts in this field as well as the future prospects for the use of nitrogen-doped carbon materials in Li-S batteries.

  20. Preparation and characterization of carbon pillared clay material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZengZhi; YANG ChunWei; NIU JunJie

    2009-01-01

    Carbon pillared clay material was prepared from montmorillonite modified by C19H42BrN and C10H16CIN.SEM, FT-IR, XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, thermal-gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were employed to characterize the pore structure and test the effect of surfactant. The re-sults show that organic modifier combines with montmorillonite particles by covalent bond and ion embedded. The microstructure of carbon pillared material looks like needle slice. The most probable pore size distribution is about 1.7 nm, The clay material slice mainly consists of two-dimensional ap-erture supported by a carbonization pillar. The high-temperature stability of carbon pillared clay is im-proved.

  1. Preparation and characterization of carbon pillared clay material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Carbon pillared clay material was prepared from montmorillonite modified by C19H42BrN and C10H16ClN. SEM, FT-IR, XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, thermal-gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were employed to characterize the pore structure and test the effect of surfactant. The results show that organic modifier combines with montmorillonite particles by covalent bond and ion embedded. The microstructure of carbon pillared material looks like needle slice. The most probable pore size distribution is about 1.7 nm. The clay material slice mainly consists of two-dimensional aperture supported by a carbonization pillar. The high-temperature stability of carbon pillared clay is im- proved.

  2. 21 CFR 872.3680 - Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) vitreous carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... materials. 872.3680 Section 872.3680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3680 Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) vitreous carbon materials. (a) Identification. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)...

  3. Carbon nanotube prepared from carbon monoxide by CVD method and its application as electrode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Yuliang; YUAN Xia; CHENG Shinan; GEN Xin

    2006-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes with larger inner diameter were synthesized by the chemical vapor deposition of carbon monoxide (CO) on iron catalyst using H2S as promoting agent.It is found that the structure and morphology of carbon nanotubes can be tailored, to some degree, by varying the experimental conditions such as precursor components and process parameters.The results show that the presence of H2S may play key role for growing Y-branched carbon nanotubes.The products were characterized by SEM, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy, respectively.Furthermore, the obtained carbon nanotubes were explored as electrode materials for supercapacitor.

  4. New strategies for the selective functionalization of carbon materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pérez-Mendoza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Selectively surface-modified solids can play a crucialrole in the development of new materials devised togive effective answers to the new technologydemands of the more sustainable 21st-centuryindustry. This has brought about a concentration ofresearch efforts on the elaboration of specificchemical functionality on solid surfaces. Nevertheless,the introduction of specific surface functionalizationon carbon materials has not yet realized the degreeof sophistication and control that other solid materialshave reached. This article reviews the latest researchdeveloped under the CARB-NANOMETAL project(at the Universities of Granada and Jaén towardsthe designing of new strategies for the selectivefunctionalization of carbon materials.

  5. Obtaining New Dental Materials Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Zaporotskova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to explore the change of strength properties of composite polymer material on the basis of fast-hardening dental plastic "Carbogen", when reinforcing its coal-native nanotubes. Were discussed peculiarities of composition of Carboante, ways of creation of polymeric composition deposits by doping their carbon nanotubes, the results of measuring the strength characteristic characteristics obtained new polymer materials. On the basis of the analysis of the practical and the theoretical-sky research, conclusions were drawn on the feasibility of a new filling material with the use of carbon nanotubes with unique strength characteristics and use of their in dentistry.

  6. Catalytic properties of carbon materials for wet oxidation of aniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Helder T; Machado, Bruno F; Ribeiro, Andreia; Moreira, Ivo; Rosário, Márcio; Silva, Adrián M T; Figueiredo, José L; Faria, Joaquim L

    2008-11-30

    A mesoporous carbon xerogel with a significant amount of oxygen functional groups and a commercial activated carbon, were tested in the catalytic wet air oxidation of aniline at 200 degrees C and 6.9 bar of oxygen partial pressure. Both carbon materials showed high activity in aniline and total organic carbon removal, a clear increase in the removal efficiency relatively to non-catalytic wet air oxidation being observed. The best results in terms of aniline removal were obtained with carbon xerogel, an almost complete aniline conversion after 1h oxidation with high selectivity to non-organic compounds being achieved. The materials were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, temperature programmed desorption, N(2) adsorption and scanning electron microscopy, in order to relate their performances to the chemical and textural characteristics. It was concluded that the removal efficiency, attributed to both adsorption and catalytic activity, is related to the mesoporous character of the materials and to the presence of specific oxygen containing functional groups at their surface. The effect of catalytic activity was found to be more important in the removal of aniline than the effect of adsorption at the materials surface. The results obtained indicate that mesoporous carbon xerogels are promising catalysts for CWAO processes.

  7. Catalytic properties of carbon materials for wet oxidation of aniline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Helder T. [Laboratorio de Catalise e Materiais (LCM), Laboratorio Associado LSRE/LCM, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Escola Superior de Tecnologia e de Gestao, Instituto Politecnico de Braganca, Campus de Santa Apolonia, 5300-857 Braganca (Portugal); Machado, Bruno F.; Ribeiro, Andreia; Moreira, Ivo; Rosario, Marcio; Silva, Adrian M.T.; Figueiredo, Jose L. [Laboratorio de Catalise e Materiais (LCM), Laboratorio Associado LSRE/LCM, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Faria, Joaquim L. [Laboratorio de Catalise e Materiais (LCM), Laboratorio Associado LSRE/LCM, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: jlfaria@fe.up.pt

    2008-11-30

    A mesoporous carbon xerogel with a significant amount of oxygen functional groups and a commercial activated carbon, were tested in the catalytic wet air oxidation of aniline at 200 deg. C and 6.9 bar of oxygen partial pressure. Both carbon materials showed high activity in aniline and total organic carbon removal, a clear increase in the removal efficiency relatively to non-catalytic wet air oxidation being observed. The best results in terms of aniline removal were obtained with carbon xerogel, an almost complete aniline conversion after 1 h oxidation with high selectivity to non-organic compounds being achieved. The materials were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, temperature programmed desorption, N{sub 2} adsorption and scanning electron microscopy, in order to relate their performances to the chemical and textural characteristics. It was concluded that the removal efficiency, attributed to both adsorption and catalytic activity, is related to the mesoporous character of the materials and to the presence of specific oxygen containing functional groups at their surface. The effect of catalytic activity was found to be more important in the removal of aniline than the effect of adsorption at the materials surface. The results obtained indicate that mesoporous carbon xerogels are promising catalysts for CWAO processes.

  8. Carbon-based ion and molecular channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sint, Kyaw; Wang, Boyang; Kral, Petr

    2008-03-01

    We design ion and molecular channels based on layered carboneous materials, with chemically-functionalized pore entrances. Our molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that these ultra-narrow pores, with diameters around 1 nm, are highly selective to the charges and sizes of the passing (Na^+ and Cl^-) ions and short alkanes. We demonstrate that the molecular flows through these pores can be easily controlled by electrical and mechanical means. These artificial pores could be integrated in fluidic nanodevices and lab-on-a-chip techniques with numerous potential applications. [1] Kyaw Sint, Boyang Wang and Petr Kral, submitted. [2] Boyang Wang and Petr Kral, JACS 128, 15984 (2006).

  9. Progress in Biomass-Based Carbon Materials as Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalyst%生物质基碳材料作为氧还原反应催化剂的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高书燕; 苏景振

    2015-01-01

    Fuel cells as a kind of clear energy source have great prospects, and Pt-based catalysts are often used to boost the cathode oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). However the limited Pt reserves and high cost seriously obstruct the commercialization of fuel cells. To find new cheap materials with high ORR activity and stability to replace traditional Pt-based catalyst becomes one of the key issues of large-scale commercialization of fuel cells. Carbon-based materials derived from biomass are considered to be one of the ideal alternatives, which have been intensively investigated recently. The research progress in biomass-based carbon materials as ORR electrocatalysts was reviewed and the future development was prospected.%燃料电池作为一种清洁能源有很大的发展前景,其阴极氧还原反应多采用铂基催化剂,但由于贵金属铂的储量稀少、价格昂贵等原因,严重阻碍了燃料电池的商业化进程。寻找高活性、高稳定性的新材料来替代阴极铂基催化剂成为燃料电池大规模商业化亟待解决的关键问题之一。研究表明,以生物质为原料的碳材料有望成为商业铂基氧还原催化剂的一种理想替代品。本文综述了这方面的研究进展,并且展望了未来的发展趋势。

  10. Radiation Exposure Effects and Shielding Analysis of Carbon Nanotube Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Richard; Armendariz, Lupita (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Carbon nanotube materials promise to be the basis for a variety of emerging technologies with aerospace applications. Potential applications to human space flight include spacecraft shielding, hydrogen storage, structures and fixtures and nano-electronics. Appropriate risk analysis on the properties of nanotube materials is essential for future mission safety. Along with other environmental hazards, materials used in space flight encounter a hostile radiation environment for all mission profiles, from low earth orbit to interplanetary space.

  11. Computer-Aided Process Model For Carbon/Phenolic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letson, Mischell A.; Bunker, Robert C.

    1996-01-01

    Computer program implements thermochemical model of processing of carbon-fiber/phenolic-matrix composite materials into molded parts of various sizes and shapes. Directed toward improving fabrication of rocket-engine-nozzle parts, also used to optimize fabrication of other structural components, and material-property parameters changed to apply to other materials. Reduces costs by reducing amount of laboratory trial and error needed to optimize curing processes and to predict properties of cured parts.

  12. Heat-Resistant Composite Materials Based on Polyimide Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Sergeyevich Ivanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Heat-resistant composite materials with a polyimide-based binder were obtained in this paper. Composites were prepared with different content of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT and nanostructured silicon carbide, and polyimides coated carbon fibers woven into the cloth. Composite materials showed high values of thermostability and resistance to thermo-oxidative degradation, as well as good mechanical properties.

  13. Realization of High-temperature Superconductivity in Nano-carbon Materials and Its Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-13

    hottest topics in condensed matter physics and also for application to zero- emission energy system. In particular, carbon-based superconductors have...nano- carbon materials and its application II 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA2386-13-1-4059 5b. GRANT NUMBER Grant 13RSZ067_134059 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...for AOARD Grant F A2386-13- l-4059 "Realization of high-temperature superconductivity in nano-carbon materials and its application " Date: 07/13

  14. Coupling carbon nanomaterials with photochromic molecules for the generation of optically responsive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Hou, Lili; Samorì, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Multifunctional carbon-based nanomaterials offer routes towards the realization of smart and high-performing (opto)electronic (nano)devices, sensors and logic gates. Meanwhile photochromic molecules exhibit reversible transformation between two forms, induced by the absorption of electromagnetic radiation. By combining carbon-based nanomaterials with photochromic molecules, one can achieve reversible changes in geometrical structure, electronic properties and nanoscale mechanics triggering by light. This thus enables a reversible modulation of numerous physical and chemical properties of the carbon-based nanomaterials towards the fabrication of cognitive devices. This review examines the state of the art with respect to these responsive materials, and seeks to identify future directions for investigation.

  15. Catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol with functionalized carbon materials as catalysts: reaction mechanism and pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianbing; Fu, Wantao; He, Xuwen; Yang, Shaoxia; Zhu, Wanpeng

    2014-08-01

    The development of highly active carbon material catalysts in catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) has attracted a great deal of attention. In this study different carbon material catalysts (multi-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon fibers and graphite) were developed to enhance the CWAO of phenol in aqueous solution. The functionalized carbon materials exhibited excellent catalytic activity in the CWAO of phenol. After 60 min reaction, the removal of phenol was nearly 100% over the functionalized multi-walled carbon, while it was only 14% over the purified multi-walled carbon under the same reaction conditions. Carboxylic acid groups introduced on the surface of the functionalized carbon materials play an important role in the catalytic activity in CWAO. They can promote the production of free radicals, which act as strong oxidants in CWAO. Based on the analysis of the intermediates produced in the CWAO reactions, a new reaction pathway for the CWAO of phenol was proposed in this study. There are some differences between the proposed reaction pathway and that reported in the literature. First, maleic acid is transformed directly into malonic acid. Second, acetic acid is oxidized into an unknown intermediate, which is then oxidized into CO2 and H2O. Finally, formic acid and oxalic acid can mutually interconvert when conditions are favorable.

  16. Polymeric photocatalysts based on graphitic carbon nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shaowen; Low, Jingxiang; Yu, Jiaguo; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2015-04-01

    Semiconductor-based photocatalysis is considered to be an attractive way for solving the worldwide energy shortage and environmental pollution issues. Since the pioneering work in 2009 on graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) for visible-light photocatalytic water splitting, g-C3N4 -based photocatalysis has become a very hot research topic. This review summarizes the recent progress regarding the design and preparation of g-C3N4 -based photocatalysts, including the fabrication and nanostructure design of pristine g-C3N4 , bandgap engineering through atomic-level doping and molecular-level modification, and the preparation of g-C3N4 -based semiconductor composites. Also, the photo-catalytic applications of g-C3N4 -based photocatalysts in the fields of water splitting, CO2 reduction, pollutant degradation, organic syntheses, and bacterial disinfection are reviewed, with emphasis on photocatalysis promoted by carbon materials, non-noble-metal cocatalysts, and Z-scheme heterojunctions. Finally, the concluding remarks are presented and some perspectives regarding the future development of g-C3N4 -based photocatalysts are highlighted.

  17. Computerized calculation of material balances in carbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chistyakov, A.M.

    1980-09-01

    Charge formulations and carbonisation schedules are described by empirical formulae used to calculate the yield of coking products. An algorithm is proposed for calculating the material balance, and associated computer program. The program can be written in conventional languages, e.g. Fortran, Algol etc. The information obtained can be used for on-line assessment of the effects of charge composition and properties on the coke and by-products yields, as well as the effects of the carbonisation conditions.

  18. Hydrothermal carbonization: a greener route towards the synthesis of advanced carbon materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Titirici

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This review paper provides an overview of thehydrothermal carbonisation (HTC technology, a“green” and versatile strategy for the synthesis ofadvanced carbon materials suitable for a wide varietyof applications of high impact in the current society.We will focus on the carbon formation mechanism,chemical and structural properties of hydrothermalcarbons, porosity development, nanostructuring,functionalisation and applications.

  19. In Situ Formation of Carbon Nanomaterials on Bulk Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials were synthesized in situ on bulk 316L stainless steel, pure cobalt, and pure nickel by hybrid surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT. The microstructures of the treated samples and the resulted carbon nanomaterials were investigated by SEM and TEM characterizations. Different substrates resulted in different morphologies of products. The diameter of carbon nanomaterials is related to the size of the nanograins on the surface layer of substrates. The possible growth mechanism was discussed. Effects of the main parameters of the synthesis, including the carbon source and gas reactant composition, hydrogen, and the reaction temperature, were studied. Using hybrid SMAT is proved to be an effective way to synthesize carbon nanomaterials in situ on surfaces of metallic materials.

  20. Improved Composites Using Crosslinked, Surface-Modified Carbon Nanotube Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, James Stewart

    2014-01-01

    Individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhibit exceptional tensile strength and stiffness; however, these properties have not translated well to the macroscopic scale. Premature failure of bulk CNT materials under tensile loading occurs due to the relatively weak frictional forces between adjacent CNTs, leading to poor load transfer through the material. When used in polymer matrix composites (PMCs), the weak nanotube-matrix interaction leads to the CNTs providing less than optimal reinforcement.Our group is examining the use of covalent crosslinking and surface modification as a means to improve the tensile properties of PMCs containing carbon nanotubes. Sheet material comprised of unaligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) was used as a drop-in replacement for carbon fiber in the composites. A variety of post-processing methods have been examined for covalently crosslinking the CNTs to overcome the weak inter-nanotube shear interactions, resulting in improved tensile strength and modulus for the bulk sheet material. Residual functional groups from the crosslinking chemistry may have the added benefit of improving the nanotube-matrix interaction. Composites prepared using these crosslinked, surface-modified nanotube sheet materials exhibit superior tensile properties to composites using the as received CNT sheet material.

  1. Studies on supercapacitor electrode material from activated lignin-derived mesoporous carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dipendu; Li, Yunchao; Bi, Zhonghe; Chen, Jihua; Keum, Jong K; Hensley, Dale K; Grappe, Hippolyte A; Meyer, Harry M; Dai, Sheng; Paranthaman, M Parans; Naskar, A K

    2014-01-28

    We synthesized mesoporous carbon from pre-cross-linked lignin gel impregnated with a surfactant as the pore-forming agent and then activated the carbon through physical and chemical methods to obtain activated mesoporous carbon. The activated mesoporous carbons exhibited 1.5- to 6-fold increases in porosity with a maximum Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area of 1148 m(2)/g and a pore volume of 1.0 cm(3)/g. Both physical and chemical activation enhanced the mesoporosity along with significant microporosity. Plots of cyclic voltammetric data with the capacitor electrode made from these carbons showed an almost rectangular curve depicting the behavior of ideal double-layer capacitance. Although the pristine mesoporous carbon exhibited a range of surface-area-based capacitance similar to that of other known carbon-based supercapacitors, activation decreased the surface-area-based specific capacitance and enhanced the gravimetric specific capacitance of the mesoporous carbons. A vertical tail in the lower-frequency domain of the Nyquist plot provided additional evidence of good supercapacitor behavior for the activated mesoporous carbons. We have modeled the equivalent circuit of the Nyquist plot with the help of two constant phase elements (CPE). Our work demonstrated that biomass-derived mesoporous carbon materials continue to show potential for use in specific electrochemical applications.

  2. Studies on Supercapacitor Electrode Material from Activated Lignin-Derived Mesoporous Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Dipendu [ORNL; Li, Yunchao [ORNL; Bi, Zhonghe [ORNL; Chen, Jihua [ORNL; Keum, Jong Kahk [ORNL; Hensley, Dale K [ORNL; Grappe, Hippolyte A. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE); Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized mesoporous carbon from pre-cross-linked lignin gel impregnated with a surfactant as the pore-forming agent, and then activated the carbon through physical and chemical methods to obtain activated mesoporous carbon. The activated mesoporous carbons exhibited 1.5- to 6-fold increases in porosity with a maximum BET specific surface area of 1148 m2/g and a pore volume of 1.0 cm3/g. Slow physical activation helped retain dominant mesoporosity; however, aggressive chemical activation caused some loss of the mesopore volume fraction. Plots of cyclic voltammetric data with the capacitor electrode made from these carbons showed an almost rectangular curve depicting the behavior of ideal double-layer capacitance. Although the pristine mesoporous carbon exhibited the same range of surface-area-based capacitance as that of other known carbon-based supercapacitors, activation decreased the surface-area-based specific capacitance and increased the gravimetric-specific capacitance of the mesoporous carbons. Surface activation lowered bulk density and electrical conductivity. Warburg impedance as a vertical tail in the lower frequency domain of Nyquist plots supported good supercapacitor behavior for the activated mesoporous carbons. Our work demonstrated that biomass-derived mesoporous carbon materials continue to show potential for use in specific electrochemical applications.

  3. Growth of Carbon Nanostructure Materials Using Laser Vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shen; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehozeky, S.

    2000-01-01

    Since the potential applications of carbon nanotubes (CNT) was discovered in many fields, such as non-structure electronics, lightweight composite structure, and drug delivery, CNT has been grown by many techniques in which high yield single wall CNT has been produced by physical processes including arc vaporization and laser vaporization. In this presentation, the growth mechanism of the carbon nanostructure materials by laser vaporization is to be discussed. Carbon nanoparticles and nanotubes have been synthesized using pulsed laser vaporization on Si substrates in various temperatures and pressures. Two kinds of targets were used to grow the nanostructure materials. One was a pure graphite target and the other one contained Ni and Co catalysts. The growth temperatures were 600-1000 C and the pressures varied from several torr to 500 torr. Carbon nanoparticles were observed when a graphite target was used, although catalysts were deposited on substrates before growing carbon films. When the target contains catalysts, carbon nanotubes (CNT) are obtained. The CNT were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, optical absorption and transmission, and Raman spectroscopy. The temperature-and pressure-dependencies of carbon nanotubes' growth rate and size were investigated.

  4. Reactivity improvement of magnesium by carbon nano-material mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aikawa, Kenji [Tokai Univ. (Japan). Course of Metallurgical Engineering; Niimuma, Hideki; Uchida, Haru-Hisa [Tokai Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Human Development; Nishi, Yoshitake [Tokai Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science

    2010-07-01

    Proposing magnesium as a hydrogen storage material, we demonstrate quite interesting results of carbon nano-materials mixed into magnesium by mechanical milling in this study. Higher hydrogen reactivity can be obtained by multi wall carbon nano-tube (MWCNT) mixing which may enlarge the diffusion path in the sample powder particles. As a result, Mg with 0, 10, 20, 40 and 60 mass% of MWCNT exhibits drastically modified hydrogen absorption and desorption kinetics with more than 5 mass% H (including weight of catalyst) at 573-673K within 10min. under 6MPa of H{sub 2}. (orig.)

  5. 碳纳米材料去除水中重金属研究进展%Advances in Research of Removing Heavy Metals from Water by Carbon-based Nano-materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊伟; 卞战强; 田向红; 张娟

    2013-01-01

    Novel nano-materials for removing heavy metals from water were introduced in this paper,including types and characteristics of carbon-based nano-materials,among others,the carbon nano-tubes and graphene.Studies on mechanism of heavy metals removal by the nano-materials were reviewed and the progress in developing new composite materials to cope with various difficulties involved in water purification was summarized.%碳纳米材料具有极大的比表面积,经氧化处理后的原子结构层上含有大量的羟基,羧基等含氧功能团,增强了它们与水中重金属污染物的离子交换能力和络合作用,是一类高效的水中重金属去除材料.文章介绍了碳纳米材料的种类、结构特点,总结了碳纳米材料去除水中重金属的研究现状,分析了去除重金属的机理.指出碳纳米材料在水处理实际应用中存在的问题,展望了应用前景,为开发新型重金属废水处理和供水处理工艺提供理论依据.

  6. Spectroscopic investigation of nitrogen-functionalized carbon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Kevin N. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street Golden CO 80401 USA; Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48109 USA; Christensen, Steven T. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Pkwy Golden CO 80401 USA; Nordlund, Dennis [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd Menlo Park CA 94023 USA; Dameron, Arrelaine A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Pkwy Golden CO 80401 USA; Ngo, Chilan [Department of Chemistry and Geochemistry, Colorado School of Mines, 1012 14th Street Golden CO 80401 USA; Dinh, Huyen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Pkwy Golden CO 80401 USA; Gennett, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Pkwy Golden CO 80401 USA; O' Hayre, Ryan [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street Golden CO 80401 USA; Pylypenko, Svitlana [Department of Chemistry and Geochemistry, Colorado School of Mines, 1012 14th Street Golden CO 80401 USA

    2016-04-07

    Carbon materials are used in a diverse set of applications ranging from pharmaceuticals to catalysis. Nitrogen modification of carbon powders has shown to be an effective method for enhancing both surface and bulk properties of as-received material for a number of applications. Unfortunately, control of the nitrogen modification process is challenging and can limit the effectiveness and reproducibility of N-doped materials. Additionally, the assignment of functional groups to specific moieties on the surface of nitrogen-modified carbon materials is not straightforward. Herein, we complete an in-depth analysis of functional groups present at the surface of ion-implanted Vulcan and Graphitic Vulcan through the use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near edge X-ray adsorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). Our results show that regardless of the initial starting materials used, nitrogen ion implantation conditions can be tuned to increase the amount of nitrogen incorporation and to obtain both similar and reproducible final distributions of nitrogen functional groups. The development of a well-controlled/reproducible nitrogen implantation pathway opens the door for carbon supported catalyst architectures to have improved numbers of nucleation sites, decreased particle size, and enhanced catalyst-support interactions.

  7. Carbon Based Transistors and Nanoelectronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhi, Nima

    Carbon based materials (carbon nanotube and graphene) has been extensively researched during the past decade as one of the promising materials to be used in high performance device technology. In long term it is thought that they may replace digital and/or analog electronic devices, due to their size, near-ballistic transport, and high stability. However, a more realistic point of insertion into market may be the printed nanoelectronic circuits and sensors. These applications include printed circuits for flexible electronics and displays, large-scale bendable electrical contacts, bio-membranes and bio sensors, RFID tags, etc. In order to obtain high performance thin film transistors (as the basic building block of electronic circuits) one should be able to manufacture dense arrays of all semiconducting nanotubes. Besides, graphene synthesize and transfer technology is in its infancy and there is plenty of room to improve the current techniques. To realize the performance of nanotube and graphene films in such systems, we need to economically fabricate large-scale devices based on these materials. Following that the performance control over such devices should also be considered for future design variations for broad range of applications. Here we have first investigated carbon nanotube ink as the base material for our devices. The primary ink used consisted of both metallic and semiconducting nanotubes which resulted in networks suitable for moderate-resistivity electrical connections (such as interconnects) and rfmatching circuits. Next, purified all-semiconducting nanotube ink was used to fabricate waferscale, high performance (high mobility, and high on/off ratio) thin film transistors for printed electronic applications. The parameters affecting device performance were studied in detail to establish a roadmap for the future of purified nanotube ink printed thin film transistors. The trade of between mobility and on/off ratio of such devices was studied and the

  8. Carbon-Carbon Composites as Recuperator Material for Direct Gas Brayton Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RA Wolf

    2006-07-19

    Of the numerous energy conversion options available for a space nuclear power plant (SNPP), one that shows promise in attaining reliable operation and high efficiency is the direct gas Brayton (GB) system. In order to increase efficiency, the GB system incorporates a recuperator that accounts for nearly half the weight of the energy conversion system (ECS). Therefore, development of a recuperator that is lighter and provides better performance than current heat exchangers could prove to be advantageous. The feasibility of a carbon-carbon (C/C) composite recuperator core has been assessed and a mass savings of 60% and volume penalty of 20% were projected. The excellent thermal properties, high-temperature capabilities, and low density of carbon-carbon materials make them attractive in the GB system, but development issues such as material compatibility with other structural materials in the system, such as refractory metals and superalloys, permeability, corrosion, joining, and fabrication must be addressed.

  9. Carbon Nanotube Based Molecular Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash; Menon, Madhu

    1998-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes and the nanotube heterojunctions have recently emerged as excellent candidates for nanoscale molecular electronic device components. Experimental measurements on the conductivity, rectifying behavior and conductivity-chirality correlation have also been made. While quasi-one dimensional simple heterojunctions between nanotubes with different electronic behavior can be generated by introduction of a pair of heptagon-pentagon defects in an otherwise all hexagon graphene sheet. Other complex 3- and 4-point junctions may require other mechanisms. Structural stability as well as local electronic density of states of various nanotube junctions are investigated using a generalized tight-binding molecular dynamics (GDBMD) scheme that incorporates non-orthogonality of the orbitals. The junctions investigated include straight and small angle heterojunctions of various chiralities and diameters; as well as more complex 'T' and 'Y' junctions which do not always obey the usual pentagon-heptagon pair rule. The study of local density of states (LDOS) reveal many interesting features, most prominent among them being the defect-induced states in the gap. The proposed three and four pointjunctions are one of the smallest possible tunnel junctions made entirely of carbon atoms. Furthermore the electronic behavior of the nanotube based device components can be taylored by doping with group III-V elements such as B and N, and BN nanotubes as a wide band gap semiconductor has also been realized in experiments. Structural properties of heteroatomic nanotubes comprising C, B and N will be discussed.

  10. Sequestering carbon dioxide in industrial polymers: Building materials for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molton, P.M.; Nelson, D.A.

    1993-06-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the possibility of developing beneficial uses for carbon dioxide as a key component for a large-volume building product. Such a use may provide an alternative to storing the gas in oceanic sinks or clathrates as a way to slow the rate of global warming. The authors investigated the concept that carbon dioxide might be used with other chemicals to make carbon-dioxide-based polymers which would be lightweight, strong, and economical alternatives to some types of wood and silica-based building materials. As a construction-grade material, carbon dioxide would be fixed in a solid, useful form where it would not contribute to global warming. With the probable imposition of a fuel carbon tax in industrialized countries, this alternative would allow beneficial use of the carbon dioxide and could remove it from the tax basis if legislation were structured appropriately. Hence, there would be an economic driver towards the use of carbon-dioxide-based polymers which would enhance their future applications. Information was obtained through literature searches and personal contacts on carbon dioxide polymers which showed that the concept (1) is technically feasible, (2) is economically defensible, and (3) has an existing industrial infrastructure which could logically develop it. The technology exists for production of building materials which are strong enough for use by industry and which contain up to 90% by weight of carbon dioxide, both chemically and physically bound. A significant side-benefit of using this material would be that it is self-extinguishing in case of fire. This report is the first stage in the investigation. Further work being proposed will provide details on costs, specific applications and volumes, and potential impacts of this technology.

  11. Graphitic Carbon Materials Tailored for the Rapid Adsorption of Biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescatore, Nicholas A.

    Sepsis is an overactive inflammatory response to an infection, with 19 million cases estimated worldwide and causing organ dysfunction if left untreated. Three pro-inflammatory cytokines are seen from literature review as vital biomarkers for sepsis and are interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), which have the potential to be removed by hemoperfusion. This thesis examines carbon nanomaterials for their adsorption capabilities in the search for an optimal material for blood cleansing hemoperfusion application, such as mediating the effects of sepsis. Non-porous and porous carbon polymorphs and their properties are investigated in this thesis for their protein adsorption capabilities. Polymer-derived mesoporous carbons were compared to non-porous graphene nanoplatelets (GNP's) to observe changes in adsorption capacity for cytokines between porous and non-porous materials. GNP's were functionalized via high temperature vacuum annealing, air oxidation, acid oxidation and amination treatments to understand the effect of surface chemistry on adsorption. For practical use in a hemoperfusion column, polymer-derived carbon beads and composite materials such as cryogel and PTFE-GNP composites were designed and tested for their adsorption capacity. At concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha seen in septic patients, these cytokines were completely removed from the blood after 5 minutes of incubation with GNP's. Overall, a low-cost, scalable carbon adsorbent was found to provide a novel approach of rapidly removing pro-inflammatory cytokines from septic patients.

  12. Protein-based composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Hu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein-based composite biomaterials have been actively pursued as they can encompass a range of physical properties to accommodate a broader spectrum of functional requirements, such as elasticity to support diverse tissues. By optimizing molecular interfaces between structural proteins, useful composite materials can be fabricated as films, gels, particles, and fibers, as well as for electrical and optical devices. Such systems provide analogies to more traditional synthetic polymers yet with expanded utility due to the material's tunability, mechanical properties, degradability, biocompatibility, and functionalization, such as for drug delivery, biosensors, and tissue regeneration.

  13. Resonance Raman spectroscopy in one-dimensional carbon materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dresselhaus Mildred S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has played an important role in the development and use of resonance Raman spectroscopy as a powerful characterization tool for materials science. Here we present a short history of Raman scattering research in Brazil, highlighting the important contributions to the field coming from Brazilian researchers in the past. Next we discuss recent and important contributions where Brazil has become a worldwide leader, that is on the physics of quasi-one dimensional carbon nanotubes. We conclude this article by presenting results from a very recent resonance Raman study of exciting new materials, that are strictly one-dimensional carbon chains formed by the heat treatment of very pure double-wall carbon nanotube samples.

  14. Anomalous carbon-isotope ratios in nonvolatile organic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, I R; Nissenbaum, A

    1966-08-12

    Organic mats are associated with sulfur deposits in Upper Pleistocene sand ridges of the coastal plain of southern Israel; black, brittle, and non-volatile, they show parallel layering but no other apparent cellular structure. Two independent carbon-14 determinations yielded ages of 27,750+/-500 and 31,370+/-1400 years. Four carbon-13:carbon-12 determinations fell within the range deltaC(13) =-82.5 to -89.3 per mille relative to the PDB standard; these appear to be the lowest values yet reported for naturally occurring high-molecular-weight organic material. The origin of the carbon is probably complex; it must have passed through at least one biologic cycle before final deposition.

  15. Minimizing the Carbon Footprint of Material Handling Equipment: Comparison of Electric and LPG Forklifts

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Facchini; Giovanni Mummolo; Giorgio Mossa; Salvatore Digiesi; Francesco Boenzi; Rossella Verriello

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify the best Material Handling Equipment (MHE) to minimize the carbon footprint of inbound logistic activities, based on the type of the warehouse (layout, facilities and order-picking strategy) as well as the weight of the loads to be handled. Design/methodology/approach: A model to select the best environmental MHE for inbound logistic activities has been developed. Environmental performance of the MHE has been evaluated in terms of carbon Footp...

  16. Physico-chemical characteristics of activated carbons based on a copolymer of furfural and mineral raw materials of the Republic of Kazakhstan and their application in extracting gold from industrial solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanagat Kishibayev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons are widely used in different industries for cleaning a variety of natural objects from of technogenic pollutants. In the article presents the results of physico-chemical investigations of activated carbons. The investigations on the sorption of gold in cyanide solutions activated sorbent based on furfural and sorbent based on shungit.

  17. Conductive polymer-based material

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, William F.; Koren, Amy B.; Dourado, Sunil K.; Dulebohn, Joel I.; Hanchar, Robert J.

    2007-04-17

    Disclosed are polymer-based coatings and materials comprising (i) a polymeric composition including a polymer having side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, at least two of the side chains being substituted with a heteroatom selected from oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and combinations thereof; and (ii) a plurality of metal species distributed within the polymer. At least a portion of the heteroatoms may form part of a chelation complex with some or all of the metal species. In many embodiments, the metal species are present in a sufficient concentration to provide a conductive material, e.g., as a conductive coating on a substrate. The conductive materials may be useful as the thin film conducting or semi-conducting layers in organic electronic devices such as organic electroluminescent devices and organic thin film transistors.

  18. A Novel Nanofilm Sensor Based on Poly-(Alizarin Red)/Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles-Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Composite Material for Determination of Nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jianying; Dong, Ying; Yong, Wang; Lou, Tongfang; Du, Xueping; Qu, Jianhang

    2016-03-01

    Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation with sodium citrate as surfactant and were characterized by FT-IR spectrometer, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. A novel nitrite sensor was fabricated by electropolymerization of alizarin red on the surface of glassy carbon electrode modified with Fe3O4-multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite nanofilm. Under the optimal experimental conditions, it was showed that the proposed sensor exhibited good electrocatalytic activity to the oxidation of nitrite, and the peak current increased linearly with the nitrite concentration from 9.64 x 10(-6) mol x L(-1) to 1.30 x 10(-3) mol x L(-1) (R = 0.9976) with a detection limit of 1.19 x 10(-6) mol x L(-1) (S/N = 3). This sensor showed excellent sensitivity, wide linear range, stability and repeatability for nitrite determination with potential applications.

  19. Fermentation based carbon nanotube multifunctional bionic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Luca; Bon, Silvia Bittolo; Signetti, Stefano; Tripathi, Manoj; Iacob, Erica; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-06-01

    The exploitation of the processes used by microorganisms to digest nutrients for their growth can be a viable method for the formation of a wide range of so called biogenic materials that have unique properties that are not produced by abiotic processes. Here we produced living hybrid materials by giving to unicellular organisms the nutrient to grow. Based on bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, was prepared by fermentation of such microorganisms at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the CNTs were internalized by the cell after fermentation bridging the cells. Tensile tests on dried composite films have been rationalized in terms of a CNT cell bridging mechanism where the strongly enhanced strength of the composite is governed by the adhesion energy between the bridging carbon nanotubes and the matrix. The addition of CNTs also significantly improved the electrical conductivity along with a higher photoconductive activity. The proposed process could lead to the development of more complex and interactive structures programmed to self-assemble into specific patterns, such as those on strain or light sensors that could sense damage or convert light stimulus in an electrical signal.

  20. Carbon nanomaterials-based electrochemical aptasensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zonghua; Yu, Jianbo; Gui, Rijun; Jin, Hui; Xia, Yanzhi

    2016-05-15

    Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) have attracted increasing attention due to their unique electrical, optical, thermal, mechanical and chemical properties. CNMs are extensively applied in electronic, optoelectronic, photovoltaic and sensing devices fields, especially in bioassay technology. These excellent properties significantly depend on not only the functional atomic structures of CNMs, but also the interactions with other materials, such as gold nanoparticles, SiO2, chitosan, etc. This review systematically summarizes applications of CNMs in electrochemical aptasensors (ECASs). Firstly, definition and development of ECASs are introduced. Secondly, different ways of ECASs about working principles, classification and construction of CNMs are illustrated. Thirdly, the applications of different CNMs used in ECASs are discussed. In this review, different types of CNMs are involved such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphene oxide, etc. Besides, the newly emerging CNMs and CNMs-based composites are also discoursed. Finally, we demonstrate the future prospects of CNMs-based ECASs, and some suggestions about the near future development of CNMs-based ECASs are highlighted.

  1. Carbon Materials Metal/Metal Oxide Nanoparticle Composite and Battery Anode Composed of the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A method of forming a composite material for use as an anode for a lithium-ion battery is disclosed. The steps include selecting a carbon material as a constituent part of the composite, chemically treating the selected carbon material to receive nanoparticles, incorporating nanoparticles into the chemically treated carbon material and removing surface nanoparticles from an outside surface of the carbon material with incorporated nanoparticles. A material making up the nanoparticles alloys with lithium.

  2. 炭基材料干法脱除硫化氢的研究进展%Research on carbon-based materials for hydrogen sulfide removal in dry process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩鹏; 郑仙荣; 张肖阳; 常丽萍

    2014-01-01

    With the advantages of the well developed pore structures and the abundant functional groups,carbon-based materials are widely used in dry desulfurization process. According to various reactions in desulfurization process,sorbents from carbon-based materials are mainly classified into two types. One is used to adsorb H2S directly as a sorbent. The other is used as the support for loading active components,by which H2S is removed by the interaction between metal active components and sulphur. The research progress in dry desulfurization was reviewed in detail in this article. In order to illustrate the process concretely , the effects of temperature and atmosphere on desulfurization behaviors have been analyzed. The relationship of its desulfurization capacity with the modified activation methods and the preparation conditions of carbon-based materials sorbent were also investigated. Compared with wet desulfurization,the carbon-based materials in dry desulfurization method is attractive by its cheap price,availability,high-desulfurization rate,and no heat transfer process needed. Thus the method has more merits and broad research prospect than the traditional desulfurization.%炭基材料因其发达的孔隙结构和丰富的官能团而被广泛用于 H2S 的干法脱除,基于其在脱硫过程中所起作用的不同可分为两大类:一类是利用炭基材料本身的物化特性直接作为吸附剂脱除H2S;另一类是炭基材料作为载体负载金属氧化物制备成吸附剂,利用金属组分与硫的作用脱除 H2S。本文详细综述了炭基材料干法脱除H2S的研究进展,具体分析了不同类型炭基吸附剂脱除H2S时的温度、气氛等条件对其脱硫行为的影响以及改性活化方法和制备工艺与其脱硫能力间的关系。由于炭基材料干法脱除 H2S 的过程相对湿法脱除省去换热过程,且炭基材料廉价易得,有很高的脱硫率,所以其比传统的脱硫工艺更具优势和研究前景。

  3. Ground based materials science experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. B.; Johnston, J. C.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1988-01-01

    The facilities at the Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory (MMSL) at the Lewis Research Center, created to offer immediate and low-cost access to ground-based testing facilities for industrial, academic, and government researchers, are described. The equipment in the MMSL falls into three categories: (1) devices which emulate some aspect of low gravitational forces, (2) specialized capabilities for 1-g development and refinement of microgravity experiments, and (3) functional duplicates of flight hardware. Equipment diagrams are included.

  4. Introduction. Carbon-based electronics: fundamentals and device applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Robin J; Mainwood, Alison; Eaves, Laurence

    2008-01-28

    Carbon-based materials offer a number of exciting possibilities for both new science and applications. Many of these are based on the novel band structure of graphene, by which solids mimic the properties of relativistic fermions and which offers the potential for high speed nanoscale electronics. When sheets of graphene are rolled up to make carbon nanotubes, further interesting properties are found; for example, both semiconducting and metallic nanotubes able to be produced. The novel properties of these new materials, together with the already remarkable properties of diamond itself, are discussed by a series of experts who came together in May 2007 to discuss and debate the potential for future development.

  5. Effect of Metal Additives on Performance of Low-Carbon Magnesia-Carbon Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Xiaoyan; LI Lin; HE Zhiyong; LIU Kaiqi; WANG Bingjun

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, both oxidation and corrosion resistance of low-carbon magnesia-carbon materials containing 4.0wt% graphite with metallic Al and Mg-Al alloy powders as antioxidants were investigated. Meanwhile,the microstructures of samples corroded by slag were observed with optical microscope as well. The test results revealed the properties of oxidation and corrosion resistance of low-carbon magnesia-carbon materials could be improved obviously by adding metal Al powder and Mg-Al alloy powder. The rule of improving oxidation resistance was illegibility when metal Al powder and Mg-Al alloy powder were added together. It was harmful to corrosion resistance by mixed adding metal Al powder and Mg-Al alloy powder into the materials, at the same time, the corrosion resistance would decreased with the increasing of Mg-Al alloy content. The corrosion resistance of samples with 0.5wt% or 3.0wt% Mg-Al alloy was better. The oxidation resistance and corrosion resistance of materials with metal Al or Mg-Al alloy respectively were better than that with mixed metal Al and Mg-Al alloy. As a result, Mg-Al alloy was more suitable for low-carbon composite materials than metal Al as additives.

  6. Ultrasonic modification of carbon materials for electrochemical capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachiy, Bogdan I.; Nykoliuk, Marian O.; Budzulyak, Ivan M.; Kachmar, Andrii I.

    2017-01-01

    The paper is devoted to study the ultrasonic impact on the biomass of natural raw materials, which were used for the creation a nanoporous carbon material (NCM), which was used as electrode material for electrochemical capacitors (EC). The dry shells of apricot seeds were a feedstock, which were modified by the chemical treatment in the phosphoric acid and part of them were impacted by ultrasonic waves for 25 minutes. The NCM, which were obtained by carbonization at 550 °C, were modified by chemical treatment in the nitric acid. Thus, the different of modification NCM was obtained to compare their capacitance characteristics for EC. From experimental data we can do a conclusion, that ultrasonic modification and chemical treatment in nitric acidare improvecapacitance characteristics of NCM for EC.

  7. Graphitic carbon nitride based nanocomposites: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zaiwang; Sun, Yanjuan; Dong, Fan

    2015-01-07

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C(3)N(4)), as an intriguing earth-abundant visible light photocatalyst, possesses a unique two-dimensional structure, excellent chemical stability and tunable electronic structure. Pure g-C(3)N(4) suffers from rapid recombination of photo-generated electron-hole pairs resulting in low photocatalytic activity. Because of the unique electronic structure, the g-C(3)N(4) could act as an eminent candidate for coupling with various functional materials to enhance the performance. According to the discrepancies in the photocatalytic mechanism and process, six primary systems of g-C(3)N(4)-based nanocomposites can be classified and summarized: namely, the g-C(3)N(4) based metal-free heterojunction, the g-C(3)N(4)/single metal oxide (metal sulfide) heterojunction, g-C(3)N(4)/composite oxide, the g-C(3)N(4)/halide heterojunction, g-C(3)N(4)/noble metal heterostructures, and the g-C(3)N(4) based complex system. Apart from the depiction of the fabrication methods, heterojunction structure and multifunctional application of the g-C(3)N(4)-based nanocomposites, we emphasize and elaborate on the underlying mechanisms in the photocatalytic activity enhancement of g-C(3)N(4)-based nanocomposites. The unique functions of the p-n junction (semiconductor/semiconductor heterostructures), the Schottky junction (metal/semiconductor heterostructures), the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect, photosensitization, superconductivity, etc. are utilized in the photocatalytic processes. Furthermore, the enhanced performance of g-C(3)N(4)-based nanocomposites has been widely employed in environmental and energetic applications such as photocatalytic degradation of pollutants, photocatalytic hydrogen generation, carbon dioxide reduction, disinfection, and supercapacitors. This critical review ends with a summary and some perspectives on the challenges and new directions in exploring g-C(3)N(4)-based advanced nanomaterials.

  8. Preface for the Special Column of Carbon Materials for Energy Conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiulian Pan

    2012-01-01

    Carbon is one of the few elements known since ancient time.It exists as diamond and graphite in nature.Since synthetic carbon became available almost a century ago,it has been widely used in many fields and the best known applications are adsorbents and catalyst supports.Development of material science and nanotechnologies has allowed tailored design and synthesis of carbon allotropes with markedly different properties by combining the basic building blocks in different configurations.This has led to the discovery of Buckminsterfullerene or buckyball (C60),carbon nanotubes (CNTs),and graphene,and their derivatives within last 30 years highlighted by several Nobel Prize awards.Their superior properties of chemical stability,rich surface chemistry and fast electron mobility with rather well defined structure in contrast to "classical" carbon materials based on graphite and carbon black have aroused worldwide enthusiasm in many scientific and technological areas.On top of that,careful modification and decoration of these carbon allotropes with functional groups make it possible to further fine tune their properties.This has invoked significant interest in assembling them into functionalized materials for applications in energy-related processes e.g.catalytic processes,fuel cells,batteries and supercapacitors.

  9. Updating biomass into functional carbon material in ionothermal manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Gong, Yutong; Wei, Zhongzhe; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Zhiyong; Li, Haoran; Dai, Sheng; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-13

    The development of meaningful ways to transfer biomass into useful materials, more efficient energy carriers, and/or carbon storage deposits is a profound challenge of our days. Herein, an ionothermal carbonization (ITC) method, via treating natural resources (glucose, cellulose, and sugar cane bagesse) in nonmetal ionic liquids (ILs) at ∼200 °C, is established for the fabrication of porous heteroatom-doped carbon materials with high yield. Commercial ILs with bulky bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion or cross-linkable nitrile group were found to be efficient and recyclable templates for porosity control, leading to exciting nanoarchitectures with promising performance in oxygen reduction reaction. The optimized ILs (12 mL) can dissolve and directly convert up to 15 g of glucose into porous carbon materials (SBET: 272 m(2)/g) one time. This ITC method relies on the synergistic use of structure-directing effect, good biomass solubility, and excellent thermal stability of ILs, and provides a sustainable strategy for exploiting biomass.

  10. [Carbon fiber reinforced polysulfone--a new implant material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, L

    1989-12-01

    Carbon fibre reinforced polysulfone is a composite material which contains two materials of well known biocompatibility. In comparison to metals this composite material has some advantages which makes it favourable particularly for implants in tumor surgery. The custom made arrangement of fibres in the composite allows the development of implants with special mechanical properties. The radiolucency of the material avoids problems caused by the reflection of x-rays, using metal implants. This special property allows the exact calculation of postoperative radiation doses of tumor patients. Simultaneously the structures behind the implants are not hidden. All implants can be machined during the operation to adapt them to the individual anatomical situation. Animal experimental and clinical applications of plates, screws and spinal segmental replacement implants made of this composite material have shown good results so far.

  11. Lightweight Materials for Automotive Application: An Assessment of Material Production Data for Magnesium and Carbon Fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Sullivan, J. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2014-09-01

    The use of lightweight materials in vehicle components, also known as “lightweighting,” can result in automobile weight reduction, which improves vehicle fuel economy and generally its environmental footprint. Materials often used for vehicle lightweighting include aluminum, magnesium, and polymers reinforced with either glass or carbon fiber. However, because alternative materials typically used for vehicle lightweighting require more energy to make on a per part basis than the material being replaced (often steel or iron), the fuel efficiency improvement induced by a weight reduction is partially offset by an increased energy for the vehicle material production. To adequately quantify this tradeoff, reliable and current values for life-cycle production energy are needed for both conventional and alternative materials. Our focus here is on the production of two such alternative materials: magnesium and carbon fibers. Both these materials are low density solids with good structural properties. These properties have enabled their use in applications where weight is an issue, not only for automobiles but also for aerospace applications. This report addresses the predominant production methods for these materials and includes a tabulation of available material and energy input data necessary to make them. The life cycle inventory (LCI) information presented herein represents a process chain analysis (PCA) approach to life cycle assessment (LCA) and is intended for evaluation as updated materials production data for magnesium and carbon fiber for inclusion into the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation model (GREET2_2012). The summary life-cycle metrics used to characterize the cradle-to-gate environmental performance of these materials are the cumulative energy demand (CED) and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) per kilogram of material.

  12. Carbon-based Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven S. C. Chuang

    2005-08-31

    The direct use of coal in the solid oxide fuel cell to generate electricity is an innovative concept for power generation. The C-fuel cell (carbon-based fuel cell) could offer significant advantages: (1) minimization of NOx emissions due to its operating temperature range of 700-1000 C, (2) high overall efficiency because of the direct conversion of coal to CO{sub 2}, and (3) the production of a nearly pure CO{sub 2} exhaust stream for the direct CO{sub 2} sequestration. The objective of this project is to determine the technical feasibility of using a highly active anode catalyst in a solid oxide fuel for the direct electrochemical oxidation of coal to produce electricity. Results of this study showed that the electric power generation from Ohio No 5 coal (Lower Kittanning) Seam, Mahoning County, is higher than those of coal gas and pure methane on a solid oxide fuel cell assembly with a promoted metal anode catalyst at 950 C. Further study is needed to test the long term activity, selectivity, and stability of anode catalysts.

  13. Towards 3rd generation organic tandem solar cells with 20% efficiency: Accelerated discovery and rational design of carbon-based photovoltaic materials through massive distributed volunteer computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspuru-Guzik, Alan [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology

    2016-11-04

    Clean, affordable, and renewable energy sources are urgently needed to satisfy the 10s of terawatts (TW) energy need of human beings. Solar cells are one promising choice to replace traditional energy sources. Our broad efforts have expanded the knowledge of possible donor materials for organic photovoltaics, while increasing access of our results to the world through the Clean Energy Project database (www.molecularspace.org). Machine learning techniques, including Gaussian Processes have been used to calibrate frontier molecular orbital energies, and OPV bulk properties (open-circuit voltage, percent conversion efficiencies, and short-circuit current). This grant allowed us to delve into the solid-state properties of OPVs (charge-carrier dynamics). One particular example allowed us to predict charge-carrier dynamics and make predictions about future hydrogen-bonded materials.

  14. Carbon dioxide: A new material for energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Amouroux

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Though carbon dioxide is the main green house gas due to burning of fossil resource or miscellaneous chemical processes, we propose here that carbon dioxide be a new material for energy storage. Since it can be the key to find the solution for three critical issues facing the world: food ecosystems, the greenhouse issue and energy storage. We propose to identify the carbon recovery through a circular industrial revolution in the first part, and in the second part we present the starting way of three business plants to do that from industrial examples. By pointing out all the economic constraints and the hidden competitions between energy, water and food, we try to qualify the phrase “sustainable development” and open the way of a huge circular economy.

  15. Carbon dioxide:A new material for energy storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jacques Amouroux; Paul Siffert; Jean Pierre Massué; Simeon Cavadias; Béatriz Trujillo; Koji Hashimoto; Phillip Rutberg; Sergey Dresvin; Xianhong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Though carbon dioxide is the main green house gas due to burning of fossil resource or miscellaneous chemical processes, we propose here that carbon dioxide be a new material for energy storage. Since it can be the key to find the solution for three critical issues facing the world: food ecosystems, the greenhouse issue and energy storage. We propose to identify the carbon recovery through a circular industrial revolution in the first part, and in the second part we present the starting way of three business plants to do that from industrial examples. By pointing out all the economic constraints and the hidden competitions between energy, water and food, we try to qualify the phrase “sustainable development” and open the way of a huge circular economy.

  16. Size Classification of Chopped Carbon Fibers in the Composite Materials Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.S. Dovbysh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Information synthesis of the learning decision support system for automation of the chopped carbon fibers size control used for the matrix filling within the manufacturing of composite materials based on polytetrafluoroethylene is considered. To improve the reliability of recognition learning algorithm with the optimization of the precision control is proposed.

  17. Size Classification of Chopped Carbon Fibers in the Composite Materials Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    А.S. Dovbysh; А.F. Budnik; N.І. Andriienko

    2010-01-01

    Information synthesis of the learning decision support system for automation of the chopped carbon fibers size control used for the matrix filling within the manufacturing of composite materials based on polytetrafluoroethylene is considered. To improve the reliability of recognition learning algorithm with the optimization of the precision control is proposed.

  18. Computational Nanotechnology of Molecular Materials, Electronics, and Actuators with Carbon Nanotubes and Fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Menon, Madhu; Cho, Kyeongjae; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The role of computational nanotechnology in developing next generation of multifunctional materials, molecular scale electronic and computing devices, sensors, actuators, and machines is described through a brief review of enabling computational techniques and few recent examples derived from computer simulations of carbon nanotube based molecular nanotechnology.

  19. Oxygen non-stoichiometry determination of perovskite materials by a carbonation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.; Nijmeijer, A.; Winnubst, A.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    A new and easy method is developed to determine the oxygen non-stoichiometry of perovskite materials under equilibrium conditions. The method is based on the complete decomposition of the powder to stoichiometric metal oxides and/or metal carbonates by using CO2 as reacting gas. The oxygen non-stoic

  20. Technoeconomical analysis of the co-production of hydrogen energy and carbon materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Zuimdie

    HECAM (Hydrogen Energy and Carbon Materials) is a new energy production strategy. The main paradigm of HECAM is that energy extracted from the carbon in hydrocarbon fuels is not worth the production of carbon dioxide. The hydrocarbon fuel is heated in an oxygen free environment and it is chemically decomposed by the heat into gases (mostly hydrogen and methane), small quantities of liquid (light oil and tar), and a solid residue containing carbon and ash (char or coke). More quantities of hydrocarbons will need to be used, but less carbon dioxide will be produced. HECAM is going to compete with steam methane reforming (SMR) to produce hydrogen. HECAM with thermocatalytic decomposition of methane and efficient sensible heat recovery has a production cost per gigajoule of hydrogen about 9% higher than SMR, but will produce about half the carbon dioxide emissions that SMR produces. If HECAM with efficient sensible heat recovery is used to produce electricity in a power plant, it will have a comparable electricity production cost and carbon dioxide emissions to a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plant. The byproduct coke is not a waste residue, but a valuable co-product. Uses for the byproduct coke material may be carbon sequestration, mine land restoration, additive to enhance agricultural soils, low sulfur and mercury content heating fuel for power plants, new construction materials, or carbon-base industrial materials. This study investigated the use of byproduct coke for new construction materials. HECAM concrete substitute (HCS) materials will have a comparable cost with concrete when the cost of the raw materials is $65 per metric ton of HCS produced. HECAM brick substitute (HBS) materials will have 20% higher cost per brick than clay bricks. If the HECAM byproduct coke can be formed into bricks as a product of the HECAM process, the manufacture of HBS bricks will be cheaper and may be cost competitive with clay bricks. The results of this analysis are

  1. Fabrication of nanoscale to macroscale nickel-multiwall carbon nanotube hybrid materials with tunable material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Ahmed M.; Majdi, Tahereh; Ghosh, Suvojit; Puri, Ishwar K.

    2016-12-01

    To utilize their superior properties, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) must be manipulated and aligned end-to-end. We describe a nondestructive method to magnetize MWNTs and provide a means to remotely manipulate them through the electroless deposition of magnetic nickel nanoparticles on their surfaces. The noncovalent bonds between Ni nanoparticles and MWNTs produce a Ni-MWNT hybrid material (NiCH) that is electrically conductive and has an enhanced magnetic susceptibility and elastic modulus. Our experiments show that MWNTs can be plated with Ni for Ni:MWNT weight ratios of γ = 1, 7, 14 and 30, to control the material properties. The phase, atom-level, and morphological information from x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dark field STEM, and atomic force microscopy clarify the plating process and reveal the mechanical properties of the synthesized material. Ni metalizes at the surface of the Pd catalyst, forming a continuous wavy layer that encapsulates the MWNT surfaces. Subsequently, Ni acts as an autocatalyst, allowing the plating to continue even after the original Pd catalyst has been completely covered. Raising γ increases the coating layer thickness from 10 to 150 nm, which influences the NiCH magnetic properties and tunes its elastic modulus from 12.5 to 58.7 GPa. The NiCH was used to fabricate Ni-MWNT macrostructures and tune their morphologies by changing the direction of an applied magnetic field. Leveraging the hydrophilic Ni-MWNT outer surface, a water-based conductive ink was created and used to print a conductive path that had an electrical resistivity of 5.9 Ω m, illustrating the potential of this material for printing electronic circuits.

  2. Conditions for forming composite carbon nanotube-diamond like carbon material that retain the good properties of both materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Wei, E-mail: wei.ren@helsinki.fi; Avchaciov, Konstantin; Nordlund, Kai [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Iyer, Ajai; Koskinen, Jari [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16200, 00076 Espoo (Finland); Kaskela, Antti; Kauppinen, Esko I. [NanoMaterials Group, Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science, P.O. Box 15100, 00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2015-11-21

    Carbon nanotubes are of wide interest due to their excellent properties such as tensile strength and electrical and thermal conductivity, but are not, when placed alone on a substrate, well resistant to mechanical wear. Diamond-like carbon (DLC), on the other hand, is widely used in applications due to its very good wear resistance. Combining the two materials could provide a very durable pure carbon nanomaterial enabling to benefit from the best properties of both carbon allotropes. However, the synthesis of high-quality diamond-like carbon uses energetic plasmas, which can damage the nanotubes. From previous works it is neither clear whether the quality of the tubes remains good after DLC deposition, nor whether the DLC above the tubes retains the high sp{sup 3} bonding fraction. In this work, we use experiments and classical molecular dynamics simulations to study the mechanisms of DLC formation on various carbon nanotube compositions. The results show that high-sp{sup 3}-content DLC can be formed provided the deposition conditions allow for sidewards pressure to form from a substrate close beneath the tubes. Under optimal DLC formation energies of around 40–70 eV, the top two nanotube atom layers are fully destroyed by the plasma deposition, but layers below this can retain their structural integrity.

  3. Conditions for forming composite carbon nanotube-diamond like carbon material that retain the good properties of both materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Iyer, Ajai; Koskinen, Jari; Kaskela, Antti; Kauppinen, Esko I.; Avchaciov, Konstantin; Nordlund, Kai

    2015-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes are of wide interest due to their excellent properties such as tensile strength and electrical and thermal conductivity, but are not, when placed alone on a substrate, well resistant to mechanical wear. Diamond-like carbon (DLC), on the other hand, is widely used in applications due to its very good wear resistance. Combining the two materials could provide a very durable pure carbon nanomaterial enabling to benefit from the best properties of both carbon allotropes. However, the synthesis of high-quality diamond-like carbon uses energetic plasmas, which can damage the nanotubes. From previous works it is neither clear whether the quality of the tubes remains good after DLC deposition, nor whether the DLC above the tubes retains the high sp3 bonding fraction. In this work, we use experiments and classical molecular dynamics simulations to study the mechanisms of DLC formation on various carbon nanotube compositions. The results show that high-sp3-content DLC can be formed provided the deposition conditions allow for sidewards pressure to form from a substrate close beneath the tubes. Under optimal DLC formation energies of around 40-70 eV, the top two nanotube atom layers are fully destroyed by the plasma deposition, but layers below this can retain their structural integrity.

  4. Synthesis Methods of Carbon Nanotubes and Related Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Szabó

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The challenge on carbon nanotubes is still the subject of many research groups. While in the first years the focus was on the new synthesis methods, new carbon sources and support materials, recently, the application possibilities are the principal arguments of the studies. The three main synthesis methods discussed in this review are the arc discharge, the laser ablation and the chemical vapour deposition (CVD with a special regard to the latter one. In the early stage of the nanotube production the first two methods were utilized mainly for the production of SWNTs while the third one produced mainly MWNTs. The principle of CVD is the decomposition of various hydrocarbons over transition metal supported catalyst. Single-walled (SWNT, multi-walled (MWNT and coiled carbon nanotubes are produced. In some case, interesting carbonaceous materials are formed during the synthesis process, such as bamboo-like tubes, onions, horn-like structures. In this paper, we refer to the progresses made in the field of the synthesis techniques of carbon nanotubes in the last decade.

  5. Interconnected sandwich structure carbon/Si-SiO2/carbon nanospheres composite as high performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanjin Du; Mengyan Hou; Dandan Zhou; Yonggang Wang; Congxiao Wang; Yongyao Xia

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, an interconnected sandwich carbon/Si-SiO2/carbon nanospheres composite was prepared by template method and carbon thermal vapor deposition (TVD). The carbon conductive layer can not only efficiently improve the electronic conductivity of Si-based anode, but also play a key role in alleviating the negative effect from huge volume expansion over discharge/charge of Si-based anode. The resulting material delivered a reversible capacity of 1094 mAh/g, and exhibited excellent cycling stability. It kept a reversible capacity of 1050 mAh/g over 200 cycles with a capacity retention of 96%.

  6. Water-evaporation-induced electricity with nanostructured carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Guobin; Xu, Ying; Ding, Tianpeng; Li, Jia; Yin, Jun; Fei, Wenwen; Cao, Yuanzhi; Yu, Jin; Yuan, Longyan; Gong, Li; Chen, Jian; Deng, Shaozhi; Zhou, Jun; Guo, Wanlin

    2017-01-30

    Water evaporation is a ubiquitous natural process that harvests thermal energy from the ambient environment. It has previously been utilized in a number of applications including the synthesis of nanostructures and the creation of energy-harvesting devices. Here, we show that water evaporation from the surface of a variety of nanostructured carbon materials can be used to generate electricity. We find that evaporation from centimetre-sized carbon black sheets can reliably generate sustained voltages of up to 1 V under ambient conditions. The interaction between the water molecules and the carbon layers and moreover evaporation-induced water flow within the porous carbon sheets are thought to be key to the voltage generation. This approach to electricity generation is related to the traditional streaming potential, which relies on driving ionic solutions through narrow gaps, and the recently reported method of moving ionic solutions across graphene surfaces, but as it exploits the natural process of evaporation and uses cheap carbon black it could offer advantages in the development of practical devices.

  7. Recent development of carbon electrode materials and their bioanalytical and environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Shuyun; Luque, Rafael; Han, Shuang; Hu, Lianzhe; Xu, Guobao

    2016-02-07

    Carbon materials have been extensively investigated due to their diversity, favorable properties, and active applications including electroanalytical chemistry. This critical review discusses new synthetic methods, novel carbon materials, new properties and electroanalytical applications of carbon materials particularly related to the preparation as well as bioanalytical and environmental applications of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite, graphene, carbon nanotubes, various carbon films (e.g. pyrolyzed carbon films, boron-doped diamond films and diamond-like carbon films) and screen printing carbon electrodes. Future perspectives in the field have also been discussed (366 references).

  8. Carbon nanotube synthesis with different support materials and catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüş, Fatih; Yuca, Neslihan; Karatepe, Nilgün

    2013-09-01

    Having remarkable characteristics, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted a lot of interest. Their mechanical, electrical, thermal and chemical properties make CNTs suitable for several applications such as electronic devices, hydrogen storage, textile, drug delivery etc. CNTs have been synthesized by various methods, such as arc discharge, laser ablation and catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). In comparison with the other techniques, CCVD is widely used as it offers a promising route for mass production. High capability of decomposing hydrocarbon formation is desired for the selected catalysts. Therefore, transition metals which are in the nanometer scale are the most effective catalysts. The common transition metals that are being used are Fe, Co, Ni and their binary alloys. The impregnation of the catalysts over the support material has a crucial importance for the CNT production. In this study, the influence of the support materials on the catalytic activity of metals was investigated. CNTs have been synthesized over alumina (Al2O3), silica (SiO2) and magnesium oxide (MgO) supported Fe, Co, Fe-Co catalysts. Catalyst - support material combinations have been investigated and optimum values for each were compared. Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were produced at 800°C. The duration of synthesis was 30 minutes for all support materials. The synthesized materials were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy.

  9. Controllable synthesis and formation mechanism of carbon micro/nano-structural materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chang'an; Lv, Meijiao; Wang, Xianbao; Li, Jing; Yang, Xuyu; Yang, Jia; Hu, Hao

    2013-10-01

    Three different structures of carbon materials, including carbon spheres, bamboo-like carbon nanotubes and straight carbon nanotubes, were obtained by pyrolysis of iron(II) phthalocyanine with different flow rates of H2 at 1000 °C. The suitable mechanism for formation process of the carbon nanomaterials from spheres to straight nanotubes was suggested. The competing processes between the catalyst forward and the shell growth have been used to explain the formation mechanism of three materials. The controllable synthesis of carbon materials was achieved only by changing the H2 flow rates, and it is important to explore applications of carbon materials with different shapes.

  10. Smart Behavior of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Cement-based Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The electrical characteristics of cement-based material can be remarkably improved by the addition of short carbon fibers.Carbon fiber reinforced cement composite (CFRC) is an intrinsically smart material that can sense not only the stress andstrain, but also the temperature. In this paper, variations of electrical resistivity with external applied load, and relationof thermoelectric force and temperature were investigated. Test results indicated that the electrical signal is related to theincrease in the material volume resistivity during crack generation or propagation and the decrease in the resistivity duringcrack closure. Moreover, it was found that the fiber addition increased the linearity and reversibility of the Seebeck effect inthe cement-based materials. The change of electrical characteristics reflects large amount of information of inner damage andtemperature differential of composite, which can be used for stress-strain or thermal self-monitoring by embedding it in theconcrete structures.

  11. Effect of carbon microfiber materials on sensitivity of adenosine and hydroxyadenine at carbon microfiber sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.M.M. Abou El-Nour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the sensitivity measurements and microfiber electrodes made from different carbon microfiber materials, such as polyacrylonitrile (PAN T650 and PAN HCB and Pitch P25 was established in this work. The different microfiber electrodes were nanostructured by an electrochemical pretreatment method. Sensitivity of adenosine (ADO and 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (2,8-DHA was measured at different carbon microfiber sensors made from different carbon microfiber materials. Sensitivity of PAN microfiber electrodes for ADO and 2,8-DHA determinations measured at 500 V s−1 vs. SCE is higher than that measured at Pitch P25 microfiber electrodes due to more defects in PAN microfiber electrodes. Adsorption of ADO and 2,8-DHA is greater at PAN HCB electrodes. High conductivity of PAN fibers correlates with sensitivity determinations of the investigated analytes.

  12. Modification of the Interfacial Interaction between Carbon Fiber and Epoxy with Carbon Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejing Yu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of the hybrid materials and epoxy and carbon fiber (CF composites were improved significantly as compared to the CF composites made from unmodified epoxy. The reasons could be attributed to the strong interfacial interaction between the CF and the epoxy composites for the existence of carbon nanomaterials. The microstructure and dispersion of carbon nanomaterials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and optical microscopy (OM. The results showed that the dispersion of the hybrid materials in the polymer was superior to other carbon nanomaterials. The high viscosity and shear stress characterized by a rheometer and the high interfacial friction and damping behavior characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA indicated that the strong interfacial interaction was greatly improved between fibers and epoxy composites. Remarkably, the tensile tests presented that the CF composites with hybrid materials and epoxy composites have a better reinforcing and toughening effect on CF, which further verified the strong interfacial interaction between epoxy and CF for special structural hybrid materials.

  13. Ultrasound-assisted synthesis and processing of carbon materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Maria E.

    2011-12-01

    Part I: Porous carbons are of interest in many applications because of their high surface areas and other physicochemical properties, and much effort has been directed towards developing new methods for controlling the porosity of carbons. Ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) is an aerosol method suitable for large-scale, continuous synthesis of materials. Ultrasound is used to create aerosol droplets of a precursor solution which serve as micron-sized spherical reactors for materials synthesis. This work presents a precursor system for the template-free USP synthesis of porous carbons using low-cost precursors that do not evolve or require hazardous chemicals: sucrose was used as the carbon source, and sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, or sodium nitrate was added as a decomposition catalyst and porogen. The USP carbons had macroporous interiors and microporous shells with surface areas as high as 800 m2/g and a narrow pore size distribution. It was determined that the interior porosity was a result of the gas evolution from salt decomposition and not from the presence of a salt template. Porous carbon is frequently used as a catalyst support because it provides high surface area and it is chemically and physically stable under many anoxic reaction conditions. Typically, the preparation of supported catalysts requires multiple steps for carbonization and metal impregnation. In this work, iron-impregnated porous carbon microspheres (Fe-C) were prepared by a one-step USP process by incorporating both the carbon and metal sources into the precursor solution. Carbonization, pore formation, metal impregnation, and metal activation occurred simultaneously to produce Fe-C materials with surface areas as high as 800 m2/g and up to 10 wt% Fe incorporated as nanoparticles growth, and collapse of bubbles in a liquid. Bubble collapse produces intense localized heating (˜5000 K), high pressures (˜300 atm), and enormous heating and cooling rates (>109 K/sec). In solid

  14. Progress on Electrocatalysts of Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Based on Carbon Fiber Materials%基于碳纤维材料基底的电解水制氢催化剂的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟珊珊; 王雪靖; 李庆川; 韩晓军

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen evolution from water electrolysis is one of the effective ways to obtain clean hydrogen energy in the future. Pt-based materials are the efficient catalysts in hydrogen evolution reaction, but it is expensive, difficult to recycle, which impedes its application in the development of hydrogen energy and economy. Therefore, it is the key trend to develop efficient non-noble metal electrocatalysts with the aim of providing cost-competitive hydrogen energy. In this review, we highlighted the recent research efforts toward the synthesis of noble metal-free electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction ( HER) , mainly focusing on nanomaterial catalysts supported on carbon fiber materials. We reviewed several important kinds of heterogeneous non-noble metal electrocatalysts, including sulfides, selenides, carbides, phosphides, and oxides. In the discussion, emphasis was given to the synthetic methods of these HER electrocatalysts, and the strategies for performance improvement. In addition, this paper also briefly summarized the application of carbon fiber material as substrate in the field of electroanalytical chemistry.%电解水制氢技术是未来获得清洁氢能源的有效途径之一。铂作为高效的电解水制氢催化剂,由于其价格昂贵,难以回收,不利于氢能源与氢经济的发展,因此发展高效的非贵金属电催化剂,使电解水制氢过程更加高效、经济化是十分关键的科学问题。本文综述了近年来电解水制氢催化剂的研究进展,重点集中在以碳纤维材料为基底的非贵金属催化剂领域。总结了几类重要的多相异质非贵金属催化剂,包括磷化物、硫化物、硒化物、碳化物、氧化物催化剂等,重点探讨了各种析氢催化剂的合成方法和性能提高策略。同时,本文也简要概述了碳纤维基底材料在电分析化学检测方面的应用研究。

  15. The nature of carbon material in the black shale rock mass of Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchenko, L.G.

    1981-01-01

    Carbon material is closely tied to ores of various origin lying in the carbon (black shale) rock masses of Kazakhastan. The nature of the carbon material in several gold fields is closely examined. Shungite, its paragenesis with ore materials and its role in the carbon and ore material processes, is described. The accumulation of shungite in zones determined to consist of ores, is looked at in terms of prospecting criteria.

  16. Peculiarities of the initial stages of carbonization processes in polyimide-based nanocomposite films containing carbon nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Gofman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbonization of the polyimide-based composite films containing carbon nanoparticles, namely nanofibers and nanocones/disks, in the temperature range 500–550°C was studied and the kinetics of the initial stage of carbonization and the effect of the filler on the mechanical properties of the carbonized films were evaluated. Two polyimides (PIs characterized by different macrochains’ rigidity and different degrees of ordering of the intermolecular structure were used. The character of the nanofiller’s action on the kinetics of the carbonization process depends on the heating rate. In this work, the intensity of the destruction of the PI matrix of the composite films was shown to be slightly higher than that of films of the same polymers with no filler. The introduction of the carbon nanoparticles into both PIs provokes the increase in the ultimate deformation values of the partially carbonized films, while the carbonization of the unfilled PI films yields the brittle materials. The Young’s modulus values of the materials based on the rigid-rod PI do not increase after carbonization, while those for compositions based on the PI with semi-rigid chains increase substantially. Carbon nanocones/disks are characterized by the best compatibility with matrix PIs in comparison with carbon nanofibers.

  17. Carbon-supported base metal nanoparticles: cellulose at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Jacco; Versluijs-Helder, Marjan; Vlietstra, Edward J; Geus, John W; Jenneskens, Leonardus W

    2015-03-01

    Pyrolysis of base metal salt loaded microcrystalline cellulose spheres gives a facile access to carbon-supported base metal nanoparticles, which have been characterized with temperature-dependent XRD, SEM, TEM, ICP-MS and elemental analysis. The role of cellulose is multifaceted: 1) it facilitates a homogeneous impregnation of the aqueous base metal salt solutions, 2) it acts as an efficacious (carbonaceous) support material for the uniformly dispersed base metal salts, their oxides and the metal nanoparticles derived therefrom, and 3) it contributes as a reducing agent via carbothermal reduction for the conversion of the metal oxide nanoparticles into the metal nanoparticles. Finally, the base metal nanoparticles capable of forming metastable metal carbides catalytically convert the carbonaceous support into a mesoporous graphitic carbon material.

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of Carbon-Based Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Maleki Dizaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the vast and inappropriate use of the antibiotics, microorganisms have begun to develop resistance to the commonly used antimicrobial agents. So therefore, development of the new and effective antimicrobial agents seems to be necessary. According to some recent reports, carbon-based nanomaterials such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNTs (especially single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and graphene oxide (GO nanoparticles show potent antimicrobial properties. In present review, we have briefly summarized the antimicrobial activity of carbon-based nanoparticles together with their mechanism of action. Reviewed literature show that the size of carbon nanoparticles plays an important role in the inactivation of the microorganisms. As major mechanism, direct contact of microorganisms with carbon nanostructures seriously affects their cellular membrane integrity, metabolic processes and morphology. The antimicrobial activity of carbon-based nanostructures may interestingly be investigated in the near future owing to their high surface/volume ratio, large inner volume and other unique chemical and physical properties. In addition, application of functionalized carbon nanomaterials as carriers for the ordinary antibiotics possibly will decrease the associated resistance, enhance their bioavailability and provide their targeted delivery.

  19. Vanadium based materials as electrode materials for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Li, Bing; Guo, Wei; Pang, Huan; Xue, Huaiguo

    2016-10-01

    As a kind of supercapacitors, pseudocapacitors have attracted wide attention in recent years. The capacitance of the electrochemical capacitors based on pseudocapacitance arises mainly from redox reactions between electrolytes and active materials. These materials usually have several oxidation states for oxidation and reduction. Many research teams have focused on the development of an alternative material for electrochemical capacitors. Many transition metal oxides have been shown to be suitable as electrode materials of electrochemical capacitors. Among them, vanadium based materials are being developed for this purpose. Vanadium based materials are known as one of the best active materials for high power/energy density electrochemical capacitors due to its outstanding specific capacitance and long cycle life, high conductivity and good electrochemical reversibility. There are different kinds of synthetic methods such as sol-gel hydrothermal/solvothermal method, template method, electrospinning method, atomic layer deposition, and electrodeposition method that have been successfully applied to prepare vanadium based electrode materials. In our review, we give an overall summary and evaluation of the recent progress in the research of vanadium based materials for electrochemical capacitors that include synthesis methods, the electrochemical performances of the electrode materials and the devices.

  20. Low Carbon Footprint Mortar from Pozzolanic Waste Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Mehmannavaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Portland cement clinker leads to emission of CO2 into the atmosphere and therefore causes greenhouse effect. Incorporating of Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA and Pulverized Fuel Ash (PFA as partial cement replacement materials into mix of low carbon mortar decreases the amount of cement use and reduces high dependence on cements compared to ordinary mortar. The result of this research supported use of the new concept in preparing low carbon mortar for industrial constructions. Strength of low carbon mortar with POFA and PFA replacement in cement was affected and changed by replacing percent finesse, physical and chemical properties and pozzolanic activity of these wastes. Waste material replacement instead of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC was used in this study. This in turn was useful for promoting better quality of construction and innovative systems in construction industry, especially in Malaysia. This study was surely a step forward to achieving quality products which were affordable, durable and environmentally friendly. Disposing ash contributes to shortage of landfill space in Malaysia. Besides, hazard of ash might be another serious issue for human health. The ash disposal area also might create a new problem, which is the area's sedimentation and erosion.

  1. Coaxial fiber supercapacitor using all-carbon material electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Viet Thong; Kim, Heetae; Ghosh, Arunabha; Kim, Jaesu; Chang, Jian; Vu, Quoc An; Pham, Duy Tho; Lee, Ju-Hyuck; Kim, Sang-Woo; Lee, Young Hee

    2013-07-23

    We report a coaxial fiber supercapacitor, which consists of carbon microfiber bundles coated with multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a core electrode and carbon nanofiber paper as an outer electrode. The ratio of electrode volumes was determined by a half-cell test of each electrode. The capacitance reached 6.3 mF cm(-1) (86.8 mF cm(-2)) at a core electrode diameter of 230 μm and the measured energy density was 0.7 μWh cm(-1) (9.8 μWh cm(-2)) at a power density of 13.7 μW cm(-1) (189.4 μW cm(-2)), which were much higher than the previous reports. The change in the cyclic voltammetry characteristics was negligible at 180° bending, with excellent cycling performance. The high capacitance, high energy density, and power density of the coaxial fiber supercapacitor are attributed to not only high effective surface area due to its coaxial structure and bundle of the core electrode, but also all-carbon materials electrodes which have high conductivity. Our coaxial fiber supercapacitor can promote the development of textile electronics in near future.

  2. Applications of Nanostructured Carbon Materials in Constructions: The State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Nan Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most recent studies on the applications of nanostructured carbon materials, including carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and graphene oxides, in constructions are presented. First, the preparation of nanostructured carbon/infrastructure material composites is summarized. This part is mainly focused on how the nanostructured carbon materials were mixed with cementitious or asphalt matrix to realize a good dispersion condition. Several methods, including high speed melting mixing, surface treatment, and aqueous solution with surfactants and sonication, were introduced. Second, the applications of the carbon nanostructured materials in constructions such as mechanical reinforcement, self-sensing detectors, self-heating element for deicing, and electromagnetic shielding component were systematically reviewed. This paper not only helps the readers understand the preparation process of the carbon nanostructured materials/infrastructure material composites but also sheds some light on the state-of-the-art applications of carbon nanostructured materials in constructions.

  3. 从炭材料到低碳社会——2012世界炭会议介绍%How will carbon material lead to a low carbon society——A review of Carbon 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭光

    2012-01-01

    A review is given of the Annual World Conference on Carbon, which was held on June 17-22, 2012 in Krakow, Poland and organized by the Polish Carbon Society. In this conference, 5 plenary lectures, 30 keynote lectures, 220 oral presentations and 465 posters were divided into 10 topics, i. e. , carbons for energy storage ; carbons for health and environmental protection; precursors, processing and technology; carbon nanomate-rials; porous carbons; carbon-based composites; graphene; new methods for carbon characterization; computation and modeling; and industrial news. Besides traditional modification on surface area and porosity, doping with hetero atoms such as N, B and P or compositing with metals or metal oxides have been developed into effective means for modifying carbon materials for improved adsorption, catalysis and energy-storage performance. The applications of novel carbon structures like nanotubes are still limited by the controllable and scalable preparation, processability and reactivity. Research on the structure and properties of graphene is moving from curiosity-oriented to application-oriented. Mathematical formulation or modeling of pore structures has been promoted by the progress in characterization methods. The modification of the surface/interface in carbon materials, which plays important roles in determining their physical, chemical or mechanical properties is still a focus of research activity in carbon materials.

  4. Fast Electromechanical Switches Based on Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupama; Wong, Eric; Epp, Larry

    2008-01-01

    Electrostatically actuated nanoelectromechanical switches based on carbon nanotubes have been fabricated and tested in a continuing effort to develop high-speed switches for a variety of stationary and portable electronic equipment. As explained below, these devices offer advantages over electrostatically actuated microelectromechanical switches, which, heretofore, have represented the state of the art of rapid, highly miniaturized electromechanical switches. Potential applications for these devices include computer memories, cellular telephones, communication networks, scientific instrumentation, and general radiation-hard electronic equipment. A representative device of the present type includes a single-wall carbon nanotube suspended over a trench about 130 nm wide and 20 nm deep in an electrically insulating material. The ends of the carbon nanotube are connected to metal electrodes, denoted the source and drain electrodes. At bottom of the trench is another metal electrode, denoted the pull electrode (see figure). In the off or open switch state, no voltage is applied, and the nanotube remains out of contact with the pull electrode. When a sufficiently large electric potential (switching potential) is applied between the pull electrode and either or both of the source and drain electrodes, the resulting electrostatic attraction bends and stretches the nanotube into contact with the pull electrode, thereby putting the switch into the "on" or "closed" state, in which substantial current (typically as much as hundreds of nanoamperes) is conducted. Devices of this type for use in initial experiments were fabricated on a thermally oxidized Si wafer, onto which Nb was sputter-deposited for use as the pull-electrode layer. Nb was chosen because its refractory nature would enable it to withstand the chemical and thermal conditions to be subsequently imposed for growing carbon nanotubes. A 200- nm-thick layer of SiO2 was formed on top of the Nb layer by plasma

  5. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Materials for Oxygen Reduction Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiliang Wei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen-doped carbon materials, including nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs and nitrogen-doped graphene (NG, have attracted increasing attention for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR in metal-air batteries and fuel cell applications, due to their optimal properties including excellent electronic conductivity, 4e− transfer and superb mechanical properties. Here, the recent progress of NCNTs- and NG-based catalysts for ORR is reviewed. Firstly, the general preparation routes of these two N-doped carbon-allotropes are introduced briefly, and then a special emphasis is placed on the developments of both NCNTs and NG as promising metal-free catalysts and/or catalyst support materials for ORR. All these efficient ORR electrocatalysts feature a low cost, high durability and excellent performance, and are thus the key factors in accelerating the widespread commercialization of metal-air battery and fuel cell technologies.

  6. Electromagnetic properties of carbon black and barium titanate composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Guiqin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)], E-mail: c2b2chen@163.com; Chen Xiaodong; Duan Yuping; Liu Shunhua [School of Material Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2008-04-24

    Nanocrystalline carbon black/barium titanate compound particle (CP) was synthesized by sol-gel method. The phase structure and morphology of compound particle were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Raman spectrum measurements, the electroconductivity was test by trielectrode arrangement and the precursor powder was followed by differential scanning calorimetric measurements (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). In addition, the complex relative permittivity and permeability of compound particle were investigated by reflection method. The compound particle/epoxide resin composite (CP/EP) with different contents of CP were measured. The results show barium titanate crystal is tetragonal phase and its grain is oval shape with 80-100 nm which was coated by carbon black film. As electromagnetic (EM) complex permittivity, permeability and reflection loss (RL) shown that the compound particle is mainly a kind of electric and dielectric lossy materials and exhibits excellent microwave absorption performance in the X- and Ku-bands.

  7. Nanostructured carbon materials decorated with organophosphorus moieties: synthesis and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagiotti, Giacomo; Langè, Vittoria; Ligi, Cristina; Caporali, Stefano; Muniz-Miranda, Maurizio; Flis, Anna; Pietrusiewicz, K Michał; Ghini, Giacomo; Brandi, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    A new synthetic approach for the production of carbon nanomaterials (CNM) decorated with organophosphorus moieties is presented. Three different triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO) derivatives were used to decorate oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (ox-MWCNTs) and graphene platelets (GPs). The TPPOs chosen bear functional groups able to react with the CNMs by Tour reaction (an amino group), nitrene cycloaddition (an azido group) or CuAAC reaction (one terminal C–C triple bond). All the adducts were characterized by FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, TEM, XPS, elemental analysis and ICP-AES. The cycloaddition of nitrene provided the higher loading on ox-MWCNTs and GPs as well, while the Tour approach gave best results with nanotubes (CNTs). Finally, we investigated the possibility to reduce the TPPO functionalized CNMs to the corresponding phosphine derivatives and applied one of the materials produced as heterogeneous organocatalyst in a Staudinger ligation reaction.

  8. Carbon-based smart nanomaterials in biomedicine and neuroengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina M. Monaco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The search for advanced biomimetic materials that are capable of offering a scaffold for biological tissues during regeneration or of electrically connecting artificial devices with cellular structures to restore damaged brain functions is at the forefront of interdisciplinary research in materials science. Bioactive nanoparticles for drug delivery, substrates for nerve regeneration and active guidance, as well as supramolecular architectures mimicking the extracellular environment to reduce inflammatory responses in brain implants, are within reach thanks to the advancements in nanotechnology. In particular, carbon-based nanostructured materials, such as graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs and nanodiamonds (NDs, have demonstrated to be highly promising materials for designing and fabricating nanoelectrodes and substrates for cell growth, by virtue of their peerless optical, electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. In this review we discuss the state-of-the-art in the applications of nanomaterials in biological and biomedical fields, with a particular emphasis on neuroengineering.

  9. Nanoscale Electrochemistry of sp(2) Carbon Materials: From Graphite and Graphene to Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Patrick R; Güell, Aleix G; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-09-20

    Carbon materials have a long history of use as electrodes in electrochemistry, from (bio)electroanalysis to applications in energy technologies, such as batteries and fuel cells. With the advent of new forms of nanocarbon, particularly, carbon nanotubes and graphene, carbon electrode materials have taken on even greater significance for electrochemical studies, both in their own right and as components and supports in an array of functional composites. With the increasing prominence of carbon nanomaterials in electrochemistry comes a need to critically evaluate the experimental framework from which a microscopic understanding of electrochemical processes is best developed. This Account advocates the use of emerging electrochemical imaging techniques and confined electrochemical cell formats that have considerable potential to reveal major new perspectives on the intrinsic electrochemical activity of carbon materials, with unprecedented detail and spatial resolution. These techniques allow particular features on a surface to be targeted and models of structure-activity to be developed and tested on a wide range of length scales and time scales. When high resolution electrochemical imaging data are combined with information from other microscopy and spectroscopy techniques applied to the same area of an electrode surface, in a correlative-electrochemical microscopy approach, highly resolved and unambiguous pictures of electrode activity are revealed that provide new views of the electrochemical properties of carbon materials. With a focus on major sp(2) carbon materials, graphite, graphene, and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), this Account summarizes recent advances that have changed understanding of interfacial electrochemistry at carbon electrodes including: (i) Unequivocal evidence for the high activity of the basal surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), which is at least as active as noble metal electrodes (e.g., platinum) for outer

  10. Migration of nanoparticles from plastic packaging materials containing carbon black into foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Johannes; Störmer, Angela; Franz, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Carbon black was investigated to assess and quantify the possibility that nanoparticles might migrate out of plastic materials used in the food packaging industry. Two types of carbon black were incorporated in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polystyrene (PS) at 2.5% and 5.0% loading (w/w), and then subjected to migration studies. The samples were exposed to different food simulants according to European Union Plastics Regulation 10/2011, simulating long-term storage with aqueous and fatty foodstuffs. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to a multi-angle laser light-scattering (MALLS) detector was used to separate, characterise and quantify the potential release of nanoparticles. The AF4 method was successful in differentiating carbon black from other matrix components, such as extracted polymer chains, in the migration solution. At a detection limit of 12 µg kg⁻¹, carbon black did not migrate from the packaging material into food simulants. The experimental findings are in agreement with theoretical considerations based on migration modelling. From both the experimental findings and theoretical considerations, it can be concluded that carbon black does not migrate into food once it is incorporated into a plastics food contact material.

  11. Carbon nanotube-based heterostructures for solar energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Haiqing; Konik, Robert M; Misewich, James A; Wong, Stanislaus S

    2013-10-21

    One means of combining the unique physical and chemical properties of both carbon nanotubes and complementary material motifs (such as metal sulfide quantum dots (QDs), metal oxide nanostructures, and polymers) can be achieved by generating carbon nanotube (CNT)-based heterostructures. These materials can be subsequently utilized as novel and interesting constituent building blocks for the assembly of functional light energy harvesting devices and because of their architectural and functional flexibility, can potentially open up novel means of using and taking advantage of existing renewable energy sources. In this review, we present the reliable and reproducible synthesis of several unique model CNT-based heterostructured systems as well as include an accompanying discussion about the charge transfer and energy flow properties of these materials for their potential incorporation into a range of practical solar energy conversion devices.

  12. Multilayer Electroactive Polymer Composite Material Comprising Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Draughon, Gregory K. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An electroactive material comprises multiple layers of electroactive composite with each layer having unique dielectric, electrical and mechanical properties that define an electromechanical operation thereof when affected by an external stimulus. For example, each layer can be (i) a 2-phase composite made from a polymer with polarizable moieties and an effective amount of carbon nanotubes incorporated in the polymer for a predetermined electromechanical operation, or (ii) a 3-phase composite having the elements of the 2-phase composite and further including a third component of micro-sized to nano-sized particles of an electroactive ceramic incorporated in the polymer matrix.

  13. Damage-tolerant composite materials produced by stitching carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Marvin B.; Smith, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    NASA-Langley has undertaken the investigation of composite damage-tolerance enhancement and fabrication economies-maximization via reinforcement-stitching, in combination with resin transfer molding. Attention is given to results obtained by an experimental evaluation of composites tailored for damage tolerance by stitching layers of dry carbon-fiber fabric with closely-spaced threads, in order to furnish through-the-thickness reinforcement. Various stitching patterns and thread materials have been evaluated, using flat-plate specimens; blade-stiffened structural elements have been fabricated and tested. The results presented indicate that stitched laminates furnish damage tolerance performance comparable to that of more expensive, toughened-matrix composites.

  14. Hypervelocity impact tests on Space Shuttle Orbiter RCC thermal protection material. [Reinforced Carbon-Carbon laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humes, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    It is noted that the Shuttle Orbiter will be more subject to meteoroid impact than previous spacecraft, due to its greater surface area and longer cumulative time in space. The Orbiter structural material, RCC, a reinforced carbon-carbon laminate with a diffused silicon carbide coating, is evaluated in terms of its resistance to hypervelocity impact. It was found that the specimens (disks with a mass of 34 g and a thickness of 5.0 mm) were cratered only on the front surface when the impact energy was 3 J or less. At 3 J, a trace of the black carbon interior was exposed. The specimens were completely penetrated when the energy was 34 J or greater.

  15. Surface Functionalization of Graphene-based Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathkar, Akshay

    Graphene-based materials have generated tremendous interest in the past decade. Manipulating their characteristics using wet-chemistry methods holds distinctive value, as it provides a means towards scaling up, while not being limited by yield. The majority of this thesis focuses on the surface functionalization of graphene oxide (GO), which has drawn tremendous attention as a tunable precursor due to its readily chemically manipulable surface and richly functionalized basal plane. Firstly, a room-temperature based method is presented to reduce GO stepwise, with each organic moiety being removed sequentially. Characterization confirms the carbonyl group to be reduced first, while the tertiary alcohol is reduced last, as the optical gap decrease from 3.5 eV down to 1 eV. This provides greater control over GO, which is an inhomogeneous system, and is the first study to elucidate the order of removal of each functional group. In addition to organically manipulating GO, this thesis also reports a chemical methodology to inorganically functionalize GO and tune its wetting characteristics. A chemical method to covalently attach fluorine atoms in the form of tertiary alkyl fluorides is reported, and confirmed by MAS 13C NMR, as two forms of fluorinated graphene oxide (FGO) with varying C/F and C/O ratios are synthesized. Introducing C-F bonds decreases the overall surface free energy, which drastically reduces GO's wetting behavior, especially in its highly fluorinated form. Ease of solution processing leads to development of sprayable inks that are deposited on a range of porous and nonporous surfaces to impart amphiphobicity. This is the first report that tunes the wetting characteristics of GO. Lastly as a part of a collaboration with ConocoPhillips, another class of carbon nanomaterials - carbon nanotubes (CNTs), have been inorganically functionalized to repel 30 wt% MEA, a critical solvent in CO 2 recovery. In addition to improving the solution processability of CNTs

  16. 碳基双电层电容器电极材料的研究进展%Research Progress of Carbon-Based Electrode Materials for Electric Double-Layer Capacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小军; 徐新华; 黄壮昌

    2011-01-01

    Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) as new energy storage devices between conventional capacitors and storage batteries, have much advantageous properties, such as higher energy density and higher power density,quick charge capability,long cycle life and environment friendly. Due to these excellent properties, they are used widely in national defense, military engineering and many civil fields such as hybrid electrical vehicles,digital telecommunication and computer,etc. This article depicts briefly the working principles of electric double-layer capacitors, and reviews the recent research progress of carbon-based electrode materials for e-lectric double-layer capacitors.%双电层电容器是一种介于电池与传统电容器之间的新型储能元件,具有较高的能量密度和功率密度,且充电速度快、循环寿命长、对环境无污染,广泛应用于国防、军工以及电动汽车、数字通讯、计算机等众多民用领域.简述了双电层电容器的基本工作原理,综述了碳基双电层电容器电极材料的研究进展.

  17. Chiral quantum dot based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govan, Joseph; Loudon, Alexander; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Gun'ko, Yurii

    2014-05-01

    Recently, the use of stereospecific chiral stabilising molecules has also opened another avenue of interest in the area of quantum dot (QD) research. The main goal of our research is to develop new types of technologically important quantum dot materials containing chiral defects, study their properties and explore their applications. The utilisation of chiral penicillamine stabilisers allowed the preparation of new water soluble white emitting CdS quantum nanostructures which demonstrated circular dichroism in the band-edge region of the spectrum. It was also demonstrated that all three types of QDs (D-, L-, and Rac penicillamine stabilised) show very broad emission bands between 400 and 700 nm due to defects or trap states on the surfaces of the nanocrystals. In this work the chiral CdS based quantum nanostructures have also been doped by copper metal ions and new chiral penicilamine stabilized CuS nanoparticles have been prepared and investigated. It was found that copper doping had a strong effect at low levels in the synthesis of chiral CdS nanostructures. We expect that this research will open new horizons in the chemistry of chiral nanomaterials and their application in biotechnology, sensing and asymmetric synthesis.

  18. Carbon nanotube bundles/polystyrene composites as high-performance flexible thermoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suemori, Kouji; Watanabe, Yuichi; Hoshino, Satoshi

    2015-03-01

    Lightweight and flexible thermoelectric devices consisting of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based materials have the potential to be used for the various applications, such as energy harvesting from the low-temperature waste heat that exists ubiquitously in living areas. Because high-performance CNT-based materials are crucial for the broad-ranging employment of CNT-based thermoelectric devices, considerable efforts are being made to improve the power-generation capability of CNT-based thermoelectric materials. Here, we report high-performance thermoelectric composites consisting of CNT bundles and polystyrene fabricated by a planetary ball milling-based dispersion technique, which allows for the direct dispersion of the CNT bundles within the polystyrene matrix without causing the disaggregation of the bundled CNTs into individual ones. The CNT-bundles/polystyrene composites reported here exhibit a power factor of 413 μW/K2.m.

  19. Novel porous carbon materials with ultrahigh nitrogen contents for selective CO 2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Yunfeng

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon materials were prepared by a nanocasting route using tri-continuous mesoporous silica IBN-9 as a hard template. Rationally choosing carbon precursors and carefully controlling activation conditions result in an optimized material denoted as IBN9-NC1-A, which possesses a very high nitrogen doping concentration (∼13 wt%) and a large surface area of 890 m 2 g -1 arising from micropores (<1 nm). It exhibits an excellent performance for CO 2 adsorption over a wide range of CO 2 pressures. Specifically, its equilibrium CO 2 adsorption capacity at 25 °C reaches up to 4.50 mmol g -1 at 1 bar and 10.53 mmol g -1 at 8 bar. In particular, it shows a much higher CO 2 uptake at low pressure (e.g. 1.75 mmol g -1 at 25 °C and 0.2 bar) than any reported carbon-based materials, owing to its unprecedented nitrogen doping level. The high nitrogen contents also give rise to significantly enhanced CO 2/N 2 selectivities (up to 42), which combined with the high adsorption capacities, make these new carbon materials promising sorbents for selective CO 2 capture from power plant flue gas and other relevant applications. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  20. Outcome-based Carbon Sequestration Resource Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, E. T.; Jain, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Opportunities for carbon sequestration are an important consideration in developing policies to manage the mass balance of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Assessments of potential carbon sequestration, like other resource assessments, should be widely accepted within the scientific community and broadly applicable to public needs over a range of spatial and temporal scales. The essential public concern regarding all forms of carbon sequestration is their effectiveness in offsetting CO2 emissions. But the diverse forms and mechanisms of potential sequestration are reflected in diverse assessment methodologies that are very difficult for decision-makers to compare and apply to comprehensive carbon management. For example, assessments of potential geologic sequestration are focused on total capacities derived from probabilistic analyses of rock strata, while assessments of potential biologic sequestration are focused on annual rates calculated using biogeochemical models. Non-specialists cannot readily compare and apply such dissimilar estimates of carbon storage. To address these problems, assessment methodologies should not only tabulate rates and capacities of carbon storage, but also enable comparison of the time-dependent effects of various sequestration activities on the mitigation of increasing atmospheric CO2. This outcome-based approach requires consideration of the sustainability of the assessed carbon storage, as well as the response of carbon-cycle feedbacks. Global models can be used to compare atmospheric CO2 trajectories implied by alternative global sequestration strategies, but such simulations may not be accessible or useful in many decision settings. Simplified assessment metrics, such as ratios using impulse response functions, show some promise in providing comparisons of CO2 mitigation that are broadly useful while minimizing sensitivity to differences in global models and emissions scenarios. Continued improvements will require close

  1. Optimizing the Binding Energy of Hydrogen on Nanostructured Carbon Materials through Structure Control and Chemical Doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie Liu

    2011-02-01

    The DOE Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE) was formed in 2005 to develop materials for hydrogen storage systems to be used in light-duty vehicles. The HSCoE and two related centers of excellence were created as follow-on activities to the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s (EERE’s) Hydrogen Storage Grand Challenge Solicitation issued in FY 2003. The Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE) focuses on developing high-capacity sorbents with the goal to operate at temperatures and pressures approaching ambient and be efficiently and quickly charged in the tank with minimal energy requirements and penalties to the hydrogen fuel infrastructure. The work was directed at overcoming barriers to achieving DOE system goals and identifying pathways to meet the hydrogen storage system targets. To ensure that the development activities were performed as efficiently as possible, the HSCoE formed complementary, focused development clusters based on the following four sorption-based hydrogen storage mechanisms: 1. Physisorption on high specific surface area and nominally single element materials 2. Enhanced H2 binding in Substituted/heterogeneous materials 3. Strong and/or multiple H2 binding from coordinated but electronically unsatruated metal centers 4. Weak Chemisorption/Spillover. As a member of the team, our group at Duke studied the synthesis of various carbon-based materials, including carbon nanotubes and microporous carbon materials with controlled porosity. We worked closely with other team members to study the effect of pore size on the binding energy of hydrogen to the carbonbased materials. Our initial project focus was on the synthesis and purification of small diameter, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with well-controlled diameters for the study of their hydrogen storage properties as a function of diameters. We developed a chemical vapor deposition method that synthesized gram quantities of carbon nanotubes with

  2. Preparation and Properties of Carbon Fiber Chiral Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ping; HUANG Zhixin; WANG Guoqing

    2008-01-01

    The chiral materials were prepared by using the carbon fiber helices as chiral inclusions,and the composite of Fe3O4 and polyaniline as matrix.The electromagnetic properties,including the rotation angles,the axial ratios and the complex chirality parameters,were measured by using a circular waveguide method in the 8.5-11.0 GHz frequency range.The dependence of these electromagnetic properties on the frequency and the concentration of the Fe3O4 in the composite matrix were analyzed.The results show that an appropriate concentration of Fe3O4 in the matrix is useful in improving the electromagnetic properties of the chiral material.

  3. Nanostructured membrane material designed for carbon dioxide separation

    KAUST Repository

    Yave, Wilfredo

    2010-03-15

    In this work carbon dioxide selective membrane materials from a commercially available poly(amide-b-ethylene oxide) (Pebax (R), Arkema) blended with polyethylene glycol ethers are presented. The preferred PEG-ether was PEG-dimethylether (PEG-DME). PEG-DME is well known as a physical solvent for acid gas absorption. It is used under the trade name Genosorb (R) in the Selexol (R) process (UOP) for acid gas removal from natural gas and synthesis gas. The combination of the liquid absorbent with the multiblock copolymer resulted in mechanically stable films with superior CO(2) separation properties. The addition of 50 wt.% PEG-DME to the copolymer resulted in a 8-fold increase of the carbon dioxide permeability; the CO(2)/H(2)-selectivity increased simultaneously from 9.1 to 14.9. It is shown that diffusivity as well as solubility of carbon dioxide is strongly increased by the blending of the copolymer with PEG-ethers. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Carbon nanocages: a new support material for Pt catalyst with remarkably high durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Xia; Tan, Zhe Hua; Zeng, Min; Wang, Jian Nong

    2014-03-24

    Low durability is the major challenge hindering the large-scale implementation of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology, and corrosion of carbon support materials of current catalysts is the main cause. Here, we describe the finding of remarkably high durability with the use of a novel support material. This material is based on hollow carbon nanocages developed with a high degree of graphitization and concurrent nitrogen doping for oxidation resistance enhancement, uniform deposition of fine Pt particles, and strong Pt-support interaction. Accelerated degradation testing shows that such designed catalyst possesses a superior electrochemical activity and long-term stability for both hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction relative to industry benchmarks of current catalysts. Further testing under conditions of practical fuel cell operation reveals almost no degradation over long-term cycling. Such a catalyst of high activity, particularly, high durability, opens the door for the next-generation PEMFC for "real world" application.

  5. Preparation and properties of pitch carbon based supercapacitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Using the mesophase pitch as precursor, KOH and CO2 as activated agents, the activated carbon electrode material was fabricated by physical-chemical combined activated technique for supercapacitor. The influence of activated process on the pore structure of activated carbon was analyzed and 14 F supercapacitor with working voltage of 2.5 V was prepared. The charge and discharge behaviors, the properties of cyclic voltammetry, specific capacitance, equivalent serials resistance (ESR), cycle properties, and temperature properties of prepared supercapacitor were examined. The cyclic voltammetry curve results indicate that the carbon based supercapacitor using the self-made activated carbon as electrode materials shows the desired capacitance properties. In 1 mol/L Et4NBFVAN electrolyte, the capacitance and ESR of the supercapacitor are 14.7 F and 60 mΩ, respectively. The specific capacitance of activated carbon electrode materials is 99.6 F/g; its energy density can reach 2.96 W·h/kg under the large current discharge condition. There is no obvious capacitance decay that can be observed after 5000 cycles. The leakage current is below 0.2 mA after keeping the voltage at 2.5 V for 1 h. Meanwhile, the supercapacitor shows desired temperature property; it can be operated normally in the temperature ranging from -40 ℃ to 70 ℃.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Porous Carbon-MoS2 Nanohybrid Materials for Charge-Enhanced Electrocatalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolinska, J.; Chidambaram, A.; Adamkiewicz, W.; Estili, M.; Lisowski, W.; Iwan, M.; Palys, B.; Sudholter, E.J.R.; Marken, F.; Opallo, M.; Rassaei, L.

    2016-01-01

    Porous carbon nanohybrids are promising materials as high-performance electrodes for both sensing and energy conversion applications. This is mainly due to their high specific surface area and specific physicochemical properties. Here, new porous nanohybrid materials are developed based on exfoliate

  7. Influence of Carbon Fiber Contents on the Temperature Sensibility of CFRC Road Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between the electrical resistivity of carbon fiber reinforced concrete(CFRC) containing different carbon fiber contents and temperature was studied.it is found that carbon fiber contents influence greatly on the temperature sensibility of CFRC road material.Only with a certain amount of carbon fiber can CFRC show a sensitive and stable temperature sensibility.

  8. Field-Flow Fractionation of Carbon Nanotubes and Related Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John P. Selegue

    2011-11-17

    During the grant period, we carried out FFF studies of carbonaceous soot, single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon nano-onions and polyoxometallates. FFF alone does not provide enough information to fully characterize samples, so our suite of characterization techniques grew to include light scattering (especially Photon Correlation Spectroscopy), scanning and transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and spectroscopic methods. We developed convenient techniques to deposit and examine minute FFF fractions by electron microscopy. In collaboration with Arthur Cammers (University of Kentucky), we used Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (Fl-FFF) to monitor the solution-phase growth of keplerates, a class of polyoxometallate (POM) nanoparticles. We monitored the evolution of Mo-POM nanostructures over the course of weeks by by using flow field-flow fractionation and corroborated the nanoparticle structures by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Total molybdenum in the solution and precipitate phases was monitored by using inductively coupled plasma analyses, and total Mo-POM concentration by following the UV-visible spectra of the solution phase. We observe crystallization-driven formation of (Mo132) keplerate and solution phase-driven evolution of structurally related nanoscopic species (3-60 nm). FFF analyses of other classes of materials were less successful. Attempts to analyze platelets of layered materials, including exfoliated graphite (graphene) and TaS2 and MoS2, were disappointing. We were not able to optimize flow conditions for the layered materials. The metal sulfides react with the aqueous carrier liquid and settle out of suspension quickly because of their high density.

  9. Biocompatibility of Resin-based Dental Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Keyvan Moharamzadeh; Ian M. Brook; Richard van Noort

    2009-01-01

    Oral and mucosal adverse reactions to resin-based dental materials have been reported. Numerous studies have examined thebiocompatibility of restorative dental materials and their components, and a wide range of test systems for the evaluation of the biological effects of these materials have been developed. This article reviews the biological aspects of resin-based dental materials and discusses the conventional as well as the new techniques used for biocompatibility assessment of dental mat...

  10. Thermal/Pyrolysis Gas Flow Analysis of Carbon Phenolic Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, J. Louie

    2001-01-01

    Provided in this study are predicted in-depth temperature and pyrolysis gas pressure distributions for carbon phenolic materials that are externally heated with a laser source. Governing equations, numerical techniques and comparisons to measured temperature data are also presented. Surface thermochemical conditions were determined using the Aerotherm Chemical Equilibrium (ACE) program. Surface heating simulation used facility calibrated radiative and convective flux levels. Temperatures and pyrolysis gas pressures are predicted using an upgraded form of the SINDA/CMA program that was developed by NASA during the Solid Propulsion Integrity Program (SPIP). Multispecie mass balance, tracking of condensable vapors, high heat rate kinetics, real gas compressibility and reduced mixture viscosity's have been added to the algorithm. In general, surface and in-depth temperature comparisons are very good. Specie partial pressures calculations show that a saturated water-vapor mixture is the main contributor to peak in-depth total pressure. Further, for most of the cases studied, the water-vapor mixture is driven near the critical point and is believed to significantly increase the local heat capacity of the composite material. This phenomenon if not accounted for in analysis models may lead to an over prediction in temperature response in charring regions of the material.

  11. Entropically favored adsorption of cellulosic molecules onto carbon materials through hydrophobic functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabushita, Mizuho; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Hasegawa, Jun-Ya; Hara, Kenji; Fukuoka, Atsushi

    2014-05-01

    Carbon-based materials have attracted interest as high-performance catalysts for the aqueous-phase conversion of cellulose. The adsorption of β-glucans plays a crucial role in the catalytic performance of carbons, although the primary driving force and details of the adsorption process remain unclear. This study demonstrates that adsorption occurs at hydrophobic sites on the carbon surface and that hydrophilic groups are not involved. Analysis of adsorption temperature dependence also reveals that the entropy change associated with adsorption is positive. Our results indicate that adsorption occurs by entropically driven hydrophobic interactions in addition to CH-π hydrogen bonding. These same CH-π hydrogen bonds are also confirmed by DFT calculations. The adsorption of β-glucans on carbons is significantly stronger than the affinity between β-glucans. The adsorption equilibrium constants of β-glucans on carbons increase exponentially with increasing degrees of polymerization, which supports the theory of strong interactions between the carbon and the long β-glucans found in cellulose.

  12. Torsional electromechanical systems based on carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A R; Paulson, S; Cui, T; Lu, J P; Qin, L-C; Washburn, S

    2012-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are among the most highly studied nanomaterials due to their unique (and intertwined) mechanical and electrical properties. Recent advances in fabrication have allowed devices to be fabricated that are capable of applying a twisting force to individual CNTs while measuring mechanical and electrical response. Here, we review major results from this emerging field of study, revealing new properties of the material itself and opening possibilities for advances in future devices.

  13. Composite Materials with Magnetically Aligned Carbon Nanoparticles Having Enhanced Electrical Properties and Methods of Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Haiping (Inventor); Peterson, G.P. (Bud) (Inventor); Salem, David R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Magnetically aligned carbon nanoparticle composites have enhanced electrical properties. The composites comprise carbon nanoparticles, a host material, magnetically sensitive nanoparticles and a surfactant. In addition to enhanced electrical properties, the composites can have enhanced mechanical and thermal properties.

  14. Enhanced cycle stability of micro-sized Si/C anode material with low carbon content fabricated via spray drying and in situ carbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dingsheng; Gao, Mingxia, E-mail: gaomx@zju.edu.cn; Pan, Hongge; Liu, Yongfeng; Wang, Junhua; Li, Shouquan; Ge, Hongwei

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Micro-sized Si/C composites were fabricated via. spray drying and carbonization. • Multi-morphology carbon was formed in the Si/C composites. • Si/C composite with 5.6 wt.% C provides significant improved cycling stability. • Multi-morphology carbon plays effective role in improving the electrochemical property. • The method provides potential for mass production of superior Si-based anode materials. - Abstract: Micro-sized Si/C composites with in situ introduced carbon of multi-morphology were fabricated via spray drying a suspension of commercial micro-sized Si and citric acid followed by a carbonization. Different ratios of Si to citric acid were used to optimize the composition and structure of the composites and thus the electrochemical performance. Carbon flakes including crooked and flat ones were well dispersed in between the Si particles, forming Si/C composites. Floc-like carbon layers and carbon fragments were also found to cover partially the Si particles. The Si/C composite with a low carbon content of 5.6 wt.% provides an initial reversible capacity of 2700 mA h/g and a capacity of 1860 mA h/g after 60 cycles at a current density of 100 mA/g as anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), which are much higher than those of pristine Si and the Si/C composites with higher carbon content. The mechanism of the enhancement of electrochemical performance of the micro-sized Si/C composite is discussed. The fabrication method and the structure design of the composites offer valuable potential in developing adaptable Si-based anode materials for industrial applications.

  15. Synthesis of the Carbon Nanomaterials Based on Renewable Bioresources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Chan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness and feasibility of producing nanoscale carbon materials from renewable bioresources were shown as an example marsh mass. The mechanisms of synthesis of amorphous organic carbon from sphagnum moss species modified by a liquid peat phase of humic nature are discussed. A fundamentally new way of producing carbon nanotubes by mechanical activation of amorphous organic carbon is described.

  16. Effect of oxidation of carbon material on suspension electrodes for flow electrode capacitive deionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzell, Kelsey B; Hatzell, Marta C; Cook, Kevin M; Boota, Muhammad; Housel, Gabrielle M; McBride, Alexander; Kumbur, E Caglan; Gogotsi, Yury

    2015-03-03

    Flow electrode deionization (FCDI) is an emerging area for continuous and scalable deionization, but the electrochemical and flow properties of the flow electrode need to be improved to minimize energy consumption. Chemical oxidation of granular activated carbon (AC) was examined here to study the role of surface heteroatoms on rheology and electrochemical performance of a flow electrode (carbon slurry) for deionization processes. Moreover, it was demonstrated that higher mass densities could be used without increasing energy for pumping when using oxidized active material. High mass-loaded flow electrodes (28% carbon content) based on oxidized AC displayed similar viscosities (∼21 Pa s) to lower mass-loaded flow electrodes (20% carbon content) based on nonoxidized AC. The 40% increased mass loading (from 20% to 28%) resulted in a 25% increase in flow electrode gravimetric capacitance (from 65 to 83 F g(-1)) without sacrificing flowability (viscosity). The electrical energy required to remove ∼18% of the ions (desalt) from of the feed solution was observed to be significantly dependent on the mass loading and decreased (∼60%) from 92 ± 7 to 28 ± 2.7 J with increased mass densities from 5 to 23 wt %. It is shown that the surface chemistry of the active material in a flow electrode effects the electrical and pumping energy requirements of a FCDI system.

  17. Carbon microelectromechanical systems (C-MEMS) based microsupercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Agrawal, Richa

    2015-05-18

    The rapid development in miniaturized electronic devices has led to an ever increasing demand for high-performance rechargeable micropower scources. Microsupercapacitors in particular have gained much attention in recent years owing to their ability to provide high pulse power while maintaining long cycle lives. Carbon microelectromechanical systems (C-MEMS) is a powerful approach to fabricate high aspect ratio carbon microelectrode arrays, which has been proved to hold great promise as a platform for energy storage. C-MEMS is a versatile technique to create carbon structures by pyrolyzing a patterned photoresist. Furthermore, different active materials can be loaded onto these microelectrode platforms for further enhancement of the electrochemical performance of the C-MEMS platform. In this article, different techniques and methods in order to enhance C-MEMS based various electrochemical capacitor systems have been discussed, including electrochemical activation of C-MEMS structures for miniaturized supercapacitor applications, integration of carbon nanostructures like carbon nanotubes onto C-MEMS structures and also integration of pseudocapacitive materials such as polypyrrole onto C-MEMS structures. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  18. Effect of Temperature on Precipitation Rate of Calcium Carbonate Produced through Microbial Metabolic Process of Bio Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Yane Putri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is the most widely used construction material in civil engineering. But plain concrete is a brittle material and has little resistance to cracking. The cracking in concrete promotes deterioration such as the corrosion of reinforcing rebar, therefore, repair in filling the crack is often carried out. Recently, repair methods using bio-based materials associated with microbial metabolic processes leading to precipitation of calcium carbonate have been intensively studied. In this study, influencing factors on the precipitation rate depending on the constituents of bio-based material comprising yeast, glucose and calcium acetate mixed in tris buffer solution was examined for improving the rate of initial reactions. In addition, effect of temperature change on the amount of calcium carbonate precipitation was also investigated. The precipitates were identified by X-ray diffraction. It was shown that the increase of temperature lead to a change on calcium carbonate precipitation and caused the pH decrease under 7.0.

  19. Advanced materials from natural materials: synthesis of aligned carbon nanotubes on wollastonites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Jia-Qi; Nie, Jing-Qi; Wei, Fei

    2010-04-26

    The growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on natural materials is a low-cost, environmentally benign, and materials-saving method for the large-scale production of CNTs. Directly building 3D CNT architectures on natural materials is a key issue for obtaining advanced materials with high added value. We report the fabrication of aligned CNT arrays on fibrous natural wollastonite. Strongly dispersed iron particles with small sizes were produced on a planar surface of soaked fibrous wollastonite by a reduction process. These particles then catalyzed the decomposition of ethylene, leading to the synchronous growth of CNTs to form leaf- and brush-like wollastonite/CNT hybrids. The as-obtained hybrids could be further transformed into porous SiO(2)/CNT hybrids by reaction with hydrochloric acid. Further treatment with hydrofluoric acid resulted in aligned CNT arrays, with purities as high as 98.7 %. The presented work is very promising for the fabrication of advanced materials with unique structures and properties that can be used as fillers, catalyst supports, or energy-absorbing materials.

  20. 21 CFR 878.3500 - Polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers composite implant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... composite implant material. 878.3500 Section 878.3500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Prosthetic Devices § 878.3500 Polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers composite implant material. (a) Identification. A polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers composite implant material is a porous...

  1. Development of starch-based materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habeych Narvaez, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Starch-based materials show potential as fully degradable plastics. However, the current applicability of these materials is limited due to their poor moisture tolerance and mechanical properties. Starch is therefore frequently blended with other polymers to make the material more suitable for sp

  2. Use of magnetic carbon composites from renewable resource materials for oil spill clean up and recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Tito

    2015-10-27

    A method of separating a liquid hydrocarbon material from a body of water, includes: (a) mixing magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites with a liquid hydrocarbon material dispersed in a body of water to allow the magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each to be adhered by the liquid hydrocarbon material to form a mixture; (b) applying a magnetic force to the mixture to attract the magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each adhered by the liquid hydrocarbon material; and (c) removing the body of water from the magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each adhered by the liquid hydrocarbon material while maintaining the applied magnetic force. The magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites is formed by subjecting one or more metal lignosulfonates or metal salts to microwave radiation, in presence of lignin/derivatives either in presence of alkali or a microwave absorbing material, for a period of time effective to allow the carbon-metal nanocomposites to be formed.

  3. Interaction between adsorbed hydrogen and potassium on a carbon nanocone containing material as studied by photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xiaofeng [Nesna University College, 8700 Nesna (Norway); Raaen, Steinar, E-mail: sraaen@ntnu.no [Physics Department, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2015-09-14

    Hydrogen adsorption on a potassium doped carbon nanocone containing material was studied by photoelectron spectroscopy and work function measurement. The valence band spectra indicate that there is charge transfer from potassium to carbon. Upon deposition on carbon potassium is in its ionic state for lower doping and shows both ionic and metallic behavior at higher doping. Adsorption of hydrogen facilitates diffusion of potassium on the carbon material as seen by changes in the K{sub 2p} core level spectrum. Variations in the measured sample work function indicate that hydrogen initially adsorb on the K dopants and subsequently adsorb on the carbon cone containing material.

  4. Nanoporous Silicon Based Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    performed at SINTEF , Norway as shown in Figure 4 (line a). 3 Annealing PSi in air at different temperatures can be used to change the surface...3h (c)PSi annealed at 500C for 0.5 h (courtesy SINTEF ) e is C d magnification bright field TEM image of PSi-Fe2O3. The inset electron...Dr. Knut Thorshaug and Dr Diplos Spyros of SINTEF Norway for DRIFTS and XPS data. REFERENCES dvanced Energetics Materials, 2004; report byA ring

  5. Simulation on ultra-thin EBG absorbing structure based on carbon-based composite materials%应用碳基复合材料的超薄电磁带隙(EBG)吸波结构与仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐虎; 贾瑛; 张辉; 王幸运

    2013-01-01

    制备两种不同的碳基复合材料,通过实验测试其电磁参数,并应用于所构建的电磁带隙高阻抗表面吸波结构中,利用电磁仿真软件HFSSv.11仿真计算了各模型的反射系数随电磁频率变化的曲线.结果表明:碳基复合材料的应用,使EBG结构的吸波性能在一定改进的基础上,进一步增强了吸波结构整体的耐高温、抗腐蚀、轻质以及抗拉强度大等性能.因而,将碳基复合材料应用于EBG吸波结构以改进其吸波性能.%Two different types of carbon-based composite materials were prepared, the electromagnetic parameters were tested by experiment, which were used in the construction of high impedance surface absorbing structure. The electromagnetic simulation software HFSSv.ll was used to simulate curve of reflection coefficient with electromagnetic frequency. The simulation results show that the carbon - based composite improves microwave absorbing properties, and further enhances the overall high temperature resistant, corrosion-resistant, lightweight and high tensile strength and other properties of EBG structure. Thus, the application of carbon-based composite material in EBC absorbing structure to improve its absorbing performance is feasible.

  6. Fabrication of porous carbon composite material from leaves waste as lightweight expanded carbon aggregate (LECA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulhadi, Rosita, N.; Susanto, Nisa', K.; Wiguna, P. A.; Marwoto, P.; Aji, M. P.

    2016-04-01

    Leaves waste has been used as Lightweight Expanded Carbon Aggregates (LECA) because of its high carbon material. LECA can be used as a water storage media. LECA is low in density so thatits massis very light. Due to its use as a water storage medium, it is important to find out the absorption which occurs in LECA.The LECA's absorption and evaporation rate is affected by the pores. The pores serves to increase water storage ability from LECA. LECA with PEG (pore-forming agent) mass percent variation of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% is the focus of this study. LECA fabrication was conducted by mixing the carbon resulting from leaves waste pyrolysis and PEG and PVAc. The characterization of LECA was found out by calculating the porosity, the pore size distribution, absorption rate and evaporation rate. The result of the calculation shows that the higher PEG mass percentage, the higher LECA's porosity, the pore size distribution, absorption rate and evaporation rate. However, the porosity, the pore size distributionand absorption rate will be saturated by 25% PEG mass percent addition.

  7. Synthesis of hydrogen-carbon clathrate material and hydrogen evolution therefrom at moderate temperatures and pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueking, Angela; Narayanan, Deepa

    2011-03-08

    A process for making a hydrogenated carbon material is provided which includes forming a mixture of a carbon source, particularly a carbonaceous material, and a hydrogen source. The mixture is reacted under reaction conditions such that hydrogen is generated and/or released from the hydrogen source, an amorphous diamond-like carbon is formed, and at least a portion of the generated and/or released hydrogen associates with the amorphous diamond-like carbon, thereby forming a hydrogenated carbon material. A hydrogenated carbon material including a hydrogen carbon clathrate is characterized by evolution of molecular hydrogen at room temperature at atmospheric pressure in particular embodiments of methods and compositions according to the present invention.

  8. Nanoscale Lasers Based on Carbon Peapods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Shao-Long; SHEN Jian-Qi

    2006-01-01

    A scheme of nanoscale lasers based on the so-called carbon peapods is examined in detail.Since there is considerable cylindrical empty space in the middle of a single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT),it can serve as a laser resonant cavity that consists of two highly reflecting alignment "mirrors" separated by a distance.These mirrors refer to ordered arrays of C60 inside SWCNTs,which have photonic bandgap structures.Meanwhile,ideally single-mode lasers are supposed to be produced in the nanoscale resonant cavity.

  9. Carbon nanotube based transparent conductive thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X; Rajamani, R; Stelson, K A; Cui, T

    2006-07-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) based optically transparent and electrically conductive thin films are fabricated on plastic substrates in this study. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are chemically treated with a mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid and nitric acid before being dispersed in aqueous surfactant-contained solutions. SWNT thin films are prepared from the stable SWNT solutions using wet coating techniques. The 100 nm thick SWNT thin film exhibits a surface resistivity of 6 kohms/square nanometer with an average transmittance of 88% on the visible light range, which is three times better than the films prepared from the high purity as-received SWNTs.

  10. LDEF materials special investigation group's data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, John W.; Funk, Joan G.; Davis, John M.

    1993-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was composed of and contained a wide array of materials, representing the largest collection of materials flown for space exposure and returned for ground-based analyses to date. The results and implications of the data from these materials are the foundation on which future space missions will be built. The LDEF Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG) has been tasked with establishing and developing data bases to document these materials and their performance to assure not only that the data are archived for future generations but also that the data are available to the space user community in an easily accessed, user-friendly form. The format and content of the data bases developed or being developed to accomplish this task are discussed. The hardware and software requirements for each of the three data bases are discussed along with current availability of the data bases.

  11. Rheological behavior of composites based on carbon fibers recycled from aircraft waste

    OpenAIRE

    Marcaníková, Lucie; Hausnerová, Berenika; KITANO, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    Rheological investigation of composite materials prepared from the recycled aircraft waste materials based on thermoset (epoxy/resin) matrix and long carbon fibers (CF) is presented with the aim of their utilization in consumer industry applications. The carbon fibers recovered via thermal process of pyrolysis were cut into about 150 pm length and melt mixed with thermoplastic matrices based on polypropylene (PP) and polyamide 6 (PA) and various modifiers - ethylene-ethyl acrylate-maleic anhy...

  12. PDMAEMA based gene delivery materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Agarwal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gene transfection is the transfer of genetic material like DNA into cells. Cationic polymers which form nanocomplexes with DNA, so-called non-viral gene vectors, are a highly promising platform for efficient gene transfection. Despite intensive research efforts and some of the on-going clinical trials on gene transfection, none of the existing cationic polymer systems are generally acceptable for human gene therapy. Since the process of gene transfection is complex and puts different challenges and demands on the delivery system, there is a strong requirement for the design and development of a multifunctional system in a simple way. This review will discuss recent efforts in design, synthesis, and performance of poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (PDMAEMA nanocomplexes with DNA.

  13. Carbon Nanotube-Based Synthetic Gecko Tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhinojwala, Ali

    2008-03-01

    Wall-climbing geckos have unique ability to attach to different surfaces without the use of any viscoelastic glues. On coming in contact with any surface, the micron-size gecko foot-hairs deform, enabling molecular contact over large areas, thus translating weak van der Waals (vdW) interactions into enormous shear forces. We will present our recent results on the development of synthetic gecko tape using aligned carbon nanotubes to mimic the keratin hairs found on gecko feet. The patterned carbon nanotube-based gecko tape can support a shear stress (36 N/cm^2) nearly four times higher than the gecko foot and sticks to a variety of surfaces, including Teflon. Both the micron-size setae (replicated by nanotube bundles) and nanometer-size spatulas (individual nanotubes) are necessary to achieve macroscopic shear adhesion and to translate the weak vdW interactions into high shear forces. The carbon nanotube based tape offers an excellent synthetic option as a dry conductive reversible adhesive in microelectronics, robotics and space applications. The mechanism behind these large shear forces and self-cleaning properties of these carbon nanotube based synthetic gecko tapes will be discussed. This work was performed in collaboration with graduate students Liehui Ge, and Sunny Sethi, and collaborators from RPI; Lijie Ci and Professor Pulickel Ajayan.

  14. Comparing graphene, carbon nanotubes, and superfine powdered activated carbon as adsorptive coating materials for microfiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerie, Jaclyn R; Apul, Onur G; Karanfil, Tanju; Ladner, David A

    2013-10-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), nano-graphene platelets (NGPs), and superfine powdered activated carbon (S-PAC) were comparatively evaluated for their applicability as adsorptive coatings on microfiltration membranes. The objective was to determine which materials were capable of contaminant removal while causing minimal flux reduction. Methylene blue and atrazine were the model contaminants. When applied as membrane coatings, MWCNTs had minimal retention capabilities for the model contaminants, and S-PAC had the fastest removal. The membrane coating approach was also compared with a stirred vessel configuration, in which the adsorbent was added to a stirred flask preceding the membrane cell. Direct application of the adsorbent to the membrane constituted a greater initial reduction in permeate concentrations of the model contaminants than with the stirred flask setup. All adsorbents except S-PAC showed flux reductions less than 5% after application as thin-layer membrane coatings, and flux recovery after membrane backwashing was greater than 90% for all materials and masses tested.

  15. Materiality in a practice-based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2009-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of the vocabulary for materiality which is used by practice-based approaches to organizational knowing. Common terms for materiality are 'artifact' and 'object'. The interaction between social and material realities is grasped as several processes: object-oriented a......The paper provides an overview of the vocabulary for materiality which is used by practice-based approaches to organizational knowing. Common terms for materiality are 'artifact' and 'object'. The interaction between social and material realities is grasped as several processes: object......-oriented activity, symbolization, embodiment, performance, alignment and mediation. Material artifacts both stabilize and destabilize organizational action. They may ensure coordination, communication, and control, but they may also create disturbance and conflict....

  16. New Cork-Based Materials and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gil

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This review work is an update of a previous work reporting the new cork based materials and new applications of cork based materials. Cork is a material which has been used for multiple applications. The most known uses of cork are in stoppers (natural and agglomerated cork for alcoholic beverages, classic floor covering with composite cork tiles (made by the binding of cork particles with different binders, and thermal/acoustic/vibration insulation with expanded corkboard in buildings and some other industrial fields. Many recent developments have been made leading to new cork based materials. Most of these newly developed cork materials are not yet on the market, but they represent new possibilities for engineers, architects, designers and other professionals which must be known and considered, potentially leading to their industrialization. This paper is a review covering the last five years of innovative cork materials and applications also mentioning previous work not reported before.

  17. Whole Language-Based English Reading Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Erlina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This Research and Development (R&D aims at developing English reading materials for undergraduate EFL students of Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN Raden Fatah Palembang, Indonesia. Research data were obtained through questionnaires, tests, and documents. The results of the research show that the existing materials are not relevant to the students’ need, so there is a need for developing new materials based on whole language principles. In general, the new developed materials are considered reliable by the experts, students, and lecturers. The materials are also effective in improving students’ reading achievement. The final product of the materials consists of a course book entitled Whole Language Reading (WLR and a teacher’s manual. WLR provides rich input of reading strategies, variety of topics, concepts, texts, activities, tasks, and evaluations. Using this book makes reading more holistic and meaningful as it provides integration across language skills and subject areas. Keywords: materials development, reading materials, whole language

  18. Carbon nanotube and graphene-based bioinspired electrochemical actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lirong; Chen, Wei

    2014-02-01

    Bio-inspired actuation materials, also called artificial muscles, have attracted great attention in recent decades for their potential application in intelligent robots, biomedical devices, and micro-electro-mechanical systems. Among them, ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuator has been intensively studied for their impressive high-strain under low voltage stimulation and air-working capability. A typical IPMC actuator is composed of one ion-conductive electrolyte membrane laminated by two electron-conductive metal electrode membranes, which can bend back and forth due to the electrode expansion and contraction induced by ion motion under alternating applied voltage. As its actuation performance is mainly dominated by electrochemical and electromechanical process of the electrode layer, the electrode material and structure become to be more crucial to higher performance. The recent discovery of one dimensional carbon nanotube and two dimensional graphene has created a revolution in functional nanomaterials. Their unique structures render them intriguing electrical and mechanical properties, which makes them ideal flexible electrode materials for IPMC actuators in stead of conventional metal electrodes. Currently although the detailed effect caused by those carbon nanomaterial electrodes is not very clear, the presented outstanding actuation performance gives us tremendous motivation to meet the challenge in understanding the mechanism and thus developing more advanced actuator materials. Therefore, in this review IPMC actuators prepared with different kinds of carbon nanomaterials based electrodes or electrolytes are addressed. Key parameters which may generate important influence on actuation process are discussed in order to shed light on possible future research and application of the novel carbon nanomateials based bio-inspired electrochemical actuators.

  19. Carbon Nanotube Tower-Based Supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A supercapacitor system, including (i) first and second, spaced apart planar collectors, (ii) first and second arrays of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) towers or single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) towers, serving as electrodes, that extend between the first and second collectors where the nanotube towers are grown directly on the collector surfaces without deposition of a catalyst and without deposition of a binder material on the collector surfaces, and (iii) a porous separator module having a transverse area that is substantially the same as the transverse area of at least one electrode, where (iv) at least one nanotube tower is functionalized to permit or encourage the tower to behave as a hydrophilic structure, with increased surface wettability.

  20. The Effect of Graphite Particle Size on Properties of Low Carbon MgO-C Composite Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lin; HONG Yanruo; SUN Jialin; OUYANG Junhua; HE Zhiyong; YU Li

    2004-01-01

    The effects of graphite granularity on the properties of low carbon MgO-C based materials have been investigated in the work. Large crystal fused magnesia, natural flake graphite with different particle sizes and anti-oxidant were adopted as raw material for preparation of specimens.However, the results show that the physical properties,oxidation resistance and thermal shock resistance of low carbon MgO- C materials with content of 4.0 wt % graphite are improved obviously through the use of special and suitable size graphite. The excellent performance achieved was considered as a result of microstructure modification of MgO-C materials. Therefore, it is suggested that both fine and micro grade natural flake graphite used for production of low carbon MgO- C bricks.

  1. Effect of carbon coating on electrochemical performance of hard carbons as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Hyuk; Lee, Heon-Young; Oh, Seh-Min; Lee, Seo-Jae; Lee, Ki-Young; Lee, Sung-Man

    Surface modification by a soft-carbon coating is used to improve the electrochemical performance of hard carbons as the negative-electrode (anode) material in lithium-ion batteries. The coating process involves simple heat-treatment of a mixture of coal-tar pitch and hard carbon powders at 1000 °C. The carbon coating significantly reduces the reaction of lithium with surface functional groups or absorbed species caused by air exposure. This is attributed to the effective suppression of the diffusion of both air and water into the hard carbon by the soft-carbon coating, and the better resistance of soft carbon to air. As a result, the charge-discharge coulombic efficiency during cycling, as well as during the first cycle, is improved.

  2. Modified carbon black materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostecki, Robert; Richardson, Thomas; Boesenberg, Ulrike; Pollak, Elad; Lux, Simon

    2016-06-14

    A lithium (Li) ion battery comprising a cathode, a separator, an organic electrolyte, an anode, and a carbon black conductive additive, wherein the carbon black has been heated treated in a CO.sub.2 gas environment at a temperature range of between 875-925 degrees Celsius for a time range of between 50 to 70 minutes to oxidize the carbon black and reduce an electrochemical reactivity of the carbon black towards the organic electrolyte.

  3. Linking Transformational Materials and Processing for an Energy-Efficient and Low-Carbon Economy, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, Warren H. [Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society (TMS), Warrendale, PA (United States); Brindle, Ross [Nexight Group, LLC, Silver Spring, MD (United States); James, Mallory [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Justiniano, Mauricio [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Sabouni, Ridah [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Seader, Melanie [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Ruch, Jennifer [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Andres, Howard [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Zafar, Muhammad [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The Energy Materials Blue Ribbon Panel, representing experts from industry, academia, and government, identifies new materials and processing breakthroughs that could lead to transformational advances in energy efficiency, energy security, and carbon reduction.

  4. Surface Anchoring of Nematic Phase on Carbon Nanotubes: Nanostructure of Ultra-High Temperature Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogale, Amod A

    2012-04-27

    consisting of strong carbon fibers embedded in a carbon matrix are needed. Such carbon/carbon (C/C) composites have been used in aerospace industry to produce missile nose cones, space shuttle leading edge, and aircraft brake-pads. However, radiation-tolerance of such materials is not adequately known because only limited radiation studies have been performed on C/C composites, which suggest that pitch-based carbon fibers have better dimensional stability than that of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based fibers [4]. The thermodynamically-stable state of graphitic crystalline packing of carbon atoms derived from mesophase pitch leads to a greater stability during neutron irradiation [5]. The specific objectives of this project were: (i) to generating novel carbonaceous nanostructures, (ii) measure extent of graphitic crystallinity and the extent of anisotropy, and (iii) collaborate with the Carbon Materials group at Oak Ridge National Lab to have neutron irradiation studies and post-irradiation examinations conducted on the carbon fibers produced in this research project.

  5. Machine learning based interatomic potential for amorphous carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deringer, Volker L.; Csányi, Gábor

    2017-03-01

    We introduce a Gaussian approximation potential (GAP) for atomistic simulations of liquid and amorphous elemental carbon. Based on a machine learning representation of the density-functional theory (DFT) potential-energy surface, such interatomic potentials enable materials simulations with close-to DFT accuracy but at much lower computational cost. We first determine the maximum accuracy that any finite-range potential can achieve in carbon structures; then, using a hierarchical set of two-, three-, and many-body structural descriptors, we construct a GAP model that can indeed reach the target accuracy. The potential yields accurate energetic and structural properties over a wide range of densities; it also correctly captures the structure of the liquid phases, at variance with a state-of-the-art empirical potential. Exemplary applications of the GAP model to surfaces of "diamondlike" tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta -C) are presented, including an estimate of the amorphous material's surface energy and simulations of high-temperature surface reconstructions ("graphitization"). The presented interatomic potential appears to be promising for realistic and accurate simulations of nanoscale amorphous carbon structures.

  6. Engineered Carbon-Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Sensors for Biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Jitendra N; Vij, Varun; Kemp, K Christian; Kim, Kwang S

    2016-01-26

    The study of electrochemical behavior of bioactive molecules has become one of the most rapidly developing scientific fields. Biotechnology and biomedical engineering fields have a vested interest in constructing more precise and accurate voltammetric/amperometric biosensors. One rapidly growing area of biosensor design involves incorporation of carbon-based nanomaterials in working electrodes, such as one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, two-dimensional graphene, and graphene oxide. In this review article, we give a brief overview describing the voltammetric techniques and how these techniques are applied in biosensing, as well as the details surrounding important biosensing concepts of sensitivity and limits of detection. Building on these important concepts, we show how the sensitivity and limit of detection can be tuned by including carbon-based nanomaterials in the fabrication of biosensors. The sensing of biomolecules including glucose, dopamine, proteins, enzymes, uric acid, DNA, RNA, and H2O2 traditionally employs enzymes in detection; however, these enzymes denature easily, and as such, enzymeless methods are highly desired. Here we draw an important distinction between enzymeless and enzyme-containing carbon-nanomaterial-based biosensors. The review ends with an outlook of future concepts that can be employed in biosensor fabrication, as well as limitations of already proposed materials and how such sensing can be enhanced. As such, this review can act as a roadmap to guide researchers toward concepts that can be employed in the design of next generation biosensors, while also highlighting the current advancements in the field.

  7. Strongly coupled inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailiang; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-04-01

    The global shift of energy production from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources requires more efficient and reliable electrochemical energy storage devices. In particular, the development of electric or hydrogen powered vehicles calls for much-higher-performance batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells than are currently available. In this review, we present an approach to synthesize electrochemical energy storage materials to form strongly coupled hybrids (SC-hybrids) of inorganic nanomaterials and novel graphitic nano-carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, through nucleation and growth of nanoparticles at the functional groups of oxidized graphitic nano-carbon. We show that the inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials represent a new approach to synthesize electrode materials with higher electrochemical performance than traditional counterparts made by simple physical mixtures of electrochemically active inorganic particles and conducting carbon materials. The inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials are novel due to possible chemical bonding between inorganic nanoparticles and oxidized carbon, affording enhanced charge transport and increased rate capability of electrochemical materials without sacrificing specific capacity. Nano-carbon with various degrees of oxidation provides a novel substrate for nanoparticle nucleation and growth. The interactions between inorganic precursors and oxidized-carbon substrates provide a degree of control over the morphology, size and structure of the resulting inorganic nanoparticles. This paper reviews the recent development of inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials for electrochemical energy storage and conversion, including the preparation and functionalization of graphene sheets and carbon nanotubes to impart oxygen containing groups and defects, and methods of synthesis of nanoparticles of various morphologies on oxidized graphene and carbon nanotubes. We then review the applications of the SC

  8. Carbon Nanotube Paper-Based Electroanalytical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmi Koo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report on carbon nanotube paper-based electroanalytical devices. A highly aligned-carbon nanotube (HA-CNT array, grown using chemical vapor deposition (CVD, was processed to form bi-layered paper with an integrated cellulose-based Origami-chip as the electroanalytical device. We used an inverse-ordered fabrication method from a thick carbon nanotube (CNT sheet to a thin CNT sheet. A 200-layered HA-CNT sheet and a 100-layered HA-CNT sheet are explored as a working electrode. The device was fabricated using the following methods: (1 cellulose-based paper was patterned using a wax printer, (2 electrical connection was made using a silver ink-based circuit printer, and (3 three electrodes were stacked on a 2D Origami cell. Electrochemical behavior was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and cyclic voltammetry (CV. We believe that this platform could attract a great deal of interest for use in various chemical and biomedical applications.

  9. Pore structure and growth kinetics in carbon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, S.

    1978-04-01

    Pore structure of glassy carbon (GC) and pyrolytic graphite (PG) have been investigated. GC is one of the most impervious of solids finding applications in prosthetic devices and fuel cells while PG is used extensively in the aerospace industry. One third of the microstructure of GC consists of closed pores inaccessible to fluids. The microstructure of this material has been characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution electron microscopy. Small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) has been used to measure the angstrom sized pores and to follow the evolution of pore surface area as a function of heat treatment temperature (HTT) and heat treatment time (HTt) at constant temperature. From these measurements an analysis of the surface area kinetics was made to find out if rate processes are involved and to locate graphitization occurring at pore surfaces. PG on the other hand has been found to have larger sized pores that comprise five percent of its volume. In addition to being closed these pores are oriented. Some pore models are proposed for PG and the existing scattering theory from oriented ellipsoids is modified to include the proposed shapes.

  10. Surface properties of activated carbon from different raw materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang XiangLan; Zhang Yan; Liu Qiong; Zhou Wei

    2012-01-01

    Activated carbons (ACs) with different surface properties were prepared from different raw materials.N2 adsorption,pH value,Boehm titration,Temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and FTIR were employed to characterize the pore structure and surface chemical properties of the ACs.The results show that AC from bituminous coal (AC-B) has more meso-pores,higher pH value,more carboxylic groups and basic site than ACs from coconut shell and hawthorn(AC-C,AC-H).Oxygen in the mixture gas has great effect on SO2 catalytic oxidation/oxidation ability of AC-B.In the absence of oxygen,the adsorbed SO2 on AC-B is 0.16 mmol/g and the conversion ratio of adsorbed SO2 to SO3 is 22,07%; while in the presence of oxygen,the adsorbed amount of SO2 is 0.42 mmol/g,and all of the adsorbed SO2 was totally converted to SO3.This feature of AC-B is consistent with its higher pH value,basic site and the reaction ability with H2 from TPR.The conversion ratios of SO2 absorbed on both AC-C and AC-H were 100%,respectively.

  11. Directed graph based carbon flow tracing for demand side carbon obligation allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tao; Feng, Donghan; Ding, Teng

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve carbon emission abatement, some researchers and policy makers have cast their focus on demand side carbon abatement potentials. This paper addresses the problem of carbon flow calculation in power systems and carbon obligation allocation at demand side. A directed graph based...

  12. Straightforward synthesis of a triazine-based porous carbon with high gas-uptake capacities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Xinming; Chen, Qi; Zhao, Yan Chao;

    2014-01-01

    A triazine-based porous carbon material (TPC-1) was prepared directly from a fluorinated aromatic nitrile in molten zinc chloride. Trimerization of the nitrile and subsequent defluorination carbonization of the polymeric network result in the formation of TPC-1. The defluorination process is reve...

  13. Carbon nanotube-based coatings to induce flow enhancement in hydrophilic nanopores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagemann, Enrique; Walther, Jens Honore; Zambrano, Harvey

    2016-01-01

    that carbon nanotubes (CNTs) feature ultrafast waterflow rates which result in flow enhancements of 1 to 5 orders of magnitude compared to Hagen-Poiseuille predictions. In the present study, CNT-based coatings are considered to induce water flow enhancement in silica nanopores with different radius. We......-walled carbon nanotubes implemented as coating material in silica nanopores....

  14. Discussion on Coal-base Carbonaceous Material and Activated Carbon Preparation and Properties%煤基碳质反应剂与活性炭的制备和性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晋萍

    2013-01-01

    利用先锋褐煤为原料制备碳质反应剂,采用湿法工艺脱硫除铁,解决了木炭来源对生态所造成的破坏。控制一定的酸度、浓度和液固比,利用水蒸汽活化法制备标准的活性炭。在使用了特制的添加剂后,随着活化温度的升高,各种添加剂成分具有一定的协同作用,使活化时间延长,符合产品质量的要求,提高活化温度使所需活性炭的强度。通过脱硫除杂后工业实验表明,利用活性炭的吸附性或者催化性,能够将其运用于广泛的工业领域,是今后发展特异用途很重要一点。充分利用和开发活性炭的用途,具有重要的社会、经济以及环保效益。%The use of Xianfeng brown coal as raw material to prepare carbonaceous material by wet process of FGD, iron, solves the charcoal sources caused damage to the ecology. Control of acidity, concentration and ratio of liquid to solid, using steam method for preparation of activated carbon standard. In the use of special additives, along with the activation temperature, various additive components has a synergistic effect, so the activation time, meet the requirement of product quality, improve the activation temperature so that the required activated carbon intensity. Through the desulfurization after impurity removal from industrial experiments, the use of activated carbon adsorption or catalysis, can be applied to a wide range of industries, is the future development of specific use is very important. Make full use of and develop the use of activated carbon, has important social, economic and environmental benefits.

  15. Leaching from denture base materials in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lygre, H.; Solheim, E.; Gjerdet, N.R. [School of Medicine, Univ. of Bergen (Norway)

    1995-04-01

    Specimens made from denture base materials were leached in Ringer Solution and in ethanol. The specimens comprised a heat-cured product processed in two different ways and two cold-cured materials. The organic compounds leaching from the specimens to the solutions were separated, identified, and quantified by a combined gas-chromatography and gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry technique. Additives and degradation products, possibly made by free radical reactions, were released from the denture base materials. In Ringer solution only phthalates could be quantified. In ethanol solvent, biphenyl, dibutyl phthalate, dicyclohexyl phthalate, phenyl benzoate, and phenyl salicylate were quantified. In addition, copper was found in the ethanol solvent from one of the denture base materials. The amount of leachable organic compounds varies among different materials. Processing temperature influences the initial amount of leachable compounds. 36 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Characterisation of porous carbon electrode materials used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells via gas adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt-Smith, M. J.; Rigby, S. P.; Ralph, T. R.; Walsh, F. C.

    Porous carbon materials are typically used in both the substrate (typically carbon paper) and the electrocatalyst supports (often platinised carbon) within proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Gravimetric nitrogen adsorption has been studied at a carbon paper substrate, two different Pt-loaded carbon paper electrodes and three particulate carbon blacks. N 2 BET surface areas and surface fractal dimensions were determined using the fractal BET and Frenkel-Halsey-Hill models for all but one of the materials studied. The fractal dimensions of the carbon blacks obtained from gas adsorption were compared with those obtained independently by small angle X-ray scattering and showed good agreement. Density functional theory was used to characterise one of the carbon blacks, as the standard BET model was not applicable.

  17. Structure and Dynamics of Water at Carbon-Based Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Martí

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Water structure and dynamics are affected by the presence of a nearby interface. Here, first we review recent results by molecular dynamics simulations about the effect of different carbon-based materials, including armchair carbon nanotubes and a variety of graphene sheets—flat and with corrugation—on water structure and dynamics. We discuss the calculations of binding energies, hydrogen bond distributions, water’s diffusion coefficients and their relation with surface’s geometries at different thermodynamical conditions. Next, we present new results of the crystallization and dynamics of water in a rigid graphene sieve. In particular, we show that the diffusion of water confined between parallel walls depends on the plate distance in a non-monotonic way and is related to the water structuring, crystallization, re-melting and evaporation for decreasing inter-plate distance. Our results could be relevant in those applications where water is in contact with nanostructured carbon materials at ambient or cryogenic temperatures, as in man-made superhydrophobic materials or filtration membranes, or in techniques that take advantage of hydrated graphene interfaces, as in aqueous electron cryomicroscopy for the analysis of proteins adsorbed on graphene.

  18. Carbon-based nanodevices for sensors, actuators, and electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, E. H.; Strauf, S.; Fisher, F.; Choi, D. S.

    2009-05-01

    We are pursuing several projects aimed at developing carbon-based nanodevices for sensing, actuation, and nanoelectronics applications. In one project, we are seeking to fabricate and characterize carbon nanotube quantum dots (CNT-QDs) with potential application as future electronic memories with high-performance, bandwidth, and throughput. In a second effort, we have used pulsed laser deposition (PLD) to create thermal bimorph nanoactuators based on multi-wall nano tubes (MWNTs) coated on one side with a thin metal film. Lastly, graphene materials are being studied to investigate its field emission properties for vacuum electronics and to exploit its differential conductivity. These devices have potential in a wide range of applications including sensors, detectors, system-on-a-chip, system-in-a-package, programmable logic controls, energy storage systems and all-electronic systems.

  19. 2012 CHEMISTRY & PHYSICS OF GRAPHITIC CARBON MATERIALS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JUNE 17-22, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fertig, Herbert

    2012-06-22

    This conference will highlight the urgency for research on graphitic carbon materials and gather scientists in physics, chemistry, and engineering to tackle the challenges in this field. The conference will focus on scalable synthesis, characterization, novel physical and electronic properties, structure-properties relationship studies, and new applications of the carbon materials. Contributors

  20. Synthesis of carbon nanotube-TiO(2) nanotubular material for reversible hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Amrita; Banerjee, Subarna; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Graeve, Olivia A; Misra, Mano

    2008-11-05

    A material consisting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and larger titania (TiO(2)) nanotube arrays has been produced and found to be efficient for reversible hydrogen (H(2)) storage. The TiO(2) nanotube arrays (diameter ∼60 nm and length ∼2-3 µm) are grown on a Ti substrate, and MWCNTs a few µm in length and ∼30-60 nm in diameter are grown inside these TiO(2) nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition with cobalt as a catalyst. The resulting material has been used in H(2) storage experiments based on a volumetric method using the pressure, composition, and temperature relationship of the storage media. This material can store up to 2.5 wt% of H(2) at 77 K under 25 bar with more than 90% reversibility.

  1. Materials And Carbon Flow In A Waste Refinery Process Using Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Woods, M.; Astrup, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Recovery of resources from mixed Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is a crucial aspect of waste management practices. In this paper the materials and carbon flows of an innovative waste refinery process using enzymes are presented. Through enzymatic treatment the process produces two main streams from...... the initial mixed MSW: a bioslurry (liquefied paper and organics) and a solid fraction (non-degradable materials). The discussion is based on the performance of the process in separating recyclables and recovery Cbiogenic as well as nutrients from the input MSW. The results of MFA and SFA illustrate...... that the waste refinery has great potential for resource recovery: about 100% of the Cbiogenic and up to 90% of N and P can potentially be recovered in the bioslurry and returned to land after anaerobic digestion. Recovery of ferrous and non-ferrous material is estimated double compared to recovering the same...

  2. A numerical study of latent thermal energy storage in a phase change material/carbon panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekaddem, Najoua; Ali, Samia Ben; Mazioud, Atef; Hannachi, Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    To reduce the energetic dependence of building, it has become necessary to explore and develop new materials promoting energy conservation. Because of their high storage capacity, phase change materials (PCMs) are efficient to store thermal energy. In this paper, a 3D model was studied for simulation of energy storing cycles to predict the performances of PCM loaded panels. Carbon was used as supporting material for the PCM. The simulation was based on the enthalpy method using Ansys Fluent software. The panel was exposed to a daily heat flow including the effects of convection and radiation. The results show that the temperature decreased of approximately 2.5°C with a time shift about 2 hours. The steady state was reached after four cycles. Thus, after four cycles the PCM showed its effects on the temperature conditioning.

  3. Material Recognition for Content Based Image Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusebroek, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    One of the open problems in content-based Image Retrieval is the recognition of material present in an image. Knowledge about the set of materials present gives important semantic information about the scene under consideration. For example, detecting sand, sky, and water certainly classifies the im

  4. Computational evaluation of optoelectronic properties for organic/carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Zhigang; Wang, Dong; Peng, Qian; Geng, Hua

    2014-11-18

    CONSPECTUS: Organic optoelectronic materials are used in a variety of devices, including light-emitting diodes, field-effect transistors, photovoltaics, thermoelectrics, spintronics, and chemico- and biosensors. The processes that determine the intrinsic optoelectronic properties occur either in the photoexcited states or within the electron-pumped charged species, and computations that predict these optical and electrical properties would help researchers design new materials. In this Account, we describe recent advances in related density functional theory (DFT) methods and present case studies that examine the efficiency of light emission, carrier mobility, and thermoelectric figures of merit by calculation of the electron-vibration couplings. First we present a unified vibrational correlation function formalism to evaluate the excited-state radiative decay rate constant kr, the nonradiative decay rate constant knr, the intersystem crossing rate constant kISC, and the optical spectra. The molecular parameters that appear in the formalism, such as the electronic excited-state energy, vibrational modes, and vibronic couplings, require extensive DFT calculations. We used experiments for anthracene at both low and ambient temperatures to benchmark the calculated photophysical parameters. In the framework of Fermi's golden rule, we incorporated the non-adiabatic coupling and the spin-orbit coupling to evaluate the phosphorescence efficiency and emission spectrum. Both of these are in good agreement with experimental results for anthracene and iridium compounds. Band electron scattering and relaxation processes within Boltzmann theory can describe charge transport in two-dimensional carbon materials and closely packed organic solids. For simplicity, we considered only the acoustic phonon scattering as modeled by the deformation potential approximation coupled with extensive DFT calculations for band structures. We then related the carrier mobility to the band

  5. Flexible microdevices based on carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ashante'; Cannon, Andrew; Lee, Jungchul; King, William P.; Graham, Samuel

    2006-12-01

    This work reports the fabrication and testing of flexible carbon nanotube microdevices made using hot embossing material transfer. Both micro-plasma and photodetector devices were made using as-grown unpurified multi-wall carbon nanotubes printed on PMMA substrates. Optical detectors were fabricated by attaching metal wires and monitoring the resistance as a function of light exposure. The electrical resistance of the nanotubes showed a strong sensitivity to light exposure which was also enhanced by heating the devices. While such processes in MWCNTs are not fully understood, the addition of thermal energy is believed to generate additional free charge carriers in the nanotubes. The plasma-generating microdevices consisted of a thin layer of thermoplastic polymer having the CNT electrode on one side and a metal electrode on the reverse side. The devices were electrically tested under atmospheric conditions with 0.01-1 kV ac and at 2.5 kHz, with the plasma igniting near 0.7 kV. The fabrication of these flexible organic devices demonstrates the ability to pattern useful carbon nanotube microdevices in low-cost thermoplastic polymers.

  6. Materiality in a Practice-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svabo, Connie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to provide an overview of the vocabulary for materiality which is used by practice-based approaches to organizational knowing. Design/methodology/approach: The overview is theoretically generated and is based on the anthology Knowing in Organizations: A Practice-based Approach edited by Nicolini, Gherardi and Yanow. The…

  7. Carbon-based tribofilms from lubricating oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Ramirez, Giovanni; Eryilmaz, Osman L.; Narayanan, Badri; Liao, Yifeng; Kamath, Ganesh; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S.

    2016-08-01

    Moving mechanical interfaces are commonly lubricated and separated by a combination of fluid films and solid ‘tribofilms’, which together ensure easy slippage and long wear life. The efficacy of the fluid film is governed by the viscosity of the base oil in the lubricant; the efficacy of the solid tribofilm, which is produced as a result of sliding contact between moving parts, relies upon the effectiveness of the lubricant’s anti-wear additive (typically zinc dialkyldithiophosphate). Minimizing friction and wear continues to be a challenge, and recent efforts have focused on enhancing the anti-friction and anti-wear properties of lubricants by incorporating inorganic nanoparticles and ionic liquids. Here, we describe the in operando formation of carbon-based tribofilms via dissociative extraction from base-oil molecules on catalytically active, sliding nanometre-scale crystalline surfaces, enabling base oils to provide not only the fluid but also the solid tribofilm. We study nanocrystalline catalytic coatings composed of nitrides of either molybdenum or vanadium, containing either copper or nickel catalysts, respectively. Structurally, the resulting tribofilms are similar to diamond-like carbon. Ball-on-disk tests at contact pressures of 1.3 gigapascals reveal that these tribofilms nearly eliminate wear, and provide lower friction than tribofilms formed with zinc dialkyldithiophosphate. Reactive and ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations show that the catalytic action of the coatings facilitates dehydrogenation of linear olefins in the lubricating oil and random scission of their carbon-carbon backbones; the products recombine to nucleate and grow a compact, amorphous lubricating tribofilm.

  8. Oxygen reduction by lithiated graphene and graphene-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataev, Elmar Yu; Itkis, Daniil M; Fedorov, Alexander V; Senkovsky, Boris V; Usachov, Dmitry Yu; Verbitskiy, Nikolay I; Grüneis, Alexander; Barinov, Alexei; Tsukanova, Daria Yu; Volykhov, Andrey A; Mironovich, Kirill V; Krivchenko, Victor A; Rybin, Maksim G; Obraztsova, Elena D; Laubschat, Clemens; Vyalikh, Denis V; Yashina, Lada V

    2015-01-27

    Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) plays a key role in lithium-air batteries (LABs) that attract great attention thanks to their high theoretical specific energy several times exceeding that of lithium-ion batteries. Because of their high surface area, high electric conductivity, and low specific weight, various carbons are often materials of choice for applications as the LAB cathode. Unfortunately, the possibility of practical application of such batteries is still under question as the sustainable operation of LABs with carbon cathodes is not demonstrated yet and the cyclability is quite poor, which is usually associated with oxygen reduced species side reactions. However, the mechanisms of carbon reactivity toward these species are still unclear. Here, we report a direct in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of oxygen reduction by lithiated graphene and graphene-based materials. Although lithium peroxide (Li2O2) and lithium oxide (Li2O) reactions with carbon are thermodynamically favorable, neither of them was found to react even at elevated temperatures. As lithium superoxide is not stable at room temperature, potassium superoxide (KO2) prepared in situ was used instead to test the reactivity of graphene with superoxide species. In contrast to Li2O2 and Li2O, KO2 was demonstrated to be strongly reactive.

  9. The fungicidal properties of the carbon materials obtained from chitin and chitosan promoted by copper salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilnicka, Anna, E-mail: annakucinska@o2.pl; Walczyk, Mariusz; Lukaszewicz, Jerzy P.

    2015-07-01

    Renewable raw materials chitin and chitosan (N-deacetylated derivative of chitin) were subjected to action of different copper modifiers that were carbonized in the atmosphere of the N{sub 2} inert gas. As a result of the novel manufacturing procedure, a series of carbon materials was obtained with developed surface area and containing copper derivatives of differentiated form, size, and dispersion. The copper modifier and manufacturing procedure (concentration, carbonization temperature) influence the physical–chemical and fungicide properties of the carbons. The received carbons were chemically characterized using several methods like low-temperature adsorption of nitrogen, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, elemental analysis, and bioassay. Besides chemical testing, some biological tests were performed and let to select carbons with the highest fungicidal activity. Such carbons were characteristic of the specific form of copper derivatives occurring in them, i.e., nanocrystallites of Cu{sup 0} and/or Cu{sub 2}O of high dispersion on the surface of carbon. The carbons may find an application as effective contact fungistatic agents in cosmetology, medicine, food industry, etc. - Highlights: • The novel manufacturing procedure yields new functional carbon materials. • Two biopolymers chitin and chitosan can undergo copper(II) ion modification. • The Cu-modified carbon materials exhibit high fungicidal activity. • The fungicidal activity results from the presence of Cu{sup 0} and Cu{sub 2}O nano-crystallites.

  10. Hydrothermal carbonization of food waste and associated packaging materials for energy source generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Diederick, Ryan; Flora, Joseph R V; Berge, Nicole D

    2013-11-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermal conversion technique that converts food wastes and associated packaging materials to a valuable, energy-rich resource. Food waste collected from local restaurants was carbonized over time at different temperatures (225, 250 and 275°C) and solids concentrations to determine how process conditions influence carbonization product properties and composition. Experiments were also conducted to determine the influence of packaging material on food waste carbonization. Results indicate the majority of initial carbon remains integrated within the solid-phase at the solids concentrations and reaction temperatures evaluated. Initial solids concentration influences carbon distribution because of increased compound solubilization, while changes in reaction temperature imparted little change on carbon distribution. The presence of packaging materials significantly influences the energy content of the recovered solids. As the proportion of packaging materials increase, the energy content of recovered solids decreases because of the low energetic retention associated with the packaging materials. HTC results in net positive energy balances at all conditions, except at a 5% (dry wt.) solids concentration. Carbonization of food waste and associated packaging materials also results in net positive balances, but energy needs for solids post-processing are significant. Advantages associated with carbonization are not fully realized when only evaluating process energetics. A more detailed life cycle assessment is needed for a more complete comparison of processes.

  11. Carbon Dioxide As a Raw Material for Biodegradable Plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xianhong; QIN Yusheng; WANG Fosong

    2011-01-01

    @@ Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas, but it is also a renewable and abundant source of carbon.It has not onlv shown various phvsicai utilization in the manufacturing of food, beverage and other industry areas, but been chemically fixed into urea, salicylic acid, organic and inorganic carbonates (Mikkelsen, Jorgensen & Krebs, 2010).However, developing a high value-added fixation route to CO is badly needed.

  12. Tribology of Carbon-Based Coatings : Past, Present, and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Broitman, Esteban; Hultman, Lars

    2013-01-01

    In this talk, the development of carbon-based coatings will be reviewed. The most recent findings in the synthesis, characterization and application of carbon-based coatings will be highlighted. Future perspectives of new fullerene-like carbon-based tribological coatings will be discussed. Novel applications of fullerene-like CNx, CPx, and CFx will be envisioned.

  13. Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance with Carbon Nanotubes Incorporating into Hole Transport Materials for Perovskite Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junxia; Li, Jingling; Xu, Xueqing; Xu, Gang; Shen, Honglie

    2016-10-01

    In an attempt to further enhance the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) fabricated by spray deposition under ambient conditions, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are introduced for incorporation into hole transport materials (HTM). The effect of CNT category and length on the efficiency of the perovskite solar cell for incorporation into HTM is investigated. The enhanced photovoltaic performance is achieved in multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with the shortest length. The efficiency of acid-treated MWCNT-based cells is improved compared to that of purified MWCNTs due to the better dispersibility and the π-π interaction between the -COOH group and spiro-OMeTAD. As the volume ratio of the spiro-OMeTAD and spiro/MWCNTs mixture is 2:2 or 3:1, the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PSCs containing MWCNTs reaches 8.7% with the enhanced short-circuit current density ( J sc) and open-circuit voltage ( V oc).

  14. Adsorption of Safranin-T from wastewater using waste materials- activated carbon and activated rice husks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinod K; Mittal, Alok; Jain, Rajeev; Mathur, Megha; Sikarwar, Shalini

    2006-11-01

    Textile effluents are major industrial polluters because of high color content, about 15% unfixed dyes and salts. The present paper is aimed to investigate and develop cheap adsorption methods for color removal from wastewater using waste materials activated carbon and activated rice husk-as adsorbents. The method was employed for the removal of Safranin-T and the influence of various factors such as adsorbent dose, adsorbate concentration, particle size, temperature, contact time, and pH was studied. The adsorption of the dye over both the adsorbents was found to follow Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Based on these models, different useful thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated for both the adsorption processes. The adsorption of Safranin-T over activated carbon and activated rice husks follows first-order kinetics and the rate constants for the adsorption processes decrease with increase in temperature.

  15. Minimizing the carbon footprint of material handling equipment: Comparison of electric and LPG forklifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Facchini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify the best Material Handling Equipment (MHE to minimize the carbon footprint of inbound logistic activities, based on the type of the warehouse (layout, facilities and order-picking strategy as well as the weight of the loads to be handled. Design/methodology/approach: A model to select the best environmental MHE for inbound logistic activities has been developed. Environmental performance of the MHE has been evaluated in terms of carbon Footprint (CF. The model is tested with a tool adopting a VBA macro as well as a simulation software allowing the evaluation of energy and time required by the forklift in each phase of the material handling cycle: picking, sorting and storing of the items. Findings: Nowadays, it is not possible to identify ‘a priori’ a particular engine equipped forklift performing better than others under an environmental perspective. Consistently, the application of the developed model allows to identify the best MHE tailored to each case analyzed.   Originality/value: This work gives a contribution to the disagreement between environmental performances of forklifts equipped with different engines. The developed model can be considered a valid support for decision makers to identify the best MHE minimizing the carbon footprint of inbound logistic activities.

  16. Formation of Foam-like Microstructural Carbon Material by Carbonization of Porous Coordination Polymers through a Ligand-Assisted Foaming Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongpatpanich, Kanokwan; Horike, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Yu-Ichi; Ogiwara, Naoki; Nishihara, Hirotomo; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2015-09-14

    Porous carbon material with a foam-like microstructure has been synthesized by direct carbonization of porous coordination polymer (PCP). In situ generation of foaming agents by chemical reactions of ligands in PCP during carbonization provides a simple way to create lightweight carbon material with a foam-like microstructure. Among several substituents investigated, the nitro group has been shown to be the key to obtain the unique foam-like microstructure, which is due to the fast kinetics of gas evolution during carbonization. Foam-like microstructural carbon materials showed higher pore volume and specific capacitance compared to a microporous carbon.

  17. Utilization of Carbonized Wood from Tropical Fast-Growing Trees for Functional Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Sulistyo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pembangunan hutan tanaman dari jenis-jenis cepat tumbuh di kawasan tropis menimbulkan limbah biomassa kayu yang sebagian saat ini digunakan untuk kayu bakar dan sebagian lain digunakan untuk produksi arang dengan tujuan penggunaan yang terbatas. Pengembangan material-material fungsional untuk berbagai aplikasi teknik dengan memanfaatkan arang kayu dari jenis pohon cepat tumbuh harus mempertimbangkan struktur mikro dan struktur pori dalam arang kayu yang berhubungan dengan kondisi karbonisasi. Ulasan ini meliputi kemajuan penelitian-penelitian saat ini pada karbonisasi kayu dari pohon cepat tumbuh tropis, mekanisme perkembangan struktur mikro dan struktur pori dalam arang kayu selama karbonisasi, pemanfaatan yang tepat dari struktur mikro dan porositas dalam arang kayu untuk pengembangan material-material fungsional serta usaha dan peningkatan pengembangan material-material fungsional menggunakan arang kayu dari pohon cepat tumbuh tropis. Katakunci: arang kayu, material fungsional, pohon cepat tumbuh, karbonisasi   Utilization of Carbonized Wood from Tropical Fast-Growing Trees for Functional Materials Abstract Establishment of fast-growing tree species plantations in tropical areas generate wood biomass residue in which some of them are currently utilized for heating fuel and some others are used for charcoal production with limited purposes. The development of functional materials for engineering applications utilizing carbonized wood from fast-growing trees species have to consider the microstructure and pore structure in carbonized wood which has a relationship to the carbonization conditions. This review covers the current researches on progress in the carbonization of wood from tropical fast-growing trees, mechanism of the microstructure and pore structure development in carbonized wood during carbonization, proper utilizations of the microstructure and porosity in carbonized wood for the development of functional materials and efforts

  18. Effects of freeze drying and silver staining on carbonization of cellulose: carbon nano-materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae-Young; Im, Hyun Sik [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    We investigated the effects of sulfuric acid and silver particles on the carbonization of natural cellulose from Halocynthia. We carried out thermogravimetry and used transmission electron microscopy measurements to study the yield of carbon and the structure of the carbonized nano-fiber. We found that the addition of sulfuric acid and silver particles to the cellulose fiber enhanced the yield of carbon while keeping the original structure of the carbon nano-fiber.

  19. ANALYSIS OF MATERIAL MECHANICAL PROPERTIES FOR SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Yiming; Xu Xiaoxian

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The carbon-carbon bond between two nearest-neighboring atoms is modeled as a beam and the single-walled carbon nanotubes are treated as the space frame structures in order to analyze the mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes. Based on the theory of TersoffBrenner force field, the energy relationships between the carbon-carbon bond and the beam model are obtained, and the stiffness parameters of the beam are determined. By applying the present model, the Young's moduli of the single-walled carbon nanotubes with different tube diameters are determined. And the present results are compared with available data.

  20. Carbon-Based Compounds and Exobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, John; DesMarais, David; Khanna, R. K.; Mancinelli, Rocco; McDonald, Gene; diBrozollo, Fillipo Radicati; Wdowiak, Tom

    1996-01-01

    The Committee for Planetary and Lunar Explorations (COMPLEX) posed questions related to exobiological exploration of Mars and the possibility of a population of carbonaceous materials in cometary nuclei to be addressed by future space missions. The scientific objectives for such missions are translated into a series of measurements and/or observations to be performed by Martian landers. These are: (1) A detailed mineralogical, chemical, and textural assessment of rock diversity at a landing site; (2) Chemical characterization of the materials at a local site; (3) Abundance of Hydrogen at any accessible sites; (4) Identification of specific minerals that would be diagnostic of aqueous processes; (5) Textual examination of lithologies thought to be formed by aqueous activity; (6) Search for minerals that might have been produced as a result of biological processes; (7) Mapping the distribution, in three dimensions, of the oxidant(s) identified on the Martian surface by the Viking mission; (8) Definition of the local chemical environment; (9) Determination of stable-isotopic ratios for the biogenic elements in surface mineral deposits; (10) Quantitative analysis of organic (non-carbonate) carbon; (11) Elemental and isotopic composition of bulk organic material; (12) Search for specific organic compounds that would yield information about synthetic mechanisms, in the case of prebiotic evolution, and about possible bio-markers, in the case of extinct or extant life; (13) and Coring, sampling, and detection of entrained gases and cosmic-ray induced reaction products at the polar ice cap. A discussion of measurements and/or observations required for cometary landers is included as well.

  1. Method for the preparation of ferrous low carbon porous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Curtis Jack

    2014-05-27

    A method for preparing a porous metal article using a powder metallurgy forming process is provided which eliminates the conventional steps associated with removing residual carbon. The method uses a feedstock that includes a ferrous metal powder and a polycarbonate binder. The polycarbonate binder can be removed by thermal decomposition after the metal article is formed without leaving a carbon residue.

  2. Advanced carbon materials/olivine LiFePO4 composites cathode for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chunli; Xue, Zhigang; Wen, Sheng; Ye, Yunsheng; Xie, Xiaolin

    2016-06-01

    In the past two decades, LiFePO4 has undoubtly become a competitive candidate for the cathode material of the next-generation LIBs due to its abundant resources, low toxicity and excellent thermal stability, etc. However, the poor electronic conductivity as well as low lithium ion diffusion rate are the two major drawbacks for the commercial applications of LiFePO4 especially in the power energy field. The introduction of highly graphitized advanced carbon materials, which also possess high electronic conductivity, superior specific surface area and excellent structural stability, into LiFePO4 offers a better way to resolve the issue of limited rate performance caused by the two obstacles when compared with traditional carbon materials. In this review, we focus on advanced carbon materials such as one-dimensional (1D) carbon (carbon nanotubes and carbon fibers), two-dimensional (2D) carbon (graphene, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide) and three-dimensional (3D) carbon (carbon nanotubes array and 3D graphene skeleton), modified LiFePO4 for high power lithium ion batteries. The preparation strategies, structure, and electrochemical performance of advanced carbon/LiFePO4 composite are summarized and discussed in detail. The problems encountered in its application and the future development of this composite are also discussed.

  3. Fabrication and characterisation of carbon-based devices

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Thin film material properties and measurement characterisation techniques are crucial for the development of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) devices. Furthermore, as the technology scales down from microtechnology towards nanotechnology, nanoscale materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are required in electronic devices to overcome the limitations encountered by conventional materials at the nanoscale. The integration of CNTs into micro-electronics and material app...

  4. From spent Mg/Al layered double hydroxide to porous carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laipan, Minwang; Zhu, Runliang; Chen, Qingze; Zhu, Jianxi; Xi, Yunfei; Ayoko, Godwin A; He, Hongping

    2015-12-30

    Adsorption has been considered as an efficient method for the treatment of dye effluents, but proper disposal of the spent adsorbents is still a challenge. This work attempts to provide a facile method to reutilize the spent Mg/Al layered double hydroxide (Mg/Al-LDH) after the adsorption of orange II (OII). Herein, the spent hybrid was carbonized under the protection of nitrogen, and then washed with acid to obtain porous carbon materials. Thermogravimetric analysis results suggested that the carbonization could be well achieved above 600°C, as mass loss of the spent hybrid gradually stabilized. Therefore, the carbonization process was carried out at 600, 800, and 1000°C, respectively. Scanning electron microscope showed that the obtained carbon materials possessed a crooked flaky morphology. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption results showed that the carbon materials had large BET surface area and pore volume, e.g., 1426 m(2)/g and 1.67 cm(3)/g for the sample carbonized at 800°C. Moreover, the pore structure and surface chemistry compositions were tunable, as they were sensitive to the temperature. Toluene adsorption results demonstrated that the carbon materials had high efficiency in toluene removal. This work provided a facile approach for synthesizing porous carbon materials using spent Mg/Al-LDH.

  5. Carbonization of wood at 400°C for composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrianarisoa, Bernard Laurent

    The carbonization process for large pieces of wood was investigated to produce a solid carbonized wood skeleton precursor that retains the cellular structure of the wood without the formation of cracks and with reduced longitudinal deformation. Two carbonization schedules were designed for the conversion of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and southern pine ( Pinus spp) into amorphous carbon at a heat treatment temperature of 400°C. Samples from commercial lumber were carbonized to produce the materials. Each schedule was designed meticulously through DTA-TGA for each wood species. The materials were characterized by their average yields, dimensional changes, density, porosity, SEM and mechanical testing. Also, the materials were used as solid carbon skeletons for making resin-infused carbon composites. Structural epoxy resin was infused into the carbon material template and cured at a maximum temperature of 125°C. The depth of the resin infusion was assessed by SEM examination and the retention was analyzed by total weight gain. The strength and the stiffness of the composite materials were evaluated through mechanical testing. It was demonstrated that southern pine and sugar maple should require different heat treatment schedules for carbonization. The schedules were able to reduce the longitudinal deformation and to keep the final products free of cracks. The yield averaged around 28% for both southern pine and sugar maple. Carbonized southern pine exhibited lower density and higher porosity than carbonized sugar maple. The resin treatment increased specific gravity of carbonized materials by 9.6% and 11.6% for maple and southern pine respectively. The resin infusion improved the average MOR values by 140% and 275%. MOE of the composites was similar to that of pure epoxy.

  6. Nitrogen Doped Macroporous Carbon as Electrode Materials for High Capacity of Supercapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudong Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen doped carbon materials as electrodes of supercapacitors have attracted abundant attention. Herein, we demonstrated a method to synthesize N-doped macroporous carbon materials (NMC with continuous channels and large size pores carbonized from polyaniline using multiporous silica beads as sacrificial templates to act as electrode materials in supercapacitors. By the nice carbonized process, i.e., pre-carbonization at 400 °C and then pyrolysis at 700/800/900/1000 °C, NMC replicas with high BET specific surface areas exhibit excellent stability and recyclability as well as superb capacitance behavior (~413 F ⋅ g−1 in alkaline electrolyte. This research may provide a method to synthesize macroporous materials with continuous channels and hierarchical pores to enhance the infiltration and mass transfer not only used as electrode, but also as catalyst somewhere micro- or mesopores do not work well.

  7. Polymer/Carbon-Based Hybrid Aerogels: Preparation, Properties and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeng Zuo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aerogels are synthetic porous materials derived from sol-gel materials in which the liquid component has been replaced with gas to leave intact solid nanostructures without pore collapse. Recently, aerogels based on natural or synthetic polymers, called polymer or organic aerogels, have been widely explored due to their porous structures and unique properties, such as high specific surface area, low density, low thermal conductivity and dielectric constant. This paper gives a comprehensive review about the most recent progresses in preparation, structures and properties of polymer and their derived carbon-based aerogels, as well as their potential applications in various fields including energy storage, adsorption, thermal insulation and flame retardancy. To facilitate further research and development, the technical challenges are discussed, and several future research directions are also suggested in this review.

  8. CVD synthesis of carbon-based metallic photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Zakhidov, A A; Baughman, R H; Iqbal, Z

    1999-01-01

    Three-dimensionally periodic nanostructures on the scale of hundreds of nanometers, known as photonic crystals, are attracting increasing interest because of a number of exciting predicted properties. In particular, interesting behavior should be obtainable for carbon- based structures having a dimensional scale larger than fullerenes and nanotubes, but smaller than graphitic microfibers. We show here how templating of porous opals by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) allows us to obtain novel types of graphitic nanostructures. We describe the synthesis of new cubic forms of carbon having extended covalent connectivity in three dimensions, which provide high electrical conductivity and unit cell dimensions comparable to optical wavelengths. Such materials are metallic photonic crystals that show intense Bragg diffraction. (14 refs).

  9. Thermophysical properties of paraffin-based composite phase change materials filled with carbon nanotubes%石蜡基碳纳米管复合相变材料的热物性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓; 丁晴; 姚晓莉; 方昕; 范利武; 徐旭; 俞自涛; 胡亚才

    2013-01-01

    以多壁碳纳米管为填料,制备了不同质量分数(1%~5%)的石蜡基纳米复合相变材料.采用差示扫描量热技术对所制备复合相变材料的相变特性进行了表征,其导热性能则通过瞬态热线法导热仪进行了测量.实验结果发现,虽然复合相变材料的相变温度几乎不变,但其相变焓则随碳纳米管的加载量的增加而近似线性下降.在质量分数为5%时,相变焓较纯石蜡下降了约15%.复合相变材料的导热系数大致随温度的升高而降低,而在30和50℃时分别由于固固和固液相变的作用,导热系数测量值出现了较大程度的突增.此外,导热系数随质量分数呈线性增长的趋势,在质量分数为5%时,最大的相对提升率接近40%,展现了良好的导热强化效果.%Paraffin-based nanocomposite phase change materials (PCMs) with various mass fractions (1% ~ 5%) were prepared using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as the fillers.The phase change behaviors of the composite PCMs were characterized by employing the differential scanning calorimetry technique,whereas the thermal conductivity was measured using the transient hot-wire method.It was shown that although the phase change temperatures of the composite PCMs is almost constant,their phase change enthalpy almost linearly decreases with increasing loading of the MWCNTs.The phase change enthalpy is lowered by approximately 15 % as compared to that of pure paraffin at a mass fraction of 5%.The thermal conductivity of the composite PCMs was found to decay fairly with elevating temperature,except for 30 and 50 ℃ at which a sudden increase was seen due to the solid-solid and solid-liquid phase change,respectively.In addition,thermal conductivity was shown to increase linearly with raising mass fraction.At the mass fraction of 5%,the relative thermal conductivity enhancement is nearly 40%.

  10. Gas Sensors Based on Coated and Doped Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Meyyappan, Meyya

    2008-01-01

    Efforts are underway to develop inexpensive, low-power electronic sensors, based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), for measuring part-per-million and part-per-billion of selected gases (small molecules) at room temperature. Chemically unmodified SWCNTs are mostly unresponsive to typical gases that one might wish to detect. However, the electrical resistances of SWCNTs can be made to vary with concentrations of gases of interest by coating or doping the SWCNTs with suitable materials. Accordingly, the basic idea of the present development efforts is to incorporate thus-treated SWCNTs into electronic devices that measure their electrical resistances.

  11. Novel gas sensors based on carbon nanotube networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayago, I; Aleixandre, M; Horrillo, M C; Fernandez, M J; Gutierrez, J [Laboratorio de Sensores IFA-CSIC, Serrano 144, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Terrado, E; Lafuente, E; Maser, W K; Benito, A M; Martinez, M T; Munoz, E [Instituto de CarboquImica CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castan 4, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Urriolabeitia, E P; Navarro, R [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, ICMA (Universidad de Zaragoza-CSIC), 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)], E-mail: sayago@ifa.cetef.csic.es, E-mail: edgar@icb.csic.es

    2008-08-15

    Novel resistive gas sensors based on single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) networks as the active sensing element nave been investigated for gas detection. SWNTs networks were fabricated by airbrushing on alumina substrates. As-produced- and Pd-decorated SWNT materials were used as sensitive layers for the detection of NO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}, respectively. The studied sensors provided good response to NO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} as well as excellent selectivities to interfering gases.

  12. Simultaneous Electrochemical Determination of Hydroquinone, Catechol and Resorcinol at Nitrogen Doped Porous Carbon Nanopolyhedrons-multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Hybrid Materials Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei; Wu, Liang; Zhang, Xiaohua; Chen, Jinhua [Hunan Univ., Changsha (China)

    2014-01-15

    The nitrogen doped porous carbon nanopolyhedrons (N-PCNPs)-multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) hybrid materials were prepared for the first time. Combining the excellent catalytic activities, good electrical conductivities and high surface areas of N-PCNPs and MWCNTs, the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone (HQ), catechol (CC) and resorcinol (RE) with good analytical performance was achieved at the N-PCNPs-MWCNTs modified electrode. The linear response ranges for HQ, CC and RE are 0.2-455 μM, 0.7-440 μM and 3.0-365 μM, respectively, and the detection limits (S/N = 3) are 0.03 μM, 0.11 μM and 0.38 μM, respectively. These results are much better than that obtained on some graphene or CNTs-based materials modified electrodes. Furthermore, the developed sensor was successfully applied to simultaneously detect HQ, CC and RE in the local river water samples.

  13. Electronics based on two-dimensional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Gianluca; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Iannaccone, Giuseppe; Palacios, Tomás; Neumaier, Daniel; Seabaugh, Alan; Banerjee, Sanjay K; Colombo, Luigi

    2014-10-01

    The compelling demand for higher performance and lower power consumption in electronic systems is the main driving force of the electronics industry's quest for devices and/or architectures based on new materials. Here, we provide a review of electronic devices based on two-dimensional materials, outlining their potential as a technological option beyond scaled complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor switches. We focus on the performance limits and advantages of these materials and associated technologies, when exploited for both digital and analog applications, focusing on the main figures of merit needed to meet industry requirements. We also discuss the use of two-dimensional materials as an enabling factor for flexible electronics and provide our perspectives on future developments.

  14. Three-dimensional carbon nanotube based photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flicker, Jack

    2011-12-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) cells with a three dimensional (3D) morphology are an exciting new research thrust with promise to create cheaper, more efficient solar cells. This work introduces a new type of 3D PV device based on carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays. These arrays are paired with the thin film heterojunction, CdTe/CdS, to form a complete 3D carbon nanotube PV device (3DCNTPV). Marriage of a complicated 3D structure with production methods traditionally used for planar CdTe solar cell is challenging. This work examines the problems associated with processing these types of cells and systematically alters production methods of the semiconductor layers and electrodes to increase the short circuit current (Isc), eliminate parasitic shunts, and increase the open circuit voltage (Voc). The main benefit of 3D solar cell is the ability to utilize multiple photon interactions with the solar cell surface. The three dimensionality allows photons to interact multiple times with the photoactive material, which increases the absorption and the overall power output over what is possible with a two dimensional (2D) morphology. To quantify the increased power output arising from these multiple photon interactions, a new absorption efficiency term, eta3D, is introduced. The theoretical basis behind this new term and how it relates to the absorption efficiency of a planar cell, eta 2D, is derived. A unique model for the average number of multiple photon impingements, Gamma, is proposed based on three categories of 3D morphology: an infinite trench, an enclosed box, and an array of towers. The derivation of eta3D and Gamma for these 3D PV devices gives a complete picture of the enhanced power output over 2D cells based on CNT array height, pitch, radius, and shape. This theory is validated by monte carlo simulations and experiment. This new type of 3D PV devices has been shown to work experimentally. The first 3DCNTPV cells created posses Isc values of 0.085 to 17.872mA/cm2 and Voc values

  15. Highly basic CaO nanoparticles in mesoporous carbon materials and their excellent catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Pradeep Kumar; Chokkalingam, Anand; Priya, Subramaniam V; Balasubramanian, Veerappan V; Benziger, Mercy R; Aldeyab, Salem S; Jayavell, Ramasamy; Ariga, Katsukiho; Vinu, Ajayan

    2012-06-01

    Highly basic CaO nanoparticles immobilized mesoporous carbon materials (CaO-CMK-3) with different pore diameters have been successfully prepared by using wet-impregnation method. The prepared materials were subjected to extensive characterization studies using sophisticated techniques such as XRD, nitrogen adsorption, HRSEM-EDX, HRTEM and temperature programmed desorption of CO2 (TPD of CO2). The physico-chemical characterization results revealed that these materials possess highly dispersed CaO nanoparticles, excellent nanopores with well-ordered structure, high specific surface area, large specific pore volume, pore diameter and very high basicity. We have also demonstrated that the basicity of the CaO-CMK-3 samples can be controlled by simply varying the amount of CaO loading and pore diameter of the carbon support. The basic catalytic performance of the samples was investigated in the base-catalyzed transesterification of ethylacetoacetate by aryl, aliphatic and cyclic primary alcohols. CMK-3 catalyst with higher CaO loading and larger pore diameter was found to be highly active with higher conversion within a very short reaction time. The activity of 30% CaO-CMK3-150 catalyst for transesterification of ethylacetoacetate using different alcohols increases in the following order: octanol > butanol > cyclohexanol > benzyl alcohol > furfuryl alcohol.

  16. Can dissolved carbon dioxide be considered dangerous to steam turbine material?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rziha, M. [Siemens KWU, Erlangen (Germany); Aspden, J.D. [Eskom, Chemistry and Auxiliary Plant Engineering, Johannesburg (South Africa); Bellows, J.C. [Westinghouse Power Generation, Orlando, FL (United States); Hein, M. [PreussenElektra Kraftwerke AG and Co. KG, Kraftwerk Staudinger, Grosskrotzenburg (Germany); Huber, S. [DOC-Labor, IHK Technologiefabrik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Maughan, E.V. [Tablar Messtechnik GmbH, Duisburg (Germany); Pflug, H.D.; Zeijseink, A.G.L. [KEMA Power Generation, ET Arnhern (Netherlands); Seipp, H.-G. [ABB Technikdienste and Logistik GmbH, TDL/C, Mannheim (Germany); Svoboda, R. [ABB Power Generation Ltd., Baden (Switzerland); Woost, O. [Solvay Alkali Bernburg GmbH, Bernburg (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Modern power plants, mainly combined cycles, are operated more and more in a cycling mode due to the liberalisation of the power market. The so called 2-shift operation with one shutdown daily becomes more and more a ''normal operation''. Under these conditions it is unavoidable that steam with increased acid conductivity resulting from air-borne carbon dioxide ingress during shut down, is fed to the steam turbine more frequently when compared to base load units. In addition, the CO{sub 2}-contamination due thermal breakdown of organic matter must be considered as well. The discussion, if CO{sub 2} is harmful to turbine materials, depending on concentration and time of exposure, is still ongoing. A dedicated group of international scientists and power plant chemists has been commissioned under the auspices of the VGB to examine and document the impact of organic matter and dissolved carbon dioxide on materials of construction in the steam-water circuit of power plant. This presentation deals with the progress made to date by the working group on the discussion if CO{sub 2} is to be considered dangerous to turbine materials. (orig.)

  17. Activated carbon from leather shaving wastes and its application in removal of toxic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarli, Ismail Cem; Yanik, Jale

    2010-07-15

    In this study, utilization of a solid waste as raw material for activated carbon production was investigated. For this purpose, activated carbons were produced from chromium and vegetable tanned leather shaving wastes by physical and chemical activation methods. A detailed analysis of the surface properties of the activated carbons including acidity, total surface area, extent of microporosity and mesoporosity was presented. The activated carbon produced from vegetable tanned leather shaving waste produced has a higher surface area and micropore volume than the activated carbon produced from chromium tanned leather shaving waste. The potential application of activated carbons obtained from vegetable tanned shavings as adsorbent for removal of water pollutants have been checked for phenol, methylene blue, and Cr(VI). Adsorption capacities of activated carbons were found to be comparable to that of activated carbons derived from biomass.

  18. Hard carbon as anode material in lithium batteries: Synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baertsch, M.C.; Schmid, L.; Baiker, A.; Novak, P.

    2003-03-01

    Hard carbon is a possible alternative as negative electrode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. A fast production of hard carbon can be reached if the curing time of the precursor is short. Due to the promising results from literature regarding epoxy resin as precursor we produced hard carbon from a commercially available fast-setting epoxy resin. The surface area and pore structure properties of the carbon powder were investigated with gas adsorption methods. The carbon particle size distribution was ana-lysed with a laser diffraction instrument. (author)

  19. Solution-based carbohydrate synthesis of individual solid, hollow, and porous carbon nanospheres using spray pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengwei; Wang, Yuan; Graser, Jake; Zhao, Ran; Gao, Fei; O'Connell, Michael J

    2013-12-23

    A facile and scalable solution-based, spray pyrolysis synthesis technique was used to synthesize individual carbon nanospheres with specific surface area (SSA) up to 1106 m(2)/g using a novel metal-salt catalyzed reaction. The carbon nanosphere diameters were tunable from 10 nm to several micrometers by varying the precursor concentrations. Solid, hollow, and porous carbon nanospheres were achieved by simply varying the ratio of catalyst and carbon source without using any templates. These hollow carbon nanospheres showed adsorption of to 300 mg of dye per gram of carbon, which is more than 15 times higher than that observed for conventional carbon black particles. When evaluated as supercapacitor electrode materials, specific capacitances of up to 112 F/g at a current density of 0.1 A/g were observed, with no capacitance loss after 20,000 cycles.

  20. Carbon nanohorn-based nanofluids: characterization of the spectral scattering albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercatelli, Luca; Sani, Elisa; Giannini, Annalisa; di Ninni, Paola; Martelli, Fabrizio; Zaccanti, Giovanni

    2012-02-01

    The full characterization of the optical properties of nanofluids consisting of single-wall carbon nanohorns of different morphologies in aqueous suspensions is carried out using a novel spectrophotometric technique. Information on the nanofluid scattering and absorption spectral characteristics is obtained by analyzing the data within the single scattering theory and validating the method by comparison with previous monochromatic measurements performed with a different technique. The high absorption coefficient measured joint to the very low scattering albedo opens promising application perspectives for single-wall carbon nanohorn-based fluid or solid suspensions. The proposed approximate approach can be extended also to other low-scattering turbid media. PACS: 78.35.+c Brillouin and Rayleigh scattering, other light scattering; 78.40.Ri absorption and reflection spectra, fullerenes and related materials; 81.05.U- carbon/carbon-based materials; 78.67.Bf optical properties of low-dimensional, mesoscopic, and nanoscale materials and structures, nanocrystals, nanoparticles, and nanoclusters.

  1. Impact of carbonation on the durability of cementitious materials: water transport properties characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Bescop P.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of long-lived intermediate level radioactive waste geological disposal, reinforced concrete would be used. In service life conditions, the concrete structures would be subjected to drying and carbonation. Carbonation relates to the reaction between carbon dioxide (CO2 and the main hydrates of the cement paste (portlandite and C-S-H. Beyond the fall of the pore solution pH, indicative of steel depassivation, carbonation induces mineralogical and microstructural changes (due to portlandite and C-S-H dissolution and calcium carbonate precipitation. This results in the modification of the transport properties, which can impact the structure durability. Because concrete durability depends on water transport, this study focuses on the influence of carbonation on water transport properties. In fact, the transport properties of sound materials are known but they still remain to be assessed for carbonated ones. An experimental program has been designed to investigate the transport properties in carbonated materials. Four hardened cement pastes, differing in mineralogy, are carbonated in an accelerated carbonation device (in controlled environmental conditions at CO2 partial pressure of about 3%. Once fully carbonated, all the data needed to describe water transport, using a simplified approach, will be evaluated.

  2. Metallic nanoparticles deposited on carbon microspheres: novel materials for combinatorial electrochemistry and electroanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ronan; Wildgoose, Gregory G; Compton, Richard G

    2009-04-01

    This review deals with the preparation of metallic nanoparticles on glassy carbon microspheres and the use of these new hybrid materials for combinatorial electrochemistry and electroanalysis. First, the preparation of gold, silver and palladium nanoparticles on glassy carbon microspheres by a simple electroless procedure is described. Then, different types of electrodes modified with glassy carbon microspheres are described. These are: (i) glassy carbon electrodes modified by a composite film of glassy carbon microspheres and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, (ii) basal plane pyrolylic graphite electrodes modified by the abrasive attachment of glassy carbon microspheres and (iii) carbon-epoxy composite electrodes loaded with glassy carbon microspheres. The three types of electrode architectures described consist of metallic nanoparticles embedded in a carbon matrix and each of the electrode macrodisc surfaces actually correspond to a random metallic nanoelectrode array. Carbon-epoxy composite electrodes have good characteristics for their use as practical sensors. Furthermore, the use of several kinds of metallic nanoparticles allows the construction of a multi-analyte electrode and the screening of electroactive materials by following a combinatorial approach.

  3. Carbon-Nanotube-Based Electrodes for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Meyyappan, M.

    2008-01-01

    A nanotube array based on vertically aligned nanotubes or carbon nanofibers has been invented for use in localized electrical stimulation and recording of electrical responses in selected regions of an animal body, especially including the brain. There are numerous established, emerging, and potential applications for localized electrical stimulation and/or recording, including treatment of Parkinson s disease, Tourette s syndrome, and chronic pain, and research on electrochemical effects involved in neurotransmission. Carbon-nanotube-based electrodes offer potential advantages over metal macroelectrodes (having diameters of the order of a millimeter) and microelectrodes (having various diameters ranging down to tens of microns) heretofore used in such applications. These advantages include the following: a) Stimuli and responses could be localized at finer scales of spatial and temporal resolution, which is at subcellular level, with fewer disturbances to, and less interference from, adjacent regions. b) There would be less risk of hemorrhage on implantation because nano-electrode-based probe tips could be configured to be less traumatic. c) Being more biocompatible than are metal electrodes, carbon-nanotube-based electrodes and arrays would be more suitable for long-term or permanent implantation. d) Unlike macro- and microelectrodes, a nano-electrode could penetrate a cell membrane with minimal disruption. Thus, for example, a nanoelectrode could be used to generate an action potential inside a neuron or in proximity of an active neuron zone. Such stimulation may be much more effective than is extra- or intracellular stimulation via a macro- or microelectrode. e) The large surface area of an array at a micron-scale footprint of non-insulated nanoelectrodes coated with a suitable electrochemically active material containing redox ingredients would make it possible to obtain a pseudocapacitance large enough to dissipate a relatively large amount of electric charge

  4. Cooperation of micro- and meso-porous carbon electrode materials in electric double-layer capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Cheng [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin Street, Changchun 130022, Jilin Province (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Qi, Li; Wang, Hongyu [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin Street, Changchun 130022, Jilin Province (China); Yoshio, Masaki [Advanced Research Center, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    The capacitive characteristics of micro- and meso-porous carbon materials have been compared in cyclic voltammetric studies and galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. Meso-porous carbon can keep certain high capacitance values at high scan rates, whereas micro-porous carbon possesses very high capacitance values at low scan rates but fades quickly as the scan rate rises up. For better performance of electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), the cooperative application of both kinds of carbon materials has been proposed in the following two ways: mixing both kinds of carbons in the same electrode or using the asymmetric configuration of carbon electrodes in the same EDLC. The cooperative effect on the electrochemical performance has also been addressed. (author)

  5. A Review: Carbon Nanotube-Based Piezoresistive Strain Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waris Obitayo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of carbon nanotubes for piezoresistive strain sensors has acquired significant attention due to its unique electromechanical properties. In this comprehensive review paper, we discussed some important aspects of carbon nanotubes for strain sensing at both the nanoscale and macroscale. Carbon nanotubes undergo changes in their band structures when subjected to mechanical deformations. This phenomenon makes them applicable for strain sensing applications. This paper signifies the type of carbon nanotubes best suitable for piezoresistive strain sensors. The electrical resistivities of carbon nanotube thin film increase linearly with strain, making it an ideal material for a piezoresistive strain sensor. Carbon nanotube composite films, which are usually fabricated by mixing small amounts of single-walled or multiwalled carbon nanotubes with selected polymers, have shown promising characteristics of piezoresistive strain sensors. Studies also show that carbon nanotubes display a stable and predictable voltage response as a function of temperature.

  6. Coherent phonons in carbon based nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, G. D.; Nugraha, A. R. T.; Sato, K.; Kim, J.-H.; Lim, Y.-S.; Kono, J.; Saito, R.; Stanton, C. J.

    2014-06-01

    We have developed a theory for the generation and detection of coherent phonons in carbon based nanotstructures such as single walled nanotubes (SWNTs), graphene, and graphene nanoribbons. Coherent phonons are generated via the deformation potential electron/hole-phonon interaction with ultrafast photo-excited carriers. They modulate the reflectance or absorption of an optical probe pules on a THz time scale and might be useful for optical modulators. In our theory the electronic states are treated in a third nearest neighbor extended tight binding formalism which gives a good description of the states over the entire Brillouin zone while the phonon states are treated using valence force field models which include bond stretching, in-plane and out-of-plane bond bending, and bond twisting interactions up to fourth neighbor distances. We compare our theory to experiments for the low frequency radial breathing mode (RBM) in micelle suspended single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs). The analysis of such data provides a wealth of information on the dynamics and interplay of photons, phonons and electrons in these carbon based nanostructures.

  7. Carbon nanotube macrofilm-based nanocomposite electrodes for energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zeyuan

    Finding new electrode materials for energy conversion and storage devices have been the focus of recent research in the fields of science and engineering. Suffering from poor electronic conductivity, chemical and mechanical stability, active electrode materials are usually coupled with different carbon nanostructured materials to form nanocomposite electrodes, showing promising electrochemical performance. Among the carbon nanostructured materials, carbon nanotube (CNT) macrofilms draw great attention owing to their extraordinary properties, such as a large specific surface area, exceptionally high conductivity, porous structure, flexibility, mechanical robustness, and adhesion. They could effectively enhance the electrochemical performance of the incorporated active materials in the nanocomposites. In this dissertation, CNT macrofilm-based nanocomposites are investigated for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, and electrocatalysts of fuel cells. The progressive research developed various nanocomposites from cathode materials to anode materials followed by a general nanocomposite solution due to the unique adhesive property of the fragmented CNT macrofilms. The in-situ synthesis strategy are explored to in-situ deposit unlithiated cathode materials V2O5 and lithiated cathode materials LiMn2O4 nanocrystals in the matrix of the CNT macrofilms as nanocomposites to be paired with metallic lithium in half cells. The presence of oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of the CNT macrofilms after purification can enhance the association with the active materials to enable the facilitated transport of solvated ions to the electrolyte/electrode interfaces and increase the diffusion kinetics, consequently enhancing the battery performance in terms of high specific capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability. It is also significant to demonstrate a reliable, low-cost, and effective route to synthesize the family of metal oxides (MxOy (M=Fe, Co

  8. Carbohydrate based materials for gamma radiation shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbakh, F.; Babaee, V.; Naghsh-Nezhad, Z.

    2015-05-01

    Due to the limitation in using lead as a shielding material for its toxic properties and limitation in abundance, price or non-flexibility of other commonly used materials, finding new shielding materials and compounds is strongly required. In this conceptual study carbohydrate based compounds were considered as new shielding materials. The simulation of radiation attenuation is performed using MCNP and Geant4 with a good agreement in the results. It is found that, the thickness of 2 mm of the proposed compound may reduce up to 5% and 50% of 1 MeV and 35 keV gamma-rays respectively in comparison with 15% and 100% for the same thickness of lead.

  9. Fixation of carbon dioxide into dimethyl carbonate over titanium-based zeolitic thiophene-benzimidazolate framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    A titanium-based zeolitic thiophene-benzimidazolate framework has been designed for the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from methanol and carbon dioxide. The developed catalyst activates carbon dioxide and delivers over 16% yield of DMC without the use of any dehydra...

  10. Elastomer-Carbon Nanostructure Composites as Prospective Materials for Flexible Robotic Tactile Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Knite, M; Podiņš, G; Zīke, S; Zavickis, J

    2008-01-01

    Our recent achievements in the design, processing and studies of physical properties of elastomer – nano-structured carbon composites as prospective compressive strain sensor materials for robotic tactile elements are presented. Composites made of polyisoprene matrix and high-structured carbon black or multi-wall carbon nano-tube filler have been designed and manufactured to develop completely flexible conductive polymer nano-composites for tactile sensing elements. Electrical resistance of t...

  11. A disordered carbon as a novel anode material in lithium-ion cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonino, F.; Brutti, S.; Reale, P.; Scrosati, B. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita ' ' La Sapienza' ' , I-00185 Rome (Italy); Gherghel, L.; Wu, J.; Muellen, K. [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, D-55124 Mainz (Germany)

    2005-03-22

    The electrochemical behavior of a disordered carbon used as the anode in a lithium battery has been tested. The characteristics of this carbon, especially its specific capacity and cycle life, are such that it is a potentially unique, high-performance anode material for new types of lithium-ion batteries. The Figure shows the specific capacity versus cycle number of the disordered carbon electrode in a lithium-ion cell. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Microemulsion-based synthesis of nanocrystalline materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Ashok K; Ganguly, Aparna; Vaidya, Sonalika

    2010-02-01

    Microemulsion-based synthesis is found to be a versatile route to synthesize a variety of nanomaterials. The manipulation of various components involved in the formation of a microemulsion enables one to synthesize nanomaterials with varied size and shape. In this tutorial review several aspects of microemulsion based synthesis of nanocrystalline materials have been discussed which would be of interest to a cross-section of researchers working on colloids, physical chemistry, nanoscience and materials chemistry. The review focuses on the recent developments in the above area with current understanding on the various factors that control the structure and dynamics of microemulsions which can be effectively used to manipulate the size and shape of nanocrystalline materials.

  13. Layered double hydroxide materials coated carbon electrode: New challenge to future electrochemical power devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djebbi, Mohamed Amine, E-mail: mohamed.djebbi@etu.univ-lyon1.fr [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux Lamellaires et Nano-Matériaux Hybrides, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Université de Carthage, 7021 Bizerte (Tunisia); Braiek, Mohamed [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Namour, Philippe [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Irstea, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Ben Haj Amara, Abdesslem [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux Lamellaires et Nano-Matériaux Hybrides, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Université de Carthage, 7021 Bizerte (Tunisia); Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were chemically synthesized and deposited over carbon electrode materials. • Catalytic performance of both LDHs was investigated for Fe(II) reduction reaction. • Satisfactory results have been achieved with the MgAl LDH material. • MgAl and ZnAl LDH modified carbon felt were applied in MFC as an efficient anode catalyst. • The LDH-modified anode significantly increased power performance of MFC. - Abstract: Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been widely used in the past years due to their unique physicochemical properties and promising applications in electroanalytical chemistry. The present paper is going to focus exclusively on magnesium-aluminum and zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (MgAl & ZnAl LDHs) in order to investigate the property and structure of active cation sites located within the layer structure. The MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were prepared by the constant pH co-precipitation method and uniformly supported on carbon-based electrode materials to fabricate an LDH electrode. Characterization by powder x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed the LDH form and well-crystallized materials. Wetting surface properties (hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity) of both prepared LDHs were recorded by contact angle measurement show hydrophilic character and basic property. The electrochemical performance of these hybrid materials was investigated by mainly cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry techniques to identify the oxidation/reduction processes at the electrode/electrolyte interface and the effect of the divalent metal cations in total reactivity. The hierarchy of the modified electrode proves that the electronic conductivity of the bulk material is considerably dependent on the divalent cation and affects the limiting parameter of the overall redox process. However

  14. Sludge from paper mill effluent treatment as raw material to produce carbon adsorbents: An alternative waste management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaria, Guilaine; Silva, Carla Patrícia; Ferreira, Catarina I A; Otero, Marta; Calisto, Vânia

    2017-03-01

    Pulp and paper industry produces massive amounts of sludge from wastewater treatment, which constitute an enormous environmental challenge. A possible management option is the conversion of sludge into carbon-based adsorbents to be applied in water remediation. For such utilization it is important to investigate if sludge is a consistent raw material originating reproducible final materials (either over time or from different manufacturing processes), which is the main goal of this work. For that purpose, different primary (PS) and biological sludge (BS) batches from two factories with different operation modes were sampled and subjected to pyrolysis (P materials) and to pyrolysis followed by acid washing (PW materials). All the materials were characterized by proximate analysis, total organic carbon (TOC) and inorganic carbon (IC), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and N2 adsorption isotherms (specific surface area (SBET)and porosity determination). Sludge from the two factories proved to have distinct physicochemical properties, mainly in what concerns IC. After pyrolysis, the washing step was essential to reduce IC and to considerably increase SBET, yet with high impact in the final production yield. Among the materials here produced, PW materials from PS were those having the highest SBET values (387-488 m(2) g(-1)). Overall, it was found that precursors from different factories might originate final materials with distinct characteristics, being essential to take into account this source of variability when considering paper mill sludge as a raw material. Nevertheless, for PS, low variability was found between batches, which points out to the reliability of such residues to be used as precursors of carbon adsorbents.

  15. Sustainable hybrid photocatalysts: titania immobilized on carbon materials derived from renewable and biodegradable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review comprises the preparation, properties and heterogeneous photocatalytic applications of TiO2 immobilized on carbon materials derived from earth-abundant, renewable and biodegradable agricultural residues and sea food waste resources. The overview provides key scientifi...

  16. Particulate organic carbon and particulate humic material in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; DileepKumar, M.

    Variations in particulate organic carbon (POC) and particulate humic material (PHM) were studied in winter (February-March 1995) and intermonsoon (April-May 1994) seasons in the Arabian Sea. Higher levels of POC were found in the north than...

  17. Ecotoxicological effects of graphene-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagner, A.; Bosi, S.; Tenori, E.; Bidussi, M.; Alshatwi, A. A.; Tretiach, M.; Prato, M.; Syrgiannis, Z.

    2017-03-01

    Graphene-based materials (GBMs) are currently under careful examination due to their potential impact on health and environment. Over the last few years, ecotoxicology has started to analyze all the potential issues related to GBMs and their possible consequences on living organisms. These topics are critically considered in this comprehensive review along with some considerations about future perspectives.

  18. ACTIVATED CARBONS FROM VEGETAL RAW MATERIALS TO SOLVE ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Mukhin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Technologies for active carbons obtaining from vegetable byproducts such as straw, nut shells, fruit stones, sawdust, hydrolysis products of corn cobs and sunflower husks have been developed. The physico-chemical characteristics, structural parameters and sorption characteristics of obtained active carbons were determined. The ability of carbonaceous adsorbents for detoxification of soil against pesticides, purification of surface waters and for removal of organic pollutants from wastewaters has been evaluated. The obtained results reveal the effectiveness of their use in a number of environmental technologies.

  19. Synthesis of mesoporous carbon as electrode material for supercapacitor by modified template method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jia-chang; LAI Chun-yan; DAI Yang; XIE Jing-ying

    2005-01-01

    The pore structures and electrochemical performances of mesoporous carbons prepared by silica sol template method as electrode material for supercapacitor were investigated. The mean pore size and mass specific capacitance of the mesoporous carbons increase with the increase of mass ratio of silica sol to carbon source (glucose). A modified template method, combining silica sol template method and ZnCl2 chemical activation method, was proposed to improve the mass specific capacitance of the mesoporous carbon with an improved BET surface area. The correlation of rate capability and pore structure was studied by constant current discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A commercially available microporous carbon was used for comparison. The result shows that mesoporous carbon with a larger pore size displays a higher rate capability. Mesoporous carbon synthesized by modified template method has both high mass specific capacitance and good rate capability.

  20. Fe catalysts for methane decomposition to produce hydrogen and carbon nano materials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lu

    2017-02-21

    Conducting catalytic methane decomposition over Fe catalysts is a green and economic route to produce H2 without CO/CO2 contamination. Fused 65wt% and impregnated 20wt% Fe catalysts were synthesized with different additives to investigate their activity, whereas showing Fe-Al2O3 combination as the best catalyst. Al2O3 is speculated to expose more Fe00 for the selective deposition of carbon nano tubes (CNTs). A fused Fe (65wt%)-Al2O3 sample was further investigated by means of H2-TPR, in-situ XRD, HRTEM and XAS to conclude 750°C is the optimized temperature for H2 pre-reduction and reaction to obtain a high activity. Based on density functional theory (DFT) study, a reaction mechanism over Fe catalysts was proposed to explain the formation of graphite from unstable supersaturated iron carbides decomposition. A carbon deposition model was further proposed which explains the formation of different carbon nano materials.

  1. Compaction of functionalized calcium carbonate, a porous and crystalline microparticulate material with a lamellar surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirnimann, Tanja; Atria, Susanna; Schoelkopf, Joachim; Gane, Patrick A C; Alles, Rainer; Huwyler, Jörg; Puchkov, Maxim

    2014-05-15

    In the present study, we aimed to characterize the compressibility and compactibility of the novel pharmaceutical excipient, functionalized calcium carbonate (FCC). We studied three FCC modifications and compared the values for compressibility and compactibility with mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), and ground calcium carbonate (CC 330) as well as mixtures of paracetamol and MCC or FCC at drug loads of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% (w/w). We used Heckel analysis, modified Heckel analysis, and Leuenberger analysis to characterize the compaction and compression behavior of the mixtures. Compaction analysis of FCC showed this material to markedly differ from ground calcium carbonate, exhibiting properties, i.e. plastic deformability, similar to those of MCC. This effect was attributed to the highly lamellar structure of FCC particles whose thickness is of the order of a single crystal unit cell. According to Leuenberger parameters, we concluded that FCC-based tablet formulations had mechanical properties equal or superior to those formulated with MCC. FCC tablets with high tensile strength were obtained already at low compressive pressures. Owing to these favorable properties (i.e. marked tensile strength and porosity), FCC promises to be suitable for the preparation of solid dosage forms.

  2. Electroanalysis with carbon paste electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Svancara, Ivan; Walcarius, Alain; Vytras, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Electrochemistry and Electroanalysis with Carbon Paste-Based ElectrodesHistorical Survey and GlossaryField in Publication Activities and LiteratureCarbon Pastes and Carbon Paste ElectrodesCarbon Paste as the Binary MixtureClassification of Carbon Pastes and Carbon Paste ElectrodesConstruction of Carbon Paste HoldersCarbon Paste as the Electrode MaterialPhysicochemical Properties of Carbon PastesElectrochemical Characteristics of Carbon PastesTesting of Unmodified CPEsIntera

  3. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the powder mixture of the active substances sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate (FCM substance No 1009, bentonite (CAS No 1302-78-9, FCM No 393, sodium chloride (CAS No 7647-14-5, FCM No 985, sodium carbonate (CAS No 497-19-8, FCM No 1008 which are intended to be used as combined oxygen generator and carbon dioxide absorber in packaging containing whole fresh fruits. The powder mixture is placed in a nonwoven polyethylene sachet separated from the food by a pad. In the presence of moisture, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate first decomposes into sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide which decomposes into water and oxygen. Sodium carbonate reacts with carbon dioxide to form sodium bicarbonate. Because the sachet is not placed in direct contact with the food or food exudates, only hydrogen peroxide which decomposes to water and oxygen may be released with no other potential migration of volatile compounds. Based on the conclusion drawn in the EU Risk Assessment Report that hydrogen peroxide is not classified as a mutagen and the results from a subchronic toxicity study with hydrogen peroxide, the Panel concluded that hydrogen peroxide does not raise a safety concern under the intended conditions of use. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride and sodium carbonate do not raise a safety concern for the consumer when used as combined oxygen generator and carbon dioxide absorber, for packaging of whole fruits. The substances should be used in sachets which prevent the release of the powder mixture into the food. Sachets should not be in direct contact with food or food exudates.

  4. DNA-Templated Fabrication of Arbitrary-Structured Porous Carbon Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-11

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0245 DNA -Templated Fabrication of Arbitrary-Structured Porous Carbon Materials HAITAO LIU UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH 3520 FIFTH...06-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) From 27-03-2013 to 31-03-2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DNA -Templated Fabrication of...3D porous carbon materials with arbitrary structures. We have achieved the original objective of the project. We have coated both 1D and 2D DNA

  5. Laser-induced synthesis of metal-carbon materials for implementing surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherik, A.; Arakelian, S.; Vartanyan, T.; Kutrovskaya, S.; Osipov, A.; Povolotskaya, A.; Povolotskii, A.; Man'shina, A.

    2016-08-01

    Metal-carbon materials exhibiting surface-enhanced Raman scattering have been synthesized by laser irradiation of colloidal systems consisting of carbon and noble metal nanoparticles. The dependence of the Raman scattering intensity on the material composition and laser irradiation conditions has been investigated. The possibility of recording the Raman spectrum of organic dye rhodamine 6G, deposited in amount of 10-6 M on the substrate obtained from a colloidal solution is demonstrated.

  6. Photodetectors based on two dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lou; Zhongzhu, Liang; Guozhen, Shen

    2016-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials with unique properties have received a great deal of attention in recent years. This family of materials has rapidly established themselves as intriguing building blocks for versatile nanoelectronic devices that offer promising potential for use in next generation optoelectronics, such as photodetectors. Furthermore, their optoelectronic performance can be adjusted by varying the number of layers. They have demonstrated excellent light absorption, enabling ultrafast and ultrasensitive detection of light in photodetectors, especially in their single-layer structure. Moreover, due to their atomic thickness, outstanding mechanical flexibility, and large breaking strength, these materials have been of great interest for use in flexible devices and strain engineering. Toward that end, several kinds of photodetectors based on 2D materials have been reported. Here, we present a review of the state-of-the-art in photodetectors based on graphene and other 2D materials, such as the graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and so on. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61377033, 61574132, 61504136) and the State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. DFT Thermodynamic Research of the Pyrolysis Mechanism of the Carbon Matrix Precursor Toluene for Carbon Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the experiments, the standard enthalpy △H of the possible pyrolysis reactions of the carbon matrix precursor toluene was investigated by means of DFT method UB3LYP/ 3-21G* (based on semi-empirical method UAM1 and ab initio method UHF/3-21G* ). The com putation results with UB3LYP/3-21G* coincide with the experimental values well. Then, the mechanism for all types of the pyrolysis reactions of toluene was studied by UB3LYP/3-2lG*. The geometries of the reactant and the product radicals were optimized, meanwhile, the standard thermodynamic parameters of the pyrolysis reaction at different temperatures (298, 773, 843, 963 and 1 073 K) were calculated. The thermodynamic computation result shows that when the pyrolysis temperature of toluene is lower than 963 K, the reaction path supported by thermody namics is that the C-H bond of the methyl on the benzene ring breaks and bitoluene form, while the temperature increases (about 1 073 K), the thermodynamic calculation result turns to sup port the reaction path producing phenyl radicals and methyl radicals. This mechanism is in accord with the experiments.

  8. Thermophysical Properties of Cool Storage of Paraffin-based Composite Phase Change Materials Filled with Carbon Nanotubes%石蜡基碳纳米管复合相变蓄冷材料的热性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杨华; 李钰; 郭文帅; 陈非凡; 陈姮

    2014-01-01

    To address thermal conductivity of paraffin wax ( PW), carbon nanotubes ( CNTs) were mixed with PW to form PW-CNTs composites. PW-CNTs composites has been prepared with various mass fractions (1% 、2%、5%) of carbon nanotubes. The thermal prop-erties including phase transition temperature, latent heat of phase change, thermal conductivity and thermal stability during the phase change process are investigated. The phase change property was characterized using differential scanning calorimeter( DSC) and the ther-mal conductivity was measured by using transient hot wire method. The results show that with the increasing of mass fraction of CNTs, ther-mal conductivity become larger, and the latent heat decrease gradually. Phase transition temperature of PW-5CNTs is 4-8 ℃, latent heat of phase change is 137. 6-142. 7 kJ/kg, thermal conductivity is 0. 28 W/(m�K)(liquid), and PW-5CNTs have good enough stability to be widely used as cool storage materials.%针对石蜡导热系数低,传热性能差的缺点,采用向其中添加碳纳米管来改善其导热性能。实验制备了碳纳米管质量分数为1%、2%和5%的石蜡基复合相变材料,通过差示扫描量热仪和热传导系数仪研究了复合材料的相变性能,导热性能和稳定性。实验结果表明,随着碳纳米管质量分数的增加,复合材料的导热系数逐渐增大,相变焓有所减小。质量分数为5%的石蜡基碳纳米管复合材料相变温度为4~8℃,相变焓为137�6~142�7 kJ/kg,比纯石蜡下降了约18%,液态导热系数为0�28 W/( m�K),比纯石蜡提高了40%,稳定性较好,可作为蓄冷材料广泛应用于蓄冷系统。

  9. Research study on highly functional carbon related materials; Tansokei kokino zairyo no chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The study results on highly functional carbon related materials are reported as a part of the leading research in fiscal 1996. Synthesis of these novel materials is outlined, and R & D results on the following materials are described: diamond, hetero-diamond, graphite, amorphous carbon, carbyne, fullerences, carbon nitride and chemically modified carbon materials. Their issues, future possibility and market in 2010 are also described. The markets are predicted of such electronic materials as electronic emitter, sensor, solid device and heat sink, such optical materials as X-ray lithography, and such chemical materials as electrode and catalyst. Promising characteristics of light-weight and high-hardness machine materials are presented, and some issues such as material synthesis, and intensive machining and application technologies are described. The future markets are predicted of their applications to tools, dies, information equipment, glass, automobiles, aircraft, spacecraft and industrial machines. Problems and their break through techniques of these novel materials are also presented. 220 refs., 68 figs., 16 tabs.

  10. Activated carbon and single-walled carbon nanotube based electrochemical capacitor in 1 M LiPF{sub 6} electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azam, M.A., E-mail: asyadi@utem.edu.my [Carbon Research Technology Research Group, Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia); Jantan, N.H.; Dorah, N.; Seman, R.N.A.R.; Manaf, N.S.A. [Carbon Research Technology Research Group, Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia); Kudin, T.I.T. [Ionics Materials & Devices Research Laboratory, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Yahya, M.Z.A. [Ionics Materials & Devices Research Laboratory, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); National Defence University of Malaysia, Kem Sungai Besi, 57000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Activated carbon and single-walled CNT based electrochemical capacitor. • Electrochemical analysis by means of CV, charge/discharge and impedance. • 1 M LiPF{sub 6} non-aqueous solution as an electrolyte. • AC/SWCNT electrode exhibits a maximum capacitance of 60.97 F g{sup −1}. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes have been extensively studied because of their wide range of potential application such as in nanoscale electric circuits, textiles, transportation, health, and the environment. Carbon nanotubes feature extraordinary properties, such as electrical conductivities higher than those of copper, hardness and thermal conductivity higher than those of diamond, and strength surpassing that of steel, among others. This research focuses on the fabrication of an energy storage device, namely, an electrochemical capacitor, by using carbon materials, i.e., activated carbon and single-walled carbon nanotubes, of a specific weight ratio as electrode materials. The electrolyte functioning as an ion carrier is 1 M lithium hexafluorophosphate. Variations in the electrochemical performance of the device, including its capacitance, charge/discharge characteristics, and impedance, are reported in this paper. The electrode proposed in this work exhibits a maximum capacitance of 60.97 F g{sup −1} at a scan rate of 1 mV s{sup −1}.

  11. A cell nanoinjector based on carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xing; Kis, Andras; Zettl, Alex; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2007-01-30

    Technologies for introducing molecules into living cells are vital for probing the physical properties and biochemical interactions that govern the cell's behavior. Here we report the development of a nanoscale cell injection system-termed the nanoinjector-that uses carbon nanotubes to deliver cargo into cells. A single multi-walled carbon nanotube attached to an atomic force microscope tip was functionalized with cargo via a disulfide-based linker. Penetration of cell membranes with this 'nanoneedle', followed by reductive cleavage of the disulfide bonds within the cell's interior, resulted in the release of cargo inside the cells. The capability of the nanoinjector was demonstrated by injection of protein-coated quantum dots into live human cells. Single-particle tracking was employed to characterize the diffusion dynamics of injected quantum dots in the cytosol. This new technique causes no discernible membrane or cell damage, and can deliver a discrete number of molecules to the cell's interior without the requirement of a carrier solvent.

  12. Carbon nanotube based hybrid nanocarbon foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrizan Jamal, M.; Zhang, Mei

    2017-03-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) based nanocarbon foams (NFs) and the hybrid nanocarbon foams (HNFs) are fabricated in this work. The NFs are formed by using poly(methyl methacrylate) microspheres as a template to create micro-scaled pores. The cell walls are made of CNT networks with nano-scaled pores. The interconnections among CNTs are secured using graphene and nanographite generated via carbonization of polyacrylonitrile. The resulting NFs are ultra-lightweight, highly elastic, electrically and thermally conductive, and robust in structure. The HNFs are made by infiltrating thermoplastic polymer into the NFs in a controllable procedure. Compared to NFs, the HNFs have much higher strength, same electrical conductivity, and limited increase in density. The compressive strength of the HNF increased more than 50 times while the density was changed less than 10 times due to the polymer infiltration. It is found that the deformed HNFs can recover in both structure and property when they are heated over the glass transition temperature of the infiltrated polymer. Such remarkable healing capability could broaden the applications of the HNFs.

  13. On the stability of conventional and nano-structured carbon-based catalysts in the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene under industrially relevant conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarubina, Valeriya; Talebi, Hesamoddin; Nederlof, Christian; Kapteijn, Freek; Makkee, Michiel; Melian-Cabrera, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Relevant carbon-based materials, home-made carbon-silica hybrids, commercial activated carbon, and nanostructured multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were tested in the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene (EB). Special attention was given to the reaction conditions, using a relatively concen

  14. Carbon nanotube based stationary phases for microchip chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide an overview and critical evaluation of the use of carbon nanotubes and related carbon-based nanomaterials for microchip chromatography. The unique properties of carbon nanotubes, such as a very high surface area and intriguing adsorptive behaviour, have...

  15. Towards a carbon-negative sustainable bio-based economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanholme, Bartel; Desmet, Tom; Ronsse, Frederik; Rabaey, Korneel; Van Breusegem, Frank; De Mey, Marjan; Soetaert, Wim; Boerjan, Wout

    2013-01-01

    The bio-based economy relies on sustainable, plant-derived resources for fuels, chemicals, materials, food and feed rather than on the evanescent usage of fossil resources. The cornerstone of this economy is the biorefinery, in which renewable resources are intelligently converted to a plethora of products, maximizing the valorization of the feedstocks. Innovation is a prerequisite to move a fossil-based economy toward sustainable alternatives, and the viability of the bio-based economy depends on the integration between plant (green) and industrial (white) biotechnology. Green biotechnology deals with primary production through the improvement of biomass crops, while white biotechnology deals with the conversion of biomass into products and energy. Waste streams are minimized during these processes or partly converted to biogas, which can be used to power the processing pipeline. The sustainability of this economy is guaranteed by a third technology pillar that uses thermochemical conversion to valorize waste streams and fix residual carbon as biochar in the soil, hence creating a carbon-negative cycle. These three different multidisciplinary pillars interact through the value chain of the bio-based economy.

  16. Towards a carbon-negative sustainable bio-based economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartel eVanholme

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The bio-based economy relies on sustainable, plant-derived resources for fuels, chemicals, materials, food and feed rather than on the evanescent usage of fossil resources. The cornerstone of this economy is the biorefinery, in which renewable resources are intelligently converted to a plethora of products, maximizing the valorization of the feedstocks. Innovation is a prerequisite to move a fossil-based economy towards sustainable alternatives, and the viability of the bio-based economy depends on the integration between plant (green and industrial (white biotechnology. Green biotechnology deals with primary production through the improvement of biomass crops, while white biotechnology deals with the conversion of biomass into products and energy. Waste streams are minimized during these processes or partly converted to biogas, which can be used to power the processing pipeline. The sustainability of this economy is guaranteed by a third technology pillar that uses thermochemical conversion to valorize waste streams and fix residual carbon as biochar in the soil, hence creating a carbon-negative cycle. These three different multidisciplinary pillars interact through the value chain of the bio-based economy.

  17. Graphene-based materials for energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, Nanda Gopal [Energy Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Pan, Yongzheng; Li, Lin; Chan, Siew Hwa [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)

    2012-08-08

    With the depletion of conventional energy sources, the demand for renewable energy and energy-efficient devices continues to grow. As a novel 2D nanomaterial, graphene attracts considerable research interest due to its unique properties and is a promising material for applications in energy conversion and storage devices. Recently, the fabrication of fuel cells and solar cells using graphene for various functional parts has been studied extensively. This research news summarizes and compares the advancements that have been made and are in progress in the utilization of graphene-based materials for energy conversion. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Graphene based materials for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqi Yang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Graphene, a single layer 2-dimensional structure nanomaterial with unique physicochemical properties (e.g. high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, strong mechanical strength, unparalleled thermal conductivity, remarkable biocompatibility and ease of functionalization, has received increasing attention in physical, chemical and biomedical fields. This article selectively reviews current advances of graphene based materials for biomedical applications. In particular, graphene based biosensors for small biomolecules (glucose, dopamine etc., proteins and DNA detection have been summarized; graphene based bioimaging, drug delivery, and photothermal therapy applications have been described in detail. Future perspectives and possible challenges in this rapidly developing area are also discussed.

  19. Carbon-coated LiFePO4-porous carbon composites as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Haifang; Liu, Jinkun; Fan, Li-Zhen

    2013-03-07

    This work introduces a facile strategy for the synthesis of carbon-coated LiFePO(4)-porous carbon (C-LiFePO(4)-PC) composites as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries. The LiFePO(4) particles obtained are about 200 nm in size and homogeneously dispersed in porous carbon matrix. These particles are further coated with the carbon layers pyrolyzed from sucrose. The C-LiFePO(4)-PC composites display a high initial discharge capacity of 152.3 mA h g(-1) at 0.1 C, good cycling stability, as well as excellent rate capability (112 mA h g(-1) at 5 C). The likely contributing factors to the excellent electrochemical performance of the C-LiFePO(4)-PC composites could be related to the combined effects of enhancement of conductivity by the porous carbon matrix and the carbon coating layers. It is believed that further carbon coating is a facile and effective way to improve the electrochemical performance of LiFePO(4)-PC.

  20. DFT Thermodynamic Research of the Pyrolysis Mechanism of the Carbon Matrix Precursor Toluene for Carbon Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Hui

    2001-01-01

    [1]Deutsch S. , Keieger K. A. , J. Phy. Chem, 66(19), 1 569(1962)[2]Ooya sugirou, Kobayashi Hiroshi. , Inoue Masahide, et al. , Chem. Technology, 72, 1 300(1969)[3]Ruden A. P. , Vestnik Ko. , Moskov Univ. Ser, 15(5), 69(1969)[4]WANG Yi-Gui, SUN Chang-Jun, DENG Cong-Hao. Science in China (Series B), 28(5), 431(1998)[5]YANG Ming-Li, SUN Ze-Min, YAN Guo-Sen. Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities, 20(3). 450(1999)[6]WANG Hui, ZHAI Gao-hong, YANG Hai-feng, et al. , Chem. J. of Chinese Universities, 22(5), 800(2001)[7]WANG Hui, LUO Rui-Ying, YANG Yan-Qing, et al. , Chinese Journal of Materials Research, 18(4), 10(2000)[8]ZHAI Gao-Hong, WANG Hui, RAN Xing-Quan, et al. , Materials Science and Engineering, (2000)[9]WANG Hui, ZHAI Gao-Hong, RAN Xing-Quan, et al., Chinese Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, 16(6), 879(2000)[10]Ljubisa R. R. , Murthy Karra., Kristina Skokova. , et al. , Carbon. , 36(12), 1 841(1998)[11]Becke D., Density-functional Thermochemistry. Ⅲ. The Role of Exact Exchange, J. Chem. Phys. , 98, 5 648(1993)[12]Bicout D. , Field M. , Quantum Mechanical Simulation Method For Studing Biological System(Les Houches Workship). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1 (1995)[13]Frisch M. J.,Trucks G. W. , Schlegel H. B., et al. , Gaussian 98, Revision A. 6, Gaussian, Inc., Pittsburgh PA, 1998[14]Eugene S., Domalski and Elizalzeth D. H. , J. Phys. Chem. , 17, 1 637 (1988)[15]Sharon G. L. , Joel F. L. and Rhoda D. L. , J. Phys. Chem. , 13, 695(1984)[16]Cleveland, David, R. L. (Editor-in-Chief), CRC. Handbook of Chem. and Phy. , (77th Edition), CEC Press INC, 1996-1997:9-27[17]FU Xian-Cai, CHEN Rui-Hua. Physical Chemistry, People Education Press, Beijing, a. 132; b. 191; c. 366(1982)[18]WANG Hui, YANG Hai-fegng, ZHAI Gao-hong, et al. , Acta Chemica Sinca, (1), 17(2001)

  1. Carbon-Based Adsorbents for Postcombustion CO2 Capture: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Anne Elise; Gao, Bin

    2016-07-19

    The persistent increase in atmospheric CO2 from anthropogenic sources makes research directed toward carbon capture and storage imperative. Current liquid amine absorption technology has several drawbacks including hazardous byproducts and a high-energy requirement for regeneration; therefore, research is ongoing to develop more practical methods for capturing CO2 in postcombustion scenarios. The unique properties of carbon-based materials make them specifically promising for CO2 adsorption at low temperature and moderate to high partial pressure. This critical review aims to highlight the development of carbon-based solid sorbents for postcombustion CO2 capture. Specifically, it provides an overview of postcombustion CO2 capture processes with solid adsorbents and discusses a variety of carbon-based materials that could be used. This review focuses on low-cost pyrogenic carbon, activated carbon (AC), and metal-carbon composites for CO2 capture. Further, it touches upon the recent progress made to develop metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and carbon nanomaterials and their general CO2 sorption potential.

  2. Adsorption capacity of hydrophobic SiO2 aerogel/activated carbon composite materials for TNT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; XiaoFang; CUI; Sheng; LIU; Yu; LIU; XueYong; SHEN; XiaoDong; WU; ZhanWu

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption properties of TNT from wastewater by hydrophobic silica aerogel/activated carbon composite materials were investigated. The effects of adsorption time, pH value, adsorption temperature, and the amount of the composite materials on the adsorption rate were studied. The adsorption principle and mechanism of the composite materials were discussed along with the Freundlich equation. The results showed that the best adsorption rate of the hydrophobic silica aerogel/activated car-bon composite materials could reach 96.5% with adsorption conditions of adsorption temperature 25°C, pH value 7, the amount of SiO2aerogel dosage 3.33 g/L, and adsorption time of 120 min. The adsorption of hydrophobic SiO2aero-gel/activated carbon composite materials for TNT solution is mainly surface adsorption, and also has some chemical adsorp-tion when the aerogel hydrophobicity is modified.

  3. Nanostructure-based Processes at the Carbonizing Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. Roslyakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies of nanostructure-based processes carburizing steels showed that oxidizing atmosphere when carburizing steel contains along with carbon dioxide (CO2 + C = 2CO molecular and atmospheric oxygen (O2 + 2C = 2CO; O + C = CO released from the carbonate ВаСОз during its thermal dissociation. Intensive formation of CO provides high carbonizing ability of carbonate-soot coating and steel.

  4. Grafted, cross-linked carbon black as a double-layer capacitor electrode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richner, R.; Mueller, S.; Wokaun, A.

    2001-03-01

    Isocyanate prepolymers readily react with oxidic functional groups on carbon black. On carbon black grafted with diisocyanates, reactive isocyanate groups are available for cross-linking to a polyurethane system. This cross-linked carbon black was considered as a new active material for electrochemical electrodes. Active material for electric double-layer capacitor electrodes was produced which had values of specific capacitance of up to 200 F/g. Cross-linking efficiencies of up to 58 % of the polymers utilised were achieved. (author)

  5. Adsorption of phenol from aqueous solution by a hierarchical micro-nano porous carbon material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    A hierarchical micro-nano porous carbon material (MNC) was prepared using expanded graphite (EG), sucrose, and phosphoric acid as raw materials, followed by sucrose-phosphoric acid solution impregnation, solidification, carbonization and activation. Nitrogen adsorption and mercury porosimetry show that mixed nanopores and micropores coexist in MNC with a high specific surface area of 1978 m2·g-1 and a total pore volume of 0.99 cm3·g-1. In addition, the MNC is found to consist of EG and activated carbon with...

  6. Investigation of composite materials using SLM-based phase retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agour, Mostafa; Falldorf, Claas; Bergmann, Ralf B

    2013-07-01

    We present a robust method to inspect a typical composite material constructed of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). It is based on optical surface contouring using the spatial light modulator (SLM)-based phase retrieval technique. The method utilizes multiple intensity observations of the wave field, diffracted by the investigated object, captured at different planes along the optical axis to recover the phase information across the object plane. The SLM-based system allows for the recording of the required consecutive intensity measurements in various propagation states across a common recording plane. This overcomes the mechanical shifting of a camera sensor required within the capturing process. In contrast to existing phase retrieval approaches, the measuring time is considerably reduced, since the switching time of the SLM is less than 50 ms. This enables nondestructive testing under thermal load. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate the approach can be used to assess structural properties of technical components made from CFRP.

  7. Carbon-Nanotube-Based Chemical Gas Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Arunpama B.

    2010-01-01

    Conventional thermal conductivity gauges (e.g. Pirani gauges) lend themselves to applications such as leak detectors, or in gas chromatographs for identifying various gas species. However, these conventional gauges are physically large, operate at high power, and have a slow response time. A single-walled carbon-nanotube (SWNT)-based chemical sensing gauge relies on differences in thermal conductance of the respective gases surrounding the CNT as it is voltage-biased, as a means for chemical identification. Such a sensor provides benefits of significantly reduced size and compactness, fast response time, low-power operation, and inexpensive manufacturing since it can be batch-fabricated using Si integrated-circuit (IC) process technology.

  8. Electrochemical Sensors Based on Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Aminur Rahman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on recent contributions in the development of the electrochemical sensors based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs. CNTs have unique mechanical and electronic properties, combined with chemical stability, and behave electrically as a metal or semiconductor, depending on their structure. For sensing applications, CNTs have many advantages such as small size with larger surface area, excellent electron transfer promoting ability when used as electrodes modifier in electrochemical reactions, and easy protein immobilization with retention of its activity for potential biosensors. CNTs play an important role in the performance of electrochemical biosensors, immunosensors, and DNA biosensors. Various methods have been developed for the design of sensors using CNTs in recent years. Herein we summarize the applications of CNTs in the construction of electrochemical sensors and biosensors along with other nanomaterials and conducting polymers.

  9. Carbonation Resistance of Sulphoaluminate Cement-based High Performance Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Decheng; XU Dongyu; CHENG Xin; CHEN Wen

    2009-01-01

    The influences of water/cement ratio and admixtures on carbonation resistance of sulphoaluminate cement-based high performance concrete(HPC)were investigated.The experimental results show that with the decreasing water/cement ratio,the carbonation depth of sulphoaluminate cement-based HPC is decreased remarkably,and the carbonation resistance capability is also improved with the adding admixtures.The morphologies and structure characteristics of sulphoaluminate cement hydration products before and after carbonation were analyzed using SEM and XRD.The analysis results reveal that the main hydration product of sulphoaluminate cement,that is ettringite(AFt),de-composes after carbonation.

  10. Gas sensors based on nanostructured materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Cadena, Giselle; Riu, Jordi; Rius, F Xavier

    2007-11-01

    Gas detection is important for controlling industrial and vehicle emissions, household security and environmental monitoring. In recent decades many devices have been developed for detecting CO(2), CO, SO(2), O(2), O(3), H(2), Ar, N(2), NH(3), H(2)O and several organic vapours. However, the low selectivity or the high operation temperatures required when most gas sensors are used have prompted the study of new materials and the new properties that come about from using traditional materials in a nanostructured mode. In this paper, we have reviewed the main research studies that have been made of gas sensors that use nanomaterials. The main quality characteristics of these new sensing devices have enabled us to make a critical review of the possible advantages and drawbacks of these nanostructured material-based sensors.

  11. Structural Characterization and Property Study on the Activated Alumina-activated Carbon Composite Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yan-Qing; WU Ren-Ping; YE Xian-Feng

    2012-01-01

    AlCl3,NH3·H2O,HNO3 and activated carbon were used as raw materials to prepare one new type of activated alumina-activated carbon composite material.The influence of heat treatment conditions on the structure and property of this material was discussed;The microstructures of the composite material were characterized by XRD,SEM,BET techniques;and its formaldehyde adsorption characteristic was also tested.The results showed that the optimal heat treatment temperature of the activated alumina-activated carbon composite material was 450 ℃,iodine adsorption value was 441.40 mg/g,compressive strength was 44 N,specific surface area was 360.07 m2/g,average pore size was 2.91 nm,and pore volume was 0.26 m3/g.According to the BET pore size distribution diagram,the composite material has dual-pore size distribution structure,the micro-pore distributes in the range of 0.6-1.7 nm,and the meso-pore in the range of 3.0-8.0 nm.The formaldehyde adsorption effect of the activated alumina-activated carbon composite material was excellent,much better than that of the pure activated carbon or activated alumina,and its saturated adsorption capacity was 284.19 mg/g.

  12. CARBON-CONTAINING COMPOSITES BASED ON METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VAGANOV V. E.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement Among the developed technologies metal-composites production,a special place takes powder metallurgy, having fundamental differences from conventionally used foundry technologies. The main advantages of this technology are: the possibility of sensitive control, the structure and phase composition of the starting components, and ultimately the possibility of obtaining of bulk material in nanostructured state with a minimum of processing steps. The potential reinforcers metals include micro and nano-sized oxides, carbides, nitrides, whiskers. The special position is occupied with carbon nanostructures (CNS: С60 fullerenes, single-layer and multi-layer nanotubes, onions (spherical "bulbs", nano-diamonds and graphite,their properties are being intensively studied in recent years. These objects have a high thermal and electrical conductivity values, superelasticity, and have a strength approximate to the theoretical value, which can provide an obtaining composite nanomaterial with a unique set of physical and mechanical properties. In creation of a metal matrix composite nanomaterials (CM, reinforced by various CNS, a special attention should be given to mechanical activation processes (MA already at the stage of preparation of the starting components affecting the structure, phase composition and properties of aluminum-matrix composites. Purpose. To investigate the influence of mechanical activation on the structure and phase composition of aluminum-matrix composites. Conclusion. The results of the study of the structure and phase composition of the initial and mechanically activated powders and bulk-modified metal-composites are shown, depending on the type and concentration of modifying varieties CNS, regimes of MA and parameters of compaction. The study is conducted of tribological properties of Al-CNS OF nanostructured materials.

  13. Carbon materials as new nanovehicles in hot-melt drug deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielicka, Agnieszka; Wiśniewski, Marek; Terzyk, Artur P.; Gauden, Piotr A.; Furmaniak, Sylwester; Roszek, Katarzyna; Kowalczyk, Piotr; Bieniek, A.

    2013-09-01

    The application of commercially available carbon materials (nanotubes and porous carbons) for the preparation of drug delivery systems is studied. We used two types of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and two activated carbons as potential materials in so-called hot-melt drug deposition (HMDD). The materials were first studied using Raman spectroscopy. Paracetamol was chosen as a model drug. The performed thermal analysis, kinetics, and adsorption-desorption studies revealed that nanoaggregates are formed between carbon nanotubes. In contrast, in pores of activated carbon we do not observe this process and the drug adsorption phenomenon mechanism is simply the filling of small pores. The formation of nanoaggregates was confirmed by the results of GCMC (grand canonical Monte Carlo) simulations and the study of the surface area on nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The application of carbon nanotubes in HMDD offers the possibility of controlling the rate of drug delivery. Performed MTT tests of nanotubes and drug-loaded nanotubes show that the observed decrease in cell viability number is caused by the influence of the cytostatic properties of nanotubes—they inhibit the proliferation of cells. The carbon nanotubes studied in this paper are essentially nontoxic.

  14. Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledge base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Jody L.; Kauffman, William J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Satellite contamination continues to be a design problem that engineers must take into account when developing new satellites. To help with this issue, NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program funded the development of the Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledge base. This engineering tool brings together in one location information about the outgassing properties of aerospace materials based upon ground-testing data, the effects of outgassing that has been observed during flight and measurements of the contamination environment by on-orbit instruments. The knowledge base contains information using the ASTM Standard E- 1559 and also consolidates data from missions using quartz-crystal microbalances (QCM's). The data contained in the knowledge base was shared with NASA by government agencies and industry in the US and international space agencies as well. The term 'knowledgebase' was used because so much information and capability was brought together in one comprehensive engineering design tool. It is the SEE Program's intent to continually add additional material contamination data as it becomes available - creating a dynamic tool whose value to the user is ever increasing. The SEE Program firmly believes that NASA, and ultimately the entire contamination user community, will greatly benefit from this new engineering tool and highly encourages the community to not only use the tool but add data to it as well.

  15. Activated Carbon-Fly Ash-Nanometal Oxide Composite Materials: Preparation, Characterization, and Tributyltin Removal Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olushola S. Ayanda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties, nature, and morphology of composite materials involving activated carbon, fly ash, nFe3O4, nSiO2, and nZnO were investigated and compared. Nature and morphology characterizations were carried out by means of scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Other physicochemical characterizations undertaken were CNH analysis, ash content, pH, point of zero charge, and surface area and porosity determination by BET. Experimental results obtained revealed that activated carbon, nSiO2, activated carbon-fly ash, activated carbon-fly ash-nFe3O4, activated carbon-fly ash-nSiO2, and activated carbon-fly ash-nZnO composite materials exhibited net negative charge on their surfaces while fly ash, nFe3O4, and nZnO possessed net positive charge on their surfaces. Relatively higher removal efficiency (>99% of TBT was obtained for all the composite materials compared to their respective precursors except for activated carbon. These composite materials therefore offer great potential for the remediation of TBT in wastewaters.

  16. Optimization of Nano-Carbon Materials for Hydrogen Sorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakobson, Boris I [Rice University

    2013-08-02

    Research undertaken has added to the understanding of several critical areas, by providing both negative answers (and therefore eliminating expensive further studies of unfeasible paths) and positive feasible options for storage. Theoretical evaluation of the early hypothesis of storage on pure carbon single wall nanotubes (SWNT) has been scrutinized with the use of comprehensive computational methods (and experimental tests by the Center partners), and demonstrated that the fundamentally weak binding energy of hydrogen is not sufficiently enhanced by the SWNT curvature or even defects, which renders carbon nanotubes not practical media. More promising direction taken was towards 3-dimensional architectures of high porosity where concurrent attraction of H2 molecule to surrounding walls of nano-scale cavities can double or even triple the binding energy and therefore make hydrogen storage feasible even at ambient or somewhat lower temperatures. An efficient computational tool has been developed for the rapid capacity assessment combining (i) carbon-foam structure generation, (ii) accurate empirical force fields, with quantum corrections for the lightweight H2, and (iii) grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation. This made it possible to suggest optimal designs for carbon nanofoams, obtainable via welding techniques from SWNT or by growth on template-zeolites. As a precursor for 3D-foams, we have investigated experimentally the synthesis of VANTA (Vertically Aligned NanoTube Arrays). This can be used for producing nano-foams. On the other hand, fluorination of VANTA did not show promising increase of hydrogen sorption in several tests and may require further investigation and improvements. Another significant result of this project was in developing a fundamental understanding of the elements of hydrogen spillover mechanisms. The benefit of developed models is the ability to foresee possible directions for further improvement of the spillover mechanism.

  17. Carbon nanofibers grown on metallic filters as novel catalytic materials

    OpenAIRE

    Tribolet, Pascal; Kiwi-Minsker, Lioubov

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNF) were synthesized on sintered metal fibers (SMF) filters of nickel and Ni-containing alloys (Inconel, stainless steel (SS)) by thermal chemical vapor deposition of ethane in the presence of hydrogen at not, vert, similar660 °C. The CNFs were formed directly over the SMF filters without deposition of metal particles. The catalytic active sites leading to the CNF formation were attained by oxidation–reduction of the SMF filter. The CNFs present platelet morphology as dete...

  18. Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Functional Carbon Nano Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-05

    electrons may be extracted at a considerably lower applied gap field. This is because the lines of force converge at the sharp point and the physical...41]. For more than a decade, carbon nanomaterials have been used to sense a variety of analytes including gases, solvents , biomolecules [40] and...room temperature. A molybdenum rod of 3 mm diameter (area: 0.071cm2) serves as the anode. The macroscopic surface electric field (ES) on the sample

  19. Development of matrix photoreceivers based on carbon nanotubes array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagov, E. V.; Gerasimenko, A. Y.; Dudin, A. A.; Ichkitidze, L. P.; Kitsyuk, E. P.; Orlov, A. P.; Pavlov, A. A.; Polokhin, A. A.; Shaman, Yu. P.

    2016-04-01

    The technology of production of matrix photoreceivers based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) consisting of 16 sensitive elements was developed. Working wavelength range, performance and sensitivity were studied.

  20. Innovation with carbon materials---A report on the annual world conference on carbon, Carbon 2015%炭材料的革新--记Carbon 2015国际炭会议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强

    2015-01-01

    The annual world conference on carbon, Carbon 2015, was held in Dresden, Germany, and was hosted by the German Carbon Group and German Ceramic Society, during July 12~17, 2015. About 582 attendees from 40 countries participated in the conference, and 540 papers were accepted for discussion, including 4 plenary lectures, 256 oral presentations, and 280 posters in-volved in 12 topics, namely, activated carbon, biomass derived carbon, carbon black, carbon fiber and composites, granular/nucle-ar carbon, natural graphite, nanoforms, industrial, conversion process, physical &chemical properties, environmental &medical, and energy storage. Carbon fiber, graphite, carbon black, and carbon alloy were the subjects of the plenary lectures. The innovation of the traditional carbon materials and new nanocarbon, the critical role of carbon in energy, environment, and healthcare applica-tion, as well as the new insights on the relationship of structure and properties at the molecular scale were strongly considered in this event. Carbon materials required continuous innovation to meet the rising requirement of sustainable society.

  1. Electro-active material (EAM) based bend sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaComb, Ronald; LaComb, Julie

    2010-04-01

    The capability to accurately estimate strain and orientation of cables in an undersea environment is important for a multitude of applications. One way to estimate the positional location of a submersed cable is to utilize a network of distributed bend sensors providing inputs to a curve fitting algorithm. In this work commercially available bend sensors are characterized for small deflections. In addition proto-type devices are presented which can potentially improve device sensitivity. Commercially available bend sensors are based upon electro-active materials and variable resistance materials. Electro-active materials (EAM) are known for their actuator functionality but certain EAMs are capable of sensing as well. New advances in materials such as Ionic Polymer Metal Composites (IPMC) are proving suitable for quasi-static sensor applications. These sensors are low power, conformal and produce directionally dependent output voltages which are linearly proportional to deflection, with voltage polarity representative of the deflection direction. IPMCs are capable of being morphed for increased sensitivity. Variable resistivity sensors are based on smart epoxy polymer and carbon loaded inks. These sensors are inexpensive and conformal and unlike EAMs provide static measurements.

  2. Material processing with hydrogen and carbon monoxide on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Linne, Diane L.

    1991-01-01

    Several novel proposals are examined for propellant production from carbon dioxide and monoxide and hydrogen. Potential uses were also examined of CO as a fuel or as a reducing agent in metal oxide processing as obtained or further reduced to carbon. Hydrogen can be reacted with CO to produce a wide variety of hydrocarbons, alcohols, and other organic compounds. Methanol, produced by Fischer-Tropsch chemistry may be useful as a fuel; it is easy to store and handle because it is a liquid at Mars temperatures. The reduction of CO2 to hydrocarbons such as methane or acetylene can be accomplished with hydrogen. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen require cryogenic temperatures for storage as liquids. Noncryogenic storage of hydrogen may be accomplished using hydrocarbons, inorganic hydrides, or metal hydrides. Noncryogenic storage of CO may be accomplished in the form of iron carbonyl (FE(CO)5) or other metal carbonyls. Low hydrogen content fuels such as acetylene (C2H2) may be effective propellants with low requirements for earth derived resources. The impact on manned Mars missions of alternative propellant production and utilization is discussed.

  3. Comparison of Ablation Predictions for Carbonaceous Materials Using CEA and JANAF-Based Species Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milos, Frank S.

    2011-01-01

    In most previous work at NASA Ames Research Center, ablation predictions for carbonaceous materials were obtained using a species thermodynamics database developed by Aerotherm Corporation. This database is derived mostly from the JANAF thermochemical tables. However, the CEA thermodynamics database, also used by NASA, is considered more up to date. In this work, the FIAT code was modified to use CEA-based curve fits for species thermodynamics, then analyses using both the JANAF and CEA thermodynamics were performed for carbon and carbon phenolic materials over a range of test conditions. The ablation predictions are comparable at lower heat fluxes where the dominant mechanism is carbon oxidation. However, the predictions begin to diverge in the sublimation regime, with the CEA model predicting lower recession. The disagreement is more significant for carbon phenolic than for carbon, and this difference is attributed to hydrocarbon species that may contribute to the ablation rate.

  4. Room-temperature Electrochemical Synthesis of Carbide-derived Carbons and Related Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogotsi, Yury [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Nanomaterials Group. Materials Science and Engineering Dept.

    2015-02-28

    This project addresses room-temperature electrochemical etching as an energy-efficient route to synthesis of 3D nanoporous carbon networks and layered 2D carbons and related structures, as well as provides fundamental understanding of structure and properties of materials produced by this method. Carbide-derived-carbons (CDCs) are a growing class of nanostructured carbon materials with properties that are desirable for many applications, such as electrical energy and gas storage. The structure of these functional materials is tunable by the choice of the starting carbide precursor, synthesis method, and process parameters. Moving from high-temperature synthesis of CDCs through vacuum decomposition above 1400°C and chlorination above 400°C, our studies under the previous DOE BES support led to identification of precursor materials and processing conditions for CDC synthesis at temperatures as low as 200°C, resulting in amorphous and highly reactive porous carbons. We also investigated synthesis of monolithic CDC films from carbide films at 250-1200°C. The results of our early studies provided new insights into CDC formation, led to development of materials for capacitive energy storage, and enabled fundamental understanding of the electrolyte ions confinement in nanoporous carbons.

  5. A Micelle Fusion-Aggregation Assembly Approach to Mesoporous Carbon Materials with Rich Active Sites for Ultrasensitive Ammonia Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Zhao, Tao; Li, Yuhui; Wei, Jing; Xu, Pengcheng; Li, Xinxin; Wang, Youwei; Zhang, Wenqing; Elzatahry, Ahmed A; Alghamdi, Abdulaziz; Deng, Yonghui; Wang, Lianjun; Jiang, Wan; Liu, Yong; Kong, Biao; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2016-09-28

    Nanostructured carbon materials have received considerable attention due to their special physicochemical properties. Herein, ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) with two-dimension (2D) hexagonal mesostructure and unique buckled large mesopores have successfully been synthesized via a micelle fusion-aggregation assembly method by using poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polystyrene (PEO-b-PS) diblock copolymers as a template and resorcinol-based phenolic resin as a carbon precursor. The obtained ordered mesoporous carbons possess unique fiber-like morphology, specific surface area of 571-880 m(2)/g, pore volume of 0.54 cm(3)/g and large mesopores (up to 36.3 nm) and high density of active sites (i.e., carboxylic groups) of 0.188/nm(2). Gas sensor based on the ordered mesoporous carbons exhibits an excellent performance in sensing NH3 at a low temperature with fast response (detection (<1 ppm), and good selectivity, due to the large pore sizes, high surface area and rich active sites in the carbon pore walls.

  6. Exposure to Carbon Nanotube Material: Assessment of Nanotube Cytotoxicity Using Human Keratinocyte Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvedova, Anna A.; Castranova, Vincent; Kisin, Elena R.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Murray, Ashley R.; Gandelsman, Vadim Z.; Maynard, Andrew; Baron, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are new members of carbon allotropes similar to fullerenes and graphite. Because of their unique electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties, carbon nanotubes are important for novel applications in the electronics, aerospace, and computer industries. Exposure to graphite and carbon materials has been associated with increased incidence of skin diseases, such as carbon fiber dermatitis, hyperkeratosis, and naevi. We investigated adverse effects of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) using a cell culture of immortalized human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT). After 18 h of exposure of HaCaT to SWCNT, oxidative stress and cellular toxicity were indicated by formation of free radicals, accumulation of peroxidative products, antioxidant depletion, and loss of cell viability. Exposure to SWCNT also resulted in ultrastructural and morphological changes in cultured skin cells. These data indicate that dermal exposure to unrefined SWCNT may lead to dermal toxicity due to accelerated oxidative stress in the skin of exposed workers.

  7. Centrifugally-spun carbon microfibers and porous carbon microfibers as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirican, Mahmut; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2016-09-01

    Natural abundance and low cost of sodium resources bring forward the sodium-ion batteries as a promising alternative to widely-used lithium-ion batteries. However, insufficient energy density and low cycling stability of current sodium-ion batteries hinder their practical use for next-generation smart power grid and stationary storage applications. Electrospun carbon microfibers have recently been introduced as a high-performance anode material for sodium-ion batteries. However, electrospinning is not feasible for mass production of carbon microfibers due to its complex processing condition, low production rate and high cost. Herein, we report centrifugal spinning, a high-rate and low-cost microfiber production method, as an alternative approach to electrospinning for carbon microfiber production and introduce centrifugally-spun carbon microfibers (CMFs) and porous carbon microfibers (PCMFs) as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries. Electrochemical performance results indicated that the highly porous nature of centrifugally-spun PCMFs led to increased Na+ storage capacity and improved cycling stability. The reversible capacity of centrifugally-spun PCMF anodes at the 200th cycle was 242 mAh g-1, which was much higher than that of centrifugally-spun CMFs (143 mAh g-1). The capacity retention and coulombic efficiency of the centrifugally-spun PCMF anodes were 89.0% and 99.9%, respectively, even at the 200th cycle.

  8. Research Progress of Carbon Dioxide Capture Materials%二氧化碳捕获材料的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付新

    2011-01-01

    The research progress of emission reduce and capture of carbon dioxide at home and abroad were introduced in this paper,and carbon dioxide capture materials were focused on,which included some traditional adsorption materials, such as the hydramine class adsorbent, the ionic liquids adsorption material, the metal compound material,the ceramic material,zeolite and molecular sieve material,carbon-based adsorption material and silica gel material,as well as a series of novel capture materials such as the composite adsorption material and the anion selective adsorption material. The development trends of carbon dioxide capture materials were put forward.%简要阐述了近年来二氧化碳的减排、捕获等最新技术的研究进展,着重介绍了二氧化碳捕获材料的研究状况,如醇胺类吸附剂、离子液体吸附材料、金属化合物材料、陶瓷材料、沸石分子筛材料、碳基吸附材料、硅胶材料等传统吸附材料及复合型材料、负离子选择性吸附材料等新型捕获材料.并对二氧化碳捕获材料的发展趋势进行了展望.

  9. Influence of Terahertz Waves on Unidirectional Carbon Fibers in CFRP Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Hee IM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz TDS system based on the reflective and through-transmission modes was utilized. Influence of terahertz waves (T-ray on the fiber surface layups in the CFRP solid composites was studied. It was found that the value of electrical conductivity in the carbon fibers varies by the layup directions of carbon fibers based on E-field (Electrical field. T-ray optimized scanning data could be obtained at the 90° angle normal to the E-field direction. GFRP (Glass-fiber reinforced plastics composite laminates were scanned with two saw cuts using a T-ray THz TDS system and the terahertz optimized scanning images were obtained at the angles normal to the E-field direction on the nonconducting materials. Also, by use of 2-dimensional spatial Fourier transform, interface C-scan images were transformed into quantitative angular distribution plots in order to show the fiber orientation information therein and to make the orientation of the ply predictable. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6440

  10. Evaluation of Natural Materials as Exogenous Carbon Sources for Biological Treatment of Low Carbon-to-Nitrogen Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Godínez, Juan; Beltrán-Hernández, Icela; Álvarez-Hernández, Alejandro; Coronel-Olivares, Claudia; Contreras-López, Elizabeth; Quezada-Cruz, Maribel; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    In the bacterial processes involved in the mitigation of nitrogen pollution, an adequately high carbon-to-nitrogen (C : N) ratio is key to sustain denitrification. We evaluated three natural materials (woodchips, barley grains, and peanut shells) as carbon sources for low C : N wastewater. The amount of organic matter released from these materials to aqueous media was evaluated, as well as their pollution swapping potential by measuring the release of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, N-NH4+, NO2−, and NO3−, and total phosphorous. Barley grains yielded the highest amount of organic matter, which also showed to be the most easily biodegradable. Woodchips and peanut shells released carbon rather steadily and so they would not require frequent replenishment from biological reactors. These materials produced eluates with lower concentrations of nutrients than the leachates from barley grains. However, as woodchips yielded lower amounts of suspended solids, they constitute an adequate exogenous source for the biological treatment of carbon-deficient effluents. PMID:26495313

  11. Strengthened PAN-based carbon fibers obtained by slow heating rate carbonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-A; Jang, Dawon; Tejima, Syogo; Cruz-Silva, Rodolfo; Joh, Han-Ik; Kim, Hwan Chul; Lee, Sungho; Endo, Morinobu

    2016-03-23

    Large efforts have been made over the last 40 years to increase the mechanical strength of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fibers (CFs) using a variety of chemical or physical protocols. In this paper, we report a new method to increase CFs mechanical strength using a slow heating rate during the carbonization process. This new approach increases both the carbon sp(3) bonding and the number of nitrogen atoms with quaternary bonding in the hexagonal carbon network. Theoretical calculations support a crosslinking model promoted by the interstitial carbon atoms located in the graphitic interlayer spaces. The improvement in mechanical performance by a controlled crosslinking between the carbon hexagonal layers of the PAN based CFs is a new concept that can contribute further in the tailoring of CFs performance based on the understanding of their microstructure down to the atomic scale.

  12. Use of magnetic carbon composites from renewable resource materials for oil spill clean up and recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Tito

    2014-02-11

    A method for separating a liquid hydrocarbon material from a body of water. In one embodiment, the method includes the steps of mixing a plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites with a liquid hydrocarbon material dispersed in a body of water to allow the plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each to be adhered by an amount of the liquid hydrocarbon material to form a mixture, applying a magnetic force to the mixture to attract the plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each adhered by an amount of the liquid hydrocarbon material, and removing said plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each adhered by an amount of the liquid hydrocarbon material from said body of water while maintaining the applied magnetic force, wherein the plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites is formed by subjecting one or more metal lignosulfonates or metal salts to microwave radiation, in presence of lignin/derivatives either in presence of alkali or a microwave absorbing material.

  13. Electronic and optoelectronic nano-devices based on carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarselli, M; Castrucci, P; De Crescenzi, M

    2012-08-08

    The discovery and understanding of nanoscale phenomena and the assembly of nanostructures into different devices are among the most promising fields of material science research. In this scenario, carbon nanostructures have a special role since, in having only one chemical element, they allow physical properties to be calculated with high precision for comparison with experiment. Carbon nanostructures, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in particular, have such remarkable electronic and structural properties that they are used as active building blocks for a large variety of nanoscale devices. We review here the latest advances in research involving carbon nanotubes as active components in electronic and optoelectronic nano-devices. Opportunities for future research are also identified.

  14. Mechanically robust, electrically conductive ultralow-density carbon nanotube-based aerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr, Joe H.

    2016-07-05

    A method of making a mechanically robust, electrically conductive ultralow-density carbon nanotube-based aerogel, including the steps of dispersing nanotubes in an aqueous media or other media to form a suspension, adding reactants and catalyst to the suspension to create a reaction mixture, curing the reaction mixture to form a wet gel, drying the wet gel to produce a dry gel, and pyrolyzing the dry gel to produce the mechanically robust, electrically conductive ultralow-density carbon nanotube-based aerogel. The aerogel is mechanically robust, electrically conductive, and ultralow-density, and is made of a porous carbon material having 5 to 95% by weight carbon nanotubes and 5 to 95% carbon binder.

  15. Bacterial Cellulose: A Robust Platform for Design of Three Dimensional Carbon-Based Functional Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen-Yu; Liang, Hai-Wei; Chen, Li-Feng; Hu, Bi-Cheng; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-01-19

    Three dimensional (3D) carbon nanomaterials exhibit great application potential in environmental protection, electrochemical energy storage and conversion, catalysis, polymer science, and advanced sensors fields. Current methods for preparing 3D carbon nanomaterials, for example, carbonization of organogels, chemical vapor deposition, and self-assembly of nanocarbon building blocks, inevitably involve some drawbacks, such as expensive and toxic precursors, complex equipment and technological requirements, and low production ability. From the viewpoint of practical application, it is highly desirable to develop a simple, cheap, and environmentally friendly way for fabricating 3D carbon nanomaterials in large scale. On the other hand, in order to extend the application scope and improve the performance of 3D carbon nanomaterials, we should explore efficient strategies to prepare diverse functional nanomaterials based on their 3D carbon structure. Recently, many researchers tend to fabricate high-performance 3D carbon-based nanomaterials from biomass, which is low cost, easy to obtain, and nontoxic to humans. Bacterial cellulose (BC), a typical biomass material, has long been used as the raw material of nata-de-coco (an indigenous dessert food of the Philippines). It consists of a polysaccharide with a β-1,4-glycosidic linkage and has a interconnected 3D porous network structure. Interestingly, the network is made up of a random assembly of cellulose nanofibers, which have a high aspect ratio with a diameter of 20-100 nm. As a result, BC has a high specific surface area. Additionally, BC hydrogels can be produced on an industrial scale via a microbial fermentation process at a very low price. Thus, it can be an ideal platform for design of 3D carbon-based functional nanomaterials. Before our work, no systematic work and summary on this topic had been reported. This Account presents the concepts and strategies of our studies on BC in the past few years, that is

  16. Finite Element Analysis of Fire Truck Chassis for Steel and Carbon Fiber Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvi Gauri Sanjay

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chassis is the foremost component of an automobile that acts as the frame to support the vehicle body. Hence the frame ought to be very rigid and robust enough to resist shocks vibrations and stresses acting on a moving vehicle. Steel in its numerous forms is commonly used material for producing chassis and overtime alumimium has acquired its use. However, in this study traditional materials are replaced with ultra light weight carbon fiber materials. High strength and low weight of carbon fibers makes it ideal for manufacturing automotive chassis. This paper depicts the modal and static structural analysis of TATA 407 fire truck chassis frame for steel as well as carbon fibers. From the analyzed results, stress, strain and total deformation values were compared for both the materials. Since it is easy to analyze structural systems by finite element method, the chassis is modified using PRO-E and the Finite Element Analysis is performed on ANSYS workbench.

  17. Porous Carbon Materials for Elements in Low-Temperature Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wlodarczyk R.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The porosity, distribution of pores, shape of pores and specific surface area of carbon materials were investigated. The study of sintered graphite and commercial carbon materials used in low-temperature fuel cells (Graphite Grade FU, Toray Teflon Treated was compared. The study covered measurements of density, microstructural examinations and wettability (contact angle of carbon materials. The main criterion adopted for choosing a particular material for components of fuel cells is their corrosion resistance under operating conditions of hydrogen fuel cells. In order to determine resistance to corrosion in the environment of operation of fuel cells, potentiokinetic curves were registered for synthetic solution 0.1M H2SO4+ 2 ppmF-at 80°C.

  18. Hydrothermal Treatment of Tannin: A Route to Porous Metal Oxides and Metal/Carbon Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia L. Braghiroli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, porous materials were prepared from the hydrothermal treatment of aqueous solutions of tannin, a renewable phenolic resource extracted from tree barks, containing dissolved salts of transition metals: V, Cr, Ni and Fe. Hydrothermal treatment produced carbonaceous particles doped with the aforementioned metals, and such materials were treated according to two different routes: (i calcination in air in order to burn the carbon and to recover porous oxides; (ii pyrolysis in inert atmosphere so as to recover porous metal/carbon hybrid materials. The nature of the metal salt was found to have a dramatic impact on the structure of the materials recovered by the first route, leading either to nano-powders (V, Cr or to hollow microspheres (Ni, Fe. The second route was only investigated with iron, leading to magnetic Fe-loaded micro/mesoporous carbons whose texture, pore volumes and surface areas gradually changed with the iron content.

  19. Method of converting a carbon-comprising material, method of operating a fuel cell stack, and a fuel cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, K.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of converting a carbon-comprising material at elevated temperature in the presence of a molecule that comprises at least one oxygen atom. According to the invention the carbon-comprising material in the fuel cell is converted substantially to carbon monoxide in a re

  20. Synthesis of nano-carbon (nanotubes, nanofibres, graphene) materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kalpana Awasthi; Rajesh Kumar; Himanshu Raghubanshi; Seema Awasthi; Ratnesh Pandey; Devinder Singh; T P Yadav; O N Srivastava

    2011-07-01

    In the present study, we report the synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using a new natural precursor: castor oil. The CNTs were synthesized by spray pyrolysis of castor oil–ferrocene solution at 850°C under an Ar atmosphere. We also report the synthesis of carbon nitrogen (C–N) nanotubes using castor oil–ferrocene–ammonia precursor. The as-grown CNTs and C–N nanotubes were characterized through scanning and transmission electron microscopic techniques. Graphitic nanofibres (GNFs) were synthesized by thermal decomposition of acetylene (C2H2) gas using Ni catalyst at 600°C. As-grown GNFs reveal both planar and helical morphology. We have investigated the structural and electrical properties of multi-walled CNTs (MWNTs)–polymer (polyacrylamide (PAM)) composites. The MWNTs–PAM composites were prepared using as purified, with ball milling and functionalized MWNTs by solution cast technique and characterized through SEM. A comparative study has been made on the electrical property of these MWNTs–PAM composites with different MWNTs loadings. It is shown that the ball milling and functionalization of MWNTs improves the dispersion of MWNTs into the polymer matrix. Enhanced electrical conductivity was observed for the MWNTs–PAM composites. Graphene samples were prepared by thermal exfoliation of graphite oxide. XRD analysis confirms the formation of graphene.