WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon 22

  1. Fractionation between inorganic and organic carbon during the Lomagundi (2.22 2.1 Ga) carbon isotope excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, A.; Holmden, C.; Beukes, N. J.; Kenig, F.; Eglinton, B.; Patterson, W. P.

    2008-07-01

    The Lomagundi (2.22-2.1 Ga) positive carbon isotope excursion in shallow-marine sedimentary carbonates has been associated with the rise in atmospheric oxygen, but subsequent studies have demonstrated that the carbon isotope excursion was preceded by the rise in atmospheric oxygen. The amount of oxygen released to the exosphere during the Lomagundi excursion is constrained by the average global fractionation between inorganic and organic carbon, which is poorly characterized. Because dissolved inorganic and organic carbon reservoirs were arguably larger in the Paleoproterozoic ocean, at a time of lower solar luminosity and lower ocean redox state, decoupling between these two variables might be expected. We determined carbon isotope values of carbonate and organic matter in carbonates and shales of the Silverton Formation, South Africa and in the correlative Sengoma Argillite Formation, near the border in Botswana. These units were deposited between 2.22 and 2.06 Ga along the margin of the Kaapvaal Craton in an open-marine deltaic setting and experienced lower greenschist facies metamorphism. The prodelta to offshore marine shales are overlain by a subtidal carbonate sequence. Carbonates exhibit elevated 13C values ranging from 8.3 to 11.2‰ vs. VPDB consistent with deposition during the Lomagundi positive excursion. The total organic carbon (TOC) contents range from 0.01 to 0.6% and δ13C values range from - 24.8 to - 13.9‰. Thus, the isotopic fractionation between organic and carbonate carbon was on average 30.3 ± 2.8‰ ( n = 32) in the shallow-marine environment. The underlying Sengoma shales have highly variable TOC contents (0.14 to 21.94%) and δ13C values (- 33.7 to - 20.8‰) with an average of - 27.0 ± 3.0‰ ( n = 50). Considering that the shales were also deposited during the Lomagundi excursion, and taking δ13C values of the overlying carbonates as representative of the δ13C value of dissolved inorganic carbon during shale deposition, a carbon

  2. Carbon Nanotubes: Printed Carbon Nanotube Electronics and Sensor Systems (Adv. Mater. 22/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kevin; Gao, Wei; Emaminejad, Sam; Kiriya, Daisuke; Ota, Hiroki; Nyein, Hnin Yin Yin; Takei, Kuniharu; Javey, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Printed electronics and sensors enable new applications ranging from low-cost disposable analytical devices to large-area sensor networks. Recent progress in printed carbon nanotube electronics in terms of materials, processing, devices, and applications is discussed on page 4397 by A. Javey and co-workers. The research challenges and opportunities regarding the processing and system-level integration are also discussed for enabling of practical applications.

  3. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations before 2.2 billion years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, R.; Kuo, P. H.; Holland, H. D.

    1995-01-01

    The composition of the Earth's early atmosphere is a subject of continuing debate. In particular, it has been suggested that elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide would have been necessary to maintain normal surface temperatures in the face of lower solar luminosity in early Earth history. Fossil weathering profiles, known as palaeosols, have provided semi-quantitative constraints on atmospheric oxygen partial pressure (pO2) before 2.2 Gyr ago. Here we use the same well studied palaeosols to constrain atmospheric pCO2 between 2.75 and 2.2 Gyr ago. The observation that iron lost from the tops of these profiles was reprecipitated lower down as iron silicate minerals, rather than as iron carbonate, indicates that atmospheric pCO2 must have been less than 10(-1.4) atm--about 100 times today's level of 360 p.p.m., and at least five times lower than that required in one-dimensional climate models to compensate for lower solar luminosity at 2.75 Gyr. Our results suggest that either the Earth's early climate was much more sensitive to increases in pCO2 than has been thought, or that one or more greenhouse gases other than CO2 contributed significantly to the atmosphere's radiative balance during the late Archaean and early Proterozoic eons.

  4. Density functional theory study of ultrasmall diameter (2,2) boron nitride, silicon carbide, and carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrabad, Davoud Vahedi; Shahtahmassebi, Nasser [Nano Research Center, Department of Physics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Movlarooy, Tayebeh [Department of Physics, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    We present a first principles calculation on the electronic structure and optical properties of ultrasmall-diameter (2,2) boron nitride, silicon carbide, and carbon nanotubes (BNNT, SiCNT, and CNT) by using full potential linear augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) and pseudo potential plane wave (PP-PW) methods. The atomic geometries of all considered models are optimized. Calculations of optical spectra are performed under electric fields polarized both parallel and perpendicular with respect to the nanotube (NT) axis. Our results show that the dielectric function is anisotropic and it is revealed that (2,2) SiCNT would be better dielectric material than (2,2) BNNT. We have calculated the first, second and third optical transitions for the considered models. The value of the optical gap for (2,2) BNNT is obtained much larger than that of (2,2) SiCNT and (2,2) CNT. The results show that contrary to the (2,2) CNT being metallic, the (2,2) BNNT, and (2,2) SiCNT are wide indirect gap semiconductors. We also present the energy loss function; in this case the intertube interactions play an important role with respect to the optical spectroscopy. Our results revealed that unlike the dielectric function, the calculated energy loss function show rather weak anisotropy. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Comparisons of carbon storages in Cunninghamia lanceolata and Michelia macclurei plantations during a 22-year period in southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Dong; WANG Silong; OUYANG Zhiyun

    2009-01-01

    Tree species composition was important for carbon storage within the same climate range.To quantify the dynamics of ecosystem carbon allocation as affected by different tree species,we measured the above- and belowground biomass accumulation in 22 years,as well as the tissue carbon concentrations of trees in Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation and Michelia macclurei plantation.Results indicated that M.macclurei plantation stored significantly more carbon (174.8 tons/hm2) than C.lanceolata plantation (154.3 tons/hm2).Most of the carbon was found in the soil pool (57.1% in M.macclurei plantation,55.2% in C.lanceolata plantation).Tree and soil component of M.macclurei plantation possessed significantly higher carbon storage than that of the C.lanceolata plantation (p<0.05).No significant difference was found in the carbon storage of understory and forest floor.These results suggest that the broadleaved species (M.macclurei) possesses greater carbon sequestration potential than the coniferous species (C.lanceolata) in southern China.

  6. Coating curly carbon nanotubes with monocrystalline Zn(BO2)2 and the mechanism of straightening the tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Jinzhang; YAN; Pengxun; YUE; Guanghui

    2006-01-01

    We overgrew single-crystalline Zn(BO2)2 coatings on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for the first time. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed that the carbon nanotube-zinc borate composite rods are from tens to hundreds of nm in diameter. It is notable that the original curly tubes were straightened by the monocrystalline coatings. In addition, the crystal nucleation and growth on the surface of CNT were explained. We set a two-dimensional model, which is based on our experimental result, to qualitatively explain the mechanism of straightening the curly tubes by coating them with single-crystals.

  7. Bioremediation of Cd by strain GZ-22 isolated from mine soil based on biosorption and microbially induced carbonate precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Yao, Jun; Yuan, Zhimin; Wang, Tianqi; Zhang, Yiyue; Wang, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) is an emerging and promising bioremediation technology to restore the environment polluted by heavy metals. Carbonate-biomineralization microbe can immobilize heavy metals from mobile species into stable crystals. In the present manuscript, laboratory batch studies were conducted to evaluate the Cd removal ability based on biosorption and MICP, using carbonate-biomineralization microbe GZ-22 isolated from a mine soil. This strain was identified as a Bacillus sp. according to 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Results of batch experiments revealed that MICP of the strain GZ-22 showed a greater potential to remove Cd than biomass biosorption under different impact factors such as pH, initial Cd concentration, and contact time. The optimum pH for MICP was 6 (50.34 %), while for biomass biosorption, it was 5 (38.81 %). When the initial concentration of Cd was 10 mg/L, removal efficiency induced by MICP was 53.06 % after 3 h, which was about 11 % greater than the removal efficiency induced by adsorption. The Cd removal efficiency increased as reaction time. The maximum removal efficiency based on MICP can reach 60.72 % at 10 mg/L for 48 h compared with 56.27 % by biosorption. X-ray diffractomer (XRD) revealed that Cd was transformed into CdCO3 by MICP of GZ-22. The present illustrated that the carbonate-biomineralization microbe GZ-22 can offer an effective and eco-friendly approach to immobilize soluble Cd and that MICP may play an important role in heavy metal bioremediation.

  8. 2012 CHEMISTRY & PHYSICS OF GRAPHITIC CARBON MATERIALS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JUNE 17-22, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fertig, Herbert

    2012-06-22

    This conference will highlight the urgency for research on graphitic carbon materials and gather scientists in physics, chemistry, and engineering to tackle the challenges in this field. The conference will focus on scalable synthesis, characterization, novel physical and electronic properties, structure-properties relationship studies, and new applications of the carbon materials. Contributors

  9. Properties of Lithium-11 and Carbon-22 at leading order in halo effective field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharya Bijaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the 11Li and 22C nuclei at leading order (LO in halo effective field theory (Halo EFT. Using the value of the 22C rms matter radius deduced in Ref. [1] as an input in a LO calculation, we simultaneously constrain the values of the two-neutron (2n separation energy of 22C and the virtual-state energy of the 20C−neutron system (hereafter denoted 21C. The 1−σ uncertainty of the input rms matter radius datum, along with the theory error estimated from the anticipated size of the higher-order terms in the Halo EFT expansion, gives an upper bound of about 100 keV for the 2n separation energy. We also study the electric dipole excitation of 2n halo nuclei to a continuum state of two neutrons and the core at LO in Halo EFT. We first compare our results with the 11Li data from a Coulomb dissociation experiment and obtain good agreement within the theoretical uncertainty of a LO calculation. We then obtain the low-energy spectrum of B(E1 of this transition at several different values of the 2n separation energy of 22C and the virtual-state energy of 21C. Our predictions can be compared to the outcome of an ongoing experiment on the Coulomb dissociation of 22C to obtain tighter constraints on the two- and three-body energies in the 22C system.

  10. Effects of hydroxylated carbon nanotubes on the aggregation of Aβ16-22 peptides: a combined simulation and experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Luogang; Lin, Dongdong; Luo, Yin; Li, Huiyu; Yang, Xinju; Wei, Guanghong

    2014-10-21

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with the aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides into toxic aggregates with ?-sheet character. In a previous computational study, we showed that pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can inhibit the formation of β-sheet-rich oligomers in the central hydrophobic core fragment of Aβ (Aβ16-22). However, the poor solubility of SWCNTs in water hinders their use in biomedical applications and nanomedicine. Here, we investigate the influence of hydroxylated SWCNT, a water-soluble SWCNT derivative, on the aggregation of Aβ16-22 peptides using all-atom explicit-water replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show that hydroxylated SWCNTs can significantly inhibit β-sheet formation and shift the conformations of Aβ16-22 oligomers from ordered β-sheet-rich structures toward disordered coil aggregates. Detailed analyses of the SWCNT-Aβ interaction reveal that the inhibition of β-sheet formation by hydroxylated SWCNTs mainly results from strong electrostatic interactions between the hydroxyl groups of SWCNTs and the positively charged residue K16 of Aβ16-22 and hydrophobic and aromatic stacking interactions between SWCNTs and F19 and F20. In addition, our atomic force microscopy and thioflavin T fluorescence experiments confirm the inhibitory effect of both pristine and hydroxylated SWCNTs on Aβ16-22 fibrillization, in support of our previous and present replica exchange molecular dynamics simulation results. These results demonstrate that hydroxylated SWCNTs efficiently inhibit the aggregation of Aβ16-22; in addition, they offer molecular insight into the inhibition mechanism, thus providing new clues for the design of therapeutic drugs against amyloidosis.

  11. Implications of a matter-radius measurement for the structure of Carbon-22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, B., E-mail: acharyab@phy.ohiou.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Ji, C., E-mail: jichen@triumf.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Phillips, D.R., E-mail: phillips@phy.ohiou.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    We study Borromean 2n-halo nuclei using effective field theory. We compute the universal scaling function that relates the mean-square matter radius of the 2n halo to dimensionless ratios of two- and three-body energies. We use the experimental value of the rms matter radius of {sup 22}C measured by Tanaka et al. (2010) [3] to put constraints on its 2n separation energy and the {sup 20}C–n virtual energy. We also explore the consequences of these constraints for the existence of excited Efimov states in this nucleus. We find that, for {sup 22}C to have an rms matter radius within 1–σ of the experimental value, the two-neutron separation energy of {sup 22}C needs to be below 100 keV. Consequently, this three-body halo system can have an excited Efimov state only if the {sup 20}C–n system has a resonance within 1 keV of the scattering threshold.

  12. Influence of different carbon sources on exopolysaccharide production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (B3, G12 and Streptococcus thermophilus (W22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Nur Yuksekdag

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides (EPSs production was studied by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (B3, G12 and Streptococcus thermophilus (W22 in the medium containing various carbon sources (glucose, fructose, sucrose or lactose. For all the strains, glucose was the most efficient carbon source and B3, G12 and W22 strains produced 211, 175 and 120 EPS mg/L respectively. Also, the influence of different concentrations of glucose (5,10,15,20,25,30 g/L on EPS production and growth was studied. The results indicated that EPS production and growth were stimulated by the high glucose concentration (30 g/L.

  13. Hydrodynamic Gene Delivery of Interleukin-22 Protects the Mouse Liver from Concanavalin A-, Carbon Tetrachloride-, and Fas Ligand-Induced Injury via Activation of STAT3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongna Pan; Feng Hong; Svetlana Radaeva; Bin Gao

    2004-01-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a recently identified T cell-derived cytokine whose biological significance remains obscure. Previously, we have shown that IL-22 plays a protective role in T cell-mediated hepatitis induced by Concanavalin A (Con A), acting as a survival factor for hepatocytes. In the present paper, we demonstrate that hydrodynamic gene delivery of IL-22 cDNA driven either by a liver-specific albumin promoter or a human cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter results in IL-22 protein expression, STAT3 activation, and expression of several anti-apoptotic proteins, including Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, and Mcl-1 in the liver. Immunohistochemical analysis reveals that IL-22 protein expression is mainly detected in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Overexpression of IL-22 by hydrodynamic gene delivery significantly protects against liver injury, necrosis, and apoptosis induced by administration of Con A, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), or the Fas agonist Jo-2 mAb. Western blot analyses show that overexpression of IL-22 significantly enhances activation of STAT3 and expression of Bcl-xL, Bcl-2,and Mcl-1 proteins in liver injury induced by Con A. In conclusion, hydrodynamic gene delivery of IL-22 protects against liver injury induced by a variety of toxins, suggesting the therapeutic potential of IL-22 in treating human liver disease. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(1):43-49.

  14. Carbon nanotube inhibits the formation of β-sheet-rich oligomers of the Alzheimer's amyloid-β(16-22) peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiyu; Luo, Yin; Derreumaux, Philippe; Wei, Guanghong

    2011-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease is associated with the abnormal self-assembly of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into toxic β-rich aggregates. Experimental studies have shown that hydrophobic nanoparticles retard Aβ fibrillation by slowing down the nucleation process; however, the effects of nanoparticles on Aβ oligomeric structures remain elusive. In this study, we investigate the conformations of Aβ(16-22) octamers in the absence and presence of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) by performing extensive all-atom replica exchange molecular-dynamics simulations in explicit solvent. Our simulations starting from eight random chains demonstrate that the addition of SWCNT into Aβ(16-22) solution prevents β-sheet formation. Simulation starting from a prefibrillar β-sheet octamer shows that SWCNT destabilizes the β-sheet structure. A detailed analysis of the Aβ(16-22)/SWCNT/water interactions reveals that both the inhibition of β-sheet formation and the destabilization of prefibrillar β-sheets by SWCNT result from the same physical forces: hydrophobic and π-stacking interactions (with the latter playing a more important role). By analyzing the stacking patterns between the Phe aromatic rings and the SWCNT carbon rings, we find that short ring-centroid distances mostly favor parallel orientation, whereas large distances allow all other orientations to be populated. Overall, our computational study provides evidence that SWCNT is likely to inhibit Aβ(16-22) and full-length Aβ fibrillation.

  15. Nanoscale surface morphology and monomer concentration dependence on impedance of electrocoated 2,2-dimethyl-3,4-propylene-dioxythiophene on carbon fiber microelectrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarac, A Sezai; Gencturk, Ash; Schulz, Burkhard; Gilsing, Hans-Detlev; Serantoni, Marina

    2007-10-01

    Poly(2,2-Dimethyl-3,4-propylenedioxythiophene) (PProDOT-Me2) thin films have been cyclovoltametrically coated onto carbon fiber microelectrode (CFME) as an active functionalized microelectrode. An electrochemical impedance spectroscopic study on the prepared electrodes is reported in this paper which electropolymerization performed under different initial monomer concentrations. The electrochemical impedance data fitted to equivalent circuit model, used to find out numerical values of the proposed components. Effect of the parameters on the capacitive behavior of the (PProDOT-Me2) coated carbon fiber microelectrode and morphology of films obtained by AFM and SEM was discussed. Highly porous coating was obtained at 100 mV/s scan rate and 10 cycles. EDX and ATR-FTIR results indicated the doping of anion of electrolyte due to formation of polaronic and bipolaronic sites. The presence of surface functional groups were determined by ATR-FTIR. Nanoscale conjugated polymer modified carbon fiber microelectrodes exhibited high capacitance of approximately 90 degrees phase angle, and vertical line in Nyquist plot. The capacitive behavior of CFME was increased by this very thin film coating of PProDOT-Me2. The electroactivity of Poly 2,2-Dimethyl-3,4-propylenedioxythiophene on the carbon fiber microelectrode open the possibility of using these coated electrodes for electrochemical microsupercapacitors and biosensor electrodes.

  16. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Knorr Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Sections A20_2003 (22 September-20 October 2003) and A22_2003 (23 October-13 November, 2003)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyr, Alex [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    2008-09-30

    This report presents methods, and analytical and quality control procedures for salinity, oxygen, nutrient, inorganic carbon, organic carbon, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), and bomb carbon-14 system parameters performed during the A20_2003 and A22_2003 cruises, which took place between September 22 and November 13, 2003, aboard research vessel (R/V) Knorr under the auspices of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Science Foundation (NSF). The R/V Knorr departed Woods Hole, Massachusetts, on September 22 for the Repeat Section A20, and ended this line in Port of Spain, Trinidad, on October 20. The Repeat Section A22 started on October 23 in Port of Spain, Trinidad, and finished on November 13, 2003, in Woods Hole, Massachusetts. The research conducted was one of a series of repeat hydrography sections jointly funded by NOAA and NSF as part of the Climate Variability Program (CLIVAR)/CO2/repeat hydrography/tracer program. Samples were taken from 36 depths at 88 stations on section A20 and 82 stations on section A22. The data presented in this report include the analyses of water samples for total inorganic carbon (TCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), CFC, carbon-14, hydrographic, and other chemical measurements.

  17. Distributions of C22 C30 even-carbon-number n-alkanes in Ocean Anoxic Event 1 samples from the Basque-Cantabrian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaler, R.; Dorronsoro, C.; Grimalt, J. O.; Agirrezabala, L. M.; Fernández-Mendiola, P. A.; García-Mondejar, J.; Gómez-Pérez, I.; López-Horgue, M.

    2005-05-01

    The Ocean Anoxic Event 1 (OAE-1) in central sites of the Basque-Cantabrian Basin exhibits very reducing depositional conditions of sedimentation. These sedimentation events have left a distinct mixture of hydrocarbons that are represented by C22 C30 n-alkanes with a predominance of the even-carbon-number homologues, high relative proportions of squalane and C16 C24 n-alkylcyclopentanes predominated by n-undecyl-, n-tridecyl- and n-pentadecylcyclopentane. Other minor compounds encompass a series of C18 C21 n-alkylcyclohexanes and C18 C24 dimethyl n-alkylcyclohexanes maximized by the even-carbon-number homologues as well as iso- and anteiso-alkanes. This unusual distribution of n-alkanes in this environment provides a new case for comparison with previously reported hypersaline and phosphorite sedimentary deposits where the occurrence of similar n-alkane distributions was reported. In the present case, these major n-alkanes and squalane are indicative of transformation under strong reducing conditions. In contrast, the occurrence of the alkylcyclopentanes, irrespective of the presence of even-carbon-number n-alkanes or squalane, suggests that reductive cyclization of fatty acids is less dependent on strong reducing conditions.

  18. Electrochemical and quantum chemical studies of N,N'-bis(4-hydroxybenzaldehyde)-2,2-dimethylpropandiimine Schiff base as corrosion inhibitor for low carbon steel in HCl solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Hojat; Danaee, Iman; Eskandari, Hadi; Rashvandavei, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    A synthesized Schiff base N,N'-bis(4-hydroxybenzaldehyde)-2,2-dimethylpropandiimine (p-HBDP) was studied as green inhibitor for the corrosion of low carbon steel in 1 M HCl solution using electrochemical, surface and quantum chemical methods. Results showed that the inhibition occurs through the adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on the metal surface. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing inhibitor concentration and de-creased with increasing temper-ature, which is due to the fact that the rate of corrosion of steel is higher than the rate of adsorption. Thermodynamic parameters for adsorp-tion and activation processes were determined. Polarization data indicated that this compound act as mixed-type inhibitors and the adsorption isotherm basically obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The calculations of reactivity indices of p-HBDP such as softness and natural charge distributions together with local reactivity by means of Fukui indices were used to explain the electron transfer mechanism between the p-HBDP molecules and the steel surface.

  19. RING-OPENING POLYMERIZAION OF 2,2-DIMETHYLTRIMETHYLENE CARBONATE INITIATED BY IN SITU GENERATED, TETRAHYDROSALEN STABLIZED YTTRIUM BOROHYDRIDE COMPLEX AND RANDOM COPOLYMERIZATION WITH ε-CAPROLACTONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Huang; Jian-fang Yu; Han-jian Yu; Wei-lin Sun; Zhi-quan Shen

    2011-01-01

    The poly(2,2-dimethyltrimethylene carbonate) (PDTC) with one hydroxyl and one formate tenninal fimctions was synthesized by in situ generated, tetrahydrosalen stabilized yttrium borohydride complex. The influences of monomer/initiator molar ratio, temperature and reaction time on polymerization of DTC were investigated. Under the condition: [DTC]/[I] = 500, 55℃, toluene: 0.5 mL, DTC: 0.6 g, PDTC with Mn = 15600 and PDI = 2.15 was obtained.Through 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR analyses, the structure of PDTC was characterized and a coordination-insertion mechanism was proposed. In addition, the random copolymerization of DTC and caprolactone (CL) initiated by rare-earth borohydride compound was studied. The microstructure of PDTC-co-PCL includes four diads: DTC-CL, CL-CL, DTC-DTC and CLDTC, which were determined by the specific signals in 1H-NMR spectra. Based on the typical signals of the formate (δ=8.08) and hydroxyl (δ = 3.34) end groups of PDTC-co-PCL, a mechanism involving DTC monomer inserts before CL during the initiation process was presumed. Furthermore, the thermal properties of amorphous copolymer were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results support the random structure of PDTC-co-PCL.

  20. Electron transfer study on graphene modified glassy carbon substrate via electrochemical reduction and the application for tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) electrochemiluminescence sensor fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanhong; Cao, Mengmei; Liu, Huihui; Zong, Xidan; Kong, Na; Zhang, Jizhen; Liu, Jingquan

    2015-07-01

    In this study, electron transfer behavior of the graphene nanosheets attachment on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) via direct electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) is investigated for the first time. The graphene modified electrode was achieved by simply dipping the GCE in GO suspension, followed by cyclic voltammetric scanning in the potential window from 0V to -1.5V. Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) [Ru(bpy)3(2+)] was immobilized on the graphene modified electrode and used as the redox probe to evaluate the electron transfer behavior. The electron transfer rate constant (Ks) was calculated to be 61.9±5.8s(-1), which is much faster than that of tiled graphene modified GCE (7.1±0.6s(-1)). The enhanced electron transfer property observed with the GCE modified by reductively deposited graphene is probably due to its standing configuration, which is beneficial to the electron transfer comparing with the tiled one. Because the abundant oxygen-containing groups are mainly located at the edges of GO, which should be much easier for the reduction to start from, the reduced GO should tend to stand on the electrode surface as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy analysis. In addition, due to the favored electron transfer and standing configuration, the Ru(bpy)3(2+) electrochemiluminescence sensor fabricated with standing graphene modified GCE provided much higher and more stable efficiency than that fabricated with tiled graphene.

  1. Implications of a matter-radius measurement for the binding energy of, and existence of excited Efimov states in, Carbon-22

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, B; Phillips, D R

    2013-01-01

    We study Borromean 2n-halo nuclei using effective field theory. We compute the universal scaling function that relates the mean-square matter radius of the 2n halo to dimensionless ratios of two- and three-body energies. We use the experimental value of the rms matter radius of 22C measured by Tanaka et al. to put constraints on its 2n separation energy and the 20C-n virtual energy. We also explore the consequences of these constraints for the existence of excited Efimov states in this nucleus. We find that, for 22C to have an rms matter radius within 1-sigma of the experimental value, the two-neutron separation energy of 22C needs to be below 100 keV. Consequently, this three-body halo system can have an excited Efimov state only if the 20C-n system has a resonance within 1 keV of the scattering threshold.

  2. Reaction cross section of 22C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togano, Yasuhiro; Samurai Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    Reaction cross section of 22C on a carbon target at an energy of 240 MeV/nucleon have been measured by using the transmission method. The most neutron-rich carbon isotopes 22C is a candidate of a two-neutron halo nucleus. Tanaka et al. [1] measured the reaction cross section of 22C on a hydrogen target at 40 MeV/nucleon. It is showed 22C to have a large matter radius of 5 . 9 +/- 0 . 9 fm, which is much larger than the ones of carbon isotopes with N SAMURAI spectrometer at RIBF. The 22C beam at 240 MeV/nucleon was impinged on a carbon target, and the reaction product was identified by using SAMURAI spectrometer. In the present talk, the extracted reaction cross section and derived matter density distribution of 22C will be presented.

  3. Measurement of Analyzing Power for Proton-Carbon Elastic Scattering in the Coulomb-Nuclear Interference Region with a 22-GeV/c Polarized Proton Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Tojo, J; Bai, M; Bassalleck, B; Bunce, G M; Deshpande, A A; Doskow, J; Eilerts, S W; Fields, D E; Goto, Y; Huang, H; Hughes, V; Imai, K; Ishihara, M; Kanavets, V P; Kurita, K; Kwiatkowski, K K; Lewis, B; Lozowski, W R; Makdisi, Y I; Meyer, H O; Morozov, B V; Nakamura, M; Von Przewoski, B; Rinckel, T; Roser, T; Rusek, A; Saitô, N; Smith, B; Svirida, D N; Syphers, M J; Taketani, A; Thomas, T L; Underwood, D; Wolfe, D; Yamamoto, K; Zhu, L

    2002-01-01

    The analyzing power for proton-carbon elastic scattering in the coulomb-nuclear interference region of momentum transfer, $9.0\\times10^{-3}<-t<4.1\\times10^{-2}$ (GeV/$c)^{2}$, was measured with a 21.7 GeV/$c$ polarized proton beam at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The ratio of hadronic spin-flip to non-flip amplitude, $r_5$, was obtained from the analyzing power to be $\\text{Re} r_5=0.088\\pm 0.058$ and $\\text{Im} r_5=-0.161\\pm 0.226$.

  4. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence sensor for the determination of metoclopramide using ordered mesoporous carbon for immobilizing tris(2,2 -bipyridyl)ruthenium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A novel electrogenerated chemiluminescence(ECL)sensor for the determination of metoclopramide was developed by employing ruthenium complex as an ECL signal producer and an ordered mesoporous carbon(OMC)material as modified material.The ECL sensor was fabricated by adsorption ruthenium complex into a mixture of OMC and Nafion,which showed good electrochemical and ECL behaviors.It was found that the ECL intensity of the sensor fabricated was greatly enhanced in the presence of metoclopramide.Based on this fin...

  5. A hydrogen-evolving Ni(P2N2)2 electrocatalyst covalently attached to a glassy carbon electrode: preparation, characterization, and catalysis. comparisons with the homogeneous analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Atanu K; Engelhard, Mark H; Bullock, R Morris; Roberts, John A S

    2014-07-01

    A hydrogen-evolving homogeneous Ni(P2N2)2 electrocatalyst with peripheral ester groups has been covalently attached to a 1,2,3-triazolyllithium-terminated planar glassy carbon electrode surface. Coupling proceeds with both the Ni(0) and the Ni(II) complexes. X-ray photoemission spectra show excellent agreement between the Ni(0) coupling product and its parent complex, and voltammetry of the surface-confined system shows that a single species predominates with a surface density of 1.3 × 10(-10) mol cm(-2), approaching the value estimated for a densely packed monolayer. With the Ni(II) system, both photoemission and voltammetric data show speciation to unidentified products on coupling, and the surface density is 6.7 × 10(-11) mol cm(-2). The surface-confined Ni(0) complex is an electroctalyst for hydrogen evolution, showing the onset of catalytic current at the same potential as the soluble parent complex. Decomposition of the surface-confined species is observed in acidic acetonitrile. This is interpreted to reflect the lability of the Ni(II)-phosphine interaction and the basicity of the free phosphine and bears on concurrent efforts to implement surface-confined Ni(P2N2)2 complexes in electrochemical or photoelectrochemical devices.

  6. Simultaneous determination of hydrazine and phenyl hydrazine using 4′-(4-carboxyphenyl)-2,2′:6′,2″ terpyridine diacetonitrile triphenylphosphine ruthenium(II) tetrafluoroborate complex functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Ida, E-mail: idatiwari_2001@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry (Center of Advanced Study), Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India); Gupta, Mandakini; Sinha, Preeti [Department of Chemistry (Center of Advanced Study), Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India); Banks, Craig E. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Science and the Environment, Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A nanocomposite of ruthenium(II) terpyridine, triphenylphosphine based complex and multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been used first time for simultaneous detection of hydrazine and phenyl hydrazine. • The detection limit reported is lower as compared to other reported works. • The paper also focuses towards effect of ligand variation attached to ruthenium(II) terpyridine based complexes complex for the hydrazine and phenyl hydrazine detection. • Nanocomposite does not involve any biological entity hence high stability. - Abstract: A nanocomposite based on the incorporation of the complex 4′-(4-carboxyphenyl)-2,2′:6′,2″ terpyridine triphenylphosphine diacetonitrile ruthenium(II) tetrafluoroborate with multiwalled carbon nanotubes and ionomer supported upon a glassy carbon electrode substrate is reported and characterized with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior and stability of the composite electrode was investigated via cyclic voltammetry. The modified electrode exhibits an electro-catalytic activity towards the oxidation of both hydrazine and phenyl hydrazine in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH 7.4). The oxidation of hydrazine and phenyl hydrazine occurs at 0.81 V and 0.32 V with limit of detection found to be 3.7 × 10{sup −7} M and 1.15 × 10{sup −7} M and having a linear range from 5 × 10{sup −6} M to 6.5 × 10{sup −3} M, and 5 × 10{sup −6} M to 0.2 × 10{sup −3} M, respectively.

  7. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the R/V Meteor Cruise 22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A10, December 1992--January 1993)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.M.; Wallace, D.W.R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Oceanographic and Atmospheric Sciences Div.; Schneider, B. [Inst. fuer Ostseeforschung, Rostock-Warnemuende (Germany); Mintrop, L. [Univ. of Bremen (Germany). Dept. of Geosciences

    1997-04-01

    This documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}), total alkalinity at Hydrographic stations as well as the underway partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) during the R/V Meteor Cruise M22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (Section A10). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Rio de Janeiro on 27 December 1992, and ended after 36 days at sea in Capetown, South Africa on 31 January 1993. Instructions for accessing the data are provided. TCO{sub 2} was measured using tow automated sample processors for extracting CO{sub 2} from seawater samples which were coupled to a Coulometer for detection of the extracted CO{sub 2}. The overall precision and accuracy of the analyses was {+-} 1.9 {micro}mol/kg. Samples collected for total alkalinity were measured by potentiometric titration; precision was {+-} 2.0 {micro}mol/kg. Underway pCO{sub 2} was measured by Infra Red (IR) Photometry; precision was {+-} 2.0 {micro}atm. From these cruises the large-scale three-dimensional distribution of temperature, salinity, and chemical constituents, including the carbonate system parameters will be mapped. Knowledge of these parameters and their initial conditions will allow determination of heat and water transports as well as carbon transport. An understanding of these transports will contribute to the understanding of processes which are relevant for climate change. This section in the South Atlantic subtropical Gyre is especially relevant for CO{sub 2} transport because it crosses both the Brazil and the Benguela Boundary Currents.

  8. 22 CFR 228.22 - Air transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air transportation. 228.22 Section 228.22... for USAID Financing § 228.22 Air transportation. (a) The eligibility of air transportation is... U.S. flag air carriers for all international air travel and transportation, unless such service...

  9. Effects of carbon nanomaterials fullerene C{sub 60} and fullerol C{sub 60}(OH){sub 18-22} on gills of fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) exposed to ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socoowski Britto, Roberta; Longaray Garcia, Marcia; Martins da Rocha, Alessandra [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos Graduacao em Fisiologia Animal Comparada - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, FURG (Brazil); Artigas Flores, Juliana [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Pinheiro, Mauricio V. Brant [Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, MG (Brazil); Monserrat, Jose Maria [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos Graduacao em Fisiologia Animal Comparada - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, FURG (Brazil); Ribas Ferreira, Josencler L., E-mail: josenclerf@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos Graduacao em Fisiologia Animal Comparada - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, FURG (Brazil)

    2012-06-15

    In consequence of their growing use and demand, the inevitable environmental presence of nanomaterials (NMs) has raised concerns about their potential deleterious effects to aquatic environments. The carbon NM fullerene (C{sub 60}), which forms colloidal aggregates in water, and its water-soluble derivative fullerol (C{sub 60}(OH){sub 18-22}), which possesses antioxidant properties, are known to be photo-excited by ultraviolet (UV) or visible light. To investigate their potential hazards to aquatic organisms upon exposure to UV sunlight, this study analyzed (a) the in vitro behavior of fullerene and fullerol against peroxyl radicals (ROO{center_dot}) under UV-A radiation and (b) the effects of these photo-excited NMs on oxidative stress parameters in functional gills extracted from the fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae). The variables measured were the total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), the activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase (GR) and glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), and the levels of the non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH). The obtained results revealed the following: (1) both NMs behaved in vitro as antioxidants against ROO{center_dot} in the dark and as pro-oxidants in presence of UV-A, the latter effect being reversed by the addition of sodium azide, which is a singlet oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}) quencher; (2) fullerene induced toxicity with or without UV-A incidence, with a significant (p < 0.05) increase in lipid peroxidation (with greater damage under illumination), a decrease in GCL activity, and the depletion of GSH stocks (under illumination), all of which were attributed to {sup 1}O{sub 2} generation; and (3) fullerol also decreased GCL activity and GSH formation (p < 0.05) but without lipid damage. The overall results show that fullerene can be toxic with or without light incidence, whereas UV radiation seems to play a key role in the environmental toxicity of carbon NMs through {sup 1}O{sub 2} formation.

  10. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Meteor Cruise 22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A10, December 1992-January 1993)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyr, A.

    1998-12-01

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) and total alkalinity (TALK) at hydrographic stations, as well as the underway partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) during the R/V Meteor Cruise 22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (Section A10). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Rio de Janeiro on December 27, 1992, and ended after 36 days at sea in Capetown, South Africa, on January 31, 1993. Measurements made along WOCE Section A10 included pressure, temperature, and salinity [measured by conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) sensor], bottle salinity, bottle oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-1 1 , CFC-12), TCO{sub 2}, TALK, and underway pCO{sub 2}. The TCO{sub 2} was measured by using two Single-Operator Multiparameter Metabolic Analyzers (SOMMAs) for extracting CO{sub 2} from seawater samples that were coupled to a coulometer for detection of the extracted CO{sub 2}. The overall precision and accuracy of the analyses was {+-} 1.9 {micro}mol/kg. Samples collected for TALK were measured by potentiometric titration; precision was {+-}2.0 {micro}mol/kg. Underway pCO{sub 2} was measured by infrared photometry with a precision of {+-} 2.0 {micro}atm. The work aboard the R/V Meteor was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-76CHOO016, and the Bundesministerium fir Forschung und Technologies through grants 03F0545A and MPG 099/1.

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORINGS in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2005-10-22 to 2007-10-01 (NODC Accession 0100065)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0100065 includes chemical, physical and time series data collected from MOORINGS in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2005-10-22 to 2007-10-01. These data...

  12. Main: MYCATRD22 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MYCATRD22 S000174 29-Sep-1999 (last modified) kehi Binding site for MYC (rd22BP1) i...n Arabidopsis (A.t.) dehydration-resposive gene, rd22; MYC binding site in rd22 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana; ABA-induction; Loca...ted at ca. -200 of rd22 gene; Also MYB at ca. -141 of rd22 gene; See also S000175 (MYBA...TRD22); Dehydration; Water stress; ABA; MYC; myc; leaf; shoot; Arabidopsis thaliana CACATG ...

  13. Carbon dioxide effects research and assessment program. Proceedings of the International Meeting on Stable Isotopes in Tree-Ring Research, New Paltz, New York, May 22-25, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacoby, G [ed.

    1980-12-01

    Information about the past and present concentrations of CO/sub 2/ in the atmosphere and variations in climate can be obtained from measurements of stable isotopes in tree rings; specifically carbon-13, oxygen-18 and deuterium. The analysis of these stable isotopes in tree rings is a relatively new and rapidly developing field. This proceedings volume contains most of the papers presented at the meeting. The first paper gives an overview of the status of carbon-13 research. Papers relating to carbon-13 are in section I and grouped separately from the contributions on carbon-14. Although the meeting was primarily concerned with stable isotopes, all carbon isotopic analysis may be helpful in understanding the carbon-13 record in tree rings. The papers on hydrogen and oxygen isotope studies are in sections II and III respectively. The remaining sections contain papers that consider more than one isotope at a time, general topics related to isotopes, atmospheric changes and tree growth, and methods of isotopic analysis.

  14. 22 CFR 518.22 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 518.22 Payment. (a) Payment methods shall minimize the time elapsing between... and disbursement by the recipient, and (ii) Financial management systems that meet the standards...

  15. 22 CFR 135.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 135.22 Allowable... principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining...

  16. 6,12,18,24-Tetra-meth-oxy-4,10,16,22-tetra-kis-[(meth-oxy-carbon-yl)meth-oxy]-2,8,14,20-tetra-kis-(2-phenyl-eth-yl)resorcin[4]arene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansuriya, Pramod B; Friedrich, Holger B; Maguire, Glenn E M

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, C(76)H(80)O(16), is a macrocyclic structure. This novel resorcin[4]arene derivative has (meth-oxy-carbon-yl)meth-oxy 'head' groups on the upper rim. The compound has a C(2v) 'boat' geometry and there are a range of C-H⋯O contacts in the crystal structure.

  17. Reference: ABREATRD22 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ABREATRD22 Iwasaki T, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K,Shinozaki K Identification of a cis-regulatory re...gion of a gene in Arabidopsis thaliana whose induction by dehydration is mediated by abscisic acid and require

  18. Carbon Carbon Composites: An Overview .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rohini Devi

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon carbon composites are a new class of engineering materials that are ceramic in nature but exhibit brittle to pseudoplastic behaviour. Carbon-carbon is a unique all-carbon composite with carbon fibre embeded in carbon matrix and is known as an inverse composite. Due to their excellent thermo-structural properties, carbon-carbon composites are used in specialised application like re-entry nose-tips, leading edges, rocket nozzles, and aircraft brake discs apart from several industrial and biomedical applications. The multidirectional carbon-carbon product technology is versatile and offers design flexibility. This paper describes the multidirectional preform and carbon-carbon process technology and research and development activities within the country. Carbon-carbon product experience at DRDL has also been discussed. Development of carbon-carbon brake discs process technology using the liquid impregnation process is described. Further the test results on material characterisation, thermal, mechanical and tribological properties are presented.

  19. CCL22-specific T Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenaite, Evelina; Munir Ahmad, Shamaila; Hansen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating macrophages produce the chemokine CCL22, which attracts regulatory T cells (Tregs) into the tumor microenvironment, decreasing anticancer immunity. Here, we investigated the possibility of targeting CCL22-expressing cells by activating specific T cells. We...... analyzed the CCL22 protein signal sequence, identifying a human leukocyte antigen A2- (HLA-A2-) restricted peptide epitope, which we then used to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs) to expand populations of CCL22-specific T cells in vitro. T cells recognizing an epitope derived from...... the signal-peptide of CCL22 will recognize CCL22-expressing cells even though CCL22 is secreted out of the cell. CCL22-specific T cells recognized and killed CCL22-expressing cancer cells. Furthermore, CCL22-specific T cells lysed acute monocytic leukemia cells in a CCL22 expression-dependent manner. Using...

  20. VLT/UVES observations of extremely strong intervening damped Lyman-alpha systems: Molecular hydrogen and excited carbon, oxygen and silicon at log N(HI)=22.4

    CERN Document Server

    Noterdaeme, P; Rahmani, H; Petitjean, P; Pâris, I; Ledoux, C; Gupta, N; López, S

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of three extremely strong intervening DLAs (log N(HI)>=21.7) observed towards quasars with VLT/UVES. We measure overall metallicities of [Zn/H]~-1.2, -1.3 and -0.7 at respectively zabs=2.34 towards SDSS J2140-0321 (log N(HI) = 22.4+/-0.1), zabs=3.35 towards SDSS J1456+1609 (log N(HI) = 21.7+/-0.1) and zabs=2.25 towards SDSS J0154+1935 (log N(HI) = 21.75+/-0.15). We detect H2 towards J2140-0321 (log N(H2) = 20.13+/-0.07) and J1456+1609 (log N(H2) = 17.10+/-0.09) and argue for a tentative detection towards J0154+1935. Absorption from the excited fine-structure levels of OI, CI and SiII are detected in the system towards J2140-0321, that has the largest HI column density detected so far in an intervening DLA. This is the first detection of OI fine-structure lines in a QSO-DLA, that also provides us a rare possibility to study the chemical abundances of less abundant atoms like Co and Ge. Simple single phase photo-ionisation models fail to reproduce all the observed quantities. Inst...

  1. Carbon isotope anomalies in carbonates of the Karelian series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iudovich, Ia. E.; Makarikhin, V. V.; Medvedev, P. V.; Sukhanov, N. V.

    1990-07-01

    Results are presented on carbon isotope distributions in carbonates of the Karelian complex. A highly anomalous isotopic composition was found in carbonate rocks aged from 2.6 to 1.9 b.y. In the stromatolitic carbonates of the Onega water table, delta-(C-13) reaches a value of +18 percent, while the shungite layer of the Zaonega horizon is characterized by a wide dispersion (from +7.9 to -11.8 percent). These data are in good agreement with the known geochemical boundary (about 2.2 b.y. ago) in the history of the earth.

  2. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, fugacity of carbon dioxide, and other variables from surface observations using Niskin bottle, flow through pump and other instruments from NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown in the Gulf of Mexico and East Coast of the United States during the second Gulf of Mexico and East Coast Carbon (GOMECC-2) Cruise from 2012-07-22 to 2012-08-13 (NODC Accession 0117971)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains ocean acidification related data from the the second Gulf of Mexico and East Coast Carbon (GOMECC-2) Cruise on board NOAA Ship Ronald...

  3. 22 CFR 212.22 - Protection of personal privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protection of personal privacy. 212.22 Section... Information for Public Inspection and Copying § 212.22 Protection of personal privacy. To the extent required to prevent a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy, USAID may delete identifying...

  4. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at...

  5. 22 CFR 22.3 - Remittances in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remittances in the United States. 22.3 Section...-DEPARTMENT OF STATE AND FOREIGN SERVICE § 22.3 Remittances in the United States. (a) Type of remittance. Remittances shall be in the form of: (1) Check or bank draft drawn on a bank in the United States; (2)...

  6. Black carbon in deep-Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello; Druffel

    1998-06-19

    Black carbon (BC) enters the ocean through aerosol and river deposition. BC makes up 12 to 31 percent of the sedimentary organic carbon (SOC) at two deep ocean sites, and it is 2400 to 13,900 carbon-14 years older than non-BC SOC deposited concurrently. BC is likely older because it is stored in an intermediate reservoir before sedimentary deposition. Possible intermediate pools are oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and terrestrial soils. If DOC is the intermediate reservoir, then BC is 4 to 22 percent of the DOC pool. If soils are the intermediate reservoir, then the importance of riverine carbon in the ocean carbon cycle has been underestimated.

  7. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Knorr Cruises in the North Atlantic Ocean on WOCE Sections AR24 (November 2-December 5, 1996) and A24, A20, and A22 (May 30-September 3, 1997)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.M.

    2003-10-23

    This documentation describes the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) total alkalinity (TALK), and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) at hydrographic stations on the North Atlantic Ocean sections AR24, A24, A20, and A22 during the R/V Knorr Cruises 147-2, 151-2, 151-3, and 151-4 in 1996 and 1997. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the expeditions began at Woods Hole, Massachusetts, on October 24, 1996, and ended at Woods Hole on September 3, 1997. Instructions for accessing the data are provided. A total of 5,614 water samples were analyzed for discrete TCO{sub 2} using two single-operator multiparameter metabolic analyzers (SOMMAs) coupled to a coulometer for extracting and detecting CO{sub 2}. The overall accuracy of the TCO{sub 2} determination was {+-} 1.59 {micro}mol/kg. The TALK was determined in a total of 6,088 discrete samples on all sections by potentiometric titration using an automated titration system developed at the University of Miami. The accuracy of the TALK determination was {+-} 3 {micro}mol/kg. A total of 2,465 discrete water samples were collected for determination of pCO{sub 2} in seawater on sections A24, A20, and A22. The pCO{sub 2} was measured by means of an equilibrator-IR system by scientists from Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. The precision of the measurements was estimated to be about {+-} 0.15%, based on the reproducibility of the replicate equilibrations on a single hydrographic station. The North Atlantic data set is available as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The NDP consists of 12 ASCII data files, one Ocean Data View-formatted data file, a NDP-082 ASCII text file, a NDP-082 PDF file, and this printed documentation, which describes the contents and format of all files, as well as the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  8. Heat transfer coeffcient for boiling carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard; Jensen, Per Henrik

    1997-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for boiling carbon dioxide (R744) flowing in a horizontal pipe has been measured. The pipe is heated by condensing R22 outside the pipe. The heat input is supplied by an electrical heater wich evaporates the R22. With the heat flux assumed constant over...

  9. Carbonized asphaltene-based carbon-carbon fiber composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert, George; Lula, James; Bowen, III, Daniel E.

    2016-12-27

    A method of making a carbon binder-reinforced carbon fiber composite is provided using carbonized asphaltenes as the carbon binder. Combinations of carbon fiber and asphaltenes are also provided, along with the resulting composites and articles of manufacture.

  10. 40 CFR 52.22 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs). 52.22 Section 52.22 Protection of Environment... greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined in § 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter as the aggregate group of six greenhouse gases: Carbon dioxide,...

  11. Manufacturing of Nanocomposite Carbon Fibers and Composite Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Seng; Zhou, Jian-guo

    2013-01-01

    Pitch-based nanocomposite carbon fibers were prepared with various percentages of carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and the fibers were used for manufacturing composite structures. Experimental results show that these nanocomposite carbon fibers exhibit improved structural and electrical conductivity properties as compared to unreinforced carbon fibers. Composite panels fabricated from these nanocomposite carbon fibers and an epoxy system also show the same properties transformed from the fibers. Single-fiber testing per ASTM C1557 standard indicates that the nanocomposite carbon fiber has a tensile modulus of 110% higher, and a tensile strength 17.7% times higher, than the conventional carbon fiber manufactured from pitch. Also, the electrical resistance of the carbon fiber carbonized at 900 C was reduced from 4.8 to 2.2 ohm/cm. The manufacturing of the nanocomposite carbon fiber was based on an extrusion, non-solvent process. The precursor fibers were then carbonized and graphitized. The resultant fibers are continuous.

  12. Carbonate aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.; Sukop, Michael; Curran, H. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Only limited hydrogeological research has been conducted using ichnology in carbonate aquifer characterization. Regardless, important applications of ichnology to carbonate aquifer characterization include its use to distinguish and delineate depositional cycles, correlate mappable biogenically altered surfaces, identify zones of preferential groundwater flow and paleogroundwater flow, and better understand the origin of ichnofabric-related karst features. Three case studies, which include Pleistocene carbonate rocks of the Biscayne aquifer in southern Florida and Cretaceous carbonate strata of the Edwards–Trinity aquifer system in central Texas, demonstrate that (1) there can be a strong relation between ichnofabrics and groundwater flow in carbonate aquifers and (2) ichnology can offer a useful methodology for carbonate aquifer characterization. In these examples, zones of extremely permeable, ichnofabric-related macroporosity are mappable stratiform geobodies and as such can be represented in groundwater flow and transport simulations.

  13. Damage Mechanisms/Failure Mechanics of Carbon-Carbon Composite Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    cutting method was used to minimize material waste, not because * carbon-carbon is difficult to machine . 2.2 Tension Testing 2.2.1 Specimen Configuration...was made to bond the strain gages to fiber bundles if possible rather than to a layer of matrix material. Ex- tensometers were also employed to measure

  14. High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.

  15. A Novel Electrochemiluminescence Sensor Based on Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(Ⅱ) Immobilized in Nafion/Electrospun Carbon Nanofibers Composite Films%基于电纺碳纳米纤维材料的阿托品固态电化学发光传感器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀云; 徐春荧; 袁柏青; 由天艳

    2011-01-01

    将电纺碳纳米纤维(CNF)掺杂于吸附有三联吡啶[RU(bpy)32+]的Nafion聚合物膜中,制成固态电化学发光(ECL)传感器,并将其用于对阿托品的检测.实验表明,CNF的加入能够增强Ru(bpy)32+/阿托品体系的电化学和ECL信号,且Ru(bpy)32+在膜中的电化学反应受扩散控制.在最佳实验条件下,ECL强度与阿托品浓度在1 × 10-7- 1 × 10-4mol/L范围内呈良好的线性关系,其线性回归方程为 logI=6.7408 + 0.81481ogC(n=8),r=0.9967;检出限为1× 10-7 mol/L(S/N=3).考察了此传感器的重现性,对1 ×10-5 mol/L阿托品重复检测7次,ECL强度的RSD为2.86%.此传感器的稳定性结果令人满意.将此方法用于尿样中阿托品的检测,回收率在81%-88%之间.%A novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensor based on tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(Ⅱ) (Ru(bpy)32+)/electrospun carbon nanofiber (CNF)/Nafion composite films was demonstrated for the determination of atropine. The voltammetric and ECL behaviors of the presented sensor were investi-gated. The results indicated that the addition of CNF in the composite films could increase the current and ECL intensity of Ru(bpy)32+ , and the immobilized Ru(bpy)32+ performed a diffusion-controlled process. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the proposed ECL sensor gave a wide linear range (r= 0.9967) from 1 × 10-7 mol/L to 1 × 10-4 mol/L with a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 1×10-7 mol/L for atropine. The relative standard deviation for 1 × 10-5 mol/L atropine is 2. 9% (n = 7) , and the present ECL sensor displays outstanding stability. The ECL sensor was also demonstrated for the determina-tion of atropine in human urine sample and satisfactory results were obtained.

  16. Isolation and characterization of Rhodococcus sp. Y22 and its potential application to tobacco processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao-Wei; Yang, Jin-Kui; Duan, Yan-Qin; Dong, Jin-Yan; Zhe, Wei; Wang, Le; Li, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2009-04-01

    A novel nicotine-degrading bacterium, strain Y22, was isolated and identified as Rhodococcus sp. Y22 based on its 16S rDNA sequence and morphological and biochemical features. The isolate could utilize nicotine as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Nicotine (1.0g/L) was degraded by Rhodococcus sp. Y22 within 52h at 28 degrees C and pH 7.0. Preparation of resting cells from nicotine-induced cultures was found to rapidly and efficiently degrade nicotine from solutions as well as from tobacco leaves. Therefore, Rhodococcus sp. Y22 has the potential to degrade nicotine during tobacco leave processing.

  17. Carbon classified?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    How does a corporation know it emits carbon? Acquiring such knowledge starts with the classification of environmentally relevant consumption information. This paper visits the corporate location at which this underlying element for their knowledge is assembled to give rise to carbon emissions. Us...

  18. Porous carbons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satish M Manocha

    2003-02-01

    Carbon in dense as well as porous solid form is used in a variety of applications. Activated porous carbons are made through pyrolysis and activation of carbonaceous natural as well as synthetic precursors. Pyrolysed woods replicate the structure of original wood but as such possess very low surface areas and poor adsorption capacities. On activation, these exhibit increased adsorption volumes of 0.5–0.8 cm3 /gm and surface areas of 700–1800 m2 /gm depending on activation conditions, whether physical or chemical. Former carbons possess mixed pore size distribution while chemically activated carbons predominantly possess micropores. Thus, these carbons can be used for adsorption of wide distributions of molecules from gas to liquid. The molecular adsorption within the pores is due to single layer or multilayer molecule deposition at the pore walls and hence results in different types of adsorption isotherm. On the other hand, activated carbon fibres with controlled microporous structure and surface area in the range of 2500 m2 /gm can be developed by controlled pyrolysis and physical activation of amorphous carbon fibres. Active carbon fibres with unmatchable pore structure and surface characteristics are present and futuristic porous materials for a number of applications from pollution control to energy storage.

  19. Carbon photonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konov, V I [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    The properties of new carbon materials (single-crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond films and wafers, single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene) and the prospects of their use as optical elements and devices are discussed. (optical elements of laser devices)

  20. 22 CFR 191.22 - Administration of benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 191.22 Administration of benefits. (a) An eligible person, who desires medical or health care under... shall include a determination as to the necessity and reasonableness of medical or health care. (c) The... authorized care from any licensed facility or health care provider of their choice approved by the Office....

  1. Carbon-Carbon Piston Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Schwind, Francis A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An improved structure for carbon-carbon composite piston architectures is disclosed. The improvement consists of replacing the knitted fiber, three-dimensional piston preform architecture described in U.S. Pat.No. 4,909,133 (Taylor et al.) with a two-dimensional lay-up or molding of carbon fiber fabric or tape. Initially, the carbon fabric of tape layers are prepregged with carbonaceous organic resins and/or pitches and are laid up or molded about a mandrel, to form a carbon-fiber reinforced organic-matrix composite part shaped like a "U" channel, a "T"-bar, or a combination of the two. The molded carbon-fiber reinforced organic-matrix composite part is then pyrolized in an inert atmosphere, to convert the organic matrix materials to carbon. At this point, cylindrical piston blanks are cored from the "U"-channel, "T"-bar, or combination part. These blanks are then densified by reimpregnation with resins or pitches which are subsequently carbonized. Densification is also accomplished by direct infiltration with carbon by vapor deposition processes. Once the desired density has been achieved, the piston billets are machined to final piston dimensions; coated with oxidation sealants; and/or coated with a catalyst. When compared to conventional steel or aluminum alloy pistons, the use of carbon-carbon composite pistons reduces the overall weight of the engine; allows for operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength; allows for quieter operation; reduces the heat loss; and reduces the level of hydrocarbon emissions.

  2. Carbon cyclist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    A satellite launched in early August as part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth could dramatically increase understanding of how carbon cycles through the Earth's biosphere and living organisms and how this process influences global climate. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) will measure the color of the oceans with a radiometer to determine the concentration of chlorophyll found in oceanic phytoplankton. The single-celled plants, at the base of food chains around the world, remove carbon dioxide from seawater through photosynthesis, which allows oceans to absorb more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

  3. Carbon Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T. Lloyd Evans

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, the present state of knowledge of the carbon stars is discussed. Particular attention is given to issues of classification, evolution, variability, populations in our own and other galaxies, and circumstellar material.

  4. Carbon Nanoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory D. Cress

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Initiated by the first single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT transistors [1,2], and reinvigorated with the isolation of graphene [3], the field of carbon-based nanoscale electronic devices and components (Carbon Nanoelectronics for short has developed at a blistering pace [4]. Comprising a vast number of scientists and engineers that span materials science, physics, chemistry, and electronics, this field seeks to provide an evolutionary transition path to address the fundamental scaling limitations of silicon CMOS [5]. Concurrently, researchers are actively investigating the use of carbon nanomaterials in applications including back-end interconnects, high-speed optoelectronic applications [6], spin-transport [7], spin tunnel barrier [8], flexible electronics, and many more.

  5. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from ROGER REVELLE in the Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean from 2007-03-22 to 2007-05-01 (NODC Accession 0110791)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0110791 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from ROGER REVELLE in the Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean from 2007-03-22 to 2007-05-01....

  6. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the Hokusei Maru in the North Pacific Ocean from 1998-06-22 to 1998-07-06 (NODC Accession 0112238)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112238 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Hokusei Maru in the North Pacific Ocean from 1998-06-22 to...

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the SHUMPU MARU in the Philippine Sea from 1998-04-22 to 1998-04-30 (NODC Accession 0112302)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112302 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from SHUMPU MARU in the Philippine Sea from 1998-04-22 to...

  8. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from 2005-01-11 to 2005-02-22 (NODC Accession 0108064)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108064 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from 2005-01-11 to 2005-02-22...

  9. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean from 2008-03-22 to 2008-04-17 (NODC Accession 0109900)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109900 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean from 2008-03-22...

  10. Infiltrated carbon foam composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  11. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA CARBON FOOTPRINTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R. C.; Nugent, P. [Computational Cosmology Center, Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road MS 50B-4206, Berkeley, CA 94611 (United States); Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Childress, M.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Loken, S. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et des Hautes Energies, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universite Paris Diderot Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Baltay, C. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06250-8121 (United States); Buton, C.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kowalski, M.; Paech, K. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622 Lyon (France); and others

    2011-12-10

    We present convincing evidence of unburned carbon at photospheric velocities in new observations of five Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained by the Nearby Supernova Factory. These SNe are identified by examining 346 spectra from 124 SNe obtained before +2.5 days relative to maximum. Detections are based on the presence of relatively strong C II {lambda}6580 absorption 'notches' in multiple spectra of each SN, aided by automated fitting with the SYNAPPS code. Four of the five SNe in question are otherwise spectroscopically unremarkable, with ions and ejection velocities typical of SNe Ia, but spectra of the fifth exhibit high-velocity (v > 20, 000 km s{sup -1}) Si II and Ca II features. On the other hand, the light curve properties are preferentially grouped, strongly suggesting a connection between carbon-positivity and broadband light curve/color behavior: three of the five have relatively narrow light curves but also blue colors and a fourth may be a dust-reddened member of this family. Accounting for signal to noise and phase, we estimate that 22{sup +10}{sub -6%} of SNe Ia exhibit spectroscopic C II signatures as late as -5 days with respect to maximum. We place these new objects in the context of previously recognized carbon-positive SNe Ia and consider reasonable scenarios seeking to explain a physical connection between light curve properties and the presence of photospheric carbon. We also examine the detailed evolution of the detected carbon signatures and the surrounding wavelength regions to shed light on the distribution of carbon in the ejecta. Our ability to reconstruct the C II {lambda}6580 feature in detail under the assumption of purely spherical symmetry casts doubt on a 'carbon blobs' hypothesis, but does not rule out all asymmetric models. A low volume filling factor for carbon, combined with line-of-sight effects, seems unlikely to explain the scarcity of detected carbon in SNe Ia by itself.

  12. 32 CFR 2700.22 - Classification guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification guides. 2700.22 Section 2700.22... SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS Derivative Classification § 2700.22 Classification guides. OMSN shall issue classification guides pursuant to section 2-2 of E.O. 12065. These guides, which shall be used...

  13. Interaction cross section study of the two-neutron halo nucleus 22C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togano, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Kondo, Y.; Tostevin, J. A.; Saito, A. T.; Gibelin, J.; Orr, N. A.; Achouri, N. L.; Aumann, T.; Baba, H.; Delaunay, F.; Doornenbal, P.; Fukuda, N.; Hwang, J. W.; Inabe, N.; Isobe, T.; Kameda, D.; Kanno, D.; Kim, S.; Kobayashi, N.; Kobayashi, T.; Kubo, T.; Leblond, S.; Lee, J.; Marqués, F. M.; Minakata, R.; Motobayashi, T.; Murai, D.; Murakami, T.; Muto, K.; Nakashima, T.; Nakatsuka, N.; Navin, A.; Nishi, S.; Ogoshi, S.; Otsu, H.; Sato, H.; Satou, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Takahashi, K.; Takeda, H.; Takeuchi, S.; Tanaka, R.; Tuff, A. G.; Vandebrouck, M.; Yoneda, K.

    2016-10-01

    The interaction cross sections (σI) of the very neutron-rich carbon isotopes 19C, 20C and 22C have been measured on a carbon target at 307, 280, and 235 MeV/nucleon, respectively. A σI of 1.280 ± 0.023 b was obtained for 22C, significantly larger than for 19,20C, supporting the halo character of 22C. A 22C root-mean-squared matter radius of 3.44 ± 0.08 fm was deduced using a four-body Glauber reaction model. This value is smaller than an earlier estimate (of 5.4 ± 0.9 fm) derived from a σI measurement on a hydrogen target at 40 MeV/nucleon. These new, higher-precision σI data provide stronger constraints for assessing the consistency of theories describing weakly bound nuclei.

  14. Politisk danning etter 22. juli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Løvlie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Political education after july 22. This article makes the case fordeliberation as a major end-in-view for a political education in the general sense. The immediate backdrop is the neofascist ideology of Anders Behring Breivik and his ilk, an ideology that may partly explain the motive behind the devastation of government buildings in Oslo and the following mass shooting at Utøya on July 22. My intention here will, however, be limited to the question: what is basic to the idea of deliberation? My answer is twofold: deliberation is a reasonable method for arriving at a possible and temporary agreement on questions of truth and morality; and it is based on some – usually tacit – mutual presuppositions. These two aspects together make deliberation educative and part of an education for deliberative democracy. Without deliberation as a method we are unable to get at what John Dewey used to call “warranted assertibility”. Without deliberation as embedded in joint assumptions we would be unable to distinguish between method as wayward gibberish and as reasonable conversation. On pain of being presumptuous I invite the reader to this short educative stroll!

  15. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor if you have or have ever had kidney disease or stomach conditions.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking calcium carbonate, call your doctor.

  16. Synthesis of carbon-14 labeled vigabatrin. [Antieplileptic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, A.J.; Wagner, E.R. (Marion Merrell Dow Inc, Indianapolis, IN (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Carbon-14 labeled vigabatrin was synthesized in 5 steps from 5-hydroxymethyl-2-pyrrolidone tosylate and NaCN-[[sup 14]C]. A key step involved reduction of the resulting nitrile in the presence of excess dimethylamine to give the dimethylamino-ethyl 2-pyrrolidone derivative in one step. This afforded an overall radiochemical yield of 22% and radiochemical purity greater than 98%. (Author).

  17. 47 CFR 22.99 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... See §§ 22.911(c) and 22.912. Facsimile service. Transmission of still images from one place to another...)). Telecommunications common carrier. An individual, partnership, association, joint-stock company, trust or...

  18. 13 CFR 307.22 - Variances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variances. 307.22 Section 307.22 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ECONOMIC... Federal, State and local law....

  19. Controllable fabrication of carbon aerogels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ya'ning; MIAO Lei; TANEMURA Sakae; TANEMURA Masaki; SUZUKI Kenzi

    2006-01-01

    Nano-pore carbon aerogels were prepared by the sol-gel polymerization of resorcinol (1,3-dihydroxybenzene)(C6H4(OH)2) with formaldehyde (HCHO) in a slightly basic aqueous solution, followed by super-critical drying under liquid carbon dioxide as super-critical media and carbonization at 700 ℃ under N2 gas atmosphere. The key of the work is to fabricate carbon aerogels with controllable nano-pore structure, which means extremely high surface area and sharp pore size distribution. Aiming to investigate the effects of preparation conditions on the gelation process, the bulk density, and the physical and chemical structure of the resultant carbon aerogels, the molar ratio of R/C (resorcinol to catalyst) and the amount of distilled water were varied, consequently two different sets of samples, with series of R/C ratio and RF/W (Resorcinol-Formaldehyde to water, or the content of reactant) ratio, were prepared. The result of N2 adsorption/desorption experiment at 77 K shows that the pore sizes decreasing from 11.4 down tO2.2 nm with the increasing of the molar ratio of R/C from 100 to 400, and/or, the pore sizes decreasing from 3.8 down to 1.6 nm with the increasing of reactant content from 0.4 to 0.6.

  20. 2-(2-Isopropylphenoxyacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Hussein Issa Mohammed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C11H14O3, the pendant –OCH2COOH chain is in an extended conformation and almost lies in the plane of the benzene ring, as indicated by the dihedral angle of 2.61 (5°. In the crystal, molecules are linked by a pair of O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming classical carboxylic acid inversion dimers, with an R22(8 loop. The crystal structure of this compound have been reported previously [Smith et al. (1992. Aust. J. Chem. 45, 1101–1108], however, in that report, the unit-cell dimensions differ significantly from those of the title structure and the carboxyl H atom was disordered within a cyclic hydrogen-bonded dimer.

  1. 10 CFR 75.22 - Accounting records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting records. 75.22 Section 75.22 Energy NUCLEAR... Accounting and Control for Facilities § 75.22 Accounting records. (a) The accounting records required by § 75... determination of the book inventory at any time; (2) All measurement results that are used for determination...

  2. 47 CFR 22.355 - Frequency tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 22.355 Section 22.355... Operational and Technical Requirements Technical Requirements § 22.355 Frequency tolerance. Except as... must be maintained within the tolerances given in Table C-1 of this section. Table...

  3. 7 CFR 29.22 - Appeal inspector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appeal inspector. 29.22 Section 29.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.22 Appeal inspector. An inspector or other person designated...

  4. 45 CFR 1151.22 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing facilities. 1151.22 Section 1151.22... Prohibited Accessibility § 1151.22 Existing facilities. (a) A recipient shall operate each program or... make each of its existing facilities or every part of a facility accessible to and usable...

  5. 45 CFR 605.22 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing facilities. 605.22 Section 605.22 Public... Accessibility § 605.22 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate each program or... existing facilities or every part of a facility accessible to and usable by qualified handicapped...

  6. 34 CFR 104.22 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing facilities. 104.22 Section 104.22 Education... Accessibility § 104.22 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate its program or activity.... This paragraph does not require a recipient to make each of its existing facilities or every part of...

  7. 49 CFR 1.22 - Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Structure. 1.22 Section 1.22 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ORGANIZATION AND DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES Office of the Secretary § 1.22 Structure. (a) Secretary and Deputy Secretary. The Secretary and Deputy Secretary...

  8. 47 CFR 22.957 - Mexican condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mexican condition. 22.957 Section 22.957... Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.957 Mexican condition. Pursuant to an agreement between the United... States-Mexican border must have the following condition attached: This authorization is subject to...

  9. 48 CFR 22.1101 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability. 22.1101 Section 22.1101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Professional Employee Compensation 22.1101 Applicability. The Service Contract Act of...

  10. 29 CFR 22.34 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Evidence. 22.34 Section 22.34 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 22.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the... unfair prejudice, confusion of the issues, or by considerations of undue delay or needless...

  11. 30 CFR 281.22 - Lease form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lease form. 281.22 Section 281.22 Mineral... OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Leasing Procedures § 281.22 Lease form. The OCS mineral leases shall be issued on the lease form prescribed by the Secretary in the leasing notice....

  12. 40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurement instrumentation. 201.22 Section 201.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT... Criteria § 201.22 Measurement instrumentation. (a) A sound level meter or alternate sound level...

  13. 30 CFR 282.22 - Delineation Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delineation Plan. 282.22 Section 282.22 Mineral... § 282.22 Delineation Plan. All exploration activities shall be conducted in accordance with a Delineation Plan submitted by the lessee and approved by the Director. The Delineation Plan shall describe...

  14. 47 CFR 22.1015 - Repeater operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater operation. 22.1015 Section 22.1015... Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1015 Repeater operation. Offshore central stations may be used as repeater stations provided that the licensee is able to maintain control of the station, and in...

  15. 7 CFR 993.22 - Consumer package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer package. 993.22 Section 993.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.22 Consumer package. Consumer package means: (a)...

  16. 30 CFR 725.22 - Financial management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial management. 725.22 Section 725.22... PROGRAM REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.22 Financial management. (a) The agency shall account for grant funds in accordance with the requirements of Office of Management and Budget Circular...

  17. 14 CFR 35.22 - Feathering propellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feathering propellers. 35.22 Section 35.22 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.22 Feathering propellers. (a) Feathering propellers...

  18. 28 CFR 551.22 - Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pregnancy. 551.22 Section 551.22 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.22 Pregnancy. (a) The Warden shall ensure that each...

  19. 19 CFR 111.22 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 111.22 Section 111.22 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.22...

  20. 4 CFR 28.22 - Administrative judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative judges. 28.22 Section 28.22 Accounts... Procedures Hearing Procedures for Cases Before the Board-General § 28.22 Administrative judges. (a) Exercise of authority. Administrative judges may exercise authority as provided in paragraph (b) of...

  1. 16 CFR 460.22 - Tax claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tax claims. 460.22 Section 460.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.22 Tax claims. Do not say or imply that your product qualifies for a tax benefit unless it is true....

  2. 28 CFR 26.22 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements. 26.22 Section 26.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEATH SENTENCES PROCEDURES Certification Process for State Capital Counsel Systems § 26.22 Requirements. A state meets the requirements for certification under 28...

  3. 32 CFR 806.22 - Time limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time limits. 806.22 Section 806.22 National... INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.22 Time limits. Any FOIA appeals received after the 60-day time limit are not processed, unless the requester provides adequate justification for failing to comply with the time...

  4. 7 CFR 983.22 - Pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pistachios. 983.22 Section 983.22 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.22 Pistachios. Pistachios means the nuts of the pistachio...

  5. 7 CFR 22.201 - Coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coordination. 22.201 Section 22.201 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and Responsibilities of Federal Government § 22.201 Coordination. The following identifies types and levels of coordination: (a)...

  6. 7 CFR 22.307 - Program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program evaluation. 22.307 Section 22.307 Agriculture... Governments § 22.307 Program evaluation. The Department of Agriculture is responsible for continuous program evaluation to determine if individual projects and the entire program is cost effective in terms of...

  7. 32 CFR 518.22 - Reports control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reports control. 518.22 Section 518.22 National... RELATIONS THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM Reports § 518.22 Reports control. (a) General. (1) The... requirement outlined is assigned Report Control Symbol DD-DA&M(A)1365, FOIA Report to Congress. (b)...

  8. 44 CFR 62.22 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Judicial review. 62.22 Section 62.22 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... ADJUSTMENT OF CLAIMS Claims Adjustment, Claims Appeals, and Judicial Review § 62.22 Judicial review. (a)...

  9. 31 CFR 3.22 - Legal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.22 Section 3.22 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury CLAIMS REGULATIONS AND INDEMNIFICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Small Claims Act § 3.22 Legal review....

  10. 32 CFR 169a.22 - Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 169a.22 Section 169a.22 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Reporting Requirements § 169a.22 Responsibilities. The responsibilities...

  11. 7 CFR 923.22 - Nomination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... committee, together with nominations for the initial alternate members for each position, may be submitted... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination. 923.22 Section 923.22 Agriculture... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Body § 923.22 Nomination. (a)...

  12. 7 CFR 920.22 - Nomination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Body § 920.22 Nomination. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the committee... recommended by the committee and approved by the Secretary. (c) Only growers may participate in the nomination... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination. 920.22 Section 920.22...

  13. 7 CFR 925.22 - Nomination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... event nominations for initial members and alternate members of the committee are not filed pursuant to... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination. 925.22 Section 925.22 Agriculture... SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Administrative Body § 925.22 Nomination. (a) Initial members. Nominations for each...

  14. 7 CFR 922.22 - Nomination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Body § 922.22 Nomination. (a) Initial members. Nominations for each of the eight initial grower members and four initial handler members of the committee... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination. 922.22 Section 922.22...

  15. 12 CFR 404.22 - Government contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Government contracts. 404.22 Section 404.22 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES INFORMATION DISCLOSURE Access to Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 404.22 Government contracts. (a) Approval by Assistant General Counsel...

  16. 49 CFR 1018.22 - Personal interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personal interviews. 1018.22 Section 1018.22... § 1018.22 Personal interviews. (a) The Board may seek an interview with the debtor at the offices of the... grant an interview with a debtor upon the debtor's request. The Board will not reimburse a...

  17. 49 CFR 22.69 - Claim process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Claim process. 22.69 Section 22.69 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SHORT-TERM LENDING PROGRAM (STLP) Loan Administration § 22.69 Claim process. After reasonable efforts have been exhausted to collect on a delinquent debt,...

  18. Main: OPAQUE2ZM22Z [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available OPAQUE2ZM22Z S000017 17-May-2001 (last modified) uchi Opaque-2 (O2) target sequence...ene: maize 22-kD zein; transacting factor: 02; O2; opaque; 22-kD zein; seed; ACGT; opaque-2; maize (Zea mays) TCCACGTAGA ...

  19. 50 CFR 401.22 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights. 401.22 Section 401.22..., DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.22 Civil rights. Each application for Federal assistance, grant-in-aid award... Assisted Programs of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and with the Secretary's regulations...

  20. 30 CFR 735.22 - Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Audit. 735.22 Section 735.22 Mineral Resources... ENFORCEMENT § 735.22 Audit. The agency shall arrange for an independent audit no less frequently than once..., Attachment P. The audits will be performed in accordance with the “Standards for Audit of...

  1. 21 CFR 820.22 - Quality audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quality audit. 820.22 Section 820.22 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Quality System Requirements § 820.22 Quality audit. Each manufacturer shall establish procedures for quality audits and conduct such audits to assure that the quality system is...

  2. 50 CFR 22.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... as determined by the continuing absence of any adult, egg, or dependent young at the nest for at... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 22.3 Section 22.3 Wildlife... (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS Introduction § 22.3 Definitions. In addition to the definitions contained in...

  3. 7 CFR 1205.22 - State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State. 1205.22 Section 1205.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.22 State. The term State means each of the...

  4. 14 CFR 372.22 - Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination. 372.22 Section 372.22... REGULATIONS OVERSEAS MILITARY PERSONNEL CHARTERS Conditions and Limitations § 372.22 Discrimination. No... any unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any...

  5. 7 CFR 1218.22 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1218.22 Section 1218.22 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.22 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  6. 7 CFR 11.22 - Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functions. 11.22 Section 11.22 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL APPEALS DIVISION Organization And Functions § 11.22 Functions... Director for Hearings and Administration. Responsible for all administrative functions of NAD,...

  7. 28 CFR 0.22 - General functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General functions. 0.22 Section 0.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys § 0.22 General functions. The Executive Office for United States Attorneys shall...

  8. 12 CFR 228.22 - Lending test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lending test. 228.22 Section 228.22 Banks and... REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.22 Lending test. (a) Scope of test. (1) The lending test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of its assessment...

  9. 36 CFR 1002.22 - Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property. 1002.22 Section 1002.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.22 Property. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Abandoning property. (2)...

  10. 36 CFR 2.22 - Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property. 2.22 Section 2.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.22 Property. (a) The following are prohibited: (1)...

  11. 32 CFR 22.415 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards. 22.415 Section 22.415 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS DoD... Procedures § 22.415 Standards. To be qualified, a potential recipient must: (a) Have the...

  12. Determination the Hydrogen Stored in Carbon Nanotubes by NO Titration Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A novel method was established to determine the H2-storage capacity in carbon nanotubes. According to 2NO+2H2 (or 4H) = N2+2H2O reaction, the H2-storage capacity in carbon nanotubes could be calculated. The H2-storage capacity in carbon nanotubes is at least 2.89 wt%.

  13. Poly(urethane–carbonate)s from Carbon Dioxide

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zuliang

    2017-03-09

    A one-pot, two-step protocol for the direct synthesis of polyurethanes containing few carbonate linkages through polycondensation of diamines, dihalides, and CO2 in the presence of Cs2CO3 and tetrabutylammonium bromide is described. The conditions were optimized by studying the polycondensation of CO2 with 1,6-hexanediamine and 1,4-dibromobutane as model monomers. Then, various diamines and dihalides were tested under optimal conditions. Miscellaneous samples of such carbonate-containing polyurethanes exhibiting molar masses from 6000 to 22 000 g/mol (GPC) and yields higher than 85% were obtained. The thermal properties of such polyurethanes were unveiled by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA): they were found very similar to those of traditional polyurethanes obtained by diisocyanates + diols polycondensation.

  14. Preparation of composite electroheat carbon film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Jin-tong; TU Chuan-jun; LI Yan; HU Li-min; DENG Jiu-hua

    2005-01-01

    A kind of conductive and heating unit, which can reach a high surface electroheat temperature at a low voltage, was developed in view of the traditional electroheat coating which has a low surface electroheat temperature and an insufficient heat resistance of its binder. The coating molded electroheat carbon film(CMECF) was prepared by carbonizing the coating which was prepared by adding modified resin into flake graphite and carbon fiber, coating molded onto the surface of the heat resisting matrix after dried, while the hot pressing molded electroheat thick carbon film(HPMETCF) was prepared by carbonizing the bodies whose powders were hot pressing molded directly.The surface and inner microstructure of the carbon film was characterized and analyzed by SEM and DSC/TG, while electroheat property was tested by voltage-current volume resistivity tester and electrical parameter tester. The results show that, close-packed carbon network configuration is formed within the composite electroheat carbon film film after anti-oxidizable treatment reaches a higher surface electroheat temperature than that of the existing electroheat coatings at a low voltage, and has excellent electroheat property, high thermal efficiency as well as stable physicochemical property. It is found that, at room temperature(19± 2 ℃) and 22 V for 5 min, the surface electroheat temperature of the self-produced CMECF (mfiller/mresin = 1. 8/1) reaches 112 ℃ while HPMETCF (mfiller/mresin = 3. 6/1) reaches 265 ℃.

  15. Carbonic inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Kerkhof, Alfons; Thiéry, Régis

    2001-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the phase relations in carbonic fluid inclusions with pure, binary and ternary mixtures of the system CO 2-CH 4-N 2, compositions, which are frequently found in geological materials. Phase transitions involving liquid, gas and solid phases in the temperature range between -192°C and 31°C are discussed and presented in phase diagrams ( PT, TX and VX projections). These diagrams can be applied for the interpretation of microthermometry data in order to determine fluid composition and molar volume (or density).

  16. Fabrication of implanted $^{22}$Na targets

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A knowledge of the $^{22}$Na(p,$\\gamma$)$^{23}$ Mg reaction rate is of significant astrophysical interest. In order to complete previous studies of this reaction, radioactive $^{22}$Na targets of high purity are required. We ask for support to fabricate these targets via the implantation technique at ISOLDE GPS (off—line mode) using $^{22}$Na nuclides in an Al matrix produced in Nov. 1990 at the PSI (Zürich). The $^{22}$Na nuclides are released and ionized in a surface ionisation source, mass-analyzed at ISOLDE GPS, and implanted in a Ni-Ta backing and a C—foil in a special implantation setup.

  17. Biodegradation of Chlorpyrifos by Pseudomonas Resinovarans Strain AST2.2 Isolated from Enriched Cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Sharma*,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A bacterial strain AST2.2 with chlorpyrifos degrading ability was isolated by enrichment technique from apple orchard soil with previous history of chlorpyrifos use. Based on the morphological, biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequence analysis, AST2.2 strain was identified as Pseudomonas resinovarans. The strain AST2.2 utilized chlorpyrifos as the sole source of carbon and energy. This strain exhibited growth upto 400mg/l concentration of chlorpyrifos and exhibited high extracellular organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH activity. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID studies revealed that Pseudomonas resinovarans AST2.2 degraded 43.90 % of chlorpyrifos (400 mg/l within 96 hrs. Intermediates of chlorpyrifos degradation were identified using GC-MS. This strain have potential to degrade chlorpyrifos and thus can be used for bioremediation and ecological restoration of sites contaminated with chlorpyrifos.

  18. Constraints on two-neutron separation energy in the Borromean $^{22}$C nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Yamashita, M T; Frederico, T; Tomio, L

    2011-01-01

    The recently extracted matter radius of carbon isotope $^{22}$C allows us to estimate the mean-square distance of a halo neutron with respect to the center-of-mass of this nucleus. By considering this information, we suggest an energy region for an experimental investigation of the unbound $^{21}$C virtual state. Our analysis, in a renormalized zero-ranged three-body model, also indicates that the two-neutron separation energy in $^{22}$C is expected to be found below $\\sim$0.4~MeV, where the $^{22}$C is approximated by a Borromean configuration with a pointlike $^{20}$C and two $s$-wave halo neutrons. A virtual-state energy of $^{21}$C close to zero, would make the $^{22}$C, within Borromean nuclei configurations, the most promising candidate to present an excited bound Efimov state or a continuum three-body resonance.

  19. Carbon Farming as a Carbon Negative Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.; Laird, D.; Hayes, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon farms have a pivotal role in national and international efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change. A carbon farm in its broadest sense is one that reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or captures and holds carbon in vegetation and soils. Their capacity to remove carbon from the air and store it safely and permanently, while providing additional human and ecosystem benefits, means they could contribute significantly to national efforts to stabilize or reduce GHGs. We examine carbon farms in the context of corn and soybean production agriculture. We illustrate, using Iowa data but with relevance across United States corn and soybean production, the potential for carbon farms to reduce human GHG emissions and sequester carbon permanently at a rate that has meaningful impact on global greenhouse gas concentration. Carbon has been viewed as a next generation cash crop in Iowa for over a decade. The carbon farm perspective, however, goes beyond carbon as cash crop to make carbon the center of an entire farm enterprise. The transformation is possible through slight adjustment crop practices mixed with advances in technology to sequester carbon through biochar. We examine carbon balance of Iowa agriculture given only the combination of slight reduction in fertilizer and sequestration by biochar. We find the following. Iowa carbon farms could turn Iowa agriculture into a carbon sink. The estimated range of GHG reduction by statewide implementation of carbon farms is 19.46 to 90.27 MMt CO2-equivalent (CO2-e), while the current agricultural CO2-e emission estimate is 35.38 MMt CO2-e. Iowa carbon farm GHG reduction would exceed Iowa GHG reduction by wind energy (8.7 MMt CO2-e) and could exceed combined reductions from wind energy and corn grain ethanol (10.7 MMt CO2-e; 19.4 MMt CO2-e combined). In fact, Iowa carbon farms alone could exceed GHG reduction from national corn grain ethanol production (39.6 MMt CO2-e). A carbon price accessible to agricultural

  20. Inorganic carbon and fossil organic carbon are source of bias for quantification of sequestered carbon in mine spoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindušková, Olga; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Carbon sequestration in mine soils has been studied as a possibility to mitigate the rising atmospheric CO2 levels and to improve mine soil quality (Vindu\\vsková and Frouz, 2013). Moreover, these soils offer an unique opportunity to study soil carbon dynamics using the chronosequence approach (using a set of sites of different age on similar parent material). However, quantification of sequestered carbon in mine soils is often complicated by fossil organic carbon (e.g., from coal or kerogen) or inorganic carbon present in the spoil. We present a methodology for quantification of both of these common constituents of mine soils. Our recommendations are based on experiments done on post-mining soils in Sokolov basin, Czech Republic. Here, fossil organic carbon is present mainly as kerogen Type I and II and represents 2-6 wt.% C in these soils. Inorganic carbon in these soils is present mainly as siderite (FeCO3), calcite (CaCO3), and dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2). All of these carbonates are often found in the overburden of coal seams thus being a common constituent of post-mining soils in the world. Vindu\\vsková O, Frouz J, 2013. Soil carbon accumulation after open-cast coal and oil shale mining in Northern Hemisphere: a quantitative review. ENVIRONMENTAL EARTH SCIENCES, 69: 1685-1698. Vindu\\vsková O, Dvořáček V, Prohasková A, Frouz J. 2014. Distinguishing recent and fossil organic matter - A critical step in evaluation of post-mining soil development - using near infrared spectroscopy. ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING. 73: 643-648. Vindu\\vsková O, Sebag D, Cailleau G, Brus J, Frouz J. 2015. Methodological comparison for quantitative analysis of fossil and recently derived carbon in mine soils with high content of aliphatic kerogen. ORGANIC GEOCHEMISTRY, 89-90:14-22.

  1. Carbon Monoxide Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Working with the Media Fire Protection Technology Carbon monoxide safety outreach materials Help inform residents in ... with these messages and free materials. What is carbon monoxide? Carbon monoxide, also known as CO, is ...

  2. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and smokers. Carbon monoxide can harm a fetus (unborn baby still in the womb). Symptoms of carbon ... symptoms Outlook (Prognosis) Carbon monoxide poisoning can cause death. For those who survive, recovery is slow. How ...

  3. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  4. 15 CFR 996.22 - Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification. 996.22 Section 996.22... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE QUALITY ASSURANCE AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES QUALITY ASSURANCE AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS...

  5. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1219.22 Section 1219.22 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions §...

  6. 7 CFR 1230.22 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1230.22 Section 1230.22 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions §...

  7. 30 CFR 22.7 - Specific requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific requirements. 22.7 Section 22.7 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... on a wood floor from a height of 3 feet. Parts that are strapped to the user may be subjected to...

  8. 48 CFR 22.103-1 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition. 22.103-1... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 22.103-1 Definition... does not exceed the norm for the area, as determined by local custom, tradition, or law; and (2)...

  9. 21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... “hydrolyzed milk protein” is not an acceptable name for this ingredient because it is not specific to the ingredient (hydrolysates can be prepared from other milk proteins). The names “hydrolyzed vegetable protein... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protein hydrolysates. 102.22 Section 102.22...

  10. 17 CFR 9.22 - Appeal brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appeal brief. 9.22 Section 9... Appeals § 9.22 Appeal brief. (a) Time to file. Any person who has filed a notice of appeal in accordance with the provisions of § 9.20 must perfect the appeal by filing an appeal brief with the...

  11. 33 CFR 2.22 - Territorial sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Territorial sea. 2.22 Section 2... Jurisdictional Terms § 2.22 Territorial sea. (a) With respect to the United States, the following apply— (1) Territorial sea means the waters, 12 nautical miles wide, adjacent to the coast of the United States...

  12. 7 CFR 1730.22 - Borrower analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrower analysis. 1730.22 Section 1730.22... Borrower analysis. (a) Each borrower shall periodically analyze and document its security, operations and... any, the borrower's written analysis would also include a review of the operator's performance...

  13. 24 CFR 3500.22 - Severability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Severability. 3500.22 Section 3500.22 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  14. 7 CFR 322.22 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General requirements. 322.22 Section 322.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Transit...

  15. Air Force F-22 Fighter Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-11

    Operational Capability (IOC). On January 21, 2006, the F-22 flew its first operational sorties, taking part in an on-going air superiority mission over...47 Antonie Boessenkool, “F-22 Program’s Demise Makes Dubai Debut Possible,” Defense News, November 9, 2009: 16. Material

  16. 47 CFR 22.861 - Emission limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emission limitations. 22.861 Section 22.861 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air... emission or technology that complies with the technical rules in this subpart. (a) Out of band...

  17. What's New in Apache Web Server 22?

    CERN Document Server

    Bowen, Rich

    2007-01-01

    What's New in Apache Web Server 2.2? shows you all the new features you'll know to set up and administer the Apache 2.2 web server. Learn how to take advantage of its improved caching, proxying, authentication, and other improvements in your Web 2.0 applications.

  18. 32 CFR 2001.22 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification. 2001.22 Section 2001... Identification and Markings § 2001.22 Derivative classification. (a) General. Information classified derivatively on the basis of source documents or classification guides shall bear all markings prescribed...

  19. 22 CFR 9a.4 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... State shall follow the standards in E.O. 11652 and the provisions of 22 CFR 9.5 through 9.8. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4,...

  20. 22 CFR 9.6 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR 2001.22. (c) Department of State Classification Guide. The Department of State Classification... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative classification. 9.6 Section 9.6... classification. (a) Definition. Derivative classification is the incorporating, paraphrasing, restating...

  1. 27 CFR 22.24 - Permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permits. 22.24 Section 22.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF TAX-FREE ALCOHOL Administrative Provisions Authorities §...

  2. 15 CFR 265.22 - Bicycle traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bicycle traffic. 265.22 Section 265.22... Bicycle traffic. No person shall ride a bicycle other than in a manner exercising due caution for pedestrian and other traffic. No person shall ride a bicycle on sidewalks or inside any building, nor...

  3. 49 CFR 845.22 - Technical panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical panel. 845.22 Section 845.22... Technical panel. The Director, Bureau of Accident Investigation, or the Director, Bureau of Field Operations, shall designate members of the Board's technical staff to participate in the hearing and...

  4. 40 CFR 194.22 - Quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quality assurance. 194.22 Section 194... General Requirements § 194.22 Quality assurance. (a)(1) As soon as practicable after April 9, 1996, the Department shall adhere to a quality assurance program that implements the requirements of ASME...

  5. 22 CFR 23.3 - Refunds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refunds. 23.3 Section 23.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE FEES AND FUNDS FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING § 23.3 Refunds. (a) Rectifications and readjustments. See § 22.6 of this chapter for outline of circumstances under which fees which have...

  6. 36 CFR 1275.22 - Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security. 1275.22 Section... THE NIXON ADMINISTRATION Preservation and Protection § 1275.22 Security. The Archivist is responsible for providing adequate security for the Presidential historical materials....

  7. 7 CFR 2902.22 - Fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fertilizers. 2902.22 Section 2902.22 Agriculture... Fertilizers. (a) Definition. Products formulated or processed to provide nutrients for plant growth and/or beneficial bacteria to convert nutrients into plant usable forms. Biobased fertilizers, which are likely...

  8. 7 CFR 915.22 - Nomination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... committee; or the committee may conduct nominations in Districts 1 and 2 by mail in a manner recommended by the committee and approved by the Secretary. Such nominations shall be submitted to the Secretary by... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination. 915.22 Section 915.22...

  9. 7 CFR 929.22 - Nomination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nominations for membership on the committee are made, such cooperative or growers affiliated therewith shall... such nominations shall be by such means as are recommended by the committee and approved by the... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination. 929.22 Section 929.22...

  10. 49 CFR 218.22 - Utility employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Utility employee. 218.22 Section 218.22... employee. (a) A utility employee shall be subject to the Hours of Service Act, and the requirements for... parts 217, 219, and 228 of this chapter. (b) A utility employee shall perform service as a member...

  11. 40 CFR 123.22 - Program description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employees. The State need not submit complete job descriptions for every employee carrying out the State... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program description. 123.22 Section... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS State Program Submissions § 123.22 Program description. Any State that seeks...

  12. 37 CFR 251.22 - Public access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public access. 251.22 Section... ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Public Access to and Inspection of Records § 251.22 Public access. (a) Location of records. All of the...

  13. 36 CFR 2.2 - Wildlife protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wildlife protection. 2.2... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.2 Wildlife protection. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) The taking of wildlife, except by authorized hunting and trapping activities conducted in accordance...

  14. 27 CFR 22.125 - Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., the cause or nature of loss, and all relevant facts, including facts establishing whether the loss... agent participating in or responsible for the loss; and (5) Name of carrier where a loss in transit is involved. (b) The carriers statement regarding a loss in transit, prescribed by § 22.122 or 22.124,...

  15. 22 CFR 41.107 - Visa fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... charitable organization under the provisions of section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C. 501... recognition to charitable institutions, that it establishes that it is recognized as a charitable institution... by the Secretary and set forth in 22 CFR 22.1 to be sufficient only to cover the cost...

  16. 17 CFR 12.22 - Default proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Default proceedings. 12.22... REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.22 Default proceedings. (a) Institution of a default proceeding. Failure timely to respond to a complaint or a counterclaim, as...

  17. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and...

  18. 48 CFR 22.804-2 - Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable to covered geographical areas or projects and (2) applicable requirements of 41 CFR 60-1 and 60-4... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction. 22.804-2... Construction. (a) Construction contractors that hold a nonexempt (see 22.807) Government construction...

  19. Passive Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R B; Payer, J H

    2006-01-10

    Alloy 22 (N06022) was designed to stand the most aggressive industrial applications, including both reducing and oxidizing acids. Even in the most aggressive environments, if the temperature is lower than 150 F (66 C) Alloy 22 would remain in the passive state having particularly low corrosion rates. In multi-ionic solutions that may simulate the behavior of concentrated ground water, even at near boiling temperatures, the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 is only a few nanometers per year because the alloy is in the complete passive state. The corrosion rate of passive Alloy 22 decreases as the time increases. Immersion corrosion testing also show that the newer generation of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys may offer a better corrosion resistance than Alloy 22 only in some highly aggressive conditions such as in hot acids.

  20. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept beh

  1. Carbon Residence Times in Pedogenic Carbonate Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monger, H.; Feng, Y.; Karnjanapiboonwang, A.

    2013-12-01

    Soil carbonate is a huge pool of terrestrial carbon that contains at least 930 to 940 Pg C and has influx rates on the order of 1 to 12 g CaCO3/m2/yr. Such large mass to flux ratios yield long mean residence times for carbon (e.g., 85,000 years)--assuming steady state. Like other global carbon pools, the soil carbonate pool has smaller sub-pools with higher influx rates and shorter mean residence times. For example, pedogenic carbonate in coppice dunes known to have formed since 1858 and carbonate formed on lithic artifacts in soils at archaeology sites suggests mean residence times can be as short as 120 years--again assuming steady state. Harder to assess are efflux rates as CO2 emissions or bicarbonate leaching. Some Bowen-ratio studies have nevertheless found evidence for CO2 emissions resulting from carbonate dissolution, and other studies have found evidence for bicarbonate leaching based on dissolution pipes through calcic horizons using soil morphology studies. Since an understanding of mean residence times are prerequisite for a better understanding of soil carbonate in the global carbon cycle, especially in a scenario of an expanding Aridosphere, more influx and efflux measurements are needed to evaluate the possibility of carbon sequestration by soil carbonate in hyperarid, arid, semiarid, or subhumid soils.

  2. 27 CFR 22.22 - Alternate methods or procedures; and emergency variations from requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF TAX-FREE ALCOHOL Administrative Provisions Authorities § 22.22 Alternate methods or procedures..., conditions or limitations set forth in the approval, authority for the variation from requirements...

  3. Gene : CBRC-TNIG-22-0025 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -22 25% MERPSAPWLPPLVGEERPHDSVVTDIGGCELSGPQLRRRRFMSSSSGLDASGPRLRCHRCRVWEPSAPRLCRHRRLGTSQAALWLRRHRRSPLPSSRAGA...RLRRQRCRIWSHSALSSVVVATVVVVRTRCKRASASLSPLSGLEPSGPQLRRHRHRRWSQVALGSVVIVVPAAVVGAGAKRPSAPSSSLLSSSSGLDASGPRLRCHRR...RPFGSVLVVVPAAVVAAGAKRPSAPSSLLLSSSSGLDASGPRLRRHRRRRWSQAALGSVVTVVWAGAKRPFGSVLVVVPAA

  4. Carbon sequestration rate and aboveground biomass carbon potential of three young species in lower Gangetic plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Bipal K; Biswas, Soumyajit; Majumder, Mrinmoy; Roy, Pankaj K; Mazumdar, Asis

    2011-07-01

    Carbon is sequestered by the plant photosynthesis and stored as biomass in different parts of the tree. Carbon sequestration rate has been measured for young species (6 years age) of Shorea robusta at Chadra forest in Paschim Medinipur district, Albizzia lebbek in Indian Botanic Garden in Howrah district and Artocarpus integrifolia at Banobitan within Kolkata in the lower Gangetic plain of West Bengal in India by Automated Vaisala Made Instrument GMP343 and aboveground biomass carbon has been analyzed by CHN analyzer. The specific objective of this paper is to measure carbon sequestration rate and aboveground biomass carbon potential of three young species of Shorea robusta, Albizzia lebbek and Artocarpus integrifolia. The carbon sequestration rate (mean) from the ambient air during winter season as obtained by Shorea robusta, Albizzia lebbek and Artocarpus integrifolia were 11.13 g/h, 14.86 g/h and 4.22g/h, respectively. The annual carbon sequestration rate from ambient air were estimated at 8.97 t C ha(-1) by Shorea robusta, 11.97 t C ha(-1) by Albizzia lebbek and 3.33 t C ha(-1) by Artocarpus integrifolia. The percentage of carbon content (except root) in the aboveground biomass of Shorea robusta, Albizzia lebbek and Artocarpus integrifolia were 47.45, 47.12 and 43.33, respectively. The total aboveground biomass carbon stock per hectare as estimated for Shorea robusta, Albizzia lebbek and Artocarpus integrifolia were 5.22 t C ha(-1) , 6.26 t C ha(-1) and 7.28 t C ha(-1), respectively in these forest stands.

  5. Carbon Footprint of Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Dyer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbon footprint of beef cattle is presented for Canada, The United States, The European Union, Australia and Brazil. The values ranged between 8 and 22 kg CO2e per kg of live weight (LW depending on the type of farming system, the location, the year, the type of management practices, the allocation, as well as the boundaries of the study. Substantial reductions have been observed for most of these countries in the last thirty years. For instance, in Canada the mean carbon footprint of beef cattle at the exit gate of the farm decreased from 18.2 kg CO2e per kg LW in 1981 to 9.5 kg CO2e per kg LW in 2006 mainly because of improved genetics, better diets, and more sustainable land management practices. Cattle production results in products other than meat, such as hides, offal and products for rendering plants; hence the environmental burden must be distributed between these useful products. In order to do this, the cattle carbon footprint needs to be reported in kg of CO2e per kg of product. For example, in Canada in 2006, on a mass basis, the carbon footprint of cattle by-products at the exit gate of the slaughterhouse was 12.9 kg CO2e per kg of product. Based on an economic allocation, the carbon footprints of meat (primal cuts, hide, offal and fat, bones and other products for rendering were 19.6, 12.3, 7 and 2 kg CO2e per kg of product, respectively.

  6. Condensed Matter Theories - Volume 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholz, Heidi; Röpke, Gerd; de Llano, Manuel

    2007-09-01

    pt. A. Fermi liquids. Pressure comparison between the spherical cellular model and the Thomas-Fermi model / G.A. Baker, Jr. Pair excitations and vertex corrections in Fermi fluids and the dynamic structure function of two-dimension 3He / H.M. Böhm, H. Godfrin, E. Krotscheck, H.J. Lauter, M. Meschke and M. Panholzer. Condensation of helium in wedges / E.S. Hernádez ... [et al.]. Non-Fermi liquid behavior from the Fermi-liquid approach / V.A. Khodel ... [et al.]. Theory of third sound and stability of thin 3He-4He superfluid films / E. Krotscheck and M.D. Miller. Pairing in asymmetrical Fermi systems / K.F. Quader and R. Liao. Ground-state properties of small 3He drops from quantum Monte Carlo simulations / E. Sola, J. Casulleras and J. Boronat. Ground-state energy and compressibility of a disordered two-dimensional electron gas / Tanatar ... [et al.]. Quasiexcitons in photoluminescence of incompressible quantum liquids / A. Wójs, A.G ladysiewicz and J.J. Quinn -- pt. B. Bose liquids. Quantum Boltzmann liquids / K.A. Gernoth, M L. Ristig and T. Lindenau. Condensate fraction in the dynamic structure function of Bose fluids / M. Saarela, F. Mazzanti and V. Apaja -- pt. C. Strongly-correlated electronic systems. Electron gas in high-field nanoscopic transport: metallic carbon nanotubes / F. Green and D. Neilson. Evolution and destruction of the Kondo effect in a capacitively coupled double dot system / D.E. Logan and M.R. Galpin. The method of increments-a wavefunction-based Ab-Initio correlation method for solids / B. Paulus. Fractionally charged excitations on frustrated lattices / E. Runge, F. Pollmann and P. Fulde. 5f Electrons in actinides: dual nature and photoemission spectra / G. Zwicknagl -- pt. D. Magnetism. Magnetism in disordered two-dimensional Kondo-Necklace / W. Brenig. On the de Haas-can Alphen oscillation in 2D / S. Fujita and D.L. Morabito. Dynamics in one-dimensional spin systems-density matrix reformalization group study / S. Nishimoto and M

  7. Composite carbon foam electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1997-05-06

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  8. Composite carbon foam electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  9. Introduction of the (-)-berkelic acid side chain and assignment of the C-22 stereochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoxing; Zhou, Jingye; Snider, Barry B

    2009-08-21

    A Kiyooka aldol condensation of an aldehyde with a trimethylsilyl ketene acetal and the oxazaborolidinone prepared from N-Ts-(S)-valine gives two of the four possible aldol adducts, which were oxidized and deprotected to complete the synthesis of (-)-berkelic acid and (-)-22-epi-berkelic acid. This synthesis establishes the absolute stereochemistry and assigns the stereochemistry at C-22. A biosynthetic pathway is proposed that is consistent with the known absolute stereochemistry at the quaternary carbon of spiciferone A, spicifernin, and berkelic acid and provides a simple explanation for the differing stereochemistry at C-18 and C-19 of spicifernin and berkelic acid.

  10. Soyuz 22 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jams, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Three mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz 22 because of concerns that new air pollutants were present in the air and these were getting into the water recovery system. The Total Organic Carbon Analyzer had been giving increasing readings of total organic carbon (TOC) in the potable water, and it was postulated that an increased load into the system was responsible. The toxicological assessment of 3 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown in Table 1. The recoveries of the 3 standards (as listed above) from the GSCs averaged 103, 95 and 76%, respectively. Recovery from formaldehyde control badges were 90 and 91%.

  11. Carbon Nanomembranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Polina; Gölzhäuser, Armin

    2017-03-01

    This chapter describes the formation and properties of one nanometer thick carbon nanomembranes (CNMs), made by electron induced cross-linking of aromatic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The cross-linked SAMs are robust enough to be released from the surface and placed on solid support or over holes as free-standing membranes. Annealing at 1000K transforms CNMs into graphene accompanied by a change of mechanical stiffness and electrical resistance. The developed fabrication approach is scalable and provides molecular level control over thickness and homogeneity of the produced CNMs. The mechanisms of electron-induced cross-linking process are discussed in details. A variety of polyaromatic thiols: oligophenyls as well as small and extended condensed polycyclic hydrocarbons have been successfully employed, demonstrating that the structural and functional properties of the resulting nanomembranes are strongly determined by the structure of molecular monolayers. The mechanical properties of CNMs (Young's modulus, tensile strength and prestress) are characterized by bulge testing. The interpretation of the bulge test data relates the Young's modulus to the properties of single molecules and to the structure of the pristine SAMs. The gas transport through the CNM is measured onto polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) - thin film composite membrane. The established relationship of permeance and molecular size determines the molecular sieving mechanism of permeation through this ultrathin sheet.

  12. From carbon nanotubes to carbon atomic chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas García, Gilberto; Zhang, Weijia; José-Yacamán, Miguel

    2010-10-01

    Carbyne is a linear allotrope of carbon. It is formed by a linear arrangement of carbon atoms with sp-hybridization. We present a reliable and reproducible experiment to obtain these carbon atomic chains using few-layer-graphene (FLG) sheets and a HRTEM. First the FLG sheets were synthesized from worm-like exfoliated graphite and then drop-casted on a lacey-carbon copper grid. Once in the TEM, two holes are opened near each other in a FLG sheet by focusing the electron beam into a small spot. Due to the radiation, the carbon atoms rearrange themselves between the two holes and form carbon fibers. The beam is concentrated on the carbon fibers in order excite the atoms and induce a tension until multi wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) is formed. As the radiation continues the MWCNT breaks down until there is only a single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT). Then, when the SWCNT breaks, an atomic carbon chain is formed, lasts for several seconds under the radiation and finally breaks. This demonstrates the stability of this carbon structure.

  13. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    carbon budget. For the last decade available (2005-2014), EFF was 9.0 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 4.4 ± 0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1. For the year 2014 alone, EFF grew to 9.8 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, 0.6 % above 2013, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, albeit at a slower rate compared to the average growth of 2.2 % yr-1 that took place during 2005-2014. Also, for 2014, ELUC was 1.1 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 3.9 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 4.1 ± 0.9 GtC yr-1. GATM was lower in 2014 compared to the past decade (2005-2014), reflecting a larger SLAND for that year. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 397.15 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2014. For 2015, preliminary data indicate that the growth in EFF will be near or slightly below zero, with a projection of -0.6 [range of -1.6 to +0.5] %, based on national emissions projections for China and the USA, and projections of gross domestic product corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy for the rest of the world. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2015, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 555 ± 55 GtC (2035 ± 205 GtCO2) for 1870-2015, about 75 % from EFF and 25 % from ELUC. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2015, 2014, 2013). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2015).

  14. Carbon nanotube composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2015-03-24

    A material consisting essentially of a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes dissolved in a solvent. Un-functionalized carbon nanotube concentrations up to 30 wt % and hydroxylated carbon nanotube concentrations up to 40 wt % can be used with even small concentrations of each (less than 2 wt %) useful in producing enhanced conductivity properties of formed thin films.

  15. Mutagenicity of carbon nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallin, Håkan; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; White, Paul A;

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials such carbon nanotubes, graphene and fullerenes are some the most promising nanomaterials. Although carbon nanomaterials have been reported to possess genotoxic potential, it is imperitive to analyse the data on the genotoxicity of carbon nanomaterials in vivo and in vitro...

  16. Electroanalysis with carbon paste electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Svancara, Ivan; Walcarius, Alain; Vytras, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Electrochemistry and Electroanalysis with Carbon Paste-Based ElectrodesHistorical Survey and GlossaryField in Publication Activities and LiteratureCarbon Pastes and Carbon Paste ElectrodesCarbon Paste as the Binary MixtureClassification of Carbon Pastes and Carbon Paste ElectrodesConstruction of Carbon Paste HoldersCarbon Paste as the Electrode MaterialPhysicochemical Properties of Carbon PastesElectrochemical Characteristics of Carbon PastesTesting of Unmodified CPEsIntera

  17. Mesoporous carbon materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng; Fulvio, Pasquale Fernando; Mayes, Richard T.; Wang, Xiqing; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Bingkun

    2014-09-09

    A conductive mesoporous carbon composite comprising conductive carbon nanoparticles contained within a mesoporous carbon matrix, wherein the conductive mesoporous carbon composite possesses at least a portion of mesopores having a pore size of at least 10 nm and up to 50 nm, and wherein the mesopores are either within the mesoporous carbon matrix, or are spacings delineated by surfaces of said conductive carbon nanoparticles when said conductive carbon nanoparticles are fused with each other, or both. Methods for producing the above-described composite, devices incorporating them (e.g., lithium batteries), and methods of using them, are also described.

  18. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  19. Ps 22 in Gospels’ interpretation of Passion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwester Jędrzejewski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ps 22 is a piece of artistically high poetry, clear images and metaphors, historical and prophetic references. The conviction of biblical scholars that the New Testament writers has recognized in Ps 22 prophetic witness of passion, accompanies the Church from its beginnings. The words of Jesus on the cross, taken from Ps 22: 2, have a character of lamentable re-symbolization of the prayer of Israel. These words establish a theological answer in the form of suitable credo as well. Dramatic question “why?” is connected with a proclamation and identification “My God”. The personal experience of oppression and death is included by Jesus in the history of his nation and in the experience of God. Ps 22 in the Gospels’ passion context becomes a proclamation form of prayer and a very personal, expressed in such dramatic circumstances confession of the faith.

  20. 40 CFR 61.22 - Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions From Underground Uranium Mines § 61.22 Standard. Emissions of radon-222 to the ambient air from an...

  1. 40 CFR 191.22 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Environmental Standards for Ground-Water Protection § 191.22 Definitions... determined by use of the method specified in 40 CFR part 136. Underground source of drinking water means...

  2. 15 CFR 8b.22 - Academic adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....22 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... discrimination because of the absence of educational auxiliary aids for students with impaired sensory, manual... or study, or other devices or services of a personal nature....

  3. 28 CFR 91.22 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Tribal Lands § 91.22 Definitions. (a) The Act means the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of..., construction management, or project management costs. Construction does not include the purchase of land....

  4. Hurricane Rita Poster (September 22, 2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Rita poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-16 shows Hurricane Rita as a category-4 hurricane in the Gulf of Mexico on September 22, 2005. Poster size is...

  5. Cycle 22 COS/NUV Fold Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T.; Welty, A.

    2016-09-01

    We summarize the Cycle 22 COS/NUV Fold Distribution for the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph's (COS) MAMA detector on the Hubble Space Telescope. The detector micro-channel plate's health state is determined and the results are presented.

  6. Environmental Green Chemistry Applications of Nanoporous Carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, J.; Garcia, A; Poon, P

    2010-01-01

    Influence of surface properties of nanoporous carbons on activity and selectivity during the photooxidation of 4-chlorophenol on UV-irradiated TiO{sub 2} was performed. Characterization by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy confirm the presence of a contact interface between both solids and suggest the coordination of some functional organic groups of the carbon surface, mainly ethers and carboxylic acids, to metallic centre Ti{sup +4} in TiO{sub 2}. Changes in surface pH of carbons from basic to neutral or acid remarkably increase the production of 4-chlorocathecol by a factor of 22 on TiO{sub 2}-Carbon in comparison of TiO{sub 2} alone. A scheme of interaction between TiO{sub 2} and carbon is proposed to the increased photoactivity of TiO{sub 2} and a reaction mechanism for the different intermediate products detected is also proposed. Results showed that TiO{sub 2}-Carbon can be used as an alternative photocatalyst for environmental green chemistry and selective organic synthesis applications.

  7. Structure of IL-22 Bound to Its High-Affinity IL-22R1 Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, B.C.; Logsdon, N.J.; Walter, M.R. (UAB)

    2008-09-29

    IL-22 is an IL-10 family cytokine that initiates innate immune responses against bacterial pathogens and contributes to immune disease. IL-22 biological activity is initiated by binding to a cell-surface complex composed of IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 receptor chains and further regulated by interactions with a soluble binding protein, IL-22BP, which shares sequence similarity with an extracellular region of IL-22R1 (sIL-22R1). IL-22R1 also pairs with the IL-20R2 chain to induce IL-20 and IL-24 signaling. To define the molecular basis of these diverse interactions, we have determined the structure of the IL-22/sIL-22R1 complex. The structure, combined with homology modeling and surface plasmon resonance studies, defines the molecular basis for the distinct affinities and specificities of IL-22 and IL-10 receptor chains that regulate cellular targeting and signal transduction to elicit effective immune responses.

  8. Reaction rates for the s-process neutron source 22Ne+{\\alpha}

    CERN Document Server

    Longland, Richard; Karakas, Amanda I

    2012-01-01

    The 22Ne({\\alpha},n)25Mg reaction is an important source of neutrons for the s-process. In massive stars responsible for the weak component of the s-process, 22Ne({\\alpha},n)25Mg is the dominant source of neutrons, both during core helium burning and in shell carbon burning. For the main s-process component produced in Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars, the 13C({\\alpha},n)16O reaction is the dominant source of neutrons operating during the interpulse period, with the 22Ne+{\\alpha} source affecting mainly the s-process branchings during a thermal pulse. Rate uncertainties in the competing 22Ne({\\alpha},n)25Mg and 22Ne({\\alpha},{\\gamma})26Mg reactions result in large variations of s-process nucleosynthesis. Here, we present up-to-date and statistically rigorous 22Ne+{\\alpha} reaction rates using recent experimental results and Monte Carlo sampling. Our new rates are used in post-processing nucleosynthesis calculations both for massive stars and AGB stars. We demonstrate that the nucleosynthesis uncertainties ...

  9. Electrochemistry of interaction of 2-(2-nitrophenyl)-benzimidazole derivatives with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Mabel; Alvarez-Lueje, Alejandro; Bollo, Soledad

    2010-10-01

    In this study the interaction between new benzimidazole molecules, 2-(2-nitrophenyl)-1H-benzimidazole (NB) and N-benzoyl-2-(2-nitrophenyl)-benzimidazole (BNB), with dsDNA and ssDNA was assessed at pH 7.4. Using differential pulse voltammetry at glassy carbon electrode, both molecules were electrochemically reduced due to the presence of a nitro group in their structures. When DNA was added to the solution, the electrochemical signal of NB and BNB decreased and shifted to more negative potentials. The interaction mode was electrostatic when ionic strength was low. Under this condition DNA-nitro complexes were characterized and binding constant values of 8.22 x 10(4)M(-1) and 3.08 x 10(6)M(-1) for NB and BNB with dsDNA were determined. On the other hand, only NB was able to interact when a high concentration of NaCl was used. Finally, a glassy carbon electrode modified with carbon nanotubes and DNA was tested in order to determine the nitrocompound in solution. The electrochemical reduction of the nitrocompound adsorbed on GCE/CHIT-CNT/DNA was used as an analytical signal. Using 10 min as accumulation time, a linear dependence was observed between 20 and 80 microM nitrocompound concentrations and the electrode response. Detection and quantification limits in the range of microM were determined.

  10. Adsorption of Carbon Dioxide on Activated Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Guo; Liping Chang; Kechang Xie

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption of CO2 on a raw activated carbon A and three modified activated carbon samples B, C, and D at temperatures ranging from 303 to 333 K and the thermodynamics of adsorption have been investigated using a vacuum adsorption apparatus in order to obtain more information about the effect of CO2 on removal of organic sulfur-containing compounds in industrial gases. The active ingredients impregnated in the carbon samples show significant influence on the adsorption for CO2 and its volumes adsorbed on modified carbon samples B, C, and D are all larger than that on the raw carbon sample A. On the other hand, the physical parameters such as surface area, pore volume, and micropore volume of carbon samples show no influence on the adsorbed amount of CO2. The Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) equation was the best model for fitting the adsorption data on carbon samples A and B, while the Freundlich equation was the best fit for the adsorption on carbon samples C and D. The isosteric heats of adsorption on carbon samples A, B, C, and D derived from the adsorption isotherms using the Clapeyron equation decreased slightly increasing surface loading. The heat of adsorption lay between 10.5 and 28.4 kJ/mol, with the carbon sample D having the highest value at all surface coverages that were studied. The observed entropy change associated with the adsorption for the carbon samples A, B, and C (above the surface coverage of 7 ml/g) was lower than the theoretical value for mobile adsorption. However, it was higher than the theoretical value for mobile adsorption but lower than the theoretical value for localized adsorption for carbon sample D.

  11. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F [Oakland, CA

    2012-04-10

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  12. The role of urbanization in the global carbon cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina eChurkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas account for more than 70% of CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels. Urban expansion in tropics is responsible for 5% of the annual emissions from land use change. Here I show that the effect of urbanization on the global carbon cycle extends beyond these emissions. I quantify the contribution of urbanization to the major carbon fluxes and pools globally and identify gaps crucial for predicting the evolution of the carbon cycle in the future. Urban residents currently control ~22 (12-40 % of the land carbon uptake (112 PgC/yr and ~24 (15-39 % of the carbon emissions (117 PgC/yr from land globally. Urbanization resulted in the creation of new carbon pools on land such as buildings (~6.7 PgC and landfills (~30 PgC. Together these pools store 1.6 (±0.3 % of the total vegetation and soil carbon pools globally. The creation and maintenance of these new pools has been associated with high emissions of CO2, which are currently better understood than the processes associated with the dynamics of these pools and accompanying uptake of carbon. Predictions of the future trajectories of the global carbon cycle will require a much better understanding of how urban development affects the carbon cycle over the long term.

  13. Interaction cross section study of the two-neutron halo nucleus 22C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Togano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The interaction cross sections (σI of the very neutron-rich carbon isotopes 19C, 20C and 22C have been measured on a carbon target at 307, 280, and 235 MeV/nucleon, respectively. A σI of 1.280±0.023 b was obtained for 22C, significantly larger than for 19,20C, supporting the halo character of 22C. A 22C root-mean-squared matter radius of 3.44±0.08 fm was deduced using a four-body Glauber reaction model. This value is smaller than an earlier estimate (of 5.4±0.9 fm derived from a σI measurement on a hydrogen target at 40 MeV/nucleon. These new, higher-precision σI data provide stronger constraints for assessing the consistency of theories describing weakly bound nuclei.

  14. Comparative absorption of calcium from carbonate tablets, lactogluconate/carbonate effervescent tablet, and chloride solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, M; Reizenstein, P; Teigen, S W; Rønneberg, R

    1991-01-01

    Intestinal absorption of calcium from three different labelled calcium preparations (all containing 500 mg elemental calcium) was determined using the whole body retention and urinary excretion of 47Ca in 14 normal subjects. Chewable calcium carbonate tablets showed a significantly (p less than 0.05) better mean minimum absorption of calcium (25.6% in exp. I, 22.8% in exp. II) than calcium given in the form of a lactogluconate/carbonate effervescent tablet, (17%), but similar to calcium in a chloride solution (24.7%). The minimum calcium absorption varied from 85 to 128 mg. All the preparations were taken with standardized low calcium test meals.

  15. Evolution of white dwarf stars with high-metallicity progenitors: the role of 22Ne diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Althaus, Leandro G; Renedo, Isabel; Isern, Jordi; Córsico, Alejandro H; Rohrmann, Rene D

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the strong discrepancy between the main sequence turn-off age and the white dwarf cooling age in the metal-rich open cluster NGC 6791, we compute a grid of white dwarf evolutionary sequences that incorporates for the first time the energy released by the processes of 22Ne sedimentation and of carbon/oxygen phase separation upon crystallization. The grid covers the mass range from 0.52 to 1.0 Msun, and it is appropriate for the study of white dwarfs in metal-rich clusters. The evolutionary calculations are based on a detailed and self-consistent treatment of the energy released from these two processes, as well as on the employment of realistic carbon/oxygen profiles, of relevance for an accurate evaluation of the energy released by carbon/oxygen phase separation. We find that 22Ne sedimentation strongly delays the cooling rate of white dwarfs stemming from progenitors with high metallicities at moderate luminosities, whilst carbon/oxygen phase separation adds considerable delays at low luminositi...

  16. Systematic structure of the neutron drip-line {sup 22}C nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Atef [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia and Department of Physics, Al-Azhar University, 71524 Assiut (Egypt); Cheong, Lee Yen; Yahya, Noorhana [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Tammam, M. [Department of Physics, Al-Azhar University, 71524 Assiut (Egypt)

    2014-10-24

    In the present work we systematically discuss the nuclear structure of the the heaviest particle-bound carbon isotope, {sup 22}C. The ground state wave function of the carbon isotope is calculated using the {sup 20}C core plus two-valence neutron based on a phenomenological mean-field MF potential. We apply the deduced wave function to provide the nuclear matter density which is necessary in the calculations of the total reaction cross section. Calculations show that there is a reasonable good description of the experimental binding energy BE and root-mean square RMS radius. The exotic structure and configuration of the ground state carbon isotope is explained and a consistent explanation on the two-neutron halo (Borromean) nucleus is given.

  17. Metallic carbon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, M.L.; Crespi, V.H.; Louie, S.G.S.; Zettl, A.K.

    1999-11-30

    Novel metallic forms of planar carbon are described, as well as methods of designing and making them. Nonhexagonal arrangements of carbon are introduced into a graphite carbon network essentially without destroying the planar structure. Specifically a form of carbon comprising primarily pentagons and heptagons, and having a large density of states at the Fermi level is described. Other arrangements of pentagons and heptagons that include some hexagons, and structures incorporating squares and octagons are additionally disclosed. Reducing the bond angle symmetry associated with a hexagonal arrangement of carbons increases the likelihood that the carbon material will have a metallic electron structure.

  18. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Kalpana; Srivastava, Anchal; Srivastava, O N

    2005-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes play a fundamental role in the rapidly developing field of nanoscience and nanotechnology because of their unique properties and high potential for applications. In this article, the different synthesis methods of carbon nanotubes (both multi-walled and single-walled) are reviewed. From the industrial point of view, the chemical vapor deposition method has shown advantages over laser vaporization and electric arc discharge methods. This article also presents recent work in the controlled synthesis of carbon nanotubes with ordered architectures. Special carbon nanotube configurations, such as nanocoils, nanohorns, bamboo-shaped and carbon cylinder made up from carbon nanotubes are also discussed.

  19. Electrochemical Studies of Nitrate-Induced Pitting in Carbon Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapp, P.E.

    1998-12-07

    The phenomenon of pitting in carbon steel exposed to alkaline solutions of nitrate and chloride was studied with the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization technique. Open-circuit and pitting potentials were measured on specimens of ASTM A537 carbon steel in pH 9.73 salt solutions at 40 degrees Celsius, with and without the inhibiting nitrite ion present. Nitrate is not so aggressive a pitting agent as is chloride. Both nitrate and chloride did induce passive breakdown and pitting in nitrite-free solutions, but the carbon steel retained passivity in solutions with 0.11-M nitrite even at a nitrate concentration of 2.2 M.

  20. Magnetic coupling through the carbon skeleton of malonate in two polymorphs of ([Cu(bpy)(H2O)][Cu(bpy)(mal)(H2O)])(ClO4)2 (H2mal = malonic acid; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, C; Hernández-Molina, M; Lorenzo-Luis, P; Lloret, F; Cano, J; Julve, M

    2000-08-21

    Two polymorphic malonato-bridged copper(II) complexes of formula ([Cu(bpy)(H2O)][Cu(bpy)(mal)(H2O)])-(ClO4)2 (1 and 2) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine and mal = malonate dianion) have been prepared and their structures solved by X-ray diffraction methods. Compound 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/a, with a = 23.743(3) A, b = 9.7522(5) A, c = 27.731(2) A, beta = 114.580(10) degrees, and Z = 4. Compound 2 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbcn, with a = 23.700(5) A, b = 25.162(5) A, c = 9.693(5) A, and Z = 4. The structures of 1 and 2 are made up of uncoordinated perchlorate anions and malonate-bridged zigzag copper(II) chains grouped in an isosceles triangle running parallel to the b (1) and c (2) axes. These chains are built by a [Cu(bpy)(mal)(H2O)] unit acting as bis-monodentate ligand toward two [Cu(bpy)(H2O)] adjacent units through its OCCCO skeleton in an anti-anti conformation, whereas the OCO carboxylate bridges exhibit the anti-syn conformation. Compounds 1 and 2 contain four crystallographically independent copper(II) atoms, but the environment of all of them is distorted square pyramidal: the axial position is occupied by a water molecule, whereas the equatorial plane is formed by a chelating bpy and either a bidentate malonate or two carboxylate oxygens from two malonate groups. The equatorial Cu-O(mal) (1.911(4)-1.978(4) (1) and 1.897(5)-1.991(4) A (2)) and Cu-N(bpy) (1.983(4)-2.008(5) (1) and 1.971(6)-2.007(6) A (2)) bonds are somewhat shorter than the axial Cu-O(w) one (2.257(5)-2.524(5) (1) and 2.236(5)-2.505(6) A (2)). The angles subtended at the copper atom by the chelating bpy vary in the ranges 80.9(2)-81.8(2) degrees (1) and 80.4(2)-82.1(2) degrees (2), values which are somewhat smaller than those of the chelating malonate (80.4(2)-82.1(2) degrees (1) and 93.0(2)-93.6(2) degrees (2)). The intrachain copper-copper separations through the OCCCO fragment are 8.227(1) (1) and 8.206(2) A (2), whereas those through the OCO bridging

  1. SU(2|2) supersymmetric mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, Evgeny; Sidorov, Stepan

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new kind of non-relativistic ${\\cal N}{=}\\,8$ supersymmetric mechanics, associated with worldline realizations of the supergroup $SU(2|2)$ treated as a deformation of flat ${\\cal N}{=}\\,8$, $d{=}1$ supersymmetry. Various worldline $SU(2|2)$ superspaces are constructed as coset manifolds of this supergroup, and the corresponding superfield techniques are developed. For the off-shell $SU(2|2)$ multiplets $({\\bf 3,8,5})$, $({\\bf 4,8,4})$ and $({\\bf 5,8,3})$, we construct and analyze the most general superfield and component actions. Common features are mass oscillator-type terms proportional to the deformation parameter and a trigonometric realization of the superconformal group $OSp(4^*|4)$ in the conformal cases. For the simplest $({\\bf 5, 8, 3})$ model the quantization is performed.

  2. Erythrocyte 22Na+ influx in hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalev, O.; Eaton, J.W.; Ben-Ishay, D.

    1984-01-01

    We assessed 22Na+ uptake by erythrocytes (RBC) from 38 individuals with essential hypertension and 37 healthy controls. All subjects were male, white, non-obese and with normal renal function, obviating sex, race, hormonal, ponderal and renal factors known to influence RBC Na+ handling. The mean +/- sem 22Na+ uptake of the patients was 284 +/- 16 mumole/liter RBC/hour while that of normal controls was 249 +/- 11 mumole/liter RBC/hour; although the difference reached borderline significance, individual values showed considerable overlap. Consequently, in our population, RBC 22Na+ uptake is not a reliable marker for essential hypertension. We believe that previous studies should be reassessed with regard to patients' characteristics and future studies employ rigorous criteria in selection of subjects.

  3. Substantial global carbon uptake by cement carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Fengming; Davis, Steven J.; Ciais, Philippe; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Guan, Dabo; Pade, Claus; Shi, Tiemao; Syddall, Mark; Lv, Jie; Ji, Lanzhu; Bing, Longfei; Wang, Jiaoyue; Wei, Wei; Yang, Keun-Hyeok; Lagerblad, Björn; Galan, Isabel; Andrade, Carmen; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Zhu

    2016-12-01

    Calcination of carbonate rocks during the manufacture of cement produced 5% of global CO2 emissions from all industrial process and fossil-fuel combustion in 2013. Considerable attention has been paid to quantifying these industrial process emissions from cement production, but the natural reversal of the process--carbonation--has received little attention in carbon cycle studies. Here, we use new and existing data on cement materials during cement service life, demolition, and secondary use of concrete waste to estimate regional and global CO2 uptake between 1930 and 2013 using an analytical model describing carbonation chemistry. We find that carbonation of cement materials over their life cycle represents a large and growing net sink of CO2, increasing from 0.10 GtC yr-1 in 1998 to 0.25 GtC yr-1 in 2013. In total, we estimate that a cumulative amount of 4.5 GtC has been sequestered in carbonating cement materials from 1930 to 2013, offsetting 43% of the CO2 emissions from production of cement over the same period, not including emissions associated with fossil use during cement production. We conclude that carbonation of cement products represents a substantial carbon sink that is not currently considered in emissions inventories.

  4. V-22 Osprey Guidebook 2011/2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Afghanistan Operation Enduring Freedom November 2009 to Present For example, in January 2010 a Taliban leader in the Marine’s Area of Operations (AO...buildings. On short final, 30-40’ from landing, Osprey aircrews “saw the surprise in a local national’s face as he did a ‘jump stutter step’ because he...Officer SNAPSHOT 15MV-22B: Amphibious Operations Amphibious Operations Marine Expeditionary Units May 2009 to Present MV-22B met all Amphibious Based

  5. Characterization Well R-22 Geochemistry Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Longmire

    2002-09-01

    This report provides analytical results for groundwater collected during four characterization-sampling rounds conducted at well R-22 from March 2001 through March 2002. Characterization well R-22 was sampled from March 6 through 13, 2001; June 19 through 26, 2001; November 30 through December 10, 2001; and February 27 through March 7, 2002. The goal of the characterization efforts was to assess the hydrochemistry and to determine whether or not contaminants are present in the regional aquifer in the vicinity of the well. A geochemical evaluation of the analytical results for the well is also presented in this report.

  6. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  7. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  8. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  9. Carbon Monoxide (CO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IAQ) Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Carbon Monoxide's Impact on Indoor Air Quality On this ... length of exposure. Top of Page Sources of Carbon Monoxide Sources of CO include: unvented kerosene and ...

  10. Soil Organic Carbon Stock

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the carbon held within soil organic constituents (i.e., products produced as dead plants and animals decompose and the soil microbial...

  11. Biomass Carbon Stock

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Biomass carbon includes carbon stored in above- and below-ground live plant components (such as leaf, branch, stem and root) as well as in standing and down dead...

  12. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  13. Complexity of carbon market from multi-scale entropy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xinghua; Li, Shasha; Tian, Lixin

    2016-06-01

    Complexity of carbon market is the consequence of economic dynamics and extreme social political events in global carbon markets. The multi-scale entropy can measure the long-term structures in the daily price return time series. By using multi-scale entropy analysis, we explore the complexity of carbon market and mean reversion trend of daily price return. The logarithmic difference of data Dec16 from August 6, 2010 to May 22, 2015 is selected as the sample. The entropy is higher in small time scale, while lower in large. The dependence of the entropy on the time scale reveals the mean reversion of carbon prices return in the long run. A relatively great fluctuation over some short time period indicates that the complexity of carbon market evolves consistently with economic development track and the events of international climate conferences.

  14. Could submarine groundwater discharge be a significant carbon source to the southern Baltic Sea?** The study reports the results obtained within the framework of the following projects: the statutory activities of the Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences theme 2.2, research project No. 2012/05/N/ST10/02761 sponsored by the National Science Centre, and AMBER, the BONUS+EU FP6 Project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Szymczycha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD is an important yet poorly recognised pathway of material transport to the marine environment. This work reports on the results of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations and loads in the groundwater seeping into the southern Baltic Sea. Most of the research was carried out in the Bay of Puck (2009–2010, while in 2013 the study was extended to include several other groundwater seepage impacted areas situated along the Polish coastline. The annual average concentrations of DIC and DOC in the groundwater were equal to 64.5±10.0 mg C L−1 and 5.8±0.9 mg C L−1 respectively. The carbon specific flux into the Bay of Puck was estimated at 850 mg m−2 yr−1. The loads of carbon via SGD were scaled up for the Baltic Sea sub-basins and the entire Baltic Sea. The DIC and DOC fluxes via SGD to the Baltic Sea were estimated at 283.6±66.7 kt yr−1 and 25.5±4.2 kt yr−1. The SGD derived carbon load to the Baltic Sea is an important component of the carbon budget, which gives the sea a firmly heterotrophic status.

  15. SILICA SURFACED CARBON FIBERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    carbon fibers . Several economical and simple processes were developed for obtaining research quantities of silica surfaced carbon filaments. Vat dipping processes were utilized to deposit an oxide such as silica onto the surface and into the micropores of available carbon or graphite base fibers. High performance composite materials were prepared with the surface treated carbon fibers and various resin matrices. The ablative characteristics of these composites were very promising and exhibited fewer limitations than either silica or...treated

  16. 22 CFR 401.22 - Attendance of witnesses and production of documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... documents. 401.22 Section 401.22 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND CANADA..., papers and documents may be issued over the signature of the secretary of the section of the Commission... attendance of witnesses or the production of books, papers and documents before the Commission shall be...

  17. Protolytic carbon film technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renschler, C.L.; White, C.A.

    1996-04-01

    This paper presents a technique for the deposition of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) on virtually any surface allowing carbon film formation with only the caveat that the substrate must withstand carbonization temperatures of at least 600 degrees centigrade. The influence of processing conditions upon the structure and properties of the carbonized film is discussed. Electrical conductivity, microstructure, and morphology control are also described.

  18. Carbon Goes To…

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasci, Funda

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this activity are to help middle school students understand the carbon cycle and realize how human activities affect the carbon cycle. This activity consists of two parts. The first part of the activity focuses on the carbon cycle, especially before the Industrial Revolution, while the second part of the activity focuses on how…

  19. Carbon nanotube quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sapmaz, S.

    2006-01-01

    Low temperature electron transport measurements on individual single wall carbon nanotubes are described in this thesis. Carbon nanotubes are small hollow cylinders made entirely out of carbon atoms. At low temperatures (below ~10 K) finite length nanotubes form quantum dots. Because of its small si

  20. Carbon sequestration on Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Christopher S.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.

    2015-01-01

    On Earth, carbon sequestration in geologic units plays an important role in the carbon cycle, scrubbing CO_2 from the atmosphere for long-term storage. While carbonate is identified in low abundances within the dust and soils of Mars, at

  1. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quéré, Le Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M.S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E.M.S.; Nakaoka, S.; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Laan-Luijkx, van der Ingrid T.; Werf, van der Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the “global carbon budget” – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project futur

  2. Carbon dots as antioxidants and prooxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ingeborg Lie; Sun, Ya-Ping; Juzenas, Petras

    2011-10-01

    In this study we report the effect of classical CdSe/ZnS quantum dots and novel spherical carbon dots on generation of singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) in aqueous solutions in vitro. Free radicals were initiated either chemically using 2,2'-azodiisobutyramidine dihydrochloride (AAPH) or by radiation with a blue light source emitting 390-470 nm (peak 420 nm). Two reagents, dihydrorhodamine 123 (Dhr123) and singlet oxygen sensor green (SOSG), were used as radical probes. Quantum dots and carbon dots inhibited oxidation of the radical probes under decomposition of AAPH. However, when subjected to the blue light both the quantum dots and carbon dots induced oxidation of Dhr123 to a greater extent than SOSG in water. Generation of singlet oxygen was remarkably enhanced in deuterium oxide solutions while oxidation of Dhr123 remained unchanged. For comparison, traditional photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX mainly induced oxidation of SOSG in water. In conclusion, upon external radiation carbon dots or quantum dots generate reactive oxygen species acting as prooxidants. Carbon dots or quantum dots also scavenge free radicals that are generated chemically by an azo compound. Such dual properties of these nanoparticles can be used for photodynamic and photocatalytic or antioxidant applications.

  3. 22 CFR 120.14 - Person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Person. 120.14 Section 120.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.14 Person. Person means a natural person as well as a corporation, business association, partnership, society, trust,...

  4. 22 CFR 120.4 - Commodity jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commodity jurisdiction. 120.4 Section 120.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS... and media. The fit of the item is its ability to physically interface or interconnect with or...

  5. 22 CFR 1421.13 - Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certification. 1421.13 Section 1421.13 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.13 Certification. Certification means the determination by the Board, its...

  6. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this...

  7. 22 CFR 513.210 - Voluntary exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Voluntary exclusion. 513.210 Section 513.210... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Effect of Action § 513.210 Voluntary exclusion. Persons who accept voluntary exclusions under § 513.315 are excluded in accordance with the terms of...

  8. 22 CFR 216.6 - Environmental assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... avoided should the proposed action be implemented; the relationship between short-term uses of the... significance; possible conflicts between the proposed action and land use plans, policies and controls for the... shall be governed by 22 CFR part 9. Those portions of an Environmental Assessment which are...

  9. 22 CFR 228.21 - Ocean transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ocean transportation. 228.21 Section 228.21... for USAID Financing § 228.21 Ocean transportation. (a) The Cargo Preference Act of 1954, Section 901(b... transportation services is determined by the flag registry of the vessel. (1) When the authorized source...

  10. 22 CFR 21.1 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policy. 21.1 Section 21.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL INDEMNIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES § 21.1 Policy. (a) The Department of State may indemnify an employee for any verdict, judgment, or other monetary award which is rendered against...

  11. 22 CFR 207.01 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policy. 207.01 Section 207.01 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT INDEMNIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES § 207.01 Policy. (a) A.I.D. may... employees) for any verdict, judgment or other monetary award which is rendered against any such...

  12. 22 CFR 204.41 - Arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arbitration. 204.41 Section 204.41 Foreign... § 204.41 Arbitration. Any controversy or claim between A.I.D. and the Lender or any Assignee arising out of this Guaranty shall be settled by arbitration to be held in Washington, DC in accordance with...

  13. 22 CFR 221.41 - Arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arbitration. 221.41 Section 221.41 Foreign... Administration § 221.41 Arbitration. Any controversy or claim between A.I.D. and any noteholder arising out of this Guarantee shall be settled by arbitration to be held in Washington, DC in accordance with the...

  14. 22 CFR 230.14 - Arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arbitration. 230.14 Section 230.14 Foreign... SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUB. L. 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.14 Arbitration. Any... arbitration to be held in Washington, DC in accordance with the then prevailing rules of the...

  15. 22 CFR 231.14 - Arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arbitration. 231.14 Section 231.14 Foreign... § 231.14 Arbitration. Any controversy or claim between USAID and any noteholder arising out of this Guarantee shall be settled by arbitration to be held in Washington, DC in accordance with the...

  16. 22 CFR 171.13 - Business information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business information. 171.13 Section 171.13 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACCESS TO INFORMATION AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION AND RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC Freedom of Information Act Provisions § 171.13 Business information. (a) Business...

  17. 22 CFR 126.13 - Required information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Required information. 126.13 Section 126.13... PROVISIONS § 126.13 Required information. (a) All applications for licenses (DSP-5, DSP-61, DSP-73, and DSP... are multiple consignors, consignees or freight forwarders, and all the required information cannot...

  18. 22 CFR 61.9 - General information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General information. 61.9 Section 61.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES WORLD-WIDE FREE FLOW OF AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS § 61.9 General information. General information and application forms may be obtained by writing to...

  19. 22 CFR 209.6 - Compliance information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compliance information. 209.6 Section 209.6... § 209.6 Compliance information. (a) Cooperation and assistance. The Administrator shall to the fullest... and accurate compliance reports at such times, and in such form and containing such information,...

  20. 22 CFR 141.5 - Compliance information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compliance information. 141.5 Section 141.5... DEPARTMENT OF STATE-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 141.5 Compliance information... such information, as a responsible Departmental official or his designee may determine to be...

  1. 22 CFR 301.1 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 301.1 Section 301.1 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS PUBLIC ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED MATERIAL § 301.1 Introduction. The following regulations implement Executive Order 12356 and provide guidance for members of the public desiring a review...

  2. 22 CFR 1002.1 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 1002.1 Section 1002.1 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 1002.1 Introduction. (a) It is the policy of... available to the public in accordance with the provisions of the Freedom of Information Act. (b)...

  3. 22 CFR 1502.1 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 1502.1 Section 1502.1 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 1502.1 Introduction. (a) It is the policy... be freely available to the public in accordance with the provisions of the Freedom of Information...

  4. 22 CFR 92.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 92.1 Section 92.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Introduction § 92.1 Definitions. (a) In the United States the term notary or notary public means a public officer qualified...

  5. 22 CFR 92.60 - Examination procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examination procedures. 92.60 Section 92.60... memory by reference to written records. A witness may be permitted to refresh his memory by referring to... notes, papers or other documents to refresh his memory or for the sake of testifying to matters not...

  6. 22 CFR 224.34 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 224.34 Section 224.34 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 224... probative value is substantially outweighed by the danger of unfair prejudice, confusion of the issues,...

  7. 22 CFR 521.34 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Evidence. 521.34 Section 521.34 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 521.34... substantially outweighed by the danger of unfair prejudice, confusion of the issues, or by consideration...

  8. 22 CFR 226.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procurement records. 226.46 Section 226.46...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.46 Procurement records. Procurement records and files for purchases in excess of the small purchase threshold shall include...

  9. 22 CFR 228.40 - Local procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Local procurement. 228.40 Section 228.40... COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Conditions Governing Source and Nationality of Local Procurement Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.40 Local procurement. Local procurement in the cooperating...

  10. 22 CFR 145.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procurement records. 145.46 Section 145.46... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 145.46 Procurement records. Procurement records and files for purchases in excess of the small...

  11. 22 CFR 62.28 - International visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false International visitors. 62.28 Section 62.28 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Specific... programs are designed to enable the international visitors to better understand American culture...

  12. 22 CFR 62.30 - Camp counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Camp counselors. 62.30 Section 62.30 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Specific Program... programs promote international understanding by improving American knowledge of foreign cultures...

  13. 22 CFR 62.29 - Government visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government visitors. 62.29 Section 62.29 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Specific... designed to enable government visitors to better understand American culture and society, and to...

  14. 22 CFR 62.26 - Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specialists. 62.26 Section 62.26 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Specific Program... institutions. Such exchanges also enable visitors to better understand American culture and society and...

  15. 22 CFR 146.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation. 146.515 Section 146.515 Foreign... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce... compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid...

  16. 22 CFR 96.34 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation. 96.34 Section 96.34 Foreign... Financial and Risk Management § 96.34 Compensation. (a) The agency or person does not compensate any... for compensation within the intercountry adoption community in that country, to the extent that...

  17. 22 CFR 229.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation. 229.515 Section 229.515 Foreign... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or... compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid...

  18. Consumption of HCFC-22 Increases Steadily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22) is an important fluorine chemical product. It can be directly used as refrigerant in household air-conditioners and refrigerators and also as chemical raw material to produce fluorine-containing polymer monomer tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) to extend the fluorine chemical industrial chain.

  19. 22 CFR 20.5 - Survivor benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Survivor benefits. 20.5 Section 20.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN FORMER SPOUSES § 20.5 Survivor benefits. (a... survivor benefits equal to one of the following; whichever is applicable: (1) 55 percent of the...

  20. 22 CFR 19.11 - Survivor benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Survivor benefits. 19.11 Section 19.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR SPOUSES AND FORMER SPOUSES OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.11 Survivor benefits....

  1. 27 CFR 22.162 - Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories. 22.162... Inventories. Each permittee shall take a physical inventory of the tax-free and recovered alcohol in its possession semi-annually for the periods ending June 30 and December 31 of each year; or other...

  2. 22 CFR 1411.12 - Annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Annual report. 1411.12 Section 1411.12 Foreign... AVAILABILITY OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION § 1411.12 Annual report. On or before March 1 of each calendar year, the Executive Director of the Authority shall submit a report of the activities of the Board, the...

  3. 31 CFR 128.22 - Periodic reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CAPITAL AND FOREIGN-CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS AND POSITIONS Reports on Foreign Currency Positions § 128.22... as outstanding foreign exchange contracts, dealing positions, derivative foreign currency instruments, and other assets and liabilities denominated in the currencies specified on the forms. Notice...

  4. Reference: ABRE2HVA22 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ABRE2HVA22 Shen Q, Ho TH Functional dissection of an abscisic acid(ABA)-inducible gene re...veals two independent ABA-responsive complexes each containing a G-box and a novel cis-acting element. Plant Cell 7:295-307 (1995) PubMed: 7734964; ...

  5. 22 CFR 1008.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Individual. 1008.655 Section 1008.655 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1008.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  6. 22 CFR 312.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Individual. 312.655 Section 312.655 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  7. 22 CFR 1509.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Individual. 1509.655 Section 1509.655 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  8. 22 CFR 133.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual. 133.655 Section 133.655 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 133.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  9. 22 CFR 210.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual. 210.655 Section 210.655 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  10. 22 CFR 228.55 - Delivery services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delivery services. 228.55 Section 228.55... COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Waivers § 228.55 Delivery services. (a) Ocean transportation. A... case of bulk cargoes and large cargoes carried by liners; (2) Eligible vessels provide liner...

  11. 22 CFR 67.3 - Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management. 67.3 Section 67.3 Foreign Relations....3 Management. (a) NED's operations and staff are managed by a President selected by the Board of... Office of the President provides policy direction and is responsible for day-to-day management of...

  12. 22 CFR 146.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the... assistance. (2) A recipient shall make all employment decisions in any education program or activity operated... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 146.500 Section 146.500...

  13. 22 CFR 146.505 - Employment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.505 Employment criteria. A recipient shall... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment criteria. 146.505 Section 146.505 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN...

  14. 22 CFR 229.505 - Employment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.505 Employment criteria. A recipient shall... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment criteria. 229.505 Section 229.505 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN...

  15. 22 CFR 229.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall... assistance. (2) A recipient shall make all employment decisions in any education program or activity operated... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 229.500 Section 229.500...

  16. 22 CFR 1008.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 1008.670 Section 1008.670 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1008.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and...

  17. 22 CFR 1508.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 1508.1015 Section 1508.1015 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1508.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a suspending official under subpart G...

  18. 22 CFR 1509.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 1509.670 Section 1509.670 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and...

  19. 22 CFR 127.8 - Interim suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interim suspension. 127.8 Section 127.8 Foreign... Interim suspension. (a) The Managing Director of the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls or the Director of the Office of Defense Trade Controls Compliance is authorized to order the interim suspension...

  20. 22 CFR 208.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 208.1015 Section 208.1015 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 208.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a suspending official under subpart G...

  1. 22 CFR 210.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 210.670 Section 210.670 Foreign... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement),...

  2. 22 CFR 34.20 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 34.20 Section 34.20 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY DEBT COLLECTION Collection Adjustments § 34.20 Suspension. The suspension of collection action shall be made in accordance with the standards set forth...

  3. 22 CFR 1006.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 1006.1015 Section 1006.1015 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1006.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a suspending official under subpart G of...

  4. 22 CFR 312.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 312.670 Section 312.670 Foreign... § 312.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a... Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and Executive Order...

  5. 22 CFR 133.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 133.670 Section 133.670 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 133.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and...

  6. 22 CFR 210.650 - Grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grant. 210.650 Section 210.650 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE... authorized by a law of the United States, rather than to acquire property or services for the...

  7. 22 CFR 133.650 - Grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grant. 133.650 Section 133.650 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL... authorized by a law of the United States, rather than to acquire property or services for the...

  8. 22 CFR 130.7 - Supplier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplier. 130.7 Section 130.7 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.7 Supplier. Supplier means any person who enters into a contract with the Department of...

  9. 22 CFR 228.36 - Ineligible suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ineligible suppliers. 228.36 Section 228.36... COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Conditions Governing the Nationality of Suppliers of Services for USAID Financing § 228.36 Ineligible suppliers. Citizens of any country or area not included...

  10. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  11. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  12. 22 CFR 208.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 208.920 Section 208.920 Foreign...) Definitions § 208.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  13. 22 CFR 40.64 - Stowaways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stowaways. 40.64 Section 40.64 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Illegal Entrants and Immigration Violators § 40.64 Stowaways....

  14. 22 CFR 40.69 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 40.69 Section 40.69 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Illegal Entrants and Immigration Violators § 40.69...

  15. 22 CFR 40.65 - Smugglers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Smugglers. 40.65 Section 40.65 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Illegal Entrants and Immigration Violators § 40.65 Smugglers....

  16. IL TERREMOTO JONICO DEL 22 APRILE 1948

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    p. Valle

    1951-06-01

    Full Text Available Allo scopo di contribuire alla localizzazione dei centri sismiciche interessano l'Italia e per essere in jtossesso dei dati fondamentaliper una successiva ricerca, sono state calcolate le coordinate epicentralie il tempo origine del terremoto Jonico del 22 aprile 1948.

  17. 22 CFR 221.42 - Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... English language, shall refer to the Israel Loan Guarantee Number inscribed on the Eligible Note and shall... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice. 221.42 Section 221.42 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS...

  18. 22 CFR 204.42 - Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice. 204.42 Section 204.42 Foreign Relations....42 Notice. Any communication to A.I.D. pursuant to this Guaranty shall be in writing in the English language, shall refer to the A.I.D. Housing Guaranty Project Number inscribed on the Eligible Note...

  19. 22 CFR 171.6 - Archival records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Archival records. 171.6 Section 171.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACCESS TO INFORMATION AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION AND RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC General Policy and Procedures § 171.6 Archival records. The Department ordinarily transfers records to...

  20. 22 CFR 67.1 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 67.1 Section 67.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES ORGANIZATION OF THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR DEMOCRACY § 67.1 Introduction. (a) The National Endowment for Democracy (hereinafter “NED”) was created...

  1. 22 CFR 66.1 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 66.1 Section 66.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES AVAILABILITY OF THE RECORDS OF THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR DEMOCRACY § 66.1 Introduction. These regulations amend the Code of Federal Regulations...

  2. 22 CFR 5.1 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 5.1 Section 5.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 5.1 Introduction. The sections in this part 5 are issued pursuant to section 3 of the Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. 552, effective July 4, 1967....

  3. 22 CFR 216.1 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 216.1 Section 216.1 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCEDURES § 216.1 Introduction. (a) Purpose. In accordance with sections 118(b) and 621 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended,...

  4. 22 CFR 9.8 - Classification challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification challenges. 9.8 Section 9.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.8 Classification... classification status is improper are expected and encouraged to challenge the classification status of...

  5. 22 CFR 9.2 - Objective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Objective. 9.2 Section 9.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.2 Objective. The objective of the Department's classification program is to ensure that national security information is protected...

  6. 22 CFR 226.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 226.43 Section 226.43 Foreign... ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free...

  7. 22 CFR 145.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 145.43 Section 145.43 Foreign... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  8. 22 CFR 518.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Competition. 518.43 Section 518.43 Foreign... Procurement Standards § 518.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  9. 22 CFR 196.4 - Administering office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administering office. 196.4 Section 196.4... AFFAIRS/GRADUATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 196.4 Administering office. The Department of State's Bureau of Human Resources, Office of Recruitment is responsible for administering the Thomas...

  10. 22 CFR 228.32 - Nonprofit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonprofit organizations. 228.32 Section 228.32 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND NATIONALITY FOR... USAID Financing § 228.32 Nonprofit organizations. (a) Nonprofit organizations, such as...

  11. 22 CFR 211.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a nonprofit private voluntary organization or cooperative registered with, and approved by, A.I.D. The term includes foreign as well as U.S. registered nonprofit voluntary organizations and... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 211.2 Section 211.2...

  12. 22 CFR 20.2 - Funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Funding. 20.2 Section 20.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN FORMER SPOUSES § 20.2 Funding. Benefits under this part are paid from the Fund maintained by the Secretary of the Treasury pursuant to section 802 of the...

  13. 22 CFR 17.3 - Fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fault. 17.3 Section 17.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL OVERPAYMENTS FROM THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY FUND UNDER THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM (FSRDS) AND THE FOREIGN SERVICE PENSION SYSTEM...

  14. 22 CFR 17.1 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General. 17.1 Section 17.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL OVERPAYMENTS FROM THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY FUND UNDER THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM (FSRDS) AND THE FOREIGN SERVICE PENSION SYSTEM...

  15. 22 CFR 909.3 - Board recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Board recommendation. 909.3 Section 909.3 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD DECISIONMAKING § 909.3 Board recommendation. Where the Board's decision is a recommendation, it shall be directed to the head of the Agency. A copy of...

  16. 22 CFR 120.20 - License.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false License. 120.20 Section 120.20 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.20 License. License means a document bearing the word “license” issued by the Directorate of Defense...

  17. 22 CFR 143.33 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mediation. 143.33 Section 143.33 Foreign... Mediation. (a) Referral of complaints for mediation. The agency will refer to the Federal Mediation and... participate in the mediation process to the extent necessary to reach an agreement or make an...

  18. 22 CFR 218.33 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mediation. 218.33 Section 218.33 Foreign... § 218.33 Mediation. (a) Referral of complaints for mediation. The agency will refer to the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service all complaints that: (1) fall within the jurisdiction of...

  19. 22 CFR 228.34 - Joint ventures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Joint ventures. 228.34 Section 228.34 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND NATIONALITY FOR COMMODITIES AND... Financing § 228.34 Joint ventures. A joint venture or unincorporated association is eligible only if each...

  20. 22 CFR 120.9 - Defense service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Defense service. (a) Defense service means: (1) The furnishing of assistance (including training) to foreign persons, whether in the United States or abroad in the design, development, engineering... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense service. 120.9 Section 120.9...

  1. 22 CFR 120.17 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export. 120.17 Section 120.17 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.17 Export. (a) Export means: (1) Sending or taking a defense article out of the United States in any manner, except...

  2. 19 CFR 177.22 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS Government Procurement; Country-of-Origin Determinations § 177.22... government of a country, but may be construed to include such arrangements as the European Economic...

  3. 22 CFR 62.10 - Program administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... English language to participate in his or her program. (b) Pre-arrival information. Sponsors shall provide... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program administration. 62.10 Section 62.10 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM...

  4. 22 CFR 226.52 - Financial reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial reporting. 226.52 Section 226.52...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Reports and Records § 226.52 Financial reporting. USAID requires recipients to use the Standard Form 425 or Standard Form 425a, Federal Financial Report, or...

  5. 22 CFR 145.52 - Financial reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial reporting. 145.52 Section 145.52....52 Financial reporting. (a) The following forms or such other forms as may be approved by OMB are authorized for obtaining financial information from recipients. (1) SF-269 or SF-269A, Financial...

  6. 22 CFR 135.41 - Financial reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial reporting. 135.41 Section 135.41... Enforcement § 135.41 Financial reporting. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraphs (a) (2) and (5) of...) Submitting financial reports to Federal agencies, or (ii) Requesting advances or reimbursements when...

  7. 22 CFR 518.52 - Financial reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Financial reporting. 518.52 Section 518.52... Requirements Reports and Records § 518.52 Financial reporting. (a) The following forms or such other forms as may be approved by OMB are authorized for obtaining financial information from recipients. (1)...

  8. 22 CFR 8.7 - Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security. 8.7 Section 8.7 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT § 8.7 Security. (a) All officers and members of a committee must have a security clearance for the subject matter level of security at which the...

  9. 27 CFR 10.22 - Employee associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Commercial Bribery § 10.22 Employee associations. Gifts... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee associations. 10... employee associations are considered the same as bonuses, premiums, compensation, or other things of...

  10. 22 CFR 911.7 - Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Review. 911.7 Section 911.7 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD IMPLEMENTATION DISPUTES § 911.7 Review. Resolution of disputes under this section shall not be subject to judicial review....

  11. 22 CFR 309.16 - Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Review. 309.16 Section 309.16 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 309.16 Review. (a) Request for outside hearing. Except as... hearing or a review of the documentary evidence is requested. If an oral hearing is desired, the...

  12. 22 CFR 132.1 - Purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchase. 132.1 Section 132.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS BOOKS, MAPS, NEWSPAPERS, ETC. § 132.1 Purchase. The purchase by the... determination has been made by the Secretary, as permitted by the provisions of the act, that such purchase...

  13. 49 CFR 565.22 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Effect for Limited Period § 565.22 Definitions. (a) Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards Definitions... passenger car or a multipurpose passenger vehicle, or truck with a gross vehicle weight rating of 4536 kg... assembling motor vehicles or motor vehicle equipment; or (2) Importing motor vehicles or motor...

  14. 22 CFR 96.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... provided any other adoption service in the case. IAA means the Intercountry Adoption Act of 2000, Public... authorities or public foreign authorities. Post-adoption means after an adoption; in cases in which an... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 96.2 Section 96.2...

  15. 22 CFR 216.8 - Public hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public hearings. 216.8 Section 216.8 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCEDURES § 216.8 Public hearings. (a) In most... some cases the Administrator may wish to hold public hearings on draft Environmental Impact...

  16. 22 CFR 1300.2 - Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Organization. 1300.2 Section 1300.2 Foreign Relations MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS OF THE MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION § 1300.2 Organization. (a) MCC's Board consists of: (1) The Secretary of State, the Secretary...

  17. 22 CFR 901.19 - Labor organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labor organization. 901.19 Section 901.19 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD GENERAL Meanings of Terms As Used in This Chapter § 901.19 Labor organization. Labor organization means any employee organization accorded recognition as...

  18. 22 CFR 901.17 - Charged employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Charged employee. 901.17 Section 901.17 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD GENERAL Meanings of Terms As Used in This Chapter § 901.17 Charged employee. Charged employee means a member of the Senior Foreign Service or a member of the Service...

  19. 22 CFR 133.640 - Employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee. 133.640 Section 133.640 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 133.640 Employee. (a) Employee means the employee of a recipient directly engaged in the performance of work under the award, including— (1) All direct charge employees; (2)...

  20. 22 CFR 1008.640 - Employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Employee. 1008.640 Section 1008.640 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1008.640 Employee. (a) Employee means the employee of a recipient directly engaged in the performance of work under the award, including— (1) All direct charge employees; (2)...

  1. 22 CFR 312.640 - Employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Employee. 312.640 Section 312.640 Foreign... § 312.640 Employee. (a) Employee means the employee of a recipient directly engaged in the performance of work under the award, including— (1) All direct charge employees; (2) All indirect...

  2. 22 CFR 210.640 - Employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee. 210.640 Section 210.640 Foreign... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.640 Employee. (a) Employee means the employee of a recipient directly engaged in the performance of work under the award, including— (1) All direct charge employees;...

  3. 22 CFR 1509.640 - Employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Employee. 1509.640 Section 1509.640 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.640 Employee. (a) Employee means the employee of a recipient directly engaged in the performance of work under the award, including— (1) All direct charge employees; (2)...

  4. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  5. 22 CFR 62.27 - Alien physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alien physicians. 62.27 Section 62.27 Foreign... Provisions § 62.27 Alien physicians. (a) Purpose. Pursuant to the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange... Foreign Medical Graduates must sponsor alien physicians who wish to pursue programs of graduate...

  6. 22 CFR 1429.13 - Official time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Official time. 1429.13 Section 1429.13 Foreign... REQUIREMENTS Miscellaneous § 1429.13 Official time. If the participation of any employee in any phase of any... of the Board designated by the Board, such employee shall be granted official time for...

  7. 22 CFR 171.31 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 171.31 Section 171.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACCESS TO INFORMATION AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION AND RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC Privacy Act Provisions § 171.31 Definitions. As used in this subpart, the following definitions...

  8. 22 CFR 63.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 63.1 Section 63.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES PAYMENTS TO AND ON BEHALF OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM § 63.1 Definitions. For the purpose...

  9. 22 CFR 64.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 64.2 Section 64.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES PARTICIPATION BY FEDERAL EMPLOYEES IN CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAMS OF FOREIGN COUNTRIES § 64.2 Definitions. For the purpose of this part: (a)...

  10. 22 CFR 46.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 46.1 Section 46.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS CONTROL OF ALIENS DEPARTING FROM THE UNITED STATES § 46.1 Definitions... public ferry, passenger vessel sailing coastwise on a fixed schedule, excursion vessel, or...

  11. 22 CFR 171.20 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 171.20 Section 171.20 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACCESS TO INFORMATION AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION AND RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC Executive Order 12958 Provisions § 171.20 Definitions. As used in this subpart, the following...

  12. 22 CFR 62.74 - Student employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Student employment. 62.74 Section 62.74 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.74 Student employment. (a) Students meeting the definition...

  13. 45 CFR 2543.22 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.22 Payment. (a) Payment methods shall minimize the time... and disbursement by the recipient, and (2) Financial management systems that meet the standards...

  14. 40 CFR 30.22 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 30.22 Payment. (a... time elapsing between the transfer of funds and disbursement by the recipient; and financial...

  15. 45 CFR 74.22 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND SUBAWARDS TO INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 74.22 Payment. (a) Unless... transfer of funds and disbursement by the recipient; and (ii) Financial management systems that meet...

  16. 20 CFR 435.22 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.22 Payment. (a) Introduction. Payment methods..., and (ii) Financial management systems that meet the standards for fund control and accountability...

  17. 22 CFR 145.24 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 145.24 Section 145.24 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management §...

  18. 28 CFR 70.22 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (INCLUDING SUBAWARDS) WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.22 Payment. (a) Payment methods must... transfer of funds and disbursement by the recipient, and financial management systems that meet...

  19. 38 CFR 49.22 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 49.22 Payment. (a... elapsing between the transfer of funds and disbursement by the recipient, and financial management...

  20. 22 CFR 231.03 - The Guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The Guarantee. 231.03 Section 231.03 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE... maintained by the Fiscal Agent....

  1. 22 CFR 708.5 - Closed meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Closed meetings. 708.5 Section 708.5 Foreign... Closed meetings. (a) Meetings of the Board of Directors will be closed to public observation where the... such portion or portions of the meeting or disclosure of such information is likely to: (1)...

  2. 22 CFR 1500.4 - Open meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Open meetings. 1500.4 Section 1500.4 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION SUNSHINE REGULATIONS § 1500.4 Open meetings. (a) Members shall not... portion of every meeting of the Board of Directors shall be open to public observation, subject to...

  3. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 13.22 Allowable costs. (a... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each...

  4. 45 CFR 1157.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1157.22... cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for...

  5. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 80.22... kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. For...

  6. 13 CFR 143.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 143.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set...

  7. 38 CFR 43.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may... the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is...

  8. 32 CFR 33.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 33.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of... allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of...

  9. 40 CFR 31.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Requirements Financial Administration § 31.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may... the grantee or sub-grantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is...

  10. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1207.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each...

  11. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 92.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set...

  12. 22 CFR 9a.7 - Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Access. 9a.7 Section 9a.7 Foreign Relations... PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.7 Access. (a) Except as set forth in this section, access to information or... appropriate officer of the Department to be trustworthy and to have a need for access to the...

  13. 22 CFR 208.1010 - Suspending official.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspending official. 208.1010 Section 208.1010 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 208.1010 Suspending official. (a) Suspending official means an agency official...

  14. 22 CFR 62.73 - Academic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.73 Academic training. (a) Students meeting the definition listed in § 62.4(a)(1)(ii) and (iii) may, if approved by the academic dean or advisor and approved by the... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Academic training. 62.73 Section 62.73...

  15. 22 CFR 521.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Discovery. 521.21 Section 521.21 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 521.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents...

  16. 22 CFR 94.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 94.1 Section 94.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.1 Definitions... International Child Abduction, Appendix B to Department of State notice, 51 FR 10498, March 26, 1986....

  17. 22 CFR 94.4 - Prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibitions. 94.4 Section 94.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.4 Prohibitions. (a) The U.S. Central Authority is prohibited from acting as an agent or attorney or in any...

  18. 22 CFR 94.5 - Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application. 94.5 Section 94.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.5 Application. Any person, institution, or other body may apply to the U.S. Central Authority for assistance...

  19. 22 CFR 217.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.21 Section 217... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities within the... excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  20. 22 CFR 141.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 141.3 Section 141.3... DEPARTMENT OF STATE-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 141.3 Discrimination... discrimination under any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited....

  1. 22 CFR 217.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.11 Section 217... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which this part applies. (2)...

  2. 22 CFR 217.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.4 Section 217.4... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 217.4 Discrimination... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  3. 22 CFR 142.15 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.15 Section 142... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 142.15 Discrimination... be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which the part applies....

  4. 22 CFR 142.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.11 Section 142... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.11 Discrimination... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. (2)...

  5. 22 CFR 142.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.4 Section 142.4... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 142.4 Discrimination... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  6. 22 CFR 209.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 209.4 Section 209.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NON-DISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS... § 209.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the grounds...

  7. 22 CFR 96.31 - Corporate structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Approval Licensing and Corporate Governance § 96.31 Corporate structure. (a) The agency qualifies for... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corporate structure. 96.31 Section 96.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL...

  8. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign... United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the insular possessions of the United States, the District of Columbia,...

  9. 22 CFR 1300.3 - Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Functions. 1300.3 Section 1300.3 Foreign Relations MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS OF THE MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION § 1300.3 Functions. (a) MCC provides United States assistance for global development; and...

  10. 22 CFR 144.160 - Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Communications. 144.160 Section 144.160 Foreign... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF STATE § 144.160 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants,...

  11. 22 CFR 1600.160 - Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Communications. 1600.160 Section 1600.160 Foreign Relations JAPAN-UNITED STATES FRIENDSHIP COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS... § 1600.160 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective...

  12. 22 CFR 219.160 - Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Communications. 219.160 Section 219.160 Foreign... DEVELOPMENT § 219.160 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants, participants, personnel of other Federal entities, and members of the public....

  13. 22 CFR 1005.160 - Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Communications. 1005.160 Section 1005.160... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION § 1005.160 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants, participants,...

  14. 22 CFR 530.160 - Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Communications. 530.160 Section 530.160 Foreign... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS § 530.160 Communications. (a) The Board shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants,...

  15. 22 CFR 1510.160 - Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Communications. 1510.160 Section 1510.160... IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION § 1510.160 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with...

  16. 22 CFR 1103.160 - Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Communications. 1103.160 Section 1103.160 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES... Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with...

  17. 22 CFR 1701.160 - Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Communications. 1701.160 Section 1701.160 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF... Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with...

  18. 22 CFR 711.160 - Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Communications. 711.160 Section 711.160 Foreign... CORPORATION § 711.160 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants, participants, personnel of other Federal entities, and members of the public....

  19. 22 CFR 225.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperative research. 225.114 Section 225.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible...

  20. 22 CFR 146.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising. 146.540 Section 146.540 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any...

  1. 22 CFR 229.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising. 229.540 Section 229.540 Foreign... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification, or discrimination based...

  2. Main: ABRE3HVA22 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gene; see S0117 (ABRE2 of HVA22 gene); see CE1 (coupling element 1 = TGCCACCGG); See S000014; ABA response complex 1(ABRC1)=A3(previ...ously designated ABRE3)+CE1 (Shen et al., Plant Cell 8:1

  3. 22 CFR 143.11 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standards. 143.11 Section 143.11 Foreign... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 143.11 Standards. The standards each agency uses to determine whether an age distinction or age-related term is prohibited are...

  4. 22 CFR 218.11 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standards. 218.11 Section 218.11 Foreign... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 218.11 Standards. The standards each agency uses to determine whether an age distinction or age-related term...

  5. 22 CFR 33.8 - Claim procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... must be supported by documentary evidence. Foreign language documents must be accompanied by an... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claim procedures. 33.8 Section 33.8 Foreign..., including: (i) The date and cost of acquisition supported by invoices or other acceptable proof of...

  6. 22 CFR 1006.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Legal proceedings. 1006.965 Section 1006.965...) Definitions § 1006.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial proceeding, including a proceeding under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act (31 U.S.C....

  7. 22 CFR 1423.31 - Backpay proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Backpay proceedings. 1423.31 Section 1423.31... PRACTICE PROCEEDINGS § 1423.31 Backpay proceedings. After the entry of a Board order directing payment of... proceeding, the Regional Director may issue and serve on all parties a backpay specification accompanied by...

  8. 22 CFR 1423.2 - Informal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Informal proceedings. 1423.2 Section 1423.2 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL... PRACTICE PROCEEDINGS § 1423.2 Informal proceedings. (a) The purposes and policies of the Foreign...

  9. 22 CFR 1508.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Legal proceedings. 1508.965 Section 1508.965...) Definitions § 1508.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial proceeding, including a proceeding under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act (31 U.S.C....

  10. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  11. 22 CFR 230.16 - Governing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 230.16 Section 230.16 Foreign... SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUB. L. 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States...

  12. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  13. 22 CFR 204.43 - Governing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 204.43 Section 204.43 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Administration § 204.43 Governing law. This Guaranty shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  14. 22 CFR 142.17 - New construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (USAF) (appendix A to 41 CFR subpart 101-19.6) shall be deemed to... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false New construction. 142.17 Section 142.17 Foreign... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 142.17 New construction. (a) Design...

  15. 22 CFR 217.23 - New construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (USAF) (appendix A to 41 CFR subpart 101-19.6) shall be deemed to... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false New construction. 217.23 Section 217.23 Foreign... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 217.23 New construction. (a) Design...

  16. 22 CFR 145.48 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... breaches the contract terms, and provide for such remedial actions as may be appropriate. (b) All contracts... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contract clauses. 145.48 Section 145.48 Foreign... Contract clauses. The recipient shall include, in addition to clauses to define a sound and...

  17. 22 CFR 226.48 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... administrative, contractual, or legal remedies in instances in which a contractor violates or breaches the... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contract provisions. 226.48 Section 226.48...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.48 Contract provisions....

  18. 22 CFR 518.48 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... remedies in instances in which a contractor violates or breaches the contract terms, and provide for such... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Contract provisions. 518.48 Section 518.48... Requirements Procurement Standards § 518.48 Contract provisions. The recipient shall include, in addition...

  19. Toward structurally defined carbon dots as ultracompact fluorescent probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCroy, Gregory Ethan; Sonkar, Sumit Kumar; Yang, Fan; Veca, L Monica; Wang, Ping; Tackett, Kenneth N; Yu, Jing-Jiang; Vasile, Eugeniu; Qian, Haijun; Liu, Yamin; Luo, Pengju George; Sun, Ya-Ping

    2014-05-27

    There has been much discussion on the need to develop fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) as ultracompact probes, with overall size profiles comparable to those of the genetically encoded fluorescent tags. In the use of conventional semiconductor QDs for such a purpose, the beautifully displayed dependence of fluorescence color on the particle diameter becomes a limitation. More recently, carbon dots have emerged as a new platform of QD-like fluorescent nanomaterials. The optical absorption and fluorescence emissions in carbon dots are not bandgap in origin, different from those in conventional semiconductor QDs. The absence of any theoretically defined fluorescence color-dot size relationships in carbon dots may actually be exploited as a unique advantage in the size reduction toward having carbon dots serve as ultracompact QD-like fluorescence probes. Here we report on carbon dots of less than 5 nm in the overall dot diameter with the use of 2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylamine) (EDA) molecules for the carbon particle surface passivation. The EDA-carbon dots were found to be brightly fluorescent, especially over the spectral range of green fluorescent protein. These aqueous soluble smaller carbon dots also enabled more quantitative characterizations, including the use of solution-phase NMR techniques, and the results suggested that the dot structures were relatively simple and better-defined. The potential for these smaller carbon dots to serve as fluorescence probes of overall sizes comparable to those of fluorescent proteins is discussed.

  20. Deletion 22q13.3 syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phelan Mary C

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The deletion 22q13.3 syndrome (deletion 22q13 syndrome or Phelan-McDermid syndrome is a chromosome microdeletion syndrome characterized by neonatal hypotonia, global developmental delay, normal to accelerated growth, absent to severely delayed speech, and minor dysmorphic features. The deletion occurs with equal frequency in males and females and has been reported in mosaic and non-mosaic forms. Due to lack of clinical recognition and often insufficient laboratory testing, the syndrome is under-diagnosed and its true incidence remains unknown. Common physical traits include long eye lashes, large or unusual ears, relatively large hands, dysplastic toenails, full brow, dolicocephaly, full cheeks, bulbous nose, and pointed chin. Behavior is autistic-like with decreased perception of pain and habitual chewing or mouthing. The loss of 22q13.3 can result from simple deletion, translocation, ring chromosome formation and less common structural changes affecting the long arm of chromosome 22, specifically the region containing the SHANK3 gene. The diagnosis of deletion 22q13 syndrome should be considered in all cases of hypotonia of unknown etiology and in individuals with absent speech. Although the deletion can sometimes be detected by high resolution chromosome analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH or array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH is recommended for confirmation. Differential diagnosis includes syndromes associated with hypotonia, developmental delay, speech delay and/or autistic-like affect (Prader-Willi, Angelman, Williams, Smith-Magenis, Fragile X, Sotos, FG, trichorhinophalangeal and velocardiofacial syndromes, autism spectrum disorders, cerebral palsy. Genetic counseling is recommended and parental laboratory studies should be considered to identify cryptic rearrangements and detect parental mosaicism. Prenatal diagnosis should be offered for future pregnancies in those families with inherited rearrangements

  1. Amorphous iron (II) carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sel, Ozlem; Radha, A.V.; Dideriksen, Knud;

    2012-01-01

    exothermic than that of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC). This suggests that enthalpy of crystallization in carbonate systems is ionic-size controlled, which may have significant implications in a wide variety of conditions, including geological sequestration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide.......Abstract The synthesis, characterization and crystallization energetics of amorphous iron (II) carbonate (AFC) are reported. AFC may form as a precursor for siderite (FeCO3). The enthalpy of crystallization (DHcrys) of AFC is similar to that of amorphous magnesium carbonate (AMC) and more...

  2. Temporal dynamics and sPatial variations of forest vegetation carbon stock in Liaoning Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qing; TANG Li-Na; REN Yin

    2011-01-01

    There are many uncertainties in the estimation of forest carbon sequestration in China,especially in Liaoning Province where various forest inventory data have not been fully utilized.By using forest inventory data,we estimated forest vegetation carbon stock of Liaoning Province between 1993 and 2005.Results showed that forest biomass carbon stock increased from 68.91 Tg C in 1993 to 97.51 Tg C in 2005,whereas mean carbon density increased from 18.48 Mg.ha-1 C to 22.33 Mg·ha-1 C.The carbon storage of young- and middle-aged forests increased by 22.1 Tg C and 5.95 Tg C,but that of mature forests has decreased by 0.25 Tg C.The carbon stock and density of forests in Liaoning Province varied greatly in space:larger carbon storage and higher carbon density were primarily found in the east area.The spatial distribution of carbon density was determined by many factors,of which human activities played an important role.The forests in Liauning Province played a positive role as a sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide.The carbun fixation ability of forests in this area was primarily derived from forest plantation and the total forest carbon sequestration can be enhanced by expanding young- and middle-aged forests.

  3. 从炭材料到低碳社会——2012世界炭会议介绍%How will carbon material lead to a low carbon society——A review of Carbon 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭光

    2012-01-01

    A review is given of the Annual World Conference on Carbon, which was held on June 17-22, 2012 in Krakow, Poland and organized by the Polish Carbon Society. In this conference, 5 plenary lectures, 30 keynote lectures, 220 oral presentations and 465 posters were divided into 10 topics, i. e. , carbons for energy storage ; carbons for health and environmental protection; precursors, processing and technology; carbon nanomate-rials; porous carbons; carbon-based composites; graphene; new methods for carbon characterization; computation and modeling; and industrial news. Besides traditional modification on surface area and porosity, doping with hetero atoms such as N, B and P or compositing with metals or metal oxides have been developed into effective means for modifying carbon materials for improved adsorption, catalysis and energy-storage performance. The applications of novel carbon structures like nanotubes are still limited by the controllable and scalable preparation, processability and reactivity. Research on the structure and properties of graphene is moving from curiosity-oriented to application-oriented. Mathematical formulation or modeling of pore structures has been promoted by the progress in characterization methods. The modification of the surface/interface in carbon materials, which plays important roles in determining their physical, chemical or mechanical properties is still a focus of research activity in carbon materials.

  4. Exciton Dynamics in Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Matt [University of California, Berkeley; Chmeliov, Javgenij [Vilnius University, Lithuania; Ma, Yingzhong [ORNL; Shinohara, Nori [Nagoya University, Japan; Green, Alexander A. [Northwestern University, Evanston; Hersam, Mark C. [Northwestern University, Evanston; Valkunas, Leonas [Vilnius University, Lithuania; Fleming, Graham [University of California, Berkeley

    2010-01-01

    We report femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopic study on the (6, 5) single-walled carbon nanotubes and the (7, 5) inner tubes of a dominant double-walled carbon nanotube species. We found that the dynamics of exciton relaxation probed at the first transition-allowed state (E11) of a given tube type exhibits a markedly slower decay when the second transition-allowed state (E22) is excited than that measured by exciting its first transition-allowed state (E11). A linear intensity dependence of the maximal amplitude of the transient absorption signal is found for the E22 excitation, whereas the corresponding amplitude scales linearly with the square root of the E11 excitation intensity. Theoretical modeling of these experimental findings was performed by developing a continuum model and a stochastic model with explicit consideration of the annihilation of coherent excitons. Our detailed numerical simulations show that both models can reproduce reasonably well the initial portion of decay kinetics measured upon the E22 and E11 excitation of the chosen tube species, but the stochastic model gives qualitatively better agreement with the intensity dependence observed experimentally than those obtained with the continuum model.

  5. Extraordinarily Long 2-Electron - 4-Center (2e-/4c) 2.9-Å Carbon-Carbon Bonds - What is a Chemical Bond?

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Joel S.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon-carbon (CC) bonding is a key essence of organic and biochemistry. The length of a CC bond, i.e. 1.54 Å found in the diamond allotrope of carbon and ethane, is among the essential information learned by all chemistry students. This is the length of a single bond () between sp3-hybridized carbons and is the longest of all common CC bonds. Our studies of the [TCNE]22- (TCNE = tetracyanoethylene) dimers reveal that 2.89 ± 0.05 Å 2 electron/4 center (2e-/4c) CC bonds are present. Struc...

  6. Seagrass meadows as a globally significant carbonate reservoir

    KAUST Repository

    Mazarrasa, I.

    2015-03-06

    There has been a growing interest in quantifying the capacity of seagrass ecosystems to act as carbon sinks as a natural way of offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. However, most of the efforts have focused on the organic carbon (POC) stocks and accumulation rates and ignored the inorganic carbon (PIC) fraction, despite important carbonate pools associated with calcifying organisms inhabiting the meadows, such as epiphytes and benthic invertebrates, and despite the relevance that carbonate precipitation and dissolution processes have in the global carbon cycle. This study offers the first assessment of the global PIC stocks in seagrass sediments using a synthesis of published and unpublished data on sediment carbonate concentration from 402 vegetated and 34 adjacent un-vegetated sites. PIC stocks in the top 1 m sediments ranged between 3 and 1660 Mg PIC ha-1, with an average of 654 ± 24 Mg PIC ha-1, exceeding about 5 fold those of POC reported in previous studies. Sedimentary carbonate stocks varied across seagrass communities, with meadows dominated by Halodule, Thalassia or Cymodocea supporting the highest PIC stocks, and tended to decrease polewards at a rate of -8 ± 2 Mg PIC ha-1 degree-1 of latitude (GLM, p < 0.0003). Using PIC concentration and estimates of sediment accretion in seagrass meadows, mean PIC accumulation rates in seagrass sediments is 126.3 ± 0.7 g PIC m-2 y-1. Based on the global extent of seagrass meadows (177 000 to 600 000 km2), these ecosystems globally store between 11 and 39 Pg of PIC in the top meter of sediment and accumulate between 22 and 76 Tg PIC y-1, representing a significant contribution to the carbonate dynamics of coastal areas. Despite that these high rates of carbonate accumulation imply CO2 emissions from precipitation, seagrass meadows are still strong CO2 sinks as demonstrates the comparison of carbon (POC and POC) stocks between vegetated and adjacent un-vegetated sediments.

  7. Seagrass meadows as a globally significant carbonate reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarrasa, I.; Marbà, N.; Lovelock, C. E.; Serrano, O.; Lavery, P. S.; Fourqurean, J. W.; Kennedy, H.; Mateo, M. A.; Krause-Jensen, D.; Steven, A. D. L.; Duarte, C. M.

    2015-08-01

    There has been growing interest in quantifying the capacity of seagrass ecosystems to act as carbon sinks as a natural way of offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. However, most of the efforts have focused on the particulate organic carbon (POC) stocks and accumulation rates and ignored the particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) fraction, despite important carbonate pools associated with calcifying organisms inhabiting the meadows, such as epiphytes and benthic invertebrates, and despite the relevance that carbonate precipitation and dissolution processes have in the global carbon cycle. This study offers the first assessment of the global PIC stocks in seagrass sediments using a synthesis of published and unpublished data on sediment carbonate concentration from 403 vegetated and 34 adjacent un-vegetated sites. PIC stocks in the top 1 m of sediment ranged between 3 and 1660 Mg PIC ha-1, with an average of 654 ± 24 Mg PIC ha-1, exceeding those of POC reported in previous studies by about a factor of 5. Sedimentary carbonate stocks varied across seagrass communities, with meadows dominated by Halodule, Thalassia or Cymodocea supporting the highest PIC stocks, and tended to decrease polewards at a rate of -8 ± 2 Mg PIC ha-1 per degree of latitude (general linear model, GLM; p seagrass meadows, the mean PIC accumulation rate in seagrass sediments is found to be 126.3 ± 31.05 g PIC m-2 yr-1. Based on the global extent of seagrass meadows (177 000 to 600 000 km2), these ecosystems globally store between 11 and 39 Pg of PIC in the top metre of sediment and accumulate between 22 and 75 Tg PIC yr-1, representing a significant contribution to the carbonate dynamics of coastal areas. Despite the fact that these high rates of carbonate accumulation imply CO2 emissions from precipitation, seagrass meadows are still strong CO2 sinks as demonstrated by the comparison of carbon (PIC and POC) stocks between vegetated and adjacent un-vegetated sediments.

  8. Seagrass meadows as a globally significant carbonate reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mazarrasa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing interest in quantifying the capacity of seagrass ecosystems to act as carbon sinks as a natural way of offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. However, most of the efforts have focused on the organic carbon (POC stocks and accumulation rates and ignored the inorganic carbon (PIC fraction, despite important carbonate pools associated with calcifying organisms inhabiting the meadows, such as epiphytes and benthic invertebrates, and despite the relevance that carbonate precipitation and dissolution processes have in the global carbon cycle. This study offers the first assessment of the global PIC stocks in seagrass sediments using a synthesis of published and unpublished data on sediment carbonate concentration from 402 vegetated and 34 adjacent un-vegetated sites. PIC stocks in the top 1 m sediments ranged between 3 and 1660 Mg PIC ha-1, with an average of 654 ± 24 Mg PIC ha-1, exceeding about 5 fold those of POC reported in previous studies. Sedimentary carbonate stocks varied across seagrass communities, with meadows dominated by Halodule, Thalassia or Cymodocea supporting the highest PIC stocks, and tended to decrease polewards at a rate of -8 ± 2 Mg PIC ha-1 degree-1 of latitude (GLM, p -2 y-1. Based on the global extent of seagrass meadows (177 000 to 600 000 km2, these ecosystems globally store between 11 and 39 Pg of PIC in the top meter of sediment and accumulate between 22 and 76 Tg PIC y-1, representing a significant contribution to the carbonate dynamics of coastal areas. Despite that these high rates of carbonate accumulation imply CO2 emissions from precipitation, seagrass meadows are still strong CO2 sinks as demonstrates the comparison of carbon (POC and POC stocks between vegetated and adjacent un-vegetated sediments.

  9. Novel biodegradable aliphatic poly(butylene succinate-co-cyclic carbonate)s with functional carbonate building blocks. 1. Chemical synthesis and their structural and physical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Hao, Qinghui; Liu, Xiaoyun; Ba, Chaoyi; Cao, Amin

    2004-01-01

    This study presents chemical synthesis, structural, and physical characterization of novel biodegradable aliphatic poly(butylene succinate-co-cyclic carbonate)s P(BS-co-CC) bearing functional carbonate building blocks. First, five kinds of six-membered cyclic carbonate monomers, namely, trimethylene carbonate (TMC), 1-methyl-1,3-trimethylene carbonate (MTMC), 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-trimethylene carbonate (DMTMC), 5-benzyloxytrimethylene carbonate (BTMC), and 5-ethyl-5-benzyloxymethyl trimethylene carbonate (EBTMC), were well prepared from ethyl chloroformate and corresponding diols at 0 degrees C in THF solution with our modified synthetic strategies. Then, a series of new P(BS-co-CC)s were synthesized at 210 degrees C through a simple combination of poly-condensation and ring-opening-polymerization (ROP) of hydroxyl capped PBS macromers and the prepared carbonate monomers, and titanium tetra-isopropoxide Ti(i-OPr)4 was used as a more suitable catalyst of 5 candidate catalysts which could concurrently catalyze poly-condensation and ROP. By means of NMR, GPC, FTIR, and thermal analytical instruments, macromolecular structures and physical properties have been characterized for these aliphatic poly(ester carbonate)s. The experimental results indicated that novel biodegradable P(BS-co-CC)s were successfully synthesized with number average molecular weight Mn ranging from 24.3 to 99.6 KDa and various CC molar contents without any detectable decarboxylation and that the more bulky side group was attached to a cyclic carbonate monomer, the lower reactivity for its copolymerization would be observed. The occurrences of 13C NMR signal splitting of succinyl carbonyl attributed to the BS building blocks could be proposed due to the randomized sequences of BS and CC building blocks. FTIR characterization indicated two distinct absorption bands at 1716 and 1733 approximately 1735 cm(-1), respectively, stemming from carbonyl stretching modes for corresponding BS and CC units. With

  10. Catalysts in syntheses of carbon and carbon precursors

    OpenAIRE

    Mochida, Isao; Yoon, Seong-Ho; Qiao, Wenming

    2006-01-01

    Carbon materials have been applied in different fields because of their unique performances. Naturally, the physical and chemical structures of carbon precursors and carbon materials decide their properties and applications. Catalysts play a very important role in the synthesis of carbon precursors and carbon materials by controlling the molecular and compositional chemistry at the transformation of organic substrates into carbon through carbonaceous intermediates. Carbon materials of high pe...

  11. Functional Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huihui

    The ability to harvest and convert solar energy has been associated with the evolution of human civilization. The increasing consumption of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution, however, has brought to concerns in ecological deterioration and depletion of the fossil fuels. Facing these challenges, humankind is forced to seek for clean, sustainable and renewable energy resources, such as biofuels, hydraulic power, wind power, geothermal energy and other kinds of alternative energies. However, most alternative energy sources, generally in the form of electrical energy, could not be made available on a continuous basis. It is, therefore, essential to store such energy into chemical energy, which are portable and various applications. In this context, electrochemical energy-storage devices hold great promises towards this goal. The most common electrochemical energy-storage devices are electrochemical capacitors (ECs, also called supercapacitors) and batteries. In comparison to batteries, ECs posses high power density, high efficiency, long cycling life and low cost. ECs commonly utilize carbon as both (symmetric) or one of the electrodes (asymmetric), of which their performance is generally limited by the capacitance of the carbon electrodes. Therefore, developing better carbon materials with high energy density has been emerging as one the most essential challenges in the field. The primary objective of this dissertation is to design and synthesize functional carbon materials with high energy density at both aqueous and organic electrolyte systems. The energy density (E) of ECs are governed by E = CV 2/2, where C is the total capacitance and V is the voltage of the devices. Carbon electrodes with high capacitance and high working voltage should lead to high energy density. In the first part of this thesis, a new class of nanoporous carbons were synthesized for symmetric supercapacitors using aqueous Li2SO4 as the electrolyte. A unique precursor was adopted to

  12. Carbon cycle uncertainty in the Alaskan Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Fisher

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is leading to a disproportionately large warming in the high northern latitudes, but the magnitude and sign of the future carbon balance of the Arctic are highly uncertain. Using 40 terrestrial biosphere models for Alaska, we provide a baseline of terrestrial carbon cycle structural and parametric uncertainty, defined as the multi-model standard deviation (σ against the mean (x for each quantity. Mean annual uncertainty (σ/x was largest for net ecosystem exchange (NEE (−0.01± 0.19 kg C m−2 yr−1, then net primary production (NPP (0.14 ± 0.33 kg C m−2 yr−1, autotrophic respiration (Ra (0.09 ± 0.20 kg C m−2 yr−1, gross primary production (GPP (0.22 ± 0.50 kg C m−2 yr−1, ecosystem respiration (Re (0.23 ± 0.38 kg C m−2 yr−1, CH4 flux (2.52 ± 4.02 g CH4 m−2 yr−1, heterotrophic respiration (Rh (0.14 ± 0.20 kg C m−2 yr−1, and soil carbon (14.0± 9.2 kg C m−2. The spatial patterns in regional carbon stocks and fluxes varied widely with some models showing NEE for Alaska as a strong carbon sink, others as a strong carbon source, while still others as carbon neutral. Additionally, a feedback (i.e., sensitivity analysis was conducted of 20th century NEE to CO2 fertilization (β and climate (γ, which showed that uncertainty in γ was 2x larger than that of β, with neither indicating that the Alaskan Arctic is shifting towards a certain net carbon sink or source. Finally, AmeriFlux data are used at two sites in the Alaskan Arctic to evaluate the regional patterns; observed seasonal NEE was captured within multi-model uncertainty. This assessment of carbon cycle uncertainties may be used as a baseline for the improvement of experimental and modeling activities, as well as a reference for future trajectories in carbon cycling with climate change in the Alaskan Arctic.

  13. Exon: CBRC-TNIG-22-0154 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-22-0154 AAAAAGATGCTTCAGAgacgatgctgatgacgacgacgaagatgatgacgatgatgatgatgatgatgatgatgatgatgctgatgatg...atgatgctgatgatgatgatgacgatgatgatgatgatgatgatgatgatgatgaagatgatgacgatgatgatgatgatgatgatgatgatgatgatgaagatgatg...acgatgatgatgatgatgatgatgatgatgatgatgatgatgaCGCCAAGGCTACCCCCAGCACGCAGCTTTAG ...

  14. Exon: CBRC-TNIG-22-0164 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gtatggactcagaccagcatggactcagaccagCATGGACTCAGACCAGTATGGACCCAATGGACCAGTATGGACTCCAGCATGGACTCAGACCAGTATGGACTCAGACCG ... ...CBRC-TNIG-22-0164 atggactcagaccagtatggacccaatggaccagtatggactccagcatggactcagaccagtatggactcagacca

  15. Exon: CBRC-TNIG-22-0304 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-22-0304 TGACGAAGAGCAGCAGACATCAAAGAGGCTTCAGGCCAATGAGATTCTCTATCAACCTGGAGCCAAAACC...GCTCACACAGACCATCCCAGACAGTCACTAGTTCCCTGGGCCACACGGCCCAGTCCggtggagccggaggagccggaggagccggaggaaccggaggaaccggaggaaccggaggaacc...ggaggagccggaggaaccagaggaaccagaggaaccagaggagccggaggagccggaggagccagaggaaccagtggaaccagaggaaccggaggaaccagaggaaccagaggagccg ...

  16. Exon: CBRC-DRER-22-0051 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-22-0051 ATGTTGACGTCAGATTtatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatataatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatataNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatgtatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatttatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatataG ...

  17. Exon: CBRC-TNIG-22-0029 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-22-0029 caccaccagcaccaccagcaccagcaccagcaccaccagcaccagcaccagcaccagcaccagcaccagcagcaccagcacca...gcagcaccagcagcaccagcagcaccagcaccagcaccagcaccagcaccagcaccaccagcaccaccagcaccagcaccagcagcaccagcaccaccagcaccaccagcacca...gcaccagcaccagcagcaccagcagcaccagcaccagcagcaccaccagcaccagcaccaccaccagcaccatcagcaccaccagcaacaccagcaccaccCTACTGGTTCCCCGACCCGCTC ...

  18. Alternatives to HCFC-22 for air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devotta, S. [Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, National Chemical Lab., Pune (India); Waghmare, A.V.; Domkundwar, B.M. [College of Engineering, Pune (India); Sawant, N.N. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2001-04-01

    Some selected fluids have been assessed for their suitability as alternatives to HCFC-22 for air conditioners. Only those refrigerants with zero ozone depletion potential are considered. NIST CYCLE{sub D} has been used for the comparative thermodynamic analysis. Among the refrigerants studied (HFC-134a, HC-290, R-407C, R-410A, and three blends of HFC-32, HFC-134a and HFC-125), HFC-134a offers the highest COP, but its capacity is the lowest and requires much larger compressors. The characteristics of HC-290 are very close to those of HCFC-22, and compressors require very little modification. Therefore, HC-290 is a potential candidate provided the risk concerns are mitigated as had been accomplished for refrigerators. For retrofitting, R-407C is probably the best candidate. (Author)

  19. Stifling of Crevice Corrosion in Alloy 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mon, K G; Gordon, G M; Rebak, R B

    2005-06-08

    Artificially creviced Alloy 22 (N06022) specimens may be susceptible to crevice corrosion in presence of hot chloride containing solutions. The presence of oxyanions in the electrolyte, especially nitrate, may inhibit the nucleation and growth of crevice corrosion. Constant potential tests were performed using tightly creviced specimens of Alloy 22. It was found that crevice corrosion may initiate when a constant potential above the crevice repassivation potential is applied. It was found that as the crevice corrosion nucleated, the current initially increased but later decreased. The net measured current can be converted into penetration following a power law fit of the experimental data. The average power law coefficient ''n'' was found to be 0.439, suggesting that even under constant applied potential crevice corrosion penetration is diffusion controlled.

  20. STIFLING OF CREVICE CORROSION IN ALLOY 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.G. Mon; G.M. Gordon; R.B. Rebak

    2005-07-01

    Artificially creviced Alloy 22 (N06022) specimens may be susceptible to crevice corrosion in presence of hot chloride containing solutions. The presence of oxyanions in the electrolyte, especially nitrate, may inhibit the nucleation and growth of crevice corrosion. Constant potential tests were performed using tightly creviced specimens of Alloy 22. It was found that crevice corrosion may initiate when a constant potential above the crevice repassivation potential is applied. It was found that as the crevice corrosion nucleated, the current initially increased but later decreased. The net measured current can be converted into penetration following a power law fit of the experimental data. The average power law coefficient ''n'' was found to be 0.439, suggesting that even under constant applied potential, crevice corrosion penetration is diffusion controlled.

  1. Carbon dioxide sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

    2011-11-15

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  2. Herwig++ 2.2 Release Note

    CERN Document Server

    Bahr, M; Gigg, M; Grellscheid, D; Hamilton, K; Latunde-Dada, O; Platzer, S; Richardson, P; Seymour, M H; Sherstnev, AUniversity of Cambridge; Webber, Bryan R

    2008-01-01

    A new release of the Monte Carlo program Herwig++ (version 2.2) is now available. This version includes a number of improvements including: matrix elements for the production of an electroweak gauge boson, W and Z, in association with a jet; several new processes for Higgs production in association with an electroweak gauge boson; and the matrix element correction for QCD radiation in Higgs production via gluon fusion.

  3. Intrauterine Device Removal after 22 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Boryri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available IUD T380A is one of the most effective, reversible, long term methods of contraception all over the world based on the experience of World Health Organization and our own observation of women who continued to use the IUD beyond 10 years or even longer years. In this article one case of Intrauterine device removal after 22 years is reported without complications and pregnancy.

  4. 9q22 Deletion - First Familial Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Toshiyuki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only 29 cases of constitutional 9q22 deletions have been published and all have been sporadic. Most associate with Gorlin syndrome or nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, MIM #109400 due to haploinsufficiency of the PTCH1 gene (MIM *601309. Methods and Results We report two mentally retarded female siblings and their cognitively normal father, all carrying a similar 5.3 Mb microdeletion at 9q22.2q22.32, detected by array CGH (244 K. The deletion does not involve the PTCH1 gene, but instead 30 other gene,s including the ROR2 gene (MIM *602337 which causing both brachydactyly type 1 (MIM #113000 and Robinow syndrome (MIM #268310, and the immunologically active SYK gene (MIM *600085. The deletion in the father was de novo and FISH analysis of blood lymphocytes did not suggest mosaicism. All three patients share similar mild dysmorphic features with downslanting palpebral fissures, narrow, high bridged nose with small nares, long, deeply grooved philtrum, ears with broad helix and uplifted lobuli, and small toenails. All have significant dysarthria and suffer from continuous middle ear and upper respiratory infections. The father also has a funnel chest and unilateral hypoplastic kidney but the daughters have no malformations. Conclusions This is the first report of a familial constitutional 9q22 deletion and the first deletion studied by array-CGH which does not involve the PTCH1 gene. The phenotype and penetrance are variable and the deletion found in the cognitively normal normal father poses a challenge in genetic counseling.

  5. The beta-decay of Al-22

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achouri, NL; Santos, FDO; Lewitowicz, M; Blank, B; Aysto, J; Canchel, G; Czajkowski, S; Dendooven, P; Emsallem, A; Giovinazzo, J; Guillet, N; Jokinen, A; Larid, AM; Longour, C; Perajarvi, K; Smirnova, N; Stanoiu, M

    2006-01-01

    In an experiment performed at the LISE3 facility of GANIL, we studied the decay of Al-22 produced by the fragmentation of a Ar-36 primary beam. A beta-decay half-life of T-1/2 = 91.1 +/- 0.5ms was measured. The beta-delayed one- and two-proton emission as well as beta-alpha and beta-delayed gamma-de

  6. 22 CFR 224.22 - Exchange of witness lists, statements, and exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 224.22 Exchange of witness lists, statements, and exhibits. (a... there is no prejudice to the objecting party. (c) Unless another party objects within the time set...

  7. Growth rates of stratospheric HCFC-22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Moore

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding onboard ENVISAT (MIPAS-E offers the opportunity to detect and spectrally resolve many atmospheric minor constituents affecting atmospheric chemistry. In this paper, we describe an algorithm produced to retrieve HCFC–22 profiles from MIPAS-E measurements made in 2003 and present results from this scheme between 300 and 50 mb. By comparison with ATMOS (AT–3 version 3 data, we find a mean Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude (20–50° N HCFC–22 growth rate between 1994 and 2003 of 5.4±0.7 pptv/yr in the lower stratosphere (LS and a mean LS Southern Hemisphere growth rate (60–80°S of 6.0±0.7 pptv/yr in the same period. We test the feasibility of using a global data set to estimate the chemical lifetime of HCFC–22 in the LS and we derive this for two regions; 20–50° N (259±38 years and 60–80° S (288±34 years. From these data we note a global LS lifetime of 274±25 years, significantly longer than previous estimates.

  8. V-22 Osprey Joint Services Advanced Vertical Lift Aircraft (V-22)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval Dev Est - Development Estimate DoD - Department of Defense DSN - Defense Switched Network Econ...2006 OCT 2005 LRIP 8 First Delivery DEC 2005 DEC 2005 JUN 2006 DEC 2005 CV-22 First Production Delivery FEB 2006 FEB 2006 AUG 2006 MAR 2006 CV-22 IOT ...Engineering Manufacturing Development FSD - Full Scale Development GSD - Government Support Date IOT &E - Initial Operational Test and Evaluation

  9. Graphitic Carbons and Biosignatures

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, S.; Papineau, D

    2014-01-01

    The unambiguous identification of graphitic carbons as remains of life in ancient rocks is challenging because fossilized biogenic molecules are inevitably altered and degraded during diagenesis and metamorphism of the host rocks. Yet, recent studies have highlighted the possible preservation of biosignatures carried by some of the oldest graphitic carbons. Laboratory simulations are increasingly being used to better constrain the transformations of organic molecules into graphitic carbons in...

  10. Carbon Dioxide Absorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1950-05-17

    carbondioxide content of the solution was then determined. A gas mixture containing 2.6% carbon dioxide and 97.4% nitrogen was prepared in the...which carbon dioxide is removed by heat0 Since this step is usually carried out by "steam stripping ", that is, contacting the solution at its boiling...required to produce the steam required for stripping the carbon dioxide from the s olution. The method ueed in this investigation for determining the

  11. Carbon emissions Inventory Games

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Emadi, Eiman Ali

    2016-01-01

    Carbon emissions reduction has been the center of attention in many organizations during the past few decades. Many international entities developed rules and regulations to monitor and control carbon emissions especially under supply chain context. Furthermore, researchers investigated techniques and methods on how reduce carbon emissions under operational adjustment which can be done by cooperation or coordination. The main contribution of this thesis is to measure to what extend cooperatio...

  12. Animating the Carbon Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the biogeochemical processes reg- ulating carbon cycling is central to mitigating atmospheric CO2 emissions. The role of living organisms has been accounted for, but the focus has traditionally been on contributions of plants and microbes. We develop the case that fully ‘‘animating’’ the carbon cycle requires broader consideration of the functional role of animals in mediating biogeochemical processes and quanti- fication of their effects on carbon storage and exchange among ter...

  13. Carbonate concretions as a significant component of ancient marine carbon cycles: Insights from paired organic and inorganic carbon isotope analyses of a Cretaceous shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonate concretions often occur within fine-grained, organic-rich sedimentary rocks. This association reflects the common production of diagenetic minerals through biologic cycling of organic matter. Chemical analysis of carbonate concretions provides the rare opportunity to explore ancient shallow diagenetic environments, which are inherently transient due to progressive burial but are an integral component of the marine carbon cycle. The late Cretaceous Holz Shale (~80 Ma) contains abundant calcite concretions that exhibit textural and geochemical characteristics indicative of relatively shallow formation (i.e., near the sediment-water interface). Sampled concretions contain between 5.4 and 9.8 wt.% total inorganic carbon (TIC), or ~45 and 82 wt.% CaCO3, compared to host shale values which average ~1.5 wt.% TIC. Organic carbon isotope compositions (δ13Corg) are relatively constant in host and concretion samples ranging from ­-26.3 to -24.0‰ (VPDB). Carbonate carbon isotope compositions (δ13Ccarb) range from -22.5 to -3.4‰, indicating a significant but not entirely organic source of carbon. Concretions of the lower Holz Shale exhibit considerably elevated δ13Ccarb values averaging -4.8‰, whereas upper Holz Shale concretions express an average δ13Ccarb value of -17.0‰. If the remaining carbonate for lower Holz Shale concretions is sourced from marine fluids and/or dissolved marine carbonate minerals (e.g., shells), a simple mass balance indicates that ~28% of concretion carbon was sourced from organic matter and ~72% from late Cretaceous marine inorganic carbon (with δ13C ~ +2.5‰). Upper Holz Shale calculations indicate a ~73% contribution from organic matter and a ~27% contribution from inorganic carbon. When normalized for carbonate, organic contents within the concretions are ~2-13 wt.% enriched compared to host contents. This potentially reflects the protective nature of cementation that acts to limit permeability and chemical destruction of

  14. Nanographene reinforced carbon/carbon composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Dhruv

    Carbon/Carbon Composites (CCC) are made of carbon reinforcement in carbon matrix and have high thermal stability and fatigue resistance. CCC are used in nose cones, heat shields and disc brakes of aircrafts due to their exceptional mechanical properties at high temperature. The manufacturing process of CCC involves a carbonization stage in which unwanted elements, except carbon, are eliminated from the polymer precursor. Carbonization results in the formation of voids and cracks due to the thermal mismatch between the reinforcement and the matrix and expulsion of volatiles from the polymer matrix. Thermal cracks and voids decrease the density and mechanical properties of the manufactured CCC. In this work, Nanographene Platelets (NGP) were explored as nanofillers to fill the voids/cracks and reduce thermal shrinkage in CCC. They were first compared with Vapor Grown Carbon Nanofibers (VGCNF) by dispersion of different concentrations (0.5wt%, 1.5wt%, 3wt%) in resole-type phenolic resin and were characterized to explore their effect on rheology, heat of reaction and wetting behavior. The dispersions were then cured to form nanocomposites and were characterized for morphology, flexure and thermal properties. Finally, NGP were introduced into the carbon/carboncomposites in two stages, first by spraying in different concentrations (0.5wt%, 1.5wt%, 3wt%, 5wt %) during the prepreg formation and later during densification by directly mixing in the corresponding densification mix. The manufactured NGP reinforced CCC were characterized for microstructure, porosity, bulk density and mechanical properties (Flexure and ILSS) which were further cross-checked by non-destructive techniques (vibration and ultrasonic). In this study, it was further found that at low concentration (≤ 1.5 wt%) NGP were more effective in increasing the heat of reaction and in decreasing the viscosity of the phenolic resin. The decrease in viscosity led to better wetting properties of NGP / phenolic

  15. CARBON DIOXIDE REDUCTION SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARBON DIOXIDE , *SPACE FLIGHT, RESPIRATION, REDUCTION(CHEMISTRY), RESPIRATION, AEROSPACE MEDICINE, ELECTROLYSIS, INSTRUMENTATION, ELECTROLYTES, VOLTAGE, MANNED, YTTRIUM COMPOUNDS, ZIRCONIUM COMPOUNDS, NICKEL.

  16. Characterization of Biochar from Switchgrass Carbonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy Sadaka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass is a high yielding, low-input intensive, native perennial grass that has been promoted as a major second-generation bioenergy crop. Raw switchgrass is not a readily acceptable feedstock in existing power plants that were built to accommodate coal and peat. The objective of this research was to elucidate some of the characteristics of switchgrass biochar produced via carbonization and to explore its potential use as a solid fuel. Samples were carbonized in a batch reactor under reactor temperatures of 300, 350 and 400 °C for 1, 2 and 3 h residence times. Biochar mass yield and volatile solids decreased from 82.6% to 35.2% and from 72.1% to 43.9%, respectively, by increasing carbonization temperatures from 300 °C to 400 °C and residence times from 1 h to 3 h. Conversely, biochar heating value (HV and fixed carbon content increased from 17.6 MJ kg−1 to 21.9 MJ kg−1 and from 22.5% to 44.9%, respectively, under the same conditions. A biomass discoloration index (BDI was created to quantify changes in biochar colors as affected by the two tested parameters. The maximum BDI of 77% was achieved at a carbonization temperature of 400 °C and a residence time of 3 h. The use of this index could be expanded to quantify biochar characteristics as affected by thermochemical treatments. Carbonized biochar could be considered a high quality solid fuel based on its energy content.

  17. Localization in single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuhrer, M.S.; Cohen, M.L.; Zettl, A.; Crespi, V.H.

    1998-08-15

    We demonstrate that in low temperature semiconductor-like regions the electrical resistance of single-walled carbon nanotube mats is highly nonlinear with a temperature-dependent threshold field for the onset of nonohmic conduction. The modest applied electric field completely suppresses the upturn in resistance and recovers metallic behavior over the entire temperature range 2.2K < T < 300K. The transport data indicate low-temperature localization of charge carriers arise from disorder on the nanotube bundles themselves and not from granularity caused by weak interbundle connections. The temperature-independent localization radius a is determined to be approximately 330 nm.

  18. Iron carbonates in the Earth's lower mantle: reality or imagination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerantola, V.; McCammon, C. A.; Merlini, M.; Bykova, E.; Kupenko, I.; Ismailova, L.; Chumakov, A. I.; Kantor, I.; Dubrovinsky, L. S.; Prescher, C.

    2015-12-01

    Carbonates play a fundamental role in the recycling of carbon inside our planet due to their presence in oceanic slabs that sink through the Earth's interior. Through this process, iron carbonates are potential stable carbon-bearing minerals in the deep mantle in part due to spin crossover of ferrous iron. Our goal is to identify which minerals may be the dominant carriers of carbon into the deep mantle at the relevant conditions of fO2, P and T. All experiments were performed using synthetic FeCO3 and MgFeCO3 single crystals in laser heated diamond anvil cells up to 100 GPa and 3000 K in order to simulate the conditions prevailing in the Earth's lower mantle. Transformation and decomposition products of the original carbonates were characterized at different synchrotron facilities by means of single-crystal XRD, synchrotron Mössbauer source spectroscopy and XANES techniques. At deep lower mantle conditions, we observed the transformation of FeCO3 to two new HP-carbonate structures, monoclinic Fe22+Fe23+C4O13 and trigonal Fe43+(CO4)3, both characterized by the presence of CO4 tetrahedra with different degrees of polymerization. At shallower depths in the lower mantle where temperatures are lower following the geotherm, Fe-carbonates decompose to different Fe-oxides instead of new HP-carbonates. However, at slab temperatures several hundred degrees lower than the surrounding mantle, carbonates could be stabilized until reaching conditions that trigger their transformation to HP-structures. We postulate that Fe-rich carbonates could exist in regions down to the core-mantle boundary in the proximity of subducting slabs, i.e., a "cold" environment with relatively high fO2.

  19. Low-carbon infrastructure strategies for cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, C. A.; Ibrahim, N.; Hoornweg, D.

    2014-05-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions to avert potentially disastrous global climate change requires substantial redevelopment of infrastructure systems. Cities are recognized as key actors for leading such climate change mitigation efforts. We have studied the greenhouse gas inventories and underlying characteristics of 22 global cities. These cities differ in terms of their climates, income, levels of industrial activity, urban form and existing carbon intensity of electricity supply. Here we show how these differences in city characteristics lead to wide variations in the type of strategies that can be used for reducing emissions. Cities experiencing greater than ~1,500 heating degree days (below an 18 °C base), for example, will review building construction and retrofitting for cold climates. Electrification of infrastructure technologies is effective for cities where the carbon intensity of the grid is lower than ~600 tCO2e GWh-1 whereas transportation strategies will differ between low urban density (~6,000 persons km-2) cities. As nation states negotiate targets and develop policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, attention to the specific characteristics of their cities will broaden and improve their suite of options. Beyond carbon pricing, markets and taxation, governments may develop policies and target spending towards low-carbon urban infrastructure.

  20. Identification of Serratia marcescens SE1 and determination of its Herbicide 2,2-dichloropropionate (2,2-DCP Degradation Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel, E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The goal of the study is to isolate species of bacteria that capable of utilizing 2,2-dichloropropionic acid (2,2-DCP as sole carbon source from soil sample collected from surrounding lake water located in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor. Methodology and Results: Genomic DNA from bacterium SE1 was extracted and PCR amplification was carried out using universal primers, Fd1 (5’ - AGA GTT TGA TCC TGGCTC AG - 3’ and rP1 (5’- ACG GTC ATA CCT TGT TAC GAC TT - 3’ before sending for sequencing. The 16S rDNA nucleotide sequences were compared with Basic Local Alignment Search Tool nucleotide (BLASTn and further analyzed using phylogenetic tree of Neighbour-Joining method (MEGA 5. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that SE1 strain clearly shared 97% homology to the genus of Serratia marcescens and therefore designated as Serratia marcescens sp. SE1. SE1 exhibited the ability to utilize 2,2-DCP as sole carbon source at 20 mM concentration with cell doubling time of 5 h and maximum chloride ion release of 38 μmolCl-/mL. This result suggests that the dehalogenase enzyme present in the bacteria has high affinity towards the substrate. Based on morphological and partial biochemical characteristics, strain SE1 was a non-motile Gram negative bacterium with red colonies, that gave a catalase positive reaction. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: A better understanding of dehalogenases enzyme produce by this S. marcescens sp. SE1 in general will be useful to be used as bioremediation tools for environmental management. This is the first reported case that Serratia sp. has the ability to degrade halogenated compound.

  1. Interleukin-22: a likely target for treatment of autoimmune diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuyan; Zheng, Song Guo

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin -22 (IL-22) is a member of IL-10 family cytokines that is produced by many different types of lymphocytes including both those of the innate and adaptive immune system. This includes activated T cells, most notably Th17 and Th22 cells, and NK cells, γδ T cells, LTi cells and LTi-like cells. IL-22 mediates its effects via the IL-22-IL-22R complex and subsequent Janus Kinase-signal transduces and activators transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway. Recently accumulated evidence has indicated that IL-22 also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases. In this review, we discuss the recent findings and advancement of the role for IL-22 in several autoimmune diseases, such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), hepatitis, graft versus host disease (GHVD) and allergic diseases, implicating that target IL-22 may have a therapeutic potential in those autoimmune diseases. PMID:24418299

  2. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  3. Hydrogenation of carbon dioxide by hybrid catalysts, direct synthesis of aromatic from carbon dioxide and hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuei Chikung; Lee Mindar (National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan))

    1991-02-01

    To improve climatic conditions and to solve the carbon resource problem, it is desirable to develop techniques whereby carbon dioxide can be converted to valuable liquid hydrocarbons which can be used either as fuels or industrial raw materials. Direct synthesis of aromatics from carbon dioxide hydrogenation was investigated in a single stage reactor using hybrid catalysts composed of iron catalysts and HZSM-5 zeolite. Carbon dioxide was first converted to CO by the reverse water gas shift reaction, followed by the hydrogenation of CO to hydrocarbons on iron catalyst, and finally the hydrocarbons were converted to aromatics in HZSM-5. Under the operating conditions of 350{degree}C, 2100 kilopascals and CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}={1/2} the maximum aromatic selectivity obtained was 22% with a CO{sub 2} conversion of 38% using fused iron catalyst combined with the zeolite. Together with the kinetic studies, thermodynamic analysis of the CO{sub 2} hydrogenation was also conducted. It was found that unlike Fischer Tropsch synthesis, the formation of hydrocarbons from CO{sub 2} may not be thermodynamically favored at higher temperature. However, the sufficiently high yields of aromatics possible with this process provides a route for the direct synthesis of high-octane gasoline from carbon dioxide. 24 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Dissolved carbon leaching from soil is a crucial component of the net ecosystem carbon balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Reimo; Siemens, Jan; Kaiser, Klaus;

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of carbon leaching losses from different land use systems are few and their contribution to the net ecosystem carbon balance is uncertain. We investigated leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and dissolved methane (CH4), at forests, grasslands......, and croplands across Europe. Biogenic contributions to DIC were estimated by means of its d13C signature. Leaching of biogenic DIC was 8.34.9 gm2 yr1 for forests, 24.17.2 gm2 yr1 for grasslands, and 14.64.8 gm2 yr1 for croplands. DOC leaching equalled 3.51.3 gm2 yr1 for forests, 5.32.0 gm2 yr1 for grasslands...... (hydr)oxides. Partial pressures of CO2 in soil air and soil pH determined DIC concentrations and fluxes, but soil solutions were often supersaturated with DIC relative to soil air CO2. Leaching losses of biogenic carbon (DOC plus biogenic DIC) from grasslands equalled 5–98% (median: 22%) of net...

  5. Main: 1U22 [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1U22 シロイヌナズナ Arabidopsis Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. 5-Methyltetrahydropteroyl...bidopsis Thaliana Molecule: 5-Methyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamate-- Homocysteine Methyltransferase; Chain: A; Synonym: Vitamin...-B12-Independent Methionine Synthase Isozyme, Cobalamin-Independent Methionin...e Synthase Isozyme; Engineered: Yes Transferase 2.1.1.14 (5-Methyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamat...e-- ) J.-L.Ferrer, S.Ravanel, M.Robert, R.Dumas J.-L.Ferrer, S.Ravanel, M.Robert, R.Dumas Crystal Structures Of Cobalamin

  6. 22nd IAS Meeting of Sedimentology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DavorPavelic; IgorVlahovic; JosipHalamic

    2004-01-01

    The 22nd IAS Meeting of Sedimentology was held in the Convention Centre of the Grand Hotel Adriatic, in a small touristic town Opatija, located on the eastern Adriatic coast where Central Europe and the Mediterranean meet. It was the second IAS Meeting held in Croatia--the first one, 4th IAS Regional Meeting of Sedimentology, was held in Split in 1983. The Meeting in Opatija was organized by the Institute of Geology (Zagreb) and the Croatian Geological Society. The sponsor was Ministry of Science and Technology of the Reoublic of Croatia.

  7. Clumped-isotope thermometry of magnesium carbonates in ultramafic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    García del Real, Pablo; Maher, Kate; Kluge, Tobias; Bird, Dennis K.; Brown, Gordon E.; John, Cédric M.

    2016-11-01

    mineralization at shallow crustal depths in the presence of meteoric water. Hydrous magnesium carbonates from a 400-km latitudinal transect along the serpentinized-peridotite bodies of the California Coast Ranges record clumped-isotope temperatures between 14.2 and 22.7 ± 2.8 °C, in agreement with historical maximum temperatures during the rainy season for California. Talc-carbonate alteration of ultramafic rocks in Greenland (Isua Supracrustal Belt) and Vermont (Ludlow) yields clumped-isotope alteration temperatures of magnesite and dolomite between 326 and 490 °C, broadly consistent with paragenesis and thermodynamic analysis for CO2 metasomatism of ultramafic rocks. These metamorphic carbonates extend the applicability of clumped-isotope thermometry to high-temperature magnesium carbonate systems and indicate equilibrium blocking temperatures for magnesite of ∼490 °C. Our study demonstrates the applicability of the clumped isotope approach to provide information on the formation of magnesium carbonates as ore resources, surface records of climate, and metamorphic assemblages.

  8. Preparation of Isolated Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes with High Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艾飞; 刘吉平; 吕广庶; 刘华

    2006-01-01

    Isolated single-walled carbon nanotubes with high proportion of opening tips were synthesized by using alcohol as carbon source. The mechanism of cutting action of oxygen was proposed to explain its growth. Compared with carbon nanotubes synthesized with benzene as carbon source, their specific surface area was heightened by approximately 2.2 times (from 200.5 to 648 m2/g) and the hydrogen storage capacity was increased by approximately 6.5 times (from 0.95 to 7.17%, ω)which had exceeded DOE energy standard of vehicular hydrogen storage.

  9. Activationless charge transport across 4.5 to 22 nm in molecular electronic junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haijun; Bergren, Adam Johan; McCreery, Richard; Della Rocca, Maria Luisa; Martin, Pascal; Lafarge, Philippe; Lacroix, Jean Christophe

    2013-04-01

    In this work, we bridge the gap between short-range tunneling in molecular junctions and activated hopping in bulk organic films, and greatly extend the distance range of charge transport in molecular electronic devices. Three distinct transport mechanisms were observed for 4.5-22-nm-thick oligo(thiophene) layers between carbon contacts, with tunneling operative when d  16 nm for high temperatures and low bias, and a third mechanism consistent with field-induced ionization of highest occupied molecular orbitals or interface states to generate charge carriers when d = 8-22 nm. Transport in the 8-22-nm range is weakly temperature dependent, with a field-dependent activation barrier that becomes negligible at moderate bias. We thus report here a unique, activationless transport mechanism, operative over 8-22-nm distances without involving hopping, which severely limits carrier mobility and device lifetime in organic semiconductors. Charge transport in molecular electronic junctions can thus be effective for transport distances significantly greater than the 1-5 nm associated with quantum-mechanical tunneling.

  10. Variable effects of labile carbon on the carbon use of different microbial groups in black slate degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Anne-Gret; Trumbore, Susan; Xu, Xiaomei; Zhang, Dachung; Kothe, Erika; Gleixner, Gerd

    2011-05-01

    Weathering of ancient organic matter contributes significantly to biogeochemical carbon cycles over geological times. The principle role of microorganisms in this process is well recognized. However, information is lacking on the contribution of individual groups of microorganisms and on the effect of labile carbon sources to the degradation process. Therefore, we investigated the contribution of fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in the degradation process using a column experiment. Investigations were performed on low metamorphic black slates. All columns contained freshly crushed, sieved (0.63-2 mm), not autoclaved black slates. Two columns were inoculated with the lignite-degrading fungus Schizophyllum commune and received a culture medium containing 13C labeled glucose, two columns received only this culture medium and two control columns received only water. The total mass balance was calculated from all carbon added to the slate and the CO 2 and DOC losses. Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) were extracted to investigate microbial communities. We used both the compound specific 14C and 13C signal of the PLFA to quantify carbon uptake from black slates and the glucose of the culture medium, respectively. The total carbon loss in these columns exceeded the amount of added carbon by approximately 60%, indicating that black slate carbon has been used. PLFA associated with Gram-positive bacteria dominated the indigenous community and took up 22% of carbon from black slate carbon, whereas PLFA of Gram-negative bacteria used only 8% of carbon from the slates. PLFA of Gram-negative bacteria and fungi were both mostly activated by the glucose addition. The added Schizophyllum did not establish well in the columns and was overgrown by the indigenous microbial community. Our results suggest that especially Gram-positive bacteria are able to live on and degrade black slate material. They also benefit from easy degradable carbon from the nutrient broth. In

  11. Activation of Aromatic C-C Bonds of 2,2'-Bipyridine Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fombona, Sergio; Espinal-Viguri, Maialen; Huertos, Miguel A; Díaz, Jesús; López, Ramón; Menéndez, M Isabel; Pérez, Julio; Riera, Lucía

    2016-11-21

    4,4'-Disubstituted-2,2'-bipyridine ligands coordinated to Mo(II) and Re(I) cationic fragments become dearomatized by an intramolecular nucleophilic attack from a deprotonated N-alkylimidazole ligand in cis disposition. The subsequent protonation of these neutral complexes takes place on a pyridine carbon atom rather than at nitrogen, weakening an aromatic C-C bond and affording a dihydropyridyl moiety. Computational calculations allowed for the rationalization of the formation of the experimentally obtained products over other plausible alternatives.

  12. Carbon Dioxide Fountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seong-Joo; Ryu, Eun-Hee

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the development of a carbon dioxide fountain. The advantages of the carbon dioxide fountain are that it is odorless and uses consumer chemicals. This experiment also is a nice visual experiment that allows students to see evidence of a gaseous reagent being consumed when a pressure sensor is available. (Contains 3 figures.)…

  13. De-carbonizingChina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    zhou; Xiaoyan

    2013-01-01

    Innovation in the energy sector will pave the way for the country’slow-carbon future Although its per-capita emission is roughly on par with the world’s average, China is the world’s largest carbon dioxide emitter,

  14. Carbon for sensing devices

    CERN Document Server

    Tagliaferro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This book reveals why carbon is playing such an increasingly prominent role as a sensing material. The various steps that transform a raw material in a sensing device are thoroughly presented and critically discussed.  The authors deal with all aspects of carbon-based sensors, starting from the various hybridization and allotropes of carbon, with specific focus on micro and nanosized carbons (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene) and their growth processes. The discussion then moves to the role of functionalization and the different routes to achieve it. Finally, a number of sensing applications in various fields are presented, highlighting the connection with the basic properties of the various carbon allotropes.  Readers will benefit from this book’s bottom-up approach, which starts from the local bonding in carbon solids and ends with sensing applications, linking the local hybridization of carbon atoms and its modification by functionalization to specific device performance. This book is a must-have in th...

  15. China's carbon conundrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ye; Wu, Tong; He, Jiankun; King, David A.

    2013-07-01

    China's carbon dioxide emissions are rising fast. Yet, per capita, gross domestic product and energy use are only a fraction of their United States equivalents. With a growing urban middle class, the trend will continue, but there is progress on the path to a low-carbon economy.

  16. Global carbon budget 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Boden, T. A.; Bopp, L.; Bozec, Y.; Canadell, J. G.; Chevallier, F.; Cosca, C. E.; Harris, I.; Hoppema, M.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Jain, A.; Johannessen, T.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landa, C. S.; Landschützer, P.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Marland, G.; Mathis, J. T.; Metzl, N.; Nojiri, Y.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Peters, W.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J. E.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Segschneider, J.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zeng, N.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we descr

  17. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quéré, Le C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R.M.; Canadell, J.G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J.I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G.P.; Andres, R.J.; Boden, T.A.; Houghton, R.A.; House, J.I.; Keeling, R.F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D.C.E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L.P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R.A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A.K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S.K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I.D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D.R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J.E.M.S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F.F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B.D.; Sutton, A.J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; Laan-Luijkx, Van Der I.T.; Werf, Van Der G.R.; Heuven, Van S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we de

  18. Global carbon budget 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quéré, C.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Andrew, R. M.; Boden, T. A.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Houghton, R. A.; Marland, G.; Moriarty, R.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Arvanitis, A.; Bakker, D. C E; Bopp, L.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Doney, S. C.; Harper, A.; Harris, I.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Jones, S. D.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Körtzinger, A.; Koven, C.; Lefèvre, N.; Maignan, F.; Omar, A.; Ono, T.; Park, G. H.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, Piere; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schwinger, J.; Segschneider, J.; Stocker, B. D.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; Van Heuven, S.; Viovy, N.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we descr

  19. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we descr

  20. Fly ash carbon passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.