WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon 22

  1. Building complex carbon skeletons with ethynyl[2.2]paracyclophanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Dix

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethynyl[2.2]paracyclophanes are shown to be useful substrates for the preparation of complex, highly unsaturated carbon frameworks. Thus both the pseudo-geminal- 2 and the pseudo-ortho-diethynylcyclophane 4 can be dimerized by Glaser coupling to the respective dimers 9/10 and 11/12. Whereas the former isomer pair could not be separated so far, the latter provided the pure diastereomers after extensive column chromatography/recrystallization. Isomer 11 is chiral and could be separated on a column impregnated with cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate. The bridge-extended cyclophane precursor 18 furnished the ring-enlarged cyclophanes 19 and 20 on Glaser–Hay coupling. Cross-coupling of 4 and the planar building block 1,2-diethynylbenzene (1 yielded the chiral hetero dimer 22 as the main product. An attempt to prepare the biphenylenophane 27 from the triacetylene 24 by CpCo(CO2-catalyzed cycloisomerization resulted in the formation of the cyclobutadiene Co-complex 26. Besides by their usual spectroscopic and analytical data, the new cyclophanes 11, 12, 19, 20, 22, and 26 were characterized by X-ray structural analysis.

  2. Fractionation between inorganic and organic carbon during the Lomagundi (2.22 2.1 Ga) carbon isotope excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, A.; Holmden, C.; Beukes, N. J.; Kenig, F.; Eglinton, B.; Patterson, W. P.

    2008-07-01

    The Lomagundi (2.22-2.1 Ga) positive carbon isotope excursion in shallow-marine sedimentary carbonates has been associated with the rise in atmospheric oxygen, but subsequent studies have demonstrated that the carbon isotope excursion was preceded by the rise in atmospheric oxygen. The amount of oxygen released to the exosphere during the Lomagundi excursion is constrained by the average global fractionation between inorganic and organic carbon, which is poorly characterized. Because dissolved inorganic and organic carbon reservoirs were arguably larger in the Paleoproterozoic ocean, at a time of lower solar luminosity and lower ocean redox state, decoupling between these two variables might be expected. We determined carbon isotope values of carbonate and organic matter in carbonates and shales of the Silverton Formation, South Africa and in the correlative Sengoma Argillite Formation, near the border in Botswana. These units were deposited between 2.22 and 2.06 Ga along the margin of the Kaapvaal Craton in an open-marine deltaic setting and experienced lower greenschist facies metamorphism. The prodelta to offshore marine shales are overlain by a subtidal carbonate sequence. Carbonates exhibit elevated 13C values ranging from 8.3 to 11.2‰ vs. VPDB consistent with deposition during the Lomagundi positive excursion. The total organic carbon (TOC) contents range from 0.01 to 0.6% and δ13C values range from - 24.8 to - 13.9‰. Thus, the isotopic fractionation between organic and carbonate carbon was on average 30.3 ± 2.8‰ ( n = 32) in the shallow-marine environment. The underlying Sengoma shales have highly variable TOC contents (0.14 to 21.94%) and δ13C values (- 33.7 to - 20.8‰) with an average of - 27.0 ± 3.0‰ ( n = 50). Considering that the shales were also deposited during the Lomagundi excursion, and taking δ13C values of the overlying carbonates as representative of the δ13C value of dissolved inorganic carbon during shale deposition, a carbon

  3. Neutron induced alpha production from carbon between 18 and 22 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, A.P.

    1976-10-01

    Cross sections for neutron induced alpha production in carbon were measured at seventeen energies between 18 and 22 MeV, using a deuterated anthracene crystal as both target and detector. Pulse shape discrimination was employed to separate the alphas and elastically scattered deuterons from the other reaction products. Published (n,d) elastic scattering data were used as a standard to obtain the alpha production cross sections. Comparison with available measurements shows good agreement

  4. Combined microcalorimetric and IR spectroscopic study on carbon dioxide adsorption in H-MCM-22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arean, C.O., E-mail: co.arean@uib.es [Department of Chemistry, University of the Balearic Islands, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Delgado, M.R. [Department of Chemistry, University of the Balearic Islands, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Bulánek, R.; Frolich, K. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, 532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Adsorption calorimetry and variable temperature IR spectroscopy is used to study adsorption of CO{sub 2} in the protonic zeolite H-MCM-22. • By simultaneously recording IR absorbance over a temperature range, temperature and equilibrium pressure, standard adsorption enthalpy and entropy of CO{sub 2} was determined. • The results are discussed in the broader context of carbon dioxide capture from the flue gas of fossil fuel fired power stations. - Abstract: The thermodynamics of carbon dioxide adsorption in the protonic zeolite H-MCM-22 (Si:Al = 16:1) was investigated by means of adsorption calorimetry and variable-temperature IR spectroscopy, a technique that affords determination of standard adsorption enthalpy (ΔH{sup 0}) and entropy (ΔS{sup 0}) from analysis of a series of IR spectra recorded over a temperature range while simultaneously measuring equilibrium pressure inside a closed IR cell. ΔH{sup 0} resulted to be −24.5 (±2) kJ mol{sup −1}, while for the entropy change the value of ΔS{sup 0} = −115 (±10) J mol{sup −1} K{sup −1} was obtained. The obtained ΔH{sup 0} value is compared with those reported in the literature for the adsorption of CO{sub 2} on other zeolites, and discussed in the context of carbon dioxide capture and sequestration.

  5. Structure and microhardness of alloy VT22 granules additionally doped with carbon and boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sysoeva, N.V.; Polyakova, I.G.; Karpova, I.G.

    1996-01-01

    Aimed to improve heat resistance and strength of titanium base alloys due to carbon and boron additions (up to 0.3%) a study was made into regularities of phase decomposition in VT22 alloy during its rapid quenching from a liquid state on manufacturing granules 100-400 μm in size. Cooling rates on quenching were found to be sufficiently high to prevent precipitating carbides and borides. Subsequent annealing of granules promotes homogeneous precipitation of strengthening phases in the form of titanium carbides and borides, a reasonable amount of carbon and boron remaining in solid solution. An increase in microhardness of annealed granules reaches 20-25% compared to the standard alloy. 6 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  6. Zeolite MCM-22 Modified with Au and Cu for Catalytic Total Oxidation of Methanol and Carbon Monoxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaminski, P.; Sobczak, I.; Decyk, P.; Ziolek, M.; Roth, Wieslaw Jerzy; Campo, B.; Daturi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 5 (2013), s. 2147-2159 ISSN 1932-7447 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0189 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : adsorption * carbon dioxide * MCM-22 zeolites Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.835, year: 2013

  7. Carbon Cycle Extremes in the 22nd and 23rd Century and Attribution to Climate Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, B.; Hoffman, F. M.; Kumar, J.; Ganguly, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are affected by climate extremes such as droughts and heatwaves which have a potential to modify carbon budgets. Previous studies have found the impact of negative extremes in gross primary production (GPP) and net ecosystem production (NEP) to be diminishing towards the end of the 21st century relative to the overall increase in global carbon uptake. A few studies have estimated that the land use changes (e.g. from forest to croplands) would cause more cumulative carbon loss between 1850 and 2300 than due to climate change caused by anthropogenic forcing over the same interval. However, not many studies have looked at the impact of carbon cycle extremes beyond 21st century especially under with and without LULCC scenarios. This study aims to analyze spatiotemporal extreme events in GPP and NEP using the model CESM1-BGC and understand the climate drivers they can be attributed to. Using the Community Earth System Model (CESM1-BGC), we investigated the impact of climate extremes on the terrestrial ecosystem using simulations forced by Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 with and without land-use and land-cover change (LULCC). To capture non-linear feedbacks in the global carbon cycle, both these simulations were extended to the year 2300. It is important to understand the impacts of climate extremes on the carbon cycle for quantifying carbon-cycle climate feedback and estimating future atmospheric CO2 levels and temperature increases. The results of this study would help improve our understanding of carbon cycle extremes and inform future mitigation policy.

  8. Properties of Lithium-11 and Carbon-22 at leading order in halo effective field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharya Bijaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the 11Li and 22C nuclei at leading order (LO in halo effective field theory (Halo EFT. Using the value of the 22C rms matter radius deduced in Ref. [1] as an input in a LO calculation, we simultaneously constrain the values of the two-neutron (2n separation energy of 22C and the virtual-state energy of the 20C−neutron system (hereafter denoted 21C. The 1−σ uncertainty of the input rms matter radius datum, along with the theory error estimated from the anticipated size of the higher-order terms in the Halo EFT expansion, gives an upper bound of about 100 keV for the 2n separation energy. We also study the electric dipole excitation of 2n halo nuclei to a continuum state of two neutrons and the core at LO in Halo EFT. We first compare our results with the 11Li data from a Coulomb dissociation experiment and obtain good agreement within the theoretical uncertainty of a LO calculation. We then obtain the low-energy spectrum of B(E1 of this transition at several different values of the 2n separation energy of 22C and the virtual-state energy of 21C. Our predictions can be compared to the outcome of an ongoing experiment on the Coulomb dissociation of 22C to obtain tighter constraints on the two- and three-body energies in the 22C system.

  9. Transient nature of rhizosphere carbon elucidated by supercritical freon-22 extraction and 13C NMR analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipe G. Sanchez; Maurice M. Bursey

    2002-01-01

    The region immediately adjacent to established roots of mature trees has been termed the "reoccurring rhizosphere" and it has been hypothesized that organic matter input from fine root turnover, root exudates and sloughing may result in a build up of the soil carbon in this region. The "reoccurring rhizosphere" for first-, second- and third-order...

  10. Nitrogen-containing superlow-carbon austenitic steel 02Kh25N22AM2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fe'ldgandler, É. G.; Svistunova, T. V.; Savkina, L. Ya.; Lapshina, O. B.

    1996-02-01

    At present the equipment for manufacturing carbamide mineral fertilizers is produced from domestic steel 03Kh17N14M3 having "carbamide quality." Imported equipment also used in the industry is produced from steel of the 25-22-2 (Cr -Ni-Mo) type shipped by various firms, namely, 2RE69 (Sandvik, Sweden), 254SFER (Avesta, Sweden), 2522LCN (VDM, Germany), DM 1.4466 (Germany), and X2CrNiMo 25-22-2 (Dalmine, Italy). The imported steels are used because in some units steel 03Khl7Nl4M3 does not provide the requisite corrosion resistance in an intensified process of carbamide manufacturing. We currently possess domestic high-alloyed steel for producing new and repairing imported equipment operating under the severe conditions of carbamide synthesis. The present paper concerns the structure, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance of industrially produced steel 02Kh25N22AM2 (ChS-108) and the recommended range of its application.

  11. Biochemical Contributions to Corrosion of Carbon Steel and Alloy 22 in a Continual Flow System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, J.; Martin, S.; Masterson, B.; Lian, T.

    1998-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) may decrease the functional lifetime of nuclear waste packaging materials in the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. Biochemical contributions to corrosion of package materials are being determined in reactors containing crushed repository-site rock with the endogenous microbial community, and candidate waste package materials. These systems are being continually supplied with simulated ground water. Periodically, bulk chemistries are analyzed on the system outflow, and surfacial chemistries are assessed on withdrawn material coupons. Both Fe and Mn dissolved from C1020 coupons under conditions that included the presence of YM microorganisms. Insoluble corrosion products remained in a reduced state at the coupon surface, indicating at least a localized anoxic condition; soluble reduced Mn and Fe were also detected in solution, while precipitated and spalled products were oxidized. Alloy 22 surfaces showed a layer of chrome oxide, almost certainly in the Cr(III) oxidation state, on microcosm-exposed coupons, while no soluble chrome was detected in solution. The results of these studies will be compared to identical testing on systems containing sterilized rock to generate, and ultimately predict, microbial contributions to waste package corrosion chemistries

  12. Influence of different carbon sources on exopolysaccharide production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (B3, G12 and Streptococcus thermophilus (W22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Nur Yuksekdag

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides (EPSs production was studied by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (B3, G12 and Streptococcus thermophilus (W22 in the medium containing various carbon sources (glucose, fructose, sucrose or lactose. For all the strains, glucose was the most efficient carbon source and B3, G12 and W22 strains produced 211, 175 and 120 EPS mg/L respectively. Also, the influence of different concentrations of glucose (5,10,15,20,25,30 g/L on EPS production and growth was studied. The results indicated that EPS production and growth were stimulated by the high glucose concentration (30 g/L.

  13. Ion radical rupture of the carbon-carbon bond in oxidation of 1,3,1',3'-tetramethyl-2,3,2',3'- tetrahydro-2,2'-diperimidinyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabanov, V.Kh.; Kibizova, A.Yu.; Klimov, E.S.; Berberova, N.T.; Okhlobystin, O.Yu.

    1987-01-01

    Electrochemical and chemical oxidation of 1,3,1',3'-tetramethyl-2,3,2',3'-tetrahydro-2,2'-dipyriminyl takes place with rupture of the C-C bond in the initially formed cation radical. In the oxidation of the compound with aluminum chloride in nitrobenzene, ESR revealed a cation radical with an unresolved hyperfine structure. Oxidation of the dihydrodimer with nitrosonium perchlorate in nitrobenzene or nitromethane resulted in the same spectra. Cyclic volt-ampere diagrams are included

  14. Development of a model system to study fuel autoxidation in supercritical media: decomposition kinetics of 2,2{prime}-azobis (isobutyronitrile) in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, R.E.; Mera, A.E.; Brady, R.F. Jr. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (USA)

    2000-07-01

    A high pressure reactor has been constructed and used for in situ spectroscopic measurements of reaction kinetics in supercritical fluids. The thermal decomposition of 2,2{prime}-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO{sub 2}) was studied as part of an effort to characterize free-radical autoxidation of hydrocarbon fuels under supercritical conditions. The findings show that AIBN decomposes both thermally and photochemically in SC-CO{sub 2} to form the 2-cyano-2-propyl free radical which dimerizes to form tetramethylsuccinic dinitrile and dimethyl-N-(2-cyano-2-propyl) ketenimine. Examination of the decomposition kinetics of the ketenimine revealed that it was photochemically stable in the kinetic reactor, but decomposed thermally to form the dinitrile. 21 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Coupling of anodic oxidation and adsorption by granular activated carbon for chemical oxygen demand removal from 4,4'-diaminostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lizhang; Zhao, Yuemin

    2010-01-01

    Experiments were performed to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) from 4,4'-diaminostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic (DSD) acid manufacturing wastewater using electrochemical oxidation coupled with adsorption by granular activated carbon. The COD removal is affected by the residence time and applied voltage. When the residence time is increased, lower value of COD effluent could be obtained, however, the average current efficiency (ACE) decreased rapidly, and so does the applied voltage. In addition, aeration could effectively enhance COD removal efficiency and protect anodes from corrosion. Furthermore, the acidic condition is beneficial to the rapid decrease of COD and the values of pH effluent are independent of the initial solution pH. The optimization conditions obtained from these experiments are applied voltage of 4.8 V, residence time of 180 min and air-liquid ratio of 4.2 with the COD effluent of about 690 mg L⁻¹. In these cases, the ACE and energy consumption are 388% and 4.144 kW h kg⁻¹ COD, respectively. These perfect results from the experiments illustrate that the combined process is a considerable alternative for the treatment of industrial wastewater containing high concentration of organic pollutants and salinity.

  16. Effects of carbon nanomaterials fullerene C60 and fullerol C60(OH)18–22 on gills of fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) exposed to ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socoowski Britto, Roberta; Longaray Garcia, Márcia; Martins da Rocha, Alessandra; Artigas Flores, Juliana; Pinheiro, Maurício V. Brant; Monserrat, José María; Ribas Ferreira, Josencler L.

    2012-01-01

    In consequence of their growing use and demand, the inevitable environmental presence of nanomaterials (NMs) has raised concerns about their potential deleterious effects to aquatic environments. The carbon NM fullerene (C 60 ), which forms colloidal aggregates in water, and its water-soluble derivative fullerol (C 60 (OH) 18–22 ), which possesses antioxidant properties, are known to be photo-excited by ultraviolet (UV) or visible light. To investigate their potential hazards to aquatic organisms upon exposure to UV sunlight, this study analyzed (a) the in vitro behavior of fullerene and fullerol against peroxyl radicals (ROO·) under UV-A radiation and (b) the effects of these photo-excited NMs on oxidative stress parameters in functional gills extracted from the fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae). The variables measured were the total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), the activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase (GR) and glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), and the levels of the non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH). The obtained results revealed the following: (1) both NMs behaved in vitro as antioxidants against ROO· in the dark and as pro-oxidants in presence of UV-A, the latter effect being reversed by the addition of sodium azide, which is a singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) quencher; (2) fullerene induced toxicity with or without UV-A incidence, with a significant (p 1 O 2 generation; and (3) fullerol also decreased GCL activity and GSH formation (p 1 O 2 formation.

  17. Electrochemical sensing platform based on tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)cobalt(III) and multiwall carbon nanotubes-Nafion composite for immunoassay of carcinoma antigen-125

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shihong; Yuan Ruo; Chai Yaqin; Min Ligen; Li Wenjuan; Xu Yang

    2009-01-01

    A new strategy for constructing a sensitive mediator-type electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of carcinoma antigen-125 (CA125) was developed. In this strategy, mediator tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)cobalt(III) (Co(bpy) 3 3+ ) was incoporated into the multiwall carbon nanotubes-Nafion (MWNTs-Nafion) composite film via a simple ion-exchange route. Then, gold colloidal nanoparticles (nano-Au) were attached onto Co(bpy) 3 3+ /MWNTs-Nafion film through electrostatic interaction between negatively charged nano-Au and positively charged Co(bpy) 3 3+ . Finally, CA125 monoclonal antibody (anti-CA125), used as a model antibody, was assembled onto the surface of nano-Au to achieve an immunosensor for the determination of CA125 antigen. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) were used to characterize the assembly process of the modified electrode. The resulting immunosensor showed a high sensitivity, wide dynamic range consisting of two linear parts from 1.0 to 30 U mL -1 and 30 to 150 U mL -1 with a low detection limit of 0.36 U mL -1 at 3 times the background noise. Moreover, it displayed good reproducibility and stability, and would be potentially attractive for clinical immunoassay of CA125. The integration of mediator Co(bpy) 3 3+ and MWNTs-Nafion composite would offer potential promise for the fabrication of biosensors and biocatalysts.

  18. Interaction of single-walled carbon nanotubes and saxitoxin: Ab initio simulations and biological responses in hippocampal cell line HT-22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Patrícia; Schmitz, Marcos; Filgueira, Daza; Votto, Ana Paula; Durruthy, Michael; Gelesky, Marcos; Ruas, Caroline; Yunes, João; Tonel, Mariana; Fagan, Solange; Monserrat, José

    2017-07-01

    Saxitoxins (STXs) are potent neurotoxins that also induce cytotoxicity through the generation of reactive oxygen species. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are nanomaterials that can promote a Trojan horse effect, facilitating the entry of toxic molecules to cells when adsorbed to nanomaterials. The interaction of pristine single-walled (SW)CNTs and carboxylated (SWCNT-COOH) nanotubes with STX was evaluated by ab initio simulation and bioassays using the cell line HT-22. Cells (5 × 10 4  cells/mL) were exposed to SWCNT and SWCNT-COOH (5 μg mL -1 ), STX (200 μg L -1 ), SWCNT+STX, and SWCNT-COOH+STX for 30 min or 24 h. Results of ab initio simulation showed that the interaction between SWCNT and SWCNT-COOH with STX occurs in a physisorption. The interaction of SWCNT+STX induced a decrease in cell viability. Cell proliferation was not affected in any treatment after 30 min or 24 h of exposure (p > 0.05). Treatment with SWCNT-COOH induced high reactive oxygen species levels, an effect attenuated in SWCNT-COOH+STX treatment. In terms of cellular oxygen consumption, both CNTs when coexposed with STX antagonize the toxin effect. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the results obtained in vitro corroborate the semiempirical evidence found using density functional theory ab initio simulation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1728-1737. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  19. Electron transfer study on graphene modified glassy carbon substrate via electrochemical reduction and the application for tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) electrochemiluminescence sensor fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanhong; Cao, Mengmei; Liu, Huihui; Zong, Xidan; Kong, Na; Zhang, Jizhen; Liu, Jingquan

    2015-07-01

    In this study, electron transfer behavior of the graphene nanosheets attachment on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) via direct electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) is investigated for the first time. The graphene modified electrode was achieved by simply dipping the GCE in GO suspension, followed by cyclic voltammetric scanning in the potential window from 0V to -1.5V. Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) [Ru(bpy)3(2+)] was immobilized on the graphene modified electrode and used as the redox probe to evaluate the electron transfer behavior. The electron transfer rate constant (Ks) was calculated to be 61.9±5.8s(-1), which is much faster than that of tiled graphene modified GCE (7.1±0.6s(-1)). The enhanced electron transfer property observed with the GCE modified by reductively deposited graphene is probably due to its standing configuration, which is beneficial to the electron transfer comparing with the tiled one. Because the abundant oxygen-containing groups are mainly located at the edges of GO, which should be much easier for the reduction to start from, the reduced GO should tend to stand on the electrode surface as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy analysis. In addition, due to the favored electron transfer and standing configuration, the Ru(bpy)3(2+) electrochemiluminescence sensor fabricated with standing graphene modified GCE provided much higher and more stable efficiency than that fabricated with tiled graphene. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Carbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennebutte, H G; Goutal, E

    1921-07-04

    Materials such as coal, peat, or schist are subjected to a rising temperature in successive stages in apparatus in which the distillation products are withdrawn at each stage. For example in a three-stage process, the acid products of the first or low-temperature stage are fixed in a suitable reagent, the basic products from a second or higher-temperature stage are absorbed in an acid reagent, hydrocarbons being retained by solvents, while the third are subjected to a pyrogenation process carried out in a closed vessel. Wherein the material is subjected in stages to a rising temperature, the gasified products being withdrawn at each stage, and are prevented as far as possible from mixing with the carbonized products.

  1. Synthesis of carbon-11 labeled 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolinium derivatives as new potential PET SKCa channel imaging agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingzhang; Wang, Min; Zheng, Qi-Huang

    2008-02-01

    Small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SKCa) channels play an important role in many functions such as neuronal communication and behavioral plasticity, secretion, and cell proliferation. SKCa channel modulation is associated with various brain, heart, and cancer diseases. N-methyl-laudanosine and its structurally related derivatives, substituted 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoliniums, are reversible and selective SKCa channel blockers. Carbon-11 labeled N-methyl-laudanosine and its tetrahydroisoquinolinium derivatives may serve as new probes for positron emission tomography (PET) to image SKCa channels in the brain, heart, and cancer. The key intermediates, substituted isoquinolines (3a-c), were synthesized using a modification of the Pomeranz-Fritsch procedure. The precursors, substituted 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines (8a-c), and their corresponding reference standards, substituted 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoliniums (9a-c), were synthesized from compounds 3a-c with 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl chloride (2) in multiple steps with moderate to excellent chemical yields. The precursor 6,7-dimethoxy-1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (10) was commercially available, and the methylation of compound 10 with methyl iodide provided N-methyl-laudanosine (11). The target quaternary ammonium tracers, carbon-11 labeled 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoliniums ([11C]9a-c and [11C]11), were prepared by N-[11C]methylation of the tertiary amine precursors (8a-c and 10) with [11C]methyl triflate and isolated by a simplified solid-phase extraction (SPE) purification using a SiO2 or cation-exchange CM Sep-Pak cartridge in 40-65% radiochemical yields.

  2. Cycle 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappernman, J.G.; Albertson, V.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that for many electric utility systems, Solar Cycle 22 has been the first introduction to the phenomena of Geomagnetic Disturbances and the disrupting and damaging effects that they can have upon modern power systems. For all intents and purposes, Power Industry awareness of Cycle 22 started with a bang during the Great Geomagnetic Storm of March 13, 1989. This storm caused a blackout to the entire Province of Quebec, permanently damaged a large nuclear plant GSU transformer in New Jersey, and created enough havoc across the entire North American power grid to create the plausible threat of a massive power system blackout. The flurry of activity and investigation that followed has led many engineers to realize that their power systems are indeed vulnerable to this phenomena and if anything are becoming ever more vulnerable as the system grows to meet future requirements. As a result some organizations such as Hydro Quebec, PSE and G, and the PJM Pool now implement strategic measures as a remedial response to detection of geomagnetic storm conditions. Many more companies pay particularly close attention to storm forecasts and alerts, and the industry in general has accelerated research and monitoring activities through their own means of in concert with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

  3. Synthesis of carbon-11 labeled 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolinium derivatives as new potential PET SK{sub Ca} channel imaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Mingzhang; Wang Min [Department of Radiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 1345 West 16th Street, L-3 Room 202, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Zheng Qihuang [Department of Radiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 1345 West 16th Street, L-3 Room 202, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)], E-mail: qzheng@iupui.edu

    2008-02-15

    Small conductance Ca{sup 2+}-activated K{sup +} (SK{sub Ca}) channels play an important role in many functions such as neuronal communication and behavioral plasticity, secretion, and cell proliferation. SK{sub Ca} channel modulation is associated with various brain, heart, and cancer diseases. N-methyl-laudanosine and its structurally related derivatives, substituted 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoliniums, are reversible and selective SK{sub Ca} channel blockers. Carbon-11 labeled N-methyl-laudanosine and its tetrahydroisoquinolinium derivatives may serve as new probes for positron emission tomography (PET) to image SK{sub Ca} channels in the brain, heart, and cancer. The key intermediates, substituted isoquinolines (3a-c), were synthesized using a modification of the Pomeranz-Fritsch procedure. The precursors, substituted 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines (8a-c), and their corresponding reference standards, substituted 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoliniums (9a-c), were synthesized from compounds 3a-c with 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl chloride (2) in multiple steps with moderate to excellent chemical yields. The precursor 6,7-dimethoxy-1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-methyl-1,2,3, 4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (10) was commercially available, and the methylation of compound 10 with methyl iodide provided N-methyl-laudanosine (11). The target quaternary ammonium tracers, carbon-11 labeled 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoliniums ([{sup 11}C]9a-c and [{sup 11}C]11), were prepared by N-[{sup 11}C]methylation of the tertiary amine precursors (8a-c and 10) with [{sup 11}C]methyl triflate and isolated by a simplified solid-phase extraction (SPE) purification using a SiO{sub 2} or cation-exchange CM Sep-Pak cartridge in 40-65% radiochemical yields.

  4. 22 CFR 171.22 - Appeals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appeals. 171.22 Section 171.22 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACCESS TO INFORMATION AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION AND RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC Executive Order 12958 Provisions § 171.22 Appeals. Any denial of a mandatory declassification review request...

  5. 22 CFR 228.22 - Air transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air transportation. 228.22 Section 228.22... for USAID Financing § 228.22 Air transportation. (a) The eligibility of air transportation is... U.S. flag air carriers for all international air travel and transportation, unless such service is...

  6. Extraction of ultra-traces of lead, chromium and copper using ruthenium nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon and modified with N,N-bis-(α-methylsalicylidene)-2,2-dimethylpropane-1,3-diamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barfi, Behruz; Rajabi, Maryam; Zadeh, Mahboubeh Morshedi; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Sahraei, Reza

    2015-01-01

    We describe a novel adsorbent for effective extraction of lead(II), chromium(III) and copper(II). It consists of ruthenium nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon that were modified with N,N-bis-(α-methylsalicylidene)-2,2-dimethylpropane-1,3-diamine. The sorbent was applied to solid-phase extraction combined with ionic-liquid based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method. The effects of parameters such as amounts of adsorbent, type and volume of elution solvent, type and volume of extraction and dispersing solvents, etc. were evaluated. The ions were then quantified by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Under the best conditions, limits of detection, linear dynamic ranges and enrichment factors for these ions ranged from 0.02 to 0.09 μg L −1 , 0.08 to 45 μg L −1 and 328 to 356, respectively. The results showed that the method, in addition to its sensitivity, selectivity and good enrichment factor, is simple and efficient. It was applied to the determination of the three ions in blood plasma, food (broccoli, coriander and spinach), and in (spiked) samples of tap, spring and river water. (author)

  7. Effects of carbon nanomaterials fullerene C{sub 60} and fullerol C{sub 60}(OH){sub 18-22} on gills of fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) exposed to ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socoowski Britto, Roberta; Longaray Garcia, Marcia; Martins da Rocha, Alessandra [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos Graduacao em Fisiologia Animal Comparada - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, FURG (Brazil); Artigas Flores, Juliana [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Pinheiro, Mauricio V. Brant [Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, MG (Brazil); Monserrat, Jose Maria [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos Graduacao em Fisiologia Animal Comparada - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, FURG (Brazil); Ribas Ferreira, Josencler L., E-mail: josenclerf@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos Graduacao em Fisiologia Animal Comparada - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, FURG (Brazil)

    2012-06-15

    In consequence of their growing use and demand, the inevitable environmental presence of nanomaterials (NMs) has raised concerns about their potential deleterious effects to aquatic environments. The carbon NM fullerene (C{sub 60}), which forms colloidal aggregates in water, and its water-soluble derivative fullerol (C{sub 60}(OH){sub 18-22}), which possesses antioxidant properties, are known to be photo-excited by ultraviolet (UV) or visible light. To investigate their potential hazards to aquatic organisms upon exposure to UV sunlight, this study analyzed (a) the in vitro behavior of fullerene and fullerol against peroxyl radicals (ROO{center_dot}) under UV-A radiation and (b) the effects of these photo-excited NMs on oxidative stress parameters in functional gills extracted from the fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae). The variables measured were the total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), the activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase (GR) and glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), and the levels of the non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH). The obtained results revealed the following: (1) both NMs behaved in vitro as antioxidants against ROO{center_dot} in the dark and as pro-oxidants in presence of UV-A, the latter effect being reversed by the addition of sodium azide, which is a singlet oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}) quencher; (2) fullerene induced toxicity with or without UV-A incidence, with a significant (p < 0.05) increase in lipid peroxidation (with greater damage under illumination), a decrease in GCL activity, and the depletion of GSH stocks (under illumination), all of which were attributed to {sup 1}O{sub 2} generation; and (3) fullerol also decreased GCL activity and GSH formation (p < 0.05) but without lipid damage. The overall results show that fullerene can be toxic with or without light incidence, whereas UV radiation seems to play a key role in the environmental toxicity of carbon NMs through {sup 1}O{sub 2} formation.

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity and salinity collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from ARMORIQUE in the English Channel from 2013-03-15 to 2013-12-22 (NCEI Accession 0157444)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157444 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from ARMORIQUE in the English Channel from 2013-03-15 to 2013-12-22. These...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORINGS in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2005-10-22 to 2007-10-01 (NODC Accession 0100065)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0100065 includes chemical, physical and time series data collected from MOORINGS in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2005-10-22 to 2007-10-01. These data...

  10. Carbon dioxide effects research and assessment program. Proceedings of the International Meeting on Stable Isotopes in Tree-Ring Research, New Paltz, New York, May 22-25, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacoby, G [ed.

    1980-12-01

    Information about the past and present concentrations of CO/sub 2/ in the atmosphere and variations in climate can be obtained from measurements of stable isotopes in tree rings; specifically carbon-13, oxygen-18 and deuterium. The analysis of these stable isotopes in tree rings is a relatively new and rapidly developing field. This proceedings volume contains most of the papers presented at the meeting. The first paper gives an overview of the status of carbon-13 research. Papers relating to carbon-13 are in section I and grouped separately from the contributions on carbon-14. Although the meeting was primarily concerned with stable isotopes, all carbon isotopic analysis may be helpful in understanding the carbon-13 record in tree rings. The papers on hydrogen and oxygen isotope studies are in sections II and III respectively. The remaining sections contain papers that consider more than one isotope at a time, general topics related to isotopes, atmospheric changes and tree growth, and methods of isotopic analysis.

  11. 22 CFR 135.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 135.22 Allowable... principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...

  12. Defending the F-22

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Day, John

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish the critical need for the continued development and introduction of the F-22 Raptor as the air superiority fighter for the joint forces of the United States...

  13. R-22 vapor explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.P.; Armstrong, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Previous experimental and theoretical studies of R-22 vapor explosions are reviewed. Results from two experimental investigations of vapor explosions in a medium scale R-22/water system are reported. Measurements following the drop of an unrestrained mass of R-22 into a water tank demonstrated the existence of two types of interaction behavior. Release of a constrained mass of R-22 beneath the surface of a water tank improved the visual resolution of the system thus allowing identification of two interaction mechansims: at low water temperatures, R-22/water contact would produce immediate violent boiling; at high water temperatures a vapor film formed around its R-22 as it was released, explosions were generated by a surface wave which initiated at a single location and propagated along the vapor film as a shock wave. A new vapor explosion model is proposed, it suggests explosions are the result of a sequence of three independent steps: an initial mixing phase, a trigger and growth phase, and a mature phase where a propagating shock wave accelerates the two liquids into a collapsing vapor layer causing a high velocity impact which finely fragments and intermixes the two liquids

  14. 22 CFR 512.22 - Deduction from pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Deduction from pay. 512.22 Section 512.22... 1982 Salary Offset § 512.22 Deduction from pay. (a) Deduction by salary offset, from an employee's disposable current pay, shall be subject to the following circumstances: (1) When funds are available, the...

  15. CCL22-specific T Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenaite, Evelina; Munir Ahmad, Shamaila; Hansen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating macrophages produce the chemokine CCL22, which attracts regulatory T cells (Tregs) into the tumor microenvironment, decreasing anticancer immunity. Here, we investigated the possibility of targeting CCL22-expressing cells by activating specific T cells. We...... analyzed the CCL22 protein signal sequence, identifying a human leukocyte antigen A2- (HLA-A2-) restricted peptide epitope, which we then used to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs) to expand populations of CCL22-specific T cells in vitro. T cells recognizing an epitope derived from...... the signal-peptide of CCL22 will recognize CCL22-expressing cells even though CCL22 is secreted out of the cell. CCL22-specific T cells recognized and killed CCL22-expressing cancer cells. Furthermore, CCL22-specific T cells lysed acute monocytic leukemia cells in a CCL22 expression-dependent manner. Using...

  16. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, fugacity of carbon dioxide, and other variables from surface observations using Niskin bottle, flow through pump and other instruments from NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown in the Gulf of Mexico and East Coast of the United States during the second Gulf of Mexico and East Coast Carbon (GOMECC-2) Cruise from 2012-07-22 to 2012-08-13 (NODC Accession 0117971)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains ocean acidification related data from the second Gulf of Mexico and East Coast Carbon (GOMECC-2) Cruise on board NOAA Ship Ronald H....

  17. Stellar origin of the 22Ne excess in cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casse, M.; Paul, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The 22 Ne excess at the cosmic-ray source is discussed in terms of a 22 Ne-rich component injected and accelerated by carbon-rich Wolf-Rayet stars. The overabundance of 22 Ne relative to 20 Ne predicted at the surface of these stars is estimated to a factor approx.120 with respect to solar system abundances. In order to give rise to a 22 Ne excess of about 3 at the cosmic-ray sources as inferred from observations, the carbon-rich Wolf-Rayet contribution to the primary cosmic-ray flux is to be at maximum 1/60. This component would be energized by strong stellar winds producing quasi-standing shocks around the Wolf-Rayet stars

  18. 22 CFR 18.22 - Notice of disciplinary action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of disciplinary action. 18.22 Section 18... INTEREST Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 18.22 Notice of disciplinary action. Upon the issuance of... Department during the period of suspension. The Director General shall take other appropriate disciplinary...

  19. 22 CFR 22.3 - Remittances in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remittances in the United States. 22.3 Section...-DEPARTMENT OF STATE AND FOREIGN SERVICE § 22.3 Remittances in the United States. (a) Type of remittance. Remittances shall be in the form of: (1) Check or bank draft drawn on a bank in the United States; (2) money...

  20. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at the...

  1. 22 CFR 212.22 - Protection of personal privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protection of personal privacy. 212.22 Section... Information for Public Inspection and Copying § 212.22 Protection of personal privacy. To the extent required to prevent a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy, USAID may delete identifying details...

  2. 22 CFR 120.22 - Technical assistance agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Technical assistance agreement. 120.22 Section... DEFINITIONS § 120.22 Technical assistance agreement. An agreement (e.g., contract) for the performance of a... license to manufacture defense articles. Assembly of defense articles is included under this section...

  3. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Knorr Cruises in the North Atlantic Ocean on WOCE Sections AR24 (November 2-December 5, 1996) and A24, A20, and A22 (May 30-September 3, 1997)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.M.

    2003-10-23

    This documentation describes the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) total alkalinity (TALK), and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) at hydrographic stations on the North Atlantic Ocean sections AR24, A24, A20, and A22 during the R/V Knorr Cruises 147-2, 151-2, 151-3, and 151-4 in 1996 and 1997. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the expeditions began at Woods Hole, Massachusetts, on October 24, 1996, and ended at Woods Hole on September 3, 1997. Instructions for accessing the data are provided. A total of 5,614 water samples were analyzed for discrete TCO{sub 2} using two single-operator multiparameter metabolic analyzers (SOMMAs) coupled to a coulometer for extracting and detecting CO{sub 2}. The overall accuracy of the TCO{sub 2} determination was {+-} 1.59 {micro}mol/kg. The TALK was determined in a total of 6,088 discrete samples on all sections by potentiometric titration using an automated titration system developed at the University of Miami. The accuracy of the TALK determination was {+-} 3 {micro}mol/kg. A total of 2,465 discrete water samples were collected for determination of pCO{sub 2} in seawater on sections A24, A20, and A22. The pCO{sub 2} was measured by means of an equilibrator-IR system by scientists from Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. The precision of the measurements was estimated to be about {+-} 0.15%, based on the reproducibility of the replicate equilibrations on a single hydrographic station. The North Atlantic data set is available as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The NDP consists of 12 ASCII data files, one Ocean Data View-formatted data file, a NDP-082 ASCII text file, a NDP-082 PDF file, and this printed documentation, which describes the contents and format of all files, as well as the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  4. Optimization of process parameters during carbonization for improved carbon fibre strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, T.; Pursche, F.; Burscheidt, P.; Seide, G.; Gries, T.

    2017-10-01

    Based on their extraordinary properties, carbon fibres nowadays play a significant role in modern industries. In the last years carbon fibres are increasingly used for lightweight constructions in the energy or the transportation industry. However, a bigger market penetration of carbon fibres is still hindered by high prices (~ 22 /kg) [3]. One crucial step in carbon fibre production is the process of carbonization of stabilized fibres. However, the cause effect relationships of carbonization are nowadays not fully understood. Therefore, the main goal of this research work is the quantification of the cause-effect relationships of process parameters like temperature and residence time on carbon fibre strength.

  5. Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct mineral carbonation with carbonic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Nilsen, David N.; Walters, Richard P.; Turner, Paul C.

    2000-01-01

    The Albany Research Center (ARC) of the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) has been conducting a series of mineral carbonation tests at its Albany, Oregon, facility over the past 2 years as part of a Mineral Carbonation Study Program within the DOE. Other participants in this Program include the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Arizona State University, Science Applications International Corporation, and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The ARC tests have focused on ex-situ mineral carbonation in an aqueous system. The process developed at ARC utilizes a slurry of water mixed with a magnesium silicate mineral, olivine [forsterite end member (Mg2SiO4)], or serpentine [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4]. This slurry is reacted with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) to produce magnesite (MgCO3). The CO2 is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid (H2CO3), which dissociates to H+ and HCO3 -. The H+ reacts with the mineral, liberating Mg2+ cations which react with the bicarbonate to form the solid carbonate. The process is designed to simulate the natural serpentinization reaction of ultramafic minerals, and for this reason, these results may also be applicable to in-situ geological sequestration regimes. Results of the baseline tests, conducted on ground products of the natural minerals, have been encouraging. Tests conducted at ambient temperature (22 C) and subcritical CO2 pressures (below 73 atm) resulted in very slow conversion to the carbonate. However, when elevated temperatures and pressures are utilized, coupled with continuous stirring of the slurry and gas dispersion within the water column, significant reaction occurs within much shorter reaction times. Extent of reaction, as measured by the stoichiometric conversion of the silicate mineral (olivine) to the carbonate, is roughly 90% within 24 hours, using distilled water, and a reaction temperature of 185?C and a partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) of 115 atm. Recent tests using a bicarbonate solution, under identical reaction

  6. Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct mineral carbonation with carbonic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, W.K.; Dahlin, D.C.; Nilsen, D.N.; Walters, R.P.; Turner, P.C.

    2000-07-01

    The Albany Research Center (ARC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been conducting a series of mineral carbonation tests at its Albany, Oregon, facility over the past 2 years as part of a Mineral Carbonation Study Program within the DOE. The ARC tests have focused on ex-situ mineral carbonation in an aqueous system. The process developed at ARC utilizes a slurry of water mixed with a magnesium silicate mineral, olivine [forsterite and member (mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4})], or serpentine [Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}]. This slurry is reacted with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to produce magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The CO{sub 2} is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid (H{sub 2}CO{sub 3}), which dissociates to H{sup +} and HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The H{sup +} reacts with the mineral, liberating Mg{sup 2+} cations which react with the bicarbonate to form the solid carbonate. The process is designed to simulate the natural serpentinization reaction of ultramafic minerals, and for this reason, these results may also be applicable to in-situ geological sequestration regimes. Results of the baseline tests, conducted on ground products of the natural minerals, have been encouraging. Tests conducted at ambient temperature (22 C) and subcritical CO{sub 2} pressures (below 73 atm) resulted in very slow conversion to the carbonate. However, when elevated temperatures and pressures are utilized, coupled with continuous stirring of the slurry and gas dispersion within the water column, significant reaction occurs within much shorter reaction times. Extent of reaction, as measured by the stoichiometric conversion of the silicate mineral (olivine) to the carbonate, is roughly 90% within 24 hours, using distilled water, and a reaction temperature of 185 C and a partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (P{sub CO{sub 2}}) of 115 atm. Recent tests using a bicarbonate solution, under identical reaction conditions, have achieved roughly 83% conversion of heat treated serpentine

  7. Interleukin-22: immunobiology and pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudakov, Jarrod A.; Hanash, Alan M.; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a recently described IL-10 family cytokine that is produced by T-helper (Th)-17 cells, γδ T cells, NKT cells and newly described innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Knowledge of IL-22 biology has rapidly evolved since its discovery in 2000, and a role for IL-22 has been identified in numerous tissues including the intestines, lung, liver, kidney, thymus, pancreas and skin. IL-22 primarily targets non-hematopoietic epithelial and stromal cells where it can promote proliferation and play a role in tissue regeneration. In addition, IL-22 regulates host defense at barrier surfaces. However, IL-22 has also been linked to several conditions involving inflammatory tissue pathology. In this review, we will assess the current understanding of this cytokine, including its physiologic and pathologic effects on epithelial cell function. PMID:25706098

  8. Beta decay of 22O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, F.; Dufour, J.P.; Moral, R. del; Fleury, A.; Jean, D.; Pravikoff, M.S.; Delagrange, H.; Geissel, H.; Schmidt, K.H.; Hanelt, E.

    1989-01-01

    The beta-gamma spectroscopic study of 22 O is presented. This nucleus, produced as a projectile-like fragment from the interaction of a 60 MeV/n 40 Ar beam with a Be target, has been separated by the LISE spectrometer. Several gamma rays from 22 O decay have been observed, from which a half-life of (2.25±0.15) s has been determined. Accurate excitation energies have been deduced for several states in 22 F. A partial beta decay scheme of 22 O has been established. Experimental results have been compared with shell model calculations. (orig.)

  9. 28 CFR 22.22 - Revelation of identifiable data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.22 Revelation of identifiable data. (a) Except as noted in paragraph (b) of this section, research and statistical information relating to a private person may be revealed in identifiable... sections 223(a)(12)(A), 223(a)(13), 223(a)(14), and 243 of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention...

  10. Carbon/carbon composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thebault, J.; Orly, P.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon/carbon composites are singular materials from their components, their manufacturing process as well as their characteristics. This paper gives a global overview of these particularities and applications which make them now daily used composites. (authors)

  11. World cheating on the carbon market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, O.

    2010-01-01

    According to several non-governmental organizations, some industrial producers take advantage of a flaw in one of the carbon market mechanisms set up by the Kyoto protocol. These industrialists, mainly from China and India, are involved in the production of HCFC22 refrigerants, and make a substantial profit by artificially generating more greenhouse gases (HFC23) than necessary, then destroying them in order to collect carbon credits which they sell on the carbon market. Explanations about the cheat, details about companies and banks involved in the system, review of past trickeries in carbon quotas, and ways to improve the carbon market are presented

  12. Carbonate aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.; Sukop, Michael; Curran, H. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Only limited hydrogeological research has been conducted using ichnology in carbonate aquifer characterization. Regardless, important applications of ichnology to carbonate aquifer characterization include its use to distinguish and delineate depositional cycles, correlate mappable biogenically altered surfaces, identify zones of preferential groundwater flow and paleogroundwater flow, and better understand the origin of ichnofabric-related karst features. Three case studies, which include Pleistocene carbonate rocks of the Biscayne aquifer in southern Florida and Cretaceous carbonate strata of the Edwards–Trinity aquifer system in central Texas, demonstrate that (1) there can be a strong relation between ichnofabrics and groundwater flow in carbonate aquifers and (2) ichnology can offer a useful methodology for carbonate aquifer characterization. In these examples, zones of extremely permeable, ichnofabric-related macroporosity are mappable stratiform geobodies and as such can be represented in groundwater flow and transport simulations.

  13. Beta decay of 22O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, F.; Dufour, J.P.; Del Moral, R.; Fleury, A.; Jean, D.; Pravikoff, M.S.; Geissel, H.; Schmidt, K.H.; Hanelt, E.

    1989-01-01

    The study of light nuclei far from stability has been recently renewed by the possibility of production through the projectile fragmentation of intermediate energy heavy ion beams at GANIL. The results presented here have been obtained with the Projectile Fragments Isotopic Separation method developed at the LISE spectrometer. 22 O is a Tz = 3 nucleus and is the first in a series of seven such nuclei in the sd shell extending from 22 O to 24 Mg. Although the half life of 22 O was previously measured by Murphy et al., the present study is the first beta-gamma spectroscopy on this neutron rich nucleus. Five gamma lines have been attributed to the β decay of 22 O with a measured half life of T = (2.25±0.15)s and a partial decay scheme has been established

  14. Biodegradation of Chlorpyrifos by Pseudomonas Resinovarans Strain AST2.2 Isolated from Enriched Cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Anish Sharma*,; Jyotsana Pandit; Ruchika Sharma and; Poonam Shirkot

    2016-01-01

    A bacterial strain AST2.2 with chlorpyrifos degrading ability was isolated by enrichment technique from apple orchard soil with previous history of chlorpyrifos use. Based on the morphological, biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequence analysis, AST2.2 strain was identified as Pseudomonas resinovarans. The strain AST2.2 utilized chlorpyrifos as the sole source of carbon and energy. This strain exhibited growth upto 400mg/l concentration of chlorpyrifos and exhibited high extracellular organopho...

  15. Beta decay of 22O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, F.; Dufour, J.P.; Moral, R. Del; Fleury, A.; Jean, D.; Pravikoff, M.S.; Geissel, H.; Schmidt, K.H.; Hanelt, E.

    1991-01-01

    22 O nuclei were produced as fragments of a 60 MeV/n 40 Ar beam interacting with a thick Be target. They were selected from all the produced nuclei with the LISE separator. γ spectra in coincidence with the β decay were measured. Partial decay scheme of 22 O is given. Similarities between experiments and calculations are discussed. (G.P.) 10 refs.; 3 figs

  16. Manufacturing of Nanocomposite Carbon Fibers and Composite Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Seng; Zhou, Jian-guo

    2013-01-01

    Pitch-based nanocomposite carbon fibers were prepared with various percentages of carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and the fibers were used for manufacturing composite structures. Experimental results show that these nanocomposite carbon fibers exhibit improved structural and electrical conductivity properties as compared to unreinforced carbon fibers. Composite panels fabricated from these nanocomposite carbon fibers and an epoxy system also show the same properties transformed from the fibers. Single-fiber testing per ASTM C1557 standard indicates that the nanocomposite carbon fiber has a tensile modulus of 110% higher, and a tensile strength 17.7% times higher, than the conventional carbon fiber manufactured from pitch. Also, the electrical resistance of the carbon fiber carbonized at 900 C was reduced from 4.8 to 2.2 ohm/cm. The manufacturing of the nanocomposite carbon fiber was based on an extrusion, non-solvent process. The precursor fibers were then carbonized and graphitized. The resultant fibers are continuous.

  17. Carbon-On-Carbon Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungas, Gregory S. (Inventor); Buchanan, Larry (Inventor); Banzon, Jr., Jose T. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The presently disclosed technology relates to carbon-on-carbon (C/C) manufacturing techniques and the resulting C/C products. One aspect of the manufacturing techniques disclosed herein utilizes two distinct curing operations that occur at different times and/or using different temperatures. The resulting C/C products are substantially non-porous, even though the curing operation(s) substantially gasify a liquid carbon-entrained filler material that saturates a carbon fabric that makes up the C/C products.

  18. Porous carbons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. Carbon in dense as well as porous solid form is used in a variety of applications. Activated porous carbons are made through pyrolysis and activation of carbonaceous natural as well as synthetic precursors. Pyrolysed woods replicate the structure of original wood but as such possess very low surface areas and ...

  19. Carbon photonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konov, V I [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    The properties of new carbon materials (single-crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond films and wafers, single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene) and the prospects of their use as optical elements and devices are discussed. (optical elements of laser devices)

  20. From COP21 to COP22: Keeping up the Momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, Carole

    2016-10-01

    In December 2015, a new international climate agreement was adopted, paving the way for increased mitigation and adaptation efforts. Governments firmly expressed the need for rapid action and 2016 will put the credibility of their commitments to the test. This article argues that climate policies are actually becoming more widespread, but they are also adjusting to local constraints and needs, suggesting that the establishment of a global emission regulation model is unlikely in the near future. While the low-carbon transition is well under way, its pace and conditions still appear too uncertain to fully convince economic decision-makers of the value of carbon-free options. COP22, which will take place in Marrakech in November 2016, will be an opportunity to leave these hesitations behind by strengthening mutual oversight, by consolidating the principle of climate justice, and by furthering the discussion about the best ways to orchestrate the transition to carbon neutrality

  1. High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.

  2. 48 CFR 22.610 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act 22.610... Contracts Act, in solicitations and contracts covered by the Act (see 22.603, 22.604, and 22.605). [61 FR... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 22.610...

  3. Carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The document identifies the main sources of carbon monoxide (CO) in the general outdoor atmosphere, describes methods of measuring and monitoring its concentration levels in the United Kingdom, and discusses the effects of carbon monoxide on human health. Following its review, the Panel has put forward a recommendation for an air quality standard for carbon monoxide in the United Kingdom of 10 ppm, measured as a running 8-hour average. The document includes tables and graphs of emissions of CO, in total and by emission source, and on the increase in blood levels of carboxyhaemoglobin with continuing exposure to CO. 11 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium is needed by the body for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  5. Selective incorporation of various C-22 polyunsaturated fatty acids in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuzawa, Y.; Okano, S.; Waku, K.; Sprecher, H.; Lands, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    Three 14 C-labeled 22-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids, 7,10,13,16-[ 14 C]docosatetraenoic acid (22:4(n-6)), 7,10,13,16,19-[ 14 C]docosapentaenoic acid (22:5(n-3)), and 4,7,10,13,16,19-[ 14 C]docosahexaenoic acid (22:6(n-3)), were compared with [ 3 H]arachidonic acid (20:4(n-6] and [14C]linoleic acid (18:2(n-6)) to characterize their incorporation into the lipids of Ehrlich ascites cells. The relatively rapid incorporation of the labeled 22-carbon acids into phosphatidic acid indicated that substantial amounts of these acids may be incorporated through the de novo pathway of phospholipid synthesis. In marked contrast to 20:4(n-6), the 22-carbon acids were incorporated much less into choline glycerophospholipids (CGP) and inositol glycerophospholipids (IGP). No selective preference was apparent for the (n-3) or (n-6) type of fatty acids. The amounts of the acids incorporated into diacylglycerophosphoethanolamine were in the order of: 22:6(n-3) greater than 20:4(n-6) much greater than 22:5(n-3) greater than or equal to 22:4(n-6) greater than 18:2(n-6), whereas for alkylacylglycerophosphoethanolamine they were in the order of: 22:4(n-6) greater than 22:6(n-3) greater than 22:5(n-3) much greater than 20:4(n-6) greater than 18:2(n-6). Of the mechanisms possibly responsible for the selective entry of 22-carbon acids into ethanolamine glycerophospholipids, the most reasonable explanation was that the cytidine-mediated ethanolamine phosphotransferase may have a unique double selectivity: for hexaenoic species of diacylglycerol and for 22-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing species of alkylacylglycerol. The relative distribution of fatty acids between newly incorporated and already maintained lipid classes suggested that IGP may function in Ehrlich cells as an intermediate pool for the retention of polyunsaturated fatty acids in glycerolipids

  6. Infiltrated carbon foam composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the HAKON MOSBY in the Barents Sea and Norwegian Sea from 2001-08-22 to 2001-08-29 (NODC Accession 0113887)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113887 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HAKON MOSBY in the Barents Sea and Norwegian Sea from 2001-08-22...

  8. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean from 2008-03-22 to 2008-04-17 (NODC Accession 0109900)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109900 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean from 2008-03-22...

  9. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from ROGER REVELLE in the Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean from 2007-03-22 to 2007-05-01 (NODC Accession 0110791)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0110791 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from ROGER REVELLE in the Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean from 2007-03-22 to 2007-05-01....

  10. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the Hokusei Maru in the North Pacific Ocean from 1998-06-22 to 1998-07-06 (NODC Accession 0112238)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112238 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Hokusei Maru in the North Pacific Ocean from 1998-06-22 to...

  11. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature and salinity collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from G.O. SARS in the Norwegian Sea from 2012-03-20 to 2012-03-22 (NCEI Accession 0156922)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0156922 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from G.O. SARS in the Norwegian Sea from 2012-03-20 to 2012-03-22....

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the Hokusei Maru in the North Pacific Ocean from 1999-06-22 to 1999-07-06 (NODC Accession 0112241)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112241 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Hokusei Maru in the North Pacific Ocean from 1999-06-22 to...

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the SHUMPU MARU in the Philippine Sea from 1998-04-22 to 1998-04-30 (NODC Accession 0112302)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112302 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from SHUMPU MARU in the Philippine Sea from 1998-04-22 to...

  14. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA CARBON FOOTPRINTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R. C.; Nugent, P.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Childress, M.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Loken, S.; Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Baltay, C.; Buton, C.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kowalski, M.; Paech, K.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E.

    2011-01-01

    We present convincing evidence of unburned carbon at photospheric velocities in new observations of five Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained by the Nearby Supernova Factory. These SNe are identified by examining 346 spectra from 124 SNe obtained before +2.5 days relative to maximum. Detections are based on the presence of relatively strong C II λ6580 absorption 'notches' in multiple spectra of each SN, aided by automated fitting with the SYNAPPS code. Four of the five SNe in question are otherwise spectroscopically unremarkable, with ions and ejection velocities typical of SNe Ia, but spectra of the fifth exhibit high-velocity (v > 20, 000 km s –1 ) Si II and Ca II features. On the other hand, the light curve properties are preferentially grouped, strongly suggesting a connection between carbon-positivity and broadband light curve/color behavior: three of the five have relatively narrow light curves but also blue colors and a fourth may be a dust-reddened member of this family. Accounting for signal to noise and phase, we estimate that 22 +10 –6% of SNe Ia exhibit spectroscopic C II signatures as late as –5 days with respect to maximum. We place these new objects in the context of previously recognized carbon-positive SNe Ia and consider reasonable scenarios seeking to explain a physical connection between light curve properties and the presence of photospheric carbon. We also examine the detailed evolution of the detected carbon signatures and the surrounding wavelength regions to shed light on the distribution of carbon in the ejecta. Our ability to reconstruct the C II λ6580 feature in detail under the assumption of purely spherical symmetry casts doubt on a 'carbon blobs' hypothesis, but does not rule out all asymmetric models. A low volume filling factor for carbon, combined with line-of-sight effects, seems unlikely to explain the scarcity of detected carbon in SNe Ia by itself.

  15. Carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Rattan

    2008-02-27

    Developing technologies to reduce the rate of increase of atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) from annual emissions of 8.6PgCyr-1 from energy, process industry, land-use conversion and soil cultivation is an important issue of the twenty-first century. Of the three options of reducing the global energy use, developing low or no-carbon fuel and sequestering emissions, this manuscript describes processes for carbon (CO2) sequestration and discusses abiotic and biotic technologies. Carbon sequestration implies transfer of atmospheric CO2 into other long-lived global pools including oceanic, pedologic, biotic and geological strata to reduce the net rate of increase in atmospheric CO2. Engineering techniques of CO2 injection in deep ocean, geological strata, old coal mines and oil wells, and saline aquifers along with mineral carbonation of CO2 constitute abiotic techniques. These techniques have a large potential of thousands of Pg, are expensive, have leakage risks and may be available for routine use by 2025 and beyond. In comparison, biotic techniques are natural and cost-effective processes, have numerous ancillary benefits, are immediately applicable but have finite sink capacity. Biotic and abiotic C sequestration options have specific nitches, are complementary, and have potential to mitigate the climate change risks.

  16. 47 CFR 22.1035 - Construction period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction period. 22.1035 Section 22.1035 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1035 Construction period. The construction period (see § 22.142) for...

  17. Preparation and characterization of carbon nanotube-hybridized carbon fiber to reinforce epoxy composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Feng; Lu, Chunxiang; Li, Yonghong; Guo, Jinhai; Lu, Xiaoxuan; Lu, Huibin; He, Shuqing; Yang, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → CNTs were uniformly grown onto the carbon fibers. → No obvious mechanical properties of carbon fiber were observed after CNT growth. → The IFSS of multiscale epoxy composite was measured by single fiber pull-out tests. → Observing fractography of composite, the fracture modes of CNTs were discussed. -- Abstract: The multiscale carbon nanotube-hybridized carbon fiber was prepared by a newly developed aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope were carried out to characterize this multiscale material. Compared with the original carbon fibers, the fabrication of this hybrid fiber resulted in an almost threefold increase of BET surface area to reach 2.22 m 2 /g. Meanwhile, there was a slight degradation of fiber tensile strength within 10%, while the fiber modulus was not significantly affected. The interfacial shearing strength of a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composite with carbon nanotube-hybridized carbon fiber and an epoxy matrix was determined from the single fiber pull-out tests of microdroplet composite. Due to an efficient increase of load transfer at the fiber/matrix interfaces, the interracial shear strength of composite reinforced by carbon nanotube-hybridized carbon fiber is almost 94% higher than that of one reinforced by the original carbon fiber. Based on the fractured morphologies of the composites, the interfacial reinforcing mechanisms were discussed through proposing different types of carbon nanotube fracture modes along with fiber pulling out from epoxy composites.

  18. Politisk danning etter 22. juli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Løvlie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Political education after july 22. This article makes the case fordeliberation as a major end-in-view for a political education in the general sense. The immediate backdrop is the neofascist ideology of Anders Behring Breivik and his ilk, an ideology that may partly explain the motive behind the devastation of government buildings in Oslo and the following mass shooting at Utøya on July 22. My intention here will, however, be limited to the question: what is basic to the idea of deliberation? My answer is twofold: deliberation is a reasonable method for arriving at a possible and temporary agreement on questions of truth and morality; and it is based on some – usually tacit – mutual presuppositions. These two aspects together make deliberation educative and part of an education for deliberative democracy. Without deliberation as a method we are unable to get at what John Dewey used to call “warranted assertibility”. Without deliberation as embedded in joint assumptions we would be unable to distinguish between method as wayward gibberish and as reasonable conversation. On pain of being presumptuous I invite the reader to this short educative stroll!

  19. Bilan CarboneR - Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, Aurelie

    2015-01-01

    Bilan Carbone TM , a method for calculating greenhouse gas emissions, was developed to help companies and territorial authorities estimate emissions from their activities or on their territories. After validating the audit perimeter and determining the emission categories to be taken into account, activity data is collected and greenhouse gas emissions are calculated using the tool. Besides accounting greenhouse gas emissions at any given time, the inventory evaluates impact on climate and energy dependence. This helps organizations deal with their emissions by classifying them, implementing action plans to reduce emissions and starting a dynamic process taking into account carbon in their strategic decisions

  20. Peripheral myelin protein 22 alters membrane architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorf, Kathleen F.; Marinko, Justin T.; Hampton, Cheri M.; Ke, Zunlong; Hadziselimovic, Arina; Schlebach, Jonathan P.; Law, Cheryl L.; Li, Jun; Wright, Elizabeth R.; Sanders, Charles R.; Ohi, Melanie D.

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) is highly expressed in myelinating Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system. PMP22 genetic alterations cause the most common forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTD), which is characterized by severe dysmyelination in the peripheral nerves. However, the functions of PMP22 in Schwann cell membranes remain unclear. We demonstrate that reconstitution of purified PMP22 into lipid vesicles results in the formation of compressed and cylindrically wrapped protein-lipid vesicles that share common organizational traits with compact myelin of peripheral nerves in vivo. The formation of these myelin-like assemblies depends on the lipid-to-PMP22 ratio, as well as on the PMP22 extracellular loops. Formation of the myelin-like assemblies is disrupted by a CMTD-causing mutation. This study provides both a biochemical assay for PMP22 function and evidence that PMP22 directly contributes to membrane organization in compact myelin. PMID:28695207

  1. Global carbon budget 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Quere, C.; Moriarty, R.; Jones, S.D.; Boden, T.A.; Peters, G.P.; Andrew, R.M.; Andres, R.J.; Ciais, P.; Bopp, L.; Maignan, F.; Viovy, N.

    2014-01-01

    .1 GtC yr -1 , SOCEAN 2.5±0.5 GtC yr -1 , and SLAND 2.8±0.8 GtC yr -1 . For year 2012 alone, EFF grew to 9.7±0.5 GtC yr -1 , 2.2% above 2011, reflecting a continued growing trend in these emissions, GATM was 5.1±0.2 GtC yr -1 , SOCEAN was 2.9±0.5 GtC yr -1 , and assuming an ELUC of 1.0±0.5 GtC yr -1 (based on the 2001-2010 average), SLAND was 2.7±0.9 GtC yr -1 . GATM was high in 2012 compared to the 2003-2012 average, almost entirely reflecting the high EFF. The global atmospheric CO 2 concentration reached 392.520.10 ppm averaged over 2012. We estimate that EFF will increase by 2.1% (1.1- 3.1 %) to ±9.9±0.5 GtC in 2013, 61% above emissions in 1990, based on projections of world gross domestic product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy. With this projection, cumulative emissions of CO 2 will reach about 535±55 GtC for 1870-2013, about 70% from EFF (390±20 GtC) and 30% from ELUC (145±50 GtC). This paper also documents any changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget from previous budgets (Le Quere et al., 2013). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP 2 013 V 2.3). (authors)

  2. HRB-22 preirradiation thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.; Sawa, K.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes the preirradiation thermal analysis of the HRB-22 capsule designed for irradiation in the removable beryllium (RB) position of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). CACA-2 a heavy isotope and fission product concentration calculational code for experimental irradiation capsules was used to determine time dependent fission power for the fuel compacts. The Heat Engineering and Transfer in Nine Geometries (HEATING) computer code, version 7.2, was used to solve the steady-state heat conduction problem. The diameters of the graphite fuel body that contains the compacts and the primary pressure vessel were selected such that the requirements of running the compacts at an average temperature of < 1,250 C and not exceeding a maximum fuel temperature of 1,350 C was met throughout the four cycles of irradiation

  3. 22nd International Meshing Roundtable

    CERN Document Server

    Staten, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This volume contains the articles presented at the 22nd International Meshing Roundtable (IMR) organized, in part, by Sandia National Laboratories and was held on Oct 13-16, 2013 in Orlando, Florida, USA.  The first IMR was held in 1992, and the conference series has been held annually since.  Each year the IMR brings together researchers, developers, and application experts in a variety of disciplines, from all over the world, to present and discuss ideas on mesh generation and related topics.  The technical papers in this volume present theoretical and novel ideas and algorithms with practical potential, as well as technical applications in science and engineering, geometric modeling, computer graphics and visualization.

  4. Carbonizing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1923-11-22

    In the downward distillation of coal, shale, lignite, or the like, the heat is generated by the combustion of liquid or gaseous fuel above the charge the zone of carbonization thus initiated travelling downwards through the charge. The combustible gases employed are preferably those resulting from the process but gases such as natural gas may be employed. The charge is in a moistened and pervious state the lower parts being maintained at a temperature not above 212/sup 0/F until influenced by contact with the carbonization zone and steam may be admitted to increase the yield of ammonia. The combustible gases may be supplied with insufficient air so as to impart to them a reducing effect.

  5. Carbon aerogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthon-Fabry, S.; Achard, P.

    2003-06-01

    The carbon aerogel is a nano-porous material at open porosity, electrical conductor. The aerogels morphology is variable in function of the different synthesis parameters. This characteristic offers to the aerogels a better adaptability to many applications: electrodes (super condensers, fuel cells). The author presents the materials elaboration and their applications. It provides also the research programs: fundamental research, realization of super-condenser electrodes, fuel cells electrodes, gas storage materials and opaque materials for thermal insulation. (A.L.B.)

  6. Fast biodegradation of toxic bisphenol a by Pseudomonas aeruginosa NR.22 (Ps.NR.22) isolated from Malaysian local lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Him, Nik Raikhan Nik; Zainuddin, Mohammad Fiqri; Basha, Anuar Zain Anuar

    2017-12-01

    The paper focused on microbial degradation of Bisphenol A (BPA) as a safe and fast method to reduce BPA contamination in water. BPA is found in waste water, sea water and home water pipeline and it is nondegradable pollutant. Biodegradation is suggested to be practical solution for large volume of BPA. Biodegradation plays an important role and the effect of low concentration significantly decreased the degradation rate. Pseudomonas aeruginosa NR.22 (Ps.NR.22) which has been isolated from a lake at Seksyen 2, Shah Alam, was used. In Malaysia, Ps.NR.22 isolation agar is used for the BPA degradation process. It was stained with Gram negative-rod shaped bacteria that confirmed to carry a 16S rRNA gene. BPA as a sole carbon has been tested at various concentrations. The research showed that BPA was degraded at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm and the bacteria growth rate was excellent in 20 ppm BPA. Degradation of BPA was carried out for 9 hours to 18 hours and the maximum degradation was recorded at 9 hours. The value of the highest peak of growth at 540 nm was 2.0617 using 20 ppm BPA. This novel Pseudomonas aeruginosa NR.22 has great potential to be used in waste water treatment.

  7. Paracrystalline structure of activated carbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczygielska, A.; Burian, A.; Dore, J. C.

    2001-06-01

    Structural studies by means of neutron diffraction of activated carbons, prepared from a polymer of phenol formaldehyde resin by carbonization and activation processes, with variable porosity, are presented. The neutron scattering data were recorded over the range of the scattering vector Q from 2.5 to 500 nm-1. The structure of activated carbons has been described in terms of disordered graphite-like layers with very weak interlayer correlations. The model has been generated by computer simulations and its validity has been tested by comparison of the experimental and calculated intensity functions. Modelling studies have shown that the model containing 3-4 layers each about 2 nm in diameter accounts for the experimental data and that graphite layers are randomly translated and rotated, according to the turbostratic structure. Near-neighbour carbon-carbon distances of about 0.139 nm and 0.154 nm have been determined. The Debye-Waller factor exp (-Q2σ2/2) with σ = σ0(r)1/2 suggests a paracrystalline structure within a single layer. The value of the interlayer spacing of 0.36 nm has been found from paracrystalline simulations of the layer arrangement in the c-axis direction. The high quality of the experimental data has enabled determination of the coordination numbers, the interatomic distances and their standard deviations using a curve-fitting procedure over the Q-range from 250 nm to 500 nm, providing structural information about short- and intermediate-range ordering.

  8. Stable carbon isotope biogeochemistry of lakes along a trophic gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kluijver, A.; Schoon, P.L.; Downing, J.A.; Schouten, S.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The stable carbon (C) isotope variability of dissolved inorganic and organic C (DIC and DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), glucose and polar-lipid derived fatty acids (PLFAs) was studied in a survey of 22 North American oligotrophic to eutrophic lakes. The d13C of different PLFAs were used as

  9. Carbon cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, J; Halbritter, G; Neumann-Hauf, G

    1982-05-01

    This report contains a review of literature on the subjects of the carbon cycle, the increase of the atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration and the possible impacts of an increased CO/sub 2/ concentration on the climate. In addition to this survey, the report discusses the questions that are still open and the resulting research needs. During the last twenty years a continual increase of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration by about 1-2 ppm per years has been observed. In 1958 the concentration was 315 ppm and this increased to 336 ppm in 1978. A rough estimate shows that the increase of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is about half of the amount of carbon dioxide added to the atmosphere by the combustion of fossil fuels. Two possible sinks for the CO/sub 2/ released into the atmosphere are known: the ocean and the biota. The role of the biota is, however, unclear, since it can act both as a sink and as a source. Most models of the carbon cycle are one-dimensional and cannot be used for accurate predictions. Calculations with climate models have shown that an increased atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration leads to a warming of the earth's surface and lower atmosphere. Calculations show that a doubling of the atmospheric CO/sub 2/-concentration would lead to a net heating of the lower atmosphere and earth's surface by a global average of about 4 W m/sup -2/. Greater uncertainties arise in estimating the change in surface temperature resulting from this change in heating rate. It is estimated that the global average annual surface temperature would change between 1.5 and 4.5 K. There are, however, latitudinal and seasonal variations of the impact of increased CO/sub 2/ concentration. Other meteorological variables (e.g. precipitation, wind speed etc.) would also be changed. It appears that the impacts of the other products of fossil fuel combustion are unlikely to counteract the impacts of CO/sub 2/ on the climate.

  10. 32 CFR 776.22 - Diligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diligence. 776.22 Section 776.22 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT... Professional Conduct § 776.22 Diligence. (a) Diligence. A covered attorney shall act with reasonable diligence...

  11. 31 CFR 3.22 - Legal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.22 Section 3.22 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury CLAIMS REGULATIONS AND INDEMNIFICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Small Claims Act § 3.22 Legal review. Claims...

  12. 49 CFR 22.69 - Claim process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Claim process. 22.69 Section 22.69 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SHORT-TERM LENDING PROGRAM (STLP) Loan Administration § 22.69 Claim process. After reasonable efforts have been exhausted to collect on a delinquent debt, the...

  13. 7 CFR 1218.22 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1218.22 Section 1218.22 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.22 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico...

  14. 7 CFR 983.22 - Pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pistachios. 983.22 Section 983.22 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.22 Pistachios. Pistachios means the nuts of the pistachio tree...

  15. 40 CFR 22.17 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default. 22.17 Section 22.17 Protection... Procedures § 22.17 Default. (a) Default. A party may be found to be in default: after motion, upon failure to... hearing. Default by respondent constitutes, for purposes of the pending proceeding only, an admission of...

  16. 34 CFR 104.22 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing facilities. 104.22 Section 104.22 Education... Accessibility § 104.22 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate its program or activity.... This paragraph does not require a recipient to make each of its existing facilities or every part of a...

  17. 45 CFR 605.22 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing facilities. 605.22 Section 605.22 Public... Accessibility § 605.22 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate each program or... existing facilities or every part of a facility accessible to and usable by qualified handicapped persons...

  18. 45 CFR 1151.22 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing facilities. 1151.22 Section 1151.22... Prohibited Accessibility § 1151.22 Existing facilities. (a) A recipient shall operate each program or... make each of its existing facilities or every part of a facility accessible to and usable by...

  19. 16 CFR 460.22 - Tax claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tax claims. 460.22 Section 460.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.22 Tax claims. Do not say or imply that your product qualifies for a tax benefit unless it is true. ...

  20. 12 CFR 22.8 - Determination fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination fees. 22.8 Section 22.8 Banks and... HAZARDS § 22.8 Determination fees. (a) General. Notwithstanding any Federal or State law other than the... home securing the loan is located or will be located in a special flood hazard area. A determination...

  1. 1 CFR 22.2 - Authority citation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority citation. 22.2 Section 22.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION OF NOTICES AND PROPOSED RULES Notices § 22.2 Authority citation. The authority under...

  2. 7 CFR 984.22 - Trade demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 984.22 Section 984.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.22 Trade demand. (a) Inshell. The quantity of merchantable inshell...

  3. 19 CFR 210.22 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 210.22 Section 210.22 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Motions § 210.22 [Reserved] ...

  4. 19 CFR 212.22 - Reply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reply. 212.22 Section 212.22 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Procedures for Considering Applications § 212.22 Reply. Within 15...

  5. 30 CFR 282.22 - Delineation Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delineation Plan. 282.22 Section 282.22 Mineral... § 282.22 Delineation Plan. All exploration activities shall be conducted in accordance with a Delineation Plan submitted by the lessee and approved by the Director. The Delineation Plan shall describe the...

  6. 47 CFR 22.880 - Information exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information exchange. 22.880 Section 22.880 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.880 Information exchange. (a...

  7. 47 CFR 22.973 - Information exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information exchange. 22.973 Section 22.973 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.973 Information exchange. (a) Prior notification. Public safety/CII...

  8. 12 CFR 563e.22 - Lending test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lending test. 563e.22 Section 563e.22 Banks and... Assessing Performance § 563e.22 Lending test. (a) Scope of test. (1) The lending test evaluates a savings... community development lending criterion. (b) Performance criteria. The OTS evaluates a savings association's...

  9. 7 CFR 1.22 - Authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authentication. 1.22 Section 1.22 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.22 Authentication. When a request is received for an authenticated copy of a document that the agency determines to make...

  10. 30 CFR 725.22 - Financial management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... An agency shall use generally accepted accounting principles and practices, consistently applied... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial management. 725.22 Section 725.22... PROGRAM REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.22 Financial management. (a) The agency shall account...

  11. 50 CFR 401.22 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights. 401.22 Section 401.22..., DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.22 Civil rights. Each application for Federal assistance, grant-in-aid award... Assisted Programs of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and with the Secretary's regulations promulgated...

  12. 10 CFR 75.22 - Accounting records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting records. 75.22 Section 75.22 Energy NUCLEAR... Accounting and Control for Facilities § 75.22 Accounting records. (a) The accounting records required by § 75... determination of the book inventory at any time; (2) All measurement results that are used for determination of...

  13. 40 CFR 209.22 - Other discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE NOISE CONTROL ACT OF 1972 Rules of Practice Governing Hearings for Orders Issued Under Section 11(d) of the Noise Control Act § 209.22 Other discovery. (a) Further... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other discovery. 209.22 Section 209.22...

  14. 28 CFR 551.22 - Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pregnancy. 551.22 Section 551.22 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.22 Pregnancy. (a) The Warden shall ensure that each pregnant...

  15. 14 CFR 372.22 - Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination. 372.22 Section 372.22... REGULATIONS OVERSEAS MILITARY PERSONNEL CHARTERS Conditions and Limitations § 372.22 Discrimination. No... any unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any respect...

  16. 28 CFR 105.22 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 105.22 Section 105.22... Security Officer Employment § 105.22 Definitions. As used in this subpart: (a) Authorized employer means... equipment); protect against fire, theft, misappropriation, vandalism, violence, terrorism, and other illegal...

  17. 30 CFR 735.22 - Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Audit. 735.22 Section 735.22 Mineral Resources... ENFORCEMENT § 735.22 Audit. The agency shall arrange for an independent audit no less frequently than once..., Attachment P. The audits will be performed in accordance with the “Standards for Audit of Governmental...

  18. 12 CFR 228.22 - Lending test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lending test. 228.22 Section 228.22 Banks and... REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.22 Lending test. (a) Scope of test. (1) The lending test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of its assessment area...

  19. Main: OPAQUE2ZM22Z [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available OPAQUE2ZM22Z S000017 17-May-2001 (last modified) uchi Opaque-2 (O2) target sequence...ene: maize 22-kD zein; transacting factor: 02; O2; opaque; 22-kD zein; seed; ACGT; opaque-2; maize (Zea mays) TCCACGTAGA ...

  20. 12 CFR 404.22 - Government contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Government contracts. 404.22 Section 404.22 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES INFORMATION DISCLOSURE Access to Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 404.22 Government contracts. (a) Approval by Assistant General Counsel for...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.22 - State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State. 1205.22 Section 1205.22 Agriculture... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.22 State. The term State means each of the 50 states. ...

  2. 12 CFR 583.22 - State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State. 583.22 Section 583.22 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.22 State. The term State includes the District of Columbia and the...

  3. 24 CFR 81.22 - Housing plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing plans. 81.22 Section 81.22 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE... LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC) Housing Goals § 81.22 Housing plans. (a) If the Secretary...

  4. 12 CFR 1282.22 - Housing plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Housing plans. 1282.22 Section 1282.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.22 Housing plans. (a) If the Director determines, under § 1282.21, that an...

  5. 28 CFR 802.22 - Fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fees. 802.22 Section 802.22 Judicial... Privacy Act § 802.22 Fees. The Agency shall charge fees under the Privacy Act for duplication of records... Information Act (See § 802.10(i)(1)). ...

  6. 29 CFR 22.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Definitions. 22.2 Section 22.2 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 22.2 Definitions. (a) ALJ means an Administrative... accounting or bookkeeping entry made— (1) With respect to a claim or to obtain the approval or payment of a...

  7. 7 CFR 774.22 - Loan closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan closing. 774.22 Section 774.22 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS EMERGENCY LOAN FOR SEED PRODUCERS PROGRAM § 774.22 Loan closing. (a) Conditions. The applicant must meet all conditions specified by the loan approval official in the notification of loan...

  8. 7 CFR 1735.22 - Loan security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan security. 1735.22 Section 1735.22 Agriculture... GENERAL POLICIES, TYPES OF LOANS, LOAN REQUIREMENTS-TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1735.22 Loan security. (a) RUS makes loans only if, in the judgment of the Administrator, the...

  9. 7 CFR 1738.22 - Loan security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan security. 1738.22 Section 1738.22 Agriculture... RURAL BROADBAND ACCESS LOANS AND LOAN GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1738.22 Loan security. (a) RUS makes loans only if, in the judgment of the Administrator, the security therefore is...

  10. 7 CFR 1955.22 - State supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true State supplements. 1955.22 Section 1955.22 Agriculture... Real and Chattel Property § 1955.22 State supplements. State Supplements will be prepared with the... supplements will be submitted to the National Office for post approval in accordance with FmHA or its...

  11. 7 CFR 932.22 - Sublot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sublot. 932.22 Section 932.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Handling Definitions § 932.22 Sublot. Sublot means a quantity of olives resulting from the separation by...

  12. 29 CFR 22.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discovery. 22.21 Section 22.21 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 22.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for inspection and copying; (2) Requests...

  13. 49 CFR 22.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 22.1 Section 22.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SHORT-TERM LENDING PROGRAM (STLP) General § 22.1 Purpose. The purpose of the DOT OSDBU STLP is to provide financial assistance in the form of short-term loans from...

  14. 47 CFR 22.909 - Cellular markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cellular markets. 22.909 Section 22.909... Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.909 Cellular markets. Cellular markets are standard geographic areas used by the FCC for administrative convenience in the licensing of cellular systems. Cellular markets...

  15. 32 CFR 518.22 - Reports control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reports control. 518.22 Section 518.22 National... RELATIONS THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM Reports § 518.22 Reports control. (a) General. (1) The... requirement outlined is assigned Report Control Symbol DD-DA&M(A)1365, FOIA Report to Congress. (b) Reporting...

  16. 28 CFR 104.22 - Advance Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advance Benefits. 104.22 Section 104.22... Filing for Compensation; Application for Advance Benefits § 104.22 Advance Benefits. (a) Advance Benefits. Eligible Claimants may apply for immediate “Advance Benefits” in a fixed amount as follows: (1) $50,000 for...

  17. 27 CFR 10.22 - Employee associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee associations. 10.22 Section 10.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Commercial Bribery § 10.22 Employee associations. Gifts...

  18. 48 CFR 22.1303 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability. 22.1303 Section 22.1303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC... organizations where the workers are recruited outside of the United States. [66 FR 53488, Oct. 22, 2001, as...

  19. 48 CFR 22.1401 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 22.1401 Section 22.1401 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Employment of Workers with Disabilities 22.1401 Policy...

  20. 21 CFR 820.22 - Quality audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quality audit. 820.22 Section 820.22 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Quality System Requirements § 820.22 Quality audit. Each manufacturer shall establish procedures for quality audits and conduct such audits to assure that the quality system is in...

  1. 40 CFR 230.22 - Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water. 230.22 Section 230.22... Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.22 Water. (a) Water is the part of the aquatic... the liquid phase and is contained by the substrate. Water forms part of a dynamic aquatic life...

  2. 49 CFR 1018.22 - Personal interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personal interviews. 1018.22 Section 1018.22... § 1018.22 Personal interviews. (a) The Board may seek an interview with the debtor at the offices of the... grant an interview with a debtor upon the debtor's request. The Board will not reimburse a debtor's...

  3. 47 CFR 22.801 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 22.801 Section 22.801 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service § 22.801 Scope. The rules in this subpart govern the licensing and operation of air-ground...

  4. 48 CFR 22.801 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 22.801 Section 22.801 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Equal Employment Opportunity 22.801...

  5. Synthesis of carbon-14 labeled vigabatrin. [Antieplileptic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, A.J.; Wagner, E.R. (Marion Merrell Dow Inc, Indianapolis, IN (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Carbon-14 labeled vigabatrin was synthesized in 5 steps from 5-hydroxymethyl-2-pyrrolidone tosylate and NaCN-[[sup 14]C]. A key step involved reduction of the resulting nitrile in the presence of excess dimethylamine to give the dimethylamino-ethyl 2-pyrrolidone derivative in one step. This afforded an overall radiochemical yield of 22% and radiochemical purity greater than 98%. (Author).

  6. Carbon sequestration and natural longleaf pine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Thapa; Dean Gjerstad; John Kush; Bruce Zutter

    2010-01-01

    The Southeastern United States was once dominated by a longleaf pine ecosystem which ranged from Virginia to Texas and covered approximately 22 to 36 million ha. The unique fire tolerant species provided the necessary habitat for numerous plant and animal species. Different seasons of prescribed fire have various results on the ecosystem and the carbon which is stored...

  7. Health physics in JAERI, 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    In the annual report No. 22 (fiscal 1979) are described the activities of health physics including radioactive waste management in Tokai Research Establishment, Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment and Oarai Research Establishment. In all the three research establishments, radiation monitoring in nuclear facilities, individual monitoring, environmental monitoring and maintenance of measuring instruments were carried out as in previous years. There were no occupational exposures exceeding the maximum permissible doses and no release of radioactive gaseous and liquid wastes beyond the release limits specified according to regulations. In the environment there were observed no abnormal radioactivities due to facilities. In Tokai and Oarai Research Establishments radioactive waste management including decontamination works was also carried out and radioactive solid wastes were stored in the same way as in previous years. Construction of the Packaged Waste Storage Facility was completed, and of the Facility of Radiation Standards and the Medium-Level Waste Treatment Facility progressed on schedule in Tokai Research Establishment. In Oarai Research Establishment, construction was completed on the latter project of radioactive waste treatment facilities, starting in 1974. Technical development and research were made as in previous years for improving techniques and methods in monitoring of individuals, facilities and environment and also in waste management and decontamination. (author)

  8. JEF-2.2 radioactive decay data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This work deals with the JEF-2.2 radioactive decay data and is divided into four tables. The first table presents the origin of the JEF-2.2 radioactive decay data and subsequent modifications. The second one is a summary of the JEF-2.2 radioactive decay data file. The third one describes the JEF-2.2 fission products and the main decay and fission yield data. The last one consists of the main decay parameters from the JEF-2.2, ENDF/B-VI and JNDC-2.0 libraries. (O.L.). 100 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Carbons and carbon supported catalysts in hydroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, Edward

    2009-07-01

    This book is a comprehensive summary of recent research in the field and covers all areas of carbons and carbon materials. The potential application of carbon supports, particularly those of carbon black (CB) and activated carbon (AC) in hydroprocessing catalysis are covered. Novel carbon materials such as carbon fibers and carbon nano tubes (CNT) are also covered, including the more recent developments in the use of fullerenes in hydroprocessing applications. Although the primary focus of this book is on carbons and carbon supported catalysts, it also identifies the difference in the effect of carbon supports compared with the oxidic supports, particularly that of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The difference in catalyst activity and stability was estimated using both model compounds and real feeds under variable conditions. The conditions applied during the preparation of carbon supported catalysts are also comprehensively covered and include various methods of pretreatment of carbon supports to enhance catalyst performance. The model compounds results consistently show higher hydrodesulfurization and hydrodeoxygenation activities of carbon supported catalysts than that of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported catalysts. Also, the deactivation of the former catalysts by coke deposition was much less evident. Chapter 6.3.1.3 is on carbon-supported catalysts: coal-derived liquids.

  10. Carbon classified?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    . Using an actor- network theory (ANT) framework, the aim is to investigate the actors who bring together the elements needed to classify their carbon emission sources and unpack the heterogeneous relations drawn on. Based on an ethnographic study of corporate agents of ecological modernisation over...... a period of 13 months, this paper provides an exploration of three cases of enacting classification. Drawing on ANT, we problematise the silencing of a range of possible modalities of consumption facts and point to the ontological ethics involved in such performances. In a context of global warming...

  11. Carbon Footprints

    OpenAIRE

    Rahel Aichele; Gabriel Felbermayr

    2011-01-01

    Lässt sich der Beitrag eines Landes zum weltweiten Klimaschutz an der Veränderung seines CO2-Ausstoßes messen, wie es im Kyoto-Abkommen implizit unterstellt wird? Oder ist aufgrund der Bedeutung des internationalen Güterhandels der Carbon Footprint – der alle CO2-Emissionen erfasst, die durch die Absorption (d.h. Konsum und Investitionen) eines Landes entstehen – das bessere Maß? Die Autoren erstellen eine Datenbank mit den Footprints von 40 Ländern für den Zeitraum 1995–2007. Die deskriptive...

  12. Determination the Hydrogen Stored in Carbon Nanotubes by NO Titration Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A novel method was established to determine the H2-storage capacity in carbon nanotubes. According to 2NO+2H2 (or 4H) = N2+2H2O reaction, the H2-storage capacity in carbon nanotubes could be calculated. The H2-storage capacity in carbon nanotubes is at least 2.89 wt%.

  13. Poly(urethane–carbonate)s from Carbon Dioxide

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zuliang

    2017-03-09

    A one-pot, two-step protocol for the direct synthesis of polyurethanes containing few carbonate linkages through polycondensation of diamines, dihalides, and CO2 in the presence of Cs2CO3 and tetrabutylammonium bromide is described. The conditions were optimized by studying the polycondensation of CO2 with 1,6-hexanediamine and 1,4-dibromobutane as model monomers. Then, various diamines and dihalides were tested under optimal conditions. Miscellaneous samples of such carbonate-containing polyurethanes exhibiting molar masses from 6000 to 22 000 g/mol (GPC) and yields higher than 85% were obtained. The thermal properties of such polyurethanes were unveiled by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA): they were found very similar to those of traditional polyurethanes obtained by diisocyanates + diols polycondensation.

  14. Poly(urethane–carbonate)s from Carbon Dioxide

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zuliang; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Feng, Xiaoshuang; Gnanou, Yves

    2017-01-01

    A one-pot, two-step protocol for the direct synthesis of polyurethanes containing few carbonate linkages through polycondensation of diamines, dihalides, and CO2 in the presence of Cs2CO3 and tetrabutylammonium bromide is described. The conditions were optimized by studying the polycondensation of CO2 with 1,6-hexanediamine and 1,4-dibromobutane as model monomers. Then, various diamines and dihalides were tested under optimal conditions. Miscellaneous samples of such carbonate-containing polyurethanes exhibiting molar masses from 6000 to 22 000 g/mol (GPC) and yields higher than 85% were obtained. The thermal properties of such polyurethanes were unveiled by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA): they were found very similar to those of traditional polyurethanes obtained by diisocyanates + diols polycondensation.

  15. Trading forest carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...

  16. Syntheses of protoporphyrin-IX regioselectivity carbon-13 labelled at the alpha-vinyl carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.M.; Fujinari, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    A method for transformation of readily available beta-vinyl 99% carbon-13 enriched derivatives of protoporphyrin-IX dimethyl ester into the less accessible alpha-vinyl labelled isomers is described. The procedure involves thallium(III) promoted vinyl carbon rearrangement, and proceeds through 2,2-dimethoxyethyl, formylmethyl, 2-hydroxyethyl and 2-chloroethyl porphyrins; the rearranged vinyl groups are regenerated from 2-chloroethyl in the last step by treatment with base. No evidence of vinyl carbon scrambling in the sequence is observed, and spectroscopic data of the products are given. (author)

  17. Global patterns of aboveground carbon stock and sequestration in mangroves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSTAVO C.D. ESTRADA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to contribute to understand the factors that control the provisioning of the ecosystem service of carbon storage by mangroves, data on carbon stock and sequestration in the aboveground biomass (AGB from 73 articles were averaged and tested for the dependence on latitude, climatic parameters, physiographic types and age. Global means of carbon stock (78.0 ± 64.5 tC.ha-1 and sequestration (2.9 ± 2.2 tC.ha-1.yr-1 showed that mangroves are among the forest ecosystems with greater capacity of carbon storage in AGB per area. On the global scale, carbon stock increases toward the equator (R²=0.22 and is dependent on 13 climatic parameters, which can be integrated in the following predictive equation: Carbon Stock in AGB = -16.342 + (8.341 x Isothermality + (0.021 x Annual Precipitation [R²=0.34; p < 0.05]. It was shown that almost 70% of carbon stock variability is explained by age. Carbon stock and sequestration also vary according to physiographic types, indicating the importance of hydroperiod and edaphic parameters to the local variability of carbon stock. By demonstrating the contribution of local and regional-global factors to carbon stock, this study provides information to the forecast of the effects of future climate changes and local anthropogenic forcings on this ecosystem service.

  18. Baseline Map of Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in Tropical Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Nancy L.; Brown, Sandra; Hagen, Stephen C.; Saatchi, Sassan S.; Petrova, Silvia; Salas, William; Hansen, Matthew C.; Potapov, Peter V.; Lotsch, Alexander

    2012-06-01

    Policies to reduce emissions from deforestation would benefit from clearly derived, spatially explicit, statistically bounded estimates of carbon emissions. Existing efforts derive carbon impacts of land-use change using broad assumptions, unreliable data, or both. We improve on this approach using satellite observations of gross forest cover loss and a map of forest carbon stocks to estimate gross carbon emissions across tropical regions between 2000 and 2005 as 0.81 petagram of carbon per year, with a 90% prediction interval of 0.57 to 1.22 petagrams of carbon per year. This estimate is 25 to 50% of recently published estimates. By systematically matching areas of forest loss with their carbon stocks before clearing, these results serve as a more accurate benchmark for monitoring global progress on reducing emissions from deforestation.

  19. Baseline map of carbon emissions from deforestation in tropical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Nancy L; Brown, Sandra; Hagen, Stephen C; Saatchi, Sassan S; Petrova, Silvia; Salas, William; Hansen, Matthew C; Potapov, Peter V; Lotsch, Alexander

    2012-06-22

    Policies to reduce emissions from deforestation would benefit from clearly derived, spatially explicit, statistically bounded estimates of carbon emissions. Existing efforts derive carbon impacts of land-use change using broad assumptions, unreliable data, or both. We improve on this approach using satellite observations of gross forest cover loss and a map of forest carbon stocks to estimate gross carbon emissions across tropical regions between 2000 and 2005 as 0.81 petagram of carbon per year, with a 90% prediction interval of 0.57 to 1.22 petagrams of carbon per year. This estimate is 25 to 50% of recently published estimates. By systematically matching areas of forest loss with their carbon stocks before clearing, these results serve as a more accurate benchmark for monitoring global progress on reducing emissions from deforestation.

  20. 12 CFR 34.22 - Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... an index or combination of indices to which changes in the interest rate will be linked. This index... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Index. 34.22 Section 34.22 Banks and Banking... Mortgages § 34.22 Index. (a) In general. If a national bank makes an ARM loan to which 12 CFR 226.19(b...

  1. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Centers Carbon Monoxide Information Center Carbon Monoxide Information Center En Español The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, ... Install one and check its batteries regularly. View Information About CO Alarms Other CO Topics Safety Tips ...

  2. Global Carbon Budget 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quere, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Sitch, Stephen; Pongratz, Julia; Manning, Andrew C.; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Canadell, Josep G.; Jackson, Robert B.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Andrews, Oliver D.; Arora, Vivek K.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Barbero, Leticia; Becker, Meike; Betts, Richard A.; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frederic; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Cosca, Catherine E.; Cross, Jessica; Currie, Kim; Gasser, Thomas; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Houghton, Richard A.; Hunt, Christopher W.; Hurtt, George; Ilyina, Tatiana; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Kautz, Markus; Keeling, Ralph F.; Goldewijk, Kees Klein; Koertzinger, Arne; Landschuetzer, Peter; Lefevre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lima, Ivan; Lombardozzi, Danica; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Padin, X. Antonio; Peregon, Anna; Pfeil, Benjamin; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rehder, Gregor; Reimer, Janet; Roedenbeck, Christian; Schwinger, Jorg; Seferian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Tubiello, Francesco N.; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; van Heuven, Steven; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Watson, Andrew J.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Soenke; Zhu, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project

  3. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Safety Education Centers Carbon Monoxide Information Center Carbon Monoxide Information Center En Español The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known as CO, is called the " ...

  4. 32 CFR 2700.22 - Classification guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS Derivative Classification § 2700.22 Classification guides. OMSN shall... direct derivative classification, shall identify the information to be protected in specific and uniform...

  5. Fabrication of implanted $^{22}$Na targets

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A knowledge of the $^{22}$Na(p,$\\gamma$)$^{23}$ Mg reaction rate is of significant astrophysical interest. In order to complete previous studies of this reaction, radioactive $^{22}$Na targets of high purity are required. We ask for support to fabricate these targets via the implantation technique at ISOLDE GPS (off—line mode) using $^{22}$Na nuclides in an Al matrix produced in Nov. 1990 at the PSI (Zürich). The $^{22}$Na nuclides are released and ionized in a surface ionisation source, mass-analyzed at ISOLDE GPS, and implanted in a Ni-Ta backing and a C—foil in a special implantation setup.

  6. 2018-04-06T22:48:29Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    article/61361 2018-04-06T22:48:29Z bcse:ART Voltammetric determination of chloramphenicol at electrochemically pretreated glassy carbon electrode Alemu, Hailemichael; Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, National University ...

  7. Integral Ring Carbon-Carbon Piston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved structure for a reciprocating internal combustion engine or compressor piston fabricate from carbon-carbon composite materials is disclosed. An integral ring carbon-carbon composite piston, disclosed herein, reduces the need for piston rings and for small clearances by providing a small flexible, integral component around the piston that allows for variation in clearance due to manufacturing tolerances, distortion due to pressure and thermal loads, and variations in thermal expansion differences between the piston and cylinder liner.

  8. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept

  9. IL22/IL-22R pathway induces cell survival in human glioblastoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Akil

    Full Text Available Interleukin-22 (IL-22 is a member of the IL-10 cytokine family that binds to a heterodimeric receptor consisting of IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1 and IL-10R2. IL-22R expression was initially characterized on epithelial cells, and plays an essential role in a number of inflammatory diseases. Recently, a functional receptor was detected on cancer cells such as hepatocarcinoma and lung carcinoma, but its presence was not reported in glioblastoma (GBM. Two GBM cell lines and 10 primary cell lines established from patients undergoing surgery for malignant GBM were used to investigate the expression of IL-22 and IL-22R by using quantitative RT-PCR, western blotting and confocal microscopy studies. The role of IL-22 in proliferation and survival of GBM cell lines was investigated in vitro by BrdU and ELISA cell death assays. We report herein that the two subunits of the IL-22R complex are expressed on human GBM cells. Their activation, depending on exogenous IL-22, induced antiapoptotic effect and cell proliferation. IL-22 treatment of GBM cells resulted in increased levels of phosphorylated Akt, STAT3 signaling protein and its downstream antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL and decreased level of phosphorylated ERK1/2. In addition, IL-22R subunits were expressed in all the 10 tested primary cell lines established from GBM tumors. Our results showed that IL-22R is expressed on GBM established and primary cell lines. Depending on STAT3, ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways, IL-22 induced GBM cell survival. These data are consistent with a potential role of IL-22R in tumorigenesis of GBM. Since endogenous IL-22 was not detected in all studied GBM cells, we hypothesize that IL-22R could be activated by immune microenvironmental IL-22 producing cells.

  10. Carbon storage in Ontario's forests, 2000-2100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, S.J.; Chen, J.; Ter-Mikaelian, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing modern society is rapid climate change resulting from greenhouse gases emissions to the atmosphere, primarily in the form of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels. The effects of climate change on natural environments will inevitably affect people as well, if left unchanged. In addition to many other societal benefits, forests store large amounts of carbon. As a result, it is necessary to understand how forest management and natural processes affect forest carbon storage. Such information can be utilized to manage forests so that they function as carbon sinks and help reduce greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. This report employed data about Ontario's forest structure and information from the forest management planning process and past harvests to describe carbon in forests and wood products today and through to the end of this century. The paper described the methods used for the study which included modification of the United States national forest carbon model, FORCARB2, to predict Ontario's forest carbon budgets in order to make carbon projections congruent with forest management plans. The modified forest carbon model, which is called FORCARB-ON, predicts carbon in live trees, understory vegetation, forest floor, standing and down dead wood, and soil. Ontario's managed forests are projected to increase carbon storage by 433 million tonnes from 2000 to 2100. The largest forest sink will be in wood products, accounting for 364 million tonnes of carbon storage over the century. 22 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  11. Composite carbon foam electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  12. 32 CFR 2001.22 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification. 2001.22 Section 2001.22 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION...

  13. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in the United States, including paid advertising, sales promotion, and publicity. Promotion... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1219.22 Section 1219.22 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH...

  14. 7 CFR 1230.22 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Promotion. Promotion means any action, including but not limited to paid advertising and retail or food... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1230.22 Section 1230.22 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND...

  15. 49 CFR 845.22 - Technical panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical panel. 845.22 Section 845.22... Technical panel. The Director, Bureau of Accident Investigation, or the Director, Bureau of Field Operations, shall designate members of the Board's technical staff to participate in the hearing and initially...

  16. 44 CFR 62.22 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of process for all judicial proceedings where a claimant is suing the Administrator of FEMA pursuant... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Judicial review. 62.22... ADJUSTMENT OF CLAIMS Claims Adjustment, Claims Appeals, and Judicial Review § 62.22 Judicial review. (a) Upon...

  17. 49 CFR 218.22 - Utility employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Utility employee. 218.22 Section 218.22... employee. (a) A utility employee shall be subject to the Hours of Service Act, and the requirements for... parts 217, 219, and 228 of this chapter. (b) A utility employee shall perform service as a member of...

  18. 36 CFR 1275.22 - Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security. 1275.22 Section... THE NIXON ADMINISTRATION Preservation and Protection § 1275.22 Security. The Archivist is responsible for providing adequate security for the Presidential historical materials. ...

  19. 40 CFR 22.10 - Appearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances. 22.10 Section 22.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CONSOLIDATED RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING... and ethics required of practitioners before the courts of the United States. ...

  20. 36 CFR 2.2 - Wildlife protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wildlife protection. 2.2... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.2 Wildlife protection. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) The taking of wildlife, except by authorized hunting and trapping activities conducted in accordance with...

  1. 22 CFR 127.10 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil penalty. 127.10 Section 127.10 Foreign... Civil penalty. (a) The Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs is authorized to impose a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed that authorized by 22 U.S.C. 2778, 2779a and 2780 for...

  2. 48 CFR 22.602 - Statutory requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act 22.602 Statutory requirements. Except for the exemptions at 22.604, all contracts subject to the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act (the Act) (41 U.S.C. 35-45) and entered into by any executive department...

  3. 48 CFR 22.603 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act 22.603 Applicability. The requirements in 22.602 apply to contracts (including for this purpose, indefinite-delivery contracts, basic ordering agreements, and blanket purchase agreements) and subcontracts under Section 8(a...

  4. 50 CFR 253.22 - State projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State projects. 253.22 Section 253.22... State projects. (a) General—(1) Designation of state agency. The Governor of each state shall notify the... participation under the Act, to sign project documents, and to receive payments. (2) States that choose to...

  5. 18 CFR 420.22 - Prohibition; sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibition; sanctions. 420.22 Section 420.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... established water pricing schedules of the Commission) of any such use, withdrawal or diversion, and invoke...

  6. 7 CFR 993.22 - Consumer package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer package. 993.22 Section 993.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... weight of mixed dried fruit in the lot consists of standard processed prunes or standard prunes. ...

  7. 48 CFR 22.1408 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 22.1408 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Employment of Workers with Disabilities 22.1408 Contract clause. (a) Insert the clause at 52.222-36, Affirmative Action for Workers with...

  8. 48 CFR 22.102-2 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration. 22.102-2 Section 22.102-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC... facilities, including requirements for workers in all occupations and skills from local labor market areas or...

  9. 48 CFR 22.1406 - Complaint procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Complaint procedures. 22.1406 Section 22.1406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Employment of Workers with...

  10. 48 CFR 22.1402 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 22.1402 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Employment of Workers with Disabilities 22... clause at 52.222-36, Affirmative Action for Workers with Disabilities, implements the Act. (b) The...

  11. 48 CFR 22.1403 - Waivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 22.1403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Employment of Workers with Disabilities 22.1403 Waivers... the clause at 52.222-36, Affirmative Action for Workers with Disabilities, for— (1) Any contract if a...

  12. 48 CFR 22.1802 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 22.1802 Section 22.1802 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS...-Verify program provides an Internet-based means of verifying employment eligibility of workers employed...

  13. 48 CFR 22.1101 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability. 22.1101 Section 22.1101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC... their blue-collar service workers and some white-collar service workers fairly, but it does not cover...

  14. 48 CFR 22.804-2 - Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction. 22.804-2... Construction. (a) Construction contractors that hold a nonexempt (see 22.807) Government construction contract... affirmative action requirements that specify goals for minorities and women in covered construction trades...

  15. 27 CFR 11.22 - Consignment sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consignment sales. 11.22... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS CONSIGNMENT SALES Unlawful Sales Arrangements § 11.22 Consignment sales. Consignment sales are arrangements wherein the trade buyer is under no obligation to pay for distilled spirits...

  16. EVOLUTION OF WHITE DWARF STARS WITH HIGH-METALLICITY PROGENITORS: THE ROLE OF 22Ne DIFFUSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Althaus, L. G.; Corsico, A. H.; GarcIa-Berro, E.; Renedo, I.; Isern, J.; Rohrmann, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the strong discrepancy between the main-sequence turnoff age and the white dwarf cooling age in the metal-rich open cluster NGC 6791, we compute a grid of white dwarf evolutionary sequences that incorporates for the first time the energy released by the processes of 22 Ne sedimentation and of carbon/oxygen phase separation upon crystallization. The grid covers the mass range from 0.52 to 1.0 M sun , and is appropriate for the study of white dwarfs in metal-rich clusters. The evolutionary calculations are based on a detailed and self-consistent treatment of the energy released from these two processes, as well as on the employment of realistic carbon/oxygen profiles, of relevance for an accurate evaluation of the energy released by carbon/oxygen phase separation. We find that 22 Ne sedimentation strongly delays the cooling rate of white dwarfs stemming from progenitors with high metallicities at moderate luminosities, while carbon/oxygen phase separation adds considerable delays at low luminosities. Cooling times are sensitive to possible uncertainties in the actual value of the diffusion coefficient of 22 Ne. Changing the diffusion coefficient by a factor of 2 leads to maximum age differences of ∼8%-20% depending on the stellar mass. We find that the magnitude of the delays resulting from chemical changes in the core is consistent with the slowdown in the white dwarf cooling rate that is required to solve the age discrepancy in NGC 6791.

  17. Passive Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.B. Rebak; J.H. Payer

    2006-01-01

    Alloy 22 (NO6022) was designed to stand the most aggressive industrial applications, including both reducing and oxidizing acids. Even in the most aggressive environments, if the temperature is lower than 150 F (66 C) Alloy 22 would remain in the passive state having particularly low corrosion rates. In multi-ionic solutions that may simulate the behavior of concentrated ground water, even at near boiling temperatures, the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 is only a few nano-meters per year because the alloy is in the complete passive state. The corrosion rate of passive Alloy 22 decreases as the time increases. Immersion corrosion testing also show that the newer generation of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys may offer a better corrosion resistance than Alloy 22 only in some highly aggressive conditions such as in hot acids

  18. Structure and properties of carbon black particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei

    Structure and properties of carbon black particles were investigated using atomic force microscopy, gas adsorption, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Supplementary information was obtained using TEM and neutron scattering. The AFM imaging of carbon black aggregates provided qualitative visual information on their morphology, complementary to that obtained by 3-D modeling based on TEM images. Our studies showed that carbon black aggregates were relatively flat. The surface of all untreated carbon black particles was found to be rough and its fractal dimension was 2.2. Heating reduced the roughness and fractal dimension for all samples heat treated at above 1300 K to 2.0. Once the samples were heat treated rapid cooling did not affect the surface roughness. However, rapid cooling reduced crystallite sizes, and different Raman spectra were obtained for carbon blacks of various history of heat treatment. By analyzing the Raman spectra we determined the crystallite sizes and identified amorphous carbon. The concentration of amorphous carbon depends on hydrogen content. Once hydrogen was liberated at increased temperature, the concentration of amorphous carbon was reduced and crystallites started to grow. Properties of carbon blacks at high pressure were also studied. Hydrostatic pressure did not affect the size of the crystallites in carbon black particles. The pressure induced shift in Raman frequency of the graphitic component was a result of increased intermolecular forces and not smaller crystallites. Two methods of determining the fractal dimension, the FHH model and the yardstick technique based on the BET theory were used in the literature. Our study proved that the FHH model is sensitive to numerous assumptions and leads to wrong conclusions. On the other hand the yardstick method gave correct results, which agreed with the AFM results.

  19. Carbon Nanomembranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Polina; Gölzhäuser, Armin

    2017-03-01

    This chapter describes the formation and properties of one nanometer thick carbon nanomembranes (CNMs), made by electron induced cross-linking of aromatic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The cross-linked SAMs are robust enough to be released from the surface and placed on solid support or over holes as free-standing membranes. Annealing at 1000K transforms CNMs into graphene accompanied by a change of mechanical stiffness and electrical resistance. The developed fabrication approach is scalable and provides molecular level control over thickness and homogeneity of the produced CNMs. The mechanisms of electron-induced cross-linking process are discussed in details. A variety of polyaromatic thiols: oligophenyls as well as small and extended condensed polycyclic hydrocarbons have been successfully employed, demonstrating that the structural and functional properties of the resulting nanomembranes are strongly determined by the structure of molecular monolayers. The mechanical properties of CNMs (Young's modulus, tensile strength and prestress) are characterized by bulge testing. The interpretation of the bulge test data relates the Young's modulus to the properties of single molecules and to the structure of the pristine SAMs. The gas transport through the CNM is measured onto polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) - thin film composite membrane. The established relationship of permeance and molecular size determines the molecular sieving mechanism of permeation through this ultrathin sheet.

  20. Carbon 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    Carbon 14 is one of the most abundant radionuclides of natural and artificial origin in the environment. The aim of this conference day organized by the French society of radioprotection (SFRP) was to take stock of our knowledge about this radionuclide (origins, production, measurement, management, effects on health..): state-of-the-art of 14 C metrology; dating use of 14 C; 14 C management and monitoring of the Hague site environment; Electricite de France (EdF) and 14 C; radiological and sanitary impact of 14 C contamination at the Ganagobie site (Haute-Provence, France); metabolism and biological effects of 14 C; 14 C behaviour in the marine environment near Cogema-La Hague plant; distribution of 14 C activities in waters, mud and sediments of the Loire river estuary; dynamical modeling of transfers in the aquatic and terrestrial environment of 14 C released by nuclear power plants in normal operation: human dose calculation using the Calvados model and application to the Loire river; 14 C distribution in continents; modeling of 14 C transfers in the terrestrial environment from atmospheric sources. (J.S.)

  1. Radiation damage in carbon-carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchell, T.D.; Eartherly, W.P.; Nelson, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    Graphite and carbon-carbon composite materials are widely used in plasma facing applications in current Tokamak devices such as TFTR and DIIID in the USA, JET, Tore Supra and TEXTOR in Europe, and JT-60U in Japan. Carbon-carbon composites are attractive choices for Tokamak limiters and diverters because of their low atomic number, high thermal shock resistance, high melting point, and high thermal conductivity. Next generation machines such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) will utilize carbon-carbon composites in their first wall and diverter. ITER will be an ignition machine and thus will produce substantial neutron fluences from the D-T fusion reaction. The resultant high energy neutrons will cause carbon atom displacements in the plasma facing materials which will markedly affect their structure and physical properties. The effect of neutron damage on graphite has been studied for over forty years. Recently the effects of neutron irradiation on the fusion relevant graphite GraphNOL N3M was reviewed. In contrast to graphite, relatively little work has been performed to elucidate the effects of neutron irradiation on carbon-carbon composites. The results of our previous irradiation experiments have been published elsewhere. Here the irradiation induced dimensional changes in 1D, 2D, and 3D carbon-carbon composites are reported for fluences up to 4.7 dpa at an irradiation temperature of 600 degree C

  2. Carbon nanotube composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2015-03-24

    A material consisting essentially of a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes dissolved in a solvent. Un-functionalized carbon nanotube concentrations up to 30 wt % and hydroxylated carbon nanotube concentrations up to 40 wt % can be used with even small concentrations of each (less than 2 wt %) useful in producing enhanced conductivity properties of formed thin films.

  3. Mutagenicity of carbon nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallin, Håkan; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; White, Paul A

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials such carbon nanotubes, graphene and fullerenes are some the most promising nanomaterials. Although carbon nanomaterials have been reported to possess genotoxic potential, it is imperitive to analyse the data on the genotoxicity of carbon nanomaterials in vivo and in vitro...

  4. Carbon sequestration rate and aboveground biomass carbon potential of three young species in lower Gangetic plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Bipal K; Biswas, Soumyajit; Majumder, Mrinmoy; Roy, Pankaj K; Mazumdar, Asis

    2011-07-01

    Carbon is sequestered by the plant photosynthesis and stored as biomass in different parts of the tree. Carbon sequestration rate has been measured for young species (6 years age) of Shorea robusta at Chadra forest in Paschim Medinipur district, Albizzia lebbek in Indian Botanic Garden in Howrah district and Artocarpus integrifolia at Banobitan within Kolkata in the lower Gangetic plain of West Bengal in India by Automated Vaisala Made Instrument GMP343 and aboveground biomass carbon has been analyzed by CHN analyzer. The specific objective of this paper is to measure carbon sequestration rate and aboveground biomass carbon potential of three young species of Shorea robusta, Albizzia lebbek and Artocarpus integrifolia. The carbon sequestration rate (mean) from the ambient air during winter season as obtained by Shorea robusta, Albizzia lebbek and Artocarpus integrifolia were 11.13 g/h, 14.86 g/h and 4.22g/h, respectively. The annual carbon sequestration rate from ambient air were estimated at 8.97 t C ha(-1) by Shorea robusta, 11.97 t C ha(-1) by Albizzia lebbek and 3.33 t C ha(-1) by Artocarpus integrifolia. The percentage of carbon content (except root) in the aboveground biomass of Shorea robusta, Albizzia lebbek and Artocarpus integrifolia were 47.45, 47.12 and 43.33, respectively. The total aboveground biomass carbon stock per hectare as estimated for Shorea robusta, Albizzia lebbek and Artocarpus integrifolia were 5.22 t C ha(-1) , 6.26 t C ha(-1) and 7.28 t C ha(-1), respectively in these forest stands.

  5. Mesoporous carbon materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng; Fulvio, Pasquale Fernando; Mayes, Richard T.; Wang, Xiqing; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Bingkun

    2014-09-09

    A conductive mesoporous carbon composite comprising conductive carbon nanoparticles contained within a mesoporous carbon matrix, wherein the conductive mesoporous carbon composite possesses at least a portion of mesopores having a pore size of at least 10 nm and up to 50 nm, and wherein the mesopores are either within the mesoporous carbon matrix, or are spacings delineated by surfaces of said conductive carbon nanoparticles when said conductive carbon nanoparticles are fused with each other, or both. Methods for producing the above-described composite, devices incorporating them (e.g., lithium batteries), and methods of using them, are also described.

  6. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  7. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    carbon budget. For the last decade available (2005-2014), EFF was 9.0 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 4.4 ± 0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1. For the year 2014 alone, EFF grew to 9.8 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, 0.6 % above 2013, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, albeit at a slower rate compared to the average growth of 2.2 % yr-1 that took place during 2005-2014. Also, for 2014, ELUC was 1.1 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 3.9 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 4.1 ± 0.9 GtC yr-1. GATM was lower in 2014 compared to the past decade (2005-2014), reflecting a larger SLAND for that year. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 397.15 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2014. For 2015, preliminary data indicate that the growth in EFF will be near or slightly below zero, with a projection of -0.6 [range of -1.6 to +0.5] %, based on national emissions projections for China and the USA, and projections of gross domestic product corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy for the rest of the world. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2015, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 555 ± 55 GtC (2035 ± 205 GtCO2) for 1870-2015, about 75 % from EFF and 25 % from ELUC. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2015, 2014, 2013). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2015).

  8. 50 CFR 654.22 - Gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures § 654.22 Gear... retaining chamber. (6) A plastic or wire trap must have a degradable panel. (i) A plastic trap will be...

  9. 14-EEASA-Vol 22.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jenny

    2006-02-22

    Feb 22, 2006 ... into the construction, conceptualisation and implementation of the curriculum. .... defining development pathways that are not water or energy intensive. ... equitable access to an effective education while at the same time ...

  10. 2-EEASA-Vol 22.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jenny

    2006-02-22

    Feb 22, 2006 ... research, particularly as these methodological deliberations are .... as a means to empower researchers with new ideas to risk those nomadic .... Paul Hart is a professor of science and environmental education at the ...

  11. 4-EEASA-Vol 22.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jenny

    2006-02-22

    Feb 22, 2006 ... cultural practices such as ubuntu.1 In this essay I suggest that Africans .... dissensus, through the exercise of creative autonomy, leading to 'a ..... But individual competence does not imply isolated individualism, which would of.

  12. Hurricane Rita Poster (September 22, 2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Rita poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-16 shows Hurricane Rita as a category-4 hurricane in the Gulf of Mexico on September 22, 2005. Poster size is...

  13. 11-EEASA-Vol 22.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jenny

    2006-02-22

    Feb 22, 2006 ... by the media and schoolteachers (Pawłowski, 1996), but are they ... Pupils from the elementary schools lived in a village (approximately 7 000 ..... Very often social advantages of environmentally friendly behaviour can.

  14. 48 CFR 22.1703 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Procuring commercial sex acts during the period of performance of the contract; or (3) Using forced labor in... APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Combating Trafficking in Persons 22.1703 Policy. The...

  15. 48 CFR 22.1500 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Prohibition of Acquisition of Products Produced by Forced or Indentured Child Labor 22.1500 Scope. This subpart applies to acquisitions of supplies that exceed...

  16. 6-EEASA-Vol 22.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jenny

    2006-02-22

    Feb 22, 2006 ... The health message communicated in the materials ..... research as a rational process of co-mediated reflexive engagement under the facilitating hand .... In participatory approaches the message is closely scaffolded and ...

  17. 9-EEASA-Vol 22.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jenny

    2006-02-22

    Feb 22, 2006 ... Exploring Educators' Expectations and. Experiences of ... project and is sponsored by major corporate bodies. The project aims ... To explore participants' expectations and experiences of INSET the following research strategy.

  18. 22 CFR 1470.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... (b) The terms labor organization, and conditions of employment as used herein shall have the meanings... means any appropriate technique, not inconsistent with the provisions of 22 U.S.C. 4110, used by the...

  19. 22 CFR 20.9 - Application procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... by June 22, 1990 or, if an exception is made for compelling cause to this deadline, within 60 days... divorce or annulment that establish eligibility and fully identify the Foreign Service employee or former...

  20. 17-EEASA-Vol 22.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jenny

    2006-02-22

    Feb 22, 2006 ... cultural forces for change', highlighting the role of education, ... The Slow Food Movement argued for slow (thoughtful) speaking, slow (thoughtful) ... French and Italian) which we used in the workshop (Jickling et al., in press).

  1. 12-EEASA-Vol 22.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jenny

    2006-02-22

    Feb 22, 2006 ... Southern African Journal of Environmental Education, Vol. .... To this end, a planning conference on environmental .... mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, geography, agriculture, home economics and human and.

  2. 13-EEASA-Vol 22.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jenny

    2006-02-22

    Feb 22, 2006 ... people, i.e., decline in food production and increasing number of orphaned and vulnerable ... The creativity of the human mind when faced with formidable .... This form of lilima usually benefits homesteads headed by very old.

  3. 32 CFR 22.415 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recipient of an award). (c) Have a satisfactory record of integrity and business ethics. (d) Be otherwise... Procedures § 22.415 Standards. To be qualified, a potential recipient must: (a) Have the management...

  4. 15-EEASA-Vol 22.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jenny

    2006-02-22

    Feb 22, 2006 ... Then happening (by grounded chance) to take,. Trunk in ... Each with opinion exceeding and strong, ... a capability, based on critical thinking and always incomplete ... and specifically, a consideration of the forms of reasoning ...

  5. Ps 22 in Gospels’ interpretation of Passion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwester Jędrzejewski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ps 22 is a piece of artistically high poetry, clear images and metaphors, historical and prophetic references. The conviction of biblical scholars that the New Testament writers has recognized in Ps 22 prophetic witness of passion, accompanies the Church from its beginnings. The words of Jesus on the cross, taken from Ps 22: 2, have a character of lamentable re-symbolization of the prayer of Israel. These words establish a theological answer in the form of suitable credo as well. Dramatic question “why?” is connected with a proclamation and identification “My God”. The personal experience of oppression and death is included by Jesus in the history of his nation and in the experience of God. Ps 22 in the Gospels’ passion context becomes a proclamation form of prayer and a very personal, expressed in such dramatic circumstances confession of the faith.

  6. Carbon tetrachloride desorption from activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, L.A.; Sansone, E.B.

    1981-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride was desorbed from a granular activated carbon subsequent to its adsorption under various vapor exposure periods. The varied conditions of exposure resulted in a range of partially saturated carbon beds which, when followed by a constant flow rate for desorption, generated different forms of the desorbing concentration versus time curve. A method of analyzing the desorption curves is presented which permits extraction of the various desorbing rates from the different desorption and to relate this to the time required for such regeneration. The Wheeler desorption kinetic equation was used to calculate the pseudo first order desorption rate constant for the carbon. The desorption rate constant was found to increase monotonically with increasing saturation of the bed, permitting the calculation of the maximum desorption rate constant for the carbon at 100% saturation. The Retentivity Index of the carbon, defined as the dimensionless ratio of the adsorption to the desorption rate constant, was found to be 681

  7. New NA22 results on correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wolf, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    Recent NA22 results from π + p and K + p inelastic interactions at √s = 22 GeV on invariant-mass and Q 2 -dependence of two- and three-particle factorial cumulants are discussed in relation to earlier intermittency studies. The absence of Bose-Einstein type correlations among identical particles, and too large resonance production rates, are responsible for the strong disagreements of models with intermittency data. 6 figs., 17 refs

  8. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F [Oakland, CA

    2012-04-10

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  9. Carborane-based inhibitors of carbonic anhydrases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brynda, Jiří; Pachl, Petr; Šícha, Václav; Fábry, Milan; Grüner, Bohumír; Cígler, Petr; Řezáčová, Pavlína

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2015), s. 3 ISSN 1211-5894. [Discussions in Structural Molecular Biology. Annual Meeting of the Czech Society for Structural Biology /13./. 19.03.2015-21.03.2015, Nové Hrady] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-05677S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378050 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : carboranes * carbonic anhydrase Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  10. Neutron-induced 2.2 MeV background in gamma ray telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanrosso, E.M.; Long, J.L.; Zych, A.D.; White, R.S.; Hughes Aircraft Co., Los Angeles, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Neutron-induced gamma ray production is an important source of background in Compton scatter gamma ray telescopes where organic scintillator material is used. Most important is deuteron formation when atmospheric albedo and locally produced neutrons are thermalized and subsequently absorbed in the hydrogenous material. The resulting 2.2 MeV gamma line essentially represents a continuous isotropic source within the scintillator itself. Interestingly, using a scintillator material with a high hydrogen-to-carbon ratio to minimize the neutron-induced 4.4 MeV carbon line favors the np reaction. The full problem of neutron-induced background in Compton scatter telescopes has been previously discussed. Results are presented of observations with the University of California balloon-borne Compton scatter telescope where the 2.2 MeV induced line emission is prominently seen

  11. Determining Inorganic and Organic Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koistinen, Jaana; Sjöblom, Mervi; Spilling, Kristian

    2017-11-21

    Carbon is the element which makes up the major fraction of lipids and carbohydrates, which could be used for making biofuel. It is therefore important to provide enough carbon and also follow the flow into particulate organic carbon and potential loss to dissolved organic forms of carbon. Here we present methods for determining dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and particulate organic carbon.

  12. Environmental Green Chemistry Applications of Nanoporous Carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, J.; Garcia, A; Poon, P

    2010-01-01

    Influence of surface properties of nanoporous carbons on activity and selectivity during the photooxidation of 4-chlorophenol on UV-irradiated TiO{sub 2} was performed. Characterization by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy confirm the presence of a contact interface between both solids and suggest the coordination of some functional organic groups of the carbon surface, mainly ethers and carboxylic acids, to metallic centre Ti{sup +4} in TiO{sub 2}. Changes in surface pH of carbons from basic to neutral or acid remarkably increase the production of 4-chlorocathecol by a factor of 22 on TiO{sub 2}-Carbon in comparison of TiO{sub 2} alone. A scheme of interaction between TiO{sub 2} and carbon is proposed to the increased photoactivity of TiO{sub 2} and a reaction mechanism for the different intermediate products detected is also proposed. Results showed that TiO{sub 2}-Carbon can be used as an alternative photocatalyst for environmental green chemistry and selective organic synthesis applications.

  13. Structure of IL-22 Bound to Its High-Affinity IL-22R1 Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, B.C.; Logsdon, N.J.; Walter, M.R. (UAB)

    2008-09-29

    IL-22 is an IL-10 family cytokine that initiates innate immune responses against bacterial pathogens and contributes to immune disease. IL-22 biological activity is initiated by binding to a cell-surface complex composed of IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 receptor chains and further regulated by interactions with a soluble binding protein, IL-22BP, which shares sequence similarity with an extracellular region of IL-22R1 (sIL-22R1). IL-22R1 also pairs with the IL-20R2 chain to induce IL-20 and IL-24 signaling. To define the molecular basis of these diverse interactions, we have determined the structure of the IL-22/sIL-22R1 complex. The structure, combined with homology modeling and surface plasmon resonance studies, defines the molecular basis for the distinct affinities and specificities of IL-22 and IL-10 receptor chains that regulate cellular targeting and signal transduction to elicit effective immune responses.

  14. MiR-22 Suppresses BMP7 in the Development of Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: New strategies for the prevention and treatment of cirrhosis are urgently needed for improving therapeutic outcome. A role of microRNAs (miRNAs in the pathogenesis of cirrhosis has been recently acknowledged, whereas the exact involved miRNAs as well as the associated molecular signaling pathways have not been determined. Specifically, the studies on the relationship between miR-22 and bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7 in the development of cirrhosis are lacking. Methods: We examined the correlation of the levels of miR-22 and bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7 in the liver biopsies from patients with cirrhosis. We examined overexpression or suppression of miR-22 on BMP7 in hepatocytes. We examined the binding of miR-22 to the 3'-UTR of BMP7 mRNA. Finally, in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced cirrhosis model in mice, we gave mice adeno-associated viruses carrying antisense of miR-22, and examined its effects on BMP7 levels and the hallmarks of cirrhosis. Results: The levels of miR-22 and BMP7 in the liver biopsies from patients were strongly and inversely correlated. MiR-22 inhibited BMP7 expression in hepatocytes, through directly binding the 3'-UTR of BMP7 mRNA. Expression of antisense miR-22 significantly attenuated the levels of liver fibrosis, portal hypertension and sodium retention caused by CCl4, possibly through upregulation of BMP7. Conclusions: MiR-22 promotes the development of cirrhosis through BMP7 suppression.

  15. Imaging the Oxygen-Rich Disk Toward the Silicate Carbon Star EU Andromedae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ohnaka, K; Boboltz, D. A

    2007-01-01

    .... We present multi-epoch, high-angular resolution observations of 22 GHz H2O masers toward the silicate carbon star EU And to probe the spatio-kinematic distribution of oxygen-rich material. Methods...

  16. Single-walled carbon nanotubes as stabilizing agents in red phosphorus Li-ion battery anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Smajic, Jasmin; Alazmi, Amira; Patole, Shashikant P.; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.

    2017-01-01

    improvement in the electrochemical stability of battery anodes. In contrast to the average 40% loss of capacity after 50 cycles for other phosphorus–carbon composites in the literature, our material shows losses of just 22% under analogous cycling conditions.

  17. The role of urbanization in the global carbon cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina eChurkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas account for more than 70% of CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels. Urban expansion in tropics is responsible for 5% of the annual emissions from land use change. Here I show that the effect of urbanization on the global carbon cycle extends beyond these emissions. I quantify the contribution of urbanization to the major carbon fluxes and pools globally and identify gaps crucial for predicting the evolution of the carbon cycle in the future. Urban residents currently control ~22 (12-40 % of the land carbon uptake (112 PgC/yr and ~24 (15-39 % of the carbon emissions (117 PgC/yr from land globally. Urbanization resulted in the creation of new carbon pools on land such as buildings (~6.7 PgC and landfills (~30 PgC. Together these pools store 1.6 (±0.3 % of the total vegetation and soil carbon pools globally. The creation and maintenance of these new pools has been associated with high emissions of CO2, which are currently better understood than the processes associated with the dynamics of these pools and accompanying uptake of carbon. Predictions of the future trajectories of the global carbon cycle will require a much better understanding of how urban development affects the carbon cycle over the long term.

  18. Carbon emission scenarios of China's power sector: Impact of controlling measures and carbon pricing mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study constructs a low-carbon path analysis model of China's power sector based on TIMES model and presents a comparative analysis of carbon emissions under Reference, Low-Carbon and Enhanced Low-Carbon scenarios, and the main difference of the three scenarios is manifested by policy selection and policy strength. The conclusions are drawn as follows: (1 The peak of carbon emission in China's power sector will range from 4.0 GtCO2 to 4.8 GtCO2, which implies an increment of 0.5–1.3 billion or 14%–35% from the 2015 levels. (2 Introducing carbon price is an effective way to inhibit coal power and promote non-fossil fuels and Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage applications (CCUS. The carbon emission reduction effects will gradually increase with carbon price. When the carbon price attains to CN¥150 t−1CO2, the CO2 emission can decrease by 36% than that without carbon price. (3 CCUS is one of important contributing factor to reduce CO2 emission in power sector. Generally speaking, the development of non-fossil fuels and energy efficiency improvement are two main drivers for carbon mitigation, but once the carbon price reaches up to CN¥106 t−1CO2, the CCUS will be required to equip with thermal power units and its contribution on carbon emission reduction will remarkably increase. When carbon price increases to CN¥150 t−1CO2 in 2050, the application of CCUS will account for 44% of total emission reduction. (4 In the scenario with carbon price of CN¥150 t−1CO2, power sector would be decarbonized significantly, and the CO2 intensity will be 0.22 kgCO2 (kW h−1, but power sector is far from the goal that achieving net zero emission. In order to realize the long-term low greenhouse gas emission development goal that proposed by the Paris Agreement, more efforts are needed to be put to further reduce the carbon emission reduction of power sector. Based on the above scenario analysis, the study proposes four recommendations

  19. Excited states in 22Mg via the 12C(12C,2n)22Mg reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewett, Cybele; Baktash, Cyrus; Bardayan, Daniel W.; Blackmon, Jeff C.; Chipps, K.; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo; Greife, U.; Gross, Carl J.; Jones, K. L.; Liang, Junjien; Livesay, Jake; Kozub, R. L.; Nesaraja, Caroline D; Radford, David C.; Sarazin, F.; Smith, Michael Scott; Thomas, J. S.; Yu, Chang-Hong

    2007-01-01

    The 12C(12C, 2n)22Mg reaction was measured with the CLARION array and the RMS separator at the Holifield Facility of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This experiment was performed to gather more information on the excited states in 22Mg, which might be of relevance to recent radioactive ion beam measurements of the astrophysically important 21Na(p,γ)22Mg reaction. The results are compared to direct measurements, transfer experiments and a competing experiment performed with Gammasphere

  20. (Vapour + liquid) equilibria for (2,2-dimethoxypropane + methanol) and (2,2-dimethoxypropane + acetone)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Hui; Li Haoran; Wang Congmin; Tan Taijun; Han Shijun

    2003-01-01

    The isothermal and isobaric (vapour + liquid) equilibria for (2,2-dimethoxypropane + methanol) and (2,2-dimethoxypropane + acetone) measured with an inclined ebulliometer are presented. The experimental results are analysed using the UNIQUAC equation with the temperature-dependent binary parameters with satisfactory results. Isobaric (vapour + liquid) equilibria data for these systems at p=99.99 kPa are compared with the literature data. Experimental vapour pressure of 2,2-dimethoxypropane are also included

  1. Systematic structure of the neutron drip-line {sup 22}C nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Atef [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia and Department of Physics, Al-Azhar University, 71524 Assiut (Egypt); Cheong, Lee Yen; Yahya, Noorhana [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Tammam, M. [Department of Physics, Al-Azhar University, 71524 Assiut (Egypt)

    2014-10-24

    In the present work we systematically discuss the nuclear structure of the the heaviest particle-bound carbon isotope, {sup 22}C. The ground state wave function of the carbon isotope is calculated using the {sup 20}C core plus two-valence neutron based on a phenomenological mean-field MF potential. We apply the deduced wave function to provide the nuclear matter density which is necessary in the calculations of the total reaction cross section. Calculations show that there is a reasonable good description of the experimental binding energy BE and root-mean square RMS radius. The exotic structure and configuration of the ground state carbon isotope is explained and a consistent explanation on the two-neutron halo (Borromean) nucleus is given.

  2. Analysing destruction channels of interstellar hydrocarbon anions with a 22pol ion-trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endres, Eric; Lakhmanskaya, Olga; Best, Thorsten; Hauser, Daniel; Kumar, Sunil; Wester, Roland [Universitaet Innsbruck, Institut fuer Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik (Austria)

    2014-07-01

    In the interstellar medium (ISM), ion-molecule reactions are considered to play a key role in the formation of complex molecules. The detection of the first interstellar anions, which happen to be carbon chain anions, has raised new interest in the quantitative composition of the ISM and the underlying reaction network. To understand the observed abundance of these carbon chain anions, a detailed analysis of the possible destruction channels is indispensable. A cryogenic 22-pol radio frequency ion trap is an ideal tool to observe reactions that take place slowly, such as carbon chain anions with molecular hydrogen. Furthermore, measurements over a large temperature scale are feasible. Longitudinal optical access to the trap also provides the possibility to make precise photodetachment measurements. Temperature dependent measurements of the reaction rates for the reaction between hydrocarbon chain anions and H{sub 2} are presented.

  3. Carbon Monoxide Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with the Media Fire Protection Technology Carbon monoxide safety outreach materials Keep your community informed about the ... KB | Spanish PDF 592 KB Handout: carbon monoxide safety Download this handout and add your organization's logo ...

  4. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  5. Geochemistry of sedimentary carbonates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morse, John W; Mackenzie, Fred T

    1990-01-01

    .... The last major section is two chapters on the global cycle of carbon and human intervention, and the role of sedimentary carbonates as indicators of stability and changes in Earth's surface environment...

  6. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: Antacids (Tums, Chooz) Mineral supplements Hand lotions Vitamin and mineral supplements Other products may also contain ...

  7. Carbon Based Nanotechnology: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews publicly available information related to carbon based nanotechnology. Topics covered include nanomechanics, carbon based electronics, nanodevice/materials applications, nanotube motors, nano-lithography and H2O storage in nanotubes.

  8. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and industrial products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  9. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  10. Graphitization in Carbon MEMS and Carbon NEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Swati

    Carbon MEMS (CMEMS) and Carbon NEMS (CNEMS) are an emerging class of miniaturized devices. Due to the numerous advantages such as scalable manufacturing processes, inexpensive and readily available precursor polymer materials, tunable surface properties and biocompatibility, carbon has become a preferred material for a wide variety of future sensing applications. Single suspended carbon nanowires (CNWs) integrated on CMEMS structures fabricated by electrospinning of SU8 photoresist on photolithographially patterned SU8 followed by pyrolysis are utilized for understanding the graphitization process in micro and nano carbon materials. These monolithic CNW-CMEMS structures enable the fabrication of very high aspect ratio CNWs of predefined length. The CNWs thus fabricated display core---shell structures having a graphitic shell with a glassy carbon core. The electrical conductivity of these CNWs is increased by about 100% compared to glassy carbon as a result of enhanced graphitization. We explore various tunable fabrication and pyrolysis parameters to improve graphitization in the resulting CNWs. We also suggest gas-sensing application of the thus fabricated single suspended CNW-CMEMS devices by using the CNW as a nano-hotplate for local chemical vapor deposition. In this thesis we also report on results from an optimization study of SU8 photoresist derived carbon electrodes. These electrodes were applied to the simultaneous detection of traces of Cd(II) and Pb(II) through anodic stripping voltammetry and detection limits as low as 0.7 and 0.8 microgL-1 were achieved. To further improve upon the electrochemical behavior of the carbon electrodes we elucidate a modified pyrolysis technique featuring an ultra-fast temperature ramp for obtaining bubbled porous carbon from lithographically patterned SU8. We conclude this dissertation by suggesting the possible future works on enhancing graphitization as well as on electrochemical applications

  11. Erythrocyte 22Na+ influx in hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalev, O.; Eaton, J.W.; Ben-Ishay, D.

    1984-01-01

    We assessed 22Na+ uptake by erythrocytes (RBC) from 38 individuals with essential hypertension and 37 healthy controls. All subjects were male, white, non-obese and with normal renal function, obviating sex, race, hormonal, ponderal and renal factors known to influence RBC Na+ handling. The mean +/- sem 22Na+ uptake of the patients was 284 +/- 16 mumole/liter RBC/hour while that of normal controls was 249 +/- 11 mumole/liter RBC/hour; although the difference reached borderline significance, individual values showed considerable overlap. Consequently, in our population, RBC 22Na+ uptake is not a reliable marker for essential hypertension. We believe that previous studies should be reassessed with regard to patients' characteristics and future studies employ rigorous criteria in selection of subjects

  12. Carbon offsetting: sustaining consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Lovell; Harriet Bulkeley; Diana Liverman

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine how theories of sustainable and ethical consumption help us to understand a new, rapidly expanding type of consumer product designed to mitigate climate change: carbon offsets. The voluntary carbon offset market grew by 200% between 2005 and 2006, and there are now over 150 retailers of voluntary carbon offsets worldwide. Our analysis concentrates on the production and consumption of carbon offsets, drawing on ideas from governmentality and political ecology about how...

  13. Interaction cross section study of the two-neutron halo nucleus 22C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Togano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The interaction cross sections (σI of the very neutron-rich carbon isotopes 19C, 20C and 22C have been measured on a carbon target at 307, 280, and 235 MeV/nucleon, respectively. A σI of 1.280±0.023 b was obtained for 22C, significantly larger than for 19,20C, supporting the halo character of 22C. A 22C root-mean-squared matter radius of 3.44±0.08 fm was deduced using a four-body Glauber reaction model. This value is smaller than an earlier estimate (of 5.4±0.9 fm derived from a σI measurement on a hydrogen target at 40 MeV/nucleon. These new, higher-precision σI data provide stronger constraints for assessing the consistency of theories describing weakly bound nuclei.

  14. Commission 22: Meters, Meteorites and Interplanetary Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Junichi; Jenniskens, Peter; Spurný, Pavel; Borovička, Jiří; Campbell-Brown, Margaret; Consolmagno, Guy; Jopek, Tadeusz; Vaubaillon, Jeremie; Williams, Iwan P.; Zhu, Jin

    2010-05-01

    The business meeting of commission 22 was held at the room 5 in the SulAmerica Convention Center in Rio de Janeiro(14:00-15:30). Fifteen people attended at this meeting:J.Borovička, E.Bowell, G.Consolmagno, D.Green, P. Jenniskens, A. Pellinen-Wannberg, R. Rudawska, J. Watanabe, J. Zhu, P. H. A. Hasselmann, F. Ostroviski, D. A. Oszkiewicz, W. Thuillot, P. Mahajani, and A. Sule. This meeting was managed by Junichi Watanabe, the current C22 Vice-President. The summary of the meeting is described.

  15. Characterization Well R-22 Geochemistry Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick Longmire

    2002-01-01

    This report provides analytical results for groundwater collected during four characterization-sampling rounds conducted at well R-22 from March 2001 through March 2002. Characterization well R-22 was sampled from March 6 through 13, 2001; June 19 through 26, 2001; November 30 through December 10, 2001; and February 27 through March 7, 2002. The goal of the characterization efforts was to assess the hydrochemistry and to determine whether or not contaminants are present in the regional aquifer in the vicinity of the well. A geochemical evaluation of the analytical results for the well is also presented in this report

  16. Carbon activity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, P.; Krankota, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    A carbon activity meter utilizing an electrochemical carbon cell with gaseous reference electrodes having particular application for measuring carbon activity in liquid sodium for the LMFBR project is described. The electrolyte container is electroplated with a thin gold film on the inside surface thereof, and a reference electrode consisting of CO/CO 2 gas is used. (U.S.)

  17. Protolytic carbon film technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renschler, C.L.; White, C.A.

    1996-04-01

    This paper presents a technique for the deposition of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) on virtually any surface allowing carbon film formation with only the caveat that the substrate must withstand carbonization temperatures of at least 600 degrees centigrade. The influence of processing conditions upon the structure and properties of the carbonized film is discussed. Electrical conductivity, microstructure, and morphology control are also described.

  18. Carbon Goes To…

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasci, Funda

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this activity are to help middle school students understand the carbon cycle and realize how human activities affect the carbon cycle. This activity consists of two parts. The first part of the activity focuses on the carbon cycle, especially before the Industrial Revolution, while the second part of the activity focuses on how…

  19. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Ivar Korsbakken, Jan; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian A; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M S; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E M S; Nakaoka, Shin Ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Van Der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; Van Der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere-the "global carbon budget"-is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future

  20. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quéré, Le Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M.S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E.M.S.; Nakaoka, S.; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Laan-Luijkx, van der Ingrid T.; Werf, van der Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the “global carbon budget” – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project

  1. Carbon/Carbon Pistons for Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A. H.

    1986-01-01

    Carbon/carbon piston performs same function as aluminum pistons in reciprocating internal combustion engines while reducing weight and increasing mechanical and thermal efficiencies of engine. Carbon/carbon piston concept features low piston-to-cylinder wall clearance - so low piston rings and skirts unnecessary. Advantages possible by negligible coefficient of thermal expansion of carbon/carbon.

  2. Peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP22 modulates alpha 6 integrin expression in the human endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braun Jonathan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PMP22, a member of the GAS3 family of tetraspan proteins, is associated with a variety of neurological diseases. Previous studies have shown that PMP22 is expressed in proliferative endometrium, but its function within this tissue is poorly understood. In this study, we first characterized the expression of PMP22 in the human menstrual cycle and began to characterize its function in the endometrium. Methods Using a combination of immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR, we characterized the expression of PMP22 in both proliferative and secretory endometrium. Differences in PMP22 expression between proliferative and secretory endometrium were determined using a Mann-Whitney U test. In order to investigate the influence of PMP22 on α6 integrin expression, cells were created that ectopically overexpressed PMP22 or expressed a siRNA to inhibit its expression. These cells were analyzed for changes in integrins and binding to extracellular matrices. Results In this study, we show that PMP22 expression is higher in proliferative phase than secretory phase. Functionally, we have begun to characterize the functional significance of this expression. Previous studies have suggested a link between PMP22 and α6 integrin, and therefore we asked whether PMP22 could associate or potentially modulate the expression of α6 integrin. Expression of both PMP22 and α6 integrin were detectable in endometrial epithelial and stromal cells, and we show that both proteins can associate and colocalize with each other. To understand if PMP22 directly altered the expression of a6 integrin, we examined cell lines with modulated levels of the protein. Overexpression of PMP22 was sufficient to increase α6 integrin surface expression with a concominant increase in binding to the extracellular matrix laminin, while a reduction in PMP22 suppressed α6 integrin surface expression. Conclusion These findings suggest a physiologic role for PMP22 on the

  3. Peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP22) modulates alpha 6 integrin expression in the human endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rajiv G; Sudhakar, Deepthi; Hogue, Claire P; Amici, Stephanie; Gordon, Lynn K; Braun, Jonathan; Notterpek, Lucia; Goodglick, Lee; Wadehra, Madhuri

    2011-04-25

    PMP22, a member of the GAS3 family of tetraspan proteins, is associated with a variety of neurological diseases. Previous studies have shown that PMP22 is expressed in proliferative endometrium, but its function within this tissue is poorly understood. In this study, we first characterized the expression of PMP22 in the human menstrual cycle and began to characterize its function in the endometrium. Using a combination of immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR, we characterized the expression of PMP22 in both proliferative and secretory endometrium. Differences in PMP22 expression between proliferative and secretory endometrium were determined using a Mann-Whitney U test. In order to investigate the influence of PMP22 on α6 integrin expression, cells were created that ectopically overexpressed PMP22 or expressed a siRNA to inhibit its expression. These cells were analyzed for changes in integrins and binding to extracellular matrices. In this study, we show that PMP22 expression is higher in proliferative phase than secretory phase. Functionally, we have begun to characterize the functional significance of this expression. Previous studies have suggested a link between PMP22 and α6 integrin, and therefore we asked whether PMP22 could associate or potentially modulate the expression of α6 integrin. Expression of both PMP22 and α6 integrin were detectable in endometrial epithelial and stromal cells, and we show that both proteins can associate and colocalize with each other. To understand if PMP22 directly altered the expression of a6 integrin, we examined cell lines with modulated levels of the protein. Overexpression of PMP22 was sufficient to increase α6 integrin surface expression with a concominant increase in binding to the extracellular matrix laminin, while a reduction in PMP22 suppressed α6 integrin surface expression. These findings suggest a physiologic role for PMP22 on the expression of α6 integrin. We predict that this may be important for the

  4. Chrysotile dissolution rates: Implications for carbon sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thom, James G.M.; Dipple, Gregory M.; Power, Ian M.; Harrison, Anna L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Uncertainties in serpentine dissolution kinetics hinder carbon sequestration models. • A pH dependent, far from equilibrium dissolution rate law for chrysotile. • F chrysotile (mol/m 2 /s) = 10 −0.21pH−10.57 at 22 °C over pH 2–10. • Laboratory dissolution rates consistent with mine waste weathering observations. • Potential for carbon sequestration in mine tailings and aquifers is assessed. - Abstract: Serpentine minerals (e.g., chrysotile) are a potentially important medium for sequestration of CO 2 via carbonation reactions. The goals of this study are to report a steady-state, far from equilibrium chrysotile dissolution rate law and to better define what role serpentine dissolution kinetics will have in constraining rates of carbon sequestration via serpentine carbonation. The steady-state dissolution rate of chrysotile in 0.1 m NaCl solutions was measured at 22 °C and pH ranging from 2 to 8. Dissolution experiments were performed in a continuously stirred flow-through reactor with the input solutions pre-equilibrated with atmospheric CO 2 . Both Mg and Si steady-state fluxes from the chrysotile surface, and the overall chrysotile flux were regressed and the following empirical relationships were obtained: F Mg =-0.22pH-10.02;F Si =-0.19pH-10.37;F chrysotile =-0.21pH-10.57 where F Mg , F Si , and F chrysotile are the log 10 Mg, Si, and molar chrysotile fluxes in mol/m 2 /s, respectively. Element fluxes were used in reaction-path calculations to constrain the rate of CO 2 sequestration in two geological environments that have been proposed as potential sinks for anthropogenic CO 2 . Carbon sequestration in chrysotile tailings at 10 °C is approximately an order of magnitude faster than carbon sequestration in a serpentinite-hosted aquifer at 60 °C on a per kilogram of water basis. A serpentinite-hosted aquifer, however, provides a larger sequestration capacity. The chrysotile dissolution rate law determined in this study has

  5. Latest Permian carbonate carbon isotope variability traces heterogeneous organic carbon accumulation and authigenic carbonate formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schobben, Martin; van de Velde, Sebastiaan; Gliwa, Jana; Leda, Lucyna; Korn, Dieter; Struck, Ulrich; Vinzenz Ullmann, Clemens; Hairapetian, Vachik; Ghaderi, Abbas; Korte, Christoph; Newton, Robert J.; Poulton, Simon W.; Wignall, Paul B.

    2017-11-01

    Bulk-carbonate carbon isotope ratios are a widely applied proxy for investigating the ancient biogeochemical carbon cycle. Temporal carbon isotope trends serve as a prime stratigraphic tool, with the inherent assumption that bulk micritic carbonate rock is a faithful geochemical recorder of the isotopic composition of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon. However, bulk-carbonate rock is also prone to incorporate diagenetic signals. The aim of the present study is to disentangle primary trends from diagenetic signals in carbon isotope records which traverse the Permian-Triassic boundary in the marine carbonate-bearing sequences of Iran and South China. By pooling newly produced and published carbon isotope data, we confirm that a global first-order trend towards depleted values exists. However, a large amount of scatter is superimposed on this geochemical record. In addition, we observe a temporal trend in the amplitude of this residual δ13C variability, which is reproducible for the two studied regions. We suggest that (sub-)sea-floor microbial communities and their control on calcite nucleation and ambient porewater dissolved inorganic carbon δ13C pose a viable mechanism to induce bulk-rock δ13C variability. Numerical model calculations highlight that early diagenetic carbonate rock stabilization and linked carbon isotope alteration can be controlled by organic matter supply and subsequent microbial remineralization. A major biotic decline among Late Permian bottom-dwelling organisms facilitated a spatial increase in heterogeneous organic carbon accumulation. Combined with low marine sulfate, this resulted in varying degrees of carbon isotope overprinting. A simulated time series suggests that a 50 % increase in the spatial scatter of organic carbon relative to the average, in addition to an imposed increase in the likelihood of sampling cements formed by microbial calcite nucleation to 1 out of 10 samples, is sufficient to induce the observed signal of carbon

  6. Latest Permian carbonate carbon isotope variability traces heterogeneous organic carbon accumulation and authigenic carbonate formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schobben

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bulk-carbonate carbon isotope ratios are a widely applied proxy for investigating the ancient biogeochemical carbon cycle. Temporal carbon isotope trends serve as a prime stratigraphic tool, with the inherent assumption that bulk micritic carbonate rock is a faithful geochemical recorder of the isotopic composition of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon. However, bulk-carbonate rock is also prone to incorporate diagenetic signals. The aim of the present study is to disentangle primary trends from diagenetic signals in carbon isotope records which traverse the Permian–Triassic boundary in the marine carbonate-bearing sequences of Iran and South China. By pooling newly produced and published carbon isotope data, we confirm that a global first-order trend towards depleted values exists. However, a large amount of scatter is superimposed on this geochemical record. In addition, we observe a temporal trend in the amplitude of this residual δ13C variability, which is reproducible for the two studied regions. We suggest that (sub-sea-floor microbial communities and their control on calcite nucleation and ambient porewater dissolved inorganic carbon δ13C pose a viable mechanism to induce bulk-rock δ13C variability. Numerical model calculations highlight that early diagenetic carbonate rock stabilization and linked carbon isotope alteration can be controlled by organic matter supply and subsequent microbial remineralization. A major biotic decline among Late Permian bottom-dwelling organisms facilitated a spatial increase in heterogeneous organic carbon accumulation. Combined with low marine sulfate, this resulted in varying degrees of carbon isotope overprinting. A simulated time series suggests that a 50 % increase in the spatial scatter of organic carbon relative to the average, in addition to an imposed increase in the likelihood of sampling cements formed by microbial calcite nucleation to 1 out of 10 samples, is sufficient to induce the

  7. Activated carbons and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, G.J.; Hancock, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    The literature on activated carbon is reviewed so as to provide a general background with respect to the effect of source material and activation procedure on carbon properties, the structure and chemical nature of the surface of the activated carbon, and the nature of absorption processes on carbon. The various theories on the absorption of gold and silver from cyanide solutions are then reviewed, followed by a discussion of processes for the recovery of gold and silver from cyanide solutions using activated carbon, including a comparison with zinc precipitation

  8. 22 CFR 213.22 - Salary offset when USAID is the creditor agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salary offset when USAID is the creditor agency... Administrative Offset § 213.22 Salary offset when USAID is the creditor agency. (a) Due process requirements... through salary offset, USAID will first provide the employee with the opportunity to pay in full the...

  9. 22 CFR 67.3 - Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management. 67.3 Section 67.3 Foreign Relations....3 Management. (a) NED's operations and staff are managed by a President selected by the Board of... Office of the President provides policy direction and is responsible for day-to-day management of the...

  10. 22 CFR 503.9 - Electronic records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Electronic records. 503.9 Section 503.9 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REGULATION § 503.9 Electronic records... electronic format. Documentation not previously subject to the FOIA when maintained in a non-electronic...

  11. 22 CFR 9.6 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative classification. 9.6 Section 9.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.6 Derivative classification. (a) Definition. Derivative classification is the incorporating, paraphrasing, restating or...

  12. Chromosome 22 microdeletion in children with syndromic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytogenetic study and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed in the patients. The study revealed that 2 patients were with chromosomal aberrations [one with 46,XY, add (13)(p13) & the other with 47,XX,+13]. In addition, FISH revealed 4 patients (20%) with 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome. The congenital ...

  13. 22 CFR 901.10 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Act. 901.10 Section 901.10 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD GENERAL Meanings of Terms As Used in This Chapter § 901.10 Act. Act means the Foreign Service Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-465, October 17, 1980), as amended. [56 FR 55458, Oct. 28...

  14. 22 CFR 911.7 - Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Review. 911.7 Section 911.7 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD IMPLEMENTATION DISPUTES § 911.7 Review. Resolution of disputes under this section shall not be subject to judicial review. ...

  15. 22 CFR 309.16 - Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Review. 309.16 Section 309.16 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 309.16 Review. (a) Request for outside hearing. Except as... hearing or a review of the documentary evidence is requested. If an oral hearing is desired, the request...

  16. 22 CFR 42.11 - Classification symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification symbols. 42.11 Section 42.11... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Classification and Foreign State Chargeability § 42.11 Classification symbols. A... visa symbol to show the classification of the alien. Immigrants Symbol Class Section of law Immediate...

  17. 22 CFR 9a.4 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4, 1976.... If the officer determines that the information or material warrants classification, he shall assign...

  18. 22 CFR 9.8 - Classification challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification challenges. 9.8 Section 9.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.8 Classification... classification status is improper are expected and encouraged to challenge the classification status of the...

  19. 22 CFR 228.21 - Ocean transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ocean transportation. 228.21 Section 228.21... for USAID Financing § 228.21 Ocean transportation. (a) The Cargo Preference Act of 1954, Section 901(b... transportation services is determined by the flag registry of the vessel. (1) When the authorized source for...

  20. 22 CFR 1414.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... (b) The term ex parte communication means an oral or written communication not on the public record... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definitions. 1414.3 Section 1414.3 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE...

  1. 22 CFR 62.26 - Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specialists. 62.26 Section 62.26 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Specific Program... such areas, for example, as mass media communication, environmental science, youth leadership...

  2. 22 CFR 219.160 - Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Communications. 219.160 Section 219.160 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN... communication with applicants, participants, personnel of other Federal entities, and members of the public. (1...

  3. 22 CFR 102.27 - Docket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Docket. 102.27 Section 102.27 Foreign Relations... other than the Director of the Office of Aviation and summaries of oral communications prepared in...) All comments submitted under this subpart and placed in the docket, are available for public...

  4. 22 CFR 231.15 - Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice. 231.15 Section 231.15 Foreign Relations... WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.15 Notice. Any communication to USAID pursuant to this Guarantee shall be in writing in the English language...

  5. 22 CFR 134.25 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 134.25 Section 134.25 Foreign... Considering Applications § 134.25 Settlement. The applicant and the Department of State may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection with a...

  6. 22 CFR 192.33 - Dispute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dispute. 192.33 Section 192.33 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Medical Benefits for Captive... Director, Department of State, for a determination. If the person bringing the claim is not satisfied with...

  7. 22 CFR 192.51 - Death benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death benefit. 192.51 Section 192.51 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Compensation for Disability or Death § 192.51 Death benefit. (a) The Secretary of State or Agency Head may provide for payment...

  8. 22 CFR 228.32 - Nonprofit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonprofit organizations. 228.32 Section 228.32 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND NATIONALITY FOR... USAID Financing § 228.32 Nonprofit organizations. (a) Nonprofit organizations, such as educational...

  9. 22 CFR 66.1 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 66.1 Section 66.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES AVAILABILITY OF THE RECORDS OF THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR DEMOCRACY § 66.1 Introduction. These regulations amend the Code of Federal Regulations to...

  10. 22 CFR 5.1 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 5.1 Section 5.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 5.1 Introduction. The sections in this part 5 are issued pursuant to section 3 of the Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. 552, effective July 4, 1967. ...

  11. 40 CFR 194.22 - Quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... General Requirements § 194.22 Quality assurance. (a)(1) As soon as practicable after April 9, 1996, the Department shall adhere to a quality assurance program that implements the requirements of ASME NQA-1-1989... elicitation used to support applications for certification or re-certification of compliance; (vi) Design of...

  12. 22 CFR 1300.6 - Office location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Office location. 1300.6 Section 1300.6 Foreign Relations MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS OF THE MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION § 1300.6 Office location. The principal offices of the Millennium Challenge Corporation are...

  13. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign... United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the insular possessions of the United States, the District of Columbia, the...

  14. 10-EEASA-Vol 22.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jenny

    2006-02-22

    Feb 22, 2006 ... teaching of learning theory in environmental education. ... Reflexive practice is seen in the context of Delanty's (2005) interpretation of reflexivity ... emphasises how language, communication and instruction are paramount to the ..... perspectives) of social processes amongst themselves as students and ...

  15. 22 CFR 218.33 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mediation. 218.33 Section 218.33 Foreign... § 218.33 Mediation. (a) Referral of complaints for mediation. The agency will refer to the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service all complaints that: (1) fall within the jurisdiction of these...

  16. 22 CFR 143.33 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mediation. 143.33 Section 143.33 Foreign... Mediation. (a) Referral of complaints for mediation. The agency will refer to the Federal Mediation and... participate in the mediation process to the extent necessary to reach an agreement or make an informed...

  17. 22 CFR 181.8 - Publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Publication. 181.8 Section 181.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS COORDINATION, REPORTING AND PUBLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS § 181.8 Publication. (a) The following categories of international agreements will not...

  18. 20 CFR 435.22 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.22 Payment. (a) Introduction. Payment methods..., and (ii) Financial management systems that meet the standards for fund control and accountability as..., Payment Management System, Rockville, MD 20852. Interest amounts up to $250 per year may be retained by...

  19. 22 CFR 128.4 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Default. 128.4 Section 128.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 128.4 Default. (a... default. The case shall then be referred to the Administrative Law Judge for consideration in a manner as...

  20. 22 CFR 99.3 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 99.3 Section 99.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES REPORTING ON CONVENTION AND NON-CONVENTION ADOPTIONS OF EMIGRATING CHILDREN § 99.3 [Reserved] ...

  1. 22 CFR 99.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 99.1 Section 99.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES REPORTING ON CONVENTION AND NON-CONVENTION ADOPTIONS OF EMIGRATING CHILDREN § 99.1 Definitions. As used in this part, the term: (a) Convention means...

  2. 22 CFR 51.26 - Photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Photographs. 51.26 Section 51.26 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Application § 51.26 Photographs. The applicant must submit with his or her application photographs as prescribed by the Department that are a...

  3. 22 CFR 901.17 - Charged employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Charged employee. 901.17 Section 901.17 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD GENERAL Meanings of Terms As Used in This Chapter § 901.17 Charged employee. Charged employee means a member of the Senior Foreign Service or a member of the Service assigned...

  4. 22 CFR 210.640 - Employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee. 210.640 Section 210.640 Foreign... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.640 Employee. (a) Employee means the employee of a recipient directly engaged in the performance of work under the award, including— (1) All direct charge employees; (2...

  5. 22 CFR 312.640 - Employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Employee. 312.640 Section 312.640 Foreign... § 312.640 Employee. (a) Employee means the employee of a recipient directly engaged in the performance of work under the award, including— (1) All direct charge employees; (2) All indirect charge...

  6. 22 CFR 1509.640 - Employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Employee. 1509.640 Section 1509.640 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.640 Employee. (a) Employee means the employee of a recipient directly engaged in the performance of work under the award, including— (1) All direct charge employees; (2) All...

  7. 22 CFR 133.640 - Employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee. 133.640 Section 133.640 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 133.640 Employee. (a) Employee means the employee of a recipient directly engaged in the performance of work under the award, including— (1) All direct charge employees; (2) All...

  8. 22 CFR 1008.640 - Employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Employee. 1008.640 Section 1008.640 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1008.640 Employee. (a) Employee means the employee of a recipient directly engaged in the performance of work under the award, including— (1) All direct charge employees; (2) All...

  9. 22 CFR 196.4 - Administering office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administering office. 196.4 Section 196.4... AFFAIRS/GRADUATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 196.4 Administering office. The Department of State's Bureau of Human Resources, Office of Recruitment is responsible for administering the Thomas R...

  10. 22 CFR 8.7 - Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security. 8.7 Section 8.7 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT § 8.7 Security. (a) All officers and members of a committee must have a security clearance for the subject matter level of security at which the committee...

  11. 22 CFR 401.5 - Meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Meetings. 401.5 Section 401.5 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND CANADA RULES OF PROCEDURE General § 401.5 Meetings. (a... meeting shall be open to the public, it shall give such advance notice to this effect as it considers...

  12. 22 CFR 231.03 - The Guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The Guarantee. 231.03 Section 231.03 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS...

  13. 22 CFR 62.28 - International visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false International visitors. 62.28 Section 62.28 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Specific Program Provisions § 62.28 International visitors. (a) Purpose. The international visitor category is for...

  14. 22 CFR 210.650 - Grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grant. 210.650 Section 210.650 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE... to transfer a thing of value to the recipient to carry out a public purpose of support or stimulation...

  15. 22 CFR 62.3 - Sponsor eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sponsor eligibility. 62.3 Section 62.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM General Provisions... visitor program are: (1) United States local, state and federal government agencies; (2) International...

  16. 22 CFR 231.02 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 231.02 Section 231.02 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS...

  17. 22 CFR 1104.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Purpose. 1104.1 Section 1104.1 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION PROTECTION OF..., located on public lands through permits authorizing excavation and/or removal of archaeological resources...

  18. 22 CFR 1102.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Purpose. 1102.1 Section 1102.1 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION FREEDOM OF... implement the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), 5 U.S.C. 552, as amended on November 21, 1974, by Public...

  19. 22 CFR 1104.3 - Prohibited acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Prohibited acts. 1104.3 Section 1104.3 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION..., or otherwise alter or deface any archaeological resource located on public lands unless such activity...

  20. 22 CFR 61.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 61.1 Section 61.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES WORLD-WIDE FREE FLOW OF AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS § 61.1... formally known as the Agreement for Facilitating the International Circulation of Visual and Auditory...

  1. 22 CFR 231.14 - Arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arbitration. 231.14 Section 231.14 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS...

  2. 22 CFR 309.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... thereof, or any public international organization. (2) Debts arising out of acquisitions contracts subject... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Scope. 309.2 Section 309.2 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 309.2 Scope. (a) Applicability of Federal Claims...

  3. 22 CFR 1101.16 - Criminal penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Criminal penalties. 1101.16 Section 1101.16 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES... public notice of a system of records as required by 5 U.S.C. 552a(e)(4). ...

  4. 22 CFR 231.01 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 231.01 Section 231.01 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS...

  5. 22 CFR 63.9 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General provisions. 63.9 Section 63.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES PAYMENTS TO AND ON BEHALF OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM § 63.9 General provisions. The following...

  6. 22 CFR 231.04 - Guarantee eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guarantee eligibility. 231.04 Section 231.04 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND...

  7. 22 CFR 216.8 - Public hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public hearings. 216.8 Section 216.8 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCEDURES § 216.8 Public hearings. (a) In most instances AID will be able to gain the benefit of public participation in the impact statement process...

  8. 22 CFR 34.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Federal agency, any foreign country or any political subdivision thereof, or any public international... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 34.2 Section 34.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 34.2 Scope. (a) Except as...

  9. 22 CFR 212.21 - Public records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public records. 212.21 Section 212.21 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC INFORMATION Availability of Information for Public Inspection and Copying § 212.21 Public records. In accordance with this subpart, USAID makes the following...

  10. 22 CFR 203.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 203.1 Section 203.1 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT REGISTRATION OF PRIVATE VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS (PVOs) § 203.1... enable registered PVOs to make any representation to the public concerning the meaning of being...

  11. 22 CFR 133.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual. 133.655 Section 133.655 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 133.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person. ...

  12. 22 CFR 1008.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Individual. 1008.655 Section 1008.655 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1008.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person. ...

  13. 22 CFR 210.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual. 210.655 Section 210.655 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person. ...

  14. 22 CFR 312.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Individual. 312.655 Section 312.655 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person. ...

  15. 22 CFR 1509.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Individual. 1509.655 Section 1509.655 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person. ...

  16. 22 CFR 226.70 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 226.70 Section 226.70 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS After-the-Award Requirements § 226.70 Purpose. Sections 226.71 through 226.73 contain closeout...

  17. 22 CFR 226.90 - Disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disputes. 226.90 Section 226.90 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Miscellaneous § 226.90 Disputes. (a) Any dispute under or relating to a grant or agreement shall...

  18. 22 CFR 226.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 226.31 Section 226.31 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients...

  19. 22 CFR 226.52 - Financial reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial reporting. 226.52 Section 226.52 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Reports and Records § 226.52 Financial reporting. USAID...

  20. 22 CFR 226.4 - Deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deviations. 226.4 Section 226.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS General § 226.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for...

  1. 22 CFR 226.32 - Real property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real property. 226.32 Section 226.32 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.32 Real property. (a) Unless the agreement...

  2. 22 CFR 226.47 - Contract administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contract administration. 226.47 Section 226.47 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.47 Contract administration. A...

  3. 22 CFR 226.71 - Closeout procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Closeout procedures. 226.71 Section 226.71 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS After-the-Award Requirements § 226.71 Closeout procedures. (a) Recipients shall...

  4. 22 CFR 226.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 226.43 Section 226.43 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.43 Competition. All procurement transactions...

  5. 22 CFR 226.41 - Recipient responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recipient responsibilities. 226.41 Section 226.41 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.41 Recipient...

  6. 22 CFR 226.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procurement records. 226.46 Section 226.46 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.46 Procurement records...

  7. 22 CFR 226.48 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contract provisions. 226.48 Section 226.48 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.48 Contract provisions. The...

  8. 22 CFR 226.10 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 226.10 Section 226.10 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-award Requirements § 226.10 Purpose. Sections 226.11 through 226.17 prescribe forms and...

  9. 22 CFR 1421.15 - Secret ballot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Secret ballot. 1421.15 Section 1421.15 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.15 Secret ballot. Secret ballot means the expression by ballot, voting machine...

  10. 8-EEASA-Vol 22.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jenny

    2006-02-22

    Feb 22, 2006 ... My aim here is to introduce the concept of musement (retroduction ... unsolvable ethical problems in the use of IK in environmental education ... culture' is life threatening when it is used to deny women the right to insist that their partners wear ..... 12 For a critique of the relativism of some epistemologies with ...

  11. 22 CFR 120.20 - License.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false License. 120.20 Section 120.20 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.20 License. License means a document bearing the word “license” issued by the Directorate of Defense Trade...

  12. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is satisfied...

  13. 22 CFR 126.3 - Exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exceptions. 126.3 Section 126.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS GENERAL POLICIES AND PROVISIONS... of the United States Government, the Director, Office of Defense Trade Controls may make an exception...

  14. 22 CFR 901.19 - Labor organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labor organization. 901.19 Section 901.19 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD GENERAL Meanings of Terms As Used in This Chapter § 901.19 Labor organization. Labor organization means any employee organization accorded recognition as the...

  15. 22 CFR 1300.2 - Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Organization. 1300.2 Section 1300.2 Foreign Relations MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS OF THE MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION § 1300.2 Organization. (a) MCC's Board consists of: (1) The Secretary of State, the Secretary of...

  16. 48 CFR 22.1502 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Prohibition of Acquisition of Products Produced by Forced or Indentured Child Labor 22.1502 Policy. Agencies must take appropriate action to enforce the laws... or in part by forced or indentured child labor (19 U.S.C. 1307, 29 U.S.C. 201, et seq., and 41 U.S.C...

  17. 48 CFR 22.1501 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Produced by Forced or Indentured Child Labor 22.1501 Definitions. As used in this subpart— Forced or... Forced or Indentured Child Labor means the list published by the Department of Labor in accordance with... manufactured by forced or indentured child labor. ...

  18. 22 CFR 309.1 - General purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true General purpose. 309.1 Section 309.1 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 309.1 General purpose. This part prescribes the procedures to be used by the United States Peace Corps (Peace Corps) in the collection and/or disposal of non...

  19. 22 CFR 92.60 - Examination procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examination procedures. 92.60 Section 92.60... and Letters Rogatory § 92.60 Examination procedures. (a) Explaining interrogatory to witness. If the... examination of a witness propound such inquiries as may be necessary to satisfy himself whether the witness is...

  20. 22 CFR 41.108 - Medical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical examination. 41.108 Section 41.108... AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Application for Nonimmigrant Visa § 41.108 Medical examination. (a) Requirements for medical examination. An applicant for a nonimmigrant visa shall be required to take a medical...

  1. 22 CFR 42.66 - Medical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical examination. 42.66 Section 42.66... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Application for Immigrant Visas § 42.66 Medical examination. (a) Medical examination required of all applicants. Before the issuance of an immigrant visa, the consular officer shall...

  2. 22 CFR 92.37 - Authentication procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authentication procedure. 92.37 Section 92.37... Notarial Acts § 92.37 Authentication procedure. (a) The consular officer must compare the foreign official...) Where the State law requires the consular officer's certificate of authentication to show that the...

  3. 22 CFR 92.36 - Authentication defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authentication defined. 92.36 Section 92.36... Notarial Acts § 92.36 Authentication defined. An authentication is a certification of the genuineness of... recognized in another jurisdiction. Documents which may require authentication include legal instruments...

  4. 28 CFR 22.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... is obtained for purposes directly related to enforcement of the criminal laws. (d) Research or... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CONFIDENTIALITY OF IDENTIFIABLE RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.2... capacity. (c) Research or statistical project means any program, project, or component thereof which is...

  5. 13 CFR 143.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 143.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of...

  6. 29 CFR 97.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. [53 FR 8069, 8087... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 97.22 Allowable costs. (a... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...

  7. 38 CFR 43.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may... the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a...

  8. 29 CFR 1470.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 1470.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of...

  9. 40 CFR 31.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Requirements Financial Administration § 31.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may... the grantee or sub-grantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a...

  10. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 80.22... kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. For the...

  11. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 13.22 Allowable costs. (a... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...

  12. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 92.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of...

  13. 49 CFR 18.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 18.22... cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining...

  14. 7 CFR 3016.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 3016.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use...

  15. 45 CFR 1157.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1157.22... cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining...

  16. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs. (a... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...

  17. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1207.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...

  18. 32 CFR 33.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 33.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of... allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...

  19. 22 CFR 208.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 208.920 Section 208.920 Foreign...) Definitions § 208.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under...

  20. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under...

  1. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under...

  2. 10 CFR 503.22 - Site limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Temporary Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.22... certify in order to qualify for this exemption include: (i) Inaccessability of alternate fuels as a result... fuels; (iii) Unavailability of adequate land or facilities for handling, using, or storing an alternate...

  3. 22 CFR 120.10 - Technical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... information in the public domain as defined in § 120.11. It also does not include basic marketing information... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Technical data. 120.10 Section 120.10 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.10...

  4. 29 CFR 22.24 - Protective order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 22.24 Protective order. (a) A party or a prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by... more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on...

  5. 48 CFR 22.001 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS 22.001 Definitions. Administrator or... representative. e98 means the Department of Labor's approved electronic application (http://www.wdol.gov...Line (WDOL) means the Government Internet Web site for both Davis-Bacon Act and Service Contract Act...

  6. 48 CFR 22.608 - Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act 22.608 Procedures. (a) Award. When a contract subject to the Act is awarded, the contracting officer, in accordance with... to the contractor DOL publication WH-1313, Notice to Employees Working on Government Contracts. (b...

  7. 22 CFR 95.3 - Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures. 95.3 Section 95.3 Foreign Relations... torture are made or the issue is otherwise brought to the Department's attention, appropriate policy and... Secretary as to whether or not to sign the surrender warrant. (b) Based on the resulting analysis of...

  8. 22 CFR 1203.735-101 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONDUCT General Provisions § 1203.735-101 Purpose. The maintenance of the highest standards of honesty... reporting employment and financial interests. Note: These regulations are codified in State 3 FAM 620, AID... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Purpose. 1203.735-101 Section 1203.735-101...

  9. 22 CFR 217.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.4 Section 217.4... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 217.4 Discrimination... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  10. 22 CFR 142.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.11 Section 142... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.11 Discrimination... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. (2) A...

  11. 22 CFR 142.15 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.15 Section 142... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 142.15 Discrimination... be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which the part applies. ...

  12. 22 CFR 217.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.21 Section 217... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities within the... excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  13. 22 CFR 142.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.4 Section 142.4... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 142.4 Discrimination... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  14. 22 CFR 217.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.11 Section 217... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which this part applies. (2) A...

  15. 22 CFR 42.33 - Diversity immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diversity immigrants. 42.33 Section 42.33 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Immigrants Subject to Numerical Limitations § 42.33 Diversity immigrants. (a...

  16. 22 CFR 225.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 225.102 Section 225.102 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 225.102 Definitions. (a... includes communication or interpersonal contact between investigator and subject. “Private information...

  17. 22 CFR 102.8 - Reporting accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting accidents. 102.8 Section 102.8... Accidents Abroad § 102.8 Reporting accidents. (a) To airline and Civil Aeronautics Administration... probably be the first to be informed of the accident, in which event he will be expected to report the...

  18. Expression of human PTPN22 alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C; Barington, T; Husby, S

    2007-01-01

    -stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from non-pregnant female subjects, male subjects or pregnant female subjects in first or third trimester (P=0.70), respectively. While the transcription of PTPN22 in anti-CD3/anti-CD28 stimulated PBMCs increased fourfold (P

  19. 16-EEASA-Vol 22.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jenny

    2006-02-22

    Feb 22, 2006 ... If, however, there are times when taking a risk pays off, this was certainly one of them. I can't say it was not a demanding experience; the feedback. I received reflected the plurality of views that environmental education research can generate. On one hand there were contributions that complemented the ...

  20. 45 CFR 84.22 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 84.22 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate its program or activity so that when each part is..., welfare, or other social services at alternate accessible sites, alteration of existing facilities and...

  1. 22 CFR 171.31 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 171.31 Section 171.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACCESS TO INFORMATION AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION AND RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC... Department, including, but not limited to education, financial transactions, medical history, and criminal or...

  2. 22 CFR 1503.1 - Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Authority. 1503.1 Section 1503.1 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION OFFICIAL SEAL § 1503.1 Authority. Pursuant to section 506(a)(3) of Pub. L. 96-533, the African Development Foundation official seal and design thereof, which accompanies...

  3. 22 CFR 301.1 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 301.1 Section 301.1 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS PUBLIC ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED MATERIAL § 301.1 Introduction. The following regulations implement Executive Order 12356 and provide guidance for members of the public desiring a review for...

  4. 22 CFR 3.7 - Decorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decorations. 3.7 Section 3.7 Foreign Relations... Office of Congressional and Public Liaison (for domestic employees), and by the Director of Area Offices... designated depository office of the employing agency a request for review of the case. This request should...

  5. 22 CFR 62.77 - Reinstatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reinstatement. 62.77 Section 62.77 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange.... (4) The Department will review the request. If approved, the Department will enter the approval in...

  6. 22 CFR 171.21 - Declassification review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declassification review. 171.21 Section 171.21 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACCESS TO INFORMATION AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION AND RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC Executive Order 12958 Provisions § 171.21 Declassification review. (a) Scope. All information...

  7. 22 CFR 161.2 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policy. 161.2 Section 161.2 Foreign Relations... environmental review procedures with the Department's decisionmaking process; (d) Invite and facilitate, when appropriate, Federal, State and local governmental authorities and public involvement in decisions which...

  8. 22 CFR 229.510 - Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recruitment. 229.510 Section 229.510 Foreign... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.510 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring...

  9. 22 CFR 146.510 - Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recruitment. 146.510 Section 146.510 Foreign... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.510 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees...

  10. 22 CFR 146.310 - Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recruitment. 146.310 Section 146.310 Foreign... Recruitment Prohibited § 146.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which §§ 146.300 through 146.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and admission...

  11. 22 CFR 229.310 - Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recruitment. 229.310 Section 229.310 Foreign... and Recruitment Prohibited § 229.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which §§ 229.300 through 229.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and...

  12. 15 CFR 8b.22 - Academic adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... actions. Recipients need not provide attendants, individually prescribed devices, readers for personal use... Secondary Education § 8b.22 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this..., against a qualified handicapped applicant or student. Academic requirements that the recipient can...

  13. 22 CFR 1507.13 - Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reports. 1507.13 Section 1507.13 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION RULES SAFEGUARDING PERSONAL INFORMATION § 1507.13 Reports. (a) The... to establish or alter any system or records as defined herein. This report will be submitted in...

  14. 22 CFR 1003.10 - Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reports. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION RULES SAFEGUARDING PERSONAL INFORMATION IN IAF RECORDS § 1003.10 Reports... or systems will be separately listed and reported to the Office of Management and Budget in...

  15. 22 CFR 228.34 - Joint ventures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Joint ventures. 228.34 Section 228.34 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND NATIONALITY FOR COMMODITIES AND... Financing § 228.34 Joint ventures. A joint venture or unincorporated association is eligible only if each of...

  16. 22 CFR 145.24 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 145.24 Section 145.24 Foreign....24 Program income. (a) The Department shall apply the standards set forth in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income related to projects financed in whole or in...

  17. 22 CFR 518.24 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Program income. 518.24 Section 518.24 Foreign... Financial and Program Management § 518.24 Program income. (a) Federal awarding agencies shall apply the standards set forth in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income...

  18. 22 CFR 135.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 135.25 Section 135.25 Foreign... income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or personal property...

  19. 22 CFR 910.6 - Pending grievances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Pending grievances. 910.6 Section 910.6 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD MISCELLANEOUS § 910.6 Pending grievances. Any grievance pending before the Board prior to February 15, 1981 shall be resolved under the provisions of the Foreign Service...

  20. 22 CFR 62.27 - Alien physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alien physicians. 62.27 Section 62.27 Foreign... Provisions § 62.27 Alien physicians. (a) Purpose. Pursuant to the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange... Foreign Medical Graduates must sponsor alien physicians who wish to pursue programs of graduate medical...

  1. 22 CFR 209.6 - Compliance information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compliance information. 209.6 Section 209.6... § 209.6 Compliance information. (a) Cooperation and assistance. The Administrator shall to the fullest... and accurate compliance reports at such times, and in such form and containing such information, as...

  2. 22 CFR 61.9 - General information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General information. 61.9 Section 61.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES WORLD-WIDE FREE FLOW OF AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS § 61.9 General information. General information and application forms may be obtained by writing to the...

  3. 22 CFR 141.5 - Compliance information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compliance information. 141.5 Section 141.5... DEPARTMENT OF STATE-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 141.5 Compliance information... such information, as a responsible Departmental official or his designee may determine to be necessary...

  4. 22 CFR 171.13 - Business information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business information. 171.13 Section 171.13 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACCESS TO INFORMATION AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION AND RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC Freedom of Information Act Provisions § 171.13 Business information. (a) Business information...

  5. 22 CFR 126.13 - Required information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Required information. 126.13 Section 126.13... PROVISIONS § 126.13 Required information. (a) All applications for licenses (DSP-5, DSP-61, DSP-73, and DSP... are multiple consignors, consignees or freight forwarders, and all the required information cannot be...

  6. 22 CFR 312.665 - State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true State. 312.665 Section 312.665 Foreign Relations....665 State. State means any of the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any territory or possession of the United States. ...

  7. 22 CFR 1508.1005 - State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true State. 1508.1005 Section 1508.1005 Foreign...) Definitions § 1508.1005 State. (a) State means— (1) Any of the states of the United States; (2) The District... States; or (5) Any agency or instrumentality of a state. (b) For purposes of this part, State does not...

  8. 22 CFR 1509.665 - State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true State. 1509.665 Section 1509.665 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.665 State. State means any of the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any territory or possession of the United States. ...

  9. 22 CFR 210.665 - State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State. 210.665 Section 210.665 Foreign... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.665 State. State means any of the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any territory or possession of the United States. ...

  10. 22 CFR 133.665 - State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State. 133.665 Section 133.665 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 133.665 State. State means any of the States of the United States, the District of...

  11. 22 CFR 1008.665 - State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true State. 1008.665 Section 1008.665 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1008.665 State. State means any of the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any territory or possession of the United States. ...

  12. 22 CFR 1006.1005 - State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true State. 1006.1005 Section 1006.1005 Foreign... § 1006.1005 State. (a) State means— (1) Any of the states of the United States; (2) The District of Columbia; (3) The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico; (4) Any territory or possession of the United States; or (5...

  13. 22 CFR 208.1005 - State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State. 208.1005 Section 208.1005 Foreign...) Definitions § 208.1005 State. (a) State means— (1) Any of the states of the United States; (2) The District of Columbia; (3) The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico; (4) Any territory or possession of the United States; or (5...

  14. 22 CFR 146.405 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing. 146.405 Section 146.405 Foreign... Activities Prohibited § 146.405 Housing. (a) Generally. A recipient shall not, on the basis of sex, apply... benefits related to housing, except as provided in this section (including housing provided only to married...

  15. 22 CFR 142.45 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing. 142.45 Section 142.45 Foreign... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 142.45 Housing. (a) Housing provided by the recipient. A recipient that provides housing to its nonhandicapped students shall provide...

  16. 22 CFR 217.45 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing. 217.45 Section 217.45 Foreign... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 217.45 Housing. (a) Housing provided by the recipient. A recipient that provides housing to its nonhandicapped students shall provide...

  17. 22 CFR 229.405 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing. 229.405 Section 229.405 Foreign... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.405 Housing. (a) Generally. A recipient shall not, on the basis of... services or benefits related to housing, except as provided in this section (including housing provided...

  18. 22 CFR 902.3 - Board staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Board staff. 902.3 Section 902.3 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION § 902.3 Board staff. The chairperson shall select the Board's executive secretary and other staff provided for in the Act. The executive secretary and staff...

  19. 22 CFR 521.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definitions. 521.2 Section 521.2 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 521.2... accounting or bookkeeping entry made— (1) With respect to a claim or to obtain the approval or payment of a...

  20. 22 CFR 35.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 35.2 Section 35.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 35.2 Definitions. (a..., record, or accounting or bookkeeping entry made— (1) With respect to a claim or to obtain the approval or...

  1. 22 CFR 224.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 224.2 Section 224.2 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 224..., or accounting or bookkeeping entry made— (a) With respect to a claim or to obtain the approval or...

  2. 22 CFR 711.140 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Employment. 711.140 Section 711.140 Foreign... CORPORATION § 711.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be subject to discrimination in employment under any program or activity conducted by the agency. The...

  3. 22 CFR 1600.140 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Employment. 1600.140 Section 1600.140 Foreign... Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity conducted by the agency. The definitions, requirements...

  4. 22 CFR 229.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 229.500 Section 229.500 Foreign... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall...

  5. 22 CFR 1005.140 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Employment. 1005.140 Section 1005.140 Foreign... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION § 1005.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or...

  6. 22 CFR 219.140 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 219.140 Section 219.140 Foreign... DEVELOPMENT § 219.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity conducted by the agency. The...

  7. 22 CFR 530.140 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Employment. 530.140 Section 530.140 Foreign... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS § 530.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any...

  8. 22 CFR 1701.140 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Employment. 1701.140 Section 1701.140 Foreign... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE § 1701.140 Employment. No... employment under any program or activity conducted by the agency. The definitions, requirements, and...

  9. 22 CFR 1103.140 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Employment. 1103.140 Section 1103.140 Foreign... BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION § 1103.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment...

  10. 22 CFR 62.16 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 62.16 Section 62.16 Foreign... § 62.16 Employment. (a) An exchange visitor may receive compensation from the sponsor or the sponsor's appropriate designee for employment when such activities are part of the exchange visitor's program. (b) An...

  11. 22 CFR 1510.140 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Employment. 1510.140 Section 1510.140 Foreign... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION § 1510.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be subject to discrimination in employment under...

  12. 22 CFR 144.140 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 144.140 Section 144.140 Foreign... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF STATE § 144.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment...

  13. 22 CFR 146.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 146.500 Section 146.500 Foreign... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the...

  14. 22 CFR 146.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising. 146.540 Section 146.540 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising...

  15. 22 CFR 229.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising. 229.540 Section 229.540 Foreign... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification, or discrimination based on...

  16. 27 CFR 22.102 - Prohibited uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-free alcohol. A separate charge may be made by a hospital, sanitarium or clinic for medicines... and 22.106. Hospitals may not furnish tax-free alcohol for use of physicians in their private practice....106, clinics operated for charity and not for profit may compound bona fide medicines with tax-free...

  17. 22 CFR 96.31 - Corporate structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corporate structure. 96.31 Section 96.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF... Approval Licensing and Corporate Governance § 96.31 Corporate structure. (a) The agency qualifies for...

  18. 22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71.12... Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the following general criteria: (1) An evaluation by a...

  19. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this subchapter...

  20. 22 CFR 513.605 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definitions. 513.605 Section 513.605 Foreign... does not include workers not on the payroll of the grantee (e.g., volunteers, even if used to meet a... instead of money, or other assistance in the form of loans, loan guarantees, interest subsidies, insurance...

  1. 22 CFR 521.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Discovery. 521.21 Section 521.21 Foreign... Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for... interpreted to require the creation of a document. (c) Unless mutually agreed to by the parties, discovery is...

  2. 22 CFR 128.6 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 128.6 Section 128.6 Foreign... Discovery. (a) Discovery by the respondent. The respondent, through the Administrative Law Judge, may... discovery if the interests of national security or foreign policy so require, or if necessary to comply with...

  3. 22 CFR 35.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 35.21 Section 35.21 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 35.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for...

  4. 22 CFR 224.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 224.21 Section 224.21 Foreign....21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of... parties, discovery is available only as ordered by the ALJ. The ALJ shall regulate the timing of discovery...

  5. 22 CFR 120.9 - Defense service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense service. 120.9 Section 120.9 Foreign... Defense service. (a) Defense service means: (1) The furnishing of assistance (including training) to..., educational, or information publications and media of all kinds, training aid, orientation, training exercise...

  6. 22 CFR 706.11 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... request. This regulation does not apply to requests for records under the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. 552a. OPIC's regulations governing Privacy Act requests are located at 22 CFR part 707. (d) OPIC Internet site. OPIC maintains an Internet site at www.opic.gov. This site contains information on OPIC functions...

  7. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of...

  8. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the United...

  9. 22 CFR 230.16 - Governing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 230.16 Section 230.16 Foreign... SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUB. L. 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of...

  10. 22 CFR 204.43 - Governing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 204.43 Section 204.43 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Administration § 204.43 Governing law. This Guaranty shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of...

  11. The Danish 22q11 research initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmock, Henriette; Vangkilde, Anders; Larsen, Kit Melissa

    2015-01-01

    mechanisms may come from studies of subjects with homogenous etiologies. Breakthroughs in psychiatric genetics have shown that several genetic anomalies predispose for neurodevelopmental brain disorders. We have established a Danish research initiative to study the common microdeletion at chromosome 22q11...

  12. 22 CFR 216.5 - Endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endangered species. 216.5 Section 216.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCEDURES § 216.5 Endangered species. It is A... endangered or threatened species and their critical habitats. The Initial Environmental Examination for each...

  13. 22 CFR 34.10 - Collection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collection methods. 34.10 Section 34.10 Foreign... Collection methods. Upon completion of notice and provision of all due process rights as listed in 34.8(b) of... collect the debt by one or more of the following methods: (a) Administrative offset. (1) Payments...

  14. 45 CFR 74.22 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND SUBAWARDS TO INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 74.22 Payment. (a) Unless... transfer of funds and disbursement by the recipient; and (ii) Financial management systems that meet the...

  15. 45 CFR 2543.22 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.22 Payment. (a) Payment methods shall minimize the time... and disbursement by the recipient, and (2) Financial management systems that meet the standards for...

  16. 28 CFR 70.22 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (INCLUDING SUBAWARDS) WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.22 Payment. (a) Payment methods must... transfer of funds and disbursement by the recipient, and financial management systems that meet the...

  17. 38 CFR 49.22 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 49.22 Payment. (a... elapsing between the transfer of funds and disbursement by the recipient, and financial management systems...

  18. 15 CFR 14.22 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.22 Payment. (a) Payment methods... transfer of funds and disbursement by the recipient, and financial management systems that meet the...

  19. 40 CFR 30.22 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 30.22 Payment. (a... time elapsing between the transfer of funds and disbursement by the recipient; and financial management...

  20. 22 CFR 16.12 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hearing. 16.12 Section 16.12 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.12 Hearing. (a) Appearances and... reasonable number of agency representatives, are entitled to be present at the hearing. The Grievance Board...

  1. 22 CFR 142.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 142.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 142.1 Section 142.1 Foreign Relations... the basis of handicap in any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. ...

  2. 25 CFR 141.22 - Subleasing prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.22 Subleasing prohibited. No licensee may lease, sublet, rent, or sell any building that the licensee occupies for any purpose to any person...

  3. 22 CFR 217.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 217.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 217.1 Section 217.1 Foreign Relations... the basis of handicap in any program or activity within the United States receiving Federal financial...

  4. 22 CFR 17.5 - Financial hardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Considerations. Some pertinent considerations in determining whether recovery would cause financial hardship are... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial hardship. 17.5 Section 17.5 Foreign... SYSTEM (FSPS) § 17.5 Financial hardship. (a) Waiver of overpayment will not be allowed in any case prior...

  5. 22 CFR 17.3 - Fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fault. 17.3 Section 17.3 Foreign Relations...) § 17.3 Fault. A recipient of an overpayment is without fault if he or she performed no act of... agency may have been at fault in initiating an overpayment will not necessarily relieve the individual...

  6. 22 CFR 217.14 - Preemployment inquiries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preemployment inquiries. 217.14 Section 217.14 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN... inquiries. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, a recipient may not conduct a...

  7. 22 CFR 191.21 - Applicable benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable benefits. 191.21 Section 191.21 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF HOSTAGE RELIEF ASSISTANCE Medical Benefits § 191.21 Applicable benefits. A person eligible for benefits under this part shall be eligible for authorized medical...

  8. 22 CFR 192.31 - Applicable benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable benefits. 192.31 Section 192.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Medical Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.31 Applicable benefits. A person eligible for benefits under this part...

  9. 22 CFR 229.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fringe benefits. 229.525 Section 229.525... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital...

  10. 22 CFR 192.52 - Disability benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disability benefits. 192.52 Section 192.52... Disability or Death § 192.52 Disability benefits. (a) Principals who qualify for benefits under § 192.1 and... benefits may not be received from both OWCP and the local organizational authority for the same claim...

  11. 22 CFR 192.21 - Applicable benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable benefits. 192.21 Section 192.21... Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act to Captive Situations § 192.21 Applicable benefits. (a) Eligible persons are entitled to the benefits provided by the Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act of 1940 (50 U...

  12. 22 CFR 191.11 - Applicable benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable benefits. 191.11 Section 191.11...' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act § 191.11 Applicable benefits. (a) Eligible persons are entitled to the benefits provided by the Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act of 1940 (50 U.S.C. App. 501, et seq...

  13. 22 CFR 20.4 - Retirement benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retirement benefits. 20.4 Section 20.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN FORMER SPOUSES § 20.4 Retirement benefits. (a) Type of benefits. (1) A former spouse who meets the qualification requirements of § 20.3 is entitled to...

  14. 22 CFR 20.5 - Survivor benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Survivor benefits. 20.5 Section 20.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN FORMER SPOUSES § 20.5 Survivor benefits. (a) Type of benefits. A former spouse who meets the eligibility requirements of § 20.3 is entitled to...

  15. 22 CFR 146.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fringe benefits. 146.525 Section 146.525... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital...

  16. 22 CFR 19.11 - Survivor benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Survivor benefits. 19.11 Section 19.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR SPOUSES AND FORMER SPOUSES OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.11 Survivor benefits. ...

  17. 22 CFR 192.11 - Applicable benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable benefits. 192.11 Section 192.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Payment of Salary and Other Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.11 Applicable benefits. (a) Captives are entitled to...

  18. 32 CFR 644.22 - Site selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and site boards should be informed of any available lands, including marginal lands in civil works... HANDBOOK Project Planning Military (army and Air Force) and Other Federal Agencies § 644.22 Site selection... Engineer to prepare a Real Estate Planning Report or Real Estate Summary, making reference to the prior...

  19. 22 CFR 8.2 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policy. 8.2 Section 8.2 Foreign Relations... solely for advisory functions and any decision taken pursuant to the advice or recommendation of an... advisory committees will be open to the public unless there is a compelling reason which requires...

  20. 48 CFR 22.401 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 22.401 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC...). Laborers or mechanics—(1) Means— (i) Workers, utilized by a contractor or subcontractor at any tier, whose duties are manual or physical in nature (including those workers who use tools or who are performing the...