WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon 17

  1. Weight Percentage of Calcium Carbonate for 17 Equatorial Pacific Cores from Brown University

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weight percentages of calcium carbonate in this file were compiled by J. Farrell and W. L. Prell of Brown University for 17 equatorial Pacific Ocean sediment cores....

  2. The abundance of atomic carbon near the ionization fronts in M17 and S140

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, J.; Blake, G. A.; Phillips, T. G.; Huggins, P. J.; Beichman, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The 492 GHz ground-state line of atomic carbon in the edge-on ionization fronts in M17 and S140 were observed. It was found that, contrary to expectation, the C I emission peaks farther into the molecular cloud from the ionization front than does the CO. In fact the peak C I abundance in M17 occurs more than 60 mag of visual extinction into the cloud from the ionization front. Calculations of the ratio of C I to CO column densities yield values of 0.1-0.2. These observations do not support chemical models which predict that neutral atomic carbon should be found only near the edges of molelcular clouds. Other models are discussed which may explain the observations.

  3. Demonstration of a 17 cm robust carbon fiber deformable mirror for adaptive optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammons, S M; Hart, M; Coughenour, B; Romeo, R; Martin, R; Rademacher, M

    2011-09-12

    Carbon-fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite is an attractive material for fabrication of optics due to its high stiffness-to-weight ratio, robustness, zero coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), and the ability to replicate multiple optics from the same mandrel. We use 8 and 17 cm prototype CFRP thin-shell deformable mirrors to show that residual CTE variation may be addressed with mounted actuators for a variety of mirror sizes. We present measurements of surface quality at a range of temperatures characteristic of mountaintop observatories. For the 8 cm piece, the figure error of the Al-coated reflective surface under best actuator correction is {approx}43 nm RMS. The 8 cm mirror has a low surface error internal to the outer ring of actuators (17 nm RMS at 20 C and 33 nm RMS at -5 C). Surface roughness is low (< 3 nm P-V) at a variety of temperatures. We present new figure quality measurements of the larger 17 cm mirror, showing that the intra-actuator figure error internal to the outer ring of actuators (38 nm RMS surface with one-third the actuator density of the 8 cm mirror) does not scale sharply with mirror diameter.

  4. Removal of an endocrine disrupting chemical (17 alpha-ethinyloestradiol) from wastewater effluent by activated carbon adsorption: Effects of activated carbon type and competitive adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ifelebuegu, A.O.; Lester, J.N.; Churchley, J.; Cartmell, E. [Cranfield University, Cranfield (United Kingdom). School of Water Science

    2006-12-15

    Granular activated carbon has been extensively used for the adsorption of organic micropollutants for potable water production. In this study the removal of an endocrine disrupting chemical from wastewater final effluent by three types of granular activated carbon (wood, coconut and coal based) has been investigated in batch adsorption experiments and correlated with the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC) and ultraviolet absorbance (UV). The results obtained demonstrated 17 alpha-ethinyloestradiol (EE2) removals of 98.6%, 99.3%, and 96.4% were achieved by the coal based (ACo), coconut based (ACn) and wood based (AWd) carbons respectively at the lowest dose of carbon (0.1 gl{sup -1}). The other adsorbates investigated all exhibited good removal. At an equilibrium concentration of 7 mgl{sup -1} the COD adsorption capacities were 3.16 mg g{sup -1}, 4.8 mg g{sup -1} and 7.1 mg g{sup -1} for the wood, coconut and coal based carbons respectively. Overall, the order of removal efficiency of EE2 and the other adsorbates for the three activated carbons was ACn {gt} ACo {gt} AWd. The adsorption capacities of the carbons were found to be reduced by the effects of other competing adsorbates in the wastewater effluent.

  5. Influence of aeration and carbon source on production of microcin B17 by Escherichia coli ZK650.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, A; Demain, A L

    1997-05-01

    Previous studies [Connell et al. (1987) Mol Microbiol 1: 195-201] have shown that expression of the microcin B17 (MccB17) promoter is inversely related to the growth rate of the culture, when slower growth was brought about by limitation of sources of carbon, nitrogen or phosphorus. When we used oxygen limitation to decrease growth in a glucose-based chemically defined medium, we found specific MccB17 production to be positively related to growth rate and extent. On the other hand, when we examined various nutritional variations of media, specific production of MccB17 showed a negative relationship to growth rate and extent, as would be predicted by the findings of Connell et al. (1987). Glucose, glycerol and acetate were found to repress MccB17 production; succinate was not repressive. Succinate is an excellent carbon source for production of MccB17 since high levels can be used with no or little interference in product synthesis.

  6. Effects of oxygen and carbon on the magnetic properties and microstructure of Sm2Co17 permanent magnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Jianjun; ZHANG Shengen; QU Xuanhui

    2007-01-01

    The research on the sintered Sm2Co17 permanent magnets prepared by metal injection molding is still at the exploratory stage. Carbon and oxygen are two key factors that influence the magnetic properties. In this article, the effects of oxygen and carbon on the properties and microstructure of the magnets have been studied. The results indicate that oxygen consumes the effective Sm content of the magnets and forms Sm2O3-the non-magnetism phase, which result in the deterioration of the magnetic properties. Besides, the magnetic properties decrease in evidence with increasing carbon content. The main factor that affects the magnetic properties is the deterioration of the microstructure of the magnets. The Sm(Co, Cu)5 phase decreases, whereas the cell size increases with the increase of the carbon content. When the carbon content is above 0.43 wt.%, the Sm(Co, Cu)5 phase is not enough to form a uniform cellular microstructure. Thus the magnetic properties disappear. ZrC is detected in the magnets by XRD when the carbon content is above 0.21 wt.%. ZrC also reduces the properties of the magnets.

  7. 2012 CHEMISTRY & PHYSICS OF GRAPHITIC CARBON MATERIALS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JUNE 17-22, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fertig, Herbert

    2012-06-22

    This conference will highlight the urgency for research on graphitic carbon materials and gather scientists in physics, chemistry, and engineering to tackle the challenges in this field. The conference will focus on scalable synthesis, characterization, novel physical and electronic properties, structure-properties relationship studies, and new applications of the carbon materials. Contributors

  8. Hydroxylation at carbon-2 of ent-16-oxo-17-norkauran-19-oic acid by Fusarium proliferatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Alessandra Duarte; dos Santos, Geandson Coelho; Fernandes, Nelson Gonçalves; Pfenning, Ludwig Heinrich; Takahashi, Jacqueline Aparecida; Boaventura, Maria Amélia Diamantino

    2010-08-27

    A new product of biotransformation of ent-16-oxo-17-norkauran-19-oic acid (1) by Fusarium proliferatum was isolated and identified as a 2beta-hydroxy derivative (2). The structure of 2 was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The allelopathic activity of compound 2 was evaluated on the growth of radicals and shoots of Lactuca sativa (lettuce). This is the first time that fungal hydroxylation at position C-2 has been reported on an ent-kaurane diterpene skeleton.

  9. Indigenous Carbon Embedded in Apollo 17 Black Volcanic Glass Surface Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Ross, D. K.; Le, L.; Gonzalez, C.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of indigenous organic matter in returned lunar samples was one of the primary scientific goals of the Apollo program. The levels of such organic material were expected to be and found to be small. Previous work on this topic includes Murphy et al. [1] who reported the presence of anthropogenic organics with sub-ppm concentrations in Apollo 11 fines. In Apollo 12 samples, Preti et al. [2] detected low levels, < 10 ppb or below, of more complex organic material that may have been synthesized by abrupt heating during analysis. Kvenvolden et al. [3] detected porphyrin-like pigments at the ng to pg level in an Apollo 11 bulk sample. Hodgson et al. [4] and Ponnamperuma et al. [5] suggested that most if not all porphyrins were synthesized from rocket fuel during module landing. Chang et al. [6] reported indigenous carbon ranging from 5-20 g/g in the form of metal carbides in Apollo 11 fines. Hare et al. [7] reported amino acids at he 50 ng/g level in Apollo 11 samples but suggested the results may be explained as contamination. More recently, Clemett et al. [8] reported simple polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at concentrations of < 1ppm in an Apollo 16 soil. Low concentrations of lunar organics may be a consequence not only of its paucity, but also its heterogeneous distribution. If the sample size required for a measurement is large relative to the localization of organics, detection is limited not by ultimate sensitivity but rather by the ability to distinguish an indigenous signature from background contamination [9].

  10. Analysis and theoretical modeling of 18O enriched carbon dioxide spectrum by CRDS near 1.35 μm: (II) 16O13C18O, 16O13C17O, 12C18O2, 17O12C18O, 12C17O2, 13C18O2 and 17O13C18O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlovets, E. V.; Campargue, A.; Kassi, S.; Tashkun, S. A.; Perevalov, V. I.

    2017-04-01

    This contribution is the second part of the analysis of the room temperature absorption spectrum of 18O enriched carbon dioxide by very high sensitivity Cavity Ring Down spectroscopy between 6977 and 7918 cm-1 (1.43-1.26 μm). Overall, more than 8600 lines belonging to 166 bands of eleven carbon dioxide isotopologues were rovibrationnally assigned. In a first part (Kassi et al. J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 187 (2017) 414-425, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jqsrt.2016.09.002), the results relative to mono-substituted isotopologues, 16O12C18O, 16O12C17O, 12C16O2 and 13C16O2, were presented. This second contribution is devoted to the multiply-substituted isotopologues or clumped isotopologues of particular importance in geochemistry: 16O13C18O, 16O13C17O, 12C18O2, 17O12C18O, 12C17O2, 13C18O2 and 17O13C18O. On the basis of the predictions of effective Hamiltonian models, a total of 3195 transitions belonging to 73 bands were rovibrationnally assigned for these seven species. Among the 73 observed bands, 55 are newly reported. All the identified bands correspond to ΔP=10 and 11 series of transitions, where P= 2V1+V2+3V3 is the polyad number (Vi are vibrational quantum numbers). The accurate spectroscopic parameters of 70 bands have been determined from the standard band-by-band analysis. Global fits of the measured line intensities of the ΔP=10 series of transitions of 17O12C18O and 16O13C18O and of the ΔP=11 series of transitions of 12C18O2, 17O12C18O, 16O13C18O and 13C18O2 were performed to determine the corresponding sets of the effective dipole moment parameters.

  11. Removal of arsenate and 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) by iron (hydr)oxide modified activated carbon fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristovski, Kiril D; Nguyen, Hanhphuc; Westerhoff, Paul K

    2009-03-01

    Activated carbon fibers (ACF) were modified with iron (hydr)oxide and studied to determine their suitability to remove arsenate and 17alpha -ethinyl estradiol (EE2) from water. Two synthesis methods, one involving aqueous KMnO(4) pretreatment followed by Fe(II) treatment, and the other involving reaction with Fe(III) in an organic solvent followed by NaOH treatment, were used to produce modified ACF media containing 5.9% and 8.4% iron by dry weight, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Electron dispersion X-ray (EDX) techniques indicated slightly higher iron content near the outer edges of the fibers. Pseudo-equilibrium batch test experimental data at pH = 7.0 +/- 0.1 in 5 mM NaHCO(3) buffered ultrapure water containing approximately 100 micro g(As)/L and approximately 500 micro gEE2/L were fitted with the Freundlich isotherm model (q = K x C(E)(1/n)). The adsorption capacity parameters (K) were approximately 2586 (micro gAs/gFe)(L/micro gAs)(1/n) and approximately 425 (micro gAs/gFe)(L/micro gAs)(1/n)), respectively, for the KMnO(4)/Fe(II) and Fe(III)/NaOH treated media. The KMnO(4)/Fe(II) media exhibited a lower adsorption capacity at 99% EE2 removal than did the Fe(III)/NaOH treated media (1.3 mgEE2/g -dry -media vs. 1.8 mgEE2/g -dry -media). The arsenate adsorption intensity parameters (1/n) for both modified ACF media were < 0.29, implying very favorable adsorption, which suggests that this type of media may be suitable for single point -of -use applications in which arsenic and organic co-contaminants require simultaneous removal and the depth of the packed bed is the key factor.

  12. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C, R/V Knorr, October 1992--April 1993)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, S.; Goddard, J.G.; Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, Taro; Sutherland, S.C. [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory; Reid, J.L.; Swift, J.H.; Talley, L.D. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Scripps Institution of Oceanography

    1998-06-01

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide concentration (TCO{sub 2}) and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) in discrete water samples collected during three expeditions of the Research Vessel (R/V) Knorr in the South Pacific Ocean. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the first cruise (WOCE Section P16A/P17A) began in Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia, on October 6, 1992, and returned to Papeete on November 25, 1992. The second cruise (WOCE Section P17E/P19S) began in Papeete on December 4, 1992, and finished in Punta Arenas, Chile, on January 22, 1993. The third expedition (WOCE Section P19C) started in Punta Arenas, on February 22 and finished in Panama City, Panama, on April 13, 1993. During the three expeditions, 422 hydrographic stations were occupied. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen [measured by conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) sensor], as well as discrete measurements of salinity, oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12), TCO{sub 2}, and pCO{sub 2} measured at 4 and 20 C. In addition, potential temperatures were calculated from the measured variables.

  13. Influence of Nitrided Layer on The Properties of Carbon Coatings Produced on X105CrMo17 Steel Under DC Glow-Discharge Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz BOROWSKI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In most cases, machine components, which come in contact with each other, are made of steel. Common steel types include 100Cr6 and X105CrMo17 are widely used in rolling bearings, which are subjected to high static loads. However, more and more sophisticated structural applications require increasingly better performance from steel. The most popular methods for improving the properties of steel is carburisation or nitriding. Unfortunately, when very high surface properties of steel are required, this treatment may be insufficient. Improvement of tribological properties can be achieved by increasing the hardness of the surface, reducing roughness or reducing the coefficient of friction. The formation of composite layers on steel, consisting of a hard nitride diffusion layer and an external carbon coating with a low coefficient of friction, seems to be a prospect with significant potential. The article describes composite layers produced on X105CrMo17 steel and defines their morphology, surface roughness and their functional properties such as: resistance to friction-induced wear, coefficient of friction and corrosion resistance. The layers have been formed at a temperature of 370°C in successive processes of: nitriding in low-temperature plasma followed by deposition of a carbon coating under DC glow-discharge conditions. An evaluation was also made of the impact of the nitrided layers on the properties and morphology of the carbon coatings formed by comparing them to coatings formed on non-nitrided X105CrMo17 steel substrates. A study of the surface topography, adhesion, resistance to friction-induced wear and corrosion shows the significant importance of the substrate type the carbon coatings are formed on.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.7532

  14. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the R/V Thomas Washington TUNES-1 in the equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P17C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyet, C. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States); Key, R.M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Sullivan, K.F. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States). Rosensteil School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences; Tsuchiya, M. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Institution of Oceanography; Kozyr, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment, and Resources Center

    1997-06-01

    This report discusses the procedures and methods used to obtain measurements of total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}), total alkalinity (TALK), and radiocarbon ({Delta} {sup 14}C), as well as hydrographic and chemical data, during the Research Vessel Thomas Washington Expedition TUNES-1 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (Section P17C). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in San Diego, California, on May 31, 1991, and ended in Papeete, Tahiti, on July 11, 1991. WOCE Meridional Section P17C, along 135{degree}W and between {approximately}5{degree}S and 36{degree}N, was completed during the 42-day expedition. All 123 hydrographic stations (including 9 large-volume stations) were completed to the full water-column depth. Spacing between stations was 30 nautical miles, except between 3{degree}N and 3{degree}S, where it was 10 nautical miles. At 30 stations, CO{sub 2} measurements were provided for the US Department of Energy`s Carbon Dioxide Program. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Section P17C included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen (measured by conductivity, temperature, and depth sensor), as well as bottle measurements of salinity, oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-11, CFC-12, {Delta} {sup 14}C, TCO{sub 2}, and TALK. In addition, potential temperatures were calculated from the measured variables.

  15. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Maurice Ewing Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A17, 4 January - 21 March 1994)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyr, Alex [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    2005-06-30

    This documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), and pH at hydrographic stations during the R/V Maurice Ewing cruise in the South Atlantic Ocean on the A17 WOCE section. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), this cruise was also a part of the French WOCE program consisting of three expeditions (CITHER 1, 2, and 3) focused on the South Atlantic Ocean. The A17 section was occupied during the CITHER 2 expedition, which began in Montevideo, Uruguay, on January 4, 1994 and finished in Cayenne, French Guyana, on March 21, 1994. During this period the ship stopped in Salvador de Bahia and Recife, Brazil, to take on supplies and exchange personnel. Upon completion of the cruise the ship transited to Fort de France, Martinique. Instructions for accessing the data are provided.

  16. PAC/UF组合工艺对17α-乙炔基雌二醇的去除效果%Removal of 17α-ethynyestradiol in Drinking Water by Combined Process of Powdered Activated Carbon and Ultrafiltration Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青松; 高乃云; 马晓雁; 楚文海

    2011-01-01

    采用活性炭/超滤膜(PAC/UF)组合工艺去除饮用水中的17α-乙炔基雌二醇(EE2),考察了EE2初始浓度、过滤速率、PAC投加量、水体中的阴离子合成洗涤剂及有机物等因素对PAC/UF组合工艺去除水体中EE2的影响.结果表明,单独UF对EE2的截留效果极差,截留率约为5%;PAC/UF组合工艺可有效去除水体中的EE2,且去除率随活性炭投加量的增加而线性增加;水体中的有机物和阴离子合成洗涤剂会降低组合工艺对EE2的去除效果.%The combined process of powdered activated carbon (PAC) and ultrafiltration ( UF) membrane was adopted to remove 17a-ethynyestradiol ( EE2) in drinking water. The influences of the initial concentration of EE2, filtration rate, PAC dosage, anionic synthetic detergent and organic substances in water on removal of EE2 were investigated. The results show that single UF membrane has a poor rejection efficiency of EE2, and the removal rate of EE2 is only 5%. The combined process of PAC and UF membrane can remove EE2 effectively, and the removal rate increases linearly with the increase of PAC dosage. The anionic synthetic detergent and organic substances in water can decrease the removal efficiency of EE2.

  17. A Comparison of Household Carbon Emission Patterns of Urban and Rural China over the 17 Year Period (1995–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiansheng Qu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The household sector consumes a large amount of goods and services and is therefore a major source of global carbon emissions. This study aims to analyze per person household carbon emission (HCEs patterns of urban and rural China over the period from 1995 to 2011. Annual macroeconomic data for the study were obtained from authentic Chinese government sources. Direct HCE estimates for each fossil fuel were obtained using the IPCC’s reference approach, and indirect HCEs were calculated by input-output analysis. In 1995, per person HCEs from direct sources for urban and rural China were 0.50 tCO2 and 0.22 tCO2, respectively; by 2011, these values had increased to 0.60 tCO2 and 0.61 tCO2, an increase of 20% and 177.27%, respectively. Similarly, in 1995, per person HCEs from indirect sources for urban and rural China were 0.43 tCO2 and 0.16 tCO2, respectively; by 2011, these values had increased to 1.77 tCO2 and 0.53 tCO2, respectively, an increase of 306% and 235%. The reasons for these differences and the sets of policies required to rectify increasing emissions are discussed. If current trends and practices continue, with a RMB1000 increase in per capita income from 2011 levels, per person HCEs in urban and rural China will increase by 0.119 tCO2 and 0.197 tCO2, respectively. This result indicates that the sector of society which is most vulnerable will contribute most to China’s increasing HCEs. Therefore, while developing energy consumption and emissions reduction policies and programs, principles of fairness and equity need to be followed.

  18. Over-expressing the C3 photosynthesis cycle enzyme Sedoheptulose-1-7 Bisphosphatase improves photosynthetic carbon gain and yield under fully open air CO2 fumigation (FACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ort Donald R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biochemical models predict that photosynthesis in C3 plants is most frequently limited by the slower of two processes, the maximum capacity of the enzyme Rubisco to carboxylate RuBP (Vc,max, or the regeneration of RuBP via electron transport (J. At current atmospheric [CO2] levels Rubisco is not saturated; consequently, elevating [CO2] increases the velocity of carboxylation and inhibits the competing oxygenation reaction which is also catalyzed by Rubisco. In the future, leaf photosynthesis (A should be increasingly limited by RuBP regeneration, as [CO2] is predicted to exceed 550 ppm by 2050. The C3 cycle enzyme sedoheptulose-1,7 bisphosphatase (SBPase, EC 3.1.3.17 has been shown to exert strong metabolic control over RuBP regeneration at light saturation. Results We tested the hypothesis that tobacco transformed to overexpressing SBPase will exhibit greater stimulation of A than wild type (WT tobacco when grown under field conditions at elevated [CO2] (585 ppm under fully open air fumigation. Growth under elevated [CO2] stimulated instantaneous A and the diurnal photosynthetic integral (A' more in transformants than WT. There was evidence of photosynthetic acclimation to elevated [CO2] via downregulation of Vc,max in both WT and transformants. Nevertheless, greater carbon assimilation and electron transport rates (J and Jmax for transformants led to greater yield increases than WT at elevated [CO2] compared to ambient grown plants. Conclusion These results provide proof of concept that increasing content and activity of a single photosynthesis enzyme can enhance carbon assimilation and yield of C3 crops grown at [CO2] expected by the middle of the 21st century.

  19. Global air-sea surface carbon dioxide transfer velocity and flux estimated using 17 a altimeter data and a new algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Tan; HE Yijun; YAN Xiaohai

    2013-01-01

    The global distributions of the air-sea CO2 transfer velocity and flux are retrieved from TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason altimeter data from October 1992 to December 2009 using a combined algorithm. The 17 a average global, area-weighted, Schmidt number-corrected mean gas transfer velocity is 21.26 cm/h, and the full exploration of the uncertainty of this estimate awaits further data. The average total CO2 flux (calculated by carbon) from atmosphere to ocean during the 17 a was 2.58 Pg/a. The highest transfer velocity is in the circumpolar current area, because of constant high wind speeds and currents there. This results in strong CO2 fluxes. CO2 fluxes are strong but opposite direction in the equatorial east Pacific Ocean, because the air-sea CO2 partial pressure difference is the largest in the global oceans. The results differ from the previous studies calculated using the wind speed. It is demonstrated that the air-sea transfer velocity is very important for estimating air-sea CO2 flux. It is critical to have an accurate estimation for improving calculation of CO2 flux within climate change studies.

  20. Effect of liming and organic and inorganic fertilization on soil carbon sequestered in macro-and microaggregates in a 17-year old Pinus radiata silvopastoral system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera-Losada, M R; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, A; Ferreiro-Domínguez, N

    2015-03-01

    Agroforestry systems have been recognized as a potential greenhouse gas mitigation strategy under the Kyoto Protocol because of their ability to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store carbon mainly in the soil. Soil particle size and land management practices are known to have a considerable influence on carbon storage in soils. This study evaluated changes in soil chemical and physical properties, and quantified and compared the amount of C stored in the bulk soil and in three different soil fractions (250-2000, 53-250 and soil depths (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm) in a silvopastoral system located on an acidic forest soil under Pinus radiata D. Don. Areas of this system were subjected ten years ago to one of nine fertilization treatments: three different doses of sewage sludge or no fertilization, all with or without the addition of lime, and mineral fertilizer with no liming. Seventeen years after reforestation and seven years after canopy closure, strong gradients with soil depth were found regarding soil bulk density, pH and carbon storage. Intense soil management (high doses of sewage sludge and liming) generally reduced soil carbon storage, mainly in coarse aggregates, but this could be compensated by the increase in tree and pasture development observed in soils subject to intermediate sewage sludge doses.

  1. Influence of Nitrided Layer on The Properties of Carbon Coatings Produced on X105CrMo17 Steel Under DC Glow-Discharge Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Borowski, Tomasz; Ossowski, Maciej (OPI); Kowalczyk, Piotr; Maciej DUBEK; Agnieszka BROJANOWSKA; Krzysztof ROŻNIATOWSKI

    2016-01-01

    In most cases, machine components, which come in contact with each other, are made of steel. Common steel types include 100Cr6 and X105CrMo17 are widely used in rolling bearings, which are subjected to high static loads. However, more and more sophisticated structural applications require increasingly better performance from steel. The most popular methods for improving the properties of steel is carburisation or nitriding. Unfortunately, when very high surface properties of steel are require...

  2. Carbonates-based noble metal-free lean NOx trap catalysts MOx-K2CO3/K2Ti8O17 (M = Ce, Fe, Cu, Co) with superior catalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxia; You, Rui; Liu, Dongsheng; Liu, Cheng; Li, Xingang; Tian, Ye; Jiang, Zheng; Zhang, Shuo; Huang, Yuying; Zha, Yuqing; Meng, Ming

    2015-12-01

    A series of base metal-based lean NOx trap (LNT) catalysts MOx-K2CO3/K2Ti8O17 (M = Ce, Fe, Cu, Co) were synthesized by successive impregnations and employed for the storage and reduction of NOx in the emissions of lean-burn engines at 350 °C. The XRD and XANES/EXAFS results reveal that the active phases in the corresponding catalysts exist as CeO2, Fe2O3, CuO and Co3O4, respectively. Among all the catalysts, CoOx-K2CO3/K2Ti8O17 exhibits the best performance, which cannot only trap the NOx quickly and completely at lean condition, giving the highest storage capacity (3.32 mmol/g) reported so far, but also reduce the NOx at rich condition, showing a NOx reduction percentage as high as 99.0%. Meanwhile, this catalyst displays an ultralow NOx to N2O selectivity (0.3%) during NOx reduction. The excellent performance of CoOx-K2CO3/K2Ti8O17 results from its largest amount of surface active oxygen species as revealed by XPS, O2-TPD and NO-TPD. HRTEM, FT-IR and CO2-TPD results illustrate that several kinds of K species such as sbnd OK groups, K2O, surface carbonates and bulk or bulk-like carbonates coexist in the catalysts. Based upon the in situ DRIFTS results, the participation of K2CO3 in NOx storage is confirmed, and the predominant NOx storage species is revealed as bidentate nitrites formed via multiple kinetic pathways. The low cost and high catalytic performance of the CoOx-based LNT catalyst make it most promising for the substitution of noble metal-based LNT catalysts.

  3. 28 CFR 17.17 - Judicial proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial proceedings. 17.17 Section 17.17... CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Administration § 17.17 Judicial proceedings. (a)(1) Any Department official or... proceeding in any manner, the assigned Department attorney shall take all steps necessary to ensure...

  4. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained in the Central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE sections P17S and P16S) during the tunes-2-expedition of the R/V Thomas Washington, July--August 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}), discrete partial pressure of TCO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}), and total alkalinity (TALK), during the Research Vessel (R/V) Thomas Washington TUNES Leg 2 Expedition in the central South Pacific Ocean. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia, on July 16, 1991, and returned to Papeete on August 25, 1991. WOCE Meridional Sections P17S along 135{degrees} W and P16S along 150{degrees} W were completed during the 40-day expedition. A total of 97 hydrographic stations were occupied. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Sections P17S and P16S included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen measured by conductivity, temperature and depth sensor; bottle salinity; oxygen; phosphate; nitrate; nitrite; silicate; CFC-12; CFC- 11; TCO{sub 2}; TALK; and pCO{sub 2} measured at 20{degrees}C. The TCO{sub 2} concentration in 1000 seawater samples was determined with a coulometric analysis system, the pCO{sub 2} in 940 water samples was determined with an equilibrator/gas chromatograph system, while the TALK concentration in 139 samples was determined on shore at the laboratory of C. Goyet of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution with an alkalinity titration system. In addition, 156 coulometric measurements for the Certified Reference Material (Batch {number_sign}6) were made and yielded a mean value of 2303.2 {plus_minus} 1.5 {mu}mol/kg. This mean value agrees within a standard deviation of the 2304.6 {plus_minus} 1.6 {mu}mol/kg (N=9) value determined with the manometer of C. D. Keeling at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO). Replicate samples from 11 Niskin bottles at 4 stations were also collected for later shore-based reference analyses of TCO{sub 2} and TALK by vacuum extraction and manometry in the laboratory of C. D. Keeling of SIO.

  5. Fine particles and carbon monoxide from wood burning in 17th-19th century Danish kitchens: Measurements at two reconstructed farm houses at the Lejre Historical-Archaeological Experimental Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryhl-Svendsen, Morten; Clausen, Geo; Chowdhury, Zohir; Smith, Kirk R.

    2010-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM 2.5) were measured in two reconstructed Danish farmhouses (17-19th century) during two weeks of summer. During the first week intensive measurements were performed while test cooking fires were burned, during the second week the houses were monitored while occupied by guest families. A masonry hearth was located in the middle of each house for open cooking fires and with heating stoves. One house had a chimney leading to the outside over the hearth; in the other, a brickwork hood led the smoke into an attic and through holes in the roof. During the first week the concentration of PM 2.5 averaged daily between 138 and 1650 μg m -3 inside the hearths and 21-160 μg m -3 in adjacent living rooms. CO averaged daily between 0.21 and 1.9 ppm in living areas, and up to 12 ppm in the hearths. Highest concentrations were measured when two fires were lit at the same time, which would cause high personal exposure for someone working in the kitchens. 15 min averages of up to 25 400 μg m -3 (PM 2.5) and 260 ppm CO were recorded. WHO air quality guidelines were occasionally exceeded for CO and constantly for PM 2.5. However, air exchange and air distribution measurements revealed a large draw in the chimney, which ensured a fast removal of wood smoke from the hearth area. The guest families were in average exposed to no more than 0.21 ppm CO during 48 h. Based on a hypothetical time-activity pattern, however, a woman living in this type of house during the 17-19th century would be exposed to daily averages of 1.1 ppm CO and 196 μg m -3 PM 2.5, which exceeds WHO guideline for PM 2.5, and is comparable to what is today observed for women in rural areas of developing countries.

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from ATLANTIS in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-03-24 to 2012-04-17 (NCEI Accession 0144247)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144247 includes Surface underway data collected from ATLANTIS in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-03-24 to 2012-04-17. These data...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean from 2010-01-17 to 2013-03-18 (NODC Accession 0084099)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0084099 includes time series data collected from MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean from 2010-01-17 to 2013-03-18 and retrieved during cruise...

  8. 血清白细胞介素-6、白细胞介素-17和基质金属蛋白酶9水平与一氧化碳中毒迟发性脑病的关系%The relationship between the level of interleukin-6, interleukin-17 matrix metallo proteinase 9 and delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳荣; 李晓; 徐化利; 潘双双; 李丽

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between the level of IL-6,IL-17 and matrix metallo proteinase 9 (MMP9) with deleyed encephelopathy after aucte carbon monoxide poisoning metal protease (DEACMP).Methods Rarcdomly selected 58 healthy people and 71 (delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning,DEACMP) patients were taken as control and experimental group,respectively.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to detect the expression of IL-6,IL-17 and MMP9.Results Compared with control,the expression of IL-6 and MMP9 were significantly increased in mild and severe DEACMP patients,while both IL-6 and MMP9 showed largest increase in severe DEACMP patients with statistical significanc (F =22.47,F =36.51,P < 0.05).There was no significant expression changes of IL-17 (F =19.62,P > 0.05).Pearson analysis showed that the expressions of IL-6 and MMP9 were positively correlated with DEACMP (r =0.58,P < 0.05).Conclusions The expression of IL-6 and MMP9 in serum of DEACMP patients were associated with the degree of carbon monoxide poisoning.%目的 探讨白细胞介素(IL)-6)、IL-17和基质金属蛋白酶9(MMP9)与一氧化碳中毒迟发性脑病(DEACMP)的关系.方法 随机抽取58例体检健康人群为对照组,抽取71例DEACMP患者为实验组,采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)检测DEACMP患者血清中IL-6、IL-17和MMP9的表达水平.结果 和对照组相比,轻重度DEACMP患者血清中IL-6和MMP9表达水平升高(F=22.47、F=36.51,P<0.05),其中在重度DEACMP患者血清中升高最显著;IL-17表达水平未有显著变化,差异无统计学意义(F=19.62,P>0.05).Pearson相关分析显示,DEACMP患者血清IL-6和MMP9浓度呈正相关(r=0.58,P<0.05).结论 DEACMP患者血清中IL-6和MMP9的表达水平与一氧化碳中毒的程度和预后密切相关.

  9. Chemical and biological data collected as part of the CArbon Retention In A Colored Ocean (CARIACO) program in the Cariaco Basin off the coast of Venezuela, January 17, 2005 - January 16, 2006 (NODC Accession 0013170)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and biological data were collected using bottle casts on the continental shelf of Venezuela from the HERMANO GINES from January 17, 2005 to January 16,...

  10. Dissolved Inorganic Carbon, Alkalinity, pH, temperature, salinity, and other variables collected from profile observations using CTD, discrete bottles, and other instruments from February 12, 1985 to June 17, 2009, as synthesized in the Pacific Ocean Interior Carbon (PACIFICA) Database (NODC Accession 0110865)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PACIFICA Data Synthesis Project PACIFICA (PACIFic ocean Interior CArbon) was an international collaborative project for the data synthesis of ocean interior carbon...

  11. Investigation of carbon dioxide in the central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P-16C and P-17C) during the TUNES/2 expedition of the R/V Thomas Washington, July--August, 1991. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, T.; Goddard, J.G.; Rubin, S.; Chipman, D.W.; Sutherland, S.C.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of carbon dioxide and associated hydrographic measurements made during the oceanographic expedition, TUNES/2, aboard the R/V Thomas Washington in the central South Pacific Ocean. During the 40 day expedition, the total carbon dioxide concentration in 1000 seawater samples were determined using a coulometer system and the pCO(sub 2) in 940 seawater samples were determined using an equilibrator/gas chromatograph system. The alkalinity values in 900 water samples were computed using these measurements. In addition, 156 coulometric measurements were made for the Certified Reference Solutions (Batch No. 6) and yielded a mean value of 2303.2 +or- 1.5umol/kg. The chemical characteristics for the major water masses have been determined.

  12. Analysis and theoretical modeling of the 18O enriched carbon dioxide spectrum by CRDS near 1.35 μm: (I) 16O12C18O, 16O12C17O, 12C16O2 and 13C16O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassi, S.; Karlovets, E. V.; Tashkun, S. A.; Perevalov, V. I.; Campargue, A.

    2017-01-01

    The room temperature absorption spectrum of 18O enriched carbon dioxide has been recorded by very high-sensitivity Cavity Ring Down spectroscopy between 6977 and 7918 cm-1 (1.43-1.26 μm). The achieved sensitivity (noise equivalent absorption αmin 8×10-11 cm-1) has allowed for the detection of more than 8600 lines belonging to 166 bands of eleven carbon dioxide isotopologues. Line intensities of the weakest observed transitions are on the order of 2×10-30 cm/molecule. In this first part, we present the results relative to the 16O12C18O, 16O12C17O, 12C16O2 and 13C16O2 isotopologues. Their absorption lines were rovibrationally assigned on the basis of the predictions of their respective effective Hamiltonian model. Overall 5476 lines were measured and assigned to 93 bands. Forty nine of them, all belonging to 16O12C18O and 16O12C17O, are reported for the first time. The studied spectral region is formed by ΔP=10-12 series of transitions, where P=2V1+V2+3V3 is the polyad number (Vi are vibrational quantum numbers). The spectroscopic parameters of 58 bands of 16O12C18O and 16O12C17O were determined from a fit of the measured line positions. An inter- and an intrapolyad resonance perturbation were identified and analyzed in the 16O12C18O spectrum. The comparison with the line positions and line intensities included in the AMES line list is discussed. Global fits of the line intensities were performed in order to (i) improve the ΔP=10 and 11 sets of the effective dipole moment parameters of 16O12C18O and the ΔP=11 set of parameters of 16O12C17O and (ii) derive for the first time the ΔP=10 and 12 parameters of 16O12C17O and 16O12C18O, respectively.

  13. Reflectometry on D17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubitt, R. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    As part of the package of instrument upgrades planned over the next few years, D17 is based on a straightened cold neutron-guide and converted into a dedicated and versatile reflectometer. In the meantime, in order for ILL to become as fully involved as possible in this growing area of activity, the current D17 has been optimised for reflectometry. Results of this project are presented. (author).

  14. Carbon Carbon Composites: An Overview .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rohini Devi

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon carbon composites are a new class of engineering materials that are ceramic in nature but exhibit brittle to pseudoplastic behaviour. Carbon-carbon is a unique all-carbon composite with carbon fibre embeded in carbon matrix and is known as an inverse composite. Due to their excellent thermo-structural properties, carbon-carbon composites are used in specialised application like re-entry nose-tips, leading edges, rocket nozzles, and aircraft brake discs apart from several industrial and biomedical applications. The multidirectional carbon-carbon product technology is versatile and offers design flexibility. This paper describes the multidirectional preform and carbon-carbon process technology and research and development activities within the country. Carbon-carbon product experience at DRDL has also been discussed. Development of carbon-carbon brake discs process technology using the liquid impregnation process is described. Further the test results on material characterisation, thermal, mechanical and tribological properties are presented.

  15. Modeling Sorption and Degradation of 17β-Estradiol-17-Sulfate in Agricultural Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, X.; Casey, F. X.; Hakk, H.; Shrestha, S. L.; DeSutter, T.; Khan, E.; Oduor, P. G.

    2011-12-01

    The natural steroid hormone, 17β-estradiol (E2), can be an endocrine disruptor at part-per trillion levels. Laboratory studies indicate a low potential for E2 persistence and mobility in the environment; however, field studies consistently indicate the presence of E2 and its primary metabolite, estrone, at levels sufficiently high to impact water quality. To facilitate urine excretion, animals may release E2 as a sulfated conjugate, which would have a higher aqueous solubility than the parent compound. We hypothesize that E2 conjugates contribute to the detection of free estrogens in the environment. The objective of this study was to determine the sorption, degradation, and mobility of a model conjugate, 17β-estradiol-17-sulfate (E2-17S), in agricultural soils. Radiolabeled E2-17S ([14C]E2-17S) was chemically synthesized in a three-step process, and then batch experiments were conducted in natural and sterile soils. Additionally, soil organic carbon (OC) was varied (1.29 and 0.26%) to investigate its effect on the fate of [14C]E2-17S. Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) was used in concert with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to detect and quantitate parent compound and metabolites of E2-17S in the aqueous and bound phases. Residual soil was combusted to determine non-extractable levels of 14C. The E2-17S was relatively stable in the aqueous phase for natural and sterile soils. Mono- and di- hydroxyl E2-17S were detected as metabolites of E2-17S in the aqueous phase above both sterile and natural soil. Deconjugation to form E2 was not observed in aqueous phase; however, E2 and estrone were extracted from both natural and sterile soils. A conceptual model was developed to simulate and identify the fate and transport processes of E2-17S. Organic carbon was found to be an important factor affecting the sorption and degradation of E2-17S in soils.

  16. Vliegramp MH17

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duin, Menno van; Wijkhuijs, Vina

    2015-01-01

    De ramp met vlucht MH17 was en is een ingewikkelde crisis. Omdat de gebeurtenis zich elders voordeed en er ‘opzet’ in het spel was, kleven aan deze ramp enorm veel internationale dimensies. In dit hoofdstuk wordt daar niet op ingegaan. Het voorgaande geeft slechts een impressie van een aantal zaken

  17. Carbon-carbon bond cleavage in activation of the prodrug nabumetone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varfaj, Fatbardha; Zulkifli, Siti N A; Park, Hyoung-Goo;

    2014-01-01

    Carbon-carbon bond cleavage reactions are catalyzed by, among others, lanosterol 14-demethylase (CYP51), cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11), sterol 17β-lyase (CYP17), and aromatase (CYP19). Because of the high substrate specificities of these enzymes and the complex nature of their su...

  18. Th17 cytokines and arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W. Lubberts (Erik)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTh17 cells are implicated in human autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), although it has not been established whether this persistent destructive arthritis is driven by Th1 and/or Th17 cells. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) contributes to the pathogenesis of arthritis as has b

  19. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-3 - Limitations on expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitations on expansion. 240.17Ad-3 Section 240.17Ad-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... expansion. (a) Any registered transfer agent which is required to file any notice pursuant to §...

  20. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-15 - Signature guarantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Signature guarantees. 240.17Ad... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Supervised Investment Bank Holding Company Rules § 240.17Ad-15 Signature... of the signature of the person endorsing a certificated security, or originating an instruction...

  1. Exclusive measurements of nuclear breakup reactions of 17Ne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wamers F.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We have studied one-proton-removal reactions of about 500MeV/u 17Ne beams on a carbon target at the R3B/LAND setup at GSI by detecting beam-like 15O-p and determining their relative-energy distribution. We exclusively selected the removal of a 17Ne halo proton, and the Glauber-model analysis of the 16F momentum distribution resulted in an s2 contribution in the 17Ne ground state of about 40%.

  2. PROMETEUS 17, ANO 8

    OpenAIRE

    *** Os Editores da Prometeus

    2015-01-01

    A Prometeus chega ao seu número 17 e seu oitavo ano. Nessa edição, temos uma excelente seleção de artigos.Focalizando a filosofia antiga, temos Lethícia Ouro, Bruno Karl, Irley Franco, Leonidas Konstantakos, Helena Maronna, Miguel Ángel Rossi.Em artigo especial, Rodrigo Brito lida com a filosofia judaica de Abrahan Cohen.A filosofia contemporânea é abordada por Antonio Baptista Gonçalves, que trata de Deleuze, e Paulo Sérgio Calvet, que  trata de Hanna Arendt.Nossa edição se encerra com três ...

  3. EUROTHERM Seminar No. 17

    CERN Document Server

    Lockwood, F; Taine, J

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the selected papers presented at the EUROTHERM SEMINAR No. 17 - Heat Transfer in Radiating and Combusting Systems held at Cascais from October 8th- 10th, 1990. The EUROTHERM COMMITTEE was created by representatives of the member countries of the European Communities for the organization and coordination of European Scientific events in the field of thermal sciences and their applications. The book is focused on the integration of the heat transfer and combustion. These two subjects have traditionally been considered separate disciplines. In reality, the two are closely interwoven. The central purpose of the book is to generate an effective cross fertilisation of the two at both the fundamental and applied levels. The book reports on: mathematical simulations of heat transfer in reacting systems, new measurements of and measurement techniques for the radiation properties of the intervening medium, and data and theoretical analyses which clarify the physical nature of the complex interactio...

  4. FY17 Strategic Themes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leland, Robert W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    I am pleased to present this summary of the FY17 Division 1000 Science and Technology Strategic Plan. As this plan represents a continuation of the work we started last year, the four strategic themes (Mission Engagement, Bold Outcomes, Collaborative Environment, and Safety Imperative) remain the same, along with many of the goals. You will see most of the changes in the actions listed for each goal: We completed some actions, modified others, and added a few new ones. As I’ve stated previously, this is not a strategy to be pursued in tension with the Laboratory strategic plan. The Division 1000 strategic plan is intended to chart our course as we strive to contribute our very best in service of the greater Laboratory strategy. I welcome your feedback and look forward to our dialogue about these strategic themes. Please join me as we move forward to implement the plan in the coming months.

  5. Coulomb and nuclear excitations of narrow resonances in 17Ne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marganiec

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available New experimental data for dissociation of relativistic 17Ne projectiles incident on targets of lead, carbon, and polyethylene targets at GSI are presented. Special attention is paid to the excitation and decay of narrow resonant states in 17Ne. Distributions of internal energy in the O15+p+p three-body system have been determined together with angular and partial-energy correlations between the decay products in different energy regions. The analysis was done using existing experimental data on 17Ne and its mirror nucleus 17N. The isobaric multiplet mass equation is used for assignment of observed resonances and their spins and parities. A combination of data from the heavy and light targets yielded cross sections and transition probabilities for the Coulomb excitations of the narrow resonant states. The resulting transition probabilities provide information relevant for a better understanding of the 17Ne structure.

  6. Electrocatalytic Oxidation of H2O2 at a Carbon Paste Electrode Modified with a Nickel (Ⅱ)-5, 11,17, 23-Tetra-Tert-Butyl-25,27-Bis ( Diethylcarbamoylmethoxy ) Calix[ 4 ] Arene Complex and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiChun-ya; ChertYong; WangChang-fa; LiHai-bing; ChenYuan-yin

    2003-01-01

    Electrochemical behavior of a carbon paste elec-trode (CPE) modified with nickel(Ⅱ)-5, 11, 17, 23-tetra-tert-butyl-25, 27-bis (diethylcarhamoylmethoxy) calix[4] arene (Ni(Ⅱ)-L) complex and its electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of hydrogen peroxide were investigated by cyclic voham-metric technique in a 5.0 × 10-2 mol/L NaClO4 + 1. 0× 10-3 mol/L NaOH solution. It was found that Ni(Ⅱ)-L acts as an effective catalyst for the oxidation of hydrogen peroxide. The modified electrode exhibited a linear response over a hydrogen peroxide concentrations in the range of 2. 0 × 10-6--1.0 × 10-4 mol/L with a detection limit as low as 1.0× 10-6 mol/L. The relative standard deviation was 3. 5% for 5 successive determi-nations of H2O2 at 1.0×10-5 mol/L. The modified electrode was used successfully in rainwater analysis.

  7. PROMETEUS 17, ANO 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Os Editores da Prometeus

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A Prometeus chega ao seu número 17 e seu oitavo ano. Nessa edição, temos uma excelente seleção de artigos.Focalizando a filosofia antiga, temos Lethícia Ouro, Bruno Karl, Irley Franco, Leonidas Konstantakos, Helena Maronna, Miguel Ángel Rossi.Em artigo especial, Rodrigo Brito lida com a filosofia judaica de Abrahan Cohen.A filosofia contemporânea é abordada por Antonio Baptista Gonçalves, que trata de Deleuze, e Paulo Sérgio Calvet, que  trata de Hanna Arendt.Nossa edição se encerra com três traduções: uma de Boécio (William Piauí, uma de Tomás de Aquino (Húdson Canuto e uma de Eurídepdes (Evandro Luis SalvadorDesejamos que os pesquisadores se beneficiem com os trabalhos que selecionamos.Os Editores 

  8. Purification of carbon nanotube by wet oxidation; Shisshiki sanka ni yoru carbon nanotube no seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, K.; Takarada, T. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan)

    1997-07-10

    In order to efficiently recover carbon nanotubes, the purification method by wet oxidation with orthoperiodic acid and perchloric acid is investigated. The reactivity of the carbonaceous material toward the acids depends on the type of carbon. Carbon nanotubes are selectively recovered under the mild oxidation conditions. The degree of purification depends on the concentration of orthoperiodic acid. It is suggested that wet oxidation is an effective method for purification of carbon nanotubes. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Carbonized asphaltene-based carbon-carbon fiber composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert, George; Lula, James; Bowen, III, Daniel E.

    2016-12-27

    A method of making a carbon binder-reinforced carbon fiber composite is provided using carbonized asphaltenes as the carbon binder. Combinations of carbon fiber and asphaltenes are also provided, along with the resulting composites and articles of manufacture.

  10. 17 CFR 12.17 - Satisfaction of complaint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Satisfaction of complaint. 12... RELATING TO REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.17 Satisfaction... as the complainant will accept in satisfaction of his claim; and (b) by submitting to the...

  11. 17 CFR 240.14a-17 - Electronic shareholder forums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic shareholder forums... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14a: Solicitation of Proxies § 240.14a-17 Electronic shareholder forums. (a) A shareholder, registrant, or third party acting on behalf of a shareholder or registrant...

  12. 48 CFR 6101.17 - Exhibits [Rule 17].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhibits . 6101.17 Section 6101.17 Federal Acquisition Regulations System CIVILIAN BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS, GENERAL SERVICES... original by leave of the Board at any time. The Board may require a party to provide either copies...

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, nutrients, and other variables collected from surface discrete observations using flow-through pump and other instruments from NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow on the Northeast U.S. Shelf (Gulf of Maine and Mid-Atlantic Bight) from 2013-03-17 to 2013-05-09 (NCEI Accession 0154386)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Increasing amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide from human industrial activities are causing changes in global ocean carbon chemistry. Through the SOOP program we...

  14. Northrop A-17A Nomad

    Science.gov (United States)

    1940-01-01

    Northrop A-17A Nomad: In the spring of 1939 the NACA tested an experimental cowling and cooling system on Northrop's A-17A. Various types and combinations were tried, but the NACA cowl first used seemed to work best, as no modifications made their way onto 'line' aircraft.

  15. Frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickering-Brown Stuart

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17 is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder, which has three cardinal features: behavioral and personality changes, cognitive impairment, and motor symptoms. FTDP-17 was defined during the International Consensus Conference in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in 1996. The prevalence and incidence remain unknown but FTDP-17 is an extremely rare condition. It is caused by mutations in the tau gene, which encodes a microtubule-binding protein. Over 100 families with 38 different mutations in the tau gene have been identified worldwide. The phenotype of FTDP-17 varies not only between families carrying different mutations but also between and within families carrying the same mutations. The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the disorder are thought to be related to the altered proportion of tau isoforms or to the ability of tau to bind microtubules and to promote microtubule assembly. Definitive diagnosis of FTDP-17 requires a combination of characteristic clinical and pathological features and molecular genetic analysis. Genetic counseling should be offered to affected and at-risk individuals; for most subtypes, penetrance is incomplete. Currently, treatment for FTDP-17 is only symptomatic and supportive. The prognosis and rate of the disease's progression vary considerably among individual patients and genetic kindreds, ranging from life expectancies of several months to several years, and, in exceptional cases, as long as two decades.

  16. Carbon Fiber Morphology. 2. Expanded Wide-Angle X-Ray Diffraction Studies of Carbon Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    X- Ray Diffraction," JPS. Polym. Phys. Ed., 16, 939 (1978). 17. Rosalind E. Franklin , "The Structure of Graphitic Carbons," Acta Cryst., 4, 253 (1951...18. Rosalind E. Franklin , "The Interpretation of Diffuse X-ray Diagrams of Carbon," Acta CrL, 3, 107 (1950). 19. K. Jain and A. S. Abhiraman...been generally mentioned much earlier by Franklin [17,18]. Jain and Abhiraman [19] demonstrated that these corrections can make significant differences

  17. Carbonate aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.; Sukop, Michael; Curran, H. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Only limited hydrogeological research has been conducted using ichnology in carbonate aquifer characterization. Regardless, important applications of ichnology to carbonate aquifer characterization include its use to distinguish and delineate depositional cycles, correlate mappable biogenically altered surfaces, identify zones of preferential groundwater flow and paleogroundwater flow, and better understand the origin of ichnofabric-related karst features. Three case studies, which include Pleistocene carbonate rocks of the Biscayne aquifer in southern Florida and Cretaceous carbonate strata of the Edwards–Trinity aquifer system in central Texas, demonstrate that (1) there can be a strong relation between ichnofabrics and groundwater flow in carbonate aquifers and (2) ichnology can offer a useful methodology for carbonate aquifer characterization. In these examples, zones of extremely permeable, ichnofabric-related macroporosity are mappable stratiform geobodies and as such can be represented in groundwater flow and transport simulations.

  18. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-7 - Record retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Exchange Act of 1934 Supervised Investment Bank Holding Company Rules § 240.17Ad-7 Record retention. (a... facilities to project or produce immediately easily readable images of such records; (ii) Be ready at...

  19. IL-17/Th17 pathway is activated in acne lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna-Leena Kelhälä

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of inflammation in acne are currently subject of intense investigation. This study focused on the activation of adaptive and innate immunity in clinically early visible inflamed acne lesions and was performed in two independent patient populations. Biopsies were collected from lesional and non-lesional skin of acne patients. Using Affymetrix Genechips, we observed significant elevation of the signature cytokines of the Th17 lineage in acne lesions compared to non-lesional skin. The increased expression of IL-17 was confirmed at the RNA and also protein level with real-time PCR (RT-PCR and Luminex technology. Cytokines involved in Th17 lineage differentiation (IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β, IL23p19 were remarkably induced at the RNA level. In addition, proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (TNF-α, IL-8, CSF2 and CCL20, Th1 markers (IL12p40, CXCR3, T-bet, IFN-γ, T regulatory cell markers (Foxp3, IL-10, TGF-β and IL-17 related antimicrobial peptides (S100A7, S100A9, lipocalin, hBD2, hBD3, hCAP18 were induced. Importantly, immunohistochemistry revealed significantly increased numbers of IL-17A positive T cells and CD83 dendritic cells in the acne lesions. In summary our results demonstrate the presence of IL-17A positive T cells and the activation of Th17-related cytokines in acne lesions, indicating that the Th17 pathway is activated and may play a pivotal role in the disease process, possibly offering new targets of therapy.

  20. Manufacturing of Nanocomposite Carbon Fibers and Composite Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Seng; Zhou, Jian-guo

    2013-01-01

    Pitch-based nanocomposite carbon fibers were prepared with various percentages of carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and the fibers were used for manufacturing composite structures. Experimental results show that these nanocomposite carbon fibers exhibit improved structural and electrical conductivity properties as compared to unreinforced carbon fibers. Composite panels fabricated from these nanocomposite carbon fibers and an epoxy system also show the same properties transformed from the fibers. Single-fiber testing per ASTM C1557 standard indicates that the nanocomposite carbon fiber has a tensile modulus of 110% higher, and a tensile strength 17.7% times higher, than the conventional carbon fiber manufactured from pitch. Also, the electrical resistance of the carbon fiber carbonized at 900 C was reduced from 4.8 to 2.2 ohm/cm. The manufacturing of the nanocomposite carbon fiber was based on an extrusion, non-solvent process. The precursor fibers were then carbonized and graphitized. The resultant fibers are continuous.

  1. ISS Expedition 17 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 17 from 04/2008-10/2008. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  2. Carbon classified?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    How does a corporation know it emits carbon? Acquiring such knowledge starts with the classification of environmentally relevant consumption information. This paper visits the corporate location at which this underlying element for their knowledge is assembled to give rise to carbon emissions. Us...

  3. Porous carbons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satish M Manocha

    2003-02-01

    Carbon in dense as well as porous solid form is used in a variety of applications. Activated porous carbons are made through pyrolysis and activation of carbonaceous natural as well as synthetic precursors. Pyrolysed woods replicate the structure of original wood but as such possess very low surface areas and poor adsorption capacities. On activation, these exhibit increased adsorption volumes of 0.5–0.8 cm3 /gm and surface areas of 700–1800 m2 /gm depending on activation conditions, whether physical or chemical. Former carbons possess mixed pore size distribution while chemically activated carbons predominantly possess micropores. Thus, these carbons can be used for adsorption of wide distributions of molecules from gas to liquid. The molecular adsorption within the pores is due to single layer or multilayer molecule deposition at the pore walls and hence results in different types of adsorption isotherm. On the other hand, activated carbon fibres with controlled microporous structure and surface area in the range of 2500 m2 /gm can be developed by controlled pyrolysis and physical activation of amorphous carbon fibres. Active carbon fibres with unmatchable pore structure and surface characteristics are present and futuristic porous materials for a number of applications from pollution control to energy storage.

  4. Carbon photonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konov, V I [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    The properties of new carbon materials (single-crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond films and wafers, single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene) and the prospects of their use as optical elements and devices are discussed. (optical elements of laser devices)

  5. Structures of 17F and 17O, 17Ne and 17N in the Ground State and the First Excited State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张虎勇; 沈文庆; 任中洲; 马余刚; 陈金根; 蔡翔舟; 卢照辉; 钟晨; 郭威; 魏义彬; 周星飞; 马国亮; 王鲲

    2003-01-01

    The structures of two couples of mirror nuclei 17 F and 17 O, 17 Ne and 17 N in the ground state and in the first excited state are investigated using the relativistic mean-field approach. Two-proton halo in 17Ne in the first excited state and in the ground state and two-neutron halo in 17N in the first excited state are suggested.Meanwhile, one-proton halo in 17 F in the first excited state and one-neutron halo in 17 O in the first excited state are also suggested. The skin structure appears in 17F and 17N in the ground state.

  6. Carbon-Carbon Piston Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Schwind, Francis A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An improved structure for carbon-carbon composite piston architectures is disclosed. The improvement consists of replacing the knitted fiber, three-dimensional piston preform architecture described in U.S. Pat.No. 4,909,133 (Taylor et al.) with a two-dimensional lay-up or molding of carbon fiber fabric or tape. Initially, the carbon fabric of tape layers are prepregged with carbonaceous organic resins and/or pitches and are laid up or molded about a mandrel, to form a carbon-fiber reinforced organic-matrix composite part shaped like a "U" channel, a "T"-bar, or a combination of the two. The molded carbon-fiber reinforced organic-matrix composite part is then pyrolized in an inert atmosphere, to convert the organic matrix materials to carbon. At this point, cylindrical piston blanks are cored from the "U"-channel, "T"-bar, or combination part. These blanks are then densified by reimpregnation with resins or pitches which are subsequently carbonized. Densification is also accomplished by direct infiltration with carbon by vapor deposition processes. Once the desired density has been achieved, the piston billets are machined to final piston dimensions; coated with oxidation sealants; and/or coated with a catalyst. When compared to conventional steel or aluminum alloy pistons, the use of carbon-carbon composite pistons reduces the overall weight of the engine; allows for operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength; allows for quieter operation; reduces the heat loss; and reduces the level of hydrocarbon emissions.

  7. Carbon cyclist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    A satellite launched in early August as part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth could dramatically increase understanding of how carbon cycles through the Earth's biosphere and living organisms and how this process influences global climate. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) will measure the color of the oceans with a radiometer to determine the concentration of chlorophyll found in oceanic phytoplankton. The single-celled plants, at the base of food chains around the world, remove carbon dioxide from seawater through photosynthesis, which allows oceans to absorb more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

  8. 17th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2012-01-01

    Cryocoolers 17 archives developments and performance measurements in the field of cryocoolers based on the contributions of leading international experts at the 17th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Los Angeles, California, on July 9-12, 2012. The program of this conference consisted of 94 papers; of these, 71 are published here. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  9. Carbon Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T. Lloyd Evans

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, the present state of knowledge of the carbon stars is discussed. Particular attention is given to issues of classification, evolution, variability, populations in our own and other galaxies, and circumstellar material.

  10. Carbon Nanoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory D. Cress

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Initiated by the first single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT transistors [1,2], and reinvigorated with the isolation of graphene [3], the field of carbon-based nanoscale electronic devices and components (Carbon Nanoelectronics for short has developed at a blistering pace [4]. Comprising a vast number of scientists and engineers that span materials science, physics, chemistry, and electronics, this field seeks to provide an evolutionary transition path to address the fundamental scaling limitations of silicon CMOS [5]. Concurrently, researchers are actively investigating the use of carbon nanomaterials in applications including back-end interconnects, high-speed optoelectronic applications [6], spin-transport [7], spin tunnel barrier [8], flexible electronics, and many more.

  11. Infiltrated carbon foam composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  12. Materiales. Numbers 17-20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materiales, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Four booklets present articles on Spanish language and culture aimed at teachers of Spanish in the United States for student use in their classes. Number 17, "Los Jovenes Espanoles" (Spanish Youth), includes articles on Spanish youth sports, music, gangs, thoughts, and t-shirt slogans: (1) "Young Spanish Athletes"; (2)…

  13. Carbon-carbon bond cleavage in activation of the prodrug nabumetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varfaj, Fatbardha; Zulkifli, Siti N A; Park, Hyoung-Goo; Challinor, Victoria L; De Voss, James J; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2014-05-01

    Carbon-carbon bond cleavage reactions are catalyzed by, among others, lanosterol 14-demethylase (CYP51), cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11), sterol 17β-lyase (CYP17), and aromatase (CYP19). Because of the high substrate specificities of these enzymes and the complex nature of their substrates, these reactions have been difficult to characterize. A CYP1A2-catalyzed carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction is required for conversion of the prodrug nabumetone to its active form, 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6-MNA). Despite worldwide use of nabumetone as an anti-inflammatory agent, the mechanism of its carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction remains obscure. With the help of authentic synthetic standards, we report here that the reaction involves 3-hydroxylation, carbon-carbon cleavage to the aldehyde, and oxidation of the aldehyde to the acid, all catalyzed by CYP1A2 or, less effectively, by other P450 enzymes. The data indicate that the carbon-carbon bond cleavage is mediated by the ferric peroxo anion rather than the ferryl species in the P450 catalytic cycle. CYP1A2 also catalyzes O-demethylation and alcohol to ketone transformations of nabumetone and its analogs.

  14. Securing tropical forest carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharlemann, Jörn P. W.; Kapos, Valerie; Campbell, Alison;

    2010-01-01

    Forest loss and degradation in the tropics contribute 6-17% of all greenhouse gas emissions. Protected areas cover 217.2 million ha (19.6%) of the world's humid tropical forests and contain c. 70.3 petagrams of carbon (Pg C) in biomass and soil to 1 m depth. Between 2000 and 2005, we estimate...... that 1.75 million ha of forest were lost from protected areas in humid tropical forests, causing the emission of 0.25-0.33 Pg C. Protected areas lost about half as much carbon as the same area of unprotected forest. We estimate that the reduction of these carbon emissions from ongoing deforestation...... in protected sites in humid tropical forests could be valued at USD 6,200-7,400 million depending on the land use after clearance. This is >1.5 times the estimated spending on protected area management in these regions. Improving management of protected areas to retain forest cover better may be an important...

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, and other variables collected from profile and discrete observations using CTD, Niskin bottle, and other instruments from NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer, off the east coast of Florida, United States from 2014-05-10 to 2014-05-17 (NCEI Accession 0131424)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains carbon and nutrient related data that were collected from CTD profile measurements off the east coast of Florida, United States...

  16. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean from 2004-03-27 to 2004-04-17 (NODC Accession 0112261)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112261 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean from 2004-03-27 to 2004-04-17...

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2001-07-17 to 2001-08-07 (NODC Accession 0113587)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113587 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2001-07-17 to...

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the TANGAROA in the Indian Ocean from 2003-02-17 to 2003-03-12 (NODC Accession 0113599)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113599 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from TANGAROA in the Indian Ocean from 2003-02-17 to...

  19. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the TYRO in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1990-04-17 to 1990-05-31 (NODC Accession 0113605)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113605 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from TYRO in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1990-04-17 to 1990-05-31...

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the HUDSON in the Davis Strait and Labrador Sea from 1993-06-17 to 1993-06-29 (NODC Accession 0113552)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113552 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HUDSON in the Davis Strait and Labrador Sea from 1993-06-17 to...

  1. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from 2000-01-17 to 2000-01-27 (NODC Accession 0113575)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113575 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from 2000-01-17...

  2. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from ATLANTIS in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-03-24 to 2012-04-17 (NODC Accession 0109915)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109915 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from ATLANTIS in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-03-24 to 2012-04-17...

  3. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the SHUMPU MARU in the Philippine Sea from 2000-08-17 to 2000-08-25 (NODC Accession 0112314)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112314 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from SHUMPU MARU in the Philippine Sea from 2000-08-17 to...

  4. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Niskin bottle, and other instruments from NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada in the West Coast of the United States from 2012-09-04 to 2012-09-17 (NODC Accession 0123468)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This cruise represents the second dedicated West Coast Ocean Acidification cruise (WCOA2012), which took place September 4-17, 2012 aboard NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada....

  5. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids... Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1385 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system. (a) Identification. A 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system is a...

  6. 50 CFR 17.7 - Raptor exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Raptor exemption. 17.7 Section 17.7....7 Raptor exemption. (a) The prohibitions found in §§ 17.21 and 17.31 do not apply to any raptor... the progeny of such a raptor. (b) This section does not apply to any raptor intentionally returned...

  7. IL-17 Contributes to Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余海静; 黄加权; 刘阳; 艾国; 严伟明; 王晓晶; 宁琴

    2010-01-01

    The role of interleukin-17 (IL-17) in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) was investigated. A mouse model of experimental autoimmune hepatitis was established, and the syngeneic S-100 antigen emulsified in complete Freud's adjuvant was injected intraperitoneally into adult male C57BL/6 mice. The IL-17 expression in serum and the livers of the mice models was detected by using ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. IL-17 neutralizing antibody was used to study the biological effect of IL-17 in the experimental...

  8. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor if you have or have ever had kidney disease or stomach conditions.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking calcium carbonate, call your doctor.

  9. The TOPSIS Evaluation on Carbon Emission Economic Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng; XU; Chao; ZHANG; Juan; YANG

    2013-01-01

    Based on carbon emission data of 17 cities in Shandong Province in 2005-2009,this paper analyzes carbon emission economic efficiency. It conducts weight distribution by the Ordered Weighted Averaging ( OWA) method,and takes systematic evaluation on carbon emission economic efficiency using TOPSIS method. In eastern coastal regions,including Dongying,Yantai,Weihai and Qingdao,the carbon emission economic efficiency is generally higher than inland regions of Shandong Province. The conclusion reached after correction of time weight is basically consistent with traditional TOPSIS overall evaluation,further proves validity of the evaluation. Finally,it gives recommendations for improving carbon emission economic efficiency in Shandong Province.

  10. MH17: the Malaysian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, L S; Hasmi, A H; Abdul Ghani Aziz, S A; Ibrahim, M A; Mahmood, M S

    2016-04-01

    A disaster is a natural or man-made (or technological) hazard resulting in an event of substantial extent causing significant physical damage or destruction, loss of life, or drastic change to the environment. It is a phenomenon that can cause damage to life and property and destroy the economic, social and cultural life of the people; and overwhelms the capacity of the community to cope with the event. The recent tragic aviation accidents in 2014 involving Malaysia Airlines flights MH370 and MH17 shocked the world in an unprecedented manner. This paper focuses on the Malaysian experience in the MH17 mission in Ukraine as well as the first ever international Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) operation for the Malaysian DVI team. The DVI operations in Hilversum, the Netherlands were well described in stages. The Netherlands' Landelijk Team Forensische Opsporing as the lead DVI team in Hilversum operated systematically, ensuring the success of the whole mission. This paper discusses the lessons learned by the Malaysian team on proper DVI structure, inter- and intra-agency cooperation, facilities planning and set up, logistics and health and safety aspects, as well as effective communication and collaboration with other international delegates. Several issues and challenges faced by the Malaysian team were also documented. In addition, the authors shared views, opinions and recommendations for a more comprehensive DVI operation in the future.

  11. Changes in plasma potassium concentration during carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Bugge, K; Lyng, K M

    1999-01-01

    Hyperkalaemia with ECG changes had been noted during prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in pigs. We have compared plasma potassium concentrations during surgery in 11 patients allocated randomly to undergo either laparoscopic or open appendectomy and in another 17 patients allocated randomly....... Thus hyperkalaemia is unlikely to develop in patients with normal renal function undergoing carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery....

  12. Explorations of soil microbial processes driven by dissolved organic carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straathof, A.L.

    2015-01-01

    Explorations of soil microbial processes driven by dissolved organic carbon Angela L. Straathof June 17, 2015, Wageningen UR ISBN 978-94-6257-327-7 Abstract Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a complex, heterogeneous mixture of C compounds which, as

  13. Surface analysis of carbon black waste materials from tire residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W. H.; Kim, J. Y.; Ko, Y. K.; Reucroft, P. J.; Zondlo, J. W.

    1999-03-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to obtain surface chemical state information on two carbon black waste materials in terms of the surface element distribution/concentration and chemical structure. Small amounts of sulfur in the form of CS 2 were detected on the surface (less than 1.7 mass %). C-H/C-C was the major carbon functional component on the surface of carbon black samples but other functional forms of carbon were also present such as CO and C-O. The surface of the carbon black obtained from a hydropyrolysis process was highly oxidized primarily in the form of carbon based oxygen groups. On the other hand, surface oxygen atoms on the surface of the carbon black obtained from a pyrolysis process in the absence of H 2 were in the form of both metal oxides and carbon based oxygen groups.

  14. IL-17/Th17 targeting: On the road to prevent chronic destructive arthritis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W. Lubberts (Erik)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractInterleukin-17A (IL-17A) contributes to the pathogenesis of arthritis. Data from experimental arthritis indicate IL-17 receptor signaling as a critical pathway in turning an acute synovitis into a chronic destructive arthritis. The identification of six IL-17 family members (IL-17A-F) ma

  15. Innovation with carbon materials---A report on the annual world conference on carbon, Carbon 2015%炭材料的革新--记Carbon 2015国际炭会议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强

    2015-01-01

    The annual world conference on carbon, Carbon 2015, was held in Dresden, Germany, and was hosted by the German Carbon Group and German Ceramic Society, during July 12~17, 2015. About 582 attendees from 40 countries participated in the conference, and 540 papers were accepted for discussion, including 4 plenary lectures, 256 oral presentations, and 280 posters in-volved in 12 topics, namely, activated carbon, biomass derived carbon, carbon black, carbon fiber and composites, granular/nucle-ar carbon, natural graphite, nanoforms, industrial, conversion process, physical &chemical properties, environmental &medical, and energy storage. Carbon fiber, graphite, carbon black, and carbon alloy were the subjects of the plenary lectures. The innovation of the traditional carbon materials and new nanocarbon, the critical role of carbon in energy, environment, and healthcare applica-tion, as well as the new insights on the relationship of structure and properties at the molecular scale were strongly considered in this event. Carbon materials required continuous innovation to meet the rising requirement of sustainable society.

  16. Fra SK 4b til MH 17

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stræde, Therkel

    2015-01-01

    Om den nazistiske besættelsespolitik i Sydøstukraine og Sonderkommando 4b's udryddelse af jøder på den egn, hvor Malaysian Airlines MH 17 styrtede ned den 17. juli 2014......Om den nazistiske besættelsespolitik i Sydøstukraine og Sonderkommando 4b's udryddelse af jøder på den egn, hvor Malaysian Airlines MH 17 styrtede ned den 17. juli 2014...

  17. 7 CFR 1206.17 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1206.17 Section 1206.17 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.17 Promotion. Promotion...

  18. 7 CFR 1218.17 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1218.17 Section 1218.17 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.17...

  19. 9 CFR 352.17 - Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transportation. 352.17 Section 352.17 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND HORSES; VOLUNTARY INSPECTION Exotic Animals § 352.17 Transportation. This...

  20. 7 CFR 17.8 - Ocean transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ocean transportation. 17.8 Section 17.8 Agriculture... THE AGRICULTURAL TRADE DEVELOPMENT AND ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1954, AS AMENDED § 17.8 Ocean transportation... in this section. (2) The supplier of ocean transportation must be engaged in the business...

  1. 7 CFR 17.3 - Purchase authorizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... expense of the participant. (2) Purchase authorizations may permit cotton textiles processed beyond the... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchase authorizations. 17.3 Section 17.3 Agriculture... THE AGRICULTURAL TRADE DEVELOPMENT AND ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1954, AS AMENDED § 17.3...

  2. 29 CFR 1917.17 - Railroad facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Railroad facilities. 1917.17 Section 1917.17 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.17 Railroad facilities. (a) Work shall...

  3. 30 CFR 281.17 - Leasing notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leasing notice. 281.17 Section 281.17 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Leasing Procedures § 281.17 Leasing notice....

  4. 50 CFR 82.17 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procurement. 82.17 Section 82.17 Wildlife... (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.17 Procurement. Grantees may use their own procurement regulations which reflect applicable State and local laws, rules, and regulations, provided...

  5. 49 CFR 30.17 - Waivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Waivers. 30.17 Section 30.17 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation DENIAL OF PUBLIC WORKS CONTRACTS TO SUPPLIERS OF GOODS AND SERVICES OF COUNTRIES THAT DENY PROCUREMENT MARKET ACCESS TO U.S. CONTRACTORS § 30.17 Waivers. (a)...

  6. 38 CFR 17.504 - Disclosure methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure methods. 17.504 Section 17.504 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Confidentiality of Healthcare Quality Assurance Review Records § 17.504 Disclosure methods. (a) Disclosure...

  7. 14 CFR 17.45 - Conforming amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conforming amendments. 17.45 Section 17.45 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES PROCEDURES FOR PROTESTS AND CONTRACTS DISPUTES Finality and Review § 17.45 Conforming amendments. The...

  8. 6 CFR 17.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 17.515 Section 17.515 Domestic... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 17.515 Compensation. A recipient shall... of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a...

  9. 43 CFR 10.17 - Dispute resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dispute resolution. 10.17 Section 10.17... REPATRIATION REGULATIONS General § 10.17 Dispute resolution. (a) Formal and informal resolutions. Any person... a fair resolution of the matter. The Review Committee may aid in this regard as described below....

  10. 14 CFR 31.17 - Performance: Climb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance: Climb. 31.17 Section 31.17... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.17 Performance: Climb. (a) Each balloon must be capable of climbing at least 300 feet in the first minute after takeoff with a steady rate of...

  11. 49 CFR 397.17 - Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tires. 397.17 Section 397.17 Transportation Other... PARKING RULES General § 397.17 Tires. (a) A driver must examine each tire on a motor vehicle at the... to paragraph (a) of this section, or otherwise, a tire if found to be flat, leaking, or...

  12. 7 CFR 51.17 - Official sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official sampling. 51.17 Section 51.17 Agriculture... Inspection Service § 51.17 Official sampling. Samples may be officially drawn by any duly authorized... time and place of the sampling and the brands or other identifying marks of the containers from...

  13. 42 CFR 1007.17 - Annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual report. 1007.17 Section 1007.17 Public... STATE MEDICAID FRAUD CONTROL UNITS § 1007.17 Annual report. At least 60 days prior to the expiration of... (the first 9 months of the certification period for the first annual report), and containing...

  14. December 17, 2014 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-17

    This podcast provides an update on the Ebola response, as of December 17, 2014. It briefly describes CDC's "Operation Care Package.".  Created: 12/17/2014 by CDC’s Office of the Associate Director for Communication.   Date Released: 12/17/2014.

  15. Quantifying C-17 Aircrew Training Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-19

    Quantifying C-17 Aircrew Training Priorities Joseph D. Beal, Major, USAF AFIT- ENS-GRP-15-J-021...QUANTIFYING C-17 AIRCREW TRAINING PRIORITIES Graduate Research Paper Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Sciences...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENS-GRP-15-J-021 QUANTIFYING C-17 AIRCREW

  16. 48 CFR 17.205 - Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Documentation. 17.205 Section 17.205 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 17.205 Documentation. (a) The...

  17. 6 CFR 17.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 17.540 Section 17.540 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 17.540 Advertising. A recipient...

  18. 34 CFR 200.17 - Intermediate goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermediate goals. 200.17 Section 200.17 Education... Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.17 Intermediate goals. Each State must establish intermediate goals that increase in equal increments over the period...

  19. 50 CFR 80.17 - Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintenance. 80.17 Section 80.17 Wildlife... WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.17 Maintenance. The State is responsible for maintenance of all capital improvements acquired or constructed with Wildlife and Sport...

  20. 10 CFR 1045.17 - Classification levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification levels. 1045.17 Section 1045.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Identification of Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data Information § 1045.17 Classification levels. (a) Restricted...

  1. 49 CFR 8.17 - Classification challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification challenges. 8.17 Section 8.17 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation CLASSIFIED INFORMATION: CLASSIFICATION/DECLASSIFICATION/ACCESS Classification/Declassification of Information § 8.17 Classification challenges. (a)...

  2. 48 CFR 17.105-2 - Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Objectives. 17.105-2 Section 17.105-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Multiyear Contracting 17.105-2 Objectives. Use...

  3. 7 CFR 7.17 - Dual office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dual office. 7.17 Section 7.17 Agriculture Office of... STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.17 Dual office. (a) County committee membership. A member of... any other county office employee. (b) Community committee membership. A member of the...

  4. 43 CFR 17.332 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mediation. 17.332 Section 17.332 Public..., and Enforcement Procedures § 17.332 Mediation. (a) Referral of complaints for mediation. DOI will... participate in the mediation process to the extent necessary to reach an agreement or make an...

  5. 22 CFR 120.17 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export. 120.17 Section 120.17 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.17 Export. (a) Export means: (1) Sending or taking a defense article out of the United States in any manner, except...

  6. 7 CFR 948.17 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 948.17 Section 948.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.17 Export. Export means the shipment of potatoes to any...

  7. 7 CFR 947.17 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 947.17 Section 947.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Definitions § 947.17 Export. Export means shipment of potatoes beyond the boundaries of continental...

  8. 40 CFR 1508.17 - Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legislation. 1508.17 Section 1508.17 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.17 Legislation. Legislation includes a bill or legislative proposal to Congress developed by or with the...

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF THERMALLY DAMAGED LX-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, P C

    2007-07-11

    Thermal damage was applied to LX-17 at 190 C for several hours. The damaged LX-17 samples, after cooled down to room temperature, were characterized for their material properties (density, porosity, permeability, moduli), safety, and performance. Weight losses upon thermal exposure were insignificant (< 0.1% wt.). The damaged LX-17 samples expanded, resulting in a bulk density reduction of 4.3%. Subsequent detonation measurements (cylinder tests) were conducted on the thermally-damaged LX-17 samples. The results showed that the fractions of damaged LX-17 reacted were slightly lower than those of pristine LX-17. The thermally damaged LX-17 had a detonation velocity of 7.315 mm/{micro}s, lower than that (7.638 mm/{micro}s) of pristine LX-17. Detonation energy density for the damaged LX-17 was 5.08 kJ/cm{sup 3}, about 9.0% lower than the detonation energy density of 5.50 kJ/cm{sup 3} for the pristine LX-17. The break-out curves showed reaction zone lengths for pristine LX-17 and damaged LX-17 were similar but the damaged samples had ragged detonation fronts.

  10. 46 CFR 78.17-25 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 78.17-25 Section 78.17-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-25 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief engineer to see that...

  11. 22 CFR 901.17 - Charged employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Charged employee. 901.17 Section 901.17 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD GENERAL Meanings of Terms As Used in This Chapter § 901.17 Charged employee. Charged employee means a member of the Senior Foreign Service or a member of the Service...

  12. 7 CFR 982.17 - Marketing year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing year. 982.17 Section 982.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 982.17 Marketing year. Marketing year means the 12...

  13. 46 CFR 160.017-17 - Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Strength. 160.017-17 Section 160.017-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Chain Ladder § 160.017-17 Strength. (a) Each chain ladder...

  14. 46 CFR 163.003-17 - Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Strength. 163.003-17 Section 163.003-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL CONSTRUCTION Pilot Ladder § 163.003-17 Strength. (a) Each pilot ladder must...

  15. 43 CFR 17.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 17.3 Section 17... National Origin § 17.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the..., or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this part applies....

  16. 7 CFR 15b.17 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.17 Section 15b.17... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 15b.17 Discrimination prohibited. No... to discrimination under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department....

  17. 32 CFR 1602.17 - Military service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military service. 1602.17 Section 1602.17 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.17 Military service. The term military service includes service in the Army, the Navy, the Air...

  18. 32 CFR 637.17 - Police Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Police Intelligence. 637.17 Section 637.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.17 Police Intelligence. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals or groups of individuals in an...

  19. 46 CFR 95.17-15 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 95.17-15 Section 95.17-15 Shipping COAST GUARD... Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-15 Piping. (a) All piping, valves, and fittings shall meet the applicable requirements of Subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. (b) All piping, valves, and fittings...

  20. 46 CFR 76.17-15 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 76.17-15 Section 76.17-15 Shipping COAST GUARD... Systems, Details § 76.17-15 Piping. (a) All piping, valves, and fittings shall meet the applicable requirements of subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. (b) All piping, valves, and fittings...

  1. 43 CFR 17.560 - Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Communications. 17.560 Section 17.560... Programs or Activities Conducted by the Department of the Interior § 17.560 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants, participants,...

  2. 7 CFR 922.17 - Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 922.17 Section 922.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.17 Container. Container means a box,...

  3. 7 CFR 958.17 - Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 958.17 Section 958.17 Agriculture... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.17 Container. Container means a sack, box, bag, crate, hamper, basket, carton, package, or any other type of...

  4. 7 CFR 923.17 - Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 923.17 Section 923.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.17 Container. Container means a box,...

  5. 16 CFR 500.17 - Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fractions. 500.17 Section 500.17 Commercial... LABELING ACT § 500.17 Fractions. (a) SI metric declarations of net quantity of contents of any consumer commodity may contain only decimal fractions. Other declarations of net quantity of contents may...

  6. 44 CFR 206.17 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date. 206.17 Section 206.17 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE General § 206.17 Effective date....

  7. The Northrop A-17A Nomad

    Science.gov (United States)

    1938-01-01

    The Northrop A-17A Nomad: Although another A-17 was used as a cowling testbed, this Northrop A-17A was only slightly modified during the course of its short NACA career at Langley. These modifications were done to determine the profile drag of a wing in flight.

  8. 42 CFR 441.17 - Laboratory services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Laboratory services. 441.17 Section 441.17 Public... Provisions § 441.17 Laboratory services. (a) The plan must provide for payment of laboratory services as defined in § 440.30 of this subchapter if provided by— (1) An independent laboratory that meets...

  9. 7 CFR 550.17 - Peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peer review. 550.17 Section 550.17 Agriculture... § 550.17 Peer review. Upon request of the REE Agency, cooperators may be requested to provide documentation in support of peer review activities and cooperator personnel may be requested to participate...

  10. 40 CFR 403.17 - Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Bypass. 403.17 Section 403.17... GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.17 Bypass. (a) Definitions. (1) Bypass means the intentional diversion of wastestreams from any portion of an Industrial...

  11. 49 CFR 219.17 - Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction. 219.17 Section 219.17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE General § 219.17 Construction. Nothing in this part— (a)...

  12. 22 CFR 142.17 - New construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (USAF) (appendix A to 41 CFR subpart 101-19.6) shall be deemed to... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false New construction. 142.17 Section 142.17 Foreign... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 142.17 New construction. (a) Design...

  13. 49 CFR 587.17 - Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction. 587.17 Section 587.17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) DEFORMABLE BARRIERS Offset Deformable Barrier § 587.17...

  14. Asymmetric Synthesis of the C(17)-C(28)Subunit of Didemnaketal B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,Xue-Qiang; HE,Qin; TU,Yong-Qiang; ZHANG,Fu-Min; ZHANG,Shu-yu

    2007-01-01

    The stereocontrolled synthesis of the C(17)-C(28) fragment 3 of didemnaketal B was accomplished in 21 steps from the natural (R)-(+)-pulegone and (S)-(-)-citronellal. The key steps involved diastereoselective construction of two chiral carbon centers through the intramolecular chiral induction and uncommon Julia olefination of ketone forming the E-trisubstituted C(22)-C(23) double bound.

  15. Model-based estimation of the global carbon budget and its uncertainty from carbon dioxide and carbon isotope records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kheshgi, Haroon S. [Corporate Research Laboratories, Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, New Jersey (United States); Jain, Atul K. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana (United States); Wuebbles, Donald J. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana (United States)

    1999-12-27

    A global carbon cycle model is used to reconstruct the carbon budget, balancing emissions from fossil fuel and land use with carbon uptake by the oceans, and the terrestrial biosphere. We apply Bayesian statistics to estimate uncertainty of carbon uptake by the oceans and the terrestrial biosphere based on carbon dioxide and carbon isotope records, and prior information on model parameter probability distributions. This results in a quantitative reconstruction of past carbon budget and its uncertainty derived from an explicit choice of model, data-based constraints, and prior distribution of parameters. Our estimated ocean sink for the 1980s is 17{+-}7 Gt C (90% confidence interval) and is comparable to the estimate of 20{+-}8 Gt C given in the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment [Schimel et al., 1996]. Constraint choice is tested to determine which records have the most influence over estimates of the past carbon budget; records individually (e.g., bomb-radiocarbon inventory) have little effect since there are other records which form similar constraints. (c) 1999 American Geophysical Union.

  16. Carbonic inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Kerkhof, Alfons; Thiéry, Régis

    2001-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the phase relations in carbonic fluid inclusions with pure, binary and ternary mixtures of the system CO 2-CH 4-N 2, compositions, which are frequently found in geological materials. Phase transitions involving liquid, gas and solid phases in the temperature range between -192°C and 31°C are discussed and presented in phase diagrams ( PT, TX and VX projections). These diagrams can be applied for the interpretation of microthermometry data in order to determine fluid composition and molar volume (or density).

  17. Computational analysis of the first biheterocyclization site of the antibiotic microcin B17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, M A; Zimmer, M

    2000-04-01

    Microcin B 17 (MccB17) undergoes an enzyme catalyzed posttranslational modification to form four oxazole and four thiazole rings. Four of these rings form 4,2 - connected biheterocyclic functionalities. In this study, the hexapeptide sequence surrounding the first biheterocyclization site of microcin B17 was examined using computational calculations and database analysis to see if it was preorganized for cyclization in a manner similar to that found in the autocatalytic posttranslational cyclization of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). Attention was focused on the intermolecular distances between the sulfur and oxygen atoms of the cysteine and serine residues and the carbonyl carbons which they attack in the ring formation. Conformational searches located some low energy conformations that contained relatively short oxygen to carbonyl carbon distances, which indicated that the oxazole forming fragment in microcin B17 is preorganized for cyclization. However, the lack of any clear patterns for the sulfur to carbon distances show that the side-chain of cysteine does not adopt any low energy conformations that are geometrically preorganized for cyclization. The MccB17 synthetase enzyme complex which catalyzes the cyclization process therefore has both steric and electronic functions. The data obtained in this investigation is in agreement with empirical data which shows that biheterocyclization will only occur if the thiazole forms before the oxazole.

  18. Emerging role of IL-17 in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe

    2010-01-01

    The IL-23-IL-17 axis is emerging as a critical regulatory system that bridges the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Th17 cells have been linked to the pathogenesis of several chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, the role of Th17 cells and IL-17 in various stages of atherogenesis remains poorly understood and is only beginning to be elucidated. While IL-17 is a predominantly proinflammatory cytokine, it has a pleiotropic function and it has been implicated both as an instigator in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory disorders as well as being protective in certain inflammatory disease models. Therefore, it is not surprising that the current literature is conflicting on the role of IL-17 during atherosclerotic lesion development. Various approaches have been used by several groups to discern the involvement of IL-17 in atherosclerosis. While one study found that IL-17 is protective against atherosclerosis, several other recent studies have suggested that IL-17 plays a proatherogenic role. Thus, the function of IL-17 remains controversial and awaits more direct studies to address the issue. In this review, we will highlight all the latest studies involving IL-17 and atherosclerosis, including both clinical and experimental research.

  19. 17 CFR 240.17g-4 - Prevention of misuse of material nonpublic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prevention of misuse of material nonpublic information. 240.17g-4 Section 240.17g-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... Organizations § 240.17g-4 Prevention of misuse of material nonpublic information. (a) The written policies...

  20. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-21T - Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. 240.17Ad-21T Section 240.17Ad-21T Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... Company Rules § 240.17Ad-21T Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. (a) This section...

  1. Carbon Farming as a Carbon Negative Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.; Laird, D.; Hayes, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon farms have a pivotal role in national and international efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change. A carbon farm in its broadest sense is one that reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or captures and holds carbon in vegetation and soils. Their capacity to remove carbon from the air and store it safely and permanently, while providing additional human and ecosystem benefits, means they could contribute significantly to national efforts to stabilize or reduce GHGs. We examine carbon farms in the context of corn and soybean production agriculture. We illustrate, using Iowa data but with relevance across United States corn and soybean production, the potential for carbon farms to reduce human GHG emissions and sequester carbon permanently at a rate that has meaningful impact on global greenhouse gas concentration. Carbon has been viewed as a next generation cash crop in Iowa for over a decade. The carbon farm perspective, however, goes beyond carbon as cash crop to make carbon the center of an entire farm enterprise. The transformation is possible through slight adjustment crop practices mixed with advances in technology to sequester carbon through biochar. We examine carbon balance of Iowa agriculture given only the combination of slight reduction in fertilizer and sequestration by biochar. We find the following. Iowa carbon farms could turn Iowa agriculture into a carbon sink. The estimated range of GHG reduction by statewide implementation of carbon farms is 19.46 to 90.27 MMt CO2-equivalent (CO2-e), while the current agricultural CO2-e emission estimate is 35.38 MMt CO2-e. Iowa carbon farm GHG reduction would exceed Iowa GHG reduction by wind energy (8.7 MMt CO2-e) and could exceed combined reductions from wind energy and corn grain ethanol (10.7 MMt CO2-e; 19.4 MMt CO2-e combined). In fact, Iowa carbon farms alone could exceed GHG reduction from national corn grain ethanol production (39.6 MMt CO2-e). A carbon price accessible to agricultural

  2. Carbon Monoxide Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Working with the Media Fire Protection Technology Carbon monoxide safety outreach materials Help inform residents in ... with these messages and free materials. What is carbon monoxide? Carbon monoxide, also known as CO, is ...

  3. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and smokers. Carbon monoxide can harm a fetus (unborn baby still in the womb). Symptoms of carbon ... symptoms Outlook (Prognosis) Carbon monoxide poisoning can cause death. For those who survive, recovery is slow. How ...

  4. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  5. Up for Mischief? IL-17/Th17 in the tumour microenviroment

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The role of IL-17 and the IL-17 producing Th17 cells in cancer has recently become the focus of extensive investigation. An expanding body of literature implicate Th17 cells and their hallmark cytokine in both pro and anti-tumourigenic processes. In this review we describe their biological activities and outline the reciprocal interactions between Th17 cells and other cells of the immune system. We also discuss the evidence regarding their dual role in the tumour microenvironment. An understa...

  6. Changes in plasma potassium concentration during carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Bugge, K; Lyng, K M

    1999-01-01

    Hyperkalaemia with ECG changes had been noted during prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in pigs. We have compared plasma potassium concentrations during surgery in 11 patients allocated randomly to undergo either laparoscopic or open appendectomy and in another 17 patients allocated randomly...... to either carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum or abdominal wall lifting for laparoscopic colectomy. Despite an increasing metabolic acidosis, prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum resulted in only a slight increase in plasma potassium concentrations, which was both statistically and clinically insignificant....... Thus hyperkalaemia is unlikely to develop in patients with normal renal function undergoing carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery....

  7. Th17 Cells in Immunity and Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Kennedy Bedoya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Th17 and IL-17 play important roles in the clearance of extracellular bacterial and fungal infections. However, strong evidence also implicates the Th17 lineage in several autoimmune disorders including multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and asthma. The Th17 subset has also been connected with type I diabetes, although whether it plays a role in the pathogenicity of or protection from the disease remains a controversial issue. In this review we have provided a comprehensive overview of Th17 pathogenicity and function, including novel evidence for a protective role of Th17 cells in conjunction with the microbiota gut flora in T1D onset and progression.

  8. Detection of oxygen isotopic anomaly in terrestrial atmospheric carbonates and its implications to Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, R.; Abramian, A.; Horn, J.; Dominguez, G.; Sullivan, R; Thiemens, Mark H.

    2010-01-01

    The debate of life on Mars centers around the source of the globular, micrometer-sized mineral carbonates in the ALH84001 meteorite; consequently, the identification of Martian processes that form carbonates is critical. This paper reports a previously undescribed carbonate formation process that occurs on Earth and, likely, on Mars. We identified micrometer-sized carbonates in terrestrial aerosols that possess excess 17O (0.4–3.9‰). The unique O-isotopic composition mechanistically describes...

  9. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept beh

  10. Carbon Residence Times in Pedogenic Carbonate Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monger, H.; Feng, Y.; Karnjanapiboonwang, A.

    2013-12-01

    Soil carbonate is a huge pool of terrestrial carbon that contains at least 930 to 940 Pg C and has influx rates on the order of 1 to 12 g CaCO3/m2/yr. Such large mass to flux ratios yield long mean residence times for carbon (e.g., 85,000 years)--assuming steady state. Like other global carbon pools, the soil carbonate pool has smaller sub-pools with higher influx rates and shorter mean residence times. For example, pedogenic carbonate in coppice dunes known to have formed since 1858 and carbonate formed on lithic artifacts in soils at archaeology sites suggests mean residence times can be as short as 120 years--again assuming steady state. Harder to assess are efflux rates as CO2 emissions or bicarbonate leaching. Some Bowen-ratio studies have nevertheless found evidence for CO2 emissions resulting from carbonate dissolution, and other studies have found evidence for bicarbonate leaching based on dissolution pipes through calcic horizons using soil morphology studies. Since an understanding of mean residence times are prerequisite for a better understanding of soil carbonate in the global carbon cycle, especially in a scenario of an expanding Aridosphere, more influx and efflux measurements are needed to evaluate the possibility of carbon sequestration by soil carbonate in hyperarid, arid, semiarid, or subhumid soils.

  11. 7 CFR 1219.17 - Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.17...

  12. TH17 Cell Induction and Effects of IL-17A and IL-17F Blockade in Experimental Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedebye Schmidt, Esben Gjerløff; Larsen, Hjalte List; Kristensen, Nanna Ny

    2013-01-01

    T helper (TH) 17 cells are believed to play a pivotal role in development of inflammatory bowel disease, and their contribution to intestinal inflammation has been studied in various models of colitis. TH17 cells produce a range of cytokines, some of which are potential targets for immunotherapy...

  13. Abundances in red giant stars - Carbon and oxygen isotopes in carbon-rich molecular envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannier, P. G.; Sahai, R.

    1987-01-01

    Millimeter-wave observations have been made of isotopically substituted CO toward the envelopes of 11 carbon-rich stars. In every case, C-13O was detected and model calculations were used to estimate the C-12/C-13 abundance ratio. C-17O was detected toward three, and possibly four, envelopes, with sensitive upper limits for two others. The CO-18 variant was detected in two envelopes. New results include determinations of oxygen isotopic ratios in the two carbon-rich protoplanetary nebulae CRL 26688 and CRL 618. As with other classes of red giant stars, the carbon-rich giants seem to be significantly, though variably, enriched in O-17. These results, in combination with observations in interstellar molecular clouds, indicate that current knowledge of stellar production of the CNO nuclides is far from satisfactory.

  14. SYNTHESIS OF CARBON NANOTUBES FOR ACETYLENE DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Y. FAIZAH

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A gas sensor, utilizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs in a pellet form for acetylene detection has been developed. This research was carried out to investigate the absorption effect of acetylene (C2H2 towards the change of resistance of carbon nanotubes pellet as sensor signal. Source Measurement Unit (SMU was used to study the gas sensing behaviour of resistance based sensors employing carbon nanotubes pellet as the active sensing element. Studies revealed that the absorption of acetylene into the carbon nanotubes pellet resulting in increase in pellet resistance. The changes are attributed to p-type conductivity in semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes used in this research was synthesized by means of Floating Catalyst Chemical Vapor Deposition (FC-CVD method. Benzene was used as a hydrocarbon source while ferrocene as a source of catalyst with Hydrogen and Argon as carrier and purge gas respectively. From the research, it was shown that carbon nanotubes show high sensitivity towards acetylene. The highest sensitivity recorded was 1.21, 1.16 and 17.86 for S1, S2 and S3 respectively. It is expected that many applications of CNT-based sensors will be explored in future as the interest of the nanotechnology research in this field increases.

  15. Th17/IL-17A might play a protective role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Hus

    Full Text Available Th17 cells, a recently discovered subset of T helper cells that secrete IL-17A, can affect the inflammation process autoimmune and cancer diseases development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of Th17 cells and IL17A in biology of CLL. The study group included 294 untreated CLL patients in different clinical stages. Here, we show that higher Th17 and IL-17A values were associated with less advanced clinical stage of CLL. Th17 cells' percentages in PB were lower in patients who died due to CLL during follow-up due to CLL (as compared to surviving patients and in patients responding to first-line therapy with fludarabine-based regimens (as compared to non-responders. IL-17A inversely correlated with the time from CLL diagnosis to the start of therapy and was lower in patients who required treatment during follow-up. Th-17 and IL-17A values were lower in patients with adverse prognostic factors (17p and 11q deletion, CD38 and ZAP-70 expression. CLL patients with detectable IL-17A mRNA in T cells were in Rai Stage 0 and negative for both ZAP-70 and CD38 expression. Th17 percentages positively correlated with iNKT and adversely with Treg cells. The results of this study suggest that Th17 may play a beneficial role in CLL immunity.

  16. Composite carbon foam electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1997-05-06

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  17. Composite carbon foam electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  18. Th17及Th17型细胞因子与炎症性肠病%Th17, Th17 cvtokines and inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李呈贞; 陈广洁

    2012-01-01

    Th17细胞已被划分为一个不同于Th1、Th2和Treg的新的T细胞亚群,以分泌IL-17为主要特征.Th17在防御胞外细菌感染、介导慢性炎症和自身免疫性疾病的发病机制中发挥重要作用.炎症性肠病属于自身免疫性疾病的一种,免疫调节紊乱是其发病的关键因素.免疫学和基因学的发现表明Th17及Th17效应因子在炎症性肠病发病机理中起重要作用.对Th17的进一步深入研究可以加深我们对相关疾病发病机制的认识并指导临床治疗.%T helper 17 (Th17) cells, a newly classified T cell subset, characterized by the production of IL-17, play crucial roles in the defense of extracellular bacterial infections, the mediated chronic inflammation and the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an autoimmune disease, whose key pathogenic factor is immune regulation disturbance. Evidences suggest that Th17 and its effectors play an important role in the pathogenesis of IBD. Thus further investigation of Th17 could reveal the pathogenesis of related diseases and guide the clinical treatment.

  19. Carbon Nanomembranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Polina; Gölzhäuser, Armin

    2017-03-01

    This chapter describes the formation and properties of one nanometer thick carbon nanomembranes (CNMs), made by electron induced cross-linking of aromatic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The cross-linked SAMs are robust enough to be released from the surface and placed on solid support or over holes as free-standing membranes. Annealing at 1000K transforms CNMs into graphene accompanied by a change of mechanical stiffness and electrical resistance. The developed fabrication approach is scalable and provides molecular level control over thickness and homogeneity of the produced CNMs. The mechanisms of electron-induced cross-linking process are discussed in details. A variety of polyaromatic thiols: oligophenyls as well as small and extended condensed polycyclic hydrocarbons have been successfully employed, demonstrating that the structural and functional properties of the resulting nanomembranes are strongly determined by the structure of molecular monolayers. The mechanical properties of CNMs (Young's modulus, tensile strength and prestress) are characterized by bulge testing. The interpretation of the bulge test data relates the Young's modulus to the properties of single molecules and to the structure of the pristine SAMs. The gas transport through the CNM is measured onto polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) - thin film composite membrane. The established relationship of permeance and molecular size determines the molecular sieving mechanism of permeation through this ultrathin sheet.

  20. From carbon nanotubes to carbon atomic chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas García, Gilberto; Zhang, Weijia; José-Yacamán, Miguel

    2010-10-01

    Carbyne is a linear allotrope of carbon. It is formed by a linear arrangement of carbon atoms with sp-hybridization. We present a reliable and reproducible experiment to obtain these carbon atomic chains using few-layer-graphene (FLG) sheets and a HRTEM. First the FLG sheets were synthesized from worm-like exfoliated graphite and then drop-casted on a lacey-carbon copper grid. Once in the TEM, two holes are opened near each other in a FLG sheet by focusing the electron beam into a small spot. Due to the radiation, the carbon atoms rearrange themselves between the two holes and form carbon fibers. The beam is concentrated on the carbon fibers in order excite the atoms and induce a tension until multi wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) is formed. As the radiation continues the MWCNT breaks down until there is only a single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT). Then, when the SWCNT breaks, an atomic carbon chain is formed, lasts for several seconds under the radiation and finally breaks. This demonstrates the stability of this carbon structure.

  1. 7 CFR 1209.17 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1209.17 Section 1209.17 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions §...

  2. 38 CFR 17.1003 - Emergency transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency transportation... Facilities § 17.1003 Emergency transportation. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 17.1002, payment or... the emergency transportation; (c) The veteran has no coverage under a health-plan contract...

  3. 7 CFR 1415.17 - Cooperative agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the “right of enforcement” clause to read as set forth in the GRP cooperative agreement. This right is... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative agreements. 1415.17 Section 1415.17... Cooperative agreements. (a) NRCS may enter into cooperative agreements which establish terms and...

  4. 44 CFR 1.7 - Regulations agendas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regulations agendas. 1.7 Section 1.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Regulations published in April and October of each year. (b) In accordance with 5 U.S.C. 605, the...

  5. 43 CFR 17.217 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing facilities. 17.217 Section 17.217... facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate each program or activity so that when each part is... not require a recipient to make each of its existing facilities or every part of a facility...

  6. Main: DRE1COREZMRAB17 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Z.M.) rab17 gene promoter; DRE1 was protected, in in vivo footprinting, by a protein in embryos specifically, but in leaves, was prot...ected when was treated with ABA and drought; rab17 is expressed during late embryog

  7. 7 CFR 160.17 - Laboratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Laboratory analysis. 160.17 Section 160.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) NAVAL STORES REGULATIONS...

  8. 24 CFR 17.69 - Accounting control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting control. 17.69 Section... § 17.69 Accounting control. Each office and the Department Claims Officer shall process all claims collections through the appropriate accounting office and report the collection, compromise, suspension...

  9. 7 CFR 30.17 - Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Damage. 30.17 Section 30.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Damage. The effect of mold, must, rot, black rot, or other fungous or bacterial diseases which...

  10. 43 CFR 17.232 - Postsecondary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postsecondary education. 17.232 Section 17... Postsecondary education. This section applies to postsecondary education and activities, including postsecondary vocational education programs or activities, that receive Federal financial assistance and to recipients...

  11. 27 CFR 17.167 - Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories. 17.167... PRODUCTS Records § 17.167 Inventories. (a) Distilled spirits. The “on hand” figures reported in Part II of TTB Form 5154.2 shall be verified by physical inventories taken as of the end of each quarter in...

  12. 17th Dalian International Garment Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yifeng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Basic Information of 17th Dalian International Garment Fair The 17th Dalian International Garment Fair will be held from September 10 to 13, 2005at Xinghai Convention and Exhibition Center (old hall) and newly-built World Expo Square(new hall) simultaneously. The fair area is about 50,000 m2, 2.5 times than the last one.

  13. IAS 17 Leases - A Closer Look

    OpenAIRE

    Muthupandian, K S

    2009-01-01

    The International Accounting Standards Committee issued the the International Accounting Standard 17, Leases. The objective of IAS 17 is to prescribe, for lessees and lessors, the appropriate accounting treatment and disclosures to apply in relation to leases. This article presents a closer look of standard (objective, scope, definitions, accounting treatment, recognition, presentation and disclosures).

  14. 7 CFR 322.17 - Mailed packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mailed packages. 322.17 Section 322.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of...

  15. 7 CFR 29.3618 - Rule 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 17. 29.3618 Section 29.3618 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.3618 Rule 17. Any lot of tobacco which is not green but contains over...

  16. 50 CFR 665.17 - Experimental fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Experimental fishing. 665.17 Section 665... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC General § 665.17 Experimental... incidental harvest of MUS that would otherwise be prohibited by this part. No experimental fishing may...

  17. 21 CFR 17.21 - Prehearing conferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prehearing conferences. 17.21 Section 17.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL CIVIL MONEY...; (3) Stipulations and admissions of fact as to the contents and authenticity of documents; (4)...

  18. 28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., the ISOO implementing directives in 32 CFR 2001.22, and internal Department directions provided by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a)...

  19. 43 CFR 17.218 - New construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Accessibility Standards. (1) Effective as of August 15, 1990, design, construction, or alteration of buildings... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New construction. 17.218 Section 17.218 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY...

  20. 7 CFR 1215.17 - Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research. 1215.17 Section 1215.17 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions §...

  1. 22 CFR 17.3 - Fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fault. 17.3 Section 17.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL OVERPAYMENTS FROM THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY FUND UNDER THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM (FSRDS) AND THE FOREIGN SERVICE PENSION SYSTEM...

  2. 22 CFR 17.1 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General. 17.1 Section 17.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL OVERPAYMENTS FROM THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY FUND UNDER THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM (FSRDS) AND THE FOREIGN SERVICE PENSION SYSTEM...

  3. 38 CFR 17.274 - Cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost sharing. 17.274 Section 17.274 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Civilian... the beneficiary cost share. (b) In addition to the beneficiary cost share, an annual (calendar...

  4. 31 CFR 223.17 - Revocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revocation. 223.17 Section 223.17 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE SURETY COMPANIES DOING BUSINESS WITH THE...

  5. 20 CFR 632.17 - Planning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Planning process. 632.17 Section 632.17... process. (a) Each Native American grantee shall establish a planning process for the development of its Master Plan and Comprehensive Annual Plan. This planning process shall involve consideration of the...

  6. 7 CFR 1738.17 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 20-15:320-15, “Equal Employment Opportunity in Construction Financed with RUS Loans”; 7 CFR parts 15 and 15b and 45 CFR part 90. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1738.17 Section 1738.17...

  7. 36 CFR 17.7 - Preference rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preference rights. 17.7... CONVEYANCE OF FREEHOLD AND LEASEHOLD INTERESTS ON LANDS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 17.7 Preference rights... right to acquire the interest for an amount equal to the highest bid if within 30 days they notify...

  8. More stories on Th17 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexandra S Basso; Hilde Cheroutre; Daniel Mucida

    2009-01-01

    For more than two decades, immunologists have been using the so-called Th1/Th2 paradigm to explain most of the phenomena related to adaptive immunity. The Th1/Th2 paradigm implied the existence of two different, mutually regulated, CD4+ T helper subsets: Th1 cells, driving cell-mediated immune responses involved in tissue damage and fighting infection against intracellular parasites; and Th2 cells that mediate IgE production and are particularly involved in eosinophilic inflammation, allergy and clearance of helminthic infections. A third member of the T helper set, IL-17-producing CD4+ T cells, now called Th17 cells, was recently described as a distinct lineage that does not share developmental pathways with either Thl or Th2 cells. The Th17 subset has been linked to autoimmune disorders, being able to produce IL-17, IL-17F and IL-21 among other inflammatory cytokines. Interestingly, it has been reported that there is not only a cross-regulation among Thl, Th2 and Th17 effector cells but there is also a dichotomy in the generation of Thl7 and T regulatory cells. Therefore, Treg and Th17 effector cells arise in a mutually exclusive fashion, depending on whether they are activated in the presence of TGF-β or TGF-β plus inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6. This review will address the discovery of the Th17 cells, and recent progress on their development and regulation.

  9. 31 CFR 17.160 - Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communications. 17.160 Section 17.160 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON... Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to effectively communicate with...

  10. 27 CFR 17.6 - Signature authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Signature authority. 17.6... PRODUCTS General Provisions § 17.6 Signature authority. No claim, bond, tax return, or other required... other proper notification of signature authority has been filed with the TTB office where the...

  11. 20 CFR 655.17 - Advertising requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.17 Section 655... States (H-2B Workers) § 655.17 Advertising requirements. All advertising conducted to satisfy the... employment which are not less favorable than those to be offered to the H-2B workers. All advertising...

  12. 36 CFR 327.17 - Advertisment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 327.17 Advertisment. (a) Advertising and the distribution of printed matter is allowed within project... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertisment. 327.17 Section... that this activity is not solely commercial advertising. (b) An application for such a permit shall...

  13. 7 CFR 924.17 - Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 924.17 Section 924.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Container. Container means a box, bag, crate, lug, basket, carton, package, or any other type of...

  14. 44 CFR 80.17 - Project implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... RELOCATION FOR OPEN SPACE Post-Award Requirements § 80.17 Project implementation. (a) Hazardous materials... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project implementation. 80.17... described in this part, consistent with FEMA model deed restriction language....

  15. CYP17A1 intron mutation causing cryptic splicing in 17α-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daw-Yang Hwang

    Full Text Available 17α-Hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase deficiency (17OHD is an autosomal recessive disease causing congenital adrenal hyperplasia and a rare cause of hypertension with hypokalemia. The CYP17A1 gene mutation leads to 17OHD and its clinical features. We described an 18 y/o female with clinical features of 17α-hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase deficiency and characterized the functional consequences of an intronic CYP17A1 mutation. The coding regions and flanking intronic bases of the CYP17A1 gene were amplified by PCR and sequenced. The patient is a compound heterozygote for the previously described p.R358X and IVS1 +2T>C mutations. A first intron splice donor site mutation was re-created in minigene and full-length expression vectors. Pre-mRNA splicing of the variant CYP17A1 intron was studied in transfected cells and in a transformed lymphoblastoid cell line. When the full-length CYP17A1 gene and minigene containing the intronic mutation was expressed in transfected cells, the majority (>90% of mRNA transcripts were incorrectly spliced. Only the p.R358X transcript was detected in the EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell line. The IVS1 +2T>C mutation abolished most 17α-hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase enzyme activity by aberrant mRNA splicing to an intronic pseudo-exon, causing a frame shift and early termination.

  16. Carbon nanotube composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2015-03-24

    A material consisting essentially of a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes dissolved in a solvent. Un-functionalized carbon nanotube concentrations up to 30 wt % and hydroxylated carbon nanotube concentrations up to 40 wt % can be used with even small concentrations of each (less than 2 wt %) useful in producing enhanced conductivity properties of formed thin films.

  17. Mutagenicity of carbon nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallin, Håkan; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; White, Paul A;

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials such carbon nanotubes, graphene and fullerenes are some the most promising nanomaterials. Although carbon nanomaterials have been reported to possess genotoxic potential, it is imperitive to analyse the data on the genotoxicity of carbon nanomaterials in vivo and in vitro...

  18. Electroanalysis with carbon paste electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Svancara, Ivan; Walcarius, Alain; Vytras, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Electrochemistry and Electroanalysis with Carbon Paste-Based ElectrodesHistorical Survey and GlossaryField in Publication Activities and LiteratureCarbon Pastes and Carbon Paste ElectrodesCarbon Paste as the Binary MixtureClassification of Carbon Pastes and Carbon Paste ElectrodesConstruction of Carbon Paste HoldersCarbon Paste as the Electrode MaterialPhysicochemical Properties of Carbon PastesElectrochemical Characteristics of Carbon PastesTesting of Unmodified CPEsIntera

  19. Clinical Significance of IL-23 Regulating IL-17A and/or IL-17F Positive Th17 Cells in Chronic Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the expression level and clinical significance of (IL-17A+ and/or IL-17F+ Th17 cells under IL-23 regulation in patients of chronic periodontitis (CP and healthy controls (HC. Materials and Methods. The whole peripheral blood samples were collected from 30 CP patients and 25 healthy controls. Flow cytometry was used to test the (IL-17A+ and/or IL-17F+ Th17 expression level. Recombinant human IL-23 (rhIL-23 was used to detect Th17 differentiation and expansion. Correlation coefficient analysis between Th17 expression level and clinical parameters was analyzed by SPSS software. Results. Flow cytometry results showed that IL-17A+IL-17F− and IL-17A−IL-17F+ Th17 were both increased in CP group than in HC group (P < 0.01, while, under recombinant human IL-23 (rhIL-23 stimulation, the number of IL-17A+IL-17F− Th17 cells was significantly increased in both CP and HC groups (P < 0.01. Interestingly, IL-17A−IL-17F+ Th17 cells were only increased in CP group after rhIL-23 stimulation. Additionally, correlation coefficient analysis showed significant correlation between IL-17A+IL-17F− Th17 cell and attachment loss or probing depth (P < 0.05. Conclusions. This study indicates that both the IL-17A+IL-17F− and IL-17A−IL-17F+ Th17 cells may be involved in pathogenesis of periodontitis. The role of these Th17 cells in the disease pathogenesis needs to be further investigated.

  20. Mesoporous carbon materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng; Fulvio, Pasquale Fernando; Mayes, Richard T.; Wang, Xiqing; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Bingkun

    2014-09-09

    A conductive mesoporous carbon composite comprising conductive carbon nanoparticles contained within a mesoporous carbon matrix, wherein the conductive mesoporous carbon composite possesses at least a portion of mesopores having a pore size of at least 10 nm and up to 50 nm, and wherein the mesopores are either within the mesoporous carbon matrix, or are spacings delineated by surfaces of said conductive carbon nanoparticles when said conductive carbon nanoparticles are fused with each other, or both. Methods for producing the above-described composite, devices incorporating them (e.g., lithium batteries), and methods of using them, are also described.

  1. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  2. 17 CFR 270.17j-1 - Personal investment activities of investment company personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Personal investment activities of investment company personnel. 270.17j-1 Section 270.17j-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 §...

  3. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-13 - Annual study and evaluation of internal accounting control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... internal accounting control. 240.17Ad-13 Section 240.17Ad-13 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... Company Rules § 240.17Ad-13 Annual study and evaluation of internal accounting control. (a) Accountant's... accountant concerning the transfer agent's system of internal accounting control and related procedures...

  4. Peltier effects in electrode carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ellen Marie; Egner, Espen; Kjelstrup, Signe

    1998-02-01

    The thermoelectric power of a cell with platinum electrodes and a carbon conductor was determined. The electromotive force (emf) was measured as a function of the temperature difference between the electrodes at temperatures varying from 310 °C to 970 °C. From these measurements, the transported entropy of electric charge in carbon was found to vary from -1.7 to -1.9 J/(K mole) at temperatures around 300 °C, from -2.0 to -2.3 J/(K mole) at temperatures around 550 °C, and from -3.4 to -3.7 J/(K mole) at temperatures around 950 °C. This transported entropy had not before been determined for temperatures above 550 °C. Also, it is shown how the previously neglected surface properties can be taken into account to interpret the measurements. In the Hall-Héroult cell, the anode is made of a similar kind of carbon. Hence, the transported entropy found above can be used to describe the often neglected coupling between transport of heat and electric charge in this electrode. It is shown that the calculated electric potential profile through a coal sample will change significantly if the coupling is neglected, but the calculated temperature profile is independent of whether the coupling is neglected. New equations are also developed that can be used to evaluate the importance of the coupling in other systems.

  5. Nanoparticle Decoration of Carbon Nanotubes by Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    on metal morphology, as does diffusion activation energy. Comparison of the metal– graphene interfa- cial energy to the surface energy of the metal...Nanotechnology 2009;20:375501–11. [17] O. Yaglioglu, Thesis . Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering; 2007. [18] Venables...25] Osswald S, Flahaut E, Ye H, Gogotsi Y. Elimination of D-band in Raman spectra of double-wall carbon nanotubes by oxidation . Chem Phys Lett

  6. Surface modification of commercial tin coatings by carbon ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L.J.; Sood, D.K.; Manory, R.R. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Commercial TiN coatings of about 2 {mu}m thickness on high speed steel substrates were implanted at room temperature with 95 keV carbon ions at nominal doses between 1 x 10{sup 17} - 8x10{sup 17} ions cm{sup -2}. Carbon ion implantation induced a significant improvement in ultramicrohardness, friction coefficient and wear properties. The surface microhardness increases monotonically by up to 115% until a critical dose is reached. Beyond this dose the hardness decreases, but remains higher than that of unimplanted sample. A lower friction coefficient and a longer transition period towards a steady state condition were obtained by carbon ion implantation. The changes in tribomechanical properties are discussed in terms of radiation damage and possible formation of a second phase rich in carbon. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Critical role of interleukin-17/interleukin-17 receptor axis in mediating Con A-induced hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shu; Wang, Luman; Liu, Nan; Wang, Ying; Chu, Yiwei

    2012-04-01

    Concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis is thought to be a T-cell-mediated disease with active destruction of liver cells. Interleukin (IL)-17 is a cytokine produced principally by CD4(+) T cells. However, whether IL-17/IL-17 receptor (IL-17/IL-17R)-mediated responses are involved in T-cell-mediated Con A-induced liver injury remains unclear. In this study, we found that IL-17 expression was highly elevated in liver tissues during Con A-induced hepatitis. The increased levels of IL-17 were paralleled with the severity of liver injury reflected by Alanine aminotransaminase and histological assay as well as the secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-6. Blockage of IL-17 significantly ameliorated Con A-induced hepatitis, while overexpression of IL-17 systemically resulted in massive hepatocyte necrosis in mice. Furthermore, overexpression of an IL-17R immunoglobulin G1 fusion protein significantly attenuated liver inflammation after acute Con A treatment. High expression of IL-17R on Kupffer cells was also observed along with the production of cytokines including TNF-α and IL-6. Inhibition of Kupffer cells by gadolinium chloride completely prevented Con A-induced liver injury and cytokine release. Finally, IL-17-expressing CD4(+) T and natural killer T cells were greatly increased in Con A-injected mice compared with that in controls. Overall, our results indicate that IL-17R signaling is critically involved in the pathogenesis in Con A-induced hepatitis, and blockade of IL-17/IL-17R signaling pathway may represent a novel therapeutic intervention in human autoimmune-related hepatitis.

  8. Adsorption of Carbon Dioxide on Activated Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Guo; Liping Chang; Kechang Xie

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption of CO2 on a raw activated carbon A and three modified activated carbon samples B, C, and D at temperatures ranging from 303 to 333 K and the thermodynamics of adsorption have been investigated using a vacuum adsorption apparatus in order to obtain more information about the effect of CO2 on removal of organic sulfur-containing compounds in industrial gases. The active ingredients impregnated in the carbon samples show significant influence on the adsorption for CO2 and its volumes adsorbed on modified carbon samples B, C, and D are all larger than that on the raw carbon sample A. On the other hand, the physical parameters such as surface area, pore volume, and micropore volume of carbon samples show no influence on the adsorbed amount of CO2. The Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) equation was the best model for fitting the adsorption data on carbon samples A and B, while the Freundlich equation was the best fit for the adsorption on carbon samples C and D. The isosteric heats of adsorption on carbon samples A, B, C, and D derived from the adsorption isotherms using the Clapeyron equation decreased slightly increasing surface loading. The heat of adsorption lay between 10.5 and 28.4 kJ/mol, with the carbon sample D having the highest value at all surface coverages that were studied. The observed entropy change associated with the adsorption for the carbon samples A, B, and C (above the surface coverage of 7 ml/g) was lower than the theoretical value for mobile adsorption. However, it was higher than the theoretical value for mobile adsorption but lower than the theoretical value for localized adsorption for carbon sample D.

  9. Vegetation and soil carbon storage in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Kerang; WANG Shaoqiang; CAO Mingkui

    2004-01-01

    This study estimated the current vegetation and soil carbon storage in China using a biogeochemical model driven with climate, soil and vegetation data at 0.5°latitude-longitude grid spatial resolution. The results indicate that the total carbon storage in China's vegetation and soils was 13.33 Gt C and 82.65 Gt C respectively, about 3% and 4% of the global total. The nationally mean vegetation and soil carbon densities were 1.47 kg C/m2 and 9.17 kg C/m2, respectively, differing greatly in various regions affected by climate, vegetation, and soil types. They were generally higher in the warm and wet Southeast China and Southwest China than in the arid Northwest China; whereas vegetation carbon density was the highest in the warm Southeast China and Southwest China, soil carbon density was the highest in the cold Northeast China and southeastern fringe of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. These spatial patterns are clearly correlated with variations in the climate that regulates plant growth and soil organic matter decomposition, and show that vegetation and soil carbon densities are controlled by different climatic factors.

  10. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F [Oakland, CA

    2012-04-10

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  11. Comparative histopathology of mice infected with the 17XL and 17XNL strains of Plasmodium yoelii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong; Ding, Yan; Zhou, Tao-li; Ou, Qian-yi; Xu, Wen-yue

    2012-04-01

    Plasmodium yoelii 17XL was used to investigate the mechanism of Plasmodium falciparum-caused cerebral malaria, although its histological effect on other mouse organs is still unclear. Here, histological examination was performed on mice infected with P. yoelii 17XL; the effect of P. yoelii 17XL infection on anemia and body weight loss, as well as its lesions in the brain, liver, kidney, lung, and spleen, also was investigated. Plasmodium yoelii 17XL-infected red blood cells were sequestered in the microcirculation of the brain and in the kidney. Compared with the nonlethal P. yoelii 17XNL strain, infection by P. yoelii 17XL caused substantial pulmonary edema, severe anemia, and significant body weight loss. Although P. yoelii 17XNL and 17XL produced a similar focal necrosis in the mouse liver, infection of P. yoelii 17XL induced coalescing of red and white pulp. Mortality caused by P. yoelii 17XL may be due to cerebral malaria, as well as respiratory distress syndrome and severe anemia. Plasmodium yoelii 17XL-infected rodent malaria seems to be a useful model for investigating severe malaria caused by P. falciparum.

  12. Up for Mischief? IL-17/Th17 in the tumour microenviroment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniati, Eleni; Soper, Robin; Hagemann, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    The role of IL-17 and the IL-17 producing Th17 cells in cancer has recently become the focus of extensive investigation. An expanding body of literature implicate Th17 cells and their hallmark cytokine in both pro and anti-tumourigenic processes. In this review we describe their biological activities and outline the reciprocal interactions between Th17 cells and other cells of the immune system. We also discuss the evidence regarding their dual role in the tumour microenvironment. An understanding of the processes that regulate the pro or anti-tumour activities of Th17 cell and IL-17 will allow the development of more effective means for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:20729908

  13. 7 CFR 29.17 - Director.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.17 Director. Director or Acting Director, Tobacco Division, Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture....

  14. Papua New Guinea Tsunami, July 17, 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On the evening of Friday July 17, 1998, a magnitude Ms 7.1 earthquake occurred near the northwest coast Papua New Guinea 850 km (510 miles ) northwest of Port...

  15. 22 CFR 17.5 - Financial hardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... UNDER THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM (FSRDS) AND THE FOREIGN SERVICE PENSION SYSTEM (FSPS) § 17.5 Financial hardship. (a) Waiver of overpayment will not be allowed in any case...

  16. 22 CFR 17.7 - Waiver precluded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... UNDER THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM (FSRDS) AND THE FOREIGN SERVICE PENSION SYSTEM (FSPS) § 17.7 Waiver precluded. (a) Waiver of an overpayment cannot be granted when: (1)...

  17. 47 CFR 13.17 - Replacement license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.17 Replacement... Operator License, Marine Radio Operator Permit, First Class Radiotelegraph Operator's Certificate, Second... Radio Operator's License, Restricted GMDSS Radio Operator License, GMDSS Radio Maintainer's License,...

  18. 38 CFR 17.259 - Direct costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... personnel or for fringe benefits, rent, publications, educational programs, training, research... Exchange of Information § 17.259 Direct costs. Direct costs to which grant funds may be applied may...

  19. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 as a clean technology for palm kernel oil extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhuda I

    2009-04-01

    Kyoto Protocol. Keywords: By-product, Solvent extraction, Kyoto protocol, Supercritical Carbon Dioxide, Palm Kernel Oil Received: 13 July 2008 / Received in revised form: 17 February 2009, Accepted: 28 February 2009, Published online: 12 March 2009

  20. Th17 cells and interleukin-17 increase with poor prognosis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yixiang; Ye, Aifang; Bi, Laixi; Wu, Jianbo; Yu, Kang; Zhang, Shenghui

    2014-08-01

    Although Th17 cells play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, their roles in malignancies are currently under debate. The role and mechanism of Th17 cells in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrated that the frequency of Th17 cells was significantly increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and bone marrow mononuclear cells from AML patients compared with healthy donors. Plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-17, IL-22, IL-23, IL-1β, IL-6, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 were significantly increased in blood and bone marrow in AML patients compared with healthy donors. The in vitro experiments demonstrated that IL-1β, IL-6, IL-23, but not TGF-β1 promoted the generation and differentiation of Th17 cells from naive CD4(+) T cells in humans. IL-17A, a signature cytokine secreted by Th17 cells, induced the proliferation of IL-17 receptor (IL-17R)-positive AML cells via IL-17R, in which activation of PI3K/Akt and Jak/Stat3 signaling pathway may play important roles. In addition, combination of IL-17A and IL-22 significantly reduced the generation of Th1 cells and the production of interferon (IFN)-γ from healthy donor or AML patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Patients with high Th17 cell frequency had poor prognosis, whereas patients with high Th1 cell frequency had prolonged survival. Combined analysis of Th1 and Th17 cell frequencies improved the ability to predict patient outcomes. In conclusion, Th17 cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of AML and may be an important therapeutic target and prognostic predictor.

  1. Carbon coated textiles for flexible energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, Kristy [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Fashion, Product, Design and Merchandising Dept., A. J. Drexel Nanotechnology Inst. and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Perez, Carlos R. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). A. J. Drexel Nanotechnology Inst. and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; McDonough, John K. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). A. J. Drexel Nanotechnology Inst. and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Presser, Volker [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). A. J. Drexel Nanotechnology Inst. and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Heon, Min [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). A. J. Drexel Nanotechnology Inst. and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Dion, Genevieve [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Fashion, Product, Design and Merchandising Dept.; Gogotsi, Yury [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). A. J. Drexel Nanotechnology Inst. and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2011-10-20

    This paper describes a flexible and lightweight fabric supercapacitor electrode as a possible energy source in smart garments. We examined the electrochemical behavior of porous carbon materials impregnated into woven cotton and polyester fabrics using a traditional printmaking technique (screen printing). The porous structure of such fabrics makes them attractive for supercapacitor applications that need porous films for ion transfer between electrodes. We used cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study the capacitive behaviour of carbon materials using nontoxic aqueous electrolytes including sodium sulfate and lithium sulfate. Electrodes coated with activated carbon (YP17) and tested at ~0.25 A·g⁻¹ achieved a high gravimetric and areal capacitance, an average of 85 F·g⁻¹ on cotton lawn and polyester microfiber, both corresponding to ~0.43 F·cm⁻².

  2. Metallic carbon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, M.L.; Crespi, V.H.; Louie, S.G.S.; Zettl, A.K.

    1999-11-30

    Novel metallic forms of planar carbon are described, as well as methods of designing and making them. Nonhexagonal arrangements of carbon are introduced into a graphite carbon network essentially without destroying the planar structure. Specifically a form of carbon comprising primarily pentagons and heptagons, and having a large density of states at the Fermi level is described. Other arrangements of pentagons and heptagons that include some hexagons, and structures incorporating squares and octagons are additionally disclosed. Reducing the bond angle symmetry associated with a hexagonal arrangement of carbons increases the likelihood that the carbon material will have a metallic electron structure.

  3. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Kalpana; Srivastava, Anchal; Srivastava, O N

    2005-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes play a fundamental role in the rapidly developing field of nanoscience and nanotechnology because of their unique properties and high potential for applications. In this article, the different synthesis methods of carbon nanotubes (both multi-walled and single-walled) are reviewed. From the industrial point of view, the chemical vapor deposition method has shown advantages over laser vaporization and electric arc discharge methods. This article also presents recent work in the controlled synthesis of carbon nanotubes with ordered architectures. Special carbon nanotube configurations, such as nanocoils, nanohorns, bamboo-shaped and carbon cylinder made up from carbon nanotubes are also discussed.

  4. Isochromosome 17q in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyad Alhourani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, presence of acquired cytogenetic abnormalities may help to estimate prognosis. However, deletion of TP53 gene, which is associated with an aggressive course of the disease and poor prognosis along with a lack of response to treatment, is one of the alterations which may escape cytogenetic diagnoses in CLL. Thus, other techniques have emerged such as interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH. Deletion of TP53 may but must not go together with the formation of an isochromosome i(17q; surprisingly this subgroup of patients was not in the focus of CLL studies yet. This study was about if presence of i(17q could be indicative for a new subgroup in CLL with more adverse prognosis. As a result, TP53 deletion was detected in 18 out of 150 (12% here studied CLL cases. Six of those cases (~33% had the TP53 deletion accompanied by an i(17q. Interestingly, the cases with i(17q showed a tendency towards more associated chromosomal aberrations. These findings may be the bases for follow-up studies in CLL patients with TP53 deletion with and without i(17q; it may be suggested that the i(17q presents an even more adverse prognostic marker than TP53 deletion alone.

  5. The production of phytolith-occluded carbon in China's forests: implications to biogeochemical carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhaoliang; Liu, Hongyan; Li, Beilei; Yang, Xiaomin

    2013-09-01

    The persistent terrestrial carbon sink regulates long-term climate change, but its size, location, and mechanisms remain uncertain. One of the most promising terrestrial biogeochemical carbon sequestration mechanisms is the occlusion of carbon within phytoliths, the silicified features that deposit within plant tissues. Using phytolith content-biogenic silica content transfer function obtained from our investigation, in combination with published silica content and aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) data of leaf litter and herb layer in China's forests, we estimated the production of phytolith-occluded carbon (PhytOC) in China's forests. The present annual phytolith carbon sink in China's forests is 1.7 ± 0.4 Tg CO2  yr(-1) , 30% of which is contributed by bamboo because the production flux of PhytOC through tree leaf litter for bamboo is 3-80 times higher than that of other forest types. As a result of national and international bamboo afforestation and reforestation, the potential of phytolith carbon sink for China's forests and world's bamboo can reach 6.8 ± 1.5 and 27.0 ± 6.1 Tg CO2  yr(-1) , respectively. Forest management practices such as bamboo afforestation and reforestation may significantly enhance the long-term terrestrial carbon sink and contribute to mitigation of global climate warming.

  6. Quantifying global soil carbon losses in response to warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, T W; Todd-Brown, K E O; Rowe, C W; Wieder, W R; Carey, J C; Machmuller, M B; Snoek, B L; Fang, S; Zhou, G; Allison, S D; Blair, J M; Bridgham, S D; Burton, A J; Carrillo, Y; Reich, P B; Clark, J S; Classen, A T; Dijkstra, F A; Elberling, B; Emmett, B A; Estiarte, M; Frey, S D; Guo, J; Harte, J; Jiang, L; Johnson, B R; Kröel-Dulay, G; Larsen, K S; Laudon, H; Lavallee, J M; Luo, Y; Lupascu, M; Ma, L N; Marhan, S; Michelsen, A; Mohan, J; Niu, S; Pendall, E; Peñuelas, J; Pfeifer-Meister, L; Poll, C; Reinsch, S; Reynolds, L L; Schmidt, I K; Sistla, S; Sokol, N W; Templer, P H; Treseder, K K; Welker, J M; Bradford, M A

    2016-11-30

    The majority of the Earth's terrestrial carbon is stored in the soil. If anthropogenic warming stimulates the loss of this carbon to the atmosphere, it could drive further planetary warming. Despite evidence that warming enhances carbon fluxes to and from the soil, the net global balance between these responses remains uncertain. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of warming-induced changes in soil carbon stocks by assembling data from 49 field experiments located across North America, Europe and Asia. We find that the effects of warming are contingent on the size of the initial soil carbon stock, with considerable losses occurring in high-latitude areas. By extrapolating this empirical relationship to the global scale, we provide estimates of soil carbon sensitivity to warming that may help to constrain Earth system model projections. Our empirical relationship suggests that global soil carbon stocks in the upper soil horizons will fall by 30 ± 30 petagrams of carbon to 203 ± 161 petagrams of carbon under one degree of warming, depending on the rate at which the effects of warming are realized. Under the conservative assumption that the response of soil carbon to warming occurs within a year, a business-as-usual climate scenario would drive the loss of 55 ± 50 petagrams of carbon from the upper soil horizons by 2050. This value is around 12-17 per cent of the expected anthropogenic emissions over this period. Despite the considerable uncertainty in our estimates, the direction of the global soil carbon response is consistent across all scenarios. This provides strong empirical support for the idea that rising temperatures will stimulate the net loss of soil carbon to the atmosphere, driving a positive land carbon-climate feedback that could accelerate climate change.

  7. Quantifying global soil carbon losses in response to warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, T. W.; Todd-Brown, K. E. O.; Rowe, C. W.; Wieder, W. R.; Carey, J. C.; Machmuller, M. B.; Snoek, B. L.; Fang, S.; Zhou, G.; Allison, S. D.; Blair, J. M.; Bridgham, S. D.; Burton, A. J.; Carrillo, Y.; Reich, P. B.; Clark, J. S.; Classen, A. T.; Dijkstra, F. A.; Elberling, B.; Emmett, B. A.; Estiarte, M.; Frey, S. D.; Guo, J.; Harte, J.; Jiang, L.; Johnson, B. R.; Kröel-Dulay, G.; Larsen, K. S.; Laudon, H.; Lavallee, J. M.; Luo, Y.; Lupascu, M.; Ma, L. N.; Marhan, S.; Michelsen, A.; Mohan, J.; Niu, S.; Pendall, E.; Peñuelas, J.; Pfeifer-Meister, L.; Poll, C.; Reinsch, S.; Reynolds, L. L.; Schmidt, I. K.; Sistla, S.; Sokol, N. W.; Templer, P. H.; Treseder, K. K.; Welker, J. M.; Bradford, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    The majority of the Earth’s terrestrial carbon is stored in the soil. If anthropogenic warming stimulates the loss of this carbon to the atmosphere, it could drive further planetary warming. Despite evidence that warming enhances carbon fluxes to and from the soil, the net global balance between these responses remains uncertain. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of warming-induced changes in soil carbon stocks by assembling data from 49 field experiments located across North America, Europe and Asia. We find that the effects of warming are contingent on the size of the initial soil carbon stock, with considerable losses occurring in high-latitude areas. By extrapolating this empirical relationship to the global scale, we provide estimates of soil carbon sensitivity to warming that may help to constrain Earth system model projections. Our empirical relationship suggests that global soil carbon stocks in the upper soil horizons will fall by 30 ± 30 petagrams of carbon to 203 ± 161 petagrams of carbon under one degree of warming, depending on the rate at which the effects of warming are realized. Under the conservative assumption that the response of soil carbon to warming occurs within a year, a business-as-usual climate scenario would drive the loss of 55 ± 50 petagrams of carbon from the upper soil horizons by 2050. This value is around 12-17 per cent of the expected anthropogenic emissions over this period. Despite the considerable uncertainty in our estimates, the direction of the global soil carbon response is consistent across all scenarios. This provides strong empirical support for the idea that rising temperatures will stimulate the net loss of soil carbon to the atmosphere, driving a positive land carbon-climate feedback that could accelerate climate change.

  8. Increased Th17 cells and IL‑17 in rats with traumatic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huabin; Zhang, Zhuhong; Luo, Na; Liu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Qingzhong; Yan, Hua

    2014-10-01

    T helper 17 (Th17) cells are strong inducers of numerous autoimmune diseases and inflammation. However, the role of Th17 cells and interleukin (IL)‑17 in traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) are yet to be elucidated. In the present study, a rat model of TON was established using a fluid percussion brain injury device. Th17 cells were found to be upregulated in the spleens of rats in the TON group. In addition, the level of IL‑17 in the retina of rats in the TON group was observed to increase with the upregulation of the Th17 cells. Furthermore, the expression of IL‑17 in the optic nerve was found to be upregulated between one and seven days following injury in the rats in the TON group. These findings strongly suggest that the ratio of Th17 cells and the expression of IL‑17 are upregulated in rats with TON. These findings also provide a rationale for developing therapeutic agents to treat TON.

  9. Substantial global carbon uptake by cement carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Fengming; Davis, Steven J.; Ciais, Philippe; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Guan, Dabo; Pade, Claus; Shi, Tiemao; Syddall, Mark; Lv, Jie; Ji, Lanzhu; Bing, Longfei; Wang, Jiaoyue; Wei, Wei; Yang, Keun-Hyeok; Lagerblad, Björn; Galan, Isabel; Andrade, Carmen; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Zhu

    2016-12-01

    Calcination of carbonate rocks during the manufacture of cement produced 5% of global CO2 emissions from all industrial process and fossil-fuel combustion in 2013. Considerable attention has been paid to quantifying these industrial process emissions from cement production, but the natural reversal of the process--carbonation--has received little attention in carbon cycle studies. Here, we use new and existing data on cement materials during cement service life, demolition, and secondary use of concrete waste to estimate regional and global CO2 uptake between 1930 and 2013 using an analytical model describing carbonation chemistry. We find that carbonation of cement materials over their life cycle represents a large and growing net sink of CO2, increasing from 0.10 GtC yr-1 in 1998 to 0.25 GtC yr-1 in 2013. In total, we estimate that a cumulative amount of 4.5 GtC has been sequestered in carbonating cement materials from 1930 to 2013, offsetting 43% of the CO2 emissions from production of cement over the same period, not including emissions associated with fossil use during cement production. We conclude that carbonation of cement products represents a substantial carbon sink that is not currently considered in emissions inventories.

  10. Comparative absorption of calcium from carbonate tablets, lactogluconate/carbonate effervescent tablet, and chloride solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, M; Reizenstein, P; Teigen, S W; Rønneberg, R

    1991-01-01

    Intestinal absorption of calcium from three different labelled calcium preparations (all containing 500 mg elemental calcium) was determined using the whole body retention and urinary excretion of 47Ca in 14 normal subjects. Chewable calcium carbonate tablets showed a significantly (p less than 0.05) better mean minimum absorption of calcium (25.6% in exp. I, 22.8% in exp. II) than calcium given in the form of a lactogluconate/carbonate effervescent tablet, (17%), but similar to calcium in a chloride solution (24.7%). The minimum calcium absorption varied from 85 to 128 mg. All the preparations were taken with standardized low calcium test meals.

  11. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  12. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  13. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  14. Carbon Monoxide (CO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IAQ) Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Carbon Monoxide's Impact on Indoor Air Quality On this ... length of exposure. Top of Page Sources of Carbon Monoxide Sources of CO include: unvented kerosene and ...

  15. Soil Organic Carbon Stock

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the carbon held within soil organic constituents (i.e., products produced as dead plants and animals decompose and the soil microbial...

  16. Biomass Carbon Stock

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Biomass carbon includes carbon stored in above- and below-ground live plant components (such as leaf, branch, stem and root) as well as in standing and down dead...

  17. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  18. SILICA SURFACED CARBON FIBERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    carbon fibers . Several economical and simple processes were developed for obtaining research quantities of silica surfaced carbon filaments. Vat dipping processes were utilized to deposit an oxide such as silica onto the surface and into the micropores of available carbon or graphite base fibers. High performance composite materials were prepared with the surface treated carbon fibers and various resin matrices. The ablative characteristics of these composites were very promising and exhibited fewer limitations than either silica or...treated

  19. Pathways of organic carbon oxidation in three continental margin sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Fossing, Henrik;

    1993-01-01

    We have combined several different methodologies to quantify rates of organic carbon mineralization by the various electron acceptors in sediments from the coast of Denmark and Norway. Rates of NH4+ and Sigma CO2 liberation sediment incubations were used with O2 penetration depths to conclude...... that O2 respiration accounted for only between 3.6-17.4% of the total organic carbon oxidation. Dentrification was limited to a narrow zone just below the depth of O2 penetration, and was not a major carbon oxidation pathway. The processes of Fe reduction, Mn reduction and sulfate reduction dominated...

  20. Th17 cells and tumor%Th17细胞与肿瘤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何宋兵; 郑丁铖; 汪良; 李德春

    2011-01-01

    Th17细胞是一类CD4+效应T细胞.研究发现Th17细胞及其相关细胞因子存在于许多肿瘤中,并在炎症相关性肿瘤中发挥重要作用,但对Th17细胞在肿瘤微环境中的分化表达、免疫调控机制及功能效应仍不明确.%Th17 cells are CD4 + effector T cells.Many studies have confirmed that Th17 cells and their related cytokines exist in many kinds of tumors,and play critical roles in inflammation related tumors.But the expression and differentiation in tumor microenvironment,the immune regulation mechanisms and functional effects of Th17 cells remains controversial.

  1. Regulation of inflammatory responses by IL-17F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuexian O.; Chang, Seon Hee; Park, Heon; Nurieva, Roza; Shah, Bhavin; Acero, Luis; Wang, Yi-Hong; Schluns, Kimberly S.; Broaddus, Russell R.; Zhu, Zhou; Dong, Chen

    2008-01-01

    Although interleukin (IL) 17 has been extensively characterized, the function of IL-17F, which has an expression pattern regulated similarly to IL-17, is poorly understood. We show that like IL-17, IL-17F regulates proinflammatory gene expression in vitro, and this requires IL-17 receptor A, tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated factor 6, and Act1. In vivo, overexpression of IL-17F in lung epithelium led to infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages and mucus hyperplasia, similar to observations made in IL-17 transgenic mice. To further understand the function of IL-17F, we generated and analyzed mice deficient in IL-17F or IL-17. IL-17, but not IL-17F, was required for the initiation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Mice deficient in IL-17F, but not IL-17, had defective airway neutrophilia in response to allergen challenge. Moreover, in an asthma model, although IL-17 deficiency reduced T helper type 2 responses, IL-17F–deficient mice displayed enhanced type 2 cytokine production and eosinophil function. In addition, IL-17F deficiency resulted in reduced colitis caused by dextran sulfate sodium, whereas IL-17 knockout mice developed more severe disease. Our results thus demonstrate that IL-17F is an important regulator of inflammatory responses that seems to function differently than IL-17 in immune responses and diseases. PMID:18411338

  2. Protolytic carbon film technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renschler, C.L.; White, C.A.

    1996-04-01

    This paper presents a technique for the deposition of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) on virtually any surface allowing carbon film formation with only the caveat that the substrate must withstand carbonization temperatures of at least 600 degrees centigrade. The influence of processing conditions upon the structure and properties of the carbonized film is discussed. Electrical conductivity, microstructure, and morphology control are also described.

  3. Carbon Goes To…

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasci, Funda

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this activity are to help middle school students understand the carbon cycle and realize how human activities affect the carbon cycle. This activity consists of two parts. The first part of the activity focuses on the carbon cycle, especially before the Industrial Revolution, while the second part of the activity focuses on how…

  4. Carbon nanotube quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sapmaz, S.

    2006-01-01

    Low temperature electron transport measurements on individual single wall carbon nanotubes are described in this thesis. Carbon nanotubes are small hollow cylinders made entirely out of carbon atoms. At low temperatures (below ~10 K) finite length nanotubes form quantum dots. Because of its small si

  5. Carbon sequestration on Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Christopher S.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.

    2015-01-01

    On Earth, carbon sequestration in geologic units plays an important role in the carbon cycle, scrubbing CO_2 from the atmosphere for long-term storage. While carbonate is identified in low abundances within the dust and soils of Mars, at

  6. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quéré, Le Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M.S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E.M.S.; Nakaoka, S.; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Laan-Luijkx, van der Ingrid T.; Werf, van der Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the “global carbon budget” – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project futur

  7. Invariant mass spectroscopy of 17C via one-neutron knockout reaction from 18C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunji; Samurai Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The nuclei away from the β-stability line are expected to have exotic nuclear structures. For example, the ground states of neutron-rich carbon isotopes, 15C, 17C, and 19C, have been predicted to be 5/2+ states in the naive shell model. However, they were identified as 1/2+, 3/2+, and 1/2+, respectively, due to the halo structure and/or nuclear deformation. To understand the properties of the valence orbit relative to the inner orbit in those neutron-rich carbon isotopes, the study of the negative parity states is decisive. The present study focuses on the low-lying negative parity states in 17C above the neutron decay threshold. The experiment was performed for the C(18C,17C*) one-neutron knockout reaction channel at 250 MeV/nucleon using the SAMURAI spectrometer at RIKEN-RIBF, during the first physics runs of the apparatus. The nucleon knockout reaction utilizing the secondary beams in inverse kinematics has become recognized as a sensitive tool for spectroscopy of the nuclei far from the β-stability line. In the presentation, details of the measurement and analysis will be reported together with new results on the low-lying negative parity states in 17C.

  8. Mitotic recombination of chromosome 17 in astrocytomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, C.D.; Carlbom, E.; Nordenskjold, M.; Collins, V.P.; Cavenee, W.K. (Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Montreal (Canada))

    1989-04-01

    Allelic combinations at seven loci on human chromosome 17 defined by restriction fragment length polymorphisms were determined in tumor and normal tissues from 35 patients with gliomas. Loss of constitutional heterozygosity at one or more of these loci was observed in 8 of the 24 tumors displaying astrocytic differentiation and in the single primitive neuroectodermal tumor examined. The astrocytomas showing these losses included examples of each adult malignancy grade of the disease, including glioblastoma (malignancy grade IV), and seven of them demonstrated concurrent maintenance of heterozygosity for at least one chromosome 17 locus. Determination of allele dosage together with the genotypic data indicated that the tumor chromosomes 17 were derived by mitotic recombination in 7 of the 9 cases with shared homozygosity of the region 17p11.2-ptr in all cases. In contrast, tumors of oligodendrocytic, ependymal, or mixed cellular differentiation did not exhibit loss of alleles at any of the loci examined. These data suggest that the somatic attainment of homozygosity for loci on chromosome 17p is frequently associated with the oncogenesis of central nervous system tumors, particularly those showing solely astrocytic differentiation, and that mitotic recombination mapping is a useful approach towards the subregional localization of a locus whose rearrangement is involved in this disease.

  9. ICER is requisite for Th17 differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Nobuya; Comte, Denis; Mizui, Masayuki; Otomo, Kotaro; Rosetti, Florencia; Mayadas, Tanya N.; Crispín, José C.; Bradley, Sean J.; Koga, Tomohiro; Kono, Michihito; Karampetsou, Maria P.; Kyttaris, Vasileios C.; Tenbrock, Klaus; Tsokos, George C.

    2016-01-01

    Inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) has been described as a transcriptional repressor isoform of the cAMP response element modulator (CREM). Here we report that ICER is predominantly expressed in Th17 cells through the IL-6–STAT3 pathway and binds to the Il17a promoter, where it facilitates the accumulation of the canonical enhancer RORγt. In vitro differentiation from naive ICER/CREM-deficient CD4+ T cells to Th17 cells is impaired but can be rescued by forced overexpression of ICER. Consistent with a role of Th17 cells in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, ICER/CREM-deficient B6.lpr mice are protected from developing autoimmunity. Similarly, both anti-glomerular basement membrane-induced glomerulonephritis and experimental encephalomyelitis are attenuated in ICER/CREM-deficient mice compared with their ICER/CREM-sufficient littermates. Importantly, we find ICER overexpressed in CD4+ T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Collectively, our findings identify a unique role for ICER, which affects both organ-specific and systemic autoimmunity in a Th17-dependent manner. PMID:27680869

  10. Magnetic sublattices in Np2Co17 and Np2Ni17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colineau, E.; Hen, A.; Sanchez, J.-P.; Griveau, J.-C.; Magnani, N.; Eloirdi, R.; Halevy, I.; Gaczyński, P.; Orion, I.; Shick, A. B.; Caciuffo, R.

    2016-12-01

    Rare-earth-based compounds R2T17 (R=Rare earth; T=Transition metal) have been extensively studied and developed for applications as permanent magnets. The actinide-based analogues, however, are much less documented and we report here about the magnetic properties of Np2Co17 and Np2Ni17, as inferred from 237Np Mössbauer spectroscopy, the best resonance in actinides, and specific heat.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVATED CARBONS FROM COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold H. Schobert; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Zhe Lu

    2003-09-30

    The increasing role of coal as a source of energy in the 21st century will demand environmental and cost-effective strategies for the use of coal combustion by-products (CCBPs), mainly unburned carbon in fly ash. Unburned carbon is nowadays regarded as a waste product and its fate is mainly disposal, due to the present lack of efficient routes for its utilization. However, unburned carbon is a potential precursor for the production of adsorbent carbons, since it has gone through a devolatilization process while in the combustor, and therefore, only requires to be activated. Accordingly, the principal objective of this work was to characterize and utilize the unburned carbon in fly ash for the production of activated carbons. The unburned carbon samples were collected from different combustion systems, including pulverized utility boilers, a utility cyclone, a stoker, and a fluidized bed combustor. LOI (loss-on-ignition), proximate, ultimate, and petrographic analyses were conducted, and the surface areas of the samples were characterized by N2 adsorption isotherms at 77K. The LOIs of the unburned carbon samples varied between 21.79-84.52%. The proximate analyses showed that all the samples had very low moisture contents (0.17 to 3.39 wt %), while the volatile matter contents varied between 0.45 to 24.82 wt%. The elemental analyses show that all the unburned carbon samples consist mainly of carbon with very little hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen In addition, the potential use of unburned carbon as precursor for activated carbon (AC) was investigated. Activated carbons with specific surface area up to 1075m{sup 2}/g were produced from the unburned carbon. The porosity of the resultant activated carbons was related to the properties of the unburned carbon feedstock and the activation conditions used. It was found that not all the unburned carbon samples are equally suited for activation, and furthermore, their potential as activated carbons precursors could be

  12. Association between Polymorphisms in Interleukin-17A and -17F Genes and Chronic Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jôice Dias Corrêa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Interleukin-17 (IL-17 is a cytokine that induces neutrophil recruitment and the release of inflammatory mediators in several inflammatory conditions; nevertheless, the involvement of IL-17 gene polymorphisms in chronic periodontitis (CP has not been addressed yet. Our aim was to evaluate the association between periodontal status and the polymorphisms IL-17A G197A and IL-17F C7488T in subjects with CP along with their impact on levels of inflammatory mediators. Material and Methods. Genomic DNA was obtained from 30 CP patients and 30 healthy controls (HCs. IL-17A G197A and IL-17F C7488T polymorphisms were determined using PCR-RFLP. Serum and periodontal tissues were collected and processed for ELISA, myeloperoxidase (MPO, and/or microscopic analysis. Results. The frequencies of genotypes in the CP group were significantly different from those of HC. Odds ratio indicated that increased risks for CP were associated with the -197A allele, not with the -7488T allele. In addition, the -197A allele was correlated with worse clinical parameters, higher MPO activity, and increased expression of inflammatory mediators (IL-17A and IL-8 than the other genotypes. Conclusions. These results indicate that the IL-17A -197A allele is associated with increased risk for CP, likely because this genotype relates to the enhanced inflammation in periodontal tissues.

  13. Th17细胞与肺部疾病%Th17 cell and pulmonary diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙燕; 解卫平

    2011-01-01

    Th17细胞是新近发现的CD4+T细胞亚群,因主要分泌白介素17而命名.白介素17是具有强大的招募中性粒细胞功能的前炎性细胞因子,可促进多种细胞释放炎性因子.Th17细胞在增强炎症反应的同时也提高了机体的防御能力,与肺部感染、气道慢性炎性疾病等密切相关.本文就此作一简要综述.%Th17 cell is a newly discovered subtype of CD4+ T cells. It can secret interleukin-17 (IL-17) which determines its denomination. IL-17 is a kind of proinflammatory cytokine that can strongly recruit neutrophils and promote many kinds of cells to release inflammatory cytokines. Th17 cell can strengthen inflammatory responses, and moreover, it enhances the body's defense ability. It has a close relation with pulmonary infections, chronic inflammatory disorder of the airway and so on. This review makes a summing-up for it.

  14. Plasma nitrogenation of Pr2Fe17 and Sm2Fe17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardisson, Jose D.; Macedo, Waldemar A. A.; Araujo, Roberto C.; Gama, Sergio

    2000-05-01

    The effect of plasma nitrogenation on the structural and magnetic properties of Pr2Fe17 and Sm2Fe17 compounds was investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy, thermomagnetic measurements, optical metallography, and electronic microprobe analysis. Samples were prepared starting from Pr2Fe17 and Sm2Fe17 commercial powders with 20 μm granulometry, submitted to nitrogenation treatment at 400 °C in 10 Torr atmosphere of 80%H2-20%N2 during periods up to 8 h. Our results show the formation of R2Fe17N3 and metallic Fe and indicate the existence of two other phases. The Mössbauer parameters of the latter are characterized by magnetic hyperfine fields (peak values) of 21 (24) and 3 (4) T and isomer shifts of 0.17 and 0.24 (0.24 and 0.29) mm/s for Pr (Sm). Their magnetic-phase transitions were determined to be close to 250 and 90 °C. Our results suggest that these 2:17 phases present stoichiometries close to R2Fe17N8 and R2Fe17N11, respectively.

  15. Effects of microcin B17 on microcin B17-immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, M; Kolter, R; Moreno, F

    1986-02-01

    When microcin B17-immune cells are treated with microcin B17 they show many of the physiological effects displayed by microcin B17-sensitive cells treated in the same way. DNA replication stops immediately and several SOS functions are subsequently induced. In sensitive cells these effects are irreversible and lead to cell death, whereas in immune cells they are reversible and there is no loss of viability. This is an unusual mechanism of immunity because it does not prevent the primary action of the microcin. The implications of this mechanism concerning the mode of action of microcin B17 and the induction of the SOS system are discussed.

  16. [B17-D-leucine]insulin and [B17-norleucine]insulin: synthesis and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, R; Danho, W; Büllesbach, E E; Gattner, H G; Zahn, H; King, G L; Kahn, C R

    1983-11-01

    The chemical synthesis of two porcine insulin analogues is described. Leucine in position B17 of the native molecule was substituted by its D-enantiomer and by L-norleucine, respectively. Both B-chain derivatives were synthesized by fragment condensation and purified as di-S-sulphonates by gel filtration followed by ion exchange chromatography on SP-Sephadex at pH3. Combination with native sulphhydryl A-chain yielded [DLeuB17]insulin and [NleB17]insulin. Both insulin analogues were isolated by gel filtration followed by ion exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose at pH 4.0. Biological activities of the analogues were determined relative to native pork insulin: 1) glucose oxidation in rat epididymal adipocytes was 6% for [DLeuB17]insulin and 16% for [NleB17]insulin, 2) receptor-binding affinity tested with cultured human fibroblasts and with rat adipocytes was 3% for [DLeuB17]insulin and 26% for [NleB17]insulin, and 3) thymidine incorporation into DNA of human fibroblasts was 35% for [DLeuB17]insulin and 100% for [NleB17]insulin.

  17. The role of IL17B-IL17RB signaling pathway in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinejad, Vahideh; Dolati, Sanam; Motallebnezhad, Morteza; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2017-04-01

    Breast cancer is the most important cause of death in women globally. Though, improved survival is due to the developments in the screening techniques, initial diagnosis, and advances in treatments. Numerous factors contributed in the progression of breast cancer, such as inflammation. The most significant factor involved in the inflammatory process, is T helper 17 (Th17) cells. Th17 cells have an exceptional role in many of inflammatory diseases like psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and breast cancer through production of proinflammatory cytokine (IL17). As the collected indication recommends a possible relevance between chronic inflammation and cancer tumorigenesis, it appears that this cytokine can stimulate the tumorigenesis of breast tumor cells. The IL17 family consist of 6 protein members, among them IL17B and its receptor, and IL17RB signaling pathway plays a key role in development and progression of breast cancer, and targeting this signaling pathway or its specific downstream mediators by a chemotherapy drug and small interfering RNA interference is a potentially novel therapeutic pathway for inhibition of this disease. This comprehensive review details the recognition of activity, signaling, and the roles of IL17B-IL17RB in breast cancer have caused to determination of new therapeutic mechanisms with the purpose of introduction this system and the regulation of its signaling pathway.

  18. Th17 and autoimmune diseases%Th17与自身免疫病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅; 储以微

    2008-01-01

    Th17是最近发现的CD4+效应T细胞的新亚群.初始T细胞在TGF-β和IL-6的共同作用下分化发育成为Th17细胞.在其分化发育过程中,RORγt是Th17细胞的特异性转录因子.分化成熟的Th17可以分泌IL-17,IL-21,IL-22等多种细胞因子,其中IL-17在多种自身免疫疾病和炎性疾病中起关键作用.使用抗IL-17的抗体或抑制Th17细胞的分化,可以有效减轻疾病的症状.Th17细胞的发现为自身免疫性疾病和与其相关的炎性疾病的发病机制及防治对策开辟了新的研究思路和方向.

  19. Snapping Supernovae at z>1.7

    CERN Document Server

    Aldering, G; Kowalski, M; Linder, E V; Perlmutter, S; Aldering, Greg; Kim, Alex G.; Kowalski, Marek; Linder, Eric V.; Perlmutter, Saul

    2006-01-01

    We examine the utility of very high redshift Type Ia supernovae for cosmology and systematic uncertainty control. Next generation space surveys such as the Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) will obtain thousands of supernovae at z>1.7, beyond the design redshift for which the supernovae will be exquisitely characterized. We find that any z\\gtrsim2 standard candles' use for cosmological parameter estimation is quite modest and subject to pitfalls; we examine gravitational lensing, redshift calibration, and contamination effects in some detail. The very high redshift supernovae - both thermonuclear and core collapse - will provide copious interesting information on star formation, environment, and evolution. However, the new observational systematics that must be faced, as well as the limited expansion of SN-parameter space afforded, does not point to high value for 1.71.7. Synergy with observations fro...

  20. Origin of Apollo 17 rocks and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpotts, J. A.; Schuhmann, S.; Kouns, C. W.; Lum, R. K. L.; Winzer, S.

    1974-01-01

    Lithophile trace element abundances have been determined by mass spectrometric isotope dilution for a suite of Apollo 17 samples. The six mare basalts have generally similar relative trace element abundances; they are also similar to Apollo 11 trace element poor basalts. It is suggested that these basalts were derived by partial fusion of cumulates. The Apollo 17 highland breccias show an order of magnitude range in trace element abundances although there is a clustering of KREEP-rich samples which are interpreted as mixtures. The Apollo 17 soils show only a limited range of trace element abundances. They are mixtures of highland breccias, mare basalts, and orange-black 'soil'. There appear to be two groups of soils, Light Mantle and the rest. Both groups seem to have the same basalt component, which is similar to Station 4 basalt from Shorty Crater and probably is the uppermost basalt unit throughout the Taurus-Littrow valley.

  1. Preparation of Pt–Ru bimetallic catalyst supported on carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Rajesh; K Ravindranathan Thampi; J -M Bonard; B Viswanathan

    2000-10-01

    The template carbonization of polyphenyl acetylene yields hollow, uniform cylindrical carbon nanotubes with outer diameter almost equal to pore diameter of the template used. High resolution transmission electron microscopic investigation reveals that Pt–Ru nanoparticles are highly dispersed inside the tube with an average particle size of 1.7 nm.

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of duck interleukin-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17) belonging to the Th17 family is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by activated T cells. A 1034-bp cDNA encoding duck IL-17 (duIL-17) was cloned from ConA-activated splenic lymphocytes of ducks. The encoded protein, predicted to consisted of 169 amino acids, displayed a molec...

  3. Amorphous iron (II) carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sel, Ozlem; Radha, A.V.; Dideriksen, Knud;

    2012-01-01

    exothermic than that of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC). This suggests that enthalpy of crystallization in carbonate systems is ionic-size controlled, which may have significant implications in a wide variety of conditions, including geological sequestration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide.......Abstract The synthesis, characterization and crystallization energetics of amorphous iron (II) carbonate (AFC) are reported. AFC may form as a precursor for siderite (FeCO3). The enthalpy of crystallization (DHcrys) of AFC is similar to that of amorphous magnesium carbonate (AMC) and more...

  4. Spin Waves in Ho2Co17

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kurt Nørgaard; Lebech, Bente

    1980-01-01

    Spin wave excitations in a single crystal of Ho2Co17 have been studied at 4.8 and 78 K. The results are discussed in terms of a linear spin wave model. At 78 K both ground state and excited state spin waves are observed.......Spin wave excitations in a single crystal of Ho2Co17 have been studied at 4.8 and 78 K. The results are discussed in terms of a linear spin wave model. At 78 K both ground state and excited state spin waves are observed....

  5. Synthesis of [17-{sup 14}C] nicergoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angiuli, P.; Fontana, E.; Dostert, P. [Pharmacia and Upjohn, Milan (Italy)

    1997-04-01

    The synthesis of 1,6-dimethyl-8{beta}-(5-bromonicotinoyl-[{sup 14}C] oxymethyl)-10{alpha}-methoxy-ergoline ([17-{sup 14}C] nicergoline) is reported. A five-step route starting from the addition of potassium [{sup 14}C] cyanide to 1,6-dimethyl-8{beta}-chloro-10{alpha}-methoxy-ergoline yielded the expected [17- {sup 14}C] nicergoline, 97% radiochemically pure, with a specific activity of 2,23 GBq/mmol. The overall radiochemical yield was about 10%. (Author).

  6. Unequal household carbon footprints in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Zhu; Meng, Jing; Zhang, Ning; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Households' carbon footprints are unequally distributed among the rich and poor due to differences in the scale and patterns of consumption. We present distributional focused carbon footprints for Chinese households and use a carbon-footprint-Gini coefficient to quantify inequalities. We find that in 2012 the urban very rich, comprising 5% of population, induced 19% of the total carbon footprint from household consumption in China, with 6.4 tCO2/cap. The average Chinese household footprint remains comparatively low (1.7 tCO2/cap), while those of the rural population and urban poor, comprising 58% of population, are 0.5-1.6 tCO2/cap. Between 2007 and 2012 the total footprint from households increased by 19%, with 75% of the increase due to growing consumption of the urban middle class and the rich. This suggests that a transformation of Chinese lifestyles away from the current trajectory of carbon-intensive consumption patterns requires policy interventions to improve living standards and encourage sustainable consumption.

  7. An Evaluation of the MOD17 Gross Primary Production Algorithm in a Mangrove Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, H.; Najjar, R.; Herrmann, M.; Fuentes, J. D.; Ruiz-Plancarte, J.

    2015-12-01

    Though coastal wetlands occupy a small fraction of the Earth's surface, they are extremely active ecosystems and play a significant role in the global carbon budget. However, coastal wetlands are still poorly understood, especially when compared to open-ocean and terrestrial ecosystems. This is partly due to the limited in situ observations in these areas. One of the ways around the limited in situ data is to use remote sensing products. Here we present the first evaluation of the MOD17 remote sensing algorithm of gross primary productivity (GPP) in a mangrove forest using data from a flux tower in the Florida Everglades. MOD17 utilizes remote sensing products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and meteorological fields from the NCEP/DOE Reanalysis 2. MOD17 is found to capture the long-term mean and seasonal amplitude of GPP but has significant errors describing the interannual variability, intramonthly variability, and the phasing of the annual cycle in GPP. Regarding the latter, MOD17 overestimates GPP when salinity is high and underestimates it when it is low, consistent with the fact that MOD17 ignores salinity and salinity tends to decrease GPP. Including salinity in the algorithm would then most likely improve its accuracy. MOD17 also assumes that GPP is linear with respect to PAR (photosynthetically active radiation), which does not hold true in the mangroves. Finally, the estimated PAR and air temperature inputs to MOD17 were found to be significantly lower than observed. In summary, while MOD17 captures some aspects of GPP variability at this mangrove site, it appears to be doing so for the wrong reasons.

  8. Th17 cells and IL-17 a--focus on immunopathogenesis and immunotherapeutics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, W.B. van den; McInnes, I.B.

    2013-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Accumulating evidence suggests that IL-17 A has broad pathogenic roles in multiple autoimmune and immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The development of new therapies that inhibit IL-17 pathway signaling is of clinical significance. O

  9. 17 CFR 240.17a-8 - Financial recordkeeping and reporting of currency and foreign transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reporting of currency and foreign transactions. 240.17a-8 Section 240.17a-8 Commodity and Securities... currency and foreign transactions. Every registered broker or dealer who is subject to the requirements of the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970 shall comply with the...

  10. 17 CFR 270.17a-6 - Exemption for transactions with portfolio affiliates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a wholly-owned subsidiary of a fund; (C) Usual and ordinary fees for services as a director; (D) An... with portfolio affiliates. 270.17a-6 Section 270.17a-6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... Exemption for transactions with portfolio affiliates. (a) Exemption for transactions with...

  11. 17 CFR 1.17 - Minimum financial requirements for futures commission merchants and introducing brokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... but not limited to customers, general creditors, subordinated lenders, minority shareholders... Commission (17 CFR 240.15c3-1(a)). (ii) Each person registered as a futures commission merchant engaged in... capital required by Rule 15c3-1(a) of the Securities and Exchange Commission (17 CFR 240.15c3-1(a))....

  12. Hsp90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin inhibits the proliferation of ARPE-19 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The antiproliferative effect of the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG (17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin on human retinal pigment epithelial cells is investigated. Methods MTT and flow cytometry were used to study the antiproliferative effects of the 17-AAG treatment of ARPE-19 cells. 2D gel electrophoresis (2-DE and mass spectrometry were applied to detect the altered expression of proteins, which was verified by real-time PCR. Gene Ontology analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA were utilized to analyze the signaling pathways, cellular location, function, and network connections of the identified proteins. And SOD assay was employed to confirm the analysis. Results 17-AAG suppressed the proliferation of ARPE-19 cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Proteomic analysis revealed that the expression of 94 proteins was altered by a factor of more than 1.5 following exposure to 17-AAG. Of these 94, 87 proteins were identified. Real-time PCR results indicated that Hsp90 and Hsp70, which were not identified by proteomic analysis, were both upregulated upon 17-AAG treatment. IPA revealed that most of the proteins have functions that are related to oxidative stress, as verified by SOD assay, while canonical pathway analysis revealed glycolysis/gluconeogenesis. Conclusions 17-AAG suppressed the proliferation of ARPE-19 cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and possibly by oxidative stress.

  13. Carbon emission and sequestration of urban turfgrass systems in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ling; Shi, Zhengjun; Chu, L M

    2014-03-01

    Climate change is more than just a global issue. Locally released carbon dioxide may lead to a rise in global ambient temperature and influence the surrounding climate. Urban greenery may mitigate this as they can remove carbon dioxide by storing carbon in substrates and vegetation. On the other hand, urban greenery systems which are under intense management and maintenance may contribute to the emission of carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases. The impact of urban greenery on carbon balance in major metropolitan areas thus remains controversial. We investigated the carbon footprints of urban turf operation and maintenance by conducting a research questionnaire on different Hong Kong turfs in 2012, and showed that turf maintenance contributed 0.17 to 0.63 kg Ce m(-2)y(-1) to carbon emissions. We also determined the carbon storage of turfs at 0.05 to 0.21 kg C m(-2) for aboveground grass biomass and 1.26 to 4.89 kg C m(-2) for soils (to 15 cm depth). We estimated that the carbon sink capacity of turfs could be offset by carbon emissions in 5-24 years under current management patterns, shifting from carbon sink to carbon source. Our study suggested that maintenance management played a key role in the carbon budget and footprint of urban greeneries. The environmental impact of turfgrass systems can be optimized by shifting away from empirically designed maintenance schedules towards rational ones based on carbon sink and emission principles.

  14. Carbon footprint of electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloma, Marcin

    2013-07-01

    Paper assesses the greenhouse gas emissions related to the electronic sectors including information and communication technology and media sectors. While media often presents the carbon emission problem of other industries like petroleum industry, the airlines and automobile sectors, plastics and steel manufacturers, the electronics industry must include the increasing carbon footprints caused from their applications like media and entertainment, computers and cooling devices, complex telecommunications networks, cloud computing and powerful mobile phones. In that sense greenhouse gas emission of electronics should be studied in a life cycle perspective, including regular operational electricity use. Paper presents which product groups or processes are major contributors in emission. From available data and extrapolation of existing information we know that the information and communication technology sector produced 1.3% and media sector 1.7% of global gas emissions within production cycle, using the data from 2007.In the same time global electricity use of that sectors was 3.9% and 3.2% respectively. The results indicate that for both sectors operation leads to more gas emissions than manufacture, although impacts from the manufacture is significant, especially in the supply chain. Media electronics led to more emissions than PCs (manufacture and operation). Examining the role of electronics in climate change, including disposal of its waste, will enable the industry to take internal actions, leading to lowering the impact on the climate change within the sector itself.

  15. Regional prediction of carbon isotopes in soil carbonates for Asian dust source tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Cui, Xinjuan; Wang, Yaqiang

    2016-10-01

    Dust particles emitted from deserts and semi-arid lands in northern China cause particulate pollution that increases the burden of disease particularly for urban population in East Asia. The stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) of carbonates in soils and dust aerosols in northern China were investigated. We found that the δ13C of carbonates in surface soils in northern China showed clearly the negative correlation (R2 = 0.73) with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite-derived NDVI, we predicted the regional distribution of δ13C of soil carbonates in deserts, sandy lands, and steppe areas. The predictions show the mean δ13C of -0.4 ± 0.7‰ in soil carbonates in Taklimakan Desert and Gobi Deserts, and the isotope values decrease to -3.3 ± 1.1‰ in sandy lands. The increase in vegetation coverage depletes 13C in soil carbonates, thus the steppe areas are predicted by the lowest δ13C levels (-8.1 ± 1.7‰). The measurements of atmospheric dust samples at eight sites showed that the Asian dust sources were well assigned by the 13C mapping in surface soils. Predicting 13C in large geographical areas with fine resolution offers a cost-effective tracer to monitor dust emissions from sandy lands and steppe areas which show an increasing role in Asian dust loading driven by climate change and human activities.

  16. 17 CFR 200.70 - Business promotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business promotions. 200.70 Section 200.70 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.70 Business promotions. A member...

  17. 17 CFR 200.552 - NEPA planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false NEPA planning. 200.552 Section 200.552 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT... § 200.552 NEPA planning. Where it is reasonably foreseeable by the Commission that it may be required...

  18. Pärnusse tuleb 17-korruseline hoone

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Pärnu linnavalitsus lubas Port Artur Grupil püstitada südalinna Lai t. 10 territooriumile 17-korruselise vabaaja- ja kaubanduskeskuse, mida nägi ette 2006. a. endise REV-i territooriumi hoonestamiseks korraldatud rahvusvahelise arhitektuurikonkursi võidutöö "Flood". Kommenteerib Mart Viisitamm

  19. 17 CFR 285.2 - Periodic reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Periodic reports. 285.2 Section 285.2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS PURSUANT TO SECTION 15(a) OF THE BRETTON WOODS AGREEMENTS ACT § 285.2 Periodic reports. (a)...

  20. 17 CFR 166.3 - Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supervision. 166.3 Section 166.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION CUSTOMER PROTECTION RULES § 166.3 Supervision. Each Commission registrant, except an associated person who has no...

  1. 17 CFR 171.25 - Appeal brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appeal brief. 171.25 Section... Denial and Registration Actions § 171.25 Appeal brief. (a) Time to file. Any person who has filed a... appeal brief with the Proceedings Clerk within thirty days after service of the record by the...

  2. 17 CFR 171.26 - Answering brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Answering brief. 171.26... Denial and Registration Actions § 171.26 Answering brief. (a) Time for filing answering brief. Within thirty days after service of the apeal brief, the National Futures Association shall file with...

  3. 17 CFR 9.22 - Appeal brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appeal brief. 9.22 Section 9... Appeals § 9.22 Appeal brief. (a) Time to file. Any person who has filed a notice of appeal in accordance with the provisions of § 9.20 must perfect the appeal by filing an appeal brief with the...

  4. 17 CFR 9.23 - Answering brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Answering brief. 9.23 Section... Appeals § 9.23 Answering brief. (a) Time for filing answering brief. Within thirty days after service of the appeal brief, the exchange must file with the Commission an answering brief. (b) Contents...

  5. 17 CFR 201.104 - Business hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business hours. 201.104 Section 201.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.104 Business hours. The Headquarters office of the Commission,...

  6. 17 CFR 300.101 - Individual accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual accounts. 300.101... Customers of Sipc Members § 300.101 Individual accounts. (a) Except as otherwise provided in these rules... deemed his individual accounts, shall be combined so as to constitute a single account of a...

  7. 44 CFR 17.610 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) § 17.610 Coverage. (a) This... the laws or regulations of a foreign government. A determination of such inconsistency may be made only by the agency head or his/her designee. (c) The provisions of 2 CFR part 3000 apply to...

  8. 7 CFR 29.2633 - Rule 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 17. 29.2633 Section 29.2633 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... leaves or any lot which contains 20 percent of greenish and green leaves combined shall be designated...

  9. 7 CFR 29.3120 - Rule 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 17. 29.3120 Section 29.3120 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... leaves, or any lot which contains 20 percent of greenish and green leaves combined, shall be...

  10. 17 CFR 200.402 - Closed meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... affecting publicly-traded securities, or (B) Significantly endanger the stability of any financial...) Disclose trade secrets and commercial or financial information obtained from a person and privileged or... Company Act of 1940, 15 U.S.C. 80a-44, or Rule 45a-1 thereunder (17 CFR 270.45a-1); and (iii)...

  11. 17 CFR 230.902 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... advertisement contains a legend to the effect that the securities have not been registered under the Act and may... securities; and (iii) In any advertisement made or issued by the issuer, any distributor, any of their... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 230.902...

  12. 17 CFR 4.40 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 4.40 Section 4.40 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Advertising § 4.40...

  13. 17 CFR 230.494 - Newspaper prospectuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... newspaper prospectus means an advertisement of securities in newspapers, magazines or other periodicals... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Newspaper prospectuses. 230.494 Section 230.494 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION...

  14. 17 CFR 150.2 - Position limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Position limits. 150.2 Section 150.2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION LIMITS ON POSITIONS § 150.2 Position limits. No person may hold or control positions, separately or in combination, net...

  15. 17 CFR 200.505 - Original classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Original classification. 200...; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Classification and Declassification of National Security Information and Material § 200.505 Original classification. (a) No Commission Member or employee has...

  16. 17 CFR 200.506 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative classification. 200...; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Classification and Declassification of National Security Information and Material § 200.506 Derivative classification. Any document that includes...

  17. 17 CFR 140.1 - Headquarters office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Headquarters office. 140.1..., FUNCTIONS, AND PROCEDURES OF THE COMMISSION Organization § 140.1 Headquarters office. (a) General. The headquarters office of the Commission is located at Three Lafayette Centre, 1155 21st Street, NW.,...

  18. 28 CFR 55.17 - Targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Minority Language Materials and Assistance § 55.17 Targeting. The term...). “Targeting” refers to a system in which the minority language materials or assistance required by the Act are... targeting system will normally fulfill the Act's minority language requirements if it is designed...

  19. 17 CFR 257.1 - General instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a company, including any such records of a stock transfer agent, registrar, paying agent, indenture... function, regardless of form. A multiple purpose record, such as a service company stock stub which also... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General instructions....

  20. 6 CFR 17.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefore, whether... through 17.550 apply to: (1) Recruitment, advertising, and the process of application for employment; (2..., termination, application of nepotism policies, right of return from layoff, and rehiring; (3) Rates of pay...

  1. 7 CFR 1753.17 - Engineering services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... arrangements. (2) Form 835, Preloan Engineering Service Contract, Telephone System Design, is a suggested form... preloan engineering services conform to RUS requirements for preloan studies. See subpart D of 7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engineering services. 1753.17 Section...

  2. 17 CFR 450.5 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 450.5 Section 450.5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS UNDER TITLE II OF THE GOVERNMENT SECURITIES ACT OF 1986 CUSTODIAL HOLDINGS OF GOVERNMENT SECURITIES BY DEPOSITORY...

  3. 9 CFR 98.17 - Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... region of origin; and (ii) A high prevalence or an increase in the incidence of a communicable disease in... Disease Exists § 98.17 Procedures. (a) Housing of the donor dam. (1) Beginning at least 24 hours before a... donor dam must either remain at the embryo collection unit or be returned to the herd of origin...

  4. 50 CFR 17.81 - Listing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Experimental Populations § 17.81 Listing. (a) The Secretary may designate as an experimental population a population of endangered or threatened species that has been or... its probable historic range, absent a finding by the Director in the extreme case that the...

  5. 17 CFR 200.64 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Judicial review. 200.64... AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.64 Judicial review. The Congress has provided for review by the courts of the decisions and orders by this Commission. Members should...

  6. 17 CFR 201.57 - Commission review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commission review. 201.57... Regulations Pertaining to the Equal Access to Justice Act § 201.57 Commission review. In accordance with the... Division of the Commission may seek review of the initial decision on the fee application, or...

  7. 17 CFR 204.6 - Agency review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agency review. 204.6 Section... COLLECTION Administrative Offset § 204.6 Agency review. (a) To the extent that a debt owed has not been... request to review a disputed debt must be submitted to the Commission official who provided...

  8. 17 CFR 201.58 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Judicial review. 201.58 Section 201.58 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Regulations Pertaining to the Equal Access to Justice Act § 201.58 Judicial review. Judicial review of...

  9. 17 CFR 256.301 - Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Organization. 256.301 Section... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Service Company Property Accounts § 256.301 Organization. This account shall include... incident to organizing a corporation or other form of organization and putting it into readiness to...

  10. 17 CFR 204.34 - Employee response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee response. 204.34... DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 204.34 Employee response. (a) Introduction. An employee must respond to... ways discussed in § 204.34, Employee response, and § 204.35, Petition for pre-offset hearing....

  11. 17 CFR 256.232 - Accounts payable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounts payable. 256.232... SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 7. Current and Accrued Liabilities § 256.232 Accounts payable. This account...

  12. 45 CFR 86.17 - Transition plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 86.17... more than one administratively separate unit may submit either a single transition plan applicable to... order to be approved by the United States Commissioner of Education, a transition plan shall: (1)...

  13. 6 CFR 17.230 - Transition plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 17.230 Transition plans... one administratively separate unit may submit either a single transition plan applicable to all...

  14. 17 CFR 200.400 - Open meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Open meetings. 200.400 Section 200.400 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT... Meetings § 200.400 Open meetings. Except as otherwise provided in this subpart, meetings of the...

  15. 43 CFR 17.203 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 17.203 Section... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to...

  16. 17 CFR 31.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 31.4 Section 31.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION LEVERAGE TRANSACTIONS § 31.4... minor dependent living in the same household of any of the foregoing persons; (vii) A business...

  17. 17 CFR 10.42 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 10.42 Section 10.42 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Prehearing... the location where the respondents or their counsel live or work. Otherwise, the documents shall...

  18. 17 CFR 200.660 - Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Communications. 200.660 Section 200.660 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION... Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with...

  19. 17 CFR 149.160 - Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Communications. 149.160... COMMISSION § 149.160 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants, participants, personnel of other Federal entities, and members of the public....

  20. 17 CFR 12.12 - Signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Signature. 12.12 Section 12.12... General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.12 Signature. (a) By whom. All... document on behalf of another person. (b) Effect. The signature on any document of any person acting...

  1. 17 CFR 190.09 - Member property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Member property. 190.09... Member property. (a) Member property. “Member property” means, in connection with a clearing organization bankruptcy, the property which may be used to pay that portion of the net equity claim of a member which...

  2. Terugblik op psychosociale hulp na MH17.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drogendijk, A.; Dückers, M.; Holsappel, J.; Sardemann, R.; Alting, D.

    2016-01-01

    De ramp met MH17 confronteerde duizenden Nederlanders, verspreid over het hele land, met het verlies van familieleden, vrienden, collega’s, klasgenoten, buren of verenigingsleden. De maatschappelijke betrokkenheid was groot. In deze bijdrage blikken we kort terug op het totale psychosociale nazorgpr

  3. Transiting planetary system WASP-17 (Southworth+, 2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, J.; Hinse, T. C.; Dominik, M.;

    2013-01-01

    A light curve of four transits of the extrasolar planetary system WASP-17 is presented. The data were obtained using the Danish 1.5m telescope and DFOSC camera at ESO La Silla in 2012, with substantial telescope defocussing in order to improve the photometric precision of the observations. A Cous...

  4. 17 CFR 12.24 - Parallel proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Parallel proceedings. 12.24... REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.24 Parallel proceedings. (a) Definition. For purposes of this section, a parallel proceeding shall include: (1) An arbitration...

  5. 17 CFR 12.22 - Default proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Default proceedings. 12.22... REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.22 Default proceedings. (a) Institution of a default proceeding. Failure timely to respond to a complaint or a counterclaim, as...

  6. 17 CFR 148.26 - Further proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Further proceedings. 148.26... THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN COVERED ADJUDICATORY PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE COMMISSION Procedures for Considering Applications § 148.26 Further proceedings. (a) Ordinarily, the determination of...

  7. 从炭材料到低碳社会——2012世界炭会议介绍%How will carbon material lead to a low carbon society——A review of Carbon 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭光

    2012-01-01

    A review is given of the Annual World Conference on Carbon, which was held on June 17-22, 2012 in Krakow, Poland and organized by the Polish Carbon Society. In this conference, 5 plenary lectures, 30 keynote lectures, 220 oral presentations and 465 posters were divided into 10 topics, i. e. , carbons for energy storage ; carbons for health and environmental protection; precursors, processing and technology; carbon nanomate-rials; porous carbons; carbon-based composites; graphene; new methods for carbon characterization; computation and modeling; and industrial news. Besides traditional modification on surface area and porosity, doping with hetero atoms such as N, B and P or compositing with metals or metal oxides have been developed into effective means for modifying carbon materials for improved adsorption, catalysis and energy-storage performance. The applications of novel carbon structures like nanotubes are still limited by the controllable and scalable preparation, processability and reactivity. Research on the structure and properties of graphene is moving from curiosity-oriented to application-oriented. Mathematical formulation or modeling of pore structures has been promoted by the progress in characterization methods. The modification of the surface/interface in carbon materials, which plays important roles in determining their physical, chemical or mechanical properties is still a focus of research activity in carbon materials.

  8. Th17细胞与银屑病%Th17 and Psoriasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康恺

    2011-01-01

    Th17细胞是近年来发现的不同于Th1、Th2和调节性T细胞的一类特殊的新型CD4 +T细胞亚群,通过分泌以白细胞介素17为主的一系列效应细胞因子参与多种慢性炎性反应和自身免疫性疾病.Th17细胞及相关因子在银屑病的免疫发病机制中起着非常重要的调节作用.现从Th17相关细胞因子的角度出发来分析Th17分化调控的特点及其在介导银屑病发生、发展过程中的重要作用.%Th17 is a newly discovered novel subset of CD4+ T effect cells different from Thl ,Th2,and Tregs. It plays an important role in multiple chronic inflammatory reactions and autoimmune diseases by the secretion of a series of effect cytokines represented by interleukin 17. Th17 and related factors play a very important regulatory part in the immune pathogenesis of psoriasis. Here is to analyse the characteristics of differentiation regulation of Th17 and the vital function in the occurrence and development of psoriasis from the Th17 related cell factors.

  9. Catalysts in syntheses of carbon and carbon precursors

    OpenAIRE

    Mochida, Isao; Yoon, Seong-Ho; Qiao, Wenming

    2006-01-01

    Carbon materials have been applied in different fields because of their unique performances. Naturally, the physical and chemical structures of carbon precursors and carbon materials decide their properties and applications. Catalysts play a very important role in the synthesis of carbon precursors and carbon materials by controlling the molecular and compositional chemistry at the transformation of organic substrates into carbon through carbonaceous intermediates. Carbon materials of high pe...

  10. Net carbon flux in organic and conventional olive production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeid Mohamad, Ramez; Verrastro, Vincenzo; Bitar, Lina Al; Roma, Rocco; Moretti, Michele; Chami, Ziad Al

    2014-05-01

    Agricultural systems are considered as one of the most relevant sources of atmospheric carbon. However, agriculture has the potentiality to mitigate carbon dioxide mainly through soil carbon sequestration. Some agricultural practices, particularly fertilization and soil management, can play a dual role in the agricultural systems regarding the carbon cycle contributing to the emissions and to the sequestration process in the soil. Good soil and input managements affect positively Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) changes and consequently the carbon cycle. The present study aimed at comparing the carbon footprint of organic and conventional olive systems and to link it to the efficiency of both systems on carbon sequestration by calculating the net carbon flux. Data were collected at farm level through a specific and detailed questionnaire based on one hectare as a functional unit and a system boundary limited to olive production. Using LCA databases particularly ecoinvent one, IPCC GWP 100a impact assessment method was used to calculate carbon emissions from agricultural practices of both systems. Soil organic carbon has been measured, at 0-30 cm depth, based on soil analyses done at the IAMB laboratory and based on reference value of SOC, the annual change of SOC has been calculated. Substracting sequestrated carbon in the soil from the emitted on resulted in net carbon flux calculation. Results showed higher environmental impact of the organic system on Global Warming Potential (1.07 t CO2 eq. yr-1) comparing to 0.76 t CO2 eq. yr-1 in the conventional system due to the higher GHG emissions caused by manure fertilizers compared to the use of synthetic foliar fertilizers in the conventional system. However, manure was the main reason behind the higher SOC content and sequestration in the organic system. As a resultant, the organic system showed higher net carbon flux (-1.7 t C ha-1 yr-1 than -0.52 t C ha-1 yr-1 in the conventional system reflecting higher efficiency as a

  11. Promotion of lung tumor growth by interleukin-17

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Beibei; Guenther, James F.; Pociask, Derek A.; Wang, Yu; Kolls, Jay K.; You, Zongbing; Chandrasekar, Bysani; Shan, Bin; Sullivan, Deborah E.; Morris, Gilbert F.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings demonstrate that inhaled cigarette smoke, the predominant lung carcinogen, elicits a T helper 17 (Th17) inflammatory phenotype. Interleukin-17A (IL-17), the hallmark cytokine of Th17 inflammation, displays pro- and antitumorigenic properties in a manner that varies according to tumor type and assay system. To investigate the role of IL-17 in lung tumor growth, we used an autochthonous tumor model (K-RasLA1 mice) with lung delivery of a recombinant adenovirus that expresses IL-...

  12. Carbon dioxide sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

    2011-11-15

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of novel 17-indazole androstene derivatives designed as CYP17 inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Vânia M. A.; Vasaitis, Tadas S.; Njar, Vincent C.O.; Salvador, Jorge A. R.

    2007-01-01

    A series of novel 1H- and 2H-indazole derivatives of the commercially available dehydroepiandrosterone acetate have been synthesized and tested for inhibition of human cytochrome 17[alpha]-hydroxylase-C17,20-lyase (CYP17), androgen receptor (AR) binding affinity, and cytotoxic potential against three prostate cancer (PC) cell lines. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TC9-4PF1WHS-2/1/094a9de6c64caef045c1b0cf212e5635

  14. Proton Radii of B12-17 Define a Thick Neutron Surface in B17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estradé, A.; Kanungo, R.; Horiuchi, W.; Ameil, F.; Atkinson, J.; Ayyad, Y.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Dillmann, I.; Evdokimov, A.; Farinon, F.; Geissel, H.; Guastalla, G.; Janik, R.; Kimura, M.; Knöbel, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Marta, M.; Mostazo, M.; Mukha, I.; Nociforo, C.; Ong, H. J.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sitar, B.; Strmen, P.; Suzuki, Y.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, J.; Tanihata, I.; Terashima, S.; Vargas, J.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.

    2014-09-01

    The first determination of radii of point proton distribution (proton radii) of B12-17 from charge-changing cross sections (σCC) measurements at the FRS, GSI, Darmstadt is reported. The proton radii are deduced from a finite-range Glauber model analysis of the σCC. The radii show an increase from B13 to B17 and are consistent with predictions from the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics model for the neutron-rich nuclei. The measurements show the existence of a thick neutron surface with neutron-proton radius difference of 0.51(0.11) fm in B17.

  15. Inorganic arsenic represses interleukin-17A expression in human activated Th17 lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morzadec, Claudie; Macoch, Mélinda; Robineau, Marc; Sparfel, Lydie [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France); Fardel, Olivier [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France); Pôle Biologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Rennes, 2 rue Henri Le Guilloux, 35033 Rennes (France); Vernhet, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.vernhet@univ-rennes1.fr [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France)

    2012-08-01

    Trivalent inorganic arsenic [As(III)] is an efficient anticancer agent used to treat patients suffering from acute promyelocytic leukemia. Recently, experimental studies have clearly demonstrated that this metalloid can also cure lymphoproliferative and/or pro-inflammatory syndromes in different murine models of chronic immune-mediated diseases. T helper (Th) 1 and Th17 lymphocytes play a central role in development of these diseases, in mice and humans, especially by secreting the potent pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ and IL-17A, respectively. As(III) impairs basic functions of human T cells but its ability to modulate secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by differentiated Th lymphocytes is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that As(III), used at concentrations clinically achievable in plasma of patients, has no effect on the secretion of interferon-γ from Th1 cells but almost totally blocks the expression and the release of IL-17A from human Th17 lymphocytes co-stimulated for five days with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies, in the presence of differentiating cytokines. In addition, As(III) specifically reduces mRNA levels of the retinoic-related orphan receptor (ROR)C gene which encodes RORγt, a key transcription factor controlling optimal IL-17 expression in fully differentiated Th17 cells. The metalloid also blocks initial expression of IL-17 gene induced by the co-stimulation, probably in part by impairing activation of the JNK/c-Jun pathway. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that As(III) represses expression of the major pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17A produced by human Th17 lymphocytes, thus strengthening the idea that As(III) may be useful to treat inflammatory immune-mediated diseases in humans. -- Highlights: ► Arsenic inhibits secretion of IL-17A from human naïve and memory Th17 lymphocytes. ► Arsenic represses early expression of IL-17A gene in human activated T lymphocytes. ► Arsenic interferes with activation of

  16. Graphitic Carbons and Biosignatures

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, S.; Papineau, D

    2014-01-01

    The unambiguous identification of graphitic carbons as remains of life in ancient rocks is challenging because fossilized biogenic molecules are inevitably altered and degraded during diagenesis and metamorphism of the host rocks. Yet, recent studies have highlighted the possible preservation of biosignatures carried by some of the oldest graphitic carbons. Laboratory simulations are increasingly being used to better constrain the transformations of organic molecules into graphitic carbons in...

  17. Carbon Dioxide Absorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1950-05-17

    carbondioxide content of the solution was then determined. A gas mixture containing 2.6% carbon dioxide and 97.4% nitrogen was prepared in the...which carbon dioxide is removed by heat0 Since this step is usually carried out by "steam stripping ", that is, contacting the solution at its boiling...required to produce the steam required for stripping the carbon dioxide from the s olution. The method ueed in this investigation for determining the

  18. Carbon emissions Inventory Games

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Emadi, Eiman Ali

    2016-01-01

    Carbon emissions reduction has been the center of attention in many organizations during the past few decades. Many international entities developed rules and regulations to monitor and control carbon emissions especially under supply chain context. Furthermore, researchers investigated techniques and methods on how reduce carbon emissions under operational adjustment which can be done by cooperation or coordination. The main contribution of this thesis is to measure to what extend cooperatio...

  19. Animating the Carbon Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the biogeochemical processes reg- ulating carbon cycling is central to mitigating atmospheric CO2 emissions. The role of living organisms has been accounted for, but the focus has traditionally been on contributions of plants and microbes. We develop the case that fully ‘‘animating’’ the carbon cycle requires broader consideration of the functional role of animals in mediating biogeochemical processes and quanti- fication of their effects on carbon storage and exchange among ter...

  20. CTLA-4 (CD152) enhances the Tc17 differentiation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, Jonas; Arra, Aditya; Lingel, Holger; Hegel, J Kolja; Huber, Magdalena; Nishanth, Gopala; Jorch, Gerhard; Fischer, Klaus-Dieter; Schlüter, Dirk; Tedford, Kerry; Brunner-Weinzierl, Monika C

    2014-07-01

    Although CD8(+) T cells that produce IL-17 (Tc17 cells) have been linked to host defense, Tc17 cells show reduced cytotoxic activity, which is the characteristic function of CD8(+) T cells. Here, we show that CTLA-4 enhances the frequency of IL-17 in CD8(+) T cells, indicating that CTLA-4 (CD152) specifically promotes Tc17 differentiation. Simultaneous stimulation of CTLA-4(+/+) and CTLA-4(-/-) T cells in cocultures and agonistic CTLA-4 stimulation unambiguously revealed a cell-intrinsic mechanism for IL-17 control by CTLA-4. The quality of CTLA-4-induced Tc17 cells was tested in vivo, utilizing infection with the facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (LM). Unlike CTLA-4(+/+) Tc17 cells, CTLA-4(-/-) were nearly as efficient as Tc1 CTLA-4(+/+) cells in LM clearance. Additionally, adoptively transferred CTLA-4(-/-) Tc17 cells expressed granzyme B after rechallenge, and produced Tc1 cytokines such as IFN-γ and TNF-α, which strongly correlate with bacterial clearance. CTLA-4(+/+) Tc17 cells demonstrated a high-quality Tc17 differentiation program ex vivo, which was also evident in isolated IL-17-secreting Tc17 cells, with CTLA-4-mediated enhanced upregulation of Tc17-related molecules such as IL-17A, RORγt, and IRF-4. Our results show that CTLA-4 promotes Tc17 differentiation that results in robust Tc17 responses. Its inactivation might therefore represent a central therapeutic target to enhance clearance of infection.

  1. Nanographene reinforced carbon/carbon composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Dhruv

    Carbon/Carbon Composites (CCC) are made of carbon reinforcement in carbon matrix and have high thermal stability and fatigue resistance. CCC are used in nose cones, heat shields and disc brakes of aircrafts due to their exceptional mechanical properties at high temperature. The manufacturing process of CCC involves a carbonization stage in which unwanted elements, except carbon, are eliminated from the polymer precursor. Carbonization results in the formation of voids and cracks due to the thermal mismatch between the reinforcement and the matrix and expulsion of volatiles from the polymer matrix. Thermal cracks and voids decrease the density and mechanical properties of the manufactured CCC. In this work, Nanographene Platelets (NGP) were explored as nanofillers to fill the voids/cracks and reduce thermal shrinkage in CCC. They were first compared with Vapor Grown Carbon Nanofibers (VGCNF) by dispersion of different concentrations (0.5wt%, 1.5wt%, 3wt%) in resole-type phenolic resin and were characterized to explore their effect on rheology, heat of reaction and wetting behavior. The dispersions were then cured to form nanocomposites and were characterized for morphology, flexure and thermal properties. Finally, NGP were introduced into the carbon/carboncomposites in two stages, first by spraying in different concentrations (0.5wt%, 1.5wt%, 3wt%, 5wt %) during the prepreg formation and later during densification by directly mixing in the corresponding densification mix. The manufactured NGP reinforced CCC were characterized for microstructure, porosity, bulk density and mechanical properties (Flexure and ILSS) which were further cross-checked by non-destructive techniques (vibration and ultrasonic). In this study, it was further found that at low concentration (≤ 1.5 wt%) NGP were more effective in increasing the heat of reaction and in decreasing the viscosity of the phenolic resin. The decrease in viscosity led to better wetting properties of NGP / phenolic

  2. Radiative capture reaction for 17Ne formation within a full three-body model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, J.; Garrido, E.; de Diego, R.; Arias, J. M.; Rodríguez-Gallardo, M.

    2016-11-01

    Background: The breakout from the hot Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxigen (CNO) cycles can trigger the rp-process in type I x-ray bursts. In this environment, a competition between 15O(α ,γ )19Ne and the two-proton capture reaction 15O(2 p ,γ )17Ne is expected. Purpose: Determine the three-body radiative capture reaction rate for 17Ne formation including sequential and direct, resonant and nonresonant contributions on an equal footing. Method: Two different discretization methods have been applied to generate 17Ne states in a full three-body model: the analytical transformed harmonic oscillator method and the hyperspherical adiabatic expansion method. The binary p -15O interaction has been adjusted to reproduce the known spectrum of the unbound 16F nucleus. The dominant E 1 contributions to the 15O(2 p ,γ )17Ne reaction rate have been calculated from the inverse photodissociation process. Results: Three-body calculations provide a reliable description of 17Ne states. The agreement with the available experimental data on 17Ne is discussed. It is shown that the 15O(2 p ,γ )17Ne reaction rates computed within the two methods agree in a broad range of temperatures. The present calculations are compared with a previous theoretical estimation of the reaction rate. Conclusions: It is found that the full three-body model provides a reaction rate several orders of magnitude larger than the only previous estimation. The implications for the rp-process in type I x-ray bursts should be investigated.

  3. CARBON DIOXIDE REDUCTION SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARBON DIOXIDE , *SPACE FLIGHT, RESPIRATION, REDUCTION(CHEMISTRY), RESPIRATION, AEROSPACE MEDICINE, ELECTROLYSIS, INSTRUMENTATION, ELECTROLYTES, VOLTAGE, MANNED, YTTRIUM COMPOUNDS, ZIRCONIUM COMPOUNDS, NICKEL.

  4. Signaling through IL-17C/IL-17RE is dispensable for immunity to systemic, oral and cutaneous candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Heather R; Whibley, Natasha; Coleman, Bianca M; Garg, Abhishek V; Jaycox, Jillian R; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungal microbe of the human orogastrointestinal tract and skin. C. albicans causes multiple forms of disease in immunocompromised patients, including oral, vaginal, dermal and disseminated candidiasis. The cytokine IL-17 (IL-17A) and its receptor subunits, IL-17RA and IL-17RC, are required for protection to most forms of candidiasis. The importance of the IL-17R pathway has been observed not only in knockout mouse models, but also in humans with rare genetic mutations that impact generation of Th17 cells or the IL-17 signaling pathway, including Hyper-IgE Syndrome (STAT3 or TYK2 mutations) or IL17RA or ACT1 gene deficiency. The IL-17 family of cytokines is a distinct subclass of cytokines with unique structural and signaling properties. IL-17A is the best-characterized member of the IL-17 family to date, but far less is known about other IL-17-related cytokines. In this study, we sought to determine the role of a related IL-17 cytokine, IL-17C, in protection against oral, dermal and disseminated forms of C. albicans infection. IL-17C signals through a heterodimeric receptor composed of the IL-17RA and IL-17RE subunits. We observed that IL-17C mRNA was induced following oral C. albicans infection. However, mice lacking IL-17C or IL-17RE cleared C. albicans infections in the oral mucosa, skin and bloodstream at rates similar to WT littermate controls. Moreover, these mice demonstrated similar gene transcription profiles and recovery kinetics as WT animals. These findings indicate that IL-17C and IL-17RE are dispensable for immunity to the forms of candidiasis evaluated, and illustrate a surprisingly limited specificity of the IL-17 family of cytokines with respect to systemic, oral and cutaneous Candida infections.

  5. Signaling through IL-17C/IL-17RE is dispensable for immunity to systemic, oral and cutaneous candidiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather R Conti

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a commensal fungal microbe of the human orogastrointestinal tract and skin. C. albicans causes multiple forms of disease in immunocompromised patients, including oral, vaginal, dermal and disseminated candidiasis. The cytokine IL-17 (IL-17A and its receptor subunits, IL-17RA and IL-17RC, are required for protection to most forms of candidiasis. The importance of the IL-17R pathway has been observed not only in knockout mouse models, but also in humans with rare genetic mutations that impact generation of Th17 cells or the IL-17 signaling pathway, including Hyper-IgE Syndrome (STAT3 or TYK2 mutations or IL17RA or ACT1 gene deficiency. The IL-17 family of cytokines is a distinct subclass of cytokines with unique structural and signaling properties. IL-17A is the best-characterized member of the IL-17 family to date, but far less is known about other IL-17-related cytokines. In this study, we sought to determine the role of a related IL-17 cytokine, IL-17C, in protection against oral, dermal and disseminated forms of C. albicans infection. IL-17C signals through a heterodimeric receptor composed of the IL-17RA and IL-17RE subunits. We observed that IL-17C mRNA was induced following oral C. albicans infection. However, mice lacking IL-17C or IL-17RE cleared C. albicans infections in the oral mucosa, skin and bloodstream at rates similar to WT littermate controls. Moreover, these mice demonstrated similar gene transcription profiles and recovery kinetics as WT animals. These findings indicate that IL-17C and IL-17RE are dispensable for immunity to the forms of candidiasis evaluated, and illustrate a surprisingly limited specificity of the IL-17 family of cytokines with respect to systemic, oral and cutaneous Candida infections.

  6. Molecular mapping of chromosomes 17 and X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, D.F.

    1991-01-15

    Progress toward the construction of high density genetic maps of chromosomes 17 and X has been made by isolating and characterizing a relatively large set of polymorphic probes for each chromosome and using these probes to construct genetic maps. We have mapped the same polymorphic probes against a series of chromosome breakpoints on X and 17. The probes could be assigned to over 30 physical intervals on the X chromosome and 7 intervals on 17. In many cases, this process resulted in improved characterization of the relative locations of the breakpoints with respect to each other and the definition of new physical intervals. The strategy for isolation of the polymorphic clones utilized chromosome specific libraries of 1--15 kb segments from each of the two chromosomes. From these libraries, clones were screened for those detecting restriction fragment length polymorphisms. The markers were further characterized, the chromosomal assignments confirmed and in most cases segments of the original probes were subcloned into plasmids to produce probes with improved signal to noise ratios for use in the genetic marker studies. The linkage studies utilize the CEPH reference families and other well-characterized families in our collection which have been used for genetic disease linkage work. Preliminary maps and maps of portions of specific regions of 17 and X are provided. We have nearly completed a map of the 1 megabase Mycoplasma arthritidis genome by applying these techniques to a lambda phage library of its genome. We have found bit mapping to be an efficient means to organize a contiguous set of overlapping clones from a larger genome.

  7. Reference: 17 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u12566580i Ullah Hemayet et al. 2003 Fe.... The beta-subunit of the Arabidopsis G protein negatively regulates auxin-induced cell division and affects... multiple developmental processes. 2 393-409 12566580 2003 Feb The Plant cell Alonso Jos辿 M|Boyes Douglas C|

  8. Terugblik op psychosociale hulp na MH17.

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    De ramp met MH17 confronteerde duizenden Nederlanders, verspreid over het hele land, met het verlies van familieleden, vrienden, collega’s, klasgenoten, buren of verenigingsleden. De maatschappelijke betrokkenheid was groot. In deze bijdrage blikken we kort terug op het totale psychosociale nazorgprogramma dat sinds de ramp is ingezet in samenwerking met vele betrokkenen, waaronder de ministeries van Veiligheid en Justitie en Volksgezondheid, Welzijn en Sport. (aut. ref.)

  9. Estrogen receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals: II. Tissue distribution of 17. cap alpha. -methylestradiol in normal and tumor-bearing rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feenstra, A.; Vaalburg, W.; Nolten, G.M.J.; Reiffers, S.; Talma, A.G.; Wiegman, T.; van der Molen, H.D.; Woldring, M.G.

    1983-06-01

    Tritiated 17..cap alpha..-methylestradiol was synthesized to investigate the potential of the carbon-11-labeled analog as an estrogen-receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical. In vitro, 17..cap alpha..-methylestradiol is bound with high affinity to the cytoplasmic estrogen receptor from rabbit uterus (K/sub d/ = 1.96 x 10/sup -10/M), and it sediments as an 8S hormone-receptor complex in sucrose gradients. The compound shows specific uptake in the uterus of the adult rat, within 1 h after injection. In female rats bearing DMBA-induced tumors, specific uterine and tumor uptakes were observed, although at 30 min the tumor uptake was only 23 to 30% of the uptake in the uterus. Tritiated 17..cap alpha..-methylestradiol with a specific activity of 6 Ci/mmole showed a similar tissue distribution. Our results indicate that a 17 ..cap alpha..-methylestradiol is promising as an estrogen-receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical.

  10. Snapping Supernovae at z>1.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldering, Greg; Kim, Alex G.; Kowalski, Marek; Linder, Eric V.; Perlmutter, Saul

    2006-07-03

    We examine the utility of very high redshift Type Ia supernovae for cosmology and systematic uncertainty control. Next generation space surveys such as the Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) will obtain thousands of supernovae at z>1.7, beyond the design redshift for which the supernovae will be exquisitely characterized. We find that any z gtrsim 2 standard candles' use for cosmological parameter estimation is quite modest and subject to pitfalls; we examine gravitational lensing, redshift calibration, and contamination effects in some detail. The very high redshift supernovae - both thermonuclear and core collapse - will provide copious interesting information on star formation, environment, and evolution. However, the new observational systematics that must be faced, as well as the limited expansion of SN-parameter space afforded, does not point to high value for 1.71.7. Synergy with observations from JWST and thirty meter class telescopes afford rich opportunities for advances throughout astrophysics.

  11. Autoimmune diseases in the TH17 era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mesquita Jr.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A new subtype of CD4+ T lymphocytes characterized by the production of interleukin 17, i.e., TH17 cells, has been recently described. This novel T cell subset is distinct from type 1 and type 2 T helper cells. The major feature of this subpopulation is to generate significant amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines, therefore appearing to be critically involved in protection against infection caused by extracellular microorganisms, and in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and allergy. The dynamic balance among subsets of T cells is important for the modulation of several steps of the immune response. Disturbances in this balance may cause a shift from normal immunologic physiology to the development of immune-mediated disorders. In autoimmune diseases, the fine balance between the proportion and degree of activation of the various T lymphocyte subsets can contribute to persistent undesirable inflammatory responses and tissue replacement by fibrosis. This review highlights the importance of TH17 cells in this process by providing an update on the biology of these cells and focusing on their biology and differentiation processes in the context of immune-mediated chronic inflammatory diseases.

  12. [Effects of Chinese prickly ash orchard on soil organic carbon mineralization and labile organic carbon in karst rocky desertification region of Guizhou province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; Liao, Hong-Kai; Long, Jian; Li, Juan; Liu, Ling-Fei

    2015-03-01

    Taking 5-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard (PO-5), 17-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard (PO- 17), 30-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard (PO-30) and the forest land (FL, about 60 years) in typical demonstration area of desertification control test in southwestern Guizhou as our research objects, the aim of this study using a batch incubation experiment was to research the mineralization characteristics of soil organic carbon and changes of the labile soil organic carbon contents at different depths (0-15 cm, 15-30 cm, and 30-50 cm). The results showed that: the cumulative mineralization amounts of soil organic carbon were in the order of 30-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard, the forest land, 5-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard and 17-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard at corresponding depth. Distribution ratios of CO2-C cumulative mineralization amount to SOC contents were higher in Chinese prickly ash orchards than in forest land at each depth. Cultivation of Chinese prickly ash in long-term enhanced the mineralization of soil organic carbon, and decreased the stability of soil organic carbon. Readily oxidized carbon and particulate organic carbon in forest land soils were significantly more than those in Chinese prickly ash orchards at each depth (P carbon and particulate organic carbon first increased and then declined at 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depth, respectively, but an opposite trend was found at 30-50 cm depth. At 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm, cultivation of Chinese prickly ash could be good for improving the contents of labile soil organic carbon in short term, but it was not conducive in long-term. In this study, we found that cultivation of Chinese prickly ash was beneficial for the accumulation of labile organic carbon at the 30-50 cm depth.

  13. Carbonate concretions as a significant component of ancient marine carbon cycles: Insights from paired organic and inorganic carbon isotope analyses of a Cretaceous shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonate concretions often occur within fine-grained, organic-rich sedimentary rocks. This association reflects the common production of diagenetic minerals through biologic cycling of organic matter. Chemical analysis of carbonate concretions provides the rare opportunity to explore ancient shallow diagenetic environments, which are inherently transient due to progressive burial but are an integral component of the marine carbon cycle. The late Cretaceous Holz Shale (~80 Ma) contains abundant calcite concretions that exhibit textural and geochemical characteristics indicative of relatively shallow formation (i.e., near the sediment-water interface). Sampled concretions contain between 5.4 and 9.8 wt.% total inorganic carbon (TIC), or ~45 and 82 wt.% CaCO3, compared to host shale values which average ~1.5 wt.% TIC. Organic carbon isotope compositions (δ13Corg) are relatively constant in host and concretion samples ranging from ­-26.3 to -24.0‰ (VPDB). Carbonate carbon isotope compositions (δ13Ccarb) range from -22.5 to -3.4‰, indicating a significant but not entirely organic source of carbon. Concretions of the lower Holz Shale exhibit considerably elevated δ13Ccarb values averaging -4.8‰, whereas upper Holz Shale concretions express an average δ13Ccarb value of -17.0‰. If the remaining carbonate for lower Holz Shale concretions is sourced from marine fluids and/or dissolved marine carbonate minerals (e.g., shells), a simple mass balance indicates that ~28% of concretion carbon was sourced from organic matter and ~72% from late Cretaceous marine inorganic carbon (with δ13C ~ +2.5‰). Upper Holz Shale calculations indicate a ~73% contribution from organic matter and a ~27% contribution from inorganic carbon. When normalized for carbonate, organic contents within the concretions are ~2-13 wt.% enriched compared to host contents. This potentially reflects the protective nature of cementation that acts to limit permeability and chemical destruction of

  14. Genetics Home Reference: 17 alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hypertension), low levels of potassium in the blood (hypokalemia), and abnormal sexual development. The severity of the ... these salt-regulating hormones leads to hypertension and hypokalemia. Loss of 17,20-lyase activity impairs sex ...

  15. Expression of interleukin-6 is downregulated by 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin in human prostatic carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-hung TSUI; Tsui-hsia FENG; Wen-chi HSIEH; Phei-lang CHANG; Horng-heng JUANG

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine that is associated with tumor metastasis and prostate cancer. We evaluated the mechanism and effect of 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AAG), a novel inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), on the IL-6 gene expression in human prostatic carcinoma (PC-3) cells. Methods: Quantitative IL-6 and IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) expressions were assessed using RT-PCR. The deregulation of 17AAG and phor-bol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on the IL-6 gene was determined by ELISA and transient gene expression assays using an IL-6 reporter vector. Results: Although the IL-6R is ubiquitously expressed by prostatic epithelium cells, the IL-6 expression is only found in advanced prostatic carcinoma cells, such as PC-3 and DU145. Further studies using RT-PCR indicated that 17AAG downregulated the gene expression of IL-6. ELISA and the transient gene expression assay revealed that 17AAG blocked the stimulation of PMA of IL-6 gene expression in PC-3 cells. The PMA-induced IL-6 gene expression is dependent on the NF-κB response element. However, the effect of 17AAG appears to be mediated via a region located at -149 to +8 bp upstream of the transcriptional starting site of the IL-6 gene, and might not be through the NF-κB signaling pathway. Conclusion: The present study reveals that IL-6 is transcriptionally downregulated in human prostatic carcinoma cells in response to 17AAG. This result suggests the presence of a novel Hsp90 mediation pathway that is involved in the deregulation on the transcription of the human IL-6 gene in human prostate cancer.

  16. Differential inhibition of 17alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities by three novel missense CYP17 mutations identified in patients with P450c17 deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L.T. van den Akker (Erica); J.W. Koper (Jan); A.L.M. Boehmer (Annemie); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel); M. Verhoef-Post (Miriam); M.A. Timmerman (Marianna); B.J. Otten (Barto); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert); F.H. de Jong (Frank)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe microsomal enzyme cytochrome P450c17 is an important regulator of steroidogenesis. The enzyme has two functions: 17alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities. These functions determine the ability of adrenal glands and gonads to synthesize 17alpha-hydroxylated glu

  17. Exon: CBRC-PTRO-17-0021 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cctactccacctccatcaccaccatcatcacTTCCTCCACCTTCTCTATCTCCAGCGGCACCATCACTGGTACCTTCATCACCGTCCTCACCC...CBRC-PTRO-17-0021 caacagcatcacctcctctacctccattaccgccttcattttctctacctccttcaccaccatcaccacctcctccacca...CTTTCTTGCTTATCTCTATTTCCTCAGCAGTTCCCCAGTCCTCCCTCCCATTTGCTCCCCACCACCACCTTCCCA ...

  18. IL-17 as a future therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, W.B. van den; Miossec, P.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of interleukin (IL)-17 and its major cell source, the type 17 T-helper (TH17) lymphocyte, has been a major step in the understanding of erosive arthritis. This Review summarizes current knowledge of the role of IL-17 in this context derived from both animal models and studies in patien

  19. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  20. Characterization of Biochar from Switchgrass Carbonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy Sadaka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass is a high yielding, low-input intensive, native perennial grass that has been promoted as a major second-generation bioenergy crop. Raw switchgrass is not a readily acceptable feedstock in existing power plants that were built to accommodate coal and peat. The objective of this research was to elucidate some of the characteristics of switchgrass biochar produced via carbonization and to explore its potential use as a solid fuel. Samples were carbonized in a batch reactor under reactor temperatures of 300, 350 and 400 °C for 1, 2 and 3 h residence times. Biochar mass yield and volatile solids decreased from 82.6% to 35.2% and from 72.1% to 43.9%, respectively, by increasing carbonization temperatures from 300 °C to 400 °C and residence times from 1 h to 3 h. Conversely, biochar heating value (HV and fixed carbon content increased from 17.6 MJ kg−1 to 21.9 MJ kg−1 and from 22.5% to 44.9%, respectively, under the same conditions. A biomass discoloration index (BDI was created to quantify changes in biochar colors as affected by the two tested parameters. The maximum BDI of 77% was achieved at a carbonization temperature of 400 °C and a residence time of 3 h. The use of this index could be expanded to quantify biochar characteristics as affected by thermochemical treatments. Carbonized biochar could be considered a high quality solid fuel based on its energy content.

  1. Nerve growth factor receptor gene is at human chromosome region 17q12-17q22, distal to the chromosome 17 breakpoint in acute leukemias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, K.; Isobe, M.; Chao, M.; Bothwell, M.; Ross, A.H.; Finan, J.; Hoxie, J.A.; Sehgal, A.; Buck, C.R.; Lanahan, A.

    1986-03-01

    Genomic and cDNA clones for the human nerve growth factor receptor have been used in conjunction with somatic cell hybrid analysis and in situ hybridization to localize the nerve growth factor receptor locus to human chromosome region 17q12-q22. Additionally, part, if not all, of the nerve growth factor receptor locus is present on the translocated portion of 17q (17q21-qter) from a poorly differential acute leukemia in which the chromosome 17 breakpoint was indistinguishable cytogenetically from the 17 breakpoint observed in the t(15;17)(q22;q21) translocation associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia. Thus the nerve growth factor receptor locus may be closely distal to the acute promyelocytic leukemia-associated chromosome 17 breakpoint at 17q21.

  2. The Role of IL-17 and Th17 Lymphocytes in Autoimmune Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarkiewicz, Jacek; Pogoda, Katarzyna; Karczmarczyk, Agnieszka; Pozarowski, Piotr; Giannopoulos, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    The end of twentieth century has introduced some changes into T helper (Th) cells division. The identification of the new subpopulation of T helper cells producing IL-17 modified model of Th1-Th2 paradigm and it was named Th17. High abilities to stimulate acute and chronic inflammation made these cells ideal candidate for crucial player in development of autoimmune disorders. Numerous publications based on animal and human models confirmed their pivotal role in pathogenesis of human systemic and organ-specific autoimmune diseases. These findings made Th17 cells and pathways regulating their development and function a good target for therapy. Therapies based on inhibition of Th17-dependent pathways are associated with clinical benefits, but on the other hand are frequently inducing adverse effects. In this review, we attempt to summarize researches focused on the importance of Th17 cells in development of human autoimmune diseases as well as effectiveness of targeting IL-17 and its pathways in pre-clinical and clinical studies.

  3. Carbon Nanotube-Based Permeable Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, J K; Park, H G; Bakajin, O; Noy, A; Huser, T; Eaglesham, D

    2004-04-06

    A membrane of multiwalled carbon nanotubes embedded in a silicon nitride matrix was fabricated for use in studying fluid mechanics on the nanometer scale. Characterization by fluorescent tracer diffusion and scanning electron microscopy suggests that the membrane is void-free near the silicon substrate on which it rests, implying that the hollow core of the nanotube is the only conduction path for molecular transport. Assuming Knudsen diffusion through this nanotube membrane, a maximum helium transport rate (for a pressure drop of 1 atm) of 0.25 cc/sec is predicted. Helium flow measurements of a nanoporous silicon nitride membrane, fabricated by sacrificial removal of carbon, give a flow rate greater than 1x10{sup -6} cc/sec. For viscous, laminar flow conditions, water is estimated to flow across the nanotube membrane (under a 1 atm pressure drop) at up to 2.8x10{sup -5} cc/sec (1.7 {micro}L/min).

  4. Deforestation and Carbon Stock Loss in Brazil's Amazonian Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Aurora Miho; Nogueira, Euler Melo; de Alencastro Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima; Fearnside, Philip Martin

    2017-03-01

    We estimate deforestation and the carbon stock in 2740 (82 %) of the 3325 settlements in Brazil's Legal Amazonia region. Estimates are made both using available satellite data and a carbon map for the "pre-modern" period (prior to 1970). We used data from Brazil's Project for Monitoring Deforestation in Amazonia updated through 2013 and from the Brazilian Biomes Deforestation Monitoring Project (PMDBBS) updated through 2010. To obtain the pre-modern and recent carbon stocks we performed an intersection between a carbon map and a map derived from settlement boundaries and deforestation data. Although the settlements analyzed occupied only 8 % of Legal Amazonia, our results indicate that these settlements contributed 17 % (160,410 km2) of total clearing (forest + non-forest) in Legal Amazonia (967,003 km2). This represents a clear-cutting of 41 % of the original vegetation in the settlements. Out of this total, 72 % (115,634 km2) was in the "Federal Settlement Project" (PA) category. Deforestation in settlements represents 20 % (2.6 Pg C) of the total carbon loss in Legal Amazonia (13.1 Pg C). The carbon stock in remaining vegetation represents 3.8 Pg C, or 6 % of the total remaining carbon stock in Legal Amazonia (58.6 Pg C) in the periods analyzed. The carbon reductions in settlements are caused both by the settlers and by external actors. Our findings suggest that agrarian reform policies contributed directly to carbon loss. Thus, the implementation of new settlements should consider potential carbon stock losses, especially if settlements are created in areas with high carbon stocks.

  5. Curie temperature rising by fluorination for Sm2Fe17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matahiro Komuro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorine atoms can be introduced to Sm2Fe17 using XeF2 below 423 K. The resulting fluorinated Sm2Fe17 powders have ferromagnetic phases containing Sm2Fe17FY1(017FY2 (117, and α-Fe. The unit cell for Sm2Fe17 is elongated by the fluorination. The largest unit cell volume among the rhombohedral Sm2Fe17 compounds is 83.8 nm3, which is 5.8% larger than Sm2Fe17. The rhombohedral Sm2Fe17 with the largest unit cell volume is dissociated above 873 K, and fluorination increases Curie temperature from 403 K for Sm2Fe17 to 675 K. This increase can be explained by the magneto-volume effect.

  6. Are there carbon stars in the Bulge?

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Y K

    1998-01-01

    The bulge carbon stars have been a mystery since their discovery, because they are about 2.5mag too faint to be regarded as genuine AGB stars, if located inside the metal-rich bulge (m-M=14.5mag). Part of the mystery can be solved if these carbon stars are related to the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (SDG; m-M=17.0mag). They are in that case not old and metal-rich, but young, ~0.1 Gyr, with SMC-like metallicity. The sigma_RV=113+/-14 km/s radial velocity dispersion of the stars appears to be consistent with bulge membership. On the other hand, a similar velocity dispersion could be the result from an induced star formation event when the SDG crosses the galactic midplane. It is suggested that the carbon stars are tracers of such an event and that they therefore are located at distances related to the SDG. However, the majority of the carbon stars are not member of the SDG, nor are they similar to the C-stars which are member of the SDG. The radial velocities can be used to determine a possible membership to the SD...

  7. Carbon isotopic composition of individual Precambrian microfossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, C H; Schopf, J W; McKeegan, K D; Coath, C D; Harrison, T M; Stetter, K O

    2000-08-01

    Ion microprobe measurements of carbon isotope ratios were made in 30 specimens representing six fossil genera of microorganisms petrified in stromatolitic chert from the approximately 850 Ma Bitter Springs Formation, Australia, and the approximately 2100 Ma Gunflint Formation, Canada. The delta 13C(PDB) values from individual microfossils of the Bitter Springs Formation ranged from -21.3 +/- 1.7% to -31.9 +/- 1.2% and the delta 13C(PDB) values from microfossils of the Gunflint Formation ranged from -32.4 +/- 0.7% to -45.4 +/- 1.2%. With the exception of two highly 13C-depleted Gunflint microfossils, the results generally yield values consistent with carbon fixation via either the Calvin cycle or the acetyl-CoA pathway. However, the isotopic results are not consistent with the degree of fractionation expected from either the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle or the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle, suggesting that the microfossils studied did not use either of these pathways for carbon fixation. The morphologies of the microfossils suggest an affinity to the cyanobacteria, and our carbon isotopic data are consistent with this assignment.

  8. Carbon isotopic composition of individual Precambrian microfossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, C. H.; Schopf, J. W.; McKeegan, K. D.; Coath, C. D.; Harrison, T. M.; Stetter, K. O.

    2000-01-01

    Ion microprobe measurements of carbon isotope ratios were made in 30 specimens representing six fossil genera of microorganisms petrified in stromatolitic chert from the approximately 850 Ma Bitter Springs Formation, Australia, and the approximately 2100 Ma Gunflint Formation, Canada. The delta 13C(PDB) values from individual microfossils of the Bitter Springs Formation ranged from -21.3 +/- 1.7% to -31.9 +/- 1.2% and the delta 13C(PDB) values from microfossils of the Gunflint Formation ranged from -32.4 +/- 0.7% to -45.4 +/- 1.2%. With the exception of two highly 13C-depleted Gunflint microfossils, the results generally yield values consistent with carbon fixation via either the Calvin cycle or the acetyl-CoA pathway. However, the isotopic results are not consistent with the degree of fractionation expected from either the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle or the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle, suggesting that the microfossils studied did not use either of these pathways for carbon fixation. The morphologies of the microfossils suggest an affinity to the cyanobacteria, and our carbon isotopic data are consistent with this assignment.

  9. Solar photocatalysis for treatment of Acid Yellow-17 (AY-17) dye contaminated water using Ag@TiO2 core-shell structured nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Ankita; Shetty K, Vidya

    2013-08-01

    Wastewater released from textile industries causes water pollution, and it needs to be treated before discharge to the environment by cost effective technologies. Solar photocatalysis is a promising technology for the treatment of dye wastewater. The Ag@TiO2 nanoparticles comprising of Ag core and TiO2 shell (Ag@TiO2) have unique photocatalytic property of inhibition of electron-hole recombination and visible light absorption, which makes it a promising photocatalyst for use in solar photocatalysis and with higher photocatalytic rate. Therefore, in the present work, the Ag@TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized by one pot method with postcalcination step has been used for the degradation of Acid Yellow-17 (AY-17) dye under solar light irradiation. The Ag@TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized using thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The catalyst has been found to be very effective in solar photocatalysis of AY-17, as compared to other catalysts. The effects of pH, catalyst loading, initial dye concentration, and oxidants on photocatalysis were also studied. The optimized parameters for degradation of AY-17 using Ag@TiO2 were found to be pH 3, dye/catalyst ratio of 1:10 (g/g), and 2 g/L of (NH4)2S2O8 as oxidant. Efficient decolorization and mineralization of AY-17 was achieved. The kinetics of color, total organic carbon, and chemical oxygen demand removal followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Ag@TiO2 catalyst can be reused thrice without much decline in efficiency. The catalyst exhibited its potential as economic photocatalyst for treatment of dye wastewater.

  10. Carbon Dioxide Mitigation by Microalgal Photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Mijeong Lee; Gillis, James M.; Hwang, Jiann Yang [Michigan Technological University, Houghton (United States)

    2003-12-15

    Algal growth studies of Chlorella strains were conducted in a batch mode with bench type experiments. Carbon dioxide fixation rates of the following green microalgae were determined: Chlorella sp. H84, Chlorella sp. A2, Chlorella sorokiniana UTEX 1230, Chlorella vulgaris, and Chlorella pyrenoidosa. C. vulgaris, among other strains of microalgae, showed the highest growth rate (1.17 optical density/5 days). Cultivating conditions for C. vulgaris that produced the highest growth rate were at concentrations of 243 μg CO{sub 2}/mL, 10 mM ammonia, and 1 mM phosphate, with an initial pH range of 7-8.

  11. Neutral atomic carbon in dense molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmuidzinas, J.; Betz, A. L.; Boreiko, R. T.; Goldhaber, D. M.

    1988-01-01

    The 370 micron 3P2-3P1 fine-structure line of neutral carbon was detected in seven sources: OMC 1, NGC 2024, S140, W3, DR 21, M17, and W51. Simultaneous analysis of J = 2-1 data and available observations of the J = 1-0 line make it possible to deduce optical depths and excitation temperatures for these lines. These data indicate that both C I lines are likely to be optically thin, and that the ratio of C I to CO column densities in these clouds is typically about 0.1.

  12. Carbon Dioxide Fountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seong-Joo; Ryu, Eun-Hee

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the development of a carbon dioxide fountain. The advantages of the carbon dioxide fountain are that it is odorless and uses consumer chemicals. This experiment also is a nice visual experiment that allows students to see evidence of a gaseous reagent being consumed when a pressure sensor is available. (Contains 3 figures.)…

  13. De-carbonizingChina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    zhou; Xiaoyan

    2013-01-01

    Innovation in the energy sector will pave the way for the country’slow-carbon future Although its per-capita emission is roughly on par with the world’s average, China is the world’s largest carbon dioxide emitter,

  14. Carbon for sensing devices

    CERN Document Server

    Tagliaferro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This book reveals why carbon is playing such an increasingly prominent role as a sensing material. The various steps that transform a raw material in a sensing device are thoroughly presented and critically discussed.  The authors deal with all aspects of carbon-based sensors, starting from the various hybridization and allotropes of carbon, with specific focus on micro and nanosized carbons (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene) and their growth processes. The discussion then moves to the role of functionalization and the different routes to achieve it. Finally, a number of sensing applications in various fields are presented, highlighting the connection with the basic properties of the various carbon allotropes.  Readers will benefit from this book’s bottom-up approach, which starts from the local bonding in carbon solids and ends with sensing applications, linking the local hybridization of carbon atoms and its modification by functionalization to specific device performance. This book is a must-have in th...

  15. China's carbon conundrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ye; Wu, Tong; He, Jiankun; King, David A.

    2013-07-01

    China's carbon dioxide emissions are rising fast. Yet, per capita, gross domestic product and energy use are only a fraction of their United States equivalents. With a growing urban middle class, the trend will continue, but there is progress on the path to a low-carbon economy.

  16. Global carbon budget 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Boden, T. A.; Bopp, L.; Bozec, Y.; Canadell, J. G.; Chevallier, F.; Cosca, C. E.; Harris, I.; Hoppema, M.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Jain, A.; Johannessen, T.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landa, C. S.; Landschützer, P.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Marland, G.; Mathis, J. T.; Metzl, N.; Nojiri, Y.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Peters, W.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J. E.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Segschneider, J.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zeng, N.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we descr

  17. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quéré, Le C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R.M.; Canadell, J.G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J.I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G.P.; Andres, R.J.; Boden, T.A.; Houghton, R.A.; House, J.I.; Keeling, R.F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D.C.E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L.P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R.A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A.K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S.K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I.D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D.R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J.E.M.S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F.F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B.D.; Sutton, A.J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; Laan-Luijkx, Van Der I.T.; Werf, Van Der G.R.; Heuven, Van S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we de

  18. Global carbon budget 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quéré, C.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Andrew, R. M.; Boden, T. A.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Houghton, R. A.; Marland, G.; Moriarty, R.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Arvanitis, A.; Bakker, D. C E; Bopp, L.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Doney, S. C.; Harper, A.; Harris, I.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Jones, S. D.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Körtzinger, A.; Koven, C.; Lefèvre, N.; Maignan, F.; Omar, A.; Ono, T.; Park, G. H.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, Piere; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schwinger, J.; Segschneider, J.; Stocker, B. D.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; Van Heuven, S.; Viovy, N.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we descr

  19. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we descr

  20. Fly ash carbon passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  1. Carbon Dioxide and Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Peter G.

    1978-01-01

    The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing at a rate that could cause significant warming of the Earth's climate in the not too distant future. Oceanographers are studying the role of the ocean as a source of carbon dioxide and as a sink for the gas. (Author/BB)

  2. COMMITTED TO CARBON REDUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Chinese efforts to lower carbon emissions through environmentally friendly means begin gaining momentum Efforts to curb carbon emissions continue to take shape as China adheres to its pledge for a brighter, greener future. More importantly, as environmental measures take hold and develop

  3. Global carbon budget 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quéré, Le C.; Peters, W.; Moriarty, R.; Friedlingstein, P.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we descr

  4. Carbon Capture and Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, S.M.; Bennaceur, K.; Cook, P.; Davison, J.; Coninck, H. de; Farhat, K.; Ramirez, C.A.; Simbeck, D.; Surles, T.; Verma, P.; Wright, I.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide, the most important long-lived anthropogenic greenhouse gas, can be reduced by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS involves the integration of four elements: CO 2 capture, compression of the CO2 from a gas to a liquid or a denser gas, transportation of pressurized CO 2

  5. Preparation and characterization of carbon pillared clay material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZengZhi; YANG ChunWei; NIU JunJie

    2009-01-01

    Carbon pillared clay material was prepared from montmorillonite modified by C19H42BrN and C10H16CIN.SEM, FT-IR, XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, thermal-gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were employed to characterize the pore structure and test the effect of surfactant. The re-sults show that organic modifier combines with montmorillonite particles by covalent bond and ion embedded. The microstructure of carbon pillared material looks like needle slice. The most probable pore size distribution is about 1.7 nm, The clay material slice mainly consists of two-dimensional ap-erture supported by a carbonization pillar. The high-temperature stability of carbon pillared clay is im-proved.

  6. Preparation and characterization of carbon pillared clay material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Carbon pillared clay material was prepared from montmorillonite modified by C19H42BrN and C10H16ClN. SEM, FT-IR, XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, thermal-gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were employed to characterize the pore structure and test the effect of surfactant. The results show that organic modifier combines with montmorillonite particles by covalent bond and ion embedded. The microstructure of carbon pillared material looks like needle slice. The most probable pore size distribution is about 1.7 nm. The clay material slice mainly consists of two-dimensional aperture supported by a carbonization pillar. The high-temperature stability of carbon pillared clay is im- proved.

  7. Dissolved carbon leaching from soil is a crucial component of the net ecosystem carbon balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Reimo; Siemens, Jan; Kaiser, Klaus;

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of carbon leaching losses from different land use systems are few and their contribution to the net ecosystem carbon balance is uncertain. We investigated leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and dissolved methane (CH4), at forests, grasslands......, and croplands across Europe. Biogenic contributions to DIC were estimated by means of its d13C signature. Leaching of biogenic DIC was 8.34.9 gm2 yr1 for forests, 24.17.2 gm2 yr1 for grasslands, and 14.64.8 gm2 yr1 for croplands. DOC leaching equalled 3.51.3 gm2 yr1 for forests, 5.32.0 gm2 yr1 for grasslands...... (hydr)oxides. Partial pressures of CO2 in soil air and soil pH determined DIC concentrations and fluxes, but soil solutions were often supersaturated with DIC relative to soil air CO2. Leaching losses of biogenic carbon (DOC plus biogenic DIC) from grasslands equalled 5–98% (median: 22%) of net...

  8. The IL-17 and Th17 cell immune response in cervical cancer : angels or demons : it depends on the context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, Birgitte Simone

    2015-01-01

    This thesis provides novel insights into the role of IL-17 and Th17 cells in cervical cancer. While IL-17 was shown to be predominantly produced by innate myeloid cells such as neutrophils and correlated with poor survival, Th17 cells were generally a small cell population correlated with improved s

  9. Cytokine crowdsourcing: multicellular production of TH17-associated cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busman-Sahay, Kathleen O; Walrath, Travis; Huber, Samuel; O'Connor, William

    2015-03-01

    In the 2 decades since its discovery, IL-17A has become appreciated for mounting robust, protective responses against bacterial and fungal pathogens. When improperly regulated, however, IL-17A can play a profoundly pathogenic role in perpetuating inflammation and has been linked to a wide variety of debilitating diseases. IL-17A is often present in a composite milieu that includes cytokines produced by TH17 cells (i.e., IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, and IL-26) or associated with other T cell lineages (e.g., IFN-γ). These combinatorial effects add mechanistic complexity and more importantly, contribute differentially to disease outcome. Whereas TH17 cells are among the best-understood cell types that secrete IL-17A, they are frequently neither the earliest nor dominant producers. Indeed, non-TH17 cell sources of IL-17A can dramatically alter the course and severity of inflammatory episodes. The dissection of the temporal regulation of TH17-associated cytokines and the resulting net signaling outcomes will be critical toward understanding the increasingly intricate role of IL-17A and TH17-associated cytokines in disease, informing our therapeutic decisions. Herein, we discuss important non-TH17 cell sources of IL-17A and other TH17-associated cytokines relevant to inflammatory events in mucosal tissues.

  10. Selective Oxidation of Soft Grade Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zecevic, N.

    2007-12-01

    into granules, and the most famous are the wet, semi-wet, and the dry process. In the oil-furnace process, the wet process of granulation is the most acceptable, in which the "fluffy" carbon black is mixed with water in an approximate ratio. After granulation, the carbon black is dried in a rotary drum at temperatures ranging between 180 to 210 °C. The period of drying is various, and depends on the production capacity and moisture fraction.The described laboratory procedure improvised successfully industrial conditions of granulating soft grade carbon black, and it is applicable to the conventional industrial method of producing soft grade oil-furnace carbon black at the Kutina plant, which is shown in Tables 1-7, and Figures 1-2.

  11. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2003-12-18

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration benefits for two forest types used to convert abandoned grasslands for carbon sequestration. Annual mixed hardwood benefits, based on total stand carbon volume present at the end of a given year, range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $5.26/ton of carbon (low prices). White pine benefits based on carbon volume range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $18.61/ton of carbon (high prices). The higher maximum white pine carbon payment can primarily be attributed to the fact that the shorter rotation means that payments for white pine carbon are being made on far less cumulative carbon tonnage than for that of the long-rotation hardwoods. Therefore, the payment per ton of white pine carbon needs to be higher than that of the hardwoods in order to render the conversion to white pine profitable by the end of a rotation. These carbon payments may seem appealingly low to the incentive provider. However, payments (not discounted) made over a full rotation may add up to approximately $17,493/ha for white pine (30-year rotation), and $18,820/ha for mixed hardwoods (60-year rotation). The literature suggests a range of carbon sequestration costs, from $0/ton of carbon to $120/ton of carbon, although the majority of studies suggest a cost below $50/ ton of carbon, with van Kooten et al. (2000) suggesting a cutoff cost of $20/ton of carbon sequestered. Thus, the ranges of carbon payments estimated for this study fall well within the ranges of carbon sequestration costs estimated in previous studies.

  12. The requirements for natural Th17 cell development are distinct from those of conventional Th17 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jiyeon S.; Smith-Garvin, Jennifer E; Koretzky, Gary A.; Jordan, Martha S.

    2011-01-01

    CD4+ T helper 17 (Th17) cells play a critical role in the adaptive immune response against extracellular pathogens. Most studies to date have focused on understanding the differentiation of Th17 cells from naive CD4+ T cells in peripheral effector sites. However, Th17 cells are present in the thymus. In this study, we demonstrate that a population of Th17 cells, natural Th17 cells (nTh17 cells), which acquire effector function during development in the thymus before peripheral antigen exposur...

  13. Carbon isotope composition and its implications of Lower Cretaceous Aptian-Albian shallow water carbonates in the Cuoqin Basin, North Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Jingquan; LI; Yongtie; JIANG; Maosheng; CHEN; Daizha

    2004-01-01

    The δ13C values of Lower Cretaceous Aptian-Albian platform-type carbonates in the Cuoqin Basin, North Tibet vary between 2.48‰ and 5.46‰. The mean value is 3.93‰. The values are not only provided with positive excursion, but also 1.17‰ higher than those of contemporaneous pelagic carbonates which possess pretty high δ13C values. The origin is approached. During the oceanic anoxic events, a great number of organisms were rapidly buried, causing the increase of the δ13C value of oceanic total dissolved carbon (TDC) and generally promoting the values of marine carbonates. After that, owing to the organisms undergoing different isotopic fractionation in the paleo-ocean with stratified structure,δ13C values of shallow sea carbonate were obviously higher than those of pelagic carbonates.

  14. Th17细胞与银屑病%Th17 cells and psoriasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽娜; 苏玉文; 陆前进

    2016-01-01

    银屑病是一种常见的自身免疫性皮肤病,主要累及皮肤,部分患者累及关节,具有慢性、易复发等特征.Th17细胞是CD4+T淋巴细胞的一种亚型,以分泌IL-17为主要特征,近年来大量研究发现其在银屑病的发生发展中起重要作用,而且与其相关的药物在银屑病的治疗中也取得了一定的疗效.本文主要对Th17细胞在银屑病发病机制中的作用及以其为治疗靶点的药物做简要介绍.%Psoriasis is a common autoimmune disease and mainly affects skin,joints,or both.Psoriasis is also a chronic relapsing disorder that can cause physical and psychological burdens to patients.Currently it is widely accepted that the immune system is involved in the development of psoriasis.Th17 cells,a subtype of CD4 +T lymphocytes,are characterized by its ability to secrete proinflammatory cytokine IL-17.Recent studies indicate that Th17 cells play a predominant role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.Moreover,targeted therapies have been developed and approved for the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis.This review summarizes the role of Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and several therapeutic biologics targeting this pathway in psoriasis.

  15. Molecular mapping of chromosomes 17 and X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, D.F.

    1989-01-01

    The basic aims of this project are the construction of high density genetic maps of chromosomes 17 and X and the utilization of these maps for the subsequent isolation of a set of physically overlapping DNA segment clones. The strategy depends on the utilization of chromosome specific libraries of small (1--15 kb) segments from each of the two chromosomes. Since the time of submission of our previous progress report, we have refined the genetic map of markers which we had previously isolated for chromosome 17. We have completed our genetic mapping in CEPH reference and NF1 families of 15 markers in the pericentric region of chromosome 17. Physical mapping results with three probes, were shown be in very close genetic proximity to the NF1 gene, with respect to two translocation breakpoints which disrupt the activity of the gene. All three of the probes were found to lie between the centromere and the most proximal translocation breakpoint, providing important genetic markers proximal to the NF1 gene. Our primary focus has shifted to the X chromosome. We have isolated an additional 30 polymorphic markers, bringing the total number we have isolated to over 80. We have invested substantial effort in characterizing the polymorphisms at each of these loci and constructed plasmid subclones which reveal the polymorphisms for nearly all of the loci. These subclones are of practical value in that they produce simpler and stronger patterns on human genomic Southern blots, thus improving the efficiency of the genetic mapping experiments. These subclones may also be of value for deriving DNA sequence information at each locus, necessary for establishing polymerase chain reaction primers specific for each locus. Such information would allow the use of each locus as a sequence tagged site.

  16. Preparation of Isolated Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes with High Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艾飞; 刘吉平; 吕广庶; 刘华

    2006-01-01

    Isolated single-walled carbon nanotubes with high proportion of opening tips were synthesized by using alcohol as carbon source. The mechanism of cutting action of oxygen was proposed to explain its growth. Compared with carbon nanotubes synthesized with benzene as carbon source, their specific surface area was heightened by approximately 2.2 times (from 200.5 to 648 m2/g) and the hydrogen storage capacity was increased by approximately 6.5 times (from 0.95 to 7.17%, ω)which had exceeded DOE energy standard of vehicular hydrogen storage.

  17. World Carbon Black Output to Reach 12.7 Million Tons in 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yongkang

    2012-01-01

    From April 13 to April 17, "Carbon Black China of 2012" (CBC2012) was held in Hangzhou, China. Mr. Paul Ita, the president of US marketing research institution Notch Consulting Group, announced that the prospect of carbon black industry was closely linked with the development of auto industry and tire industry. The demand for carbon black of 2010 increased by 15% compared with that of 2009; the growth rate of demand for carbon black was 5.8% in 2011 and the total output was 10.7 million tons, which increased by about 5.5% compared with that of 2010.

  18. Synthesis of hydrated lutetium carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Liu [South China Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Guangdong (China); Rong-jun Ma [Changsha Research Institute of Minig and Metallurgy, Hunan (China)

    1997-09-01

    Crystalline lutetium carbonate was synthesized for the corresponding chloride using ammonium bicarbonate as precipitant. The chemical analyses suggest that the synthesized lutetium carbonate is a hydrated basic carbonate or oxycarbonate. The X-ray powder diffraction data are presented. The IR data for the compound show the presence of two different carbonate groups. There is no stable intermediate carbonate in the process of thermal decomposition of the lutetium carbonate. (au) 15 refs.

  19. 17 Pseudoaneurysms Treated by Padding and Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGLu-ping; MEIXiao-rong; XUYu-lan; LIUYi; ZHENGCheng-fei; WANGGang

    2004-01-01

    To introduce the method and curative effect of treating pseudoaneurysms by padding and compression. Method: retrospectively analyze the curative effect of treating 17 pseudoaneurysms bypadding hard things and compression. Result: 15 of them was completely recovered by doing so,murmur disappeared and the local skin became even, there was no recurrences and complications after 0.5-3year's following up,but the other two were the same as before the therapy. Conclusion: pseudoaneurysms can be treated effectively by padding and compression

  20. Changes of Treg/Th17 and IL-17 in the peripheral blood of patients with COPD%COPD患者外周血存在Treg/Th17及IL-17变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申玉英; 陈菲; 徐小勇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of T helper ( Th) 17 cells, regulatory T cells ( Treg) and IL-17 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD) .Methods Peripheral blood was collected from 120 pa-tients with COPD ( acute exacerbation of COPD and stable COPD , 60 cases for each ) and 240 healthy subjects .Then, the amounts of Th17 and Treg lymphocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry , while the level of IL-17 was detected by ELISA.Each COPD patient received pulmonary function examination .Results The levels of Th17, IL-17 and Treg/Th17 in patients with AECOPD or stable COPD were significantly higher than those in healthy individuals .The levels of Th17 and IL-17 were positively correlated with FEV 1 for COPD patients .No relationship was found between the ratio of Treg/Th17 and the pulmonary function of COPD patients .Conclusion Changes in the ratio of Treg/Th17 and the level of IL-17 exist in the peripheral blood of COPD patients .%目的:研究辅助性T细胞17(T helper cell 17, Th17)和调节性T细胞(regulatory T cell , Treg )及细胞因子在慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)患者中的变化。方法抽取入选的COPD患者120例〔急性加重期(AECOPD)及稳定期COPD各60例〕和健康对照者240例外周血,以流式细胞术分析Th17和Treg淋巴细胞,同时用ELISA法检测其白细胞介素-17( IL-17)表达水平,并对COPD患者行肺功能检查。结果①AECOPD 组和稳定期COPD组患者外周血Th17、IL-17及Treg/Th17水平明显高于正常对照组;②COPD患者Th17、IL-17与第1 s用力呼气量( FEV1)呈正相关;③COPD患者Treg/Th17与肺功能无相关性。结论 COPD患者外周血存在Treg/Th17及IL-17变化。

  1. Carbon dioxide conversion over carbon-based nanocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavarian, Mehrnoush; Chai, Siang-Piao; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2013-07-01

    The utilization of carbon dioxide for the production of valuable chemicals via catalysts is one of the efficient ways to mitigate the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is known that the carbon dioxide conversion and product yields are still low even if the reaction is operated at high pressure and temperature. The carbon dioxide utilization and conversion provides many challenges in exploring new concepts and opportunities for development of unique catalysts for the purpose of activating the carbon dioxide molecules. In this paper, the role of carbon-based nanocatalysts in the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide and direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from carbon dioxide and methanol are reviewed. The current catalytic results obtained with different carbon-based nanocatalysts systems are presented and how these materials contribute to the carbon dioxide conversion is explained. In addition, different strategies and preparation methods of nanometallic catalysts on various carbon supports are described to optimize the dispersion of metal nanoparticles and catalytic activity.

  2. Structures of dolomite at ultrahigh pressure and their influence on the deep carbon cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlini, Marco; Crichton, Wilson A; Hanfland, Michael; Gemmi, Mauro; Müller, Harald; Kupenko, Ilya; Dubrovinsky, Leonid

    2012-08-21

    Carbon-bearing solids, fluids, and melts in the Earth's deep interior may play an important role in the long-term carbon cycle. Here we apply synchrotron X-ray single crystal micro-diffraction techniques to identify and characterize the high-pressure polymorphs of dolomite. Dolomite-II, observed above 17 GPa, is triclinic, and its structure is topologically related to CaCO(3)-II. It transforms above 35 GPa to dolomite-III, also triclinic, which features carbon in [3 + 1] coordination at the highest pressures investigated (60 GPa). The structure is therefore representative of an intermediate between the low-pressure carbonates and the predicted ultra-high pressure carbonates, with carbon in tetrahedral coordination. Dolomite-III does not decompose up to the melting point (2,600 K at 43 GPa) and its thermodynamic stability demonstrates that this complex phase can transport carbon to depths of at least up to 1,700 km. Dolomite-III, therefore, is a likely occurring phase in areas containing recycled crustal slabs, which are more oxidized and Ca-enriched than the primitive lower mantle. Indeed, these phases may play an important role as carbon carriers in the whole mantle carbon cycling. As such, they are expected to participate in the fundamental petrological processes which, through carbon-bearing fluids and carbonate melts, will return carbon back to the Earth's surface.

  3. Treatment of CIA Mice with FGF21 Down-regulates TH17-IL-17 Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-ming; Yu, Yin-hang; Li, Lu; Wang, Wen-fei; Li, De-shan

    2016-02-01

    Recently, FGF21 was reported to play an important role in anti-inflammation. The aim of the study is to explore the mechanism for FGF21 alleviating inflammation of CIA. CIA mice were injected with FGF21 once a day for 28 days after first booster immunization. The results showed that FGF21 alleviates arthritis severity and decreases serum anti-CII antibodies levels in CIA mice. Compared with CIA model, the number of the splenic TH17 cells was significantly decreased in FGF21-treated mice. FGF21 treatment reduced the mRNA expression of IL-17, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and MMP3 and increased level of IL-10 in the spleen tissue. The expression of STAT3 and phosphorylated STAT3 was suppressed in FGF21-treated group. The mRNA expression of RORγt and IL-23 also decreased. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the beneficial effects of FGF21 on CIA mice were achieved by down-regulating Th17-IL-17 axis through STAT3/RORγt pathway. Modulating of Th17-mediated inflammatory response may be one of the mechanisms for FGF21 attenuating inflammation in CIA.

  4. IL-17的信号传导及功能研究%IL-17 Signaling and Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施沛青; 朱书; 钱友存

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17), the signature cytokine secreted by T helper 17 cells(TH17), plays important roles in host defense against extracellular bacterial infection and fungal infection and contributes to the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases. Here we reviewed the histological discovery of TH 17 and IL-17, and recent advances in IL-17-mediated signaling and its functions in physiology and pathology, providing perspective on potential drug targets for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.%白介素17(IL-17),辅助性T细胞TH17分泌的特征性细胞因子,在抵杭胞外细菌、真菌感染的宿主防御以及各种自身免疫性疾病发病中起到了重要的作用.本文对TH17细胞、IL-17的发现作了历史性回顾,并综述了IL-17受体介导的信号传导途径和生理功能的研究进展,为TH17细胞、IL-17及其受体作为药物治疗的新靶点提供新思路.

  5. Kinetics of Chronic Oxidation of NBG-17 Nuclear Graphite by Water Vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contescu, Cristian I [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burchell, Timothy D [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mee, Robert [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report presents the results of kinetic measurements during accelerated oxidation tests of NBG-17 nuclear graphite by low concentration of water vapor and hydrogen in ultra-high purity helium. The objective is to determine the parameters in the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) equation describing the oxidation kinetics of nuclear graphite in the helium coolant of high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR). Although the helium coolant chemistry is strictly controlled during normal operating conditions, trace amounts of moisture (predictably < 0.2 ppm) cannot be avoided. Prolonged exposure of graphite components to water vapor at high temperature will cause very slow (chronic) oxidation over the lifetime of graphite components. This behavior must be understood and predicted for the design and safe operation of gas-cooled nuclear reactors. The results reported here show that, in general, oxidation by water of graphite NBG-17 obeys the L-H mechanism, previously documented for other graphite grades. However, the characteristic kinetic parameters that best describe oxidation rates measured for graphite NBG-17 are different than those reported previously for grades H-451 (General Atomics, 1978) and PCEA (ORNL, 2013). In some specific conditions, certain deviations from the generally accepted L-H model were observed for graphite NBG-17. This graphite is manufactured in Germany by SGL Carbon Group and is a possible candidate for the fuel elements and reflector blocks of HTGR.

  6. Small diameter carbon nanopipettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Riju; Bhattacharyya, Sayan; Orynbayeva, Zulfiya; Vitol, Elina; Friedman, Gary; Gogotsi, Yury

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale multifunctional carbon probes facilitate cellular studies due to their small size, which makes it possible to interrogate organelles within living cells in a minimally invasive fashion. However, connecting nanotubes to macroscopic devices and constructing an integrated system for the purpose of fluid and electrical signal transfer is challenging, as is often the case with nanoscale components. We describe a non-catalytic chemical vapor deposition based method for batch fabrication of integrated multifunctional carbon nanopipettes (CNPs) with tip diameters much smaller (10-30 nm) than previously reported (200 nm and above) and approaching those observed for multiwalled carbon nanotubes. This eliminates the need for complicated attachment/assembly of nanotubes into nanofluidic devices. Variable tip geometries and structures were obtained by controlled deposition of carbon inside and outside quartz pipettes. We have shown that the capillary length and gas flow rate have a marked effect on the carbon deposition. This gives us a flexible protocol, useful for growing carbon layers of different thicknesses at selective locations on a glass pipette to yield a large variety of cellular probes in bulk quantities. The CNPs possess an open channel for fluid transfer with the carbon deposited inside at 875 °C behaving like an amorphous semiconductor. Vacuum annealing of the CNP tips at temperatures up to 2000 °C yields graphitic carbon structures with an increase in conductivity of two orders of magnitude. Penetration of the integrated carbon nanoprobes into cells was shown to produce minimal Ca2+ signals, fast recovery of basal Ca2+ levels and no adverse activation of the cellular metabolism during interrogation times as long as 0.5-1 h.

  7. Pressure loss tests for DR-BEP of fullsize 17 x 17 PWR fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Moon Ki; Chun, Se Young; Chang, Seok Kyu; Won, Soon Youn; Cho, Young Rho; Kim, Bok Deuk; Min, Kyoung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the conditions, procedure and results in the pressure loss tests carried out for a double grid type debris resistance bottom end piece (DR-BEP) designed by KAERI. In this test, the pressure loss coefficients of the full size 17 x 17 PWR simulated fuel assembly with DR-BET and with standard-BEP were measured respectively, and the pressure loss coefficients of DR-BEP were compared with the coefficients of STD-BET. The test conditions fall within the ranges of loop pressure from 5.2 to 45 bar, loop temperature from 27 to 221 deg C and Reynolds number in fuel bundle from 2.17 x 10{sup 4} to 3.85 x 10{sup 5}. (Author) 5 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Preparation and characterization of carbon nano-sheet powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wubao; Zhao Zhen; Fang Songhua; Wang Yong; Yang Size; Lin Li

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanosheet films were deposited on Al substrates by using plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) technique. And after being peeled off from Al substrates, carbon nanosheet powders (CNSPs) were obtained. In Raman spectrum of carbon film, there was a strong and broadened peak at about 1,580 cm-1, indicating a carbon diamond-like film. Atomic force microscope image showed that the carbon diamond-like film had a grain size less than 100 nm, and its surface roughness Ra was 17.95 nm in an area of 5×5 μm2. The CNSPs were irregular sheets with curly edges and a length of several micrometers to several hundreds of micrometers. The BET surface area of CNSPs was 6.66 m2/g with no micro-pore present, which was confirmed by N2 adsorption-desorption characterization. In the adsorption testing, when the relative pressure P/P0 was higher than 0.3, the adsorption behavior did not follow the Langmuir equation. The addition of CNSPs to carbon black (catalyst support) could improve hydrodesuifurization performance of carbon supported Ni-W catalysts for diesel oil.

  9. Are global mangrove carbon stocks driven by rainfall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Christian J.; Maher, Damien T.; Tait, Douglas R.; Williams, Darren; Holloway, Ceylena; Sippo, James Z.; Santos, Isaac R.

    2016-10-01

    Mangrove forests produce significant amounts of organic carbon and maintain large carbon stocks in tidally inundated, anoxic soils. This work analyzes new and published data from 17 regions spanning a latitudinal gradient from 22°N to 38°S to assess some of the global drivers (temperature, tidal range, latitude, and rainfall) of mangrove carbon stocks. Mangrove forests from the tropics have larger carbon stocks (895 ± 90 t C ha-1) than the subtropics and temperate regions (547 ± 66 t C ha-1). A multiple regression model showed that 86% of the observed variability is associated with annual rainfall, which is the best predictor of mangrove ecosystem carbon stocks. Therefore, a predicted increase in rainfall along the tropical Indo-Pacific may increase mangrove forest carbon stocks. However, there are other potentially important factors that may regulate organic matter diagenesis, such as nutrient availability and pore water salinity. Our predictive model shows that if mangrove deforestation is halted, global mangrove forest carbon stocks could increase by almost 10% by 2115 as a result of increased rainfall in the tropics.

  10. Computable General Equilibrium Techniques for Carbon Tax Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Amin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Lacking of proper environmental models environmental pollution is now a solemn problem in many developing countries particularly in Malaysia. Some empirical studies of worldwide reveal that imposition of a carbon tax significantly decreases carbon emissions and does not dramatically reduce economic growth. To our knowledge there has not been any research done to simulate the economic impact of emission control policies in Malaysia. Approach: Therefore this study developed an environmental computable general equilibrium model for Malaysia and investigated carbon tax policy responses in the economy applying exogenously different degrees of carbon tax into the model. Three simulations were carried out using a Malaysian social accounting matrix. Results: The carbon tax policy illustrated that a 1.21% reduction of carbon emission reduced the nominal GDP by 0.82% and exports by 2.08%; 2.34% reduction of carbon emission reduced the nominal GDP by 1.90% and exports by 3.97% and 3.40% reduction of carbon emission reduced the nominal GDP by 3.17% and exports by 5.71%. Conclusion/Recommendations: Imposition of successively higher carbon tax results in increased government revenue from baseline by 26.67, 53.07 and 79.28% respectively. However, fixed capital investment increased in scenario 1a by 0.43% and decreased in scenarios 1b and 1c by 0.26 and 1.79% respectively from the baseline. According to our policy findings policy makers should consider 1st (scenario 1a carbon tax policy. This policy results in achieving reasonably good environmental impacts without losing the investment, fixed capital investment, investment share of nominal GDP and government revenue.

  11. Carbon Superatom Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canning, A. [Cray Research, PSE, EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Canning, A.; Galli, G. [Institut Romand de Recherche Numerique en Physique des Materiaux (IRRMA), IN-Ecublens, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Kim, J. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    1997-06-01

    We report on quantum molecular dynamics simulations of C{sub 28} deposition on a semiconducting surface. Our results show that under certain deposition conditions C{sub 28} {close_quote}s act as building blocks on a nanometer scale to form a thin film of nearly defect-free molecules. The C{sub 28} {close_quote}s behave as carbon superatoms, with the majority of them being threefold or fourfold coordinated, similar to carbon atoms in amorphous systems. The microscopic structure of the deposited film supports recent suggestions about the stability of a new form of carbon, the hyperdiamond solid. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Production of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journet, C.; Bernier, P.

    Carbon nanostructures such as single-walled and multi-walled nanotubes (SWNTs and MWNTs) or graphitic polyhedral nanoparticles can be produced using various methods. Most of them are based on the sublimation of carbon under an inert atmosphere, such as the electric arc discharge process, the laser ablation method, or the solar technique. But chemical methods can also be used to synthesize these kinds of carbon materials: the catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbons, the production by electrolysis, the heat treatment of a polymer, the low temperature solid pyrolysis, or the in situ catalysis.

  13. Carbon emission and sequestration of urban turfgrass systems in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Ling [School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Shi, Zhengjun [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Southern Subtropical Plant Diversity, Fairy Lake Botanical Garden, Shenzhen and Chinese Academy of Science, Shenzhen (China); Chu, L.M., E-mail: leemanchu@cuhk.edu.hk [School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong (China)

    2014-03-01

    Climate change is more than just a global issue. Locally released carbon dioxide may lead to a rise in global ambient temperature and influence the surrounding climate. Urban greenery may mitigate this as they can remove carbon dioxide by storing carbon in substrates and vegetation. On the other hand, urban greenery systems which are under intense management and maintenance may contribute to the emission of carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases. The impact of urban greenery on carbon balance in major metropolitan areas thus remains controversial. We investigated the carbon footprints of urban turf operation and maintenance by conducting a research questionnaire on different Hong Kong turfs in 2012, and showed that turf maintenance contributed 0.17 to 0.63 kg Ce m{sup −2} y{sup −1} to carbon emissions. We also determined the carbon storage of turfs at 0.05 to 0.21 kg C m{sup −2} for aboveground grass biomass and 1.26 to 4.89 kg C m{sup −2} for soils (to 15 cm depth). We estimated that the carbon sink capacity of turfs could be offset by carbon emissions in 5–24 years under current management patterns, shifting from carbon sink to carbon source. Our study suggested that maintenance management played a key role in the carbon budget and footprint of urban greeneries. The environmental impact of turfgrass systems can be optimized by shifting away from empirically designed maintenance schedules towards rational ones based on carbon sink and emission principles. - Highlights: • Carbon storage capacity at 0.05 to 0.21 kg C m{sup −2} for grasses and 1.26 to 4.89 kg C m{sup −2} for soils (to 15 cm depth). • Turf maintenance contributed to carbon emissions at 0.17 to 0.63 kg Ce (carbon equivalent) m{sup −2} y{sup −1}. • Turf system respiration was negatively correlated with soil carbon capacity but only in the wet season. • Carbon stored in turfs could be offset by maintenance carbon emissions in 5–24 years.

  14. IL-17 in the Rheumatologist’s Line of Sight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Elise Truchetet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, the identification of several new cytokines, including interleukin (IL-17 and IL-23, and of new T helper cell subsets, including Th17 cells, has changed the vision of immunological processes. The IL-17/Th17 pathway plays a critical role during the development of inflammation and autoimmunity, and targeting this pathway has become an attractive strategy for a number of diseases. This review aims to describe the effects of IL-17 in the joint and its roles in the development of autoimmune and inflammatory arthritis. Furthermore, biotherapies targeting directly or indirectly IL-17 in inflammatory rheumatisms will be developed.

  15. BATF: Bringing (in) Another Th17-regulating Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gustavo J. Martinez; Chen Dong

    2009-01-01

    T helper (Th) 17 cells are a recently identified subset of T cells that regulate tissue inflammation, and RORγt and RORα have been shown to be Th17-specific transcription factors that mediate Th17 cell generation. A new study of Batf-deficient mice shows that this AP-1 family transcription factor also regulates Th17 cell differentiation by binding to Th17-associated gene promoters and by maintaining RORa and RORgt expression, shedding new lights on current clinical modulation of Th17 cell function in inflammatory diseases.

  16. Mars volatile evolution: Implications of the recent measurement of O-17 in water from the SNC meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.

    1992-01-01

    Oxygen, carbon, and hydrocarbon isotopes in water and carbon dioxide in the Martian environment can fractionate due to processes involving escape to space, exchange between atmospheric and non-atmospheric species, and exchange of atoms between different molecules. As a result, the ratios of O-18/O-17/O-16, C-13/C-12 and D/H in atmospheric and surface species are sensitive indicators of the integrated effects of outgassing and volatile evolution over geologic time. Previously, I summarized all of the available observations of isotopic abundances and compared them with models of fractionation in order to see which scenarios of volatile evolution were most plausible. Presently, I have included in the models the possible evolution of O-17 due to loss to space in order to see whether these measurements are consistent with various scenarios for atmospheric evolution.

  17. Biological uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by Macoma balthica from sediment amended with activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Pamela B.; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine J.; Luoma, S.N.; Luthy, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    This work characterizes the efficacy of activated carbon amendment in reducing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioavailability to clams (Macoma balthica) from field-contaminated sediment (Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, San Francisco Bay, CA, USA) Test methods were developed for the use of clams to investigate the effects of sediment amendment on biological uptake. Sediment was mixed with activated carbon for one month. Bioaccumulation tests (28 d) were employed to assess the relationships between carbon dose and carbon particle size on observed reductions in clam biological uptake of PCBs. Extraction and cleanup protocols were developed for the clam tissue. Efficacy of activated carbon treatment was found to increase with both increasing carbon dose and decreasing carbon particle size. Average reductions in bioaccumulation of 22, 64, and 84% relative to untreated Hunters Point sediment were observed for carbon amendments of 0.34, 1.7, and 3.4%, respectively. Average bioaccumulation reductions of 41, 73, and 89% were observed for amendments (dose = 1.7% dry wt) with carbon particles of 180 to 250, 75 to 180, and 25 to 75 ??m, respectively, in diameter, indicating kinetic phenomena in these tests. Additionally, a biodynamic model quantifying clam PCB uptake from water and sediment as well as loss through elimination provided a good fit of experimental data. Model predictions suggest that the sediment ingestion route contributed 80 to 95% of the PCB burdens in the clams. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  18. Epithelial cell ADAM17 activation by Helicobacter pylori: role of ADAM17 C-terminus and Threonine-735 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClurg, Urszula L; Danjo, Kazuma; King, Harry O; Scott, Gina B; Robinson, Philip A; Crabtree, Jean E

    2015-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori transactivates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on gastric epithelial cells via a signalling cascade involving a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17) cleavage of membrane bound heparin binding-epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF). The effects of H. pylori on ADAM17 C-terminus in epithelial cells have been examined. Total cellular ADAM17 and surface expression of ADAM17 were significantly increased by H. pylori in AGS gastric epithelial cells. These changes were associated with ADAM17 C-terminal phosphorylation at T375 and S791. AGS cells lacking the ADAM17 C-terminal domain induced significantly attenuated cleavage of HB-EGF and were also unable to upregulate HB-EGF and EGFR transcripts to the same extent as cells expressing full length ADAM17. In mitotic unstimulated AGS and ADAM17 over-expressing AGS cells, ADAM17 was highly T735 phosphorylated indicating ADAM17 T735 phosphorylation is modified during the cell cycle. In conclusion, H. pylori induced ADAM17 C-terminal T735 and/or S791 phosphorylation in gastric epithelial cells are likely to be an important trigger inducing ADAM17 activation and shedding of HB-EGF leading to EGFR transactivation. ADAM17 over-expression in gastric cancer represents a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

  19. Conjoined structures of carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnenko, V.; Boltrushko, V.; Klopov, M.; Hizhnyakov, V.

    2014-04-01

    Hybrid materials built from conjoined structures of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have important properties for novel applications. In this communication we have performed a numerical study of these structures and have found two types: (i) CNT and GNR structures formed by van der Waals forces with a distance close to 0.35 nm and (ii) CNT and GNR structures interconnected by short (0.17 nm) and strong chemical bonds. It appears that the latter bonds essentially perturb conjoined carbon C6 rings. The reason for the perturbation is the pseudo-Jahn-Teller effect.

  20. Experiments with the newly available carbon beams at ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    Garcia borge, M J; Koester, U H; Koldste, G T

    2002-01-01

    Recent target-ions-source developments at ISOLDE providing significantly increased yields for carbon isotopes, open up for new and intriguing experiments. We propose to exploit this in two different ways. In particular we wish to do an elastic resonance scattering experiment of $^{9}$C on a proton target to gain information on the particle unbound system $^{10}$N. Furthermore we wish to perform decay experiments of the neutron-rich carbon isotopes, with special focus on $^{17-19}$C but also including a test to see whether the even more neutron-rich isotopes $^{20,22}$C are accessible at ISOLDE.

  1. Medium carbon vanadium micro alloyed steels for drop forging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeszensky, Gabor; Plaut, Ronald Lesley

    1992-12-31

    Growing competitiveness of alternative manufacturing routes requires cost minimization in the production of drop forged components. The authors analyse the potential of medium carbon, vanadium microalloyed steels for drop forging. Laboratory and industrial experiments have been carried out emphasizing deformation and temperature cycles, strain rates and dwell times showing a typical processing path, associated mechanical properties and corresponding microstructures. The steels the required levels of mechanical properties on cooling after forging, eliminating subsequent heat treatment. The machinability of V-microalloyed steels is also improved when compared with plain medium carbon steels. (author) 17 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Authigenic Carbonate and the History of the Global Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Daniel P.; Higgins, John. A.; Macdonald, Francis A.; Johnston, David T.

    2013-02-01

    We present a framework for interpreting the carbon isotopic composition of sedimentary rocks, which in turn requires a fundamental reinterpretation of the carbon cycle and redox budgets over Earth's history. We propose that authigenic carbonate, produced in sediment pore fluids during early diagenesis, has played a major role in the carbon cycle in the past. This sink constitutes a minor component of the carbon isotope mass balance under the modern, high levels of atmospheric oxygen but was much larger in times of low atmospheric O2 or widespread marine anoxia. Waxing and waning of a global authigenic carbonate sink helps to explain extreme carbon isotope variations in the Proterozoic, Paleozoic, and Triassic.

  3. Carbon Stock and Carbon Cycle of Wetland Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhangquan; ZENG; Canming; ZHANG; Jiao; LI; Nan; YANG; Xihao; LI; Yandong; NIU; Zijian; WU

    2014-01-01

    Wetland ecosystem is an essential ecosystem in the world. Its organic carbon stock and carbon cycle are important basis of global carbon cycle researches and also major contents of global climate change researches. Researches have shown that wetland protection and restoration can promote carbon accumulation and reduce emission of greenhouse gases. This paper discussed influence of carbon stock and carbon balance of wetland ecosystem and emission of greenhouse gases,as well as the relationship between wetland and global climate changes. Finally,it made prospect on researches about carbon cycle of Dongting Lake.

  4. A novel carbon fiber based porous carbon monolith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchell, T.D.; Klett, J.W.; Weaver, C.E.

    1995-06-01

    A novel porous carbon material based on carbon fibers has been developed. The material, when activated, develops a significant micro- or mesopore volume dependent upon the carbon fiber type utilized (isotropic pitch or polyacrylonitrile). The materials will find applications in the field of fluid separations or as a catalyst support. Here, the manufacture and characterization of our porous carbon monoliths are described. A novel adsorbent carbon composite material has been developed comprising carbon fibers and a binder. The material, called carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS), was developed through a joint research program between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research (UKCAER).

  5. Toward uniform and ultrathin carbon layer coating on lithium iron phosphate using liquid carbon dioxide for enhanced electrochemical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung-Ah; Kim, Dong Hyun; Chung, Kyung Yoon; Chang, Wonyoung; Yoo, Jibeom; Kim, Jaehoon

    2014-09-01

    In this communication, uniform and ultrathin carbon coating on LiFePO4 (LFP) particles are performed using liquid carbon dioxide (l-CO2)-based free-meniscus coating. The uniform and conformal coverage of the carbon layer on LFP with a thickness of 3.3 nm, and a uniform distribution of carbon on the entire surface of the LFP particle are confirmed. The carbon-coated LFP (C-LFP) with a carbon content of 1.9 wt.% obtained using l-CO2-based coating exhibits a discharge capacity of 169 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and 71 mAh g-1 at 30 C, while much lower discharge capacity of 146 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and 17 mAh g-1 at 30 C is observed when C-LFP with an optimized carbon content of 6.0 wt.% is prepared using conventional aqueous-based coating.

  6. Potential Involvement of IL-17F in Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Ota

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression of IL-17F is seen in the airway of asthmatics and its level is correlated with disease severity. Several studies have demonstrated that IL-17F plays a pivotal role in allergic airway inflammation and induces several asthma-related molecules such as CCL20. IL-17F-induced CCL20 may attract Th17 cells into the airway resulting in the recruitment of additional Th17 cells to enhance allergic airway inflammation. We have recently identified, for the first time, that bronchial epithelial cells are its novel cell source in response to IL-33 via ST2-ERK1/2-MSK1 signaling pathway. The receptor for IL-17F is the heterodimeric complex of IL-17RA and IL-17RC, and IL-17F activates many signaling pathways. In a case-control study of 867 unrelated Japanese subjects, a His161 to Arg161 (H161R substitution in the third exon of the IL-17F gene was associated with asthma. In atopic patients with asthma, prebronchodilator baseline FEV1/FVC values showed a significant association with the H161R variant. Moreover, this variant is a natural antagonist for the wild-type IL-17F. Moreover, IL-17F is involved in airway remodeling and steroid resistance. Hence, IL-17F may play an orchestrating role in the pathogenesis of asthma and may provide a valuable therapeutic target for development of novel strategies.

  7. High performance carbon-carbon composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lalit M Manocha

    2003-02-01

    Carbon-carbon composites rank first among ceramic composite materials with a spectrum of properties and applications in various sectors. These composites are made of fibres in various directions and carbonaceous polymers and hydrocarbons as matrix precursors. Their density and properties depend on the type and volume fraction of reinforcement, matrix precursor used and end heat treatment temperature. Composites made with thermosetting resins as matrix precursors possess low densities (1.55–1.75 g/cm3) and well-distributed microporosity whereas those made with pitch as the matrix precursor, after densification exhibit densities of 1.8–2.0 g/cm3 with some mesopores, and those made by the CVD technique with hydrocarbon gases, possess intermediate densities and matrices with close porosities. The former (resin-based) composites exhibit high flexural strength, low toughness and low thermal conductivity, whereas the latter (pitch- and CVD-based) can be made with very high thermal conductivity (400–700 W/MK) in the fibre direction. Carbon-carbon composites are used in a variety of sectors requiring high mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, good frictional properties for brake pads in high speed vehicles or high thermal conductivity for thermal management applications. However, for extended life applications, these composites need to be protected against oxidation either through matrix modification with Si, Zr, Hf etc. or by multilayer oxidation protection coatings consisting of SiC, silica, zircon etc.

  8. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2012 Annual Estimates OCTOBER 13, 2015 Incidents, Deaths, and In-Depth Investigations Associated with Non-Fire ...

  9. [Particle therapy: carbon ions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier, Pascal; Hu, Yi; Baron, Marie-Hélène; Chapet, Olivier; Balosso, Jacques

    2010-07-01

    Carbon ion therapy is an innovative radiation therapy. It has been first proposed in the forties by Robert Wilson, however the first dedicated centres for human care have been build up only recently in Japan and Germany. The interest of carbon ion is twofold: 1) the very sharp targeting of the tumour with the so called spread out Bragg peak that delivers most of the beam energy in the tumour and nothing beyond it, sparing very efficiently the healthy tissues; 2) the higher relative biological efficiency compared to X rays or protons, able to kill radioresistant tumour cells. Both properties make carbon ions the elective therapy for non resectable radioresistant tumours loco-regionally threatening. The technical and clinical experience accumulated during the recent decades is summarized in this paper along with a detailed presentation of the elective indications. A short comparison between conventional radiotherapy and hadrontherapy is proposed for the indications which are considered as priority for carbon ions.

  10. Global carbon budget 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Boden, T. A.; Bopp, L.; Bozec, Y.; Canadell, J. G.; Chevallier, F.; Cosca, C. E.; Harris, I.; Hoppema, M.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Jain, A.; Johannessen, T.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landa, C. S.; Landschützer, P.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Marland, G.; Mathis, J. T.; Metzl, N.; Nojiri, Y.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Peters, W.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J. E.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Segschneider, J.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zeng, N.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2)emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, andterrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the globalcarbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and projectfuture climate change. Here we describe

  11. Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Total ecosystem carbon includes above- and below-ground live plant components (such as leaf, branch, stem and root), dead biomass (such as standing dead wood, down...

  12. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Community Outreach Resource Center Toy Recall Statistics CO Poster Contest Pool Safely Business & Manufacturing Business & Manufacturing Business ... Featured Resources CPSC announces winners of carbon monoxide poster contest Video View the blog Clues You Can ...

  13. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Unites States die every year from accidental non-fire related CO poisoning associated with consumer products, including ... CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of ...

  14. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & Decisions Research & Statistics Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS Injury Data ... On Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths ...

  15. Carbon partitioning in photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Anastasios

    2013-06-01

    The work seeks to raise awareness of a fundamental problem that impacts the renewable generation of fuels and chemicals via (photo)synthetic biology. At issue is regulation of the endogenous cellular carbon partitioning between different biosynthetic pathways, over which the living cell exerts stringent control. The regulation of carbon partitioning in photosynthesis is not understood. In plants, microalgae and cyanobacteria, methods need be devised to alter photosynthetic carbon partitioning between the sugar, terpenoid, and fatty acid biosynthetic pathways, to lower the prevalence of sugar biosynthesis and correspondingly upregulate terpenoid and fatty acid hydrocarbons production in the cell. Insight from unusual but naturally occurring carbon-partitioning processes can help in the design of blueprints for improved photosynthetic fuels and chemicals production.

  16. Carbon Monoxide Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Carbon Monoxide and have...

  17. Stercoral perforation in a 17-year old.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, S

    2009-04-02

    INTRODUCTION: Stercoral perforation is a rare cause of perforation. This is the first reported case where a partial eating disorder (ED) is the primary causative differential. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 17-year-old girl who presented to her local Emergency Department with a 24-h history of left-sided abdominal pain. She subsequently deteriorated and a computed tomography scan of her abdomen showed gross distension of the large bowel with a sigmoid perforation. She underwent total colectomy with end ileostomy. Histology reported stercoral perforation but normal bowel ganglia. While an inpatient she was reviewed by the Psychiatric team who were concerned she was suffering from a partial ED. CONCLUSION: This case highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in optimally treating patients such as these. Aggressive medical management with involvement of a psychiatric team and dietetics addresses any underlying causative psychiatric issues and helps prevent recurrence.

  18. The Forbush decrease of November 17, 1966

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, H. S.

    1975-01-01

    The Forbush decrease of November 17, 1966, takes place in two steps, a predecrease is followed by the main decrease. SSCs are observed on both occasions. The decrease is modest, short-lived, and is preceded and followed by an exceptionally steady level of the cosmic ray intensity. Preliminary results from a phenomenological study are presented. The observed changes in the cosmic ray intensity are correlated with interplanetary magnetic field direction at the onset of the predecrease and during part of the recovery phase. A simple explanation is given for the fact that the predecrease is not observed at the stations in the European-zone. It appears that a preferential recovery takes place from some directions in space, during the recovery phase of the Forbush decrease. Off-ecliptic scattering of lower energy cosmic rays is probably responsible for this. The same phenomena is probably also responsible for the difference between the amplitudes of the predecrease observed at different stations.

  19. 17th STAB/DGLR Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Gerd; Kreplin, Hans-Peter; Nitsche, Wolfgang; Peltzer, Inken

    2013-01-01

    This volume contains the contributions to the 17th Symposium of STAB (German Aerospace Aerodynamics Association). STAB includes German scientists and engineers from universities, research establishments and industry doing research and project work in numerical and experimental fluid mechanics and aerodynamics, mainly for aerospace but also for other applications. Many of the contributions collected in this book present results from national and European Community sponsored projects. This volume gives a broad overview of the ongoing work in this field in Germany and spans a wide range of topics: airplane aerodynamics, multidisciplinary optimization and new configurations, hypersonic flows and aerothermodynamics, flow control (drag reduction and laminar flow control), rotorcraft aerodynamics, aeroelasticity and structural dynamics, numerical simulation, experimental simulation and test techniques, aeroacoustics as well as the new fields of biomedical flows, convective flows, aerodynamics and acoustics of high-s...

  20. Lunar atmospheric composition results from Apollo 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, J. H.; Hodges, R. R., Jr.; Johnson, F. S.; Evans, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    The Apollo 17 mass spectrometer has confirmed the existence of helium, neon, argon, and possibly molecular hydrogen in the lunar atmosphere. Helium and neon concentrations are in agreement with model predictions based on the solar wind as a source and their being noncondensable gases. Ar-40 and Ar-36 both exhibit a predawn enhancement which indicates that they are condensable gases on the nightside and are re-released into the atmosphere at the sunrise terminator. Hydrogen probably exists in the lunar atmosphere in the molecular rather than atomic state, having been released from the surface in the molecular form. Total nighttime gas concentration of known species in the lunar atmosphere is 200,000 molecules/cu cm.

  1. Unit 17 Disabilities教学设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宏伟

    2006-01-01

    @@ (选自:人教版高二英语下册第17单元.) 一、教学课型 Disabled?Not me是一篇围绕整个单元的中心话题disabilities展开的夹叙夹议的文章.通过本课教学培养学生分析和理解此类文章的能力,并引导学生形成这样的观点:残疾人除了身体的某一部位残疾,其他方面并不比正常人差;与正常人一样,他们应当享有受教育的机会.

  2. Stercoral perforation in a 17-year old.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, S

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stercoral perforation is a rare cause of perforation. This is the first reported case where a partial eating disorder (ED) is the primary causative differential. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 17-year-old girl who presented to her local Emergency Department with a 24-h history of left-sided abdominal pain. She subsequently deteriorated and a computed tomography scan of her abdomen showed gross distension of the large bowel with a sigmoid perforation. She underwent total colectomy with end ileostomy. Histology reported stercoral perforation but normal bowel ganglia. While an inpatient she was reviewed by the Psychiatric team who were concerned she was suffering from a partial ED. CONCLUSION: This case highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in optimally treating patients such as these. Aggressive medical management with involvement of a psychiatric team and dietetics addresses any underlying causative psychiatric issues and helps prevent recurrence.

  3. Applications for alliform carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogotsi, Yury; Mochalin, Vadym; McDonough, IV, John Kenneth; Simon, Patrice; Taberna, Pierre Louis

    2017-02-21

    This invention relates to novel applications for alliform carbon, useful in conductors and energy storage devices, including electrical double layer capacitor devices and articles incorporating such conductors and devices. Said alliform carbon particles are in the range of 2 to about 20 percent by weight, relative to the weight of the entire electrode. Said novel applications include supercapacitors and associated electrode devices, batteries, bandages and wound healing, and thin-film devices, including display devices.

  4. Carbon footprint of thermowood

    OpenAIRE

    Nordlund, Teemu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of this Bachelor’s Thesis was to evaluate the carbon footprint of thermally modified wood and its manufacturing process and transportation cycle for several different ThermoWood producer. Research included the whole production cycle from harvesting raw wood to ThermoWood transportation in destination area. Carbon dioxide emissions from these areas were determined and calculated for every ThermoWood producer at first hand. Calculations were based on the PAS 2050:2011, which is ...

  5. Rainbow trout cytochrome P-450c17 (17 alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase). cDNA cloning, enzymatic properties and temporal pattern of ovarian P-450c17 mRNA expression during oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, N; Tanaka, M; Adachi, S; Miller, W L; Nagahama, Y

    1992-04-13

    A cDNA clone encoding cytochrome P-450c17 (17 alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase) was isolated from a rainbow trout ovarian follicle cDNA library. The cDNA contained an open reading frame of 1,542 nucleotides encoding a protein of 514 amino acid residues. The amino acid sequence of trout P-450c17 shows a much greater homology with chicken P-450c17 than with that of human, bovine and rat. The trout P-450c17 expressed in non-steroidogenic mammalian COS-1 cells showed both 17 alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities. The cDNA only hybridized to a single species of mRNA (2.4 kb) isolated from rainbow trout ovaries; the 2.4 kb transcripts were abundant in trout ovaries during the later stages of oogenesis.

  6. Gene : CBRC-TNIG-17-0004 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-17-0004 17 A Orphan receptors GPR75_HUMAN 0.0 61% emb|CAG09460.1| unnamed... protein product [Tetraodon nigroviridis] 0.0 100% MNATVAPSDLADAPRQQVFNGTEAAGGWAVIHTATLTFCSLLLILIFCLGSYGNLVV

  7. Significance of Th17 and IL-17 in detecting mycoplasma pneumonia%Th17和IL-17在肺炎支原体肺炎患儿中的检测意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶建兰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical value of serum interleukin-17 (IL-17) and peripheral blood T helper cells (Th17) in Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP).Methods 268 cases of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) infection in children were selected for the study.100 cases of healthy children were selected as the control group.IL-17 and Th17 in peripheral blood were detected by ELISA and flow cytometry.The IL-17 level and Th17 frequency of different positive antibodies children and children with different clinical symptoms were analyzed.Results IL-17 level and Th17 frequency were (11.68±4.36) ng/L and (2.42±0.53)% in positive MpIgM group,(17.39±7.23) ng/L and (3.18±0.62)% in positive MpIgM+IgG group,(6.58±1.63) ng/L and (1.22±0.39)% in control group.The pairwise comparison difference was statistically significant (P <0.05).There was statistical significance in IL-17 and Th17 in children with different clinical manifestations.Conclusions The pathogenesis of MPP is closely related to IL-17 level and Th17 frequency,which can be used as the evaluation indexes of progression and outcome of MPP in children.%目的 探讨血清中白介素17(IL-17)以及外周血辅助性T细胞(Th17)在肺炎支原体肺炎(MPP)患儿中的临床应用价值.方法 选取确诊为肺炎支原体(MP)感染患儿268例为研究对象,同时选择100名健康儿童为对照组.分别采用ELISA法以及流式细胞术检测受试者血清中IL-17以及外周血Th17的含量,对比分析不同临床症状患儿体内IL-17、Th17差异.结果 MpIgM阳性患儿体内IL-17、Th17分别为(11.68±4.36) ng/L、(2.42±0.53)%,MpIgM+ IgG阳性患儿体内IL-17、Th17分别为(17.39±7.23) ng/L、(3.18±0.62)%,对照组IL-17、Th17分别为(6.58±1.63) ng/L、(1.22±0.39)%,两两比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).不同临床表现的患儿体内IL-17、Th17存在差异性.结论 MPP的发病机制与IL-17水平以及Th17频数异常有密切关系,两者可作为MPP患儿病情发展、转归的评价指标.

  8. Method for synthesizing carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongyou

    2012-09-04

    A method for preparing a precursor solution for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, where a polar solvent is added to at least one block copolymer and at least one carbohydrate compound, and the precursor solution is processed using a self-assembly process and subsequent heating to form nanoporous carbon films, porous carbon nanotubes, and porous carbon nanoparticles.

  9. Nano-Carbons as Theranostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Liu, Xing-Jie Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nano-carbons, including fullerenes, carbon nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and nano-diamonds, are an important class of nanostructures attracting tremendous interests in the past two decades. In this special issue, seven review articles and research reports are collected, to summarize and present the latest progress in the exploration of various nano-carbons for theranostic applications.

  10. Carbon based prosthetic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, D.J.; Carroll, D.W.; Barbero, R.S.; Archuleta, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Klawitter, J.J.; Ogilvie, W.; Strzepa, P. [Ascension Orthopedics (US); Cook, S.D. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (US). School of Medicine

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objective was to evaluate the use of carbon/carbon-fiber-reinforced composites for use in endoprosthetic devices. The application of these materials for the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joints of the hand was investigated. Issues concerning mechanical properties, bone fixation, biocompatibility, and wear are discussed. A system consisting of fiber reinforced materials with a pyrolytic carbon matrix and diamond-like, carbon-coated wear surfaces was developed. Processes were developed for the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of pyrolytic carbon into porous fiber preforms with the ability to tailor the outer porosity of the device to provide a surface for bone in-growth. A method for coating diamond-like carbon (DLC) on the articulating surface by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was developed. Preliminary results on mechanical properties of the composite system are discussed and initial biocompatibility studies were performed.

  11. 1- and 2+ discrete states in 90Zr populated via the (17O,'17Oγ ) reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, F. C. L.; Bracco, A.; Nicolini, R.; Lanza, E. G.; Vitturi, A.; Mengoni, D.; Leoni, S.; Benzoni, G.; Blasi, N.; Boiano, C.; Bottoni, S.; Brambilla, S.; Camera, F.; Corsi, A.; Giaz, A.; Million, B.; Pellegri, L.; Vandone, V.; Wieland, O.; Bednarczyk, P.; Ciemała, M.; Kmiecik, M.; Krzysiek, M.; Maj, A.; Bazzacco, D.; Bellato, M.; Birkenbach, B.; Bortolato, D.; Calore, E.; Cederwall, B.; de Angelis, G.; Désesquelles, P.; Eberth, J.; Farnea, E.; Gadea, A.; Görgen, A.; Gottardo, A.; Hess, H.; Isocrate, R.; Jolie, J.; Jungclaus, A.; Kempley, R. S.; Labiche, M.; Menegazzo, R.; Michelagnoli, C.; Molini, P.; Napoli, D. R.; Pullia, A.; Quintana, B.; Recchia, F.; Reiter, P.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Söderström, P.-A.; Stezowski, O.; Theisen, Ch.; Ur, C.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.

    2015-02-01

    2+ and 1- states in 90Zr were populated via the (17O,'17Oγ ) reaction at 340 MeV. The γ decay was measured with high resolution using the AGATA (advanced γ tracking array demonstrator array). Differential cross sections were obtained at few different angles for the scattered particle. The results of the elastic scattering and inelastic excitation of 2+,3-, and 1- states are compared with distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) calculations, using both the standard collective form factor and a form factor obtained by folding microscopically calculated transition densities. This allowed to extract the isoscalar component of the 1- state at 6.424 MeV. The comparison of the present (17O,'17Oγ ) data with existing (γ ,γ' ) and (p ,p' ) data in the corresponding region of the γ continuum (6-11 MeV), characterized by a large E 1 component, shows completely different behaviors of the cross section as a function of the nuclear excitation energy. The comparison of the data with DWBA calculations suggests a decrease of the isoscalar strength in the cross section with increasing excitation energy.

  12. 17 CFR 210.1-01 - Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Application of Regulation S-X... (17 CFR part 210). 210.1-01 Section 210.1-01 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...

  13. Immersion francaise precoce: Mathematique 1-7 (Early French Immersion: Mathematics 1-7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Andy; And Others

    This mathematics curriculum guide is intended for use in grades 1-7 in the early French immersion program. After an initial listing of textbooks in French for teachers and students, it presents: (1) a general overview of the theory of modern mathematics and a suggested sequence of activities; (2) some notes on the application of the theory and a…

  14. Exon: CBRC-PABE-17-0010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-17-0010 ATGGTGGGCAtgtgtgtgtgcctgtgtgtatccatggtgtgcatgtgtgtgtattcatggtgtgcatgcgtctgtatgtatg...tgtgtccgtgtgtatgtGCATAGGTGTGTATGCATGGTGTGCATGTGTGTGTGTATCCATGgtgtgcatgtgtgtgtgtgcatgtatg...cacagtgtacgtgtgtgtgCATCGGTGTGTATCCATGGTGTGCAtgtgtgtatgcatggtgtgcatgtgtatgtgcatgtgtgtatgcatgtgcatatgtatgcatg...gtgtgcatgtgtatgtgtgcatgtgtatatgtgCATGCATGCATGATGTACATGTGCATACATGCTTGTGCCAGTGTGCAGATGCATGTGTCTGCGTGTGCATGTGCAAAATTAAATACGCTCTCCCATTCACAGTAATTTCAGACTGA ... ...gtgtgcatgggtgtatgtgcatatgtgtatgtccatggttgtgcatgcatggtgcgtatgtatgtgtgtgcctatgtatgcatgtatgtacatgtgtatgtatgtatgtgcatg

  15. Exon: CBRC-PABE-17-0011 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tgtgtatgtgtacatatgcatatatgtgtgtatatatgcatacatgcaatgcgtgtatgtgtgtatgtGTATTCATGTGTGTACATGCAatgtgtatgtgtgtatg...tgtgtatgtgtgtacatacaatgtgtgcatgtgtgtatgtgtatatgtgtgtgtacacacaatgtatgcatgtgtatttgtgtatgtgtatatgtgtACACACAATG...TATGCATGTGTATATGTGTATACGTGTGTACACACAAtgtgtgcatgtgtagtgtgtatgtatatatgtgtgcatgtgtatg...CBRC-PABE-17-0011 atgtgtgagtgcaggtgtgtgcattcatgtatgtatgtgtacacacctgcaatatgtgtatgtatacatgtgtgtacatgcaatg...tgtatacgtgtgtacatgcaatgtgtgtatgtgcatatgtgtacatatgaatgtatgcgtattcatgtgtgtacatgaaatgtgtatatgtatgtgtatatgtgtgtacatg

  16. Exon: CBRC-HSAP-17-0020 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-17-0020 atggctatatgtctattatctatttactatctatcttctatctatctatctatcttctatctatttatctatcttctctctacta...tctatcatctatctactatcatctatctatcttctactatctatctactgtcttctatctatctacctatcttctatctactatattc...tatctatttatctatcgatcttctatctactctctatctatcatctatctatcgatctatctactatcatctatccatcttctattatctactgtctatctactatct...actgtcttctatctatctatcttctatctactgtctgtcatctatccatctatctactatcatctatctatcttctatctactatctgtctactatctatctacta...tcatctatctcctatctactatctatctatcttctactatctatctatcttctatctactatctgtctactatctgtctactatctatctacta

  17. Exon: CBRC-RNOR-17-0097 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-17-0097 tcccagcatctgagaggtaggagaagcaggagagtcaggagaagcaggagagtcaggagaagcaggagagtcaggagaagcag...gagaagcaggagaagcaggagagtcaggagaagcaggagaagcaggagagtcaggagaagcaggagagtcaggagaagcaggagaagcaggagagtcaggagaagcag...gagaagcaggagagtcaggagagtcaggagaagcaggagaagcaggagagtcaggagagtcaggagaagcaggagaagcaggagaagcaggagaagcaggagagtcag...gagaagcaggagaagcaggagaagcaggagaagtaggagagtcgggagaagcaggagagtcgggaaaggcaggagaagcag...gagaagcagaagagtcaggagaagcagaagagtcaggagaagcaggagaagcaggagagtcaggagaagcaggagagtcaggagaagcaggagaagcaggagtcaggagaagcag

  18. Exon: CBRC-MMUS-17-0002 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TGTAGTGTCACCGTGATTCACTATGACATCACAGTGCTCCATAGTGGTGTCACACtgctccactgtgctgtcataatgctccacaatgctgtcacaatgctgcactgtggtgtcac...agtgctctactgtgctggtacagtgctccactgtgaggtcacagtgctccactgtggtgtCACACTGCTCCAC...TGTTGTGTTACAATGCTCCTCTTCATTTTCACAgtgctccactgtgttgtcacactactccactgcgctgtcacagtgctgcactgtggtgtcac...CBRC-MMUS-17-0002 ATGTGTTGGTCAGTGCTACAATGTGGTATCACAGTGCTCCACTCTGGTGTCACAGTTATACACTCTGGTGTCAC...AGTGCTCCTTTGTGATGTCACGGTGTTCCACTGTGCTGTCACAGTACTGCAATGTGTTTTCTCATTGCTCCACTGTGATTTCACACTGATCCACTTTACTGTCACAGTGATACAC

  19. Exon: CBRC-RNOR-17-0004 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available atacatgcatgcatgcacatacacacaggcacatacacaggcacacaTGTGTGCATGCATACACACAGGcacatacacaggcacacataggcacacactcgtacaaacccacaggcac...acacacacacacacacacacacacCAGCCTTACCATGTTGAGAATGGTAAGCACAT...CBRC-RNOR-17-0004 ATGCTTGCATGcacacacatagacacaagcacacacacagaggcatacaaaagcacacatttacacacactcacaggcac...acatacatgcacacattcacacacacacaggcacatacacagaaacacatacatgcacacattcatacacacaggcacatacacagaaacacacacacacacacacac...AGGTCGTAATATTTTCATGGCCATGGCTTTGCAGCATTTTTCTGTCAACCACCACCAGAGTCTCCACATTCAACTCTTCATTTCTGTGGGATTTCAAGAGCGAGCGCTTGGGTCGGGAGCTAGGCTTGTACTCATCAGGCAAGATGTAGAGGTTATCATCCGGAGGTTGGGGCATGTCTAG ...

  20. Exon: CBRC-MMUS-17-0000 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TCTGTTGTCACATGCTCCACTATTTTGTCAAAGTGCTCCACTATTGTGTCAGAGTGCTTCTTGTACTGTCACAATGTTCCACTATGCTGTCACAgtgctgcactgggctgtcac...agtgcttccctctggtatcacagtgctccactgtggtgtcacagtgctctactgtgttgtCAC...CBRC-MMUS-17-0000 ATGTTCCACTGTGGTGTCACATTTCTCCACTGTGGTTTCACATGCTCCACTGTGCAGTCACAGTGCTCCACTGTGGTATCAC...AGTGCTGCAATATGTTTGTCTGTGCTCCACTGTACTGTCACAGCACTCACCTTGTTGTCACAGTACTCCACTCTGGTGTCACAATGCTCAACTATTGTGTCAC...AGTGCTACTTGTAGGGTCACTATGCTCCACTGCGGTGTCACAGTGCTACACTGGGGTGTCACAGCTCTCCAGTGTGCTGTCTCGATGCTCCAATGTGCTGTCACAGTGCTCCAC

  1. Exon: CBRC-DRER-17-0077 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-17-0077 atggtaataataaacgtttacgaagtacttttaaactttcaaaaatcacgatcgctatatatatatacatacatatatatatatata...catacatatatatatatatatttatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatat...atatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatat...atatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatata...tatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatata

  2. Exon: CBRC-DRER-17-0069 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-17-0069 atgtatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatat...atatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatat...atatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatat...atatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatata...tatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatata

  3. Exon: CBRC-DRER-17-0015 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-17-0015 atgtatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatat...atatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatat...atatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatat...atatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatata...tatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatata

  4. Exon: CBRC-RNOR-17-0049 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-17-0049 aTGACCACCACAAACCACCATAacaaccacaacagcaacaataaccaccaccaccaccaccaccaccaccacaacaaccaccaccacca...caacaaccacaaccaccaccaccacaacaataaccacaaccacaaccaccaccacaaccacaaccaccaccacaacaacaaccacaatcaccaccaccacaacaacca...ccacaacaaccacaaccacaaccaccaccacaacaacaaccaccaccaccaccaccacaacaaccaccaccaccacaacaaccacaaccaccaccacca...caacaataaccacaaccacaaccaccaccacgacgacaaccacaaccaccaccagcacaacaataaccacaaccacaaccaccacca...caacgacaaccacagtcaccaccaccacaacaaccagcacaacaaccacaaccacaaccaccaccgccacaacaaccacaaccagcaccaccacaacgataacca

  5. Aspects of carbon dioxide utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omae, Iwao [Omae Research Laboratories, 335-23 Mizuno, Sayama, Saitama 350-1317 (Japan)

    2006-06-30

    Carbon dioxide reacts with hydrogen, alcohols, acetals, epoxides, amines, carbon-carbon unsaturated compounds, etc. in supercritical carbon dioxide or in other solvents in the presence of metal compounds as catalysts. The products of these reactions are formic acid, formic acid esters, formamides, methanol, dimethyl carbonate, alkylene carbonates, carbamic acid esters, lactones, carboxylic acids, polycarbonate (bisphenol-based engineering polymer), aliphatic polycarbonates, etc. Especially, the productions of formic acid, formic acid methyl ester and dimethylformamide with a ruthenium catalyst; dimethyl carbonate and urethanes with a dialkyltin catalyst; 2-pyrone with a nickel-phosphine catalyst; diphenyl carbonate with a lead phenoxide catalyst; the alternating copolymerization of carbon dioxide and epoxides with a zinc catalyst has attracted attentions as the industrial utilizations of carbon dioxide. The further development of these production processes is expected. (author)

  6. Immunogenicity of WHO-17D and Brazilian 17DD yellow fever vaccines: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camacho Luiz Antonio Bastos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the immunogenicity of three yellow fever vaccines from WHO-17D and Brazilian 17DD substrains (different seed-lots. METHODS: An equivalence trial was carried out involving 1,087 adults in Rio de Janeiro. Vaccines produced by Bio-Manguinhos, Fiocruz (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were administered following standardized procedures adapted to allow blocked randomized allocation of participants to coded vaccine types (double-blind. Neutralizing yellow fever antibody titters were compared in pre- and post-immunization serum samples. Equivalence was defined as a difference of no more than five percentage points in seroconversion rates, and ratio between Geometric Mean Titters (GMT higher than 0.67. RESULTS: Seroconversion rates were 98% or higher among subjects previously seronegative, and 90% or more of the total cohort of vaccinees, including those previously seropositive. Differences in seroconversion ranged from -0.05% to -3.02%. The intensity of the immune response was also very similar across vaccines: 14.5 to 18.6 IU/mL. GMT ratios ranged from 0.78 to 0.93. Taking the placebo group into account, the vaccines explained 93% of seroconversion. Viremia was detected in 2.7% of vaccinated subjects from Day 3 to Day 7. CONCLUSIONS: The equivalent immunogenicity of yellow fever vaccines from the 17D and 17DD substrains was demonstrated for the first time in placebo-controlled double-blind randomized trial. The study completed the clinical validation process of a new vaccine seed-lot, provided evidence for use of alternative attenuated virus substrains in vaccine production for a major manufacturer, and for the utilization of the 17DD vaccine in other countries.

  7. 21 CFR 1305.17 - Preservation of DEA Forms 222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preservation of DEA Forms 222. 1305.17 Section 1305.17 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORDERS FOR SCHEDULE I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES DEA Form 222 § 1305.17 Preservation of DEA Forms 222. (a) The purchaser...

  8. 36 CFR 73.17 - Public information and education activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public information and education activities. 73.17 Section 73.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WORLD HERITAGE CONVENTION § 73.17 Public information and education activities....

  9. 43 CFR 17.510 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-evaluation. 17.510 Section 17.510... Programs or Activities Conducted by the Department of the Interior § 17.510 Self-evaluation. (a) The agency... completion of the evaluation required under paragraph (a) of this section, maintain on file and...

  10. 31 CFR 17.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Self-evaluation. 17.110 Section 17... § 17.110 Self-evaluation. (a) The agency shall, by two years after the effective date of this part... handicaps, to participate in the self-evaluation process. (c) The agency shall, until three years...

  11. 10 CFR 95.17 - Processing facility clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing facility clearance. 95.17 Section 95.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.17 Processing facility clearance....

  12. 45 CFR 302.17 - Inclusion of State statutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inclusion of State statutes. 302.17 Section 302.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT... PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.17 Inclusion of State statutes. The State plan shall provide a copy of...

  13. 9 CFR 114.17 - Rebottling of biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rebottling of biological products. 114.17 Section 114.17 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.17 Rebottling of biological products. The Administrator...

  14. 14 CFR 91.17 - Alcohol or drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alcohol or drugs. 91.17 Section 91.17... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.17 Alcohol or drugs. (a... consumption of any alcoholic beverage; (2) While under the influence of alcohol; (3) While using any drug...

  15. 49 CFR 639.17 - Eligible lease costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligible lease costs. 639.17 Section 639.17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CAPITAL LEASES Requirements § 639.17 Eligible lease costs. (a) All...

  16. 7 CFR 1726.17 - Restrictions on lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on lobbying. 1726.17 Section 1726.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES General § 1726.17 Restrictions on...

  17. 40 CFR 444.17 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...). 444.17 Section 444.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT... Subcategory § 444.17 New source performance standards (NSPS). Any new source subject to this subpart must..., mercury, silver, titanium, zinc and pH are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 444.13....

  18. 38 CFR 17.1008 - Balance billing prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Balance billing prohibited. 17.1008 Section 17.1008 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Facilities § 17.1008 Balance billing prohibited. Payment by VA under 38 U.S.C. 1725 on behalf of a veteran...

  19. 50 CFR 401.17 - Safety and accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety and accident prevention. 401.17 Section 401.17 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... FISHERIES CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.17 Safety and accident prevention. In...

  20. 46 CFR 78.17-5 - Valves and closing appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valves and closing appliances. 78.17-5 Section 78.17-5..., Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-5 Valves and closing appliances. (a) It shall be the duty of the master to see that all valves, including cross connecting valves where fitted, and other appliances such...