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Sample records for carbon 16

  1. Elastic Scattering of CARBON-14 + CARBON-12, Carbon -14 + OXYGEN-16, and CARBON-14 + OXYGEN-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterbenz, Stephen Michael

    We have carried out highly detailed studies of the elastic scattering of ^{14} C from ^{12}C, ^{16}O, and ^ {18}O, in a search for resonant phenomena in heavy-ion systems of non-zero isospin and zero spin. Angular distributions from ^{14}C+ ^{12}C and ^ {14}C+^{16}O scattering were measured at ^{14} C bombarding energies ranging from 20 to 40.3 MeV in 0.35 MeV steps. ^{14}C+ ^{18}O angular distributions were measured at ^{14}C energies from 20 to 30 MeV in 0.40 MeV steps and from 22.5 to 32.5 MeV in 2.5 MeV steps. The great variety of behavior which characterizes heavy-ion scattering is clearly illustrated by our data. The ^{14}C+^ {12}C and ^{14} C+^{16}O systems both exhibit marked gross structure in their excitation functions and deep oscillatory structure with a large backward angle rise in their angular distributions. They are in sharp contrast with the ^{14} C+^{18}O system, where structure is not apparent, and cross-sections fall steeply at larger angles and higher energies. However, only in the ^{14}C+ ^{12}C system are the excitation functions strongly fragmented by intermediate width structure. The anomalous appearance of the ^{14} C+^{12}C angular distributions near 17.5 MeV (cm) does suggest the existence of a resonant state (tentatively identified as l = 10 by phase shift analysis). In our analysis, we point out that the remarkable qualitative differences among these systems may be related to open-channel systematics. We find that general characteristics of the ^{14}C+ ^{18}O data are reproduced with a strongly absorbing optical potential model, contrary to the situation in the other two systems, where a specific mechanism, such as elastic transfer, must be invoked to account for the backward rise. We have pursued analysis with a one-step DWBA elastic transfer model which was quite successful at low energies. Its underprediction of the backward rise at higher energies provides further evidence of the importance of multi-step processes in two

  2. Carbon monoxide in the environs of the star WR 16

    CERN Document Server

    Duronea, N U; Bronfman, L

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the carbon monoxide emission around the star WR 16 aiming to chieve a better understanding of the interaction between massive stars with their surroundings. We study the molecular gas in a region of 86.'4 x 86.'4 in size using CO (J=1-0) and 13CO (J=1-0) line data obtained with the 4-m NANTEN telescope. Radio continuum archival data at 4.85 GHz, obtained from the Parkes-MIT-NRAO Southern Radio Survey, are also analyzed to account for the ionized gas. Available IRAS (HIRES) 60 and 100 microns images are used to study the characteristics of the dust around the star. Our new CO and 13CO data allow the low/intermediate density molecular gas surrounding the WR nebula to be completely mapped. We report two molecular features at -5 km/s and -8.5 km/s (component 1 and component 2, respectively) having a good morphological resemblance with the Halpha emission of the ring nebula. Component 2 seems to be associated with the external ring, whilst component 1 is placed at the interface between component 2 and t...

  3. Growing Zigzag (16,0) Carbon Nanotubes with Structure-Defined Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feng; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Daqi; Qi, Kuo; Yang, Juan; Xu, Zhi; Li, Meihui; Zhao, Xiulan; Bai, Xuedong; Li, Yan

    2015-07-15

    The growth of zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is most challenging among all types of SWNTs, with the highest reported selectivity of ∼7%. Here we realized the dominant growth of (16,0) tubes at the abundance near ∼80% by using intermetallic W6Co7 catalysts containing plenty of (1 1 6) planes together with optimizing the growth conditions. These (1 1 6) planes may act as the structure templates for (16,0) SWNTs due to the geometrical match between the open end of the (16,0) tube and the atomic arrangements of the (1 1 6) planes in W6Co7. Using catalysts with designed structure as solid state template at suitable kinetic conditions offers a strategy for selective growth of zigzag SWNTs. PMID:26125333

  4. Carbon Ion Radiotherapy in Advanced Hypofractionated Regimens for Prostate Cancer: From 20 to 16 Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Tohru [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Tsuji, Hiroshi, E-mail: h_tsuji@nirs.go.jp [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Kamada, Tadashi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Akakura, Koichiro; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Shimazaki, Jun [Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Tsujii, Hirohiko [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the effects of differences in dose fractionation on late radiation toxicity and biochemical control in patients with prostate cancer treated with carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT). Methods and Materials: A total of 740 prostate cancer patients who received C-ion RT between April 2000 and February 2009 were analyzed. Of those, 664 patients followed for at least 1 year were analyzed with regard to late radiation toxicity. Biochemical relapse-free (BRF) and overall survival (OS) rates in patient subgroups with each dose-fractionation were analyzed. Results: Only 1 case of grade 3 genitourinary (GU) morbidity was observed in 20 fractions, and none of the patients developed higher grade morbidities. The incidence of late GU toxicity in patients treated with 16 fractions was lower than that of patients treated with 20 fractions. The OS rate and BRF rate of the entire group at 5 years were 95.2% and 89.7%, respectively. The 5-year BRF rate of the patients treated with 16 fractions of C-ion RT (88.5%) was comparable to that of the patients treated with 20 fractions (90.2%). Conclusion: C-ion RT of 57.6 GyE (the physical C-ion dose [Gy] Multiplication-Sign RBE) in 16 fractions could offer an even lower incidence of genitourinary toxicity and comparable BRF rate than that in 20 fractions. Advancement in hypofractionation could be safely achieved with C-ion RT for prostate cancer.

  5. 2004 Molecular Basis of Microbial One-Carbon Metabolism Gordon Conference - August 1-6, 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph A. Krzycki

    2005-09-15

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on 2004 Molecular Basis of Microbial One-Carbon Metabolism Gordon Conference - August 1-6, 2004 was held at Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, MA from August 1-6, 2004. The Conference was well-attended with 117 participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. In designing the formal speakers program, emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate lively discussion about the key issues in the field today. Time for formal presentations was limited in the interest of group discussions. In order that more scientists could communicate their most recent results, poster presentation time was scheduled. Attached is a copy of the formal schedule and speaker program and the poster program. In addition to these formal interactions, 'free time' was scheduled to allow informal discussions. Such discussions are fostering new collaborations and joint efforts in the field.

  6. Carbonate formation by anaerobic oxidation of methane: Evidence from lipid biomarker and fossil 16S rDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnitskaia, A.; Nadezhkin, D.; Abbas, B.; Blinova, V.; Ivanov, M. K.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2008-04-01

    Carbonate chimneys and other carbonate structures occur widespread in the Gulf of Cadiz and probably reflect the presence of cold seeps and associated release of methane in the geological past, possibly in the Early Pleistocene, but it is unclear under what conditions and by which processes these carbonates were formed. We studied a fossil methane-related carbonate crust collected from the Kidd mud volcano in the gulf. Concentrations of microbial lipids, their stable carbon isotope composition, sequences of fossil 16S rRNA genes of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea in combination with mineralogical and carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of carbonate were obtained for seven different horizons of the crust. This combination of organic and inorganic geochemical techniques with molecular ecological methods gave a consistent view on processes resulting in the formation of the crust and indicated that it took place in two phases and in a downward direction. Archaeal lipid biomarkers and fossil 16S rRNA gene sequence data revealed the dominance of archaeal ANME-2 group and elevated methane partial pressures during the formation of the top part of the crust. The lower part of the carbonate was likely formed in an environment with reduced methane fluxes as revealed by the dominance of fossil remains of ANME-1 archaea. The combination of these methods can be used as an effective tool to reconstruct in unprecedented detail the palaeo-biogeochemical processes resulting in the formation of carbonate fabrics. This interdisciplinary strategy may also be applied for other fossil methane-derived carbonates, generating new concepts and knowledge about past methane-related carbonate systems.

  7. Study of 16O(12C,α20Ne)α for the investigation of carbon-carbon fusion reaction via the Trojan Horse Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, G. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Bordeanu, C.; Hons, Z.; Kiss, G. G.; La Cognata, M.; Mrazek, J.; Nita, C.; Pantelica, D.; Petrascu, H.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Szücs, T.; Trache, L.; Tumino, A.; Velisa, G.

    2016-04-01

    Carbon-carbon fusion reaction represents a nuclear process of great interest in astrophysics, since the carbon burning is connected with the third phase of massive stars (M > 8 M⊙) evolution. In spite of several experimental works, carbon-carbon cross section has been measured at energy still above the Gamow window moreover data at low energy present big uncertainty. In this paper we report the results about the study of the 16O(12C,α 20Ne)α reaction as a possible three-body process to investigate 12C(12C,α)20Ne at astrophysical energy via Trojan Horse Method (THM). This study represents the first step of a program of experiments aimed to measure the 12C+12C cross section at astrophysical energy using the THM.

  8. Carbon and Oxygen Isotopic Stratigraphy of Mesoproterozoic Carbonate Sequences (1.6–1.4 Ga from Yanshan in North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang Hongwei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Yanshan, located in the northern part of North China, Mesoproterozoic carbonate sequences (1.6–1.4 Ga form a 10, 000 m thick succession in an aulacogen basin. Carbon and oxygen isotope (δ13O and δ18O, resp. data were obtained from 110 carbonate samples across three sections of these Mesoproterozoic deposits. From the early to late Mesoproterozoic, low negative values of δ13O appear, followed by low positive variation and then a stable increase. An abrupt decrease in δ13O values, with subsequent rapid increase, is found at the end of the Mesoproterozoic. During the whole Mesoproterozoic, δ18O shows a mainly negative trend and occasional highly negative isotopic shifts (from lower to upper deposits. Whole-rock carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions and profiles must be studied to provide a paleogeochemical record that can be associated with paleocean sedimentary environments, temperature, biological productivity, and sea-level fluctuations. Results of the present study correlate well with other international carbon and oxygen isotope profiles, suggesting that a global marine geochemical system existed during the interval of 1.6–1.4 Ga under a globally united tectonic, sedimentary, and geochemical background.

  9. Heterogeneous synthesis of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate from 1,6-hexanediamine and methyl carbonate in methanol over a CeO2 catalyst☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Cao; Huiquan Li; Xintao Li; Liguo Wang; Ganyu Zhu; Qing Tang

    2015-01-01

    The efficient synthesis of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate (HDC) from 1,6-hexanediamine (HDA) and methyl carbonate over a series of heterogeneous catalysts (e.g., MgO, Fe2O3, Mo2O3, and CeO2) was investigated. The reaction pathway was confirmed as an alcoholysis reaction through a series of designed experiments. Under optimized conditions, 100%HDA conversion with 83.1%HDCtotal and 16.9%polyurea was obtained using a one-step with high temperature procedure with CeO2 as the catalyst. A new two-step with variable temperature technol-ogy was developed based on the reaction pathway to reduce the polyurea yield. Using the proposed method, the HDCtotal yield reached 95.2%, whereas the polyurea yield decreased to 4.8%. The CeO2 catalyst showed high stability and did not exhibit any observable decrease in the HDC yield or any structural changes after four recycling periods. © 2014 The Chemical Industry and Engineering Society of China, and Chemical Industry Press. Al rights reserved.

  10. Genomic organization of the human gene (CA5) and pseudogene for mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase V and their localization to chromosomes 16q and 16p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Yoshiro; Sly, W.S.; Batanian, J.R. [St. Louis Univ. School of Medicine, MO (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-10

    Carbonic anhydrase V (CA V) is expressed in mitochondrial matrix in liver and several other tissues. It is of interest for its putative roles in providing bicarbonate to carbamoyl phosphate synthetase for ureagenesis and to pyruvate carboxylase for gluconeogenesis and its possible importance in explaining certain inherited metabolic disorders with hyperammonemia and hypoglycemia. Following the recent characterization of the cDNA for human CA V, we report the isolation of the human gene from two {lambda} genomic libraries and its characterization. The CA V gene (CA5) is approximately 50 kb long and contains 7 exons and 6 introns. The exon-intron boundaries are found in positions identical to those determined for the previously described CA II, CA III, and CA VII genes. Like the CA VII gene, CA5 does not contain typical TATA and CAAT promoter elements in the 5{prime} flanking region but does contain a TTTAA sequence 147 nucleotides upstream of the initiation codon. CA5 also contains a 12-bp GT-rich segment beginning 13 bp downstream of the polyadenylation signal in the 3{prime} untranslated region of exon 7. FISH analysis allowed CA5 to be assigned to chromosome 16q24.3. An unprocessed pseudogene containing sequence homologous to exons 3-7 and introns 3-6 was also isolated and was assigned by FISH analysis to chromosome 16p11.2-p12. 22 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Study of optical properties of vacuum evaporated carbon nanotube containing Se80Te16Cu4 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, A. N.; Tiwari, R. S.; Singh, Kedar

    2016-08-01

    Thin films of Se80Te16Cu4 glassy alloy and 3 wt.% of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) containing Se80Te16Cu4 glassy composite were deposited on clean glass substrate by thermal evaporation technique. The scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray analysis were performed to investigate the surface morphology and elemental composition of as synthesised samples. The reflectance and transmittance spectra of as-deposited thin films were recorded (200-1100 nm) by using UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer. The optical band gap and optical constants such as absorption coefficient (α), refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) of Se80Te16Cu4 and 3 wt.% CNTs-Se80Te16Cu4 glassy composite thin films were calculated. It is observed that optical properties alter due to CNTs incorporation in Se80Te16Cu4 glassy alloy. Effect on optical properties due to CNTs incorporation can be explained in terms of concentration of unsaturated bonds/defects in the localised states.

  12. Effects of hydroxylated carbon nanotubes on the aggregation of Aβ16-22 peptides: a combined simulation and experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Luogang; Lin, Dongdong; Luo, Yin; Li, Huiyu; Yang, Xinju; Wei, Guanghong

    2014-10-21

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with the aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides into toxic aggregates with ?-sheet character. In a previous computational study, we showed that pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can inhibit the formation of β-sheet-rich oligomers in the central hydrophobic core fragment of Aβ (Aβ16-22). However, the poor solubility of SWCNTs in water hinders their use in biomedical applications and nanomedicine. Here, we investigate the influence of hydroxylated SWCNT, a water-soluble SWCNT derivative, on the aggregation of Aβ16-22 peptides using all-atom explicit-water replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show that hydroxylated SWCNTs can significantly inhibit β-sheet formation and shift the conformations of Aβ16-22 oligomers from ordered β-sheet-rich structures toward disordered coil aggregates. Detailed analyses of the SWCNT-Aβ interaction reveal that the inhibition of β-sheet formation by hydroxylated SWCNTs mainly results from strong electrostatic interactions between the hydroxyl groups of SWCNTs and the positively charged residue K16 of Aβ16-22 and hydrophobic and aromatic stacking interactions between SWCNTs and F19 and F20. In addition, our atomic force microscopy and thioflavin T fluorescence experiments confirm the inhibitory effect of both pristine and hydroxylated SWCNTs on Aβ16-22 fibrillization, in support of our previous and present replica exchange molecular dynamics simulation results. These results demonstrate that hydroxylated SWCNTs efficiently inhibit the aggregation of Aβ16-22; in addition, they offer molecular insight into the inhibition mechanism, thus providing new clues for the design of therapeutic drugs against amyloidosis.

  13. An Environmentally Benign Access to Dimethylated 1,6-Dihydropyrimidines Using Dimethyl Carbonate as Methylating Agent under Microwave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xi-Cun; QUAN Zheng-Jun; ZHANG Zhang

    2008-01-01

    An environmentally benign procedure for dimethylated 1,6-dihydropyrimidines has been developed by the reaction of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-2-thiones with dimethyl carbonate, a non-toxic and environmentally friendly reagent.The methylation of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-2-thione was promoted by MgO and tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) under microwave.This protocol avoids the use of strong bases and highly toxic methylating agents such as methyl halide or dimethyl sulfate.Additionally, the possible role of MgO/TBAB in the reaction was also presented.

  14. Short-range correlations in carbon-12, oxygen-16, and neon-20: Intrinsic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braley, R. C.; Ford, W. F.; Becker, R. L.; Patterson, M. R.

    1972-01-01

    The Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) method has been applied to nuclei whose intrinsic structure is nonspherical. Reaction matrix elements were calculated as functions of starting energy for the Hamada-Johnston interaction using the Pauli operator appropriate to O-16 and a shifted oscillator spectrum for virtual excited states. Binding energies, single particle energies, radii, and shape deformations of the intrinsic state, in ordinary as well as renormalized BHF, are discussed and compared with previous HF studies and with experiment when possible. Results are presented for C-12, 0-16 and Ne-20. It is found that the binding energies and radii are too small, but that separation energies are well reproduced when the renormalized theory is used.

  15. Carbon ion induced DNA double-strand breaks in melanophore B16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in melanophore B16 induced by plateau and extended Bragg peak of 75 MeV/u 12C6+ ions were studied by using a technique of inverse pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PIGE). DNA fragment lengths were distributed in two ranges: the larger in 1.4 Mbp-3.2 Mbp and the smaller in less than 1.2 Mbp. It indicates that distribution of DNA fragments induced by heavy ion irradiation is not stochastic and there probably are sensitive sites to heavy ions in DNA molecules of B16. Percentage of DNA released from plug (PR) increased and trended towards a quasi-plateau ∝85% as dose increased. Content of the larger fragments decreased and flattened with increasing dose while content of the smaller ones increased and trended towards saturation. (orig.)

  16. Carbon ion induced DNA double-strand breaks in melanophore B{sub 16}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Zengquan; Zhou Guangming; Wang Jufang; He Jing; Li Qiang; Li Wenjian; Xie Hongmei; Cai Xichen; Tao Huang; Dang Bingrong; Han Guangwu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China). Inst. of Modern Physics; Gao Qingxiang [Lanzhou Univ. (China)

    1997-09-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in melanophore B{sub 16} induced by plateau and extended Bragg peak of 75 MeV/u {sup 12}C{sup 6+} ions were studied by using a technique of inverse pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PIGE). DNA fragment lengths were distributed in two ranges: the larger in 1.4 Mbp-3.2 Mbp and the smaller in less than 1.2 Mbp. It indicates that distribution of DNA fragments induced by heavy ion irradiation is not stochastic and there probably are sensitive sites to heavy ions in DNA molecules of B{sub 16}. Percentage of DNA released from plug (PR) increased and trended towards a quasi-plateau {proportional_to}85% as dose increased. Content of the larger fragments decreased and flattened with increasing dose while content of the smaller ones increased and trended towards saturation. (orig.)

  17. Potential Probiotic Escherichia coli 16 Harboring the Vitreoscilla Hemoglobin Gene Improves Gastrointestinal Tract Colonization and Ameliorates Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasant Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the beneficial effects of potential probiotic E. coli 16 (pUC8:16gfp expressing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb gene, associated with bacterial respiration under microaerobic condition, on gastrointestinal (GI colonization and its antioxidant activity on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced toxicity in Charles Foster rats. In vitro, catalase activity in E. coli 16 (pUC8:16gfp was 1.8 times higher compared to E. coli 16 (pUC-gfp control. In vivo, E. coli 16 (pUC8:16gfp not only was recovered in the fecal matter after 70 days of oral administration but also retained antibacterial activities, whereas E. coli 16 (pUC-gfp was not detected. Oral administration of 200 and 500 μL/kg body weight of CCl4 to rats at weekly interval resulted in elevated serum glutamyl pyruvate transaminase (SGPT and serum glutamyl oxalacetate transaminase (SGOT levels compared to controls. Rats prefed with E. coli 16 (pUC8:16gfp demonstrated near to normal levels for SGPT and SGOT, whereas the liver homogenate catalase activity was significantly increased compared to CCl4 treated rats. Thus, pUC8:16gfp plasmid encoding vgb improved the growth and GI tract colonization of E. coli 16. In addition, it also enhanced catalase activity in rats harboring E. coli 16 (pUC8:16gfp, thereby preventing the absorption of CCl4 to GI tract.

  18. Research on the E347L-16 and E309L-16 Ultra-low Carbon Stainless Steel Welding Rod%E347 L-16和 E309 L-16超低碳不锈钢电焊条研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林钢; 吴树雄

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the lack of carbon control and technics performance of welding rod, the E347L-16 and E309L-16 ultra-low carbon stainless steel welding rod are designed by changing the formula.The test show the new product has same content of carbon with import welding rod and its other chemical element can meet the standard demend and is suitable for same series stainless steel and dissimilar steel welding .%针对国产焊条在碳的控制和工艺性能上的不足,通过改进的配方设计研制了E347 L-16、E309 L-16两种超低碳不锈钢焊条。通过试验发现,新研制的焊条碳含量与进口焊条相当,其它化学的成份均符合标准要求,适用于相同系列的不锈钢及异种钢焊接。

  19. Relationships among folate, alcohol consumption, gene variants in one-carbon metabolism and p16 INK4a methylation and expression in healthy breast tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Adana A.; Dumitrescu, Ramona G.; Brasky, Theodore M.; Liu, Zhenhua; Mason, Joel B.; Marian, Catalin; Makambi, Kepher H.; Spear, Scott L.; Kallakury, Bhaskar V.S.; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Shields, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    p16 INK4a is a tumor suppressor gene, frequently hypermethylated in breast cancer; this epigenetic silencing of p16 INK4a occurs early in carcinogenesis. The risk factors and functional consequences of p16 INK4a methylation are unknown. Alcohol consumption, a breast cancer risk factor, impedes folate metabolism and may thereby alter gene methylation since folate plays a pivotal role in DNA methylation. In a cross-sectional study of 138 women with no history of breast cancer who underwent reduction mammoplasty, we studied breast cancer risk factors, plasma and breast folate concentrations, variation in one-carbon metabolism genes, p16 INK4a promoter methylation and P16 protein expression. Logistic regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). p16 INK4a methylation was negatively correlated with P16 expression (r = −0.28; P = 0.002). Alcohol consumption was associated with lower breast folate (P = 0.03), higher p16 INK4a promoter methylation (P = 0.007) and less P16 expression (P = 0.002). Higher breast folate concentrations were associated with lower p16 INK4a promoter methylation (P = 0.06). Genetic variation in MTRR (rs1801394) and MTHFD1 (rs1950902) was associated with higher p16 INK4a promoter methylation (OR = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.11–6.42 and OR = 2.72, 95% CI: 1.12–6.66, respectively), whereas variation in TYMS (rs502396) was associated with less P16 protein expression (OR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.05–0.99). Given that this is the first study to indicate that alcohol consumption, breast folate and variation in one-carbon metabolism genes are associated with p16 INK4a promoter methylation and P16 protein expression in healthy tissues; these findings require replication. PMID:25344837

  20. A DFT study on the mechanism of palladium-catalyzed divergent reactions of 1,6-enyne carbonates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xing Hui Zhang; Zhi Yuan Geng; Teng Niu; Ke Tai Wang

    2015-03-01

    The reaction mechanisms of palladium-catalyzed divergent reactions of 1,6-enyne carbonates have been investigated using DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) (LanL2DZ for Pd) level. Solvent effects on these reactions have been considered by the polarizable continuum model (PCM) for the solvent (DMF). The formation of vinylidenepyridines and vinylidenepyrrolidines were generated through 5-exo-dig cyclization or 6-endo-dig cyclization. Our calculation results suggested the following: (i) The first step of the whole cycle is the rate-determining step, which causes allenic palladium intermediate through two plausible pathways. This intermediate provides the corresponding products and releases the palladium catalyst by a subsequent hydrogen transfer and elimination process. (ii) For the catalyst CH3OPdH, the reaction could occur through two possible pathways, but 5-exo-dig cyclization is favoured over 6-endo-dig cyclization. However, when the hydrogen atom is substituted with a phenyl group, the energy barriers for 5-exo-dig cyclization or 6-endo-dig cyclization become relatively high, 18.0–28.5 kcal/mol. The computational results provide good explanation for the experimental observations.

  1. Catalysis over zinc-incorporated berlinite (ZnAlPO4 of the methoxycarbonylation of 1,6-hexanediamine with dimethyl carbonate to form dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Da-Lei

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The alkoxycarbonylation of diamines with dialkyl carbonates presents promising route for the synthesis of dicarbamates, one that is potentially 'greener' owing to the lack of a reliance on phosgene. While a few homogeneous catalysts have been reported, no heterogeneous catalyst could be found in the literature for use in the synthesis of dicarbamates from diamines and dialkyl carbonates. Because heterogeneous catalysts are more manageable than homogeneous catalysts as regards separation and recycling, in our study, we hydrothermally synthesized and used pure berlinite (AlPO4 and zinc-incorporated berlinite (ZnAlPO4 as heterogeneous catalysts in the production of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate from 1,6-hexanediamine (HDA and dimethyl carbonate (DMC. The catalysts were characterized by means of XRD, FT-IR and XPS. Various influencing factors, such as the HDA/DMC molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time, and ZnAlPO4/HDA ratio, were investigated systematically. Results The XRD characterization identified a berlinite structure associated with both the AlPO4 and ZnAlPO4 catalysts. The FT-IR result confirmed the incorporation of zinc into the berlinite framework for ZnAlPO4. The XPS measurement revealed that the zinc ions in the ZnAlPO4 structure possessed a higher binding energy than those in ZnO, and as a result, a greater electron-attracting ability. It was found that ZnAlPO4 catalyzed the formation of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate from the methoxycarbonylation of HDA with DMC, while no activity was detected on using AlPO4. Under optimum reaction conditions (i.e. a DMC/HDA molar ratio of 8:1, reaction temperature of 349 K, reaction time of 8 h, and ZnAlPO4/HDA ratio of 5 (mg/mmol, a yield of up to 92.5% of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate (with almost 100% conversion of HDA was obtained. Based on these results, a possible mechanism for the methoxycarbonylation over ZnAlPO4 was also proposed. Conclusion As a heterogeneous

  2. Effects of nimodipine and fructose-1,6-diphosphate on cerebral damage in carbon monoxide poisoning mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊卿; 赵晓辉; 周岐新; 蒋青松

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the dose- and time- dependent protective effects and the synergistic effects of nimodipine (NMDP) and fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP) against cerebral damage induced by acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in mice.Methods Male mice were exposed to CO 170 mL/kg, i.p. After CO intraperitonealy exposure, mortality of mice, change in memory function estimated by passive avoidance test, the pathomorphologic observation of brain tissue slices, as well as changes of activities of monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase in cerebral tissue were studied. In dose-dependent protective effect study, NMDP (10.6, 5.3, 2.7 mg/kg) and FDP (2.6, 1.3, 0.67 g/kg) was injected ip, respectively 15 min after CO exposure. To study the time-effect relationship of drugs, NMDP (5.3 mg/kg) and FDP (1.3 g/kg) were administered ip respectively 15 minutes, 45 minutes and 120 minutes after CO exposure. The combination of NMDP (2.7 mg/kg) and FDP (0.67 g/kg) was administered ip15 minutes, 45 min and 120 minutes after CO exposure to study the synergism of the two drugs.Results Either NMDP (10.6, 5.3 mg/kg) or FDP (2.6, 1.3 g/kg) administered ip within 15 minutes after CO exposure significantly decreased the impairment of memory function and mortality rate induced by CO, inhibited the decrease of Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase activity, blunted the rising of MAO-B activity and prevented the delayed hippocampal neuronal death in poisoning mice. To our surprise, the combined use of NMDP (2.7 mg/kg) and FDP (0.67 g/kg) within 15 minutes after CO exposure had similar effects to that in NMDP (10.6, 5.3 mg/kg) and FDP (2.6, 1.3 g/kg).Conclusions These results suggest that the impairment of CO on brain can be attenuated if NMDP or FDP are administered sufficiently and quickly as soon as possible after CO exposure and there exists a synergism of FDP and NMDP against CO poisoning damage.

  3. Carbon nanotube inhibits the formation of β-sheet-rich oligomers of the Alzheimer's amyloid-β(16-22) peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiyu; Luo, Yin; Derreumaux, Philippe; Wei, Guanghong

    2011-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease is associated with the abnormal self-assembly of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into toxic β-rich aggregates. Experimental studies have shown that hydrophobic nanoparticles retard Aβ fibrillation by slowing down the nucleation process; however, the effects of nanoparticles on Aβ oligomeric structures remain elusive. In this study, we investigate the conformations of Aβ(16-22) octamers in the absence and presence of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) by performing extensive all-atom replica exchange molecular-dynamics simulations in explicit solvent. Our simulations starting from eight random chains demonstrate that the addition of SWCNT into Aβ(16-22) solution prevents β-sheet formation. Simulation starting from a prefibrillar β-sheet octamer shows that SWCNT destabilizes the β-sheet structure. A detailed analysis of the Aβ(16-22)/SWCNT/water interactions reveals that both the inhibition of β-sheet formation and the destabilization of prefibrillar β-sheets by SWCNT result from the same physical forces: hydrophobic and π-stacking interactions (with the latter playing a more important role). By analyzing the stacking patterns between the Phe aromatic rings and the SWCNT carbon rings, we find that short ring-centroid distances mostly favor parallel orientation, whereas large distances allow all other orientations to be populated. Overall, our computational study provides evidence that SWCNT is likely to inhibit Aβ(16-22) and full-length Aβ fibrillation.

  4. Effect of C–O Bonding on the Stability and Energetics of High-Energy Nitrogen-Carbon Molecules N10C2 and N16C2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas L. Strout

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecules consisting of nitrogen have been the subject of much attention due to their potential as high-energy materials. Complex molecules consisting entirely of nitrogen can be subject to rapid decomposition, and therefore other atoms are incorporated into the structure to enhance stability. Previous studies have explored the incorporation of carbon atoms into otherwise all-nitrogen cages molecules. The current study involves two such cages, N10C2 and N16C2, whose structures are derived from N12 and N18, respectively. The N10C2 and N16C2 cages in this study are modified by bonding groups O3 and CO3 to determine the effect on the relative energies between the isomers and on the thermodynamic energy release properties. Energetic trends for N10C2 and N16C2 are calculated and discussed.

  5. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the Thomas Washington Cruise TUNES-3 in the equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P16C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyet, C. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States); Guenther, P.R.; Keeling, C.D.; Talley, L.D. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States); Kozyr, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    1996-12-01

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to obtain total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}), total alkalinity (TALK), hydrographic, and chemical data during the Research Vessel Thomas Washington Expedition TUNES-3 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (Section P16C). Conducted as a part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Papeete, Tahiti, on August 31, 1991, and finished in Honolulu, Hawaii, on October 1, 1991. WOCE Meridional Section P16C along 150{degree}W and between 18{degree}S and 19{degree}N was completed during the 31-day expedition. All 105 hydrographic and 8 large-volume stations were completed to the full water column depth. Station spacing was 30 nautical miles (nm), except between 3{degree}N and 3{degree}S where it was 10 nm. Twenty-five bio-optics stations were sampled for the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study, and at 21 stations carbon dioxide measurements were provided for the US Department of Energy`s CO{sub 2} program. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Section P16C included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen measured by conductivity, temperature, and depth sensor; and bottle salinity, oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-11, CFC-12, TCO{sub 2}, and TALK. In addition, potential temperatures were calculated from the measured variables.

  6. 16S rDNA-based analysis reveals cosmopolitan occurrence but limited diversity of two cyanobacterial lineages with contrasted patterns of intracellular carbonate mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie eRagon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are mainly thought to induce carbonate precipitation extracellularly via their photosynthetic activity combined with the nucleation potential of exopolymeric substances. The discovery in microbialites of the alkaline lake Alchichica (Mexico of Candidatus Gloeomargarita lithophora, a cyanobacterium forming large amounts of intracellular Mg-Ca-Sr-Ba carbonate spherules, showed that intracellular biomineralization in cyanobacteria is also possible. A second cyanobacterium isolated from the same environment, Candidatus Synechococcus calcipolaris G9, has been recently shown to also form intracellular calcium carbonates at the cell poles, a capability shared by all cultured species of the Thermosynechococcus clade, to which it belongs. To explore the diversity of these two distant cyanobacterial lineages representing two different patterns of intracellular calcification, we designed specific primers against their 16S rRNA genes and looked for their occurrence in a wide variety of samples. We identified the presence of members of the Gloeomargarita and Thermosynechococcus/S. calcipolaris lineages in microbialites collected from Lake Alchichica and three other neighboring Mexican lakes. The two clades also occurred in karstic areas and in some thermophilic or hypersaline microbial mats collected in South America and/or Southern Europe. Surprisingly, the within-group diversity in the two clades was low, especially within the S. calcipolaris clade, with all 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved sharing more than 97% identity. This suggests that these clades are composed of a limited number of species with cosmopolitan distribution. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry showed the presence of intracellularly calcifying Gloeomargarita-like cyanobacteria in fresh samples where this clade was relatively abundant, suggesting that these cyanobacteria do precipitate carbonates intracellularly under

  7. Bacteroides isolated from four mammalian hosts lack host-specific 16S rRNA gene phylogeny and carbon and nitrogen utilization patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherly, Todd; Ziemer, Cherie J

    2014-04-01

    One-hundred-and-three isolates of Bacteroides ovatus, B. thetaiotaomicron, and B. xylanisolvens were recovered from cow, goat, human, and pig fecal enrichments with cellulose or xylan/pectin. Isolates were compared using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR), and phenotypic microarrays. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed high sequence identity in these Bacteroides; with distinct phylogenetic groupings by bacterial species but not host origin. Phenotypic microarray analysis demonstrated these Bacteroides shared the ability to utilize many of the same carbon substrates, without differences due to species or host origin, indicative of their broad carbohydrate fermentation abilities. Limited nitrogen substrates were utilized; in addition to ammonia, guanine, and xanthine, purine derivatives were utilized by most isolates followed by a few amino sugars. Only rep-PCR analysis demonstrated host-specific patterns, indicating that genomic changes due to coevolution with host did not occur by mutation in the 16S rRNA gene or by a gain or loss of carbohydrate utilization genes within these Bacteroides. This is the first report to indicate that host-associated genomic differences are outside of 16S rRNA gene and carbohydrate utilization genes and suggest conservation of specific bacterial species with the same functionality across mammalian hosts for this Bacteroidetes clade.

  8. 16 CFR 16.16 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 16.16 Section 16.16 Commercial... MANAGEMENT § 16.16 Compensation. (a) Committee members. Unless otherwise provided by law, the Commission... cost to the Commission. The compensation to be paid to such consultant may not exceed the maximum...

  9. Production of fatty acids in Ralstonia eutropha H16 by engineering β-oxidation and carbon storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Janice S; Colón, Brendan; Dusel, Brendon; Ziesack, Marika; Way, Jeffrey C; Torella, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia eutropha H16 is a facultatively autotrophic hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium capable of producing polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)-based bioplastics. As PHB's physical properties may be improved by incorporation of medium-chain-length fatty acids (MCFAs), and MCFAs are valuable on their own as fuel and chemical intermediates, we engineered R. eutropha for MCFA production. Expression of UcFatB2, a medium-chain-length-specific acyl-ACP thioesterase, resulted in production of 14 mg/L laurate in wild-type R. eutropha. Total fatty acid production (22 mg/L) could be increased up to 2.5-fold by knocking out PHB synthesis, a major sink for acetyl-CoA, or by knocking out the acyl-CoA ligase fadD3, an entry point for fatty acids into β-oxidation. As ΔfadD3 mutants still consumed laurate, and because the R. eutropha genome is predicted to encode over 50 acyl-CoA ligases, we employed RNA-Seq to identify acyl-CoA ligases upregulated during growth on laurate. Knockouts of the three most highly upregulated acyl-CoA ligases increased fatty acid yield significantly, with one strain (ΔA2794) producing up to 62 mg/L free fatty acid. This study demonstrates that homologous β-oxidation systems can be rationally engineered to enhance fatty acid production, a strategy that may be employed to increase yield for a range of fuels, chemicals, and PHB derivatives in R. eutropha. PMID:26664804

  10. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the R/Vs Roger Revelle and Thomas Thompson repeat hydrography cruises in the Pacific Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 sections P16S-2005 (9 January - 19 February, 2005) and P16N-2006 (13 February - 30 March, 2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyr, Alex [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Feely, R. A. [Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, NOAA, Seattle, WA (United States); Sabine, C. L. [Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, NOAA, Seattle, WA (United States); Millero, F. J. [University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States). Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science; Langdon, C. [University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States). Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science; Dickson, A. G. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Institution of Oceanography; Fine, R. A. [University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States). Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science; Bullister, J. L. [Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, NOAA, Seattle, WA (United States); Hansell, D. A. [University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States). Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science; Carlson, C. A. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Sloyan, B. M. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA (United States); McNichol, A. P. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Key, R. M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Byrne, R. H. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Wanninkhof, R. [Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, NOAA, Miami, FL (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This report presents methods, and analytical and quality control procedures for salinity, oxygen, nutrients, total carbon dioxide (TCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), pH, discrete CO2 partial pressure (pCO2), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), radiocarbon, δ13C, and underway carbon measurements performed during the P16S-2005 (9 January - 19 February 2005) and P16N-2006 (13 February - 30 March, 2006) cruises in the Pacific Ocean. The research vessel (R/V) Roger Revelle departed Papeete, Tahiti, on January 9, 2005 for the Repeat Section P16S, nominally along 150°W, ending in Wellington, New Zealand, on February 19. During this cruise, samples were taken from 36 depths at 111 CTD stations between 16°S and 71°S. The Repeat Section P16N, nominally along 152°W, consisted of two legs. Leg 1 started on February 13, 2006 in Papeete, Tahiti, and finished on March 3, in Honolulu, Hawaii. The R/V Thomas G. Thompson departed Honolulu for Leg 2 on March 10, 2006 and arrived in Kodiak, Alaska, on March 30. During the P16N cruises, samples were taken from 34 or 36 depths at 84 stations between 17°S and 56.28°N. The research conducted on these cruises was part of a series of repeat hydrography sections jointly funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) as part of the Climate Variability Program (CLIVAR)/CO2 Repeat Hydrography Program. The P16S and P16N data sets are available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The NDP consists of the oceanographic data files and this printed documentation, which describes the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  11. Influence of metallurgical phase transformation on crack propagation of 15-5PH stainless steel and 16MND5 low carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focuses on the effects of phase transformations on crack propagation. We want to understand the changes of fracture toughness during welding. In this work, fracture toughness is expressed by J-integral. There are many experimental methods to obtain the critical toughness JIC but they are impractical for our investigation during phase transformation. That is the reason why we have proposed a method coupling mechanical tests, digital image correlation and finite element simulation. The fracture tests are implemented on pre-cracked single edge notched plate sample which is easy for machining and heat conduct during phase transformation. The tests are conducted at different temperatures until rupture. Digital image correlation gives us the displacement information on every sample. Each test is then simulated by finite element where the fracture toughness is evaluated by the method G-Theta at the crack propagation starting moment found by potential drop method and digital image correlation technical. Two materials have been studied, 15Cr-5Ni martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steel and 16MND5 ferritic low carbon steel. For these two materials, different test temperatures were chosen before, during and after phase transformation for testing and failure characterization of the mechanical behavior. Investigation result shows that metallurgical phase transformation has an influence on fracture toughness and further crack propagation. For 15-5PH, the result of J1C shows that the as received 15-5PH has higher fracture toughness than the one at 200 C. The toughness is also higher than the original material after one cycle heat treatment probably due to some residual austenite. Meanwhile, pure austenite 15-5PH at 200 C has higher fracture toughness than pure martensitic 15-5PH at 200 C. For 16MND5, the result also proves that the phase transformation affects fracture toughness. The as received material has bigger J1C than the situation where it was heated

  12. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16S_2005 (11 January - 24 February, 2005)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyr, Alex [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    2006-08-30

    This report presents methods, and analytical and quality control procedures for salinity, oxygen, nutrient, inorganic carbon, organic carbon, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), and bomb 14C system parameters performed during the A16S_2005 cruise, which took place from January 11 to February 24, 2005, aboard research vessel (R/V) Ronald H. Brown under the auspices of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The R/V Ronald H. Brown departed Punta Arenas, Chile, on January 11, 2005, and ended its cruise in Fortaleza, Brazil, on February 24, 2005. The research conducted was one of a series of repeat hydrography sections jointly funded by NOAA and the National Science Foundation as part of the CLIVAR/CO2/repeat hydrography/tracer program. Samples were taken from 36 depths at 121 stations. The data presented in this report include the analyses of water samples for total inorganic carbon (TCO2), fugacity of CO2 (fCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), CFC, 14C, hydrographic, and other chemical measurements. The R/V Ronald H. Brown A16S_2005 data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The NDP consists of the oceanographic data files and this printed documentation, which describes the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  13. Control of the environmental inluences on THe-Trap on the example of the determination of the mass ratio of carbon-12 to oxygen-16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium-Helium-3-Trap (THe-Trap) is a Penning-trap setup dedicated to measure the 3H to 3He mass ratio with a relative uncertainty of better than 10-11. This is 40 times more precise than the currently adopted value and, thus, will help to investigate possible systematic uncertainties of the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN). To achieve the desired level of uncertainty, several environmental influences such as atmospheric pressure shifts and magnetic field fluctuations have to be suppressed. With the implemented stabilization system, the relative magnetic field drift could be reduced to a few 10-12/h for a time span of several weeks. Within the context of this thesis a mass ratio measurement of 12C4+ to 16O5+ was performed to characterize systematic effects. This measurement yielded a statistical uncertainty of 6.3 x 10-11, which can easily be improved with more statistics, i.e. a longer measurement time. While the systematic uncertainty for 12C4+-ions were under control at the 10-11 level, the systematic shifts could not be quantified for 16O5+ due to poor vacuum conditions. Without these corrections, a systematic uncertainty of 1.2.10-10 could be achieved for the 12C/16O mass ratio measurement.

  14. Inorganic and Organic Carbon, Nutrient, and Oxygen Data from the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16N_2003a (4 June-11 August, 2003)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyr, Alex [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    2005-08-30

    This report presents methods and analytical and quality control procedures for nutrient, oxygen, and inorganic carbon system parameters performed during the A16N_2003a cruise, which took place from June 4 to August 11, 2003 aboard NOAA Ship R/V Ronald H. Brown under auspices of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The first hydrographic leg (June 19–July 10) was from Reykjavik, Iceland, to Funchal, Madeira, Portugal along the 20°W meridian, and the second leg (July 15–August 11) continued operations from Funchal, Portugal to Natal, Brazil, on a track southward and ending at 6°S, 25°W. The research was the first in a decadal series of repeat hydrography sections jointly funded by NOAA and the National Science Foundation (NSF) as part of the CLIVAR/CO2/hydrography/tracer program. Samples were taken from up to 34 depths at 150 stations. The data presented in this report includes the analyses of water samples for total inorganic carbon (TCO2), fugacity of CO2 (fCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), pH, nitrate (NO3), nitrite (NO2), phosphate (PO4), silicate (SiO4), and dissolved oxygen (O2). The R/V Ronald H. Brown A16N_2003a data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The NDP consists of the oceanographic data files and this printed documentation, which describes the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  15. Analyzing powers for the inclusive reaction of deuterons on carbon at energies between 0.175 and 1.6 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladygin, V.P. [Laboratoire National Saturne, Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 -Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]|[JINR-LHE, 141980, Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; Ball, J. [Laboratoire National Saturne, Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]|[CEA/DSM DAPNIA-SPhN, CE Saclay, F-91191-Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bimbot, L.; Bisson, Y.; Boyard, J.L.; Courtat, P.; Gacougnolle, R.; Hennino, T.; Jones, M.K.; Skowron, R. [CNRS/IN2P3 IPN, 91400 Orsay (France); Boivin, M.; Kunne, R.A. [Laboratoire National Saturne, Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Cheung, N.E.; Perdrisat, C.F. [The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); Piskunov, N.M.; Sitnik, I.M.; Strokovsky, E.A. [JINR-LHE, 141980, Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Punjabi, V. [Norfolk State University, Norfolk, VA 23504 (United States); Zupranski, P. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)

    1998-02-11

    The results of a new calibration of the polarimeter POMME for energies between 0.175 and 1.6 GeV, using the polarized deuteron beam of the laboratoire national Saturne, are reported. The present calibration, together with previous ones, gives a complete set of vector analyzing powers in the energy range 0.175-1.8 GeV. The vector analyzing powers are fitted as a function of energy and scattering angle, with empirical formulae. Two sets of parameters are given, one for deuteron energies between 0.175 and 0.575 GeV, and the other in an energy range between 0.7 and 1.8 GeV. (orig.). 13 refs.

  16. Carbon transformations in deep granitic groundwater by attached bacterial populations characterized with 16S-rRNA gene sequencing technique and scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents molecular characterization of attached bacterial populations growing in slowly flowing (1-3 mm s-1) artesian groundwater from deep crystalline bed-rock of the Stripa research mine, south central Sweden. The assimilation rate of CO2 and lactate, and the lactate respiration rates were also determined. The bacteria studied grew in anoxic, high pH, 9-10, and low redox artesian groundwater flowing up through tubings from two levels of a borehole designated V2, 812-820 m and 970-1240 m below ground. The major groups of bacteria were found. Signature bases placed them in the appropriate systematic groups. All belonged to the Proteobacterial groups beta and gamma. One group was found only at the 812-820 m level, where it constituted 63% of the sequenced clones, whereas the second group existed almost exclusively and constituted 85% of the sequenced clones at the 970-1240 m level. The third group was equally distributed between the levels. A few other bacteria were also found. None of the 16S-rRNA genes from the dominating bacteria resembled any of the other by more than 90% similarity, and none of them resembled anything in the database by more than 96%. Temperature did not seem to have any effect on species composition at the deeper level. SEM images showed rods appearing in microcolonies. The difference in population diversity between the two levels studied presumably reflect the different environments. The earlier proposed presence of sulphate reducing bacteria could no be confirmed

  17. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C, R/V Knorr, October 1992--April 1993)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, S.; Goddard, J.G.; Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, Taro; Sutherland, S.C. [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory; Reid, J.L.; Swift, J.H.; Talley, L.D. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Scripps Institution of Oceanography

    1998-06-01

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide concentration (TCO{sub 2}) and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) in discrete water samples collected during three expeditions of the Research Vessel (R/V) Knorr in the South Pacific Ocean. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the first cruise (WOCE Section P16A/P17A) began in Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia, on October 6, 1992, and returned to Papeete on November 25, 1992. The second cruise (WOCE Section P17E/P19S) began in Papeete on December 4, 1992, and finished in Punta Arenas, Chile, on January 22, 1993. The third expedition (WOCE Section P19C) started in Punta Arenas, on February 22 and finished in Panama City, Panama, on April 13, 1993. During the three expeditions, 422 hydrographic stations were occupied. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen [measured by conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) sensor], as well as discrete measurements of salinity, oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12), TCO{sub 2}, and pCO{sub 2} measured at 4 and 20 C. In addition, potential temperatures were calculated from the measured variables.

  18. Arsamas-16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsamas - 16 is the Russian counterpart to Los Alamos. It is the place where the Soviets have developed their atomic bomb and where Andrej Sacharov has been working on the hydrogen bomb. Since 1946, the Soviet gevernment has been sending the best of the best of the country's scientists and engineers to work at this top secret research center and join their forces in the nuclear arms race with the U.S.A. The author of the book has been among the first journalists ever to meet the leading heads (one woman among them) of the institute for an interview. His report offers insight into the life and personality of the scientists as well as the current situation of the institute, telling about the motivation and sense of responsibility of individual interview partners or the mental background and conception of themselves as an outstanding group of nuclear experts, or their view of the future with regard to specific topics such as the growing danger of nuclear accidents, the problems encountered in disarmament measures, or the exodus of experts and resulting problems. (orig.)

  19. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained in the Central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE sections P17S and P16S) during the tunes-2-expedition of the R/V Thomas Washington, July--August 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}), discrete partial pressure of TCO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}), and total alkalinity (TALK), during the Research Vessel (R/V) Thomas Washington TUNES Leg 2 Expedition in the central South Pacific Ocean. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia, on July 16, 1991, and returned to Papeete on August 25, 1991. WOCE Meridional Sections P17S along 135{degrees} W and P16S along 150{degrees} W were completed during the 40-day expedition. A total of 97 hydrographic stations were occupied. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Sections P17S and P16S included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen measured by conductivity, temperature and depth sensor; bottle salinity; oxygen; phosphate; nitrate; nitrite; silicate; CFC-12; CFC- 11; TCO{sub 2}; TALK; and pCO{sub 2} measured at 20{degrees}C. The TCO{sub 2} concentration in 1000 seawater samples was determined with a coulometric analysis system, the pCO{sub 2} in 940 water samples was determined with an equilibrator/gas chromatograph system, while the TALK concentration in 139 samples was determined on shore at the laboratory of C. Goyet of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution with an alkalinity titration system. In addition, 156 coulometric measurements for the Certified Reference Material (Batch {number_sign}6) were made and yielded a mean value of 2303.2 {plus_minus} 1.5 {mu}mol/kg. This mean value agrees within a standard deviation of the 2304.6 {plus_minus} 1.6 {mu}mol/kg (N=9) value determined with the manometer of C. D. Keeling at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO). Replicate samples from 11 Niskin bottles at 4 stations were also collected for later shore-based reference analyses of TCO{sub 2} and TALK by vacuum extraction and manometry in the laboratory of C. D. Keeling of SIO.

  20. Function of RSKS-1-AAK-2-DAF-16 signaling cascade in enhancing toxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes can be suppressed by mir-259 activation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Ziheng; Li, Min; Liu, Hui; Luo, Libo; Gu, Weidong; Wu, Qiuli; Wang, Dayong

    2016-08-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is an important non-mammalian alternative assay model for toxicological study. Previous study has indicated that exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) dysregulated the transcriptional expression of mir-259. In this study, we examined the molecular basis for mir-259 in regulating MWCNTs toxicity in nematodes. Mutation of mir-259 induced a susceptible property to MWCNTs toxicity, and MWCNTs exposure induced a significant increase in mir-259::GFP in pharyngeal/intestinal valve and reproductive tract, implying that mir-259 might mediate a protection mechanisms for nematodes against MWCNTs toxicity. RSKS-1, a putative ribosomal protein S6 kinase, acted as the target for mir-259 in regulating MWCNTs toxicity, and mutation of rsks-1 suppressed the susceptible property of mir-259 mutant to MWCNTs toxicity. Moreover, mir-259 functioned in pharynx-intestinal valve and RSKS-1 functioned in pharynx to regulate MWCNTs toxicity. Furthermore, RSKS-1 regulated MWCNTs toxicity by suppressing the function of AAK-2-DAF-16 signaling cascade. Our results will strengthen our understanding the microRNAs mediated protection mechanisms for animals against the toxicity from certain nanomaterials.

  1. 16 CFR 1204.16 - Production testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production testing. 1204.16 Section 1204.16... STANDARD FOR OMNIDIRECTIONAL CITIZENS BAND BASE STATION ANTENNAS Certification § 1204.16 Production testing... production testing. Each production test shall be conducted at a production interval short enough to...

  2. 16 CFR 1212.16 - Production testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production testing. 1212.16 Section 1212.16... STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Certification Requirements § 1212.16 Production testing. (a) General... determine the types of tests for production testing. Each production test shall be conducted at a...

  3. 16 CFR 1210.16 - Production testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production testing. 1210.16 Section 1210.16... STANDARD FOR CIGARETTE LIGHTERS Certification Requirements § 1210.16 Production testing. (a) General... production testing. Each production test shall be conducted at a production interval short enough to...

  4. 16 CFR 1025.16 - Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service. 1025.16 Section 1025.16 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Pleadings, Form, Execution, Service of Documents § 1025.16 Service. (a) Mandatory service. Every...

  5. 16 CFR 1018.16 - Membership selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Membership selection. 1018.16 Section 1018... Establishment of Advisory Committees § 1018.16 Membership selection. (a) Whenever new applicants are required... qualified, staff members of the Commission, including the Advisory Committee Management Officer. (d)...

  6. Chemical and biological data collected as part of the CArbon Retention In A Colored Ocean (CARIACO) program in the Cariaco Basin off the coast of Venezuela, January 17, 2005 - January 16, 2006 (NODC Accession 0013170)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and biological data were collected using bottle casts on the continental shelf of Venezuela from the HERMANO GINES from January 17, 2005 to January 16,...

  7. Biomarker and 16S rDNA evidence for anaerobic oxidation of methane and related carbonate precipitation in deep-sea mud volcanoes of the Sorokin Trough, Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadnitskaia, A.; Muyzer, G.; Abbas, B.; Coolen, M.J.L.; Hopmans, E.C.; Baas, M.; Weering, T.C.E. van; Ivanov, M.K.; Poludetkina, E.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    Many mud volcanoes were recently discovered in the euxinic bottom waters of the Sorokin Trough (NE Black Sea). Three of them, i.e., NIOZ, Odessa, and Kazakov, were selected for a detailed biogeochemical investigation. Four methane-related carbonate crusts covered with microbial mats, and sediments (

  8. Influence of organic carbon sources and isotope exchange processes between water and nitrate on the fractionation of the stable isotopes 15N/14N and 18O/16O in dissolved nitrate during microbial dentrification in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable isotopes of nitrate are commonly used to determine sources and degradation of nitrate. In this study, nitrite oxidizing bacteria were found to promote an oxygen isotope exchange between water and nitrate under anoxic conditions. Also, different carbon sources were found to influence the enrichment of stable isotopes in nitrate during microbial denitrification. Both results refine the stable isotope model of nitrate in respect to nitrate source determination and microbial nitrate reduction.

  9. Carbon Carbon Composites: An Overview .

    OpenAIRE

    G. Rohini Devi; K. Rama Rao

    1993-01-01

    Carbon carbon composites are a new class of engineering materials that are ceramic in nature but exhibit brittle to pseudoplastic behaviour. Carbon-carbon is a unique all-carbon composite with carbon fibre embeded in carbon matrix and is known as an inverse composite. Due to their excellent thermo-structural properties, carbon-carbon composites are used in specialised application like re-entry nose-tips, leading edges, rocket nozzles, and aircraft brake discs apart from several indust...

  10. Carbon Carbon Composites: An Overview .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rohini Devi

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon carbon composites are a new class of engineering materials that are ceramic in nature but exhibit brittle to pseudoplastic behaviour. Carbon-carbon is a unique all-carbon composite with carbon fibre embeded in carbon matrix and is known as an inverse composite. Due to their excellent thermo-structural properties, carbon-carbon composites are used in specialised application like re-entry nose-tips, leading edges, rocket nozzles, and aircraft brake discs apart from several industrial and biomedical applications. The multidirectional carbon-carbon product technology is versatile and offers design flexibility. This paper describes the multidirectional preform and carbon-carbon process technology and research and development activities within the country. Carbon-carbon product experience at DRDL has also been discussed. Development of carbon-carbon brake discs process technology using the liquid impregnation process is described. Further the test results on material characterisation, thermal, mechanical and tribological properties are presented.

  11. Control of the environmental inluences on THe-Trap on the example of the determination of the mass ratio of carbon-12 to oxygen-16; Kontrolle der Umwelteinfluesse auf THe-Trap am Beispiel der Bestimmung des Massenverhaeltnisses von Kohlenstoff-12 zu Sauerstoff-16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streubel, Sebastian Dennis

    2014-04-16

    Tritium-Helium-3-Trap (THe-Trap) is a Penning-trap setup dedicated to measure the {sup 3}H to {sup 3}He mass ratio with a relative uncertainty of better than 10{sup -11}. This is 40 times more precise than the currently adopted value and, thus, will help to investigate possible systematic uncertainties of the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN). To achieve the desired level of uncertainty, several environmental influences such as atmospheric pressure shifts and magnetic field fluctuations have to be suppressed. With the implemented stabilization system, the relative magnetic field drift could be reduced to a few 10{sup -12}/h for a time span of several weeks. Within the context of this thesis a mass ratio measurement of {sup 12}C{sup 4+} to {sup 16}O{sup 5+} was performed to characterize systematic effects. This measurement yielded a statistical uncertainty of 6.3 x 10{sup -11}, which can easily be improved with more statistics, i.e. a longer measurement time. While the systematic uncertainty for {sup 12}C{sup 4+}-ions were under control at the 10{sup -11} level, the systematic shifts could not be quantified for {sup 16}O{sup 5+} due to poor vacuum conditions. Without these corrections, a systematic uncertainty of 1.2.10{sup -10} could be achieved for the {sup 12}C/{sup 16}O mass ratio measurement.

  12. ATG16L1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salem, Mohammad; Ammitzboell, Mette; Nys, Kris;

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variations in the autophagic pathway influence genetic predispositions to Crohn disease. Autophagy, the major lysosomal pathway for degrading and recycling cytoplasmic material, constitutes an important homeostatic cellular process. Of interest, single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ATG16L1...... (autophagy-related 16-like 1 [S. cerevisiae]), a key component in the autophagic response to invading pathogens, have been associated with an increased risk of developing Crohn disease. The most common and well-studied genetic variant of ATG16L1 (rs2241880; leading to a T300A conversion) exhibits a strong...

  13. 16 tales of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    16 Tales of Innovation are told by 16 leaders, who have completed the LAICS executive master program, a collaboration between Aarhus University and Copenhagen Business School. The book is based on their Master theses and illustrates how they have experimented with different innovation tools, mode...... and innovation theories within their own organization. Here they share their unique insights into the processes, methods and the impact of their academic work with innovation in practice....

  14. 16S rRNA Gene Sequence and Carbon Metabolic Fingerprint Analysis of a Chloramphenicol Resistant Septic Bacterial Strain Isolated from Cosmetics%1株耐氯霉素腐败微生物的16S rRNA基因序列与碳源代谢指纹图谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王友升; 何欣萌; 张燕; 陈玉娟

    2014-01-01

    从污染的化妆品中分离到1株具有氯霉素抗性的革兰阴性菌213#.通过16S rRNA基因同源性比较,表明分离菌与GenBank中洋葱伯克霍尔德(Burkholderia cepacia)标准菌株同源性为100%,通过Biolog GN2MicroPlate分析该病原菌对95种碳源的利用能力,发现分离菌与Biolog数据库中的B.cepacia具有最相似的特征代谢指纹.

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the THOMAS WASHINGTON in the South Pacific Ocean from 1991-07-16 to 1991-08-25 (NODC Accession 0115171)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115171 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from THOMAS WASHINGTON in the South Pacific Ocean from 1991-07-16 to...

  16. Vedligeholdelsen af F-16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2015-01-01

    USA sætter helt bestemt pris på Danmarks pålidelige politiske støtte, men det har været evnen til at yde meningsfulde bidrag til koalitionens fælles bestræbelser, der har vundet amerikansk respekt. En hurtig erstatning for F-16 flyene, et øget forsvarsbudget og et styrket samarbejde med Norge og...

  17. 16 CFR 0.16 - Bureau of Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bureau of Competition. 0.16 Section 0.16....16 Bureau of Competition. The Bureau is responsible for enforcing Federal antitrust and trade... activities seek to ensure price competition, quality products and services and efficient operation of...

  18. Gaia16aas, Gaia16ade and Gaia16adz transients confirmed by Euler imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Roelens, M.; Semaan, T.; Palaversa, L.; Mowlavi, N.; Eyer, L.

    2016-02-01

    We report confirmation of Gaia Science Alerts transients Gaia16aas, Gaia16ade and Gaia16adz. Images were obtained through modified Gunn R band filter of the ECAM instrument installed on the Swiss 1.2m Euler telescope at La Silla, on 2016 February 18 - 24 UT. These new sources are cataclysmic variable star candidates and they are not visible in archival 2MASS and DSS images: Gaia16aas, Gaia16ade and Gaia16adz.

  19. Marginalia no. 16

    OpenAIRE

    Library, Merrill-Cazier

    2004-01-01

    Issue Number 16: Spring 2004 REMEMBERING THE PAST, BUILDING FOR THE FUTURE-John Elsweiler update on new library construction. A POSTSCRIPT FROM VENICE-Notes on Ona Siporin’s lecture on rescuing Venice, Italy. HAY DERRICKS, GRAVEMARKERS AND THE INTERNET: THE FIFE SLIDE COLLECTION ON line- Randy Williams. LOOKING BACK …Bygone Years at USU now just a click away-Dan Davis reports on digital access to old photos. KENT CLARK, DIRECTOR OF DEVELOPMENT DOING A SUPER JOB FOR USU LIBRARIE...

  20. Apollo 16 neutron stratigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, G. P., III

    1973-01-01

    The Apollo 16 soils have the largest low-energy neutron fluences yet observed in lunar samples. Variations in the isotopic ratios Gd-158/Gd-157 and Sm-150/Sm-149 (up to 1.9 and 2.0%, respectively) indicate that the low-energy neutron fluence in the Apollo 16 drill stem increases with depth throughout the section sampled. Such a variation implies that accretion has been the dominant regolith 'gardening' process at this location. The data may be fit by a model of continuous accretion of pre-irradiated material or by models involving as few as two slabs of material in which the first slab could have been deposited as long as 1 b.y. ago. The ratio of the number of neutrons captured per atom by Sm to the number captured per atom by Gd is lower than in previously measured lunar samples, which implies a lower energy neutron spectrum at this site. The variation of this ratio with chemical composition is qualitatively similar to that predicted by Lingenfelter et al. (1972). Variations are observed in the ratio Gd-152/Gd-160 which are fluence-correlated and probably result from neutron capture by Eu-151.

  1. Post-16 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    (post16) Faces of Physics To study a physics course post-16 is take out an option on your future. But physics itself is very varied, and so is what you might do with it. It seems right that post-16 physics courses reflect important aspects of this variety. Physics varies with why people do it. As reliable knowledge, physics is often essential to making things happen. This is physics as feeding into technology, and quite often feeding off technology. The human urge here is the urge to create things that work. It drives individual inventors; it drives large teams in multinational companies. At the opposite end of this spectrum is physics driven by curiosity, by the urge to find out. The stock examples are the grand discoveries from the expansion of the universe to the discovery of the nucleus of atoms. But the physicist's curiosity is often on a more detailed, even finicky scale: how exactly do the molecules of this polymer respond to stress?; just how do ions implanted in this material modify its conductivity? It is clear to me that a decent post-16 physics course must respect and reflect both. This is by no means a matter of `basic laws and their applications'. It is a matter of recognizing two fundamental interests, in doing and in explaining, and of recognizing that they are at once closely interdependent and worlds apart. Ideas in physics are also not of one kind. One opposition is the idea of describing Nature in terms of deterministic physical laws, as against describing Nature as the predictable outcome of probabilistic behaviour `underneath'. The first has gripped the Western imagination since at least the time of Descartes. The second has increasingly come to the fore, especially in thermodynamics with the idea that we can only make processes work by fixing the circumstances so that uncaring atoms and molecules happen by chance to do what we want. Now in quantum theory both ideas - determinism and randomness - co-exist. Post-16 physics courses are not in

  2. NEWS: Post-16 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Peter

    2000-07-01

    post16.gif As a teacher of physics it is very easy to become preoccupied with particulars of courses, or topics or even single concepts. Concerned with imminent student audiences and desired learning outcomes, the daily challenge is to summon satisfactory teaching approaches and resources for the job at hand. For the conscientious teacher, assessment outcomes may too often seem a judgment on our own efforts rather than those of our students. From time to time we may step back and think bigger, for example while planning a recruitment event, or while away from work on holiday. We may be successful locally. But why, at a time when books and television documentaries popularizing science have a large following, has physics education been facing declining numbers? Many recognize that physics has an essential contribution to make to the training of science or engineering specialists, but we know that it is also important for the skilled worker, the informed citizen and, in fact, for anyone trying to make sense of the world. So what are the best ways forward for post-16 physics? To make any impact on the bigger picture requires organization, thinking and meeting time among people in diverse roles: teachers and curriculum managers; university lecturers; employers and professional bodies; unitary awarding bodies; regulatory and funding agencies; and even Government. For the past few years, the Institute of Physics post-16 Initiative has created an unrivalled opportunity to address the wider issues. Its Shaping the Future booklets series was designed to stimulate informed discussion and debate, by providing background information and analysis. Taken together, the booklets should help all those concerned with physics education to understand where we are now, and why. Literally dozens of people have contributed to a review and analysis of physics education. Each booklet is a 48-page smorgasbord in A4 landscape format, containing many examples of good practice, basic but

  3. NEWS: Post-16 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    (post16) Making physics connect Doesn't Melvyn Bragg do a wonderful job, engaging both scientists and artists in sensitive discussion on Radio 4 about their methods and their purposes? But every week teachers have the chance to show their students that physics is a way of seeing the world that is well-connected with other aspects of knowledge and culture. The stakes are high: students who fail to appreciate this generally choose not to study the subject beyond GCSE. Most students find our preoccupation with technical detail off-putting. Accepting that we have a syllabus to cover, it's still a question of balance. In our teaching we should aim for variety in order to find ways to connect with every student's interests. Also, we can show that we (the nearest embodiment of a physicist some students will experience) are multidimensional and so fully human. Most important, teachers need flexibility to both encourage and respond to student comment and questions. The first booklet in the discussion series Shaping the Future takes up these themes. Rich in ideas for both immediate use and the longer term, it aims to stimulate debate and improve teaching. Copies cost £5.50 including postage and are available from Ingrid Ebeyer, Post-16 Initiative, Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 3DH. How far is it? This question is asked in many family cars and school minibuses at the start of a journey, and answered by most in terms of hours and minutes rather than miles. What a good idea for introducing a social and historical perspective to a lesson on distance, velocity and time. How far can you actually get in a day? What is the range of human activity? Walking for eight hours will get many people about 25 miles. A pack horse will progress at much the same rate, but fast riding or a coach and team of horses will get further. Motorway driving (when the cones are on holiday) would take you nearly 500 miles. The 05.15 am train from Penzance arrives in Inverness at 7

  4. Post-16 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Post-16 Initiative logo Physics in Mathematical Mood Later this year, as part of the post-16 initiative of the Institute of Physics, a booklet with the above title will be published. In draft form, the booklet was discussed at the ASE conference in January. Some of the issues raised are briefly set out here. If you have any views to contribute, please write to Simon Carson at the Institute of Physics or e-mail simon.carson@physics.org. A mathematical view of the world is intrinsically a part of physics and therefore physics should be studied in an appropriately mathematical way. However, we all know that, to some students at least, mathematics proves to be a stumbling block rather than a powerful aid to understanding. So how can we help? Realizing that as physics teachers we need to deliver the mathematics necessary to an understanding of our subject is a start. Its corollary is that we need to find the space within the physics core. We may wish to use supplementary courses such as AS mathematics or QCA's new free-standing mathematics units, but requiring additional courses as a prerequisite to a study of A-level physics may deter students. Teaching the mathematics in context may aid understanding but we also must ensure that techniques are seen in a variety of contexts and that at some point the tool is abstracted from the background. As teachers we need to be aware of the very basic mathematical difficulties that students bring with them: the use of calculators, standard form, simple algebraic manipulation, for example. Mathematical arguments need to be developed fully and carefully. Encouraging cooperation and discussion between students may help the less able to understand and the more able to appreciate and develop their own understanding through making explicit their reasoning by explaining it to others. And what of new technology? Software tools allow students to develop their understanding about graphs, for example, enabling them to investigate the

  5. High-Melt Carbon-Carbon Coating for Nozzle Extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, James

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-Carbon Advanced Technologies, Inc. (C-CAT), has developed a high-melt coating for use in nozzle extensions in next-generation spacecraft. The coating is composed primarily of carbon-carbon, a carbon-fiber and carbon-matrix composite material that has gained a spaceworthy reputation due to its ability to withstand ultrahigh temperatures. C-CAT's high-melt coating embeds hafnium carbide (HfC) and zirconium diboride (ZrB2) within the outer layers of a carbon-carbon structure. The coating demonstrated enhanced high-temperature durability and suffered no erosion during a test in NASA's Arc Jet Complex. (Test parameters: stagnation heat flux=198 BTD/sq ft-sec; pressure=.265 atm; temperature=3,100 F; four cycles totaling 28 minutes) In Phase I of the project, C-CAT successfully demonstrated large-scale manufacturability with a 40-inch cylinder representing the end of a nozzle extension and a 16-inch flanged cylinder representing the attach flange of a nozzle extension. These demonstrators were manufactured without spalling or delaminations. In Phase II, C-CAT worked with engine designers to develop a nozzle extension stub skirt interfaced with an Aerojet Rocketdyne RL10 engine. All objectives for Phase II were successfully met. Additional nonengine applications for the coating include thermal protection systems (TPS) for next-generation spacecraft and hypersonic aircraft.

  6. 4 CFR 22.16 - Hearings [Rule 16].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hearings . 22.16 Section 22.16 Accounts GOVERNMENT... schedule for pre-hearing submissions and events, taking into account the parties' proposed schedule, the nature of the case, and the scheduling needs of the Board. (c) Pre-hearing conference. Prior to...

  7. De novo trisomy 16p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan, J.L.C.; Cigudosa, J.C.; Gomez, A.O. [Univ. of La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain)] [and others

    1997-01-20

    We report on a patient with psychomotor retardation and a pattern of malformations comprising single umbilical artery, craniofacial anomalies, severe truncal hypotonia, and lower-limb hyporreflexia. G-banding cytogenetics demonstrated a 16p+ chromosome. Parental chromosomes were normal. The use of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that this extra material derived from chromosome 16. High-resolution G-banding demonstrated a duplicated segment on the 16p arm, confirming our suspicion of a de novo tandem duplication; hence, the cytogenetic diagnosis was given as 46,XY,dir dup(16)(p11.2{r_arrow}p12). 9 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Porous carbons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satish M Manocha

    2003-02-01

    Carbon in dense as well as porous solid form is used in a variety of applications. Activated porous carbons are made through pyrolysis and activation of carbonaceous natural as well as synthetic precursors. Pyrolysed woods replicate the structure of original wood but as such possess very low surface areas and poor adsorption capacities. On activation, these exhibit increased adsorption volumes of 0.5–0.8 cm3 /gm and surface areas of 700–1800 m2 /gm depending on activation conditions, whether physical or chemical. Former carbons possess mixed pore size distribution while chemically activated carbons predominantly possess micropores. Thus, these carbons can be used for adsorption of wide distributions of molecules from gas to liquid. The molecular adsorption within the pores is due to single layer or multilayer molecule deposition at the pore walls and hence results in different types of adsorption isotherm. On the other hand, activated carbon fibres with controlled microporous structure and surface area in the range of 2500 m2 /gm can be developed by controlled pyrolysis and physical activation of amorphous carbon fibres. Active carbon fibres with unmatchable pore structure and surface characteristics are present and futuristic porous materials for a number of applications from pollution control to energy storage.

  9. Post-16 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    Institute of Physics post-16 initiative, shaping the future Physics education based in IT - sorry ICT! Which, of course, makes for a nifty headline, but as is so often the case with neat slogans, little else. Two formative questions: What, in another decade, will the government of the day call `What you lot should be doing with computers'? and What, of the many things that currently exercise our intellects, will there be anything special to say about in a decade, concerning the use of computers in the teaching of physics? Advancing Physics represents some attempts to come to grips with the second of the two questions above. The first is left to a higher wisdom. In thinking about learning, what can we do with the huge processing power, increasingly available in smaller and less obtrusive packages? What will we do that helps people learn physics, both tomorrow and in 2009? Here are a few suggestions based on development work so far. Wide, reliable and shared access to well ordered learning resources. We have created a CD-ROM, with versions for both student and teacher, that provides a wide range of resources. These do not teach, but do provide. A commitment to allowing a course to evolve and adapt. Electronic publication puts the costs into origination, and not into publication and distribution. A website allows for the community of users to contribute. E-mail networks support individuals and propagate good practice. You can create and explore your own microworlds. The interactive nature of models, and the crafted relationships between the models and the natural world give an insight into the creative imaginary worlds of the physicist. The unreasonable, but pleasurable, success of mathematics in describing the natural world can come to the fore. Measurements that were not possible before are now possible. What was previously indirect, and inaccessible, now becomes a direct measurement, making relationships transparent in new and fruitful ways. The dichotomy between

  10. Carbon Mineral Ecology: Predicting the Undiscovered Minerals of Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, R. M.; Hummer, D. R.; Downs, R. T.; Hystad, G.; Golden, J.

    2015-12-01

    The diversity and distribution of Earth's minerals through deep time reflects key events in our planet's crustal evolution. Studies in mineral ecology exploit mineralogical databases to document diversity-distribution relationships of minerals, which reveal that all carbon-bearing minerals, as well as subsets containing C with O, H, Ca, or Na, conform to Large Number of Rare Events (LNRE) distributions. LNRE models facilitate prediction of total mineral diversity, and thus point to minerals that exist on Earth but have not yet been discovered and described. Our model predicts that at least 548 C minerals exist on Earth today, indicating that at least 145 carbon-bearing mineral species have yet to be discovered. Furthermore, by analyzing subsets of the most common additional elements in carbon-bearing minerals (i.e., 378 C + O species; 282 C + H species; 133 C + Ca species; and 100 C + Na species), we predict that 129 of these missing carbon minerals contain oxygen, 118 contain hydrogen, 52 contain calcium, and more than 60 contain sodium. The majority of these as yet undescribed minerals are predicted to be hydrous carbonates, many of which may have been overlooked because they are colorless, poorly crystalized, and/or water-soluble. We propose the identities of plausible as yet undescribed carbon minerals, as well as search strategies for their discovery. Some of these minerals will be natural examples of known synthetic compounds, including carbides such as calcium carbide (CaC2), crystalline hydrocarbons such as pyrene (C16H10), and numerous oxalates, anhydrous carbonates, and hydrous carbonates. Many other missing carbon minerals will be isomorphs of known carbon minerals, notably of the more than 100 different hydrous carbonate structures. An understanding of Earth's "missing" minerals provides a more complete picture of geochemical processes that influence crustal evolution.

  11. Main: ABREMOTIFIIIOSRAB16B [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ABREMOTIFIIIOSRAB16B S000291 10-Feb-2000 (last modified) seki Motif III found in th...e promoter of rice (O.s.) rab16B gene; Motif I (S000290) and motif III are both required for ABA responsiven

  12. Main: ABREMOTIFIOSRAB16B [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ABREMOTIFIOSRAB16B S000290 10-Feb-2000 (last modified) seki Motif I found in the pr...omoter of rice (O.s.) rab16B gene; Motif I and motif III (S000291) are both required for ABA responsiveness;

  13. Total Syntheses of a 16a'-Homoleurosidine and a 16a'-Homovinblastine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Yong; Martin E. Kuehne

    2004-01-01

    Vinblastine has been used in clinic as an anti-cancer agent. Due to its high cytotoxity, generation of vinblastine congeners as safe anti-cancer agents is always the interesting topic in medicinal chemistry. In the previous synthesis of vinblastine, it has been found that a higher energy conformation of vinblastine lacking cytotoxity and inhibition against tubulin polymerization, can be converted to its lower energy natural conformation on heating to 110 ℃. The high temperature (110 ℃) other than a physiological temperature required for the conformational inversion excludes the possibility of using the higher energy conformational isomer as a potential pro-drug for thermal activation. In the continuing of searching for thermal activated anti-cancer pro-drug, we re-designed and synthesized new vinblastine congeners with the enlarged azonine ring by inserting one carbon atom at the C-16 position of azonine ring in order to decrease the energy barrier for the conformational inversion.In this paper, we wish to report the total syntheses of 16a'-homoleurosidine and 16a'-homovinblastine, the azonine ring expanded compounds of vinblastine and leurosidine respectively. The synthesis of 16a'-homoleurosidine was achieved through enatioselective generation of a tetracyclic intermediate by a Diels-Alder reaction, followed by ring expansion of the tetracyclic intermediate by regioselective rapture of a cyclopropane ring as key steps. The synthesis of 16a'-homovinblastine was achieved through stereoselective inversion of the tertiary hydroxyl group from R configuration to the S configuration in the tetracyclic intermediate. The 16a'-homoleurosidine was obtained dominantly in its high energy conformation at room temperature and neutral condition. On protonation, a 1:1 mixture of atropisomers of 16a'-homoleurosidine was found. In contrast to 16a'-homoleurosidine, the 16a'-homovinblastine existed in the form of two atropisomers in a 1:2.3 ratio at room temperature and neutral

  14. Four advances in carbon-carbon materials technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maahs, Howard G.; Vaughn, Wallace L.; Kowbel, Witold

    1994-01-01

    Carbon-carbon composites are a specialty class of materials having many unique properties making these composites attractive for a variety of demanding engineering applications. Chief among these properties are exceptional retention of mechanical properties at temperatures as high as 4000 F, excellent creep resistance, and low density (1.6 to 1.8 g/cu cm). Although carbon-carbon composites are currently in service in a variety of applications, much development work remains to be accomplished before these materials can be considered to be fully mature, realizing their full potential. Four recent technology advances holding particular promise for overcoming current barriers to the wide-spread commercialization of carbon-carbon composites are described. These advances are: markedly improved interlaminar strengths (more than doubled) of two dimensional composites achieved by whiskerization of the fabric reinforcing plies, simultaneously improved oxidation resistance and mechanical properties achieved by the incorporation of matrix-phase oxidation inhibitors based on carborane chemistry, improved oxidation resistance achieved by compositionally graded oxidation protective coatings, and markedly reduced processing times (hours as opposed to weeks or months) accomplished through a novel process of carbon infiltration and coatings deposition based on the use of liquid-phase precursor materials.

  15. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before being swallowed; do not swallow them whole. Drink a full glass of water after taking either the regular or chewable tablets or capsules. Some liquid forms of calcium carbonate must be shaken well before use.Do not ...

  16. Carbon Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T. Lloyd Evans

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, the present state of knowledge of the carbon stars is discussed. Particular attention is given to issues of classification, evolution, variability, populations in our own and other galaxies, and circumstellar material.

  17. Counting the cost of carbon. Low carbon economy index 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    Achieving the rates of decarbonisation needed to stay within the 2 degrees target agreed by governments in Cancun in 20101 requires a revolution in the way the world produces and uses energy. A transformation in financing will also be necessary to achieve the transition at the scale and speed needed. PwC published the first Low Carbon Economy Index ahead of the COP15 in Copenhagen, 2009. This looked at the progress of the G20 economies against a 2000-based carbon budget estimated by PwC. Carbon intensity is our preferred metric for analysing countries' movements towards a low carbon economy, as it accounts for expected economic growth, and can generate comparable targets. The carbon intensity of an economy is the emissions per unit of GDP and is affected by a country's fuel mix, energy efficiency and the proportion of industrial versus service sectors. Since COP 16 in Cancun, there has been an increasing focus on the cost of meeting the low carbon challenge and raising the capital required to finance it. This year's Low Carbon Economy Index focuses on this global financing gap and the reforms that might help to fill it. In section one we present our analysis of economic and emissions growth and ask whether we are decarbonising fast enough. The second section asks how much it will cost and can we afford it. We highlight the global financing gap, and focus on efforts to increase low carbon generation in the UK and South Africa. The report concludes by outlining some steps that could be taken to help meet the low carbon challenge.

  18. Body-Centered Orthorhombic C_{16}: A Novel Topological Node-Line Semimetal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Tao; Weng, Hongming; Nie, Simin; Fang, Zhong; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Chen, Changfeng

    2016-05-13

    We identify by ab initio calculations a novel topological semimetal carbon phase in all-sp^{2} bonding networks with a 16-atom body-centered orthorhombic unit cell, termed bco-C_{16}. Total-energy calculations show that bco-C_{16} is comparable to solid fcc-C_{60} in energetic stability, and phonon and molecular dynamics simulations confirm its dynamical stability. This all-sp^{2} carbon allotrope can be regarded as a three-dimensional modification of graphite, and its simulated x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern matches well a previously unexplained diffraction peak in measured XRD spectra of detonation and chimney soot, indicating its presence in the specimen. Electronic band structure calculations reveal that bco-C_{16} is a topological node-line semimetal with a single nodal ring. These findings establish a novel carbon phase with intriguing structural and electronic properties of fundamental significance and practical interest. PMID:27232027

  19. Body-Centered Orthorhombic C16 : A Novel Topological Node-Line Semimetal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Tao; Weng, Hongming; Nie, Simin; Fang, Zhong; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Chen, Changfeng

    2016-05-01

    We identify by ab initio calculations a novel topological semimetal carbon phase in all-s p2 bonding networks with a 16-atom body-centered orthorhombic unit cell, termed bco-C16. Total-energy calculations show that bco-C16 is comparable to solid fcc-C60 in energetic stability, and phonon and molecular dynamics simulations confirm its dynamical stability. This all-s p2 carbon allotrope can be regarded as a three-dimensional modification of graphite, and its simulated x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern matches well a previously unexplained diffraction peak in measured XRD spectra of detonation and chimney soot, indicating its presence in the specimen. Electronic band structure calculations reveal that bco-C16 is a topological node-line semimetal with a single nodal ring. These findings establish a novel carbon phase with intriguing structural and electronic properties of fundamental significance and practical interest.

  20. Monolithic active-passive 16 × 16 optoelectronic switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, R; Albores-Mejia, A; Williams, K A

    2012-11-15

    We present what is to our knowledge the first active-passive monolithically integrated 16×16 switch. The active InP/InGaAsP elements provide semiconductor optical amplifier gates in a multistage rearrangeably nonblocking switch design. Thirty-two representative connections, including the shortest, longest, and comprehensive range of intermediate paths have been assessed across the switch circuit. The 10 Gb/s signal routing is demonstrated with an optical signal-to-noise ratio up to 28.3 dB/0.1 nm and a signal extinction ratio exceeding 50 dB. PMID:23164873

  1. 16 CFR 1512.16 - Requirements for reflectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1512.16 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT... sidewalls or, alternatively, reflectors mounted on the spokes of each wheel, or, for non-caliper rim brake....) of the inside of the rim. Side reflective devices shall be visible on each side of the wheel....

  2. Examining the Structure of the Oxygen-16 Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Ethan; Aprahamian, Ani; Tan, Wanpeng; Gyurjinyan, Armen; Frentz, Bryce; Guerin, Benjamin

    2015-10-01

    The intent of this work is to explore the structure of the nucleus of Oxygen-16 (16O), which consists of four alpha particles, each with two protons and two neutrons. 16O is generated via the fusion of helium and carbon during stellar nucleosynthesis. This reaction is crucial to the existence of life. By measuring the structure of the 16O nucleus, we hope to gain a better understanding of stellar evolution and processes. The theoretical state of most interest is a linear arrangement of the four alpha particles, proposed by Chevallier et al. in their 1967 paper to explain the surprisingly large moment of inertia of the nucleus they measured. The existence of this state can be most accurately observed through an analysis of the energy spectra of the decay products. This method has previously been implemented at Notre Dame by Freer et al. when a similar structure, that of Carbon-12 (12C), was analyzed, and a previously unknown state was observed. The data gathered is analyzed using the method of angular correlation, which makes use of the angles and energies of decay products relative to the center of mass frame to reconstruct possible spins of the initial state. Analysis is currently underway and results will be presented at CEU 2015. Supported by NSF Grant PHY-1419765.

  3. 16th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2011-01-01

    Cryocoolers 16 archives developments and performance measurements in the field of cryocoolers based on the contributions of leading international experts at the 16th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Atlanta, Georgia, on May 17-20, 2010. The program of this conference consisted of 116 papers; of these, 89 are published here. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  4. Carbon recycling in ophiolite-hosted carbonates, Oman-UAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, A.; Jenkin, G. R.; Smith, D. J.; Styles, M. T.; Naden, J.; Boyce, A. J.; Bryant, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale surface and subsurface freshwater carbonate deposits of probable Quaternary age have formed on the Oman-UAE ophiolite. Here, serpentinisation reactions in ultramafic rocks have produced calcite and magnesite. These carbonates are frequently cited as examples of natural atmospheric CO2 sequestration, but the possibility of carbon recycling has not been addressed. The aim of this study is to assess the degree of atmospheric CO2 being incorporated into carbonates versus that which has been recycled from alternative sources such as soil CO2, or limestones that underlie the ophiolite. This has been determined through δ13C/δ18O, 87Sr/86Sr and 14C analysis of all major carbonate lithofacies identified. Our analyses of modern carbonate crusts forming on the surface of stagnant hyperalkaline (pH >11) waters show highly depleted δ13C and δ18O values (-25.5‰ ×0.5 PDB and -16.8‰ ×0.5 PDB respectively). This depletion has been attributed to a kinetic isotope effect occurring during atmospheric CO2 exchange with Ca(OH)2 hyperalkaline waters [1]. By comparison, inactive travertine deposits show a large range in δ13C (-10.5 to -21.8‰ PDB) which lies on a trajectory from the composition of modern crusts towards bicarbonate fluids in equilibrium with soil CO2. We interpret this trend as being produced by the mixing of different carbon sources, either at the time of formation or during later alteration. Modern carbonates and inactive travertines also have 87Sr/86Sr ratios and Sr concentrations similar to Cretaceous and Tertiary limestones which surround the ophiolite, whilst subsurface veins also display 87Sr/86Sr ratios similar to these Cretaceous limestones. Carbon recycling can also be determined with 14C. Modern atmospheric CO2 has a global average of 105-106% modern 14C (pMC), therefore freshwater carbonates forming solely from atmospheric CO2 would be expected to contain >100 pMC. However, modern carbonates display varied results from 94.5-101.4 p

  5. Resonance states in 16O + 16O, 12C + 16O, + 16O and + 12C with modified Morse potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Sahu; L Satpathy

    2008-05-01

    The resonance states in 16O + 16O, 12C + 16O, + 16O and + 12C are described using modified Morse potential proposed earlier whose success has already been demon-strated in the case of 12C + 12C system. The general validity of such a potential with long range, shallow depth and repulsive soft core determined from the resonance data itself is being examined through the present study of the resonances in the above four systems. In each system, the experimental data of a large number of states have been successfully described with a modified Morse potential. The success points out a common mechanism of the origin of these states, and reaffirms authentically the diatomic-like rotational and vibrational picture of the nuclear molecular resonances proposed previously. The close resemblance between the physics of diatomic molecules and nuclear molecular resonances extending to the level of potential which is Morse type in both the cases - although belong to two different areas of physics - is further strengthened through the present study.

  6. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the TANKAI-MARU in the North Pacific Ocean from 2002-04-16 to 2002-04-25 (NODC Accession 0112321)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112321 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from TANKAI-MARU in the North Pacific Ocean from 2002-04-16 to...

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the HUDSON in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1993-11-05 to 1993-12-16 (NODC Accession 0113553)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113553 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HUDSON in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1993-11-05 to 1993-12-16...

  8. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1992-03-16 to 1992-04-09 (NODC Accession 0113579)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113579 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1992-03-16 to 1992-04-09...

  9. Carbonate Ion Effects on Coccolith Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziveri, P.; Probert, I.; Stoll, H. M.

    2006-12-01

    The stable oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of biogenic calcite constitutes one of the primary tools used in paleoceanographic reconstructions. The δ18O of shells of ocean floor microfossils and corals reflects the composition of the paleo-seawater as they use the oxygen to build up their calcite and aragonite shells. The δ13C is used to reconstruct variations in the carbon isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon in the ocean, which is controlled by biological productivity through the removal of isotopically light carbon in organic matter. To be effective and sensitive tools for understanding photic zone processes it is first necessary to understand the various biological fractionations associated with carbonate precipitation. To date, isotopic fractionation models are mainly based on foraminifera and corals but not on coccoliths, tiny plates produced by coccolithophore algae, which are often the most dominant carbonate contributors to pelagic sediments. As photosynthetic organisms, their chemistry can provide a sensitive tool for understanding photic zone processes. Coccoliths may be the most important carbonate phase for geochemical analysis in sediments where foraminifera are less common and/or core material is limited, such as in subpolar regions and for Early Cenozoic and Mesozoic sediments. Here we report experimental results on a common living coccolithophore species showing that the 13C/12C and 18O/16O ratios decrease with the increase of HCO^{3-} (CO32-). The selected species are among the heaviest calcifying extant coccolithophores and are major contributors to present coccolith carbonate export production. Because coccolithophores are photosynthetic organisms that calcify intracellularly in specialized vesicles, the challenge lies in ascertaining how kinetic and thermodynamic processes of isotopic fractionation are linked to cellular carbon "transport" and carbonate precipitation. This is a daunting challenge since studies have not

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF TANK 16H ANNULUS SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.; Reboul, S.

    2012-04-16

    The closure of Tank 16H will require removal of material from the annulus of the tank. Samples from Tank 16H annulus were characterized and tested to provide information to evaluate various alternatives for removing the annulus waste. The analysis found all four annulus samples to be composed mainly of Si, Na, and Al and lesser amounts of other elements. The XRD data indicate quartz (SiO{sub 2}) and sodium aluminum nitrate silicate hydrate (Na{sub 8}(Al{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24})(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O) as the predominant crystalline mineral phases in the samples. The XRD data also indicate the presence of crystalline sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, gibbsite, hydrated sodium bicarbonate, and muscovite. Based on the weight of solids remaining at the end of the test, the water leaching test results indicate approximately 20-35% of the solids dissolved after three contacts with an approximately 3:1 volume of water at 45 C. The chemical analysis of the leachates and the XRD results of the remaining solids indicate sodium salts of nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, and possibly carbonate/bicarbonate make up the majority of the dissolved material. The majority of these salts were dissolved in the first water contact and simply diluted with each subsequent water contact. The water leaching removed large amounts of the uranium in two of the samples and {approx}1/3 of the {sup 99}Tc from all four samples. Most of the other radionuclides analyzed showed low solubility in the water leaching test. The preliminary data on the oxalic acid leaching test indicate the three acid contacts at 45 C dissolved from {approx}34-47% of the solids. The somewhat higher dissolution found in the oxalic acid leaching test versus the water leaching test might be offset by the tendency of the oxalic acid solutions to take on a gel-like consistency. The filtered solids left behind after three oxalic acid contacts were sticky and formed large clumps after drying. These two observations could indicate

  11. HAT-P-16b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Lars A.; Bakos, G. A.; Hartman, J. D.;

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of HAT-P-16b, a transiting extrasolar planet orbiting the V = 10.8 mag F8 dwarf GSC 2792-01700, with a period P = 2.775960 ± 0.000003 days, transit epoch Tc = 2455027.59293 ± 0.00031 (BJD10), and transit duration 0.1276 ± 0.0013 days. The host star has a mass of 1.22 ± 0.0...

  12. Ground state of 16O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Steven C.; Wiringa, R. B.; Pandharipande, V. R.

    1990-01-01

    A variational method is used to study the ground state of 16O. Expectation values are computed with a cluster expansion for the noncentral correlations in the wave function; the central correlations and exchanges are treated to all orders by Monte Carlo integration. The expansion has good convergence. Results are reported for the Argonne v14 two-nucleon and Urbana VII three-nucleon potentials.

  13. Gaia16aso, Gaia16asq, Gaia16asu and Gaia16atb candidate supernovae near galaxies confirmed by Mercator/Maia imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Roelens, M.; Semaan, T.; Palaversa, L.; Mowlavi, N.; Eyer, L.

    2016-07-01

    We report confirmation of Gaia Science Alerts transients Gaia16aso, Gaia16asq, Gaia16asu and Gaia16atb. Images were obtained in G and R bands of the Maia instrument mounted to the Flemish 1.2m Mercator telescope at Roque de los Muchachos observatory, La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain, on 2016 July 04 - 05. These new sources are supernovae candidates near galaxies and they are not visible in archival 2MASS and DSS images: Gaia16aso, Gaia16asq, Gaia16asu and Gaia16atb.

  14. Gaia16asc, Gaia16ase, Gaia16asj and Gaia16ask candidate supernovae near galaxies confirmed by Mercator/Maia imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Semaan, T.; Roelens, M.; Palaversa, L.; Mowlavi, N.; Eyer, L.

    2016-07-01

    We report confirmation of Gaia Science Alerts transients Gaia16asc, Gaia16ase, Gaia16asj and Gaia16ask. Images were obtained in G and R bands of the Maia instrument mounted to the Flemish 1.2m Mercator telescope at Roque de los Muchachos observatory, La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain, on 2016 July 02 - 04. These new sources are supernovae candidates near galaxies and they are not visible in archival 2MASS and DSS images: Gaia16asc, Gaia16ase, Gaia16asj and Gaia16ask.

  15. The N=16 subshell closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sequence of magic numbers for stable nuclei is now well understood. However the magnitude of shell gap may evolve from stability to drip line. Several observables show that N = 16 neutron-rich isotones present a higher stability compared to their neighbors on the N-Z chart. The spectroscopy of the levels of Ne27, involving sd and fp shells, has allowed us to study the evolution of the nuclear shells responsible for the structure changes in N 16 isotones. In this framework we have studied the neutron transfer reaction Ne26(d,p)Ne27 by inverted kinematics at 9,7 MeV/u. A cryogenic D2 target (17 mg.cm-2) has been used. The use of the magnetic spectrometer Vamos and that of the Exogam photon detector in coincidence operating mode has allowed us to achieve the spectroscopy of Ne27. The results show a reduction in the gap between sd and fp shells for N = 17 isotones as we go from stability toward the neutron drip line. We have also performed a theoretical study in mean-field theory and beyond it through configuration mixing so that we can see the evolution of the isospin of the N = 16 subshell's closure. We have used a HFB (Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov) with the finite range D1S effective interaction. (A.C.)

  16. Opportunities and Challenges for Being a Carbon Black Great Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    1. The "Uth Five-year Plan" Lay- ing the Foundation for Carbon Black Great Power 1.1 Rapid growth of carbon black output and production capacity During the "llth Five-year Plan" Period, China carbon black output was increased by 1.1 times and realized doubling; and the production capacity of carbon black realized an average annu- al growth of 16.9%. In 2011, the carbon black output was 3.853 million tons, increased by 14.2% compared with that of the last year, and the pro- portion of carbon black output in the world carbon black output was increased from 16% to 36%. The carbon black production capacity was 5.345 mil- lion tons, increased by 6% compared with that of the last year, and the proportion of carbon black production capacity in the world carbon black out- put reached 38%. Chinese carbon black output has been ranking the 1st place throughout the world for 6 years successively, and China has become a great power of carbon black production in the world.

  17. Controllable fabrication of carbon aerogels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ya'ning; MIAO Lei; TANEMURA Sakae; TANEMURA Masaki; SUZUKI Kenzi

    2006-01-01

    Nano-pore carbon aerogels were prepared by the sol-gel polymerization of resorcinol (1,3-dihydroxybenzene)(C6H4(OH)2) with formaldehyde (HCHO) in a slightly basic aqueous solution, followed by super-critical drying under liquid carbon dioxide as super-critical media and carbonization at 700 ℃ under N2 gas atmosphere. The key of the work is to fabricate carbon aerogels with controllable nano-pore structure, which means extremely high surface area and sharp pore size distribution. Aiming to investigate the effects of preparation conditions on the gelation process, the bulk density, and the physical and chemical structure of the resultant carbon aerogels, the molar ratio of R/C (resorcinol to catalyst) and the amount of distilled water were varied, consequently two different sets of samples, with series of R/C ratio and RF/W (Resorcinol-Formaldehyde to water, or the content of reactant) ratio, were prepared. The result of N2 adsorption/desorption experiment at 77 K shows that the pore sizes decreasing from 11.4 down tO2.2 nm with the increasing of the molar ratio of R/C from 100 to 400, and/or, the pore sizes decreasing from 3.8 down to 1.6 nm with the increasing of reactant content from 0.4 to 0.6.

  18. Carbon classified?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    . Using an actor- network theory (ANT) framework, the aim is to investigate the actors who bring together the elements needed to classify their carbon emission sources and unpack the heterogeneous relations drawn on. Based on an ethnographic study of corporate agents of ecological modernisation over...... a period of 13 months, this paper provides an exploration of three cases of enacting classification. Drawing on ANT, we problematise the silencing of a range of possible modalities of consumption facts and point to the ontological ethics involved in such performances. In a context of global warming...

  19. Characterization of an extracellular lipase and its chaperone from Ralstonia eutropha H16

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Jingnan; Brigham, Christopher J.; Rha, ChoKyun; Sinskey, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Lipase enzymes catalyze the reversible hydrolysis of triacylglycerol to fatty acids and glycerol at the lipid–water interface. The metabolically versatile Ralstonia eutropha strain H16 is capable of utilizing various molecules containing long carbon chains such as plant oil, organic acids, or Tween as its sole carbon source for growth. Global gene expression analysis revealed an upregulation of two putative lipase genes during growth on trioleate. Through analysis of growth and activity using...

  20. Physical and nutrient data collected from CTD and bottle casts from the R/V HERMANO GINES from the continental shelf of Venezuela in the Caribbean Sea in support of the project: Carbon Retention in a Colored Ocean (CARIACO) from 16 March 2006 to 06 March 2007 (NODC Accession 0014920)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and bottle data were collected from the R/V HERMANO GINES in the Caribbean Sea on the continental shelf of Venezuela from 16 March 2006 to 06 March 2007. Data...

  1. Carbon Nanomembranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchanin, Andrey; Gölzhäuser, Armin

    2016-08-01

    Carbon nanomembranes (CNMs) are synthetic 2D carbon sheets with tailored physical or chemical properties. These depend on the structure, molecular composition, and surroundings on either side. Due to their molecular thickness, they can be regarded as "interfaces without bulk" separating regions of different gaseous, liquid, or solid components and controlling the materials exchange between them. Here, a universal scheme for the fabrication of 1 nm-thick, mechanically stable, functional CNMs is presented. CNMs can be further modified, for example perforated by ion bombardment or chemically functionalized by the binding of other molecules onto the surfaces. The underlying physical and chemical mechanisms are described, and examples are presented for the engineering of complex surface architectures, e.g., nanopatterns of proteins, fluorescent dyes, or polymer brushes. A simple transfer procedure allows CNMs to be placed on various support structures, which makes them available for diverse applications: supports for electron and X-ray microscopy, nanolithography, nanosieves, Janus nanomembranes, polymer carpets, complex layered structures, functionalization of graphene, novel nanoelectronic and nanomechanical devices. To close, the potential of CNMs in filtration and sensorics is discussed. Based on tests for the separation of gas molecules, it is argued that ballistic membranes may play a prominent role in future efforts of materials separation. PMID:27281234

  2. Crystal structure and electronic properties of the new compounds, U 6Fe 16Si 7 and its interstitial carbide U 6Fe 16Si 7C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthebaud, D.; Tougait, O.; Potel, M.; Lopes, E. B.; Gonçalves, A. P.; Noël, H.

    2007-10-01

    The new compounds U6Fe16Si7 and U6Fe16Si7C were prepared by arc-melting and subsequent annealing at 1500 °C. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction showed that they crystallize in the cubic space group Fm3¯m (No. 225), with unit-cell parameters at room temperature a=11.7206(5) Å for U6Fe16Si7 and a=11.7814(2) Å for U6Fe16Si7C. Their crystal structures correspond to ordered variants of the Th6Mn23 type. U6Fe16Si7 adopts the Mg6Cu16Si7 structure type, whereas U6Fe16Si7C crystallizes with a novel "filled" quaternary variant. The inserted carbon is located in octahedral cages formed by six U atoms, with U-U interatomic distances of 3.509(1) Å. Insertion of carbon in the structure of U6Fe16Si7 has a direct influence on the U-Fe and Fe-Fe interatomic distances. The electronic properties of both compounds were investigated by means of DC susceptibility, electrical resistivity and thermopower. U6Fe16Si7 is a Pauli paramagnet. Its electrical resistivity and thermopower point out that it cannot be classified as a simple metal. The magnetic susceptibility of U 6Fe 16Si 7C is best described over the temperature range 100-300 K by using a modified Curie-Weiss law with an effective magnetic moment of 2.3(2) μB/U, a paramagnetic Weiss temperature, θp=57(2) K and a temperature-independent term χ0=0.057(1) emu/mol. Both the electrical resistivity and thermopower reveal metallic behavior.

  3. Trading forest carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...

  4. Carbon Farming as a Carbon Negative Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.; Laird, D.; Hayes, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon farms have a pivotal role in national and international efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change. A carbon farm in its broadest sense is one that reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or captures and holds carbon in vegetation and soils. Their capacity to remove carbon from the air and store it safely and permanently, while providing additional human and ecosystem benefits, means they could contribute significantly to national efforts to stabilize or reduce GHGs. We examine carbon farms in the context of corn and soybean production agriculture. We illustrate, using Iowa data but with relevance across United States corn and soybean production, the potential for carbon farms to reduce human GHG emissions and sequester carbon permanently at a rate that has meaningful impact on global greenhouse gas concentration. Carbon has been viewed as a next generation cash crop in Iowa for over a decade. The carbon farm perspective, however, goes beyond carbon as cash crop to make carbon the center of an entire farm enterprise. The transformation is possible through slight adjustment crop practices mixed with advances in technology to sequester carbon through biochar. We examine carbon balance of Iowa agriculture given only the combination of slight reduction in fertilizer and sequestration by biochar. We find the following. Iowa carbon farms could turn Iowa agriculture into a carbon sink. The estimated range of GHG reduction by statewide implementation of carbon farms is 19.46 to 90.27 MMt CO2-equivalent (CO2-e), while the current agricultural CO2-e emission estimate is 35.38 MMt CO2-e. Iowa carbon farm GHG reduction would exceed Iowa GHG reduction by wind energy (8.7 MMt CO2-e) and could exceed combined reductions from wind energy and corn grain ethanol (10.7 MMt CO2-e; 19.4 MMt CO2-e combined). In fact, Iowa carbon farms alone could exceed GHG reduction from national corn grain ethanol production (39.6 MMt CO2-e). A carbon price accessible to agricultural

  5. Synthesis pf dimethyl carbonate in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballivet-Tkatchenko, D.; Plasseraud, L. [Universite de Bourgogne-UFR Sciences et Techniques, Dijon (France). Lab. de Synthese et Electrosynthese Organometalliques]. E-mail: ballivet@u-bourgogne.fr; Ligabue, R.A. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Pura

    2006-01-15

    The reactivity of carbon dioxide with methanol to form dimethyl carbonate was studied in the presence of the n-butylmethoxytin compounds n-Bu{sub 3}SnOCH{sub 3}, n-Bu{sub 2}Sn(OCH{sub 3}){sub 2}, and [n-Bu{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}O)Sn]{sub 2}O. The reaction occurred under solventless conditions at 423 K and was produced by an increase in CO{sub 2} pressure. This beneficial effect is primarily attributed to phase behavior. The mass transfer under liquid-vapor biphasic conditions was not limiting when the system reached the supercritical state for a CO{sub 2} pressure higher than 16 MPa. Under these conditions, CO{sub 2} acted as a reactant and a solvent. (author)

  6. Synthesis of dimethyl carbonate in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ballivet-Tkatchenko

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The reactivity of carbon dioxide with methanol to form dimethyl carbonate was studied in the presence of the n-butylmethoxytin compounds n-Bu3SnOCH3, n-Bu2Sn(OCH32 , and [n-Bu2(CH3OSn]2 O. The reaction occurred under solventless conditions at 423 K and was produced by an increase in CO2 pressure. This beneficial effect is primarily attributed to phase behavior. The mass transfer under liquid-vapor biphasic conditions was not limiting when the system reached the supercritical state for a CO2 pressure higher than 16 MPa. Under these conditions, CO2 acted as a reactant and a solvent.

  7. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  8. Carbon Monoxide (CO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IAQ) » Carbon Monoxide's Impact on Indoor Air Quality Carbon Monoxide's Impact on Indoor Air Quality On this ... length of exposure. Top of Page Sources of Carbon Monoxide Sources of CO include: unvented kerosene and ...

  9. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is Carbon Monoxide? Carbon monoxide, or “CO,” is an odorless, colorless gas that can kill you. Carbon monoxide detector Where is CO found? CO is ...

  10. Integral Ring Carbon-Carbon Piston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved structure for a reciprocating internal combustion engine or compressor piston fabricate from carbon-carbon composite materials is disclosed. An integral ring carbon-carbon composite piston, disclosed herein, reduces the need for piston rings and for small clearances by providing a small flexible, integral component around the piston that allows for variation in clearance due to manufacturing tolerances, distortion due to pressure and thermal loads, and variations in thermal expansion differences between the piston and cylinder liner.

  11. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    OpenAIRE

    Huijgen, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept behind mineral CO2 sequestration is the mimicking of natural weathering processes in which calcium or magnesium containing minerals react with gaseous CO2 and form solid calcium or magnesium carbonate...

  12. Carbon Residence Times in Pedogenic Carbonate Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monger, H.; Feng, Y.; Karnjanapiboonwang, A.

    2013-12-01

    Soil carbonate is a huge pool of terrestrial carbon that contains at least 930 to 940 Pg C and has influx rates on the order of 1 to 12 g CaCO3/m2/yr. Such large mass to flux ratios yield long mean residence times for carbon (e.g., 85,000 years)--assuming steady state. Like other global carbon pools, the soil carbonate pool has smaller sub-pools with higher influx rates and shorter mean residence times. For example, pedogenic carbonate in coppice dunes known to have formed since 1858 and carbonate formed on lithic artifacts in soils at archaeology sites suggests mean residence times can be as short as 120 years--again assuming steady state. Harder to assess are efflux rates as CO2 emissions or bicarbonate leaching. Some Bowen-ratio studies have nevertheless found evidence for CO2 emissions resulting from carbonate dissolution, and other studies have found evidence for bicarbonate leaching based on dissolution pipes through calcic horizons using soil morphology studies. Since an understanding of mean residence times are prerequisite for a better understanding of soil carbonate in the global carbon cycle, especially in a scenario of an expanding Aridosphere, more influx and efflux measurements are needed to evaluate the possibility of carbon sequestration by soil carbonate in hyperarid, arid, semiarid, or subhumid soils.

  13. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept beh

  14. VERSIONS OF 802.16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajinder Kumar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WIMAX which is currently employed in some parts of the world is the new era of communication. It is approved by IEEE 802.16 group and is the latest technology which is a standard for point-to-multipoint wireless networking. To deliver “last mile” broadband connectivity to home or business locations is the vision of Wimax, also its data rates can be compared with Cable and Digital Subscriber line (DSL rates. When you are roaming outside home or office, it has the capability which can connect to the ISP (Internet Service Provider. To avert the impending crisis of rural connectivity, the Wimax technology is becoming the way i.e. till the last mile it will be accessible. WiMAX will offer broadband wireless access at data rates of multiple Mbit/s to the end-user and within a range of several kilometers for which we can be thankful to its innovative technology,. With an optimized trade off between throughput and coverage the same radio technology will also offer high-speed data services to all nomadic terminals (laptops, PDAs, etc.. This paper explains about the Wimax, its uses, different versions and its future development.

  15. 22 CFR 18.16 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 18.16 Section 18.16 Foreign Relations... Enforcement Proceedings § 18.16 Evidence. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law and equity are not controlling in hearings under this part. However, the hearing examiner shall exclude evidence which...

  16. 32 CFR 637.16 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Evidence. 637.16 Section 637.16 National Defense... INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.16 Evidence. Military police are authorized to receive, process, safeguard and dispose of evidence, to include non-narcotic controlled substances,...

  17. 14 CFR 16.223 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... party other than the agency except as provided in Department of Transportation regulations at 49 CFR... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 16.223 Section 16.223 Aeronautics... PRACTICE FOR FEDERALLY-ASSISTED AIRPORT ENFORCEMENT PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 16.223 Evidence. (a) General....

  18. 22 CFR 309.16 - Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Review. 309.16 Section 309.16 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 309.16 Review. (a) Request for outside hearing. Except as... hearing or a review of the documentary evidence is requested. If an oral hearing is desired, the...

  19. 31 CFR 6.16 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 6.16 Section 6.16... EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Procedures for Considering Applications § 6.16 Judicial review. Judicial review of final agency decisions on awards may be sought as provided in 5 U.S.C. 504(c)(2)....

  20. 31 CFR 16.42 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 16.42 Section 16.42... FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 16.42 Judicial review. Section 3805 of title 31, United States Code, authorizes judicial review by an appropriate United States District Court of a final decision of...

  1. 9 CFR 352.16 - Exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND HORSES; VOLUNTARY INSPECTION Exotic Animals § 352.16 Exports. This shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions contained in 9 CFR 322.1 through 322.5. ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exports. 352.16 Section 352.16...

  2. 27 CFR 16.31 - Exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports. 16.31 Section 16... TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT General Provisions § 16.31 Exports. The..., bottled, or labeled for export from the United States, or for delivery to a vessel or aircraft,...

  3. 31 CFR 16.25 - Fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fees. 16.25 Section 16.25 Money and... REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 16.25 Fees. The party requesting a subpoena shall pay the cost of the fees and... United States District Court. A check for witness fees and mileage shall accompany the subpoena...

  4. 7 CFR 983.16 - Inshell pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inshell pistachios. 983.16 Section 983.16 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.16 Inshell pistachios. Inshell pistachios means pistachios...

  5. 14 CFR 43.16 - Airworthiness limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airworthiness limitations. 43.16 Section 43.16 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION § 43.16 Airworthiness limitations. Each...

  6. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  7. 22 CFR 230.16 - Governing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 230.16 Section 230.16 Foreign... SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUB. L. 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States...

  8. 5 CFR 2504.16 - Appeals process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appeals process. 2504.16 Section 2504.16 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 2504.16 Appeals process. (a) Within 20 work days of receiving the request for review, a review...

  9. 39 CFR 957.16 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 957.16 Section 957.16 Postal Service... SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.16 Evidence. (a) Except as otherwise provided in the rules in this part, the rules of evidence governing civil proceedings in matters not involving trial by jury in the...

  10. 7 CFR 1205.16 - Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order. 1205.16 Section 1205.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.16 Order. The term Order means the...

  11. 21 CFR 26.16 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 26.16 Section 26.16 Food and Drugs... Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.16 Suspension. (a) Each party has the right... after such notification, the contested authority will be suspended. (d) Upon the suspension of...

  12. 29 CFR 1955.16 - Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time. 1955.16 Section 1955.16 Labor Regulations Relating to...) PROCEDURES FOR WITHDRAWAL OF APPROVAL OF STATE PLANS Notice of Formal Proceeding § 1955.16 Time. Computation of any period of time under these rules shall begin with the first business day following that...

  13. 10 CFR 1022.16 - Variances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... such an action) DOE shall document the emergency actions in accordance with NEPA procedures at 10 CFR... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variances. 1022.16 Section 1022.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Procedures for Floodplain and Wetland Reviews § 1022.16 Variances. (a) Emergency actions. DOE may...

  14. 29 CFR 788.16 - Employment relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment relationship. 788.16 Section 788.16 Labor... MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.16 Employment relationship. (a) The Supreme Court has made... an independent contractor, but that the “total situation controls” (see Rutherford Food Corp. v....

  15. 49 CFR 192.16 - Customer notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer notification. 192.16 Section 192.16... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 192.16 Customer notification. (a) This section applies to each operator of a service line who does not maintain the customer's buried piping...

  16. 25 CFR 141.16 - Price marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Price marking. 141.16 Section 141.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.16 Price marking. The price of each...

  17. 29 CFR 457.16 - Chief, DOE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chief, DOE. 457.16 Section 457.16 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STANDARDS OF CONDUCT GENERAL Meaning of Terms as Used in This Chapter § 457.16 Chief, DOE. Chief, DOE means the Chief of the...

  18. 7 CFR 29.16 - Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Division. 29.16 Section 29.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.16 Division. Tobacco Division, Agricultural Marketing Service,...

  19. 12 CFR 1261.16 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 1261.16 Section 1261.16 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK DIRECTORS Federal Home Loan Bank Boards of Directors: Eligibility and Elections § 1261.16...

  20. 7 CFR 989.16 - Blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blend. 989.16 Section 989.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.16 Blend. Blend means to mix or commingle raisins....

  1. 7 CFR 550.16 - Project development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project development. 550.16 Section 550.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 550.16 Project development. REE provides partial funding to Cooperators to support research...

  2. 9 CFR 313.16 - Mechanical; gunshot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mechanical; gunshot. 313.16 Section 313.16 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.16 Mechanical; gunshot. The slaughtering...

  3. 38 CFR 3.16 - Service pension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Service pension. 3.16 Section 3.16 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.16 Service pension. In computing the 70...

  4. 49 CFR 512.16 - Class determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class determinations. 512.16 Section 512.16... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONFIDENTIAL BUSINESS INFORMATION Agency Determination § 512.16 Class determinations. (a) The Chief Counsel may issue class determinations of categories of...

  5. 50 CFR 1.6 - Person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Person. 1.6 Section 1.6 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.6 Person. Person means an individual, club, association, partnership, corporation, or private...

  6. 12 CFR 583.16 - Person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Person. 583.16 Section 583.16 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.16 Person. The term person means an individual or company....

  7. 49 CFR 511.16 - Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service. 511.16 Section 511.16 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Pleadings; Form; Execution; Service of Documents § 511.16 Service. (a) Mandatory service. Every document filed with the Office of Hearings shall be...

  8. 15 CFR 16.12 - Consumer education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer education. 16.12 Section 16.12 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR A VOLUNTARY CONSUMER PRODUCT INFORMATION LABELING PROGRAM § 16.12 Consumer education. The Secretary, in close cooperation...

  9. 12 CFR 602.16 - Combining requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combining requests. 602.16 Section 602.16 Banks....16 Combining requests. You may not avoid paying fees by filing multiple requests at the same time... of requests to avoid fees, we will combine the requests and charge accordingly. We will assume...

  10. 45 CFR 1156.16 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mediation. 1156.16 Section 1156.16 Public Welfare... Procedures § 1156.16 Mediation. (a) Referral of complaints for mediation. The Endowment will promptly refer all complaints to the agency designated by the Secretary of HHS to manage the mediation process...

  11. 45 CFR 16.18 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mediation. 16.18 Section 16.18 Public Welfare... BOARD § 16.18 Mediation. (a) In cases pending before the Board. If the Board decides that mediation... mediation techniques and will provide or assist in selecting a mediator. The mediator may take any...

  12. 10 CFR 602.16 - National security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National security. 602.16 Section 602.16 Energy DEPARTMENT... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.16 National security. Activities under the Epidemiology and Other Health Studies..., Formerly Restricted Data, National Security Information). However, if in the opinion of the recipient...

  13. 29 CFR 1919.16 - Heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.16 Section 1919.16 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels' Cargo Gear § 1919.16 Heat treatment. (a) All chains...

  14. 48 CFR 16.203-1 - Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Description. 16.203-1 Section 16.203-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 16.203-1 Description. (a) A...

  15. 48 CFR 16.207-1 - Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Description. 16.207-1 Section 16.207-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 16.207-1 Description. A...

  16. 48 CFR 16.206-1 - Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Description. 16.206-1 Section 16.206-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 16.206-1 Description. A...

  17. 48 CFR 16.202-1 - Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Description. 16.202-1 Section 16.202-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 16.202-1 Description. A...

  18. 48 CFR 16.205-1 - Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Description. 16.205-1 Section 16.205-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 16.205-1 Description. A...

  19. 48 CFR 16.301-1 - Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Description. 16.301-1 Section 16.301-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 16.301-1 Description....

  20. 30 CFR 880.16 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 17) and shall give assurances of compliance in such form as may be required by the Director. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 880.16 Section 880.16 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION MINE FIRE CONTROL § 880.16 Civil rights. State and local authorities shall comply...

  1. 31 CFR 16.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 16.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 16.21 Section 16.21 Money... to require the creation of a document. (c) Unless mutually agreed to by the parties, discovery...

  2. Carbon isotopic fractionation in heterotrophic microbial metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, N.; Leu, A.; Munoz, E.; Olsen, J.; Kwong, E.; Des Marais, D.

    1985-01-01

    Differences in the natural-abundance carbon stable isotopic compositions between products from aerobic cultures of Escherichia coli K-12 were measured. Respired CO2 was 3.4 percent depleted in C-13 relative to the glucose used as the carbon source, whereas the acetate was 12.3 percent enriched in C-13. The acetate C-13 enrichment was solely in the carboxyl group. Even though the total cellular carbon was only 0.6 percent depleted in C-13, intracellular components exhibited a significant isotopic heterogeneity. The protein and lipid fractions were -1.1 and -2.7 percent, respectively. Aspartic and glutamic acids were -1.6 and +2.7 percent, respectively, yet citrate was isotopically identical to the glucose. Probable sites of carbon isotopic fractionation include the enzyme, phosphotransacetylase, and the Krebs cycle.

  3. Detection of abundant CO2 ice in the quiescent dark cloud medium toward Elias 16

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whittet, DCB; Gerakines, PA; Tielens, AGGM; Adamson, AJ; Boogert, ACA; Chiar, JE; de Graauw, T; Ehrenfreund, P; Prusti, T; Schutte, WA; Vandenbussche, B; van Dishoeck, EF

    1998-01-01

    We report the first detection of solid carbon dioxide (CO2) in quiescent regions of a dark cloud in the solar neighborhood, a result that has important implications for models of ice formation and evolution in the interstellar medium. The K-type field star Elias 16 was previously known to display so

  4. From carbon nanotubes to carbon atomic chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas García, Gilberto; Zhang, Weijia; José-Yacamán, Miguel

    2010-10-01

    Carbyne is a linear allotrope of carbon. It is formed by a linear arrangement of carbon atoms with sp-hybridization. We present a reliable and reproducible experiment to obtain these carbon atomic chains using few-layer-graphene (FLG) sheets and a HRTEM. First the FLG sheets were synthesized from worm-like exfoliated graphite and then drop-casted on a lacey-carbon copper grid. Once in the TEM, two holes are opened near each other in a FLG sheet by focusing the electron beam into a small spot. Due to the radiation, the carbon atoms rearrange themselves between the two holes and form carbon fibers. The beam is concentrated on the carbon fibers in order excite the atoms and induce a tension until multi wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) is formed. As the radiation continues the MWCNT breaks down until there is only a single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT). Then, when the SWCNT breaks, an atomic carbon chain is formed, lasts for several seconds under the radiation and finally breaks. This demonstrates the stability of this carbon structure.

  5. Highlights of Astronomy, Vol. 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montmerle, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Part I. Invited Discourses: 1. The Herschel view of star formation; 2. Past, present and future of Chinese astronomy; 3. The zoo of galaxies; 4. Supernovae, the accelerating cosmos, and dark energy; Part II. Joint Discussion: 5. Very massive stars in the local universe; 6. 3-D views of the cycling Sun in stellar context; 7. Ultraviolet emission in early-type galaxies; 8. From meteors and meteorites to their parent bodies: current status and future developments; 9. The connection between radio properties and high-energy emission in AGNs; 10. Space-time reference systems for future research; Part III. Special Sessions: 11. Origin and complexity of massive star clusters; 12. Cosmic evolution of groups and clusters of galaxies; 13. Galaxy evolution through secular processes; 14. New era for studying interstellar and intergalactic magnetic fields; 15. The IR view of massive stars: the main sequence and beyond; 16. Science with large solar telescopes; 17. The impact hazard: current activities and future plans; 18. Calibration of star-formation rate measurements across the electromagnetic spectrum; 19. Future large scale facilities; 20. Dynamics of the star-planet relations strategic plan and the Global Office of Astronomy for Development; 21. Strategic plan and the Global Office of Astronomy for Development; 22. Modern views of the interstellar medium; 23. High-precision tests of stellar physics from high-precision photometry; 24. Communicating astronomy with the public for scientists; 25. Data intensive astronomy; 26. Unexplained spectral phenomena in the interstellar medium; 27. Light pollution: protecting astronomical sites and increasing global awareness through education.

  6. Carbon nanotube composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2015-03-24

    A material consisting essentially of a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes dissolved in a solvent. Un-functionalized carbon nanotube concentrations up to 30 wt % and hydroxylated carbon nanotube concentrations up to 40 wt % can be used with even small concentrations of each (less than 2 wt %) useful in producing enhanced conductivity properties of formed thin films.

  7. Mutagenicity of carbon nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallin, Håkan; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; White, Paul A;

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials such carbon nanotubes, graphene and fullerenes are some the most promising nanomaterials. Although carbon nanomaterials have been reported to possess genotoxic potential, it is imperitive to analyse the data on the genotoxicity of carbon nanomaterials in vivo and in vitro...

  8. MOPITT Mechanisms 16 Years In-Orbit Operation on TERRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Andrew S.; Nichitiu, Florian; Caldwell, Dwight

    2016-01-01

    The 16th anniversary of the launch of NASA's Terra Spacecraft was marked on December 18, 2015, with the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument being a successful contributor to the NASA EOS flagship. MOPITT has been enabled by a large suite of mechanisms, allowing the instrument to perform long-duration monitoring of atmospheric carbon monoxide, providing global measurements of this important greenhouse gas for 16 years. Mechanisms have been successfully employed for scanning, cooling of detectors, and to optically modulate the gas path length within the instrument by means of pressure and gas cell length variation. The instrument utilizes these devices to perform correlation spectroscopy, enabling measurements with vertical resolution from the nadir view, and has thereby furthered understanding of source and global transport effects of carbon monoxide. Given the design requirement for a 5.25-year lifetime, the stability and performance of the majority of mechanisms have far surpassed design goals. With 16 continuously operating mechanisms in service on MOPITT, including 12 rotating mechanisms and 4 with linear drive elements, the instrument was an ambitious undertaking. The long life requirements combined with demands for cleanliness and optical stability made for difficult design choices including that of the selection of new lubrication processes. Observations and lessons learned with regards to many aspects of the mechanisms and associated monitoring devices are discussed here. Mechanism behaviors are described, including anomalies, long-term drive current/power, fill pressure, vibration and cold-tip temperature trends. The effectiveness of particular lubrication formulations and the screening method implemented is discussed in relation to continuous rotating mechanisms and stepper motors, which have exceeded 15 billon rotations and 2.5 billion steps respectively. Aspects of gas cell hermeticity, optical cleanliness, heater problems

  9. Electroanalysis with carbon paste electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Svancara, Ivan; Walcarius, Alain; Vytras, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Electrochemistry and Electroanalysis with Carbon Paste-Based ElectrodesHistorical Survey and GlossaryField in Publication Activities and LiteratureCarbon Pastes and Carbon Paste ElectrodesCarbon Paste as the Binary MixtureClassification of Carbon Pastes and Carbon Paste ElectrodesConstruction of Carbon Paste HoldersCarbon Paste as the Electrode MaterialPhysicochemical Properties of Carbon PastesElectrochemical Characteristics of Carbon PastesTesting of Unmodified CPEsIntera

  10. CO2 capture in different carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Vicente; Ramírez-Lucas, Ana; Díaz, José Antonio; Sánchez, Paula; Romero, Amaya

    2012-07-01

    In this work, the CO(2) capture capacity of different types of carbon nanofibers (platelet, fishbone, and ribbon) and amorphous carbon have been measured at 26 °C as at different pressures. The results showed that the more graphitic carbon materials adsorbed less CO(2) than more amorphous materials. Then, the aim was to improve the CO(2) adsorption capacity of the carbon materials by increasing the porosity during the chemical activation process. After chemical activation process, the amorphous carbon and platelet CNFs increased the CO(2) adsorption capacity 1.6 times, whereas fishbone and ribbon CNFs increased their CO(2) adsorption capacity 1.1 and 8.2 times, respectively. This increase of CO(2) adsorption capacity after chemical activation was due to an increase of BET surface area and pore volume in all carbon materials. Finally, the CO(2) adsorption isotherms showed that activated amorphous carbon exhibited the best CO(2) capture capacity with 72.0 wt % of CO(2) at 26 °C and 8 bar.

  11. Mesoporous carbon materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng; Fulvio, Pasquale Fernando; Mayes, Richard T.; Wang, Xiqing; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Bingkun

    2014-09-09

    A conductive mesoporous carbon composite comprising conductive carbon nanoparticles contained within a mesoporous carbon matrix, wherein the conductive mesoporous carbon composite possesses at least a portion of mesopores having a pore size of at least 10 nm and up to 50 nm, and wherein the mesopores are either within the mesoporous carbon matrix, or are spacings delineated by surfaces of said conductive carbon nanoparticles when said conductive carbon nanoparticles are fused with each other, or both. Methods for producing the above-described composite, devices incorporating them (e.g., lithium batteries), and methods of using them, are also described.

  12. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  13. Effect of carbon dioxide concentration on the bioleaching of a pyrite-arsenopyrite ore concentrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, S.; Dahlstrom, D. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States)); Oolman, T. (Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States))

    1993-02-20

    The effect of carbon dioxide concentration on the bacterial leaching of a pyrite-arsenopyrite ore concentrate was studied in continuous-flow reactors. Steady-state operation with two feed slurry densities, 6 wt% and 16wt% solids, were tested for the effect of carbon dioxide concentration. Bacterial growth rates were estimated via the measurement of carbon dioxide consumption rates. Aqueous-phase carbon dioxide concentrations in excess of 10 mg/L were found to be inhibitory to bacterial growth.

  14. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    carbon budget. For the last decade available (2005-2014), EFF was 9.0 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 4.4 ± 0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1. For the year 2014 alone, EFF grew to 9.8 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, 0.6 % above 2013, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, albeit at a slower rate compared to the average growth of 2.2 % yr-1 that took place during 2005-2014. Also, for 2014, ELUC was 1.1 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 3.9 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 4.1 ± 0.9 GtC yr-1. GATM was lower in 2014 compared to the past decade (2005-2014), reflecting a larger SLAND for that year. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 397.15 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2014. For 2015, preliminary data indicate that the growth in EFF will be near or slightly below zero, with a projection of -0.6 [range of -1.6 to +0.5] %, based on national emissions projections for China and the USA, and projections of gross domestic product corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy for the rest of the world. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2015, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 555 ± 55 GtC (2035 ± 205 GtCO2) for 1870-2015, about 75 % from EFF and 25 % from ELUC. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2015, 2014, 2013). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2015).

  15. Layered graphene structure of a hexagonal carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bin, E-mail: beenchang@nuaa.edu.cn

    2013-06-01

    Experiments show that there is a novel hexagonal carbon polymorph restricted to the space group of P-62c, but the detailed atomic structure is not determined. Here we set carbon atoms occupying P-62c 4f or P-62c 2c and 2d Wyckoff positions, and calculate the total energy of the different cell structures changing the internal parameter by first-principles calculations, which demonstrates that the stable structures in energy (at local minima) are hexagonal carbon (P-62c 2c and 2d) and hexagonal diamond (P-62c 4f, z=1/16). The calculated bulk modulus 437±16 GPa and interlayer distance 2.062 Å of the layered graphene structure P-62c 2c and 2d are in good agreement with those of the proposed new carbon, which indicates that P-62c 2c and 2d is a possible precursor or intermediate hard phase during the structural transformation of carbon.

  16. Layered graphene structure of a hexagonal carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments show that there is a novel hexagonal carbon polymorph restricted to the space group of P-62c, but the detailed atomic structure is not determined. Here we set carbon atoms occupying P-62c 4f or P-62c 2c and 2d Wyckoff positions, and calculate the total energy of the different cell structures changing the internal parameter by first-principles calculations, which demonstrates that the stable structures in energy (at local minima) are hexagonal carbon (P-62c 2c and 2d) and hexagonal diamond (P-62c 4f, z=1/16). The calculated bulk modulus 437±16 GPa and interlayer distance 2.062 Å of the layered graphene structure P-62c 2c and 2d are in good agreement with those of the proposed new carbon, which indicates that P-62c 2c and 2d is a possible precursor or intermediate hard phase during the structural transformation of carbon

  17. 16 CFR 460.16 - What new home sellers must tell new home buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What new home sellers must tell new home buyers. 460.16 Section 460.16 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.16 What new home sellers must tell new home buyers....

  18. Astrophysical S-factor for 16O+16O within the adiabatic molecular picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The astrophysical S-factor for 16O+16O is investigated within the adiabatic molecular picture. It very well explains the available experimental data. The collective radial mass causes a pronounced resonant structure in the S-factor excitation function, providing a motivation for measuring the 16O+16O fusion cross section at deep sub-barrier energies. (author)

  19. Adsorption of Carbon Dioxide on Activated Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Guo; Liping Chang; Kechang Xie

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption of CO2 on a raw activated carbon A and three modified activated carbon samples B, C, and D at temperatures ranging from 303 to 333 K and the thermodynamics of adsorption have been investigated using a vacuum adsorption apparatus in order to obtain more information about the effect of CO2 on removal of organic sulfur-containing compounds in industrial gases. The active ingredients impregnated in the carbon samples show significant influence on the adsorption for CO2 and its volumes adsorbed on modified carbon samples B, C, and D are all larger than that on the raw carbon sample A. On the other hand, the physical parameters such as surface area, pore volume, and micropore volume of carbon samples show no influence on the adsorbed amount of CO2. The Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) equation was the best model for fitting the adsorption data on carbon samples A and B, while the Freundlich equation was the best fit for the adsorption on carbon samples C and D. The isosteric heats of adsorption on carbon samples A, B, C, and D derived from the adsorption isotherms using the Clapeyron equation decreased slightly increasing surface loading. The heat of adsorption lay between 10.5 and 28.4 kJ/mol, with the carbon sample D having the highest value at all surface coverages that were studied. The observed entropy change associated with the adsorption for the carbon samples A, B, and C (above the surface coverage of 7 ml/g) was lower than the theoretical value for mobile adsorption. However, it was higher than the theoretical value for mobile adsorption but lower than the theoretical value for localized adsorption for carbon sample D.

  20. Accelerating Mineral Carbonation Using Carbonic Anhydrase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Ian M; Harrison, Anna L; Dipple, Gregory M

    2016-03-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes have gained considerable attention for their potential use in carbon dioxide (CO2) capture technologies because they are able to catalyze rapidly the interconversion of aqueous CO2 and bicarbonate. However, there are challenges for widespread implementation including the need to develop mineralization process routes for permanent carbon storage. Mineral carbonation of highly reactive feedstocks may be limited by the supply rate of CO2. This rate limitation can be directly addressed by incorporating enzyme-catalyzed CO2 hydration. This study examined the effects of bovine carbonic anhydrase (BCA) and CO2-rich gas streams on the carbonation rate of brucite [Mg(OH)2], a highly reactive mineral. Alkaline brucite slurries were amended with BCA and supplied with 10% CO2 gas while aqueous chemistry and solids were monitored throughout the experiments (hours to days). In comparison to controls, brucite carbonation using BCA was accelerated by up to 240%. Nesquehonite [MgCO3·3H2O] precipitation limited the accumulation of hydrated CO2 species, apparently preventing BCA from catalyzing the dehydration reaction. Geochemical models reproduce observed reaction progress in all experiments, revealing a linear correlation between CO2 uptake and carbonation rate. Data demonstrates that carbonation in BCA-amended reactors remained limited by CO2 supply, implying further acceleration is possible. PMID:26829491

  1. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.

    2012-04-10

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  2. Evaluating Soil Carbon Sequestration in Central Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doraiswamy, P. C.; Hunt, E. R.; McCarty, G. W.; Daughtry, C. S.; Izaurralde, C.

    2005-12-01

    The potential for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration through landuse and management of agricultural systems is of great interest worldwide. Agricultural soils can be a source of CO2 when not properly managed but can also be a sink for sequestering CO2 through proper soil and crop management. The EPIC-CENTURY biogeochemical model was used to simulate the baseline level of soil carbon from soil survey data and project changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) under different tillage and crop management practices for corn and soybean crops. The study was conducted in central Iowa (50 km x 100 km) to simulate changes in soil carbon over the next 50 years. The simulations were conducted in two phases; initially a 25-year period (1971-1995) was simulated using conventional tillage practices since there was a transition in new management after 1995. In the second 25-year period (1996-2020), four different modeling scenarios were applied namely; conventional tillage, mulch tillage, no-tillage and no-tillage with a rye cover crop over the winter. The model simulation results showed potential gains in soil carbon in the top layers of the soil for conservation tillage. The simulations were made at a spatial resolution of 1.6 km x 1.6 km and mapped for the study area. There was a mean reduction in soil organic carbon of 0.095 T/ha per year over the 25-year period starting with 1996 for the conventional tillage practice. However, for management practices of mulch tillage, no tillage and no tillage with cover crop there was an increase in soil organic carbon of 0.12, 0.202 and 0.263 T/ha respectively over the same 25-year period. These results are in general similar to studies conducted in this region.

  3. Kepler-16b: a resonant survivor

    CERN Document Server

    Popova, E A

    2012-01-01

    The planet Kepler-16b is known to follow a circumbinary orbit around a double system of two main-sequence stars. We construct stability diagrams in the "pericentric distance - eccentricity" plane, which show that Kepler-16b is in a hazardous vicinity to the chaos domain - just between the instability "teeth" in the space of orbital parameters. Kepler-16b survives, because it is close to the half-integer 11/2 orbital resonance with the central binary. The neighbouring resonance cells are vacant, because they are "purged" by Kepler-16b, due to overlap of first-order resonances with the planet.

  4. Circulating CXCL16 in Diabetic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Elewa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Chronic kidney disease and, specifically, diabetic kidney disease, is among the fastest increasing causes of death worldwide. A better understanding of the factors contributing to the high mortality may help design novel monitoring and therapeutic approaches. CXCL16 is both a cholesterol receptor and a chemokine with a potential role in vascular injury and inflammation. We aimed at identifying predictors of circulating CXCL16 levels in diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease. Methods: We have now studied plasma CXCL16 in 134 European patients with diabetic kidney disease with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR categories G1-G4 and albuminuria categories A1-A3, in order to identify factors influencing plasma CXCL16 in this population. Results: Plasma CXCL16 levels were 4.0±0.9 ng/ml. Plasma CXCL16 increased with increasing eGFR category from G1 to G4 (that is, with decreasing eGFR values and with increasing albuminuria category. Plasma CXCL16 was higher in patients with prior cardiovascular disease (4.33±1.03 vs 3.88±0.86 ng/ml; p=0.013. In multivariate analysis, eGFR and serum albumin had an independent and significant negative correlation with plasma CXCL16. Conclusion: In diabetic kidney disease patients, GFR and serum albumin independently predicted plasma CXCL16 levels.

  5. 7 CFR 1215.16 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.16... popcorn....

  6. Stereochemistry of 16a-Hydroxyfriedelin and 3-Oxo-16-methylfriedel-16-ene Established by 2D NMR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Fernandes Knupp

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Friedelin (1, 3b-friedelinol (2, 28-hydroxyfriedelin (3, 16a-hydroxyfriedelin (4, 30-hydroxyfriedelin (5 and 16a,28-dihydroxyfriedelin (6 were isolated through fractionation of the hexane extract obtained from branches of Salacia elliptica. After a week in CDCl3 solution, 16a-hydroxyfriedelin (4 reacted turning into 3-oxo-16-methylfriedel-16-ene (7. This is the first report of a dehydration followed by a Nametkin rearrangement of a pentacyclic triterpene in CDCl3 solution occurring in the NMR tube. These seven pentacyclic triterpenes was identified through NMR spectroscopy and the stereochemistry of compound 4 and 7 was established by 2D NMR (NOESY spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (GC-MS. It is also the first time that all the 13C-NMR and 2D NMR spectral data are reported for compounds 4 and 7.

  7. Synthesis of 16 alpha-3H androgen and estrogen substrates for 16 alpha-hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantineau, R; Kremers, P; De Graeve, J; Cornelis, A; Laszlo, P; Gielen, J E; Lambotte, R

    1981-02-01

    The synthesis of 16 alpha-3H androgens and estrogens is described. 1-(3H)-Acetic acid in the presence of zinc dust reacts with 16 alpha-bromo-17-ketosteroids to produce 16 alpha-3H-17-ketosteroids. This chemical reaction was used to prepare 16 alpha-3H-dehydroepiandrosterone (I) and 16 alpha-3H-estrone acetate (XI) from 16 alpha-bromo-dehydroepiandrosterone (X) and from 16 alpha-bromo-estrone acetate (XII), respectively. Using appropriate microbiological techniques, it was possible to convert these radiolabelled substrates into 16 alpha-3H-androstenedione (II) and 16 alpha-3H-estradiol-17 beta (VII). 16 alpha-3H-Estrone (VI) was obtained by the chemical hydrolysis of 16 alpha-3H-estrone acetate. The label distribution as determined by microbiological 16 alpha-hydroxylations indicated a specific labelling of 77% for androgens and 65% for estrogens in the 16 alpha position. These substrates can be used for measuring the 16 alpha hydroxylase activity, an important step in the biosynthesis of estriol (VIII) and estetrol (IX). PMID:7013160

  8. 16 CFR 310.6 - Exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulation Rule Pursuant to the Telephone Disclosure and Dispute Resolution Act of 1992,” 16 CFR Part 308... and Prohibitions Concerning Franchising and Business Opportunity Ventures,” (“Franchise Rule”) 16 CFR... instances of upselling included in such telephone calls; (5) Telephone calls initiated by a customer...

  9. 48 CFR 16.401 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Fee Best Practices. Each agency head shall provide mechanisms for sharing proven incentive strategies... supplies or services can be acquired at lower costs and, in certain instances, with improved delivery or... fixed-price incentive contracts (see 16.403 and 16.404) and cost-reimbursement incentive contracts...

  10. 7 CFR 945.16 - Container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container. 945.16 Section 945.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Container. Container means a sack, box, bag, crate, hamper, basket, carton, package, barrel, or any...

  11. 24 CFR 3500.16 - Title companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Title companies. 3500.16 Section 3500.16 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  12. 46 CFR 58.16-18 - Installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation. 58.16-18 Section 58.16-18 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND... ventilation consisting of a fresh air inlet pipe and an exhaust pipe both entering through the top of...

  13. 7 CFR 654.16 - Property management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... property (34 CFR part 256). (c) Establish, adopt, and comply with a property management system which meets... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property management. 654.16 Section 654.16 Agriculture... Property management. Sponsor(s) are to: (a) Use real property acquired in whole or in part with...

  14. 16 CFR 1501.3 - Exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... IDENTIFYING TOYS AND OTHER ARTICLES INTENDED FOR USE BY CHILDREN UNDER 3 YEARS OF AGE WHICH PRESENT CHOKING..., and other paint sets; (i) Rattles (as defined at 16 CFR 1510.2); and (j) Pacifiers (as defined at 16 CFR 1511.2(a))....

  15. 40 CFR 273.16 - Employee training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employee training. 273.16 Section 273.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... Employee training. A small quantity handler of universal waste must inform all employees who handle or...

  16. 30 CFR 769.16 - Public information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public information. 769.16 Section 769.16... information. (a) Promptly after determining that a petition is complete, the Director shall notify the general public of the receipt of the petition and request submissions of the relevant information by a...

  17. 48 CFR 16.302 - Cost contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost contracts. 16.302... AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 16.302 Cost contracts. (a) Description. A cost contract is a cost-reimbursement contract in which the contractor receives no fee....

  18. 42 CFR 73.16 - Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transfers. 73.16 Section 73.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING SELECT AGENTS... select agent or toxin may only be transferred to individuals or entities registered to possess, use,...

  19. 34 CFR 300.16 - Excess costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excess costs. 300.16 Section 300.16 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN...

  20. 12 CFR 703.16 - Prohibited investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited investments. 703.16 Section 703.16 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT... union may not purchase a zero coupon investment with a maturity date that is more than 10 years from...

  1. 40 CFR 401.16 - Conventional pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Conventional pollutants. 401.16 Section... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.16 Conventional pollutants. The following comprise the list of conventional pollutants designated pursuant to section 304(a)(4) of the Act: 1. Biochemical oxygen demand...

  2. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 16... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  3. 30 CFR 715.16 - Topsoil handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... redistribution on a disturbed area. (d) Nutrients and soil amendments. Nutrients and soil amendments in the... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Topsoil handling. 715.16 Section 715.16 Mineral... identified by soil surveys shall be removed according to paragraph (a) and then replaced on disturbed...

  4. 33 CFR 385.16 - Design agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Design agreements. 385.16 Section 385.16 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROGRAMMATIC REGULATIONS FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE EVERGLADES RESTORATION PLAN CERP...

  5. 37 CFR 401.16 - Electronic filing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electronic filing. 401.16... OF COMMERCE RIGHTS TO INVENTIONS MADE BY NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS AND SMALL BUSINESS FIRMS UNDER GOVERNMENT GRANTS, CONTRACTS, AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS § 401.16 Electronic filing. Unless...

  6. 44 CFR 16.160 - Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Communications. 16.160... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY § 16.160 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants, participants, personnel...

  7. 32 CFR 234.16 - Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gambling. 234.16 Section 234.16 National Defense... prohibited. This prohibition shall not apply to the vending or exchange of chances by licensed blind... the Randolph-Sheppard Act (20 U.S.C. 107, et seq.)....

  8. 48 CFR 16.603-1 - Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Description. 16.603-1 Section 16.603-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS... Description. A letter contract is a written preliminary contractual instrument that authorizes the...

  9. 45 CFR 650.16 - Background rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the Bayh-Dole Act (35 U.S.C. 202(f)) as implemented by 37 CFR 401.12). ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Background rights. 650.16 Section 650.16 Public... Background rights. The Foundation will acquire rights to a research performer's pre-existing technology...

  10. 7 CFR 1219.16 - Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing. 1219.16 Section 1219.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Marketing. Marketing means any activity related to the sale or other disposition of Hass avocados in...

  11. 7 CFR 981.16 - To handle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false To handle. 981.16 Section 981.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... in any other way to put almonds grown in the area of production into any channel of trade for...

  12. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  13. Soil Organic Carbon Stock

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the carbon held within soil organic constituents (i.e., products produced as dead plants and animals decompose and the soil microbial...

  14. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education / Safety Education Centers En Español Carbon Monoxide Information Center The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known ... Install one and check its batteries regularly. View Information About CO Alarms Other CO Topics Safety Tips ...

  15. Biomass Carbon Stock

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Biomass carbon includes carbon stored in above- and below-ground live plant components (such as leaf, branch, stem and root) as well as in standing and down dead...

  16. Carbon Monoxide Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with the Media Fire Protection Technology Carbon monoxide safety outreach materials Help inform residents in your community ... KB | Spanish PDF 645 KB Handout: carbon monoxide safety Download this handout and add your organization's logo ...

  17. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  18. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  19. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  20. Metal filled porous carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Adam F.; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping; Salguero, Tina T.

    2011-03-22

    A porous carbon scaffold with a surface and pores, the porous carbon scaffold containing a primary metal and a secondary metal, where the primary metal is a metal that does not wet the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold but wets the surface of the secondary metal, and the secondary metal is interspersed between the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold and the primary metal.

  1. Protolytic carbon film technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renschler, C.L.; White, C.A.

    1996-04-01

    This paper presents a technique for the deposition of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) on virtually any surface allowing carbon film formation with only the caveat that the substrate must withstand carbonization temperatures of at least 600 degrees centigrade. The influence of processing conditions upon the structure and properties of the carbonized film is discussed. Electrical conductivity, microstructure, and morphology control are also described.

  2. Carbon nanotube quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sapmaz, S.

    2006-01-01

    Low temperature electron transport measurements on individual single wall carbon nanotubes are described in this thesis. Carbon nanotubes are small hollow cylinders made entirely out of carbon atoms. At low temperatures (below ~10 K) finite length nanotubes form quantum dots. Because of its small si

  3. Carbon Goes To…

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasci, Funda

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this activity are to help middle school students understand the carbon cycle and realize how human activities affect the carbon cycle. This activity consists of two parts. The first part of the activity focuses on the carbon cycle, especially before the Industrial Revolution, while the second part of the activity focuses on how…

  4. THE C2 OXIDATIVE PHOTOSYNTHETIC CARBON CYCLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, N. E.

    1997-06-01

    The C2 oxidative photosynthetic carbon cycle plus the C3 reductive photosynthetic carbon cycle coexist. Both are initiated by Rubisco, use about equal amounts of energy, must regenerate RuBP, and result in exchanges of CO2 and O2 to establish rates of net photosynthesis, CO2 and O2 compensation points, and the ratio of CO2 and O2 in the atmosphere. These concepts evolved from research on O2 inhibition, glycolate metabolism, leaf peroxisomes, photorespiration, 18O2/16O2 exchange, CO2 concentrating processes, and a requirement for the oxygenase activity of Rubisco. Nearly 80 years of research on these topics are unified under the one process of photosynthetic carbon metabolism and its self-regulation. PMID:15012254

  5. Carbon/Carbon Pistons for Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A. H.

    1986-01-01

    Carbon/carbon piston performs same function as aluminum pistons in reciprocating internal combustion engines while reducing weight and increasing mechanical and thermal efficiencies of engine. Carbon/carbon piston concept features low piston-to-cylinder wall clearance - so low piston rings and skirts unnecessary. Advantages possible by negligible coefficient of thermal expansion of carbon/carbon.

  6. Potential Carbon Negative Commercial Aviation through Land Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    Brazilian terra preta soil and char-enhanced soil agricultural systems have demonstrated both enhanced plant biomass and crop yield and functions as a carbon sink. Similar carbon sinking has been demonstrated for both glycophyte and halophyte plants and plant roots. Within the assumption of 3.7 t-C/ha/yr soils and plant root carbon sinking, it is possible to provide carbon neutral U.S. commercial aviation using about 8.5% of U.S. arable lands. The total airline CO2 release would be offset by carbon credits for properly managed soils and plant rooting, becoming carbon neutral for carbon sequestered synjet processing. If these lands were also used to produce biomass fuel crops such as soybeans at an increased yield of 60 bu/acre (225gal/ha), they would provide over 3.15 10(exp 9) gallons biodiesel fuel. If all this fuel were refined into biojet it would provide a 16% biojet-84% synjet blend. This allows the U.S. aviation industry to become carbon negative (carbon negative commercial aviation through carbon credits). Arid land recovery could yield even greater benefits.

  7. The role of urbanization in the global carbon cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina eChurkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas account for more than 70% of CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels. Urban expansion in tropics is responsible for 5% of the annual emissions from land use change. Here I show that the effect of urbanization on the global carbon cycle extends beyond these emissions. I quantify the contribution of urbanization to the major carbon fluxes and pools globally and identify gaps crucial for predicting the evolution of the carbon cycle in the future. Urban residents currently control ~22 (12-40 % of the land carbon uptake (112 PgC/yr and ~24 (15-39 % of the carbon emissions (117 PgC/yr from land globally. Urbanization resulted in the creation of new carbon pools on land such as buildings (~6.7 PgC and landfills (~30 PgC. Together these pools store 1.6 (±0.3 % of the total vegetation and soil carbon pools globally. The creation and maintenance of these new pools has been associated with high emissions of CO2, which are currently better understood than the processes associated with the dynamics of these pools and accompanying uptake of carbon. Predictions of the future trajectories of the global carbon cycle will require a much better understanding of how urban development affects the carbon cycle over the long term.

  8. Ecosystem Carbon Storage in Alpine Grassland on the Qinghai Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuli; Zhang, Fawei; Du, Yangong; Guo, Xiaowei; Lin, Li; Li, Yikang; Li, Qian; Cao, Guangmin

    2016-01-01

    The alpine grassland ecosystem can sequester a large quantity of carbon, yet its significance remains controversial owing to large uncertainties in the relative contributions of climate factors and grazing intensity. In this study we surveyed 115 sites to measure ecosystem carbon storage (both biomass and soil) in alpine grassland over the Qinghai Plateau during the peak growing season in 2011 and 2012. Our results revealed three key findings. (1) Total biomass carbon density ranged from 0.04 for alpine steppe to 2.80 kg C m-2 for alpine meadow. Median soil organic carbon (SOC) density was estimated to be 16.43 kg C m-2 in alpine grassland. Total ecosystem carbon density varied across sites and grassland types, from 1.95 to 28.56 kg C m-2. (2) Based on the median estimate, the total carbon storage of alpine grassland on the Qinghai Plateau was 5.14 Pg, of which 94% (4.85 Pg) was soil organic carbon. (3) Overall, we found that ecosystem carbon density was affected by both climate and grazing, but to different extents. Temperature and precipitation interaction significantly affected AGB carbon density in winter pasture, BGB carbon density in alpine meadow, and SOC density in alpine steppe. On the other hand, grazing intensity affected AGB carbon density in summer pasture, SOC density in alpine meadow and ecosystem carbon density in alpine grassland. Our results indicate that grazing intensity was the primary contributing factor controlling carbon storage at the sites tested and should be the primary consideration when accurately estimating the carbon storage in alpine grassland. PMID:27494253

  9. Soil carbon budget in different-aged Chinese fir plantations in south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shebao Yu; Dan Wang; Wei Dai; Ping Li

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the age effect on soil carbon balance in forest ecosystems is important for other material cycles and forest man-agement. In this research we investigated soil organic carbon density, litter production, litter decomposition rate, soil respiration, and soil mi-crobial properties in a chronosequence of four Chinese fir plantations of 7, 16, 23 and 29 years at Dagangshan mountain range, Jiangxi Province, south China. There was a significant increasing trend in litter production with increasing plantation age. Litter decomposition rate and soil respira-tion, however, declined from the 7-year to the 16-year plantation, and then increased after 16 years. This was largely dependent on soil micro-organisms. Soil carbon output was higher than carbon input before 16 years, and total soil carbon stock declined from 35.98 t·ha-1 in the 7-year plantation to 30.12 t·ha-1 in the 16-year plantation. Greater litter produc-tion could not explain the greater soil carbon stock, suggesting that forest growth impacted this microbial process that controlled rates of soil car-bon balance together with litter and soil respiration. The results highlight the importance of the development stage in assessing soil carbon budget and its significance to future management of Chinese fir plantations.

  10. Febrication of Carbon-Nanotube-Forest Based Bolometer

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Brian; Dyer, J. S.; Thurgood, V. A.; Shen, T. -C.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the nearly-vertical alignment and the band structure of graphite, carbon nanotube forests could have near-unity emissivity which make them ideal candidates as the absorbers for radiometric devices. However, forest height, carbon nanotube density, and the presence of surface defects will affect the total reflectance and transmittance. With optimized growth conditions, a total reflectance of 0.003 and a transmittance of 0.001 has been achieved in the 2 µm - 16 µm spectral region. Fabrica...

  11. Gaia16ali and Gaia16alj supernovae confirmed by Euler imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelens, M.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Semaan, T.; Palaversa, L.; Mowlavi, N.; Eyer, L.

    2016-04-01

    We report confirmation of Gaia Science Alerts transients Gaia16ali and Gaia16alj. Images were obtained through modified Gunn R band filter of the ECAM instrument installed on the Swiss 1.2m Euler telescope at La Silla, on 2016 April 19 - 22 UT. These new sources are supernovae candidates and they are not visible in archival 2MASS and DSS images: Gaia16ali (near centre of galaxy GALEXASC J041551.89-621715.5) and Gaia16alj.

  12. 16 CFR 1702.16 - Petitions requesting an exemption for a drug or a new drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petitions requesting an exemption for a drug or a new drug. 1702.16 Section 1702.16 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT REQUIREMENTS; PETITION PROCEDURES...

  13. Beyond temperature: Clumped isotope signatures in dissolved inorganic carbon species and the influence of solution chemistry on carbonate mineral composition

    OpenAIRE

    Tripati, Aradhna K.; Hill, Pamela S.; Eagle, Robert A.; Mosenfelder, Jed L.; Tang, Jianwu; Schauble, Edwin A.; Eiler, John M.; Zeebe, Richard E.; Uchikawa, Joji; Coplen, Tyler B.; Ries, Justin B; Henry, Drew

    2015-01-01

    “Clumped-isotope” thermometry is an emerging tool to probe the temperature history of surface and subsurface environments based on measurements of the proportion of ^(13)C and ^(18)O isotopes bound to each other within carbonate minerals in ^(13)C^(18)O^(16)O_2^(2−) groups (heavy isotope “clumps”). Although most clumped isotope geothermometry implicitly presumes carbonate crystals have attained lattice equilibrium (i.e., thermodynamic equilibrium for a mineral, which is independent of solutio...

  14. Carbon-14 waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-14 occurs in nature, but is also formed in nuclear reactors. Because of its long half-life and the biological significance of carbon, releases from nuclear facilities could have a significant radiological impact. Waste management strategies for carbon-14 are therefore of current concern. Carbon-14 is present in a variety of waste streams both at reactors and at reprocessing plants. A reliable picture of the production and release of carbon-14 from various reactor systems has been built up for the purposes of this study. A possible management strategy for carbon-14 might be the reduction of nitrogen impurity levels in core materials, since the activation of 14N is usually the dominant source of carbon-14. The key problem in carbon-14 management is its retention of off-gas streams, particularly in the dissolver off-gas stream at reprocessing plants. Three alternative trapping processes that convert carbon dioxide into insoluble carbonates have been suggested. The results show that none of the options considered need be rejected on the grounds of potential radiation doses to individuals. All exposures should be as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account. If, on these grounds, retention and disposal of carbon-14 is found to be beneficial, then, subject to the limitations noted, appropriate retention, immobilization and disposal technologies have been identified

  15. 16 CFR 1303.5 - Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....5 percent lead restriction now in effect under the FHSA (16 CFR 1500.17(a)(6)). The manufacturers of... million for other household furniture made of plastic, reed and rattan. (Not included in the above...

  16. 48 CFR 16.301-3 - Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cost-reimbursement contracts is prohibited for the acquisition of commercial items (see parts 2 and 12). ... AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 16.301-3 Limitations. (a) A...

  17. 48 CFR 16.202-2 - Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 16.202-2 Application. A firm-fixed-price contract is suitable for acquiring commercial items (see parts 2 and 12) or for acquiring other supplies...

  18. 48 CFR 16.307 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... commercial item) is contemplated. If the contract is with an educational institution, modify the clause by... AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 16.307 Contract clauses. (a)(1)...

  19. 9 CFR 114.16 - Producing subsidiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.16 Producing subsidiaries. A serial or subserial of a biological product may...

  20. 16 CFR 1610.31 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Rules and Regulations § 1610.31 Definitions. In addition to the definitions... method prescribed in the procedures provided under section 4(a) of the Act (16 CFR Part 1609). (f)...

  1. N-16 monitors: Almaraz NPP experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrada, J. [Almaraz NPP, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-02-01

    Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant has installed N-16 monitors - one per steam generator - to control the leakage rate through the steam generator tubes after the application of leak before break (LBB) criteria for the top tube sheet (TTS). After several years of operation with the N-16 monitors, Almaraz NPP experience may be summarized as follows: N-16 monitors are very useful to follow the steam generator leak rate trend and to detect an incipient tube rupture; but they do not provide an exact absolute leak rate value, mainly when there are small leaks. The evolution of the measured N-16 leak rates varies along the fuel cycle, with the same trend for the 3 steam generators. This behaviour is associated with the primary water chemistry evolution along the cycle.

  2. KIF16B delivers for transcytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Fraticelli, Alejo E.; Galvez-Santisteban, Manuel; Martin-Belmonte, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Epithelia that natively lack the clathrin adaptor AP-1B recycle basolateral proteins to their apical domain by transcytosis. Although microtubules are required for this process, KIF16B is the first kinesin identified to be involved in transcytosis.

  3. 31 CFR 16.34 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 16.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of... prejudice, confusion of the issues, or by considerations of undue delay or needless presentation...

  4. Eestil lüngad 16 euroalal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Euroopa Komisjoni laienemise peadirektoraadi direktor Fabrizio Barbaso nimetas 16 valdkonda, kus Eestil on veel puudujääke enne EL-iga ühinemist. Lisa: Valik seadustest, mis tuleb enne 1. maid vastu võtta

  5. 16 CFR 435.3 - Limited applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Plans by Sellers in Commerce,” 16 CFR part 425. (b) By taking action in this area: (1) The Federal Trade... regulation which impose obligations or liabilities upon sellers, when sellers subject to this part are not...

  6. 15 CFR 908.16 - Signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SUBMITTING REPORTS ON WEATHER MODIFICATION ACTIVITIES § 908.16 Signature. All reports filed with the National... or intending to conduct the weather modification activities referred to therein by such...

  7. 16 million [pounds] investment for 'virtual supercomputer'

    CERN Multimedia

    Holland, C

    2003-01-01

    "The Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council is to spend 16million [pounds] to create a massive computing Grid, equivalent to the world's second largest supercomputer after Japan's Earth Simulator computer" (1/2 page)

  8. Spectroscopic Classification of ASASSN-16az

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, J. L.; Rich, J.; Shappee, B. J.

    2016-02-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 360-920 nm) of ASASSN-16az (ATel #8614) on UT 2016 Feb 2.4 with WFCCD mounted on the du Pont 2.5m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. Cross-correlation with a library of SN spectra using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows that ASASSN-16az is a normal Type Ia at +10 days.

  9. 16届ICOM召开

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐俊

    2012-01-01

    9月14-16日,第16届“国际东洋医学学术大会(ICOM: Intemational Congress of Oriental Medicine)”在首尔召开,大会主题为“医学的未来——传统医学(The Future of Medicine, Traditional Medicine) ”。

  10. Possible insect vectors of phytoplasmas affiliated with subgroups 16SrI-B, 16SrI-C, 16SrIII-B and 16SrIII-P in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoplasma strains affiliated with groups 16SrI, 16SrIII, 16SrV, and 16SrXII have been found in Lithuania, but still little is known about insects that could transmit them. In this study, four phytoplasma strains belonging to phytoplasma subgroups 16SrI-B, 16SrI-C, 16SrIII-B and 16SrIII-P were id...

  11. Carbon isotopes in mollusk shell carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnaughey, Ted A.; Gillikin, David Paul

    2008-10-01

    Mollusk shells contain many isotopic clues about calcification physiology and environmental conditions at the time of shell formation. In this review, we use both published and unpublished data to discuss carbon isotopes in both bivalve and gastropod shell carbonates. Land snails construct their shells mainly from respired CO2, and shell δ13C reflects the local mix of C3 and C4 plants consumed. Shell δ13C is typically >10‰ heavier than diet, probably because respiratory gas exchange discards CO2, and retains the isotopically heavier HCO3 -. Respired CO2 contributes less to the shells of aquatic mollusks, because CO2/O2 ratios are usually higher in water than in air, leading to more replacement of respired CO2 by environmental CO2. Fluid exchange with the environment also brings additional dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) into the calcification site. Shell δ13C is typically a few ‰ lower than ambient DIC, and often decreases with age. Shell δ13C retains clues about processes such as ecosystem metabolism and estuarine mixing. Ca2+ ATPase-based models of calcification physiology developed for corals and algae likely apply to mollusks, too, but lower pH and carbonic anhydrase at the calcification site probably suppress kinetic isotope effects. Carbon isotopes in biogenic carbonates are clearly complex, but cautious interpretation can provide a wealth of information, especially after vital effects are better understood.

  12. Production of activated carbon from Atili seed shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehemiah Samuel MAINA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon was produced from atili (black date seed shells by chemical activation with phosphoric acid as an activating agent. Carbonization was done at temperatures of 350°C, 450°C, 550°C, 650°C and at corresponding resident times of 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes respectively in a muffle furnace. The study involved the determination of yield, carbon content, burn-off, moisture content, and ash content as well as the temperature and suitable resident time for carbonization. The result showed that, increasing the carbonization temperature from 350°C to 650°C as well as increasing the corresponding resident time from 20 to 60 minutes led to a decrease in carbonization yield as well as an increase in burn off. An increase in carbonization time led to a decrease in ash content while an increase in carbonization temperature led to a decrease in the moisture content. The yield, burn-off and ash content obtained at a carbonization temperature of 650°C and at a corresponding time of 60 minutes were found to be 68.29%, 31.71% and 0.75% respectively while the highest carbon content (99.16 and lowest moisture content (0.09 was obtained at this same temperature and corresponding time. The activated carbon produced gave a yield of 99.37%, ash content (2.01%, moisture content (4.20%, carbon content (93.79%, burn off (0.63% and pH of 6.752. These properties therefore indicate the suitability of the activated carbon produced.

  13. [Characterization of Black and Dichothrix Cyanobacteria Based on the 16S Ribosomal RNA Gene Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Maya

    2010-01-01

    My project focuses on characterizing different cyanobacteria in thrombolitic mats found on the island of Highborn Cay, Bahamas. Thrombolites are interesting ecosystems because of the ability of bacteria in these mats to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and mineralize it as calcium carbonate. In the future they may be used as models to develop carbon sequestration technologies, which could be used as part of regenerative life systems in space. These thrombolitic communities are also significant because of their similarities to early communities of life on Earth. I targeted two cyanobacteria in my research, Dichothrix spp. and whatever black is, since they are believed to be important to carbon sequestration in these thrombolitic mats. The goal of my summer research project was to molecularly identify these two cyanobacteria. DNA was isolated from each organism through mat dissections and DNA extractions. I ran Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR) to amplify the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene in each cyanobacteria. This specific gene is found in almost all bacteria and is highly conserved, meaning any changes in the sequence are most likely due to evolution. As a result, the 16S rRNA gene can be used for bacterial identification of different species based on the sequence of their 16S rRNA gene. Since the exact sequence of the Dichothrix gene was unknown, I designed different primers that flanked the gene based on the known sequences from other taxonomically similar cyanobacteria. Once the 16S rRNA gene was amplified, I cloned the gene into specialized Escherichia coli cells and sent the gene products for sequencing. Once the sequence is obtained, it will be added to a genetic database for future reference to and classification of other Dichothrix sp.

  14. Carbon dioxide sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

    2011-11-15

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  15. Synthesis and characterization of well-aligned carbon nitrogen nanotubes by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Well-aligned carbon nitrogen nanotube films have been synthesized successfully on mesoporous silica substrates by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MWPCVD) method. Studies on their morphology, structure, and composition by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), respectively, indicate that these nanotubes consist of linearly polymerized carbon nitrogen nanobells, and the nitrogen atoms have been doped into carbon netweork to form a new structure C1-xNx (x=0.16±0.01). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results of the samples further demonstrate that carbon bonds covalently with nitrogen in all the carbon nitrogen nanotube films.

  16. Complexity of carbon market from multi-scale entropy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xinghua; Li, Shasha; Tian, Lixin

    2016-06-01

    Complexity of carbon market is the consequence of economic dynamics and extreme social political events in global carbon markets. The multi-scale entropy can measure the long-term structures in the daily price return time series. By using multi-scale entropy analysis, we explore the complexity of carbon market and mean reversion trend of daily price return. The logarithmic difference of data Dec16 from August 6, 2010 to May 22, 2015 is selected as the sample. The entropy is higher in small time scale, while lower in large. The dependence of the entropy on the time scale reveals the mean reversion of carbon prices return in the long run. A relatively great fluctuation over some short time period indicates that the complexity of carbon market evolves consistently with economic development track and the events of international climate conferences.

  17. An Effective Method of Producing Small Neutral Carbon Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Zhu-Hong; CHEN Cheng-Chu; HSU Yen-Chu

    2007-01-01

    An effective method of producing small neutral carbon clusters Cn (n = 1-6) is described. The small carbon clusters (positive or negative charge or neutral) are formed by plasma which are produced by a high power 532nm pulse laser ablating the surface of the metal Mn rod to react with small hydrocarbons supplied by a pulse valve, then the neutral carbon clusters are extracted and photo-ionized by another laser (266nm or 355nm) in the ionization region of a linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The distributions of the initial neutral carbon clusters are analysed with the ionic species appeared in mass spectra. It is observed that the yield of small carbon clusters with the present method is about 10 times than that of the traditional widely used technology of laser vaporization of graphite.

  18. Carbon Stocks in Harran Plain Soils, Sanliurfa, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal SAKIN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Soils are an important component of the global carbon cycle and can be net sources or sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2. The goals of the present study were to analyze the soil organic carbon (SOC and soil inorganic carbon (SIC content of Harran Plain soil in Sanliurfa, Turkey, part of the Southeast Anatolia region (SAR, and to estimate carbon stocks (CSs in soil series that are representative of arid and semiarid lands. To this end, soil samples were collected from 16 profiles in the Harran Plain at depths of 100, 120, and 160 cm of the genetic horizons, and the SOC stocks in the three soil depths were estimated. The carbon stock was 56.41 Tg of C in the 0-100 cm layer, 67.80 Tg of C in the 0-120 cm layer and 87.91 Tg of C in the 0-160 cm layer. For the three soil depths 100, 120, and 160 cm, the SOC content ranged from 6.33 to 11.04, 7.11 to 11.98 and 8.72 to 16.53 kg of C m-2, respectively, and the soil inorganic carbon content ranged from 8.83 to 19.26, 11.00 to 23.34 and 14.82 to 32.64 kg of C m-2, respectively.

  19. The Formation of Ethane from Carbon Dioxide under Cold Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Pulsed-corona plasma has been used as a new method for ethane dehydrogenation at low temperature and normal pressure using carbon dioxide as an oxidant in this paper. The effect of carbon dioxide content in the feed, power input, and flow rate of the reactants on the ethane dehydrogenation has been investigated. The experimental results show that the conversion of ethane increases with the increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in the feed. The yield of ethylene and acetylene decreases with the increase in the yield of carbon monoxide, indicating that the increased carbon dioxide leads to the part of ethylene and acetylene being oxidized to carbon monoxide. Power input is primarily an electrical parameter in pulsed-corona plasma, which plays an important role in reactant conversion and product formation. When the power input reaches 16 W, ethane conversion is 41.0% and carbon dioxide conversion is 26.3%. The total yield of ethylene and acetylene is 15.6%. The reduced flow rate of feed improves the conversion of ethane,carbon dioxide and the yield of acetylene, and induces carbon deposit as well.

  20. Biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of the catalytic domain of MMP16 (cdMMP16).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan; Yang, Hao; Aitha, Mahesh; George, Sam; Tierney, David L; Crowder, Michael W

    2016-07-01

    Membrane-bound matrix metalloproteinase 16 (MMP16/MT3-MMP) is considered a drug target due to its role(s) in disease processes such as cancer and inflammation. Biochemical characterization of MMP16 is critical for developing new generation MMP inhibitors (MMPi), which exhibit high efficacies and selectivities. Herein, a modified over-expression and purification protocol was used to prepare the catalytic domain of MMP16 (cdMMP16). The resulting recombinant enzyme exhibited steady-state kinetic constants of K m = 10.6 ± 0.7 μM and k cat = 1.14 ± 0.02 s(-1), when using FS-6 as substrate, and the enzyme bound 1.8 ± 0.1 eq of Zn(II). The enzymatic activity of cdMMP16 is salt concentration-dependent, and cdMMP16 exhibits autoproteolytic activity under certain conditions, which may be related to an in vivo regulatory mechanism of MMP16 and of other membrane-type MMPs (MT-MMPs). Co(II)-substituted analogs (Co2- and ZnCo) of cdMMP16 were prepared and characterized using several spectroscopic techniques, such as UV-Vis, (1)H NMR, and EXAFS spectroscopies. A well-characterized cdMMP16 is now available for future inhibitor screening efforts. PMID:27229514

  1. Université de Genève | Séminaire de physique corpusculaire | 16 octobre

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Particle accelerators in tumour therapy, Dr Ugo Amaldi, Technische Universität München and TERA Foundation.   Mercredi 16 octobre 2013, 11h15 Science III, Auditoire 1S081 Boulevard d’Yvoy, 1211 Genève 4 Abstract: "Hadrontherapy", or "particle therapy", is a collective word which covers all cancer therapy modalities which irradiate patients with beams of hadrons. The most used hadrons are protons and carbon ions. Protontherapy is developing very rapidly: more than 100,000 patients have been treated and eight companies offer turn-key centres. Carbon ions, used for about 8,000 patients, have a larger radiobiological effectiveness and, being a qualitatively different radiation, require still radiobiological and, in particular, clinical studies to define the best tumour targets. After a review of the rationale for hadrontherapy and of the accelerators used in protontherapy, the European centres for carbon ion therapy will be discussed. Fin...

  2. Irradiation damage induced on polyethylene terephtalate by 1.6 MeV deuteron ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdesselam, M. [USTHB, Faculte de Physique, B.P. 32, El Alia, 16111 BEZ Algiers (Algeria); Djebara, M. [USTHB, Faculte de Physique, B.P. 32, El Alia, 16111 BEZ Algiers (Algeria)], E-mail: matjbara@yahoo.com; Chami, A.C. [USTHB, Faculte de Physique, B.P. 32, El Alia, 16111 BEZ Algiers (Algeria); Siad, M. [DPN, CNRA, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon, B.P. 399, Alger-gare (Algeria)

    2008-09-15

    The irradiation damage caused on polyethylene terephtalate (Mylar, PET) samples by 1.6 MeV deuteron ions has been measured using simultaneously the nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) and the transmission energy loss (TEL) techniques. The irradiation was carried out at normal incidence relative to the target surface with the irradiation beam being used as the analysis beam. The evolution of the overall damage during irradiation was evaluated by measuring the variation of the energy loss of the deuteron beam passing through the target. For this purpose, a solid state Si detector placed at a forward angle of 30 deg. relative to the incident beam direction was used. The NRA spectra recorded by a second Si detector located backward at 150 deg. allowed the evaluation of the carbon and the oxygen depletion. The beam spot size was circular in shape and 1 mm in diameter and the beam current was set at 5 nA. The ion fluence was increased up to the value of 2.5 x 10{sup 16} deuterons/cm{sup 2}. It was observed that the target energy loss decreased steadily as the fluence increased and levelled off at high fluence. The {sup 16}O(d,p{sub 0}){sup 17}O, {sup 16}O(d,p{sub 1}){sup 17}O{sup *} and {sup 12}C(d,p{sub 0}){sup 13}C reactions were used for monitoring the evolution of the oxygen and carbon content as a function of the deuteron fluence. A monotonic decrease of the oxygen content with the increase of ion fluence was observed. At the highest fluence the oxygen depletion reached a value of about 75%. For carbon, a weak depletion was observed at fluence ranging from 2.5 x 10{sup 15} d/cm{sup 2} to 1.0 x 10{sup 16} d/cm{sup 2} followed by a levelling-off with a total loss around 20%.

  3. Plumbing carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chuanhong; Suenaga, Kazu; Iijima, Sumio

    2008-01-01

    Since their discovery, the possibility of connecting carbon nanotubes together like water pipes has been an intriguing prospect for these hollow nanostructures. The serial joining of carbon nanotubes in a controlled manner offers a promising approach for the bottom-up engineering of nanotube structures-from simply increasing their aspect ratio to making integrated carbon nanotube devices. To date, however, there have been few reports of the joining of two different carbon nanotubes. Here we demonstrate that a Joule heating process, and associated electro-migration effects, can be used to connect two carbon nanotubes that have the same (or similar) diameters. More generally, with the assistance of a tungsten metal particle, this technique can be used to seamlessly join any two carbon nanotubes-regardless of their diameters-to form new nanotube structures.

  4. Effects of Carbonate on Exchangeability and Bioavailability of Exogenous Neodymium in Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐仲均; 李德成; 杨剑虹; 彭安

    2001-01-01

    The effects of carbonate on the exchangeability and the bioavailability of exogenous neodymium in soil were studied by 147Nd isotopic tracer method. Exchangeable Nd was extracted by 1 mol*L-1 NaAc (pH8.2) in the experiment. The results indicate that whether carbonate exists in soil or not, beyond 99% of exogenous Nd is adsorbed by soil. Low-concentration carbonate (0.8~1.6 g*kg-1) can reduce exchangeable Nd concentration in soil, while high-concentration carbonate (4.0 g*kg-1) impacts little on the exchangeable Nd concentration. In addition, carbonate of 0.8~1.6 g*kg-1 in soil can inhibit wheat seedlings to absorb Nd. However, when the carbonate concentration rises to 4.0 g*kg-1, the inhibition will become indistinct.

  5. 16th International Symposium of Robotic Research

    CERN Document Server

    Corke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of papers presented at the 16th International Symposium of Robotic Research (ISRR). ISRR is the biennial meeting of the International Foundation of Robotic Research (IFRR) and its 16th edition took place in Singapore over the period 16th to 19th December 2013. The ISRR is the longest running series of robotics research meetings and dates back to the very earliest days of robotics as a research discipline. This 16th ISRR meeting was held in the 30th anniversary year of the very first meeting which took place in Bretton Woods (New Hampshire, USA) in August 1983., and represents thirty years at the forefront of ideas in robotics research. As for the previous symposia, ISRR 2013 followed up on the successful concept of a mixture of invited contributions and open submissions. 16 of the contributions were invited contributions from outstanding researchers selected by the IFRR officers and the program committee, and the other contributions were chosen among the open submissions afte...

  6. Proteomic analysis of carbon concentrating chemolithotrophic bacteria Serratia sp. for sequestration of carbon dioxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randhir K Bharti

    Full Text Available A chemolithotrophic bacterium enriched in the chemostat in presence of sodium bicarbonate as sole carbon source was identified as Serratia sp. by 16S rRNA sequencing. Carbon dioxide sequestering capacity of bacterium was detected by carbonic anhydrase enzyme and ribulose-1, 5- bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO. The purified carbonic anhydrase showed molecular weight of 29 kDa. Molecular weight of RuBisCO was 550 kDa as determined by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC, however, sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE showed presence of two subunits whose molecular weights were 56 and 14 kDa. The Western blot analysis of the crude protein and purified sample cross reacted with RuBisCO large-subunit polypeptides antibodies showed strong band pattern at molecular weight around 56 kDa regions. Whole cell soluble proteins of Serratia sp. grown under autotrophic and heterotrophic conditions were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/MS for differential expression of proteins. In proteomic analysis of 63 protein spots, 48 spots were significantly up-regulated in the autotrophically grown cells; seven enzymes showed its utilization in autotrophic carbon fixation pathways and other metabolic activities of bacterium including lipid metabolisms indicated sequestration potency of carbon dioxide and production of biomaterials.

  7. 40 CFR 610.16 - Applicant's responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... claimed for the device in general, or would result in a safety hazard or damage to the engine. If the reason for inapplicability is safety or damage related, this must be explained as required by paragraph..., carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen), or natural gaseous atmospheric constituents (such as...

  8. 75 FR 21658 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Trinidad and Tobago

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... amended, 67 FR 68036 (Nov. 8, 2002). In accordance with sections 201.16(c) and 207.3 of the Commission's... COMMISSION Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Trinidad and Tobago AGENCY: United States... in the antidumping duty Investigation No. 731-TA-961 concerning carbon and certain alloy steel...

  9. Nanographene reinforced carbon/carbon composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Dhruv

    Carbon/Carbon Composites (CCC) are made of carbon reinforcement in carbon matrix and have high thermal stability and fatigue resistance. CCC are used in nose cones, heat shields and disc brakes of aircrafts due to their exceptional mechanical properties at high temperature. The manufacturing process of CCC involves a carbonization stage in which unwanted elements, except carbon, are eliminated from the polymer precursor. Carbonization results in the formation of voids and cracks due to the thermal mismatch between the reinforcement and the matrix and expulsion of volatiles from the polymer matrix. Thermal cracks and voids decrease the density and mechanical properties of the manufactured CCC. In this work, Nanographene Platelets (NGP) were explored as nanofillers to fill the voids/cracks and reduce thermal shrinkage in CCC. They were first compared with Vapor Grown Carbon Nanofibers (VGCNF) by dispersion of different concentrations (0.5wt%, 1.5wt%, 3wt%) in resole-type phenolic resin and were characterized to explore their effect on rheology, heat of reaction and wetting behavior. The dispersions were then cured to form nanocomposites and were characterized for morphology, flexure and thermal properties. Finally, NGP were introduced into the carbon/carboncomposites in two stages, first by spraying in different concentrations (0.5wt%, 1.5wt%, 3wt%, 5wt %) during the prepreg formation and later during densification by directly mixing in the corresponding densification mix. The manufactured NGP reinforced CCC were characterized for microstructure, porosity, bulk density and mechanical properties (Flexure and ILSS) which were further cross-checked by non-destructive techniques (vibration and ultrasonic). In this study, it was further found that at low concentration (≤ 1.5 wt%) NGP were more effective in increasing the heat of reaction and in decreasing the viscosity of the phenolic resin. The decrease in viscosity led to better wetting properties of NGP / phenolic

  10. Functional Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huihui

    create uniformly distributed nanopores with large surface area, leading to high-performance electrodes with high capacitance, excellent rate performance and stable cycling, even under a high working voltage of 1.6V. The second part of this dissertation work further improved the capacitance of the carbon electrodes by fluorine doping. This doping process enhances the affinity of the carbon surface with organic electrolytes, leading to further improved capacitance and energy density. In the third part, carbon materials were synthesized with high surface area, capacitance and working voltage of 4V in organic electrolyte, leading to the construction of prototyped devices with energy density comparable to those of the current lead-acid batteries. Besides the abovementioned research, hierarchical graphitic carbons were also explored for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors. Overall, through rational design of carbons with optimized pore configuration and surface chemistry, carbon electrodes with improved energy density and rate performance were improved significantly. Collectively, this thesis work systematically unveils simple yet effective strategies to achieve high performance carbon-based supercapacitors with high power density and high energy density, including the following aspects: 1) Constructed electrodes with high capacitance through building favorable ion/electron transportation pathways, tuning pore structure and pore size. 2) Improved the capacitance through enhancing the affinity between the carbon electrodes and electrolytes by doping the carbons with heteroatoms. 3) Explored and understand the roles of heteroatom doping in the capacitive behavior by both experimental measurement and computational modeling. 4) Improved energy density of carbon electrodes by enlarging their working voltage in aqueous and organic electrolyte. 5) Scalable and effective production of hierarchically porous graphite particles through aerosol process for use as the anode materials

  11. Physics of carbon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon is a prominent element that appears in various structures with new promising technological applications. The physics of carbon nanostructures is one of the hot topics in modern condensed matter theory. I plan to present a brief introduction into the theory of variously shaped carbon nanostructures paying special attention to generic field-theory models. The preliminary plan is the following: (1) a brief historical excursus, (2) the most interesting experimental observations, (3) generic models for the description of electronic states in carbon nanoparticles (Dirac-type equations, defects, geometry, etc.), (4) open problems. (author)

  12. Carbon Monoxide Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniol, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    Of all fatal poisonings in the United States, an estimated half are due to carbon monoxide. The number of non-lethal poisonings due to carbon monoxide is difficult to estimate because signs and symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning cover a wide spectrum and mimic other disorders. Misdiagnosis is serious, as the patient often returns to the contaminated environment. Those not receiving proper treatment are at significant risk, as high as 10% to 12%, of developing late neurological sequelae. The diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning depends upon precise history taking, careful physical examination, and a high index of suspicion. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:21221282

  13. Nanoindentation of Carbon Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, Karamjit; Verma, Veena; Bhatti, H S

    2016-06-01

    In the present research paper carbon nanostructures viz. single walled carbon nanotubes, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, single walled carbon nanohorns and graphene nanoplatelets have been synthesized by CVD technique, hydrothermal method, DC arc discharge method in liquid nitrogen and microwave technique respectively. After synthesis 5 mm thick pallets of given nanomaterial are prepared by making a paste in isopropyl alcohol and using polyvinylidene difluoride as a binder and then these pallets were used for nanoindentation measurements. Hardness, reduced modulus, stiffness, contact height and contact area have been measured using nanoindenter. PMID:27427726

  14. Computational Evaluation of Amorphous Carbon Coating for Durable Silicon Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Jeongwoon Hwang; Jisoon Ihm; Kwang-Ryeol Lee; Seungchul Kim

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of graphite-like amorphous carbon coating on bulky silicon to examine whether it can improve the durability of the silicon anodes of lithium-ion batteries using molecular dynamics simulations and ab-initio electronic structure calculations. Structural models of carbon coating are constructed using molecular dynamics simulations of atomic carbon deposition with low incident energies (1–16 eV). As the incident energy decrease...

  15. Phenomenological and semi-microscopic analysis for 16O and 12C elastically scattering on the nucleus of 16O and 12C at Energies near the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear burning process proceeds from the conservation of the most abundant element hydrogen to helium, then from helium to carbon and oxygen, and then from these to heavier elements. Some of the key reactions for the carbon and oxygen burning stages of the nucleosynthesis are 12C+12C and 16O+16O leading to all possible final states. This paper contains the experimental measurements of 12C+12C and 16O+16O angular distributions performed at the cyclotron DC-60 in Astana, Kazakhstan. The extracted beam of 16O and 12C was accelerated up to two energies 1.75 and 1.5 MeV/n and then directed to an Al2O3 target of thickness 20 μg/cm2 and a carbon self-supporting target of thickness 17.4 μg/cm2. The angular distribution calculations were performed using both the phenomenological optical potential (SPI-GENOA) code and the double folding potential (FRESCO) code.

  16. ATR-16 due to a de novo complex rearrangement of chromosome 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Marta S; Zelaya, Gabriela; Feliu, Aurora S; Rossetti, Liliana; Shaffer, Lisa G; Bailey, Kristen A; Bacino, Carlos A; Barreiro, Cristina Z

    2005-01-01

    We describe a child with ATR-16 [alpha-thalassemia (thal)/mental retardation], who was referred for genetic evaluation because of minor anomalies and developmental delay. Cytogenetic analysis demonstrated a de novo complex rearrangement of chromosome 16. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, using chromosome 16 subtelomeric probes, showed that this patient had a deletion of the distal short arm of chromosome 16 that contains the alpha-globin genes and a duplication of 16q. Analysis of the alpha-globin locus by Southern blot showed a half normal dose of the alpha-globin gene. Microsatellite marker studies revealed that the duplicated 16q region was maternal in origin. Hematological studies revealed anemia, hypochromia and occasional cells with Hb H inclusion bodies. A hematological screening for alpha-thal should be considered in patients with mild developmental delay and a suggestive phenotype of ATR-16 with microcytic hypochromic anemia and normal iron status. The stellate pattern of the iris, a new finding in our patient, may contribute to a better clinical delineation of both syndromes, ATR-16 and/or duplication of 16qter.

  17. Nitrogen removal characteristics of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification by Alcaligenes faecalis C16

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxiang Liu; Yao Wang; Yi Li; Hua An; Yongkang Lv

    2015-01-01

    Alcaligenes faecalis C16 was found to have the ability to heterotrophically nitrify and aerobical y denitrify. In order to further understand its nitrogen removal ability and mechanism, the growth and ammonium removal response were investigated at different C/N ratios and ammonium concentrations in the medium with citrate and acetate as carbon source separately. Furthermore, experiments of nitrogen sources, production of nitrogen gas and enzyme assay were conducted. Results show that the bacterium converts NH4+-N and produces NH2OH during the growing phase and nitrite accumulation is its distinct metabolic feature. A. faecalis C16 is able to tolerate not only high ammonium concentration but also high C/N ratio, and the ammonium tolerance is associated with carbon source and C/N ratio. The nitrogen balance under different conditions shows that approximately 28%–45%of the initial ammonium is assimilated into the cells, 44%–60%is denitrified and several percent is converted to nitrification products. A. faecalis C16 cannot utilize hydroxylamine, nitrite or nitrate as the sole nitrogen source for growth. However, nitrate can be used when ammonium is simultaneously present in the medium. A possible pathway for nitrogen removal by C16 is suggested. The preliminary enzyme assay provides more evidence for this nitrogen removal pathway.

  18. Microscopic shell-model description of an exotic nucleus ^{16}C

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, S; Mizusaki, T; Otsuka, T; Sebe, T

    2007-01-01

    The structure of neutron-rich carbon isotopes ^{14, 16, 18}C is described by introducing a new microscopic method of the no-core shell-model type. The model space is composed of the 0s, 0p, 1s0d, and 1p0f shells. The effective interaction is microscopically derived from the CD-Bonn potential and the Coulomb force through a unitary transformation. Calculated low-lying energy levels of ^{16}C agree well with the experiment. The B(E2;2_{1}^{+} \\to 0_{1}^{+}) value is calculated with the bare charges. The anomalously hindered B(E2) value for ^{16}C, measured recently, is reproduced.

  19. Extraction of heavy oil by supercritical carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudyk, Svetlana Nikolayevna; Spirov, Pavel; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2010-01-01

    The present study deals with the extraction of heavy oil by supercritical carbon dioxide at the pressure values changing from 16 to 56 MPa at the fixed value of temperature: 60oC. The amount of the recovered liquid phase of oil was calculated as a percentage of the extracted amount to the initial...

  20. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  1. Novel carbon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991 opened up a challenging new area of research, because they are expected to be ideal building blocks for nanoscale applications due to their extraordinary mechanical and electronic properties. Various production methods have been developed, however precise control of nanotube morphology (e.g. length, diameter) has yet to be realised, a fact which has delayed industrial exploitation. Thus a comprehensive understanding of nanotube growth is essential, and this thesis is concerned with this important problem, i.e. the controlled production of novel carbon nanomaterials. Chapter 1 surveys production methods for fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and other carbon-based materials, such as fibres, particles etc. The sophisticated tools required for this work, e.g. high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), etc. are reviewed in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 describes a novel approach to carbon nanotubes, using laser etching techniques, which generates aligned tubes of uniform diameter and length. The mode of catalyst preparation, as well as the nature of the precursor, play crucial roles in this process. The preparation of modified carbon nanotubes by the pyrolysis of metallocene, e.g. ferrocene in conjunction with various hydrocarbons, is discussed in Chapter 4. Superconducting interference device measurements (SQUID) show that Fe-filled carbon nanotubes exhibit enhanced coercivities in the 430-1070 Oe range, i.e. greater than those reported for Ni and Co nanowires. Carbon nanotubes can be also modified by replacing atoms of the carbon network with nitrogen, boron or both. The creation of large arrays of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes, for example CNx nanofibres, as well as the formation of BxCyNz onions is described in Chapter 5. Electron irradiation of these onions generates pure carbon onions. Finally (Chapter 6), the catalytic behaviour of metal particles in different

  2. Method for Making a Carbon-Carbon Cylinder Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransone, Phillip O. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A method for making a lightweight cylinder block composed of carbon-carbon is disclosed. The use of carbon-carbon over conventional materials. such as cast iron or aluminum, reduces the weight of the cylinder block and improves thermal efficiency of the internal combustion reciprocating engine. Due to the negligible coefficient of thermal expansion and unique strength at elevated temperatures of carbon-carbon, the piston-to-cylinder wall clearance can be small, especially when the carbon-carbon cylinder block is used in conjunction with a carbon-carbon piston. Use of the carbon-carbon cylinder block has the effect of reducing the weight of other reciprocating engine components allowing the piston to run at higher speeds and improving specific engine performance.

  3. 16 CFR 1021.12 - Environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental assessment. 1021.12 Section... of Environmental Review Documents § 1021.12 Environmental assessment. (a) An environmental assessment... available data in order to show its magnitude and significance. Sources of information for...

  4. 16 CFR Appendix to Part 460 - Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION Pt... the unfair or deceptive acts or practices to which the rule relates. In response to petitions from industry representatives, the Commission has granted exemptions from specific requirements of 16 CFR...

  5. 16 CFR 410.1 - The Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Rule. 410.1 Section 410.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING AS TO SIZES OF VIEWABLE... method of competition and an unfair and deceptive act or practice to use any figure or size...

  6. 7 CFR 47.16 - Depositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... UNDER THE PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT Rules Applicable to Reparation Proceedings § 47.16...: (A) Is necessary to prevent prejudice to a party; (B) Is necessary because of a disability of any... prevent prejudice to a party; (B) Is necessary because of a disability of any individual expected...

  7. 16 CFR 1.71 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 1.71 Section 1.71 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Administration of the Fair Credit Reporting Act § 1.71 Administration. The general administration of the...

  8. 16 CFR 460.22 - Tax claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tax claims. 460.22 Section 460.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.22 Tax claims. Do not say or imply that your product qualifies for a tax benefit unless it is true....

  9. NATO õppusel harjutavad 16 riigi meeskonnad

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Tallinnas paiknev NATO küberkaitsekoostöö keskus korraldab sel nädalal õppuse «Locked Shields 2015», kus 400 osalejat ning 16 riigi meeskonnad võtavad mõõtu tehniliste küberjuhtumite lahendamises

  10. 16 CFR 1115.11 - Imputed knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imputed knowledge. 1115.11 Section 1115.11... PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS General Interpretation § 1115.11 Imputed knowledge. (a) In evaluating whether or... care to ascertain the truth of complaints or other representations. This includes the knowledge a...

  11. 16 CFR 1025.43 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 1025.43 Section 1025.43 Commercial... § 1025.43 Evidence. (a) Applicability of Federal Rules of Evidence. Unless otherwise provided by statute or these rules, the Federal Rules of Evidence shall apply to all proceedings held pursuant to...

  12. 22 CFR 16.8 - Agency review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...), the Director of Personnel and Manpower (AID), and the Chief, Employee-Management Relations Division..., regulation or agency policy which the grievant may believe was violated or misapplied; copies of any correspondence under § 16.7(a), any documentary evidence readily available to the grievant on which the...

  13. 7 CFR 1218.16 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.16 Producer... is engaged in the business of producing, or causing to be produced for any market, blueberries...

  14. 16 CFR 240.14 - Meeting competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meeting competition. 240.14 Section 240.14 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.14 Meeting competition. A seller charged...

  15. 16 CFR 1025.49 - Fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees. 1025.49 Section 1025.49 Commercial... § 1025.49 Fees. (a) Fees for deponents and witnesses. Any person compelled to appear in person in response to a subpoena or notice of deposition shall be paid the same attendance and mileage fees as...

  16. 16 CFR 1014.10 - Fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees. 1014.10 Section 1014.10 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES IMPLEMENTING THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1014.10 Fees. The Commission shall not charge an individual for the costs of making a search...

  17. 16 CFR 238.1 - Bait advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bait advertisement. 238.1 Section 238.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.1 Bait advertisement. No advertisement containing an offer to sell a product should be...

  18. 16 CFR 1401.6 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PERFORMANCE AND TECHNICAL DATA; REQUIREMENTS TO NOTIFY CONSUMERS AT POINT OF PURCHASE OF PERFORMANCE AND TECHNICAL DATA § 1401.6 Effective date. This part becomes effective February 20, 1978. ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date. 1401.6 Section...

  19. July 16, 2015 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-07-15

    In this podcast, George Roark from CDC’s emergency personnel staffing team talks about responder safety.  Created: 7/15/2015 by Office of the Associate Director for Communication (OADC).   Date Released: 7/16/2015.

  20. 16 CFR 307.10 - Cooperative advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative advertising. 307.10 Section 307... REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMPREHENSIVE SMOKELESS TOBACCO HEALTH EDUCATION ACT OF 1986 Advertising Disclosures § 307.10 Cooperative advertising. The Act prohibits any manufacturer, packager, or importer of...

  1. 16 CFR 259.2 - Advertising disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... advertised. Fuel economy estimates assigned to “unique nameplates” (see 40 CFR 600.207-86(a)(2)) apply only... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising disclosures. 259.2 Section 259.2... ADVERTISING FOR NEW AUTOMOBILES § 259.2 Advertising disclosures. (a) No manufacturer or dealer shall make...

  2. 16 CFR 1117.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... various children's games, generally as a playing piece or marker. (f) Serious injury includes not only the..., or other small part. (h) Toy or game includes any toy or game, including those exempt under 16 CFR... CHOKING INCIDENTS INVOLVING MARBLES, SMALL BALLS, LATEX BALLOONS AND OTHER SMALL PARTS §...

  3. Film Programmer's Guide to 16mm Rentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artel, Linda J., Ed.; Weaver, Kathleen, Ed.

    The guide is geared to reflect the expanding interest in the history of cinema, in underground and experimental films, in social and political documentaries as well as more conventional Hollywood and foreign classics. It lists over 8,000 16mm films selected from 50 United States distributors. A title directory contains information concerning the…

  4. 16 CFR 0.9 - Organization structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Organization structure. 0.9 Section 0.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.9 Organization structure. The Federal Trade Commission comprises the following principal...

  5. Focus on Geography 16-19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawling, Eleanor

    1981-01-01

    Presented is an activity used to introduce students to the characteristics and aims of the curriculum project "Geography 16-19." Students investigate the ecological value of land proposed for residential development and formulate plans for building dwellings with minimal ecological damage. (DC)

  6. 16 CFR 1207.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1207.3 Section 1207.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY... behavior on swimming pool slides as disclosed by the manufacturer, as specified in this part 1207, or...

  7. 21 CFR 640.16 - Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.16 Processing. (a) Separation. Within the... substance or additive solution is added for prolonged storage. (b) Sterile system. All surfaces that come in... for Red Blood Cells shall be the original blood containers unless the method of processing requires...

  8. 16 CFR 312.11 - Rulemaking review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... information relating to children, children's ability to obtain access to information of their choice online... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rulemaking review. 312.11 Section 312.11 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S...

  9. 16 CFR 1507.11 - Party poppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Party poppers. 1507.11 Section 1507.11... FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.11 Party poppers. Party poppers (also known by other names such as “Champagne Party Poppers,” and “Party Surprise Poppers,”) shall not contain more than 0.25 grains of...

  10. 16 CFR 1301.5 - Banning criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Banning criteria. 1301.5 Section 1301.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF... being distributed in commerce on or after the effective date of this ban and which has an...

  11. 16 CFR 4.3 - Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time. 4.3 Section 4.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE MISCELLANEOUS RULES § 4.3 Time. (a) Computation. Computation of any period of time prescribed or allowed by the rules in this chapter, by order...

  12. 16 CFR 1025.15 - Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time. 1025.15 Section 1025.15 Commercial... Pleadings, Form, Execution, Service of Documents § 1025.15 Time. (a) Computation. In computing any period of time prescribed or allowed by these rules, the day of the act, event, or default from which...

  13. 16 CFR 1306.5 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date. 1306.5 Section 1306.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF... lawn darts in the chain of distribution on or after that date....

  14. 16 CFR 1508.6 - Hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hardware. 1508.6 Section 1508.6 Commercial... FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1508.6 Hardware. (a) A crib shall be designed and constructed in a manner that eliminates from any hardware accessible to a child within the crib the possibility of the...

  15. 16 CFR 1509.7 - Hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hardware. 1509.7 Section 1509.7 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.7 Hardware. (a) The hardware in a non-full-size baby crib shall...

  16. 16 CFR 432.4 - Optional disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Optional disclosures. 432.4 Section 432.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR AMPLIFIERS UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.4 Optional disclosures. Other operating characteristics...

  17. 16 CFR 432.5 - Prohibited disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited disclosures. 432.5 Section 432.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR AMPLIFIERS UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.5 Prohibited disclosures. No performance characteristics...

  18. 16 CFR 1105.2 - Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Factors. 1105.2 Section 1105.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CONTRIBUTIONS TO COSTS OF PARTICIPANTS IN DEVELOPMENT OF CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY STANDARDS § 1105.2 Factors. The...

  19. Inclusive quasielastic ν reaction in 16O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate the inclusive quasielastic νμ cross sections in 16O. The calculations are done in the Local Density Approximation(LDA) and take into account Pauli blocking, Fermi motion and the effect of renormalization of weak coupling constants in the nuclear medium

  20. 16 CFR 1702.14 - Marketing history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing history. 1702.14 Section 1702.14... REQUIREMENTS § 1702.14 Marketing history. Each petition for an exemption under this part shall include a statement of the marketing history of the substance for which an exemption is requested. The...

  1. Kalendar nedeli : 10 - 16 maja / Natalja Lesnaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lesnaja, Natalja

    1995-01-01

    Iz soderzh.: 10 maja 235 let so dnja rozhdenia Kloda Zhozefa Ruzhe de Lilja, (1760 - 1836); 13 maja 155 let so dnja rozhdenia Alfonsa Dode, (1840 - 1897); 15 maja 105 let so dnja rozhdenia Ketrin Enn Porter, (1890 - 1980); 16 maja 85 let so dnja rozhdenia Olgi Fjodorovnõ Berggolts, (1910 - 1975)

  2. 16 CFR 1211.14 - Instruction manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Instruction manual. 1211.14 Section 1211.14... STANDARD FOR AUTOMATIC RESIDENTIAL GARAGE DOOR OPERATORS The Standard § 1211.14 Instruction manual. (a) General. (1) A residential garage door operator shall be provided with an instruction manual....

  3. 28 CFR 512.16 - Informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., determines the research project or data-collection instrument is of a sensitive nature. (d) A researcher who... Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION RESEARCH Research § 512.16 Informed consent. (a) Before commencing a research project...

  4. 16 CFR 1025.26 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlements. 1025.26 Section 1025.26... PROCEEDINGS Prehearing Procedures, Motions, Interlocutory Appeals, Summary Judgments, Settlements § 1025.26 Settlements. (a) Availability. Any party shall have the opportunity to submit an offer of settlement to...

  5. 7 CFR 29.3119 - Rule 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 16. 29.3119 Section 29.3119 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... from the major color shall be classified as “mixed” and designated by the color symbol “M.”...

  6. 16 CFR 1302.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Tagliabue open-cup test method prescribed by 16 CFR 1500.43; and (2) Are intended to be applied to... percentage of solids (10-30 percent by weight); and (4) Are substances that are non-aerosols and are free...). (d) Initial introduction into commerce occurs when the manufacturer ships a product covered by...

  7. 16 CFR 1025.64 - Attorneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attorneys. 1025.64 Section 1025.64... PROCEEDINGS Appearances, Standards of Conduct § 1025.64 Attorneys. Any attorney at law who is admitted to... attorney's own representation that he/she is in good standing before any of such courts shall be...

  8. 16 CFR 1702.12 - Packaging specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging specifications. 1702.12 Section 1702.12 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT REQUIREMENTS; PETITION...

  9. 16 CFR 1501.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 1501.2 Section 1501.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS METHOD FOR... older. In addition, it does not apply to all articles to which children under 3 years of age might...

  10. 16O Coulomb decomposition project '93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adaptability of magnetic analyzers in Japan to this research project was compared and investigated, and the Coulomb decomposition process and the experimental conditions for 16O were examined. By the measurement of the delayed-α spectrum in 16N decay, a new restriction was set to the E1 reaction rate of 12C(α, γ)16O reaction. Hereafter, the research on the E2 reaction rate is urgently needed. There is large expectation for the Coulomb decomposition reaction of 16O as the probe especially sensitive to the E2 reaction rate of the important reaction for celestial body physics. At the meeting held on July 30, the RIKEN SMART spectrometer (F2) was judged as optimal, and its merits are explained. Also a demerit is pointed out. The ion optic parameters of the SMART F2 are shown. In the meeting held on December 17, investigation was carried out on α-12C coincidence count rate and projectile fragmentation background, Coulomb decomposition process and focal plane detector. The reaction cross section of Coulomb E2 excitation was evaluated by Monte Carlo method. As to the possibility of applying Coulomb decomposition process under the circumstance that nuclear force and Coulomb force compete, the new direction was indicated. The experimental plan is shown. (K.I.)

  11. 16 CFR 501.7 - Candles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candles. 501.7 Section 501.7 Commercial... 500 § 501.7 Candles. Tapered candles and irregularly shaped decorative candles which are either hand... extent that diameter of such candles need not be expressed. The requirements of § 500.7 of this...

  12. 16 CFR 1203.41 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recordkeeping requirements. 1203.41 Section 1203.41 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS... helmet positioning index (HPI) used to define the proper position of the helmet on the headform; (6)...

  13. 16 CFR 1000.13 - Directives System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Directives System. 1000.13 Section 1000.13 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.13 Directives System. The Commission maintains a Directives System which contains delegations...

  14. 16 CFR 1116.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1116.2 Section 1116.2... SUBMITTED PURSUANT TO SECTION 37 OF THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT § 1116.2 Definitions. (a) A 24-month... injury to any degree or with any residual disorder (e.g. epilepsy), and brain or brain stem...

  15. Tallinna raearhiivi kasutamisest 16. sajandil / Juhan Kreem

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreem, Juhan

    2008-01-01

    Esimene kogu arhiivi paiknemist ja olukorda iseloomustav tekst pärineb aastast 1840 Fr. G. von Bungelt. Käesoleva artikli autor vaatleb Tallinna raearhiivi kroonikakirjutajate seisukohast. Tallinna 16. sajandi olulised kroonikud olid Johan Gellinckhusen ja Balthasar Russow, kes mõlemad rõhutasid linna konfrontatsiooni aadelkonnaga. Vastavasisulise dokumentatsiooni kasutamisest kroonikute poolt nende tegutsemisajale eelnenud perioodist. Linna privileegide kajastamisest Russowi kroonikas

  16. 16 CFR 1402.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1402.3 Section 1402.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CB BASE... section 3 of the Consumer Product Safety Act (15 U.S.C. 2052) apply to this part 1402. (b)...

  17. 16 CFR 1633.10 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1633.10 Section 1633.10 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Rules and Regulations § 1633.10 Definitions. (a) Standard means...

  18. 16 CFR 1115.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SUBSTANTIAL PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS General Interpretation § 1115.3 Definitions. In addition to the definitions given... Sunshine Act, 16 CFR part 1012. (c) Noncompliance means the failure of a consumer product to comply with...

  19. 16 CFR 1404.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1404.3 Section 1404.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CELLULOSE INSULATION § 1404.3 Definitions. The definitions in section 3 of the Consumer Product Safety Act (15...

  20. 16 CFR 1110.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1110.3 Section 1110.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CERTIFICATES... stated, the definitions of section 3 of the CPSA and additional definitions in the Consumer...

  1. 16 CFR 1209.36 - Production testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production testing. 1209.36 Section 1209.36... SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION Certification § 1209.36 Production testing. (a) General... importers shall determine the types of tests for production testing. Each production test shall be...

  2. 16 CFR 1213.4 - Test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test methods. 1213.4 Section 1213.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ENTRAPMENT HAZARDS IN BUNK BEDS § 1213.4 Test methods. (a) Guardrails (see §...

  3. 16 CFR 1513.4 - Test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test methods. 1513.4 Section 1513.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BUNK BEDS § 1513.4 Test methods. (a) Guardrails (see § 1513.3(a)(6)). With no mattress on...

  4. 16 CFR 18.0 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 18.0 Section 18.0 Commercial... Definitions. Industry products. As used in this part, the term industry products includes all types of trees... greenhouse plants solely for inside culture or use and annual vegetable plants. Industry members. Any...

  5. 16 CFR 316.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 316.1 Section 316.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CAN-SPAM RULE § 316.1 Scope. This part implements the Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act of...

  6. 16 CFR 4.4 - Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service. 4.4 Section 4.4 Commercial... Service. (a) By the Commission. (1) Service of complaints, initial decisions, final orders and other..., registered or certified, and mailed; service under this provision is complete upon delivery of the...

  7. 16 CFR 1018.31 - Support services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Support services. 1018.31 Section 1018.31 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Administration of Advisory Committees § 1018.31 Support services. Unless the statutory authority for a...

  8. 47 CFR 61.16 - Base documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for Electronic Filing § 61.16 Base documents. (a) The Base Document is a complete tariff which... file a Base Document within five days of the initiation of mandatory electronic filing. (c... preceding month, a new Base Document must be submitted within the first five business days of the...

  9. 16 CFR 703.3 - Mechanism organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mechanism organization. 703.3 Section 703.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE... § 703.3 Mechanism organization. (a) The Mechanism shall be funded and competently staffed at a...

  10. 16 CFR 1512.4 - Mechanical requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mechanical requirements. 1512.4 Section 1512.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT... Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 2 Copies may be obtained from:...

  11. 16 CFR 1303.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1303.2 Section 1303.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF LEAD..., or other surface. This term does not include printing inks or those materials which actually become...

  12. Team 16: Logistics Battle Command Model

    OpenAIRE

    Baez, Francisco; Shockley, Jonathan; Sultz, Carston

    2010-01-01

    from Scythe : Proceedings and Bulletin of the International Data Farming Community, Issue 8 Workshop 20 This working group explored the use of the newly developed Logistics Battle Command (LBC) model prototype Graphical User Interface (GUI). Team 16 focused on the development and implementation of a logistics scenario designed to assess the operational impact of different strategies for the management and allocation of transportation assets.

  13. 16 CFR 432.2 - Required disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required disclosures. 432.2 Section 432.2... UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.2 Required disclosures. (a) Whenever any direct or indirect... frequency response, in Hertz (Hz), for the rated power output required to be disclosed in paragraph (a)...

  14. 16 CFR 317.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 317.2 Section 317.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS PROHIBITION OF ENERGY MARKET... limited to, all commercial and military specification jet fuels; and (2) Diesel fuels and fuel...

  15. 16 CFR 1034.160 - Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communications. 1034.160 Section 1034.160 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS... Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with...

  16. 20 CFR 340.16 - Debt collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RECOVERY OF BENEFITS § 340.16 Debt collection. (a) The Associate Executive Director for Unemployment and... person paying remuneration for time lost or any sum or damages for personal injury to remit the amount of reimbursement due the Board, if any, within 30 days of the date of the payment of remuneration or damages to...

  17. 16 CFR 1505.4 - Manufacturing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacturing requirements. 1505.4 Section... USE BY CHILDREN Regulations § 1505.4 Manufacturing requirements. (a) General. (1) Only materials safe...-equipped manufacturing establishment. Each component of a toy shall comply with the requirements set...

  18. 16 CFR 1507.8 - Wheel devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheel devices. 1507.8 Section 1507.8... FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.8 Wheel devices. Drivers in fireworks devices commonly known as “wheels” shall be securely attached to the device so that they will not come loose in transportation, handling, and...

  19. 16 CFR 1207.11 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false References. 1207.11 Section 1207.11 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR SWIMMING POOL SLIDES § 1207.11 References. (a) “Statistical Abstract of the United States...

  20. 7 CFR 1206.16 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.16 Producer. Producer means any person who is engaged in the production and sale of mangos in the United States and who owns,...

  1. 16 CFR 501.1 - Camera film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Camera film. 501.1 Section 501.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION AND... 500 § 501.1 Camera film. Camera film packaged and labeled for retail sale is exempt from the...

  2. April 16th : The World Voice Day

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svec, Jan G.; Behlau, Mara

    2007-01-01

    Although the voice is used as an everyday basis of speech, most people realize its importance only when a voice problem arises. Increasing public awareness of the importance of the voice and alertness to voice problems are the main goals of the World Voice Day, which is celebrated yearly on April 16

  3. 31 CFR 16.24 - Protective order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 16.24 Protective order. (a) A party or a prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or... following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms...

  4. 7 CFR 29.1122 - Rule 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 16. 29.1122 Section 29.1122 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... major color shall be classified as mixed color and designated by the color symbol “KM”. Any lot...

  5. 38 CFR 16.107 - IRB membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 16.107 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS PROTECTION OF HUMAN... diversity of the members, including consideration of race, gender, and cultural backgrounds and sensitivity... the rights and welfare of human subjects. In addition to possessing the professional...

  6. 16 CFR 436.8 - Exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Franchise Rule disclosure requirements, pursuant to 16 CFR 436.8(a)(5)(i)”; 11 or 11 The large franchise... six months after commencing operation of the franchisee's business is less than $500. (2) The franchise relationship is a fractional franchise. (3) The franchise relationship is a leased department....

  7. 16 CFR 1000.12 - Organizational structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Organizational structure. 1000.12 Section... FUNCTIONS § 1000.12 Organizational structure. The Consumer Product Safety Commission is composed of the...) Office of Financial Management, Planning and Evaluation; (2) Office of Hazard Identification...

  8. 22 CFR 120.16 - Foreign person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.16... also means any foreign corporation, business association, partnership, trust, society or any other entity or group that is not incorporated or organized to do business in the United States, as well...

  9. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Consumers Businesses Contact CPSC Website Design Feedback Consumers: Español Businesses: Español , 中文 , Tiếng Việt Connect with Us : Twitter YouTube ... Safely Home / Safety Education / Safety Education Centers En Español Carbon Monoxide Information Center The Invisible Killer Carbon ...

  10. Carbon black recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process and apparatus for recovering carbon black from hot smoke which comprises passing the smoke through a cyclone separation zone following cooling, then through aggregate filter beds and regeneration of filter beds with clean off-gas which is recycled to the carbon black reaction zone as quench

  11. Carbon for sensing devices

    CERN Document Server

    Tagliaferro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This book reveals why carbon is playing such an increasingly prominent role as a sensing material. The various steps that transform a raw material in a sensing device are thoroughly presented and critically discussed.  The authors deal with all aspects of carbon-based sensors, starting from the various hybridization and allotropes of carbon, with specific focus on micro and nanosized carbons (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene) and their growth processes. The discussion then moves to the role of functionalization and the different routes to achieve it. Finally, a number of sensing applications in various fields are presented, highlighting the connection with the basic properties of the various carbon allotropes.  Readers will benefit from this book’s bottom-up approach, which starts from the local bonding in carbon solids and ends with sensing applications, linking the local hybridization of carbon atoms and its modification by functionalization to specific device performance. This book is a must-have in th...

  12. Fly ash carbon passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  13. Carbon Capture and Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, S.M.; Bennaceur, K.; Cook, P.; Davison, J.; Coninck, H. de; Farhat, K.; Ramirez, C.A.; Simbeck, D.; Surles, T.; Verma, P.; Wright, I.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide, the most important long-lived anthropogenic greenhouse gas, can be reduced by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS involves the integration of four elements: CO 2 capture, compression of the CO2 from a gas to a liquid or a denser gas, transportation of pressurized CO 2

  14. COMMITTED TO CARBON REDUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Chinese efforts to lower carbon emissions through environmentally friendly means begin gaining momentum Efforts to curb carbon emissions continue to take shape as China adheres to its pledge for a brighter, greener future. More importantly, as environmental measures take hold and develop

  15. Amorphous iron (II) carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sel, Ozlem; Radha, A.V.; Dideriksen, Knud;

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The synthesis, characterization and crystallization energetics of amorphous iron (II) carbonate (AFC) are reported. AFC may form as a precursor for siderite (FeCO3). The enthalpy of crystallization (DHcrys) of AFC is similar to that of amorphous magnesium carbonate (AMC) and more...

  16. Carbon Dioxide Fountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seong-Joo; Ryu, Eun-Hee

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the development of a carbon dioxide fountain. The advantages of the carbon dioxide fountain are that it is odorless and uses consumer chemicals. This experiment also is a nice visual experiment that allows students to see evidence of a gaseous reagent being consumed when a pressure sensor is available. (Contains 3 figures.)…

  17. Carbon dioxide recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether is seen to offer a substantial route to renewable and environmentally carbon neutral fuels. One of the authors has championed the “Methanol Economy" in articles and a book. By recycling ambient CO2, the authors argue ...

  18. De-carbonizingChina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    zhou; Xiaoyan

    2013-01-01

    Innovation in the energy sector will pave the way for the country’slow-carbon future Although its per-capita emission is roughly on par with the world’s average, China is the world’s largest carbon dioxide emitter,

  19. 16-level differential phase shift keying (D16PSK) in direct detection optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambaraju, R.; Tokle, Torger; Jensen, J.B.;

    2006-01-01

    Optical 16-level differential phase shift keying (D16PSK) carrying four bits for every symbol is proposed for direct detection optical communication systems. Transmitter and receiver schematics are presented, and the receiver sensitivity is discussed. We numerically investigate the impact...

  20. Kingman Reef Site 16P 4/2/2006 15-16M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 16P (6 23.544N, 163 20.531W), between 15 and 16 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Kingman Reef Site 16P 4/2/2006 16-17M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 16P (6 23.544N, 163 20.531W), between 16 and 17 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. 31 CFR 16.16 - Disqualification of reviewing official or ALJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disqualification of reviewing... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTING THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 16.16 Disqualification of reviewing official or ALJ. (a) A reviewing official or ALJ in a particular case may disqualify himself or herself...

  3. The distribution in lunar soil of carbon released by pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, D. J.; Hayes, J. M.; Meinschein, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    The carbon contents of various lunar soil particle types and sieve fractions of Apollo 15 and 16 samples have been determined by the pyrolysis method. The mineral, glass, and high-grade breccia fragments in the soils examined contain relatively low amounts of carbon (approximately 8, 25, and 25 microg C/g sample respectively in 149-250 micron grains). Most low-grade breccias and all agglutinates examined have high carbon contents (approximately 52 and 80 microg C/g sample respectively), and agglutinate abundance is indicative of the carbon content and maturity of a soil. The distribution of carbon with respect to particle size in mature soils generally reveals a minimum in carbon content at about 100 micron particle diameter. At smaller particle diameters, carbon content is directly proportional to particle surface area and therefore increases with the ratio (surface area)/(particle mass). A model relating the cycle of comminution and aggregation of soil particles to the redistribution of surface implanted carbon is developed.

  4. [Flue gas desulfurization by a novel biomass activated carbon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie-Ling; Tang, Zheng-Guang; Chen, Jie; Jiang, Wen-Ju; Jiang, Xia

    2013-04-01

    A novel biomass columnar activated carbon was prepared from walnut shell and pyrolusite was added as a catalyst. The activated carbon prepared was used for flue gas desulphurization in a fixed-bed reactor with 16 g of activated carbon. The impact of operating parameters such as SO2 inlet concentration, space velocity, bed temperature, moisture content and O2 concentration on the desulfurization efficiency of activated carbon was investigated. The results showed that both the breakthrough sulfur capacity and breakthrough time of activated carbon decreased with the increase of SO2 inlet concentration within the range of 0.1% -0.3%. The breakthrough sulfur capacity deceased with the increase of space velocity, with optimal space velocity of 600 h(-1). The optimal bed temperature was 80 degrees C, and the desulfurization efficiency can be reduced if the temperature continue to increase. The presence of moisture and oxygen greatly promoted the adsorption of SO2 onto the activated carbon. The best moisture content was 10%. When the oxygen concentrations were between 10% and 13%, the desulfurization performance of activated carbon was the highest. Under the optimal operating conditions, the sulfur capacity of activated carbon was 252 mg x g(-1), and the breakthrough time was up to 26 h when the SO2 inlet concentration was 0.2%.

  5. The apollo 16 lunar samples: petrographic and chemical description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The preliminary characterization of the rocks and soils returned from the Apollo 16 site has substantiated the inference that the lunar terra are commonly underlain by plagioclase-rich or anorthositic rocks. No evidence has been found for volcanic rocks underlying the regolith in the Apollo 16 region. In their place, we have found anorthositic rocks that are thoroughly modified by crushing and partial melting. The textural and chemical variations in these rocks provide some evidence for the existence of anorthositic complexes that have differentiated on a scale of tens to hundreds of meters. The occurrence of deep-seated or plutonic rocks in place of volcanic or pyroclastic materials at this site suggests that the inference from physiographic evidence that the latter materials are widespread in terra regions may be incorrect. Several additional, more specific conclusions derived from this preliminary examination are: 1) The combination of data from the Descartes region with data from the orbital x-ray fluorescence experiment indicates that some backside, highland regions are underlain by materials that consist of more than 80 percent plagioclase. 2) The soil or upper regolith between North Ray and South Ray has not been completely homogenized since the time of formation of these craters. 3) The chemistry of the soil indicates that rocks rich in potassium, uranium, and thorium, similar to those that prevail at the Fra Mauro site, are relatively abundant (10 to 20 percent) in the Descartes region. 4) The K/U ratio of the lunar crust is similar to that of the KREEP basalts. 5) The carbon content of the premare lunar crust is even lower than that of the mare volcanic rocks. PMID:17731624

  6. Major carbon industries in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    The history of the major carbon industries in India, their growth, present status, problems and future prospects are described. Chapters cover: raw petroleum coke, calcined petroleum coke, graphite electrodes and anodes, carbon electrode paste, calcined anthracite coal, low-ash metallurgical coke, carbon black industry, activated carbon, midget electrodes, cinema arc carbons, carbon blocks and brushes for electrical machinery, and the growth of the aluminium industry and its impact on the calcined petroleum coke industry.

  7. Synthesis of hydrated lutetium carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Liu [South China Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Guangdong (China); Rong-jun Ma [Changsha Research Institute of Minig and Metallurgy, Hunan (China)

    1997-09-01

    Crystalline lutetium carbonate was synthesized for the corresponding chloride using ammonium bicarbonate as precipitant. The chemical analyses suggest that the synthesized lutetium carbonate is a hydrated basic carbonate or oxycarbonate. The X-ray powder diffraction data are presented. The IR data for the compound show the presence of two different carbonate groups. There is no stable intermediate carbonate in the process of thermal decomposition of the lutetium carbonate. (au) 15 refs.

  8. der(16)t(1;16)/der(1;16) in breast cancer detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization is an indicator of better patient prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, H; Takarabe, T; Fukutomi, T; Hirohashi, S

    1999-01-01

    By two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), der(16)t(1;16) or der(1;16) was frequently detected in low-grade papillary carcinoma but not in benign intraductal papilloma of the breast. In order to clarify the incidence and clinicopathological significance of der(16)t(1;16)/der(1;16) in common breast cancers, der(16)t(1;16)/der(1;16) was examined by two-color FISH in breast cancers resected from 51 patients by using DNA probes for 16cen, 16q11.2, and 1q12 labeled with biotin or digoxigenin. der(16)t(1;16)/der(1;16) was clonally detected in 16 cancers (31%), being more frequent in ductal carcinomas of lower grade and invasive lobular carcinoma than in high-grade invasive ductal carcinoma (PFISH is considered helpful in identifying patients with a better prognosis and for stratification of patients in randomized clinical trials of adjuvant chemo-endocrine therapies. PMID:9892111

  9. The role of urbanization in the global carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churkina, Galina

    2016-04-01

    Increasing urbanization and global environmental change are two of the grand challenges of the Anthropocene. There are many important connections between these two challenges, which are still poorly understood. The role of urbanization in the global carbon cycle is one of them. Until now, the known facts about the its role encompassed only CO2 emissions. Urban areas account for more than 70% of CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels. Urban expansion in tropics is responsible for 5% of the annual emissions from land use change. Here I show that the effect of urbanization on the global carbon cycle extends beyond these emissions. I quantify the contribution of urbanization to the major carbon fluxes and pools globally and identify gaps crucial for predicting the evolution of the carbon cycle in the future. Urban residents currently control ~22 (12-40)% of the land carbon uptake (112 PgC/yr) and ~24 (15-39)% of the carbon emissions (117 PgC/yr) from land globally. Urbanization resulted in the creation of new carbon pools on land such as buildings (~6.7 PgC) and landfills (~30 PgC). Together these pools store 1.6 (±0.3)% of the total vegetation and soil carbon pools globally. The creation and maintenance of these new pools has been associated with high emissions of CO2, which are currently better understood than the processes associated with the dynamics of these pools and accompanying uptake of carbon. Predictions of the future trajectories of the global carbon cycle will require a much better understanding of how urban development affects the carbon cycle over the long term.

  10. Sorption kinetics of heavy oil into porous carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Yoko; Iwashita, Norio; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Inagaki, Michio

    2002-12-01

    Sorption kinetics of heavy oil into porous carbons was evaluated by a concept of liquid sorption coefficient obtained from the weight increase of heavy oil with sorption time, which was measured by a wicking test. Exfoliated graphite, carbonized fir fibers and carbon fiber felts were used as porous materials. It was found that the liquid sorption coefficient of fibrous carbons was twice larger than that of exfoliated graphite. Such a difference in the liquid sorption coefficient between the exfoliated graphite and two fibrous carbons was caused by a difference in effective sorption porosity and tortuosity between them. For the exfoliated graphite and carbonized fir fibers, the liquid sorption coefficient and the effective sorption porosity were strongly dependent on their density. The maximum values of both liquid sorption coefficient and effective sorption porosity of the exfoliated graphite were shown at the bulk density around 16 kg/m3. The liquid sorption coefficient of the carbonized fir fibers increased with increasing the density in the range from 6 to 30 kg/m3. When the carbonized fir fibers were densified above 30 kg/m3, the sorption rate was saturated. On the other hand, the sorption kinetics into the carbon fiber felt was almost independent of the bulk density, because the density of the carbon fiber felt is not effective for the pore structure. The effect of bulk density on the sorption kinetics could be supported from an analysis of pore structure of the porous carbons with different densities, which was measured by mercury porosimeter. PMID:12448551

  11. [Estimation for vegetation carbon storage in Tiantong National Forest Park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chun-Zi; Wu, Yang-Yang; Ni, Jian

    2014-11-01

    Based on the field investigation and the data combination from literature, vegetation carbon storage, carbon density, and their spatial distribution were examined across six forest community types (Schima superba--Castanopsis fargesii community, S. superba--C. fargesii with C. sclerophylla community, S. superba--C. fargesii with Distylium myricoides community, Illicium lanceolatum--Choerospondias axillaris community, Liquidambar formosana--Pinus massoniana community and Hedyotis auricularia--Phylostachys pubescens community) in Tiantong National Forest Park, Zhejiang Province, by using the allometric biomass models for trees and shrubs. Results showed that: Among the six communities investigated, carbon storage and carbon density were highest in the S. superba--C. fargesii with C. sclerophylla community (storage: 12113.92 Mg C; density: 165.03 Mg C · hm(-2)), but lowest in the I. lanceolatum--C. axillaris community (storage: 680.95 Mg C; density: 101.26 Mg C · hm(-2)). Carbon storage was significantly higher in evergreen trees than in deciduous trees across six communities. Carbon density ranged from 76.08 to 144.95 Mg C · hm(-2), and from 0. 16 to 20. 62 Mg C · hm(-2) for evergreen trees and deciduous trees, respectively. Carbon storage was highest in stems among tree tissues in the tree layer throughout communities. Among vegetation types, evergreen broad-leaved forest had the highest carbon storage (23092.39 Mg C), accounting for 81.7% of the total carbon storage in all forest types, with a car- bon density of 126.17 Mg C · hm(-2). Total carbon storage for all vegetation types in Tiantong National Forest Park was 28254.22 Mg C, and the carbon density was 96.73 Mg C · hm(-2). PMID:25898604

  12. Increase of Carbon Cycle Feedback with Climate Sensitivity: Results from a coupled Climate and Carbon Cycle Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindasamy, B; Thompson, S; Mirin, A; Wickett, M; Caldeira, K; Delire, C

    2004-04-01

    Coupled climate and carbon cycle modeling studies have shown that the feedback between global warming and the carbon cycle, in particular the terrestrial carbon cycle, could accelerate climate change and result in larger warming. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of this feedback for year-2100 global warming in the range of 0 K to 8 K. Differing climate sensitivities to increased CO{sub 2} content are imposed on the carbon cycle models for the same emissions. Emissions from the SRES A2 scenario are used. We use a fully-coupled climate and carbon cycle model, the INtegrated Climate and CArbon model (INCCA) the NCAR/DOE Parallel Coupled Model coupled to the IBIS terrestrial biosphere model and a modified-OCMIP ocean biogeochemistry model. In our model, for scenarios with year-2100 global warming increasing from 0 to 8 K, land uptake decreases from 47% to 29% of total CO{sub 2} emissions. Due to competing effects, ocean uptake (16%) shows almost no change at all. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration increases were 48% higher in the run with 8 K global climate warming than in the case with no warming. Our results indicate that carbon cycle amplification of climate warming will be greater if there is higher climate sensitivity to increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} content; the carbon cycle feedback factor increases from 1.13 to 1.48 when global warming increases from 3.2 to 8 K.

  13. 16 CFR Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633 - Label for Domestic Mattress Only and Label for Imported Mattress Only

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Label for Domestic Mattress Only and Label for Imported Mattress Only 16 Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT... MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Figs. 16, 17 Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633—Label for Domestic Mattress Only...

  14. An Experimental Study on What Controls the Ratios of 18O/16O and 17O/16O of O2 During Microbial Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolper, D. A.; Ward, B. B.; Fischer, W. W.; Bender, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    18O/16O and 17O/16O ratios of atmospheric and dissolved oceanic O2 are key biogeochemical tracers of total photosynthesis and respiration on global to local length scales and glacial/interglacial time scales (Luz et al., 1999). Critical to the use of these ratios as biogeochemical tracers is knowledge of how they are affected by production, consumption, and transport of O2. We present new measurements of O2 respiration by E. coli and N. oceanus, an ammonia oxidizing bacterium, to test three assumptions of isotopically enabled models of the O2 cycle: (i) laboratory-measured respiratory 18O/16O isotope effects (18α) of microorganisms are constant under all experimental and natural conditions (e.g., temperature and growth rate); (ii) the respiratory 'mass law' relationship between 18O/16O and 17O/16O [17α = (18α)β] is universal; and (iii) 18α and β for aerobic ammonia and organic carbon oxidation are identical. For E. coli, we find that both 18α and β are variable. From 37°C to 15°C, 18α varies linearly with temperature from 17 to 14‰, and β varies linearly from 0.513 to 0.508. 18α and β do not appear to vary with growth rate (as tested using different carbon sources). Both 18α and β are lower than previous observations for bacteria: 18α = 17-20‰ (Kiddon et al., 1993) and β = 0.515 (Luz and Barkan, 2005). We were able to simulate the observed temperature dependence of 18α and β using a model of respiration with two isotopically discriminating steps: O2 binding to cytochrome bo oxidase (the respiratory enzyme) and reduction of O2 to H2O. Finally, initial results on N. oceanus suggest it has similar values for 18α and β as previously studied aerobic bacteria that consume organic carbon, providing the first support for assumption (iii). Based on these results, isotopically constrained biogeochemical models of O2 cycling may need to consider a temperature dependence for 18α and β for microbial respiration. For example, these results may

  15. Conducting carbonized polyaniline nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentus, Slavko; Ćirić-Marjanović, Gordana; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2009-06-01

    Conducting nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes were synthesized by the carbonization of self-assembled polyaniline nanotubes protonated with sulfuric acid. Carbonization was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 °C min-1 up to a maximum temperature of 800 °C. The carbonized polyaniline nanotubes which have a typical outer diameter of 100-260 nm, with an inner diameter of 20-170 nm and a length extending from 0.5 to 0.8 µm, accompanied with very thin nanotubes with outer diameters of 8-14 nm, inner diameters 3.0-4.5 nm and length extending from 0.3 to 1.0 µm, were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Elemental analysis showed 9 wt% of nitrogen in the carbonized product. Conductivity of the nanotubular PANI precursor, amounting to 0.04 S cm-1, increased to 0.7 S cm-1 upon carbonization. Molecular structure of carbonized polyaniline nanotubes has been analyzed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopies, and their paramagnetic characteristics were compared with the starting PANI nanotubes by EPR spectroscopy.

  16. Conducting carbonized polyaniline nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentus, Slavko; Ciric-Marjanovic, Gordana [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Trchova, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky Square 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: gordana@ffh.bg.ac.rs

    2009-06-17

    Conducting nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes were synthesized by the carbonization of self-assembled polyaniline nanotubes protonated with sulfuric acid. Carbonization was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C min{sup -1} up to a maximum temperature of 800 deg. C. The carbonized polyaniline nanotubes which have a typical outer diameter of 100-260 nm, with an inner diameter of 20-170 nm and a length extending from 0.5 to 0.8 {mu}m, accompanied with very thin nanotubes with outer diameters of 8-14 nm, inner diameters 3.0-4.5 nm and length extending from 0.3 to 1.0 {mu}m, were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Elemental analysis showed 9 wt% of nitrogen in the carbonized product. Conductivity of the nanotubular PANI precursor, amounting to 0.04 S cm{sup -1}, increased to 0.7 S cm{sup -1} upon carbonization. Molecular structure of carbonized polyaniline nanotubes has been analyzed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopies, and their paramagnetic characteristics were compared with the starting PANI nanotubes by EPR spectroscopy.

  17. Small diameter carbon nanopipettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Riju; Bhattacharyya, Sayan; Orynbayeva, Zulfiya; Vitol, Elina; Friedman, Gary; Gogotsi, Yury

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale multifunctional carbon probes facilitate cellular studies due to their small size, which makes it possible to interrogate organelles within living cells in a minimally invasive fashion. However, connecting nanotubes to macroscopic devices and constructing an integrated system for the purpose of fluid and electrical signal transfer is challenging, as is often the case with nanoscale components. We describe a non-catalytic chemical vapor deposition based method for batch fabrication of integrated multifunctional carbon nanopipettes (CNPs) with tip diameters much smaller (10-30 nm) than previously reported (200 nm and above) and approaching those observed for multiwalled carbon nanotubes. This eliminates the need for complicated attachment/assembly of nanotubes into nanofluidic devices. Variable tip geometries and structures were obtained by controlled deposition of carbon inside and outside quartz pipettes. We have shown that the capillary length and gas flow rate have a marked effect on the carbon deposition. This gives us a flexible protocol, useful for growing carbon layers of different thicknesses at selective locations on a glass pipette to yield a large variety of cellular probes in bulk quantities. The CNPs possess an open channel for fluid transfer with the carbon deposited inside at 875 °C behaving like an amorphous semiconductor. Vacuum annealing of the CNP tips at temperatures up to 2000 °C yields graphitic carbon structures with an increase in conductivity of two orders of magnitude. Penetration of the integrated carbon nanoprobes into cells was shown to produce minimal Ca2+ signals, fast recovery of basal Ca2+ levels and no adverse activation of the cellular metabolism during interrogation times as long as 0.5-1 h.

  18. Small diameter carbon nanopipettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoscale multifunctional carbon probes facilitate cellular studies due to their small size, which makes it possible to interrogate organelles within living cells in a minimally invasive fashion. However, connecting nanotubes to macroscopic devices and constructing an integrated system for the purpose of fluid and electrical signal transfer is challenging, as is often the case with nanoscale components. We describe a non-catalytic chemical vapor deposition based method for batch fabrication of integrated multifunctional carbon nanopipettes (CNPs) with tip diameters much smaller (10-30 nm) than previously reported (200 nm and above) and approaching those observed for multiwalled carbon nanotubes. This eliminates the need for complicated attachment/assembly of nanotubes into nanofluidic devices. Variable tip geometries and structures were obtained by controlled deposition of carbon inside and outside quartz pipettes. We have shown that the capillary length and gas flow rate have a marked effect on the carbon deposition. This gives us a flexible protocol, useful for growing carbon layers of different thicknesses at selective locations on a glass pipette to yield a large variety of cellular probes in bulk quantities. The CNPs possess an open channel for fluid transfer with the carbon deposited inside at 875 deg. C behaving like an amorphous semiconductor. Vacuum annealing of the CNP tips at temperatures up to 2000 deg. C yields graphitic carbon structures with an increase in conductivity of two orders of magnitude. Penetration of the integrated carbon nanoprobes into cells was shown to produce minimal Ca2+ signals, fast recovery of basal Ca2+ levels and no adverse activation of the cellular metabolism during interrogation times as long as 0.5-1 h.

  19. 宽带无线接入标准IEEE 802.16/16A综述%Broadband Wireless Access Standard IEEE 802.16/16A Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨世民; 周正

    2003-01-01

    首先介绍了宽带无线接入(BWA)技术标准IEEE 802.16/16A的发展,然后描述了该协议的底层标准规范,重点分析了其按需动态带宽分配和多业务QoS(服务质量)保障机制下的物理层(PHY)和介质接入控制(MAC)层的技术特点,并介绍了其移动性的新发展方向,既移动宽带无线接入(MBWA)技术,最后展望了它的市场应用前景和进一步研究的课题.

  20. Strategies for sequencing human chromosome 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, G.R.

    1996-06-01

    This project funded for four years (02.92 to 01.96) was a renewal of a project funded for 2.5 years (07.89 to 01.92). This report covers the period 07.89 to 07.94. The original project was entitled {open_quotes}Correlation of physical and genetic maps of Human Chromosome 16{close_quotes}. The aim over this period was to construct a cytogenetic-based physical map of chromosome 16, to enable integration of its physical and genetic maps. This was achieved by collaboration and isolation of new markers until each bin on the physical map contained a polymorphic marker on the linkage map. A further aim was to integrate all mapping data for this chromosome and to achieve contig closure over band q24.

  1. Alpha Cluster Structure in 16O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Márcia Regina Dias

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present work is the investigation of the α-cluster phenomenon in 16O. The 12C(6Li,d16O reaction was measured at a bombarding energy of 25.5 MeV employing the São Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility and the nuclear emulsion detection technique. Resonant states around 4α threshold were measured and an energy resolution of 15 keV allows to define states previously unresolved. The angular distributions of the absolute cross sections were determined in a range of 4-40 degree in the center of mass system. The upper limit for the resonance widths was obtained, indicating that the a cluster structure information in this region should be revised.

  2. Pr16Mo21O56

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Gougeon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure of hexadecapraseodymium henicosamolybdenum hexapentacontaoxide, Pr16Mo21O56, is isotypic with other rare earth representatives of formula type RE16Mo21O56 (RE = La, Ce, Nd. It is characterized by Mo10O18iO8a units (where i = inner and a = apical O atoms containing bioctahedral Mo10 clusters and octahedral MoO6 units that share some of their O atoms to form the Mo–O framework. The two independent Mo10 cluster units are centred at Wyckoff positions 2b and 2c and have point-group symmetry overline{1}. The Mo atom of the MoO6 unit is likewise situated at an inversion centre (2d. The eight crystallographically different Pr3+ cations occupy irregular voids in the framework with coordination numbers to the O atoms varying between 8 and 11.

  3. Relation between interfacial energy and adsorption of organic micropollutants onto activated carbon

    KAUST Repository

    De Ridder, David J.

    2013-03-01

    The adsorption efficacy of 16 pharmaceuticals on six different activated carbons is correlated to the thermodynamic work of adhesion, which was derived following the surface tension component approach. Immersion calorimetry was used to determine the surface tension components of activated carbon, while contact angle measurements on compressed plates were used to determine these for solutes. We found that the acid-base surface tension components of activated carbon correlated to the activated carbon oxygen content. Solute-water interaction correlated well to their solubility, although four solutes deviated from the trend. In the interaction between solute and activated carbon, van der Waals interactions were dominant and explained 65-94% of the total interaction energy, depending on the hydrophobicity of the activated carbon and solute. A reasonable relationship (r2 > 70) was found between the calculated work of adhesion and the experimentally determined activated carbon loading. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Highly stable linear carbonate-containing electrolytes with fluoroethylene carbonate for high-performance cathodes in sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongwon; Lee, Jaegi; Kim, Hyungsub; Kang, Kisuk; Choi, Nam-Soon

    2016-07-01

    Employing linear carbonates such as dimethyl carbonate (DMC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), and diethyl carbonate (DEC) as electrolyte solvents provides an opportunity to design appropriate electrolyte systems for high-performance sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). However, in practice, the use of linear carbonate-containing electrolytes is quite challenging because linear carbonates readily decompose at Na metal electrodes or sodiated anodes. One of the promising approaches is using an electrolyte additive to resolve the critical problems related to linear carbonates. Our investigation reveals that remarkable enhancement in electrochemical performance of Na4Fe3(PO4)2(P2O7) cathodes with linear carbonate-containing electrolytes is achieved by using a fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) additive. Importantly, the initial Coulombic efficiency of the Na deposition/stripping on a stainless steel (SS) electrode is drastically improved from 16% to 90% by introducing the FEC additive into ethylene carbonate (EC)/propylene carbonate (PC)/DEC (5/3/2, v/v/v)/0.5 M NaClO4. The underlying mechanism of FEC at the electrode-electrolyte interface is clearly demonstrated by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In addition, the Na4Fe3(PO4)2(P2O7) cathode in EC/PC/DEC (5/3/2, v/v/v)/0.5 M sodium perchlorate (NaClO4) with FEC delivers a discharge capacity of 90.5 mAh g-1 at a current rate of C/2 and exhibits excellent capacity retention of 97.5% with high Coulombic efficiency of 99.6% after 300 cycles at 30 °C.

  5. Liverpool Telescope Spectrum of ASASSN-16jb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. C.; Darnley, M. J.

    2016-08-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum of ASASSN-16jb (see ASAS-SN Transients; Shappee et al. 2014) with the FRODOSpec spectrograph (Barnsley et al. 2012) on the 2.0m Liverpool Telescope (Steele et al. 2004) on 2016 August 20.87 UT. The spectrum was taken using the higher resolution mode, which gives a wavelength coverage of 3900 to 5100 & Aring and 5900 to 8000 & Aring, with a resolution of R ~ 5400.

  6. 16 CFR 316.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...(a)(2), 15 U.S.C. 7704(a)(3)(A)(i), 15 U.S.C. 7704(a)(5)(A), and 16 CFR 316.4. (n) The definition of...). (g) The definition of the term “Internet” is the same as the definition of that term in the CAN-SPAM... Definitions. (a) The definition of the term “affirmative consent” is the same as the definition of that...

  7. 16×16 LED点阵驱动电路设计%Design of the Driving Circuit for 16 × 16 LED Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱华新; 刘桂林; 郭颖; 李帅; 严慧敏; 谢斌; 吴敏强; 严伟斌

    2013-01-01

    为驱动16×16 LED点阵,以ATMEL公司生产的AT89C51系列单片机为核心,阐述了LED点阵显示的硬件设计思路、硬件电路各个部分的功能及原理、相应软件的程序设计,以及使用说明等;采用了Proteus软件进行仿真,程序调试采用Keil软件,使用动态显示的方法有效地显示出了汉字;实际电路制作时,在不改变原程序的前提下,对仿真电路进行改进,通过引入NPN三极管,有效地克服了单片机输出功率小的问题,与仿真结果一致,达到了预期的目标.%order to drive the 16 x 16 LED array, the AT89C51 chip made by ATMEL is used to design the circuit. The design of hardware and function is introduced and the design of software and instruction is explained in this paper. The Proteus and Keil softwares are used for stimulation and debugging. The Chinese characters display is used for dynamic display. The actual circuit is improved by using the NPN transistor in order to overcome the low output power of the microcontroller unit without changing the original program. The actual results are consistent with the stimulation results, which means that the design and the program are effective.

  8. 16 CFR 1507.3 - Fuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuses. 1507.3 Section 1507.3 Commercial... § 1507.3 Fuses. (a) Fireworks devices that require a fuse shall: (1) Utilize only a fuse that has been... composition are exempted from § 1507.3(a)(1). (2) Utilize only a fuse which will burn at least 3 seconds...

  9. 16 CFR 316.3 - Primary purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary purpose. 316.3 Section 316.3....3 Primary purpose. (a) In applying the term “commercial electronic mail message” defined in the CAN-SPAM Act, 15 U.S.C. 7702(2), the “primary purpose” of an electronic mail message shall be deemed to...

  10. 16 CFR 1203.13 - Test schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test schedule. 1203.13 Section 1203.13... STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS The Standard § 1203.13 Test schedule. (a) Helmet sample 1 of the set of eight... accordance with § 1203.17. Table 1203.13 summarizes the test schedule. Table 1203.13—Test Schedule §...

  11. IAEA INTOR workshop report, group 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the contribution of JAERI team to Group 16 of IAEA INTOR Workshop, which discusses diagnostics, data acquisition and control. Data assessment is made to consider diagnostics of INTOR. Also considered is how the diagnostics, data acquisition and control should be for a tokamak of the coming generation. The pending problems set at the Session 2 as hometasks are studied, which are given in Appendix. (author)

  12. Carbon Ion Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Hansen, David Christoffer; Herrmann, Rochus;

    On the importance of choice of target size for selective boosting of hypoxic tumor subvolumina in carbon ion therapy Purpose: Functional imaging methods in radiotherapy are maturing and can to some extent uncover radio resistant structures found within a tumour entity. Selective boost of identified...... effect. All cell lines investigated here did not reach an OER of 1, even for the smaller structures, which may indicate that the achievable dose average LET of carbon ions is too low, and heavier ions than carbon may be considered for functional LET-painting....

  13. Extracellular production of a glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid, by Candida sp. SY16 using fed-batch fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Sik; Jeon, Jong-Woon; Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Oh, Hee-Mock; Yoon, Byung-Dae

    2006-04-01

    Candida sp. strain SY16 produces a glycolipid-type biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL-SY16), which can reduce the surface tension of a culture broth from 72 to 30 dyne cm(-1) and highly emulsify hydrocarbons when cultured in soybean-oil-containing media. As such, laboratory-scale fermentation for MEL-SY16 production was performed using optimized conditions. In batch fermentation, MEL-SY16 was mainly produced during the stationary phase of growth, and the concentration of MEL-SY16 reached 37 g l(-1) after 200 h. The effect of pH control on the production of MEL-SY16 was also examined in batch fermentation. The highest production yield of MEL-SY16 was when the pH was controlled at 4.0, and the production was significantly improved compared to batch fermentation without pH control. In fed-batch fermentation, glucose and soybean oil (1:1, w/w) were used in combination as the initial carbon sources for cell growth, and soybean oil was used as the feeding carbon source during the MEL production phase. The feeding of soybean oil resulted in the disappearance of any foam and a sharp increase in the MEL production until 200 h, at which point the concentration of MEL-SY16 was 95 g l(-1). Among the investigated culture systems, the highest MEL-SY16 production and volumetric production rate were achieved with fed-batch fermentation. PMID:16133323

  14. Microbial carbon recycling: an underestimated process controlling soil carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basler, A.; Dippold, M.; Helfrich, M.; Dyckmans, J.

    2015-07-01

    The mean residence times (MRT) of different compound classes of soil organic matter (SOM) do not match their inherent recalcitrance to decomposition. One reason for this is the stabilisation within the soil matrix, but recycling, i.e. the reuse of "old" organic material to form new biomass may also play a role as it uncouples the residence times of organic matter from the lifetime of discrete molecules in soil. We analysed soil sugar dynamics in a natural 30 years old labelling experiment after a~wheat-maize vegetation change to determine the extent of recycling and stabilisation in plant and microbial derived sugars: while plant derived sugars are only affected by stabilisation processes, microbial sugars may be subject to both, stabilisation and recycling. To disentangle the dynamics of soil sugars, we separated different density fractions (free particulate organic matter (fPOM), light occluded particulate organic matter (≤1.6 g cm-3; oPOM1.6), dense occluded particulate organic matter (≤2 g cm-3; oPOM2) and mineral-associated organic matter (>2 g cm-3; Mineral)) of a~silty loam under long term wheat and maize cultivation. The isotopic signature of sugars was measured by high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (HPLC/IRMS), after hydrolysis with 4 M Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). While apparent mean residence times (MRT) of sugars were comparable to total organic carbon in the bulk soil and mineral fraction, the apparent MRT of sugars in the oPOM fractions were considerably lower than those of the total carbon of these fractions. This indicates that oPOM formation was fuelled by microbial activity feeding on new plant input. In the bulk soil, mean residence times of the mainly plant derived xylose (xyl) were significantly lower than those of mainly microbial derived sugars like galactose (gal), rhamnose (rha), fucose (fuc), indicating that recycling of organic matter is an important factor regulating organic matter dynamics

  15. Carbon Ion Radiotherapy for Skull Base Chordoma

    OpenAIRE

    Mizoe, Jun–etsu; Hasegawa, Azusa; Takagi, Ryo; Bessho, Hiroki; Onda, Takeshi; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To present the results of the clinical study of carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) for skull base and paracervical spine tumors at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba, Japan. Methods: The study is comprised of three protocols: a pilot study, a phase I/II dose escalation study, and a phase II study. All the patients were treated by 16 fractions for 4 weeks with total doses of 48.0, 52.8, 57.6, and 60.8 Gy equivalents (GyE). Results: As a result of the dose escalatio...

  16. Microbially Mediated-Precipitation of Cadmium Carbonate Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Serku; Kim, Yumi; Lee, Youngjae; Rohl, Yul

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the microbially mediated precipitation of cadmium using microorganisms enriched from rhodoliths and to characterize the mineralogical properties of the precipitates. A 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed the enriched microorganisms contained carbonate forming microorganisms such as Proteus mirabilis. The microorganisms mediated Cd-precipitation with Cd-acetate, but no precipitates were formed without the microbes in D-1 medium. XRD analysis showed the precipitates were poorly crystalline Cd-carbonates (CdCO3). SEM and TEM-EDS analyses showed that the Cd-carbonate minerals were irregular in shape, 20-30 nm in size, and composed of C, O, and Cd. Therefore, microbially mediated precipitation of cadmium carbonates could be used as a precursor of CdO nanoparticles and could play an important role in Cd immobilization in Cd-contaminated water as well as CO2 fixation in natural environments.

  17. Preparation and characterization of carbon pillared clay material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Carbon pillared clay material was prepared from montmorillonite modified by C19H42BrN and C10H16ClN. SEM, FT-IR, XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, thermal-gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were employed to characterize the pore structure and test the effect of surfactant. The results show that organic modifier combines with montmorillonite particles by covalent bond and ion embedded. The microstructure of carbon pillared material looks like needle slice. The most probable pore size distribution is about 1.7 nm. The clay material slice mainly consists of two-dimensional aperture supported by a carbonization pillar. The high-temperature stability of carbon pillared clay is im- proved.

  18. Preparation and characterization of carbon pillared clay material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZengZhi; YANG ChunWei; NIU JunJie

    2009-01-01

    Carbon pillared clay material was prepared from montmorillonite modified by C19H42BrN and C10H16CIN.SEM, FT-IR, XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, thermal-gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were employed to characterize the pore structure and test the effect of surfactant. The re-sults show that organic modifier combines with montmorillonite particles by covalent bond and ion embedded. The microstructure of carbon pillared material looks like needle slice. The most probable pore size distribution is about 1.7 nm, The clay material slice mainly consists of two-dimensional ap-erture supported by a carbonization pillar. The high-temperature stability of carbon pillared clay is im-proved.

  19. 46 CFR 151.50-41 - Carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide). 151.50-41 Section... CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-41 Carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide). (a) All openings shall be in the top of the tank. (b) Loading lines...

  20. Carbon Stock and Carbon Cycle of Wetland Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhangquan; ZENG; Canming; ZHANG; Jiao; LI; Nan; YANG; Xihao; LI; Yandong; NIU; Zijian; WU

    2014-01-01

    Wetland ecosystem is an essential ecosystem in the world. Its organic carbon stock and carbon cycle are important basis of global carbon cycle researches and also major contents of global climate change researches. Researches have shown that wetland protection and restoration can promote carbon accumulation and reduce emission of greenhouse gases. This paper discussed influence of carbon stock and carbon balance of wetland ecosystem and emission of greenhouse gases,as well as the relationship between wetland and global climate changes. Finally,it made prospect on researches about carbon cycle of Dongting Lake.

  1. A novel carbon fiber based porous carbon monolith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchell, T.D.; Klett, J.W.; Weaver, C.E.

    1995-06-01

    A novel porous carbon material based on carbon fibers has been developed. The material, when activated, develops a significant micro- or mesopore volume dependent upon the carbon fiber type utilized (isotropic pitch or polyacrylonitrile). The materials will find applications in the field of fluid separations or as a catalyst support. Here, the manufacture and characterization of our porous carbon monoliths are described. A novel adsorbent carbon composite material has been developed comprising carbon fibers and a binder. The material, called carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS), was developed through a joint research program between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research (UKCAER).

  2. Authigenic Carbonate and the History of the Global Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Daniel P.; Higgins, John. A.; Macdonald, Francis A.; Johnston, David T.

    2013-02-01

    We present a framework for interpreting the carbon isotopic composition of sedimentary rocks, which in turn requires a fundamental reinterpretation of the carbon cycle and redox budgets over Earth's history. We propose that authigenic carbonate, produced in sediment pore fluids during early diagenesis, has played a major role in the carbon cycle in the past. This sink constitutes a minor component of the carbon isotope mass balance under the modern, high levels of atmospheric oxygen but was much larger in times of low atmospheric O2 or widespread marine anoxia. Waxing and waning of a global authigenic carbonate sink helps to explain extreme carbon isotope variations in the Proterozoic, Paleozoic, and Triassic.

  3. High performance carbon-carbon composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lalit M Manocha

    2003-02-01

    Carbon-carbon composites rank first among ceramic composite materials with a spectrum of properties and applications in various sectors. These composites are made of fibres in various directions and carbonaceous polymers and hydrocarbons as matrix precursors. Their density and properties depend on the type and volume fraction of reinforcement, matrix precursor used and end heat treatment temperature. Composites made with thermosetting resins as matrix precursors possess low densities (1.55–1.75 g/cm3) and well-distributed microporosity whereas those made with pitch as the matrix precursor, after densification exhibit densities of 1.8–2.0 g/cm3 with some mesopores, and those made by the CVD technique with hydrocarbon gases, possess intermediate densities and matrices with close porosities. The former (resin-based) composites exhibit high flexural strength, low toughness and low thermal conductivity, whereas the latter (pitch- and CVD-based) can be made with very high thermal conductivity (400–700 W/MK) in the fibre direction. Carbon-carbon composites are used in a variety of sectors requiring high mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, good frictional properties for brake pads in high speed vehicles or high thermal conductivity for thermal management applications. However, for extended life applications, these composites need to be protected against oxidation either through matrix modification with Si, Zr, Hf etc. or by multilayer oxidation protection coatings consisting of SiC, silica, zircon etc.

  4. Carbon aerogels; Les aerogels de carbone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthon-Fabry, S.; Achard, P

    2003-06-15

    The carbon aerogel is a nano-porous material at open porosity, electrical conductor. The aerogels morphology is variable in function of the different synthesis parameters. This characteristic offers to the aerogels a better adaptability to many applications: electrodes (super condensers, fuel cells). The author presents the materials elaboration and their applications. It provides also the research programs: fundamental research, realization of super-condenser electrodes, fuel cells electrodes, gas storage materials and opaque materials for thermal insulation. (A.L.B.)

  5. Oscillations of the fusion cross-sections in the 16O + 16O reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M V Chushnyakova; I I Gontchar

    2015-10-01

    Evolution of the fusion cross-section in the 16O + 16O reaction has been analysed. It is shown, both analytically and numerically, that in this excitation function some oscillations can be observed. These oscillations are related to the quantum character of the orbital angular momentum increase as well as to the distinct features of the 16O + 16O reaction. In order to perform the numerical calculations, the fluctuation–dissipation model and the single barrier penetration model are used. It turns out that the experimental data available in the literature do not have any definite proof about the presence or absence of the oscillations. We stress, that the question still remains unanswered for more than three decades whereas during this time lapse the experimental errors for other reactions are reduced to 1–2%.

  6. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate is found in: Automatic dishwashing soaps Clinitest (diabetes testing) tablets Glass products Pulp and paper products Some bleaches Some bubble bath solutions Some steam iron cleaners Note: This list is not all-inclusive.

  7. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heater). Many carbon monoxide poisonings occur in the winter months when furnaces, gas fireplaces, and portable heaters ... 16567227 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16567227 . Nelson LS, Hoffman RS. Inhaled toxins. In: Marx JA, ...

  8. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... United States die every year from accidental non-fire related CO poisoning. Products that can produce deadly ... Driven Generators, 2004-2014 January 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of ...

  9. FLUIDIZATION OF CARBON NANOTUBES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Wei; Cang Huang; Yao Wang

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be fluidized in the form of fluidlike agglomerates made of many three-dimensional sub-agglomerates, having a multi-stage agglomerate (MSA) structure and containing large amounts of twisting CNTs of micrometer magnitude.

  10. Carbon nanotubes: Fibrillar pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostarelos, Kostas

    2010-10-01

    The mechanisms by which chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes flow in blood and are excreted through the kidneys illustrate the unconventional behaviour of these fibrillar nanostructures, and the opportunities they offer as components for the design of advanced delivery vehicles.

  11. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics March 09, 2016 Supplemental Memos Regarding Some of the Hazards Associated with Engine-Driven Generators, 2004-2014 January 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the ...

  12. The Carbon Emission Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    When Chinese President Hu Jintao attended the UN climate summit on September22,he made a solemn commitment that China will cut its per GDP unit carbon emission to a significant amount in 2020 compared with that of 2005.

  13. Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Total ecosystem carbon includes above- and below-ground live plant components (such as leaf, branch, stem and root), dead biomass (such as standing dead wood, down...

  14. Carbon monoxide intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kales, S.N. (Cambridge Hospital, MA (United States))

    1993-11-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning usually results from inhalation of exhaust fumes from motor vehicles, smoke from fires or fumes from faulty heating systems. Carbon monoxide has a high affinity for hemoglobin, with which it forms carboxyhemoglobin. The resulting decrease in both oxygen-carrying capacity and oxygen release can lead to end-organ hypoxia. The clinical presentation is nonspecific. Headache, dizziness, fatigue and nausea are common in mild to moderate carbon monoxide poisoning. In more severe cases, tachycardia, tachypnea and central nervous system depression occur. When carbon monoxide intoxication is suspected, empiric treatment with 100 percent oxygen should be initiated immediately. The diagnosis is confirmed by documenting an elevated carboxyhemoglobin level. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is recommended in patients with neurologic dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction or a history of unconsciousness. 26 refs.

  15. Carbon partitioning in photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Anastasios

    2013-06-01

    The work seeks to raise awareness of a fundamental problem that impacts the renewable generation of fuels and chemicals via (photo)synthetic biology. At issue is regulation of the endogenous cellular carbon partitioning between different biosynthetic pathways, over which the living cell exerts stringent control. The regulation of carbon partitioning in photosynthesis is not understood. In plants, microalgae and cyanobacteria, methods need be devised to alter photosynthetic carbon partitioning between the sugar, terpenoid, and fatty acid biosynthetic pathways, to lower the prevalence of sugar biosynthesis and correspondingly upregulate terpenoid and fatty acid hydrocarbons production in the cell. Insight from unusual but naturally occurring carbon-partitioning processes can help in the design of blueprints for improved photosynthetic fuels and chemicals production.

  16. Ubiquitous Gammaproteobacteria dominate dark carbon fixation in coastal sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyksma, Stefan; Bischof, Kerstin; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Hoffmann, Katy; Meier, Dimitri; Meyerdierks, Anke; Pjevac, Petra; Probandt, David; Richter, Michael; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Mußmann, Marc

    2016-08-01

    Marine sediments are the largest carbon sink on earth. Nearly half of dark carbon fixation in the oceans occurs in coastal sediments, but the microorganisms responsible are largely unknown. By integrating the 16S rRNA approach, single-cell genomics, metagenomics and transcriptomics with (14)C-carbon assimilation experiments, we show that uncultured Gammaproteobacteria account for 70-86% of dark carbon fixation in coastal sediments. First, we surveyed the bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity of 13 tidal and sublittoral sediments across Europe and Australia to identify ubiquitous core groups of Gammaproteobacteria mainly affiliating with sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. These also accounted for a substantial fraction of the microbial community in anoxic, 490-cm-deep subsurface sediments. We then quantified dark carbon fixation by scintillography of specific microbial populations extracted and flow-sorted from sediments that were short-term incubated with (14)C-bicarbonate. We identified three distinct gammaproteobacterial clades covering diversity ranges on family to order level (the Acidiferrobacter, JTB255 and SSr clades) that made up >50% of dark carbon fixation in a tidal sediment. Consistent with these activity measurements, environmental transcripts of sulfur oxidation and carbon fixation genes mainly affiliated with those of sulfur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria. The co-localization of key genes of sulfur and hydrogen oxidation pathways and their expression in genomes of uncultured Gammaproteobacteria illustrates an unknown metabolic plasticity for sulfur oxidizers in marine sediments. Given their global distribution and high abundance, we propose that a stable assemblage of metabolically flexible Gammaproteobacteria drives important parts of marine carbon and sulfur cycles. PMID:26872043

  17. Carbon and oxygen isotope microanalysis of carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velivetskaya, Tatiana A; Ignatiev, Alexander V; Gorbarenko, Sergey A

    2009-08-30

    Technical modification of the conventional method for the delta(13)C and delta(18)O analysis of 10-30 microg carbonate samples is described. The CO(2) extraction is carried out in vacuum using 105% phosphoric acid at 95 degrees C, and the isotopic composition of CO(2) is measured in a helium flow by gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS). The feed-motion of samples to the reaction vessel provides sequential dropping of only the samples (without the sample holder) into the acid, preventing the contamination of acid and allowing us to use the same acid to carry out very large numbers of analyses. The high accuracy and high reproducibility of the delta(13)C and delta(18)O analyses were demonstrated by measurements of international standards and comparison of results obtained by our method and by the conventional method. Our method allows us to analyze 10 microg of the carbonate with a standard deviation of +/-0.05 per thousand for delta(13)C and delta(18)O. The method has been used successfully for the analyses of the oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of the planktonic and benthic foraminifera in detailed palaeotemperature reconstructions of the Okhotsk Sea. PMID:19603476

  18. Electrospun carbon nanofibers reinforced 3D porous carbon polyhedra network derived from metal-organic frameworks for capacitive deionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Ma, Jiaqi; Lu, Ting; Pan, Likun

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers reinforced 3D porous carbon polyhedra network (e-CNF-PCP) was prepared through electrospinning and subsequent thermal treatment. The morphology, structure and electrochemical performance of the e-CNF-PCP were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and their electrosorption performance in NaCl solution was studied. The results show that the e-CNF-PCP exhibits a high electrosorption capacity of 16.98 mg g(-1) at 1.2 V in 500 mg l(-1) NaCl solution, which shows great improvement compared with those of electrospun carbon nanofibers and porous carbon polyhedra. The e-CNF-PCP should be a very promising candidate as electrode material for CDI applications. PMID:27608826

  19. Electrospun carbon nanofibers reinforced 3D porous carbon polyhedra network derived from metal-organic frameworks for capacitive deionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Ma, Jiaqi; Lu, Ting; Pan, Likun

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers reinforced 3D porous carbon polyhedra network (e-CNF-PCP) was prepared through electrospinning and subsequent thermal treatment. The morphology, structure and electrochemical performance of the e-CNF-PCP were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and their electrosorption performance in NaCl solution was studied. The results show that the e-CNF-PCP exhibits a high electrosorption capacity of 16.98 mg g−1 at 1.2 V in 500 mg l−1 NaCl solution, which shows great improvement compared with those of electrospun carbon nanofibers and porous carbon polyhedra. The e-CNF-PCP should be a very promising candidate as electrode material for CDI applications. PMID:27608826

  20. Free Energy Minimization Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibria. Reduction of Silicon Dioxide with Carbon at High Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, C. M.; Hutchinson, S. G.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the calculation of free energy in reactions between silicon dioxide and carbon. Describes several computer programs for calculating the free energy minimization and their uses in chemistry classrooms. Lists 16 references. (YP)

  1. States and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The climate challenge appeals to an unprecedented mutation of our societies. From north to south, all our life styles will have to be changed from dwelling, to transport and feeding. These changes will have sense only at a worldwide scale and will impact our way of development. How can we reduce our energy consumption and greenhouse impact with answering everyone's essential needs at the same time? How can we invent a carbon-free economy in the North and preserve the big socio-economical equilibria at the same time? How can we get rid of poverty in the South without compromising the well-being of the future generations with an increase of CO2 emissions? Such difficulties cannot be overcome without innovations in terms of public policies. This book takes stock of the new possible instruments and policies at the global scale and involving fiscality, standards, investments and social justice. Content: 1 - the carbon threat: a changing climate and energies becoming scarce (the climate threat, an increasing energy insecurity); carbon and modern economy (human greenhouse gas emissions, a carbon-free well-being); governments and carbon control (a global challenge requiring an international control, the experiments era from Rio to the present day, the challenge of the state in front of the carbon threat); 2 - the political instruments of environment: standards as first instruments of climate public policies (standards efficiency in some sectors, standards limitations, standards and innovation); emissions quotas and market instruments (Kyoto protocol and CO2 market, the future of 'cap and trade' and of individual and regional quotas); carbon tax, fiscal instruments and new regulations (carbon tax as an alternative or a complement, other fiscal and para-fiscal instruments, new regulation instruments); investing in climate (managing the transition, governments as transition administrators). (J.S)

  2. Catalytic Metal Free Production of Large Cage Structure Carbon Particles: A Candidate for Hydrogen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuki; Nuth, Joseph A., III; Ferguson, Frank T.

    2005-01-01

    We will demonstrate that carbon particles consisting of large cages can be produced without catalytic metal. The carbon particles were produced in CO gas as well as by introduction of 5% methane gas into the CO gas. The gas-produced carbon particles were able to absorb approximately 16.2 wt% of hydrogen. This value is 2.5 times higher than the 6.5 wt% goal for the vehicular hydrogen storage proposed by the Department of Energy in the USA. Therefore, we believe that this carbon particle is an excellent candidate for hydrogen storage for fuel cells.

  3. Carbon based prosthetic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, D.J.; Carroll, D.W.; Barbero, R.S.; Archuleta, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Klawitter, J.J.; Ogilvie, W.; Strzepa, P. [Ascension Orthopedics (US); Cook, S.D. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (US). School of Medicine

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objective was to evaluate the use of carbon/carbon-fiber-reinforced composites for use in endoprosthetic devices. The application of these materials for the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joints of the hand was investigated. Issues concerning mechanical properties, bone fixation, biocompatibility, and wear are discussed. A system consisting of fiber reinforced materials with a pyrolytic carbon matrix and diamond-like, carbon-coated wear surfaces was developed. Processes were developed for the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of pyrolytic carbon into porous fiber preforms with the ability to tailor the outer porosity of the device to provide a surface for bone in-growth. A method for coating diamond-like carbon (DLC) on the articulating surface by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was developed. Preliminary results on mechanical properties of the composite system are discussed and initial biocompatibility studies were performed.

  4. Black carbon in marine sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelburg, J.J.; Nieuwenhuize, J.; Van Breugel, P.

    1999-01-01

    Concentrations of black carbon were determined for a number of marine sediments. A comparison of black carbon based on thermal oxidation and hot concentrated nitric acid pretreatments revealed that the latter significantly overestimates combustion derived carbon phases. Black carbon accounts for abo

  5. Nano-Carbons as Theranostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Liu, Xing-Jie Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nano-carbons, including fullerenes, carbon nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and nano-diamonds, are an important class of nanostructures attracting tremendous interests in the past two decades. In this special issue, seven review articles and research reports are collected, to summarize and present the latest progress in the exploration of various nano-carbons for theranostic applications.

  6. Method for synthesizing carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongyou

    2012-09-04

    A method for preparing a precursor solution for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, where a polar solvent is added to at least one block copolymer and at least one carbohydrate compound, and the precursor solution is processed using a self-assembly process and subsequent heating to form nanoporous carbon films, porous carbon nanotubes, and porous carbon nanoparticles.

  7. Temperature, salinity and other variables from the from the CLIVAR-Carbon Hydrographic Office (CCHDO) from 23 Oct 2003 - 26 Feb 2005 (NODC Accession 0002720)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from the CLIVAR-Carbon Hydrographic Office (CCHDO) were acquired by NODC. Cruises in this accession include: A16N_Leg1, A16N_Leg2, A16S, A20, A22, P02, and...

  8. Carbon isotope effects in carbonate systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deines, Peter

    2004-06-01

    Global carbon cycle models require a complete understanding of the δ 13C variability of the Earth's C reservoirs as well as the C isotope effects in the transfer of the element among them. An assessment of δ 13C changes during CO 2 loss from degassing magmas requires knowledge of the melt-CO 2 carbon isotope fractionation. In order to examine the potential size of this effect for silicate melts of varying composition, 13C reduced partition functions were computed in the temperature range 275 to 4000 K for carbonates of varying bond strengths (Mg, Fe, Mn, Sr, Ba, Pb, Zn, Cd, Li, and Na) and the polymorphs of calcite. For a given cation and a given pressure the 13C content increases with the density of the carbonate structure. For a given structure the tendency to concentrate 13C increases with pressure. The effect of pressure (‰/10 kbar) on the size of the reduced partition function of aragonite varies with temperature; in the pressure range 1 to 10 5 bars the change is given by: Δ 13C p average=-0.01796+0.06635∗ 10 3/T+0.006875∗ 10 6/T2 For calcite III the pressure effect is on average 1.4× larger than that for aragonite at all temperatures. The nature of the cation in a given structure type has a significant effect on the carbon isotope fractionation properties. The tendency to concentrate 13C declines in the series magnesite, aragonite, dolomite, strontianite, siderite, calcite, smithonite, witherite, rhodochrosite, otavite, cerrusite. For divalent cations a general expression for an estimation of the reduced partition function (β) from the reduced mass (μ = [M Cation × M Carbonate]/[M Cation + M Carbonate]) is: 1000 lnβ=(0.032367-0.072563∗ 10 3/T-0.01073∗ 10 6/T2)∗μ-14.003+29.953∗ 10 3/T+9.4610∗ 10 6/T2 For Mg-calcite the 13C content varies with the Mg concentration. The fractionation between Mg-calcite (X = mole fraction of MgCO 3) and calcite is given by: 1000 ln(α MgCalite- Calcite)=[0.013702-0.10957× 10 3/T+1.35940× 10 6/T2

  9. THE SODIUM PREVALENCE IN CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS SOLD IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fernanda Nunes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbonated soft drinks intake has changed the children eating habits. This factor may be directly associated with arterial hypertension due the high consumption of sodium present in foods and drinks industrialized. This study was to compare sodium levels between two different types of carbonated soft drinks, carbonated sugar drinks and diet drinks to define what type of drink has the lowest sodium content and alerting healthcare professionals about the presence of sodium in industrialized beverages. The study included labels of carbonated soft drinks n = 33 – sugar drinks (n = 21 or diet drinks (n = 12 – of five different flavors.All carbonated soft drinks evaluated have sodium in its composition. However, the sodium presence in carbonated sugar drinks was significantly lower when compared with carbonated diet drinks (69.05 ± 16.55 vs. 145.30 ± 47.36mg Na/l, respectively.Studies to identify children's eating habits related with increased consumption of foods and drinks manufactured are needed to identify, reduce and prevent high blood pressure.

  10. Cardiovascular deaths related to Carbon monoxide Exposure in Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Goudarzi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless and toxic gas that emitted from combustion. Carbon monoxide can cause harmful health effects by reducing oxygen delivery to the body's organs (like the heart and brain, tissues, fibrinolysis effects, abortion and death at extremely high levels. The aim of this study was to assess health- effects of carbon monoxide exposure in Ahvaz city. Data were collected through Ahvaz Meteorological Organization and Department of Environment. Raw data processing by Excel software includes (instruction set correction of averaging, coding and filtering and after the impact of meteorological parameters was converted as input file to the Air Q model. Finally, health-effects of carbon monoxide exposure were calculated. The results showed that the concentration of carbon monoxide was 7.41 mg/m3 in Ahvaz as annual average. Sum of total numbers of deaths attributed to carbon monoxide was 16 cases within a year. Approximately 4.3% of total Cardiovascular deaths happened when the carbon monoxide concentrations was more than 20 mg/m3. This could be due to higher fuel consumption gasoline in vehicles, Oil industry, steel and Heavy industries in Ahwaz. Mortality and Morbidity risks were detected at current ambient concentrations of air pollutants.

  11. Carbon material optimized biocathode for improving microbial fuel cell performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairti eTursun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs, the biocathode electrode material of double-chamber was optimized. Alongside the basic carbon fiber brush, three carbon materials namely graphite granules, activated carbon granules and activated carbon powder, were added to the cathode-chambers to improve power generation. The result shows that the addition of carbon materials increased the amount of available electroactive microbes on the electrode surface and thus promote oxygen reduction rate, which improved the generation performance of the MFCs. The Output current (external resistance = 1000 Ω greatly increased after addition of the three carbon materials and maximum power densities in current stable phase increased by 47.4%, 166.1% and 33.5%, respectively. Additionally, coulombic efficiencies of the MFC increased by 16.3%, 64.3% and 20.1%, respectively. These results show that MFC when optimized with activated carbon granules show better power generation, higher chemical oxygen demands (COD removal rate and coulombic efficiency.

  12. Aspects of carbon dioxide utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omae, Iwao [Omae Research Laboratories, 335-23 Mizuno, Sayama, Saitama 350-1317 (Japan)

    2006-06-30

    Carbon dioxide reacts with hydrogen, alcohols, acetals, epoxides, amines, carbon-carbon unsaturated compounds, etc. in supercritical carbon dioxide or in other solvents in the presence of metal compounds as catalysts. The products of these reactions are formic acid, formic acid esters, formamides, methanol, dimethyl carbonate, alkylene carbonates, carbamic acid esters, lactones, carboxylic acids, polycarbonate (bisphenol-based engineering polymer), aliphatic polycarbonates, etc. Especially, the productions of formic acid, formic acid methyl ester and dimethylformamide with a ruthenium catalyst; dimethyl carbonate and urethanes with a dialkyltin catalyst; 2-pyrone with a nickel-phosphine catalyst; diphenyl carbonate with a lead phenoxide catalyst; the alternating copolymerization of carbon dioxide and epoxides with a zinc catalyst has attracted attentions as the industrial utilizations of carbon dioxide. The further development of these production processes is expected. (author)

  13. Methane carbon supports aquatic food webs to the fish level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Sanseverino

    Full Text Available Large amounts of the greenhouse gas methane (CH(4 are produced by anaerobic mineralization of organic matter in lakes. In spite of extensive freshwater CH(4 emissions, most of the CH(4 is typically oxidized by methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB before it can reach the lake surface and be emitted to the atmosphere. In turn, it has been shown that the CH(4-derived biomass of MOB can provide the energy and carbon for zooplankton and macroinvertebrates. In this study, we demonstrate the presence of specific fatty acids synthesized by MOB in fish tissues having low carbon stable isotope ratios. Fish species, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates and the water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes were collected from a shallow lake in Brazil and analyzed for fatty acids (FA and carbon stable isotope ratios (δ(13C. The fatty acids 16:1ω8c, 16:1ω8t, 16:1ω6c, 16:1ω5t, 18:1ω8c and 18:1ω8t were used as signature for MOB. The δ(13C ratios varied from -27.7‰ to -42.0‰ and the contribution of MOB FA ranged from 0.05% to 0.84% of total FA. Organisms with higher total content of MOB FAs presented lower δ(13C values (i.e. they were more depleted in (13C, while organisms with lower content of MOB signature FAs showed higher δ(13C values. An UPGMA cluster analysis was carried out to distinguish grouping of organisms in relation to their MOB FA contents. This combination of stable isotope and fatty acid tracers provides new evidence that assimilation of methane-derived carbon can be an important carbon source for the whole aquatic food web, up to the fish level.

  14. Nota introduttiva n. 16 – dicembre 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Zuccolo; Marco Abram

    2014-01-01

    Il monografico numero 16 di Diacronie si propone di analizzare il ruolo delle monarchie nei processi di formazione nazionale. L’utilizzo dei simboli e delle prerogative monarchiche verrà studiato in relazione ai movimenti nazionalisti emersi tra XIX e XX secolo, in particolare nell’area mediterranea, e verrà messo in risalto come le idee monarchiche e la monarchia stessa modifichino e influenzino, sviluppando un peculiare discorso socio-politico, questi movimenti. Come area d’indagine si è pr...

  15. FY16-20 Strategic Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwell, Amber Suzanne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Welcome to our FY16–FY20 Strategic Plan, which both refects our continued dedication to the work we do and reinforces the importance of the integrated Laboratories’ strategic framework to our future. This document is the result of the leadership team’s journey over the past few years in response to the needs of our nation. In an external environment that continues to change, sometimes in unexpected ways, it is critical that our mission areas and our foundation become increasingly synergistic, forming a whole whose parts are interdependent.

  16. 26 CFR 48.4041-16 - Sales for export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sales for export. 48.4041-16 Section 48.4041-16... TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Special Fuels § 48.4041-16 Sales for export. (a) General rule. In order for a sale to be exempt from tax under section 4041 as a sale for export, it...

  17. Exon: CBRC-DRER-16-0070 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-16-0070 atgtctactaatactgataccactaccactactgatactactatagcgtttgctacaactaatacaacaacgtctactgctactactact...actactaccaccaccacaatcacttctactacATCTACATCAACAACATctactactgatattactacaccaacaacgactactactactact ...

  18. Exon: CBRC-GACU-16-0007 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-16-0007 atgaccactaaccctattaccattactactatccataccactcctactattaccactatgaccactaaccctactaccattactactact...agccctaccagtcctactactatcactatgaccattacccctactaCCCCAGTACAGAGCACTACTAGTACCTCTAACCATAC

  19. 48 CFR 16.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... incentive contracts. 16.405 Section 16.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.405 Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. See 16.301 for requirements applicable to all cost-reimbursement...

  20. Organic modification of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The organic modification of carbon nanotubes is a novel research field being developed recently. In this article, the history and newest progress of organic modification of carbon nanotubes are reviewed from two aspects:organic covalent modification and organic noncovalent modification of carbon nanotubes. The preparation and properties of organic modified carbon nanotubes are discussed in detail. In addition, the prospective development of organic modification of carbon nanotubes is suggested.

  1. Orbital responses to methyl sites in CnH2n+2 (n=1-6)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Ze-Jin; Cheng Xin-Lu; Zhu Zheng-He; Yang Xiang-Dong

    2012-01-01

    Orbital responses to methyl sites in CnH2n+2 (n =1-6) are studied by B3LYP/TZVP based on the most stable geometries using the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ method.Vertical ionization energies are produced using the SAOP/et-pVQZ model for the complete valence space.The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) investigations indicate the pelectron profiles in methane,ethane,propane,and n-butane.By increasing the number of carbon-carbon bonds in lower momentum regions,the s,p-hybridized orbitals are built and display strong exchange and correlation interactions in lower momentum space (P (≤) 0.50 a.u.).Meanwhile,the relative intensities of the isomers in lower momentum space show the strong bonding number dependence of the carbon-carbon bonds,meaning that more electrons have contributed to orbital construction.The study of representative valence orbital momentum distribution further confirms that the structural changes lead to evident electronic rearrangement over the whole valence space.An analysis based on the isomers reveals that the valence orbitals are isomer-dependent and the valence ionization energy experiences an apparent shift in the inner valence space.However,such shifts are greatly reduced in the outer valence space.Meanwhile,the opposite energy shift trend is found in the intermediate valence space.

  2. Carbon dioxide and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global climate change is a serious environmental concern, and the US has developed ''An Action Agenda'' to deal with it. At the heart of the US effort is the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), which has been developed by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES) of the Federal Coordinating Council for Sciences, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET). The USGCRP will provide the scientific basis for sound policy making on the climate-change issue. The DOE contribution to the USGCRP is the Carbon Dioxide Research Program, which now places particular emphasis on the rapid improvement of the capability to predict global and regional climate change. DOE's Carbon Dioxide Research Program has been addressing the carbon dioxide-climate change connection for more than twelve years and has provided a solid scientific foundation for the USGCRP. The expansion of the DOE effort reflects the increased attention that the Department has placed on the issue and is reflected in the National Energy Strategy (NES) that was released in 1991. This Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1991 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments. The Environmental Sciences Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research supports a Carbon Dioxide Research Program to determine the scientific linkage between the rise of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, especially carbon dioxide, and climate and vegetation change. One facet is the Core CO2 Program, a pioneering program that DOE established more than 10 years ago to understand and predict the ways that fossil-fuel burning could affect atmospheric CO2 concentration, global climate, and the Earth's biosphere. Major research areas are: global carbon cycle; climate detection and models of climate change; vegetation research; resource analysis; and, information and integration

  3. Cellular functions of TMEM16/anoctamin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Uhtaek; Jung, Jooyoung

    2016-03-01

    Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) are a class of Cl(-) channels activated by intracellular Ca(2+) that are known to mediate numerous physiological functions. In 2008, the molecular identity of CaCCs was found to be anoctamin 1 (ANO1/TMEM16A). Its roles have been studied in electrophysiological, histological, and genetic aspects. ANO1 is known to mediate Cl(-) secretion in secretory epithelia such as airways, salivary glands, intestines, renal tubules, and sweat glands. ANO1 is a heat sensor activated by noxious heat in somatosensory neurons and mediates acute pain sensation as well as chronic pain. ANO1 is also observed in vascular as well as airway smooth muscles, controlling vascular tone as well as airway hypersensitivity. ANO1 is upregulated in numerous types of cancers and thus thought to be involved in tumorigenesis. ANO1 is also found in proliferating cells. In addition to ANO1, involvement of its paralogs in pathophysiological conditions was also reported. ANO2 is involved in olfaction, whereas ANO6 works as a scramblase whose mutation causes a rare bleeding disorder, the Scott syndrome. ANO5 is associated with muscle and bone diseases. Recently, an X-ray crystal structure of a fungal TMEM16 was reported, which explains a precise molecular gating mechanism as well as ion conduction or phospholipid transport across the plasma membrane. PMID:26811235

  4. Læren fra F-16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    Da Danmark i 1975 besluttede at købe 58 F-16-kampfly var det på mange måder en aftale med substantielle fordele. Den fælles beslutning blandt en række NATO-lande om at købe samme flytype betød, at Danmarks relationer til sine alliancepartnere blev styrket, ikke mindst i kraft af fælles deltagelse i...... nternationale operationer. Indkøbet muliggjorde endvidere samarbejde om moderniseringsprogrammer og reducerede levetidsomkostningerne betragteligt. Fælles fly betød også forbedrede træningsmuligheder for danske piloter og vigtig hjælp fra USA, da mangel på danske piloter betød, at op mod 25 procent af de danske...... fly ikke var operative. Men fælles fly betød ikke i sig selv, at Danmark blev en ligeværdig og efterspurgt deltager i internationale operationer. Det krævede en omfattende modernisering af F-16-flyet, indkøb af avancerede systemer og ammunition, en reorganisering af det danske flyvevåben, en...

  5. Low energy pion-16O scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of some outward appearances, the modern microscopic theories of the pion-nucleus (πA) interaction are not fundamentally very different from each other. They can all be derived from the same source, multiple-scattering theory. They all treat the first-order optical potential in a comparatively detailed way and in all of them it is necessary to incorporate higher-order effects in general and pion-annihilation in particular phenomenologically. Basically the same physical features can be embodied in all of them. The presentation of the theoretical scheme underlying the present thesis is designed to stress this conceptual unity of current πA theory. In this thesis the methods developed by De Kam to incorporate Pauli- and binding-corrections to the impulse-approximation first-order optical potential for 4He are extended to a more complicated nucleus, 16O, for the first time. In concreto two situations are considered: π-16O scattering at energies below nucleon-knockout threshold (13.5 MeV) - 7 and 12 MeV - and at energies 40 and 49.7 MeV, above nucleon-knockout threshold but still well within the low-energy region. (Auth.)

  6. Measurement of carbon capture efficiency and stored carbon leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Ralph F.; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2013-01-29

    Data representative of a measured carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) concentration and of a measured oxygen (O.sub.2) concentration at a measurement location can be used to determine whether the measured carbon dioxide concentration at the measurement location is elevated relative to a baseline carbon dioxide concentration due to escape of carbon dioxide from a source associated with a carbon capture and storage process. Optionally, the data can be used to quantify a carbon dioxide concentration increase at the first location that is attributable to escape of carbon dioxide from the source and to calculate a rate of escape of carbon dioxide from the source by executing a model of gas-phase transport using at least the first carbon dioxide concentration increase. Related systems, methods, and articles of manufacture are also described.

  7. Ácido ent-16a,17-diidroxicauran-19-óico isolado de Ouratea semiserrata e os desafios estereoquímicos dos carbonos quirais C-4 e C-16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velandia Javier Rincón

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the leaves and branches of a specimen of Ouratea semiserrata led to the isolation and characterization of ent-16alpha,17-dihydroxykauran-19-oic acid, along with other natural products. This diterpenoid and its derivatives were used to unambiguous ¹H and 13C chemical shifts assignments and to indicate some mistake data described in the literature as consequence mainly of the stereochemicals of the chiral carbons C-4 and C-16. The HRMS spectra were also analysed.

  8. Carbon nanotube core graphitic shell hybrid fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Myung Gwan; Lee, Jae-Hwang; Hart, Amelia H C; Song, Sung Moo; Nam, Jaewook; Jung, Hyun Young; Hashim, Daniel Paul; Li, Bo; Narayanan, Tharangattu N; Park, Chi-Dong; Zhao, Yao; Vajtai, Robert; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Hayashi, Takuya; Ku, Bon-Cheol; Endo, Morinobu; Barrera, Enrique; Jung, Yung Joon; Thomas, Edwin L; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2013-12-23

    A carbon nanotube yarn core graphitic shell hybrid fiber was fabricated via facile heat treatment of epoxy-based negative photoresist (SU-8) on carbon nanotube yarn. The effective encapsulation of carbon nanotube yarn in carbon fiber and a glassy carbon outer shell determines their physical properties. The higher electrical conductivity (than carbon fiber) of the carbon nanotube yarn overcomes the drawbacks of carbon fiber/glassy carbon, and the better properties (than carbon nanotubes) of the carbon fiber/glassy carbon make up for the lower thermal and mechanical properties of the carbon nanotube yarn via synergistic hybridization without any chemical doping and additional processes. PMID:24224730

  9. Irradiation damage induced on polyethylene terephtalate by 1.6 MeV deuteron ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdesselam, M.; Djebara, M.; Chami, A. C.; Siad, M.

    2008-09-01

    The irradiation damage caused on polyethylene terephtalate (Mylar, PET) samples by 1.6 MeV deuteron ions has been measured using simultaneously the nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) and the transmission energy loss (TEL) techniques. The irradiation was carried out at normal incidence relative to the target surface with the irradiation beam being used as the analysis beam. The evolution of the overall damage during irradiation was evaluated by measuring the variation of the energy loss of the deuteron beam passing through the target. For this purpose, a solid state Si detector placed at a forward angle of 30° relative to the incident beam direction was used. The NRA spectra recorded by a second Si detector located backward at 150° allowed the evaluation of the carbon and the oxygen depletion. The beam spot size was circular in shape and 1 mm in diameter and the beam current was set at 5 nA. The ion fluence was increased up to the value of 2.5 × 1016 deuterons/cm2. It was observed that the target energy loss decreased steadily as the fluence increased and levelled off at high fluence. The 16O(d,p0)17O, 16O(d,p1)17O∗ and 12C(d,p0)13C reactions were used for monitoring the evolution of the oxygen and carbon content as a function of the deuteron fluence. A monotonic decrease of the oxygen content with the increase of ion fluence was observed. At the highest fluence the oxygen depletion reached a value of about 75%. For carbon, a weak depletion was observed at fluence ranging from 2.5 × 1015 d/cm2 to 1.0 × 1016 d/cm2 followed by a levelling-off with a total loss around 20%.

  10. Highly strong and conductive carbon nanotube/cellulose composite paper

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, Masanori; Akiyama, Kousuke; Tanaka, Tomo; Sano, Eiichi

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)/cellulose composite materials were fabricated in a paper making process optimized for a CNT network to form on the cellulose fibers. The measured electric conductivity was from 0.05-671 S/m for 0.5-16.7-wt% CNT content, higher than that for other polymer composites. The real permittivities were the highest in the microwave region. The unique CNT network structure is thought to be the reason for these high conductivity and permittivity values. Compared to other carbon mat...

  11. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldocchi, Dennis; Ryu, Youngryel; Keenan, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    A growing literature is reporting on how the terrestrial carbon cycle is experiencing year-to-year variability because of climate anomalies and trends caused by global change. As CO 2 concentration records in the atmosphere exceed 50 years and as satellite records reach over 30 years in length, we are becoming better able to address carbon cycle variability and trends. Here we review how variable the carbon cycle is, how large the trends in its gross and net fluxes are, and how well the signal can be separated from noise. We explore mechanisms that explain year-to-year variability and trends by deconstructing the global carbon budget. The CO 2 concentration record is detecting a significant increase in the seasonal amplitude between 1958 and now. Inferential methods provide a variety of explanations for this result, but a conclusive attribution remains elusive. Scientists have reported that this trend is a consequence of the greening of the biosphere, stronger northern latitude photosynthesis, more photosynthesis by semi-arid ecosystems, agriculture and the green revolution, tropical temperature anomalies, or increased winter respiration. At the global scale, variability in the terrestrial carbon cycle can be due to changes in constituent fluxes, gross primary productivity, plant respiration and heterotrophic (microbial) respiration, and losses due to fire, land use change, soil erosion, or harvesting. It remains controversial whether or not there is a significant trend in global primary productivity (due to rising CO 2, temperature, nitrogen deposition, changing land use, and preponderance of wet and dry regions). The degree to which year-to-year variability in temperature and precipitation anomalies affect global primary productivity also remains uncertain. For perspective, interannual variability in global gross primary productivity is relatively small (on the order of 2 Pg-C y -1) with respect to a large and uncertain background (123 +/- 4 Pg-C y -1), and

  12. 77 FR 301 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and Korea: Institution of Five-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products from Germany and Korea (72 FR 7009). The Commission is now... part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request...-resistant carbon steel flat products from Korea (58 FR 43752). On August 19, 1993, Commerce...

  13. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-10-09

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  14. Ruthenium-Catalyzed Hydroalkynylative Cyclization of 1,6-Enynes Induced by Substituent Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Ni, Zhenjie; Giordano, Laurent; Tenaglia, Alphonse

    2016-08-19

    The ruthenium-catalyzed 1,6-enyne cyclization in the presence of bulky substituted terminal alkyne proceeds smoothly at room temperature to afford highly substituted five-membered cyclic compounds featuring a 1,5-enyne motif. Deuterium-labeling experiments showed that the key ruthenacyclopentene intermediate undergoes cleavage of metal-carbon bonds through the metal-assisted σ-bond metathesis reaction, thus leading to the formation of C(sp(2))-H and C(sp(3))-C(sp) bonds. PMID:27504966

  15. {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O determination in organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saurer, M.; Siegwolf, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The oxygen isotope ratio in plant material can be used to deduce information about the climate and the environment. We present a simple and fast continuous-flow technique for the determination of the {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O ratio in organic matter. In this method the samples are thermally decomposed in the presence of glassy carbon and the evolving monoxide is used to determine the oxygen ratio. Not only cellulose but also nitrogen-containing materials can be processed when interfering gases (mainly N{sub 2}) are separated from CO by gas chromatography. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  16. Photodissociation and stability of carbon clusters; Photodissociation et stabilite d`agregats de carbone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouyer, R.

    1995-04-01

    This work is devoted to the study of the dissociation of ionised carbon clusters (containing 16 to 36 atoms) after photoexcitation by a UV-visible laser pulse. It contributes to experimental studies on formation mechanisms of carbon clusters, and particularly fullerenes. Its first aim is the knowledge of the internal energy of the clusters before dissociation. In the first part, a general overview summarizes the theoretical and experimental studies devoted to energetics (structure, stability, dissociation) of carbon clusters containing less than 60 atoms. In the second part, two techniques for producing mass-selected carbon clusters are described. The particular characteristics for such a production in a direct vaporization source are compared to those in a collisional-cooled source. The question of stability of intermediate-size clusters is asked. We study the photoabsorption spectroscopy of carbon clusters in the third part. A model for sequential absorption of several photons is developed, and used to analyze cluster dissociation versus the photoexcitation laser fluence. The absolute photoabsorption cross sections, and the number of absorbed photons are deduced. For some cluster sizes, laser wavelength scanning leads to evidence for existence of several clusters structures (or so-called isomers). The last part deals with photo dissociation mechanisms. Dissociation is found to occur after single-photon absorption, or after vibrational heating of the clusters. In that latter case, a statistical model including restricted intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution is used to calculate dissociation energies from measured fragmentation times of well-defined internal energy states. These energies, which are characteristic of cyclic structures, are then used to a better understanding of carbon cluster formation in a direct vaporization source. (Author). 76 refs., 63 figs., 23 tabs.

  17. RCNP E398 {sup 16}O,{sup 12}C(p,p’) experiment: Measurement of the γ-ray emission probability from giant resonances in relation to {sup 16}O,{sup 12}C(ν,ν’) reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, I.; Yamada, Y.; Mori, T.; Yano, T.; Sakuda, M. [Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Tamii, A.; Suzuki, T.; Yosoi, M.; Aoi, N.; Ideguchi, E.; Hashimoto, T.; Miki, K.; Ito, T.; Iwamoto, C.; Yamamoto, T. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Akimune, H. [Department of Physics, Konan University, Okamoto 8-9-1, Higashinada, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    We propose to measure the γ-ray emission probability from excited states above 5 MeV including giant resonance of {sup 16}O and {sup 12}C as a function of excitation energy in 1-MeV step. Here, we measure both the excitation energy (E{sub x}=5-30MeV) at the forward scattering angles (0°-3°) of the {sup 16}O, {sup 12}C (p, p’) reaction using Grand-Raiden Spectrometer and the energy of γ-rays (E{sub γ}) using an array of NaI(Tl) counters. The purpose of the experiment is to provide the basic and important information not only for the γ-ray production from primary neutral-current neutrino-oxygen (-carbon) interactions but also for that from the secondary hadronic (neutron-oxygen and -carbon) interactions.

  18. RCNP E398 16O,12C(p,p’) experiment: Measurement of the γ-ray emission probability from giant resonances in relation to 16O,12C(ν,ν’) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose to measure the γ-ray emission probability from excited states above 5 MeV including giant resonance of 16O and 12C as a function of excitation energy in 1-MeV step. Here, we measure both the excitation energy (Ex=5-30MeV) at the forward scattering angles (0°-3°) of the 16O, 12C (p, p’) reaction using Grand-Raiden Spectrometer and the energy of γ-rays (Eγ) using an array of NaI(Tl) counters. The purpose of the experiment is to provide the basic and important information not only for the γ-ray production from primary neutral-current neutrino-oxygen (-carbon) interactions but also for that from the secondary hadronic (neutron-oxygen and -carbon) interactions

  19. Characterization of humoral immune responses against p16, p53, HPV16 E6 and HPV16 E7 in patients with HPV-associated cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuschenbach, Miriam; Waterboer, Tim; Wallin, Keng-Ling; Einenkel, Jens; Dillner, Joakim; Hamsikova, Eva; Eschenbach, Denise; Zimmer, Heike; Heilig, Bernhard; Kopitz, Jürgen; Pawlita, Michael; Doeberitz, Magnus von Knebel; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2008-12-01

    The cellular tumor suppressor p16 is strongly overexpressed in cervical cancers and precancers. We have previously demonstrated that infiltrating T lymphocytes reactive against p16 can be found in cervical cancer patients. Here, we analyzed whether p16 induces humoral immune responses. Sera of patients with cervical cancer, oropharyngeal cancer, colorectal cancer and autoimmune disease were included. A total of 919 sera were analyzed, including 486 matched sera from a cervical cancer case control study. p16 antibodies were analyzed in Western blot and a newly developed peptide ELISA covering the complete p16 protein. In addition, a Luminex-based multiplex assay was used for simultaneous detection of antibodies directed against p16, p53, HPV16 E6 and HPV16 E7. In all entities, only low p16 antibody reactivity was observed. Epitope mapping revealed 2 predominant epitope regions of the p16 protein. No significant difference in p16 antibody frequency (OR = 0.9; 95% CI = 0.6-1.3) and p53 antibody frequency (OR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.3-1.2) was found between patients and healthy controls in the cervical cancer case control study. Antibodies against the HPV16 oncoproteins E6 and E7 were detected more frequently in cervical cancer patients when compared with healthy controls (E6 OR = 27.8; 95% CI = 11.1-69.7, E7 OR = 5.7; 95% CI = 2.9-11.1). In conclusion, despite the strong expression of p16 and the observed induction of cellular immune responses, antibody reactivity against p16 was observed only at very low levels independent of the disease background.

  20. SOI-Based 16×16 Thermo-Optic Waveguide Switch Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yuan-Yuan; LI Yan-Ping; SUN Fei; YANG Di; CHEN Shao-Wu; YU Jin-Zhong

    2006-01-01

    @@ A 16 × 16 thermo-optic waveguide switch matrix has been designed and fabricated on silicon-on-insulator wafer.For reducing device length, blocking switch matrix configuration is chosen. The building block of the matrix is a 2 × 2 switch cell with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration, where a multi-mode interferometer serves as splitter/combiners. Spot size converters and isolating grooves are integrated on the same chip to reduce loss and power consumption. Average power consumption of the switch cell is 220mW. The switching time of a switch cell is less than 3 μs.

  1. Flexible Carbon Aerogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Schwan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon aerogels are highly porous materials with a large inner surface area. Due to their high electrical conductivity they are excellent electrode materials in supercapacitors. Their brittleness, however, imposes certain limitations in terms of applicability. In that context, novel carbon aerogels with varying degree of flexibility have been developed. These highly porous, light aerogels are characterized by a high surface area and possess pore structures in the micrometer range, allowing for a reversible deformation of the aerogel network. A high ratio of pore size to particle size was found to be crucial for high flexibility. For dynamic microstructural analysis, compression tests were performed in-situ within a scanning electron microscope allowing us to directly visualize the microstructural flexibility of an aerogel. The flexible carbon aerogels were found to withstand between 15% and 30% of uniaxial compression in a reversible fashion. These findings might stimulate further research and new application fields directed towards flexible supercapacitors and batteries.

  2. Securing tropical forest carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharlemann, Jörn P. W.; Kapos, Valerie; Campbell, Alison;

    2010-01-01

    Forest loss and degradation in the tropics contribute 6-17% of all greenhouse gas emissions. Protected areas cover 217.2 million ha (19.6%) of the world's humid tropical forests and contain c. 70.3 petagrams of carbon (Pg C) in biomass and soil to 1 m depth. Between 2000 and 2005, we estimate...... that 1.75 million ha of forest were lost from protected areas in humid tropical forests, causing the emission of 0.25-0.33 Pg C. Protected areas lost about half as much carbon as the same area of unprotected forest. We estimate that the reduction of these carbon emissions from ongoing deforestation......, although certainly not sufficient, component of an overall strategy for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD)...

  3. Pyrolyzed carbon film diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Kirstin C; Tokuhisa, Hideo; Baker, Lane A

    2013-11-13

    We have previously reported pyrolyzed parylene C (PPC) as a conductive carbon electrode material for use with micropipets, atomic force microscopy probes, and planar electrodes. Advantages of carbon electrode fabrication from PPC include conformal coating of high-aspect ratio micro/nanoscale features and the benefits afforded by chemical vapor deposition of carbon polymers. In this work, we demonstrate chemical surface doping of PPC through the use of previously reported methods. Chemically treated PPC films are characterized by multiple spectroscopic and electronic measurements. Pyrolyzed parylene C and doped PPC are used to construct diodes that are examined as both p-n heterojunction and Schottky barrier diodes. Half-wave rectification is achieved with PPC diodes and demonstrates the applicability of PPC as a conductive and semiconductive material in device fabrication. PMID:24090451

  4. Finite element simulations with ANSYS workbench 16

    CERN Document Server

    Lee , Huei-Huang

    2015-01-01

    Finite Element Simulations with ANSYS Workbench 16 is a comprehensive and easy to understand workbook. It utilizes step-by-step instructions to help guide readers to learn finite element simulations. Twenty seven real world case studies are used throughout the book. Many of these cases are industrial or research projects the reader builds from scratch. All the files readers may need if they have trouble are available for download on the publishers website. Companion videos that demonstrate exactly how to preform each tutorial are available to readers by redeeming the access code that comes in the book. Relevant background knowledge is reviewed whenever necessary. To be efficient, the review is conceptual rather than mathematical. Key concepts are inserted whenever appropriate and summarized at the end of each chapter. Additional exercises or extension research problems are provided as homework at the end of each chapter. A learning approach emphasizing hands-on experiences spreads through this entire book. A...

  5. A "Sweet 16" of Rules About Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Alexander (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    The following "Sweet 16" rules included in this paper derive from a longer paper by APPL Director Dr. Edward Hoffman and myself entitled " 99 Rules for Managing Faster, Better, Cheaper Projects." Our sources consisted mainly of "war stories" told by master project managers in my book Simultaneous Management: Managing Projects in a Dynamic Environment (AMACOM, The American Management Association, 1996). The Simultaneous Management model was a result of 10 years of intensive research and testing conducted with the active participation of master project managers from leading private organizations such as AT&T, DuPont, Exxon, General Motors, IBM, Motorola and Procter & Gamble. In a more recent study, led by Dr. Hoffman, we learned that master project managers in leading public organizations employ most of these rules as well. Both studies, in private and public organizations, found that a dynamic environment calls for dynamic management, and that is especially clear in how successful project managers think about their teams.

  6. Proceedings of the 16. 2015 energy meetings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy meetings is the biggest annual event for French local communities in the energy domain. These meetings brought together more than 2000 participants during 3 days. The public is mainly composed of officials, representatives from local communities, institutions, private organisations and associations. The scope has been broaden to encompass all strategic domains dealing with energy and climate issues. This 16. edition put the question of the territorial governance by positioning the actors and their practices in the centre of the game and in a situation where they can overcome the limits imposed by the traditional public intervening forces. It demonstrates the catalytic role that local communities can play to make the energy transition a societal transition. The meetings were organised in 64 workshops and forums. These proceedings brings together the available material: 47 presentations (slides) given at 24 workshops described separately in fact sheets, plus 63 fact sheets for the description of forums content

  7. PERIPARTUM CARDIOMYOPATHY--REPORT OF 16 CASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨佳欣; 刘俊涛; 边旭明

    2002-01-01

    Objective.To analyze the clinical characteristics of peripartum cardiomyopathy and to evaluate the different factors that influence the prognosis of the peripartum cardiomyopathy.Method.A retrospective review was undertaken on records of women who were diagnosed with peripartum cardiomyopathy at Peking Union Medical College Hospital between Jan.1983 and May 1999.Results.During the research period,only 16 pregnant women were documented as peripartum cardiomyopathy.Some of the women undertook ultrasonic cardiographic (UCG) examination that showed decreased systolic function.Seven women were complicated with pregnancy induced hypertension.Three died of disseminated intravascular coagulation,embolism and cardiogenic shock respectively.Conclusion.Early diagnosis of the peripartum cardiomyopathy is extremely important.The UCG can provide helpful information on disease progression or regression.

  8. Calculating the global contribution of coralline algae to carbon burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. van der Heijden

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions is changing the global marine environment and is causing warming and acidification of the oceans. Reduction of CO2 to a sustainable level is required to avoid further marine change. Many studies investigate the potential of marine carbon sinks (e.g. seagrass to mitigate anthropogenic emissions, however, information on storage by coralline algae and the beds they create is scant. Calcifying photosynthetic organisms, including coralline algae, can act as a CO2 sink via photosynthesis and CaCO3 dissolution and act as a CO2 source during respiration and CaCO3 production on short-term time scales. Long-term carbon storage potential might come from the accumulation of coralline algae deposits over geological time scales. Here, the carbon storage potential of coralline algae is assessed using meta-analysis of their global organic and inorganic carbon production and the processes involved in this metabolism. Organic and inorganic production were estimated at 330 g C m−2 yr−1 and 880 g CaCO3 m−2 yr−1 respectively giving global organic/inorganic C production of 0.7/1.8 × 109 t C yr−1. Calcium carbonate production by free-living/crustose coralline algae (CCA corresponded to a sediment accretion of 70/450 mm kyr−1. Using this potential carbon storage by coralline algae, the global production of free-living algae/CCA was 0.4/1.2 × 109 t C yr−1 suggesting a total potential carbon sink of 1.6 × 109 t C yr−1. Coralline algae therefore have production rates similar to mangroves, saltmarshes and seagrasses representing an as yet unquantified but significant carbon store, however, further empirical investigations are needed to determine the dynamics and stability of that store.

  9. Terrestrial vegetation carbon sinks in China, 1981―2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Using China's ground observations, e.g., forest inventory, grassland resource, agricultural statistics, climate, and satellite data, we estimate terrestrial vegetation carbon sinks for China's major biomes between 1981 and 2000. The main results are in the following: (1) Forest area and forest biomass carbon (C) stock increased from 116.5×106 ha and 4.3 Pg C (1 Pg C = 1015 g C) in the early 1980s to 142.8×106 ha and 5.9 Pg C in the early 2000s, respectively. Forest biomass carbon density increased form 36.9 Mg C/ha (1 Mg C = 106 g C) to 41.0 Mg C/ha, with an annual carbon sequestration rate of 0.075 Pg C/a. Grassland, shrub, and crop biomass sequestrate carbon at annual rates of 0.007 Pg C/a, 0.014―0.024 Pg C/a, and 0.0125―0.0143 Pg C/a, respectively. (2) The total terrestrial vegetation C sink in China is in a range of 0.096―0.106 Pg C/a between 1981 and 2000, accounting for 14.6%―16.1% of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by China's industry in the same period. In addition, soil carbon sink is estimated at 0.04―0.07 Pg C/a. Accordingly, carbon sequestration by China's terrestrial ecosystems (vegetation and soil) offsets 20.8%―26.8% of its industrial CO2 emission for the study period. (3) Considerable uncertainties exist in the present study, especially in the estimation of soil carbon sinks, and need further intensive investigation in the future.

  10. Horizontal carbon nanotube alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew T; Cientanni, Vito; Milne, William I

    2016-09-21

    The production of horizontally aligned carbon nanotubes offers a rapid means of realizing a myriad of self-assembled near-atom-scale technologies - from novel photonic crystals to nanoscale transistors. The ability to reproducibly align anisotropic nanostructures has huge technological value. Here we review the present state-of-the-art in horizontal carbon nanotube alignment. For both in and ex situ approaches, we quantitatively assess the reported linear packing densities alongside the degree of alignment possible for each of these core methodologies. PMID:27546174

  11. Nanotube composite carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, R.; Jacques, D.; Rao, A. M.; Rantell, T.; Derbyshire, F.; Chen, Y.; Chen, J.; Haddon, R. C.

    1999-08-01

    Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were dispersed in isotropic petroleum pitch matrices to form nanotube composite carbon fibers with enhanced mechanical and electrical properties. We find that the tensile strength, modulus, and electrical conductivity of a pitch composite fiber with 5 wt % loading of purified SWNTs are enhanced by ˜90%, ˜150%, and 340% respectively, as compared to the corresponding values in unmodified isotropic pitch fibers. These results serve to highlight the potential that exits for developing a spectrum of material properties through the selection of the matrix, nanotube dispersion, alignment, and interfacial bonding.

  12. Carbon Nanotube Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Klinger, Colin; Patel, Yogeshwari; Postma, Henk W. Ch.

    2012-01-01

    We present proof-of-concept all-carbon solar cells. They are made of a photoactive side of predominantly semiconducting nanotubes for photoconversion and a counter electrode made of a natural mixture of carbon nanotubes or graphite, connected by a liquid electrolyte through a redox reaction. The cells do not require rare source materials such as In or Pt, nor high-grade semiconductor processing equipment, do not rely on dye for photoconversion and therefore do not bleach, and are easy to fabr...

  13. Carbon cycle makeover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene; Kump, Lee R.

    2013-01-01

    remaining in sediments after respiration leave a residual of oxygen in the atmosphere. The source of oxygen to the atmosphere represented by organic matter burial is balanced by oxygen sinks associated with rock weathering and chemical reaction with volcanic gases. This is the long-term carbon and oxygen...... geochemical cycle. But Earth is an old planet, and oxygen levels have changed through time (2). On page 540 of this issue, Schrag et al. (3) challenge the most commonly used geochemical approach to assess long-term changes in the coupled oxygen and carbon cycles....

  14. Pitch carbon microsphere composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, H. L.; Nelson, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    Petroleum pitch carbon microspheres were prepared by flash heating emulsified pitch and carbonizing the resulting microspheres in an inert atmosphere. Microsphere composites were obtained from a mixture of microspheres and tetraester precursor pyrrone powder. Scanning electron micrographs of the composite showed that it was an aggregate of microspheres bonded together by the pyrrone at the sphere contact points, with voids in and among the microspheres. Physical, thermal, and sorption properties of the composite are described. Composite applications could include use as a honeycomb filler in elevated-temperature load-bearing sandwich boards or in patient-treatment tables for radiation treatment of tumors.

  15. Aberrant LRP16 protein expression in primary neuroendocrine lung tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Yun; Li, Xiaoying; Lu, Yali; Liu, Lin; Zhao, Po

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Leukemia related protein 16 gene (LRP16) localized on chromosome 11q12.1, is an important estrogen-responsive gene and a crucial regulator for NF-kB activation. LRP16 is frequently expressed in human cancers; however, the LRP16 gene remains unexplored in lung neuroendocrine tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of LRP16 expression in primary lung neuroendocrine tumors. Methods: lung neuroendocrine tumors were analyzed for LRP16 gene expression by two-step n...

  16. A New Carbonate Chemistry in the Earth's Lower Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulard, E.; Gloter, A.; Corgne, A.; Antonangeli, D.; Auzende, A.; Perrillat, J.; Guyot, F. J.; Fiquet, G.

    2010-12-01

    The global geochemical carbon cycle involves exchange between the Earth’s mantle and the surface. Carbon (C) is recycled into the mantle via subduction and released to the atmosphere via volcanic outgassing. Carbonates are the main C-bearing minerals that are transported deep in the Earth’s mantle via subduction of the oceanic lithosphere [1]. The way C is recycled and its contribution to the lower mantle reservoir is however largely unknown [ e.g 2, 3]. In this respect, it is important to assess if carbonates can be preserved in the deep mantle, or if decarbonatation, melting or reduction play a role in the deep carbon cycle. To clarify the fate of carbonates in the deep mantle, we carried out high-pressure and high-temperature experiments up to 105 GPa and 2850 K. Natural Fe-Mg carbonates or oxide mixtures of (Mg,Fe)O + CO2 were loaded into laser heated diamond anvil cells. In situ characterizations were done by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) using synchrotron radiation at the high-pressure beamline ID27 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. A focused ion beam technique was then used to prepare the recovered samples for electron energy loss spectroscopy in a dedicated scanning transmission electron microscope (EELS-STEM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). In situ XRD clearly shows the transformation of the initial carbonate phase into a new Mg-Fe high pressure carbonate phase at lower mantle conditions. We also provide direct evidence for recombination of CO2 with (Mg,Fe)O to form this new carbonate structure. In addition, subsequent EELS-STEM and STXM spectroscopies carried out on recovered samples yields C K-edge and stoechiometry characteristic to this new carbonate structure. This new high pressure phase concentrates a large amount of Fe(III), as a result of redox reactions within the siderite-rich carbonate. The oxidation of iron is balanced by partial reduction of carbon into CO groups and/or diamond. These reactions may provide an

  17. Two-neutron transfer analysis of the 16O(18O,16O)18O reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermamatov, M. J.; Cappuzzello, F.; Lubian, J.; Cubero, M.; Agodi, C.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Ferreira, J. L.; Foti, A.; Garcia, V. N.; Gargano, A.; Lay, J. A.; Lenzi, S. M.; Linares, R.; Santagati, G.; Vitturi, A.

    2016-08-01

    Recently a quantitative description of the two-neutron transfer reaction 12C(18O,16O)14C was performed and the measured cross sections were successfully reproduced [M. Cavallaro et al., Phys. Rev. C 88, 054601 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevC.88.054601]. This task was accomplished by combining nuclear structure calculations of spectroscopic amplitudes and a full quantum description of the reaction mechanism. Verification of such a theoretical approach to other heavy nuclear systems is mandatory in order to use (18O,16O ) reactions to assess pair configurations in nuclear states. In this work we apply this methodology to the 16O(18O,16O)18O reaction at 84 MeV. Experimental angular distributions for the two-neutron transfer to the ground state and 21+ state of 18O were obtained using the MAGNEX spectrometer at INFN-LNS. The roles of one- and two-step processes are analyzed under the exact finite range coupled reaction channel and the second order distorted wave Born approximation. We conclude that the one-step transfer mechanism is dominant in this system.

  18. 16 CFR 1203.16 - Dynamic strength of retention system test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dynamic strength of retention system test.... (2) The retention system strength test equipment shall consist of a dynamic impact apparatus that... stirrup. (2) Mark the pre-test position of the retention system, with the entire dynamic test...

  19. Study of the 16O(16O,12C)20Ne reaction mechanism by polarization measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 16O(16O,12C)20Ne reaction has been studied at beam energies of 68 and 90 MeV. At these energies, this reaction is selective for populating high spin states well known to have a large overlap with α+16O. The angular distributions have been analyzed with an EFR-DWBA code. Good fits are obtained and the resulting relative α particle spectroscopic factors for the 20Ne states are in good agreement with shell model predictions, and with other results from different α transfer reactions. The polarization of the 20Ne has been measured by angular correlations between 12C and 16O (product of the 20Ne decay). As expected from a semi-classical view of the transfer, a strong 20Ne polarization, on an axis perpendicular to the reaction plane has been found. This polarization remains constant on a wide span of 12C angles. Different nuclear reaction models have been tested. With selected potentials, the DWBA predicts a strong polarization in this case of a heavy ion transfer, but not as strong as the one observed in the experiment. Some possible reasons for this difference are indicated

  20. 16 CFR 500.16 - Measurement of container type commodities, how expressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Measurement of container type commodities... commodities, how expressed. Notwithstanding other provisions of this part 500 of the regulations pertaining to the expression of net quantity of contents by measurement, commodities designed and sold at retail...